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Approved- For Release, 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 June 2, 1966 - CONGRESSIONAL RECORD- APPENDIX ' ington'asadministratiie assistant to Senator the public-or the President-owns your Daniels time." .p ' .' 'TO TEXAS WITH GOVERNOR hike other 'White douse aides, Jacobsen In 1956 Jacobsen returned to Texas as ex- is high on the invitation'list of status-con- !eeutive assistant to Governor Daniels, and sclous Washingtoii~ hostesses. But he says entered private law practice two years later. he almost never accepts Invitations except "I like Texas," he says in an accent which from a few friends. testifies to his affection. SOUNDS PRETTY GOOD "I like the warm, friendly people, and the "A White House assistant sounds pretty open spaces-it's uncluttered geographically." good, almost as good as a Cabinet officer," he But he explains that he had to come to observes shrewdly. Washington when the President asked him to Leaning back In a purple chair, smoking a do so. long slim cigar, Jacobsen admits that work- 'I feel if you have an ounce of patriotism ing for the President is demanding, but adds or- sympathy, you can't say 'No' to a Presi- firmly that it is "no more difficult than any- Jaeons'en, who is experiences in what has been referred to as the bloody battleground of Texas politics, makes a wry comparison with the Riachination8 in the nation's capital. "Texas politics are tough, but compared to this, it's nothing," he observes. However, Jacobsen appears to be a man who can make the best of most things. When he moved to Washington as a White House assistant, he promptly made himself comfortable In a second-floor office, con- temporary in style, with chairs upholstered in deep purple and orange In contrast to pale beige walls and rugs, and the bittersweet tunes of the Nineteen Forties as background music. LIKES TO DESIGN COMFORT "I like to design comfortable surroundings and then work in them," says Jacobsen, who ,prone to haunt the asserts that he is not Presidents office, although he is included in the select group which arrives daily in the President's bedroom before breakfast to con- fer on the day ahead. Jacobsen reads the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD at home before he leaves for the White House, underlining passages relating to Administra- tion policies or programs, to be drawn to Mr. Johnson's attention. But after half an hour`or so with the Pres- ident as a beginning to the day, Jacobsen retires to his own office to work on projects suggested by Mr. Johnson, or relating to the previous day's work. CONGRESSIONAL LIAISON Congressional liaison is one of Jacobsen's duties, and he spends some time daily chat- ting with contacts on Capitol Hill. He describes himself as a "general assign- ment" man and maintains that he has no wish to become another Valenti, "Jack is a lovable kind of guy, but I don't think anybody could take his place," he says, adding, "I don't fit the mold." According to Jacobsen, the most important characteristic for a White House assistant is the ability to use his own judgment and to A3009 duty are assigned to research and de- velopment activities. In addition, a small but increasing number of Army veterinary officers are 'assigned to cer- tain Navy installations to perform re- search functions. The demand for vet- erinary officers to be assigned to military research programs exceeds the current availability of such officers. It is to this vital role of today's Veterinary Corps that most of the.people may be unaware. Because his training in medical sci- ences parallels that of the physician, the Army veterinary officer is qualified to ogy, experimental surgery, and labora- tory animal science. The professional talents of such officers are required in military research to provide assistance for all projects involving the develop- ment of subsistence items or in which laboratory animals are employed. Although large numbers of laboratory animals were used for military research in World War II, increasingly larger numbers of such animals have been uti- lized on an annual basis since that time. Lt. Gen. Leonard D. Heaton, the Sur- geon General, the Department of the Army, has, on the occasion of its 50th anniversary, congratulated the corps on its many past accomplishments. I would like to insert General Heaton's congratulations into the RECORD: DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL, Washington, D.C., May 30, 1966. To each member of the U.S. Army Veterinary Corps: I wish to extend my congratulations and sincere appreciation to each member of the Army Veterinary Corps on the occasion of your Fiftieth Anniversary. The officers of the Corps, a key member of the Army's medical team, reflect on its role in improving health conditions in military and civilian communities around the globe. In keeping pace with the progress of the last five decades, your Corps can claim its share of "firsts" in improving the well being of American and Allied Armed Forces, as well as pioneering contributions to the world's food supply and human health. I am certain that the challenge of the fu- ture will be met with equal enthusiasm as it has in the past. Lt. Gen. LEONARD D. HEATON, The Surgeon General. I used to be as poor as a church mouse. I've addition to those which are strictly vet- been demanded of all my life." erinary in nature. By virtue of post- doctoral study, and training a sizable number of officers of the Veterinary Corps are now recognized specialists in U.S. Army Veterinary Corps Celebrates a variety of disciplines such as pathol- 50th Anniversary ` ogy, microbiology, radiobiology, toxicol- EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. L. MENDEL RIVERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, June 2, 1966 Mr. RIVERS of South Carolina. Mr. Speaker, on Friday, June 3, the U.S. Army will commemorate the 50th anni- versary of the founding of its Veterinary Corps. I take this opportunity to .offer my congratulations to the corps on this their 50th anniversary. Since the inception of the Veterinary Corps of the Army in 1916, veterinary officers have been utilized in the conduct of animal care, food inspection, and sup- port of varied military research pro- grams. The number of veterinary officers assigned to research activities during the first 25 years of the corps' existence were relatively few ;compared to the number of officers assigned to animal treatment facilities or food inspection activities. These early investigators made many notable contributions to military medi- cine, not only in the area of animal diseases but also in the prevention of diseases transmitted from animals to human beings. During World War II the Army util- ized over 56,000 horses and mules and state facts concisely, whether verbally or in several thousand war dogs. With such a memorandum. a large animal population the Army LONG MEMORANDA TABOO faced many problems related to the "The President doesn't like long memo health of these animals, which required randa-but then, nobody does," he notes. research programs for their solution. His attitude toward Mr. Johnson, a man Much of the research activities of the rumored to be both difficult and demanding military veterinarians of World War II "I read all the stories about how hard It rather than animals per se. They col- was to work for him," he recalls, "and I be- laborated in the development and p ro- lieved them because I had no reason not to. I duction of vaccines for the protection of have simply found them to be ylntrue, at human beings against typhus and Japa- least in my case." nese B encephalitis. Antigens were de- "I like his. personality," he continues. "It veloped for the diagnosis of leptospiral stimulates you to witness the operation of his mind. He makes you think you can do infections of military animals and the things which you don't think you can do." use of such antigens were subsequently NO oorrsaoL of YOUR TIME extended to the diagnosis of this infec- Jacobsen describes the White House as "like tion in human beings: any :other public office where you have no ? 'Within the modern army the officers . . control of your time." of the Veterinary ? Corps' are playing ? a concerning the restrictions on air tar- 'f'When' I ran'a law office, i set my own vital role in military research and devel- gets in Vietnam was published in the chddule," he points out. "I could tell im-, opment'activities.: Today, over 22 per- Plain Dealer at Cleveland recently, and portant clients when I could see them. Here, cent of all army veterinarians on active has brought considerable comment from U.S. Airmen Chafe at Curbs in Vietnam EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. FRANK T. BOW OF OHIO IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 10, 1966 Mr. BOW Mr Speaker, an article Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 A3010 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX June 2, 1966 my constituents. It is a subject of con cern to us all, and I ask leave to include the article with my remarks as follows: BOMBING HANOI ADVOCATED: U.S. AIRMEN CHAFE AT CpRBS IN VrET (By R. W. Apple, Jr.) SAIGON.-Senior U.S. Air Force officers here have been disheartened by the restrictions placed on their conduct of the air war over North Viet Nam. "In my view," one said this week, "we can neither win the war nor bring Ho Chi Minh to the bargaining table unless we change the rules. What we are doing now simply isn't working well enough." In private conversations, the officers con- cede that they have been unable to stop the flow of North Vietnamese infiltrators into the South, despite the expenditure of thou- sands of man-houts and millions of pounds of ordnance. They maintain that troops, the great ma- jority of them moving on foot, cannot be stopped by bombing the trails over which they move or the areas in which they as- semble. The United States has been bomb- ing supply routes in North Viet Nam and in Laos for more than a year but 20,000 North Vietnamese have still managed to make their way South since Jan. 1. Nor, in the opinion of these same officers, is the Hanoi government likely to sue for peace Or seek negotiations unless U.S. air power threatens its survival. "Those people have had a tough road to hoe for a long, long time now," an officer with wide experience in Southeast Asia said. "We won't terrify them by knocking out their bridges. They just rebuild the bridges and press on." The use of 1352s at Mu Ghia Pass has not been successful either, according to informed sources. The pass was reopened, they say, within less than 24 hours after the initial strike, which was heralded by officials as an enormous success that had crippled enemy supply systems. "In fact," one key Air Force man said, "The B52s are really not very well suited in Viet Nam, They are good for area targets- factories, downtown areas-but we don't get orders to hit those here." As matters now stand, the Air Force Com- mand here feels that it is compelled to play chess without the power to attack its op- ponent's queen. Only by smashing the war-making capacity of the North, the officers argue, can the ability of Hanoi to support a large army in the South be eliminated. Only by doing this, they say, can continuation of the war be made painful enough for the Hanoi regime to force it to seek some way out. Specifically, many Air Force officers in Viet Nam would like to bomb the military and industrial complex of Hanoi-Haiphong. A few would also like authority to destroy the dams of the Red River, which would cause widespread flooding in the delta areas where most of the North Vietnamese live. They insist, moreover, that it is folly not to strik the four airfields that ring Hanoi- at Phuob Yen to the north, Kep to the north- east, Gia Lam to the south and Cat Bi to the east, near Haiphong-at a time when U.S. pilots are encountering Communist MIGs more frequently. All targets in the North must be-approved by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and, in practice, many of them must be approved by the White House. Currently, U.S. planes are not permitted to strike in the neighborhood of Hanoi or Haiphong, except to bomb anti- aircraft or missile installations. .Key staff members of the 7th Air Force, chaffing under these restrictions, also resent what they consider "unethical conduct" by the Department of Defense during the con- troversy over the shortage of bomb parts that has plagued operations in South Viet Nam for several weeks. One source said that he had been told, in effect, to lie, to newsmen who asked about the problem. Investigation teams have been sent to the offices of staff officers suspected of having discussed the shortage with news correspond- ents. "I've never seen a war where Washington meddled so much," a colonel said. "They want us to do the job, but they don't Want to give us the latitude to do it. I sometimes feel guilty about sending pilots up there knowing that I haven't done all I could to bring them back alive." EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. LESTER L. WOLFF OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 3, 1966 Mr. WOLFF. Mr. Speaker, because of the recent critical events in southeast Asia, Communist China has become a key area of concern to all of us. Because of the significance of an editorial which appeared in the April ,20, 1966, issue of Long Island Newsday, I wish to call it to the attention of my colleagues: OUR CHINA POLICY "Where there is no vision, the people perish." -Old Testament: Proverbs XXIX, 18 Secretary of State Rusk, in diplomacy an "old China hand," has submitted to Congress a sane, balanced and impressive statement of U.S. policy toward Communist China. He spoke from a long background of knowledge, for during World War II he served on the staff of Gen. Joseph (Vinegar Joe) Stilwell, commander of the China-Burma-India thea- ter, and in 1950-51 was assistant secretary of state for Far Eastern affairs. The secretary's testimony was delivered be- fore a closed hearing of the Far East Subcom- mittee of the House Foreign Affairs Commit- tee last month, but was not released until last Saturday. It is a paper that serves as further evidence that Rusk is becoming one of our great secretaries of state. It is also a realistic document, and a temperate one. It does not slam the door on Red China as a member of the world community; in fact, it opens that door. If China will give up aggression and its efforts to dominate its neighbors, the U.S. is willing to extend the hand of friendship. But until such time, this country must keep its guard up and its powder dry. The secretary displayed great erudition in referring to China's past "humiliation of 150 years of economic, cultural and political domination by outside powers.'! The cession of Hong Kong to Great Britain in 1842, the forced creation of five "treaty ports" open to foreign residents and trade, and a whole series of invasions and civil wars transformed a once great power into a nation fragmented by internecine struggles. The Communists took advantage of more than a century of chaos. In October, 1934, Chiang Kai-shek, as head of government, sought to wipe out the Reds as a military power. This led to the famous "Long March." Ninety thousand Communists under Mao Tse-tung broke through encircling Nationalist troops in the Province of Kiangsi in south central China. In one.year, after the loss of 70,000 troops, the remaining Reds under the leadership of Mao Tse-tung completed a 6,000-mile march through the mountains and arrived at Shensi Province in northwest China. This outnumbered band, embittered but tough. eventually drove Chiang from the mainland to Formosa and formed a new government Oct. 1, 1949. OUR RECORD: A GOOD ONE The embitterment persists, even though there are historic ties of friendship between the people of mainland China and those of the U.S. Secretary Rusk reviewed our record. and it is a good one. We have sought to lessen tension and to normalize relations. Peking has refused every overture, insisting that we must first abandon our support of the Nationalist regime of Formosa. We are not, as the secretary clearly indicates, opposed to China because of its ideology but because it is hostile to the U.S. and has pursued a course of subversion or aggression, in Korea, in India, in Vietnam and in Africa, to men- tion a few such places. The secretary has listed a 10-point program for dealing with mainland China. He hopes for peace and for an eventual change in the attitude of the new generation of leaders soon to come. He does not want this country to assume that a state of hostility is unending and inevitable. At the same time he reels we "should be under no illusion that by yielding to Peking's bellicose demands today we would in some way ease the path toward peace in Asia." We do not intend to wage war on China. "We look forward hopefully, and confidently, to a time in the future when the government of mainland China will permit the restora- tion of the historic ties of friendship be- tween the people of mainland China and ourselves." Conciliation, however, is a two- way street down which the leaders of Red China fear to venture. The secretary, by stating precisely our aims and desire for peace, has done a great service. His position paper is a classic. It is a telling answer to those scholastic "experts" who have argued a policy of surrender rather than steadfast- ness. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. RICHARD T. HANNA OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 5, 1966 Mr. HANNA. Mr. Speaker, it is re- freshing and encouraging to see a citizen of the United States express positive patriotic ideals. Mr. Darrell Gifford, a teacher from Garden Grove, Calif., tired of those who are negative in their out- look, decided to express his sincere patriotic feelings for the United States. The statement entitled, "I Am a Tire- less American," is an inspiring statement of principles. The statement follows : I AM A TIRELESS AMERICAN (By Darrell Gifford) I am a tireless American. I'm undaunted by epithets from tired Americans and other critics of America. . I'm steadfast In the face of criticism from those countries receiving American charity. Their right to criticize surely is no less un- alienable than mine. I remember how some of our patriot forefathers criticized France as French funds, French soldiers and the French fleet helped us force Cornwallis to surrender at Yorktown. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R0004000080018-1 1966 Approved F86%J&S JSNAI;/ (9R0DPA7t3ijEN ago. What has been 'happening meanwhile that it is only on the very eve of Medicare that stepped-up efforts are being made to bring it bompliaince which Is required for any federal funds? Why do these efforts reach the. acute stage when it could virtually nul- lify the medical program to which the state's and the nation's elderly citizens have been looking forward and into which they have poured millions of their own dollars? It has been painfully obvious that Medi- care will tax the facilities of every available hospital. A shortage of beds and personnel will undoubtedly prove the program's great- '66t handicap. Now comes a situation in which civil rights-and this is no attempt to downgrade them-are being put above basic human rights. What is going to happen if Washington bureaucrats have not gotten around to inspecting all hospitals-or refuse to approve nany solely because of the Civil Rights Act-by July? What comes first when sickness, emergency or death threatens-suffering patients or a Washington guideline? The suffering will be there regardless of race; there is no distinc- tion of races in illness. Beyond that, where is the repeated assur- ance when Medicare was under debate that there was nothing in the program to hinder or interfere with freedom of choice in physi- cian or hospital? Washington hasn't heard any howl of pro- test that will begin to compare with the out- cry which will arise if Medicare participants Cannot get what is coming to them because of bureaucracy, red-tape and the para- mountcy of any other cause over the allevia- tion of human suffering and the saving of human life. Mind you, we are not talking about any segment of Medicare patients, but all of them and just as emphatically, all the city's, the area's, the state's and the nation's hospitals and medical care facilities. . What is to be held up at the cost of hu- man life? [From the Greensboro (N.C.) Daily Nev3e, June 1, 1966] "MUST" VERSUS "CAN'T" A state-wide meeting of hospital admin- istrators and accountants in Durham last week was Warned by its keynote speaker that the "Johnson Medicare system" is here and that hospitals, whether they like it or not, must accept it. . The "must" from that angle sounds strange in the ears of hospitals and public alike since they have been hearing in re- cent days that only 10 of North Carolina's nearly 200 licensed hospitals-and none in Greensboro-have been approved for ac- ceptance of Medicare patients by the De- partment of Health, Education and Wel- fare. The hospitals, their spokesmen have re- peatedly stated, are trying to get ready to take Medicare patients when that program becomes effective July 1 but have yet to learn whether they will qualify. Inspection teams are going the hospital rounds and hope that their task may be com- pleted within the stipulated time. But there is no assurance that such will be the case, or, that the inspection will result in ap- proval for a substantial percentage of hos- pitals. We agree that hospitals should and "must" accept Medicare patients. But this "must" becomes largely ineffective when it clashes with a Washington "can't." When a human life may be at stake, quibbling is little short of criminal. The least that can be done, amidst the present confusion, is an extension of a rea- sonable time in which to make adjustment and meet standards; and meanwhile every hospital admonished, In humanity's name, to 4ilakeready to accept the avalanche of pa- tients which the new program is expected to bring. 'We truly hope no death certificate will have to attribute a single fatality to gov- ernmental policy. DEAR MR. KORNEGAY: Thank you very much for your prompt reply of May 24 to my letter of May 20. Another matter has come to my attention about which I hope you can do something. As you already know, Medi- care becomes effective five weeks from to- day. According to recent editorials in the Greensboro papers, so far only about one- third of the general hospitals in North Caro- lina have been found acceptable to the Fed- eral Government to furnish care and be re- imbursed under the Medicare Act. The delay seems in almost all cases to re- volve, about compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act. I will not belabor the point that any government contractor is, or should be, required to comply with the Civil Rights Act. I disagree with the Act completely and irrevocably and feel that it is absolutely,the worst piece of legislation any Congress has ever passed, but this is no longer the issue. The issue is that government inspectors have thus far obviously placed Civil Rights above human rights of the sick and injured suffering populace. For example, in a recent meeting the director of one eastern North Carolina hospital stated that he had for years insisted on no discrimination either among staff or patients; there were common heating facilities and common patient facilities. When the inspectors from the Equal Employ- ment. Opportunities Commission visited this hospital, they made a major point of the fact that the vast majority of non-white patients were utilizing ward facilities. There were a few in semi-private and pri- vate rooms but the majority were in wards. The hospital administrator pointed out, as you and I can both appreciate, that this was a matter of choice on the part of the patients and that most of them simply could not af- ford higher patient accommodations. Yet, undoubtedly because of this concentration in lower cost accommodations the inspectors have yet to grant approval for this hospital to furnish services under the Medicare Act. They have visited this particular hospital no less than four times-naturally at . consid- erable expense to the taxpayers-and still there has been no approval. The hospital to whioh I refer is located in Ahoskie. It is not clear to me just what influence you might be able to exert in matters such as this. I do feel, however, that we are faced with two government programs, both sup- posedly designed for the welfare of minority groups but which are now actually opposing each other, and in doing so denying the very people they are supposed to benefit the rights granted them by the Congress. As our spokesman in Washington, I would like you to do anything and everything pos- sible to see that this inequity is corrected, and I would appreciate hearing the results of your action. Time is of the essence if we are to avoid the possibility of a truly needy, sick person being denied adequate medical care and treatment simply because one branch of our sprawling, all encompassing, Federal Government has not yet made up Its mind whether the facilities available to him are suitable to the government. The blame for any such inadmissions will have to rest squarely upon our . Federal Government which interferes with both the right of choosing medical facilities and extreme need. This could, in certain cases, be the difference A3001 Solution in Vietnam EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JOHN G. DOW OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, June 2, 1966 Mr. DOW. Mr. Speaker, yesterday a number of Congressmen who are mem- bers of the Democratic study group were privileged to meet with Thich-pro- nounced Tic-Nhat Hanh, a Buddhist monk from South Vietnam. He is the director of the school of social studies at Ban Hanh University in Saigon. As director of the youth for social service program of the Unified Buddhist Church, he trains young people for work in social reconstruction in the villages. Through this and his leadership of the Buddhist Little Peace Corps, he has been in close contact with the peasants-who make up 90 percent of the Vietnamese popu- lation. The Venerable Nhat Hanh is the edi- tor of the leading Buddhist weekly, Thien My-pronounced Tien Me-and director of the Buddhist publishing house. in Saigon. A leader among the intellec- tuals in Vietnam, he. is one of the coun- try's best-known poets and the author of 10 published books. Although he is not here as an official representative of the Buddhist leader- ship, he is particularly well equipped to talk to us because of his knowledge of both the United States and his own country. He has been an intimate friend of the Venerable Tri Quang for 20 years and it was Tri Quang who cabled him in 1964 to give up his studies and lecturing at Columbia University to re- tuyn to Vietnam. He speaks with the familiarity of one who has participated in the center of the decisionmaking group of the Buddhist community. Thich Nhat Hanh released the following statement under date of June 1, 1966. It contains the thoughts of one who is clearly close to his country. It contains suggestions for a solution in Vietnam that parallel ones put forth by enlightened American leaders. In addi- tion, it gives assurance that such solu- tion would have to be accepted by the Vietcong. In this respect it is most noteworthy. STATEMENT OF THE VENERABLE NHAT HANH, JUNE 1, 1966 Just this morning the U. S. Consulate in Hue was destroyed by angry Vietnamese youths. In the past four days five Viet- namese have immolated themselves by fire, some of them leaving behind messages ex- plaining that their actions were in protest against U.S. policy in South Vietnam. Dur- ing my short visit to your country I have been repeatedly asked why the Vietnamese people seem to have become so strongly anti- American. I wish, first of all, to assure you.that I am not anti-American. Indeed, it is ..precisely because I do have a great respect and admira- tion for America that I have undertaken this long voyage to your country, a voyage which Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 A3002 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX June 2, 1 entails great personal risk for me upon my return to South Vietnam. Yet I assume this risk willingly because I have faith that if the American public can begin to understand something of what the Vietnamese people feel about what is happening in our country, much of the unnecessary tragedy and misery being endured by both our peoples might be eliminated. The demonstrations, the self-immolations, and the protests which we are witnessing in Vietnam are dramatic reflections of the frus- trations which, the Vietnamese people-feel. at being so effectively excluded from par= ticipation in the determination of their country's future. 80 years of French domi- nation over Vietnam were ended by a long and bloody struggle, waged and won by the Vietnamese people against overwhelming odds. During the twelve years since inde- pendence most Vietnamese have remained without a voice in the nation's destiny, and this at a time when the nation is being sub- jected to a destructive force far surpassing anything ever before seen in our country. If anti-Americanism seems to be emerging as a focus for some of the recent protests, It is because the Vietnamese people recog- nize that it is really only the awesome U.S. power which enables the Saigon governments to rule without a popular mandate and to follow policies contrary to the aspirations of the Vietnamese people. This is not the independence for which the Vietnamese peo- ple fought so valiantly. The war in Vietnam today pits brother against brother. the Viet Cong against the supporters of the Saigon government. Both sides claim to represent the Vietnamese peo- ple, but in reality neither side does. The most effective Viet Cong propaganda says that the Saigon governments are mere pup- pets of the U.S., corrupt lackeys of the, Every escalation of the war, every new contingent of U.S. troops confirms these charges and wins new recruits to the Viet Cong, for the overwhelming majority of the Vietnamese people now thirst desperately for peace and oppose any further expansion of the war. They see clearly that the present policy of constant escalation only puts peace ever further into the future and merely guar- antees an even greater destruction of Viet- namese society. There are now more than 300,000 Americans in my country, most of them knowing and caring little about our customs and practices and many of them in- volved in destroying Vietnamese people and property. This creates friction which generously feeds the anti-American propaganda, and the fact- that the war kills far more innocent peasants than it does Viet Cong Is a tragic: reality of life in the Vietnamese countryside. Those who escape death by bombings must often abandon their destroyed villages and seek shelter In refugee camps where life is even more miserable than it was in the vil- lages. In general, these people do not blame the Viet Cong for their plight. It is the men in the planes, who drop death and destruc- tion from the skies, who appear to them to be their enemies. How can they see it other- wise? The United States chooses to support those elements in Vietnam which appear to be most devoted to the U.S.'s wishes for Viet- nam's future. But these elements have never been viewed by the Vietnamese people as their spokesmen. Diem was not, nor were Diem's successors. Thus, it has been the U.S.'s antipathy to popular government in South Vietnam, together with Its hope for an ultimate military solution, which has not only contradicted the deepest aspirations of the Vietnamese people, but actually un- dermined the very objective for which we be- lieve Americans to be fighting in Vietnam. To us, America's first objective is to have an anti-communist, or at least a non-com- monist; Vietnam, whereas the Vietnamese people's objective is to have peace. They dis- like communism, but they dislike war even more, especially after twenty years of fight- ing and bitterness which has rotted the very fabric of Vietnamese life. Equally impor- tant, we now see clearly that continuance of the war is more likely to spread commu- nism in Vietnam than to contain it. The new social class of military officers and coinmercants which has been created as a direct result of the U.S. Involvement, a class of sycophants who support the war for crass economic reasons, are not the people to whom Washington should listen if it sin- cerely wishes to hear the voice of South Vietnam. The Vietnamese people reject with scorn this corrupt and self-seeking class which cares neither for Vietnam nor for the great ideals of America, but thinks only of its own interests. The opinion is often expressed that there is no alternative to the present U.S. policy in Vietnam, neither on the political nor the military side. The non-communist alterna- tives to a military dictatorship are said to be too fragmented to offer a stable alternative, and a cease-fire and U.S. withdrawal are con- sidered unfeasible because it is feared that the Viet Cong will take over the country by terror. The Vietnamese people recognize both of these dangers, but they also recognize the utter futility of the present course and the catastrophic effects which it is having on our society. Furthermore, we do not agree that there Is no alternative to a military dictator- ship. The force of Vietnamese nationalism is such an alternative. Indeed, this is the sole force which can prevent the complete disintegration of South Vietnam and it is the force around which all Vietnamese can unite. But nationalism cannot attain its effective potential in the present Vietnamese politi- cal climate where opposition to the govern- ment invites open persecution upon oneself and identification with it discredits one in the eyes of the people. More than a decade of this atmosphere has served to drive many of the Vietnamese na- tionalists into the National Liberation Front, and many others of them into an ominous silence. Last year an effort by a prominent group of nationalists to circulate a mild pe- tition requesting peace negotiations between the South Vietnamese government and the N.L.F. was so brutally attacked by the gov- ernment that we are not likely to hear from them soon again, despite their having at- tained some 5,000 signers in less than three days time. Today, the means for nationalist expres- sion rests mainly with the Vietnamese Bud- dhists, who alone command sufficient popu- lar support to spearhead a protest for popu- lar government. This is not a new role for Vietnamese Buddhism, for in the eyes of the Vietnamese peasants, Buddhism and na- tionalism are inseparably entwined. The historic accident that made the populariza- tion of Christianity in Vietnam coincident with France's subjection of Vietnam created this image. The repression of our faith by the French and by President Diem strengthened it. And today, when the Buddhist attempt to give expression to the long pent-up wishes of the submerged and ignored Vietnamese masses is met by the gunfire and tanks of the Vietnamese army, the Vietnamese people, Buddhist and non-Buddhist alike, clearly see whose action reflects our national heritage and whose action betrays this heritage. Thus, although the Vietnamese people may lose skirmishes because they have no foreign sources of support, the crude victories of the Saigon generals serve merely to weaken their credibility while confirming the Viet Cong's propaganda claim that the government cares nothing about the people? The Buddhist efforts are designed, not to weaken Vietnam's resistance, but to create a geniune will to resist. Differences do exist among the Buddhists, the Catholics, and the other sects, but they would not be unsurmountable if - there were a climate in Vietnam that encouraged unity. But there are those who see a unified, popu- lar, nationalist movement in Vietnam as a threat to themselves. Such persons help to sow disunity and then use the disunity which they create as a pretext for retaining power. No, we do not accept the evaluation that there is no alternative to the present type of government. The second argument offered for continu- ing present U.S. policy is that a cease-fire and U.S. withdrawal would merely leave Vietnam to the communists. This argument we must also reject. The Viet Cong grow stronger because of the mistakes made by Saigon, not because of its communist ideo- logy or its terror. If South Vietnam could achieve a government which was clearly re- sponsive to the basic aspirations of the Viet- namese people and which was truly inde- pendent, there would no longer be any basis for popular support for the rebels. Indeed, the rebels would have lost their reason to rebel, and if any guerrilla activity were to continue the Vietnamese people would have the will to resist it for they could identify it as being hostile to Vietnamese national- ism, contrary to the people's longing for peace and reconstruction, and therefore of foreign inspiration. Since coming to the United States I have been asked repeatedly to outline concrete proposals for ending the strife in Vietnam. Although I am not a politician and cannot therefore suggest every detail of a satisfac- tory settlement, the general direction which such a solution must take is quite clear to me and to many of the Vietnamese people. It does not involve the U.S. in any negotia- tions with Hanoi, Peking, or the N.L.F. To ,the Vietnamese people such talks, if neces- sary, are the proper province of Vietnamese officials rather than of Washington. My solution would be along the following lines : 1. A cessation of the bombing, north and south. 2. Limitation of all military operations by U.S. and South Vietnamese forces to defen- sive actions: in effect, a cease-fire if the Viet Cong respond in kind. 3. A convincing demonstration of the U.S. intention to withdraw its forces from Viet- nam over a specified period of months, with withdrawal actually beginning to take place as a sign of sincerity. 4. A clear statement by the U.S. of its desire to help the Vietnamese peopleto have a government truly responsive to Vietnamese aspirations, and concrete U.S. actions to im- plement this statement, such as a refusal to support one group in preference to another. 5. A generous effort to help rebuild the destruction which has been wreaked upon Vietnam,'such aid to be completely free of ideological and political strings and there- fore not viewed as an affront to Vietnamese independence. Such a program if implemented with suf- ficient vigor to convince the now under- standably sceptical Vietnamese people of its sincerity offers the best hope for uniting them in a constructive effort and for re- storing stability to South Vietnam. The plan is not perfect, for the question remains of how can the U.S. be sure that the South Vietnamese government- and the Viet Cong would cooperate in such a ven- ture. Insofar as the South Vietnamese gov- ernment is concerned, the past statements of Premier Ky have clearly indicated his un- willingness to seek a peaceful end to the war. In fact, it has been the contradiction between the aggressive words of Saigon and the peaceful statements of Washington which has so discredited the so-called U.S. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 June 2, 1966 Approved Fp8Rt s?s?g 5JQL7/ &SIDPf B00446R 00400080018-1 PPENDIX peace offensive of last winter. The with- drawal of the U.S. support for Ky may thus be a necessary pre-condition for im- plementation of such a plan. It is obviously not possible to predict the response of the Viet Cong to such a program but the Installation of a popular government in South Vietnam, plus a cease-fire and the beginning of an American withdrawal, would so undercut the Viet Cong's position that it is likely to have no alternative but to cooperate. Finally, if some may question why I ask the U.S. to take the first step, it is because the U.S. is militarily the strongest nation In the world. No one can accuse it, of cowardice if it chooses to seek peace. To be a genuine leader requires moral strength as well as big guns. America's history sug- gests that she has the potential to provide the world this leadership, L.B.J. Loan Pool Plan Unwise EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. E. ROSS ADAIR OF INDIANA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, June 2, 1966 Mr. ADAIR. Mr. Speaker, a recent editorial in the Elkhart Truth, Elkhart, Ind., with respect to the loan pool legis- lation recently passed by the House of Representatives sets forth the views of many thoughtful Americans. It is worth of careful consideration: L.B.J. LOAN POOL PLAN UNWISE Its regrettable that the U.S. House of Representatives saw fit Tuesday to pass by 206-190 President Johnson's proposal to form a pool of government-owned loans and sell shares to big investors. Under this measure, the administration hopes to sell $4.2 billion worth of shares dur- ing. the fiscal year starting July 1, and thus cut federal budget spending by that amount. On final House vote, all 206 in favor were Democrats; against it were 64 Democrats and 126 Republicans. The bill now goes back to the Senate, which has passed a somewhat different version of the measure. The GOP Policy Committee in the House denounced the measure as "fiscal chicanery" that would disguise the real size of the fed- eral budget deficit, and said that it would start a new system of back-door financing. It was noted that these participation sales would not count as part of the official, legal ceiling on the federal debt. Usual political groupings really have been scrambled on this issue. Fiscally-conservative southern Democrats have backed LBJ. But such liberal groups as Americans for Democratic Action, AFL- CIO and National Farmers Union have sided with the GOP. The labor organization said the proposal would increase interest rates and would tighten money in the home mortgage mar- ket. AFL-CIO sources also agreed with GOP critics that it stemmed from a desire to keep the projected budget deficit for the year starting July 1-now estimated at $1.8 bil- lion-as low as possible, Under -the plan, Congress would have to approve funds to make up the difference be- tween the lower interest rates on govern- ment-owned loans and the higher interest rates paid on shares in the pool to make them attractive. to investors, The House would not approve an amend- ment offered' by Rep. PAUL FIND (R-N.Y.) to encourage small-denomination sales to indi- viduals, as he asked "why not let the little cat share in this windfall?" This is not good legislation. Congress will Secret United States-China Air War in Viet EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. DONALD RUMSFELD OF ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, June 2, 1966 Mr. RUMSFELD. Mr. Speaker, I have permission to insert in the RECORD the following article from the Chicago's American of ' May 27, 1966, by Stan Carter, which raises new questions con- cerning the conflict in southeast Asia: SECRET UNITED STATES-CHINA AIR WAR IN VIET (By Stan Carter) WASHINGTON,-Americans and Chinese Communists have been shooting at each other-and keeping quiet about it-in North Viet Nam. The secret battle is being waged between United States planes and Chinese anti-air- craft guns. Informed sources also said that a Red Chinese MIG-17 that Peking charged was shot down by American planes apparently did fall in Red Chinese territory. . DENY SHOOTING OVER CHINA Despite a television repbrt to the contrary, however, the state department stuck by a denial that the American planes that shot down the Chinese MIG on May 12 crossed the North Vietnamese-Chinese border. There also is reason to believe. Russian "advisers" have been killed in United States air strikes against surface-to-air missile sites in North Viet Nam and that the Kremlin has accepted the losses without protest. The shooting down of the Chinese MIG 2 weeks ago is the only recent direct clash that has been publicized by either side. DOWNED NORTH VIET PLANE A United States air force spokesman in Saigon said planes shot down a MIG over North Viet Nam the same day, at about the same time, and thought that it was North Vietnamese instead of Chinese. Peking produced photos of the MIG's wreckage and a fuel tank jettisoned from an American plane that, it claimed, were found in China. The Red Chinese declared that the"blood debt" owed to the United States would be repaid. On a news show last night, CBS state de- partment correspondent Marvin Kalb said he had learned that a flight of four United States fighter planes had, in fact, crossed the border and shot down the Chinese MIG as Peking claimed. He said the American planes returned safely. WHICH SIDE OF DORDER Other sources told the news that American officials still aren't sure whether the Ameri- can planes were on the North Vietnamese or Chinese side of the border at the time of the shooting. They said there was little doubt it was a Chinese MIG that was downed, however, and that it fell in China. Sources said that, except for the propa- ganda Peking is making about the MIG, the point is academic. They said both sides know they are shooting at each other regu- larly and aren't talking about it to avoid open confrontation. A3003 The Rhode Island Jaycees and Mental Health EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JOHN E. FOGARTY OF RHODE ISLAND IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, June 1, 1966 Mr. FOGARTY. Mr. Speaker, under leave to extend my remarks, I include the following speech: THE RHODE ISLAND JAYCEES AND MENTAL HEALTH (By Congressman JOHN E. FOGARTY, Glocester Junior Chamber of Commerce, Harmony, R.I., Nov. 20, 1965) It is always a pleasure to be back in Har- mony, and I am happy indeed to be here for this charter night banquet. As most of you know, I grew up on a farm just outside Har- mony and I have a special feeling for these mill towns; these woods; these lakes and ponds. This is the first opportunity I have had to speak before a Junior Chamber of Commerce group. I especially welcome it, because I am- afraid that too many of our fellow citizens have a mistaken notion about the.Jaycees, I think too many of our fellow citizens Identify you with Junior Miss Pageants and golf and tennis tournaments and other light, social activities. Now, there is nothing wrong with any of those activities-but the Jaycees. have a more serious side, which has yet to receive the recognition it justly deserves. What people fail to realize is that in the 45 years since the first Junior Chamber of Commerce was founded, the Jaycees have made an enormous and continuing contribu- tion to community betterment all across this Nation. The Jaycees say that their primary purpose Is to promote the welfare of the community by supporting active, constructive projects. The Jaycees say they provide the young men of this Nation's communities with