Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
December 16, 2016
Document Release Date: 
June 29, 2005
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
June 9, 1966
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5.pdf4.8 MB
Approved For ReGQL,C1fE-BORUBD RW400080014-5 June 9, 1966 ments made, in the light of the circum- stances under which . they were made, not misleading, or (c) to engage in any transaction, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon the in- vestor. INVESTIGATIONS, INJUNCTIONS AND PROSECU- TION OF OFFENSES SEC, 18. (a) Whenever it shall appear to the Commission that any person is engaged or about to engage in any acts or practices which constitute or will constitute a viola- tion of the provisions of this Act, or of any rule or regulation prescribed thereunder, it may, In its discretion, bring an action In any district court of the United States, or the United States District court for the District of Columbia to enjoin such acts or practices, and upon a proper showing a permanent or temporary injunction or restraining order shall be granted without bond. The Com- mission may transmit such evidence as may be available concerning such acts or prac- tices to. the Attorney General who may, In his discretion, institute the appropriate criminal proceedings under this Act. (b) The Commission may, in its discre- tion, make such investigations as it deems necessary to determine whether any person has violated or is about to violate any provision of this title or any rule or regula- 1tion thereunder, and may require or permit any person to file with it a statement in Writing, under oath or otherwise as the Com- mission shall determine, as to all the factq and circumstances concerning the matter to be investigated, The Commission is author- ized, in its discretion, to publish information concerning any such violations, and to In- vestigate any facts, conditions, practices, or matters which it may deem necessary or proper to aid in the enforcement of the provisions of this title, in the prescribing of rules and regulations thereunder, or in secur- ing information to serve as. a basis for recom- mending further legislation concerning the matters to which this title relates. (c) For the purpose of any such investi- gation, or any other proceeding under this title, any member of the Commission or any officer designated by it is empowered to ad- minister oaths and affirmations, subpena witnesses, compel their attendance, take evi- dence, and require the production of any books, papers, correspondence, memoran- dums, or other records which the Commis- sion deems relevant or material to the in- quiry. Such attendance of witnesses and the production of any such records may be required from any place in the United States or any State at any designated place of hearing. (d) In case of contumacy by, or refusal to obey a subpena issued to, any person, the Commission may invoke the aid of any court of the United States within the jurisdiction of which such investigation or proceeding is carried on, or where such person resides or carries on .business, in requiring the attend- ance and testimony of witnesses and the production of books, papers, correspondence, memorandums, and , other records. And such court may issue an order requiring such person to appear before the Commis- sion or member or officer designated by the Commission, there to produce records, if so ordered, or to give testimony touching the matter under investigation or in question; and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof. All process in any such case may be served in the judicial district whereof such person is an inhabitant or wherever he may be found. Any person who shall, without just cause, fail or refuse to attend and testify or to answer any lawful inquiry or to produce books, papers, cor- respondence, memorandums, and other rec- ords, if in his power so to do, in obedience to the subpena of the Commission, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon convic- tion, shall be subject to a fine of not more than $1,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than one year, or both. (e) No person shall be excused from at- tending and testifying or from producing books, papers, contracts, agreements, and other records and documents before the Commission, or in obedience to the subpena of the Commission or any member thereof or any officer designated by it, or in any cause or proceeding instituted by the Commission, on the ground that the testimony or evi- dence, documentary or otherwise required of him may tend to incriminate him or subject him to a penalty or forfeiture; but no indi- vidual shall be prosecuted or subject to any penalty or forfeiture for or on account of any transaction, matter, or thing concerning which he is compelled, after having claimed his privilege against self-incrimination, to testify or produce evidence, documentary or otherwise, except that such individual so testifying shall not be exempt from prosecu- tion and punishment for perjury committed in so testifying. HEARINGS BY COMMISSION SEC. 19. All hearings shall be public and may be held before the Commission or an officer or officers of the Commission desig- nated by it, and appropriate records thereof shall be kept. UNLAWFUL REPRESENTATIONS SEc, 20. Neither the fact that the registra- tion statement for interests, lots, or parcels in a subdivision has been filed or is in effect nor the fact that a stop order is not in effect with respect thereto shall be deemed a find- ing by the Commission that the registration statement Is true and accurate on its face or that it does not contain an untrue statement of fact or omit to state a material fact, or be held to mean that the Commission has in any way passed upon the merits of, or given ap- proval to, such interests, lots, or parcels. It shall be unlawful to make, or cause to be made, to any prospective purchaser any rep- resentation contrary to the foregoing pro- visions of this section. PENALTIES SEC. 21. Any person who willfully violates any of the provisions of this title, or the rules and regulations promulgated there- under, or any person who willfully, in a registration statement filed under this title, makes any untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state any material fact re- quired to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, shall upon conviction be fined not more than $6A00 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. RULES, REGULATIONS, AND ORDERS SEc. 22. The Commission shall have au- thority from time to time to make, issue, amend, and rescind such rules and regula- tions and such orders as are necessary or appropriate to the exercise of the functions and powers conferred upon the Commission elsewhere In this Act. For the purpose of its rules and regulations the Commission may classify persons and matters within Its juris- diction and prescribe different requirements for different classes of persons or matters. JURISDICTION OF OFFENSES AND SUITS SEC, 23. (a) The district courts of the United States, the United States courts of any territory, and the United States District Court for the District of Columbia shall have jurisdiction of offenses and violations under this title and under the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission in respect thereto, and concurrent with State and terri- torial courts, of all suits in equity and ac- tions at law brought to enforce any liability or duty created by this title. Any such suit or action may be brought in the district wherein the defendant is found or is an inhabitant or transacts business, or in the district where the offer or sale took place, if the defendant participated therein, and proc- ess in such cases may be served in any other district of which the defendant is an in- habitant or wherever the defendant may be found. Judgments and decrees so rendered shall be subject to review as provided in sections 128 and 240 of the Judicial Code, as amended (28 U.S.C. 225, 347). No case arising under this title and brought in any State court of competent jurisdiction shall be removed to any court of the United States. No costs shall be assessed for or against the Commission in any proceeding under this title brought by or against it in the Supreme Court or such other courts. NOTICE CONCERNING THE NOMINA- TIONS BEFORE COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY Mr. EASTLAND. Mr. President, the following nominations have been re- ferred to and are now pending before the Committee on the Judiciary: Marion Mathias Hale, of Texas, to be U.S. marshal, southern district of Texas, term of 4 years-reappointment. Robert I. Nash, of Texas, to be U.S. marshal, northern district of Texas; term of 4 years-reappointment. Tully Reynolds, of Texas, to be U.S. marshal, eastern district of Texas, term of 4 years-reappointment. Louis C. LaCour, of Louisiana, to be U.S. attorney, eastern district of Louisi- ana, term of 4 years-reappointment. On behalf of the Committee on the Judiciary, notice is hereby given to all persons interested in the above nomina- tions to file with the committee, in writ- ing, on or before Thursday, June 16, 1966, any representations or objections they may wish to present concerning the above nominations, with a further state- ment whether it Is their intention to ap- pear at any hearings which may be scheduled. ENROLLED BILLS PRESENTED The Secretary of the Senate reported that on today, June 9, 1966, he present- ed to the President of the United States the following enrolled bills: S. 2421. An act to authorize the adjust- ment of the legislative jurisdiction exer- cised by the United States over lands within the Columbia River at the mouth project in the States of Washington and Oregon; and S.2469. An act amending sections 2 and 4 of the act approved September 22, 1964 (78 Stat. 990), providing for an investigation and study to determine a site for the con- struction of a new sea level canal connect- ing the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. U THANT'S COUNSEL the American people have every reason to be distressed over the intensity of the civil war in which this administration has involved us in Vietnam. Recent events point up the terrible extension of this fighting and slaughter which has been going on for years in Vietnam. The immolation of Buddhists in the insurrec- tion and revolt against Prime Minister Ky is becoming increasingly terrifying. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 June 9, 1966 Approved a gg1 71JC R_01#ffRW6R000400080014-5 12115 misleading, or (ii) such part of the registra- (e) All or any one or more of the persons written petition praying that the order of opy of such petition fair and severally liable subsecon who in whole mission n part. A modified tion statement as ani expert fairly or was not reesent his cop}i of or extract from his report or valua- becomes liable to make any payment under shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk tion as, an expert; and (C) as regards any this section may recover contribution as in of the court to the Commission, and there- part of the registration statement purporting cases of contract from any person who, if upon the Commission shall file in the court to be made on the authority of an expert sued separately, would have been liable to the record upon which the order complained (other than himself) or purporting to be a make the same payment, unless the person of was entered, as provided in section 2112 copy of or extract from a report or valuation who has become liable was, and the other was of title 28, United States Code. No objec- of an expert (Other than himself), he had no not, guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation. tion to the order of the Commission shall be reasonable ground to believe and did not (f) In no case shall the amount recover- considered by the court unless such objec- believe, at the time such part of the regis- able under this section exceed the price at tion shall have been urged before the Com- tration statement became effective, that the which the interest, lot, or parcel was offered mission. The finding of the Commission as statements herein were untrue or that there to the public. to the facts, if supported by evidence, shall was an omission to state a material fact re- be conclusive. If either party shall apply CIVIL LIABILITIES ARISING IN CONNECTION WITH to the court for leave to adduce additional gaited to be stated therein or necessary to PROSPECTUSES AND COMMUNICATIONS make the statements therein not misleading, evidence, and shall show to the satisfaction or that such part of the registration state- SEC. 11. Any developer or agent who- of the court that such additional evidence (1) offers, sells, or leases an interest, lot, is material and that there were reasonable ment did not fairly represent the state- or parcel in a subdivision in violation of sec- grounds for failure to adduce such evidence meet ra t the from expert the t o or was s report not not a a fair copy of tion 4 of this Act, or in the hearing before the Commission, the any ation part of 2) offers, sells, or leases an interest, lot, or court may order such additional evidence to the or expert; and (D) as regards valuation gis of ( the registration n statement purporting to be parcel in a subdivision by the use of any be taken before the Commission and to be a statement made by an official person or means or instruments of transportation or adduced upon the hearing in such manner purporting to be a copy of or extract from communication in interstate commerce or of and upon such terms and conditions as to a public official document, he had no rea- the mails, by means of a prospectus or other the court may seem proper. The Commis- sonable ground to believe and did not believe, communication, written Or oral, which in- sion may modify its findings as to the facts at the time such part of the registration eludes an untrue statement of a material by reason of the additional evidence so statement became effective, that the state- fact or omits to state a material fact neces- taken, and it shall file such modified or new ments therein were untrue, or that there was sary in order to make the statements, in the findings, which, if supported by evidence, an omission to state a material fact required light of the circumstances under which they shall be conclusive, and its recommendation, to be stated therein or necessary to make were made, not misleading (the purchaser if any, for the modification or setting aside the statements therein not misleading, or not knowing of such untruth or omission), of the origibal order. The jurisdiction of the that such part of the registration statement and who shall not sustain the burden of proof court shall be exclusive and its judgment did not fairly represent the statement made that he did not know, and in the' exercise and decree, affirming, modifying, or setting by the official person or was riot a fair copy of reasonable care could not have known, of aside, in whole, or in part, any order of the of or extract from the public official docu- such untruth or omission, shall be liable to Commission, shall be final, subject to review ment. the person purchasing such interest from by the Supreme Court of the United States (c) In determining, for the purpose of him, who may sue either at law or in equity upon certiorari or certification as provided paragraph (3) of subsection (b) of this sec- in any court of competent jurisdiction, to in sections 239 and 240 of the Judicial Code, tion, what constitutes reasonable investiga- recover the consideration paid for such in- as amended (28 U.S.C. 346-347). tion and reasonable ground for belief, the terest with interest thereon, less the amount (b) The commencement of proceedings standard of reasonableness shall be that re- of any income received thereon, upon the under subsection (a) shall not, unless speci- quired of a prudent man in the management tender of such interest, or for damages if he fically ordered by the court, operate as a stay no longer owns such interest. of the Commission's order. of his own property. (d) The suit authorized under subsection INELIGIBILITY OF CERTAIN PERSONS LIMITATION OF ACTIONS unlawful for any ll b h It e a s (a) may be to recover such damages as shall SEC. 12. (a) represent the difference between the amount person to act as developer or agent who paid for the interest, lot, or parcel (not ex- within ten years has been convicted of any ceeding the price at which it was offered to felony, misdemeanor, or is subject to a stop the public) and (1) the value thereof as of order, or permanent injunction involving the time such suit was brought, or (2) the the purchase or sale of any interest in land, price at which such interest, lot, or parcel or of any security, or arising out of such shall have been disposed of in the market person's conduct as a developer, or agent, before suit, or (3) the price at which such or as an underwriter, broker, dealer, or in- interest, lot, or parcel shall have been dis- vestment adviser as defined in title 15, United posed of after suit but before judgment if States Code, or involving embezzlement, such damages shall be less than the damages fraudulent conversion, or misappropriation representing the difference between the of funds, securities, or interests in land, or amount paid for the interest, lot, or parcel in involving the violation of sections 1341, 1342, a subdivision (not exceeding the price at or 1343 of title 18, United States Code, or who which it was offered to the public) and the has been found by the Commission to have value thereof as of the time such suit was willfully violated any provision of any Act brought: Provided, That if the defendant which it administers or who has been found proves that any portion or all of such dam- to have been a cause of such violation. ages represents other than the depreciation (b) Any person who is ineligible, by rea- in value of such interest, lot, or parcel re- son of subsection (a), to. act as developer or sulting from such part of the registration agent, may file with the Commission an ap- statement, with respect to which his liability plication for an exemption from the pro- is asserted, not being true or omitting to visions of that subsection. The Commission state a material fact required to be stated shall by order grant such application, either therein or necessary to make the statements unconditionally or on an. appropriate tempo- therein not misleading, such portion of or all rary or other conditional basis, if it is estab- atich damages shall not be recoverable. In lashed that the prohibitions of subsection any suit under this or any other section of (a), as applied to such person, are unduly this title the court may, in its discretion, or disproportionately severe or that the con- require an undertaking for the payment of duct of such persons has been such as not the costs of such suit, including reasonable to make it against the public interest or attorney's fees, and if judgment shall be ren- protection of investors to grant such appli- dered against a party litigant, upon the cation. motion of the other party litigant, such costs COURT REVIEW OF ORDERS may be assessed in favor of such party liti- gant (whether or not such undertaking has SEC. 13. (a) Any person aggrieved by an been required) if the court believes the suit order of the Commission may obtain a re- or the defense to have been without merit, view of such order in the Court of Appeals in an amount sufficient to reimburse him for of the United States, within any circuit the reasonable expenses incurred by him, in wherein such person resides or has his prin- connection with such suit, such costs to be eipal place of business, or in the United taxed in the manner usually provided for States Court of Appeals for the District of taxing of costs in the court in which the suit Columbia, by filing in such court, within was heard. sixty days after the entry of such order, a enforce any liability created under section 10 or 11(2) unless brought within three years after the discovery of the untrue statement or the omission, or after such discovery should have been made by the exercise of reasonable diligence, or, if the action is to enforce a liability created under section 11(1) , unless brought within three years after the violation upon which it is based. In no event shall any such action be brought to enforce a liability created under section 10 more than five years after the sale of all the interests, lots, or parcels which are the sub- ject of a particular offering (other than any as to which the offering has been with- drawn), or under section 11(2) more than five years after the sale. CONTRARY STIPULATIONS VOID SEC. 15. Any condition, stipulation, or pro- vision binding any person acquiring any in- terest, lot, or parcel in a subdivision to waive compliance with any provision of this title or of the rules and regulations of the Com- mission shall be void. ADDITIONAL REMEDIES SEC. 16. The rights and remedies provided by this Act shall be in addition to any and all other rights and remedies that may exist at law or in equity. FRAUDULENT INTERSTATE TRANSACTIONS SEC. 17. It shall be unlawful for any devel- oper or agent in the offer or sale or lease of any interests, lots, or parcels in any subdivi- sion by the use of any means or instruments of transportation or communication in inter- state commerce or by the use of the mails, directly or indirectly- (a) to employ any device, scheme, or arti- fice to defraud, or (b) to make any untrue statement of a material fact or to omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the state- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 " -. Approved For RelCoNg gi( API4 99t 400080014-5 June 9, 1966 The magazine Oregon Education, in Its May, issue, reports the effects of smoking on young people and bases its shocking statement of the effect of smoking on teenagers on a recent report of the Amer- ican Cancer Society. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that the article entitled "The Im- mediate Effects of Smoking on Young People" be printed at the conclusion of my remarks. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: THE IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON 'YOUNG PEOPLE (By Charles Starr and Wade B. Patterson) The American Public Health Association has stated that one million school-age chil- dren today are expected to die of lung cancer before they reach the age of 70. Others have also predicted that 4,000,000 to 5,000,000 more will the from other diseases relating to smoking such as cancer of the bladder, emphysema, and cardiovascular dis- eases. These predictions startle us and we realize that we must redouble our efforts to educate young people on the effects of smoking and change their attitudes so that they may be better prepared in dealing with the smoking question. In accomplishing this objective, we may well stress the immediate effects as well as the long range effects of tobacco usage. The immediate effects of smoking on young people can be broken down into the external physical effects, the internal physi- cal effects, the economic effects, and the so- cial effects. EXTERNAL EFFECTS Any person who smokes cigarettes regularly is going to have characteristic external effects that become part of his personality. Among these are bad breath, which is seldom im- proved by eating life-savers; a smell of smoke on the clothes, the hair and the body, and a , yellowish-brown stain on the fingers and often on the teeth. fVTE"RNAL EFFECTS The internal physical effects are less known, but more dramatic in their serious conse- quences. We know, for example, that cigarette smoke contains compounds such as ammonia which irritate the throat anal nasal passages. Tobacco irritants cause a progressive paral- ysis of the cilia and an increased secretion of mucus in the presence of foreign particles. The paralysis of the cilia and the increased mucus cause the need for coughing to relieve irritation in the bronchial passages. This coughing may become persistent and open the way for bronchitis and other respiratory problems. Cigarette smoking is known to cause con- striction of arteries, increased pulse rate (10-15 beats per minute) and increase in blood pressure. The exchange of gases in the air sacs 1,& the lungs is less efficient. As a result, there is an extra demand on the heart to increase the flow of blood to supply enough oxygen to the cells. This factor, along with carbon-monoxide displacement of oxygen in red blood cells, hinders the per- formance of athletes in strenuous sports, Dr. Milton Brinton reports that the smoker's lung capacity is 30 per cent less than the non-smoker. Cigarette smoke slows down digestion and may cause dizziness, decreases appetite and may affect the diet, increases the -chances for ulcers. It also weakens the taste buds on the tongue, thus food is less tasty. Statistics show that smoking increases the chances of a young woman giving birth to a premature and undernourished baby. Pre- mature birth rate for non-smokerss, in a study conducted on nearly 3,000 Baltimore women was 11.2 per cent as opposed to 22.9 per cent for heavy smokers. The death rate of chil- dren from smoking mothers was 16 out of every 1,000 births whereas, the non-smoking mothers only lost 6 children per 1,000 births, or less than one half the babies lost by the mothers that smoked. Thirty-six per cent of the women who smoke have menstrual disorders compared with 18 per cent in non-smokers. ECONOMIC EFFECTS Cigarette smoking has economic effects on the individual, both long range and immedi- ate. A person who smokes only one pack of cigarettes a day for one year will have spent around $100, depending on the state in which he lives. This can add up fast, especially it he increases his habit to two or three packs a day. -The cost of cigarette smoking, according to the Spokane Public Schools, is as follows: Packs smoked per day ----------------- 1%--------------- 3----------------- 68 per cent showed decreases in grades of 10 per cent to failure. The non-smokers had better grades and took tougher subjects than the smokers. Teens who are particular, may prefer dates who do not smoke. As one teen-ager in Spo- kane, Washington, stated, "Nothing cools love's flame faster than the sickening odor of cigarette breath." From a social point of view, most teen- agers have an effect on their fellow students. Their habits and attitudes concerning smok- ing may influence others not to start, to start, or to stop. The American Cancer Society's Annual Report (1964) states that the Gilbert Youth Research, Inc., survey in 1958 showed that 33 per cent of the American high school students said they smoked cigarettes. A sec- ond survey carried out in 1963, showed that the percentage of teen-agers who said they smoked had dropped to 29 per cent. A 1964 survey indicated a still further drop in high school smoking. Only 17 per cent of the teen-agers said they then smoked. Apparently those who once started to smoke continue; but beginning to smoke is far less fashionable. An immediate school social effect could be that as time passes on, people who are tempted to start smoking will get the reputation that they live dangerously, that they are not using their intelligence to the best of their ability. In other words, it's smart not to start, or it's smart not to smoke, When we add to this list of effects of smok- Ing, the results of a study in England that showed that 80 per cent of the smokers who tried their first cigarette in their teens were habituated within two years, we soon realize that smoking definitely has some very pro- found and immediate effects, even on the young. We must therefore, elaborate and emphasize these immediate effects as well as the long range effects as we attempt to im- prove the situation and reduce the predic- tion of the American Public Health Asso- ciation of 1,000,000 teen-agers dying from just lu~Ig cancer before age 70 to none. $1, 327 1,990 3, 9B1 $2,160 3,240 6,480 $610 915 1,830 The average teen-ager could save over $10,000 (interest included) in a life-time, plus living a healthier life if he would choose not to smoke. Another important economic effect is the cost of smoker's carelessness in fire loss every year. In Oregon alone, smokers cause about $2,000,000 in fire loss every year. This, of course, does not include the harm to the person and loss of life oftentimes involved. One national life insurance company has a 5 per cent discount in cost for non- smokers. .Actually the insurance companies could offer a bigger discount since it is re- ported that 50 per cent more heavier smoker are hospitalized than non-smokers. SOCIAL EFFECTS What does a teen-ager look like when he or she has a cigarette hanging out of the side of the mouth? What about the teen who puts on an air of sophistication or gla- mour? Does he become more-or less-at- tractive and acceptable, to his fellow students? In the Hazelwood Senior High School, Mis- souri, the school has created the climate that "It's Smart Not To Smoke." This attitude was established through the efforts of the school staff and students after an intensive campaign designed to inform the students about smoking hazards. Many students stopped smoking through social pressures. Others have been convinced that it's smart not to start. Campaigns such as this can eventually establish a cultural pattern that smoking will make one less popular with his fellow classmates. The social effects of smoking on young people can also be pointed out by citing some findings of a study of Portland high school pupil smoking habits conducted in 1959 by the American Cancer Society. Researchers discovered in this study that smokers were less successful in social activities; they didn't take part in clubs or social groups. They found that the smokers were also less suc- cessful in athletic activities and showed a significant lack of scholastic achievement and initiative. . George E. Coraker, a teacher from East- xidge High School, Rochester, compared non- smokers and smokers of similar age, grade, and I.Q. Coraker states that, "Smoking tends to create disorders of personality which causes disorders of memory." Of those students starting to smoke In high school, OUR ALLIES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA Mr. McGEE. Mr. President, one of the questions we hear repeatedly in con- neotion with this Nation's commitment in southeast Asia is, "Where are our friends, our allies?" Richard Wilson, writing in yesterday's Evening Star, has given a large part of the answer. Britain, he points out, has succeeded to large degree in protecting the State of Malaysia by the commitment of about 50,000 troops and $600 million in its defense funds. I would add that other allies, too, are contributing in vari- ous ways. Thailand, of course, is hold- ing its own on its own territory. Korea, Australia, New Zealand and others are contributing to the efforts in Vietnam. And the British, as Mr. Wilson has re- minded readers, are doing a vital job of stabilizing the course of events in yet another vital area of southeast Asia. I ask unanimous consent, Mr. President, that his column in the Evening Star on British firmness in southeast Asia be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: BRITISH FIRMNESS PAYS OFF IN SOUTHEAST ASIA (By Richard Wilson) All the while, and longer, that the United States has been deeply involved in Viet Nam, the British have been committed to hold- Ing the line in another part of Southeast -Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 June 9, 1966 d 4 R 400080014-5 a n ._._.