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June 1, 1966
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11334 Approved For R PMXLC ~f)7130Q;1(q 0400080019-0 June 1, 1966 The SPEAKER pro tempore. The time of the gentleman from Texas has expired. Mr. DE LA GARZA. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that the gentleman from Texas be permitted to proceed for 1 additional minute. The SPEAKER pro tempore. Is there objection to the request of the gentle- man from Texas? There was no objection. Mr. DE LA GARZA. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman} yield? Mr. POAGE. I yield to the gentleman from Texas. Mr. DE LA GARZA. Certainly, Mr. Speaker, while I am very happy to be a freshman Member from Texas and a very freshman member of the Committee on Agriculture, I wish to commend the gentleman from Texas for his work here this evening in behalf of the farmers of Texas who have so long relied upon the gentleman in his leadership on the farm problems of the country. Again, Mr. Speaker, I congratulate the gentleman from Texas for coming to the forefront and for letting the other people of this country, this great country of ours, know of the plight of the farmers that all of us are trying to help and that the gentleman has helped for so many years in this country. Mr. POAGE. Mr. Speaker, I thank my colleague, the gentleman from Texas [Mr. DE LA GARZA], and I appreciate his kind words. Mr. Speaker, I would congratulate, not him, but the people of his district, which is probably the greatest agricultural dis- trict in the State of Texas, producing about one-tenth of all the products in our State, and I congratulate them on their fine representation on the Com- Iture. 6 States may have no alternative but to withdraw. Let no one think, however, that with- drawal by the United States in such cir- cumstances would be anything but a catastrophic defeat for our Nation and the greatest triumph that communism has ever achieved. Let no one think that withdrawal would bring peace and an end to American casualties. It would, on the contrary, whet the appetite of our foes for further conquest. It would be, not the end of war, but a prelude to a larger, bloodier, more costly war. To prevent this outcome in Vietnam, the administration should now move ahead with the urgent political and mili- tary tasks that need attention. Above all, unity and stability are needed. Whether wisely or not, both the Ky government and the United States com- mitted themselves at the Honolulu Con- ference to seeking unity and stability through free elections in South Vietnam. Thus, it is hoped a government with a mandate will emerge-a government which will command the allegiance of all the major factions of South Vietnamese society, a government that belongs to the people of South Vietnam, a govern- ment that will satisfy the legitimate de- mands of South Vietnamese for political and social justice. a judicial certificate establishing that they were not Communists or otherwise antigovernment. Prior to the election itself, a number of steps were taken to suppress suspected opponents of the regime. On January 11, it was announced that a leading nation- alist opposition group, the Revolutionary Committee, had been dissolved. When its president, M. Nguyen Rao Toan, vig- orously denied this assertion, troops were dispatched to occupy the party's head- quarters. Indeed, the Revolutionary Committee had been dissolved. The next step was to arrest Dr. Pham Quang Dan, leader of another nationalist faction, the Republican Party, for dis- tributing leaflets protesting the election law. Then, 8,000 Communists were swept up and followed Dr. Dan into prison. Numerous independent candidates "re- considered" their candidacy and with- drew. Although press censorship was tempo- rarily lifted during the election campaign, all publication of news ar commentary favorable to "Communist or antinational activities" remained punishable by jail sentence up to 5 years. It was not sur- prising, therefore, that most opposition leaders boycotted the election, nor that the pro-Government parties dominated the new Assembly. The two opposition parties, the Social PAST ELECTIONS IN SOUTH VIETNAM Democrats and the Dai Viet, received two On five occasions since South Vietnam , and one seats, respectively. Representa- came into being in 1954, nationwide elec- tives of pro-Government parties won 101 tions have been held. These elections seats, and independents won 19. have not been fair and free according to The next election in South Vietnam, generally accepted standards in advanced held in August 1959, was for the purpose democratic nations. Nor, with one ex- of selecting members of the legislative ception, have they been significantly suc- assembly. Election was by plurality vote cessful in promoting stability and unity. in single member constituencies of On October 23, 1955, the question of roughly equal population, with the ex- who was to rule South Vietnam was ception of Saigon, which was heavily settled by a plebiscite between President underrepresented. Although candidates Diem and the former French'puppet em- were permitted to run either as inde- peror, Bao Dai. The final election re- pendents or under party labels, the fact sults showed 5,721,735 votes for Diem; that all political parties required ap- 63,017 for Bao Dal. proval of the Department of Interior This election helped to dispose finally either to form or continue' in existence of Bao Dai and to end French efforts to dramatically reduced the ability of any depose Diem. opposition to conduct an organized cam- It was, however, a corrupt election. paign. The election laws proclaimed as Although, as Prof. Bernard Fall writes, their central feature "full democratic ex- Diem's American advisers assured him pression" on the part of voters and "ab- that a 60-percent success was more than solute equality in campaigning" among The SPEAKER pro tempore (Mr. FRIEDEL). Under previous order of the House, the gentleman from New York [Mr. GOODELL] is recognized for 30 minutes. (Mr. GOODELL asked and was given permission to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. GOODELL. Mr. Speaker, to ___ set w_- _ __ _____ where angels fear to tread. mere is, ?==a== w --~ however, ground for hope for a respite in election itself was run, according to a An electoral propaganda committee the civil strife which has wracked that British Embassy official, with a "cynical was formed in each district and charged nation and which has forced the United disregard for decency and democratic with electoral preparations for the can- States to assume the major part of the principles." In Saigon, which had only didates on the basis of absolute equality war against the Vietcong and the North 450,000 registered voters, Diem received among all candidates. The committees Vietnamese troops while the South Viet- more than 600,000 votes, a pattern re- were comprised of a representative of namese fought each other, peated in several other areas. each party-nominated candidate and one . The recent turbulence in Da Nang, Hue, Fortified by this victory at the polls, for all independent candidates. They and Saigon has had a disturbing effect Diem announced in January 1956, gen- undertook all arrangements for public on public opinion in the United States. eral elections for a constitutional assem- meetings, radio talks, the use of radio Americans who support resistance to bly. The Assembly was elected. to ratify and sound trucks, and space in the press. Communist aggression began to think a constitution drafted by Diem. If it The committees' powers extended even for the first time of the possibility of the failed to do so within 45 days, the con- to deciding the size, color, and kind of withdrawal of American military power stitutional assembly was to be dissolved, Paperto be useda for placaes fills them from Vietnam. Realism compels recog- and the proposed document would then posters, nition, of this possibility. If, because of be submitted to the people in a referen- posting and distribution. The commit- war weariness or internal divisions, the dum. According to the election law, all tees' approval for the working of all South Vietnamese themselves withdraw citizens over 18 were eligible to vote. campaign literature was imperative. from the military conflict against the Candidates had to be over 25, to have Since the committees were composed Communists and if civil order disinte- lived in South Vietnam for over 6 months almost entirely of representatives of grates in chaos and anarchy, the United prior to the election, and had to produce party-i.e., Government-approved can- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 June 1, 1966 Approved FoC8 A ffXJ1: P61 8 R000400080019-0 I am sure there is no other man in the This is the only country in the whole United States any more knowledgeable in world where, when you refer to a farm the matter of farm policy than the gen- problem, you are referring to the prob- tleman from Texas. lem of managing a surplus instead of the In my opinion, the statement the gen- problem of trying to find enough food tleman has -made today should have to fill the stomachs of hungry people. widespread coverage all over the United Mr. Speaker, I want to commend the States, equally as widespread as the gentleman for taking this time and in- newspaper articles he mentioned today. dicating that he will take some more time I believe if we could have this informa- next week. tion given out to the American people Mr. POAGE. Mr. Speaker, as he al- we could come to a better understanding ways does, the gentleman from Iowa of what actually are the problems in [Mr. SmrnHl has shed some light on some American agriculture. For this I com- of the deep problems involved here. I Aliment the gentleman from Texas for think he is generally recognized as one his fine statement. of the deep thinkers in regard to agri- Mr. POAGE. I thank the gentleman culture in the House. I very much ap- from Nebraska. Ihope the gentleman predate his kind remarks and hope that from Nebraska will, at a later date, dis- he, too, will avail himself of the oppor- cuss some of those phases himself. tunity of discussing at least some of the Mr. EDMONDSON. Mr. Speaker, will specialized phases of our agricultural the gentleman yield? Problems during the coming weeks. Mr. POAGE. I yield to the gentleman Mr. HALL. Mr. Speaker, will the from Oklahoma. gentleman yield? Mr. EDMONDSON. I thank the gen- Mr. POAGE. I am glad to yield to the tleman for yielding. gentleman from Missouri. I wish to join my good friend from Mr. HALL. Mr. Speaker, I appreciate Nebraska in expresing appreciation to the gentleman from Texas yielding to the gentleman from Texas for a most me. I certainly want to commend my statesmanlike and constructive speech. colleagues in congratulating the gentle- I hope the Democratic National Com- man from Texas, the vice chairman of mittee will undertake, to reprint this the Committee on Agriculture, for the speech and to circulate It across the discussion that he has brought to us to- country, because I believe it will en- day, lighten the people in our country as to Certainly any emphasis we can give the basic and fundamental facts of life across the length and breadth of the about our farm program and the role Nation with reference to agriculture and which American agriculture is playing to the increase in the cost to the con- today in keeping the United States No. 1 sumers, which includes the producer, one in the free world. of the greatest consumers in the field of I do not think any other segment of our farm implements, equipment, and so society contributes so much to the pre- forth, is of great benefit. While he has eminent position which our Nation oc- gained relatively little in the cost of pro- cupies In the world today as does the ducing foods and fibers, and so forth, for American farmer. The gentleman from this Nation, his costs haver gone up. Texas [Mr. POAGEI, who has been one of This is a most worthwhile discussion. the principal architects of our farm pol- I commend the gentleman on what he icy for a number of years here in Wash- has done. I think he will agree with me ington can certainly claim a great deal that with the attitude of the American of credit for the enlightened policies farmer and producer perhaps we have which we have followed, which have not yet scratched the surface, because, made possible the position our Nation based on our greatest resource, the God- occupies today, given soil, with modern hydroponics Mr. POAGE. Mr. Speaker, I appreci- coming on, we can even increase this ate the kind words of the gentleman from yield as necessity demands and perhaps Oklahoma, who has himself been so in- carry out some of the great things which terested In the welfare of our farmers we now plan to do here and around the and all of our people during his long world. In this way we can support our years of service here. own population explosion. Mr. Speaker, I now yield to the gen- Now, Mr. Speaker, let me say I was tlemnan from Iowa [Mr. SMITH]. particularly glad to hear what the gen- Mr. SMITH of Iowa. Mr. Speaker, I tleman from Texas had to say about the also want to commend the gentleman cropland restoration. As he knows, I from Texas for taking this time and in- am vitally interested in restoring to the dicating here that in the future he will soil what we take out of it as long as take some more time at which time I we can, at least in a time of overproduc- will be glad to participate in the debate tion. I have worked hard on this mat- on this subject. ter. I, too, look forward to his next I also want especially to commend the stanza and verse on this Tuesday follow- gentleman from Texas for pointing out ing. I shall plan to be here and hope the tremendous progress that has been that I can help further with something made in the United States of America in similar to the more Involved cropland agriculture in the past 30 years, espe- restoration. dally pointing to the fact that except for Mr. Speaker, I appreciate what the this great progress in productivity we to- gentleman has said about the producer day would have lines waiting to get of American foodstuffs. enough meat or enough food instead of Mr. POAGE. Mr. Speaker, I appre- having what is called a problem, because ciate the gentleman from Missouri, who we have a surplus. has always been deeply Interested in the w 11333 restoration of our land and the mainte- nance of our soils, making this state- ment. I certainly agree with him that we are going to see vast increases In our production. I am not one who accepts the Malthusian theory or the idea that we are soon going to be starving, because I believe scientific research and farmer ingenuity is going to move forward just as rapidly in the future as it has in the past. And for the past 100 years it has cer- tainly moved more rapidly than popula- tion, and I believe it will in the next 100 years. Mr. REDLIN. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. POAGE. I yield to the gentleman from North Dakota. Mr. REDLIN. Mr. Speaker, I thank the gentleman from Texas for yielding. Mr. Speaker, it is a privilege to have been here this afternoon to hear the vice chairman of the Committee on Ag- riculture on which I have the privilege to serve give this fine expose of agricul- ture in the past and as we face the future. Mr. Speaker, having been born and reared on a farm myself in similar cir- cumstances to what the gentleman from Texas [Mr. PoAGE], our vice chairman, has described, I can appreciate very, very readily what they are referring to, bath as to the Strengthening of the price of commodities that farmers have to sell through the use of farm programs aimed in that direction and our ability to in- crease production. Mr. Speaker, it certainly is significant that the American farm economy now finds itself In the position to meet the challenge that will be made, worldwide, in helping to defend and feed persons in other areas, in helping to send food to people all over the world. Mr. Speaker, I know that the gentle- man in the well say many times that freedom from starvation is the first freedom. We have to carry that freedom to other peoples of the world. Mr. Speaker, I know that the gentle- man from Texas will lend real leader- ship to the bill that is going to come before this body, the bill to provide food for peace and freedom. Mr. Speaker, perhaps the gentleman from Texas would comment upon the relationship as to the need for having a sound program. What has been the relationship, I will ask the gentleman from Texas, be- tween the price support program and the returns to the farmer as to the price which he has received during the great number of years in the past? Mr. POAGE. I certainly appreciate the comments of my friend, the gentle- from North Dakota [Mr. REDLIN], whom I know is a practical, operating farmer, living on his ability to produce, produce and sell his products in the market. However, Mr. Speaker, I would be re- luctant to get into a discussion of the price programs at this time, because they are invloved in what I hope to discuss the next time under a special order. However, Mr. Speaker, I consider it vitally important. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 June 1, 1966 Approved FoeBaSE~J43R:P64R000400080019-0 11335 didates, the degree to which the Govern- his constituents, an illegal action under real political parties in Vietnam. The ment controlled the preelection ma- the "equality" provisions of the election rudimentary kind of political organiza- chinery can be easily imagined. law, based on name and address records tion that exists is probably not adequate The Government defrayed all cam- furnished him by the police. Although for the task. paign expenses. In fact, the candidates all candidates appeared to receive Finally, free and meaningful elections and their supporters were expressedly roughly equal treatment in the place- require acceptance of the results and a forbidden to spend money on their own ment of posters, special posters were put willingness to cooperate on the part of the after losers winn election meetings eoutside e acteies such as public up plaround a aces in Saigon number of the Govern- over erThs is room for d ubt that this or to comtsframework ape ment candidates on the eve of the elec- spirit exists among all factions in South committees. proved by the election the Tenmyears ago Hans Morgenthau campaign period itself lasted 2 otion. utside somerSa gon pr nting houses to Vietna weeks. discourage them from printing posters said: The most evidence r of f ba the campaign was s the great number and handbills for opposition candidates. F'I?ee elections are very subtle instruments ners, posters, and similar pieces of elec- Hecklers, presumably under Government which require a dedication to certain moral toral propaganda. It was interesting to instruction, operated against various values and the existence of certain moral Candidates. conditions which are by no means prevalent note that posters exhorting red th se The final elections of the Diem era in throughout the world, and certainly not tion in the election o for the candidates by aumargin of 15 to 1. September of 1963 followed a similar pat- prevalent in either North or South Vietnam. Contrasting the 1956 polling, when the tern. Among the successful candidates There is grave doubt that these con- Communists were able to disrupt a num- for the National Assembly were the ditions exist in South Vietnam today. her of local elections, the Government secret police chief and his wife, M. and A POLICY FOR THE UNITED STATES was able to report in 1959 that "the elec- Mme. Ngo Dihn Nhu, who swept their For all these reasons it is hard to con- tions took place in perfect order without constituencies with 99.9 and 99.8 per- ceive of free and meaningful elections in any security incidents." About 6,300,000 cent majorities respectively. Later Ngo South Vietnam under present conditions. of South Vietnam's 7,300,000 voters ex- Dinh Nhu was voted president of the Elections of some kind are, nevertheless, ercised their option, a participation rate Assembly. In the 1963 elections of 6,- in prospect, and it is too late to debate of 86 percent. 809,078 total registered voters, 6,329,831 whether or not they should be held. Once again the election results sur- were listed as having exercised their op- The United States should not attempt - to determine the outcome of any elec- prised few astute local observers. Only tion to vote. On May 30; 1965, a municipal and tions held in Vietnam. Yet the United tint Sazed whlec the foreign pr candi- provincial election was conducted under States cannot be a completely unnter- d the e rl- the aegis of the short-term civilian ested bystander in forthcoming Viet- dt s the who were opposed di by e press ing apparatus and wrend oppose these unwelcome Premier Phan Huy Quat. It is difficult ng the legitimacy of this particu- namese elections because it has com- ndividuals, Dr. Phan Quang Dan and to assess ear polling. Published estimates indicate mitted itself to abide by the results of M. Nguyen Tran, were speedily dis- 4.5 million were eligible to free elections in that nation. The patched on charges of election law viola- that roughly vote in Government-held territory and United States influenced the Ky govern- tion. Neither was able to take his seat. ment in making its promise of elections. Robert G. Scigliano described the elec- of these about 70 percent or 3.3 million The United States cannot be indifferent tion methods employed: were declared to have voted. to the fact that the elections may have The Government's tactics ' " ? ranged CURRENT OBSTACLES TO GENUINE ELECTIONS profound effects on its future policy. from scrupulous fairness in observing the let- This recital of the experience of South Consequently, the administration should ter of the election laws to behind the scenes Vietnam with elections does not give now clarify its policy toward the elec- manipulations to violate their spirit. In ground for confidence that genuinely tions. general, it appears that the voting was car- free and meaningful elections will be The administration should be con- ried on in fairness and secrecy and that bal- held in that unhappy land in 1966. corned about three pitfalls that may lie iota generally were honestl counted, a- Though significantly different from the ahead. One is the danger of elections though impropave been ca rr- elections in Communist nations, past rigged to ensure an outcome desired by tied out in the rieties provinces. could have elections have been controlled so as to the Ky government. A second pitfall is One newspaper reported that a person limit closely the choice available to the the danger of elections disrupted by vio- was arrested in a rural district because voter. fence, terrorism, and disorder on the part she protested against an election offi- In addition to the tradition of con- of Communists or anti-Ky elements or clays demand that she vote for a certain trolled elections, there are at present both. A third pitfall is the danger of which dc di ppestorcir of ballot boxes staggering obstacles to meaningful bal- elections that will intensify disorder and whiProvinced circulated Vietnam, loting in South Vietnam. A substantial confusion and settle nothing. out Se eye r 4, 1959s-Times of Vietnam, part of the population lives in territory To avert these dangers, the adminis- Though 1 controlled by Communist forces. This tration should attempt to bring about Though ballots may have been situation was reflected in the drop of 3 the conditions needed for genuinely free counted honestly, every other stage of million votes-almost 50 percent of the and meaningful elections in South Viet- the rected. t, the was carefully di- total-when the election of 1965 is com- nam. At least, let it make clear what trolled the par, tpa Goof political par- con- pared with that of 1963. Many other the United States means by free elec- tie the election it mp oys voters will be subject to the threat of tions. pow in the election y o is employed this violence by the Communists. In my judgment, elections worthy of al opposition. to prvent any organization a ned Free elections require free debate and the description as free and meaningful the ca did"s, and Second, of d, it screened open channels of communication be- are possible only if three minimal con- "he candidates, a number t to withdraw withdd w from Saigon, tween candidates and the electorate. In ditions are met. hersu" a raw great parts of South Vietnam, because First, a preelection agreement is re- five One hundred and sixty- de_ of the war and inadequate methods of five candidates out t of f a a total of 460 "de quired among responsible representatives cided" to drop from the list of office- communication, these are likely to be of all major groups offering candidates seekers. As one Province chief-himself lacking. to accept the outcome of the balloting. a Government appointee-explained to Free and meaningful elections are Although it may be difficult to enforce a foreign visitor, the Government was