training in leadership and awaken civic consciousness to better the usefulness of this country's citizens. These are not empty platitudes, Because of our common interests in one health area-and tonight I will speak about it, and not about other Jaycee activities, such as physical fitness and environmental pollution, simply because there is not time to discuss all these things-I want to salute the Jaycees of Rhode Island for their activi- ties in support of mental health. There is no more vital area-no more pressing need-in the health field than mental health. Our citizens must be made aware of the fact that some 86,000 persons in Rhode Island need psychiatric care. Even more important is the need for an awareness among us that last year only 32,000 of these more than 86,000 persons needing help were treated, in Rhode Island. We need to keep before us the obligation to provide more and better services, fast, to care for these people. I am proud that we Rhode Islanders have one of the oldest mental health associations in the United States. Last Spring I had the pleasure of addressing the New England States Citizens Action Conference on Mental Health in Providence, where I had an op- portunity to pay tribute to the Rhode Island Association for Mental Health as it began its fiftieth year of service to the people of this State. At that time I pointed out that for a number of years now 'I have watched the community mental health movement prosper and grow. I have had a front-row seat when budget proposals for Federal expenditures in the health field came before my subcom- mittee for reviews During 18 years of service Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/13.: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 A3004 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD- APPENDIX _ June 2, 19 on the Huse Appropriations Subcommittee dren at the Ladd School in Exeter. It is a of 'this contact you will be able to identify I have ai?o become aware of many dressing matter of great concern to me. children in your community who have de- needs which have still not `been ' met, and if Federal programs of assistance are to `be veloping emotional problems. You can work I am proud that the Rhode Island Junior Chamber of Commerce-through, its various chapters-joined. In this collective effort to meet these pressing needs. It did not stand idly by, waiting for the Association for Men- tal Health and related groups-working with the Federal government-td do the job. It joined forcas with us in the best tradition of Rhode Island-and New England-cooper- ating to achieve social goals desired by all our citizens. The South County chapter of the' Jaycees has built a center for mental health rehab- ilitation. The Chariho chapter, located- as all of you may know-in a rural farm district, has cleared the land donated by a private citizen and is now in the process of laying the foundation for a rehabilitation facility to be called "Camp Hope." The Barrington chapter has sponsored fund drives resulting in a considerable amount of financial support. And the chap- ter in Providence is working with Father Robert Blair at the State Mental Hospital on the problem of the rehabilitation of institu- tionalized persons. Further, the State Chairman for Mental Health and Retardation-Mr. William Mars- land-has organized a series of orientation meetings to acquaint local Jaycee chapters on problems and projects in the mental health area. This, of course, is Glocester Chapter Char- ter Night-the occasion being-I believe- the extension of charter to Glocester by the Burrillville chapter of the Jaycees. This is a special occasion-a social occasion-a time for celebration-but it is also a time for stock taking-for asking yourselves what projects you will undertake, as a chapter of the Jay- cees. I can think of no single area where cit- izen action has greater opportunity for rich rewards-no area of health which is more challenging-than the mental health field. The passage of the historic mental health and mental retardation legislation in 1963 by the Congress marked the beginning of a new era-but that era is slow in coming to birth. Citizen action Is more important than ever before--and I want to tell you why. I am proud to have participated in the activities of the 88th Congress which led to the passage of the Mental Retardation and Community Mental Health Centers Construc- tion Act of 1963, and Mental Retardation Planning Amendments of 1963. As part of this package the Congress approved funds for the construction of community centers for the care and treatment of mentally ill and retarded persons. However, at that time funds for staffing the centers were dropped from the bill. This year the 89th Congress approved $73.5 million over 3 years for initial grants, and additional sums for continuing grants. This year, too-and a year late-funds were also provided to meet initial staffing costs of technical and profes- sional personnel in community mental health centers. We estimate that the centers will receive more than $225 million over the next 7 years for staffing assistance. More than $100 mil- lion over the next 3 years will be available to train teachers of mentally retarded and handicapped children. What I have said with' these statistics Is that the Congress has enacted laws that-if properly implemented-can do much to as- sist the mentally ill and retarded-and their families-all across this Nation. Let me repeat the words-"if properly im- plemented." This is an important and ur- gent point, and one that r made just a cou- ple of weeks ago before the Rhode Island Chapter of the Council for Exceptfonal'Chil- Rhode Island, such groups as yours-work- ing with the State Mental Health Associa- tion-can do much to clear up questions of priorities and needs in localities within the State. The 1963 legislation specifically called for citizen. participation in mental health planning, and while the Mental Health Association has the main burden of this charge, the assistance you can provide- as young people with plenty of know-how at the local level-should be an invaluable resource for the Association to draw upon. Those in positions of leadership must not be allowed to forget the availability of Fed- eral support and the intense need for rapidly getting under way a meaningful program to ease the burden of mental ill-health on the community. New hope for the retarded and for their families is within Rhode Islanders' grasp. We Rhode Islanders must not delay in using every means to equip and assist those who are mentally in to assume a pro- ductive role in society. Legislation enacted before 1965 authorized Federal funds for State planning to supply better services to the mentally ill and men- tally retarded. It also provided funds to aid in the construction of facilities to care for exceptional children and provided a means of giving teacher training for special education. It is my sincere hope that Rhode Island's State officials will soon act to take full advantage of these financial aid pro- grams. In the problem of financing, you here to- night can help raise matching funds from foundations, other civic groups, State and local funds, and other sources. When funds are short, it may be necessary to support new legislation to finance mental health pro- grams. The times have changed, and so the traditional role of supporting mental health legislation must broaden to include support of the financial means for these programs. In this connection I cannot refrain from quoting a recent editorial in the Providence Journal, which pointed out that Governor Chafee's administration can get by without new taxes, but at the sacrifice of falling short of the expectations of a modern and progres- sive society. The editorial was called "Ade- quate Government Cannot be Cheap," and I hope that all of you-and the Governor- read It carefully. Of course money is not the sole solution to this complex problem of bringing the best possible health services to all of our citizens. At the President's recent White House Con- ference on Health, called to deal with the most pressing health needs of the Nation, the opening discussions of the conference cen- tered on health manpower. For health man- power--or the lack of it-is going to shape and limit the health care we can provide and the health protection that we can offer the American people in the years ahead. You do not have to be psychiatrists to make a worthwhile contribution here. You can, for example, help see to it that the peo- ple in your communities know of and use seek out and. put into practice programs de- signed to prevent these emotional difficulties before they occur. Many such programs, attempted in various school systems, have met with good success. Often a crisis may arise when a child does poorly in school because of language diffi- culties. The employment of a speech thera- pist by the school system to work on speech difficulties has forestalled many problems and improved school achievement. Con- ferences scheduled with frequency between the teacher and parents to discuss the child's academic progress and general adjustment have been helpful in coordinating the efforts of parents and teachers, and in alerting teachers to possible stress situations in the home-such as the birth of a new brother or sister. Other schools have found that visits by the school nurse to the home of children who are frequently ill, often give school officials insight into problems the child might be facing in the home that produce emotional stress. Various orientation meetings for new parents, open-door policies on the part of principals to parents, and group discussion between parents, teachers, psychologists and mental health workers, are all helpful in eliminating the causes of emotional prob- lems in children. Today, of the more than half a million mentally ill patients in institutions in the United States, the numbers of patients in the 10-to-24 age group is increasing rapidly, in contrast to the number of patients in all other age groups. It is estimated that there are in America a total of some four million emotionally disturbed children. Because one fourth of all Americans are in our Nations' classrooms and because there is a fundamental relationship between intel- lectual and emotional development, the schools-through strengthened mental health programs-are our best hope for reversing the waste of a considerable part of our youth. There is at this time no health area that is crying so loudly for the attention of our citizens. Not only Is the challenge of help- ing the next generation open to all-the mentally ill and the mentally retarded of all age groups are waiting for assistance. This assistance is-in part, at least-being hampered by lack of forceful efforts on the part of the more fortunate of our citizens- such as those of you here tonight. This we can-and must-do something about. In the tradition of New England- and, of course, of Rhode Island-we must assist our less fortunate neighbors who have been struck by mental disease, just as our ancestors assisted their neighbors when they were victims of Indianattack. If we fight this fight and win it, the day will come when-just as the Indian names are. preserved (on our maps)-the names of the kinds of mental illness will be preserved in books for the curious to read-and will hold no terror for anyone, anymore. available facilities, and you may be able, to help recruit mental health manpower. There is another thing that you can do for Rhode Island. Most-or at least many- of you young people are parents. Now, we need to develop our psychiatric services for children, and launch new programs of pri- mary prevention along the lines being fol- lowed by the Department of Social Welfare and the Newport School Department-this is a pilot project involving evaluation of chil- dren showing problems In adjustment in kindergarten through the third grade. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ROBERT B. DUNCAN OF OREGON IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, June 2, 1966 You, as parents, are in constant contact Mr. DUNCAN of Oregon. Mr. Speak- with the children of Glocester. By virtue er, I believe my colleagues will find in Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/13: Cl RDP 0-446RO00400080018-1 June 2, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECOR - SMTE 11509 effort to satisfy the problems raised at each bill must contain proliferation of Arkansas said, after recounting briefly our hearings. It does, and I think ef- jobs and agencies and power or it is not the history of the Tonkin Gulf resolu- fectively, provide for regulation of those worth reporting for floor action. tion, that since the hearings on the marketing practices which the hearings Mr. President, the most unfortunate resolution, "there has come to my at- demonstrated to need most urgent atten- aspect of this legislation is the certain tention suggestions that the whole affair tion: relative size designations-small, contribution which these provisions in was very questionable as to the char- medium, and large comparisons-the section 5 of the bill will make to the de- acter of the attack upon our ships on size and number of servings contained struction of competition in the American the high seas." in some food packages, the "economy marketplace. The ultimate victim of a The Senator then went on to deliver size" designation when in some instances lessening of competition will not be what I would construe to be an asser- savings may be negligible or even non- American industry or American com- tion that the resolution was intended "to existent. merce. Indeed, it will be the consumer inflame everybody" in the middle of a Subsection (c) also permits regulation who will suffer from regimentation of campaign for the FULBRIGHT continued in his of the "cents off" promotion practice our commerce. with which the witnesses as well as mem- These parts of section 5 contribute delivery by alluding to the "allegation" bers of the committee seem to have had significantly to a recognizable pattern of by the administration that "this was a a great amount of difficulty. control of the marketplace. deliberate and unprovoked attack on our Had the substantive bill stopped there, They should not be permitted to r - ships upon the high seas." at there will be no question of So th it would have been a highly commend- main in this bill. I able piece of legislation. It would have the context in this matter, I read now served the needs of the consuming pub- from pages 923 and 924 of a committee lie as evidenced by the hearings. It GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION print of the hearings. Senator FUL- would have been a bill of which our com- Mr. SIMPSON. Mr. President, I BRIGHT is speaking: inittee could have been quite proud. should like a few moments this after- The whole thrust, I think you will admit, Subsections (d), (e), (f), and (g) of noon to address myself to a subject which of the Tonkin Gulf resolution was there had section 5 contain the matter which causes concerns the credibility of the adminis- been an attack on the high seas on our ships, my differences with the majority of the tration and the administration's spokes- and the language you insist now as being of committee to be very real and pro- men on the question of the war in great significance was more or less like a whereas to any other resolution. It was a riOllriced. Simply stated, these sections Vietnam. statement of general principles. It was not provide for standardization of packaging I ask unanimous consent that materials than considered, I do not believe by any- throughout the American marketing sys- relevant to the subject to which I shall one, and it certainly was not for me, and I tem. It is obviously of no significance allude be printed in the RECORD at the have already publicly apologized for my neg- to deny this import of the bill by saying conclusion of my remarks. These include ligence in not having much more thorough that the words "package size" do not a copy of public Law 88-408, the text of hearings on that resolution, because since appear in the power granted under these a press briefing by Defense Secretary that time there has come to my attention subsections. The promulgating author- McNamara dated August 5, 1964, and suggestions that the whole affair was very questionable as to the character of the at- ity does, under these sections, possess the the text of the Defense Secretary's news tack upon our ships on the high seas. power to standardize and control the conference of the same date. It is very easy to inflame anybody, partic- number of types of packages which may The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- ularly in the middle of a campaign for a be used by the manufacturer and dis- out objection, it is so ordered. Presidential election by stating that there tributor. And, this power is his all to no (See exhibit 1.) has been an attack on the high seas on one good purpose, for the entire effort to Mr. SIMPSON. Mr. President, with- of our ships. That was the whole purpose regulate package sizes can immediately out opening a discussion into the legality of that resolution. Certainly everyone agrees be nullified when those exempt from this of the American involvement in Vietnam, we ought to repel an unprovoked, deliberate attack upon our ships on the high seas where act exercise their perfectly proper pric- it can be stated that the so-called Gulf they had a right to be. ing functions. of Tonkin resolution (H.J. Res. 1145) Any suggestion at the time that this might Those subsections might possess some signed into law by the President on have been a deliberate provocation on our redeeming factor if they would accom- August 10, 1964, is an important element part to invite the incident or that we had plish any legitimate purpose at all. Of of our position there. been inside the territorial waters of North course, they will provide jobs for a cer- As will be recalled, this resolution was Vietnam in connection with some boats of tain few. So do many other Federal pro- introduced, considered in committee, and south Vietnam, and all of that was brushed grams. But, in light of the policy state- passed by the Senate and the House with aside in the emotions that naturally arose ment in this bill and the reasons for the the greatest of speed during the last from an allegation by the Administration that this was a deliberate and unprovoked legislation, job creation is not a legiti- presidential election year, and its tenets attack upon our ships upon the high seas, mate exercise of the legislative process have been invoked countless times in the and I think you have to admit that was the in this instance. continuing discussion of the war in main thrust. I can think of nothing less imaginative southeast Asia. Mr. Pn my view, this or more dull than the results of the close As is equally self-evident, the resolu- Now, serious because the regimentation of commercial packaging tion is predicated upon the premise that is a chairman most of one President, sid of matter , the Senate's most as these sections of S. 985 contemplate. there were unprovoked attacks upon a committees, ma I hold no particular brief for the esthetic American ships on the high seas on powerful and which influential Senate's qualities of packages of dry cereal or soap August 2 and 4, 1964. Repeated state- committee whichc opinion a in great to powder. ments have been made by numerous ad- co n public anion regard to to have At the same time, I do not look forward ministration spokesmen to the effect the s in Vietnam, would seem v to the day when Washington decides, that these attacks were, in fact, unpro- suggested war war the hat Democratic there re was chicane on however, sincerely, that my wife and I voked and occurred somewhere between the then part election year and d In ree- enough for a family of 10 healthy chil- territorial waters and were a "serious tional idren simply because there were prior to threat to international peace." ding the taken en the the liberty debate of reading that decision, too many sizes available I was surprised to read in the tran- I some haofve import. on the market. script of the May 9 hearings before Sen- This, indeed, is precisely the reason ator FULBRIGHT'S Foreign Relations matters and I would like at this point offered in defense of these subsections of Committee, during which Secretary of to read into the RECORD a brief chronol- section 5 of the bill-too many different State Rusk was under questioning, that ogy of events. sizes of bags of potato chips, The very there is apparently some question in the Mr. President, as I have said, the at- best that can be said about these'sub- mind of the chairman as to the validity tacks upon our ships occurred on the 2d sections is that they are frivolous. - The of these major premises. and the 4th of August 1964. Upon that very least that can be said in their favor According to the transcript, which is point there is not dispute. On the 4th is that they represent the continuous borne out by a tape recording I have of of August, the President went on na- thread in Great Society legislation: That the proceedings, the junior Senator from tional television during prime time to -Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 11510 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R00040008001.8-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE June 2, 1966 announce that "renewed hostile actions international incident which triggered a that the relevant portions of it be made against U.S. ships on the high seas in Senate resolution giving the President of public in answer to the questions I have the Gulf of Tonkin have today required the United States carte blanche authority raised. me to order the military forces of the in dealing with a war situation. ExmBrr I United States to take action in reply." If I have read correctly the comments H. J. RES. 1145 At about midnight that night, Secre- of the Senator from Arkansas, sometime (Public Law 88-408, 88th Cong. Aug. 10, 19641 taly McNamara held a press conference prior to the hearings of May 9, the Sena- Joint resolution to promote the maintenance in which he announced that "our de- tor has come into possession of what he or International peace and security in stroyers have undergone two deliberate considers to be evidence that events in southeast Asia attacks in international waters." the Gulf of Tonkin did not occur quite as Whereas naval units of the Communist That same day at a press briefing, Sec- the administration has stated. regime in Vietnam, in violation of the retary McNamara again asserted that Let me stress here that I do not know principles of the Charter of the United Na- "North Vietnamese surface vessels at- from firsthand knowledge precisely what tions and of international law, have delib- tacked U.S. destroyers operating on happened at the Gulf of Tonkin, but offi- erately and repeatedly attacked United routine patrol in International waters in cial reports and statements, which are, States naval vessels lawfully present in in- the Gulf of Tonkin." to the best of my knowledge, the only ternational waters, and have thereby created On August 5 -the President requested credible account of the events, suggest a serious threat to international peace; and the resolution on which hearings were that our ships were attacked in interna- Whereas these attacks are paig of of a de- - held in executive session the following tional waters. The question of provoca- gresssin e that and the e Communist m s sregime regiime res in North rth day. tion would, I suppose, depend upon who Vietnam has been waging against its neigh- On that day, August 6, the measure is on the receiving end, but I have neither bors and the nations joined with them in was reported out by the joint Senate seen nor heard-and I have been a party the collective defense of their freedom; and committee. It passed the Senate 82-8 on to briefings by the Secretaries of State Whereas the United States is assisting the August 7, on which date it also passed and Defense on this matter at the White Peoples or southeast Asia to protect their the House. It was signed into law on House-any evidence which would ob- freedom and has no territorial, military or August 10 to become Public Law 88-408. viate the commonly held premise that political ambitions in that area, but desires The resolution says, in part: our ships were attacked in international only that these peoples should be left in Naval units of the communist regime in waters without provocation. peace to work out their own destinies in their Vietnam ... have deliberately and repeatedly Let me make crystal clear at this point Resolved own way: by Now, the Sen therefore, be it. attacked United States naval vessels law- that an the basis of my past experience Representatives ate and House of o fully present in international waters. with the administration, I am certainly y America in of Congress the United assembled, That the A report submitted by the junior Sen- not wedded to the idea that everything Congress approves and supports the deter- ator from. Arkansas to accompany Sen- the administration says is to be accepted mination of the President, as Commander in ate Joint Resolution 189-the Senate at face value. Although I am inclined to Chief, to take all necessary measures to repel version of the resolution-referred to the accept the White House version of Ton- any armed attack against the forces of the unprovoked attacks by North Vietnam kin Gulf, I will certainly acknowledge , United states and to prevent further on United States forces in international that utter candor is not a hallmark of aggression. waters. this administration. SEC. 2. The united States regards as vital The Senator from Arkansas, in Sen- On the basis of the Senator's state- its natio nce of International into world al peace peace and ate debate on this resolution August 6, ment of May 9 and the already well- security in southeast Asia. Consonant with defended the American response to the known position of the administration, it the Constitution of the United states and attacks and the points of fact in regard would seem that there is a fundamental the Charter of the United Nations and in ac- ts them in a forceful and eloquent man- conflict of views. This conflict is in the cordance with its obligations under the ner. He told the Senate that he rec- facts of an International incident from United Southeast stat tes esa is, therefore, Defense Treaty, the ommended "the prompt and overwhelm- which came an extremely important doc- President determines, nt, take prepared, all l necessary ing endorsement of the resolution now ument that is the basis for many of the steps, including g the use e of armed force, t, to before the Senate"-the Tonkin Gulf administration's prerogatives in Viet- asGlsst any member or protocol state of the resolution-and he went on to assert nam. Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty re- that "the facts on the immediate situa- If the Senator from Arkansas has un- questing assistance in defense of its freedom. tion are clear," earthed evidence or has found a body SEC. 3. This resolution shall expire when In recounting the attacks of August 2 of fact contrary to the official version of the President shall determine that the peace and 4, the Senator noted that both at- the Tonkin Gulf attacks, then this is a and security n the area ions create a by tacks occurred 'without provocation and matter which is extremely important to acts n bof ithe Uniteedl Nations o or otherwise, that they occurred in international wa- a nation which is struggling to fully except that it may be terminated earlier by ters. He went on to say that "the ac- comprehend the history, the implica- concurrent resolution of the Congress. tion taken by the United States was ap- tions, and the extent of our commitment Approved August 10, 1964. propriate as policy as well as justifiable in Vietnam. in law." In all respect to the Senator's high po- LEGISLATIVE HISTORY But later, doubt enters the record. sition as chairman of the Committee on House Report No. 1708 (Committee on During Senate debate on March 1 of Foreign Relations, I call upon him to ex- Foreign Affairs). this year in the context of discussions of plain fully the nature of his statement Senate Report No. 1329 accompanying S.J. the supplementary military and procure- during the hearings of May 9. If the Res. 189 (Committee on Foreign Relations) . ment authorization, the junior Senator Senator has or can acquire the evidence CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, volume 110 (1964) : from Arkansas is quoted, on page 4201, as to substantiate his statement, then it AAugust 6: Considered and Senate. saying in regard to the Tonkin Gulf in- would, In my judgment, be in the na- in lieu of S.J. Res 1891ed and passed Senate, cident: tional interest to fully pursue this mat- August 7: Considered and passed House. We were told it was an unprovoked attack. ter with hearings, investigations, or pub- - In other words, we had not done anything lie disclosures So that light can be cast NEWS CONFERENCE OF HON. ROBERT S. McNA- which could properly be considered as prov- into an area in which darkness may now MARA, SECRETARY OF DEFPNSE, THE PENTA- oc~ation. .. . I had no reason to doubt the prevail. GON, WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 5, 1964 factual situation. Secretary McNAMARA. Earlier tonight the Further en in that debate , on page Mr. President, as I was preparing to President told the nation the United States 42Fu Senator inathft quoted assaying: speak I received a letter from the dis- would take appropriate action to respond to tinguished Senator from Arkansas [Mr. the unprovoked attacks on U.S. naval vessels I judge from the way the Senator from Ar- FULBRIGHT] in which he tells me the Sub- by torpedo boats of North Vietnam. I can tell has sed too sure fuse exactly whiimselhappe f thaed heat Ton jest was examined in detail with repre- you that some of that action has already In any event, Mr. President, it is, in "I would be delighted to have you exam- these carriers operating in the Gulf of my view, a most serious business when ire the transcript of that meeting." I two Tonkin d liberate attacks in international Wa- doubt is cast upon the basic facts of an shall examine that record and I shall ask ters, have already conducted air strikes Approved For Release 2005/07/13 CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/ 3 C1A RppCNZR46R000400080018-1 11511 June 2, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL REC0RD sE ,against the North Vietnamese bases from rived overhead and joined the defensive when the attack has been completed, what which these PT boats have operated. Our patrol. orders the entire group has in this area? naval aircraft have also conducted strikes At 10:52 the Maddox reported the de- Secretary MCNAMARA. We will only be able against certain other targets which have di- stroyers were, again under attack. At mid- to tell you such information as will not re- rectly supported the operation of the PT night, by which time the vessels were in this veal future plans or in any way jeopardize boats. Furthermore, in view of the unpro- position (indicating), the destroyers reported our future operations. voked attacks the deliberate attacks in inter- they had suffered no hits, no casualties, and Question. What I mean is, will they go national waters on U.S. naval forces, the that the defense aircraft from the Ticon- back to the standing orders which they had? United States has taken the precaution of deroga were illuminating the area and at- Secretary MCNAMARA. It will depend on moving substantial military reinforcements tacking the enemy surface craft. circumstances at the time. to Southeast Asia from our Pacific bases. At 12:32, at which time they were at this Question. Mr. Secretary, has the alert In addition we are also sending reinforce- point (indicating) the patrol reported that status of the United States forces around the ments to the Western Pacific from bases an additional enemy craft was believed to world been increased? in the United States. I think you can un- have been sunk, and that low ceilings, poor Secretary McNAMARA. Only such units are derstand it is not wise at the present time weather, was beginning to hamper the air- being alerted for reinforcing moves. for me to identify these forces or to list the craft operations. Question. Has there been any long range detailed strength of these movements, but I At 12:54, the Turner Joy, one of the two alerts to any portion of defense industrial can assure you that the movements are ap- destroyers, reported that during the engage- base at all? propriate to the provocation. ment, in addition to the torpedo attacks, the Secretary MCNAMARA. No, none. Now I would like to review briefly in destroyer had been fired upon by automatic Question. Sir, were all the attacks from chronological order of the unprovoked at- weapons while being illuminated by search the two carriers? tacks which took place today, August 4th, lights. Secretary MCNAMARA. Yes. The only air- on our vessels operating in international At 1:30 a.m., by which time the destroyers craft participating in the strikes are air- waters in the Gulf of Tonkin. were in this position (indicating) they re- craft from the Ticonderoga and the Constel- You will recall that the destroyer Maddox ported the attacking craft had apparently lation, operating in those waters on Sunday, was broken off the engagement. The Maddox Question. You, I think, said that the car- attacked by three PT boats., The President and Turner Joy were directed to resume their riers were in the Gulf of Tonkin? Instructed us to add the destroyer Turner normal and routine patrol operations, and Secretary MCNAMARA. Yes., as being They have moved up. They Joy to the patrol being carried out by the they are continuing them at the present Question. Maddox, and since that time the two ves- time. lels have operated on patrol in those waters. Now, I will endeavor to answer your Secretary McNAMARA. The Ticonderoga You'll see their course on this map. questions. is essentially in the Gulf area and the Con- Here is the southern portion of China, the Question. Sir, was there anything else ever stellation has been moving in this di- coast of North Vietnam, down to the 17th seen or heard from the unidentified aircraft? rection, parallel, below which, of course, is South Secretary MCNAMARA. No. The unidenti- Question. Sir, will this be one strike or Vietnam. This is Hainan Island, possessed fled aircraft did not participate in the attack several strikes? by Communist China. The course of our de- and at this moment, we have no further Secreary MCNAMARA. There are obviously stroyers is here, operating 30, 40 to 60 miles information regarding them, more than one aircraft from each carrier off the coast of North Vietnam in interna- Question. In which direction did they participating in it, but it is basically one tional water, moving southward. disappear? strike, unless there are further unprovoked At 7:40 P.M., August 4th, 7:40 P.M. local Secretary MCNAMARA, I can't tell you. attacks on our vessels. time, Vietnamese time, August 4th, the There was no further information on them. Question. This is just a retaliatory strike, Maddox at about this position (indicating) Question. Can you name the bases in then? reported radar contact with unidentified sur- North Viet Nam that were attacked? Secretary McNAMARA. I simply want to face vessels who were paralleling its course, Secretary MCNAMARA. No. I cannot. leave it as I said it. paralleling the track of both the Turner. Question. Will you name them before the Question. Can you describe the weapons Joy and the Maddox. Communists do? or type of aircraft being used? At 8:36 P.M., by which time it was about Secretary MCNAMARA. We will name them Secretary McNAMARA. No, they are typical in this position (indicating). the Maddox at a time appropriate to the safety of our aircraft from attack carriers. established two new radar contacts with two forces. It would be inappropriate to name Question. Do you know whether the strike unidentified surface vessels and three un- them at this time. The attack is con- has been successful at all? identified aircraft. At this time U.S. fighter tinning at present. Secretary MCNAMARA. I am sure it will be aircraft were launched from 'the carrier Question. Can you tell us how many bases? successful. Ticonderaga, which was also operating in Secretary McNAMARA. No. Until such time Question. Can you tell us whether they the Gulf of Tonkin. These fighter aircraft as the attack is completed, it would be un- have encountered any aircraft opposition or were launched to rendezvous with the Mad- wise to comment further or to identify the any interdiction by air? dox and Turner Joy, and provide air cover areas being attacked. Secretary MCNAMARA. The strikes are con- to them. Question. Can you tell us if the attack is tinuing so I can't give you any progress re- At 9:08, by which time the Maddox and currently underway? port on it. Joy had advanced south to approximately Secretary MCNAMARA. It is currently un- Question. How many aircraft are involved this point (indicating), the unidentified air- derway. on our part? craft had disappeared from the destroyers' Question. You made a distinction between Secretary MCNAMARA. The aircraft from two radar screens and the surface vessels were North Viet Nam and certain other support attack carriers. remaining at a distance. By that time, the facilities? Question. No numbers? aircraft from the USS Ticonderoga had Secretary MCNAMARA. I simply wanted to Secretary MCNAMARA. I can't give you any arrived over the destroyers and they com- distinguish between patrol craft bases them- more information. menced defensive patrol over them. selves and certain supporting installations Question. The presumption is conventional By 9:30, the destroyers were at this point which might be separated geographically weapons. (indicating) and at this time the initial at- from the mooring points of the craft but in Secretary MCNAMARA. Yes. Not only pre- tack occurred. Additional vessels had by North Viet Nam. sumption, but that is the fact. now appeared on the Maddox's radar screen, Question. There is no question that we Question. What did CIC radar show the and these vessels were observed to close very attacked any Other place but North Viet course of the three unidentified aircraft to be rapidly on the destroyers at speeds in excess Nam? from? Hainan? of 40 knots. The attacking surface vessels Secretary MCNAMARA. None whatsoever. Secretary McNAMARA. We don't have any continued to close rapidly from both the Question. Can you say if we are attack- report on the course of the aircraft. west and the south. log Hanoi? Question. How many casualty reports on By 9:52, the Maddox and the Turner Secretary MCNAMARA. We are not attack- the strikes? JOY had continued south to approximately ing Hanoi. We are attacking only the patrol Secretary MCNAMARA. There have been this point (indicating), and they reported craft bases and certain associated logistical none so far. There have been no casualties they were under continuous torpedo attack facilities, so far. and were engaged in defensive counterflre. Question. In that area? Question. What time was the strike By 10:15 they had advanced approximately Secretary MCNAMARA. Not in the area of launched? to here (indicating). They were reporting Hanoi. But in North Viet Nam. Secretary McNAMARA. I prefer not to give they were avoiding torpedoes and that they Question. The same area as the patrol you the exact time of launch. had sunk one of the attacking patrol craft. craft? Question. Were the aircraft from the Con- At 10:42, the destroyers reported they had Secretary MCNAMARA. In the same area as stellation involved in the operation of the evaded additional torpedoes and had sunk a the patrol craft are moored but separated Maddox and Joy? second of the attacking patrol craft. Other physically from the mooring point. Secretary MCNAMARA. Yes. This is a ques- aircraft from the Ticonderoga had ar- Question. Mr. Secretary, can you tell us tion I should clarify for you. I may not have Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 11512 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE June 2, 1966 made it clear. The question is were aircraft must have been closer than 800 yards at a ing). Of course, they were taking evasive from the Constellation involved in the minimum, action during that period of time to avoid protective cover during the attacks on the Question. Who opened fire first? the torpedoes which were launched against two destroyers August 4th, and the answer is Secretary MCNAMARA. It was quite clear them. yes. The Constellation and the Ticonderoga that the PT boats initiated the attack. Question. But if they were sufficiently alternated in providing air cap for the Question. When was the last time that close to be illuminated by the PT boats, the destroyers on the 4th. there were destroyers up there in the Tonkin question a reader will have is how come the Question. Mr. Secretary, I am sure there Gulf? destroyers weren't able to nullify the PT Is no doubt in your mind that these PT boats Secretary MCNAMARA. I prefer not to an- boats. came from, in fact, North Vietnam? swer the question other than to say that we Secretary MCNAMARA. They did. They Secretary MCNAMARA. There is none. The have been carrying on routine patrols in that sunk at least two. radar made it quite clear that they were area for months. Question. Two out of how many, sir? coming from North Vietnamese bases. Question. How far up do you go, Mr. Secre- Secretary MCNAMARA. We can't be sure. It Question. Mr. Secretary, can you tell us the tary, before they turn back? was a night attack. We can't be certain of distance over which this engagement oc- Secretary MCNAMARA. I prefer not to an- the total number of boats that were engaged. curred? Is it about 60 or 65 miles? swer that, either. We don't wish to identify I will give you an estimate, just for your Secretary MCNAMARA. These are about 60 the course of our operations in the area. own information, although I can't be ab- miles square (indicating) so you can see Question. Can you tell us what order the solutely certain of these numbers. :r would during this period of time from 7:40 when strike aircraft have, if they encounter inter- say between three and six boats were en- there was an indication that an attack was ceptor aircraft in North Vietnam? gaged in the attack, of which at least two imminent, until some time around midnight, Secretary MCNAMARA. They are to destroy were sunk. to 1:30, when it terminated, they covered a any aircraft that are in a position to attack Question. How did you know that? -distance of something on the order of 80 them. Question. And in which they were engaged miles. Question. Do we have- for a period of, I believe, two hours? QUESTION. W. Secretary, can you give us Question. On the ground? Secretary MCNAMARA. Yes. the basic reasons for the Gulf of Tonkin Secretary MCNAMARA. In the air. Question. How did you know they were patrol? Question. We have troops from the Far sunk, those two? Secretary MCNAMARA. It is a routine patrol East Asia to-well, does that mean ground Question. Were these sunk by destroyer of the type we carry out in international forces are being put into South Vietnam? fire or aircraft fire? waters all over the world. Secretary MCNAMARA. No, it means we are Secretary MCNAMARA. I can't identify the QUESTION. Does it have anything to do reinforcing our forces with such additional source of the sinking. with movements of junks or whatever it is forces we believe to be required and have Question. Did you use the five inch and back and forth? placed on alert such forces as we believe to three inch batteries? is that all? Secretary MCNAMARA. No. It has no spe- be necessary. Secretary MCNAMARA. The five inch bat- cial relationship to any operations in that I don't wish to identify the types or nun- teries plus certain automatic weapons avail- area. We are carrying routine patrols of this hers or names or locations of those forces. able on the destroyers were used. kind on all over the world all the time. Question. Can you repeat that first part Question. Mr. Secretary, the earlier state. QuES'rrON. Mr. Secretary, do you have any about no troops in Vietnam? ment put out said they were believed to have idea why the North Vietnamese may have Secretary MCNAMARA. The question was: been sunk. Is this later information they done this? Have additional troops been moved into have been sunk? Secretary MCNAMARA. None. North Vietnam, meaning have combat units Secretary MCNAMARA. It has been reported QUESTION. M:r. Secretary, you mentioned been moved into North Vietnam-I meant to us that they were sunk. This, let me that the destroyer at one point was under at- South Vietnam-and the answer is no. emphasize, was a night action. You must tack by automatic weapons. Does that Question. Are we hitting only shore instal- expect certain restrictions in the amount of mean both destroyers, or just the Maddox? lations, or do we move inland? information available under night conditions. Secretary MCNAMARA. The report was, I Secretary MCNAMARA. I referred to patrol But the report to us from sources that we believe, that both destroyers had been at- craft bases and supporting logistical instal- believe are reliable indicates that at least tacked by automatic weapons. lations in close proximity to but geographi- two vessels were sunk. QUESTION. Mr. Secretary, have we picked cally separate from. Question. Sir, are you confident that up any survivors? Question. Mr. Secretary, have there been one PT boat was sunk on Sunday? Secretary MCNAMARA, No, we have picked any similar aggressive actions on the part of Secretary MCNAMARA. Yes, that is correct. up no survivors on either the second or the the North Vietnamese navy short of the tor- Question. But is this later information fourth. pedoing that we didn't bother to report that makes it more likely that they were QUESTION. Mr. Secretary, the reinforce- before? sunk? ments moving from the Western Pacific and Secretary MCNAMARA. No. Secretary MCNAMARA. Just five minutes be- the Coast, are they of all services? Question. This was the first time? fore I came down, I received a report that Secretary MCNAMARA. Yes. Secretary MCNAMARA. That is right. I want they were sunk. QUESTION. Mr. Secretary, has SAC and Air to emphasize that these attacks both on Question. In other words, the later in- Defense Command been placed on an in- Sunday and today, both on the second of formation is flat? creased alert? August and the fourth of August, occurred Secretary MCNAMARA. I just want to repeat Secretary MCNAMARA. No, it has not. in international waters. These destroyers what I said, that the report was that two QUESTION. Mr. Secretary, can you tell us were operating between 30 and 60 miles off PT