__.._ n nnn rU_._r~_~____ nnn~in~iwn i+~n r~r~r~n~r~nn~ Ail KJl;l.lJltll - J1:lr n i GN CiK~5J1 1., 411 yy Ing power cannot be usefully applied to In- less obvious, but they should not be over- dian education. looked on that account. They should be How the proposed Foundation's initial recognized and removed as far as possible fund of almost his 150 crores is to be invested when the details of the agreement are We- is a question which has yet to be settled. It gotlated. It might be throught that all this is a reasonable assumption that the funds is unnecessarily alarmist. But in a vital field will be invested in Government securities of such as education no country can afford to one kind or another and it can also be as- let the initiative pass into alien hands. sumed that the Foundation will have a recurring annual Income of some six crores of rupees if not more. Even if the Foun- dation's overhead expenses are extremely high it will still have at least five crores of rupees at its disposal every year for aiding educational Institutions and promoting re- search. This would be a much higher sum than what is available to the University Grants Commission for similar purposes. In 1964- 05 the UGC was able to give grants of Rs two crores for the development of scientific education and research, Rs One crore for the development of education and research in the humanities and social sciences, and a e:imilar sum for the development of engi- neering and technological education. How- ever, this money had to be spread over a very large number of institutions and a good part of it was spent on the construction of labo- ratory buildings and other structures. It is possible to suspect that the funds available for actual research projects were very meager indeed. The Indo-American Foundation on the Other hand will be in a much happier posi- tion. It will be able to give funds on an effective scale for research and other projects of its choice. While the effective promotion of research is all to the good, Mrs. Gandhi's Government should consider some of the other consequences. Almost every depart- :ment in every university and other institu- tions of higher education will start looking to the new Foundation rather than the UGC .for aid and guidance. Scholars who are en- thusiastic about a project and are starved for funds are not greatly concerned where the money comes from. They are understanda- bly anxious to get things done and when they weigh their chances of getting the necessary funds they will almost inevitably turn toward the Foundation. The Founda- tion in turn will decide what project or which institution deserves its assistance. It is not difficult to foresee that within a few years the Foundation would come to occupy the commanding heights of the educational and research scene. OTHER PROGRAMMES At the moment the foreign aid programmes at the university level are operated by the University Grants Commission in collabora- tion with the relevant Union Ministry. This is true not only of the programmes assisted by UNESCO, the Soviet Union and Britain; it is also true of the programmes financed from PL-480 counterpart funds which have already been set aside for research projects in agricultural, physical and biological scien- ces. But judging from what President John- son has said., the proposed Foundation would be treated on a very different footing. It is not enough to have distinguished citizens of both countries on the Founda- tion's board. of directors. It is additionally desirable to ensure that the board is mainly composed of Indian representatives who while having a modern outlook see the country's educational and research needs through Indian eyes. This apart, two other things are equally necessary. Firstly, the UGC must be actively associated with the Indo-American Foundation in such a way as to ensure the Commission's overall control in the field of higher education. Secondly, the funds at the FEARS ABOUT INDO-U.S. FOUNDATION UNFOUNDED NEw DELHI, April 12.-Dr. John Hope Franklin. the visiting U.S. historian feels the Delhi University teachers' criticism of the proposed Indo-U.S. education foundation was premature and a little presumptuous. "The underlying assumption seems to be that the proposed foundation was meant to benefit India alone," he said in an interview today. "I should like to think it might benefit Americans as much." The fears expressed in the teachers' criti- cism were based on conjecture. "We don't know anything about the shape it will take. Suppose," Dr. Franklin said, "500 American teachers were to be financed by the scheme to come and learn Indian history here; who would benefit? Naturally the Americans. It has got to be a two-way affair." Visiting India for the :fourth time, Dr. Franklin is reviewing the working of the Ful- bright programme. This is in his capacity as vice-chairman of the Board of Foreign Scholarships, Washington, to which he was appointed by President Kennedy. "But I am not a Government servant," he added with a meaningful smile. He attaches great importance to exchange programmes at the intellectual level. It was a pity, he said that the average American was not as knowledgeable about India as an average literate Indiafn was about the United States. And he explained it as though he were in his classroom in the University or Chicago, For various reasons, historical and otherwise, the Americans were so engrossed in their own affairs that they did not pay any atten- tion to Europe, "leave alone Asia." "It was only after the Second War that America became a global country; the result was that we have a lot to make up," he said. Dr. Franklin's answers to questions on Vietnam and recialism in his country were true to his name. "I hate war, have hated it from my childhod, and I know it is not the way to solve anything, but then I am not clear on the alternatives. I wish I knew the way out," he said. CIVIL RIGHTS How far had the anti-segregation laws been Implemented in the United States, and to what effect? A sudden change took place in the smiling face. The question seemed to have touched the Negro in Dr. Franklin. But this lasted a moment. The affable pro- fessor took over again. "This has two planks to it: the Civil Rights Law of 1984 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965," the professor said and explained the substantial impact the legislation has had on the segregationists. But the problem had deep roots. Discrimination in employment and housing in a handful of major cities which contained one-third of the Negro population was still an acute and serious problem. It was strange, Dr. Franklin agreed, that a country so advanced and affluent should be so backward emotionally. It was equally strange, he further agreed, that Negroes with all their contribution to Amer- ican arts, music and sports should still be fighting for civil rights. Dr. Franklin felt the problem of civil rights would find full and complete solution within sufficiently to enable it to promote research this generation. As for a change in the and development as effectively as the Foun- feelings and attitudes of the White Suprem- dation. That the Indo-American Foundation acists, "it is difficult to predict anything in oan do a great deal of good Is obvious enough. the field of human failings," he said, paused Some of its disturbing possibilities might be and then added: "You can't tell when people would stop hating each other." And there was again a far-away look in his eyes. [From the Times of India, Apr. 8, 1988] MRS. GANDHI ALLAYS MPS' MISGIVINGS? INDO-AMERICAN EDUCATION FOUNDATION NEW DELHI, April 7.-The Prime Minister, Mrs. Indira Gandhi, assured the Executive Committee of the Congress Parliamentary Party today that the proposed Indo-Ameri- can Education Foundation was in the best interests of the country and there was no basis for any misgivings on this score. She and the Education Minister, Mr. M. C. Chagla, explained the objects of the founda- tion after critical references to it by two senior members who asked for further details. The Prime Minister is understood to have taken strong exception to doubts expressed by one member about American intentions. She remarked that such an attitude created misunderstanding and difficulties. If doubts were expressed about the intentions of coun- tries giving aid, they could also entertain similar doubts about the recipient country. GOVERNMENT'S APPROVAL The proposal to have such a foundation had been under consideration for some time and was approved by the Government last year. It would be administered in a manner consistent with India's interests and all its schemes and programmes would be subject to the approval of the Indian Government. No money would be spent without prior sanction. Mr. Chagla sought to remove the wrong notion that the foundation might influence the Indian way of life and culture. He said that no effort would be made to influence the educational system. Critics of the foundation were reported to have argued that involvement of a foreign government in matters affecting the coun- try's educational system might lead to serious consequences. Since the foundation was to be run by a joint board, there was nothing to prevent interference by the donor country. It might like to utilize the funds for spread- ing the American way of life and culture. rn the absence of more details, it would be difficult to accept the proposal, they said. IMPROPER AND UNFAIR One member felt that it was highly im- proper and unfair to doubt American inten- tions. India was extremely backward in the field of education and was in urgent need of technical knowhow. The U.S. Govern- ment had shown a great gesture by deciding to invest Rs. 142 crores in the foundation. He had no doubt that if the same proposal had come from the Soviet Union, it would have been readily accepted by the critics. Misgivings were also expressed about the proposal to route the Western foreign aid through the World Bank. Some members asked whether this would not give the aid a private sector orientation since the World Bank was a private investment agency. A reference was also made during discus- sions to the protocol in Britain here the visiting Prime Minister of a Commonwealth country was received at London airport not by his counterpart In Britain but by the Commonwealth Relations Secretary. It was suggested that the Indian Prime Minister should not go to the airport to receive the British Prime Minister when he visited India. The protocol in this matter should be on a reciprocal basis. TEENAGE SMOKING Mrs. NEUBERGER. Mr. President, who would not be shocked to pick up the morning paper and see a stark black headline-"One Million Teenagers Dying From Lung Cancer?" Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA,-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 June ?0 966 Approved Fo&Q1 SI 1:tECbP6iSBW4MR000400080014-5 Asia. About 50,000 British troops and $600 give aid to threatened countries there, as million in British defense funds have been it did for Malaysia. . involved. The average American has probably never heard of this commitment. If he had heard of it he may have considered it a ragged remnant of Britain's once proud colonialism, the last gasp of empire, as did the political left wing in England. The news about Britain's last stand is that it has succeeded. This success causes quiet satisfaction in the Johnson administration in Washington, and it is not hard to see why. The dogged British have demonstrated that a Western power's determined resistance to Communist-aligned expansion in South- east Asia can pay off. The calculated use of strength, and, above all, persistence and stubbornness, can have a decisive effect on events and on leaders and governments whose policies may be forced to change. When the infant state of Malaysia was created three years ago Indonesia's China- oriented dictator, Sukarno, took measure of its weakness and decided to lop off part of it in Northern Borneo. The larger part of Borneo is Indonesian. A "confrontation" followed that drew down Britian's commit- ment to protect the independence of the infant state and hold the line against Com- munist expansionism in Southeast Asia. Last week the new leaders of Indonesia, who had brought down Sukarno in an anti- Communist blood bath estimated to have taken the lives of 300,000 people, brought the "confrontation" to an end in a quick agree- ment with Malaysia that left Malaysia with its portion of North Borneo. The "con- frontation" was simply costing too much, and the Indonesian generals had no heart for it in view of Britian's stubbornness. With this agreement some current myths suffered a bad beating. One of these myths is that the West "can't win" In Southeast Asia because it is white man confronting brown man. The Indonesian generals didn't care about that, and the Malaysians, like the South Vietnamese, had invited the protection of the white man. Another myth is that the Westerners no longer can have any influence in Asia unless they get out. The British stayed. It will not be easy for Malaysia in the future. This federation already has lost one of its important components, Singapore. Nor is it necessarily true that what happened in the southern island reaches of Southeast Asia will be repeated in the northern main- land area adjacent to China. But the Malaysian experience does help to allay the sense of hopelessness about a West- ern intervention that has as its. only aim the prevention of expansionism in the Chinese and North Viet Nam Communist style. The British experience shows that the line may be held by limited military methods, and th,.t what President Johnson is talking about is not just belated justification for an ill- oonsidered act. The British experience effectively refutes the argument that the way to exercise power in Southeast Asia is to )vithdraw to the sea. If Britain had done that Sukarno would have been in North Borneo long since, and if we had done it in Viet Nam, Ho Chi Minh by now would have been in gaigon. The way to contain Chinese-style expansionism obviously is to remain on the scene. Hardly any of the non-Marxist opponents of the Johnson Viet Nam policy oppose the containment of China. Most of them con- sider this to be necessary. The argument is over how best to do it within practical lim- itations. The settlement in Malaysia also. should make it easier for Britain to continue to ex- ercise its. power for stability in the Indian Ocean "east of Suez" by remaining ready to These questions are much to the fore now, both in Washington and London. The prob- lems involved are vital to American policy, for there is no desire in Washington to shoulder any burdens in the Indian Ocean area which Britain, or Britain's left wing, may wish to lay down. It would be strange if, Britain having shown the way in Malaysia, we were now to aban- don a policy proven wise. WARSAW PACT STUDY Mr. JACKSON. Mr. President, today the Subcommittee on National Security and International Operations, which I have the honor to chair, released an up- to-date study of the role of the Warsaw Pact in Soviet bloc affairs. I want to take this occasion to bring this study to the special attention of my colleagues. In its current inquiry into alliance operations and the Atlantic Alliance, our subcommittee though it would be, help- ful to look closely at the Warsaw Pact, communism's counterpart to NATO. The 11-year-old Warsaw Pact is in a state of flux and ferment, and this timely study puts in perspective the dissident role of Rumania and the changing pol- itical scene of Eastern Europe. This subcommittee study offers evi- dence that the Warsaw Pact is one of the few remaining effective devices avail- able to Moscow for holding the Soviet bloc together at a time of growing eco- nomic pragmatism and more national- istically oriented policy stands by the East European regimes. The East Euro- pean governments, for their part, seem to regard the pact as surety that the U.S.S.R. will continue to underwrite their Communist regimes and safeguard their national boundaries. On the military side, as the study indicates, the pact's East European armed forces have been modernized and standardized by the Soviets since 1961, and "meaningful military coordination among the armies of the signatories has advanced, so that Eastern European armed forces are a more useful adjunct to Soviet military power." The subcommittee study offers further evidence, however, that the Soviet Union confronts some real problems with Its East European allies. As the study in- dicates, these problems include: Difficulty in persuading some allies to accept proportionate financial and other burdens entailed in Warsaw Pact com- mitments or to undertake larger pact commitments. Difficulty in overriding dissenting members like Rumania by political pres- sure, since even countries willing to fol- low the Soviet line are reluctant to join in isolating more independent members in case they too should one day wish to pursue a path of their own choosing. Pressure by East European members to have a greater voice in pact decisions, especially as a safeguard against invol- untary involvement in nuclear war. Disagreements over current pact or- ganization and chain of command, and objections to Moscow's occupancy of all the major command posts under the pact. 12135 .Questions of reliability of forces of East European regimes under some cir- cumstances if called upon. to fight with the Soviet Union. I believe this timely study can con- tribute to greater understanding of de- velopments in the Soviet bloc and will be of special Interest to officials of the government and private citizens con- cerned with problems of the Atlantic GENERAL HERSHEY SUPPORTS STEP PROGRAM Mr. NELSON. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that an article pub- lished in the Milwaukee Journal of June 7, containing an interview with Gen. Lewis Hershey, Director of the National Selective Service, be printed at the con- clusion of rely remarks. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD. (See exhibit 1.) Mr. NELSON. Mr. President, earlier this week I introduced S. 3470, a bill which would provide special educational training and physical rehabilitation pro- grams for men not now able to qualify for military service. In the interview, General Hershey states: We ought to make some who are unfit, fit. We ought not to put a premium on igno- rance. I wish to commend the general for supporting this measure. There are thousands of boys wanting to join the service, boys who are basically qualified to serve, but who are now rejected due to minor educational defects. It is esti- mated that between 11,000 anfl 15,000 men a year would benefit by this pro- gram. These young men who want to volun- teer would make excellent soldiers. They are highly motivated and would in all probability remain in the service as career soldiers. I am glad to know that the Director of the Selective Service agrees that something should be done to enable these young men to qualify for service. ARMY SHOULD DRAFT, TRAIN UNFIT, GENERAL HERSHEY SAYS BALTIMORE, MD.-The educational stand- ards for acceptance in military service "are too high for our long range needs," Gen. Lewis B. Hershey, national selective service director, said Monday. "We ought to make some who are unfit, fit," he said. "We ought not to put a pre- mium on Ignorance." Hershey advocated that the military serv- ices accept more illiterates and educate them. "Do you mean the schools have failed?" Hershey was asked in an interview. "Well, we are now turning down two and one-half million a year because they can't pass a simple test," he replied. Hershey said in his opinion there were far too many exemptions from selective service. "How are you going to have democracy and fairness in a country where half of the people are not accepted?" he asked. As for whether a military draft is necessary, Hershey said: "I never thought we had much choice. How can you survive in this world with your hands folded? A human being has to exert himself to survive. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 12136 Approved For&74t3 jkiU-U@p000400080014-?un,N966 high domestic price of butterfat and growing dairy supplies in other nations. Under section 206 of the Sugar Act, the Secretary of Agriculture has the au- thority to limit importation of sugar- containing products if the importation will or does substantially interfere with the attainment of the objectives of the Sugar Act. It is, hardly necessary to note that one of the fundamental pur- poses of the Sugar Act has been to pro- mote within the United States the ability produce a substantial portion of our sugar requirements-for defense and strategic reasons, as well as consumer protection. Sugar is a vital food needed by American consumers, and the world supply of sugar has alternately been in very short supply or in surplus. Our sugar program has been intended to stabilize what have been very drastic changes in supply and demand, mostly in the last few years. However, should action not be appro- priate under section 206 of the Sugar Act, there is ample authority to proceed under section 22 of the Agricultural Ad- justment Act. That section provides that when the Secretary of Agriculture has reason to believe that any article im- ported into the United States will render or tend to render ineffective, or mate- rially interfere with price support pro- grams, he may recommend to thePresi- dent that the U.S. Tariff Commission proceed to determine the existence of facts establishing the interference. Interestingly enough, action has al- ready been taken under this section. On April 15, 1957, President Eisenhower placed limitations, by Executive order, on the importation of butter substitutes, including butter oil, containing 45 per- cent or more of butterfat. This restric- tion would apply today to the butterfat- sugar product imports, except that the importers are careful to limit the amount, of butterfat to 44 percent or less, thus escaping the quota. President Kennedy exercised this authority with respect to certain cotton products in September of 1961. This situation is serious for Minnesota, since in both 1964 and 1965, Minnesota has led the Nation in the production of creamery butter, and has ranked among the three leading States in production of all milkfat. Our dairy industry accounts for 22 to 23 percent of total cash receipts from farm marketings-about $340 million an- nually. It is possible that our dairy in- dustry, now suffering from an unusual decline, could be further crippled if the rate of increase in imports of butterfat- sugar products continues. I intend to follow this situation closely, and cooperate closely with the Depart- ment of Agriculture in making the quick- est possible assessment of the situation and in taking action if intensive investi- gation warrants placing some restric- tions on these imports. INCREASE IN IMPORTS OF BUTTER- .: PAT-SUGAR PRODUCTS Mr. MONDALE. Mr. President, in the past several months there has been an alarmingly rapid increase in imports of butterfat-sugar products, containing 44 percent butterfat, 55 to56 percent sugar, and possibly a trace of vanilla. This sit- uation is hinted at in the May 1966 dairy situation report Issued by the Depart- ment of Agriculture. But more recent information indicates that the situation is becoming serious. Such mixtures, known under a variety of trade names such as Junex, Lorex, Ernex, and Grapex, have been imported for many years. More recently, 2.5 mil- lion pounds were imported in 1961, and 4.1 mullion pounds in 1962. But the levels have never been higher than that. There were no imports at all of this product during the 1963-64 or 1964-65 Import years. But from July, 1965, through February of this year, 6 million pounds were imported. Since February the rate of increase has been sharp and rapid--3.1 million pounds were imported in March of 1966; 8.1 million pounds in April; and 19.5 million pounds in May. All told, through May of this year, im- ports of butterfat-sugar product has totaled roughly 36.6 million pounds. It is my understanding that in the first week of June about 1 million pounds came into the United States. These imports constitute direct and serious competition with domestic sources of sugar and butterfat, and may be handled under existing law. If these imports are damaging the effectiveness of our price support programs for manu- facturing milk and butterfat, or the at- tainment of the objectives of the Sugar Act, machinery exists to do something about it. I have asked the Department of Ag- riculture today to intensify their ex- amination and assessment of the situa- tion with respect to these imports, in cooperation with other agencies that may be concerned. The Department of Ag- riculture is aware of the growing rate of imports. But I believe the situation Is serious enough to justify full-scale re- view, together with beginning such ac- tion as may be warranted. Since August of 1951, the United States has imposed import quotas on certain. dairy commodities in order to protect the domestic price support programs for manufacturing milk and butterfat from excessive Import interference. Among the specific dairy products subject to import limitations under section 22 of the Agricultural Adjustment Act are but- ter, dry, milk, and Cheddar cheese. In recent months, imports in products outside quota restrictions have been in- creasing. Among these ex-quota prod- ucts are fresh-frozen cream, Colby cheese, and the "junextype" products contain- Ing less than 45 percent butterfat. Be- ginning in 1962, agreements between the United States and leading dairy export nations had limited trade in such com- modities, but all of thes agreements ex- pired on June 30, 1965. A number of complex and interrelated factors are causing these increases in butterfat-sugar product, principally the THE WAR ON POVERTY Mr. McGOVERN. Mr. President, it is difficult for me to understand why some of our colleagues manifest such a criti- cal attitude toward the newly launched war on poverty. From recent charges, one would conclude that this is the most ill conceived program ever enacted for our citizens. Furthermore, Sargent Shriver, the distinguished former Direc- tor of the Peace Corps and now the Direc- tor of the war on poverty, has been subjected to unfair personal attacks. In my opinion, and I am certain others in this body share similar views, Mr. Shriver is one of the most distinguished, dedicated, and inspired public servants ever to serve the U.S. Government. Let us be fair in our evaluation of the war on poverty and recognize that it has been in existence less than 2 years. And, second, let us be fair in giving cog- nizance to several of its major accom- plishments in this limited period of time. It is remarkable that the Office of Economic Opportunity has approved over 3,850 grants to community action agen- cies covering over a third of all the counties in the United States; involved over 775,000 preschool children in Proj- ect Headstart, with an additional half million children scheduled to participate this summer; provided basic education and job training to 44,000 young men and women through the Job Corps; gained the participation of over 550,000 teenagers in the Neighborhood Youth Corps; selected, trained, and assigned over 2,100 VISTA volunteers to 278 rural and urban projects; benefited more than 120,000 unemployed adults through the work experience program; and has established other antipoverty measures, including adult basic education, rural loans and small business development loan programs, for groups chronically affected by the ravages of poverty. Mr. President, instead of decrying every imaginary or legitimate short- coming of this growing and dynamic program, I suggest that we should com- mend the Office of Economic Opportu- nity for the establishment of exciting, innovative concepts and programs- known to millions of Americans as Project Upward Bound, the legal services pro- gram, foster grandparents, medicare alert, and others-which have already produced gratifying results. The Head- start program has proved so popular that demand for local projects far exceeds available funds. Also significant are the special programs extended to long-for- gotten groups such as migratory agri- cultural workers and American Indians which will enable them to join the main- stream of American life. Admittedly, there have been prob- lems, controversies, and occasional fail- ures. But who could expect otherwise from the daring, new approaches to over- come the root causes of poverty in this Nation. Is it possible to embark upon such an approach, which permeates all levels of government and affects hereto- fore forgotten groups, many of whom are in the midst of great social unrest, with- out some difficulties arising? And is it possible to imagine a meaningful war on poverty, 18 months after its inception, being easy and comfortable and unani- mously popular? Poverty has afflicted. some portions of our society for genera- tions. It is not likely to disappear in a single generation. But let us beware: of Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 June. 966 Approved FT ?V@7~1AE gOi -6 pbk'ObO400080014-5 Brazos Electric Power Cooperative: Hollis Mitchell, Manager, Post Office Drawer 430, A. Dalton, Manager, 2404 Le Salle, Waco,'Tex. Kirbyville, Tex.; Miss Betty Flllyaw, Post Miss Margaret Walsworth, 2721 Herring Office Box 81, Newton, Tex.; Mr. Rodney Van Avenue, Waco, Tex.; Mr. Howard Gray III, Horn, Route 3, Box 180, Kirbyville, Tex. 2901 Old Robinson Road, Waco, Tex. Lighthouse Electric Cooperative: Melvin Cap Rock Electric Cooperative: O. B. Bry- Henry, Manager, Post Office Box 965, Floy- an, Manager, Post Office Box 158, Stanton, dada, Tex.; Miss Anne-Marie Conner, Route Tex.; Miss Brenda Dyson, Post Office Box 631, 3, Plainview, Tex.; Mr. Jerry Bigham, Post Stanton, Tex.; Mr. Mike Springer, Post Office Office Box 813, Lockney, Tex. Box 38, Lenorah, Tex. Lone Wolf Electric Cooperative: James T. Central Texas Electric Cooperative: W. C. Hull, Manager, Post Office Box 793, Colorado McWilliams, Manager, Post Office Box' 553, City, Tex.; Miss Linda Wiggins, Route 3, Box Fredericksburg, Tex.; Miss Rebecca Hopson, 106, Snyder, Tex.; Mr. Dennis Grizzle, Post Valley Spring route, Llano, Tex.; Mr. Office Box 224, Ira, Tex. Stephen Mutschink, Post Office Box 628, Lyntegar Electric Cooperative: Garland Mason, Tex. Pennington, Manager, Post Office Drawer A, Coleman County Electric Cooperative: C. Tahoka, Tex.; Miss Maria Bray, Post Office L. Newton, Manager, Post Office Box 860, Box 638, Tahoka, Tex.; Mr. Richard White, Coleman, Tex.; Miss Linda Kasbert, Post Of- Post Office Box 96 Tahoka, Tex, flee Box 124, Miles, Tex.; Mr. Ronnie Droll, McCulloch Electric Cooperative: B. C. Route 1, Box 92, Rowena, Tex.; Miss Cheryl Broad, Manager, Post Office Box 271, Brady, Beck, Post Office Box 296, Valera, Tex. Tex.; Miss Vicki Gamblin, Route 1, Placid, Comanche County Electric Cooperative: Tex.; Mr. Terry Traweek, 900 North Bridge W. J. Parks, Manager, Post Office Box 563, Street, Brady, Tex. Comanche, Tex.; Miss Martha Fanning, 1100 Magic Valley Electric Cooperative: Lee R. North Houston St., Comanche, Tex.; Mr. Troy Gandy, Manager, Post Office Box 267, Mer- Lee Hatcher, Jr., Post Office Box 292, Moran, cedes, Tex.; Miss Claudia Bagley, Post Office Tex. Box 42, Rio Hondo, Tex.; Mr. Alan L. John- Deaf Smith County Electric Cooperative: son, Route 1, Santa Rosa, Tex. Leo Forrest, Manager, Post Office Box 753, Medina Electric Cooperative: James N. Hereford, Tex.; Miss Joyce Benner, Route 1, Myers, Manager, 2308 18th Street, Hondo, Hereford, Tex.; Mr. Jerry Alberant, Post Office Tex.; Miss Jewelretta Keswick, 1415 North Box 105, Nazareth, Tex. 7th Avenue, Crystal City, Tex.; Mr. John M. Deep East Texas Electric Cooperative: D. N. Seifert, Box 208, Route 1, Hondo, Tex.; _Mr. Beasley, Manager, Post Office Drawer N, San Lyle Thomas Stein, Route 1, Box 66, Hondo, Augustine, Tex.; Miss Susann Ramsey, Post Tex. Office Box 00, San Augustine, Tex.; Mr. Boyer Mid-South Electric Cooperative: Curtis F. Taylor, Post Office Box 135, Tenaha, Tex. Maynard, Manager, Post Office Box 822, Nava- Denton County Electric Cooperative: Bill sota, Tex.; Miss Becky Floyd, Route 2, Box 100, R. Collins, Manager, Post Office Box 699, Den- Navasota, Tex.; Mr. Jimmy Weaver, 204 Ro- ton, Tex.; Miss Bobby Ann Thompson, Post tello Street, Navasota, Tex. Office Box 392, Frisco, Tex.; Mr. Jack Highflll, Midwest Electric Cooperative: Johnny Post Office Box 194, Valley View, Tex. Ammons, Manager, Post Office Box 517, Roby, DeWitt County Electric Cooperative: Fain Tex.; Miss Dinah Lovett, Route 1, Rotan, McDougal, Manager, Post Office Box 231, Tex.; Mr. William Deknight, 2203 46th Street, Cuero, Tex.; Miss Claudia Arnold, Route 4, Snyder, Tex. Yorktown, Tex.; Mr. Charles Mueller, Route Tri-County Electric Cooperative: W. C. 2, Box 25, Yorktown, Tex. Casparis, Jr., Manager, 600 N.W. Parkway, Dickens County Electric Cooperative: Lloyd Azle, Tex.; Miss Gwendol Wood, Route 1, Hindman, Manager, Post Office Box 1104, Box 111, Azle, Tex.; Mr. Charles Lewis, Route Spur, Tex.; Miss Gloria Moerno, Route 1, 1, Box 91H, Keller, Tex.; Mr. Russell Cotton, Box K3, Spur, Tex.; Mr. Larry Powell, Post Route 1, Box 303, Mineral Wells, Tex. Office Box 235, Spur, Tex. Wharton County Electric Cooperative: K. Fayette Electric Cooperative: John P. A. Crawford, Manager, Post Office Box 911, Luecke, Manager, Post Office Box 298, La El Campo, Tex.; Miss Michele Gibson, Post Grange, Tex.; Miss Barbara Miller, 1230 East Office Box 1252, El Campo, Tex.; Mr. Arthur Eblin Street, La Grange, Tex.; Miss Glenda Keinarth, 310 Blue Creek Road, El Campo, Zappe? 