difficult without political parties. Par- such an agreement, a public commitment concerned that the candidates be "sin- ties are needed for the conduct of a cam- in advance that the principal interest cere" and not run simply to cause trou- paign that will make clear the choice groups will not attempt to nullify the ble. Certain candidates were given spe- before the voters in the election. They results of a fair election by force should cial help during the campaign. The are needed to inform the electorate, to have some moral effect. If nothing else, majority leader of the National Assem- unify like-minded voters, and to moti- this should help to dispel some of the bly, for example, sent out a mailing to vate people to cast ballots. There are no suspicion and moderate some of the an- No. 90-5 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 11336 Approved For R @fX: : & P1B67Bff ft~000400080019-OJune 1, 196b tagonism that now threaten to make Some have proposed a truce in Viet- to be a difficult procedure. As the gen- elections in South Vietnam an-empty nam in connection with the elections. tleman has pointed out, it would be dif- exercise. The main objection to such a proposal ficult to know when such election could Second, supervision of the political is the strong likelihood that any truce really be representative of the sentiment campaign, and the election process by would in fact be unilateral, as was the of the Vietnamese people. an International commission of disin- truce proclaimed in Laos in 1961 and I am somewhat at a loss to understand terested third-party states with a tradi- 1962 at the time of the Geneva negoti- exactly why the gentleman dwelt on these tion of free elections is required. Neither ations. circumstances as extensively as he did the United States nor any Communist A genuine truce-an absolute cessation and suggested conditions which are al- state should be a member of such a com- of all fighting and of all terrorism, a most certainly not going to exist in that mission. The rules governing the con- halt to the movement of troops and mil- war-troubled country for some time to duct of the campaign should be formu- itary supplies into, and within, South come. I certainly hope that the gentle- lated and enforced by a truly neutral Vietnam-would be conducive to a freer man's ideal conditions are not being set and independent commission. To do its and more meaningful election. A truce forth today so that if the practical situa- work, it must have unrestricted access that is not strictly observed would be a tion that exists does not measure up in to all areas within South Vietnam in snare and a delusion. every respect to that ideal the gentleman which balloting takes place. Certifica- The administration has taken a stand might be able to say it was the fault of tion by this commission that the election for free elections in South Vietnam. It the administration. was fair and free would be required be- cannot condone a rigged election even if Mr. GOODELL. If I may interrupt fore the vote on any question submitted the rigging is done by its friends. To do at this point-and I will yield to the to the voters could be considered valid. so would weaken further its credibility gentleman further-I do not suggest that Before, any candidate assumes any office throughout the world. And a rigged the conditions that I have elucidated as a result of the election, his election election would not advance the cause of here are ideal conditions. I have pointed should be certified by the commission as freedom, independence, and unity In out that this country is now committed, free from fraud or terrorism. South -Vietnam. The result would be for better or for worse, apparently, to To use the International Control Com- deepened division, not unity-height- elections in South Vietnam, and that the mission set up under the Geneva agree- ened antagonism, not reconciliation. country of South Vietnam is committed ment of 1954 as the supervisory agency Such an election would not satisfy the to this. would be to destroy any prospect of a losers nor would it strengthen the Mr. Speaker, under those circum- free election. It is enough to observe victors. stances, ideal conditions are not avail- that Poland Is a member of that com- On the other hand, an election marked able, if they ever could be. I have talked mission. The kind of elections held in by fraud and terrorism which resulted in about minimal requisites to a meaning- Poland, In pursuance of the promise of strengthening the position of elements ful election, an election that can avoid free elections in the Yalta agreement, that are ready to accept Communist rule perhaps a total disaster from the view- is not what Vietnam needs today. in South Vietnam could make the posi- point of those South Vietnamese who In view of past experience, the United tion of the United States there un- wish independence and from the view- Nations offers a dubious expedient as a tenable. point of the U.S. commitment in south- supervisory agency. The United Na- From its postwar experience with east Asia. They are minimal. They are tions has ducked every question relating Eastern Europe, this Nation should have not ideal. to Vietnam. A more important consid- learned by now that the consequences Mr. STRATTON. Mr. Speaker, if the eration is that any supervisory agency of perverted and distorted so-called free appointed by the United Nations would elections are grave, if not disastrous. gentleman will yield further- probably Include representation for the It will be too late to cry foul after the Mr. GOODELL. I yield further to the Communist world where free elections fact if fraudulent elections produce re- gentleman from New York. are neither understood nor practiced. sults unfavorable to the independence Mr. STRATTON. The only sugges- Third, a meaningful election requires and freedom of South Vietnam. tion in his remarks that is at all unusual, a direct vote on the basic issue of the A pledge by participants to accept the other than the historic review, is the pro- war in Vietnam. For this reason, there election results, careful impartial elec- posal that we ought to have a national should be a plebiscite on the demand Loral supervision, and a direct plebiscite plebiscite on whether to let the Vietcong made by Hanoi that the National Libera- on the issue of the war are ingispensable, take over the country or, in other words, tion Front assume full political power minimal requisites for free and mean- whether the country wants to surrender in South Vietnam. it is important that ingful elections. to the Vietcong. those who draft the South Vietnamese The United States should foster the Mr. Speaker, this would be a little bit Constitution and those who hold public cause of popular government In South like the suggestion of a Member of the office know the sentiments of the voters Vietnam in every possible way. Honest other body from our State who suggested on this Issue. and meaningful elections are not the some time ago that we would have to I would expect that a plebiscite on this only way to this goal, and in the present admit the Vietcong into a coalition gov- question would result in an overwhelm- situation they may not be the best way. ernment. lug defeat for the Communist forces. It But, since elections are to be held, we Mr. GOODELL. If the suggestion I would demonstrate conclusively to the can start there. make sounds like that, then the gentle- world the falsity of the widely accepted Mr. STRATTON. Mr. Speaker, I won- man has not listened very carefully or charge that the United States is seeking der if the gentleman from New York will has not seen the context in which I pro- to suppress by force a national move- yield to me. pose it. ment that-enjoys the support of the ma- Mr. GOODELL. I yield with pleasure. I have very clearly stated my belief; jority of the people of South Vietnam. Mr. STRATTON. Mr. Speaker, first, I would not support our commitment in It would thereby strengthen the moral I want to commend the gentleman for southeast Asia against Communist ter- position of the Government of South having presented his remarks on the rorism and aggression if I did not be- Vietnam and of the United States among floor of the House. Since I had occasion lieve this from the depths of my being, fairminded people throughout the world. to comment on them when they were that the South Vietnamese people in In South Vietnam itself, the submis- released to the press before they were overwhelming numbers would reject the sion of this issue to a vote would help to delivered here, I think I ought perhaps proposal from Hanoi. It is important shift the attention of the contending just to comment on my impressions of if we are going to have elections that factions from the secondary question in- the speech as given. I think that the may be extremely confusing in an un- volved in their scramble for power to the gentleman has certainly covered an in- derdeveloped country, without a tradi- Primary Issue on which they are agreed. teresting historical discussion of the sub- tion of free elections, that we have a All responsible leaders in South Vietnam ject of elections and has made one of the clear mandate on this point, because if have declared their opposition to Com- points that I have been trying to make the elections are not held in a proper munist rule. The plebiscite, then, could for some time; namely, that any kind of' manner and If these minimal conditions be a step toward putting first things first election in Vietnam at this time, in the are not met, our position could be un- and achieving national unity. circumstances that exist there, is bound tenable. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 1, 1966 Approved FoF-F4CUSfdg&b*H A-P8#Q6R000400080019-0 11337 Mr. STRATTON. Mr. Speaker, if the gentleman would let me comment on his remarks-and I do not know whether we have any time left, but perhaps the gentleman from Illinois [Mr. PucrmsKi] would give me some time during the next special order-I realize that the gentle- man has indicated that he thinks the Vietcong would not win such an election and I would.certainly agree with him overwhelmingly. I.notice, however, that there has been some change in the release of the gentle- man's speech as prepared for delivery today and the original release that went out earlier and which got into the press' on Monday of this week. Mr. GOODELL. I am glad that the gentleman had the release, because he has made a point of saying that he did not know what I said in advance when I did make this available as of Friday of last week. Mr. STRATTON. Mr. Speaker, if the gentleman will yield further, I just got the release from the Press Gallery, be- cause the gentleman's release that was sent to my office obviously had some changes made. But the point I think that the. gentleman overlooks is, first of all, that elections, as was already indi- cated, are going to be very difficult in Vietnam. Then this would apply to any such plebiscite as such? Mr. GOODELL. What does the gen- tleman suggest as to elections? We have got to have elections at this point ap- parently under the commitment of the Ky government and this administration. Mr. STRATTON. If the gentleman will let me make my point, otherwise there is no point in discussing his remarks- Mr. GOODELL. I would be glad to yield to the gentleman for a dialog or a colloquy, but I do not want him to have a soliloquy here. I believe we ought to have some discussion. Mr. STRATTON. I thank the gentle- man for his courtesy. I was going to say that it would be a major mistake if we followed the sugges- tion which the gentleman makes that we will hold a plebiscite, on what I consider to be the major issue of the war, is whether the country ought to surrender to the Vietcong, which certainly is the major issue of the war. I do not believe the Vietnamese people have any concern for this at all, but the major issue is how to get a coalition government that will bring about the support of the majority of the people. The SPEAKER pro tempore (Mr. A TIME TO RALLY BEHIND PRESI- DENT JOHNSON AS VICTORY NEARS IN VIETNAM The SPEAKER pro tempore (Mr. FRIE0EL). Under previous order of the House, the gentleman from Illinois [Mr. PucmrrsKxi is recognized for 10 minutes. (Mr. PTICINSKI asked and was given permission to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. PUCINSKjI. Mr. Speaker, we un- doubtedly are now on the threshold of historical events in Vietnam. Our mili- tary forces have now taken virtually com- plete command of the military situation. We have disrupted totally the lines of communication of the enemy. We have isolated most of the large cities in North Vietnam to the point where there is prac- tically nothing moving in or out of Hanoi. Our American soldiers and our allies; the Australians, the South Koreans, and the others, have indeed written a fantastic chapter of gallantry on the battlefield under the most severe conditions. The entire free world has a right to be proud of them. President Johnson has quite properly pointed out in his Memorial Day speech that the big problem in Vietnam today is to a great extent political. So it appears to me at this very critical crossroad in history, when the future of world peace is being decided in Vietnam, the cause of peace and justice can best be served by the American people rallying around President Johnson and rallying around the leaders of South Vietnam and trying to keep our colloquys and our criticisms to a minimum. This is not to suggest that we should cut off debate or criticism, but I think that the next few weeks will call for ex- tremely responsible conduct on the part of all concerned. There is no question that the vast majority of Buddhists in South Vietnam are trying to work out some sort of accommodation with Gen- eral Ky so that they can proceed to hold elections. There is no question that some of the political forces in South Vietnam now are struggling for political position so that they can have a voice in the elections and in the government which will emerge after the elections. I would hate to see a single American life lost in Vietnam because the Commu- nists have again miscalculated our in- tentions. I respect the gentleman who preceded me and I think he has made an eloquent statement here in suggest- ing that every step be taken to guarantee that the elections are properly conducted. But I am sure the gentleman is not liv- ing in a dream world. The situation in Vietnam today is chaotic. They cannot have in war-torn Vietnam the kind of elections that we have in most, of the communities in America in peacetime. The important thing is to give these people an opportunity, under the most difficult conditions, to carve their own destiny in a free election. That is our pledge in Vietnam; that is our promise and that is the hope of the South Viet- namese. There is every reason to believe today, as we improve with every hour our mili- tary situation, that the political prob- lems of South Vietnam can be resolved and that the elections commission will be representative of all factions defend- ing freedom and that indeed it is going to set down ground rules for the elections acceptable to all sides so that the elec- tions can be conducted on September 11 and then the people of South Vietnam can through their elected representatives, .decide the future course for their nation. We have reason to believe today despite the apparent chaos that is now going on in South Vietnam that we can restore some order there. It would be my hope that we can call upon those who want to participate in this dialog in America and in the rest of the world to be cautious and careful that their remarks do not prolong this conflict or the disorders in South Viet- nam. We know from surveys that have been conducted in South Vietnam by our own agencies; by the South Vietnamese and, yes, by various religious groups includ- ing the Quakers that more than 80 per- cent of the people in South Vietnam to- day are prepared to vote against any Communist representation in the future Government of South Vietnam. No* with these facts and these figures, it appears to me we can all make a great contribution toward bringing this war to an early end by remaining resolute on the battlefield as we have and trusting in the integrity and in the intentions of those who are trying to put together this winning package both on the battle- field and in the political field in South Vietnam and, indeed, staying with Presi- dent Johnson. I know of no man in this country-yes, and as a matter of fact in this entire world, who is more desirous of bringing this conflict in Vietnam to a victorious conclusion than President Johnson. I think the President has done extremely well up to now. He has weathered great criticism and great de- bate by formidable. forces both in this chamber and in the other body, but Pres- ident Johnson has not wavered once in his determination to hold the line against Communist aggression in South Vietnam. The President has remained resolute. He has constantly reminded us that we learned our lesson well from World War II: to yield to aggression merely whets the appetite of the aggressor and leads to greater conflict. We are winning this war in Vietnam. There are imperfec- tions. Of course we know there are imperfections. And there shall be set- backs. But the fact remains that gen- erally and on a broad scale, the forces of freedom in Vietnam today are on the winning side. So it is my hope, Mr. Speaker, that as we go into these crucial weeks when great things are happening-and, indeed, vic- tory and freedom can be ours in South Vietnam-that we will not permit our- selves to get divided on details. Let us not lose track of the forest for the trees. Certainly we want to take every possible step to guarantee that these elections are free, that they are honest, and that they reflect the will of the people in that country. But for us now to tie ourselves up in the many details and the condi- tions that my colleague from New York has attempted to spell out here .today would mean an unnecessary prolonging of this war. I think the American peo- ple have been magnificent in their atti- tude. They have supported and continue to support their President and their Government. But I do not think there is an American anywhere who Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 11338 Approved For Ret G ALCk 7Bp 00400080019-0 June 1, 1966 wants to prolong this war a day longer the gentleman is recognized for 10 min- be to play entirely into the Communist than it has to be. utes. hands. I think if we see the work of this Mr. PUCINSKI. I yield to the gen- Nobody thinks this is the central issue election commission and see the ground tleman from New York. of the war except the Vietcong them- rules they spell out very shortly, we will Mr. GOODELL. The gentleman made selves. Yet the gentleman in his re- be satisfied that we can have a mean- reference to the divisions within our marks says this is the central issue. The ingful election in South Vietnam. And country, encouraging miscalculation of central issue is how are we going to get we can have it by September, 11,---yes Communists themselves. I would say to the Buddhists and the Cao Dais and the under very difficult conditions-but,' the gentleman that I have not in my pre- Cao Haos and the military and the Cath- with the help of our Lord and the heroic pared address, or in any of my comments, olics all to pull together to establish determination of our soldiers, we ,will made any reference to those in our midst a solid government, to back up the keep our pledge to give the people of who sincerely but in my opinion ill- great military victory that General- South Vietnam the elections they are advisedly are encouraging the Commu- Westmoreland is winning, as the gentle- entitled to. nists to miscalculation. They have a man pointed out. Mr. GOODELL. Mr. Speaker, will the right to raise these questions. I am sure the gentleman from New gentleman yield? But I would say to the gentleman in York was well meaning in his suggestion. Mr. PUCINSKI. I yield to the gentle- the well the people who are raising the But the proposal he is making is like man from New York. questions that could cause miscalculation asking one whether he has stopped beat- Mr. GOODELL. In the first place among the Communists are primarily ing his wife. No matter what the much of what the gentleman has said, members of his own party. answer Is, he Is in trouble.. it seems to me, is irrelevant to the pro- He is addressing his remarks to the Why should we play the game on the posal I have made. Certainly I found wrong individual when he addresses Communist terms? nothing in my remarks-and I worked them to the gentleman from New York Mr. PUCINSKI. The gentleman has very carefully to see to it that there was on this point. made a very significant contribution. nothing In my remarks-that implied Mr. PUCINSKI. The gentleman from Again I renew my plea that these Mon- any particular viewpoint on why we are New York suggests some plebiscite to de- day morning quarterbacks, sitting back where we are today in Vietnam. I made tide whether or not the Vietcong which here in Washington, who have been try- the specific, positive, and I think con- is dedicated to the overthrow of the pres- ing to second guess this war and second structive suggestions to meet the prob- ent Government of South Vietnam by guess our determination to win this war, lem of so-called free elections in South force and violence and terrorism and, take a little respite and let the legitimate Vietnam. The gentleman has said that subversion should be admitted to the forces in Vietnam, and our own generals, we are going to go ahead and have these government. The gentleman is suggest- and our own President-the people who elections. The gentleman must well rec- ing some sort of plebiscite to further de- are dedicated to the destruction of com- ognize that these are hazardous oper- termine whether or not the Vietcong munism inVietnam-have a chance to ations and activities In a country such should be admitted. I say he is suggest- work. as Vietnam, and we should exercise our ing delays that are unnecessary. Fur- Every time there is some major state- influence to see to it that the elections thermore, he is suggesting we postpone ment in this country critical of how the are, first of all, free and, second of all, the real elections in Vietnam when he war Is being conducted, it gives unwar- meaningful, and that is what my pro- suggests such a plebiscite. ranted and misleading confidence to the posals were aimed to accomplish. Mr. GOODELL. The gentleman in the enemy that maybe our will to win is wan- I am sure the gentleman would not well has said that the result of such a ing. I am not against criticism of the recommend that we withdraw from Viet- plebiscite, we are confident, would be war, but perhaps a brief moratorium on nam at this time. overwhelming, and would clear the air irresponsible talk would help us bring it Mr. PUCINSKI. On the contrary, let and give guidance. But the gentleman to a successful conclusion. us not read anything like that into it. wants to have elections now in very con- We have facts. We have figures. We I am one of those who have stood in this fusing circumstances. know that Hanoi is counting on the fact well time and again and have urged and Mr. PUCINSKI. I trust the gentle- that the will to, resist communism is go- supported our position in Vietnam. I man would not recommend a plebiscite ing to be broken here in Washington, the have stated repeatedly that we cannot in this country to recognize a party that way it was In Paris. I never have been retreat from Communist aggression. I Is determined to overthrow this Govern- more proud of my President than when suggest to the gentleman from New York ment by force and violence. Mr. Johnson said that the war In Viet- that perhaps it Is he who is unwittingly Mr. GOODELL. We in this country nam Is not going to be lost in Washington suggesting that some of the conditions have regular elections, and are proud the way it was lost in Paris. he is setting up, well meaning as they we do. Dienbienphu was not the reason for may be, would unnecessarily prolong the Mr. STRATTON. Mr. Speaker, will the French Pullout. The reason for the war when we see victory In Vietnam now the gentleman yield? French pullout was because the same and perhaps lead to our withdrawal be- kind of forces that have been trying to fore victory is finalized for the people of Mr. PUCINSKI. I yield to the gentle- torpedo the war effort in this country South Vietnam, man from New York. were at play in Paris, and they created a The gentleman must keep in mind that Mr. STRATTON. I believe the gen- political situation over there which made every time a speech is presented here tleman from Illinois has made his point it mandatory for the French Government which is critical of our postion, the Viet- on this. We are all in favor of free to seek the smallest excuse to get out of cong take on false hope that maybe our elections, and are all concerned about Vietnam. Dienbienphu came along as will to resist Is failing and they continue the problem. The proposal of whether a convenient excuse, and they pulled the war thinking we will cave in. We there should be a plebiscite or whether their forces out. We would not be in do not want any American boys killed we should surrender to the Vietcong is Vietnam today if the French had not because the Communists miscalculated something, as the gentleman from Ills- pulled out prematurely. these speeches. nois has indicated, that could only com- We ought to take a respite and get The SPEAKER. pro tempore. The time plicate and delay the delicate and ex- behind this war effort; get behind Gen- of the gentleman from Illinois has ex- tremely essential job that is now going eral Westmoreland; get behind our pired. forward very successfully to establish American soldiers who are fighting the Mr. PUCINSKI. Mr. Speaker, I ask meaningful elections, to get a free, repre- toughest war In Vietnam; get behind the unanimous consent that I may proceed sentative,- non-Communist government Government of South Vietnam and yes, for an additional 10 minutes, and I will established in South Vietnam. get behind President Johnson, and give share the time with the gentleman from The idea that we ought to stop all of all these men a chance to pull together, New York. this and to hold some kind of plebiscite as the gentleman from New York says, The SPEAKER pro tempore. Is there under conditions that the gentleman and get this war over with. objection to the request of the gentleman from New York admits are extremely We are not going to get It over with from Illinois? The Chair hears none; difficult and hazardous anyway would by suggesting a time consuming plebi- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 June 1,r 1966 Approved For q gR 7Al3R BP67 JJR000400080019-0 scite; by suggesting that the elections are not going to be honest before we even know the ground rules; by shattering confidence in these elections before they are held. I suggest that for someone to come before thi House, before we even know what the round rules will be for these elections, and to say that these elections are going to be dishonest and this and that, only gives aid and comfort to the enemy. How do you expect to gather all the forces in Vietnam behind an election when a responsible Member of the Amer- ican Congress says they will be dishonest before they have even been fully agreed to? Mr. GOODELL. Mr. Speaker, will the genleman yield? Mr. PUCINSKI., I say we cannot have elections in Vietnam under such an aura of doubts planted here in the United States. All of these suggestions make me wonder how sincerely do all of these self-styled experts in Vietnam really want the war to end and how sincerely do they want an honorable peace which will end the needless slaughter of our boys in Vietnam. 