boats at least were sunk, and a possible when this attack, this strike, may be over, the North Vietnamese coast. third. That is right. or when we may expect further details? Question. Can you tell us what towns, Question. Can you tell us at all whether Secretary MCNAMARA. I would think that cities, or whatever on the Vietnamese Coast any of the damage was inflicted by five inch you might expect some further details to- are roughly closest or parallel to the area of guns? morrow morning. attack? Question. Have there been any casualties, Secretary MCNAMARA. No. Secretary MCNAMARA. No. This was night any damage, anything whatsoever with Question. Not our attack but theirs on us. time. I can't identify the type of shell that American Forces? Secretary MCNAMARA. No. caused the damage, or even the source of the Secretary MCNAMARA. There have been no Question. How far off was the 7:40 P.M.? damage as between destroyers on the one casualties to American forces, either sea or Was that 60 miles? hand, and our aircraft on the other. air, and no damage to American forces to Secretary MONAMARA. These squares are Question. Mr. Secretary, could you give us date, either sea or air. 60 miles, so this point is on the order Of a rundown on the remaining portion of the Question. That includes the current air 65 miles, perhaps. As you can see down North Vietnamese Navy? Jane's Fighting strike? here, it is something a little less than that. Ships says they have a total of 16 PT boats, Secretary MCNAMARA. Yes, but as I point Question. Mr. Secretary, some of our read- of which I figure you have sunk now one out, the current air strikes are not completed err will find it difficult to understand how fifth. yet. the two destroyers were chased, and appar- Secretary MCNAMARA. I don't wish to give question. Has there been opposition? ently from this maneuver they made, they you our estimate of the number of North Secretary MCNAMARA. I cannot report on ran from these PT boats and yet they were Vietnamese boats by type, for obvious rea- that until we get the full mission report sufficiently- sons, but I will tell you there are two dif- which we don't have at the present time. Secretary MCNAMARA. No, this is their ferent types. One type we identify as the Question. What is the closest, roughly, Course of patrol (indicating). PT-4's. This is a patrol craft with a speed that the attacking craft have come to the Question. While under attack? of approximately 50 knots. The other type Maddox and Joy? Secretary MCNAMARA. Yes, they were pro- we identify as the Swatow type, a patrol craft Secretary MCNAMARA. We have had reports ceeding south. with a lesser speed, approximating 40 knots. of torpedoes 100 and 200 yards off the beam Question. Once they were engaged they We believe that both types of patrol craft of the ships. I can't tell you how close the didn't turn? were engaged in today's operation. attacking craft came to the vessels, although Secretary MCNAMARA. No. This is the ap- Question. How do you spell Swatow? If they were firing automatic weapons they proximate direction they moved in (indioat- Secretary MCNAMARA. S-w-a-t-O-w. Approved For Release 2005/07/13.: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 June 2, 1966 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67 446R000400080018-1 11513 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE Question. Mr. Secretary, approximately how many hostile torpedoes were fired at our ships? Secretary MCNAMARA. It is very difficult to estimate. I don't wish to make a guess at them. Question. How many do they carry, sir? Secretary MCNAMARA. I don't wish to ap- proximate that, either. Question. Has your government been in touch during today or since Sunday with the Government of the Soviet Union on those incidents? Secretary MCNAMARA. I would discuss that. Question. Mr. Secretary-' Secretary MCNAMARA. One more question. Question. I have three sunk in my notes. Secretary MCNAMARA. One sunk on Sunday, at least two sunk today, possibly a third sunk today, for a total of possibly four, as a possible. Question. And the last one is a possible. secretary MCNAMARA. The possible third one today which would make a four possible in total. Question. Did you say the nearest tor- pedoes were about 200 yards away? i ecretary MCNAMARA. Torpedoes were re- ported as passing between 100 and 200 yards abeam of the ships. One more question. Question. Can you set something up for tomorrow? Secretary MCNAMARA. I will see that you are provided with whatever news we can properly release: I will either do it myself or arrange for others to do it. Question. How about tonight? Secretary MCNAMARA. I don't believe there will be anything tonight. I will be receiving -reports. I am going to stay in the building tonight and receive reports every half hour from CINCPAC. But I doubt that there will be anything to release tonight. The Press. Thank you, sir. has been transferred from the First Fleet Question. Will we take reconnaissance on the Pacific Coast to the Western Pacific. missions over there? Secondly, interceptor and fighter bomber air- Secretary MCNAMARA. We will take such craft have been moved into South Viet Nam. action as is necessary to determine the re- Thirdly, fighter bomber aircraft have been sults of our operations. moved into Thailand. Fourthly, Interceptor Question. How much of the petroleum and fighter bomber squadrons have been supply did you say? transf the rred e et etroleum capacity of North f the t t S p o an i- percen Fifthly the Pacific. bases vvance submarine task force group has been moved Viet Nam is located at Vinh, the point that into the South China Sea. And finally, se- was struck. Approximately 90 percent of lected Army and Marine forces have been that 10 percent was destroyed. alerted and readied for movement. Question, Are these the only four torpedo I want to emphasize that the damage re- boat bases? port which I gave to you is based on pre- Secretary MCNAMARA. These four are the liminary reports received shortly after the main bases. With boats coastline asion suchsas they completion of operations. of course, the Now I will take your questions and en- areas sefor staging you tell us what percentage deavor to answer them. Question. Mr. Secretary, were the planes it is of their total fleet? . No, I can't, except that we lost, the two planes, downed by Secretary ground fire, and also, was there any air ac- that it is a Mr. Ssubstantial per cent ge ex- tion from North Viet Nam? these attacks? Secretary ary MC MCNAMARA. The two planes we plain lost were downed by antiaircraft fire. There Secretary MCNAMARA. I can't explain them. was no enemy air reaction. They were unprovoked. As I told you last Question. Mr. Secretary, can you tell us night, our vessels were clearly in Interns, the height of the attack? How low did they tional waters. Our vessels, when attacked, come? were operating in this area, roughly 60 miles Secretary MCNAMARA. Generally, the strikes off of the North Vietnamese coast. were at low level. Question. There have been reports that Question. And the local times, Mr. Secre- South Vietnamese vessels were showing or tary? taking some sort of action against North Secretary MCNAMARA. The local times Viet Nam approximately at this time. ranged from on the order of Noon to 4:00 Secretary MCNAMARA. No, to the best of or 5:00 o'clock in the afternoon. my knowledge, there were no operations dur- Question. Can you tell us, sir, how long ing the period I was describing last night. the attack- Question. Mr. Secretary, what orders now Secretary MCNAMARA. These are local Viet- for either the Seventh Fleet or for these namese times. partciular units of the Seventh Fleet? Question. Can you tell us how long the commanders Secretary are McNAMARA. to conti paers trols, Secretary entire strike lasted? protect themselves against aggression on hours. MCNAMARA. Roughly four to five the high seas with whatever force is neces- Qrs. Question. How was the weather? sary. Secretary MCNAMARA. Bad. Question. Has there been any word- Mr. Secretary, would you say this Question . Question. Rainy? will be all that will be necessary, that the DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PRESS BRIEFING BY Secretary MCNAMARA. Low ceiling. HON. ROBERT S. MCNAMARA, SECRETARY OF Question. What types of antiaircraft fire? attack has met its objectives? DEFENSE, 9 A.M., WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 5, 1964 Secretary MCNAMARA. There was heavy Secretary McNAMARA. Whether this is all Secretary MCNAMARA. As you know, on antiaircraft fire over several of the targets. that th S necessary. depends entirely on the August 2nd, and again on August 4th, North Question. Missiles? Vietnamese surface vessels attacked U.S. de- Secretary MCNAMARA. Guns rather than Question. Do you think the air strike ac- stroyers a operating routine patrol Tin inter- missiles. oomplished its objectives? national waters s in the Gulf of Tonkin. Question. Small caliber or big caliber? Secretary McNAMARA. The air strike very unprovoked attack secretary MCNAMARA. I can't tell you the clearly made clear to the North Vietnamese In retaliation for this on the high seas, our forces have struck the caliber other than it was heavy antiaircraft our intention to maintain our right to op- bases erate on the high seas. That was the objec- caaft used, n the North Vi4tnsorties Question. Can you tell us at which of these tive. I think that has been accomplished. the were. Durand from ight, 64 attack ier Ticon- places the planes were downed? Question. Wasn't the objective to wipe out were launched froatiU.against carriers the four Secretary MCNAMARA. No, I can't, the PT boat fleet? North r nd Constellaton a s and the four Question. What was the question? Secretary McNAMARA. Our objective was to Nth Vietnamese patrol bases ocertain Secretary McNAMARA. The question was at deter the PT boat fleet from further attacks support facilities associated with those bases. which point were the two aircraft lost. I can on our vessels. I believe we have accom- The points are lo on this map show simply say that the heaviest antiaircraft fire plashed that. the Gulf of T Ton kin, kin, South China, North was received at Hon Gay, the most northerly Q eeesstti n. W ereo any after to thempts ant de, . Viet Nam. The first base is at Hon Gay in of the bases attacked. North Viet Nam; the second at Los Chao; Question. Is that also the largest? batteries? the third at Phucloi; the f was at st the Secretary MCNAMARA. It is the largest; yes. Secretary McNAMARA. There were no ac- Khe and the fifth strike was against the Question. At the torpedo bases themselves, tions against the antiaircraft batteries. The Vinh oil storage depot, which is associated can you describe the damage itself as light attack was against the patrol boat bases and with the Swatow torpedo base, or heavy? the associated facilities. The oil storage depot, which contains 14 Secretary MCNAMARA. It is too early to say. Question. Mr. Secretary, last night there tanks, approximately 10 percent of the total We will have to wait until the pilots' reports were three bogies reported, three unidenti- petroleum storage capacity of North Viet have been assessed. fled aircraft. Did we ever find out in which Nam, was 90 percent destroyed. Smoke was Question. And the number of American direction they came from? observed rising to 14,000 feet. In addition to casualties? Secretary McNAMARA. We have no identi- the damage to the torpedo boat bases and Secretary MCNAMARA. Two. Two pilots fication on those aircraft. They did not par- their support facilities, approximately 25 of were lost, one in each of the two downed ticipate in the attacks on our vessels. the boats were damaged or destroyed. aircraft. town Two of our aircraft were lost, two of our Question. Are you giving out their names? Quesadjacet tiionn. . Sir, are linked there with villages these or bases? to or up aircraft were damaged, all others have been , secretary McNAMARA. Not until their near- cretary MCNAMARA. There were no ci- stroyers safely on the carriers. The de- eat of kin have been notified. Seyllfeccenters close to the ere were which were stroyers Maddox and Turner Joy, which Question. That will be sometime today? attacked last night. have been operating on routine patrol in the Secretary MCNAMARA. Yes, it will. Question. Mr. Secretary, could you give us Gulf of Tonkin, have resumed their patrol Question. Were they picked up? the estimate of how many percent of the operations in international waters. Secretary MCNAMARA. We believe they were North Vietnamese patrol boat fleet has been Last night I announced' that moves were lost. destroyed or damaged? underway to reinforce our forces in the Pa- cific area.' These moves include the follow- Question. At sea or land? Secretary McNAMARA. No, I can't estimate ing actions: "Mist, an attack carrier group Secretary MCNAMARA.. At sea. for you the exact percent destroyed or dam- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 11514 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE June 2, 1966 aged, other than to say that it was a very substantial percentage of their fleet. One more question. Question. From what you say, there are no further actions of this kind going on at the moment, or planned. Is that correct? Secretary McNAMARA. No operations are being carried on by our forces at the present time, other than the continuation of the routine patrol activities of the Turner Joy and the Maddox, the two destroyers which have been operating in international waters in the Gulf of Tonkin. Thank you very much. The PaEse. Thank you, Mr. Secretary. Mr. SIMPSON. Mr. President, I sug- gest the absence of a quorum. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The clerk will call the roll. The legislative clerk proceeded to call the roll. (At this point Mr. HARRIS, the Acting President pro tempore, assumed the chair.) Mr. MORTON. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the order for the quorum call be rescinded. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. Without objection, it is so 'ordered. FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT The Senate resumed the consideration of the bill (S. 985) to regulate interstate and foreign commerce by preventing the use of unfair or deceptive methods of packaging or labeling of certain con- sumer commodities distributed in such commerce, and for other purposes. AMENDMENT NO. 576 Mr. MORTON. Mr. President, I offer an amendment to the pending legisla- tion which I ask to have printed. I assure all Senators that I will not call it up until after the disposition of the Cotton amendment, which I under- stand is set for 4 o'clock on Monday next; but I ask that this amendment be printed, and give my colleagues notice that I may call it up subsequent to the vote on the Cotton amendment. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- ore. The amendment will be received nd printed, and will lie on the table. %SOUTH VIETNAM REQUESTS UNITED NATIONS OBSERVERS AT ELEC- TIONS Mr. RIBICOFF. Mr. President, on May 12, 1966, I introduced a resolution which reads as follows: RESOL'OTION Whereas the Republic of south Vietnam is actively engaged in making preparations for elections to choose a constituent assembly in a constructive effort to bring about a more representative government, and Whereas the United States is dedicated to the principle, in the conduct of its foreign affairs, that peoples everywhere have the right to determine their own destinies through free participation in elected govern- ments; and Whereas the success of the promised elec- tions in South Vietnam will depend on the assurance that they will be free, fair, and open; and Whereas the United States has committed its resources and the lives of its men to the cause of freedom for the South Vietnamese people; and Whereas an objective and international Now the request has been made. And presence Would make a significant contribu ` now, of Course, the problem is whether tion to assuring that the promised elections the United Nations will a ecede to the re- in South Vietnam are free, fair, and open, and thus help substantially in bringing about quest of the Saigon government. In the political stability and the establishment of final analysis, U Thant, Secretary Gen- effective political institutions: Therefore eral, has no power independent of the be it power given to him by the General As- Resolved, That it is the sense of the Senate sembly and the Security Council. that the President should encourage the The decision as to whether the 'United Government of South Vietnam to seek United Nations will Nations observers for its forthcoming elec- play a role in the Saigon tions; and elections will depend- in large part upon That the President should call upon the the Soviet Union and France. In the United Nations to assign United Nations ob- forthcoming discussions, those two Na- servers to the forthcoming elections in South tions will play the critical roles. Vietnam. The Soviet Union and France have a I am pleased to announce that United duty not to block the request which was Press International reported a few min- made by Saigon for observers at their utes ago from the United Nations that elections. South Vietnam today formally requested Our Ambasador to the United Nations United Nations observers for its elections will have something more to say at the of a constituent assembly in September. White House, within a few minutes, and The dispatch reads as follows: he will also make his position known be- UNrrED NATIANS. South Vietnam today fore the United Nations. But it is very formally requested U.N. observers for its elec- encouraging that both the President and tions of a constituent assembly in September. Ambassador Goldberg support whole- The request was put verbally to Secretary heartedly the request for United Nations General Thant by Ambassador Nguyen Duy participation in the upcoming South Lien, South Vietnamese observer to the Vietnam elections. United Nations. It is my hope that the Secretary Gen- It was not immediately clear whether the eral will use all his influence, all his Saigon Government wanted the world orga- per - nization immediately to send observers or suasive abilities, and also the prestige of the U.N. in the elections. A U.S. spokesman said Lien "informed the Secretary General that the Government of South Vietnam intends to hold elections for a constituent assembly in September and requested the United Nations to send ob- servers." He said South Vietnam would make its re- quest in writing later. Only last weekend, before the request was made, Thant said in Windsor, Out., he could not see the use of U.N. supervision of Viet- namese elections "at this time." On his return from Europe on May 5, Thant also said he saw no possibiilty of a U.N. supervisory role in Vietnamese elections because it would run into Soviet opposition in the Security Council. Mr. President, I am satisfied that the President had a distinct role in urging the South Vietnam Government to make this request of the United Nations. I think this is a most important break- through, and very important for the fu- ture of the entire Vietnam problem. Mr. RIBICOFF subsequently said: Mr. President, I have just talked with the President of the United States and our Ambassador to the United Nations, Arthur Goldberg, concerning the request of Saigon to the United Nations to send observers for the elections which are to take place in South Vietnam in Septem- ber. hers of the United Nations to accede to the request of Saigon, to the end that these elections will be fair; and to the end that these elections will be of a nature which, once held, will merit the con- fidence not only of the people of South Vietnam but also of the people of the entire world. For the forthcoming election of a con- stituent assembly affords a great oppor- tunity. The process will have been begun which can lead to the election of a gov- ernment which will truly represent the people of South Vietnam. I noticed that the distinguished Sen- ator from Oregon [Mr. MORSE], who has been making such clear statements on this subject, whose position is so well known throughout the country and who, time and time again, has asked for Unit- ed Nations participation-has just come into the Chamber. For the benefit of the Senator from Oregon, let me repeat that the Govern- ment of South Vietnam has asked for United Nations supervision of the Sep- tember election. This can be a great step forward--one which I have been urging for some time and one called for in the Senate resolution I introduced last month. An international presence is essential Both the President and Ambassador nam and the nations of the worldlareeto Goldberg told me that the proposal from have full confidence in the outcome of Saigon for United Nations participation the elections. Only free and honest elec- has their wholehearted support. It is the tions can lead to a resolution of the prob- hope of the President that the United lems that plague South Vietnam. Nations will act on the request of the I talked today with President John- Saigon government and send observes son and Ambassador Arthur Goldberg. to South Vietnam to observe these most The South Vietnamese request has the important elections. enthusiastic and strong support of the When the suggestion that the U.N. President. Ambassador Goldberg will play a role in the South Vietnamese elec- carry the proposal to the United Nations tions was first made by me on May 5, it with vigor and conviction. was welcomed by the President. But Now the matter rests with Russia and the President was dealing with an inde- France. With their support, the United pendent government, and it was neces- Nations can play a vital role in South sary for Saigon itself to make the re- Vietnam. Without their support, it will quest. be difficult. I hope that Russia responds Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 11516 Appro' ed For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 CONGRESSIONAL. RECORD - SENATE June ,3, 1966 tended, while we were trying to work out a resolution of the situation in Vietnam. Mr. JAVITS. From our point of view, It is best to let the people decide. When the people have decided, then our mis- sion, for all practical purposes, will have been accomplished-so long, of course, as they are permitted to implement their decision in peace. We may have to fight for the purpose of implementation after- ward, but that ground is sounder than the ground on which we now stand. Mr. RIBICOFF. The Senator from New York and I are in agreement. Mr. JAVITS. I agree with the Sena- tor from Connecticut that the Soviet Union is involved in this situation up to its armpits, and the world has not recog- nized that. We know that detente should be their first priority, as it was with Khrushchev, It is not now their first priority. Now their first priority is beating the Communist Chinese for the leadership of the Communist world. I Join the Senator from Connecticut in the hope that the Soviet Union will be made to see the light by the impact of world opinion. As we have seen many times, world opinion has an effect upon the Soviet Union. DIVERSION OF WELFARE FUNDS OF LABOR UNIONS IN NEW YORK Mr. McCLEL LAN. Mr. President, the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on In- vestigations last year held hearings on the diversion of approximately $4 mil- lion from the walfare funds of two labor unions in New York, the Allied Trades Council and Teamsters Local 815. The hearings disclosed that the funds had been diverted to so-called research foundations-one in Liberia and the other in Puerto Rico, completely con- trolled by the dominant figure in the unions, George Barasch. Federal officials testified that the law was inadequate to prevent the diversion of the welfare funds. As a result of the hearings, I Introduced a bill, S. 2627, which was cosponsored by seven other members of the subcommittee, to pre- vent such occurrences. Immediately following the hearings, the general counsel of the subcommittee initiated a series of conferences with the attorneys for George Barasch and his associates seeking the return of the di- verted funds to the joint welfare fund of the unions. Federal agencies with jurisdiction in this matter, including the Labor, Justice, and Treasury Departments, were con- sulted, as were representatives of the State of New Jersey and the New York State Insurance Department. In late July of 1965, the attorneys for George Barasch and his associates expressed their willingness to return the $4 million forthwith. At this juncture, however, the New York State Insurance Department, whose representatives had been invited to join the conferences, asked for a delay in the restoration of the funds in order to re- view the record of the case to determine whether any New York State statutes had been violated. They indicated that an acceptance of a settlement might corn- associates seeking the return of all of the promise any possible prosecution. funds. Barasch was formerly the principal Mr. President, that was about 10 officer of the two unions and the dominant month ago. During the interim we have figure in control of the funds and the :foun- patiently awaited the result of the re- After ter Barasch had expressed through his examination of this matter by the New attorneys his agreement to return the funds, York State officials. Within the past the New York State Insurance Department, week we learned that their work was which exercises jurisdiction over Welfare finally completed; that apparently no Funds in New York State, asked the Senate violations of New York State statutes Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations had been disclosed; nor had any new to delay action for the return of these funds information been added to supplement pending the Department's review oi the in tt di 1 d b a ers o th b i S It had been agreed between the sub- committee's general counsel, Jerome S. Adlerman, and counsel for the New York State insurance department, George Bernstein, that the subcommit- tee would be advised, of the return of the funds and,that the New York State offi- cials would join this subcommittee in a simultaneous public announcement of the restoration of the money. Instead, yesterday, in New York, Gov. Nelson Rockefeller publicly released in- formation implying that the New York State insurance department was solely responsible for the recovery of the wel- fare funds. The subcommittee was in- formed of this news release sometime after it had been made. I regret that the disclosure of the re- turn of this money was made in disregard of the agreement and understanding previously entered into. However, the record speaks for itself. The New York State insurance depart- ment awoke to the fact that a matter in its jurisdiction warranted intensive in- vestigation only after our committee hearings had disclosed the misuse of the money. I think the' State and the Fed- eral Government should cooperate in the protection of the rights and interests of American workingmen, and that is exactly what we have sought to do. Mr. President, I have prepared a fact- ual account of these matters for the use and information of the press, and it has now been released. I ask unanimous consent that the statement I prepared for the press be printed at this point in the REcoan. There being no objection, the state- ment was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: Senator Jom L. MCCLELLAN (D., Ark.) to- day announced that approximately $4,200,000 which had been diverted from the Welfare Funds of two New York area unions, as dis- closed during 1965 hearings of the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, has been returned to the Allied Welfare Fund on behalf of about 10,000 members. of the Allied Trades Council and Teamsters Local 815. Testimony in the Subcommittee hearings last year showed that the money had been di- verted from dormant Welfare Funds of the unions to overseas "research" foundations, one in Monrovia, Liberia, and the other in Puerto Rico. The restoration of the $4,200,000 to the Allied Welfare Fund, which provides health and welfare benefits to the membership of the two unions, is the direct result of nego- tiations Initiated by the Subcommittee in the summer of 1965, immediately after the hearings relating to the diversion of the funds. The General Counsel of the Sub- committee entered negotiations at that time with attorneys for George Barasch and his sc se y e u comm ttee hear- ings. The New York State authorities sought to determine whether there had been any violation of State laws in this case. In August of 1965, Senator MCCLELLAN acceded to the New York State request. The State proceeded with its investigation and apparently finally determined that New York State statutes did not provide penalties for the diversion of the welfare funds. The $4,200,000 was returned to the Welfare Funds under the supervision of the New York State Insurance Department. George Barasch has- resigned from his po- sitions as lifetime trustee for each of the several employe welfare and pension bene- fit plans of the two unions, including the two major plans, the Allied Welfare Fund and the Union Mutual Fund. New employee trustees have been selected for the funds, as required by the provisions of the Taft-Hart- ley Act that govern joint trust funds. The trust agreements of the two unions have been reviewed and revised in order to establish proper safeguards for the rights and interests of the rank-and-file members of the unions who are their participants. Senator MCCLELLAN stated that the total sum of $4,200,000 represents all of the hold- ings of the Cromwell Research Foundation of Puerto Rico, the Chemical Research Foun- dation of Liberia, and the Caribbean Educa- tional Association of Puerto Rico. The agree- ment between Mr. Barasch and certain as- sociates, who are the officials of the overseas foundations, and the new trustees of the Allied Welfare Fund provides that the money that has been returned will be utilized for charitable and education purposes that will benefit the almost 10,000 members of the Al- lied Trades Council and Teamsters Local # 815, and that New York State authori- ties will supervise the administration of the funds by the trustees. Additionally, the overseas foundations in Liberia and Puerto Rico will be dissolved. The Subcommittee's report to the Senate on the investigation into the diversion of the welfare funds has not yet been filed. Filing was -withheld until New York author- ities acted upon the agreement made last summer by attorneys for Mr. Barasch to re- turn the diverted funds. Senator MCCLELLAN stated that the report will be filed in the near future. As a result of the Subcommittee's hear- ing on these welfare funds, Senator MCCLEL- LAN introduced S. 2627, a bill to amend the Welfare and Pension Plan Disclosure Act for the purpose of providing additional safe- guards for the rights and interests of par- ticipants and beneficiaries of employee bene- fit plans. The bill, which has been referred to the Senate Committee on Labor and Pub- lic Welfare, has as co-sponsor seven of the other members of the Subcommittee. Senator MCCLELLAN stated his hope that the Subconi.mittee's hearings also have served to alert American workers who are partici- pants in employee benefit plans to the dan- gers inherent in lack of interest and in fail- ure to participate actively in union affairs. The Subcommittee will continue to exam- ine- the administration and disbursement of welfare and pension funds,. and may hold hearings in the future after additional in- vestigations in the field. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 June 2, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 11517 Mr. McCLELLAN: ,_ In addition, Mr. received from ouanthe d your staff was for the the basic issues that confront the world. President, I also have a letter addressed pensable laying The views of the Senator from New York final result. [Mr. JAVITS], shared by the senator from to the general counsel of the subcommit- We respectfully request that in the event Connecticut [Mr. RIBICOFF], would tee, which he received today from the there is to be a report rendered by your corn- direct attention to the position taken by attorneys for Mr. Barasch and his asso- mittee relative to the investigation, it should. Gates. This letter states clearly that reflect the cooperation given by our clients, France and Russia. 'General Counsel Adlerman had obtained and that no evidence of wrongdoing on their I have directed attention to that posi- an understanding, after the hearings al- part was shown by the testimony. tion for some 3 years on the floor of the most 10 months ago, that the funds held Kindly accept our thanks for the time you Senate, as I have urged my Government by these two overseas foundations would expended in assisting us with this matter, as to put France and Russia on the spot in well as the appreciation of our clients. the United Nations and take our own be returned to the Allied Welfare Fund. Respectfully, by urging that--thine Mr. President, I do not necessarily en- KRIEGER, CHODASH & POLITAN, country nuntry try os off to the the spot bUb ing tdorse all of the comments in the letter. By HAROLD KEIEGER. I refer particularly to the attorneys' re- KOSTELANETZ & RITHOLE, eluding, of course, all members of the quest that the subcommittee's report re- By JULES RITHOLZ, Security Council, permanent and non- flect "the cooperation given by our clients MARTIN J. MCNAMARA, Jr. permanent, and all members of the Gen- and that no evidence of wrongdoing on Mr. McCLELLAN. Mr. President, eral Assembly-carry out their treaty their part was shown by the testimony." there is no doubt that had not the sub- obligation. I understand that the attorneys for Mr. committee investigated this matter and It is rather difficult for an outlaw Barasch and his associates cooperated exposed the wrongful diversion of these country to ask other countries to enforce very well with the subcommittee. How- welfare funds, the money never would the law, but that is what our country ever, their clients did not cooperate have been recovered, and the working- should have done as an outlaw for the freely with the subcommittee's staff once men for whom the funds were estab- past 3 years. Unpleasant as it is to the they understood the purpose of our in- lished would have been robbed of the ears of many Americans, the sad fact is vestigation. They exercised, without ex- benefits and never would have received that the United States is a shocking out- ception, their constitutional privilege un- the benefits to which they are entitled. law in southeast Asia and has been from der the fifth amendment. We are happy that the funds have the very beginning of the intervention Further, while Barasch and his asso- been recovered. Although there may not for all the reasons that I have stated ciates may not have violated any exist- have been a technical violation of law, and restated in this historic debate for ing Federal statutes in diverting the wel- we are of the opinion that there was a some 3 years in the Senate. fare funds, it is questionable whether violation of a moral obligation and a I shall continue to restate the reasons they were faithful to the responsibility fiduciary responsibility on the part of because more and more people are going and obligation imposed upon any person the officials who took the welfare funds to the record and more and more people, acting in a fiduciary capacity. With this and established charitable foundations as the President loses more and more comment upon the letter, I ask unani- in foreign countries and transferred all support across the land-which he de- mous consent that it be printed at this the funds to those countries. Not only serves to lose-are beginning to recog- point in the RECORD. did they do that, but also they made raze the sordid and sad record of the There being no objection, the letter themselves trustees of the funds, and United States in southeast Asia. was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, If there are going to be elections in perpetuated themselves for life, together Vietnam, as I said earlier this afternoon, as follows: T~ with their children l or grandchildren and d they will be characterized by fraud and N J . OFFICES NAM A, future generations from now W MARTIN MCNAMAR JR., by meaninglessness, for they will be con- Washington, D.C., June 1, 1966. eternity. ducted in those areas in which that Hon. JEROME S. ADLERMAN, shocking little tyrant by the name of Senate Subcom General Counsel, Permanent - ELECTIONS IN VIETNAM KY, whom we have been supporting, will mittee ,on Investigations, Old Senate ate Of O;- be in pistol control. fee Building, Washington, D.C. Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I had not I am at a loss to understand what MY DEAR MR. ADLERMAN: The undersigned expected to speak today on the subject have appeared as attorneys for respective of Vietnam. I had expected to speak makes anyone think that there will be clients, Cromwell Research Foundation, Inc., any free elections in a situation sup- Chemical Research Foundation, Inc., Local tomorrow. ported by an American puppet military 815 (IBT), Allied Trades Council (AFL-CIO) I have a high regard for the Senator junta which is what the government of George Barasch and others, in the course of from Connecticut [Mr. RIBICOFF], to South Vietnam is. an investigation conducted by the Senate whom I extend my sincere compliments Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. for the position that he has taken on It tion will that the be interesting to see Nations the takes posi- Upon completion of the public hearings the Vietnam issue, with respect to the last summer you gave graciously of your time, regard to the forthcoming request that and joined us in a cooperative endeavor to proposal for supervised elections. When has been announced on the floor of the meet some of the objections to the faun- I entered in the Chamber and heard the Senate this afternoon. dations, which had been the subject matters Senator from Connecticut speaking, i interesting to see whether of your inquiry. decided that I owed it to my record to It the will this Uniteb. Nations, is allow se to hether As a result of these efforts we arrived at an make a few comments on the subject, understanding whereby the directors of the particularly in light of the colloquy that vise the selection of the candidates, or Chemical Research Foundation, Inc., and the has occurred between the Senator from merely the balloting procedures. $4,000,00 Inc would to would Connecticut and the Senator from New It will be interesting to see whether transfer r rll approximately Research Foundation, dproxima~400000o by g York [Mr. JAVITS]. the United Nations will exercise some the Allied Welfare Fund. his At this point the New York State Depart- It is interesting to note that the Presi- supervisory mission in connection with happen to think ment of Insurance, which had participated dent of the. United States and the U.S. the that el el eecttionsons-aand I not pane jurisd- in the foregoing discussions, indicated a de- Ambassador to the United Nations, Mr. sire to negotiate separately and directly with Goldberg, will announce or have an- tion over the entire threat to the peace the parties due to certain differences in views nounced that they urge U.S. supervision of the world. What the United Nations . me and obj ,aectvend, Thus with it yourera ac cquiescenncece, , esce to to of any elections to be held in South Viet- should do is to call all the parties to an accounting. consummate an understanding with that De- nam, and that the Saigon Government-- pbrtment. a reprehensible government-is asking Before the ink was dry on the Geneva We are now pleased to advise you that we the United Nations, so the Senator from accords, which we refused to sign, but have concluded our negotiations; executed Connecticut [Mr. RIBICOFF] said on the which our President and Secretary of copies of the respective instruments and floor of the Senate, to participate in State in 1954 said we would respect as grants will be forwarded to you promptly. some supervisory capacity in connection tenets of international law, we began The directors of these foundations, as well with such elections as are held in violating them. as Mr. George Barasch and the other individ- uals involved, were completely cooperative in arriving at the above disposition; however, it My reaction to this announcement is United Nations has hesitated and failed should be emphasized that the cooperation that it is a diversionary tactic away from to call the United States to the account- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 11518 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 CONGRESSIONAL 1ECORD- SENATE June 2, 1966 ing that it should have been called to for violation of not only the Geneva ac- cords, but also of the United Nations Charter. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent to have printed at this point in the RECORD those provisions of the statement of policy of July 1954, adopted by the signatories to the Geneva accords, of which the United States on the very face of the accords stands in violation. There being no objection, the material was ordered to be printed in the RECORD; as follows: 12. FINAL DECLA14.ATIO.N OF GENEVA CONFER- ENCE,, JULY 21, 19541 Final declaration, dated July 21, 1954, of the Geneva Conference on the problem of re- storing peace in Indo-China, in which the representatives of Cambodia, the Democratic Republic of Viet-Nam, France, Laos, the People's Republic of China, the State of Viet- Nam, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America took part. 1. The Conference takes note of the agree- ments ending hostilities in Cambodia, Laos and Viet-Nam and organizing International control and the supervision of the execution of the provisions of these agreements. 2. The Conference expresses satisfaction at the ending of hostilities in Cambodia, Laos and Viet-Nam; the Conference expresses Its conviction that the execution of the provi- sions set out in the present declaration and in the agreements on the cessation of hostili- ties will permit Cambodia, Laos and Viet- Nam henceforth to play their part, in full in- dependence and sovereignty, in the peaceful community of nations. 3. The Conference takes note of the dec- larations made by the Governments of Cam- bodia and of Laos of their, intention to adopt measures permitting all citizens to take their place in the national community, In particu- lar by participating in the next general elec- tions, which, in conformity with the con- stitution of each of these countries, shall take place in the course of the year 1955, by secret ballot and in conditions of respect for fundamental freedoms. hostilities in Laos or, so long as their situ Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, the ma- rity is not threatened, the obligation to es- terial which I have just had printed in tablish bases on Cambodian or Laotian terri- the RECORD shows that the Geneva ac- tory for the military forces of foreign Powers. cords prohibit-and that is the lan- 6. The Conference recognizes that the essential purpose of the agreement relating gunge-the sending into Vietnam of any to Viet-Nam is to settle military questions military supplies, of any military aid, or with a,view to ending hostilities and that the of any military personnel. military demarcation line is provisional and From the very beginning, after we took should not in any way be interpreted as this American puppet, who was a South constituting a political or territorial bound- Vietnamese exile, out of New York City ary. The Conference expresses its conviction and Washington, D.C.