123 Kroschell Street, Halletsville, Tex. Tex.; Mr. Robert Fikac,2 Route 1, Box 187, Wood County Electric Cooperative: V. B. Shiner, Tex.; Mr. Marvin L. Moerbe, Route 1, Shaw, Manager, Post Office Box 398, Quit- La Grange, Tex. man, Tex.; Miss Quito Russell, Post Office Fannin County Electric Cooperative: J. W. Box 1802, Hawkins, Tex.; Mr. Steve Lacy, Cunningham, Manager, Post Office Drawer 404 North Pacific St., Mineola, Tex. 250, Bonham, Tex.; Miss Raylene Warnell, North Plains Electric Cooperative: Earl Route 1, Bonham, Tex.; Mr. Terry Brent, Waide, Manager, Ppst Office Box 550, Perry- Route 2, Wolfe City, Tex. ton, Tex.; Mr. Tom Zenor, Post Office Box Farmers Electric Cooperative: Joe Lytle, 36, Higgins, Tex. Manager, Post Office Box 1037, Greenville, Pedernales Electric Cooperative: Mr. Tom Tex.; Miss Shirley King, 512 Lee Street, Sul- Hutchinson, Assistant to President, Post phur Springs, Tex.; Mr. Danny Bonner, Jr., Office Box 9032, Austin, Tex.; Miss Beth Bar- 914 N. Davis Street, Sulphur Springs, Tex. ton, Post Office Box 238, Bertham, Tex.; Mr. Guadalupe Valley Electric Cooperative: Eric McKinney, Post Office Box 167, John O. W. Davis, Manager, Post Office Box 118, son City, Tex. Gonzales, Tex.; Miss Jane Jahns, Route 2, Rita Blanca Electric Cooperative; Mr. R. Box 152, Marion, Tex. L. Elliott, Jr., Manager, Post Office Box 990, Hall County Electric Cooperative: J. W.. Dalhart, Tex.; Miss Uszanne Dixon, Post Coppedge, Manager, Post Office Box 1020, Office Box 37, Morse, Tex.; Mr. Tommy Nis- Memphis, Tex.; Miss Linda Simpson, 717 N. bett, 1405 Peach Avenue, Dalhart, Tex. 16th Street, Memphis, Tex.; Mr. Royce Pigg, San Bernard Electric Cooperative: Mr. G. Star Route, Quitaque, Tex. R. Schumann, Manager, Post Office Box 158, J-A-C Electric Cooperative: James E. Bellville, Tex.; Miss Sandy Criswell, Post Fields, Manager, Post Office Box Drawer B, Office Box 254, Sheridan, Tex.; Miss Eliza- Bluegrove, Tex.; Miss Suzanne Lindeman, beth Ilse, Route 2, Box 408, Columbus, Tex.; Post Office Box 24 Windthorst Tex: Mr Mr. Francis Hagendorf, Post Office Box 275, David Murray, Post Office Box 88, Byers, Tex. Shedan, Tex. Jasper-Newton Electric Cooperative: Troy 1 Miss Beck' jointly sponsored by Group a..,.e~. v. ? Co-sponsored by Fayette, Guadalupe Val- Mr. MONDALE. Mr. President, there ley and San Bernard Electric Cooperatives. have been a number of newspaper arti- 12143 Iles recently about the problems which have developed in our commercial import program in Vietnam, carried out by our Agency for International Development. A particularly perceptive series has been written by Charles W. Bailey, corre- spondent for the Minneapolis Tribune and the Des Moines Register. As Bailey points out, the objective of this program is to fight against rapid inflation in Vietnam, which can threaten stability, particularly in the cities, in a very serious way. Our increased involve- ment in Vietnam has inevitably gener- ated unprecedented demands on the economy there, and by shipping a large number of goods there for commercial sale we hope to soak up excess buying power and keep prices down. As one might expect in a program of this magnitude, there have been very serious problems. Chuck Bailey's anal- ysis of these problems is worthy of the attention of the entire Senate, so I ask unanimous consent that several of his articles be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the articles were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Minneapolis Tribune, May 7, 19661 CZAR WILL PROBE PX BLACK MARKET IN SOUTH VIETNAM (By Charles W. Bailey, Minneapolis Tribune Staff Correspondent) WASHINGTON, D.C.-The Defense Depart- ment, increasingly concerned over wide- spread black marketeering of military Post Exchange goods sent to South Viet Nam, has named a "czar" to investigate and where necessary clean up the situation. Thomas D. Morris, assistant secretary of defense, has been named "Mr. Black Mar- keteer"-in the words of a Pentagon spokes- man Friday-in an effort to clamp down on a problem that could cause the administra- tion considerable embarrassment. The thriving black market in PX goods is the most highly visible, though probably not the most serious, symptoms of the theft, di- version and lack of control which have plagued United States military and foreign aid shipments to Viet Nam. Diversion and theft of United States aid shipments, including goods purchased by Vietnamese businessmen with United States financing under the so-called Commodity Import Program (CIP), is under intensive in- vestigation by civilian authorities, who have dispatched several dozen investigators to Sai-_ gon, South Viet Nam, in recent weeks. Ironically, the Defense Department ap- pointment of its own black market "czar" follows by less than three months the nam- ing of a similar official by the South Viet- namese government at the insistence of President Johnson and other top U.S. lead- ers during the Honolulu conference. It has been no secret in Saigon that the influx of PX supplies for U.S. troops has fed a thriving black market. Sidewalk vendors there offer radios, liquor, canned food, cig- arettes, clothing, bedsheets and other items- many bearing Post Exchange price tags- for sale in hundreds of open-air booths. The PX black market drew fire this week from Senator J. WILLIAM FULBRIGHT, Demo- crat, of Arkansas, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and a persist- ent critic of the war in Viet Nam. FULBRIGHT said that "30,000 containers of hair spray were sent to Viet Nam in March... it seems reasonable to suppose that this item has found its way to the black market." Anyone walking down Saigon sidewalks can confirm that hair spray is a popular item Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 12144 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 - CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE June 9, 1966 In the open-air black market. But FaL- BRIGHT, according to highly knowledgeable official sources, seriously understated the magnitude of the shipments. Shipments of hair spray to South Viet Nam--destined for PX counters but often diverted to sidewalk stalls-have been run- ning at a level of more than 140,000 contain- ers a month for the past four or five months, these sources say. There are fewer than 800 women in all of South Viet Nam authorized to purchase goods in U.S. Post Exchanges, the sources say-nurses, dependents of non-government U.S. personnel with PX privileges, and a ,handful of Vietnamese dependents of mill.. . ary men: Thus the monthly consignments of hair spray would provide close to 200 cans of hair spray per month for each woman author. ized to obtain it. The fact is that hair spray is a standard gift for GIs to give to their Vietnamese girl friends. A Defense Department spokesman con- firmed yesterday that Morris had been given the black market "czar" assignment by Deputy Defense Secretary Cyrus Vance. The spokesman said that Vance acted after re- ceiving "some reports" on the situation fol- lowing his recent inspection trip to Vietnam. The spokesman said Vance also has ordered each service secretary-Army, Navy and Air Force-to give him a monthly report on ac- tions taken by them to curb black marketeer- Ing, currency dealings, and similar illegal activities. Morris, who is assistant secretary of de- fense for manpower, was chosen by Vance because his responsibilities cut across Inter- service lines, the spokesman said. From the Des Moines (Iowa) Register, May 10, 1966] TEAM SEEKS To END VIET MISUSE (By Charles Bailey, of the Register's Washington bureau) WASHINGTON, D.C.-Foreign aid officials, spurred by evidence of major misuse of Amer- ican aid to South Viet Nam, are hastily in- creasing their efforts to control the nearly $500 million worth of U.S.-financed goods shipped each year to Saigon. An entire new 27-man "special projects team" has been set up in the U.S. aid mission headquarters in Saigon, along with extra auditors and inspectors, In an effort to pre- vent further diversion of aid shipments by profiteering merchants or agents of the Com- munist Viet Cong. The stepped-up policing efforts of the Agency for International Development (AID), which handles economic assistance programs, parallel the action of the Defense Department, which has appointed a "czar" to crack down on black marketing in military post exchange goods and currency. - The military and civilian enforcement drive apparently resulted, at least in part, from investigations conducted In recent weeks by the Inspector-General's office of the State Department. This office has formal policing authority only over the AID pro- grams, but in addition has pointed up black marketeering activities in military PX sup- plies as well. It was the curiosity of an official in the Inspector-General's office that resulted in the interception of 50 tons of a highly-explo- sive chemical compound bound for Saigon. The compound had been purchased by a Vietnamese importer-Purportedly for use in making rubber-soled tennis shoes-under a program financed by AID. COMPLICATED NAME The inspector's curiosity as to the appar- ent huge demand for- tennis shoes, plus the complicated chemical name of the com- pound, led to his initial inquiry, subsequent tests by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory showed the compound-trade-named "Uni- cel-100" and known chemically as "dinitroso- pentamethalene tetramine"-to be almost as powerful as TNT. A similar, though less lethal, item recently turned back from its Saigon destination was its Saigon destination was $1-million-worth of silver nitrate. It was questioned, and then canceled, because it seemed likely to have been purchased as a "money maker"- a nonessential import designed solely for the enrichment of the importer. Silver nitrate can be melted down-"in the back of any shack," as one official put it- Because the financing arrangements under the U.S.-backed Commodity Import Program (CIP) allow a Vietnamese importer to buy goods at an exchange of 60 piastres to the dollar, instead of the going black-market rate of 180 to 200 piastres per dollar now prevalent in Saigon, the potential for profit in such a manipulation is large. Even If half the silver nitrate is lost in the conversion process, the importer would be left with a tidy profit when he sold his solid silver, in the form of ashtrays or -spoons, on the Saigon market. In addition, conversion of the unstable piastre into something as "hard" and thus stable as silver, particularly at a low pegged piastre price, gives ,a Vietnamese a chance to enrich himself in real, inflation-proof terms. TARGET O DEMANDS According to an AID spokesman, the agency has been the target in the last few days of demands from both Congress and the White House for details of past losses and future control plans. The White House inquiries, the spokesman said, had become especially insistent, and he added: "There seems to be a real flap over this." As for Congress, a House subcommittee headed by Representative JOHN Moss, Demo- crat of California, arrived in Saigon last week- end to look into the diversion problem. It carries a special agreement giving it authority to probe military as well as AID programs. The AID agency Monday was unable to pro- vide specific information on the new tougher program of "end-use" auditing-that Is, the checking of goods sent to Viet Nam under the CIP program to determine whether they have been used for the purposes stated in the import application. But an AID spokesman did provide this run-down on the new control measures being instituted: A "special projects team," consisting of 20 AID officials and seven experts from the U.S. Bureau of Customs, has been set up in Sai- gon to see what happens to shipments after they arrive. This team will be strengthened by another 10 men within two months. Two additional "management inspectors"- empowered to call for records on any trans- action-have been assigned to Saigon to join the two already there. Five additional staff auditors have been assigned to the Saigon AID Mission to join the 13 already there, and another 17 auditors are to be added "as soon as possible." The AID spokesman added that one or the other of the two top officials of the Inspector- General's office-Director Kenneth Mansfield and his deputy, Howard E. Haugerud-has been in Saigon "most of the time" In recent weeks, investigating the situation. Since there are about 375 employees in the U.S. AID Mission In Saigon, the current 47- man complement of inspectors, investigators and auditors amounts to about one person in eight in the mission. When the additional policing personnel now planned arrive, the proportion will be nearly one in five-a meas- ure of the gravity with which the problem is now viewed. [From the Des Moines Register, May 14, 1966] FEAR REDS GOT U.S. EXPLOSIVE SEE POSSIBLE USE BY VIET TERRORISTS-CHEMICAL WAS SENT TO PRIVATE FIRMS (By Charles Bailey, of the Register's Washington bureau) WASHINGTON, D.C.-At least -100 tons of a highly explosive chemical colifpound were delivered to private merchants in South Viet Nam under U.S. aid programs before suspi- cious investigators discovered its potential value to Communist terrorists. The agency for International Development, (AID), which administers the economic as- sistance program under which the chemical was shipped, is now trying to find out whether the compound-purportedly im- ported to Saigon for use' 1n making rubber- soled tennis shoes-was diverted to the Viet Gong. It is suspected that it was. AUDIT ORDERED An "end-use" audit has been ordered on the 100 tons of Unicel-100 and Unicel-DN- two variants of the same compound. They were shipped before State Department in- spectors learned of the compound's explosive properties last month. In addition to the 100 tons, an AID spokes- man said Friday that undetermined addi- tional amounts were purchased by Vietnam- ese merchants, with U.S. financing, from manufacturers In Japan and Formosa. Tests of Unicel-100, made after an official of the State Department Inspector-General's Office questioned a 50-ton shipment, revealed the compound to be nearly as powerful an explosive as T.N.T. A single pound, packed into a bicycle hand-pump and simply fused, could wreck a building, officials said. (The most recent terrorist blast in Saigon reportedly was caused by a bomb attached to a bicycle.) The 50-ton shipment of Unicel was stopped in mid-ocean. But the 100 tons shipped un- der earlier authorizations already had arrived In Saigon and had been picked up by the merchants who bought it under the AILS Commodity Import Program, which finances purchases-at a favorable rate of exchange- by Vietnamese businessmen. The program subsidizes the Import of goods, with the aim of providing materials needed to strengthen the economy of South Viet Nam without feeding the Inflation that recently has become a major problem there. But recent investigations, such as the one that turned up shipments of Unicel so large they obviously were not for the stated pur- pose of making tennis shoe soles more flex- ible and springy, have indicated widespread misuse and diversion of U.S.-financed goods. Such misuse involves not only diversion of goods to the Communists-as suspected in the case of the Unicel and such other ma- terials as drugs, steel and cement-but also its conversion in "Money-making" projects-- such as the melting down of silver nitrate into pure silver for hoarding or resale. AID spokesmen said Friday that the list of specific "end-use" audits ordered in the current crackdown is classified because the agency does not want It known which items are being checked. But they said that both Unicel and silver nitrate are among the com- modities being checked. A spokesman said he was "sure" that no more Unicel would be authorized for ship- ment to South Viet Nam regardless of the audit findings. As for silver nitrate, he sug- gested that the current stop order would be 'maintained until investigations are corn- plete. The discovery of such incidents as the Unicel shipment, plus increasing congres- sional concern over the operation of the Commodity Import Program, have resulted in a drastic step-up in auditing and policing procedures. But the task of checking the $420 million in goods shipped under the program in the Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 June 9, 1 966 Approved F"M" l/1A i3QE&j f R46R000400080014-5 last two years, and of preventing misuse of the equal amount programmed for the next 12 months, will keep auditors busy for weeks or even months, officials say. Special emphasis will be put on checks of so-called "critical" goods-materials which would be of special use to the Communists. In addition to drugs-especially antibiotics- this list includes chemicals, small hand tools and such machine tools as lathes which can be used in making arms. Of the $370 million in goods being shipped this year under the Commodity Import Pro- gram, almost $71 million is industrial ma- chinery and equipment. Chemicals and pharmaceuticals account for another $43 million. Iron and steer products shipped this year are valued at $72 million, while motor vehicles and parts are listed at $18 million. [From the Minneapolis Tribune, May 14, 1966] INFLATION COULD WIPE OUT ALL GAINS IN VIETNAM .(By Charles W, Bailey, Minneapolis Tribune staff correspondent WASHINGTON, D.C.-Behind the furore over black marketeering, currency manipulation and diversion of United States financed aid in Viet Nam lies one central concern: The fear that rampant inflation could wipe out every bit of dearly-bought economic and political progress in that shaky nation. Inflation 1s traditionally a problem for developing nations, where each economic ad- vance may trigger a rise in demand that out- strips the capacity to meet it. It is doubly troublesome In Viet Nam because of the huge impact of American military and war-con- nected spending there. The piastre, South Viet Nam's currency unit, has so weakened in recent months that it is now valued on 'the free market in Sai- gon at more than 180 to the dollar-com- pared to official exchange rates ranging down to 60 to the dollar for some American- financed official transactions. The big United States build-up has made an already bad situation worse. American contractors pay wages to construction work- ers well above local scales. American mili- tary personnel, diplomats, correspondents and others bid up the scale of rents in Saigon. Hundreds of thousands of dollars in United States military pay is dumped each month into the economy, sending consumer goods prices sky-high for already hard-pressed Vietnamese. Not all the inflation can be traced to United States spending. The build-up of Vietnamese armed forces required bigger gov- ernment outlays-without comparable reve- nue increases. Transportation and communications were out back by the war, thus hindering produc- tion at the very time when more was needed. A manpower shortage brought repeated wage increases as employers bid for scarce help. With the piastre thus reeling under the impact of American spending, it is not hard to see why some Vietnamese businessmen find it attractive to manipulate United States aid programs. A merchant who can buy a dollar's worth of silver nitrate for a "pegged" price of 6 piastres, melt it down and sell the resulting silver for upwards of 200 piastres has an automatic profit, even after the shrinkage Involved in processing. And if he chooses to hold onto the silver, he has an inflation-proof asset which can be sold for hard currency at any time- whether in Saigon or in some other country to which he has taken his silver in the form of spoons or bullion. The political effects of inflation can also be disastrous. Saigon's middle class popu- lation-the civil servants, teachers and pro- fessionals who must be counted on to play No. 95-6 a major role In any real national govern- ment-is progressively impoverished by In- flation. Their fixed salaries are worth less each month. They must not only compete for decent living space with the Americans but must pay more and more for it as prices go up. The cost of food, clothing, fuel, trans- portation-of everything-goes up. The best simple measure of the impact of inflation is one statistic:'In 1965, after some years of relative stability, consumer prices rose about 40 per cent in one year. And in some remote areas and refugee-crowded cen- ters, prices doubled during the year. Fighting this inflation has a high priority in the Johnson administration's over-all eco- nomic aid program for Viet Nam. The United States is financing $370 million worth of commodity imports this year and will pay for another $420 million worth in the coming fiscal year. But some officials here believe that even these massive efforts are not enough. "I spent time in China after World War II," one expert said, "and I watched inflation wreck that country's economy. I'm afraid the same thing could happen in Viet Nam, and wash out everything we've done or hope to do." This official, and some others like him, believe the ambitious plans for social and economic development which grew out of the Honolulu conference, while certainly de- sirable, may not be necessary as immediate objectives-at last not imperative in com- parison with the greater need to choke- off inflation. The attempt to produce the "social revo- lution" proclaimed at Hawaii, some officials suggest, is like "trying to attach a garden hose to a fire hydrant" because Saigon's re- sources of time, energy and export manpower are so limited that it cannot fight a war, curb inflation and also carry out the added new tasks. It is certain that the inflation problem is at the heart of many of this week's meet- ings between Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge and his Washington superiors. It is also at the root of the stepped-up effort to control the ultimate use of the millions of dollars worth of U.S. goods being sent to Saigon. [From the Minneapolis Tribune, May 20, 1966] VIETCONG GETS SOME MATERIAL-U.S. BOOSTS GUARD OVER AID Goons (By Charles W. Bailey, Minneapolis Tribune staff correspondent) WASHINGTON, D.C.-The head of the United States foreign aid program conceded Thurs- day that controls over shipments to Viet Nam have been "inadequate" and that some supplies have wound up in the hands of the Communist Viet Cong. David Bell, administrator of the Agency for International Development (AID), said in an interview that the administration has "added greatly" to the number of officials in Saigon charged with overseeing the AID pro- gram and will "more than double" existing watchdog personnel. As a result of newly revealed evidence of major misuse. of United States-financed goods sent to South Viet Nam, an entire new 27- man "special projects team" has been set up in Saigon. Another 25 or more Inspectors and auditors are to be added to this force soon, AID spokesmen said. The stepped-up policing of AID ship- ments-sent to Saigon under a commodity import program now running at a $420 mil- lion annual level-parallels action by the Defense Department, which recently ap- pointed a "czar" to crack down on black marketeering in post exchange goods and currency. The degree of the military crackdown re- mained unclear yesterday despite Defense Department statements that 41 servicemen and 70 civilians have been punished or in- 12145 vestigated for black marketing. - A defense spokesman said that the totals cover an 18-month period, and he said that the civilian cases "remain under investiga- tion" with no punitive action taken so far. Bell's comments in a television interview gave only a partial picture of the step-up in AID policing activity. He said that 18 Americans are working "full-time" to oversee the program in Saigon, and that this number will be more than doubled. Bell thus appeared to be referring only to auditors, who are primarily engaged in fol- lowing through on delivery records to deter- mine what happened to goods sent to Saigon under a program in which the U.S. govern- ment finances imports by changing Viet- namese piastres into U.S. dollars at a pegged rate of 60 to 1, far below the free-market exchange rate of 180 to 1. Actually, the auditors-many of them newly assigned to Saigon-are only part of the check-up team sent there since recent investigations by State Department inspec- tors focused attention on abuses. In addition, the 27-man "special projects team," Including seven experts from the U.S. Bureau of Customs, has been put to work on the problem, and two additional "manage- ment inspectors" with broad investigatory power have been assigned to the Saigon AID mission. AID spokesmen say that another 10 men are to be added to the "special projects" group within two months, while at least 17 more auditors are scheduled to be dispatched to Saigon as soon as they can be recruited. Bell explained the possibility of diversion of United States-financed goods to the Com- munists in this way: "When the goods have been delivered to the businessman to whom they were sup- posed to go open and aboveboard_ then they are available in the markets, in the shops, in the stores in Saigon and other parts of Viet Nam. "Then they may be purchased by someone who is really acting for the Viet Cong and they may be smuggled through the lines, so to speak-as you know, there isn't any front line in Viet Nam-out to the Viet Cong in their jungle bases." Bell conceded that "to some extent" charges that United States-financed concrete was being used by the Viet Cong to build tunnels in its jungle redoubts were true. Cement, he said, could be purchased in Saigon by a Viet Cong agent and smuggled into the jungle. "We haven't adequate data to answer the question of how much of this there is," he said. To counter this diversion, Bell said, a "major police program," including road blocks, control points on waterways and other checkpoints is being developed. [From the Des Moines Register, May 24, 1986] How U.S. AID FOR VIET GOES TO RED TAXES- REVEAL HEAVY Loss or GooDs (By Charles Bailey, of the Register's Washington bureau) WASHINGTON, D.C.-State Department in- vestigators have unooverd substantial losses of U.S. foreign aid goods being shipped to out-lying points in Viet Nam-apparently through outright theft by haulers or in the form of taxes exacted by the Communist Viet Cong. The losses-which include cement, alumi- num sheet roofing and food-ranged from 16 to 42 per cent of shipments leaving cen- tral depots in Saigon, according to spot checks made in seven South Vietnamese provinces. This latest disclosure of trouble in mas- sive American aid to Viet Nam came in an unpublicized report by Secretary of State Dean Rusk to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 Approved For 67B 4 00400080014-5 ' 1966 & Jun 12146 6ep4MMa1~j .' kA ~ 7 g~i`~T The report also cited a number of other examples of problems in Viet Nam which have been brought to light by the depart- ment's inspector general's office. These in- cluded black marketeering, currency manipu.. lation, opium smuggling and questionable administration of a variety of aid programs. CHECKS BY U.S. While previous revelations have pointed up the losseness of controls in programs involv- ing private Vietnamese merchants who re- ceive goods under U.S. aid programs, the de.- tails of intransit losses revealed Monday in- dicate similar problems in direct govern- ment-operated aid efforts as well. . More than a year ago, the inspector gen- eral's office--charged with overseeing all U.S. aid programs-ran checks on commodities being shipped from Saigon to provincial towns under the so-called counter-insur- gency program. Rusk reported to the Senate committee that the probers "developed figures showing apparent significant discrepancies between the amounts of commodities leaving Saigon and the amounts arriving in the provinces." Specific figures, not included In Rusk's report, tell the story more vividly. Investigators checked records to find out how much cement, aluminum sheeting, wheat and vegetable oil were shipped In one year from central warehouses in Saigon to An Xuyen Province, in the .Mekong Delta near the Cambodian border. REVEAL LOSSES They then checked provincial records in An Xuyen to find out how much was de- livered, allowing for truck and barge ship- ments known to have been captured outright by the Communist Viet Cong between the national and provincial capitals. The results of the check showed these figures: Of 9,000 bags of cement shipped and not seized by the Viet Cong outright, only 7,367 bags reached the provincial warehouse-a loss of 1,633 bags, or 18.1 per cent. Of 26,793 gallons of vegetable oil shipped from Saigon, only 15,446 gallons were checked into the provincial warehouse-a loss of 11,347 gallons, or 42.3 per cent, with a value of $24,800. Of 8,020 bags of wheat that left Saigon, only 0,363 reached the An Xuyen warehouse- a loss of 1,657 bags, or 20.7 per cent, with a value of $18,740. Of 7,938 sheets of aluminum roofing ma- terial shipped from Saigon, only 6,843 ar- rived in the province-a loss of 1,445 sheets, or 18.2 per cent. Officials said that similar spot-checks in six other provinces yielded comparable statistics. There are 43 provinces in South Viet Nam, so the total loss through this kind of diversion was obviously substantial. Those familiar with the investigation said Monday that two factors undoubtedly ac- counted for most of the losses between Saigon and the provinces-either outright theft or taxes by the Viet Cong as the price of allow- ing the transporters to proceed in safety. [From the Des Moines Register, May 25, 1966] BID To BUILD VIET BREWERY WITH U.S. An)-BUT OFFICIAL BLOCKED $4-MILLION PLANT (By Charles Bailey, of the Register's Wash- ington bureau) WASHINGTON, D.C.-U.S. officials in Saigon sought to finance the operations of a private Vietnamese brewery with $4 million in American funds under a foreign aid program intended to provide only "essential" goods, official reports revealed Tuesday. The proposed transaction" was stopped by the State Department's inspector general, who refused to allow the use of U.B. dollars for importing malt and hops to be used In making beer. Details of the case, obtained by The Des Moines Register Tuesday, provide new ex- amples of the confusion and lack of con- trols which have plagued U.S. aid efforts in Viet Nam. The malt-hops case also illustrates an- other problem plaguing U.S. foreign aid programs--the difficulty of persuading Amer- ican aid officials to seek ways of utilizing the huge and still-growing amounts of local currencies piled up in various nations as payment for American food shipments. The Vietnamese malt-hops issue arose in 1965 when officials in the U.S. aid mission in Saigon asked Washington for a waiver of rules limiting the outlay of aid funds under the so-called Commodity Import Program (CIP) to "essential" goods. ARTIFICIALLY LOW [Under the CIP, private Vietnamese busi- nessmen receive goods purchased here with government dollars. They pay for the goods with Vietnamese piastres, at an artificially low rate of exchange. [The piastres are then used in Viet Nam on joint U.S.