'I say all of these in- nocent concerns about the validity of the elections are a smoke screen to needlessly prolong the war when our forces have victory virtually in their grasp. Mr. STRATTON. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. GOODELL, I suggest that the gentleman read my speech. He is para- phrasing it inaccurately. Mr. PUCINSKI. I yield to my col- league, the gentleman from New York [Mr. STRATTON]. Mr. STRATTON. The gentleman had a distinguished career in the newspaper profession. The gentleman has talked about a respite from Monday morning or Tuesday morning quarterbacks, as the case may be. I wonder if the gentleman would agree with me that another thing we ought to do is"to try to avoid the temptation of coming up with "gimmicks" as solutions. Would not the gentleman agree that the job is a difficult, a ,tough, and a sensitive job? Does not the gentleman agree that Ambassador Lodge and General West- moreland are doing a tremendous job in moving us in the right direction? Mr. PUCINSKI. That is correct. Mr. STRATTON. Does not the gentle- man feel that we ought to avoid coming up with "catchy" things, which might get an occasional newspaper headline, and get behind our President and our repre- sentatives in Vietnam? Mr. PUCINSKI. I agree with the gen- tleman on one point. It seems to me that every time we are on the threshold of moving forward, every time we have big victories-and we have had some victories over there-the claque comes "claqueing" around here in the United States, bringing up all sorts of smoke screens to hide it. The President quite properly said in his press conference today that it is high time we started to tell the story of our successes in Vietnam. Those successes do not draw the headlines. There has been some great reporting out of Vietnam. I commend those men who have come forward and told the real stories of Vietnam. But I agree with the gentleman from New York, the less- experienced reporters have been looking for gimmicks; sensationalism instead of hard-core, in-depth reporting. Mr. GOODELL. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. PUCINSKI. I yield to my col- league from New York, Mr. GOODELL. Mr. GOODELL. I would tell the gen- tleman that a great Member in his party in the other body today said that "even- tual withdrawal, painful though that may be, is called for in Vietnam." He went on to say: Let us hope our Administration leaders will be guided by the wisdom of U Thant, Secretary General of the United Nations, and will earnestly seek a ceasefire and withdrawal altogether from what has become an Ameri- can war. I say to the gentleman, those are not my words. Those are not my sentiments. I carefully prepared a speech that was constructive, in which I made positive suggestions and in which I was very care- ful to be responsible and nonpartisan. The gentleman has chosen to take the well, and, as has my colleague from New York, to interpret this as a partisan at- tack, and to turn on me the accusations which they should turn on Members of their own party, for dividing this Na- tion in tirl}e of crisis. Mr. PUCINSKI. If the gentleman will read the RECORD, I have no quarrel with his remarks, except that I believe they suggest unnecessary and further delays in bringing the war to a conclusion. Mr. GOODELL. The gentleman para- phrased them incorrectly. That is the difficulty. Mr'. PUCINSKI. I do not know whom the gentleman quotes, but I must say whoever he is, he belongs to that cate- gory of quarterbacks who would do bet- ter to sit this out and find out where we are going. Mr. GOODELL. Members of the gen- tleman's party are in that category. Mr. PUCINSKI. I have complete con- fidence in the military. I have complete confidence in Secretary McNamara. I have complete confidence in Secretary Rusk, and I have unequivocal confidence in President Johnson. I believe these men are all dedicated to victory. I re- sent the idea when some people get up to say, "We do not have a blueprint. We do not have a program. We do not have a plan_for victory in Vietnam." These are all smokescreens. Mr. GOODELL. Could the gentleman find a single reference to any of the points he has made in my prepared ad- dress? Did the gentleman find a single reference to any points just made? It is only a straw man the gentleman has raised up, to knock down. He is not talking about my speech and my sug- gestions. Mr. PUCINSKI. I do not know why my colleague from New York is object- ing, because I have not objected to his speech. I had a special order of my own today to discuss Vietnam. All of my re- marks during this time were not directed at my colleague from New York whom I respect very highly. I do not under- 11339 stand why you feel my remarks are di- rected at you. You raised some ques- tions and I told you I didn't agree with your point-as long as you raised the questions. The main thrust of my remarks today is to suggest a moratorium on irrespon- sible criticism of our efforts in Vietnam so the Communists do not think our de- termination is wavering and a further appeal to get behind President Johnson when we are beginning to see victory in Vietnam. That is all I wanted to say here today. Mr. GOODELL. That is a concession which I will keep in the RECORD, that the gentleman is not objecting to my speech. I hope he means he is in complete agree- ment. Mr. PUCINSKI. I will let the record speak for itself. THE PERCENTAGE DEPLETION ALLOWANCE ON NATIONAL RE- SOURCES The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under a previous order of the House, the gentle- man from New York [Mr. HALPERN] is recognized for 10 minutes. Mr. HALPERN. Mr. Speaker, recent proposals for changing the tax structure have neglected an important area in which reform is needed; namely, the per- centage depletion allowance on natural resources. The high allowance on gross income ranging from an allowance of 5 percent on brick and sand all the way up to 271/2 percent on oil and gas-has been and continues to be a blatant form of tax favoritism. The depletion allow- ance represents an unjustifiable loss of revenue to the Government-a loss which other taxpayers have to make up. The bill I am introducing will increase tax revenues by repealing the allowances. The increased revenues, according to a 1964 report of the U.S. Joint Economic Committee, may total up to $1.5 billion annually. The additional revenue real- ized by this reform will hopefully open up the way toward tax relief for those who really need it-our taxpayers in the lower and middle income brackets, the bulk of America's purchasing power. Furthermore, the repeal will ease the inflationary pressures of excessive in- vestment spending in the extractive in- dustries by bringing profits down to a more reasonable level. The depletion allowance was originally introduced to encourage the small op- erator who usually assumed a heavy risk. Existing tax treatment, however, often results in the greatest tax benefit for large corporations which usually as- sume the least risk. Already in 1961. 89 percent of the $3.6 billion in depletion claimed by corporations was claimed on returns from firms with assets of $10 million or more. For large corporations, the depletion allowance is in effect a subsidy which promotes excess capacity, overinvest- ment, and misallocation of resources. It has these serious defects because it per- mits complete investment costs to be recovered many times over. Corpora- tions can recover tax free the full Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 11340 Approved For CeO U~kJSSI8N) : 67 ( ?F000400080019-~uy~e 19 6 6 amount of their investment in the year it is made, and then in coming years claim additional depletion allowances on those same resources, allowances which bear no relationship -to the amount of investment. In other words, the per- centage depletion allowances bear no re- lation to actual development costs; they are deductions which are unwarranted and inequitable. My bill, by repealing the percentage depletion allowances, ces, will correct these inequities. the Agriculture Committee to provide would be of that scope? If so, it is no supplemental financing for the rural limitation at all, and Congress would electrification program which would never have to act on the amounts avail- change the scope of its responsibilities able for loans. If it does not mean that, from a rural development program into what does it mean? The language a group of Government subsidized, large should be perfectly clear, so as to avoid public utility systems largely without any possible circumvention of the appro- limit or control as to the type of loads priation process in the future. they would serve, to the location of such Now, moving to the Federal bank for loads or to the rates to be charged for rural electric systems, a Government power and energy. It would also create corporation would be created which a number of budgetary and fiscal prob- could be of a magnitude of capitalization lems in the appropriations process. reaching into many billions of dollars. First, the administration bill, H.R. If the borrowers should purchase stock GRAVE IMPLICATIONS OF FEDERAL 14837, would continue the present 2-per- in the bank to the extent of $15 million ELECTRIC BANS LEGISLATION cent loan program through the creation per year, as estimated by NRECA, and The SPEAR :ER pro tempore. Under of a rural electrification account. Into stock is purchased by the United States a previous order of the House, the gen- this account would be placed all the as- and consumers, and debentures sold, all ..a +t,_ --+ . nrn- _- __...-.,1..4...i i,. +V- hill 1nanc by 151CAlan 11-0111 V1114J LIV-1 ? aav vv . +.~ ,.vvp nized for 30 minutei. gram. The existing obligations to the borrowers could exceed $15 billion by Mr. BOW. Mr. Speaker, with almost Treasury would be transferred to the 1981. The bank would be the biggest no fanfare, jhe House Committee on new account and provision would be organization of this character ever Agriculture yesterday opened hearings made for use of the funds in the account created. Moreover, when added to the on two bills that could turn the rural for payment of interest and principal $4.5 billion of 2-percent loans expected n made d be h e a electrification system of this country into when due on loans that a giant public utility almost entirely free to the Administrator by the Secretary from congressional or any other control, of the Treasury for electrification pur- with up to $20 billion available for ex- poses. The account would also be avail- pansion over the next 15 years. able for new 2-percent loans and for To illustrate the size of this proposed purchase of capital stock in a Federal operation, let me say that the total capi- bank which would be established by an- talization of the entire electric power other title of the bill. Because of these industry in the United States is about other commitments for use of funds in $46 billion. the account, however, there will never be My purpose today is to alert Members any money available for the fgreseeable and the public to the grave implications future for repayments on the Admin- of the proposed Federal Electric Bank istrator's debt to Treasury. Whether legislation, H.R. 14000, H.R. 14387 and such funds will ever be available in the related bills. These bills -provide addi- type of operation proposed is doubtful tional sources of financing for the rural and the taxpayers may never get their electrification program. money back. . Over the last 30 years, as a result of Another questionable feature of the the REA program, the farms of the Na- bill is the absence of any provision for tion have been electrified and abundant electrification account sections of the and cheap central-station electric service placing new loan authorizations in the has been furnished to persons in rural rural electrification account. Section areas. As this pogram has reached its 301(4) of the bill provides that "appro- fulfillment, there has been a growing and priations" for electrification loans made Justified clamor for the transfer of the under authority of section A of the basic financing of this exceptionally success- act shall become part of the account, but ful endeavor from the Federal Govern- there is no mention of any new loan au- Let thorizations that may be needed to fi- ate money market i th t . e pr v o ment no one detract from the marvelous nance any 2-percent loans that may be average rate Payable by the electric bank achievements that have been accom- made under the plan of operation pro- on its debentures plus administrative ex- plished as a result of the low-cost, long- posed by the Secretary of Agriculture. penses and estimated losses. Again, term Federal loans for construction of As you know, the REA loan program has, however, there is no provision assuring electric facilities to serve the farms and with minor exceptions, been financed that these loans will be amortized. Fur- rural areas of the Nation. Also, in rec- over the years through borrowing from that these the material attached to the ognizing the great progress that has been the Treasury, rather than through ap- Secretary's transmission of the bill to the made, let no one detract from the fact propriations. Is this procedure now to Congress fails to indicate that this type of that in reaching this advanced stage of be changed to provide that all new fi- loan would be amortized. The bill also service many rural electric cooperatives nancing of 2-percent loans is to be would authorize the adjustment of pay- have, themselves, simultaneously reached made without any requirements for would not only of put of inter- te only of principal i n al but of that dependence, maturity with a degree of in- repayment of such amounts to the ments no erdependence, efficiency, financial stabil- Treasury? Furthermore, in the section either nowould necessarily no re paid. ity, and self-reliance, which compares 302(b) (1), authorizing use of assets of ssl ily ever r be paid. favorably with corresponding, elements the account for loans under sections Furthermore, erthe mold Secret the ary oauthorizes the v Treaand di- in our our free enterprise system. This is 4 and 5 of the basic act, and for ad- purchase notes issued the the basu if i one of the inherent objectives of devel- vances in connection therewith, there phr insuffiien funds in the assets of the opment programs. Success in providing is language which says that no loans can ebank available for pinter- entities service can only be achieved when the be made in any year in excess of amounts and principal on ile for paying ays e. ter- entities created to provide the service "available pursuant to section 3 of the est electric e borrowing without its debentures. This i concurrently become successful and self- act." What does this mean? All of the o amount. Even without limitation payments a .,a to time reliant in themselves. nearly $6 billion in money that has been notes old be interes Such In my remarks today, however, I do provided to date for the REA program on am on such borrowing could u for defer led peSu h not wish to dwell on the philosophy of has been made available under the pro- be completely beyond the cons development programs. REA has dem- visions of section 3 of the REA Act. atrol nd and of the would a Congress. This a perfect onstrated that they serve a useful pur- This raises questions as to whether the example e o backdoor financing is and the pose. Rather, I shall try to point out limit is to encompass all loan authoriza- to my colleagues certain provisions of tions and appropriations made over the general looseness of the provisions of the the bills which will be considered by years. Is it intended that the limitation administration bill is an outright invita- tion account over the 15-year period, the total new capital involved will be more than 21/2 times the $8 billion, which the Secretary of Agriculture said would be required. Yet, the purposes for which the loans would be made by this bank are not defined. To the contrary, the scope and breadth of the types of f a- cilities which could be undertaken with funds obtained from this source are practically limitless. Furthermore, with this enormous undertaking, the bill has no provisions for making the bank's op- eration self-supporting. Section 410 (b) (2) authorizes two types of loans. The first, called intermediate loans, would have a limit on interest of 4 per- cent. There is nothing in the bill which assures that these loans will be self- liquidating or amortized over their life. The administrative costs and reserves for losses would not be borne by the bank. They would be subsidized entirely by REA. The legislation also provides for an- other type of loan which will bear inter- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 1134$.x. - Approved For BOOO64tlgg A$ : (5g6.Zgq@ ?B000400080019-gune 1, 1966 Jr., Vice President and General Manager, Indianapolis Newspapers, Inc.; Richard Hol- lander, Editor, the Washington Daily News; and John C. O'$rien, Washington Bureau -Chief, the Philadelphia Inquirer. Kotz lives in Washington with his wife Mary Lynn and 5-year-old son Jack Mitchell. He attended St. Albans school in Washington and later majored in international relations at Dartmouth, where he w, ,as elected to Phi Beta Kappa and was graduated magna cum laude. He then attended the London School of Economics on a Reynolds Scholarship. He served in the Marine Corps 1956-58 in the U.S., Japan and the Philippines.. In 1958 he went to work for the Des Moines Register as a reporter covering police, city, county and state governments. Kotz's dispatches on the summer job pro- gram also won the 1965 Sigma Delta Chi award for Washington correspondence. His other awards include the 1963 Community Service Award from the Jewish Chatauqua Society, for stories about Negro employ- ment; and the 1061 Iowa Associated Press that play directly into the hands of the enemy, however well meaning they may have been in the first place. Mr. PUCINSKI. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. STRATTON. I yield to the gentleman from Illinois. Mr. PUCINSKI. Is it not a fact that while we read about the immolations and various other incidents occurring in Vietnam, behind these sensational events there is actually a tremendously suc- cessful effort now being waged at the diplomatic level in conferences between the Catholics, the Buddhists, General Ky, and the other generals? Are they not working very hard over there to try to reach some agreement, and is it not proper to raise some very high hopes that these agreements will indeed be reached and that these elections can be held there, we hope, by September 11 or shortly thereafter, or perhaps even before then? Mr. STRATTON. That is it exactly. The gentleman is absolutely right. I know he attended with me this morning an extremely helpful, optimistic, and in- formative briefing by the Assistant Sec- retary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, Mr. Bundy, in which the Members of the House who were there-and I am sorry my colleague, the gentleman from New York [Mr. GOODELL] was not there, be- cause I think he would have been en- couraged, too-in which Mr. Bundy out- lined for u.5 the steps that have been taken to make these elections possible. As a matter of fact, he suggested to us that he hoped the military junta would be enlarged to take in civilian members. And even before he finished speaking the announcement that that development had actually occurred in Vietnam was on the radio. Let us not rock the boat. Our subcommittee which went to Viet- nam during the Easter recess came back. as a man and stated to this House that we are indeed winning the military war. And the very fact that we are winning the military war has now led these civil- ian groups to try to jockey for position in the postwar government that will be formed. Fortunately we are carrying on this delicate political job that the gentle- man points out in spite of these demon- strations and immolations by a people which has never had much background in democratic procedures, that never had the opportunity to express their political sentiments in other less violent ways. We are working this out, so let us stick with that effort and not rock the boat in this body, regardless of what may be done in another body. Mr. PUCINSKI. Will the gentleman yield further? Mr. STRATTON. I am happy to yield to the gentleman. Mr. PUCINSKI. I can say that I was happy to have been there this morning at that session. I believe that the gen- tleman is on the Armed Services Com- mittee. Is there any question in the gentleman's mind that we now have taken complete command of the military situation in Vietnam? Mr. STRATTON. I do not think there is any doubt about it and I would cer- tainly say that victory in a. military sense is entirely likely to come over there a lot earlier than we have been led to believe is possible. I have been surprised, frankly, that the reporting from Viet- nam has not reflected this encouraging fact more clearly. We have focused, as the gentleman said, on the trees instead of the forests in Vietnam, but the word is finally com- ing through. Mr. Speaker, I put into the RECORD yesterday an article from the Washing- ton Daily News that not only praised General Westmoreland, and his leader- ship, but pointed out that under his lead- ership we are winning the war in Viet- nam. Mr. GOODELL. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. STRATTON. I yield to the gen- tleman from New York. Mr. GOODELL. I would suggest that the gentleman should withdraw from the RECORD his reference to people in Vietnam. I think this is not calculated to serve our purposes or the purposes of free elections of the people in southeast Asia. Secondly, I would say to the gentleman that he has raised a whole group of straw men but has refused to discuss the spe- cific proposal which I made which is that we should have free, supervised elections, with people who are supervising them whom we can trust, and who have ex- perience and practice and understanding of free elections. Is the gentleman opposed to this? Mr. STRATTON., The gentleman knows perfectly well that the real key to victory in Vietnam is to get Vietnam on its own two feet as an independent country. Mr. GOODELL. But are we not going to have elections? Mr. STRATTON. Mr. Speaker, I de- cline to yield further to the gentleman until I can make my point. The SPEAKER. The gentleman de- clines to yield further. Mr. GOODELL. You do not want a colloquy; you want a soliloquy. Mr. STRATTON. Mr. Speaker, regu- lar order. Mr. GOODELL. Mr. Speaker, I shall object to further time being granted to the gentleman from New York [Mr. STRATTON] should he request it. Mr. STRATTON. Mr. Speaker, the gentleman would not yield further to me when he had the time. I am certainly going to try to answer the questions which the gentleman has raised, and then I shall be glad to yield to the gentle- man if I have any time left. Mr. Speaker, the whole purpose of our mission in Vietnam is to establish a free, independent country there, one that can stand on its own two feet, so that we can withdraw our forces from out there when the military victory has been achieved and when the stability of the country has been assured. Certainly you cannot do that by having some outside force, some foreign coun- try that the gentleman cannot even name, come in there and conduct elec- tions for the Government of Vietnam. Mr. Speaker, what is the essence of the integrity of any country, except its own The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under previous order of the House, the gentle- man from New York [Mr. STRATTON] is recognized for 10 minutes. Mr. STRATTON. Mr. Speaker, I want to commend the gentleman from Illinois for his remarks. I think he has certainly served to focus attention on what is really the central issue in this situation in Viet- nam. I think we in this House have been reasonably free of some of the sugges- tions and gimmicks that have been of- fered in another body. There have been Members in another body of both politi- cal parties Who have. come up with gim- micks of one kind or another designed to catch the headlines.. But I was deeply troubled when one of the leading and outstanding Members on the minority side came up with one of these gimmicks himself, one that is playing exactly into the hands of the Vietcong; namely, the idea that we should stop all of our efforts toward free election procedures in Sep- tember and interfere with the great work being done by Ambassador Lodge and General Westmoreland in Vietnam to bring together these various competing groups in South Vietnam so that we can have the beginning of a meaningful election procedure in September and instead should go to all the trouble of holding a national election on the very issue that the Communists themselves want. Why, we would be asking our- selves, when did we stop beating our wives? Why indeed should we bother to ask the people of Vietnam whether they want to surrender to the Vietcong? Nobody has been,burning himself up in Da Nang or Hue in order that the Viet- cong might take over. They have been protesting instead so as to get a basis for establishing a free coalition civilian government. And that is precisely what Ambassador Lodge is moving toward. I agree wholeheartedly with the gentle-' man from Illinois that now that we are winning the war, let us continue in this great House of ours, whatever they may do in another body, to support that war and support our men out there and not try to come up with catchy gimmicks Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 June 1, 1966 Approved For tq&f, JW7At3 ]k f l tion to use this method of covering oper- ating, losses. Under the proposed legislation we would have three types of loans, or three separate programs, as well as two sources from which money could be obtained. In the absence of any rigid standards for categorizing and classifying the types of facilities proposed, the character of the borrower, and the special conditions in- volved, it would be most difficult to make any fair and intelligent decision as to which interest rate would apply to the facilities for which the loans would be made. One loan applicant would be played against another, and there would be little the Congress could do about It. Obviously, the confusion and conflict surrounding the REA Program has reached a point where the country can no longer turn its back on the problem. The legislation which is now being pro- posed cannot do other than greatly ag- gravate the difficulties that we have been experiencing. With the two financing sources it will make congressional con- sideration of the annual program more difficult. It will indefinitely defer the day when the burden can be removed from the Federal Government and the program transferred to true private fi- nancing. There is a great need to deter- mine what Is to be the proposed future role of the REA co-ops in our pluralistic electric power system. Once this is de- termined, the ways and means of best accomplishing these ends for the benefit of all concerned can be more easily found and implemented. The Congress should look carefully into the ramifications of the legislation. Without restrictions and criteria for granting loans by the bank, the funds could be used to serve urban as well as rural areas. And there is more than this involved. Eight years ago, at their annual meet- ing, electric cooperatives were handed a so-called blueprint for action. Two of the points in this plan were: First: To set up machinery for cooperatives, mu- nicipally owned electric systems and power districts to federate more easily for the con- struction and operation of their own gen- eration and transmission systems ... Such systems could be financed under this legislation. Second: To establish backbone, common carrier fed- eral transmission grids, or to require others to build them throughout the country ... This, too, could be financed under this legislation. I need to point out to nt one that with financing by the Federal Electric Bank the plan would create a nationwide, government subsidized power system, wastefully duplicating the facili- ties of existing suppliers. The action of the House in appro- priating $365 million for the REA pro- gram for fiscal year 1967 will, together with the $72 million carryover estimated In the budget, provide for one of the highest annual levels of activity ever ex- perienced by this agency. This sum will be more than adequate to take care of needs pending resolution on the many policy issues that need to be answered )U4;8000400080019-0 before embarking on an entirely new pro- gram which is so nebulous in character, need and size as to be beyond compre- hension. It is incumbent on the Con- gress to see that Federal appropriations are made wisely and only for the highest priority purposes. There is no urgency for this legislation. Congress should thoroughly study all of its ramifications before embarking on a new program of this magnitude. NARCOTICS BILL HAS LOOPHOLE The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under a previous order of the House, the gentle- man from Ohio [Mr. AsHSxoox], is recog- nized for 5 minutes. Mr. ASHBROOK. Mr. Speaker, it is a rare thing to find a legislative enactment by this body that one can agree with 100 percent or oppose 100 percent. The bill we just passed today, the Narcotics Ad- dict Rehabilitation Act, is a good case In point. I think that its provisions are, on the whole, salutory and represent needed emphasis on a critical field in law en- forcement. On the other hand, there is one serious flaw. I believe that it is poor judgment to establish a class of offenders who can escape trial on any theory. If a crime has been committed, the narcotic addict should be brought to trial. If his case warrants rehabilitation in nonpenal sur- roundings, the judge should have the authority to deal with the case in this manner. I supported all efforts to strengthen this bill and am sorry that the amendment of the gentleman from Virginia [Mr. PoFF] did not pass. His amendment would have removed this one serious defect in this bill. I supported this legislation because it is my firm belief that it will accomplish much good. On the other hand, this defect should be noted and it is my hope that the Senate will act favorably on these provisions so we will not shunt a group of defendants into a new and dif- ferent track, forgiving them their cri;nes without trial. The group so preferred under title I of this bill will be deter- mined not by the process of criminal justice but by the fact of a physical con- dition-drug addiction-and without any showing whatsoever of connection be- tween the physical condition and the commission of the crime. AWARD (Mr. QUIE (at the request of Mr. GRo- vER) was granted ' permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. QUIE. Mr. Speaker, it has been a pleasure to see that this year's so-called youth opportunity campaign, especially in the Post Office Department, is being set up on a merit basis. The merit ap- proach replaces the vast patronage sys- tem that marked last year's first attempt at the program in the Post Office Depart- ment. I worked hard in the Congress to see that this program, which the President had announced as being designed to pro- vide jobs for needy young people, was im- *_r:._ x14341 proved. At the same time that I was working toward this end in Congress, an outstanding member of the Washington press corps was working for the same goal through the public media. It is my pleasure to report that this correspondent, Nick Kotz of the Cowles Publications, has received two major American journalism awards as the re- sult of his outstanding work. He has become the recipient of the Sigma Delta Chi award for distinguished Washington reporting and the Raymond Clapper Me- morial Award. During the course of the investigation of impropriety of handling distribution of youth opportunity campaign jobs through the Post Office Department, I had ample opportunity to observe the dedication to his profession, to the truth and to the peoples' right to know which Mr. Kotz displayed. I am honored to join his journalistic colleagues in recognition of his achievement on behalf of the pub- lic interest. Mr. Speaker, following is a copy of the release which the Standing Committee of Correspondents of the Capitol Press Gal- lery issued following Mr. Kotz' selection as recipient of the Clapper Award. MONTREAL, May 19.-Nathan K. (Nick) Kotz of the Des Moines Register and the Minneapolis Tribune tonight won the 22nd annual Raymond Clapper Memorial Award for his disclosure in a series of Washington dispatches that summertime anti-poverty jobs were being filled on a patronage basis. A panel of five prominent newspapermen unanimously selected Kotz "for his compre- hensive and discerning reporting" in the best tradition of the late Scripps-Howard colum- nist, Raymond Clapper. The award, announced here at the annual banquet of the American Society of News- paper Editors, carries a cash prize of $1,000. From a field of 24 entries the judges also singled out for first honorable mention Dom Bonafede of the New York Herald Tribune, for a series on conflicts of interest among congressmen; and for second honorable men- tion Bem Price of the Associated Press, for dispatches on government waste, water pol- lution and the war on poverty. His citation and check were presented to Kotz by Benjamin R. Cole of the Indianapolis Star, representing the Standing Committee of Correspondents which administers the U.S. congressional press galleries and acts as executive committee of the Raymond Clapper Memorial Association. The Association makes the award annually to honor Clapper and to foster the kind of Washington reporting that brought him fame as a reporter for United Press, the Washington Post and finally Scripps-Howard. Clapper died in a South Pacific plane crash in World War II. Kotz, 33, is a native of San Antonio and an honor graduate of Dartmouth College. He has represented the Des Moines Register and the Minneapolis Tribune in Washington since June, 1964. The award judges said it was a series of Kotz exclusives that broke the story of what they called "subverting" of last summer's youth opportunity program "into a massive handout of congressional patronage." Others jumped on the story with result- ing further disclosures. Congressmen's sons were among those hired. Eventually the White House ordered patronage stopped and the Post Office said future youth hiring would be based solely on merit. Judges for the award were Glen A. Bois- sonneault, Editor, the Saginaw News; Grant Dillman, News Editor, Washington Bureau, United Press International; William A. Dyer, Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 '' June 1 1966 Approved FoA"U MM3 - I-'b7MP& R000400080019-0 election procedure? And what the gen- tleman suggested is that the election should be held upon the very issue which the Communists would like to have us think is a big issue, but which our com- mittee overwhelmingly found is not at all a matter of concern for the Viet- namese people. Mr. Speaker, the Vietcong are today the enemy. They are the terrorists in the mountains. They are cutting off the heads of villagers. The people of Viet- nam do not want them running their country. They want the people who are supporting the government and who have tried to defend the countryside, to have a voice in running the country. The gentleman's suggestion would interrupt that whole process, and would have a very bad effect on all the fine progress we are making. Mr. GOODELL. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. STRATTON. I yield to the gen- tleman from New York. Mr. GOODELL. The gentleman chooses to characterize my proposal in a very, very unfavorable and unfair way. What I am suggesting is that members of the gentleman's own party have raised serious doubts in the minds of the peo- ple of the world and of the American people about the will of the Vietnamese people and about the desires for an elec- tion or determination on the part of the South Vietnamese people to resist ag- gression. I think a very clear mandate could be written in an election procedure. I am not suggesting that the election is for this purpose alone. Our Government has committed us. The South Viet- namese Government under Mr. Ky has committed itself to an election, to choose a constituent assembly sometime this year and at the moment it appears to be September. Mr. STRATTON. It is going to be September. Mr. GOODELL. This is a very confus- ing situation. Mr. STRATTON. It is going to be September 11, unless the gentleman's suggestion confuses the issue too much. Mr. GOODELL. If the gentleman wants the answer to some of his ques- tions- Mr. STRATTON. I cannot yield any further as I want to comment upon the gentleman's remarks. Mr. Speaker, I do not think the South Vietnamese people need have any con- cern about the determination of our President or about the determination of this House or for that matter about the determination of this country. The only difficulty I am afraid-and I would be the last one to give recommendations to the gentleman-the only difficulty, I think, is that in making his suggestion about a referendum on the Vietcong the gentleman may have been trying to sit on both sides of the fence at the same time. PRODUCTION OF MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (Mr. RESNICK (at the request of Mr. STRATTON) was granted permission to ex- No. 90-6 tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. RESNICK. Mr. Speaker, we are so accustomed to agricultural abundance in the United States, that it is almost impossible to believe that food of any kind-particularly a vital and basic com- modity like milk-could actually be in short supply. Yet, this is precisely what is happening in this country today. Be- cause I believe that this situation has reached crisis proportions, I have today written the following letter to the Sec- retary of Agriculture: CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES, HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, Washington, D.C., June 1, 1966. Hon. ORVILLE L. FREEMAN, Secretary of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture, - Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. SECRETARY: Steps must be taken to increase the production of milk and dairy products in the United States. It may be difficult for most Americans to accept the fact that a shortage of these essential com- modities does indeed exist. But this fact is a grim reality. The evidence is clear and abundant. Milk production in the United States has been sliding down hill for more than a dozen years. In recent months, this slide has be- come a plunge. March milk production was 7% below the March of one year ago. April production was 4% below last year's. As a matter of fact, last month production reached its lowest level since 195$-a de- pressing and ominous statistic I am sure you are well aware of. Equally disturbing are the mounting statistics on the mortality of dairy farms, farms which are being dis- posed of because their owners can no longer afford to keep them. Strangely, the dairy industry has reached these crossroads of crisis at a time when our population is growing and personal income expenditures, and food consumption have reached record highs. The reason, however, is not hard to figure out. If dairy farmers could make money they would not only re- main in business, but would be increasing their production to meet the increasing de- mand for their product. Somehow the ma- chinery of our farm economy has slipped its gears and-by failing to assure our dairy producers of a proper return on their invest- ment and labor-has caused milk production to fall to the point where we now face serious shortages. The consumer is now paying for this in the form of higher prices for milk, butter, cheese, and other dairy products. For, we see that in the absence of a satis- factory policy in this vital segment of agri- culture, both the farmer and the consumer are now being made to suffer. I call upon the Department of Agriculture, Mr. Secretary, to take immediate steps to turn this dangerous situation around. We can keep our dairy farmers producing. We can prevent them from selling their milk cows for beef. We can get them to expand their herds and increase production to meet the pressing needs of our growing population, as well as export demands. We can once again make the dairy industry a healthy industry. But we can only do_ these things by establishing and pursuing policies which ,will guarantee the dairy farmer a decent liv- ing. I would suggest that the Department consider giving direct "production pay- ments" to farmers. I think this might be the fastest way of achieving the desired re- 11343 ing him continued abundance of dairy prod- ucts at reasonable prices. I urge immediate steps along these lines to prevent the present shortage from develop- ing into what could become a dairy famine in the United States. With my very best wishes. Cordially yours, JOSEPH Y. RESNICK, Member of Congress. CAMILLUS CUTLER CO. (Mr. HANLEY (at the request of Mr. STRATTON) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. HANLEY. Mr. Speaker, a few weeks ago, it was my distinct pleasure to tour the facilities of one of the old- est establishments in my congressional district, the Camillus Cutlery Co. To- day I would like to relate to my col- leagues some of the interesting back- ground and activities of this firm. Founded in 1876 by Adolph Kastor, the Camillus Cutlery Co. has soared to a pre- eminence in the manufacture of knives of every variety. When I visited the plant, the employees were engaged in the production of knives and bayonets for our boys in Vietnam and through- out the world. Thousands of GIs in World War II and Korea come to rely on the fighting knives, pocketknives, and bayonets produced at the cutlery. Corps- men the world over for years have been familiar with Camillus scalpels. During World War II alone, Camillus Cutlery produced and delivered over 15 million knives for the war effort. For its contribution, the cutlery was the re- cipient of four Army-Navy "E" awards. Today the Camillus Cutlery Co. is the sole producer of the Navy and Marine fighting knife. As Camillus Cutlery makes substantial contributions to our national defense, so also it plays a significant role in our do- mestic life. Millions of housewives use Camillus products around the house every day, and sportsmen of every va- riety rely on Camillus knives for hunt- ing, fishing, and recreational purposes. The president of the cutlery, Nilo Miori, literally grew up with the com- pany. He knows every one of his em- ployees on a personal basis, and his in- terest in his employees is reflected in the tenure which many of them have achieved. About 45 percent of the em- ployees have been with the company 10 years or ignore; 23 percent, 20 years or more; 8 percent, 30 years; and several have worked there over 40 years. This solid relationship between employer and employee, between labor and manage- ment could well serve as a model for all manufacturing operations. Mr. Speaker, I commend the Camillus Cutlery Co. for its solid record of achieve- ment. EXCLUSION FROM INCOME OF CER- TAIN REIMBURSED MOVING EX- sult. This would protect the interest of the PENSES farmer by assuring him of enough of a satis- factory return to encourage him to increase (Mr. McGRATH (at the request of Mr. his herds and production, and also protect ' STRATTON) was granted permission to the interests of the consumer by guarantee- extend his remarks at this point in the Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 11344 Approved For I ~ AL : {I 67 E000400080019-9Juue- t.1966 REcoao and to include extraneous mat- ter.) . Mr. McGRATH. Mr. Speaker, I wish to join with Congressman BURKE In sup- port of,his bill, H.R. 13070, which would exclude from income certain reimbursed moving expenses. In New Jersey's Second District, which I have the honor to represent, the largest employer is the Federal Aviation Agency, which operates the vast National Avia- tion Facilities Experimental Center in Pomona, near Atlantic City. Among the thousands of Federal employees assigned to this facility, many are called upon to move into our district on a permanent or semipermanent basis from other FAA facilities, and others are reassigned to FAA installations in all corners of the country. While travel expenses in such cases are reimbursed, these Federal em- ployees are considered for income tax purposes as any privately employed per- sons, and the current practice of the Bureau of Internal Revenue,is to con- sider this reimbursement of travel ex- penses as income. In the cases of these Federal employ- ees, as in the cases of the many privately employed persons in our district and elsewhere in the United States, this works a financial hardship which I feel should be reversed and can be reversed through the terms of H.R. 13070. Further, Mr. Speaker, I feel it is highly desirable that H.R. 13070's provisions concerning items of expense in addition to the actual cost of moving the em- ployee, his family and household goods to a new place of work, which are clearly nontaxable under present law, be in- cluded among the tax exemptions this bill seeks. Among these are the costs of house- hunting trips of both employee and spouse when both the old and new job locations are within the United States; temporary living expenses at the new employment location while awaiting oc- cupancy of permanent quarters; selling commissions and other expenses incident to the sale of the employee's old resi- dence or to settlement of an unexpired lease on the old residence; out-of-pocket expenses incident to the purchase of a new residence at the new job location, and other miscellaneous expenses direct- ly attributable to the transfer. Mr. Speaker, I wholeheartedly agree with Representative BUaxs that enact- ment of this legislation is essential if years of litigation, confusion, and hard- ship affecting many thousands of em- ployees are to be avoided. To emphasize my support for this leg- islation, I am submitting a bill` identical to H.R. 13070, and I will work for its passage in the House of Representatives. AUTO SAF>; I'Y AND THE TIRES ON AUTOS (Mr. TODD (at the request of Mr. STRATTON) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the Rxooan and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. TODD. Mr. Speaker, I have previously discussed before the House the awful toll of traffic fatalities and in- juries and the need for prudent and re- sponsible action to cope with this na- tional problem. Basically, there are three factors involved in auto safety: The automobile itself; the driver; and the tires on the automobile. I believe that the hearings recently held on the subject of auto safety, to- gether with the automobile industry's decision to support a workable auto safety bill, will result in the passage of appropriate legislation this session. With respect to the driver, I believe that State and local governments have be- come much more aware of the impor- tance of strict licensing, driver educa- tion, and tight law enforcement, partic- ularly on drunk drivers. I do not see any need for Federal activity in this area at present. Today, I wish to discuss the third factor-tires on our cars. At present, there are over 300 million passenger tires in use in the United States. With advances in automobile engineering and the development of our high-speed Interstate Highway System, these tires are subjected to punish- ment levels virtually unknown 20 years ago. As car owners and drivers, we ex- pect our tires to perform safely under normal load and use conditions, just as we expect to be able to select, on an in- formed basis, those tires which we wish to buy. Recent hearings conducted in the House and Senate together with other published evidence suggest that neither of these requirements is at present being fulfilled. When possible, I prefer to get direct evidence about problems under consider- ation by Congress. I can report that I have received ' many letters from con- stituents in Michigan's Third District complaining about tire safety. Some people reported that their new tires blew out after normal driving and under nor- mal loads, even after a few thousand miles of use. Others reported that even under light load conditions, the two-ply tires sometimes furnished on new cars failed entirely. One man wrote, com- plaining that he knows of cars leaving the factory equipped with tires whose load capacity is already exceeded by the unloaded curb weight of the car. An- other man wrote, noting that he was concerned about the safety of his tires, yet finding that he was completely un- able to understand the grading systems used by tire manufacturers. These reports led me to ask a question about tire safety on my recent congres- sional questionnaire sent to the citizens of the Third District. The question read: Do you favor a bill setting minimum safety and performance standards for automobile tires? Percent Yes----------------------------------- - 74 No------------------------------------ 18 Undecided--------___..