---a man who had that the execution of the provisions set out never fought the French-and sent him in the present declaration and in the agree- ment on the cessation of hostilities creates over there and financed him and set him the necessary basis for the achievement in up as a puppet government of the United the near future of a political settlement in States, we violated the statement of pol- Viet-Nam. icy signed by the signatories to the 7. The Conference declares that, so far as accords. Viet-Nam is concerned, the settlement of First, let the United Nations take note political problems, effected on the basis of of its dereliction in not calling us to an respect for the principles of independence, accounting for our violations. Let the unity and territorial integrity, shall permit Secretary General of the United Nations the Viet-Namese people to enjoy the funda- mental freedoms, guaranteed by democratic face up to the fact that he has followed institutions established as a result of free a very ineffective role and has failed in general elections by secret ballot. In order his responsibilities of leadership as See- to ensure that sufficient progress in the retary-General by not insisting that restoration of peace has been made, and either the United Nations or the mem- that all the necessary conditions obtain for bets of the United Nations live up to the free expression of the national will, general elections shall be held in July 1956, under treaty obligations, or else submit' his the supervision of an international commis- resignation. sion composed of representatives of the Mem- I know the argument. "Why, Sena- ber States of the International Supervisory tor," people say to me, "what can such Commission, referred to in the agreement people do? They cannot control the on the cessation of hostilities. Consultations United Nations." Well, they can resign, will be held on this subject between the com- instead of being used as pawns-in this petent representative authorities of the two zones from 20 July 1955 onwards. Case, as Secretary-General, or, I may 8. The provisions of the agreements on say, as U.S. Ambassador to the United the cessation of hostilities intended to en- Nations-in aiding and abetting by keep- sure the protection of individuals and of ing their jobs, a course that cannot be property must be most strictly applied and justified under international law or un- must, in particular, allow everyone in Viet- der any set of principles of morality that Nam to decide freely in which zone he wishes we owe to mankind. to live. 9. The competent representative authori- Anyone who reads the speeches and ties of the Northern and Southern zones of take note of the material I have just Viet-Nam, as well as the authorities of Laos placed in the RECORD will also observe and Cambodia, must not permit any indi- that the statement of policy of the Gen- vidual or collective reprisals against persons eva accords makes it very clear that the who have collaborated in any way with one 17th paralled Is not a political line of of the parties durin th g e war or against 4. The Conference takes note of the clauses members of such persons' families. demarcation, but is a military dine. in the agreement on the cessation of hostili- 10. The Conference takes note. of the dee- Who turned it into a political line of ties in Viet-Nam prohibiting the introduc- laration of the Government of the French demarcation? The United States. We tion into Viet-Nam of foreign troops and Republic to the effect that it is ready to with- are the ones who are responsible for set- military personnel as well as of all kinds of draw its troops from the territory of Cam- ting up, in violation of the Geneva ac- arms and munitions. The Conference also bodia, Laos, and Viet-Nam, at the request of cords, a South Vietnamese Government. takes note of the declarations made by the the governments concerned and within pe- It has been an illegal government from Gover on not to requeod a foreign , and aLao ids 'of heir riods which shall be fixed by agreement be- the very beginning, and the responsi- tween the parties except in the cases where, in war material, in personnel or in instruc- by agreement between the two parties, a cer- bility for it lies on the United States. tors except for the purpose of the effective taro number of French troops shall remain The Geneva accords make crystal defence of their territory and, in the case of at specified points and for a specified time. clear-the language Is Irrefutable-that Laos, to the extent defined by the agreements 11. The Conference takes note of the decla- the 17th parallel was to be a line of milt- on the cessation of hostilities in Laos, ration of the French Government to the ef- tary demarcation, to the south of which 5. The Conference takes note of the clauses fect that for the settlement of all the prob- thousands upon thousands of French in the agreement on the cessation of hostil- lems connected with the re-establishment troops that were in Vietnam at the time sties in Viet-Nam to the effect that no mili- and consolidation of peace in Cambodia, Laos tary base under the control of a foreign State and 'Viet-Nam, the French Government will should repair; while to the north of it, may be established in the regrouping zones proceed from the principle of respect for the Vietminh Army, that fought and de- of the two parties, the latter having the the independence and sovereignty, unity and feated the French, should stay until, dur- obligation to see that the zones allotted to territorial integrity of Cambodia, Laos and ing the next 2-year period, the Viet- them shall not constitute part of any mili- Viet-Nam. namese people-not the United States- tary alliance and shall not be utilized for 12. In their relations with Cambodia, Laos should solve the problem aimed at a the resumption of hostilities or in the serv- and 'Viet-Nam, each member of the Geneva united Vietnam. ice of an aggressive policy. The Conference Conference undertakes to respect the sov- also takes note of the declarations of the ereignty, the independence, the unity and The United States, more than any Governments of Cambodia and Laos to the the territorial integrity of the above-men- other cause, is responsible for splitting effect that they will not join in any agree- tioned states, and to refrain from any in- Vietnam into two governments, North ment with other States if this agreement terference in their internal affairs. and South. Includes the military alliance obligation conformity p ii with the 13. The members of the Conference agree Mr. President, many people do not of the Charter of the United Na- to consult one another on any question which wish to face up to it yet, but this contest, principles may be referred to them by the International tions or, in the case of Laos, with the prin- Supervisory Commission in order to study this war, this strife will go on for how- ciples of the agreement on the cessation of such measures as may -prove necessary to ever many decades it takes for the Viet- ensure that the agreements on the cessation namese people to unite their country. I IC/43/Rev. 2, 21 July 1954; Original: of hostilities in Cambodia, Laos and Viet- Tens of thousands of American boys Will French Nam are respected. be sacrificed unjustifiably and unwar- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 Approved For,Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 June 2, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE '1 t 'f f a 'do not world that we intend to stop the killing Article 2 -;-',q- I th t 11519 a rantedly in cLvl s rI e, stop it. of American boys and of Asians, too. The Organization and its Members, in pur- Mr. President, the Geneva accords That is why I have been urging- suit of the Purposes stated in Article 1, shall in accordance with the following made perfectly clear that no bases were to to be allowed to be established by a for- eign government. We established bases, we maintain them, we are responsible for them. We are guilty of illegal con- duct in constructing those bases and in the military aid we sent to South Viet- nam as early as 1955. Mr. President, the accords, as will be seen from the material I have intro- duced, also made perfectly clear that from July 1954 to July 1956 plans were to 'be made for the holding of elections in Vietnam-all of Vietnam-to the end of selecting their officers and working out the procedure for a unified Vietnam. And why should it not be unified? These are one people, engaged in a civil war. Within South Vietnam itself, there is a civil war. The State Department does not like to have that phrase used; but it is interesting that more and more editors are using it now. The senior Senator from Oregon and the Senator from Alaska [Mr. GRUENING] have been criticized emphatically and in many in- stances viciously, in the last 3 years, be- cause we have pointed out the undeni- able fact that it is a civil war, with over- tones and undertones of a religious war also, in which we are unjustifiably kill- ing American boys. Mr. President, the United Nations will have to face up to the fact that the United States stopped those elections that were planned for July 1956 because our intelligence reports were that if they were held, Ho Chi Minh would be elected president. And of course we have set ourselves up unilaterally to tell the world that we are going to determine the inter- nal affairs of countries that we think are threatened with a Communist takeover, irrespective of what the wishes of the people may be. That policy is getting us into greater and greater trouble. In my judgment, it is creating great internal stresses in this country, which will become worse, until eventually the American people, in my judgment, will repudiate any govern- ment that continues to sacrifice Amer- ican boys by increasing thousands, as will come to pass if we do not stop our participation in the war. We have al- ready killed over 3,200 of them-young American men who never 'should have been sent there in the first place. The Pentagon admits that we have wounded the principles of justice and international over 15,000 of them-more to be wounded law, adjustment or settlement of interna- and more to die as our President keeps tional disputes or situations which might indicating further and further escalation lead to a breach of the peace; Of this war. 2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of Mr. President, these so-called elections equal rights and self-determination of peo- in the metropolitan areas of South Viet- ples, and to take other appropirate measures nam controlled by this military junta are to strengthen universal peace; not fundamental to the problems that 3. To achieve international cooperation in exists in southeast Asia. What is funds- solving international problems of an eco- mental is that we obtain a cease-fire. nomcc, social, cultural, or humanitarian Senator from New York Mr. ing character, and in promoting and encourag- The JAVITS] talked about a cease-fire for the respect for human rights and for funda- mental freedoms for all without distinction elections. Let me say, Mr. President, as to race, sex, language, or religion; and what we need is a cease-fire, period. 4. To be a center for harmonizing the What we need is a stopping of the actions of nations in the attainment of these killing, and a serving of notice to the 'common ends. No. 91-7 and it is more important now, may I say to my President, after he has announced today his support of some United Na- tions supervision of elections-that my President go to New York and ask the United Nations to-take over the threat completely. That is the obligation of the United Nations. If the Security Council does not wish to do it, then let my President, as I have said so many times, make a plea to the General Assembly for a cease- fire order, with the pledge of the mem- bers of the General Assembly-and that is the responsibility the Charter places upon them-to send over whatever num- ber of men are necessary to enforce a cease-fire. That is quite a different thing from making war, as the United States is making it, in South Vietnam. That is what the President of the United States ought to be asking the United Nations to do-not asking them to su- pervise the "election" of the govern- ment's candidates. Oh, that will get public attention, and create the false impression in the minds of many that the United States is seek- ing United Nations intervention. But the test of whether or not the United States is seeking United Nations inter- vention is whether or not my President and yours will say to the United Nations, "Take over this threat to the peace of the world in southeast Asia." And noth- ing less than that carries out my Presi- dent's responsibilities under the Charter. Therefore, Mr. President, I ask unan- imous consent that there be printed in the RECORD at this point a series of the articles in the United Nations Charter of which, in my judgment, the United States has violated by its intervention. The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. Ty- DINGS in the chair). Without objection, it is so ordered. The portions of the United Nations Charter ordered to be printed in the RECORD are as follows: CHAPTER I. PURPOSE AND PRINCIPLES ' Article I The Purposes of the United Nations are: 1. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with Principles. 1. The Organization is based on the prin- ciple of the sovereign equality of all its Members. 2. All Members, In order to ensure to all of them the rights and benefits resulting from membership, shall fulfill in good faith the obligations assumed by them in accord- ance with the present Charter. 3. All Members shall settle their interna- tional disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and se- curity, and justice, are not endangered. 4. All Members shall refrain in their inter- national relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or polit- ical independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations. 5. All Members shall give the United Na- tions every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the present Charter, and shall refrain from giving assistance to any state against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action. 6. The Organization shall ensure that states which are not Members of the United Nations act in accordance with these Prin- ciples so far' as may be necessary for the maintenance of international peace and se- curity. 7. Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall require the Members to submit such matters to settlement under the present Charter; but this principle shall. not prej- udice the application of enforcement meas- ures under Chapter VII. s CHAPTER VI. PACIFIC SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES ' Article 33 1. The parties to any dispute, the continu- ance of which is likely to endanger the main- tenance of international peace and security, shall, first of all, seek a solution by negotia- tion, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbi- tration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means of their own choice. 2. The Security Council shall, when it deems necessary, call upon the parties to set- tle their dispute by such means. Article 34 The Security Council may investigate any dispute, or any sluation which might lead to International friction or give rise to a dis- pute, in order to determine whether the con- tinuance of the dispute or situation Is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security. Article 35 1. Any Member of the United Nations may bring any dispute, or any situation of the nature referred to in Article 34, to the atten- tion of the Security Council or of the Gen- eral Assembly. 2. A state which is not a Member of the United Nations may bring to the attention of the Security Council or of the General As- sembly any dispute to which it is a party if it accepts in advance, for the purposes of the dispute, the obligations of pacific settlement provided In the present Charter. 3. The proceedings of the General Assem- bly in respect of matters brought to its at- tention under this Article will be subject to the provisions of Articles 11 and 12. Article 36 1. The Security Council may, at any stage of a dispute of the nature referred to in Ar- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 11520 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE June 2, 1966 title 33 or of a situation of like nature, rec- ommend appropriate procedures or methods of adjustment. 2. The Security Council should take into Consideration any procedures for the settle- ment of the dispute which have already been adopted by the parties. 3. In making recommendations under this Article the Security Council should also take into consideration that legal disputes should as a general rule be referred by the parties to the International Court of Justice in ac- cordance with the provisions of the Statute of the Court. Article 37 1. Should the parties to a dispute of the nature referred to in Article 33 fail to settle it by the means indicated in that Article, they shall refer it to the Security Council. 2. If the Security Council deems that the Continuance of the dispute is In fact likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, it shall decide whether to take action under Article 38 or to recom- mend such terms of settlement as it may consider appropriate. Article 38 Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 33 to 37, the Security Council may, if all the parties to any dispute so request, make recommendations to the parties with a view to a pacific settlement of the dispute. CHAPTER VII. ACTION.wrrH RESPECT TO THREATS TO THE PEACE, BREACHES OF THE PEACE, AND ACTS OR AGGRESSION Article 39 The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what meas- ures shall be taken in accordance with Arti- cles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore in- ternational peace and security. Article 40 In order to prevent an aggravation of the situation, the Security Council may, before making the recommendations or deciding upon the measures provided for in Article $9, call upon the parties concerned to comply with such provisional measures as it deems necessary or desirable. Such provisional measures shall be without prejudice to the rights, claims, or position of the parties con- cerned. The Security Council shall duly take account of failure to comply with such provisional measures. Article 41 The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed force are to be employed to give effect to Its decisions, and it may call upon the Mem- bers of the United Nations to apply such measures. These may include complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance of diplomatic relations. Article 42 Should the Security Council consider that measures provided for in Article 41 would be inadequate or have proved to be inade- quate, it may take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to main- tain or restore international peace and se- curity. Such action may include demonstra- tions, blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the United Nations. Article 50 If preventive or enforcement measures against any state are taken by the Security Council, any other state, whether a Member of the United Nations or not, which fords itself confronted with special economic prob- lems arising from the carrying out of those measures shall have the right to consult the Security Council with regard to a solution of those problems. Article 51 Nothing In the present Charter shall im- pair the inherent right of individual or col- lective self-defense it an armed attack oc- curs against a Member of the United Nations until the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to maintain interna- tional peace and security. Measures taken by Members in. the exercise of this right of self-defense shall be immediately reported to the Security Council and shall not in any way affect the authority and responsibility of the Security Council under the present Charter to take at any time such action as it deems necessary in order to maintain or restore international peace and security. CHAPTER VIII. REGIONAL ARRANGMENTS Article 52 1. Nothing in the present Charter pre- cludes the existence of regional arrange- ments or agencies for dealing with such matters relating to the maintenance of inter- national peace and security as are appro- priate for regional action, provided that such arrangements or agencies and their activities are consistent with the Purposes and Prin- ciples of the United Nations. 2. The Members of the United Nations entering into such arrangements or consti- tuting such agencies shall make every effort to achieve pacific settlement of local disputes through such regional arrangements or by such regional agencies before referring them to the Security Council. 3? The Security Council shall encourage the development of pacific settlement of local disputes through such regional arrangements or by such regional agencies either on the initiative of the states concerned or by refer- ence from the Security Council. 4. This Article In no way impairs the ap- plication of Articles 34 and 35. Article 53 1. The Security Council shall, where appro- priate, utilize such regional arrangements or agencies for enforcement action under its authority. But no enforcement action shall be taken under regional arrangements or by regional agencies without the authorization of the Security Council, with the exception of measures against any enemy state, as de- fined in paragraph 2 of this Article, provided for pursuant to Article 107 or in regional arrangements directed against renewal of ag- gressive policy on the part of any such state, until such time as the Orangization may, on request of the Governments concerned, be charged with the responsibility for prevent- ing further aggression by such a state. 2. The term enemy state as used in para- graph I of this Article applies to any state which during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory of the present Charter. Article 54 The Security Council shall at all times be kept fully informed of activities undertaken or in contemplation under regional arrange- ments or by regional agencies for the mainte- nance of international peace and security. Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, the Senator from New York [Mr. JAVITS], in his colloquy with the Senator from Con- necticut [Mr. RIHICOFF], mentioned the supervisory role the United Nations has played in the Congo, and in the dispute between Israel and other countries of the Middle East. I do not know what he means by a supervisory role. The United Nations took over in the Congo. I was one of the representatives of this Government as a delegate in the United Nations when it did. But we had a Secretary-Gen- eral of the United Nations at that time by the name of Dag Hammarskjold, who did not engage in evasions with regard to his responsibilities. That courageous Secretary-General, Dag Hammarskjold, left no room for doubt as to where he thought the United Nations should stand In regard to maintaining the peace of the world In the Congo. But Mr. U Thant has. In my judgment, in so do- ing he has failed in his responsibilities and obligations as Secretary-General of the United Nations. All his supporters are saying Russia, France, the United States, Great Britain; and the other great powers wish him to remain as Secretary-General. If that be true, I suspect that his over-all do-nothing policy is probably why they want him to remain. What we must have, if we are to stop this killing in southeast Asia, and the danger of a massive war and more mas- sive killing spreading through Asia and throughout the world, is for the United Nations to proceed to act. Our country ought to put the United Nations on the spot now, by asking them to declare the cease-fire and take action. Anything short of that, may I say, on the part of our President and our Ambassador to the United Nations is failing to carry out what is our clear obligation, in order to preserve peace in the world. Mr. President, there is such a growing insistence across this country that we change our course of action in southeast Asia that I am greatly encouraged from the reaction of the people of this country. That gives cause for renewed hope be- cause as increasing millions make clearer and clearer to our President that they want this policy changed, I think there is some hope that we will stop slaughtering these American boys and also slaughter- ing Asians by the course of action we are following in southeast Asia. But, Mr. President, we can redeem our- selves. We can redeem ourselves by changing our course of action in :rela- tionship to the United Nations itself. We can redeem ourselves by our President announcing, as he should be announcing, a cease-fire as far as U.S. operations in South Vietnam are concerned. When there is this internal turmoil going on in South Vietnam, when there is the situation of South Vietnamese fighting themselves, when the South Vietnamese troops of the junta govern- ment devote so much time and effort to suppressing opposition and insurrection in the areas not even controlled by the Vietcong, it is about time that the Presi- dent gave the assurance to the American people that he is going to stop ordering the killing of American boys in South Vietnam in that inexcusable, immoral, and sinful war. That is what the American people should demand from the President, be- cause the President can stop the killing of American boys in South Vietnam by issuing an order of cease-fire as far as American troops are concerned. The President can stop the killing of Ameri- can boys in an escalating war by adopt- ing the recommendation of General Ridgway, General Gavin, George Ken- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 June 2, 1966 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 11521 nan, and others, who point out that we must adopt the enclave strategy in South Vietnam in order to stop increasing hour by hour the serious danger of an all-out massive war in Asia with both China and Russia. I was interested in the comments of the Senator from New York [Mr. JAVITS] and the Senator from Connecticut [Mr. RIBIcoFF] about the responsibilities and obligations of Russia and Japan. They do have responsibilities and obligations. Both of them have been derelict. But there is another side to that coin, too. How fortunate the United States and mankind are that Russia has not joined the United States in outlawry in south- east Asia. How fortunate the people of the United States and the people of the world are that Russia thus far has exer- cised the restraint of not constructing Soviet bases in North Vietnam, not send- ing Soviet troops in to the assistance of the Vietnamese, not sending in her air power, which we all know would mean world war III if she should start doing it. If one looks at that side of the coin the sad fact is that Russia has to be given credit for not starting world war III yet. Although she has made very clear her complete disaproval of our pol- icy in Vietnam, although she has given some military aid to the North Vietnam- ese and to the Vietcong, the fact remains that the restraint of Russia in regard to the Vietnamese situation has prevented the beginning of world war III. How long she will restrain herself I think only God knows. So, it is increasingly im- portant that our country stop risking world war III, t It is saddening to listen to spokesmen ive reassurances to n t G I should like to hear the President repudiate the war hawks. In fact, I should like to have my President face up to his obligation under article I, section 8, of the Constitution, and stop making war without a declaration of war. That is a clear obligation of this President of ours to the American people. Let the American people have this war issue clearly drawn. Let the President send a war message to Congress, and let Con- gress decide whether we want a legal war in the sense that a legal war can be conducted only under a. declarations of war. Our constitutional fathers taught us that lesson in the constitutional de- bates, when they wrote article I, section 8, of the Constitution. They denied to the President the power to wage war without a declaration of war. The great statesmen from that time on have made that perfectly clear, as have great constitutional scholars. I placed in the RECORD last Friday an article pub- lished in the June issue of the Diplomat, an article written by a man considered by many as the greatest living American historian, but I should say he is among the first three-Henry Commager, of Amherst -University. He not only devastatingly answers the argument of those who claim that the President can make war without a declaration of war, but he devastatingly answers the chain of non sequiturs and policies of Dean Rusk, who tries to jus- tify the killing in Vietnam under SEATO. Let my President face up to his con- stitutional duty. Let my President take to the American people a proposal for a declaration of war, as Woodrow Wil- son did on the night of April 2, 1917, as g overnme of our the American people day in and day out I have said in my speeches on the floor that things are looking better in South of the Senate at least 20 times in the Vietnam because we are making military last 3 years, and shall continue to say progress. We are killing more. We are it, because by repetition, repetition, and devastating more. We are despoiling repetition, more and more people are be- more. We have some of our war hawks, ginning ow understand. ing that historic such as Admiral Radford, advocating the night of April Wilson, a o,n personally ap- mining of Haiphong Harbor and bomb- eartd before a joint session of Gap- Con- ing Hanoi, or any point that these mill- p eared recommended a declaration of tarists suggest. The American militar- gress lets are the greatest threat to the peace war against the German Imperialist of the world because it happens to be the Government. In the first paragraph of American militarists in the service, and that Great War message, President Wil- some of those retired, such as Admiral son said there were decisions to be made Radford or General LeMay, who are ad- that it was neither right nor constitu- vocating our following an even more ac- tional that he make. He meant the de- celerated course of American outlawry in cision of war or peace. Asia without a declaration of war and President Wilson did not seek to jus- proceeding on an aggressive course of ac- tify making war against Germany on tion that, in my judgment, would be the basis of the fallacious argument of bound to bring in Russia. many Senators, and at the White House, But these militarists have to be an- that the President, as Commander in swered and I would like to hear my Pres- Chief, has the power to respond to the ident answer them for once. Just once. self-defense of the Nation. He spends a lot of time and uses many Of course he does, but for a very, very occasions to answer those Who want the limited period of time, and only in order war deescalated. But he has no answer, to meet that emergency and get his rec- no rebuke, for those in his official family ommendations and reasons prepared for or in his own party, who want the war a declaration of war, and then come be- enlarged. Nor does he care to take issue fpre a joint session of Congress and rec- with the military officers who want to ommend it. That is the limit of the use the situation to exercise their mili- President's so-called power as Com- tary muscles. mander in Chief to respond to the self- The reason for this distribution of defense needs of the Republic. presidential attention is simple: It Is No, Mr. President, it is meaningless limiting and ending the war that has the for the President today to tell the Amer- most appeal to the American public. loan people that he is for United Nations supervision of elections in South Viet- nam, when those elections will allow no choice among policies and will not cover the whole of the population of Vietnam, because it will eliminate completely one side to the war; namely, the Vietcong.. What kind of elections will they be? Stacked, -controlled, and rigged. It is one thing for the President to ask for supervision of those elections by the United Nations, but I ask the President again, "Why do your not call upon the United Nations to declare a cease-fire and declare that we will support a cease- fire." That is the President's responsibility under the United Nations Charter, as it is the President's responsibility under the Constitution, either to propose a declaration of war or to stop being re- sponsible for the killing of increasing, numbers of American boys in South Vietnam. That is the issue. Eventually, the American people will determine it. Mr. President, I made these comments today, not expecting to make them until I heard the Senator from Connecticut and the Senator from New York, and until I heard about the announcement which is coming out of the White House from our President and our Ambassador to the United Nations. I say to the American people that the President and Ambassador Goldberg deal with a very superficial phase of this problem. They do not go to the heart of the problem, nor do they carry out the clear responsibility of our President and our Ambassador in the United Na- tions concerning our obligations to man- kind to stop the butchery in South Viet- nam. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent to have printed in the RECORD cer- tain materials, letters, and telegrams which I have received in support of the position I have taken in opposition to the President's war in South Vietnam. There being no objection, the material was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: DAYTON, VA., May 31, 1966. Hon. WAYNE MORSE, Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C., DEAR SENATOR MORSE: May I add my thank you to those that are pouring in upon you concerning your courageous stand against the administration's position in Southeast Asia and Vietnam. Please continue your ef- forts for world peace. I believe some members of the present ad- ministration would do well to remember these words of President Kennedy: "We are not afraid to entrust the American people with unpleasant facts, foreign ideas, alien philosophies and competitive values. For a nation that is afraid to let its people judge the truth and falsehood in an open market is a nation that is afraid of its people." Yours sincerely, ELLEN V. SWOPE Miss Ellen V. Swope. SAN DIEGO, CALIF., May 23, 1966. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: I want to express my admiration for your courageous stand on the Vietnam war. As a former "colonial" resident of what used to be French Indo- china, I feel better qualified than many of Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 11522 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE June 2, 19 C/ our top decision-makers. I wonder often at the nature of their motivation. What drives these people to ignore the facts of the situa- tion? Is it selfish economic interest: there is a perhaps apocryphal story to the effect that when approached at some recent gov- ernors' conference about the possibility of seriously trying to end the Vietnam war, Mr. Johnson asked: "Do you want an economic crisis or continued prosperity?". , Is It a short-sighted view of our interest in Asia from a military stand-point? Is it because the military are more and. more ruling this country, therefore imposing their views on the necessity of war? Is it just pure ig- norance, or arrogance as Senator FULBRIGHT put it, or self-delusion in imagining our- selves the rightful, legitimate policemen of the world? If you, have no time to answer these questions, can you answer at least this one: how can I, as a responsible (or shall I say too-timorous-to-jump-on-the-barri- cades) citizen, best help the peace move- ment? Not being a wild-eyed radical ready to make a lot of noise, or a famous personal- ity who might command a modicum of re- spect, I feel quite helpless and yet categori- cally impelled TO DO SOMETHING to help steer this country away from the hysterical, jingoist path to senseless destruction? A very worried American, JEAN-PAUL DE CHEZET. Senator WAYNE MoRsE, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. BRONX, N.Y., May 27, 1966. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: I am Writing to you With my view on the war against Viet Nam because you have taken a consistent and unequivocal stand in opposition to the war. During the past few months I have read many newspaper and magazine articles re- ferring to tortures and atrocities committed against prisoners of war and even civilians. I have seen color photographs of prisoners being tortured In magazines such as Life. And on May 23, the New York Times printed a photograph on page i of a soldier who had surrendered and was holding his hands above his head, but who was nevertheless shot a few seconds later by one of his captors. Are there no laws of morality left in this coun- try? Furthermore, I believe that the use of noxious gases by the United States is a viola- tion of the Geneva Protocol of 1925. I be- lieve that it is a crime to use chemical defoliants on the peoples' crops. I think the dropping of napalm bombs will bring un- ending shame to this country. I strongly suspect that what the admin- istration describes as the bombing of stra- tegic military targets is, in fact, in many cases the bombing of innocent civilians. I view with horror the photographs I have seen of our soldiers burning whole villages and leaving only desolation for the impover- ished peasants. As a citizen I must speak out against what I believe is wrong and what I have seen of this war convinces me that my country is wrong. The situation is not entirely hopeless as long as there are men with your courage to remind the administration that what it is doing is immoral and evil. I want to tell you how much I appreciate the show of bravery you have made in speaking out against a president who does not welcome opposing views. I hope you will continue your neces- sary work until we see some indication that our leaders are more concerned with the prac- tice of democracy than with the winning of military victories. History will record that at least one brave man was heard in the Congress at a time when the United States made a terrible mistake, Very sincerely yours, GEORGE W. COOKE. EL CERRrro, CALIF., Senator WAYNE Moasz; May 23,196 Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR Sea: I cannot tell you what it means to me to have a spokesman in the Senate who keeps pounding away at the injustice of the Vietnam conflict. Today we are fighting the Buddhists, the Viet Cong, and the North Vietnamese. One wonders who is with us. In addition to my horror at our participa- tion in this war as a country, I have the prob- lem of two sons who oppose our action there. The older, aged twenty, is a junior at the University of California at Berkeley. He has affiliated with groups opposing the war, but does not believe in militant opposition, sit- ins, or suport of communistic organizations which oppose the war. Like me, the boys believe that if we had the support of the people in that country and could really stop communist aggression in the Far East, the war would make some sense. We are almost overwhelmed with the fu- tility of protest. We are disheartened at the punishment dealt out to young men who refuse to serve in the armed services while such a war is in progress. This older son, Richard, will not return to College next semester. He cannot sign up as a conscientious objector as he is not a paciflist and would fight to protect his coun- try or to protect other countries where the people support our participation. He will not join the armed services under the non-combat provision as he will not promote an unjust war in any way. He would allow himself to be drafted and trained if not made to serve where the conflict is unjust, but we understand that draftees have no choice. 'We have read of other young men who have tried to act with integrity under the same circumstances. One is serving a four year prison term and was fined $10,000. In our own city, a fine young man has been sent to jail more than once for refusing to serve. This seems like double jeopardy. Richard is convinced that he will be jailed in defense of his principles. He is discour- aged of course. I told him that there might be a possibility that he would not be jailed and that he should make some plans. He replied that he could not do so as his plans might become so appealing to him and im- prisonment so hard to taste in comparison that he would sacrifice his ideals. It is a heartbreaking decision and he has made it. The younger boy graduates from high school now and will be in college and able to avoid the issue for a while. The thought of our older son in jail is almost too much to bear. If I had my children to raise over again, I think that I might raise them to be tough and unfeeling. They were taught ethics and kindliness from the start. Logical thought and sensitivity seem out of place In modern society. Do you have any suggestions? Whether you answer or not, once again, my heartfelt appreciation for your courageous stand. Sincerely, Mrs. R. C. WILKINS. HILLSBORO, KANS., Senator WAYNE MORSE, Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: I have watched your courageous and noble service in the Senate for some time. Your firm position and that of a few others has challenged and en- couraged me to stand up to the apathy, ignorance, and prejudice surrounding a small minority in Kansas. 1. have read your "Legal Issues of U.S. Position in Vietnam." It is so clear that we are violating Constitutional and interna- tional laws by being in Vietnam. It's such a let-down to know that decency and intel- ligence and justice have been replaced by the craven and mean. That makes your leadership in Washington all the more im- portant. I hope God spares you until the light of truth breaks over the American people. The defeat of your Oregon candidate was deeply disappointing. I thank you sincerely for your untiring fight in trying to save our nation. I hope we have not gone too far at this point and that our "cup is full". Very Sincerely, Los ANGELES, CALIF., May 24, 1966. DEAR SIR: Just these few words to thank you for your splendid efforts In the cause of peace. Almost without exception everyone that I know and talk to is behind your courageous crusade. If ever there is a sequel to President Kennedy's Profiles in Courage you are sure to head the list. Respectfully, DON DEVLIN. TOLEDO, OHIO, May 28,1966. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: I am writing this on my way to Columbus to hear Senator GRUENING and to take part in a march on the State House. I think every democrat should contrib- ute to Gov. Hatfield's campaign and thus follow your lead in supporting him. My son is returning from Somalia after serving two years in the Peace Corps. He graduated from the University of Oregon and is an Oregon voter. He is very enthused by your leadership and sees the real work of the present generation as educating, helping & succoring rather than in destroying. Our movement is growing. There was no Toledo Committee for a Reasonable Settle- ment last November. There are 300 members with hundreds of others we have not "been Involved positively" yet. We are very much encouraged but we have no hope that the President will listen until forced to polit- ically. Sincerely yours, F TLLERTON, CALIF., May 25, 1965. Senator WAYNE MORSE. Sue: Excuse the pencil please, since I feel it is no time to hunt for a pen. I support your position on Vietnam. And feel that the Administration is totally wrong. Which is beside the point I am about to make. And that is that-We should call for a constitutional amendment which would put a moratorium on all profits-in regards to war appropriations, or defense spending by the Government. I am aware that the im- plications of this constitutional amendment are far reaching. However I believe that to call for such an amendment at this time in history, will have far reaching reper- cussions and get at the root of the con- tradictions of the administration. They pro- fess to seek no wider war-so let them put their profits where there mouth IS. Sincerely yours, DETRorr LAKES, MINN., May 27, 1966. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: Please continue your efforts to get us out of Viet Nam. Many thanks for your efforts. Sincerely, Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 June 2, 1966 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 11523 BELLEVUE, WASH., May 24, 1966. Hon. WAYNE MORSE, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: I wish merely to ex- press my appreciation for your continued courageous efforts to critically assess our role and policies in Viet-Nam. In wishing you success I am not only expressing my hope that an erroneous and immoral foreign policy nay be terminated, but also that the reason- able expression of disagreement and dissatis- faction with handling of specific affairs by the administration may retain an honored place in our society. Sincerely yours, GERALD J. OPPENHEIMER. EL CERRITO, CALIF., May 25, 1966. It is about time that the legislative branch of government recognize their responsibilities to the electorate and withhold from the Presi- dent the privilege of sending abroad our youth to die on foreign soil without our nation being wantonly attacked beforehand. Here, we send 250,000 men and billions of dollars to fight a war we cannot win, just as we did in Korea and yet a Communist pipsqueak-Fidel Castro defies us success- fully just 80 miles off our shoreline. My wife and I are the parents of 5 boys and girls (now parents themselves) who were involved in two previous wars and we are sick and tired of American involvement in the political wars of other nations. Everyone of us would defend our shoreline with every drop of blood we possess but not one drop to defend foreign religious and political factions, in their internal disputes. I believe our views are those of the majority of Americans who have felt the pangs of war and see nothing but tragedy ahead in the present policy of U.S.A. Involvement in every part of the world. We have a responsibility to those unborn to leave to them a nation-free from bank- ruptcy and a national debt they cannot pos- sibly pay off. If Congress would enact tax- ation to cover the cost of wars as they are being waged-there would be such a clamor from the American people to end the conflict immediately-the administration would be forced to act accordingly. Keep up the good work-you are truly a patriotic Senator-despite the opinion of the opposition. Sincerely your, ARTHUR It. ROBINSON. Hon. WAYNE MORSE, The U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SIR: As a Californian I cannot cast my ballot for you and thereby express my faith and belief in your stand against the Vietnam war which you are taking. There- fore, as a citizen of the United States,.I would like to offer you my utmost gratitude and sincere support of your policies and of your work in which you are now engaged. I am convinced that we need more leaders such as you in our Senate and whole-heartedly wish you every success. It is my fervent hope that more and more persons will adhere to your concepts. Yours truly, PHYLLIS KANTER' (Mrs. Joseph Kanter). PALO ALTO, CALIF., May 26, 1966. Senator WAYNE MORSE, U.S. Senate Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: I have recently read with great care your statement to the Senate in the Congressional Record of March 17, 1966 which was kindly forwarded to me by Mr. Big Rosenblum of New York City. Since the statement was made, the situation in Vietnam has only deteriorated further. I thoroughly agree that in respect to foreign policy our President and politicians have betrayed and failed us. What seems to me to be equally frustrating is that even through the ballot there appears to be so little the public can do to alter the situation. The candidates for public office, on the whole, seem to prefer to vie with one another in display of their "patriot- ism" and support of administration policies rather than to take a position based on morality and, in this case, common sense. The sad truth that the administration has failed to realize is that dishonesty and im- morality in national policy abroad is gener- ating similar degeneracy here at home. For this, I fear, history will judge the present administration harshly. I am proud of your stand and outspoken criticism and wish to express my support of your position. Sincerely yours, SEYMOUR KESSLER. DAYTONA BEACH, FLA., May 27, 1696. Hon. WAYNE MORSE, Senator From Oregon, Washington, D.C. MY DEAR SENATOR MORSE: Having watched the Senate hearings on television and the positive position you and Senator FULBRIGHT have taken on the Vietnam fiasco, even thopgh not popular with the executive branch of our government-I wish to con- gratulate you and ask that you continue to press for a complete withdrawal of the flower of our nation from this rathole which is draining the manpower of our nation. KERRVILLE, TEx., May 25,1966. Hon. WAYNE MORSE, U.S. Senate, Washington, D:C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: I want to thank you for your efforts to get our boys out of Viet Nam. I wish we had 98 more Senators like you and Senator Fulbright. We have nothing to gain in Viet Nam, and much to lose. It is one of the most useless, idiotic, and brutal wars in the history of the world. I value the life of just one American boy far more than all Viet Nam. And think of the billions of dollars of taxpayers' money that is being wasted! More power to you. Keep up the good work. Sincerely, RAYMOND ORR, A Grassroot Taxpayer. BAN MATEO, CALIF., May 22,1966. Mr. L. B. JOHNSON, President of the United States, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: I want you 1.o know you have lost two ardent supporters and two votes in the next election. We have great sympathy for the Buddhists and great dis- dain for your clumsy Vietnam involvement. You can be sure we will vote against any public official who supports this bloodthirsty and highly dangerous "policy". LOURENE M. BOYER. RONALD S. BOYER (COpy to: J. W. FGLBRIGHT, WAYNE MORSE.) Keep up the good work! Senator WAYNE MORSE, Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR: Thank you for your coura- geous stand on Vietnam. It is only through a very limited number of voices that the public at large becomes aware of many is- sues that might otherwise be unknown to them by miasma of silence. Respectfully yours, Dr. JOSEPH BAYLUS. MANHATTAN BEACH, CALIF., May 23, 1966. Senator WAYNE MORSE, Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: As a fellow lawyer I feel proud that you are a member of that profession. To hear the A.B.A. speak of "Rule of Law" and to see what our government is doing to it with our action in Vietnam is a travesty. Keep up the hard work. Sincerely, DARBY N. SILVERBERG. cc: President Johnson. WILTON MONTHLY MEETING OF THE RELIGIOUS SOCIETY OF FRIENDS, Wilton, Conn., May 23, 1966. Senator WAYNE MORSE, Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: We would like to call your attention to the enclosed copy of an advertisement placed recently by the Wilton Friends Meeting to express support of the traditional Quaker stand against violence of any kind. Though this is a well-known statement of the position of Quakers, we feel there is a particular necessity for its re-emphasis today. We appreciate the courageous stand you have taken in this matter. Sincerely yours, MISS MARGARET A. PICKETT, Chairman, Peace and Service Committee. [From the Wilton monthly meeting of the Religious Society of Friends] A QUAKER STATEMENT ABOUT WAR Today, in these troubled times, we would like to share the following messages with our neighbors: A declaration from the harmless and inno- cent people of God, called Quakers, presented to Charles II, 1660. We utterly deny all outward wars and strife, and fightings with outward weapons, for any end, or under any pretense whatso- ever; this is our testimony to the whole world. The Spirit of Christ, by which we are guided, is not changeable, so as once to command us from a thing as evil, and again to move unto it; and we certainly know, and testify to the world, that Spirit of Christ, which leads us into all truth, will never move us to fight and war against any man with outward weapons, neither for the Kingdom of Christ, nor for the kingdoms of the world ... Therefore, we cannot learn war any more. The Wilton Peace Minute, from Wilton monthly meeting to Friends everywhere, 1960. It is now 300 years since Friends first declared "we cannot learn war any more." Now as then, the spirit of Jesus Christ can never move us to violence, neither in per- sonal conflict nor in public life. His way leads only to peace with all men. His way is opened by that of God in every man; and by the helping hand of God available to all. Today, His way can save the world. Though every individual owes loyalty to the state, he owes higher loyalty to the inner light that is of God. And so with special urgency we invite all who hear to utterly renounce war-now the real and final enemy of man- and daily to seek ways to practice the life that knows no occasion for war, and to learn the ways of peace without which all men perish, Friends, like so many others, believe that war brings only misery. War does not-and never has-led to permanent achievement of freedom, justice and security. Even when Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 11524 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD--: SENATE June 2, 1966 the Issue is righteous and conflict seems justified there are higher and more effective ways than violence to oppose evil. War begets only war. Friends have found, by long experiment, that suspicion, distrust, fear, and violence itself, are healed only by the reconciling power of love. We urge all men and women whose hearts are sickened by the suffering of war victims to join us in prayer and constructive work for peace. (Wilton Friends Meeting, 317 New Canaan Avenue, Wilton, Conn., by George S. Hast- ings, clerk.) Hon. WAYNE MORSE, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. READING, PA., May 26, 1966. MY DEAR SENATOR MORSE: Thank you for waging such a vigorous and dynamic cam- paign in the furtherance of the interest of peace in this world. It is encouraging in- deed to see men of such original American independence and such courageous un- daunted faith "stand up" and proclaim the truth to the American people. There are, indeed, many things of ques- tionable character in the conduct of the war in Viet Nam-about this there seems to be little question indeed in the minds of most all of your fellow Americans. There is undoubtedly great restiveness pervading the Ameircan people at the present time, and Viet Nam and the many undesirable things occurring there are one of the great- est topics of discussion of the present time and the American people are crying out in anguish against the present conduct of af- fairs relating to the Viet Nam situation. All these distorted views, etc., presented by the advocates of further involvement and further advocates of carnage and radicalism, bespeak not of a free structure-but invari- ably are closely synonimous with the very dictatorial ideals against which we free peo- ple in America have so long been in opposi- tion. You have presented, a true challenge to the entire problem and have truthfully at- tempted to expose that which needs expo- sure, and your attempt at truthfullness is most certainly deeply appreciated both by your constituents as well as by grave men everywhere. Kindest regards. Sincerely yours, ARLINGTON, 28,1VA.,966. HOD. WAYNE MORSE, May Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: I have just finished reading excerpts from your speech on The President and Vietnam, from the CONGRES- SIONAL RECORD of May 16, 1966 and I want to extend my congratulations. I feel that the American people are ex- tremely fortunate to have a Senator, like yourself, who is courageous enough to speak- out against the President and this Admin- istration who listen only to the voices of the Hawks, constantly tells us how hard they are working for Peace yet continues to es- calate our troops in Vietnam, and gives whole-hearted support to General Ky. I worked hard to get President Johnson elected because Mr. Goldwater continually talked war during the campaign, while Mr. Johnson assured us that if he were elected there would be no war. Since the President was not honest during his campaign, I don't believe him now when I hear him say he is working day and night for a peaceful solu- tion to end the war., I agree fully with you when you say "the President must be stopped with ballots, for it is the only way left to stop his bullets". Already, I am being urged to vote for this man and that man in the coming State elec- tions. I have resolved to find out from each candidate whom I might be interested in, how he stands on the Vietnam issue. If he supports the President and the Administra- tion, he loses my support. For the first time in the many years that I have been voting the Democratic ticket, the coming elections might prove the exception, and it is even possible that for the first time r will have' to forego my vote if there is no difference in the candidates positions. I can assure you that my vote will not send to Congress any man or women who will rubber-stamp the President in carrying on this Vietnamese disaster. Thank you for again speaking-out and sharing your feelings and your ideas with the American people. Sincerely yours, DOROTHY E. MARBLE. OAKLAND, CALIF., May 26, 1966. Senator WAYNE MORSE, Senate of the United States, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: We support your op- position to President Johnson's disastrous Vietnam policies. Note the attached letter to President John- son. Sincerely, Mr. and Mrs. JOHN B. DYKSTRA. OAKLAND, CALIF., President of the United States, May 26,1966. Washington, D.C. Mr. LYNDON B. JOHNSON, DEAR PRESIDENT JOHNSON: You may feel that the Oregon primary was a victory for you and an endorsement of your policies. However in California, among my friends (most of whom voted for you in opposition to Goldwater In 1964), I know of none who will vote for you again in view of your disas- trous Vietnam policies. Sincerely, JOHN B. DYKSTRA. cc: Senator FULBRIGHT, Senator MORSE. Senator WAYNE MORSE, Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: I should have writ- ten much sooner about this, but I heard you on the open debate with Rusk concerning the American policy in Vietnam. I want to commend you on your stand. I am sure you made at least a few listeners have sec- ond thoughts about our position there. Thank you for all you have done to chal- lenge the administration's policies. Keep up the good work-I am behind you all the way. Sincerely, SUE RosrNsoN. Hon. WAYNE MORSE, The U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. EL CERRITO, CALIF., May 25, 1966. DEAR Sue: Let me offer you my praise and support of your stand in the Senate on Viet- nam and other Issues our country is floun- dering with. I admire the courage it must take to take the stand you have in the face of such oppo- sition with which you are meeting. I say this its a former Oregonian and as a staunch and loyal citizen of our country. Yours truly, JOSEPH KANTER, D.M.D. Senator WAYNE MORSE,. . Salem, Oreg. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: Keep up the good fight to get our boys out of Viet Nam. We are with you and your views 100 percent. This can be accomplished and be done gracefully without losing face and our boys. Mrs. MARGARET NESBIT. ST. CLOUD, FLA. SACRAMENTO, CALIF., May 11, 1966. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: Enclosed is a copy of a letter from 60 Junior College Instructors and Administrators of Sacramento to Presi- dent Johnson. We want you to know that the example you are setting in Washington is being followed In Sacramento and that people here are voicing their disapproval of the administration's policies in Vietnam. We praise you for your forthright stand on this controversial issue and we urge you to continue voicing your opposition to the ad- ministration's policies in Vietnam. Charles Myers, Stanley Jerome, Robert Bester, Philip Onstott, Clifton Gordon, Larry Welden, Marvin W. Cragun? Nor- man Thornburg, Albert Byrd, Clifford Curtice, Dories Bohr, Sam Kipp, Dar- rel Forney, Robert J. Bader, Fred Itt- ner, Duncan Courvoisier, Jack Fiedler, Tom Schmidt, Harry Cole, Will Solo- mon. Richard Miller, Lloyd Bruno, Ray Harker, Charles Nadler, Patricia McHugh, Ritchie Thomas, Richard Shimasaki, Al Kwolek, Edgar Meyer, Maria Brugge, Gene Tarr, Charles Slater, Muriel Fol- lansbee, John Miller, Eugene Volz, Wil- liam McCrory, Betty Robinson, Hal MeMurrough, Guilbert DuMont, Steve Strenamel. Walter Kaufmann, Nona M. Anderson, Larry Malmgren, Margaret Harrison, Fred Schmid, Fred Milstein, John Va- lone, Paul Gould, Frank E. Bush, George Anastasiow, William Mariano, Willard L. Melton, Allan Bravitz, Clive Mefford, Albert Wuesthoff, Paul Larch, Donald Jewell, Leo McCauley, Byron Patterson, Joseph F. Martin, Junior College Instructors & Administrators of Sacramento. SACRAMENTO, CALIF., March 22,1966. PRESIDENT JOHNSON: For nearly twelve years the United States has been pursuing a course of improvised disaster in Vietnam. The time has now come for concerned citi- zens to protest the apparent hypocrisy of their government. We claim to be in Vietnam at the invita- tion of a beleaquered government, but that government, like its sixteen predecessors since 1954, is our creature, and could not :have been established, nor could it long survive Without American force. We claim to desire self-determination for the Vietnamese people, but this claim hardly has the ring of truth, since the war is a result of our refusal to allow the elections stipulated by the Geneva Accords of 1954. We claim to desire no bases in Vietnam, but the bases are being built. We claim to desire a negotiated peace, but we have steadfastly refused to negotiate with the people whom we are fighting-the Na- tional Liberation Front. We claim to fear Chinese aggressiveness, when the presence of 235,000 American soldiers In Vietnam would suggest that we might more reasonably fear our own. We claim to be in Vietnam to protect the Vietnamese from aggression, but our use of toxic chemicals, napalm and torture, and the large numbers of non-cwnbatant dead indi- cate that the South Vietnamese need protec- tion from their friends rather than their ..enemies," Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 ? CRDPSJ(6R000400080018-1 T_.__ _ 6 CONGRESSTONAT. REDO RD- 96 It is, thus, abundantly clear that Ameri- can acts in Vietnam are totally inconsistent with the lofty aims which we claim to pur- sue. We, therefore, vehemently urge that the government take such steps as are nec- essaxy to extricate the United States from what can only become an increasingly cyni- cal and increasingly hazardous attempt to pursue American interests at the expense of the suffering people of Vietnam. PHOENIX, OREG , May 22, 1966. Hon. WAYNE MORSE, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: The enclosed clip- pings were printed in today's Oregonian. They reflect the growing concern of Orego- nians and of the whole nation about the Vietnam war. Most of them express their confidence in you that you so richly deserve. I hope that in reading these you will find renewed faith in the voting public and re- newed vigor in your battle to present the facts about the other side of the Vietnam war. I am a college student who opposes a war that is unconstitutional, to begin with, but is also stupid, cruel and wasteful of lives and educational (etc.) monies. Most of the people I talk to at college are in support,of you, Senator MORSE. Though we are silent, shy to write letters and reluc- tant to start calling names. I am sure you realize that we admire and respect what you are doing. The Senators KENNEDY and FUL- BRIGHT, Dr. Benjamin Spock, and the count- less educators, clergymen and citizens who agree with you about Vietnam think of you as an honest and most courageous man. In short, continue your fight. As these clippings 'show, there is a growing number of citizens who support you to the hilt. Why must good men like Senators MORSE and FULBRIGHT be persecuted? They are the best Americans of all. EUGENE. To the EDITOR: Johnson's claim that the use of power in- volves agony reminds one of the parent who insists to his child, "This hurts me worse than it hurts you," and then proceeds to lay on the club. Such an excuse for violence is disgusting in a parent and it is equally dis- gusting in a President. Of course, it could be that the agony re- sults from his conscience. If that is the case, let him make some genuine effort to end this brutal war against the Asian people and to bring home the brave and innocent young Americans whose lives are being wasted on a cause that is not only hopeless To the EDITOR: Your calling the Foreign Relations Com- mittee's hearings a "sickening show" proves that there is none so blind as those that will not see. Correct your myopic vision and take a good look at Viet Nam if you are to see a real sick and insane drama being enacted. Our only hope in getting the cur- tain down on this sad and infamous specta- cle is by honorable and courageous men such as Senators MORSE and FULBRIGHT. I sincerely feel sorry for Secretary Rusk as he hopelessly tries to justify this comedy of errors by repetitiously parroting these words: "We are in Viet Nam at the request of the South Vietnamese government." My greatest concern though is for the 250,000 of our young men over there who cannot help but wonder which, if any, government they are jeopardizing their lives for. I believe the people of Oregon are the most intelligent electorate in the nation and will never, sen& a senator or representative to Washington again who will permit such a small group in government to precipitate such a crisis as Viet Nam without question- ing every ramification that it may create. We are fortunate to have such choices in men such as Howard Morgan, Mark Hatfield To the EDrroR: My Voter's Pamphlet states that Robert Duncan "firmly supports our nation's policy of resisting Communist aggression without becoming involved in a nuclear third world war." Political hogwash. Who of us wants nu- clear war? But, we are heading in that direction faster than most of us realize. Our nation's policy? If the United States has a defensible policy for Americans killing Asians (on their own soil) and vice versa, I have yet to hear of it. Can Mr. Rusk or Mr. Duncan tell us how American fighting men can distinguish a Viet Cong man from a South Vietnamese? Press pictures show both to be undernour- ished and childish looking. Two warring factions never filled anybody's empty belly. If these people feel a Viet Cong victory will benefit their wretched condi- tion, can we blame them for fighting the op- position? No matter which faction wins the poor will be as wretched as before. JEWELL ETHEL`RICE. TILLAMOOH. To the EDITOR : Why do you depict Senators MORSE and FULBRIGHT as hooded Klansmen? Why do you belittle these men? It is not they whom you are trying to silence, it is the millions of people in the United States who dare to question our over- bearing, militaristic foreign policy. You are shutting off debate by making Viet Nam opposition unpatriotic (unpopu- lar). Only those with independent financial means can afford to speak out in opposition. We used to refer to these tactics as "dirty pool--. 11525 most advanced nation on earth, just does not feel to me to be in accord with the will of God. There must be a better way. GERALD G. EMERSON, Pastor. NEWBERG First Presbyterian Church. Newberg. PEACE WITH HONOR To the EDrroR: ROBERT DUNCAN'S position is firm support of Mr. Johnson's present Viet policy, includ- ing the refusal to negotiate with the Viet Cong. But this refusal rules out meaning- ful negotiations and makes our present pol- icy, with its repeated escalations of the war, a policy which in fact seeks a military solu- tion of the problem in Viet Nam. Pursuit of this policy of military victory will require increasing commitments of U.S. troops due to the stepped-up infiltration of regular Vieli troops from the north and to the steady deterioration of the South Viet army as an effective fighting force (it had 100,000 deser- tions last year). It is hard to believe that China will not be forced eventually to enter this conflict. (Imagine our reaction if the Chinese were fighting a war in Mexico or Guatemala, 250,000 troops on the ground, Chinese planes occasionally straying across the U.S. border.) One could agree with Mr. DUNCAN'S desire to contain Chinese power and influence, and yet insist that U.S. Involvement in a massive land war in Asia will defeat that purpose. Howard Morgan has made clear his opposi- tion to the present policy of seeking a mili- tary solution to what is essentially a political problem. He insists that both U.S. and Viet- namese interests will best be served by estab- lishment of a politically independent Viet Nam government. To promote a climate conducive to political reconstruction, Morgan would de-escalate both the air and ground war, and agree to include all belligerents in negotiations. To this reader, Morgans Viet policies offer the best chance for the U.S. disengaging itself honorably from a hopeless military conflict in Asia. JOHN L. HAMMOND. RICHMOND, VA., May 26, 1966. Hon. WAYNE MORSE, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: This IS to tell you that I am back of you in all you are saying and doing to try to stop this sacrifice of young Americans in that sea of human cor- ruption that is Viet Nam. One of the things I have to teach my class is the psychology of leadership. They study that there are three types of leader- ship: Authoritarian Laissez-faire Democratic We are now testing which type we, indeed, have in the United States. Surely if it is democratic, as we hope and pray it is, voices like mine all over the country will be heard. I am a patriotic American whose family has been in all of the wars in which the United States has taken part, and one mem- ber lies buried in Arlington. I am a con- servative,-not a pacifist, and it goes without saying-not a Communist. This war in Viet Nam is, to my mind, aiding the Communists for it is capable of wearing us out (as one of the steps of Lenin foretold). The corrup- tion on ALL sides there makes our partici- pation a form of mass insanity. May your efforts succeed in awakening the American people and arousing them to ac- tion that will be listened to by those in high places. Sincerely yours, DR. PORTIA HAMILTON. To the EDITOR: As I hear the reports and see the pictures of the people being killed in Viet Nam it just doesn't seem to make sense to me. It does not somehow seem right that the most pow- erful nation on earth should be sending the mightiest sea, air and artillery power against such small, desperately poor people, many of whom are utterly illiterate and ignorant of the so-called civilized world. Why shouldn't we let them alone, or let them all vote-north and south-as planned in the Geneva Convention of 1954? We say they are Communist, but the Japanese pho- tographer who interviewed the second in command, who some say is more powerful than Ho Chi Minh, says he is not Communist at all but "economic socialist." But supposing l;Ie is Communist. We are not shooting and killing the 40 per cent in Italy who voted Communist, nor the Com- munists or economic socialists In France, in the Scandinavian countries, nor in India, China, Russia, Albania, etc. The slaughter of these wretched Orientals seems especially wrong to me, as a Christian. To love a child-and as I see these people they are as ignorant little children-we must not spoil them, no. But to bomb their bridges, highways, power plants, railways, to kill them in such numbers with the greatest air and sea power, napalm, mortar fire of the Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 11526 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018=1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE June 2, 1966 DEAR SENATOR MORSE: Hurrah for the cour- age you show. I could say many things but you know it all and would be a waste of time for both of us. My children know of no young men who have any desire to fight in Viet-Nam. One young man we know has served in Santo Domingo as a Para-trooper. He would have stayed in the service and made it his career, but he did not wish to risk being sent to another hole such as Viet-Nam. It isn't a lack of patriot- ism as they are willing to defend and fight for our country but to go where we're de- spised and not wanted. Every war we fight, the common man hears it rumored that we are fighting for the rich business men who have holdings of some kind in these countries, but of course will never sure as patriotism as the lack of it is always pushed down our throats. I've often heard it said if these 40 to 50 year old men had to go to fight the wars there wouldn't be any. Thank you. Sincerely Senator WAYNE MORSE, Washington, D.C. DEAR SIB: I have been listening to your speeches and hope you keep up the good work. I just can't think that anything In south east Asia is worth one of our boys' lives. I believe we should help the people in our own country to vote, to get jobs and decent wages and houses to live in. There are more people than you realize that agree withyour views. Most mothers of boys sure do and I hope that we get out of this ter- rible war. Sincerely Mrs. H. J. FRAHM. Senator MORSE: I thought I'd take time out from studies to applaud your stand on our Vietnam policy. I'm sorry to hear that they don't heed yours and Senator FvL- BRIGHT's warnings (recent boost in our troop commitment). Perhaps history will re- member that there were a few sane "peace- niks" attempting to stop the flow of world blood. However, history has been kindest to the war mongers, both "good and bad" if such a significance is possible. I have found that those pepole who sup- port the war, support it for the wrong rea- sons. I've never had the privilege of carry- ing a sign-frankly I've been too busy with studies-however, I'd rather be labeled a "beatnik" than a "warnik." A revolution or insurgency must have the support of the people and after twenty years it would seem logical that we might get the hint. The ugly American is on stage again, taking an- other bow. Please, sir, make yourself heard. With sincere appreciation, TIMOTHY B. MCGRATH. SEATTLE, WASH., May 19, 1966. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: What a great service to all the people, you are in the Senate. To the American people, world's people and the people of Viet Nam. For it is upon your success rests their fragile fate. I often wonder how the Nazis would have fared If someone had taken them on the way you have. I can understand why they call you the "Tiger of the Senate." I am doing what I can on my level to help get us out of the war. It is a pleasure to be living in your gen- eration. Please send me any facts or speeches which would be helpful in the fight. Sincerely, The Senate, Washington, D.C., United States. DEAR SIR: I am an American voter living in Canada. I am a student and, a teaching fellow at the University of Toronto. I would like to add my voice to yours in protest of President Johnson's policy in Vietnam. Alone I feel helpless in the face of the President's arrogant refusal to recognize criticism. My first letter to the President went unacknowl- edged. My second letter was forwarded to the American Consulate in Toronto. The Consul sent me a letter explaining that he appreciated my concern and that the Pres- ident was also concerned. I am more than concerned. I am angry. I feel betrayed by the President's actions. His actions are inconsistent with his cam- paign promises. I feel frightened that one man can possess so much power in a demo- cracy. I think that Mr. Johnson has trans- gressed his legal power as Commander-in- Chief of the Armed Forces. His refusal to recognize criticism is an arrogant misuse of power. His name calling is beneath the dig- nity of the office of the Presidency. i am not it "nervous nelIie" and I hope you point this out to the President of "all the people." Sincerely yours, HAL BURNHAM. COLORADO SPRINGS COLO , . SENATOR WAYNE MORSE, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: Thank you very much for sending me the material concerning the U.S. position in Vietnam. I sincerely agree with the lawyers' Committee and am passing around the record among friends. I shall certainly refuse to vote for anyone who will not promise to work for speedy withdrawal from Vietnam and cessation of this immoral and Illegal war. Keep up the good work! ESTHER VANUE. MCHENRY, ILL., Hon. WAYNE MORSE, May 24, 1966. Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. MORSE: Please continue in your efforts to halt this mess in Viet Nam. Are we going to be fighting the Viet Cong, the North Vietnamese, and the South Viet- namese? Who is going to be left in that poor mutilated country to help us win their(?) war for freedom (and ours for their natural resources) ? ! !? From a grateful American family who deeply appreciate your convictions and pray for your continuing strength to fight for them. Sincerely, BRUNO C. and MARGARET KARAS. Hon. WAYNE MORSE, Senator, Eugene, Oreg. DEAR SENATOR: Keep up the good work and get our boys out of Viet Nam. Don't give up the fight, we're with you. Mrs. MARGARET NESBIT. ST. CLOUD, FLA. Hon. WAYNE MORSE, The U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. TozonTo, ONTARIO, your efforts to end this war. You say so PARK FOREST, ILL,, May 25, 1966. DEAR SIR: I thank you for your fine tele- vision appearances. I appreciate more than words can say your - views on the Vietnam War. Your words, "We have the right to dissent" made me feel America still has some of the real spirit left of its original founders. I have one son in the service and another of the draft age. Should this war be furthered who knows about another son who will be a freshman this fall. Thank you for all of eloquently all the words I think and feel to be true. Yours truly, Mrs. DONALD H. ALESHIRE. Mr. WAYNE MORSE, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. GREENVILLE, OHIO, May 24, 1966. DEAR Sin: I wish to compliment you for the conscience and fortitude you displayed dur- ing the Senate Committee hearing (televised the evening of May-11) when Mr. McNamara was interrogated. I deeply appreciate the disturbance that you, Mr. FULBRIGHT and others are making at this time. There are "computer men" who walk among us as humans. (Are they repro- ducing? Heaven forbid!) Mr. McNamara's case is one of mistaken identity. He thought he could charge through like a knight of old, armed with a computer, and the war would be won by precision. Now he continues to face his ad- versary because he is afraid to turn his back and run. A "simple-minded" solution for the war is this: retreat and make "enclaves" and then evacuate all who wish to leave. This would be more soulful than war, and certainly more economical of everything, even if it took more than a year to accomplish it. Here is a quote I think pertinent in this situation: "" s * it is not America but Russia, holding vast lands once belonging to the Middle Kingdom, who has most to fear a clash with an aggressive China." Sincerely, Mrs. T. !K. WENRICIi. Senator WAYNE MORSE, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. NEWBURCH, N.Y., May 25, 1966. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: I am writing you to thank you for your criticism of our adminis- tration's stand in Viet Nam. So many of us feel strongly that we do not have the moral right to be there but It is like a voice crying in the wilderness. Our objections do not seem to be listened to and with each passing day, more of our young men are being killed. How very tragic for the families involved. How can people bear the loss of loved ones for a reason in which they cannot believe. I pray that you will continue voicing your opposition. Sincerely, MARION W. RmER Mrs. M. J. Rider.. PALO ALTO, CALK'., May 23, 1966. DEAR SIR: I'm not a pacifist but I'm shocked to the Vietnam situation. How could we get so involved? I can't believe it. It's a nightmare to most of us. It must be worse than a nightmare to the average Vietnamese. No wonder we're un- popular. The only people who seem to want us to stay are the profiteers and the Ky government. Thank you for having the courage to ex- press your opinions. I'm sure most Amer- icans agree with you. Sincerely, COUNCIL BLUFFS, IOWA, May 24, 1966'. MY DEAR SENATOR: I wish to express :my disapproval of the war In Viet Naim. Our boys are being killed a few at a time and this war could go on for years and years. Most of the people don't feel this war unless Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 June 2, 1966 Approved For Release-2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 11527 they have boys in the service. I have two sons in the service and it seems to me that Robert S. McNamara is trying to prolong this war at the, expense of the lives of our boys. I have read in our paper where our boys have been cut short on materials, and weap- ons. We seem to be short of planes and bombs. What is our committment to this country? They have no form of government. Are our boys dying for nothing? If our boys die one at a time what will this solve in this country? This war is not ours, this is needless blood- shed and loss of our boys lives. Each and every boy is precious to their families. They deserve the chance to live and have families of their own. I have heard your views on Viet Nam and I hope you know that most of the people that I know share your views. Help us to stop this needless slaughter of our boys. Surely there is another way to help these people without the needless death of our boys. If this war is necessary then we should not hold back on the bombs, Bomb the strategic places like Hanoi. Mrs. HELEN L. GREENE. FLUSHING, N.Y., May 26, 1966. Senator MORSE, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: Attached is a letter we wrote to President Johnson protesting our involvement in the War in Vietnam. We would like you to know we support your courageous stand against the War In the Senate and on the Foreign Relations Com- mittee. We believe you are helping democ- racy to survive in this country at a time when it is being seriously challenged by the actions of the President and his Administra- tion. We urge you to continue to bring the truth about the War to the American people in the face of all opposition from the White House because we believe that the people are beginning to realize the illegality, brutality, and shamefulness of this destructive policy which has not advanced our country's ideals at all in Vietnam or the rest of the world. Very truly yours, LARRY FANTL. SVSAN FANTL. "FLusHING, N.Y., May 24, 1966. "President JOHNSON, "White House, "Washington, D.C. "DEAR PRESIDENT JOHNSON: We would like to register our opposition as citizens of the United States and as human beings, to this country's role in the present conflicts in Viet Nam. We oppose our open support of the military, anti-constitutional government of General Ky against the National Libera- tion Front, and our tacit, indirect support of Ky against the Buddhists who are seeking constitutional government. (Ky could not combat the Buddhists so successfully without the military equipment provided him by the U.S. Government.) "The brutal war we are waging against the National Liberation Front (NLF) and North Viet Nam (we make a distinction) are mor- ally and legally wrong, and diplomatically and tactically damaging this country's do- In any case, we have created a situation in which Ky's government is as much hated as the NLF by anti-communists like the Budd- hists, which comprise a majority of the na- tion's population. "2. We are provoking Communist China by repeated bombings of North Viet Nam, closer and closer to the Chinese border. This does not even take into account the fact that these bombings have not brought us military victory. We must consider also the crudity and illegality of bombing North Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, which have never been proven indispensible and sole sustainers of the NLF in South Vietnam. "3. We are retarding relations with Russia and with France, a potential friend and a former one, by persisting in these aggressive actions in S.E. Asia. "4. The war has retarded social progress domestically, holding back the two primary programs of your administration, the Poverty Program and the Civil Rights Program. "5. By escalating the war and by bombing North Vietnam, you have betrayed the voters who elected you instead of Barry Goldwater because you supposedly stood for fair-minded political action and a minimum of military action in South Vietnam. "6. You have betrayed the voters who favored your liberal and humanitarian pro- gram of social legislation at home. To us, it is the nation's disgrace that Medicare and the Civil Rights Act, and the War on Poverty, should be accompanied by a war on Vietnam which obliterates human rights, increases poverty and suffering. The acts at home are constructive and laudable, and will give your administration an honored place in this na- tion's history for generations. But the acts of war abroad have already made your na-me and administration infamous to many, and the damage done to our national reputa- tion, to the U.N., to international diplo- ma tic relations In Europe as well as Asia, and to the Vietnamese people will take as many generations to rectify. "We support the statements of Senators FULBRIGHT, MORSE, and KENNEDY, and all others who have spoken out against the War. We ask: "1. That you cease immediately the bomb- ing of North Vietnam. "2..That you initiate no more attacks on the NLF In the South. "3. That you hinge your military support of Ky on his guarantees of elections Sep- tember 12, and his promise not to destroy the Buddhist movement which opposes him. (CONTROL KY, DON'T LET HIM OONTROL OUR FOREIGN POLICY) "4. That you reconvene the Geneva Con- ference and reinvite the U.N, to provide sug- gestions whenever it feels it can. "5. That you offer to negotiate immedi- ately and unconditionally with NLF as a major party of all discussions. "6. That you campaign for peace, not as you did last January with accompanying escalations of the number of troops in Viet- nam, etc., but honorably and sincerely, and for as long as it takes to reach a peaceful, satisfactory political settlement. "As things stand, Mr. President, we have discovered that it is possible to be ashamed of being an American, and that our fears of world conflict and nuclear holocaust are not mestio programs and international bargain- focused on Moscow or Peking, but on Wash- ing position and prestige. ington, D.C. "1. More Americans are now being killed "We ask you to remove the shame and en- than Vietnamese. We have been fighting for able this country to return to the much more at least two years with no concrete military compelling, honorable struggle of defeating victories ever being achieved and maintained. poverty, disease, ignorance, and fear within Obviously a military victory in Viet Nam is our own boundaries, and anywhere else these impossible. Obviously the bulk of the Viet- forces prevail. , namese population is either positively sup- "Very sincerely yours, porting the NLF , or else not enough opposed "LARRY FANTL, to it to actively work for the Ky government. "SUSAN FANTL." ALAMEDA, CALIF., May 6, 1966. DEAR SENATOR: This senseless war in Viet Nam is the most terrible thing that has ever happened to our country. It is none of our business what the countries of Asia do. The power to send troops to foreign lands and to get us into war, should be taken away from the President and restored to Congress, where our Constitution placed it. The people of Viet Nam have their own ideas of how to live and cannot understand anything different. Of course they all want the money we so lavishly pour in. I am seventy years old and am more wor- ried about the fate of our country than ever before. I thank you for trying to get us out of this mess. I am a native of Oregon and am proud to think that the representative of that state is making such a good fight. All of the hand-outs the President can make does not compensate for the loss of our wonderful young men. They are like sheep led to be slaughtered, MANHASSET, LONG ISLAND, N.Y., May 25, 1966. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: We are so grateful for your courageous leadership in opposing U.S. official policy in Vietnam. PHILADELPHIA, PA., May 25, 1966. Senator WAYNE MORSE, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR: I would like to express my support of the position you have taken con- cerning United States foreign policy, espe- cially in Vietnam. Your courageous deter- mination in speaking out against whatever you believe to be wrong will, I hope, continue. Thank you for putting your country's future ahead of your own political future. And thank you, thank you for your recent observation that were John F. Kennedy our president today, he most probably would not have us in this unholy mess! I became annoyed when editorialists claim that there is no difference between the Johnson and what would have been the Kennedy policy. In fact, I see grounds for the impeachment of President Johnson for his total disregard of the constitution concerning declaration of war. Also, his claim that we are preserving freedom for the people of Asia (by burning and bombing them and their villages and supporting a military dictator whose hero is Hitler) sickens me. Again, I urge you to continue your opposi- tion to our presence in Vietnam. Senator WAYNE MORSE, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: I endorse your stand on our position in the Vietnam war and think it is wonderful that the United States Senate has such an able spokesman for liberalism. The American people welcome the debate and investigation of the awesome issues of this terrible dilemma. Sincerely yours, BAYSIDE, N.Y., May -20, 1966. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: We wish to thank you for everything you have done and said about Vietnam. We are very lucky to have had the opportunity of hearing your views presented at the Senate Foreign Relations hearings on television. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018=1 11528 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 CONGRESSIONAL, RECORD - SENATE June 2, 1966 We are not organization people, we never marched, nor sat in; or were we ever strongly committed to any cause. This letter is the beginning of our commitment. We thank you for your leadership and inspiration. As much as you need us, senator, we need you more. Our strength and our hope lies in you. Sincerely yours, GLORIA & PAUL LITTMAN. Senator WAYNE MORSE, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MoasE: May I respectfully commend you on your firm stand against our Involvement in Vietnam and express my com- plete agreement with your views. Yours sincerely, DOROTHY BLASS. MESQUITE, TEx, May 11, 1966. Senator W. MoasE, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SIR: Please let me once again assure you of my support in your fight against our involvement in Viet Nam. Please continue to do all you can to inform the country about this senseless and dangerous war. I keep hoping that finally good sense and not ill in- spired emotions will prevail and result in our disengagement. Very truly yours, ALBANY, N.Y., May 23, 1966. DEAR SIR: Such strength of mind and char- acter is an inspiration to all of us. God bless you. ROUSTON, TEx., May 25,1966. SENATOR WAYNE MORSE: I heard you on Tel. & I think we need .a few more talkers like you that will speak out against this terrible slaughter of our men in Viet Nam. Surely with all the brains & educated people there should be better means of ending a war, that seems to be dragging us in further. Please write me & tell me what we women Can do in our small way. I know you are a Democrat but I'm hoping a Republican will he our next Pres. for the main reason, that all the wars, r can re- member of have been under Democratic Pres. I'm just now hearing reports on radio tell- ing what effect the war is having on this country & that war with China is unavoid- able. That makes us shudder. Why can't you be instrumental in doing something about this useless killing. I'd say pull out & settle with talks, negotiations policing or anything. I think if we stop the aggression they will stop. Go to them & make some sacrificing before our country goes bankrupt. We have too many irons in the fire. BERKELEY, CALIF., May 25, 1966. Senator WAYNE MORSE, Washington, D.C. DEAR SIR: I wish to inform you of my com- plete support of your opposition to the President's Vietnam policy. I beg you to continue it, and prevent the disastrous con- sequences which the President has chosen to weigh his country. Sincerely, ROBERT H. MANDEL. LITTLETON, COLO., May 26, 1966. Senator WAYNE MORSE, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. MORSE: I am in complete agree- ment with your views on the war in Viet Nam. I am thankful that there are still men, like you, around-who can view situa- tions of this nature, realistically, placing the security of our own nation in first place. I find, however, that my own objections are a little bit different than yours. So I am sending you this letter that I am also sending to the Denver Post, in the hopes that you may find in it a germ of an idea that can be used to defend your position. These are not only my views, but repre- sent the views of my 23 year old son, and his friends, who have fought in that war in Viet Nam. They know what those people are like, from their own experiences with them. They believe the cause to be hope- less and feel deeply discouraged with our commitment to defend all of Asia. From their point of view, this could involve the rest of their lives and the lives of their chil- dren, as well-if Americans could last that long. I wish, with all of my heart, that you, or someone like you, could be our president. Thank you. Mrs. BERNICE R. HOWE. "LITTLETON, COLO., May 26,1966. "Aren't we kidding ourselves about the war in Viet Nam? "While President Johnson states and re- states with monotonous regularity that we must stop the Communists in Viet Nam to prevent them from taking over all of Asia, Raul Castro, Cuban Armed Forces Minister, determines to redouble Cuban's aid to Com- munists revolutions in the belief that these revolutions are the Achilles heel of the United States. (Rocky Mountain News ar- ticle, page 3, May 24, 1966) "Mr. Johnson seems to be under the im- pression that when and if the Communists realize that they cannot take over South Viet Nam by force, they will somehow or other be intimidated or discouraged from further aggression in other countries. I wonder why it has not occurred to Mr. John- son that we have already forced the Com- munists to realize that they could not win in Korea, Berlin, and . we did show them that they could not bring those missiles into Cuba. They were not intimidated by these experiences with our determination, yet, Mr. Johnson asks us to forget the past and be- lieve that this time it is going to be differ- ent. This time the Communists are going to learn their lesson, once and for all. "But, if we stop to view this situation from Maj. Castro's point of view, it does seem that It might be much more profitable for the Communist world powers to involve the Americans in a series of small wars rather than risk their own manpower, their own economic resources, and especially their own reputations in one Big War. "If this were their intention, they could instigate little wars in all of these 39 other countries that we are now obligated to de- fend. If they could keep a war going In each of these countries for as short a time as three years per country, they could keep us pretty busy for the next 117 years. While we were expending our strengths in these wars, the Communists would have more than sufficient time to develop their home projects, es- pecially their space projects, and we could wake up one morning to discover that we were being controlled by a "Man in the Moon" and that man would not be an American. "It seems to me that we must stop, some- where along the line, take a clear, hard, cold look at our 'enemy' and wonder if we are not playing this game just exactly the way he wants it played. "It seems to me, that we must stop, some-. where along the line, and evaluate this situa- tion from different points of view, consider- ing other methods of dealing with this prob- lem or we could wake up one morning and discover ourselves to be so weakened from a long series of little wars that the Commu- nists have won by default. "I, personally, do not believe that the Com- munists plan to stop when the war in Viet Nam is over, I personally, do not believe that the Communists care whether or not they win or lose the war. I believe that their purpose was served when the first American dollar was spent and the First American boy died over there. "Even as we sit here wondering about it all, I suspect that the Communists are already planning their next adventure. Where will it be? They have a pretty wide choice. We may have Thailand and Malaysia well pro- tected, but that leaves India, Egypt, Israel, Cuba, South America. "Let's face the hard, cold, revolting facts. If we are going to commit our military and our economy to every Communist-instigated revolution that comes along, the Communists are going to have us dancing. Just like the old-time Western bully could keep the town drunk dancing by shooting bullets around his feet, the Communists could keep us dancing by Instigating revolutions. "And, just as that town drunk would be considered a fool if he felt victorious for hav- ing avoided all of the bullets, I think we are kidding ourselves if we believe, for one moment, that a victory in Viet Nam is a real victory over Communism. "BERNICE R. HOWE." YOUNOSTOWN, OHIO, May 25, 1966. Hon. Senator WAYNE MORSE, Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: Thank you for speak- ing out so strongly on our policy in Vietnam during the hearings that were televised two weeks ago. Please continue to pressure for a change in our policy. I find more and more people who think that it is imperative that we stop this military action. Sincerely yours, ELIZABETH STERENBERG. Senator WAYNE MORSE, Washington, D.C. We love you. Keep working for peace in Vietnam. THE MARROWS. SOUTH BEND, IND, May 24, 1966. Senator WAYNE MORSE, Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MoasE: As a long-time con- servative Republican I feel compelled to write to voice my support for your stand on Vietnam. We have put ourselves in the posi- tion of saving these people from themselves even if it means killing them all off to do so. The entire Vietnam situation has been a series of errors in judgment (misjudgment is human) but instead of rectifying these er- rors the administration has bulled its way along trying to cover them up by applying more force. Unfortunately this force means heavy loss of life on all sides. Like it or not we are the hand that is manipulating the military puppet ruling Vietnam. Keep up the fight. Very truly yours, THE REYNOLDSBURG METHODIST CHURCH, Reynoldsburg, Ohio, May 23, 1966. Senator WAYNE MORSE, U.S. Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: Thank you very much for the section of a recent CONGRES- SIONAL RECORD discussing our involvement in Vietnam. Many of us agree with you wholeheartedly and want to encourage you as you become the conscience of the nation in regard toOur Involvement in Southeast Asia. We greatly admire your courage in taking this very un- popular stand and want you to know that Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 June 2, 1966 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 11529 many of us share with you the deep concern about our commitments there and the treat- ment of the Vietnamese people. Keep up the good 'work and let me assure you of the gratitude of the many persons who share your concerns. Sincerely, son left for the service (drafted) and he was sent to Korea during the conflict there. The youngest son was drafted after he was mar- ried a year. He has been in the service six months. He is home on furlough from Camp Gordon, Georgia. When his leave has ended, he is being sent to Viet Nam. CHARLES D. KatSCH. I have had an exceptionally hard life as a _ mother. My husband is not well. He works MAY 23 1966 at a light job, all he can stand. And some- We further wish you all the success in your work for this human cause. We remain sincerely yours, KURT STOKEL, President. JOHN TAVIAR, Secretary. ANDREW BOZIEH, Treasurer. UNITED STATES CONSTRUCTION CORP., Sarasota, Fla., May 25, 1966. Hon. WAYNE MORSE, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. MY DEAR SENATOR MORSE: If the great Americans of yesteryear could, come back, they would recognize, as I do, your constant and dedicated contribution to keep these wonderful United States free and strong. Sincerely yours, SANDE ROCKE. PALM DESERT, CALIF., May 26, 1966. Senator WAYNE MORSE, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. MY DEAR SENATOR: Inclosed is a copy of some of the paragraphs from the letters I received from a friend who was drafted and fighting in Vietnam. We correspond regu- larly and I received a letter from him twice a week. Now I have had no letter for over a month. I trust and pray he is not another casualty in Vietnam's stupid religious war. Outside of protecting our oil interests, what reason have we for mixing in this civil strife? If you know of any other reason I would like to know. You deserve great credit for your tire- less work in the televised Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearings, Please carry on for a helpless American public. You have my humble thanks and good wishes, DEAR SENATOR MORSE: I Wish to let YOU times hardly able to go to work. I Wrote know of my gratitude to you for your President Johnson just explaining to him courageous labors in trying to bring sanity that I've been through so much and since to our country's headlong drive in a war of we did share our (2) sons in foreign duty hate and terror. just asking him if the third son could not I also wish to tell you that all of my family, be stationed in the States to complete his all of my friends and acquaintances have duty to his country~e cHe Is ould have commander-in- been against this war from the first- chief of the Army. said Yes, (Where does this "consensus" come from? and had him stationed here. I had a letter It can only be from those people who do not from Julian Wilson saying he was asked to read except superficially, and from the hate- answer it for President Johnson, And the d nditions that could not o i t mongers and reactionaries.) In deepest gratitude, IRENE DONNELLY. PHILADELPHIA, PA. BRYAN, TEx., May 18,1966. Hon. WAYNE MORSE, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SIMATOR MORSE: I wish to express my deep appreciation and gratefulness to you for the stands you have been and are taking before our present Administration regarding their foreign policy programs-namely Viet Nam. Because of this you have taken criticism but, nevertheless, have been con- stant and untiring in your effort-the sign of a great man. It is-my hope that our president will soon take more advice from people such as your- self than he seems to be taking at this par- ticular time. May God bless you and work with you in ,your efforts to bring peace to this troubled world. Respectfully yours, MARY E. PARRETT. MAY 20, 1966. Senator WAYNE MORSE, Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. SENATOR: When you feel like running for the Presidency-count on my vote. I refer to your Viet Nam position. I am recommending it to the President and my other elected representatives. Thank you for a kind of patriotism that appeals to the HUNTINGTON PARK, CALIF. MONTOURSVILLE, PA., May 24, 1966. Senator WAYNE MORSE, U.S. Senftte Building, Washington, D.C. n c a letter con be met as I will not go out to exaggerate the conditions and that was "only the pres- ence of the son would eliminate the prob- lems with which I'm faced. And that would just be telling a falsehood. And I would not go out to embarrass my son to fill out papers to that effect. I have had many problems which works a hardship on me. But this is the worst problem I've had to try to get through with. Senator MORSE, mothers' hearts are aching and bleeding all over the world tonight because of this war in Viet Nam. When I sat before my tele- vision, and watched a film of the bloody riot in Da Nang tonight reported by Ron Nessin, our reporter there, and saw and heard mothers screaming and crying over their little children who had been shot to death, plus many more heartbreaking scenes. God help us and help us quickly to get out of Viet Nam. You would be surprised to hear that in such a small community where I live, people are talking of demonstrations in Washington. I would never think of coming to Washington as a demonstrator. But I'm appealing to you, if you have any Influence in the White House, to ask Presi- dent Johnson not to send my son to Viet Nam. And to bring those boys who are already there home. God has been so good to us as a nation, but so help me, if we go over there to kill and plunder like is going on over there, destroying life, and their homes, some day we will suffer because God promised it. And It will come to our home- land. Just what is happening over there. 'Let us stop it before it is too late, I would be glad for an answer. Sincerely, Mrs. HAROLD BIGGER. - P.S.-We shall pray daily for your guid- ance as a Senator who means so much to our country, and we shall be Influenced as we go to the polls by those who let the Ameri- can people know what's going on and will plead for the wrong things to be made right. God bless you and direct you in all you do. Julian Wilson is Personnel in the Dept. of the Army in which I think you surely would know. He is not to be blamed for the answer to my request. He has his duty to perform and he did the best he could. DEAR SIR: I'm writing you this letter in regards to my views on the Viet Nam War. To me this is one of the worst wars ever fought between mankind. I've watched you and listened to you and Senator DIRKSEN and FULDRIGHT as you plead and present your views on this horrible war to stop it. And you are being greatly admired for your ac- have taken especially when you i ons you t FEDERATION OF SLOVENIAN PEN- questioned the Defense Secretary, MacNa- mara, in those hearings in the Senate, and SIONERS OF METROPOLITAN CLEVE- we didn't get it from the press, your views. LAND, It came live by television. And that we dare Cleveland, Ohio, May 25, 1966. to believe. Hon. WAYNE MORSE, I'm sending you a clipping from our daily Washington, D.C. newspaper, and I also listened to him on HONORABLE SENATOR: This Petition is just television and watched him, U Thant, as he to let you know that 1200 members of the spoke from Atlantic City. - - Federation of Slovenian Pensioners of Cleve- Senator MORSE; I have three sons (all the land, Ohio, fully agree with your peace policy children we haye). The oldest was drafted to stop the war in South Viet Nam, and we and he served a portion of his two years in appreciate your efforts and courage to bring Germany. Just as he got home the other this brutal war to an end. BARBARA KNAPP. "I'll really be crazy when I get back to the States. I don't think I'll be able to live with myself." "When I die I'll go to heaven because I've spent my time in hell (Vietnam)." "One reason we haven't won this conflict yet is because you can't see the V.C. It's like fighting a ghost. Nearly all the tunnels they have are eight stories deep." "We only lost one man on this last opera- tion-but that was one too many." "We find villagers and figure they aren't V.C. and let them go, but if it were up to me, I would kill them all (women, children and old men). They're all helping the V.C. one way or another. Every village we go into there are women, children and old men, but no young men from the ages of 17 to 45 and they're out fighting us. That's why I would kill them all. You would understand if you were over here in my place-most everybody would, but they aren't over here. Really, I can't put it in writing how I feel, all I can say is that it's a silly and stupid damn war. The V.C. don't even know what they're fight- ing for." "This next operation we go on I'm going to kill anything I see, women or children. You probably think I'm nuts, but if you've ever been next to one of your best buddies and he gets shot through the stomach and you see his guts hanging out and he dies right beside you, would have the same feeling I do about any V.C." 'They only have two seasons over here- hot and dry and hot and wet. It has been kind of hot the last week-around 120'." "It's Hell over here, Pure Hell, no one knows how it is over here unless they've been here." Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 11530 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE June 2, 1966 . FULTON, Mo., May 25, 1966. many highly educated men In government ALTOONA, ALA., Ron. WAYNE MORSE, they're developing fat between their ears. May 31, 1966. Senate Office .Building, Certainly hope Senator MORSE you keep at Senator WAYNE MORSE, Washington, D.C. It, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: Thanks very much Sincerely, Senator MORSE: I appreciate your stand on for the CoNGREasIONAL RECORD "Legal issues HAROLD H. LEVORA. Vietnam during the recent debate. I wish Of U.S. Position In Vietnam". I shall study Alabama's senators had stood with you. I it diligently. There is a bountiful flow of "The President of the United States feel you spoke for me and the majority, if propaganda through this section of the coun- "L. B. Johnson not all, of this state's- citizens. We can still try, and I am certainly grateful for some- "DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: Sunday nits May 15 hope "Even in the midst of the Great So- thing that can be depended upon to be the I watched my only son Jim and 120 others ciety" as long as we have men of your caliber truth. I appreciate Your effort to get the in his Co. come thru San Francisco Airport in Washington. truth to the people of America. In full combat equipment headed for Da I am a widow of a WWI veteran, a mother Senator MORSE words would fail me to ex- Nang. I witnessed their debarkation from and grandmother and I care about this na- press my appreciation of You in your strug- the plane with mixed emotions and as Jim tion's tomorrows. I feel Oregon is proud of gle for the Nation's welfare. I wish I could and his group approached the ramp I turned you. I am, be of more help, at least be able to send more and looked down to see an 18 or 19 year Gratefully, encouragement Your M way. any of us do old Sailor coming up the ramp on crutches- look to You to bring out the truth. We one leg gone below the knee. Not even have.great admiration for You, and esteem thinking of past casualties---or future-I You very highly as one of America's great wondered if this whole Viet affair was worth statesmen. And I might add a great force that boy's leg. in our hope for our nation. "Jim like many others has been in an out Our prayers will be dirrected your way, of college and while in an interim period and we do pray that God will continue to between work and college he was drafted bless you with health and wisdom to carry May 9, 1965, At the time he was under the on the good work, as you have in the past. care of our family physician as result of an Cordially, accident that closed one side of his nose. E. J. MILLER. Our.Dr. referred him to a Specialistand the PAWTUCKET, 11.1., May 31, 1966. Senator WAYNE MORSE, Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: I want to let you know that I approve of your efforts and posi- tion on the Viet Nam Issue. I hope you will continue your efforts and wish you every success. Sincerely yours, ROSS DAGATA. Senator WAYNE MORSE, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: Enclosed copy of a letter I have just sent President Johnson regarding the Draft and. Viet Nam. When I lived in Beaverton, Oregon I supported you, not because I completely agreed with you but because I felt you did have the courage of your convictions and were and are by modern standards a Most Honest Man-I still reel the same. I'm a salesman, contacting and conversing with people at many levels and degrees of thinking and intelligence, you could say the mass or group who are the heart of our country. You are right this great mass are rapidly changing their attitude on Viet Nam, the Draft, Poverty Program, Great Society, etc. and if national elections could be held right now the Administration would be in for a shock. Unless it's done by a Master, people will only be sheep for so long and I think that's happening now, the sheep are returning to people, glib words won't do. Last Week, House Furnishing Daily, a Fair- childs Publication published a story on A.I.D. to Viet Nam. The reporter really laid it out and we are apparently grossly undermanned and mismanaged and supporting the Viet Cong along with everyone else in food, drugs, and clothing. I listened and read President Johnson, Mr, Rusk, Mr. McNamara and quite a few more but they're. not reaching me with the old platitudes and worn out phrases. I'm not against military service, strong defense or help for anyone who needs it but watch- ing the newscasts from Viet Nam and the action of the various factions I'd like some- one in Government to explain in language we could understand, why we're over there and why we're staying over there-I don't think those people would know or care in the majority if they were Communist or a Democracy. Is it possible we are getting so Operation. Three Weeks after the surgery when he wasn't even permitted to blow his nose to avoid puncturing the membrane and with an allergy to dust, he was inducted into the Armed Services. At Ft. Leonard wood, where he took basic, the Medics discovered he was also allergic to grass but he made it thru with his unit because of personal pride and self determination. His induction under these circumstances was hard to understand altho we had at that time considerable ad- verse publicity from groups at Cal. and San Jose state on how to avoid the draft. "After basic he was to go to Ft. Knox but Was held and then assigned to Ft. Gordon, attached to HQ Co. and while there he volun- teered for overseas duty with 29th Civil Af- fairs Co. where, as PFC Jim J. Levora, U.S. 66401293 he is one of few Draftees in this Regular Army unit. Sunday Jim told me if he had had any idea the Viet Nam civil situ- ation would be as- it is he'd not have volun- teered. Looking at all the officers and men in the group I didn't see many smiles. "I'm proud of Jim-all the way-for his conduct thru this entire course of events but personally unhappy under the circum- stances and present conditions. There are so many inequities In our Draft System of which you are aware-deferments of many kinds-CLASS deferments-to dumb-to smart-to rich-to poor and there's the pro athlete. Pro football players can get hit by plenty of muscle-August thru January but are unfit for military service-this is hog- wash. "I figure I'm Mr. Joe Average American and as such am entitled to be heard, even tho this never reaches you. I'm not a well educated man and can't bandy the words around like you Mr. President or Mr. Rusk, but I am a registered Democrat of 34 years and articulate enough to have actively helped the Party until recent years when I have leaned more to the independent. I'm in contact with people every day -I should say PEOPLE-and even the hard core pro Viet Nam are turning, saying they're sick of this whole stinking mess. I intend to write everyone I've supported or support to let them know -my views. FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH Sodus, N.Y., May 31, 1966. Hon. WAYNE MORSE, U.S. Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: I have recently re- ceived your CONGRESSIONAL RECORD statement outlining your views on our Involvement in Viet Nam, and I have followed yours and others' statements on T.V. upholding the same views. May I express my heartiest agreement with this position. Keep up the good work, and it is a good work. Before it is too late let us hope that wisdom will prevail over hysteria and expediency. Most sincerely, STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK, Little Neck, N.Y., May 31, 1966. Senator WAYNE MORSE, Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: The American peo- ple and the world have come to expect your continued courageous voice in opposition to the outrageous war we are waging In Viet- nam. Thank you very much. Sincerely yours, MICHAEL Tosser. DEAR SENATOR: Today I heard the latest casualty list of this undeclared war. 146 dead and 820 wounded. When I read or hear something on the radio or TV on what your views are on this undeclared war I am in agreement with you. I to, do not believe our government has any right supporting a military regime, which is not an elected government of the people. Backing Ky as we are, is the same as asking ourselves in. I believe there would be more opposition to this undeclared war but for One reason: The average person does not read the newspapers (as he should) or listen to news broadcasts or read extensively. Some way must be found to reach this type of person. They do not really care about this undeclared war as long as it does not include or affect them. What would happen if the hearings were re-opened and the people were to hear wit- nesses on the following: 1. What is the estimated cost to our gov- ernment that will have to be paid out to South Viet Nam in reparations? (Repara- tions will have to be explained.) What will this cost be to the individual taxpayer? 2. What would the public reaction be if someone from the HEW de art t b l p men o d the "In your position r can appreciate it's hell public about the malaria and other diseases if you do and hell if you don't but with the the American soldiers are contracting in deterioration of an already bad situation, it South Viet Nam? What possibility is there might be better to do what someone said- of them bringing these foreign diseases back fight and run away to live to fight another home with them? Will our doctors be able day to recognize them and treat them if they "Sincerely, - are contagious and spread to our civilian "HAROLD R. LEVORA." population? Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP671300446R000400080018=1 11531 June 2, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE This is something I have always wondered owners who have made the poverty of the and I think the rest of the public should country and thus the NLF, and the U.S. know this too. If you took the total popu- This is the shame of America in Viet Nam. lation of South Viet Nam and divided it into Please keep up your criticism of our policy. the total cost of all the money our govern- You will have those who really love their ment has spent in that country so far, how country behind you. But when someone much would this be per person? quotes the famous saying "my country, may How much is one billion dollars? she always be right, but my country, right 1. How many $3,000 cars would it buy? or wrong," remember that this is probably 2. How many $15,000 homes? what some Nazi said when he shoved a Jew 3. How many four year college educations in a gas chamber. Keep this in mind in- at $3,000 a year? stead, "my country, may she always be right, 4. If you had carpeting at ten dollars a but when she's wrong, may God give me the square yard how many miles of carpet could strength to help make her right." you buy for one billion dollars? Sincerely, Lovls Kovncx. 5. How many men would it take, earning 10,000 a year to earn a billion dollars in 20 years? OSWEGO UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, One billion dollars is just a word or a Oswego, Ill., May 31, 1966. name. Break this myth word down so that Hon. WAYNE MORSE, - the public knows what one billion dollars Senate Office Building, These are things I have wonaered about. 1. What happens to the weapons of the deserting South Viet Nam soldier? I heard on the radio today they are deserting at the rate of 6000 a month.fi Where do they go? What do they do? Is there any punishment for this? Could they reenlist again and do the same thing over again? 2. What kind of people live in South Viet Nam? 3. What is a Buddhist monk? Many times what you say is taken out of context and your meaning Is lost and dis- torted. I wish you could go on national tele- vision and let the people know your views in their entirety. I would feel privileged to contribute to such a cause. Sincerely, A NERVOUS NELLIE WHO Is GETTING MORE NERVOUS. SANTA CRUZ,. CALIF., May 30, 1966. DEAR SENATOR WAYNE MORSE: Please accept my thanks for being a man with the courage to stand up for his beliefs. I agree with you-this is a war we should not be fighting. Let's not save face. Let's save lives. God bless you. Sincerely, for sending me the copy from the CONGRES- SIONAL RECORD of your speech in the Senate last February 25, inserting in the RECORD the report of the Lawyers Committee On Ameri- can Policy Toward Viet Nam. I have read this with great interest. I want you to know that I support the stand which you are taking on Viet Nam. I preached on this subject along with a large number of the ministers in this area last Sunday and I found your speech very help- ful. I will be glad to receive copies of fur- ther speeches which you may make on this question. Thank you. PEORIA, ILL., May 30, 1966. Senator WAYNE MORSE, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. SENATOR: I believe that after hearing some of Sec. U Thants recent speech it might be a good time to press for some sort of peace talks through the UN. I think that world opinion must be very strong against as at this time. Given the Buddist civil war and their clear call to all the world to get the U,S. off their backs the time is ripe to make a real effort in the UN to stop this war. I think that U Thant was clearly asking the American people to take a stand and demand that this war be stopped. Senator Morse, what this country is do- ing in Viet Nam is a disgrace. I am so ashamed of my country it just sickens me. Is there no way to stop this administra- tion? Its clear to most anyone that this country is looking for a pretext to start a war with China. Then this country will have had it. Signed VERY WORRIED CITIZEN WHO DOESN'T KNOW WHERE TO TURN, most of the people feel whether their sons are over in Viet Nam or not. "I object vigorously to the sacrifice of these young men in sup- port of a policy that cannot win." Why should we police the world? The function of the military is to defend our shores and why should we try to fight for some insane war which is just what the Viet Nam war is and particularly when these people don't want us there but want a chance to work out "their way of life" for them- selves. Right now we have the Russians fishing on the west coast, the Cubans stirring up trouble again and the Viet Nam war also the Santo Domingo crisis. I can't see where my son who has been gone two weeks now and we haven't heard a word and all the other boys who left when he did besides the thousands of others who are over there and have been for sometime do any good when they are told "to go home." Why should these Vietmese make "torches" of themselves and blame us-we were trying to help but they don't want us. Sincerely, A Mom. IDEALISTIC AND PRACTICAL BEAVERTON, OREG. To the EDITOR: I am a conscientious objector, age 53. I object to the present foreign policy of my country and to the war we are waging in Viet Nam. I qm the father of two girls and four boys and anticipate my first son-in-law within six weeks. I believe in and enjoy the teen- agers and young people of our community, state, and country. I object vigorously to the sacrifice of these young men in support of a policy that cannot win. My objections are based on principles that are both idealistic and practical in philoso- phy. In my opinion we are faced with three al- ternatives in Viet Nam. All discussion and all policy must relate to three choices. Un- fortunately- we are letting our governmental officials avoid facing up to these alternatives which are as follows: (1) Smash all those who would resist us in Viet Nam. Bomb them, kill them, destroy them until they yield to our command, our will, our purpose, and our plans for them. Ultimately in pursuit of this alternative we may have to cross the border into China to impose our will on the Chinese. Smash them. Our will must prevail. Our flag over all is the ultimate in this direction. I believe that it is agreed that we cannot ac- complish these goals. - (2) Fight until we can negotiate a treaty and draw a line which we can defend from now until doomsday. We are defending a line in Germany, in Korea, and a perimeter in the Caribbean. We have taken upon our- selves the function of policing the world and responding in force to every conflagration in the world. We can't win this way either. There is no end to this way. (3) The third alternative to which a grow- ing number of people are subscribing is to get out of Viet Nam. We recognize a host of objections and difficulties but we are sure that we must accomplish a complete and strategic retreat. The violent screams of shock of those who want to fight communism rend the air at this alternative. Our question to them is, why, when there is apparently as much commu- nism in Cuba and South America as in Viet Nam, do we fight a war 10,000 miles away? Why did we not fight in Cuba? We are not going to win even though we bomb and bomb and finally smash and wreck this little country of Viet Nam. It is not our purpose as a country to rule the world. If we are enlightened as some of our politicians claim, it is not practical or idealistic to share our enlightenment via the CHICAGO, ILL. May 28, 1966. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: I have never before written to a Senator from a state other than my own. But I felt it necessary to write you and express my gratitude for your cour- ageous stand on the VIET NAM war issue. One often reads of a Senator's mail running in a certain ratio on an issue. So I felt I should add this letter to those approving your stand. The Viet Namese war is indeed a tragedy, not only because it involves great suffering for the Viet Namese people, but because the United State is disgracing its proud tradi- tion of the defender of' freedom around the world. What freedom are we defending in Viet Nam? The National Liberation Front does not represent freedom, but neither does the cruel Ky dictatorship that our dollars and men are defending. It comes down to a question of a right wing or a left wing dic- tatorship, and I don't think any kind of dictatorship is worth one American life. The- question of aggression is also absurd. North and South Viet Nam have almost equal pdpulations, so if South Viet Nam had her people behind her, she could easily defend against aggression. The truth is we have be- come involved in a three sided civil war. The Buddhists who are truly the freedom fighters are opposed by the Saigon dictator- ship. The NLF who helped rid the country of the French is also opposed by the Saigon government and the U.S. The ones who back the Saigon government are the rich land ST. ALBAN'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, Jacksonville, Fla., May 30, 1966. Hon. WAYNE MORSE, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. SIR: I have always supported the President and for a long time I thought that you were dead wrong. I now find that I cannot allow the proposed (Post election????) build up and escalation of the Viet Nam war to go without registering protest. Keep up the good fight. God bless you. Respectfully; ROBERT C. JOHNSON, Jr., Vicar.. MAY 31, 1966. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: I have written to you before in behalf of the mothers of Portland and this time I have read an article that I think is excellent and shows exactly how Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 11532 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE military who threaten devastation with every penetration. The function of our military is to defend our shores. We are wasting our purpose, our goals, and our power in this insane war some 10,000 miles from our shores. (We must continue to believe in freedom, in enlightenment, in peaceful methods and we must then allow other peoples of this World to proceed with their own freedom and beliefs.) There are many methods by which we can share our beliefs, our hopes, and our help ex- tended to the people of the earth without Imposing our force and arrogance. Our mili- tary power and strength must be conserved and used wisely whenever anyone threatens us at our shores or in the air above. The world is not ours to rule, it is ours to live in with others. Our present course will continue towards a complete dissipation of military strength and spiritual and moral power. It's time to turn away. It's time to back out. It's no time to force ourselves blindly forward in order to save face. The price is too great. (My children and my neighbor's children are very special to me. Bring them home.) Shorten our lines of communica- tion and turn the other cheek. Our final choice is to choose between con- quering the world or living in it freely and letting others live as they would choose to live. We can never five freely as conquerors. It's never been done. It's never to be done. Only the third alternative will lead us to peace. Let us rapidly de-escalate our war effort, negotiate at every opportunity, and pursue every avenue of peace even at the ex- pense of our world image, at the expense of our world status and with a willingness to lose face, all the time remaining strong and ready to defend our own shores. VERNON D. HANSEN, M.D. FORT LAUDERDALE, FLA., May 27, 1966. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: Last night (May 26, 1966) on a Miami Radio Station WINZ on an Open Phone discussion program conducted by Alan Courtney, I was so mad when he called both you and Sen. FuLBRIGxr "Com- mies"-"termites" in your outspoken crit- icism of the was in Vietnam. Usually a smart conductor of these programs refrains from comment and lets the public phone in their views (unless they become too obnoxious). Dissent is the right of a true Democracy unless one advocates the over- throw of our government; but not false vilification. Our government has constantly called So. Vietnam a Republic-when in truth it has been ruled by coup after coup. We now have there a civil war-Catholics against Buddhists that puts the burden on U.S.A. In the last Foreign Relations Committee hearing on Vietnam on T.V. It seemed to me most members were doubtful of our wis- dom in being in this insignificant little Asian Country In the mean time our fine young men are dead or wounded; our big planes and mili- tary equipment are lost, by a so-called com- mitment in which we seem to be the-heaviest participator. Hope the Fall elections will more clearly show the will of the taxpayers. Sincerely, Hon. WAYNE MORSE, Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. HELEN B. BRICE. TAYLOR, TEx., June 1, 1966. DEAR MR. MORSE: I have followed with great interest your position on various leg- islative and governmental affairs and want to congratulate you on your independence of thought and action, knowing that it would be much easier for you to conform to the thinking of the majority. I would like to add that I often disagree with your viewpoint but feel convinced that honest and constructive opposition and ex- pression of one's thoughts are the true mark of a statesman. Feeling that you may be getting letters of the "other kind", I simply want to give you a bit of encouragement in this letter. Yours very truly, L. D. HAMMACK. Senator WAYNE MORSE, Senate Office Building, Washington, D,C. DEAR. SIR.: I hope you don't feel too dis- couraged over Mr. Morgan's defeat in Ore- gon. I think you are doing a wonderful job of opposing a monstrous evil and I know mil- lions of people are thankful for your con- tinuous efforts to bring some sanity into our insane foreign policy. Sincerely, LLOYD M. ALLEN. PHILADELPHIA, PA., Senator WAYNE MORSE, Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. - DEAR SENATOR MORSE: I am thankful there are more and more voices of sanity speaking out against this useless, wicked, costly war in Vietnam. Your leadership toward ending the war and working to rebuild normal rela- tions with Communist China is heartening. Sincerely, JOSEPHINE M. BENTON, BETHLEHEM LUTHERAN CHURCH, Brodhead, Wis., May 26, 1966. Hon. WAYNE MORSE, Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MORSE: Thank you for send- Ing me recently the speech you gave in the Senate of the United States, on Friday, Feb- ruary 26th of this year regarding the legal Issues of this country's position in Viet Nam- I am Impressed with your excellent anal- ysis of this situation and I find myself com- pelled in most every angle to agree with you. I have followed your reasoning and admire your courage. Recently Congressman KASTENMETER wrote me regarding the position of Senator FuL- BRIGHT and I am pleased that the concern of this country is being guided by men of wis- dom such as yours. Sincerely, Rev. LOWELL H. MAYS, Pastor [From the New York (N.Y.) Post, May 18, 19661 A GI Wmow's QUESTION: WHY VIET NAM? (By Barry Cunningham) The young widow's eyes were reddened from anger as well as tears. Under her glasses, the skin puffed out in raw circles. Her eyelids Were damp and sore. "I've been crying since last Saturday," she said, stamping out a cigaret, "What good does it do?" She buried the butt in a taper napkin. And rolled the napkin into a tight wad to dry her eyes. "This war is useless," she snapped. "My husband said so in his letters.before he died. He hated the whole slimy war." Juanita Butcher's marriage to a Viet Nam combat hero ended in tragedy last weekend when Sgt. Reubin Butcher, of 146-12 115th Ave., Jamaica, Queens, strayed Into a barrage of his own unit's artillery fire. June 2, 1966 BODY COMING HOME Sometime today, the 23-year-old 1st Cavalry Division soldier's body will be flown to New York in a metal casket. Meanwhile, his 22-year-old widow struggles within herself to find some word that will help to explain the bewilderment and an- guish. - Her father, Robert L. James, a Transit Au- thority employe, cries-crossed the living room of the family home yesterday, banging his fists against the walls. "Gangsters," he growled, jabbing his finger at the Defense Department telegram. The words, "died of wounds from friendly artil- lery fire" were underlined in pencil. "To me, that sounds like a bunch of gang- sters shooting at one another in the same room," he said. "We don't know who we're fighting over there, do we? We're just shoot- ing and killing every which way." The husky subway worker said his son-in- law was first wounded during a Viet Cong sneak attack last February. Grenade shrapnel ripped into the soldier's right arm and leg, taking him out of combat, the father-in-law said, making his death on Saturday even more bewildering. James said Sgt. Butcher "worried about not being able to write to Juanita" because of his wounds. Three unopened letters postmarked "Viet Nam" were spread out on the dining room table as James spoke. All were addressed to Juanita from her husband.. James said he wouldn't show them to 'his daughter until sedatives given by their family doctor had worn off. SHE'S UNABLE TO EAT He went back to the living room. "You ought to eat something," he urged Juanita, who had refused food since Saturday. She had heard him mention the letters. Instantly, she went into hysterics. The sedatives started to take effect and a few moments later she quieted. She fidgeted with the straps on a pair of white fur slip- pers and talked of her job as a Wall Street secretary. Then her eyes shifted to the mantel. She gazed at a glossy photograph of her husband in uniform, remembering how he had written "everything is so desolate in Korea" during his 13-month tour of duty there in 1963. EVEN WORSE IN VIETNAM "It's twice as bad in Vietnam," he wrote to her last December. A graduate of Eli Whitney HS in Queens, Sgt. Butcher married Juanita-his high school sweetheart while on leave in the winter of 1963. - "He had big plans to come home and start raising a family," his widow recalled in a halting voice choked with grief. "We had only nine more weeks to wait for each other." Then the expression on her face went dead. "He wrote to me that he had killed a man. He saw some of his friends killed. I couldn't take it any more. "I told him to keep writing me, but please don't say anything about the blood." As she spoke, her father continued to pace back and forth across the carpet. OPPOSES THE WAR "I've been listening to this man from Arkansas-Mr. [Sen.] FULBRIGHT." he said, "and [Sen.] MORSE, too. "They say we're getting nowhere In Viet- nam. I agree with them. "These pickets and the boys who burn their draft cards aren't crazy." He said his son-in-law had written home that "most of us don't know who we're fighting or why we're here." James tugged at his moustache. "You don't have freedom of speech when you're in uniform," he said. "You are afraid to say anything. R Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 l~ - D-RDSp7R( 46R000400080018-1 11533 June 2, 966. Approved CONGRESSIONAL 7tRE 01 "I know. I'm a city worker. I'm afraid to say anything. In fact, maybe I shouldn't say this, but my son-in-law's death was a waste." the New York (N.Y.) Post, May 21, 19661 PACK IT IN (By Pete Hamill) The guy was wearing the green beret of the Special Forces, and he was standing in a bar on Tu Do St. In Saigon, drinking in a kind of desperate silence. He would not talk, even to the slim young bar hostess opposite him, who was happily taking his money. After three whiskeys, he stood up, cursed Saigon, and lurched out the door. The girls all giggled. I saw him again a few days later, being helped by an MP into a jeep. His face was mashed and bloody, and some of his teeth were gone. I guess he had been mugged. Three young Vietnamese in white shirts stood on the corner, laughing. So when I think about Saigon now, or look at the photographs coming in on the photo printers, Ialways remember the way the girls laughed at that man, and the in- credibly cruel faces of those boys, standing in safety, enjoying his torment. I am sure that when the moral giants of the United Buddhist Church call out the civilian troops, they are with them. Those young men are free in Saigon, while the sons of Americans are being killed in the countryside. For the third time in recent weeks, more American soldiers were killed in that war than Vietnamese, which means that the Vietnamese have simply stopped fighting. They are more interested in killing each other in places like Da Nang or Hue than they are in fighting the Viet Cong, and that means we will do the fighting for them. That means that all this year, the Ameri- can dead will be piling up while the sweet propaganda comes smoothly out of Washing- ton telling us that they will not be dying in vain. It says here that Washington is lying. Those men are now dying in vain. for There is a case to be made, I suppose, fighting for the ideals which this country once represented, and at its best, still does. Anyone who has ever visited a Communist country knows that freedom is not a cheap word, even when it becomes debased. I need not apologize for saying that after seeing a lot of other countries, I love this more than all. But it is becoming increasingly difficult to accept certain things. We civilians run this Lyndon Johnson, Dean Rusk and country them, feed their bank accounts, populate Some Americans, in bitter frustration, feel their brothels, sleep with their women for that the strands of history have become so them; if they ask, we shall certainly oblige. hopelessly entangled that nothing can now Forget about Harlem. Forget about Bed- be done to unravel an unwanted war. This ford-Stuyvesant, and Hazard, Kentucky, and seems plausible only In the context of the the backwoods of Alabama. The people who Administration's present policy, which is to live there will fend for themselves. We have back the Ky government's violent suppres- more important things to consider. We have sion of popolar yearnings for peace and to to take care of My Tho and Da Nang and Qui continue escalation of the war. Nohn and Cam Ne. It will only cost 18 bil- If the basic decision were made to accept lion dollars this year. Who cares if there a negotiated settlement instead of chasing are rats in the Red Hook schoolrooms? First the illusion of military victory; if we sup- things first. We have to keep those three ported the Viet Namese forces that favor kids on the Saigon street corner out of the reconciliation, rather than an armed dic- insidious clutches of Ho Chi Minh. tatorship which opposes it; if we adopted as I have two brothers in the Army now and our policy the establishment of a compro- my mother has three more waiting in the mise, neutral government permitting our wings. The supply of kids like that is now ultimate withdrawal, instead of trying to deemed inexhaustible, so we can keep the war establish an anti-Communist government going for as long as we want. that could only exist under our permanent Enough: I am no pacifist, but this war has military protection-in this context, many lasted too long. Those men who are dying doors to peace and mediation would open. there tonight are dying like men, with tour- No vital national interest of ours keeps age and tenacity. But with Buddhists riot- the doors closed. It is pride and arrogance ing in the streets, General Ky shooting down and illusion-the illusion that we are en- civilians, Henry Cabot Lodge nodding In ap- gaged in a holy ideological war. U Thant is proval, while we apologize again and add that right In saying that the somber course of more men are on the way, then someone had events has probably left to the Viet Namese better think of something to tell their par- people no ideology at all except a passion for ents. national identity or even survival. He is If one more dies under the present con- right in saying that no government or people ditions, someone is guilty of a murderous sin. is "likely to lose in stature or dignity or Now, finally, we should pack It in. worldly advantage" from coming to terms with. the world in which we actually live. [From the St. Louis (Mo.) Post-Dispatch, He is right in calling upon those who have May 27, 1966] the power and the responsibility "to search U THANT'S COUNSEL objectively and without rancor for ways to end this historic tragedy." is one of Truth, as U Thant once observed, the first victims of war. HIS words were con- firmed once again this week as Secretary of State Rusk and Vice President HUMPHREY once again proclaimed the Administration's dedication to the search for peace in Viet Nam. Mr. Rusk repeated his offer to go to Geneva whenever anybody was there to nego- tiate with. Mr. HUMPHREY detailed anew the various peace offensive of the past and de- voutly adopted U Thant's "prayer and wish" for peace as our own. What is the simple truth? It is that the Administration spurned peace talk feelers re- peatedly In 1964 and 1965. It is that U Thant's own efforts to arrange talks have been repeatedly and roughly rejected. It is that while publicly taking no sides in South Viet Nam's political turmoil the Adminis- [From the Washington (D.C.) Star, June 1, 1966] U.N. HAS VITAL ROLE rN VIET NAM (By David Lawrence) The United States has only one way out of the Viet Nam dilemma--only one way that is honorable and consistent with the un- selfish effort to save a small nation from the loss of its independence. That way is through the United Nations. The same principles which prompted the U.N. to send under its own auspices an allied army to repel aggression in Korea can be reaffirmed now. What is blocking such a course? The answer is: A confident belief by the Com- munists-derived from reports of internal dissension in the United States-that if the undercover support of a Saigon military junta war is prolonged this country will abjectly whose first article of faith is an utter rejec- surrender. Secretary of State Dean Rusk in tion of peace negotiations. It is that while a speech last Saturday at Williamsburg, Va., paying lip-service to U Thant's "prayer and deplored the misconceptions that are being wish" the Administration obstinately refuses spread abroad about American policy. He to heed U Thant's realistic counsel on the said: steps necessary to make peace. "Professional diplomacy requires a certain The Secretary General of the UN renewed amount of temporary secrecy: Secret infor- that counsel in his moving address to the mation, secret discussions and negotiations. Amalgamated Clothing Workers this week. Public discussion of certain situations at Military methods, he said, will not restore certain times may be distorted by lack of peace; President Johnson once agreed with knowledge of facts that are available to the that. "This war must be stopped," said President and secretary of state-yet which U Thant, "on the initiative of the partici- they cannot at the moment fully divulge. pants, lest it get, out of hand." And he re- "There must also be considered the prac- peated what he has often said, that the nec- tical fact that a show of division among our essary conditions for peace include a return people can complicate the conduct of our to the Geneva agreements, which were based foreign affairs. For example, there is the on the principle of military neutralization of danger that a foreign government may mis- ail Viet Nam; a prior scaling down of military oalulate our intentions. There are strong operations (which would include an end to reasons to believe that the militant Com- the bombing of North Viet Nam); and an munists of Asia have been sustained by the agreement to negotiate with the actual com- conviction that world opinion or internal dis- batants-in other words, the National Liber- sension within the United States will cause ation Front as well as North Viet Nam. us to withdraw from South Viet Nam. That , Robert McNamara work for us: we do not work for them. And in our name, they are saying that our children and our brothers must die because Satanism in the form of the Red Chinese and the Viet Cong has sud- denly sprung up in a half-country in South- east Asia, The representatives of Satanism are striking evil blows at a pure and shining legitimate government, and we, the Ameri- can people, will risk even death to defend that government. But that government has never governed anything. It does not govern in the coun- tryside. It must kill its citizens in places like Da Nang and Hue to even come close to gov- erning-there. It governs Saigon the way a rather cynical madam handles a brothel. They will fight to the death to control Saig- gon, all right, because that is where the Americans sign the tabs. But they will not be fighting much out in So Ha - ????6 w ----- - to do that. My kid brothers and your cuu- genuinely the ouwouave. dren will do that for them. They will not United States rejects U Thant's counsel, As a matter of fact, just three days after even defend themselves politically. They which expresses the conscience of the world the secretary's speech, a news dispatch from have Dean Rusk to do that for them, organization to which we so often pay verbal Hong Kong quoted the Red China News They have the most powerful nation in tribute, our verbal reiteration of peaceful Agency as describing, in a 1,500-word article, the world to do everything for them now. intentions will fall on unbeliving ears a decline in the support of America's post- We'll fight for them, apologize for them, feed throughout the world. tion in the Viet Nam war. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 11534 `""---- -- vvvvvv .v CONGRESSIONALRECORD -SENATE June 2, 1966 "The United States is being forsaken every- ante of the cost allocated to where by power shall be The legislative clerk proceeded to call Communist Clpar ears and followers," the determined by the Secretary of the Treasury the roll. agency said. "A new as of the beginning of the fiscal year in and still greater anti-U.S. storm of revolu- which the initial request for appropriations Mr. JACKSON. Mr. President, I ask tionary struggle is gathering." fir the construction of the third powerplant unanimous consent that the order for The news agency quoted both Republicans is made, by computing the average interest the quorum call be rescinded. and Democrats in the United States as say- rate payable by the Treasury on all interest- The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without ing American prestige in the world has fallen bearing marketable public debt obligations of objection, it is so ordered. because of the Viet Nam war. the United States then outstanding which, Rusk, further on in his speech, laid stress upon original issue, had terms to maturity Mr. JACKSON. Mr. President, the on the opportunity of the United Nations to of fifteen years or more, and by adjusting third powerplant, when constructed, will maintain peace in the world. He said: such average rate to the next lowest multiple make Grand Coulee Dam once again the "The paramount issue of our time is of one-eighth of one per centum. world's largest hydroelectric project. To w ete rror not the freedom, i to be organized (b) Construction of the third powerplant demonstrate his strong support, Presi-es of ace erta sts ine co-existence sketched out in. the pd genu- determinatdton of theiSecretary w ll aseicnuthate dent Johnson took the unusual and Articles 1 and 2 of the United Nations the fullest, most beneficial, and most eoo_ lure in a bill of this nature of personally onally chaster. To that end, the American people nomic utilization of the waters of the Co1um- submitting the legislation to Congress in have exerted large and unremitting efforts bia River. April of last year, and my Senior Col- during the last 20 years." SEC. 2. The Secretary of the Interior shall league and I introduced it in the Senate. Many people will wonder why the U.N. has prepare, maintain, and present annually to He advised the Congress in his January not stepped in already to stop the war in Viet the President and the Congress a consoli- 1966 budget message that he is prepared Nam. secretary-general. of excuses have been made dated financial statement for all projects to request funds to start construction by the cretary-general. There was no hesi- heretofore or hereafter authorized, including immediately upon authorization. tation, however, by the U.N. in helping out in the third powerplant at Grand Coulee Darn, Africa a few years ago or in intervening re- from or by means of which commercial power Almost a year ago, the Senate passed cently in the Rhodesion controversy. and energy is marketed through the facilities S. 1761 without amendment other than "Peace-keeping" has been heralded as one of the Federal Columbia River power system a dollar limitation on the total amount of the primary functions of the U.N. But to- and for all other projects associated there- of appropriations authorized. However, day, while the principles are the same as they with to the extent that the costs of these in acting on H.R. 7406, a companion bill were when "peace-keeping" was carried on in projects are required by law to be charged to S. 1761, the House of Representatives the Congo, the situation in international po1- to and returned from net revenues derived amended it in several respects. I intend itics is different. The Communists now have from the power and energy, or any power and lined up enough countries to block U.N. In- energy, so marketed, and he shall, if said to ask that the Senate accept S. 1761 as tervention. The free world is inexplicably consolidated statement indicates that the amended by the House of Representa- silent. Only by discussion and open criti- reimbursable construction costs of the proj- tives. cism of the United Nations for its failure to ects, or any of the projects, covered thereby The need for immediate authorization solve the Viet Nam problem can any progress which are chargeable to and returnable from of the third powerplant, and its close re- really be made, the commercial power and energy so mar- lationship to the Columbia River Treaty The objective of such a crusade would be keted are likely not to be returned within between the United States and Canada, to secure acceptance of a plan whereby the the period prescribed by law, take prompt were thoroughly presented in hearings U.N. would demand assurances from both Red action to adjust the rates charged for such China and the Soviet Union that they would power and energy to the extent necessary to on S. 1761 last year before the Senate cease their aid to the aggressors in North Viet assure such return. Section 9, subsection. Interior Committee, and on the floor Nam. If this were done, the U.N. could pledge (c) of the Act of August 20, 1937 (50 stat. of the Senate when S. 1761 was unani- itself to arrange for the withdrawal of Amer- 736), as amended (16 U.S.C. 832h) is hereby mouSly passed. I am advised by SeC- ican troops. The whole settlement could repealed. retary of the Interior Stewart L. Udall then be supervised iunder rnLtio al aus- any Portion of the construction cost of that the need for the third powerplant, p lees p y project hereafter authorized to be con- and Its economic justification, are even has been ftlcan be tried again i in- Secretary of the Interior under the Federal ion insists upon it. The United States has reclamation laws (Act of June 17, 1902, 32 case at the time of the Senate hearings. an opportunity to mobilize the free world in Stat. 388, and Acts amendatory thereof or I will therefore direct my remarks today order to utilize the U.N.'s "peace-keeping" supplementary thereto) within the Pacific Principally toward the amendments to powers in Viet Nam. Northwest which, though allocated to Irriga- S. 1761 adopted by the House of Repre- Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I yield tion, is beyond the ability of the irrigation sentatives. Because certain of these water users to repay within the repayment amendments vitally concern both the the floor. , period prescribed by law for that project and power users f th P ifl a N THIRD POWERPLANT AT GRAND COULEE DAM, COLUMBIA BASIN PROJECT, 'WASHINGTON The PRESIDING OFFICER laid be- fore the Senate the amendment of the House of Representatives to the bill (S. 1761) to authorize the Secretary of the Interior to construct, operate, and main- tain a third powerplant at the Grand Coulee Dam, Columbia Basin project, Washington, and for other purposes, which was, to strike out all after the enacting clause and insert: That (a) the Secretary of the Interior is hereby authorized to construct, operate, and maintain a third powerplant with a rated capacity of approximately three million six hundred thousand kilowatts, and necessary appurtenant works, including a visitor cen- ter, at Grand Coulee Dam as an addition to and an integral part of the Columbia Basin Federal reclamation project. The construc- tion cost of the third powerplant allocated to power and associated with each stage of development shall be repaid with interest within fifty years from the time that stage becomes revenue producing. The interest rate used for computing interest during con- struction and interest on the unpaid bal- e ac a orthwest, and cannot be returned within { same Period the reClamationists of that region, I want from other project sources of revenue shall be charged to and returned within that pe- the legislative history as to the intent of riod from net revenues derived from the mar- Congress in approving these amend- keting of commercial power and energy ments to be crystal clear. through the Federal Columbia River power Two of the House amendments con- system, unless otherwise provided by law. tern the interest rate to be paid on the As used in this Act, the term "Pacific North- Federal investment in the third power- west" has the meaning ascribed to it in sec- tion 1 of the Act of August 31, 1964 (78 plant, and the dollar limitation on the Stat. 756) . appropriations authorized by the bill. SEe. 3. There is hereby authorized to be Section 1 of H.R. 7406, as it passed the appropriated, for construction of the third House, establishes as the formula for powerplant and necessary appurtenant works computing the interest rate on that part including a visitor. center at Grand coulee of the investment allocated to power the Dam, the sum of $390,000,000, based on es- same formula as provided in Senate Doc- timated costs as of April 1966, plus or minus such such amounts, if any, as may be justified son, and No. 97, 87th Congress, 2d ses- reason of ordinary fluctuations in con- son, is substantially the same formu- struction costs as indicated by engineering la used elsewhere by the Department Of cost indexes applicable to the types of con- the Interior in water resource develop- struction involved herein_ ment. It is also the same formula that Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, will the Bonneville Power . Administration the Senator from Washington yield now follows, and the bill merely makes without losing his right to the floor? mandatory what Bonneville is already do- ing administratively. Section 3 of H.R. to the Senator from Montana. 7406 differs from S. 1761 by changing the dollar Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I of aprorop priatian limitation tiau authorized the amount of b by total by the bill suggest the absence of a quorum, from $364,310,000, based on April 1964 The PRESIDING OFFICER. The costs, to $390 million, based on April clerk will call the roll. 1966 costs, Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 -ft! 11494 Approved For Re M8 /A3L: JkBR 7Bg ftF 00400080018-1 June 2, 1966 fessional health and retirement benefits. I want to see them backed up with the most modern equipment and facilities-and here let me put in a special word about precinct stations. Many are a shame and a disgrace. Policemen have to spend a lot of their work- ing lives in these stations-and they should spend it in comfort and dignity. I want Americans young and old, to trust and respect the than with the badge-not merely because he wears it, but because he wears it with honor. Men of the National Academy, as you re- turn home to resume rightful places of lead- ership and service in your communities, I ask that you carry proudly the torch of under- standing earned during your 12 weeks of in- tensive study with the FBI. In the tradition of those who have preceded you across this graduation platform, use that torch to light beacons of knowledge and enlightenment and insight and truth-beacons of greater service to humanity. PROPOSED UNIVERSAL GOVERN- MENT SERVICE FOR YOUNG AMERICANS Mr. TOWER. Mr. President, within the last few weeks, Secretary McNamara proposed that all young Americans give 2 years of their life to the Federal Gov- ernment. Two Texas radio stations, KHOU of Houston, and KMHT of Mar- shall, have responded with editorials most quickly and most perceptively to this unfeasible proposal. These two edi- torials point out with awareness the con- sequences and the dissatisfaction that this unwise program would incur. I ask unanimous consent that these two radio editorials be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the editorials were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [An editorial from Houston, Tex., KHOU, May 23, 1966] THIS IS A SOLUTION? The latest brainstorm from Washington is simply unbelievable. It's the proposal by the Secretary of De- fense for all young Americans to give two years of their time to the federal government. Proposed to answer complaints that col- lege draft exemptions are unfair, it is a strange solution of surrender. A military draft we can understand, even though we all regret the necessity of calling young men to military service, but to force our youngsters to give up two years of their lives to work in some federal program that probably shouldn't exist in the first place does not make sense. in time of war it is necessary to build up our armed forces quickly, and the draft is the only immediately apparent way to ac- complish this end, but if there are not enough volunteers to staff the pet programs of our politicians, the programs should be curtailed or abolished. The draft of youngsters into civilian gov- ernmental service will only be another step toward the regimentation of our young r This prograrlk deserves the whole-hearted, unqualified gpp4sition of every loyal Ameri- BONANZA FOR VIET CONG The subcommittee-Convinced that "hun- dreds of millions of dollars' worth" of sup- plies financed by the U.S. Agency for Inter- national Development have been diverted to the Viet Cong-went to South Vietnam dur- ing May for an on-the-spot investigation. On their return to Washington, some mem- bers of the subcommittee were outspoken in charging laxity of controls over the AID's commodity-import program. That program accounts for 370 million dollars of the 641 million in U.S. economic aid going to Viet- nam in the year to end June 30, 1966. Cost of the commodity-import program for the year beginning July 1 is estimated at 420 million. Combined military and economic assistance will be running at a billion dollars or more. WHAT'S BEING STOLEN In Vietnam such examples of costly "leak- age" as these are cited: Cement, steel, drainage tiles and alumi- num roofing paid for by the U.S. are diverted to the Viet Cong and wind up in communist fortifications, field hospitals and camps. Steel pipe, shipped from the U.S., is ac- quired by the Communists who use it for mortar barrels or for the outer shells of ter- rorist bombs. U.S.-made radios, parts and tubes assist Red communications networks. American- financed medicines or drugs save the lives of wounded Viet Cong. How do the Communists get these and other items? The answer Is: In a variety of ways. Mate- rial is stolen from docks by Viet Cong agents or by thieves who sell it to Viet Cong repre- sentatives operating under cover. Goods going into regular channels of trade are sold to the Viet Cong-knowingly or unknowingly. Vietnamese guards at docks or warehouses often can be bribed. Viet Cong agents in Saigon mastermind smuggling operations in which materials are transported to the Reds via the river and canal system that radiates from the capital into the delta. IF VILLAGE CHIEF SAYS "NO" Diversion of construction materials, such as cement, generally takes place on the dis- trict level. An example of one way it is done: A project to build a school, market- place or village well is approved. When con- struction supplies arrive, the Viet Cong un- derground demands that 5 per cent or 10 per cent of them be diverted to the Commu- nist guerrillas. If the district of village chief ECOfq6MIC AID TO VIETNAM Mr. BAYH. Mr. President, during re- cent months I have brought to the at- tention of the Senate what appears to be an unwise use of U.S. AID funds for economic assistance to Vietnam. As I have indicated previously, we have been purchasing Japanese made, Korean gal- vanized steel sheeting for Vietnam which has been of inferior quality at an inflated price. If an article which appeared in the June 6, 1966, edition of U. S. News & World Report is correct, this is only one example of the misuse of economic aid which may have occurred. It is ex- tremely difficult, Mr. President, to assist in developing the resources of a nation while its soil Is being ravaged by war. It is even more difficult to do so when black marketeering, theft and corruption apparently take place an the scale which has been reported. I ask unanimous consent, Mr. Presi- dent, that this article from the U.S. News & World Report, together with an edito- rial commenting on the purchase of gal- vanized sheet steel for Vietnam, which appeared in the Richmond, Va., Palla- dium-Item on May 23, be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article and editorial were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: Beyond that, it is difficult to believe it is [From the U.S. News & World Report, June 6, What is being done to curb this costly flow a serious suggestion. 1966] of U.S.-financed materials to the Viet Cong? In solving the college draft exemption A WAR WHERE U.S. SUPPLIES ARE GETTING TO The answer you get in Saigon is that at- problem, it would ... for its first two years BOTH SIDES tempts to tighten controls are bringing some of operation, totally eliminate new college enrollments. (Reported from Saigon and Washington) efficiency, but that much more needs to be Basesd on Job Corps and Poverty Program It's another strange aspect of a frustrating done. experience, where it costs $10,000 a year to war. Vast amounts of U.S. supplies are Take the problem of pharmaceuticals. take care of each youngster involved ... winding up in Communist hands. There are 3,000 outlets in Saigon alone. In and based on the statistics that more than A stepped-up effort to curb the flow is theory, drugs are sold only in limited quan- 7 million youngsters reach the age of 13 under way. But widespread corruption in tities-such as 200 penicillin tablets-and only upon presentation of identity cards. every two years ... it would cost more than South Vietnam makes it a tough job. But most stores have ignored the regulations. $70-billion a year to handle such a program- Corruption on a huge scale is turning out Now police in plain clothes spot-check stores two-thirds of our present federal budget. to be a vital ally of the Communists in at intervals. Storekeepers found violating And the only answer to either problem Vietnam. the regulations are jailed. would be to set up a system of exemp- Graft, theft, black-marketing are common Vigilence at road checkpoints is increasing. Lions which would put us right back to every war. But what makes this war dif- Almost daily, individuals are nabbed carry- [An 'editorial from Marshall, Tex., radio station KMHT] Robert McNamara, the U.S. Secretary of Defense, has come up with another typical jewel of his political philosophy. McNamara says he believes that every American young- ster should be required to spend two years in service to the government, either in military service or a civilian job. This idea is about as well thought out as the decision to manu- facture the Edsel. ferent is that corruption is channeling to the ing contraband items or too much currency. enemy enormous amounts of materials paid In a recent interception on the outskirts of for by U.S. taxpayers and needed in the fight Saigon, mobile police seized a truck carrying against the Viet Cong. 250 rolls of electric wire, 200 shovels, 15 Meanwhile, Vietnamese who find it profit- sheets of brass, a carton of antibiotics, a case able to trade with the enemy are getting of printing materials and two tape recorders. richer and richer at the expense of the U.S. Canals and rivers now are being patrolled What is described as a "sizzling" report by South Vietnam's first squadron of river on misuse of the U.S. economic aid program police, operating small, fast U.S.-made boats. in Vietnam is expected from a subcommittee Day by day, the number of suspected smug- of the House Government Operations Com- hglers' aul of intsrsearched contraband is Increasing i and, the mittee. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 June z, i v u b CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 11493 PHREY, gave the main address before the Courageous, efficient law enforcement is wrong, a menace to the body politic, soon graduates of the 77th session of the one of the many blessings which we Ameri- slips from view. Academy. _ cans have come to take for granted. It is Many years ago, a wise man of Athens was Courageous, efficient law enforcement is achieved only at great personal sacrifice by asked when he believed injustice would be one of the many efficient law Aerto went of selfless devotion to duty-men of abolished. Let me quote for you his apt one have blessings take for valor and virtue too seldom recognized and reply. It will be abolished, he said, "when cans come to granted. It to too seldom extolled. those who are not wronged achieved only at great personal sacrifice by Since I first came to Washington as a as those who are." wax as Indignant men of selfless devotion to duty-men of Senator, I have had occasion to travel ex- I assure you that this Administration fully valor and virtue too seldom recognized and tensively as an official representative of the recognizes Its responsibility for urgent and too seldom extolled. United States. effective action against crime. In a special These are the words of the Vice Presi- In country after country, I have found that message to Congress last year, President dent, who then went on to say that "in a one of the most reliable barometers of the Johnson outlined a three-pronged attack democracy such as ours, the preservation. true national atmosphere is the attitude of upon crime and lawlessness. de law and ucher begins with the- the people toward their law enforcement This message constituted a call to action- agencies. and action did follow, including the passage vidual. Within the limit of his capabil- Are they looked upon as public servants, or and the signing into law of measures such ities, every American has an obligation as instruments to suppress the public will? as the Law Enforcement Assistance Act of not only to uphold the law, but to support Here in America we have found that it is 1965, through which millions of dollars of it with all reasonable means at his corn- not enough for the law enforcement agency federal funds are being channeled into mand." to win the respect of the people. That re- worthwhile state and local police uses, and in other words, each of us must give spect has to be maintained and strengthened. the appointment of a President's Commis- our full support words, and encouragement, give It is here that the special police units for Sion on Law Enforcement and the Adminis- a continuing basis, to our law enforce- human titles varynhave such a timely and es- trInoMarch of tthis year, the President sub- ment officials. sential job to do. The officers who head mitted a second message to Congress on the Without this, the best training and the them, and the policemen who man them, topic of crime and law enforcement. highest dedication to duty will not meet have a difficult and highly responsible assign- I was delighted to observe, Director Hoover, and master the serious crime and en- ment, and they must be carefully selected that the FBI National Academy occupies a YOTCemerit problems we face today. and trained, position of prominence in that message. The I ask n pro l ems f consent today. this in- We do confront a very serious problem in President reported to Congress that a six- the enforcement of the law, and we shall fold expansion of the National Academy is spiring address by our distinguished Vice need the widest possible public support to currently being planned. Following oon- President be printed in the RECORD SO meet and master it. struction of your new Academy building at that my colleagues will have a chance Since 1958, crime has risen six times as Quantlco, Virginia, 1,200 law enforcement of- to read it. fast as our national population. ficers-rather than the present maximum of There being no objection, the address Last year alone, more than 2,700,000 serious 200-will be able to participate each year was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, crimes were reported to police departments in this outstanding training course. w follows rder throughout the United States. That is an The Administration has also taken meas- all-time record. It means not only that more ures to prevent crime --an aspect of law en- REMAnKs OF VICE PRESIDENT HusEST Hum- crimes are being committed, but that the forcement which progressive police depart- PHREY AT THE GRADUATION EXERCISES OF, victims of crime are mounting at a greater ments have been stressing for many years. THE FBI NATIONAL ACADEMY, WASHINGTON, rate than ever before. The war on poverty which the President D.C., MAY 25, 1966 I do not have to tell the members of this launched two years ago is bein It is indeed a pleasure to g planned and participate in National Academy class that a disproportion- administered to eradicate the stagnant pools this graduation ceremony of the FBI National ate number of victims come from the ranks of of bitterness and frgstration which breed Academy-a professional training school law enforcement-particularly the local much of our present-day crime. which has had a profound effect upon law police. The historic measures enacted last year to enforcement. Last year alone, more than 80 law enforce- support elementary and secondary education When Director Hoover founded this Acad- ment officers gave their lives in line of duty- have, as their principal objective, helping to emy in 1935, the skeptics far outnumbered 53 of them killed by dangerous felons and make our schools useful, meaningful end those who thought that such an advanced, gunmen. worthwhile to poor and educationally-handi- formal training program for law enforce- Only last week an FBI agent was tragically capped children--so that fewer of them will ment officers could succeed. slain-the 20th to give his life in the service join the ranks of the "drop-outs" from which Today, as evidenced by the graduates of of the Bureau. so many juvenile delinquents are recruited. this 77th Session, the FBI National Academy Thousands of other law enforcement 0111- , Some of you may have heard about crime enjoys a position not only of national, but of cers came to physical harm last year. Sta- in Washington. I think that you will be international respect and prestige. tistics compiled by the FBI clearly show pleased to hear that the incidence of seri- This is bn one of them pre achievements that, year after year, about one of every 10 ous crime in this city has been falling, in of J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI, police officers is the victim of violent assault. comparison with last year's levels, ever since Too often, this assault is carried out before November. During his 42 years as head of the Bureau, the eyes of impassive bystanders who are I congratulate Chief Layton and his men J. Edgar Hoover has made a truly outstand- otherwise responsible citizens. ing record of public service. This is deeply disturbing. For, in a of for the their hr effeco tive work. But I think some anti- More than any other American, he is re- democracy such as ours, the preservation of c s which began to of belongs take the hold ld last um- sponsible for creating a new image of the law and order begins with the individual. rprograms the edu utioover-crowding in law enforcement officer-an image well ex- Within the limit of his capabilities, every our , schools, toolshhe reduction or ive miin , a and the less eestrecti adminis- pressed bthe motto othis Acadmy: American has an obligation it with all rea- tration of our public welfare system. "Knowledge, Courage. Integrity." hold the law, but to support t the conditions which lead I am delighted to see a friend of long means at his command. to crime Action does againsrp. standsng g What specifically ho, Inspector Donald Dwyer of Min- does this mean? It means But law enforcement officers are still, as neapolis Police Department, among the 100 taking a genuine Interest in the problems of President Johnson has said, our "frontline outstanding men receiving diplomas today. crime and in the obstacles--legal, budgetary soldiers in the war against crime." I am delighted also to see representatives or otherwise--confronting honest, impartial, They deserve the full support effective crime control. of the com- from Chile, Argentina, Japan, Malaysia, the means mi doy-moral and peach thi Philippines, Thailand and the United Arab duty; responding appearing to as call of jury I don't merely preach ths. pr Mayor of Republic-as well as the Virgin Islands-in willingly proceedings; promptly PP; ar witness in Minneapolis two decades ago I it. criminal proceereporting the e practiced ce this graduating class. Director Hoover has When ,facts concerning violations of law; and, most I took office, underworld influence told me how much these officers have con- fundamental of all, conscientiously observ- was strong in the eity. I called the church, tributed to the success of the 77th Session. ing both the letter and the spirit of the law. business, and other civic leaders together, I can think of no greater reward for their Every American does have a very im and I said: efforts over the past 12 weeks than the ac- stake in the proper enforcement f 1 w portant . At "I want your backing. I can't clean up this curate impression of American law enforce- times this personal interest is more obvious city alone. I want to be able to pay the best ment-not only its equipment, procedures than at others-for example, when a particu- policemen the best salaries we can, because and techniques, but also its forthright prin- larly atrocious murder or beating sends a we simply can't afford anything less than the ciples and the high caliber of leadership- shock wave of fear throughout a community best." which these visiting officers have obtained and captures local headlines. They did in fact back me up. And we from the National Academy program and However, indignation has a tendency to be did get a clean police force and a clean from their association with the other out- short-lived. All but those most personally city. ,standing men, representing 39 states, on the affected tend to quickly forget. The prin- I want to see our law enforcement officers roster of this class. ciple that every act of crime is a public paid at a professional level, and with pro- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 June 2, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE For the first time, there is evidence of co- operation and hard work by the U.S. and South Vietnamese Governments in efforts that cut across the entire spectrum of cor- ruption that has grown to enormous proportions since the massive build-up of U.S. power began more than a year ago. An economic-warfare committee, set up by the U.S. to advise the Vietnamese Govern- ment, became operational in March. When all authorized posts are filled, more than 200 American experts will be working exclusively on the economic war. Serving in this force are former FBI agents, U.S. customs officers on loan, Treasury Department men, Govern. ment auditors and controllers. So far, the committee has had two major successes. It started investigations that halted shipments of Unicel-100 and silver nitrate that could have aided the Viet Cong. Unicel-100, a chemical compound devel- oped by an American firm, is mixed with rubber to make a pliable substance used in manufacturing sandals. Ten tons had been imported-enough to make 500,000 slippers, the maximum capacity of Vietnamese plants working full time for 18 months. Several times as much tonnage was aboard ships bound for Saigon when an AID official, sus- picious of the large quantities ordered, de- manded a check on the chemical qualities of the material. The check disclosed that Unicel-100 in its pure state had an explosive power equal to that of TNT, The economic-warfare committee became suspicious of the large quantities of silver nitrate being imported for "film processing." Committee officials who speak Chinese visited' Chinese firms in Saigon that had bought the compound. They discovered that the Chinese were "cooking" the silver nitrate and extract- ing 5.8 pounds of pure silver from 10 pounds of the compound. This was extremely profitable for the Chinese-but there was another, and grim- mer, disclosure. The nitrate left over from the cooking could easily be converted to ex- plosives for making bombs and the Claymore mines used by Viet Cong terrorists in Saigon. As a result of the investigation, shipments of silver nitrate valued at more than a mil- lion dollars were halted. Now, the economic-warfare group is com- bing the entire list of commodity imports, searching for items that might help the Communists. PROFITEERING ON U.S. FUNDS The committee's primary function is to de- prive the Viet Cong of things they need to keep going. But it also is involved in actions to prevent misuse of All) funds, waste of American aid goods, black-market profiteer- ing and illegal currency transactions. Stealing from U.S. stockpiles has been cut down by more extensive use of armed guards. American military officials say that the black market in goods stolen or otherwise im- properly obtained from post exchanges is dwindling as a result of a sharp crackdown. The crackdown on the black market in U.S. dollars is more difficult. Although American servicemen now are paid in scrip, not cash, soldiers who go to Hong Kong, Bangkok or Singapore on leave can get dollars there. In the Saigon black market run by Chinese and Indian currency dealers, service- men can get 160 to 170 Vietnamese piastres for a dollar bill, but only 118 for scrip ex- changed for piastres on their bases. Just recently, a U.S. soldier was caught smuggling in $7,000 in greenbacks. Since November, 1964, a total of 148 Americans- military men and civilians-faced investiga- tion in connection with illegal currency manipulations. -The US. Internal Revenue Service has dispatched agents to Saigon to look into tax aspects of black-market deal- ings. Defense Department files show that a num- ber of American civilians, including some employes of 'defense contractors, have left Vietnam with unexplained sums ranging from $11,000 to $42,000. The IRS is investi- gating tax returns of these people. It's admitted in Saigon that profiteering and black-marketing by the Vietnamese themselves and by importers of various other nationalities are almost impossible to control. Importers make tremendous profits, be- cause goods are imported at rates varying from 40 to 118 piastres to the dollar and sold at fantastically inflated prices. Imported goods are supposed to be price-controlled, but machinery for effective control is lacking. The economic-warfare committee says that it is curbing another aspect of corruption- misuse of AID funds in payment of exorbit- ant prices for items purchased in Taiwan, Korea and' Hong Kong. Those governments are prosecuting sellers of lathes, bulldozers and other equipment that did not pass qual- ity and price checks in Saigon. Importers in Saigon are being questioned about "kick- backs." On a related matter, Senator BIRCH BAYH, Democrat, of Indiana, declared in Washing- ton: "The prices paid by Vietnam with AID fin- ancing for inferior products were outrage- ously exorbitant. * * * "While Korea was selling a galvanized ton of 32-gauge sheet steel to Vietnam for $260 plus shipping and handling, it was buying black plate from Japan for $140 a ton. "Thus, Korea was adding about $120 a ton for galvanizing and handling. Now most American companies-using twice the amount of zinc per square foot and paying their labor many times what Korean laborers are apid-charge approximately $60 to $70 a ton for galvanizing sheet steel. "The reason for this odd circumstance is ensconced in documents currently classified as secret. Suffice it to say, however, that a system of kickbacks, collusion and corrup- tion is at the root of the problem." American officials concede that, at best, profiteering by Vietnamese Government per- sonnel, even some Army officers, can only be curtailed, not ended. For one thing, in Vietnam as in the rest of Asia, the "squeeze" is a way of life, more so than ever when men on relatively low pay are trapped in a highly inflationary economy. It's easy to bribe a policeman to overlook possession of black-market items. It's easy to bribe an official to issue an import license. Big, French-owned import firms and Viet- namese-Chinese companies know how much "squeeze" to pay for high priority in getting ships unloaded and getting goods through customs. GRAFT IN THE PROVINCES Corruption is traditional in district gov- ernments. A Vietnamese district chief can pad payrolls and pocket the pay of phantom workers. Province chiefs can do the same on a bigger scale-and also extract kickbacks from district bosses. Charges are made that Vietnamese Army officers use their troops and AID materials to build houses which they then rent at high rates to Americans. In Vietnam, family relationships are so in- tricate and loyalties so interwoven that few Vietnamese Government officials or military officers will move to expose corrupt associates. There is no tradition that the law trans- cends personal relationships. It is inflation that is largely blamed for the breakdown of morality and the rapid in- crease in corruption that is proving to be a valuable ally of the Communists in Vietnam. In the years since 1960 the South Viet- namese Government's expenditures on the civilian side have doubled, while In the same period military expenditures have increased 11495 sixfold. The Government's deficit, 16.4 bil- lion piastres in 1964, jumped to 26.7 billion piastres last year. The deficit was covered by printing-press money. This year, Government income from the U.S. AID program will exceed the total of other national revenues. Pressure is added by the U.S. military-construction program which this year, in cumulative total, will pass the billion-dollar mark. The average GI in Vietnam spends about $40 on goods and services each month. That adds to the in- flationary pressure. U.S. HOPE: CUT IN CORRUPTION As U.S. officials see it, as long as a program of such size continues, not much can be done about small-scale corruption. What the U. S. hopes is that efforts now being pressed in a big way can halt the major corruption that plays into the hands of the enemy-and slow down appreciably dispersal of U. S. AID material to the Viet Cong. [From the Richmond, (Ind.) Palladium- Item, May 23, 19661 BAYH'S CHARGES UPHELD After two and a half months the Agency for International Development (AID) has finally admitted that Senator BIRCH BATH was correct in his charge that it was buying interior Japanese-made and Korean-gal- vanized steel sheeting. The sheeting was purchased for use in Viet Nam and BATH had charged in late February that it "has been rotting out in less than a year" whereas American steel "lasts about 12 years." AID Deputy Administrator William S. Guad admitted also that "with respect to prices, we found indications of possible col- lusion and kickbacks by suppliers to Viet- namese buyers." A release from the office of Indiana's junior Democratic senator said, "This was AID's first public acknowledgement of the accuracy of BAYH'S charges." It earlier denied any collusion. Gaud said future purchases of steel sheet- ing will have to meet U.S. commercial stand- ards and that half of it must be purchased in the United States. "We also will set rea- sonable price ceilings above which awards will not be made," Gaud promised. Formerly 90 per cent of American foreign aid funds for such products as galvanized steel had to be spent in the U.S. but on Jan. 31, AID waived this rule for galvanized steel. BATH wants all pregalvanized steel to be purchased in this country. He plans to push an amendment to the 1967 foreign aid bill for that purpose. He is willing as a reward for Seoul's active support in the war in Viet Nam to let Korean firms continue to galvanize the sheeting if they upgrade to American standards. BATH was alert in being concerned when AID-financed purchases of inferior steel were affecting the jobs of 80,000 Indian steel work- ers whose taxes help support AID. AID bungled when it agreed to buy foreign sheeting without first checking its quality. Even if the foreign sheeting were equal to American steel, Its purchase, as BAYH pointed out, aggravates the unfavorable U.S. balance of trade. The profiteering on foreign galvanized steel is another example of American tax money dispensed without adequate controls or supervision. AID is funneling $370 million into South Viet Nam this year but has only two persons checking to see how the money is spent. While AID officials are finally moving to prevent the waste now that Senator BAYH has made it hot for them, there- is no excuse for previous lack of concern. American and South Vietnamese troops have been dying Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 11496 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 CONGRESSIONAL- RECORD - SENATE while AID has allowed U.S. funds to be squandered and siphoned off by profiteers. THE ROLE OF PACKAGING IN THE ECONOMY Mr. COTTON. Mr. President, a most interesting, and timely, study of the role of packaging in the U.S. economy has recently been published. Undertaken by Arthur D. Little, Inc. for the American Foundation for Management Research, the study sheds new light on the value of packaging to the total economy and its place in our consumer-oriented mar- ket. The study shows that the value of packaging to consumers is increasing, de- spite the relative decline in industry spending for packaging. It indicates that packaging has a long-term salutary effect on general economic health because it reduces production and marketing costs, increases consumer demand for products, and accelerates the rate of market penetration. These conclusions derived from the work of one of the Nation's most respect- ed research organizations, should be es- pecially Interesting to the Senate as it considers the so-called truth in pack- aging bill, some parts of which are based on the philosophy that packaging is a dark-hued villian intent on robbing the defenseless housewife. This survey may help to set the record straight. Unfor- tunately it Is too lengthy, 113 pages, to include in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, but the magazine Modem Packaging has published a useful summation of the report's major findings and conclusions, which I ask unanimous consent to have Inserted at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From Modern Packaging, May 1966] PACKAGING: A GIANT MATURES Impartial report gives statistical proof of packaging's contributions to the nation's eco- nomic growth and to corporate profits and shows how it Is Increasing value of the