-Vietnamese government proj- ects, so the cost of the goods shipped under CIP is fully borne by U. S..public funds.] The inspector general's office, in the State Department-charged with checking the op- eration of all overseas U.S. assistance pro- grams--questioned the waiver application on several grounds. First, it saw no reason to waive the essen- tial-goods-only rule for a project involving the production of beer. Second, it found the proposal objection- able on the ground that malt and hops were commodities which have to be imported into the U. S. to meet the full needs of brewers here. Thus the transaction would have fur- ther increased net Import requirements in the United States and would thus tend to worsen our balance-of-payments problem. FIVE-MILLION-DOLLAR CREDIT Third, the inspector general pointed out that South Vietnamese officials already had available a $5 million credit from West Ger- many, an exporter of the desired goods, but had not drawn on that credit. Fourth, the inspector general pointed out that the United States owned about $250 million worth of Yugoslavian currency, as a result of Food-for-Peace sales to that na- tion, and that this might be used to pur- chase the malt and hops, since Yugoslavia is an exporter of the commodities. Official sources here said Tuesday that the inspector general sought to persuade aid of- ficials in Washington to explore these alter- nate methods of financing, but that the aid officials refused and continued to press for a waiver that would permit use of U.S. dollars under CIP. But the inspector general again refused the waiver, and this time provided the re- quired written notice to the secretary of state which made the refusal final. The upshot, informed sources said, was that .the Vietnamese financed the malt-hops imports out of their own foreign exchange resources rather than using U.S. aid funds to pay for them. According. to official sources here, the case-despite the action of the inspector general in preventing a $4 million U.S. out- lay to pay for beer production-points up several problems. INDIANA'S SECOND NATIONAL ME- MORIAL-GEORGE ROGERS CLARK AT VINCENNES Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, I would like to call attention to my bill, S. 2886, the George Rogers Clark Memorial bill, upon which the Senate Interior Commit- tee has concluded hearings. June 7 the House unanimously passed H.R. 9599, the companion bill introduced by my own Congressman WINFIELD K. DENTON, Dem- ocrat, Eighth District, Indiana. I ask unanimous consent to include my testimony on S. 2886 in the RECORD. . There being no objection, the state- ment was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: STATEMENT OF SENATOR VANCE HARTKE ON S. 2886, GEORGE ROGERS CLARK MEMORIAL, SENATE INTERIOR COMMITTEE, JUNE 8, 1966 Mr. Chairman, I am very pleased to ap- pear before your Committee. I want to ex- press my appreciation for your willingness to act so swiftly for the creation of Indiana's second National Memorial. We Hoosiers have great pride in our his- torical heritage which Includes the names of George Rogers Clark, William Henry Har- rison and Abraham Lincoln, as well as many others. S. 2886 authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to accept from the State of Indiana the George Rogers Clark Memorial at the historic site on the Wabash River, now the city of Vincennes, and enter into cooperative agreements with the owners of other histor- ical buildings, One of these properties is the two-room frame building which served as the first capitol of the Indiana Territory and as the seat of the territorial court from 1800-1.813 where many decisions on land policy, Indian 'relations and military affairs were deter- mined. Another of the properties is the Francis Xavier Catholic Church. The present build- ing dates from 1824-1834 and is the same tract of ground on which, in 1749 was erected the first rough log cabin church to serve the French and Spanish settlers when Vincennes was the western outpost of our country. At that time, this western outpost was Fort Sackville, a British Fort until 1779 when Lt. Colonel George Rogers Clarke cap- tured and renamed it Fort Patrick Henry. Grouseland, the home of William Henry Harrison, Is the third property which we had hoped to include. It is owned by the Daughters ofthe American Revolution, who, I am- informed, do not wish it to be part of the National Memorial. However, they have assured the House Committee by telegram that the building will remain open to the public and that the D.A.R. will continue to maintain it. I would like for their telegram to become part of this record. I urge that the Committee favorably con- sider S. 2886 so that the area of Vincennes, which is so beautifully depicted by Maurice Thompson's novel, Alice of Old Vincennes, can be elevated as it should be, to national recognition. I appreciate the overwhelming passage by the House of Representatives of the George Rogers Clark Memorial bill, and congratulate my own Congressman, WINFIELD K. DENTON, for his fine work in guiding the measure through the House. I would like to say a few more words about Vincennes, in Knox County, Indiana. The George Rogers Clark Memorial is a domed structure supported by 17 Doric col- umns. It contains a bronze statute of Clark and murals depicting his career and the his- tory of the old Northwest Territory. This Memorial was first dedicated by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1936. It was at Vincennes that the Lincoln fam- ily, with young Abe, crossed over the Wa- bash River Into Illinois. Vincennes is the point at which the proposed Lincoln Trail National Parkway crosses into Illinois toward Springfield. This proposed National Park- way originates at the Lincoln birthplace in Hodgenville, Kentucky, and passes through the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial in Spencer County, Indiana. I mention the Lincoln Trail National Parkway for I am cer- tain the Interior Department, as well as Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 t-1 A onoc7DAAA AcDAAAAnnnonn1 A e ~-~ v ~,~p.N vv iTrl l ULNA? and Russia have learned after 20 years of cold Having gone through a 20-year cold war war that their conflicts must be reconciled- this preaches are at a d one of America's elder column cnnsulted one of America's elder premium. Accordingly, and arms race with the Soviet Union at great that in the nuclear age neither can under- tatesmen., fins, cost and danger, must the United States now take an ideological war against the other. It was he who fath ncier ered world War II sedefini- face an equally irrational cold war and arms Only the Viet Nam issue stands in the way of tive plan of Industrial mobilization; who col- race with Communist China? Secretaries a steady improvement in relations that laborated with the late great James Forestal Rusk and McNamara sounded as if they Russia, in effect, end the cold war with in modernizing our defense apparatus; and thought so when, in Paris recently, they un- who chaired the Hoover commission task dertook to scare the NATO powers with vi- Can we not apply these lessons of the past force on national security. sions of a (some day) nuclear-armed China to our future with China? Must we go Eberstadt began by reading from this early embarked on a course of world conquest. through another period of ideological con- cold war report: "Victory by bankruptcy may The fright treatment will not work, we flict in which vast portions of our national be the Machiavellian aim of the Kremlin. think, in Europe. The important question energies are devoted to military power at the Whether or not any such deliberate cam- is whether it will work in the United States. expense of our social and cultural develop- paign can be attributed to Moscow, it is ab- Sober reflection on the history of the cold ment? war to date ought to convince Americans We must now possess, many times over, the in the solutely imm mediate that ate future the United sudden States rl faces - that it would be greatly to our advantage if military power necessary to defend ourselves tion t a continuation recur- 'We avoided making with China the same mis- and to deter overt aggression anywhere. It rof ses. If but a o, the c of we made with Russia. would be a national tragedy If, nevertheless, of tomorrow rent mites. If this be so, the fiscal dangers dangers There is little doubt that the cold war had omorrow are clearly visible." we embarked on a new nuclear arms race and JANEWAY. Has the crisis in Viet Nam sn- its origins in the long effort of the United a series of peripheral wars designed to "con- volved us In an exercise in fiscal brinkman- States and other powers, beginning in 1918- tain" Chinese Communism by military encir- ship? 19, to throttle or isolate Soviet Russia. clement. Ideas cannot be so contained. EBERSTADT. Definitel At the end of World War I the United Revolutions cannot be permanently sup- to get ahead of us. Whend its use money you States, Britain, France and Poland sent pressed with guns. Not all revolutions are for productive purposes, you don't get in.- troops into Russia on a mission that could against our national interest. We cannot flation. You get inflation when you use only be interpreted, inside Russia, as an at- Impose our will everywhere, and we defeat money unproductively-as in war. Then ,tempt to overthrow the Communist revolu- our purposes by trying. The way to meet everybody's costs go up and real earnings and tion. When armed Intervention failed, the Communist boasts of coming world revolu- savings go down. United States for 16 years refused to recog- tiois not to believe them, but to help free JANEWAY. Can emergency taxes and con- nize Red Russia, treating the new regime as peoples create the conditions that make trols hold the line? an outcast from the world community and Communist impossible. declining to enter into meaningful diplo- Just as we have learned at great cost and CAN TAXES HELP? matic or economic relations with It. (Inter- hazard to live at peace with Russia, we shall EBERSTADT. Not for long. But when once esting note: For just 16 years now we have some day have to make up our minds to ac- a society puts a stop to unproductive ex- been, declining to recognize Communist cept Red China's existence, to respect her le- penditures, the inflationary fever cures itself. China, treating that government as an out- gitimate Interests, to meet her challenge by JANEWAY. Will the fiscal score be toted up cast from the world community and declin- other means than military containment. It by the way we play the game in Viet Nam? ing to enter into meaningful diplomatic or would be the part of wisdom to make this EBERSTADT. I'm just a stuffed shirt Wall economic relations with it.) decision before, rather than after, another street Republican, and L. B. J. is a master The Russians, of course, never forgot the 20 years of cold war and arms race. Mankind politician from Main street. But I hate to Western World's hostility to their revolu- may not get a second chance to avoi nuclear see him try to climb up the side of a fog tion. They were further embittered when suicide. bank. That's what we've been doing out the West at Munich sacrificed Czechoslo- DECEMBER 19, 1965. there-and with no social structure to grasp vakia to Hitler, in the hope of directing Nazi onto. The way things are now, if we should aggression against Russia to save itself Hit- i . w n, we lose as white imperialists; while if ler wound up fighting both the West and FISCAL BRINKSMANSHIP we are beaten, we are just plain punks. Russia, and their wartime alliance gave birth VIETNAM JANEWAY. How do we work our way out of to hopes of a new era of cooperation. this bind? It was not to be. Almost overnight, Presi- Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, s the . EBERSTADT. To make the other fellow sit dent Truman reversed the Roosevelt policy war in Vietnam grows in Scope and com- down and talk, you must show him that he and set out to "contain" Communism by in- plexity, and as more and more of our has something to lose if he doesn't. Now, terposing American Influence and military national treasure Is spent every day to the enemy has nothing to lose. We have p the ower in Eastern Europe, the Balkans and maintain our position in that troubled committed ourselves not to threaten the big now with the Middle Eon wash that, Russia was bins, country, we find ourselves calling upcn negotiate ? Our policy is exhausting our own the on world conquest. What Russia was bent elder statesmen of our Nation for resources. The other side has made pretty on, it has become clear, was protecting her their views on the U.S. involvement in good progress with its plan or we wouldn't borders while she rapidly developed her own Vietnam. be talking about inflation today. society. In general, Russia succeeded. And None of these is more able or proven WHAT'S OUR STICK? it Is now also clear that the strongest bar- than Ferdinand Eberstadt. A man who JANEWAY. Before you can get a mule to do rier to Russian national expansion is the served his country well during the dark what you say, you must first catch his at- national identity of neighboring states days of World War II and the postwar tention with a stick. What's our stick? which, even under Communist governments, period, Mr. Eberstadt was recently asked EBERSTADT. resist absorption and seek James M. Gavin' We have two. The fies is Gen. peaceful rela- his Opinion Of the American Position in James M. s enclave idea. Wed dig in to tiDns with both East and West. One frequently hears that the United Vietnam by the New York economist and our readily defensible positions on the main- States is doing in Viet Nam what it did in columnist, Eliot Janeway. land: let the present political fuss settle Greece under the Truman Doctrine-build- Mr. Eberstadt's comments are frank down; and sit in what the late Secretary ing a barrier of armed power against a Com- and to the point, and offer two alter- John Foster rDulles engt Enclaves situation of used to speak of as "a would munist tide rolling on toward world con- native courses of action the United States us from the charge of being white imperialfree - quest; and it Is assumed that our stand in can takg in Vietnam. I think his views ists. We could use waiting time, as Senator Greece triumphed. The truth is we might are well worth the consideration of the RICHARD RUSSELL (D., Ga.) says, to make an be engaged there yet had not Tito closed the Senate. Therefore, I ask unanimous agonizing reappraisal of the difference be- Communist supply route after falling out with Stalin. In other words, what saved consent that Mr. Janeway's interview of tween "face" and our own national interest. Greece was not primarily our military and Ferdinand Eberstadt may be printed in The basic objective of our national interest is economic power but the indigenous nation- the RECORD. the security of our people-not a world-wide allsm of Communist Yugoslavia. There being no objection, the article lieverae for democracy in behalf of nonbe- The one great lesson of the cold war with was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, JANEWAY. YOU suggested another stick. Russia Is that, national interests, and not as follows: Communist ideology, are controlling on both EBERSTADT. It's riskier t the enclave Sides. The ;Russians, like the Chinese, have [From the Chicago (Ill.) Tribune, Apr. 21, idea, but less risky than what what we're doing talked a.lot about their revolution some day 19661 now and it's waiting for us in Formosa. embracing the world, but at the critical POINT OF VIEW-JANEWAY EXAMINES Two Chiang Kai-shek is certainly no worse than points they have invariably acted in behalf STICKS To TRY IN VIETNAM those fellows we have on our hands in Viet of Russian interests rather than of Marxist (By Eliot Janeway) Nam. Ever since he lost China, we have been fight- dogma. NEW YORK, April 21.-Clearly, American giving eq ipment.beWe have offered to arm oth- National interests can be accommodated, opinion can't remake the map of Asia in its er allies who shun us. We have already when the will to reconcile them exists on own Image. Recent Washington dogma armed this satelite, Members of Congress both sides. By and large, the United States about Asia is at a discount. Pragmatic ap- of both parties and all points of view June 9,' 1966 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 Approved F r ~~eellee 0 R 46R000400080014-5 12151 June 9, 1966 COQNGX%X1 There being no objection, the editorials which knows that it has no right and no based upon the concept of a militarily neu- were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, power to decide for the people of Cuba, Viet tral Southeast Asia allied to neither the Nam or central Africa what form of revolu- Communists nor the West. But at other as follows: tion they should have. We can behave like a times he seems to be pursuing a quite differ- [From the St. Louis (Mo.) Post-Dispatch, nation which is prepared to accept change, ent objective-the unilateral establishment May 9, 19661 even in forms unpalatable to it, and is ready of a puppet state of South Viet Nam under THE CONTAINMENT or IDEAS to work with peoples of any political faith American military protection if not outright for a peaceful world of diversity. occupation. (NOTE were The tby toe leading ory Boars on this It is often said that we must hang on in The nature of the long-term American Page zerre crze t Columbia Board on the Viet Nam, even to the point of an escalated objective in Viet Nam thus is the key to awwaardds Prizes, Pize for University, in war, because the effects of defeat there would peace or war. If It is to set up a neutral aring the Pulitzer er Prize distinguished be so damaging elsewhere in Asia. and Africa. buffer zone in Southeast Asia-which in our editorial writing in 1965 to Robert Lasch, Unfortunately it is true that if we got opinion would best serve the national in- Dispatch of the Editorial Page of the Post- thrown out of Viet Nam, millions of people terest, improve our relations with the ex- .) would be delighted. That is one reason why colonial world, comply with international Coming events in South Viet Nam promise our Government would be wise to encourage agreements and offer the best barrier to for many Americans a profound psychological a political settlement through negotiation Chinese national expansion-then a peace- shock, which a foresighted Administration before we are thrown out--unless it is al- ful solution should be possible. If the ob- would be preparing to offset. When the day read too late. Whatever happens in Saigon, jective is, instead, to maintain a military comes for American forces to leave Viet Nam however, the American cause will not be dam- base on the mainland of Southeast Asia, to after 10 years of vain effort to build an anti- aged thereby half so much as it is already set up a forward position intended to con- Communist bastion there, not only will our being damaged by the growing conviction tain China not through the forces of in- national pride be hurt, but some basic as- that our power and influence are dedicated digenous nationalism but by our own mill- sumptions of our postwar foreign policy will to the suppression of social revolution and tary power, then we are not likely to gain be called into question. As fresh thinking is political change wherever they occur. our ends by negotiation. always more painful than mouthing shibbo- We shall improve our position with the The attempt to gain them by force, fur- leths, this is going to cause a certain degree developing nations and the world at large not thermore, means a commitment to years of of anguish. by proving that we can wage endless war in armed struggle, with the outcome in doubt Unpleasant as it may be, the time for re- Viet Nam, but by showing, through actual even if a major war with China or Russia is appraisal has come, and thoughtful Ameri- conduct, that the CIA is not enfranchised to avoided. It means acceptance of a neo- eans should resolve to be realistic about it. swagger around the world setting up govern- colonial status that will damage the Ameri- The first step is to cast off the. illusion of ments and knocking them down; that we do can cause everywhere in the underdeveloped Omnipotence, under the spell of which many not undertake to dictate the form and pace world. It means continued violation of the of us have for years assumed that our mis- of political change anywhere; that we are United Nations Charter, the continued sub- slon in the world is to contain, roll back, prepared to accept revolutions even when we stitution of our own national will for the destroy or otherwise combat Communism. do not approve of them; and that we have rule of law. After World War II, the Soviet Union enough faith in the ideas of freedom to en- president Johnson owes it to the country sought to expand Its national power wherever trust to them, rather than to arms, the task to ponder very deeply before sliding further :possible. The United States, as the leader of of containing the ideas of Communism. into this morass. The assumption that the free world, was thoroughly justified in un- JANUARY 17. 1965. nothing can be done except what has been dertaking to contain that thrust, and it was ?- done is nonsense. Once the basic decision contained. Only where the Red Army stood A QUESTION or AIMS rN VIET NAM were made that a policy of deepening mili- on land taken from the Nazis-which is to it is now four months since President tary commitment does not serve our best may, only in Eastern Europe-were the Rue- Johnson announced to the country a great interests then a dozen ways of advancing scans able to impose their national will on buildup of ground troops in Viet Nam. the President's stated desire for a peaceful other peoples; and the passage of time has Major engagements have been fought, vast solution would open up. Indicated that even there, subjugation is tonnages of bombs dropped, thousands of To mention only one way, the United Na- most likely temporary. National identities enemy casualties reported, yet, we are told tions could unquestionably play an active have survived and are persistently asserting the Viet Cong and North Viet Namese are role in advancing a peaceful solution if the themselves. There could be no better evi- more numerous than ever. Inevitably, pres- United States objective were one which other dence that the Communists are not going to sure is mounting for even more American nations could support in compliance with rule the world, and neither are we. Aspira- troops and even more bombs; the military their treaty obligations. The President has tions for independence, self-respect and self- and its claque are straining at the leash to called on members of the: UN and the Sec- government are too universal and too power- attack Hanoi itself. retary General to help arrange peace. but ful to be' subdued by any ideology. Before yet one more fatal step is taken, a he has never done what the Charter plainly In the meantime, however, American policy review of the national objectives would be obligates him to do-permit the whole issue increasingly has tended to confuse the con- In order. In July the President defined the to come before the Security Council. It he tainment of Russian (and later Chinese) na.- military objective as a limited one: "to con- is willing to talk peace "with any govern- tional power with the containment of Com- vince the Communists that we cannot be ment any place," why not with the members munism. We undertook to apply the meth- defeated by force of arms." How long does of the Security Council at UN headquarters? ods appropriate to a national power struggle-- it take to establish that postulate? We The Charter says: "All members shall re- the methods' of diplomatic maneuver, armed would say that if it has not been established frain in their international relations from confrontation and in some cases war itself- by now then another stage of escalation will the threat or use'of force." It says "The Se- in a realm where they are totally ineffective. not do it. The Viet Cong's monsoon offensive curity Council shall determine the existence Communism as an idea cannot be contained has been stopped and some limited gains re- of any threat to the peace, breach of the by such methods, but only by a better idea. ported from Saigon. A further expansion of peace, or act of aggression, and shall make It is not the American function to combat the war can be jilstifled only by abandoning recommendations or shall decide what meas- revolution everywhere-to stand as the uni- the stated objective and adopting another. ures shall be taken ... to maintain or re- versal, all.-embracing guardian of the status If that is going to be done, the President has store international peace and security." It quo. This is an odd role, by the way, to be a solemn duty to tell the people why. says "No enforcement action shall be taken thrust upon' a nation that was itself born of In July the President declared our second under regional arrangements or by regional revolution less than two centures ago. More objective to be a peaceful solution of the agencies without the authorization of the important, it is a role that lies beyond the conflict; we stood ready, he said, "to begin Security Council." capabilities of any nation. Change is the law unconditional discussions with any govern- When Britain and France undertook armed of life. Social change will sometimes take ment at any place at any time." But as our intervention in the Arab-Israeli conflict, the revolutionary forms in some countries, no military position has strengthened, the out- United States insisted that they give way to matter what the United States or any other lines of the settlement we would be willing the UN. President Eisenhower stated: "The nation thinks about it. A wise foreign policy to accept have hardened to the point where United Nations is alone charged with the begins with recognition of this fact. there is little visible incentive for the ad- responsibility of securing the peace: " When American foreign policy is in deep trouble versary to negotiate. Washington policy India and Pakistan went to war over Kash- because Africa, in Asia, in Latin America precisely makers now insist that a settlement must midi President Johnson insisted upon inter- because we have let ourselves be pushed into bar any political status or territorial base for vention by the UN. How can there be one a counter-revolutionary posture. Wherever the National Liberation Front, which means rule for other nations, and a different one oppressed masses struggle toward a better simply that the Viet Cong must accept total for the United States? life millions of persons look upon the United defeat and melt away. Viet Nam. If States as their natural enemy, which means Under these conditions it is surely no The question aims with in he Nam. that they inevitably look elsewhere for mystery that the Communists show little our ter and aims the were a 1954 in is in hourarmo admanny with the UN could friends, present disposition to "come to- the table." Ours is not a revolutionary society, and President Johnson in July spoke vaguely act, and its first act undoubtedly would be we should not try to behave as if it were. of a settlement carrying out the purposes of to call for a cease-fire. But we can behave like a mature nation the 1954 Geneva agreements, which were NOVEMBER 26, 1965. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5' AIMMAL1RE(MRDPR000400080014-5 June 9'_'966 Approved F ' have been voting billions for Formosa: Let's find out if this is a satellite we can't use, or who won't play. It is easier to cut Formosa out of the budget than money for the youngsters' hot school lunches or for hospitals. If there is any disaffection on the mainland, one way to find out might be to bring a study group from the Formosa war staff over to Saigon to ",study the situation." That's all the blue- print they will need in Hanoi, Peking, and Moscow to show them we mean business about making the most of what we have to fight with. native people had followed the progress of the Peace Corps closely and when a similar organization was proposed to serve with the country, they were among the first to endorse it. From time to time I have received let- ters from volunteers in various Alaska villages. I have been impressed with all of them for each demonstrated a concern for and an understanding of the needs and aspirations of the native people. Miss Judy Anderson and Miss Chattye Cornelius were assigned to the village of Kwigillingok, located on the barren THE LESSON OF THE MEREDITH tundra of the delta formed between the Their R Mr. NELSON. Mr. President, the Mis- sissippi shooting of James Meredith showed the need for stronger Federal legislation to protect people exercising their constitutional rights. I have been advocating such legisla- tion since April 1, 1964 when I intro- duced a bill to make it a Federal offense to murder a person. exercising his civil rights. Since then a number of similar bills have been introduced. I am a cospon- sor of a bill by Senator DOUGLAS which would broaden Federal offenses in the area of civil rights. Under this bill, for .instance, the killer of a civil rights work- er could be charged in Federal court with the crime of murder, rather than merely with depriving someone of his constitutional rights. I am also cosponsoring the adminis- tration's omnibus civil rights bill, one ,section of which would make racial vio- lence an explicit Federal crime. All the rights granted Americans by the U.S. Constitution, and all the Su- preme Court decisions carefully defin- ing and protecting these rights, can be nullified by would-be assassins such as the one who gunned down James Mere- dith. This kind of terror nullifies the rights of every American citizen. The U.S. Congress cannot allow this to continue. The fundamental American rights granted by the Constitution must be backed up by Federal law. There have been a great number of tragedies over the years to demonstrate the need for Federal legislation protecting those who merely seek to exercise their American rights. The Meredith case is the latest example. I hope it shocks the Amer- ican public and the Congress sufficiently to enable us to pass this long overdue legislation. VISTA VOLUNTEERS Mr. BARTLETT. Mr. President, I should like to share with my colleagues a letter a member of my staff received from two VISTA volunteers serving in the small, remote Eskimo village of Kwigil- lingok, Alaska. VISTA volunteers in Alaska are called upon to perform their duties under cir- cumstances few of them could have vis- ualized before their service began. They are performing them well. Indeed, their fame preceded them for before the pro- gram was enacted, the native people of Alaska had requested volunteers. Alaska ? No. 95--7 ivers. Kuskokwim and Yukon description of what life offers them in the village should be encouraging to all of us for it demonstrates that VISTA has chosen its volunteers wisely and that we were right in enacting the program. I ask unanimous consent that the let- ter be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the letter was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: MAY 15, 1966. DEAR Miss NORDALE: Well, here it is Sunday night in Kwigillingok. We're sitting here In our "living room" writing by candlelight, eat- ing Swedish coffee bread sent from home and drinking coffee. This weekend's been a good one, we've gotten a lot accomplished and it's just now that we've gotten a chance to sit down and write a few letters. We thank you very much for having re- plied to our letter as quickly as you did. You can be assured that we are encouraging our people to continue their planning on the proposed move. The people know that Sen- ator BARTLETT will do his best for them and your letter fortified their convictions. As for life in the village spring has cer- tainly brought Kwig out of its winter's hiber- nation. We can see every day the men com- ing back from the ocean with their sleds loaded with seal and walrus. The women then are busy preparing the seal, stretching and drying the skin which is to be sold or sewn and then blown up to be used as con- tainers for seal oil (which are eventually put in the ground to be stored for winter's use). Aside from our normal work in the village we have our interesting side-lines too: one of our neighbors is going to show us, on Tuesday afternoon, how to use the "ooloo" to skin seal-if, in return, we'll show her how to make the cheese souffle she saw us making the other day!! (You should have seen her face when it came out of the oven-you should have seen ours too-didn't think it would turn out too well as it was our first!) As for our work day in the village our schedule has been lengthened as the daylight now lasts until 10 p.m., soon to last even longer. Our nursery school, 9-11, five morn- ings a week is doing fine, now Including three-year-olds as well as the four- and five- year-olds. Eskimo children are certainly not much different from children in the "Lower 48"-there are devils and angels everywhere! In the afternoon our house is flooded with little kids, some days there being game hours and others being reading time or story hour. Our Brownies and Jr. Scouts are doing fine and are now all excited about their past rummage sale (held last Saturday). We gave them a few hints about pricing but they did the majority of the work-and were very proud to report that they had earned $104.761 (We feel like proud mother hens!) (And we were very pleased to find a native girl who has now taken over leadership of the Jr. Scouts.) The girls are now getting ex- cited about the forthcoming July Fourth 12153 celebration. Kwigs first parade and Memor- ial Service to the men in Vietnam. So, this summer certainly holds a lot in store for us including egg hunting, berry picking and our town council president Is even loaning us his kayak so we can practice paddling on the lake! Don't know whether we told you or not but we had a red fox as a pet til it got away-but now have another pet-this time caught by a villager at the ocean: a pet baby seal! Thought we'd be able to cuddle it but it snaps like a dog and won't let us within five feet of it! So, we now have a "guest" on our porch! Well, Miss Nordale, we're running out of space and the candles are flickering so as we have a busy day tomorrow (nursery school, Brownies tutoring) we had better sign off now. Our regards to Senator BARTLETT. Love, JUDY and CHATTYE. CONCLUSION OF MORNING BUSINESS The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there further. morning business? If not, morn- ing business is closed. TO PERMIT THE PLANTING OF AL- TERNATE CROPS-CONFERENCE REPORT Mr. PASTORE. Mr. President, I move that the Senate proceed to the consider- ation of the conference report on H.R. 15151. , The PRESIDING OFFICER. The clerk will report the conference report for the information of the Senate. The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. Report of the committee of conference on the disagree- ing votes of the two Houses on the amending of the Senate to the bill (H,R. 15151) to permit the planting of alter- nate crops and acreage which is un- planted because of a natural disaster. Mr. MANSFIELD. - Mr. President, I ask for the yeas and nays. The yeas and nays were ordered. TEMPORARY SUSPENSION OF DUTY ON CERTAIN FORMS OF COPPER Mr. PASTORE. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Senate pro- ceed to the consideration of Calendar No. 1186, House bill 12676. I understand that this bill has been cleared by the leadership on both sides of the aisle. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The bill will be stated by title for the information of the Senate. The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. A bill (H.R. 12676) to amend the tariff schedules of the United States to provide that certain forms of copper be admitted free of duty. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there objection to the present consideration of the bill? There being no objection, the bill was considered, ordered to a third reading, read the third time, and passed. Mr. PASTORE. Mr, President, I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD an excerpt from the report (No. 1220), explaining the purposes of the bill. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 :, CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 12154 Approved For RCJ9M1fP9NeR . fK1~7B ffl#0400080014-5 There being no objection, the excerpt on copper futures from 10 percent to about TO PERMIT THE PLANTING OPAL- was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, 70 percent in an effort to curb speculation; TERNATE CROPS-CONFERENCE as follows' (4) authorized an aditional 200,000 tons of PURPOSE copper to be released from the national REPORT H.R. 12676 suspends temporarily, for the stockpile during 1966; (5) is attempting to The Senate resumed the consideration expand domestic output through subsidy of the report of the committee of con- period February 9, 1966, to June 30, 1968, the payments; and (6) has entered into agree- duties applicable to unwrought copper (ex- ments with the governments of copper-pro- ference the disagreeing votes of the cept nickel silver), copper waste, and scrap, ducing nations to hold a United Nations con- two Houses on the amending of the Sen- and copper articles imported to be used in ference In an effort to stabilize production ate to the bill (H.R. 15151) to permit the remanufacture by melting. The bill would and prices. These actions are part of a four- planting of alternate crops On acreage also suspend for the same period the duties step program announced November 17, 1965, which is unplanted because of a natural applicable to the copper content of certain to maximize the supply of copper in the disaster. pper-bearing ores and materials. The du- United States to provide for stabilization of Mr. SYMINGTON. Mr. President, ties that would be suspended by the bill the domestic market, and to maintain a frequently during the extended consid- would In each case amount to 1.7 cents per noninflatonary price level for copper. The eration given on the floor of the Senate pound of pure copper which may be com- copper program, as well as an arrangement mercially obtained from the Imported arti- with Chile to insure that the quantity of to H.R. 15151, a bill primarily designed cle, except that in the case of nickel silver copper it previously exported to this coun- to give emergency assistance to cotton waste and scrap the rate is 1.7 cents per try will continue to be available to U.S. con- producers who have been suffering from pound of the commercially recoverable cop.- sumers at the lower U.S. price, Is described in natural disaster this spring, there has per content plus 10 percent ad valorem. a letter adressed to the chairman of the been complaint that this bill has not re- GENERAL STATEMENT Committee on Ways Means by the Under ceived adequate consideration. Actual- Copper is a metal that is of vital impor?- Secretary of State. This letter appears in the ly, it has received a great deal of consid- tance to the Nation's defense and nonde- appendix of this report. eration since its introduction and that of fense needs. It is used in the electrical in.. H,R. 12676 would lower the cost of im- dustry in the manufacture of generators, ported copper to U.S. consumers by the other similar measures both in the House motors, locomotives, telephone and telegraph amount of the U.S. import duty and to that and the Senate some 3 weeks ago. equipment, light and power transmission extent would help prevent a rise in the U.S. Because of the almost unprecedented lines, and numerous other items. It is con- price of copper during the present shortage. heavy rainfall in the cotton counties of sumed by the copper-base alloy industry in However, so long as the world price for cop- Missouri and other cotton producing the manufacture of products used in build- per is .far higher than the U.S. price (as it areas of the Mississippi Valley-Ar- lugflc1nuconand pin the rincipally manufacture plumbing and is today), a little foreign g copper 1.7-cent duty will kansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, g materials, pper to the U.S. mar- Louisiana and Texas-on May 19 I joined automobiles and trucks, in shipbuilding, in ket. On the other hand if the price differ- the production of ammunition, and for a ential narrows the duty suspension provided with a number of other Senators in co- wide variety of other purposes. by this bill could make a significant contri- sponsoring S. 3382 to permit planting of In 1965 the United States consumed about bution to our efforts to assure adequate soybeans in lieu of cotton on cotton acre- 2 million tons of refined copper, about 90 copper supplies at reasonable prices. age not planted because of this- natural percent of which was domestically produced. As stated above, H.R. 12676 provides for a disaster, without loss of cotton equaliza- The balance of approximately 200,000 tons temporary suspension of duty on copper raw tion payments or diversion payments for was imported. Chile supplied about 100,000 materials and copper scrap, for the period participating farmers. tons of such Imports, while approximately February 9, 1966, to June 30, 1968, both dates On the preceding day, May 18, several 40,000 tons came from Canada and 60,000 inclusive. Your committee notes that simi- tons from Peru. Despite substantial incre- lar legislation has been favorably reported similar bills, including H.R. 15151, had ments in recent years in the domestic pro- by your committee and enacted by the Con- been introduced in the House by Mem- duction of copper, such output has not been gress for periods in the past when the avail- bers of that body from these affected sufficient to satisfy increased domestic con- able supply of copper was insufficient to meet areas. sumption requirements, demand and pressure on prices existed. The There was some discussion yesterday In midautumn of last year, it became in- periods covered by such prior enactments are that this bill had not gone to the House Creasingly apparent that world demand for as follows: April 30, 1947, to the close of committee. That was not correct. Ac- copper exceeded world supply. The short March 31, 1949 (Public Law 80-42, approved tually the bill was considered 111 two supply has been reflected in pressure on cop- April 29, 1947) ; April 1, 1949, to the close of per prices both at home and abroad. The U.S. June 30, 1950 (Public Law 81-33, approved separate meetings. producers' price for refined copper, which March 31, 1949); April 1, 1951, to the close On Friday morning, May 20, members until March 1964 had remained constant at of June 30, 1958 (Public Law 82-38, approved of the House Agriculture Committee met 31 cents a pound for about 3 years, experi- May 22, 1951, as extended by Public Law 83- for a hearing on this bill and on Tuesday enced three increases in the space of little 4, approved February 14, 1953; Public Law morning, May 24, that committee met more than 1 year, going from 31 to 32 in 83-452, approved June 30, 1954; and Public again, acted on the bill introduced by 34 cents and then to 36 cents per pound in Law 84-91, approved June 21, 1955) . - the Honorable PAUL C. JONES of Missouri. May 1965. After consultations and confer- The suspensions of duty provided under ences with representatives of the Federal H.R. 12676, as reported by your committee, At this meeting on May 24, the coln- Government, domestic producers have en- would be inapplicable during any period in mittee agreed unanimously to amend the deavored, on a voluntary basis, to maintain which the price of electrolytic copper in bill so that it would "permit the plant- the 36-cent-per-pound producers price for standard shapes and sizes, delivered Conecti- Ing of alternate crops on acreage which domestic copper in the T.S. market. These cut Valley, is below 24 cents per pound as is unplanted because of a natural disas- producers have continued to maintain this determined pursuant to headnote 5, sub- ter" not only for cotton but also for feed price level to the present time. part 2C, schedule 6, of the Tariff Schedules The prices for copper outside the United of the United States. It would also be In- grains and wheat. States, however, have ranged In recent applicable to copper from Communist coup- The House, recognizing the months from a minimum of 42 cents per tries. accepted the amendment t and passed the the pound to a maximum of about 90 cents per Your committee has received favorable re- bill that same day, Tuesday, May 24, pound. The spot price of copper on the ports on H.R. 12676 from the Departments and sent it to the Senate. London Metal Exchange on May 3 was about of State, Treasury, and Commerce, as well as Also recognizing the emergency, the 70 cents per pound. On April 14, 1966, Chile an Informative report from the U.S. Tariff able and distinguished chairman of the (which sets the price for its copper may be Commission. Your committee recommends Senate Agriculture Committee on Thurs- sold) announced that the price for its copper expeditious enactment of this legislation. day, May 26, requested that the bill re- would be increased, effective July 1, 1966, to 62 cents per pound from 42 cents. Mr. PASTORE. Mr. President, I sug- main at the desk so that it could be The administration has taken several gest the absence of a quorum. taken up immediately. He had con- steps to prevent similar sharp increases in The PRESIDING OFFICER. The sulted with the majority leader and the the price of copper in this country and to clerk will call the roll. minority leader and those interested in safeguard U.S. supplies of copper for U.S. The legislative clerk proceeded to call the bill and there was no objection what- consumers. It (1) released about 200,000 the roll. ever to taking it up. short tons from the national stockpile in Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I Subsequently, however, despite re- November 1965; (2) tightened export con- ask unanimous consent that the order for trols through its export licensing authority quests from a number of Senators inter- on November 24, 1965, December 14, 1965, and the quorum call be rescinded. , ested in immediate consideration, the January 20, 1966; (3) requested the Commod- The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without senior Senator from Delaware [Mr. WIa- ity Exchange to Increase margin requirements objection, it is so ordered. -LIAMS] did voice objection and asked that Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 ,Approved For Ref J 4 LCft88RffB0qf8 0400080014-5 Steed Tuck. White, Idaho Stephens Tunney White, Tex. Stratton Tuten Whitener Stubblefield Udall Whitten Sullivan Ullman Widnall Taylor Vanik Wilson, Bob Teague, Tex. Vivian Wright Tenzer Walker, N. Mex. Wydler Thomas Watkins Yates Thompson, Tex.Watts Young Thomson, Wis. Weltner Younger Todd Whalley Zablocki NAYS-20 Buchanan Edwards, Ala. Quillen Callaway Haley Reuss Cameron Ichord Rhodes, Ariz. Carter Martin, Ala. Van Deerlin Corman O'Neal, Ga. Walker, Miss. Davis, Ga. Passman Watson Dickinson Pool Abbitt Hagan, Ga. O'Hara, Ill. Ashmore Hardy Pelly Baring Harvey, Mich. Powell Bell H?bert Race Blatnik Herlong Rees Bolling Holifleld Rivers, Alaska Bolton Hosmer Rivers, S.C. Brown, Calif. Keogh Rooney, N.Y. Clausen, Kluczynski Scott Don H. Landrum Senner Sikes Colmer Long, La. Sisk Curtis McMillan' Smith, N.Y. Dawson Macdonald Sweeney de la Garza Matsunaga Talcott Dent Miller Thompson, N.J. Denton Mills - Toll Dyal Minish Trimble Edwards, La. Mize Tupper Ellsworth Morris Utt Evins, Tenn. Morrison Waggonner Fino Mosher Williams Flood Moss Willis Flynt Multer Wilson, Fulton, Tenn. Murphy, N.Y. Charles H. Gilligan Murray Wyatt Gubser Nix So the bill was passed. The Clerk announced the following Mr. Keogh with Mr. Talcott. Mr. Rooney of New York with Mr. Pelly. Mr. Holifleld with Mr. Hosmer. Mr. Dent with Mr. Fino. Mr. Lennon with Mr. Ellsworth. Mr. Minish with Mr. Hagan of Georgia. Mr. Miller-with Mr. Utt, Mr. Rivers of Alaska with Mr. Don H. Clausen. Mr. Multer with Mr. Del Clawson. Mr. Evins of Tennessee with Mr. Gubser, Mr. Matsunaga with Mr. Wyatt. Mr. Gilligan with Mr. Mize. Mr. Race with Mr. Harvey of Michigan. Mr. Morris with Mrs. Bolton. Mr. 13ebert with Mr. Mosher. Mr. Morrison with Mr. Tupper. Mr. Long of Louisiana with Mr. Mills. Mr. Murphy of New York with Mr. Mc- Millan. Mr. Macdonald with Mr. Scott. Mr. Sweeney with Mr. Oolmer. Mr. Senner with Mr. Herlong. Mr. Ashmore with Mr. Landrum. Mr. Blatnik with Mr. Dawson. Mr. Brown of California with Mr. Nix. Mr. Denton with Mr. Willis. Mr. O'Hara of Illinois with Mr. Waggonner. Mr. Trimble with Mr. Williams. Mr. Charles H. Wilson with Mr. Thompson of New Jersey. Mr. Toll with Mr. Flynt. Mr. Dyal with Mr. Edwards of Louisiana. Mr. Fulton of Tennessee with M. Baring. Mr, Hardy with Mr. de la Garza. Mr. Rivers of South Carolina with Mr. Abbitt. Mr. Moss with Mr. Powell, Mr. Rees with Mr, Curtis. Mr. Flood with Mr. bell. Mr. Sikes with Mr.-Smith of New York, M. Sisk with Mr. Kluczynski. Mr. CARTER changed his vote from "yea" to "nay." ' The result of the vote was announced as above recorded. A motion to reconsider was laid on the table. GENERAL LEAVE TO EXTEND Mr. POAGE. Mr. Speaker, I ask munities and the people of the United States to observe such day with appropriate cere- monies, and urging our people to offer public and private expressions on such day to the abiding love and gratitude which they bear for their fathers. The SPEAKER pro tempore. Is there objection to th3 request of the gentle- man from New York? There was no objection. unanimous consent that all Members [Mr. RESNICK addressed the House. may have 5 legislative days in which to His remarks will appear hereafter in the extend their remarks on the bill just Appendix.] passed. The SPEAKER pro tempore (Mr. AL- BERT). Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Texas? There was no objection. FURTHER MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE A further message from the Senate by Mr. Arrington, one of its clerks, an- nounced that the Senate had passed without amendment a bill of the House of the following title: H.R. 12676. An act to amend the, Tariff that certain forms of copper be admitted fre of duty. The message also announced that the Senate agrees to the report of the com- mittee of conference on the disagreeing votes of the two Houses on the amend- ments of the Senate to the bill (H.R. 15151) entitled "An act to permit the planting of alternate crops on acreage which is unplanted because of a natural disaster." ADJOURNMENT OVER Mr. BOGGS. Mr. Speaker, I ask unan- imous consent that when the House ad- journs today it adjourn to meet on Mon- day next. The SPEAKER pro tempore. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Louisiana? There was no objection. CALENDAR WEDNESDAY BUSINESS DISPENSED WITH Mr. BOGGS. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that business in order under the Calendar Wednesday rule on Wednesday next may be dispensed with. The SPEAKER pro tempore. is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Louisiana? There was no objection. FATHER'S DAY Mr. RESNICK. Mr.. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent for the immediate consideration of House Resolution 873. The Clerk read the resolution, as fol- lows: H. RES. 873 Resolved, That the third Sunday in June of each year Is hereby designated at "Father's Day The President is authorized and re- quested to issue annually a proclamation calling on the appropriate Government of- ficials to display the flag of the United States on all Government buildings on such day, in- viting the goverments of the States and com- AMENDMENT OFFERED BY MR. RESNICK Mr. RESNICK. Mr. Speaker, I offer an amendment. The Clerk read as follows: Page 1, line 1, strike out "each year" and insert "1966". Page 1, line 3, strike the word "annually". The amendment was agreed to. The resolution was agreed to. A motion to reconsider was laid on the table. (Mr. RESNICK asked and was given IETNAM AND PRESS COVERAGE (Mr. HULL asked and was given per- mission to address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend his remarks, and to include an editorial.) Mr. HULL. Mr. Speaker, under leave to extend my remarks in the RECORD, I include the following editorial which ap- peared recently in the St. Joseph, Mo., News-Press : VIETNAM AFFAIR AND PRESS COVERAGE Every administration in Washington sooner or later shoots at the press for its own short- comings. It was true of Theodore Roosevelt who invented an Ananias Club to which he consigned reporters who printed the truth, news not colored as T.R. wanted it. It was true of Herbert Hoover who shied away from all publicity after his gorgeous honeymoon wrecked confidence in his administration over the world depression. It was most surely true of Franklin D. Roosevelt, perhaps most of all. (Remember his satirical gesture awarding an Iron Cross to a White House cor- respondent who dared print the truth?). And so it is with the Lyndon B. Johnson administration. The President himself stays in the background but very recently a White House secretary spoke of "inexperienced re- porters" and "headline type of coverage" as to Viet Nam. 'Another aide spoke of "dis- torted reports from Viet Nam." Fortunately, we the press of America, have a top newspaper man who knows news. He happens to be Wes Gallagher, general man- ager of the Associated Press. He is a man who has come up through the ranks, having been with that famed, and leading news- gathering organization since 1937. Wes is sick and tired of the sniping from the Palace Guard of the President. He defies AP and all news gathering detractors in words that are worthy to be read by the general public. "The fact is" says Wes Gallagher, "the press always has been attacked in wartime because its reports frequently clash with government views and with the image government would like to present. And reporters too must bring unpleasant, confusing and discourag- ing reports to the public which reacts, as all people do, with irritation." Mr. Gallagher correctly states that criti- cism of the press by the government rises in direct proportion to the amount of ad- verse news printed which may not be in line with government policy. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 Tune 9, 1966 Approved Fo ORNC~RspSSISNA7L1 W6 f6R000400080014-5 C7 1289 Fuqua Mailliard Sahneebell [Roll No. 135]' Goodell Marsh Schweiker Abbitt Hagan, Ga. O'Hara, Ill. YEAS-333 Gross Martin, Ala. Secrest Ashmore Hardy Pelly Grover Martin, Mass. Belden Powell Mich Barin Harvey Abernethy Farnum McFall Gurney Martin, Nebr. Shrives . , g Blatnik Hebert Purcell Adair Fascell McGrath Haley May Sikes Boning Herlong Race Adams Addabbo Feighan McVicker Findley MacGregor Hall Halleck Michel Minehall Skubitz with, Calif. Bolton Holifleld Rees Alaska Calif Hosmer Rivers Brown Albert Fisher Machen Halpern Moore mith, N.Y. , , S.C. Keogh Rivers Clausen Anderson, Ill. Fogarty Mackay Hansen, Idaho Morton Smith, Va. , , N.Y. Landrum Rooney Don H Anderson, Foley Mackie Harsha Natcher Springer , . Clawson, Del Lennon Scott Tenn. Andrews Ford Gerald R. Madden A Mahon Ford Harvey, Ind. Horton Nelsen O'Konski Stafford Stanton Colmer Long, La. Senner Conyers McMillan Sweeney , Geor e W , William D Mailliard h M t i Hutchinson O'Neal, Ga. Steed Dawson Macdonald Talcott Andrews, ars Foun n a tin Mass M Ichord Passman Stephens de la Garza Matsunaga Thompson, N.J. Glenn ar , . Fraser Martin Nebr F li h Jarman Pirnie Taylor Dent Miller Toll Andrews, , . ng re uysen Pa J hnson Poff Calif. ue Tea i bl N_ Dak. Friedel Mathias . , o Jonas Keith Pool Pucinski , g Teague, Tex. Thomson, Wis. m Tr e Denton Mills Dyal Minish Tupper IA. Mize Utt Edwards Annunzio Arends Fulton, Pa. Matthews Fuqua May Meeds G ll h King, N.Y. Quie Tuck , Ellsworth Morris Waggonner Ashbrook a ag er Kornegay Quillen Vigorito Morrison Williams Evins Tenn Ashley Garmatz Michel Kunkel Redlin Walker, Miss , . Fino Mosher Willis Aspinall Gathings Mink Kupfermar , Reid, Ill Walker, N. Mex. Flood Moss Wilson Ayres Gettys Minshall Laird Reifel Watkins , nt Multer Charles H. Fl Bandstra Giaimo Moeller Langen Latta Reinecke Rhodes, Ariz. Watson Whalley y Fulton, Tenn. Murphy, NY. Wyatt Gilligan Murray Barrett Bates Battin Gibbons Monagan Gilbert Moore Gonzalez Moorhead Lipscomb McClor Robison Fla Ro ers Whitener Whitten Gubser Nix Beckworth Goodell Morgan y McCulloch . , g Rogers, Tex. Widnall So the motion to Belcher Bennett Grabowski Morse Gray Morton McDade McEwen Roudebush Rumsfeld Wilson, Bob Wydler jected. Berry Green, Oreg. Murphy, Ill. MacGregor Satterfield Younger The Clerk announced the following Betts Green, Pa. Natcher Mahon Saylor Bingham Greigg Nedzi pairs : Boggs Grider Nelsen Mr. Keogh with Mr. Talcott. Boland Griffiths O'Brien Adams Gonzalez O'Brien Mr. Rooney of New York with Mr. Pelly. Bow Gross O'Hara. Mich. ' Addabbo Grabowski O'Hara, Mich. Mr. HolifleId with Mr. Hossner. Brademas Konskl Grover O Mont. Gurney Olsen Albert Anderson, Gray Green, Oreg. Olsen, Mont. Olson, Minn. Mr. Dent with Mr. Fino. Mr. Lennon with Mr. Ellsworth. Brock Brooks , Hagen, Calif. Olson, Minn. Hall O'Neill, Mass. Tenn. Green, Pa. O'Neill, Mass. Mr. Minish with Mr. Hagan of Georgia. Broomfield Halleck Ottinger Annunzio Greigg Ottinger P t Mr. Miller with Mr. Utt. Brown, Clar- Halpern Patman Ashley Aspinall Grider Griffiths man a Patten Mr. Rivers of Alaska with Mr. Don H. ence J., Jr. Hamilton Patten Bandstra Calif. Hagen Pepper Clausen. Broyhill, N.C. Hanley Pepper Barrett , Hamilton Perkins Multer with Mr. Del Clawson. Mr Broyhill, Va. Hanna Perkins Beckworth Hanley Philbin . Gubser. Evins of Tennessee with Mr Mr Burke Hansen, Idaho Philbin Bingham Hanna Pickle . . Mr. Matsunaga with Mr. Wyatt. Burleson Burton Calif Hansen, Iowa Pickle Pike Hansen Wash Boggs Hansen, Iowa Pike Mr. Gilligan with Mr. Mize. , . Burton Utah , . Harsha Pirnie Boland Brademas Hansen, Wash. Hathaway Poage Price Mr. Race with Mr. Harvey of Michigan. - , Byrne, Pa. Harvey, Ind. Poage Brooks Hawkins Randall Mr. Morris with Mrs. Bolton. Byrnes, Wis. Hathaway Poff Burke Hays Reid, N.Y. Mr. Hebert with Mr. Mosher. Cabell Hawkins Price Calif Burton Hechler Resnick Morrison with Mr. Tupper. Mr Cahill Hays Pucinski . , Byrne, Pa. Helatoski Reuss . Mr. Long of Louisiana with Mr. Mills. Callan Heohler Purcell i Cabell Henderson Rhodes, Pa. McMil- Murphy of New York with Mr Mr Carey Qu e Helstoski R d ll Callan Hicks Roberts . . Casey an a Henderson Cameron Holland Rodino lan. Cederberg Hicks Redlin Carey Howard Colo. Rogers Mr. Macdonald with Mr. Scott. Celler Holland Reid, Ill. Casey Hull , Ronan Mr. Sweeney with Mr. Colmer. Chamberlain Horton Reid, N.Y. Celler Hungate Roncalio Mr. Senner with Mr. Herlong. Chelf Howard Reifel Chelf Huot Rooney, Pa. Ashmore with Mr. Landrum. Mr Clancy Hull Reinecke Clark Irwin Rosenthal . Dawson Blatnik with Mr Mr Clark Hungate Resnick er Cleven Jacobs Rostenkowski . . . Cleveland Huot Rhodes, Pa. g Cohelan Jennings Roush Mr. Brown of California with Mr. Nix. Clevenger Hutchinson Roberts Conte Roybal Mr. Denton with Mr. Willis. Cohelan Irwin Robison Cooley Calif. Johnson Ryan Mr. O'Hara of Illinois with Mr. Waggonner. Collier Jacobs Rodlno tt C b , Okla J hnson St Germain Mr. Trimble with Mr. Williams. Conable Jarman Rogers, Colo. or e Corman , . o Ala. Jones St. Onge Mr. Charles H. Wilson with Mr. Thompson Conte Jennings Rogers, Fla. Craley , Jones Mo. Scheuer of New Jersey Conyers Rogers, Tex. Joelson Culver , Jones N C. Schisler . Cooley n Johnso, Calif. Ronan Daddario . , Karsten Schmidhauser Mr. Toll with Mr. Flynt. Corbett Johnson, Okla. Roncalio Daniels Karth Shipley Mr. Dyal with Mr. Edwards of Louisiana. Johnson, Pa. Rooney, Pa. Delaney Kastenmeier Sickles Mr. Fulton of Tennessee with Mr. Baring. Cramer Jonas Rosenthal Diggs Kee Sisk Mr. Hardy with Mr. de la Garza. Culver Jones, Ala. Rostenkowski Dingell Kelly Slack Rivers of South Carolina with Mr. Pur- Mr Cunningham Jones, Mo. Roudebush Donohue Calif King Smith Iowa . Curtin Jones, N.C. Roush Dow . , King, Utah , Staggers cell. Daddario Karsten Roybal Dulski Kirwan Stalbaum Mr. Moss with Mr. Powell. Daffile Karth Rumsfeld Duncan, Oreg. Kluczynski Stratton Mr. Rees with Mr. Conyers. Daniels Kastenmeier Ryan ndson Edm Krebs Stubblefield Davis, Wis. Kee Satterfield o Edwards, Calif. Leggett Sullivan Mr. Flood with Mr. Murray. Delaney Keith St Germain Evans, Colo. Long, Md. Tenzer JOHNSON of California changed Mr Derwinski Kelly St. Onge Everett Love Thomas . " " " " Devine King, Calif. Saylor Fallon McCarthy Thompson, Tex. to nay. his vote from yea Diggs King, N.Y. Scheuer Farbstein McDowell Todd HALPERN ROGERS of Texas Messrs Dingell King, Utah Schisler Farnsley McFall Tunney , , . Dole Kirwan Schmidhauser Farnum McGrath Tuten and MACGREGOR changed their votes Donohue Kornegay Schneebeli Fascell McVicker Udall from "nay" to "yea." Dorn Krebs Schweiker han Fei Machen Ullman Dow Kunkel Secrest g Fogarty Mackay Van Deerlin The result of the vote was Dowdy Kupferman Selden Foley Mackie Vanik as above recorded. Downing Dulski Laird Shipley Langen Shriver Ford, William D Madden Mathias Vivian Watts The SPEAKER pro tempore. The Duncan, Oreg. Latta Sickles . Fraser Matthews Weltner question is on the passage of the bill. Duncan, Tenn. Leggett Skubitz Frelin hu sen Meeds White Idaho Dwyer Lipscomb Slack g y Friedel Mink , White Tex. Mr. GERALD R. FORD. Mr. Speaker, Edmondson Long, Md. Smith, Calif. , Wolff on that I demand the yeas and nays. Edwards, Calif. Love Smith, Iowa Garmatz Mona an Wri ht Erlenborn McCarthy Smith, Va. Gathings g Moorhead g Yates The yeas and nays were ordered. Evans, Colo. McClory Springer Gettys Young The question was taken; and there Everett McCulloch Stafford Giatmo Morse Zablocki Fallon McDade -Staggers Gibbons Murphy, III were-yeas 333, nays 20, not voting 79, as Farbstein McDowell Stalbaum Gilbert Nedzi follows: Farnsley McEwen Stanton Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 Approved For~~ Q~~~7l1 P6 R000400080014-5 June" 9, 1966 CON AlO1~AL - The inexperience charge is totally untrue. Men covering the Viet Nam war are far more experienced in fair, impartial reporting than are government yes men who hop, skip and jump at the brow-lifting or finger-twirling of that man from Texas who succeeded John F. Kennedy, as our President. The present Associated Press staff in Viet Nam ranges in age from 61 'to 25 with expe- rience in reporting as follows: 35 years, 28 years, 23 years, 18 years, 14 years, 13 years, 11 years, 8 years and 7 years. Three have covered World War II and the Korean "po- lice action." The News-Press and Gazette are proud of the wholesome coverage the Associated Press is giving our readers as to Viet Nam, Last year your Associated Press spent three-quar- ters of a million dollars on staff and com- munications. Let this be said and we defy successful contradiction from anyone in Washington: Newspaper reporting from Viet Nam has been more-accurate than the official state- ments, whether via the Pentagon, the field, the State Department, or the White House inner circle. The Associated Press is covering a war, not a political hullabaloo, even if some in Wash- ington think otherwise. This war, and do not fool yourself, this is war in Viet Nam, has presented the most confusing and con- troversial in all American history. There are the world of impounderables, the huge gaps between the South and the North Viet- namese, between the hawks and the doves, by those for and those against the war. American correspondents in Viet Nam as a whole, report all correctly, to the dismay at times alternately of the hawks and of the doves, and always of the pressure men called White House press aides. How lovely it would be to Washington if the press reported only the good news from Viet Nam. But that is not good newspa- pering. That is deceit, unworthy of the Fourth Estate. I The function of the press is to present the news, good or bad, fairly and without slightest bias. Let critics cry. The people want truth. A PERMANENT U.N. PEACEKEEPING FORCE (Mr. SCHWEIKER asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. SCHWEIKER. Mr. Speaker, 49 of my colleagues and I are today intro- ducing a resolution calling for the estab- lishment of a permanent United Nations peacekeeping force. Particularly at this time of interna- tional tension, it would seem to me that the United States, as one of the leading member nations of the U. U., ought to continue its attempts to help strengthen that important world body. Earlier this year, efforts were made to bring the Vietnam conflict before the Se- curity Council for discussion. In my view, these efforts were both necessary and desirable and should continue at the earliest possible date. For it is through such efforts that the United Nations will continue to perform its important role in -world affairs. By the same token, such actions as we are calling for in this `resolution today can add immeasurably to the United Na- expressing the sense of Congress that the Mr. Speaker, joining with Mr. MOOR- United Nations General Assembly should HEAD and me today are the following of immediately consider making permanent our colleagues: Mr. ADAMS, Mr. ASHLEY, arrangements for a U.N. observation and Mr. BARRETT, Mr. CAHILL, Mr. CLARK, Mr. patrol force for use in situations threat- COHELAN, Mr. CONTE, Mr. DADDARIO, Mr. ening international peace and security. DINGELL, Mr. Dow, Mr. ELLSWORTH, Mr. It was envisioned that this force would FARBSTEIN, Mr. FRASER, Mr. FRIEDEL, Mrs. be along the same lines as the one in use GREEN OF OREGON, Mr. GREEN of Penn- in the Middle East that year, and that no sylvania, Mr. HALPERN, Mr. HARVEY of member of the Security Council would Michigan, Mr. HATHAWAY, Mr. HECHLER, contribute manpower to the force. Mr. HICKS, Mr. HORTON, Mr. JOHNSON of Other similar proposals have been Pennsylvania, Mr. JOHNSON of Okla- made subsequently,. but with the height- homa, Mr. KUPFERMAN, Mr. LEGGETT, Mr. ening of international fears over the war LONG of Maryland, Mr. McDOWELL, Mr. in Vietnam, I think that the Congress, MACKAY, Mr. MATHIAS, Mr. MORSE, Mr. speaking for the Nation, ought at this MULTER, Mr. OLSEN of Montana, Mr. time and in this manner to emphasize our OLSON of Minnesota, Mr. OTTINGER, Mr. interest in peace and in strengthening the PEPPER, Mr. RACE, Mr. REID of New York, organizations which might help to Mr. REUSS, Mr. RoDINO, Mr. ROSENTHAL, achieve peace. Mr. RYAN, Mr. ST. ONGE, Mr. SCHMID- I believe that we should let the world HAUSER, Mr. SMITH of New York, Mr. know that our objective is to improve VIVIAN, Mr. WATKINS, and Mr. WOLFF. and strengthen the United Nations so Mr. Speaker, I also wish to point out that it can share the burdens of leader- that the resolutions introduced by ship in crises of this type. Messrs. ELLSWORTH, HORTON, MATHIAS, It is important also to point out to the MORSE, and REID of New York call, in world that the American eagle holds an addition to the plan for the peacekeep olive branch as well as a sheaf of arrows ing force itself, for "an unqualified offer and that we want to do everything pos- of 1,000 technical and noncombatant sible to strengthen the peacekeeping op- personnel from the American Military erations of the United Nations. And Establishment to serve as a permanent while this may be a distant goal, we unit subject to call by the United Na- should make clear to all nations of the tions in the event of an international world as well as our own citizens our in- emergency." tention to pursue this objective. i was pleased this week to learn that One proposal to accomplish this is the former President Eisenhower, while at- creation of a permanent U.N. peacekeep- tending a tribute to the United Nations ing force. It is particularly appropriate in Kansas City, called for the establish- at this time for the Congress to consider ment of a U.N. peacekeeping force that anew the value of such an expression of could "move in with power" to prevent its views in this important area. war. Mr. Speaker, the text of my resolution Mr. Speaker, I take this opportunity follows: to express my. hope that the Congress, H. CON. RES. 690 in these difficult days of, international Concurrent resolution to provide for a per- tension, will again and soon express manent United Nations peacekeeping their concern over this matter, and I call force Whereas upon other Members of this body to join Congress has urged that the United Nations should develop permanent us in this effort and to give their organization and procedures to "enable the thoughtful consideration to other meth- United Nations promptly to employ suitable ods by which the United Nations may be United Nations forces for such purposes as further strengthened. observation and patrol in situations that Mr. CONTE. Mr. Speaker, will the threaten international peace and security" gentleman yield? (H. Con Res. 373, 85th Congress, 2d Session) ; Mr. SCHWEIKER. I yield to the and Whereas the need for such a force appears gentleman. likely to continue; and Mr. CONTE. Mr. Speaker, I would Whereas a United Nations force, estab- like to associate myself with the remarks lished on a permanent basis, could be an of the gentleman from Pennsylvania. I important instrument for the maintenance have filed a similar resolution and wish of international peace and security: There- to compliment the gentleman for his fore, be it Resolved by the House of Representatives forwardlooking message here today. (the Senate concurring), That the Congress It has long been clear to me that our reaffirms its support for a permanent United cold war confrontations around the Nations peacekeeping force and urges the world can only be solved successfully and United States delegation to the United Na- satisfactorily through multilateral ac- G tio to ens ner al present Assembly sea for plan the e the establishment n Twenty-first tirof of tion. The intervention of a single coun- such a United Nations "World Peace Force" try against the aggressions and invasions on a permanent basis and for rules to govern of the Communist world are not suffi- the proper and effective use of such a peace- cient to bring an end to such aggressions, keeping force and provisions to train, equip, short, of all-out war. In view of our involvement in Viet- 'ported in all its goals and capacities. nam, it is more important than ever that And, as a forum for collective action by we continue our search for peace. That all the nations of the world, it can and is why, in the past, I have supported leg- will reduce the commitment and obliga- Nations-such providing funds for the United Nations-such as the U.N. bond issue- tions of any one nation. Perhaps our nnnsid- m any sector oi the gloue. allu we Almost 8 years ago, during the summer for the U.S. Arms Control and Disarma- erably less critical if the United Nations of 1958, the Congress passed a resolution ment Agency. could have taken a stronger hand. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 4 2292 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -HOUSE June 9, 1966 A PERMANENT U.N. PEACEKEEPING [Mr. CONTE addressed the House. FORCE His remarks will appear hereafter in the (Mr. HORTON asked and was given Appendix.1 permission to address the House -for 1 minute, to revise and extend his remarks, A PERMANENT PEACEKEEPING and Include extraneous matter.) FORCE FOR THE UNITED NATIONS Mr. HORTON. Mr. Speaker, i am honored to join with Mr. ROBERT F. ELLs- (Mr. COHELAN asked and was given WORTH, of Kansas; Mr. CHARLES MCC. permission to address the House for 1 MATHIAS, of Maryland; Mr. E. BRAD- minute and to revise and extend his re- FORD MORSE, of Massachusetts; and marks.) Mr. OGDEN R. REID of New Xovk led by Mr. COHELAN. Mr. Speaker, I am Mr. SCHWEIKER and Mr. MOORHEAD, in Introducing a resolution today, along submitting a concurrent resolution to set with more than 40 of our colleagues, call- up a permanent peacekeeping apparatus ing for a permanent United Nations within the United Nations. In the reso- peacekeeping force. lution which I submitted, I have incorpo- The resolution urges the U.S. delega- rated an amendment which, in addition tion to the United Nations to present to seeking the submission of a plan for a such a plan at the next session of the peacekeeping force by our U.N. delega- General Assembly and to propose rules tton, offers a concrete proposal for Amer- for the proper and effective use of such scan participation in the U.N. peacekeep- a peacekeeping force. Ing establishment. There can be little question that in its The amendment to this resolution, 21 years the United Nations has played which my colleagues, ROBERT F. ELLS- an important role as a peacemaker and WORTH, CHARLES MCC. MATHIAS, F. BRAD- 'a peacekeeper. Its presence has limited FORD MORSE, and OGDEN R. REip are co- conflicts in the Congo and the Middle sponsoring with me, provides for the un- East, in Kashmir, and on Cyprus. Its conditional offering by the United States presence has undoubtedly prevented con- of 1,000 technical and noncoinbattant filets between other nations in many military personnel to serve as a perma- areas of the world. nent unit subject to call by the United But the U.N.'s peacekeeping force has Nations in the event of an international been much like a volunteer fire depart- emergency. ment. Its effectiveness has depended By taking the lead in offering a con- largely on the availability and willingness crete contribution of manpower to a per- of its members to participate. For an or- manent peacekeeping U.N. force, we will ganization charged with the momentous be surrounding the plan we propose in responsibility of maintaining interna- the General Assembly with an atmos- tional peace and security, a more perma- phere of sincerity and urgency it would nent and dependable arrangement is ur- not possess without an offer of men and gently needed, action. The fact of the matter is that the Gen- As a peace-Ioving people, we are fre- eral Assembly has been unwilling to use quently puzzled when citizens of other its powers to require every member to lands question our motives and actions in share in financing the costs of past the international arena. The goal of the peacekeeping operations. American people is peace, and at a time We are further frustrated by the abil- when world tensions are high and when ity of even a single member to prevent the our motives are doubted, we must give United Nations from acting in its capac- even higher priority to our peaceful am- ity to keep or to restore peace. bitions, and their fruition throughout the This situation must not be allowed to world. The priority that must be given continue. If peace Is an overriding ve- to this goal has been recognized by the cessity of mankind-which I fervently more than 40 Congressmen who have believe it is-then a more reasonable and submitted this resolution today. realistic approach to peacekeeping is re- We can demonstrate the urgency of quired. our desire for. an effective peace by of- A standby U.N. force would go a long fering a permanent and workable plan way toward meeting this objective. It for a U.N. peacekeeping force when that would be a far more effective means of body convenes in the fall. Insuring an international presence where Those of us who have joined in this and when it isrequired. amendment believe that any question or small It nations should have appeal can doubt that is raised about our motives spread, np alike, for al brushfires eep large and in proposing such a plan will be fully world d, is and peace in an interdependent and resolutely answered if the United indivisible. States accompanies Its proposal with an It is practicable, furthermore, as is unconditional offer of personnel to help made clear by the expressed willingness of 10 nations to date to earmark forces implement the permanency of the peace- for the United Nations. keeping apparatus. Mr. Speaker, the financial structures A year ago, the proposal to offer 1,000 of the United Nations also requires American personnel for U.N. call was, urgent attention. It is not healthy for conceived by those of us who support it a world organization to depend repeated- today. At that time, we called the plan ly on one, or even a few of its members, the First Brigade-Forces for Inter- for financial relief. I would hope that national R li f St e d b on an I y. action to make the U.N. financially self- Let. the First Brigade stand as the sufficient would be acted on in concert first step toward establishing a perma- with efforts to strengthen its peacekeep- LANHAM "TEX" CONNOR, FORMER DEAN OF OFFICIAL REPORTERS TO HOUSE COMMITTEES (Mr. GEORGE W. ANDREWS asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend his remarks, and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. GEORGE W. ANDREWS. Mr. Speaker, I would like to take this oppor- tunity to say a few words in behalf of Lanham Connor, whom we affectionately call "Tex." As many of you know, Tex retired recently after many years of faithful service as an Official Reporter to House Committees. In fact, for the past 8 years he has been dean of Official Reporters to House Committees. Tex hails from the State of Texas. He is the nephew of the late Fritz Lan- ham, who served in the U.S. House of Representatives for many years. His grandfather, S. W. T. Lanham, served two terms as Governor of the State of Texas and then was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives where he served 25 years with distinction. Tex came to Washington In 1939 as a free lance reporter, and did not begin working for the House of Representa- tives until 1942, when the late Speaker Sam Rayburn appointed him to the corps of Official Reporters to House Commit- tees. I understand he has "reported" every Defense Subcommittee appropria- tions bill for the past 24 years. That is quite a record. As a member of that subcommittee I am well aware of the fine job he has done. During the hearings before the Legis- lative Subcommittee of the House Ap- propriations Subcommittee tributes were paid to Tex. I had left the committee room to answer a rollcall and was not present, but I am pleased to include the remarks made by my colleagues: TsIBUTFS To TEx CONNOR Mr. SLACK. The record will show at this point that Tex Connor, who I understand was the dean of official committee reporters, has just recently retired. He has been a very loyal and faithful reporter to the committees, and particularly to the Committee on Appro- priations, and we certainly wish Tex and his wife many happy years to come. Mr. STEED. Mr. Chairman, I would like to add my word of commendation to our old friend, Tex Connor, and to join In wishing him a very profitable and enjoyable retire- ment. I know that he has well earned this retirement and we hope he has many years to enjoy it. We will miss him. He is quite an individ- ual. We all came to appreciate him more than as just one of the helpers around here. He became a very good personal friend and we certainly will miss him. We hope that in his pursuit of his favorite hobby of fishing that he will find some time to come back and renew old acquaintances when it suits him. I certainly believe he is one man whose devotion to duty and efficiency and all around good personality endeared him to every member of the Appropriations Com- mittee, or any other committees that had occasion to work with him. Mr. LANGEN. Mr. Chairman, permit me to add my good wishes to those already extended by the chairman and my colleagues on be- half of Tex Connor. We certainly hope that the crises which have prevented the hot United Natioil4 is more effectively to d1S- the future holds for him a wealth of com- wars of this century from cooling to the charge its responsibilities and to fulfill Congress willsatisfaction benefit for a good remany ars fort and . I am that years point of true peace. the hopes held by so much of mankind. from the criteria that he has established Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 June 9, 1966 Approved For Release 2005/07/13': CIA-RDP67B00446R000^0080014-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD HOUSE the public. I would say this is less of an invasion than a "border skirmish.". Mr, Speaker, as my colleagues will note,', I have been incensed by these charges. I am no enemy of conservation, and my 36 colleagues joining me in this bill are no enemies of conservation. I, for one, fought long'and hard for the Wilderness Act. I devoted great time and effort to the Land and Water Con- servation Act. I am working right now for, passage of the Indiana Dunes Na- tional Lakeshore bill. And I shall con- tinue to work for conservation and park legislation as long as I am In the Con- gress. To have legislation I have spon- sored attacked in this irresponsible man- ner is highly offensive to me, and I have wanted my colleagues to have the benefit of a prompt reply from me to these at- tacks on my bill; What is proposed in the Colorado River Basin project bill is a solution to part of the immediate water needs of Arizona and California and the financ- ing of future water imports or other works to meet the needs of five other Western States. I hope my colleagues will note that nowhere does the Sierra Club say that the water will be auxiliary or unneeded. It is needed desperately. Our popula- tions are growing in the West, and people need water. It is not going to solve the problem merely to tell people to stay home in Wisconsin or Pennsylvania. They are going to come because this Nation. is growing, and our population is moving. We cannot tell the West to "stop growing"; it is going to grow whether the Sierra Club likes it or not. Instead of attacking this legislation as ruining the Grand Canyon the Sierra Club ought to praise the people who have drafted It because it gives such great re- spect to Grand Canyon National Park and Grand Canyon National Monument. Far from ruining the canyon these dams will insure that no serious and damaging incursions will occur in the future. The Job will be done, and it will be done right. In my Judgment, Mr. Speaker, this legislation marks a great beginning an the long fight to solve this Nation's mounting water crisis. In years past we have always dealt with our water prob- lems on a local, piecemeal basis. For this reason Arizona and California were at odds for years, and we went to the Su- preme Court to settle our dispute. Now we are on the same side, working to- gether. I do not think you could find greater evidence of the statesmanship involved in this legislation, or of the sig- nificance of what we are attempting to do. What we propose is a regional so- lution of major water problems. What we succeed in doing here can set the Pat- tern for other regions of the country to follow, and through these acts of water statesmanship we can come to grips at last with the myriad of water problems facing so many of our States. Mr,. Speaker, I have attempted to an- swer each of the charges made by the Sierra' Club in these ads. I hope and trust my colleagues will rest easier know- ing that these 'sweeping charges are either false, misleading; or both. And I nor the 36 cosponsors of my bill would endorse legislation meeting the descrip- tions applied to it by the Sierra Club today. Before concluding I should like to refer to a recent statement by Laurence Rockefeller, Chairman of the White House Conference on Natural. Beauty, who said: Conservationists have had to do some re- thinking, too. For most conservationists, development had long been an anathema: they have been interested in nondevelop- ment, and to them the natural foe has been the bulldozer and the builder-Indeed, some conservationists would go almost so far as to include people. Unswerving hostility to development, how- ever, condemns the conservationists to a rear guard action, and more and more of them are coming to recognize that this is defeatist. If conservation, as I believe, Involves the wise use of our renewable resources, those who wish to see better environment for our people must work with the future. Whether one likes it or not, many more houses are going to be built, many more bridges and highways, and the important question is not if, but how. Mr. Speaker, I believe Mr. Rockefeller is right and the Sierra Club is wrong in this instance. I would hope the Sierra Club would reconsider before proceeding further with this i11-conceived attack on a sound and constructive solution to the water problems of the Southwest. I cer- tainly do not believe it has anything con- structive to offer when It concludes one of these ads with this statement: In five years your Reclamation engineers can close the Grand Canyon show-the es- sence and excellence of it-end it for all our civilization's time. I trust all who have stuck with me through this rather lengthy speech will understand now how false-how utterly and completely false-is that statement. The Grand Canyon show is not coming to an end. It is going to go on for the rest of time. And a lot more people are going to see it than ever before. (Mr. UDALL (at the request of Mr. BOGGS) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) [Mr. UDALL'S remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] (Mr. GONZALEZ (at the request of Mr. Boccs) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) [Mr. GONZALEZ' remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] (Mr. GONZALEZ (at the request of Mr. Boccs) was pranted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) [Mr. GONZALEZ' remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] 12317 U.S. CAMERAMEN AND REPORTERS WORK UNDER EXTREMELY HAZ- ARDOUS CONDITIONS IN VIETNAM!'[ The SPEAKER pro tempore (Mr. ALBERT). Under previous order of the House the gentleman from Delaware [Mr. McDOWELL] is recognized for 30 minutes. Mr. McDOWELL. Mr. Speaker, on. May 25, 1966, I addressed the House, on. the subject of certain wire service photos, and reports published in various news papers regarding recent events within Da Nang's besieged Tinh Hoi Pagoda in. Vietnam. I called attention to the discrepancies between the AP and the UPI pictures and captions and a story filed by Richard Critchfleld, Asian correspondent for the Washington, D.C., Evening Star, and I simply requested a clarification. I now submit for the RECORD the replies to my request for clarification of these discrepancies which I received from the UPI, AP, and the Washintgon, D.C., Evening Star, and I commend them and their staff photographers and reporters in South Vietnam for their prompt and candid response to my request of May 25.' I especially commend to my collegaues and the American public the expanded reply of Richard Critchfield whose honest reporting has been confirmed by the replies I have received, and which was highly commended editorially by the Chicago Tribune on May 26, 1966. His factual reporting is in the highest tra- dition of our free press, and adds signifi cantly to our understanding of the tragic events in Vietnam. It may be helpful to emphasize a point I made in an interview published in the June 4, 1966, issue of Editor & Publisher, that- Editors should certainly look into the matter if questionable pictures of this nature continue to crop up. They owe it to their readers to see to it that propaganda masked as news is not allowed to infiltrate our newspapers. For, as I pointed out in my floor re- marks on May 25 : If one single picture or one single major news story can be questioned for accuracy and factual background, then the American public should know this so that they may judge their newspapers accordingly. We expect propaganda in the Communist press. Certainly our own free press should not be subject to such a charge. The replies I have received from UPI, AP, and the Washington, D.C., Evening Star, as well as the lead editorial.from the Chicago Tribune to which I referred earlier, follow: NEW Yonic, N.Y., May 26, 1966. Representative HARRIS B. McDowELL, Ja., House Office Building, Washington, D.C.; In the spirit of fairness, the United Press International requests you take equal time on the floor and set the record straight con- cerning your charge yesterday that we mis- led the. public, with a picture from Saigon Sunday of a wounded woman and baby. The fact is that the woman and. the baby were wounded in the civic conflict near a: Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA=RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 12318 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD HOUSE June 9, 1966 Buddhist. pagoda in Da Nang. The fact is 'that they lay wounded on a stretcher in the courtyard of the pagoda when reporters and staff photographers of various U.S. news media arrived, including UPI Staff Photog- rapher Steve Van Meter. The fact is that there were about 30 staff correspondents and news photographers of U.S. media at the scene. They testify at length that they did not feel they were trapped in the pagoda by the Buddhists, but moved freely as gunfire permitted. The, fact is that the head monk, Thick Minh Chieu, had called a news con- ference at the pagoda. The fact is that the woman was alive, not dead, and we state that on the testimony of several correspond- ents, and on the basis of a sequence of still newspictures. The fact is there were many other wounded and dead, including more than 30 bodies in one room and another wounded woman on a stretcher in the courtyard near the woman and baby. The fact is that the pagoda was the nearest place with a dispensary not a hospital, but more than a first aid station. The woman and baby apparently were in- jured by mortar Are and were brought to the pagoda by Boy Scouts. The fact is the woman and baby picture was not (repeat not) set up or staged by any representatives of the U.S. media. The ques- tion 'then is whether the Buddhists had staged the scene prior to arrival of photog- raphers and newsmen. Our representatives and several other do not think so. The wounda were fresh, as if they had just been bro,iagght in. The fact is that Richard Critch- field of the Washington Star said in Saigon yesterday that he did not (repeat not) see anyone prop the baby up beside the woman, nor did he see the woman and the baby brought in. "Maybe these were not staged," he said, "but there were so many other things that were going on that you had to realize that these things were being staged. For in- stance, the bodies of two monks draped on the steps of another pagoda. The Buddhist Boy Scouts who ran out under fire and dragged the bodies back into the pagoda- just so they could claim their wounded. Soxne of them they wounded themselves." Other newsmen disputed the charge against the Boy Scouts. Leon Daniel, UPI staff correespondent, said "I felt they were heroic. I certainly don't think they were risking their lives that way for propaganda purposes." Sean Flynn, a free lancer for several large publications, said: "I've pic- tures of those kids. I'll fight Critchfield on that point." The fact remains that a civilian woman and baby were injured in civil strife and it was a legitimately newsworthy pic- ture. If the Buddhists called a new con- ference to use the U.S. media it was used no more than by any other individual or group which calls news conferences to present views, The UPI has experienced newsmen and photographers in Vietnam and all of us are dedicated to objective, accurate report- ing. The final fact is that we strive for that every day. Sincerely, CHARLES MCCARTHY, Assistant General Manager. UPI News pictures. [From the Washington (D.C.) Evening Star, May 27, 19661 AP, UPI DENY CHARGE VIET PHOTO WAS POSED The Associated Press and United Press In- ternational, responding to a congressional challenge, have denied that their photo- graphs of a Vietnamese woman and baby, taken during the recent civil strife at Da Nang, were posed. In separate statements, the news agencies replied to earlier remarks in the House Wednesday by Rep. HARRIS B. McDowELL, D-Del. McDowELL had said there was an apparent discrepancy between photographs transmitted by both AP and UPI and a news dispatch from Richard Critchfield, Asian cor- respondent of The Star. The news services each distributed a photo- graph of a woman lying wounded on a stretcher, with a baby beside her, taken Sun- day night Inside the courtyard of a pagoda. Newsmen had been summoned there by Buddhists opposing the Saigon government for an announcement. Critchfield, in his dispatch Tuesday, re- ported the newsmen had been "enticed in- side for a fictional urgent announcement, then were told it was too dangerous to leave for the remainder of the night after Buddhist forces provoked a heavy fire fight with sur- rounding paratroopers and tanks." He contended the entire incident had been staged as a propaganda show for the Ameri- can reporters and photographers. He wrote, "perhaps the most cynical and outrageous touch was a wailing baby someone had propped against the body of a dead woman for the photographers' benefit." MCDOWELL, said that either AP and UPI photographers or Critchfield were guilty of "inaccurate and irresponsible" reporting,, The wire services, in their statements, yesterday, said picture sequences clearly es- tablished the woman their photographers pictured was not dead. They said their men had not posed the photograph, and did not think it had been posed. Critchfield, replying from Saigon, conceded the woman may have been alive as "I did not feel the woman's pulse," but defended his reporting of the entire episode in the pagoda as accurately portraying the scene. "Congressman MCDOWELL'S contention that it was either a question of inaccuracy by the photographers or myself-if, indeed, we are discussing the same woman and baby-is open to question. The photog- rapher's job is to take pictures of what exists. A reporter's job is to try to and tell what is happening as best he can. "A wounded or dead woman lay on the ground with a wailing baby by her side. That is a news photograph by any standard. But the circumstances and the setting sur- rounding her were equally important to con- vey. That is the reporter's job: To describe what he sees and to place the event in con- text and proper perspective. "What I attempted to point out was that when we (some 40 newsmen) walked into that pagoda, an array of wounded and dead bodies-including a woman and a child- were lying around in an apparently-staged display. That was the immediate impression of those newsmen around me. "The wounded badly needed medical at- tention and the Buddhist monks there had the ability to get them out if they wanted, as they later demonstrated." Critchfield went on to recount what he called the "nightmarish experience of being temporarily trapped within the pagoda." When the newsmen arrived, he said, it was almost dark. Once inside the pagoda gates, they saw youths and women swathed in bloody band- ages lying about the courtyard. Four women lay on stretchers on the ground just before the pagoda steps. Off to the side was a woman with a baby. "The woman's eyes were closed and she appeared to be dead," Critchfield continued. "A very small baby-perhaps less than 1 year old-apparently had been placed by her side near the waist. It was crying and held its arms toward us and did not appear to be injured. I did not feel the woman's pulse. "From the nearby classroom came the stench from 26 bodies, many of them putre- scent." He added: "A number of reporters voiced fears we had walked into a trap and others voiced disgust a the display of the wounded." REPORTER WOUNDED The AP, in its statement written after checking its Saigon office, said one of its reporters, Robert Poos, said that the woman in question "was not dead nor was the pic- ture posed. The picture sequence taken by an AP staff photographer showed the mother's arms in three different positions." Poos was wounded in the chest as he left the pagoda grounds. UPI, in a statement by Charles McCarty, assistant general manager of UPI news pic- tures, urged MCDOWELL to "set the record straight concerning your charges yesterday that we misled the public with a picture from Saigon Sunday.... " McCarty also said: "The fact is the woman and baby picture was not set up or staged by any representa- tive of the U.S. media. The question then is whether the Buddhists had staged the scene prior to arrival of photographers and newsmen. "Our representatives and several others do not think so.... If the Buddhists called a news conference to use the U.S. media it was used no more than by any other indivi- dual or group which calls news conferences to present views." Critchfield does not say the photographers staged the picture. He does contend that the Buddhists summoned the newsmen to the pagoda after staging a scene to elicit sympathy-and support-for their position. REPORT OF RICHARD CRITCHFIELD, ASIAN COR- RESPONDENT FOR THE WASHINGTON EVE- NING STAR, ON PAGODA PICTURES AND STORIES (Associated Press, New York-Washington Star special) SAIGON, May 28.-Saigon Vietnamese news- papers this morning published statements from both American press Services made in response to charges by Rep. MCDOWELL con- cerning newspicture taken in Danang last Sunday night. McDOWELL cited article by this reporter written Tuesday contending propaganda scene had been staged within Pagoda de-. liberately to picture South Vietnamese mili- tary forces as slaughtering innocent women and children. He quoted one scene in my Tuesday dis- patch "Perhaps the most cynical and out- rageous touch was a wailing baby someone had propped against the body of a dead woman for the photographers' benefit." Though McDOwELL did not refer to it I also had written in previous story Monday "the Pagoda precinct itself covering about a fourth of city block, was a grisly nightmare scene. Twenty-six corpses some packed in salt and others badly decomposed and covered with buddhist flags swarming with flies gave whole area sickening stench. Stretchers of wounded women and teenage boys wrapped with bloody bandages lay about the courtyard as if they were on dis- play for the foreign press. This tragic spec- tacle included one dead woman with it wailing baby." The controversial story was written fol- lowing day in effort to put this scene in more perspective, It was intended as analysis. As I have pointed out while AP photograph. does not entirely resemble what I remem- bered it is possible I was mistaken. 