----------------- 11 Clearly, the people of my district want action on tire safety. There appear to be two main problems in the tire field: first, some tires simply are not safe; second, grading systems are confusing and meaningless. There is strong evidence to show that some tires put on cars are not safe. There are a number of "grooved" tires sold today, in which the tread has been worn down, and a new tread pattern cut into the rubber; such tires are generally recognized to be very unsafe. Another unsafe type of tire is the "cheapie," a low-priced replacement tire usually sold under an unfamiliar brand name. The Senate Commerce Committee, which held extensive hearings on tire safety, con- cluded that "significant numbers of these tires were of poor quality often evidenc- ing, upon close inspection, fatal defects and incapable of performing safely under normal conditions of use." Around 20 percent of all tires in service are retreads. Many of these are safe and conscientious products, but some are inferior and un- safe. It appears that the statements in let- ters written by my constituents are clearly backed up. Perhaps the most startling piece of evidence regarding tire safety came out recently in testimony given in the superior court of San Fran- cisco, in which a tiremaker was sued for damages in connection with a blowout. One tire expert, chosen by the tire man- ufacturer, testified that some tires which his company supplies for a leading popu- lar car would be "expected to rupture" if the car were driven with a normal full load. Another expert testified that with as little as a 10-percent overload- and proper loading figures are difficult to find for the average motorist-a tire would be vulnerable to fabric separation, which could take place when a car runs over a chuckhole or a railroad crossing. The fact that there are unsafe tires on the market, in itself, is no necessary cause for Government action. After all, there are many products of varying de- grees of safety in the market, and the consumer should be expected to use proper prudence in making his selection and in maintaining the purchased pro- duct. But the situation in the tire mar- ket does not allow the consumer to make an informed choice. This is because tire grading standards are either mean- ingless or so ambiguous as to make in- formed judgment impossible. There are, at present, some 950 dif- ferent tire names currently being mar- keted, representing approximately 120 private-label marketers and 14 tire manufacturers. The Senate Commerce Committee concluded that there is "no consumer commodity more sharply characterized by confused and mislead- ing nomenclature than the tire." No uniform grading system presently exists. Most tires are sold on the basis of an illusory grading system. Terms such as "premium," "first line," "second line," and "100 level" seem to imply that an objective grading system does exist. In fact, it does not. These designations have no uniform meaning or definite value. One maker's "premium" may be inferior to another's "third line" tire. The so-called "ply ratings" have no fixed meaning. And, according to the Senate committee, the price of a tire has no discernible relation to its grade or safety level. In this morass of confusing terms, how can the consumer make an informed choice? Should not he be given the facts Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 June 1, 1966 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE 11371 production, price and employment so that in that way the copper industry would not be subject to the ups and downs, the booms and busts, which have plagued it over the past several decades. It is my intention to discuss this matter further with the State Department, and to seek the advice of the copper industry on ways and means to bring about if possible a steady stabilization of the industry on a world-wide basis. As the largest consumer of copper and copper products it is imperative that we face up to this problem of the gap between supplies and demand, and the need for corrective action, to not only bring sta- bility to the industry but to see that its proper markets are maintained and not taken over by substitutes if the price gets too high. Only last Sunday, copper was selling for 75? per pound in small lots in Chile, and according to my information, it is above that price in London and also in certain other areas as well. This is a situation well worth the creation of a copper study group under U.N. auspices. OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL, Washington, D.C., May 17, 1966. Hon. MIKE MANSFIELD, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR MANSFIELD: I have consid- ered carefully your letter of May 10, 1966, in which you describe the need for an interna- tional stabilization of the world copper mar- ket and suggest that the United States take the initiative in calling a world copper con- ference. I have particularly focused upon the problem to which you advert-namely, that of international cartels in violation of antitrust laws. If a meeting of producers is contemplated, I can only express my concurrence with the views of my predecessor, Attorney General Kennedy, given in a letter to you dated No- vember 30, 1961, that participation by Amer- ican copper producers in international con- ferences designed to allocate production and stabilize prices would be in violation of the antitrust laws. It may be your proposal did not contem- plate such a meeting of producers, but rather a governmental conference for the purpose of seeking solutions to the problems of wide- ranging disparities between available supplies and demand. Governmental conferences to study this problem and international agree- ments, which duly ratified become the law of the land, of course would not of them- selves violate the antitrust laws. In this connection I should note that since the question of the feasibility of any interna- tional governmental effort at diminishing the disequilibriums between supply and demand is a complex one, it would require substantial additional study. Sincerely, NICHOLAS DEB. KATZENBACH, Attorney General. THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, D.C., May 16, 1966. Ron. MICHAEL J. MANSFIELD, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR MIKE: I appreciate your letter of May 10 expressing your views on a would conference on copper, As you know from our many discussions, I am concerned about the copper problems faced by this country and the world. In this connection, I have already directed the U.S. Government to make both immediate and long-range studies of copper under the direction of the Council of Economic Advisers. I have discussed your proposal with Sec- retary Rusk and Attorney General- Katzen- ?bach. Secretary Rusk informs me that ar- rangements are being made under the auspices of the U.N. to call an international conference on copper in December of this year. This may be the best forum for gov- ernments to explore the problems of copper and any feasible steps that might be taken to deal with these problems. I have asked Secretary Rusk to get in touch with you to go over what the United States might see as emerging from these discussions, as well as explore other possibilities. As far as the anti-trust situation is con- cerned, I have asked the Attorney General to get in touch with you directly on the problems associated with any private inter- national agreements to stabilize the price of copper. Sincerely, American Metal Market copper prices, May 26, 1966 Cents per pound Domestic producers, delivered U.S. destinations : Electrolytic---------------------- 36,00 Lake ----------------------------- 36.00 Foreign electrolytic': Chilean, delivered U.S. destination'- 36. 00 Outside United States---------- 62.00 Canadian, delivered U.S. destina- tion------------------------ 242.00 Overseas----------------------- 165.00 Zambian, outside United States--- 375.88 Katangan, c.i.f. New York-------- 172.75 London Metal Exchange, electrolytic wirebar: Cash (bid) (#645)--------------- 80.63 3 months (bid) (E607/2)--------- 75.88 Commodity exchange, standard Cop- per: July---------------------------- 72.30 September----------------------- 69.35 October-------------------------- 67.55 New York merchant market: June (nom.) --------------------- 76.50 July (nom.) --------------------- 75.50 August (nom.) ------------------- 74.50 Refiners' No. 2 copper: Scrap (nom.) - 57.00 'On sales in United States buyer pays 1.7 cents import duty. Noranda Mines, Ltd. s Anglo American Corp. and Roan Selec- tion Trust. I Union Miniere. Source: American Metal Market, Friday, May,9,7, 1966. EX-ADMIRAL RADFORD IS WRONG Mr, YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President, retired Adm. William Radford is not only a rightwing extremist but apparently he is endowed with a vivid imagination. There is no basis in fact for his quoted statement published today in the Wash- ington Post: It's easy for these Venerables, these Thichs to convince a 17-year-old girl to burn her- self up. Characteristic of the thinking of right- wing extremists, he evidently lacks vision and understanding of the fight for liber- ation made by the Vietnamese against their French colonial oppressors who, following World War II, violated their word and sought to restablish their Indo- chinese empire and to continue to treat the Vietnamese as an inferior subject people. The Vietnamese nationals, led by Ho Chi Minh, fought for liberation and on May 7, 1954, their forces over- ran the supposedly offensive French colonial outpost at Dienbienphu and that victory led to the withdrawal of 200,000 French soldiers from Vietnam. Ex-Admiral Radford unfortunately had a position of influence in the then administration of President Eisenhower as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1953 to 1957. It was he who urged that we use our airpower and paratroop- ers to relieve Dienbienphu. Fortu- ately, strong views expressed to President Eisenhower by knowledgeable Senators in very strong terms, prevented that grave mistake. Also, Britain's Anthony Eden expressed his dismay and astonish- ment that President Eisenhower would seriously consider such unilateral action. the United States largely by reason of Admiral Radford's influence at that time spent approximately $3 billion in mili- tary aid to the French Government, whose generals at that time were giving out optimistic statements, "We are win- ning the war," just as defense Secretary McNamara and other of our leaders in 1963 and 1964 and our generals from their air-conditioned offices in Saigon have proclaimed, "We are winning the war." Now, fortunately, retired Ad- miral Radford lacks influence in govern- ment, so he announces the creation of another rightwing extremist fringe or- ganization, World Youth Crusade for Freedom, Inc. He hopes to send 12 American students "with impeccable aca- demic backgrounds," as he says, to 6 Asian countries to fight Communist po- litical activity this summer; in other words, to seek to interfere in the internal affairs of some 6 Asian countries. Radford would do his country a greater service if he would refrain from making irresponsible statements lacking basis in fact and from encouraging addi- tional extremist rightwing activities and propaganda. INCREASE OF TOLL RATES ON ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY Mr. LAUSCHE. Mr. President, the St. Lawrence Seaway Corporation is holding public hearings to consider a 10-percent increase in seaway tolls. I am opposed 'to any increase in tolls on the St. Lawrence Seaway. Existing seaway legislation requires that tolls be collected at rates which are fair and equitable, with due consideration to en- couraging increased use of the water- way. Any increase in tolls will cer- tainly. discourage, not encourage, in- creased tonnage with a resultant reduc- tion in total revenues. Instead of in- creasing the tolls charged, it would be more prudent to extend the time within which the debt must be paid to the U.S. Government. An effective method of increasing the tolls collected under present rates would be for the Federal Government to make greater use of the seaway in the trans- portation of products, grains, and mate- rials from the interior of the United States to the foreign port destination. The Federal Government has a very real obligation both to utilize the seaway and to promote its use as well. Instead, however, we find that this is far from the case, The Department of Defense is the world's largest shipper. Yet, despite our best efforts, only very small tonnages of military cargo have moved via the St. Lawrence Seaway. Little American-flag service exists on the Great Lakes, and last year U.S. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 11372 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE ships carried only 4 percent of the total lake's cargo,- Furthermore, the Seaway Corporation, instead of being able to carry on an intensive promotion pro- gram to insure full utilization of the sea- way and early retirement of the debt, has been unable to utilize funds for ef- fective promotion. Ohio ports--and the opponents of the seaway as well-are fully aware that toll increases will fur- ther hamper development of the seaway which is just beginning to be known throughout the world. Until such time as the Federal Gov- ernment gives full recognition of the seaway and takes a realistic approach designed to insure its success, I am un- alterably opposed to any toll increase. Mr. President, an September 13 a re- port was submitted to the Commerce Committee by a special subcommittee that studied the operations of the St. Lawrence Seaway. I was chairman of that subcommittee. I read the specific recommendation that relates to this statement: OBSERVATIONS The subcommittee noted: 1. There is an apparently growing aware- ness of the advantages of the seaway, as illustrated by- (a) regular and successive annual In- creases in tonnnge, shipments, and revenues through the seaway; (b) numerous port improvements under- taken by lake ports since 1959, completed and in the process of construction and plan- ning; and (c) greatly increased activity by local lake ports in promotion of port traffic and trade. 2. There are indications that the seaway may become self-liquidating in I or 2 years and will maintain a level of activity which will enable It to repay its indebtedness with- in its original 50-year time limitation. 3. It is widely believed that toll increases might depress rather than Increase revenues. Problems were recognized in the areas of- 1. Channel and harbor depths; 2. Unavailability of American bottoms at great Lakes ports; 3. Administration of cargo preference law; and 4, Section 22 of the Interstate Commerce Act. ~- RECOMMENDATIONS In relation to the problems which appear to be serious and which are outlined above, this subcommittee believes that the follow- ing action should be encouraged: 1. Money should be appropriated to enable the Army Corps of Engineers to complete its program for deepening and clearing Great Lakes channels and harbors to a 27-foot depth. Full utilization of the seaway can- not be expected until this step has been accomplished. 2. There should be a program to utilize American ships for seaway trade. A transportation axiom, "Ships will go where the cargo is," appears to be untrue on the seaway. After 6 years of Operation and a history of increasing cargo each year, the seaway has proven itself as a rich and stable- source of traffic and trade. However there is an obvious scarcity of American ships at Great Lakes ports. It must be recognized that the development of inland cargo is not the only answer to the development of American shipping on the Great Lakes. Arti- ficial barrier must be removed.- Foremost among these are necessary changes in the ad- ministration of the cargo preference laws. The Great Lakes ports should not be com- bined with the North Atlantic coast ports to determine availability of American bottoms for Government and foreign aid shipments. This is not logical in terms of geography or economy. It has encouraged the shipowners to rely on the railroads to grant section 22 rates for transportation of cargo to North At- lantic ports, which in turn enables the ship- owners to obtain their cargoes at the coastal ports rather than at the Great Lakes ports. A coordinated effort should be made to establish one authority to administer the cargo preference laws on the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway. It appears that the _St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation should perform this function, which could be implemented with other recordkeeping tasks involving ships and cargoes that transit the seaway. When traffic has become sufficiently de- veloped, a separate essential trade route should be established to provide direct serv- ice between Great Lakes ports and ports in specific overseas foreign areas. 3. Section 22 itself should be examined objectively and changed. It appears to be grossly uncoordinated for the Government to claim that section 22 saves the taxpayers $50 million per year when it also results in a default to the Government on the seaway's obligation of $2 million or more annually. Simultaneously it creates uneconomic rates for the railroads which presumably must be made up by private shippers. There was some justification for section 22 when the railroads enjoyed a dominant status In the national transportation picture. Presently, however, they must compete for cargo with other types of transportation and this com- petition should be on a fair and economic basis. Legislation ehould be considered to change section 22, to eliminate the preferen- tial treatment accorded to Government traf- fic. Of course, the Government should re- tain section 22 privileges in times of na- tional emergency. 4. It appears desirable to lengthen the shipping season on the seaway. The naviga- tion season for the Great Lakes in deep- water areas could easily be extended. In shallow-water areas it would depend entirely upon the severity of the season. In the shallow-water areas additional equipment is necessary to keep the water running faster and to maintain a higher temperature in order to provide for open navigation. This is possible but the cost has not been estab- lished. Additional equipment and manpower is necessary at the locks in freezing weather. Presently, steam hoses are used on gates and - some flow is maintained to minimize freez- ing. Cost is involved here also, but the problem can be solved. An all-year-open seaway is not now contemplated. Eventually this may be possible but it is presently un- realistic. Perhaps the seaway season may be extended another 30 days, by opening earlier and closing later, and this appears desirable. Such an improvement would provide a more usable facility and should produce increased revenues. Promotion is necessary for this venture. The aid of the Canadian Government must be requested and obtained. 5. Studies for future development of the seaway should be undertaken for improved lock facilities. Combination of other water- ways, such as the Champlain Waterway, which would provide for a much shorter and more direct ocean passage, should be in- cluded in the forward programing of the seaway administration. Many persons, in- cluding shippers, shipowners, pilots, and underwriters must be consulted and a pro- gram projected under the leadership of the Department of Commerce. The subcommittee recommends that funds be appropriated to begin the engineering studies. 6. Evidence before the subcommittee has indicated that the growth of the St. Law- rence Seaway will overtax its present facili- June 1, 1966 ties in the early to middle 1970's. This year tonnage is expected to be between 42 and 45 million, which means the waterway is approaching its predicted capacity of 50 mil- lion tons. - Even assuming the seaway has an actual capacity of 60 million tons, it is necessary to begin planning the expansion of locks and other facilities before the optimum tonnage point Is reached. - 7. It has been suggested that the amortiza- tion period be extended from 50 years to 100 years and that the interest rate be estab- lished at 2 percent. It does not appear, in view of the increasing traffic over the seaway in 1964, that this would be necessary, but If relief of this nature were contemplated, it might be more feasible to delay the begin- ning of the amortization period until a 27-foot depth had been established in all the major lake ports and channels as projected in 1954, when full utilization of the seaway can be accomplished. This in itself should assure sufficient leeway in the amortization schedule to assure proper liquidation of the indebtedness in 50 years. 8. The subcommittee- believes that an ex- panded program of information and promo- tion should be commenced immediately; the proper organization to facilitate these ac- tivities is the St. Lawrence Seaway Develop- ment Corporation; the proper person to co- ordinate and direct these activities Is the Administrator of the St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation. 9. The subcommittee believes that the St. Lawrence Seaway will not serve the Great Lakes community and the cities contained within its confines in the most advantageous way until greater promotional efforts are undertaken to inform business interests In this country and abroad of the seaway's value. It has been pointed out that pro- motional activities are a normal, necessary. and an important function in the develop- ment of ports and waterways. These promotional functions of the Sea- way Corporation should be encouraged by the Department of Commerce and be in- cluded as part of the Seaway Corporation's annual budget, so that the funds expended come from tolls alone and not from appro- priated moneys. FEDERAL CIVILIAN EMPLOYMENT Mr. WILLIAMS of Delaware. Mr. President, last month I called the atten- tion of the Senate to the fact that Pres- ident Johnson on December 1, 1965, an- nounced that he was issuing instructions to all Government agencies to reduce Federal civilian employment by at least 25,000 personnel before the end of this fiscal year. At that time I pointed out that in the 4 months following this pub- lic endorsement of economy, the admin- istration, instead of reducing employ- ment, had actually added 62,857 more employees. On Monday, May 30, the Joint Com- mittee on Nonessential Federal Expen- ditures issued its monthly report, which shows that during the month of April the administration has added another 33,464 employees. This now brings the grand total of extra employees added in the 5 months following the President's De- cember 1, 1965 announcement to 96,321. Figuring the Government on a 40-hour workweek this is the equivalent of an average of 875 extra employees being added every day, or an average of 110 Per hour nearly 2 a minute-since he made the grandstand announcement that he was going to reduce Federal employ- ment. . Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 1 1384 Approved FoEft s9WAL1k M PS,IR 000400080019Jotne 1, 1966 Notwithstanding a number of political and economic problems, the 650,000 peo- ple of this new nation have proceeded along the road to independence with moderation and good sense. Most heart- ening, in particular, has been the fact that the overwhelming majority of the people have rejected the Communist al- ternative. Much of this success is due to the fair minded leadership of Guyana's Prime Minister, Mr. Forbes Burnham, who is doing much to ease the tensions between the Negro and Indian sectors of Guyana. In honoring this new nation I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD two editorials, one pub- lished in the Washington Post and the other in the New York Times on May 26, 1966. There being no objection, the editorials were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Washington (D C) Post, May 26, 19661 WELCOME TO GUYANA tors, engineers, architects, accountants and other professional people are not large in absolute terms for a country of 650,000, but large enough to give Guyana much better prospects than many new nations of -Asia and Africa. Guyana has had a small foreign trade sur- plus in recent years and its national debt is less than $150 million. The coalition Government of Prime Minister Forbes Burn- ham has done much to clean up the finan- cial mess left in 1964 by the Jagan regime. Mr. Burnham's Government has adopted liberal tax policies aimed at attracting pri- vate foreign investments. But the facts remain that most Guyanese of East Indian extraction, who make up half the population, continue to support Dr. Jagan and that his party controls the biggest bloc of seats in the Assembly. Unless Mr. Burnham's party is able over the long run to add substantial East Indian elements to its Negro base, it will be very difficult even under present election arrange- ments to keep Dr. Jagan on the sidelines indefinitely. The possibility of another Castro-type regime in the Western Hemi- sphere thus will continue to haunt the United States and other American countries for some time. seemed among sue ieitao Y- --+-u---6 _- recent multitude- of candidates for independ- VIETNAM REPORT BY A DIRECTOR ence. A strike abetted by the Marxist Prime OF THE INTERNATIONAL RESCUE aralyzing s p Minister, Dr. Cheddi Jagan, wa the country. Racism was rampant, with COMMITTEE frightening clashes between the urban Afri- Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, Mr. Wil- cans and the East Indians who now consti- liam J. Casey, a director of the Inter- tute a majority of the 640,000 people. The national Rescue Committee and a mem- United States was fearful of a new Castroite has stronghold and had impressed its concern reber of cently returned from Vietnam and has on Britain. That Guyana has nevertheless qualified as Written swell-balanced and provocative an independent commonwealth nation today account of his observations. remarkable success story. In part it is Mr. Casey's observations and proposals he p g hi s "" ,V Sir Richard Luyt, who stays on by views of the Vietnam situation. Mr. And Casey confirms the judgments I made the allegiance of these people, in showing ernorGuyanese request as the first Governor Gen- - them that we can help them to a better life. - eral.. In part it is due to the system pro- th portional representation devised by Britain Britain during trip to Vietnam several Although lives are being lost, we are pri : warily engaged in helping a people enter the that permitted the present coalition to break months ago on a number of counts: 20th century. To do this, we have to help ght off Dr. Jagan's hold. In part it is due to sub- First, that the majority of the Vietna- the government of South Vietnam fi stantial economic aid. But mostly it is due mese people clearly oppose a Communist to the emergence of a fair-minded African takeover; second, that no political faC- an armed insurrection, aided and abetted by Prime Minister, Forbes Burnham, who has tion in South Vietnam really desires the other countries, social which ris seeking tadisrupt country. ocials o e we do and this keeovet been trying hard to heal the past racial withdrawal of the U.S. presence; and economic cleavages and win ation. confidence of all seg- third, that not nearly enough is being some caveats remain. Guyana is highly done by either the Saigon government perhaps we get a better perspective when we ments of the population. realize that we are helping a nation of 16 people and, t el so, we must fend off literate and is potentially rich in resources, or our own Government to meet the re- million 200,000 outlaws-some 80,000 but unempoyment and renewed racial fric- quirements of social and economic re- a force of some 200, tion could mar the prospect. The country construction of this country. Mr. Casey regular hard care Viet Cong who fight and still fragile, and much depends upon re-writes: disrupt, and some 120,000 sympathizers who straint. But the augury today is good. Dop- r. do militia and guard duty. Jagan has ended his boycott to lead the The primary battle in Vietnam is to help We went into Vietnam to help the South position, Burnham has coupled tnt action x ss a tablish people a brought working up under independent colonialism es- government Vietnamese people develop their economy, for Guyana to play a leading part in and to help them meet their basic needs, create a government and build a nation. with forbearance, and an opportunity exists That is still our primary purpose. To carry t forming a regional market with other former British I ask unanimous consent to have Mr. it out, we have had to help the South Viet- civil and police their country oin and territories in the Caribbean. A salute to in- Casey's report printed in the RECORD. namese government protect dependent Guyana is in order. There being no objection, the report was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, affairs from violent disruption and intrusion [From the New York Times, May 26, 1968] by armed dissidents, supported and directed as follows: from outside their country. These armed GUYANA AT INDEPENDENCE NOTES ON A TRIP TO VIETNAM AND A PROPOSAL bandits have spread terror throughout the Brtish Guiana has ma achieved hirved independence (By William J. Casey) countryside, taxed the country people illeg-with. elGyana therwwo hopel future. T threat-ey I have just had the privilege of visiting ally, blasted over 500,000 people out of their movements of refugees are t an ng fse racial str a between h the Vietnam as a director of the International h homes, , created d mass mass movements the is of r, ogees are the dange0of racial strife he 2 Rescue o a tt, as of i Ex- and or some throughout t e count teachers a memberemb ber its itss and other some 15,000 village Ian and t origin, he and the 3d0,the ec Vieutnativ m Committee, , as and a as member the 16,0o vials, t which Guyuyananesese s 2 of Ea of Ea00 st Negroes G threat posed by the Marxist leader of the Vietnam subcommittee. I visited refugee make up Soleaders uth Vietnam. opposition People's Progressive party, Dr. camps, orphanages, hospitals and dispensaries Cheddi B. Jagan. all over the country. I received briefings I believe we are doing well in Vietnam. Guyana starts out on its own with more from our military and civilian advisers in There will be trials and setbacks. . But it assets than many former colonies achieving several provinces. It has been inspiring to is inspiring to see young Americans, and to ef- statehood. Its literacy rate-more than 80 see the great humanitarian work of IRC and 30, teaching and leading the Vietnamese in percent-is probably the highest of any un- other American voluntary agencies working the 20th century. Their eyes and their derdeveloped country in the world, and pro- in Vietnam. Our military and USAID off- forts are focused on conquering, not the vides the material from which to fashion the cials there are similarly dedicated. Viet Cong, but hunger and disease and skilled work force required for economic vi- I traveled by helicopter over most of the ignorance. The Viet Cong is a nuisance ability and stability. Its numbers of doc- Delta of the Mekong River, I traveled over which must be fended off, somewhat like the most of the coastal area as far north as Quang Ngai, in Military Zone I, I traveled over most of the central highlands, from Dak To down through Kontum and Pleiku. I talked to our military leaders, our economic and civilian leaders, leading figures in the government of South Vietnam. It is asy to get alarmed about the sit- uation Vietnam as you sit here in New York and read the papers, listen to the radio, see the TV and talk to all the grandstand quarterbacks. I return from Vietnam great- ly encouraged. We have big problems, we may experience setbacks. We can question the wisdom which got us where we are. But we are there and we must face it. And we can take heart from these encouraging elements: 1. There is no political leader of any im- portance at all who shows any sympathy for the Viet Cong. 2. No political faction wants a government in which the Viet Cong would play any im- portant role. 3. No political faction wants us out. 4. No one believes that the National Libera- tion Front, representing the Viet Cong and its sympathizers (the Viet Cong being con- trolled by the Communist organism of North Vietnam) would pull more than 10% of the vote in a national election in South Vietnam. 5. No important city in South Vietnam have ever been held by the Viet Cong. They as dominated and terrorized much of the coun- tryside, but they have no influence where the great bulk of the people live. 6. The refugees, whether they flee a Viet Cong attack, or an attack force bof U Se South Vietnamese government forces, come only one way-toward us and away from the Viet Cong. 7. 2,000 of the Viet Cong accept the open arms or amnesty invitation of the South Vietnam government and defect every month. 11c Of I was in Vietnam to study the pro the refugees and the victims of war. l in in Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 June 1, 1966?tpproved For ~ J,3 RR~~pp67B00446R000400080019-0 ~8Oll? SENATE 113$ U.S, contributions to the United Nations, specialized agencies, and special programs Calendar year 1963 Calendar year 1964 (estimated) Calendar year 1965 (estimated) U.S. Per U.S, Percent capita contribution contribution cost UnitedNations l-------------------------------------------- $33,379,925 Food and A g gricultOr anfzation------------------------- 4,591,668 50,445 International Civil Aviation Organization_ _------------------ ____ 1,452,373 International Civil Aviation Organization joint financing program. 1,117,686 Interrnattiionaal l Telecommunc ton Union3, 361, 869 United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organza 366, 869 tion------------------------------------------------------------- 5,363,500 Universal Postal Union------------------------------------------- 30,864 World Health Organization_ ______________________________________ 9, 611, 280 World Meteorological Organization__ ____ 169,118 United Nations and specialized agencies ----- -------------- 5D, 665,427 United Nations Emergency Force: Assessed------------------------------------------------------ 3,037,040 Voluntary--------------------------------------------------- 371,546 UNEF total------------------------------------------------ 23,408,486 United Nations operation in the Congo: Assessed------------------------------------------------------ 10,549720 Voluntary------------------- . total -------------------lu---------------------------- 212,318,199 United Nation Force in Cyprus, vontary_______________________ _ ---- United Nations peacekeeping_____________________________ 15,726,786 United NatonsChildren's Fund --------- ------------------------ 12,000,000 IInted Nations economic assistance to the Congo_______________ 29, 400, 000 United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organza. tion, Egyptian monuments program-_ _ _ _--_nical - ------------------ -------------- United Nations expanded program of tech assis-tance2-1-,-6- 1, 619, 891 United Nations Sp1iecial Fund_________________ 30, 798, 784 United Nations( Food and Agriculture Organization: World food program------------------------- ----------------------------- 1,200 000 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees progra-------- 700, 000 United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East_______24, 700000 -------------------- orld Health Organization, medical research program_____________ 500, 000 United Nations special programs--------------------------- 20,918,675 Per capita cost U.S. contribution Per capita cost 32.02 $0.176 $29,314,890 32.02 $0.154 $32,867,300 31.91 $0 ifs 14.14 32.02 .001 84,476 14.26 .030 001 3 53 6, 688, 32.02 . .029 31.80 .007 1 445 638 51 80 . 1 3 13.78 . UI)1 33.18 25 09 , , . .006 1,260,388 34.94 007 .006 1,551,936 1 150 790 31.80 .008 34 94 . 10 09 .012 4 097,199 25.00 021 , , . 4 671 087 25 00 . 0i12 362 035 10.01 002 , , . )04 406,%6 9.90 U02 30.56 4.21 .028 5,806,400 30. 56 4 30 ----- .030 6,881,980 30.00 .035 31.12 18 91 . .051 10, 852, 040 31.29 -----.057 48,745 4.30 OUL 12 327 120 31 29 . .001 342,605 24.01 .002 , , . 003 407,952 23.99 1)09 31 15 315 59,311,848 - -------- --------- 5,674,905 5 486 000 _ --------- ---------- 871,905 , , 850,000 35.88 .018 6,536,761 --------- 4 787 202 --------- , , 704,111 ,111 37.33 .065 25,491,313 30.17 .029 ---------- ------ a 7, 596, 450 46.06 .040 37 02 . .083 19,624,624 42 00 ----- 064 . 56.00 4 7 . 4 7 40.00 .156 15, 000 , 000 56 00 .062 12,000,000 40.00 .061 . .026 5,000,000 56.00 .026 - 40 00 12,000,000 33.33 .063 ---- . 40.00 114 22,5M 500 40.00 .162 36, 491,500 40.00 22-- 50--0-,--000--- 118 , 40.00 .191 115 37, 500, 000 40.00 .192 40.00 24.30 .006 2,438,096 40.00 .004 600,000 33 33 .013 1,361,904 40.00 003 .007 . . 600,000 33.33 .003 70.00 100.00 .131 24, 700,000 003 24, 700,000 70.00 127 . ------------- - - 100,000 20.00 .001 60.37 .640 115547 513 , , :u. ua . 095 103, 761,904 47.85 .532 43.46 1.039 194,483,885 40.02 2,018 180,212,037 40.9G 924 n . . onds 2 Covers 6 months of the year. . J The amount shown includes the airlift services of $906,450 and cash contributions for 9 months of the year. A LETTER FROM A SERVICEMAN IN MAY 24, 1966. VIETNAM Mr. SENATOR: I'm presently serving with Mr. JAVA'S. Mr. President, it has al- the United States Coast Guard in the Re- ways been my belief, buttressed by my thousand milesn away My hem smalls town severalof trip to South Vietnam last January, that Middleburgh, New York and, upon my re- despite divisions of opinion here in the turn, I would consider it a pleasure to per- United States, our men in Vietnam clear- sonally thank you for your recent stand on Iy understand and support U.S. Policies the President's policy in Vietnam. toward Vietnam and that their morale 15 Since my arrival in Vietnam, it has osten- high. This kind of support from our sibly been shown to me the American serv- 's willingness to fighting men in Vietnam gives the neces- in every ery s conceivable way yid the Vietnamese sary encouragement to those in high fight him but even wimaginable. y Will will h places who are responsible for making better him and thuslbetmore ter so, country. the difficult choices between war and I fully realize that public opinion within peace. the States will invariably dictate the actions I am particularly pleased to have re- our government must take over here. Label ceived a letter from Raymond Alger, a these individuals "armchair generals" and member of the Coast Guard serving in hear them out, but also, hear out one of the Republic of South Vietnam. He those so tyro "unfortunates who has Such - liter- writes: ally been thrown into the caldron: " Such I'm merely an American doing what must doing hatcmust be done-aa dal believe in be done-and I believe In what I am doing. ' what I'm doing, Mr. Alger's very eloquent letter is As you well know, the Vietnamese people testimony to the fact that those who are have been suppressed for years by the on the scene in Vietnam recognize the omnipotent powers which have ruled their vital purposes for which we all struggle. confronted with true freedom, they're con - I ask unanimous consent to have his fused and anxious in their obtaining it. letter printed In the CONGRESSIONAL First and foremost, the various sects must RECORD. be united by the There being no objection, the letter this unity is achievedd, a nationalistic iirit was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, will prevail and the VC will be driven from as follows: th Total_________________________ 196,300,887 I not reflect repayment received o U N b e No. 9(1--11 country by our joint offensive. Until these personal differences are overcome how- ever, we must and will be patient. True, we're fighting a war in which good. American men are paying with their lives, but even more-so, we're winning the hearts .and minds of the people by social economic and political reform efforts. If I were to be one of those who was chosen to follow my predecessors in "Glory Hall," at least I would go believing in our course as do so many of the servicemen over here. After all ". , resistance to tryranny is obedience to God." We must not withdraw and leave these people to the ultimate destruction the VC will impose on them! Thank you; again Mr. Senator for backing our President and the boys over here in Vietnam. Your views on U.S. policy prove you to be appreciative of the American ideals and you will always supersede those who, with statements containing allegations and vituperations tend to do us all a shameful injustice. Respectfully yours, RAYaOD ALGER, GM 2, USCG. INDEPENDENCE FOR GUYANA Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, I wish to take this opportunity to extend wel- come and congratulations to the new state of Guyana. After 152 years of colonial life under the name of British Guiana, Guyana has attained indepeiid- ence. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 ,tune Y-; 1966 Approved For Release 2005/07/13: CIA-RUP67B00446R000400080019-0 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 11335 malaria-bearing mosquito, in order to get the job done. In the United States, we have one doctor for every . 800 people. In Vietnam, there is one doctor for every 50,000 civilians, one dentist for every 250,000 people, one fully trained nurse for every 80,000 people. Our military men and their civilian running mates, serving the Vietnam government, are overcoming this appalling shortage. Doctors from the free world, and refugee doctors from Cuba are coming In to provide medical serv- ices at hospitals and dispensaries located at provincial capitals and other cities. Viet- namese girls are being trained to visit schools and families and refugee camps, to give injections, to spot cases that need the attention of the doctors at the nearest dis- pensary or hospital. The Vietnam people are beginning to realize that their govern- ment is acting to give their children and themselves a healthier future. Let me repeat this. The primary battle in Vietnam is to help a people brought up un- der colonialism establish a working inde- pendent government and todielp them meet their basic needs. The secondary battle Is to protect this peaceful work of nation build- ing from disruption by violent insurrection carried on by less than 2% of the population, With all the news of military battle, it is difficult to grasp this relationship. it is not easy to tell the people that the work of arms is secondary while men are being shot at. But if we are to succeed in Viet- nam, if we are to avoid a bigger war, it is essential to grasp this relationship. On this score, two things are encouraging: 1. The record shows that the work of pac- ification is one of our most effective mili- tary weapons.. Each month, some 2,000 of the Viet Cong lay down their arms and come over to our side. This comes partly from our show of strength, partly from the demon- stration that the South Vietnam govern- ment can do more to help these men and their families than the Viet Cong can. 2. That the civilian front is primary Is firmly believed by the thousands of Ameri- cans, military and civilian, who are helping refugees, training civil servants, training nurses and teachers, resettling refugees on new land and training them In mechanics and woodworking and construction. At the moment, American and Vietnam forces command the military situation. We are able to move almost anywhere in South Vietnam with relatively small forces. In one populous province in the north, considered to be hot and strong in Viet Cong, the senior American military adviser believes that we can go anywhere and take any town in the province with two companies, or 300 men. In the central highlands, some 4,000 men cleared out a 60 mile front in 18 days. In the Delta, with some 2,500 Special Forces troops, we are securing 100 miles of the Cam- bodian border. We have the mobility, the fire power and the fighting power to substantially clear the country, unless Ho Chi Minh or the Chinese put in more regular troops. What we need and don't have is the force to hold the terri- tory we take. This creates a seesawing back and forth. The Marines clear out a pocket of Viet Cong and go back to their base and, then, the Viet Cong come back in. This 1s costly in lives and disruption of civilian life. We should use Our military superiority to clear the country while we have it and we should get the forces to hold the territory we clear. This will accelerate the nation-build- ing process and bring many Viet Cong, with their families, over to our side as It becomes clearer that we can offer them more security, food, education and health care. To continue with too little and too late at this stage will be too costly. .(is to what to do about involving the Viet- namese at this juncture, I recommend the following: 1. Put top priority on extending the por- tion of South Vietnam which the govern- ment holds securely. The government pres- ently holds well under half the country side, but those areas in which well over half the population resides. We can and should hold the entire Delta, the entire coastal area and all the cities and farming areas in the cen- tral highlands. Only when we have done this can we successfully and securely build a government and an economy which can satisfy the Vietnamese people. When we have done this, we will have successfully repulsed this Communist inspired war of na- tional liberation and will, hopefully, have dealt a death blow to the war of liberation technique with which the Chinese and the Russians threaten to undermine us through- out Asia, Latin-America and Africa. 2. Don't extend and escalate the war. Continue to bomb supply depots and supply lines in order to reduce the flow of supplies which can be used against our men, but do not send ships in or mine Haiphong harbor or bomb the population of Hanoi. To esca- late the war in this way could involve us in a major land war in Asia. It could force the North Vietnamese to send against our men the 300,000 trained troops they now have in North Vietnam. The advantages of shutting off Haiphong harbor are not enough to jus- tify the risk of involving us in a much greater war. Any supplies which come in to Hai- phong harbor can be brought In over land if Haiphong harbor is out of commission. Thus, the advantages of disrupting international shipping in Haiphong harbor are temporary and illusory. Supplies are coming into South Vietnam on bicycles. We can only cut that off by bombing or otherwise interdict- ing jungle trails. If supplies don't come in through Haiphong harbor, they would come down from Hong Kong or Shanghai or over- land from Manchuria and Russia. It is ir- responsible for anyone, who Is not in a posi- tion to weigh the benefits against the risk and exposure of bombing, mining or block- ading Haiphong harbor, to urge that we take any of these drastic steps. 3. Get additional holding forces in Viet- nam so that our present ability to defeat the Viet Cong in the field, root them out of the towns and chase them Into the hills can be converted into additional securely held ter- ritory in which the process of helping the Vietnamese people in building the nation can be prosecuted. The Australians have just tripled their commitment of troops. The Philippines are taking legislative action to send holding forces. We should accelerate diplomatic initiative to get other nations to contribute holding forces. In Europe, we should offer technological assistance to in- duce our allies there to either send troops or civilian personnel to aid in the process of developing the Vietnamese nation. Above all, we should urge the government of South Vietnam to develop a more effective method of allocating manpower to the military and essential civilian functions, and we should exert very great pressure to get them to put the young men, now riding bicycles on the streets of Saigon and the other cities, into uniform so that the American capacity to clear out the Viet Cong can be followed up by holding operations In which these new Vietnamese troops can be trained and con- verted into a fighting force. 