con- sumer's food dollar. A long-awaited "white paper" on pack- aging's contributions to the U.S. economy has just been released. Some of its findings may surprise; others reinforce the validity of profit philosophies that have been translated into action by many of the nation's leading packagers and suppliers. Among the report's major conclusions: The value of packaging to consumers. is in- creasing-despite claims to the contrary by proponents of tighter Federal controls over packaging and labeling. Packaging is, In fact, reducing consumer purchase and con- sumption risk to "an historic low." Packaging Is not growing quite as fast as the U.S. economy as a whole, indicating that it has become a mature service vital to gen- eral economic health. The over-all value of packaging, currently pegged at $22 billion, should grow to $29 bil- lion by 1975. The level of packaging prices corresponds closely with the general wholesale-price in- dex. So vital an Influence is packaging on corpo- rate profits that the packaging function must be considered as a centralized management- level responsibility. Despite the onrush of plastics, most tradi- tional materials are maintaining a 'steady share of market. These data are contained in an impartial statistical survey by Arthur D. Little, Inc., titled "The Role of Packaging_ in the U.S. Economy," made by the research firm for the American Foundation for Management Re- search, a non-profit affiliate of the American Management Assn. Covering the decade from 1954 to 1963, it Is the end product of broad-scope interviews among suppliers, package users, industry associations and Gov- ernment agencies. Detailed analyses of eco- nomic aspects of the report will appear in forthcoming Issues Of MODERN PACKAGING. It remains to be seen what effect this eco- nomic report will have on such pending legis- lation as the Hart Bill, which is predicated on the assumption that much of packaging does a disservice to American consumers. Little's study makes a contrary case. It re- veals that consumers spent an average of $5.01 for packaging-materials per $100 of food-product purchases in 1963, compared with $5.14 per $100 in 1954. During the same decade, consumer earning power rose sharply. . The report concludes, therefore, that "the combined effect of this rise in consumer earnings and a continued stability in pack- aging-material prices has meant that the consumer received nearly 25% more value for his packaging dollar in 1963 than he did in 1954, and nearly 30% more in 1963 than in 1958." A further caution against applying check- reins to packaging is implied in the survey finding that packaging has a long-term salutary effect on general economic health because it reduces production and marketing costs, increases consumer demand for prod- ucts and accelerates the rate of market pene- tration. The fact that packaging is not growing quite as fast as Gross National Product (4.2% annually for the former, 5.6% for the latter during the period 1958-83) is proof that packaging has matured as a service In the U.S. economy, according to the- report. The reasons given for the slower growth rate of packaging are (1) distribution of pack- aging material: over major market segments has remained relatively constant over the past decade; (2) unexplolted opportunities for packaging are fewer today, and (3) as the economy becomes more geared to mass consumption, spending for services increases and the portion of total spending for pack- aged products declines. An interesting note on the distribution of packaging materials is that such old stand- bys as metal, glass, paper and paperboard did not lose ground in the decade between 1954 and 1963-even though plastic materials doubled in volume, from 2.7% to 5.8% of the total packaging market. Packaging's role in fostering corporate success gets a big boost from the survey. It urges that management recognize the need to centralize the packaging function in corporate strategy and decision-making, rather than delegate responsibility to one sector or another of the corporation-each with it own biases. Only by broad-spectrum management control, the report concludes, can the potential of packaging be realized fully. Copies of the full report, at $2.75, are avail- able from the American Foundation for Man- agement Research, Inc., 135 W. 50 St., New York 10020. GIANT RESEARCH TOOL Mr. LONG of Missouri. Mr. President, it is with great pleasure that I bring to the attention of the Senate the dedi- cation last Sunday, May 28, in Columbia, Mo., of the most powerful university research reactor in the country. The completion of this reactor Is a great step forward for the development June 2, 1966 of high level research in Missouri. It Is clear evidence that Missouri is willing and able to shoulder the responsibilities of the nation's major research needs. Five times more powerful than the second ranking reactor-which is at Massachusetts Institute of Technology- the new reactor at Columbia represents a new design concept. With an output of 10 megawatts-thermal, it is more powerful than several industrial testing reactors, and more powerful than sev- eral of the Atomic Energy Commission's own research reactors. The Policy of the University concern- ing use of the reactor Is that: The research reactor facility shall be avail- able for research utilization by any member of the faculty of the University of Missouri and of the Universities comprising the Mid- America Association of State Universities. Priorities for the use by faculty members of any specialized facilities shall be estab- lished by the simple technique of "who asked first." In the event that questions arise as to the advisability of such a priority assign- ment, these questions will be negotiated with the Reactor Advisory Committee and their findings shall be final." With respect to faculty, graduate stu- dents, other educational institutions and industry, the priority of use shall be as follows: First. Faculty and graduate students of the University of Missouri and other universities in the Mid-American Asso- ciation of State Universities. Second. Faculty and graduate students of other educational institutions. Third. Faculty and graduate students from out-of-State educational institu- tions. Fourth. Industrial contract research. I would like to point out that the university policy also says that wherever possible the research reactor and its facilities will be available to industrial users, where the industrial research will further teaching and academic pro- grams. I find it an interesting and pro- gressive step that the University is ready to consider participation by in- dustry to the extent it is compatible with educational research activities. The blending of industrial and academic re- search In many ways can open the way to fruitful new combinations of ideas, new insights that can bring both scientific and technological progress. The university is fortunate to have as Director of the Research Reactor Facil- ity, Dr. Ardath H. Emmons, who is also a professor of nuclear engineering and a professor of radiology. He was born in Albert Lea, Minn., on March 12, 1924. He took his bachelors of Science in chem- istry at Dubuque in 1948, his master's in chemistry at the University of Mich- igan in 1954 and his Ph.D. there in 1960. On February 1, 1960, he was appointed to the faculty of the university. Since then he has been a pivotal figure in bringing this reactor project into reality. Many companies from Missouri have had an important part in bringing the reactor into being. The Internuclear Co. of St. Louis did the prelimiary design study, the design and the specification writing. It also prepared the studies and reports required by the Atomic Energy Commission to justify the AEC's issuing Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67BOO446ROO0400080618-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE June 2, 1966 The Federal Water Projects Recreation yet see the need for our efforts and expendi- Act of 1965 is designed to give full consid- tures to protect, preserve and develop our eration to outdoor recreation and to fish basin resources for the America of 1980 and and wildlife enhancement in connection with the year 2000. Understanding by the people federal water resource projects. in these basins, now and in the future, of An amendment, also in 1965, to Public the benefits that will accrue from wise plan- Law 566, the Watershed Protection and Flood ning of our water and related land resources Prevention Act, increases the authorized and from installation of needed improve- floodwater detention capacity of reservoirs ments will clear the way for the teamwork built under this upstream watershed pro- we must have. gram from 5,000 to 12,500 acre-feet. This We face the challenge to engage the entire increase enables communities, in develop- cross-section of interests in a basin in the ing the resources of their watersheds, to development of a plan. Local participation utilize storage sites more in keeping with and cooperation are essential. The plan their potential, without reducing the level must represent the concern, the vision and of flood protection provided. the imagination of many people, and it must The Water Quality Act of 1965 amends the be a product of the democratic process in Water Pollution Control Act of 1956 to give it its preparation and its final form. As I added strength and to create the Federal suggested at the recent Oklahoma SCS con- Water Pollution Control Administration. vention in Tulsa, the soil conservation dis- This Administration has now been trans- trict may well be the vehicle which can ferred from the Department of Health, Edu- bring about this participation by local in- cation and Welfare to the Department of In- terests, watershed by watershed, and district terior. by district, down to the last acre, the last There are two interesting proposals now be- home or factory site, or playground, the fore Congress which fit into our overall In- last creek and rivulet. terests. These are, first, the Clean Rivers Re- We face the challenge of bringing togeth- storation Bills (S. 2987 and H.R. 13104), which er the interests far upstream with those far would provide for the cleaning of entire river downstream and of making sure that, in the basins, with maximum cooperation by all upstream planning, we are not focusing our levels of government. This program would attention on a single purpose, such as flood have for its ultimate objective the restora- prevention, when there are many other tion of selected rivers to an adequate stand- values to be considered. We face an un- ard of water quality for future health, wel- ending challenge in making sure that in all fare and resource needs. our work in river basin planning and devel- The other is the Wild Rivers Bill, which opment we do not lose sight of the basic would provide for retaining in perpetuity purpose of our efforts-to accomplish these open. It is late, but not too late. Demands upon our resources will increase, but we have the know-how and the advances in tech- nology and science to come to grips with our basin problems. Oliver Wendell Holmes pointed out that it is not so much where we stand that is im- portant. It is where we are going. I am confident that our nation's natural re- sources are in safe hands. We are going to meet the challenges of the 1960's in the use and development of our basin resources with intelligence and confidence. There will come a day when we will be able to look down from the air upon any water- shed, no matter where we may be, and see a coutryside secure and beautiful. Trees will be where they should be, and grass will be where it should be. Cropland will be pro- tected by all the needed conservation meas- ures. Streams will be clean and clear, their flow steady and abundant. Recreation areas will be where our people can enjoy them. And, most Important, the people who dwell in these -places will be healthy, strong, keen of mind and happy-because man and nature will be in harmony. This organization, and the organizations you represent here in this Congress, have made vast contributions to our progress in dealing with the problems of our basin re- sources. No one realizes more than you the importance of it, and the challenges we face. I congratulate you on what you have done in stimulating our thought and lending us guida cei and I wish you continued success in yo4 vtal efforts. certain, still-unspoiled stretches of our more things, in basin and watershed, for the total I' scenic and inspiring streams. good. Chronologically, the Water Resources Plan- Senate Document No. 97 (May 29, 1962) MORE AMERICAN STEEL IN in the list I have read, but I purposely saved The basic objective in this planning is it to last. This act bears the date July 22, to provide the best use, or combination of 1965, and it- establishes a Water Resources uses, of water and related land use re- Council, made up of the Secretaries of Agri- sources to meet all foreseeable short and culture, Army, Interior, Health-Education- long-term needs." Welfare and the chairman of the Federal John Graves, described in the Interim Re- Power Commission. (The Secretary of the port on the Potomac as "one of the fine river Interior has been designated by the Presi- historians of our country," writes in his own dent as Council chairman.) appraisal of the river's plight in these words: This law provides for the establishment, by "The Potomac Basin, well-watered and the President, of River Basin Commissions reasonably rich and agreeably varied, has on request by the Council, or by a concerned few problems aside from modern man; one state in a basin, with concurrence by the might almost say aside from modernized Council, if at least half of the concerned man . . . By hard concerted thinking and states wholly or partly in the basin concur. effort and desire and the expenditure of It provides for the appropriation of federal money, the Basin can be cleaned up and funds to be allotted to states to finance in- protected for a while. In a country that creased participation by the states in water can muster the brain and cash to shoot for and related land resources planning. the moon, it will be a dark shame if this is The River Basin Commissions will be made not done, along the Potomac and everywhere up of representatives of the concerned states else there is a good piece of country to save and of the federal agencies involved, with the for people's decent living and wholeness." chairman (who will not be an employee of a "Yet finally and again it is necessary to federal agency) to be named by the President. note that anything we do for the Potomac Requests for the establishment of commis- Basin or any other place, at whatever effort sions under this act have been received from and whatever expense, will be temporary if the governors of the New England States and we keep trotting down our present casual from the governors of the Great Lakes States. road toward numbers and nothingness. No Similar requests are in process by other river or piece of country is going to be able groups of states. to stand the kind of pressure that will gen- The budgets of the various agencies in- erate, and it is fairly certain that we won't be volved in comprehensive river basin investi- able to stand it ourselves." gation and planning were coordinated for This, too, is one of our challenges in our several years by the ad hoc Water Resources concept of the cleaning, the repairing and the ,Council is continuing this necessary proce- dure for assuring that all concerned agen- cies participate in an adequate and timely manner in such studies. So, our strides out of the maze of difficul- ties, which we have as a nation created for ourselves, have been long and swift; but we have made only a beginning. We have far Mr. SYMINGTON. Mr. President, last March 10, the distinguished Senator from Indiana [Mr. BAYHI submitted an amendment to H.R. 12169, the supple- mental appropriation act for Vietnam, which was adopted by the Senate, but eliminated in conference. The amendment proposed to correct existing AID practices which resulted in the purchase of Japanese steel, galva- nized in Korea, at a cost considerably higher, but with lower quality than com- parable steel could be purchased in the United States. At that time, I stated my support of the position of the Senator from Indiana and urged the unanimous approval of that amendment. It has come to my attention that the Iron Age magazine has printed an arti- cle in the April 28, 1966, issue which describes the continuing efforts of the Senator from Indiana to assure an ap- propriate change in AID policy. I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD the article entitled "Senator BAYH Urges Use of More Amer- ican Steel in Vietnam." There being no objection, the article sources-to keep our work in place, our as follows: achievement sufficiently appreciated by our BAYH URGES USE OF MORE children and their children-and the gen- SENATOR AMERICAN STEEL IN SE OF VIETNAM erations beyond-so that our basins can re- main safe, beautiful and fully usable. Sen. BIRCH BAYH (D., Ind.) continues to Everyone in this audience this morning exert pressure for a diversion of Vietnam realizes very well that we can no longer steel production from foreign to U.S. mills. -f orA to be complacent regarding the re- Steel products purchased by Vietnam with toward our objective in river basin work are upon which our very existence as a nation made components, BAYH demands. He urges by no means beyond our successful response. depends. Our living standard is the marvel the Agency for International Deveeopment to One of them, as I see it, is to overcome the of the world, and our fabulous natural re- change its present policy. This policy now apathy, the human inertia, we encounter as sources have been its foundation. We have allows the Vietnam government to buy for- we consider basin development needs and too often been heedless and wanton in our eign galvanized steel sheet from foreign sup- potentials. We find still those who do not use of these resources, but now our eyes are pliers and pay for it with AID funds. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67BOO446ROO0400080018-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 June 2, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 11487 essential ... if we are to get enough water in The story of Sandstone Creek farther up terim report indicates-the postponement of the next 20 years." the watershed In western Oklahoma has be- certain steps, just as it may urge the taking A paragraph or so later in his book Senator come widely known also. It was the first of of another step much sooner than anyone Kerr warned: the small, creek-size watersheds in the Wash- had Imagined. It may advise the building "The mobilization will require the par- ita to be given full-dress treatment for the (as the Potomac report does) of certain small ticipation of all levels of government, guided reduction of flooding, through a system of impoundments for supply purposes and the and aided by an alert, informed citizenry. floodwater dams and conservation treatment delay of a much larger one that had been The people in each locality must work to- of the drainage area. thought to be urgently needed soon. gether to At their own projects into the Most of you know this story how the But the gathering of a group of interested broader pattern." flooding was reduced so that it has been of citizens around a conference table for the The Senator and so many of you had seen little consequence, how the creek that once purpose of determining the needs of their the distress of the drought years, and in 1943 stayed dry most months of the year has been basin, the opportunities for the protection he had witnessed, as had many others of us, flowing a steady, sparkling stream, how the of its many values for the future and the the tragedy of a mighty disaster on the people in that area now enjoy the recrea- development of others for the next few Arkansas River. He had watched the re- tional advantages this development affords, years-this is the way a basin must be peated floods on the two branches of the and how the well-being of an entire com- planned, with all its values in mind and Canadian River, and he was thoroughly munity has enjoyed a tremendous uplift as with all its citizens having a voice in the abreast of the long and determined fight by a result of this joint investment by the decisions that are to be made. the people in the Washita River watershed to people and their government. This is a In recent years, we have seen a remarkable control the frequent flooding and to develop story that my friend L. L. (Red) Males, long and fortunate change in our national at- that rich resource into an obedient and use- a supervisor of the Upper Washita Sgil Con- titude toward water resources. A genera- ful servant. servation District, has told hundreds of times tion ago, because of a spectacular kind of So, it was a natural consequence that, as throughout the nation. It is a story that disaster that focused attention on what was Governor of Oklahoma, he would come to grows more in significance as the years pass. happening to our soil resources, we launched have an unyielding determination to lead the On the national level we are engaged now a broad program of action for their protec- people of his state into a program which in a unique program on the Potomac River tion. As an outgrowth of this new concern would lessen the harm of drought and flood Basin. The President on February 8, 1965, the states passed legislation providing local and produce continuing benefits through directed the Secretary of the Interior to pre- citizens the means of organizing to carry out conservation and development of basin and pare a plan to make the Potomac "a model of their own programs of soil, water, plant and watershed values. conservation." That is being done in coop- wildlife conservation. I would like to note Only a few months ago, the President of eration with other federal, local and state here that Oklahoma and its neighboring the United States, addressing the Interna- agencies. state, Arkansas, were the first to pass state tional Symposium of Desalination, pointed In the Potomac, a river which should be a enabling legislation for this purpose. out that fresh water has been one of human- demonstration project for all those Ameri- But back to this new attitude of ours to- ity's most precious needs. Wars have been cans and those from foreign lands who visit ward water resources. Drought during the fought for it throughout history, he said, our nation's capitol, we have an example of past four years in the Northeast-an area and without it whole civilizations have what has happened to many of our beautiful where you normally don't hear much about vanished from the earth; and he added that streams and of what is now happening to drought-obviously has helped to stimulate over various areas of the world today water many others in this country. Year by year, American thinking along this line. Also. is the key to man's prosperity or poverty. decade by decade, it has been going on--the there has been developing a more sensitive As a member of our State Senate in Okla- ruining of a river through an amazing short- national conscience, an awareness of what homa for eight years, it was my privilege to sightedness and the complete absence of any we had been doing, through neglect and have a part in the conservation progress we thought to planning. It would have cost abuse, to these vital resources. have made in this state, to the work of our us in taxes and in interest on bonds, perhaps, In New York City the "well was running soil conservation districts and the landown- to have prevented this spoilage of a fine re- dry; ' and when the average citizen had to ers who are cooperating with them toward source; but this cost would have been a small ask for a glass of water before he could the conservation, use, and development of percentage of the billions it will cost now to get it, and the cafe owner was subject to a our land, water, plant and wildlife- resources. correct the mistakes we have made on this $25 fine if he permitted his employees to And I'm proud to have an opportunity to one river alone. serve water without a request, he began to continue that interest and effort as a mem- We can have a Potomac River you can swim realize how important this resource was to her of the Senate of the United States, its in if you like, as clean as it Is beautiful, but him as an individual. The city was alarmed Committee on Public Works and Its Subcom- it will take time, money, and a gerat deal of and reaching out for a supply, when at the mittees on Air and 'Water Pollution and desire and effort. Not one of us doubts that city's doorstep millions of gallons of water Rivers and Harbors and Flood Control. such an investment will have great value. a day were flowing seaward, too filthy for You will find our people here in Oklahoma Our regret should be that we are so late with any use by man or animal. heartily in accord with the programs we have our recognition of the symptoms and with Our awakening, overdue as we may now under way, a majority thoroughly conversant our diagnosis and remedies. regard it, has been marked by a series of with the problems that we have faced and But what is it that has made America's recent and forthright actions designed to the things we must do and are doing to rivers unclean and unclear? We have long set our water resource house in order. correct them. It has been an effort of team- been aware of the garbage, the sewage and First, based on a recommendation of the work, not only throughout the levels of gov- the industrial wastes which are going into Senate Select Committee on National Water ernment, but, more Importantly, among the our rivers. We have not, as a nation of Resources, comprehensive framework studies many groups and interests of our citizens. resource stewards, been so conscious of are in process on five of our major water re- Earlier. I mentioned the Washita project. another costly source of pollution. For ex- source regions in America, and the 1967 This was one of 11 authorized by the Con- ample, did you know that 50 million tons of budget provides for initiation of three more gress in 1944 for the Department of Agri- soil are eroded annually in the Potomac Basin such studies-California, the Upper Colorado culture, under the leadership of the Soil and that 234 million tons of sediment from and the Lower Colorado. Detailed surveys Conservation Service and with the help of the skinned-off real estate developments, the also are under way in 16 other river basin the Forest Service and other federal and unprotected fields, the cuts and fills for areas. state agencies, to carry on a special program roadways, the denuded construction sites and So, we are on our way, although perhaps as of flood prevention and accelerated land parking areas are discharged into the Poto- yet we have not begun to catch up. treatment, with cost-sharing and technical mac estuary each year. This sediment fouls The Water Resources Research Act of 1964 assistance to help the local people with their the river, adding to the cost of making the provides for cooperation by the Secretary of flood problems. water suitable for use, and damaging the the Interior with theLand Grant Colleges of Many of you know the story of the Wash- aquatic life we would like It to sustain in the several states in establishing and carry- Its, how the people over the years had strug- abundance. ing on water resources research institutes. gled for some kind of control program, hop- My purpose is to emphasize that the devel- One aspect of the Appalachian Regional ing at first for a system of big reservoirs to opment of a plan for a river basin; with all Development Act is a survey of the water contain the floodwaters. Then when they its varied Interests, its needs and its op- and related resources of the area to learn had heard thee new proposal and had studied portunities, is a vital, demanding thing. It the extent to which their development-with y, they agreed that it offered a most can't be done in a week or two, nor can it an investment of public funds-may con- practical solution for their dilemma be done alone by one group or another. It tribute to the local economy. These studies And so it has been. That day near Cordell, is a job that requires careful Investigation, will draw on and add to Information avail- when the first of the floodwater retarding the collection and analysis of pertinent data, able from other basin surveys in progress in dams In the Washita project was dedicated- the patient study of possibilities, searching portions of the area Experience in these' ;my distinguished senior Colleague. Senator looks into the distant future, and the in- programs will have value, too, as we move4 MIKE MONaONEY, took part In that sere- volvement of many people representing all - into the Ozarks, Upper Great Lakes, and the mony--was an important day for Oklahoma, the Interests In the basin. New England Economic Development pro- and for the nation. Planning may Involve--as the Potomac In- grams. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 June 2, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE INPT.AT'ED PRICIES BAYH has rejeased tile results of two In- dependent studies supporting his charges that steel purchased by Vietnam with Amer- ican aid is of inferior quality and overpriced. He claim that Vietnam, using American aid, paid inflated prices for inferior steel manufactured in Japan and galvanized with insufficient zinc in Korea. A study conducted by the General Account- ing Office, at BAYH'S request shows that prices for steel purchased by Vietnam "in- cluded certain improper costs ultimately paid for by the Agency of International De- velopment." BATH says the "improper costs" amounted to $90 a ton. The second study, conducted by the So- ciete De Surveillance, a Geneva-based orga- nization, shows that Korean galvanizing mills use Japanese steel which "is processed chiefly from salvaged scrap." The study says the Koreans added to the steel sheets a "de- fectuous coating which Is quickly weather- worn." As a result of these findings, BAYH reports, AID has taken steps to assure quality con- trol and deal with the problem of inflated prices. But BAYH is not satisfied. BUT AMERICAN He thinks steel purchased by Vietnam with foreign aid dollars should be manufac- tured by American companies. Good quality products would be assured without incur- ring the expense of imposing and policing quality control standards. American aid dollars would flow directly back to the U.S. in the form of taxes, wages and additional man-hours of work. No improper costs would creep into the prices paid for these products. BAYH says AID is now considering a policy change. However, if the change does not incorporate his 90% American-made com- ponent plan, BAYH Intends to seek "appro- priate legislation." The Senate earlier adopted BAYH'S proposal as an amendment to a supplemental foreign aid bill. But House-Senate conferees re- moved the amendment. Mr. SYMING'''ON. Putting it mildly, Mr. President, this article points out how right was the position taken by the able Senator from Indiana. Mr. President, I suggest the absence of a quorum. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. The clerk will call the roll. The legislative clerk proceeded to call the roll. Mr. SYMINGTON. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the order for the quorum call be rescinded. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. Without objection, it is so ordered. . UNTRUTHFUL ATTACKS ON THE CIA Mr. LAUSCHE. Mr. President, ear- lier today, the Senator from Missouri [Mr. SYMINGTON] made a statement dealing with attacks that are now cur- rently being made upon the Central In- telligence Agency. He stated: A favorite "sport" now current among various groups which appears to be growing in volume is to attack the Central Intelli- gence Agency. He further stated: These charges are made by many people, including enemy aliens in defense of their activities, and those who have been charged with illegal activities. From the standpoint of sport, at times it would appear comparable to shooting fish in a barrel, because the nature of the work of the CIA means it cannot defend itself. Mr. President, I want to use this state- ment of the Senator from Missouri as a premise for what I shall now have to say. I concur with him completely that be- cause the CIA cannot defend itself and of necessity, by reason of its work, must remain silent, inducement has been pro- vided by those who bear ill will toward certain individuals in the Agency to make attacks upon it. The most recent attacks have dealt with the cases of James R. Christensen, with a Cuban exile, who was captured in Cuba and charged by Castro with having been hired by the Central Intelligence Agency to assassinate Castro, and in the third case, in relation to John R. Hawke. These attacks have been made with great bitterness. The Central Intelligence Agency. has not been able to answer. The claims that have been made against the agency are false. I take the floor today to emphasize the fact that the interests of the United States are not being served by the attacks which are being made upon this Agency. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. The time of the Senator from Ohio has expired. Mr. SYMINGTON. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the able Senator from Ohio be allowed to pro- ceed for 5 additional minutes. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. Without objection, it is so ordered. Mr. LAUSCHE. The office of the Cen- tral Intelligence Agency is headed by Adm. W. F. Raborn. His assistant Is Richard Helms. He has a legislative counsel and the staff of the Central In- telligence Agency. The important aspect of the services rendered by this Agency, which are not being considered by'\those within our own ranks who are attacking the Agency, is the fact that the Agency works directly under the President. The Agency is sub- ject to the supervision and direction of' the National Security Council. Who are the members of the National Security Council? Lyndon B. Johnson, the President of the United States. HUBERT H. HuM- PHREY, the Vice President. Dean Rusk, the Secretary of State. Robert S. Mc- Namara, the Secretary of Defense. Bu- ford Ellington, the Director of the Office of Emergency Planning. Then there is the Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, McGeorge Bundy, and Executive Secretary Brom- ley Smith. Mr. President, I submit to all Senators that whatever attacks are being made upon that Agency are an implied attack upon the President, the Vice President, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, and the Chief of Emergency Planning. For the past 20 years especially, it has been the objective of the Communists in the cold war to blacken the character of the Intelligence Agency of the United States. One of their principal tech- niques has been to lay at the doorstep of the Intelligence Agency the charges that 11489 it is indulging in practices common and inherent to the Communists of the world.. With the Communists making the at- tacks, when support Is given to those at- tacks by men on the Senate floor and by persons in our own Nation, it provides a great instrumentality for the Commu- nists to publicize throughout the world that, within the Chambers of the U.S. Senate, these remarks have been made by officials of the U.S. Government, condemning the activity of this Agency. It is with great hesitancy that I enter upon the discussion of the subject that I shall now undertake. One statement was made several months ago that the Central Intelligence Agency dressed its agents in the garb of Vietcong Commu- nists and sent them among the innocent South Vietnamese to rape women and kill old men and children, and then to place the blame on the Vietcong. That charge was denied most emphat- ically. I want to repeat that charge-that the Agency, operating under the President, Vice President, Secretary of State, and Secretary of Defense, dressed its agents in the uniform of the Vietcong Commu- nists and that they raped women and killed old men and children, solely to place the blame on the Vietcong. When that statement was made, nat- urally Peking and Moscow picked it up and publicized it throughout all the world. Peking and Moscow quoted what was said, and stated: United States official confirms the charges we have been making about the activities of the agents of the Central Intelligence Agency. Mr. President, I think the time has come to quit blackening the character of the United States and whitening that of the Communists, unless it can be estab- lished and proved that the charges we are'making are true. Tragically, that is not the situation now. The attacks are frequent. The at- tacks have been in some instances denied and labeled as false. But they still go on. I cannot bring myself to believe for one moment that the members of the Na- tional Security Council would tolerate for one second the retention of Admiral Raborn and his assistants if there were one semblance of truth to the indictment that has been heaped upon them. I have remained silent on this issue. I have said nothing about it. But I have seethed with agony and indignation in the knowledge of what has been going on. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tern- Pore. The time of the Senator from Ohio has expired. Mr. SYMINGTON. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Senator from Ohio may proceed for 3 additional minutes. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. Without objection, it is so ordered. Mr. LAUSCHE. I join fully and whole- heartedly in the statement made by the senior Senator from Missouri [Mr. SYMINGTON] this morning. My hopes are that the people of the United States will understand what a well-organized technique has been adopted by the Communists to discredit Approved For Release 2005/07/13: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1 11490 Approved for Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1' r-E-?yE CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE June 2, 1966 the Central Intelligence Agency and how Ing votes of the two Houses on the coordinate current marine activities until unfortunate we are that additional amendments of the House to the bill a final Federal framework is achieved, so strength has been given to that attack (S. 944) to provide for expanded research that we will not lose time in this impor- by the conduct and words of officials of and development in the marine environ- tant field. In the event that a Federal the U.S. Government. ment of the United States, to establish a reorganization in this activity is not ef- I yield the floor. National Council on Marine Resources fective by the expiration time of the Mr. SYMINGTON. Mr. President, will and Engineering Development, and a Council, then the President may, by Ex- the Senator yield? Commission on Marine Science, Engi- ecutive order or requesting legislation, if Mr. LAUSCHE. I yield to the Senator neering, and Resources, and for other he so wishes, extend its life until it is from Missouri. purposes. I ask unanimous consent for replaced by other mechanisms for de- Mr. SYMINGTON. I thank the able the presesnt consideration of the report. veloping and implementing marine sci- senior Senator from Ohio for comment- The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. ence and resource programs. ing on the remarks I made this morn- YouNG of Ohio in the chair). The report The answer to the second matter of ing. will be read for the information of the concern is that the President himself, The thrust of my statement was that Senate. when he was a Senator, very wisely laid before such charges are given such wide The legislative clerk read the report. the groundwork for our present space and continued publicity, a reasonable ef- (For conference report, see House program in the National Aeronautics and fort should be made to have them proceedings of May 24, 1966, p. 10729.) Space Act which created in the Executive checked. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there offices the National Aeronautics and I was Interested in what the distin- objection to the present consideration of Space Council. His wisdom then will be guished Senator said about reactions of the report? matched by similar wisdom as we meet the foreign press to such charges made There being no objection, the Senate our responsibilities in knowing and using in this country. proceeded to consider the report. that 70 percent of the earth's surface I have recently read about 100 press Mr. MAGNUSON. Mr. President, this that is covered by water. stories, articles, and comments from the bill is commonly known as the broad Before describing the bill in detail let foreign press, free world and Iron Cur- oceanographic bill, in the field of marine me pay deep and sincere tribute to the tain countries, about recent articles con- science and resource development, which House Members who worked on the meas- cerning the structure and functioning of the Senator from New Hampshire and I, ure, and particularly to their chairman, the CIA. The distortion of those articles and some of the rest of us, have been ALTON LENNON. Under his wise leader- in their presentation by the foreign press, working on for many, many months-as ship they have mastered the field of ma- in most cases out of context, furnishes a a matter of fact, for some three or four rine science and resource development sad story for those to read who are in- sessions of the Congress. both in its essential principles as well as terested in the security and prosperity In the field of marine science and rein its precise details. This country is of the United States. source development the United States fortunate indeed to have men of this Mr. LAUSCHE. Mr. President, may I has been late but not, I believe, too late. caliber and commitment working in a have 2 additional minutes, by unanimous Time is in the final analysis our most field that is yet to develop the necessary consent? precious assets and time has not been on overwhelming public concern and focus. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro- tem- our side in the knowledge and use of the The time will come when their foresight pore. Is there objection? Without objec- oceans. S. 944 is a major step in chang- will be recognized widely; until then, tion, it is so ordered. ing this. S. 944 as agreed upon by the they are continuing to promote this vital Mr. LAUSCHE. Mr. President, my dis- Senate and House managers will lay the work. cussion this morning will be about the groundwork for a coordinated, coopera- NATIONAL COUNCIL ON MARINE RESOURCES AND irresponsibility of making statements. tive, and comprehensive marine science ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT One which was quoted, relating to the and resource development program. The Senate bill establishes in the Ex- charge that Central Intelligence agents The bill does the following three ecutive Office of the President a National raped women and killed innocent men things: Council on Marine Resources and Engi- and women, was later repudiated and re- First. Sets a statutory base of policy neering Development, composed of the called by the person who had made it. and objectives to guide and promote vice President as Chairman, the Secre- But the damage was done. oceanographic programs in the coming taries of State, Navy, Interior, Commerce, On my desk I have a copy of a press period of essential expansion; Health, Education, and Welfare, and the release out of Moscow, sent throughout Second. Establishes a National Coun- Chairman of the Atomic Energy Com- the world, stating that the statement was cil on Marine Resources and Engineering mission, and Director of the National made by a public official of the United Development to coordinate and encour- Science Foundation. States that the atrocities I have just de- age these programs until a longer-range The Council will assist and advise the scribed were being perpetrated by agents governmental organization is effected; President in connection with a number of of the United States Central Intelligence and his enumerated responsibilities which in- Agency. Third. Creates an Independent Com- elude a survey of all significant marine There is irresponsibility in the making mission on Marine Science, Engineering, science activities, development of a co- 6f such statements. How damaging they and Resources to recommend appropri- ordinated marine science program, and can be, and how widely they are used by ate programs and propose the Federal designation of responsibility for the the Communists, is not fully compre- structure that will best implement such conduct of such activities by Federal de- hended. All the world knows that when programs. partments and agencies. a condemnation is made about this coun- The major difference- between the two Included also in the program will be try, it is used by the Communists. Yet we bills that made the conference necessary marine engineering, sof air-sea continue to hear Americans repeating was that the House measure did not pro- interaction, transmission studies e energy and these charges announced and made vide for a Council. The managers for communications, and exploitation and against the Central Intelligence Agency, the House were concerned about the conservation of the resources of the Council on two grounds: First, that it prejudged the structure that would fi- marine environment. MARINE RESOURCES AND ENGI- nally be recommended by the Commis- The Council would further assist the VEERING DEVELOPMENT ACT OF Sion by appearing to be a congressionally President in studies of legal problems preferred structure and second, based arising out of the management, develop- 1966-CONFERENCE REPORT upon testimony before the House and ment, and use of marine resources, and Mr. MAGNUSON. Mr. President, It is Senate Committees by certain witnesses in long-range studies of benefits to be my pleasure to report that the Senate from the administration, the President gained from marine science and re- and House conferees have agreed to a might veto the bill. The first issue was sources in the interest of the Nation's conference report on S. 944, and have clarified by limiting the Council to a life economy, security, health, and welfare. favorably reported the conference of 120 days after the submission.of the The Council may employ a staff to be report final report by the Commission. This headed by a civilian executive secretary Mr. President, I submit a report of the makes it clear that the purpose of the appointed by the President, and this staff committee of conference on the disagree- Council is a short-range one-that is, to may include professionals of whom not Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080018-1