'It all happened quickly-we were invited. to pagoda, fired at as we entered, milled about in semidarkness and confusion, a rebel youth grabbed me by shoulder to see what he said was example government repression and I saw woman who to all appearances was dead. Have vivid impression of black hair bloody bandages and baby visibly terrified and cry- ing raising its arms to be taken away. Moments later heavy firefighting erupted and bullets sprayed courtyard and I did not see woman and baby again. I understand AP is trying to trace her. . Approved For Release 2005/07/13 CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 June .9, .T 966 Approved For lRMtX299MN16!B :11'8AO96 $ X000400080014-5 12319 Associated,, Press Statement which was accurate , and fair quotes this reporter as saying I did not mean to imply specific ,picture of woman and child were "posed and set u as a fake" by foreign newsman. I ,nape Ernown some of photographers involved ,for two years and they are brave skilled newsmen dedicated to objective accurate journalism. ' What I did however, intend was to inter- pret entire spectacle at Tinh Hoi as I and some of the other newsmen present caw it: A flagrant example of stagemanaging by a extremely skillful propaganda apparatus. Whether rebels intended to hold us host- ages to ensure their own protection or in- volve American Marines or simply to play on our sympathies matter of speculation. But that certain aspects of scene contrived for calculated effect I had no doubt whatsoever. Since some newsmen present then remained in Danang and others returned to Saigon and elsewhere and civil strife has continued have had no oportunity to canvass everybody present. APS Robert Poos yesterday con- firmed I had quoted him accurately as say- ing the "Buddists had trapped us in the pagoda and then opened fire when we tried to go." Ruben Salazar of Los Angeles Times con- firms Thich Minh Chieu chief Monk in pagoda told newsmen he had invited them there for express purpose of witnessing gov- ernment attack he expected either that night or early morning. Simon Petrie a French correspondent for Paris Match and other publications whose Danang home was ransacked by government troops two days before said yesterday he shared my belief spectacle of wounded staged for our benefit. Francois Sully of Newsweek Magazine re- ported his subsequent research in Danang substantiated what I had written. Dale Minor of WBAR New York who re- corded most of the sounds in pagoda on his taperecorder said yesterday he was convinced government troops had twice "raked the courtyard" with machine gun fire while we were there and wounded lay exposed in open. Ronald Nessen of NBC and William Stout of CBS who shared same ditch during first heavy firelight both expressed conviction at time rebels had provoked government fire to trap us in pagoda. No rebel ever ex- pressly forbade us to leave. But several told me after firefight roughly same message "it is too dangerous new for you to leave before morning." David Kelly of London Economist who left Danang Sunday afternoon said yesterday he had seen considerable evidence of rebel stagemanaging events during his two day stopover in Danang. Kelly felt controversy produced "a health- ier situation". Kelly said while he felt monks at TinHol had shown respect for dead by arranging bodies and observing traditional ceremonies, two monks found sprawled dead in pagoda entrance Friday morning had Two tracer bullets were fired straight over our heads from pagoda gate as we approached pagoda. At this point Neil Sheehan of New York Times and one other newsman near rear of group turned back to American Press camp. About dozen of us were too close to pagoda by then to feel could safely retreat but from that moment all of us felt frightened and uneasy if not trapped. Others already in- side possibly felt easier in their minds. Within minutes however six or seven news- men although urgent announcement had not yet been made-and never was-at- tempted to leave pagoda, were fired upon and wounded by grenade fragments. One photographer I saw voiced real panic. An- other a vietnamese handed his camera over to his American employer and said no mat- ter what he was getting out. Everyone I saw with exception of one heroic voice who shouted across courtyard "I am staying all night" was either angry or frightened and many could be accurately described as terrified. UPI mentions pagoda was nearest place with dispensary which was true. But a heav- ily armored battalion had surrounded its rear at five o'clock triggering heavy firefight and rebels later triggered another between seven and eight when we were inside pagoda. According to APS investigation woman and baby were mortar fire victims and had been found hiding and brought by Buddhist boy- scouts near house some two hundred yards What really happened during those con- fused moments in Tin Hoi could probably be accurately determined by interviewing each of newsmen involved, Marine officers at press camp and most of several hundred Vietna- mese wounded during the entire week. A careful study could be made of rebel prop- aganda apparatus. This would require United States government resources since newsmen must go on and report continuing daily events. The issue is profoundly im- portant one in Vietnam and should not be lost in secondary matter of whether picture was faked, Of course it was not and this reporter never meant to imply it was. The stagemanaging was done on much vaster scale and this propaganda apparatus is what should be investigated and accused, not the press services. End Critchfield [From the Chicago (Ill.) Tribune, May 26, 19661 THE SCALES FELL FROM THEIR EYES One of the most significant news stories of the Viet Nam war was written by Richard Critchfield, a distinguished Washington Star correspondent, distributed by the Associated Press, and published by The Tribune yes- terday. Mr. Critchfield's dispatch is conclusive evidence that some of the reporting from Viet Nam has been the worst in our his- tory, which is a major reason why the American people are so confused about it. The story recounts the horrible experi- ence of 40 American and foreign newsmen who were lured into Da Nang's Buddhist Tinh Hoi pagoda, besieged by government troops, by revolutionary monks who promised them an important statement. When they arrived the newsmen were told that it was too dangerous for them to leave, and they soon realized that the treacherous monks had en- ticed them into the pagoda as hostages. Either their presence would deter govern- ment troops from assaulting the pagoda or, if it should be stormed, the surviving news- men would put the blame for the attack on military forces loyal to Premier Ky. Mr. Critchfield describes the experience of the newsmen as "a kind of shock treatment that stripped bare the almost incredible cynicism of Buddhist monks and rebel political commissars toward human life." The incident, he says, exploded the myth that the Buddhists represented "a just but repressed popular cause." He says the "scales fell from the eyes" of the naive newsmen who had helped to propagate this myth. Despite the risk of being shot in the back by the Buddhist rebels, the newsmen, as Mr. Critchfield says, decided to "stand up for hu- man decency." They turned their backs on the monks, marched out, waving handker- chiefs and undershirts, and three of them were injured by rebel snipers and a grenade. Mr. Critchfield has a reputation for honest, objective reporting. Unlike many others in Viet Nam, he has not distorted facts to sup- port some ideological predilection. But he is an idealist, and he had sincerely believed that the Buddhist insurrection was a popu- lar movement. He was the closest American correspondent in Viet Nam to Gen. Nguyen Chanh Thi, deposed former commander of the 1st corps area and political ally of the infamous Thich Trf Quang, leader of the Buddhist rebels. Thus his account of the revelation in the Tinh Hoi pagoda is a con- fession of immense significance. The Buddhist tactics described by Mr. Critchfield are characteristically communist and wholly incompatible with the self-deny- ing ascetic, and gentle attitudes of Bud- dhism. They debased their own religious sanctuary, refusing to bury their dead on the pretense that government troops would not let them out of the pagoda, when trucks fly- ing Red Cross flags were coming and going with arms and ammunition. They armed Boy Scouts and induced them to fire and throw away to pagoda compound. This was during daylight since darkness fell only when we reached the gate. During daylight hours ambulances and other vehicles had been coming and going from pagoda all day. When we arrived rebels voiced fears of imminent government attack. These in- cluded apparent leader Thich Minh Chieu. My contention was that wounded could have been carried away from pagoda to safety and help down the street since only four government tanks on that side. My contention was that to bring them to pagoda endangered their lives both from lack of medical care and exposure to incoming bul- lets since they were left lying in exposed courtyard. Friday afternoon Kenneth Harbidge of Philadelphia one of two American business- men sharing house two blocks away from pagoda told me it was his impression most of wounded civilians in area has been hit by rebel fire whether rescued by Buddhist boyscouts or not. Harbidge a former Army major said he had seen rebels laying boobytraps in streets and small boys running back and forth with grenades under their shirts. His house was hit with mortar wounding landlady and a servant blown up by street- mine. Harbidge put blame for both on rebels. UPI noted I had said I had not seen any- one prop up baby nor had I seen woman or baby brought in. This is true. But wom- an I saw dead or alive was in no condition to look after that child and somebody' would have had to prop it there which was what I reported. There was also testimony Buddhist boy- scouts had acted heriocally rescuing wounded under fire. I agree one hundred percent. My belief was that like highschool girls and others in pagoda the boyscouts were being used as unconscious instruments of a cynical propaganda apparatus involving only a hand- ful of leaders. One of topmost Buddhist leaders told me Thursday that "romantic idealistic" youths made best agitators. My experience in Danang was that many rebel soldiers, boyscouts, highschool girls and others took part out of good faith in what felt was good cause, Brig, Gen. Du Quoc Dong in interview expressed much same view as his national rank and file of rebels should not be punished. deflnitely staged appearance and had not been decently cared for. He also noted as I did that although reportedly defended by rebel-battalion ' which I had actually seen day before there was only one dead soldier's body in evi- dente. UPI in its statement asked McDowell to set record straight and enumerated list of Pact s. It contended thirty reporters on scene "ca n testify at length that they did not feel trapped moved freely as gunfire permitted." testimony should be recorded and publicized to set the record straight. Most of the other newsmen I talked to shared Poos belief we had been enticed into pagoda to trap us. Through most of the episode newsmen en were in three separate groups. I was with what appeared to be two television teams, NBC and CBS. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 12320 grenades at government troops, who could not return the fire without killing children and creating martyrs for the Buddhists. 'Marshal Ky has said that TA Quang is cer- tainly a communist sympathizer and prob- ably a communist. It is known from cap- tured enemy documents that the rebellious Buddhist groups were infiltrated and strongly influenced by the Communists. The anti- government and anti-American slogans used in all Buddhist demonstrations Were dictated by the Communist party. All these facts have been reported by the Tribune. STRUGGLE TO PROTECT OUR EN- VIRONMENT FROM POLLUTION ENLISTS TALENTS OF ABLE MEN FROM MANY DIFFERENT PRO- FESSIONS The SPEAKER. Under previous order of the House the gentleman from Rhode Island [Mr. FOGARTY] is recognized for 10 minutes. Mr. FOGARTY. Mr. Speaker, the struggle to protect our environment from pollution has enlisted the talents of able men from many different professions. I would like to take occasion to pay tribute to a man who represents, with honor, that group of skilled and sophisticated engineers who have done so much in re- cent years to make this a healthier na- tion in which to live. This week Mr. Harry G. Hanson, Asso- ciate Chief for Environmental Health and an Assistant Surgeon General of the U.S.. Public Health Service Is leaving that organization after nearly 25 years of dedicated service. Many Member's of this Congress have become increasingly aware of the im- portance of combatting pollution of the environment as a menace to human health, as well as to important aesthetic and economic values. As a member and chairman of the subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations which deals with the annual budget of the Pub- lic Health Service, I have been impressed with the. tremendous task we confront in combatting a multitude of pollutants. I have also come to respect the engineers who were among the first of the profes- I am confident his experience and skill will serve this Nation well when Mr. Han- son assumes his new post as Regional Adviser for Sanitary Engineering with the Pan American Health Organization. On my own behalf and for Mr. Han- son's many other friends in Congress, I extend best wishes to Mr. Hanson for success in his new endeavors. I would also add our thanks and appreciation for his significant contributions to the fur- therance of public health, as he has un- remittingly devoted himself to the health of people and their environment over a quarter century of public service, LEAVE OF ABSENCE By unanimous consent, leave of ab- sence was granted to Mr. FLYNT (at the request of Mr. GRAY), for today, on ac- count of official business. SPECIAL ORDERS GRANTED By unanimous consent, permission to address the House, following the legisla- tive program and any special orders heretofore entered, was granted to: Mr. DORN, for 1 hour, on June 16. Mr. MOELLER, for.15 minutes, on June 13. Mr. CONTE (at the request of Mr. EDWARDS of Alabama) for 15 minutes, on June 14; to revise and extend his re- marks and include extraneous matter. Mr. AsHBROOK (at the request of Mr. EDWARDS of Alabama), for 5 minutes, today; to revise and extend his remarks and included extraneous matter. Mr. McDoWELL (at the request of Mr. BOGGS), for 30 minutes today: revise and extend his remarks and include extrane- ous matter. Mr. FOGARTY (at the request of Mr. BOGGS), for 10 minutes, today; to re- vise and extend his remarks and in- clude extraneous matter. Mr. HOWARD (at the request of Mr. BOGGS), for 30 minutes, on June 13; to revise and extend his remarks and in- clude extraneous matter. sional groups to realize the signifiance EXTENSION OF REMARKS of the problem and to devise methods of By unanimous consent, permission to containing it. Among these pioneers in extend remarks in the Appendix of the a new and complex area of modern life, RECORD, or to revise and extend remarks Mr. Hansen has filled an important role. was granted to: As director of the Robert A. Taft Sani- Mr. WHITTEN and to Include a letter tary Engineering Center in Cincinnati, to the editor by Benjamin Schultz, of Ohio, from 1954 to 1960 he contributed to Clarksdale, Miss. the strength of that facility and helped Mr. GROSS and to Include a newspaper make it a pivotal resource in all our en- article. vironmental health efforts to the point Mr. ADAIR and to include extraneous that it became internationally famous. matter. As Associate Chief for Environmental Mr. HARVEY of Indiana to extend his Health since 1960, he has earned respect remarks at the close of debate on H.R. for his professional ability and his per- 14929 today. sonal integrity. Mr. DAGUE of Pennsylvania (at the re- Mr. Hanson has not only served well quest of Mr. HARVEY of Indiana) to ex- the people of this Nation. He has shared tend his remarks at the close of debate knowledge and skill and carried a mes- on H.R. 14929 today. sage of hope to the people of other coun- Mr. SPRINGER to extend his remarks tries. On two occasions Mr. Hanson during debate on H.R. 14929 in the Com- served as adviser to U.S. delegations of inittee of the Whole today. the World Health Organization, Geneva, Mr. DOLE to extend his remarks im- Switzerland, and he has ably represent- mediately prior to the vote on the Callan ed our country in other International amendment in the Committee of the conferences. Whole today. Approved For l pgggW :,Rf~ 67B1( ?P000400080014-~une 9, ,196'6 Mr. MIZE (at the request of Mr. DOLE) to extend his remarks immediately prior to the vote on the Callan amendment :in the Committee of the Whole today. Mr. TALCOIT (at the request of Mr. DOLE) to extend his remarks immediately prior to the vote on the Callan amend- ment in the Committee of the Whole today. Mr. QUTE to include extraneous matter with his remarks made in the Committee of the Whole today. Mr. ARENDS (at the request of Mr. EDWARDS of Alabama) following the re- marks of Mr. QuIE in Committe,(~ today and to include certain detailed informa- tion. (The following Members (at the re- quest of Mr. EDWARDS of Alabama) and to include extraneous matter:) Mr. GUBSER. Mr. QUILLEN. Mr. EDWARDS of Alabama. Mr. MORTON. Mr. WIDNALL in two instances. Mr. DOLE. Mr. M4,cGREGOR in two instances. Mr. SMITH of New York. Mr. MCCLORY. Mr. CRAMER. Mr. LIPSCOMB. Mr. MORSE. Mr. BOB WILSON in three instances. (The following Members (at the re- quest of Mr. BOGGS) and to include ex- traneous matter:) Mr. KEOGH in two instances. Mr. POWELL. Mr. CULVER. Mr. DINGELL in two instances. Mr. BURKE. Mr. SCHMIDHAUSER. Mr. RIVERS of South Carolina. Mr. ANNUNZIO. Mr. LOVE in two instances. Mr. HAYS in two Instances. Mr. ROSENTHAL. Mr. FUQUA. Mr. EDWARDS of California in two in- stances. Mr. GONZALEZ in two instances. Mr. VIVIAN. Mr. ICHORD in two instances. Mr. MAHON. Mr. PuclNSKI in six instances. Mr. O'BRIEN. Mr. FARNUM and to include extraneous matter, notwithstanding the fact It ex- ceeds the limit and Is estimated by the Public Printer to cost $364. SENATE BILLS, A JOINT RESOLU- TION, AND A CONCURRENT RESO- LUTION REFERRED Bills, a joint resolution, and a con- current resolution of the Senate of the following titles were taken from the Speaker's table and, under the rule, re- ferred as follows: S. 562. An act to amend title 38, United States Code, with respect to the definition of the term "Veterans' Administration facil- ities," and to eliminate certain requirements for the furnishing of nursing home care in the case of veterans hospitalized by the Vet- erans' Administration in Alaska and Hawaii; to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. S. 2366. An act to repeal certain provisions of the act of January 21, 1929 (45 Stat. 1091), Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 serious problems of `integration with other functional a rid` administrative unii?;s. A third approach is the development of truly metropolitan government. This ap- pears to be working successfully in Dade County, Florida and sfiould be carefully '8tutied.for possible application elsewhere. -"Whatever the advantages' of strong cen- tral coordination, I think that our experience over the past three decades demonstrates that the problems of our urban society are too complex and too imminent to be suscep- tible of, central operation. We can ease the administrative difficulties through the appli- cation of the techniques of modern manage- ment to urban problems. The genius of systems technology is its ability to bring order out of tremendous numbers of diverse elements and factors-order that' not only stabilizes but creates the conditions for prog- ress as well. These concepts, developed so brilliantly right here in Eastern Massachu- setts, are already being put to use on public problems. The State of California con- tracted with four aerospace firms for studies ,on crime, transportation, pollution and in- -formation control. Computers will govern the scheduling and repair of trains in the new,Bay Area Rapid Transit system in San Francisco. Experiments are now going for- Ward in Toronto and Chicago with the use of computers to regulate traffic. There is enormous room for greater efforts here. It is at this point that our technology most di- rectly confronts the urban challenge. Implicit in everything I have said about strengthening governmental institutions be- low the national level is the essential validity of government close to `the people. One of the failures of our approach to urban prob- lems thus far is the inability of programs of concrete and granite to transform the lives of people. This failure goes to the heart of the second question I raised a few minutes ago. Who into govern? - ' The historic `ideal of the town meeting where each citizen of the community could speak his piece and influence the decisions of the government closest to him is simply not feasible in a city of millions. What we must strive for is a system of metropolitan government that will give people the sense of participation and involvement envisioned by the town meeting. This will not be achieved simply by establishing quotas of representa- tion on city boards and agencies of "the poor" or any other category of citizen. I am convinced that the consistently low turnout in elections conducted by the Office of Eco- nomic Opportunityrefects the inability of the citizens involved to believe that their representation would'really' make any dif- ference. People will seek redress in the streets until they believe they can find it in the voting booth. One of my former col- leagues in the House is making an exciting attempt to restore the confidence of people in government in New York .City. We can only wish him well and hope that his exam- ple will be repeated elsewhere in the nation. ? In discussing with you some of the ' ele- ments in the urban challenge that concern me as a Member of Congress, I fear I have raised more questions than I have answered. Those of. us who must operate within the confines of existing geographic and adminis- trative divisions look to those of you with the freshness and imagination to develop new forms of government suitable to the age, yet consistent with our tested principles. It is an awesome challenge, but one from which we cannot turn away. In confront- ing it, we might ' reflect upon our history. Almost two hundred years ago the people liv- ing on the Atlantic Coast of this continent cams together to govern a great nation; it is our challenge here today to come together to develop new and fresh approaches to the government of great cities. 67B 4N 400080014-5 June 9, 1966 Representative Smith of New York Lauds Australian Economic and Military As- sistance in Vietnam EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. HENRY P. SMITH III OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, June 9, 1966 Mr. SMITH of New York. Mr. Speak- er, many Americans, I believe, are un- der the impression that the United States is "going it alone" in Vietnam; that only American forces are strug- gling to preserve the cause of freedom in that embattled nation. It is true that our fighting men, representing every branch of our Armed Forces, are shoul- dering the greatest part of the burden in growing concern the fact that, for the past 5 weeks, the number of American men killed in action in Vietnam have exceeded the number of South Vietnam- ese war dead. American is a great and powerful na- tion. She has never shirked her respon- sibilities to preserve and protect the prin- ciples of freedom and democracy when- ever and wherever she has been called upon to do so. There are, however, other nations, though not possessed of the industrial and military might of the United States, who feel a deep sense of responsibility to those peoples who lack the blessings of liberty and human freedom. Mr. Speaker, I wish to call particular attention to the economic and military assistance being provided in Vietnam by the Commonwealth of Australia. I know that our combat units in Viet- nam are happy to have the cooperation and support of the courageous, gallant and experienced Australian troops. It is good to know that some of our friends around the world understand the reasons for our involvement in Vietnam. Australia is a nation which has faced aggression, invasion and the loss of free- dom and liberty before. ' She knows the cost of peace, and she is willing to pay the price to preserve that peace both for herself and her neighbors. Mr. Speaker, the June 1 edition of the Australian News, published by the Aus- tralian News and Information Bureau, contains a very interesting commentary by the Australian Minister of External Affairs, Mr. Paul Hasluck, on Australia's position with regard to Vietnam and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. I commend this article to the study of the members of the House. The following are pertinent excerpts from the Australian News: AUSTRALIAN EXTERNAL AFFAIRS MINISTER SETS OUT VIEWS ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VIET- NAM POLICY AND SEATO MEMBERSHIP The Australian Minister for External Af- fairs, Mr. Paul Hasluck, has spoken of Aus- tralia's actions in Vietnam and their rela- tionship to the South-East Asia Treaty Organization. In a statement released yes- terday, Mr. Hasluck said that because ques- tions continued to be asked on this subject he was recapitulating the Government's at- titude and policy. The Minister said that when the SEATO Treaty was signed in 1954, its eight members designated for the purposes of Article IV "the States of Cambodia and Laos and the free territory under jurisdiction of the State of Vietnam." This meant that each party to the Treaty recognized that aggression against South Vietnam by armed attack would endanger its own peace and safety and each agreed that it would in that event act to meet the common danger in accordance with its constitutional processes. ? "The designation also meant that, if it was considered that South Vietnam was threat- ened other than by armed attack, the parties would consult immediately in order to agree on the measures which should be taken for the common defence," Mr. Hasluck said. "Article IV also states that it is understood that no action on the territory of a desig- nated State should be taken except at the invitation or with the consent of the Gov- ernment concerned. The objectives of SEATO are those which the Australian Gov- ernment has been steadily pursuing for many years. "That was why, 12 years ago, we worked hard to have SEATO created, and to have South Vietnam designated by protocol. It would be wrong to say that the Australian Government is acting today in Vietnam solely because it is obliged to do so under SEATO. Even if SEATO did not exist, Aus- tralia would want to see communist aggres- sion deterred and resisted in the region of South and South-East Asia. "SEATO helps to deter and resist aggres- sion. SEATO is an agreement and a working practical arrangement which Australia ad- heres to and observes in pursuit of our awn interests and policies. Our actions in SEATO are in pursuance of our obligations through SEATO but are not because of SEATO alone. The Treaty does not itself lay down the de- tails of action to be taken to meet a threat or an act of aggression. The members meet together as required to discuss situations and possible courses of action. "Unanimity of all SEATO members is nec- essary for the designation of South Vietnam by protocol and this was agreed unanimously. But unanimity is not required for every ac- tion by each member State in playing-its part in SEATO. Possible action by SEATO members is not limited, under the Treaty or otherwise, to collective action. Obliga- tions under the Treaty are separate as well as joint,. and members have to make their separate judgements. ."In the absence of a collective decision- Which in the question of Vietnam has not been sought-each State decides for itself what it will do. Australia decided initially, in 1954, to contribute to the stability and development of the Republic of Vietnam by economic assistance. Such assistance has continued ever since. Then, as Vietcong in- surrection, sabotage, and terrorism sought to disrupt the administration and economy of South Vietnam and to destroy it, the Australian Government gave additional and new forms of assistance-for example, mili- tary advisers. When the situation worsened, with more blatant and large-scale armed intervention from North Vietnam the Australian Government increased its assist- ance yet further and provided combat forces. "The form of our response to the threat to South Vietnam was not determined by SEATO. It was for Australia to decide for itself the nature and size of the action we took. Other coutries, more remote or perhaps feeling themselves less directly threatened or less able to assist others, might have taken a different view. But the Australian Govern- ment considered that the situation called for assistance to the Republic of Vietnam against aggression, and that it was in our national interest and within our national capacity to do no less than we are doing now . Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 June 9, 1966 Approved( $gg Q OMi~pftt!~ .BD 6]~PPM#kR000400080014-5 A3119 officials in search of information and to be or standing Committee on Urban Affairs. As has appeared to lose favor, with the Adminis- sure that we are not working at cross pur- poses. We still need an Office of Commu- nity Development. Every Member of Congress and every Sen- ator has seen the problems faced by com- munities in their efforts to deal with the federal government. Not only must an offi- cial go from the Department to Department in search of information, but he must also frequently go from bureau to bureau within those departments. The agencies do little to ease the burdens of these local officials. Recently, my office collected the informa- tion and application forms needed by urban officials to apply for federal grants or loans. The size of the pile is staggering. The com- munity applying for a senior citizens hous- ing project, for example, must wade its way through a fact sheet on the program, the regulations governing its administration, an explanation of the form that must he sub- mitted to assure compliance with the regula- tions, the assurance of compliance form, an- other explanation of the form for the loan, and the loan form itself, a pamphlet on guides for project design, a supplemental information sheet, information on fallout shelter requirements, instructions on how to apply for organizational and development expenses, and model forms of incorporation and bylaws. Then we come to the supple- mental forms: the statement of housing de- mand, the official certification of authority, the statement of community interest, proj- ect characteristics data, engineering data, site data, financial data, legal data-all this for a single program! We also found that the manuals and materials needed by a com- munity to file an application for a Head Start program under the Office of Economic Opportunity weighed 51/Z pounds! Fur- thermore the economic' data required is not systematic or uniform. Similar but related calculations must be performed over and over again. But if the Executive Branch, has failed in its responsibilities for coordination, the Con- gress has done little better. At the present time, there are no less than eight standing committees of the House of Representatives with jurisdiction over urban programs. The Committees on Agriculture, Banking and Currency, the District of Columbia, Educa- tion and Labor, Government Operations, Judiciary, Interstate and Foreign Commerce and Public Works all have significant areas of jurisdiction over urban problems. Given this wide dispersal of authority, coordina- tion is practically impossible. In some in- stances our Committees may even be work- ing at cross purposes. For example, while the Public Works Committee is considering legisla ion to build more highways to bring cars infb the central city, the Housing Sub- committee of the House Banking and Cur- rency Committee may be working on mass transit legislation designed to keep the cars out. Water pollution is another example. The Banking and Currency Committee has juris- diction over programs funded by the Com- munity Facilities Administration of the De- partment of Housing and Urban Development for new sewage systems, while the Public Works Committee has jurisdiction over water pollution control programs, which funds the construction of water treatment facilities. The relationship between these two urban functions Is far closer in fact than this jur- isdictional arrangement would suggest. The present system makes it impossible to con- sider the interrelationships between housing and education, between transportation and pollution, or between highways and open spaces. The wise response to this confused situa- tion would be to create a Committee of the House of Representatives on Urban Affairs. Since I entered the House in 1961, I have been introducing resolutions calling for a select federal involvement in urban affairs grows, tration, it has gained supporttin Congress. so does interest in these-proposals and I am With a number of my Republican colleagues hopeful that action can be obtained in the in the House and Senator JAvrrs in the Sen- relatively near future. ate, I have introduced legislation authorizing The value of such a committee has been the return of one per cent of federal income demonstrated clearly this year. The Presi- tax revenue to the states. The funds, which dent has recommended a Demonstration would amount to about $2.5 billion in,the Cities Act that would encompass such pro- first year, could be used for a broad range grams as transportation, housing, urban re- of health, education and welfare purposes. newal, welfare and economic opportunity. These might include pollution control, men- House consideration of this proposal could be tal health and retardation prevention and much more meaningful if an Urban Affairs treatment, expanded programs of special and Committee, benefiting from the expertise of supplementary education-the list is endless. Members from the eight Committees now There would be a .minimum federal control; charged with responsibility in this field could funds would be allocated among states ac- have brought their mutual wisdom and un- cording to a careful formula reflecting popu- derstanding to the consideration of this lation and need; and essential direction and major new legislation. Here, it seems to me, execution would remain at the local level. is an opportunity for the Congress to do the In my judgment, this approach could lessen coordinating job the Administration is not federal administrative costs, permit greater doing. flexibility in programming, and allow the al- The point of this discussion of administra- location of funds more promptly and selec- tive arrangements is that there are a number tively. of immediate steps that can be taken in the We are undergoing a vast revolution in the short run to smooth the relationships be- representative character of our state govern- tween urban areas and the federal govern- ments. If the governments which result ment. In the long run, however, we must from this revolution more accurately repre- look beyond the easy administrative short- sent the interests of their people and if they cuts to a whole new concept of government. approach their task with freshness and vi- Nowhere is this more evident than right here sion, they will be better able to develop and in Megalopolis. As Professor Jean Gottman administer their own programs. If we give points out in his detailed study, the concept these strengthened governments better tools comes from the Alexandrian philospher Philo to work with, the benefits for metropolitan Judaeus who referred to "megalopolis" as a development become even more evident. great city of ideas which could predetermine We cannot talk about local government and command the material world. We have without assessing the revolution that has al- never needed ideas so badly. ready overtaken it. The geographic bound- Any consideration of the government of aries and historic charters that once created urbanization comes down to two basic ques- obvious administrative divisions are no long- tions: what is to be the jurisdiction and er of central importance. Rivers, bays and structure of government? Who is to govern? mountains are no longer barriers to com- It is clear that local governments are hard munication, nor does their presence automa- pressed to cope with the pressures of urbani- tically create a community of interest. What cation. The traditional view of the com- are some of the factors that bind communi- munity as the center of work and play, or ties together? Functional interests have al- public and private life has undergone drastic ready been the foundation for hundreds of revision. No longer do many of our people new governmental units: agencies and boards live and work in the same place. Our sub- to run airports and ports, to administer.reser- urbs have been the site of a tremendous in- voirs, to build highways and to educate chil- flux of population bringing with it demands dren. The resident of Boston is governed for services, schools and recreational facili- not only by the city government, but by the. ties. The industrial base that could help Massachusetts Port Authority, the Metropoli- finance these needs has not come so quickly. tan District Commission, the Massachusetts By the same token, the increase in commut- Bay Transportation Authority and a plethora ing has brought a greater devotion of central of other boards and commission. It is ques- city land to parking lots and garages which tionable whether the overlay of additional generate less revenue for essential city serv- government units on top of traditional local ices. Even when industry begins to follow government is an incentive or a barrier to the flight to the suburbs the revenue balance sensible regional development. How can we cannot be righted. combine community of interest with ease of In large part the financial crisis of both administration? city and suburb results from the reliance of It is arguable, for example, that the 21 these governmental units on the property towns that include portions of the Route tax as the principal source of revenue. We 128 complex within its boundaries is less able have already noted the weakness of this base. to govern that area than some sort of func- We should also note that in the City of Bos- tional administrative unit. No doubt the ton, for example, more than 36?. of the land 574 firms and their 54,500 employees have a is exempt from property taxation. great deal in common, perhaps more so than We also see local governments competing with other members of their present geo- for external sources of revenue. States com- graphic communities. But by the same pete for the revenue generated by residents token, these firms and individuals share but whose place of employment is located outside one basic interest. There are others which the state. Cities compete with suburbs and they share with members of their present up-state areas for their share of state reve- communities, perhaps to a greater degree. It nue. And all of this takes place within the is here, it seems to me that the concept of framework of increasing federal contribu- functional government breaks down, tions to the solution of urban problems. We must seek the proper mix between func- Many communities have found that the fed- tional and geographic limits in the assign- eral matching grant programs restrict their meat of responsibility for urban government freedom to budget because they feel they and administration. The alternatives for must earmark available funds to programs local government are at least three. The first that will generate federal dollars even though is anexation. A city can simply keep acquir- other more pressing needs should be met. ing land and welding it into a single admin- It is becoming increasingly clear that our istrative unit. This cannot go on indefinite- cities mu$t either receive considerably more ly however, particularly in an areas as large help from other levels of government, or be as megalopolis, where appropriate adminis- granted power to raise additional revenue on trative divisions cross state boundaries. their own. The second alternative is delegation of One possible source of assistance immedi- governmental power to specific administra- ately comes to mind. As the Heller Plan for tive units. This approach has tremendous the sharing of federal revenue with the states utility as we have seen with the New York Approved For Release 2005/07/13: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 June 9 1966 Approved F-605 7,/ M]k@DPA7 fl00400080014-5 A3121 ''bur economic aid, and our military aid, I am very proud to extend best wishes Suddenly wheeling, he kicked Capt. Parley has been given in response to requests from to the Government and people of the in the chest. He died that night. the Government of Vietnam, The Security Philippines and congratulate them on Ellen Goldrick Farley, Jim's mother, could Council of the United Nations . was .informesi their anniversary. neither a schooner nor brickyards. of our decision to give military assistance. Capt. Farley left no debts, small assets, Australia is not the only member of SEATO sturdy bodies, an honorable name, and a giving assistance to the Republic of Vietnam: . great mother for his boys. the T lted States of America, New Zealand, Jim promised his mother he would never and Thailand Sw. Anlna n ml,,. S g on er u or of I{orea, which is not a member, of SEATO, ~~?~ a u eunuuc urlnx, ana ne never has. He doesn't smoke either. These are tremen- is supplyine forces - HON EUGENE J KEOGH . . Salute to Republic of the Philippines Independence Anniversary EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ADAM C. POWELL OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, June 9, 1966 Mr. POWELL. Mr. Speaker, on June 12, the people of the Philippine Republic will celebrate their, independence anni- versary. I am proud to extend my con- gratulations and warm felicitations to His Excellency Ferdinand E. Marcos, President of the Philippines; and to His Excellency Oscar Ledesma, the Philip- pine Ambassador to the United States. The Republic has always been a source of inspiration to me because since it was granted its freedom from the United States in 1946 the Filipino people have upheld the faith and hope that we in America had in them. They have also remained in high esteem as trusted friends of the American people: The dedication and hard work and sacrifice of such famous Filipino heroes as Emilio Aguinaldo, Manuel Luiz Quezon, Sergio Osmefia, and Ramon Magsaysay have borne fruit in a thriving and prosperous Philippine Republic. During the Spanish-American War the United States gained control over the Philippines. It was long our intention to encourage the growth of truly demo- cratic institutions and popular govern- ment in the territory. The people learned their lesson well, and on July 4, 1946, our beloved stars and stripes were lowered and the flag of the independent and sovereign Philippine Republic was hoisted. The Republic now recognizes June 12 as its independence anniversary, and each yearly celebration finds the people that much richer and fuller in the experience of directing their own affairs. America and the Philippines have long enjoyed warm relations and those ties haveydrawn even closer as a result of fighting together against the Japanese during World War II and against the Communist _forces in Korea. Stability in areas such as southeast Asia depends largely on the success or lack thereof registered by countries like the Philip- pines. It is my fervent hope that the Philippines, entering a new year of in- dependence, will continue to register the achievement and progress it so earnestly seeks. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, June 9, 1966 Mr. KEOGH. Mr. Speaker, under leave to extend my remarks in the REC- oiiD, I include the following article from the Rome Daily American of June 2, 1966, with reference to Hon. James A. Farley, chairman of the board of the Coca-Cola Export Corp.: STILL A GREAT BIG WONDERFUL WORLD (By Ernest Cuneo) NEW YORK,-Big Jim Farley was 78 years old this week. He celebrated it with his usual 78-hour week. Since his last birthday, he has attended 125 dinners and 70 luncheons at many of which he was principal speaker. He also traveled 60,000 miles by land, sea, and air, visiting 20 countries, including all European capitals, all Central American capi- tals, and the principal cities of Mexico. He reads the box scores of every major league ball game-without glasses-as part of his habit of reading at least four news- papers every day. He is 6-feet 3-inches tall, literally in the well-known pink, and his 205 pounds haven't varied in the last 20 years. He has a most peculiar walk, one of very quick and very short steps. His towering figure seems to scoot through the New York winds, in spite of the fact that he is inter- rupted every 10 paces by someone who wants to shake his hand. Perhaps no man since Daniel Webster's Boston has so much re- ceived the adulation of a city. New Yorkers give him the respect accorded Al Smith and the affection bestowed of Jim- my Walker. There is an astonishing simplicity about this most sophisticated of men. He still has the clean wholesomeness of the lanky coun- try boy who played first base for the town team 60 years ago. He brought this same zest to nnlltlac The Democratic Party was his team, and he gave it all he had. From 8 a.m. every morning till six at night, he's in there pitching for his current team, Coca-Cola export. He's head of it, but he puts on no airs. He calls himself a salesman, and sell he does. His office is crowded with affectionate greetings from popes to presidents, and from mail-carriers to matadors. All look as pleased as if they had just paused to refresh. The Hudson River was brimming with the melting snows of the Great Blizzard of 1888 when Jim Parley uttered his birth-cry. As Damon Runyon would have said, it's 8 to 5 it was a shout of joy at being alive. His enthusiasm has mounted ever since. All of humanity is his team, and he's glad to be on it. He not only likes people; he relishes them. Jim was the second of five boys. His father was a Hudson River schooner captain, sailing bricks down to New York City. He prospered. He bought two small brickyards. But just before Jim was 10, his father went out to harness the horse to go to a neighbor's funeral. The halter was long, the horse frisky. till a Great Bi W d f l W ld tnat it is a source of never-ending wonder to Jim that men will drink whiskey, when a bottle of you-know-what is immediately at hand. For the sake of his friends, the company should put out a double-strength Farley- sized pinch bottle for men who need brac- ing as well as a pause. Jim wanted to be town clerk. An Irish- American Catholic Democrat stood as much chance in the rock-ribbed Republican town of Grassy Point then as Mao Tse-tung stands of being elected governor of Utah now. But Jim took to the mails. Apparently, Republicans like to receive letters because they elected him. This started the most unbelievable ro- mance in history between Jim Parley and the U.S. mails. He became postmaster-gen- eral of the United States, then practically a concomitant of being chairman of the Democratic National Committee. He de- served it as its chief customer alone. Being at the head of the Post Office De- partment did not soothe his letter-writing propensities; it inflamed them. Following the 1932 campaign, he signed 22,000 first- name letters of thanks; in 1936, 27,000, And not when he got around to it; immediately. Within a week after election, there were 27,000 families in thousands of cities and villages proudly exhibiting the letters of thanks with the famous green-ink signature. Farley, a boy who never graduated from high school, has 22 honorary degrees. He, with President Herbert Hoover, were the two distinguished members of both parties se- lected to reorganize the U.S. executive de- partment. He has served on New York State's sacro- sanct Banking Commission, and Its Boxing Commission, and is currently on its Racing Commission. He can discuss as an expert whether foreign trade will expand. (He thinks it will multiply) or whether Mickey Mantle is swinging too hard. (He thinks he is). -17" us a matter or routine, every major league player rounding first base at Yankee Stadium waves to Jim Farley in his box by the baseline. About 10,000 letters poured into his office this week. The whole world waved to Jim Farley on his birthday. And Big Jim beamed back. To him, it was a great big wonderful world. And, of course, things go even better with Coke. Tax Treatment of Employees Reimbursed Moving Expenses EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JAMES A. BURKE QF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, June 9, 1966 Mr. BURKE. Mr. Speaker, on Feb- ruary 24, 1966, I introduced H.R. 13070, to exclude from income certain reim- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 A3122 Approved F g Qil/1#,E 67IPIpq 0400080014-U'une 9, 1966 bulled moving expenses. Since that date 30 of my colleagues have joined in sup- port of this legislation and have intro- duced similar measures to correct the in- equity created by the Internal Revenue Rul131g 54-429. Following is an article taken from the Wall Street Journal of June 8, 1966, which I believe points out the ` impor- tance of this legislation: A TAX ON FLEXIBILITY With so much headline-catching legisla- tion in Congress, few people are likely to pay much attention to a pending bill to liberalize tax treatment of employees' moving expenses. That's unfortunate, since the present rules are not only unfair to individuals and com- panies but to some extent are even lessening the' economy's ability to adjust to change. Under present regulations an employe can exclude from his taxable income only the actual amount his employer pays to move him, his family and his possessions to a job in another city. If his company, prior to the actual move, finances a house-hunting trip or arranges a hotel room for a few days until he can find a new home, he must report these and any similar outlays as income on his tax 'return. The unfairness of this approach is clear to anyone who ever has been moved from one city to another by his employer. A trans- ferred employe can avoid a house-hunt, for example, only by quitting his job or by re- fusing to move, which in some cases may amount to the same thing. Some companies get around the problem by paying an about-to-move employe an al- lowance over and above his necessary ex- penses, just to cover his taxes. But smaller or less prosperous firms can't always afford to be so generous. The present procedure, in other words, discriminates in favor of big, thriving businesses-a rather unusual atti- tude for Washington, k The impact of the current rules cannot be measured precisely. Yet some employes un- questionably have become more reluctant to move, and some companies are either less willing or able to make the most productive use of their staffs. Aware of the difficulties, bipartisan groups in both houses of Congress have introduced corrective legislation. Even if the bill can find its way to the top of a crowded Congres- sional, calendar, though, it still faces the Treasry's opposition to tax measures in- volving a potential loss of a bit of revenue. As a matter of fact, this tax on the econ- omy's flexibility may be costing more in rev- enue than its repeal would lose. However that may be, no argument-financial or oth- erwise-is strong enough to sustain so ob- vious an inequity. In confirmation of the above remarks, I would also like to include excerpts from letters now on file in my office re- ceived from individuals from all parts of the country citing their own personal experiences and losses incurred by com- pany moves: similar duties in the New York City area. A rough estimate of my presently taxable expenses incidental to the sale of my present home, purchase of a new one, etc. Is about $5,500.00.. Since these reimbursements are treated as personal income and subjected to the maximum tax percentage in my income bracket, my transfer will cost me about $1,600.00." "It is estimated that my transfer to Chi- cago will cost approximately $2,000 additional income tax on monies the Company reim- bursed me for commission on my house sale and other related cost of moving. It takes a sizable promotional. increase to be able to recapture $2,000 worth of-income tax, which in my opinion was not really income to me but just reimbursement of expenses I in- curred due to this move." Listed above are only a few of the many examples brought to my attention during the past few months. Recent surveys indicate that annually 150,000 persons employed by private industry; 35,000 persons employed by the Federal Government and 340,000 persons trans- ferred by the Armed Services are affected financially by the present ruling. I wish to thank those of my colleagues who have joined with me in sponsoring this remedial legislation and respectfully urge the support and efforts of all Mem- bers of Congress in the enactment of this bill. Chicago Rebuilds Loop Area Under Leadership of Mayor Daley CHANGING CHICAGO: AN "UNBELIEVABLE CITY" (By Alver Carlson) CHICAGO: "This unbelievable city can only be described as an architectural laboratory. When I return home, and am asked what I saw in America, I will say I saw Chicago." This statement, made last week by a young Dutch journalist on tour throughout the United States on a university fellowship, was perhaps a bit overblown. But Chicago today, despite its weaknesses, is a city with a face that has changed more in the last eight years than at any time since Mrs. O'Leary's cow put her foot down. The most recent major building announce- ment gives a key to the pattern which a La Salle Street businessman once discribed thus:- "It must be different, it must be dra- matic, and it must be privately financed." YEAR 1969 COMPLETION TARGET The project, twin 40-story towers on Wabash Avenue, will sharply alter the city's skyline. It is scheduled to be completed by 1969. One structure will be an 800-room hotel., The other will be an office building with 700,00 square feet of rentable area The plans also call for the construction of two 10-story parking facilities between the two buildings. Builder John J. Mack esti- mated the cost of the complex at $40,000,000. But there is more involved. Chicago's central city is called the Loop after a rapid transit elevated system that circles it. This transit system has made it difficult for the area to shift or sprawl. With the announcement of the twin towers, the city said it is studying, with a government grant, ways to remove the u.gle old "L" structure. Part of it goes down the street where the new buildings wil rise. (Most of the trains which once used the "L" tracks now run through two subway tubes.) The most interesting part of the Loop's renewal is that it has been done without a single dollar of federal urban renewal aid. FEDERAL AID ELSEWHERE EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. FRANK ANNUNZIO OF ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, June 9, 1966 Mr. ANNUNZIO. Mr. Speaker, dur- ing the past year, many newspapers and periodicals throughout our country have reported extensively on the giant strides that Chicago is making toward eliminat- ing its slums, improving its highways, and rebuilding the loop area, which I have the honor to represent in the Congress. Under the bold and dedicated leader- ship of Hon. Richard J. Daley, mayor of our city of Chicago, tremendous strides have been made and much has been accomplished. What is not a commonly known fact, however, is that the rebuilding of the inner loop area has been accomplished without a single dollar of Federal urban renewal aid. In other major cities, such as New York and Philadelphia, more than two-thirds of the money spent for rebuilding portions of the central city came from Federal grants. Chicago, instead, has used only private funds for In the years between 1958 and 1985 the district saw completion of $297,000,000 worth of office buildings with another $117,500,000 under construction. Civic and public build- ings accounted for another $103,710,000, with $53,840,000 worth of such construction under way. Total construction figures that include stores, hotels and motels, and garages, show that an estimated $1 billion worth has been completed, is under way, or has been an- nounced since 1958. This is an area under 100 acres. At about the same time, in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Bos- ton, Cleveland, St. Louis, Denver, San Fran- cisco, and other cities two-thirds of the money used to tear down and rebuild por- tions of their central areas came from fed- eral grants, according to sources here. The national spotlight focused on their Charles Centers and Penn Centers, and vir- tually ignored the Chicago approach that was achieving the same result. While, this city was certainly in favor of federal aid, it preferred to concentrate use of the funds on the slums that surrounded the Loop, which had been spreading ten- tacles of despair into the central city itself. More than $550,000,000 has been spent or is rivate d t ,,in January of 1965, my company trans- ferred me to Chicago from the West Coast. Last year I was assessed over $500.00 on ex- pense allowed me by my company for such costs as storage, house hunting trips, meals while living away from my family for three months, plus shelter cost for the same period, and other miscellaneous costs when my fam- ily was finally able to join me. This past month I finally sold my home in Tacoma, so my income tax for 1966 will show an addi- tional cost of over $400.00 for the expenses allowed me by my company in connection with the selling of this residence." "'Effective March 7th, I was transferred from my position In Philadelphia to assume an p improving the downtown loop area. Of being spent by the governmen course, our great city has utilized Federal developers to rip out slums and replace them with decent, modern housing. funds, but only for eliminating slums and SLUM CLEARANCE STRESSED rebuilding outside of the central city, or Chicago had decided to put housing and loop area. slum clearance ahead of the central area, It is my pleasure to include in the Come- rightly judging that the great commercial GRESSIONAL RECORD an article which ap- Loop would look to itself. geared on June 6 in the Christian Science Thus the Chicago pattern of central re- Monitor discussing the singular success building became different. It can be de- achieved by Chicago's unusual approach scribed as partly sectional and partly piece- to urban renewal. The article follows: meal. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 Approved'F`or lei 2005/G7/ 3- CIA-RDPfi7B00446R000400080014-5 June 9, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE It seems unfortunate now that at than combat soldiers in the course of Honolulu our President embraced Ky. this fighting. U Thant's counsel should Very definitely, when Ky talks of bring- be followed by our leaders. If it is fol- ing democracy to South Vietnam, his lowed it seems probable that the. tragic record is very much against his state- . depopulation of Vietnam and loss of ments. It has been a year since 10 gen- American lives will be brought to an erals, in a coup, overturned the civilian end. Let us hope that such a conference government at Saigon and Installed Ky will result in the neutralization of Viet- as Prime Minister. Instead of carrying nam and bring tranquility to southeast out land reforms which had been in- Asia. Unfortunately, it has been re- augurated some years previously, this jected in the past. militarist regime has canceled what lit- The simple truth is entirely different tle progress has been made. than the propaganda which has been Vietnam Is of no strategic or economic fed to the American people. In this con- importance to the defense of the United nection, I ask unanimous consent that States. Yet, our involvement there with a recent editorial in the St. Louis Post- armed forces of more than 300,000 men Dispatch entitled "U Thant's Counsel" has turned this Vietnam civil war into be printed in the RECORD at this point. an American war. The growing inten- There being no objection, the editorial sity is terrifying. We should embrace was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, and not reject efforts made by U.N. Sec- as follows: retary General U Thant to bring about [From the St. Louis Post-Dispatch] an armistice. U THANT'S COUNSEL When Prime Minister Ky talks about elections in South Vietnam, he is in fact not talking about fair elections. It is re- ported that a condition laid down Is that no member of the National Liberation Front may vote. Also, he has laid down the condition that no neutralist may vote. He is rigging the elections before making any definite plans for such elec- tions. The International Control Com- mission, consisting of representatives of Poland, India, and Canada, set up in the Geneva agreements, is without a doubt the best body to supervise any elections If they are willing to undertake the task. In the search for peace we should seek immediate deescalation of the war. Our first step should be to halt the bombings of North Vietnam and to offer to nego- tiate for settlement if representatives of Hanoi agree to consider a conference on the basis that delegates representing the four parties involved in this Vietnam civil war participate. There should be no objection on our part for the Hanoi and Saigon governments to be repre- sented by the same number of delegates and these delegates to meet with an iden- tical number of delegates representing the Vietcong, or National Liberation Front, and the United States. Such a conference should be arranged to con- vene in some Asiatic city. Without a doubt, no armistice agree- ment could be successful and binding except with the support of international guarantees through the reconvening of the Geneva conference or under the au- thority of the International Control Commission. 'A drawback, perhaps, to having international guarantees super- vised through the United Nations is that to this good hour Communist China has not been admitted into the United Na- tions. - This administration certainly should take the initiative in sounding out lead- ers of Asiatic nations regarding some realistic method of ending this blood- shed. For every Vietcong who has been killed and for every soldier of the so- called friendly forces of Vietnam, ARVN, undoubtedly more civilians-men, wom- en, and children-have been killed, many by, our napalm bombing. It has been estimated that four times as many ci- vilians have had their lives snuffed out Approved Truth, as U Thant once observed, is one of the first victims of war. His words were con- firmed once again this week as Secretary of State Rusk and Vice President HUMPIiREY once again proclaimed the Administration's dedication to the search for peace in Viet Nam. Mr. Rusk repeated his offer to go to Geneva whenever anybody was there to nego- tiate with. Mr. HUMPI1REY detailed anew the various peace offensives of the past and de- voutly adopted U Thant's "prayer and wish" for peace as our own. What is the simple truth? It is that the Administration spurned peace talk feelers re- peatedly in 1964 and 1965. It is that U Thant's own efforts to arrange talks have been repeatedly and roughly rejected. It is that while publicly taking no sides in South Viet Nam's political turmoil the Administra- tion has thrown every resource into the un- dercover support of a Saigon military junta whose first article of faith is an utter rejec- tion of peace negotiations, It is that while paying lip-service to U Thant's "prayer and wish" the Administration obstinately refuses to heed U Thant's realistic counsel on the steps necessary to make peace. The Secretary General of the UN renewed that counsel in his moving address to the Amalgamated Clothing Workers this week. Military methods, he said, will not restore peace; President Johnson once agreed with that. ( "This war must be stopped," said U Thant, "on the initiative of the participants, lest it get out of hand. And he repeated what he has often said, that the necessary conditions for peace include a return to the Geneva agreements, which were based on the principle -of military neutralization of all Viet Nam; a prior scaling down of military operations (which would include an end to the bombing of North Viet Nam) ; and an agreement to negotiate with the actual com- batants-in other words, the National Liber- ation Front as well as North Viet Nam. These steps are reasonable if peace is gen- uinely the objective. So long as the United States rejects U Thant's counsel, which ex- presses the conscience of the world organi- zation to which We so often pay verbal trib- ute, our verbal reiteration of peaceful inten- tions will fall on unbelieving ears through- out the world. Some Americans, in bitter frustration, feel that the strands of history have become so hopelessly entangled that nothing can now be done to unravel an unwanted war. This seems plausible only in the context of the Administration's present policy, which is to back the Ky government's violent suppres- sion of popular yearnings for peace and to continue escalation of the war. If the basic decision were made to accept a negotiated settlement instead of chasing For Release 2005/07/13 CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080014-5 the illusion of military victory; If we sup- ported the Viet Namese forces that favor reconciliation, rather than an armed dicta- torship which opposes it; if we adopted as our policy the establishment of a com- promise, neutral government permitting our ultimate withdrawal, instead of trying to establish an anti-Communist government that could only exist under our permanent military protection-in this context, many doors to peace and mediation would open. No vital national Interest of ours keeps the doors closed. It is pride and arrogance and illusion-the illusion that we are en- gaged In a holy ideological war. U Thant is right in saying that the somber course of events has probably left to the Viet Namese people no Ideology at all except a passion for national identity or even survival. He is right in saying that no government or peo- ple is "likely to lose in stature or dignity or Worldly advantage" from coming to terms with the world In which we actually live. He is right in calling upon those who have the power and the responsibility "to- search objectively and without rancor for ways to end this historic tragedy." RESIDUAL OIL QUOTAS Mr. PASTORE. Mr. President, I am in receipt of a letter from the New Eng- land Council under date of May 31, 1966, which I think will be of considerable interest to my fellow Senators who have been concerned with the residual oil quota situation over the past several years. The letter reads as follows: THE NEW ENGLAND COUNCIL, Washington, D.C., May 31,1966. HOn. JOHN 0. PASTORE, U.S. Senate, ' New Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR PASTORS: You will be pleased to know that directly as a result of your efforts in securing removal of resid- ual oil quotas last month, the cost of resid- ual oil to the consumer in New England has been restored to normal levels. Quotations last week were down 35 cents a barrel from the period immediately be- fore quotas were removed. There is now little, if any, difference between the world market price and the price charged to the New England consumer, In other words, the premium which the controls and the ticket system had added to the price of oil has disappeared, it was our contention while the rigid quotas were in existence that the New England consumer was paying at least a 30 cent per barrel premium because of the controls. It would appear that this was a conservative estimate. Based upon our ex- perience with what has happened over the past several weeks, it is reasonable to pro- ject that New England consumers will be saved over $30 million this year alone. You certainly have reason to be proud of this accomplishment. Beat personal regards. Sincerely yours, COLSON, I do not think that this credit belongs to me. I do not think that this credit belongs to any group of individuals. I think It belongs to everyone who has been in this fight, particularly the Sec- retary of the Interior, Stewart Udall, who has been in the vanguard of this crusade, and his brilliant assistant, J. Cordell Moore, Assistant Secretary of the Interior. Mr. President, we have said right along that if this artificial system of distribu-