4. Get more young men from the United States and other free nations involved in the process of helping Vietnamese refugees, and fighting ignorance, poverty and hunger in Vietnam. Much of this vital work is now being done by ex-Peace Corps men. We have made a policy decision not to use the Peace Corps in Vietnam. Apparently, there's con- cern that helping the civilian population in South Vietnam would impair the image of the Peace Corps as a force for peace. This is a weak and self-conscious posture and we should reverse it to use Peace Corps person- nel in the process of nation building in South Vietnam. Failing that, we should recruit men from, the Peace Corps and young volunteers from America, who would other- wise go into the Peace Corps, to accelerate our efforts on a civilian front in South Vietnam. 5. We should support our troops in South Vietnam but we should not permit political decisions which would or could involve ex- tension of the war to military commanders. These decisions should continue to be made only by our duly elected political leaders. 6. Don't permit the military pressures or the harassment of the Viet Cong to hold us back from our essential task in Vietnam, which is to help build the nation, create a viable Vietnamese government and help the long-suffering people of that land. That's the only way we will, in the final analysis, win the war and show the Communist pow- ers that the technique of national wars of liberation, on which they count to destroy our Influence throughout the world, does not work. 7. Continue to make every possible diplo- matic initiative to work out a peaceful set- tlement. There can be no peaceful settle- ment on South Vietnam unless the Viet Cong participate. The Viet Cong organization is directed from North Vietnam. But many of its members could be persuaded to join in the government and society of South Viet- nam. This is evident from the fact that presently some 2,000 of the Viet Cong accept the open arms invitation of the government of South Vietnam and defect every month. The elections scheduled for September offer a great opportunity to accelerate this process. A PROPOSAL I propose that the U.S. Government urge the South Vietnamese to challenge the Viet Cong with a new double-barrelled military- political drive. This initiative should be dramatically focused an the upcoming elec- tions in Vietnam. The military aspect of this double-barrelled policy cannot be di- vorced from diplomatic aspects. The first half is military: We now have the mobility and the military capacity and control of the air necessary to take almost any portion of South Vietnam. But we are not able to substantially increase the land area and the number of villages that the South Vietnamese hold because there are not sufficient local troops to hold the areas liberated by our effective mobile forces. The South Vietnamese must substantially up their draft and put more of their eligible males into armed service. These new South Vietnamese troops can be deployed to hold newly liberated territory and while there can receive additional training and begin to learn the more intricate offensive maneuvers of jungle warfare. This added South Vietnam- ese troop deployment would help eliminate the frustrating experience American forces now have to endure when they liberate a village only to know that, when they return to their base the Viet Cong will come back and capture the village. It would also pro- tect the civilian people and refugees from being caught in a seesawing of territory be- tween the South Vietnamese forces aided by Americans and the Viet Cong. The second half of this double-barrelled policy is diplomatic and political: The upcoming election should be the basis of a major peace initiative which, even if it fails to- terminate hostility, should reduce the numbers and the effectiveness of the Viet Cong. The Americans and South Vietnamese Gov- ernment should offer to the Viet Cong an opportunity to participate as a political party in the forthcoming elections providing they cease their aggression and violence. This should be backed up by a strong offer of am- nesty to the Viet Cong people insuring them, as individuals, the right to participate in the Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE June 1, 1966 elections in return for their coming over to the South Vietnamese side. I believe this will substantially increase the number of defec- tions from the Viet Cong which is already running over 2,000 per month. In summary, I believe that we and the South Vietnamese must show the Viet Cong that they are in for a tougher time, yet hold the door open for them as a party to nego- tiate for a role in the elections should they renounce force, and as indi*iduals to par- ticipate in the new elections if they choose to join the free Vietnamese. This kind of initiative offers the only present hope of pro- ducing an early peaceful settlement. The diplomatic effort would show the world our peaceful purposes while the military effort would not permit our peace seeking efforts to be misinterpreted as weakness. It should, as a minimum, step up the rate of defec- tions from the Viet Cong. It would offer ad- ded protection to the people of South Viet- nam and accelerate the basic nation building program which is necessary for a durable peace in Southeast Asia. UNFAIR FEDERAL AID Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, on March 5 I issued a study, which appears in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD for March 8, of the distribution of Federal grants- in-aid among the States. My con- clusion from that study was that the dis- tribution of such funds to States, local governments, and private institutions is "grossly unfair to large urban States." It has come to my attention that an excellent editorial supporting the study was published in the Syracuse Herald- Journal on March 19, 1966. I ask un- animous consent that it be printed in the RECORD at this point in my remarks. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: UNFAIR FEDERAL AID Sen. JACOB JAvrrs has rolled up his con- gressional sleeves and has picked a fight with the federal aid formulas which he la- beled as being "out of date, arbitrary and grossly unfair to large urban states." He speaks so true when he calls these times the "age of the cities", for there have been enormous shifts of population into major urban centers. The self-taxing efforts of these cities cannot meet the vastly-rising demands for services and sharply increased costs. ? But not enough Federal money has come along in wake of these population waves of pressure. Listen to Sen. JAVITS: "The huge concentrations of population In major urban centers have created condi- tions entirely beyond the proportions ever experienced before. These are conditions which threaten the basic livability of the dwelling place of almost 76 per cent of our nation's people. "And they are conditions which the cities and the states in which they are located are incapable of handling with their available resources.. Only the federal government can help do this job; without the federal government, the cities are strangling." Much of this injustice is apparent through the whole panorama of the hundred or so aid grants to states-the allocations for hos- pital and medical facilities construction aid, vocational rehabilitation, roads, economic devolpment, pollution, education, health services and so on. What makes it so unfair is that, for every dollar in federal Income tax paid by New Yorkers, only 54 cents is returned. This state contains 9.4 per cent of the national population. It receives only seven per cent of all federal aid .distributed to the states. JAvrrs wants Washington to keep up with the changing face of the nation but, instead, he laments, "we have perpetuated a bene- fit for the less-populated states without con- sidering whether it still is relevant." Let's hope JAvITs' fellow senators listen to him and understand the terrible financial strain today on cities ... and move to divide federal aid to reflect urban needs. THE 12TH ANNUAL REPORT OF DELINQUENT TAXES Mr. WILLIAMS of Delaware. Mr. President, today I am filing the 12th annual report of delinquent taxes. The 1965 report shows an increase in delinquent employment taxes from $217,365,000 to $222,296,000, representing a 2.3-percent increase. The total amount of all delinquent taxes---employment, in- come, corporation, et cetera-have in- creased 7.9 percent or from $1.173,911,000 to`$1,267,183,000. In addition to the delinquent taxes as carried on the books at the end of 1965 the report shows that during the calendar year 1965 the Government wrote off as uncollectible, delinquent accounts total- ing $328,275,000. This writeoff repre- sents a 61-percent increase over the $203,821,000 written off as uncollectible In 1964. In addition, the amount of taxes abated in 1964 jumped 68.5 percent, from $177,772,000 to $299,629,000 in 1965. A statistical breakdown showing the valuations in delinquent accounts, write- offs, and abatements for each of the various collection districts will be incor- porated in the RECORD as a part of my remarks. I shall cite but a few of the more glaring examples. The Brooklyn, N.Y., office shows a 45.4- percent increase in delinquent employ- ment taxes and a 29.8 percent increase in total tax delinquencies. In addition, the report for the Brooklyn office shows a substantial increase in the amount of delinquent accounts written off as un- collectible and that this writeoff jumped from $12,917,000 in 1964 to $18,094,000 in 1965. During the same year taxes abated jumped from $6,958,000 in 1964 to $20,585,000. The Manhattan office shows an in- crease in total tax delinquencies of 11.1 percent or an increase from $132,398,000 to $147,058,000, but this tells only a small part of the story. The Manhattan office wrote off an additional $97,916,000 as ?uncollectible accounts. This represents almost a 275-percent increase from the $26,418,000 written off in 1964. During this same year the amount of taxes abated in the Manhattan office jumped 74.5 percent, from $12,049,000 in 1964 to $21,025,000 in 1965. Unquestionably both the Brooklyn and the Manhattan offices need attention. The unusually large amounts being writ- ten off need further explanation. The Baltimore, Md., office reports a drop In total tax delinquencies from $23,541,000 to $21,938,000, but apparently this drop is partly accounted for by a substantial increase in the total amount of delinquent taxes - written off as un- collectible. The Baltimore office in 1965 wrote off as uncollectible $10,804,000, an increase of 204.8 percent from the $3,545,000 written off In 1964. During the same period taxes in the amount of $5,409,000 were abted as compared with $4,609,000 abated in 1964. Newark, N.J., reported $59,407,000 in total tax delinquencies, representing a 6-percent Increase over 1964. Again the amount of delinquent accounts written off as uncollectible jumped from $7,327,- 000 in 1964 to $18,273,000 in 1965, an in- crease of 150 percent. During this same year the amount of taxes abated jumped from $10,934,000 in 1964 to $19,344,000 in 1965. The Philadelphia office reported the total amount. of delinquent taxes as being $38,316,000, an increase of 4.3 percent over 1964, but delinquent accounts writ- ten off as uncollectible in the Philadel- phia office totaled $17,126,000 as com- pared to $14,354,000 in 1964. Taxes abated in the Philadelphia office dropped from $12,768,000 in 1964 to $7,552,000 in 1965. Wilmington, Del., reported a 102.0 per- cent increase in delinquent employment taxes, a jump from $294,000 in 1964 to $594,000 in 1965, but it had a 16.2 percent decrease in total delinquent accounts as compared to 1964, a reduction from $5,- 163,000 to $4,326,000. Delinquent ac- counts written off as uncollectible, how- ever, jumped from $405,000 in 1964 to $1,044,000 in 1965. Taxes abated during this same year declined from $2,450,000 to $1,437,000. In Jacksonville, Fla., delinquent em- ployment taxes rose 6.9 percent, from $9,743,000 to $10,412,000, while the total amount of all tax delinquencies in this office jumped 95.2 percent, from $50,- 334,000 in 1964 to $98,275,000 in 1965. During the same period the Jacksonville office wrote off delinquent accounts as uncollectible totaling $11,529,000 as com- pared to $10,708,000 in 1964. Taxes abat- ed in the Jacksonville office in 1965 to- taled $5,766,000 as compared with abate- ments in 1964 of $8,526,000. Chicago, Ill., reports a 12.1-percent in- crease in delinquent employment taxes, or $10,073,000 in 1965 as compared to $8,985,000 in 1964. During the same pe- riod the total tax delinquencies in the Chicago office jumped 18.2 percent, or from $43,164,000 to $51,012,000 in 1965. During the same year delinquent ac- counts written off as uncollectible in the Chicago office totaled $20,733,000 in 1965, an increase of 68.9 percent, or from $12,- 277,000 written off in 1964. In 1965 taxes abated in this office totaled $6,583,000 as compared to $6,866,000 in 1964. Milwaukee, Wis., reported a 7-percent reduction in delinquent employment tax- es and a 21.8 percent increase in total tax delinquencies, or an increase in total delinquent taxes from $8,836,000 to $10,- 758,000 in 1965. During the same year, however, the Milwaukee office wrote off $3,588,000 in delinquent accounts as un- collectible, representing an increase of 193.1 percent over the $1,224,000 written off as uncollectible in 1964. Taxes abat- ed in this office were $2,149,000 in 1965 as compared to $2,016,000 in 1964. Dallas, Tex., reported that it had re- duced its total tax delinquencies by 13.3 percent, or from $23,588,000 to $20,446,- 000; however, delinquent accounts writ- ten off as uncollectible in the Dallas of- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 - CONGRESSIONAL RE R i t ns to meet this assistance challenge could only "time". We are in a race aga .produce additional breeding grounds for the Those who suggest an agricultural solution us in the congress and in Government who infestation and eventual domination of these to world hunger have suggested the reclania- have long regarded the fruits of your harvest value ing is gr , and countries in the world plan for communist retionof new lans. But ach the staggering figure their cost half a speak o e the broad nat~n l inter st today who control there are many more in the number who This problem of world hunger 1s lessening. trillion dollars. would include fishermen and the fishing in- Every hours, world population is Increasing WORLD FISHERY CONSERVATION IMPERATIVE dustry as a segment of the economy above by about 170,000 people and every year by In terms of time and cost it Is little wonder that level of national or international sacri- about 65 million, or about the number of that nations are turning to the sea. In 1850 fice. people who populate France. the world catch was less than two million I would leave you with this final thought. One of the nations regularly visited with tons; in 1900 it had more than doubled to There is no greater threat to that peace than famine and death from hunger during our 4 million tons, by 1930 it was 10 million tons; the millions of fathers who go to bed hungry generation is India. Madame Ghandi, that in 1950, 20.2; 1960, 38.2 and in 1964 we had and awaken to the whimper of their children, nation's prime minister, was re Washington passed the 50 million ton fishery production weak with that same hunger and unable to recently conferring with the President on the mark. Though this is far short of what we cry . What greater challenge, what more food needs of that nation. Since independ- consider the ultimate ocean potential, there satisfying reward than the harvest and pro- dence, India has made great strides, in- are many formerly rich fishing areas which ducts n of food that the cause of peace may creasing her food production by about 75 per- today are in a serious state of depletion. No ' 1 1 `/ ter served. cent, but the failure of the monsoon last longer can we consider the ocean resources IY tragedy is compared to our own -austi Dawl - food from the sea and looking witn concern - - - VIETNAM years of the 1930's. the unrestricted exploitation of the fishery In answer to India's desperate request for resources, I submitted a resolution to the Mr. SCOTT. Mr. President, I am assistance, President Johnson has asked that United States Senate three years ago, calling proud of the fact that Republicans in food incgrain rease our planned six . But millions tons of attention to the need for world fishery con- Congress d of have been acting responsibly in food live by bread afor lone, But man does servation and the responsibility for the not live by rem alone, and scientists are coastal and fishing nations to join in con- their Comments and statements on the r. consistently reminding t of r o o the literal Center ference on the questions of conservation re- situation in Vietnam. Roscoe Drum- Dr, Roger RuRev Stud, Director Harvard niv quirements. Had the United States State Mond calls attention to this in his col- for Population Studies o State tUiver- Department followed through on this unani- umn which appeared in the Philadelphia slid,, and a nt y e of our o emphasized own the prrofoblems Wash of f mously adopted resolution, I feel certain that Inquirer of May 31. I ask unanimous Indian recent ly we would be in a far better position today consent that Mr. Drummond's column India when he said: to deal with the menacing fishing fleets of be printed in the RECORD. "The future n a. If mankind is now being the Soviet Union which have so recently ap- grond out in India. If there i India peared off the Washington and Oregon coasts. There being no objection, the article now. aA livable world will live line I nda does In the absence of the earlier implementation was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, now. have a cannot long to a exist on where - of that proposed world fishery conference, I as follows: two-thi .-thirds don't enough tat and have asked the President to join with Secre- GOP SHAPES PRUDENT POLICY ON VIETNAM third are over r fed-and that is the present ent tary of State Rusk in an immediate diplo- (By Roscoe Drummond) world." niatic confrontation with the Russians that -In the wake of the Oregon ON . Dr. crisisl on recoens an aa on the fronts, and one of these we may discuss a proper conservation regime WASHINGT stocks. Democratic primary's indorsement of Presi- food is in the need for increasing the quality of for the adjecent fishery Further, I am asking Secretary Rusk and dent Johnson's course in Vietnam, diets, with particular emphasis ns on protein. his Department to speed the implementation lican leaders in Congress are taking a new incremenxofRhigh quality protein is found of the 1958 Geneva Convention on Fishing lain it how in the they ought coming handle the Viet- In the which provides some special rights and in- g elections. at- development of low-cost protein ex- tract t from fish. terests to the coastal state including the en- They tack the are President becoming Indiscriminately, aware that, if they they are If Fish Protein Concentrate were available forcement of conservation of resources being more the Pr s hurt sa. They ya are throw haway urt them advantage They being today in sufficient quantities, the addition fished in the high seas off its coasts by itself afford likely of just a small percentage in that six mil- or others, or only by others. There are con- more united behind the defense of Vietnam lion tons of wheat which the President has ditions whereby the coastal state can even than the united behind h heckling the Vietnam mocrats Pres promised to India, would mean the difference enforce conservation measures on the fisher- dent and thus helping to disunite the count- in merely keeping people alive, and making men of other nations on the high seas uni- them able to perform the functions neces- laterally. I do not know whether this Con- trThe Republicans have two campaign issues sary to make this product a world reality. vention, which now enjoys twenty-two rati- Vietnam on which they can right- has path thus far toward such reality fications, can provide an answer to the con- affecting 1 capitalize Vietnam not been an easy one. An opinion some servation problems with which we are con- yA good case don be made that the Gov- Drug ago in which the Federal Food and cerned, but I do know that it must be our er goo would da be made t for he v- the egregious Drug Administration rejected Fish Protein dedicated responsibility to press every are- ment be Concentrate because it was made from whole nue that harvest shall be within the require- tests tests lie e ahead two by parties in correcting both the eg o s mbal fish has made progress slow and difficult. ments of maximum sustainable yield. ai nd lan a the t. The Johnson both the s use The present application from the Depart- As Committee I Chairman have of called the for Senate immediate hear Commerce - tion needs an effective watchdog opposition en Protein ings on Senator BARTLETT's 12-mile limit bill. seats Congress able a d the Republicans need more Cielit ns Interior for not a only approval achieving sd fill that pathetic here is iconsider- These are now scheduled for May 18 and 19. to need. able optimism it will but be granted. To hIt is my hope that the hearings on the 12- Secondly, if the country wants Congress p al if that granted, ho be granted. The mile proposal will produce the kind of testi- to back President Johnson's course in Viet- only o process an, however, will be for mony necessary to enable a proper decision nam and to give him the support he needs only one There in and rapid only one type of of just what is in our long-range national to exert both patience and firmness, he is rash. There is need for rapid and broadened more likely to get it by increasing the Re- research and process devave cons and the interest. -publican members than by giving any en-been in an le which we have cons fisted In The United fie and the e have future has couragement to the Democratic liberal dis- sidents. today despondency, accomplishment. appeared as dark and univiting. We have One of the distinct advantages of Fish stumbled from adversity of crisis and there ThRee a latest evidence is is that Vietnam the he is emergent bent blica Protein Concentrate is its low cost. Scien- has been little economic surplus for renewal rodent and co. nstructivelists estimate that just a teaspoonful of this Of harvest or processing tools. We have been P tasteless, odorless product can produce visited by the curse of unfair competition A good example is the speech which Rep. noticeable good result in a child suffering in the market place, and our international CHARLES E. GOODELL of New York, chairman from protein malnutrition disease in less dealings have been regularly marked by the of the GOP Committee on Planning and than ten days, and the cost is estimated to sacrifice of the commercial fisherman and his Research, prepared for delivery in the House. be about twenty-five cents per month. industry on varying altars for what has been It was previewed without objection by other Many food scientists are looking to the glibly referred to as the broad national inter- top Republicans. In tone and substance it ocean resources today as the greatest hope st? is in keeping with everything Sen. EVERETT for the survival of mankind. The challenge I wish that I could say today that all of DIRxsEN has been saying. which we face is to duplicate in terms of food these storms are safely over the horizon, that GOODELL helps the Administration by de- production within the next 35 years every- smooth seas and fair winds were promising livering a warning which undoubtedly re- thing that mankind has learned and only good harvest. This is not so, and your fleets the attitude of the President. It is South achieved since the beginning of time, and need for courage and resourcefulness will be that, if tfeom the Vietnam eseif emlelves withdraw - the key word to the challenge is the word ever present. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 June 1, 1966 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 113A special breed. Like the man in the resources, I envision an industry of great ing, increased from about 590,000 metric tons crow's nest surveying the horizon, these consequence in the years ahead. For this In 1948 to 3,500,000 metric tons in 1964, and men are ever looking to the future, seek- new industry to grow to the kind of pro- the market appears to be stable and growing. ing battle with nature, new discoveries, port ions we speak of, there is need for a great We have come a long way from the days when new crops, and new ure, a raw resource. What then, is available? we thought of fish meal only as fertilizer, While the space race To me, there is no question of resource and we are literally one step away from direct gets the head- abundance. The presence of the huge fish- human consumption. This final step has lines and perhaps captures the imagina- ing fleets of the Soviet Union, thousands of been a long time in coming and will consti- tion of some of those who in former miles from home, serves as daily testimony tute a major breakthrough in fishery proc- years would look to the sea, there are still of the rich wealth which abounds off the essing and marketing history. I refer, of men of vision who see the oceans as a West Coast of the United States. The esti- course, to Fish Protein Concentrate. great frontier to be cultivated today to mates are still uncertain, but with each re- vision, the new figure is greater than the WHY some of theI build a better tomorrow, properties last. Indeed, the last preliminary estimates What are some of the of this One of the most persuasive, most ef- as to the total harvestable fishery resource revolutionary product that have made it :Peetive of these men is the senior Senator off the United States Coast by the Bureau such an exciting subject in world nutritional from Washington [Mr. MAGNUSON], Cap- of Commercial Fisheries was a figure of 22 circles: itol Hill's leading advocate of making the billion pounds. When we consider that the 1. Fish proteins contain all the amino- "United States the world's ranking sea- domestic U.S. fleets take about 4.5 billion acids required by the human today in pro- power. pounds and our total fishery use, from what portions well adjusted to keeping the body On April 25, 1966, Senator MAGNUSON we catch and what we import, is about 12 in vigorous health. In addition, there are billion pounds, it is quite obvious that we plus factors, vitamins, calcium, trace miner- once again demonstrated that his eyes may rest assured that we have raw product als, polyunsaturated animal oils, etc. Were focused on the horizon of the fu- for this new industry. 2. The proteins of all fish are substantially Lure. In a speech at Aberdeen, Wash.. This does not mean, however, that we can the same. Thus a fully dehydrated and de- where he conducted hearings on a bill stand idly by, or allow ourselves the luxury fatted product, made of a considerable va- authorizing construction Of experi- of reflection on these quantities of marine riety of ocean run fish together, is as valua- Inental plants to manufacture fish pro- resources Which we so often refer to as ble nutritionally as that made from selected min concentrate manufacture the Senator "ours." The truth of the matter is, that high-priced fish. by present international standards of ocean 3. Fish proteins can be dehydrated cheaply made clear the prime importance of practice they are not ours, but belong to and the proteins not damaged in the process manufacturing FPC was to nourish the that nation that can reduce them to harvest. if reasonable care is used. ever growing number of hungry people Here on the Pacific Coast we have watched 4. Dehydrated fish proteins can be pack- in the world. the progressive southward movement of two aged economically so that they can be He noted: foreign nations-Japan and the Soviet shipped and stored for long periods of time The real benefits of the fish protein con- Union-as they have extended their opera- cheaply and in stable form. eThate program will come in its broad on- tions into the once virgin fishery stocks off- This brings us then to the final ingredient csntrl context, program its will come in contribution broad to- shore, and today the latter nation is vigor- for success of the creation of the new in-tiona ward fee the hungry of the world, and ously exploiting resources off both the Wash- dustry; the human factor. Though this Is thus fee eliminating g th one of the prime causes and ington and the Oregon coast. perhaps the most important of all, it is here war. * * * America is today the leader in the In a sense we have been engaged in a race that I have the least concern, for I have an struggle toward world peace, and a prime for fish, and America has not done very well, unswerving faith in the ability of the Ameri- foundation segment of that effort structure having slipped from second to fifth place can fishermen to go forth and compete with is our continuing aid programs to the un- in the world production record. I have the best fishermen in the world, provided the derdeveloped nations of the world. A failure heard criticism of the fishermen and the competition is on reasonably equal terms. I on our part to meet this assistance challenge processor for America's poor showing in this have equal faith in the imagination and in- could only produce additional breeding race, but the record will clearly show that genuity of American industrial technology, grounds for the infestation and eventual the fishing industry has not had an even and here again, we have consistently proven domination of these countries in the world competitive chance in this contest. Agricul- our superiority. plan for communist control. ture has enjoyed elaborate aids here in the Certainly the proper development of this United States, it has been protected from fish Protein Concentrate program is of vital Because of the importance of Senator foreign competition by a variety of quotas, interest to the citizens of Grays Harbor, for lU AGNIISON'S address, I ask unanimous tariffs and other controls, few of which have the creation of new industry and the re- consent that it be printed in the RECORD been available to those who harvest the sea. by. It t is great personal nal not Importance oo c to as it was reported in a recent edition of NEW FRONTIERS OFF OUR SHORES me also, of not great me also, which only for the benefits h the Fishermen's News. There are new fishery frontiers remaining It can provide to the economy of this and There being no objection, the speech for the American fishermen off our coasts, other areas of the State of Washington, but was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, and one of the most promising of these is the because it represents some goals in sight on a.. follows Pacific hake resource, which will provide the an effort which dates back a good many GREAT ow FPC s FUTURE FORECAST BY SENATOR IN initial and prime raw resource for the new years to a time when the discussion of fish ABERDEEN SPEECH Grays Harbor fish meal operation. The har- flour or Fish Protein Concentrate was quite vesting techniques-the midwater The creation of a successful commercial particular-as developed by he Burtrawl in eau of foBunthetreal benefits tofe the Fish Protein fishery is not an easy task as those of you Commercial Fisheries is a prime factor in our Concentrate program will come in its broad aasociated with that industry will readily present ability to proceed with this project. national context, in its needed contribution attest. There are many necessary facets, but There are other unutilized offshore species, toward feeding the hungry of the world and ce:-tainly at the top of the requirement list some perhaps in greater abundance than the thus alleviating one of the prime causes of must certainly be adequate raw resource and Pacific hake, and I am confident that har- war. commensurate market. Just as important vesting methods can be developed for these It is difficult for many of us in well fed are harvesting and processing techniques, and so that the supply to the shore processor may America to realize that we live in a world then is he en r to enthusiastically courage e of indi- be more consistent and the fishing season filled with hunger. Scientists tell us that often difficult ath of the y pursue the may be extended. I am pressing in this ses- about 60% of the present world population p pioneer. And sion of the Congress for the inclusion of a is suffering from what they term animal these men who will finance and operate the $100,000 item that the work of the Bureau's protein malnutrition. History tells us that fine new plant now under construction in Seattle Exploratory Fishing and Gear Re- the inevitable companion of hunger is po- Aberdeen, and the fishermen who are build- search Base may be continued and consider- litical unrest, the forerunner of war. One ini; new vessels or converting old ones to ably enhanced. participate in the sea harvest are loners no history's eest lessons is n in th- P The second factor for consideration in the fact that there oldest must be be a reasonable bal- less so than Captain Robert Gray or Samuel development of a new fishing industry is the ance of food and advantage if peace is to be Bean who are identified and honored by his- matter of market, for without someplace to maintained. President Johnson clearly tory for their contribution to the founding sell the fish, the resource would continue as pointed this out last September when he and development of this region. valueless. There Is good market at present noted that one-fourth of the people of the The heritage of this entire area is founded for fish meal, and this will be the prime pro- world cannot long maintain their ability to on the spirit of courage and resourcefulness duction product of the new Grays Harbor have everything they want against three- and rugged determination in carving com- plant. The use of fish meal in the diet of quarters suffering. from want in every form. munities out of what was once a forest poultry and livestock has had a fantastic America is today the leader in the struggle wilderness. I would pay homage to these effect on the harvest of those species which toward world peace, and a prime foundation contemporary pioneers today, for from their are so used. Under the pressure of increased segment of that effort structure is our con- comparatively small beginnings in this busi- demand, world production of fish meals and tinning aid programs to the underdeveloped ness of utilizing America's adjacent fishery solubles, mostly for poultry and animal feed- nations of the world. A failure on our part Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 Approved C OrAe fpiOL7/ile6I DP?J0 ft6R000400080019-0 11397 June *, 1966 shad orders force such withdrawal, "the United "estuarine pollution" is far more difficult to eluding ~sg on, h on theiring and spawn-thro way States may have no alternative but to with- study and control than pollution draw. in individ- bass, grounds. And many offshore fish, such " ual rivers or lakes. in the mackerel, which may not visit the But GOODELL does not leave the Republi- WADING INTO THE PROBLEM estuaries, depend for food on creatures that cans simply in the position of just support Lawmakers and policymakers have begun do. ing the President. He urgently counsels the e wading into this long-neglected problem Then there are the birds, some hunted White House to quit pretending it can play with proposals to give the estuaries some- with guns and others with field glasses. no positive part in furthering the conditions thing approaching national attention. Some are year-round residents; many are needed for "free and meaningful elections in "There's growing awareness that estuaries seasonal visitors. South Vietnam." - are valuable biological resources and that pollution, be it caused by pulp mills, chem- GooDELL proposes these steps: they're being lost to us bit by bit," says one ical plants, municipal sewers or yacht toilets, That a pre-election agreement be prompted Government planner. isn't the only man-caused hazard. Conser- among responsible representatives of all ma- By one reckoning, one-fourth of the Amer- vationists frequently frown at channel- jor Vietnamese groups to abide by the out- scan populace lives within 50 miles of the dredging, which can upset the underwater come of the balloting. seacoast. They and countless others use balance of nature in estuaries, and the dump- That supervision of the election be un- the estuaries for swimming, sailing, fishing ing of dredged-up mud or other spoil on dertaken by an international commission of and other recreation. The estuaries are an marshes. disinterested third-party states, not the U.S. important source of food and also provide a Countless thousands of marsh, or "wet- or any Communist Power. livelihood for many people. land," acres have been filled to provide dry That as part of the election there be a In the face of these growing demands, land for factories, farms or housing develop- direct vote on the war itself. the days are gone when people could blithely ments. Other marshes have been drained to This is the kind of thoughtful advocacy assume that anything dumped into an es- control mosquitoes, quarried for gravel or which can put Republicans in the best tuary from factory or shipboard would do no used for trash dumps. Dams built far up- possible position to go before the voters harm before being whisked out to sea by the stream affect river flows and thus can on the Vietnam issues this fall. tides, even if it took quite a while. harm estuary life by allowing salt water Estuaries have "taken severe punishment" on occasion to intrude further inland. from human use in the past, John S. Gotts- TYDINGS PROPOSAL NEED FOR RESEARCH ON NATION'S chalk, director of the Interior Department's As one step toward protection, Sen. JOSEPH ESTUARIES Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, A D mess (D-Md.) war recently Sen. JosE a charged in a speech last fall. Secretary of Mr. TYDINGS. Mr. President, on Interior Stewart L. Udall told a Senate sub- bill calling on the Interior Department for Sunday, May 1, 1966, a feature article committee recently that estuaries have been a three-year, $3 million "comprehensive appeared in the Outlook section. of the "sort of a garbage dump." study" of estuaries and their problems, with a report to include recommendations for a Washington Post stressing the danger THE IMPACT of SEWAGE national follow-up program. of pollution in our Nation's estuaries. The environmental Pollution Panel of the The Public Health Service has gotten in- The article, written by Mr. Eric Went- President's Science Advisory Committee dealt volved in estuarine problems to some extent. worth points out that "'estuarine pollu- with the special problem of estuarine pollu- As part of 10 major river basin studies, it tion' is far more difficult to study and tion in its report last November on "Re- has undertaken to identify pollution sources control than pollution in individual rivers storing the Quality of Our Environment." and recommend abatement methods. These The Panel cited dramatic case histories, in- studies, whose subjects include the Dela-on to sa lakes" Mr. growing awareness ges that cluding the impact of sewage and industrial ware River, and the Susquehanna River plus s that t's growing biological aste on New Jersey's Raritan Bay where Chesapeake Bay, have become responsibilities estuaries are valuable ogire- caswimmers, fishermen and clammers once of the new Water Pollution Control Adminis- sources and that they're being lost to us disported. tration scheduled to move to the Interior bit by bit." "Its once clean waters which contained Department soon. The article states that my bill (S. large numbers of harvestable shellfishes and The Tydings study would be complemen- 3240), calling on the Interior Depart- many other species of invertebrates," the tary, but broader. Some Government ana- ment to make a 3-year, $3 million com- Panel concluded, "were transformed by the lysts, eyeing the intricacies of estuaries, be- prehensive study of estuaries and their pressures of industrialization and the result- lieve the Senator's proposal would barely problem, is a concrete step that would ing population expansion into a septic, de- scatch the surface of needed research. They "focus attention on estuaries as a special spoiled environment, murky with domestic note that a thorough British study of the and industrial wastes and " " ? peculiar, Thames Estuary alone took between six and problem." The article stressed the im- undesirable flora." seven years. Still, the Tydings approach portance of our Nation's estuaries as Another case: Long Island's Great South would focus attention on estuaries as a areas for recreation as well as important Bay and Moriches Bay, where pollution, first special problem. sources of food and a livelihood for many from nearby duck farms and more recently Rep. JOHN D. DINGELL (D-Mich.), taking people. The article urges that we find from human sewage, ruined a once-prosper- another tack, has proposed establishing a a way of stopping the further pollution our shellfish industry and has hampered "National System" of estuarine areas-to be of these areas. recreational use-producing among other designated by the Secretary of Interior-that I ask unanimous consent that this arti- things "unpleasant gases" that discolored are either relatively unspoiled or could be the paint on waterside houses. restored. The Government could acquire Cle be printed in the RECORD. Aside from such disastrous incidents, and land or water in these areas and regulate There being no objection, the article the occasional, sudden "kills" of fish or their public use. was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, fowl caused by one-shot dumping of poison- Rep. HERBERT TENZER (D-N.Y.), and more as follows: , ous matter, there are many more situations recently Sen. ROBERT F. KENNEDY (D-N.Y.), [From the Washington (D.C.) Post, May 1, where estuarine pollution is a creeping, in- have proposed creating a Long Island Na- 1966] sidious and sometimes mysterious malignan- tional Wetlands Recreation Area to protect DIRTY RIvERS ARE CLEAN COMPARED To cy undermining the habitat. some 16,000 acres of marsh on Hempstead ESTUARIES Conservation-minded Government officials and Oyster Bays through Federal acquisition (By Eric Wentworth) figure the pollution problem is serious in or management. This measure, if approved, many areas where they lack the facts at this could set a pattern for other areas. Pollute a river, and there's only one way point to prove it. These and of her possible proposals are for the stuff to go-downstream. But it's "We know so little now about what makes' being studied by Administration policymak- different, and much more complicated, in estuaries tick," one says. ere who hope to send their own legislative harbors, bays, and other estuaries where tides FANTASTICALLY FERTILE entry to Capitol Hill later this year. ebb and flow and fresh water meets salt water. In their unspoiled state, estuaries and the While substantial controls of pollution The sweep to the sea is delayed and the salt marshes that often border them are sources are either on the books or before tides slosh polluted water back and forth and fantastically fertile. The Sapelo marshes of Congress in the President's "Clean Rivers sometimes sideways like a miner panning for Georgia, for example, are said to produce Restoration" bill, Government officials are gold-and when dirty river water encounters in a given area nearly seven times as much concerned about research and planning salt water peculiar physical and chemical organic matter as a comparable area in the needs and such related problems as control changes Cause some pollutants to mix with waters of the Continental Shelf, and six of harmful dredging and indiscriminate land areas. clay particles and fall in little lumps to the times as much as a same-sized area in the reuse in ady to die use specific leg yet, they aren't bottom where they form noxious "sludge average wheat field. banks." Oysters, clams and crabs are among the Meanwhile, several states, among them These complexities combined with the vast permanent residents of estuaries. Such im- Massachusetts, New York, Rhode Island and variety of filth spilling into, say, the Chest- portant commercial or sport fish as men- California, have taken steps to protect their peaks Bay directly, and through numerous haden, bluefish, croaker and prawns spend estuaries through planning financial and streams and rivers, show why so-called their early life in these waters. Others, in- technical aid, zoning or controls on dredging. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 11398 Approved For Re QQ~~ //opZZ/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 ~ESIONAL RECORD - SENATE Still, public apathy and the opposition of commercial interests promise the conserva- tionists a long, tough battle. "As a visitor here," Interior's Gottschalk remarked to the Gulf States Marine Fish- eries Commission at Biloxi. Miss., in March, "I detect or suspect a regional lack of regard for the balanced picture of nat- ural resource conservation, and a preoccu- pation with 'economic progress' in exploiting natural resources. "At the same time," he added, "I note hopeful if belated stirrings of public recog- nition that unlimited exploration may lead to disaster, that critical estuarine habitats must be protected and preserved." Such stirrings can be noted these days in Washington as well. June ;. ,I8 A NATURAL DISASTER WARNING Mr. President, I urge all of my col- SYSTEM leagues to study the proposal and sup- Mr. PEARSON. Mr. President, the Port It. Commerce Department, through Its En- vironmental Science Services Adminis- RETIRED HURT BY INFLATION tration, has proposed a nationwide Nat- ural Disaster Warning system. The sys- Mr. American SYMINGTON. Mr. President, the tern would encompass all types of natural value of f the the Adollar, both here disasters from tornadoes to blizzards. Prime and abcond, has always been a matter of The Proposal, I believe, is a sound one concern. and should be implemented. In this connection, the rising cost of Of particular interest to me is the sec- living could soon give serious problems tion dealing with the flow of severe to all those elderly Americans who de- weather data from the source of the re- Pend almost entirely on social security port to the public. The proposal notes benefit checks. there is no single system for mass dis- The dollar saved one year ago is now worth ?my about 97?. semination of th i f e n ormation-that in HELP FOR THE HOUSEWIFE IN many cases alert procedures have been This statistic, plus other observations BUYING MEAT improvised. worthy of thought, are presented in a Mr. LONG of Missouri. Mr. President, In my own State of Kansas, the broad- recent column by Sylvia Porter. =B Mt L a big :M s of any President, casters have worked out a system, which Noting that the brunt of inflation is Is 's food budget. On average, we spend I feel deserves commendation. The borne by those living on fixed or slow get. ~ .. - - -- - Kansas Associnti o f Radio _._ - - - o Bro sing pe workin ercen ere h h , g wit w meat aaau at is now the Envi- Envi- ea t in point y. a good buy, then, is im- ronmental Science Services Administra- Aid getting portant to all of us. It is available in info, developed an expanded weather information most food stores in the form of the Stations tbscribigiro h re- USDA-U.S. Department of Agricul- ceive Stat not only regular he circuit - ture-grade mark only the rulweather inn- The familiar shield-shaped grade mark formation from Government forecasters appears on about 85 percent of the beef and meteorological stations across the cuts sold In grocery stores. Shoppers State, but information from two state who understand its meaning and are law enforcement agencies as well. guided by it can be sure of getting the When severe weather threatens or quality they want and pay for. strikes, the subscribers can receive, in a matter If you want the best, you can probably Kansas H hw Patrolmen ytes, rolmen information from find a store that sells the top grade, U.S. Turnpike Authority Hguthority ofbcers at t or near Prime. Most cuts of this grade are very or near the sc U.S. Choice is the most popular grade of beef with most consumers and more of it is sold than any other grade. You can depend on Choice roasts and steaks to be consistently tender and juicy and have a well-developed flavor. Thrifty shoppers often favor U.S. Good or U.S. Standard beef, because it has less fat than the higher grades. Beef of, these grades is not as juicy or flavor- ful as Choice or Prime, but is just as nutritious. Shoppers can depend on these USDA guides to qualify in buying beef because -1 ~VVIIIUWXII, abled broadcast stations on the circuit to provide the public with continually updated and fresh Information about a specific storm. They are alerting, with- out alarming. The viewers and listeners know where the storm is at a given mo- ment without having to wait and see. The system has proved invaluable throughout the year whether an ice storm, blizzard or severe thunderstorm was on the way. It is important to note this system was the product of initiative and a feeling of public service on the part of the Kan- . Before social security benefits were raised 7 sas Association of Radio BrnfOcactnrc who took it upon themsel to better mum being received ooara fast year, the maxi- graders who are experts in judging the ves by serve their public. the et cents more in es buywas - possible quality. to jQualityudge of in beef the is almost im- quiva e Unfortunately the service costs more ing Power than than of jtheusmaximum received in retail cut. money than the usual weather informa-. 1950. Graders, therefore, look at the whole car- tion teletype circuit, and some stations NEW STATISTICS cass or large wholesale cuts. Grade is cannot, financially, budget the extra ex- These statistics, compiled and to be re- determined on the basis of U.S. stand- pease. They make their own arrange- leased soon, by the Diversified investment ards h quality detail the requirto ents whicfor h ments, which, I might add, have met the Fund, a osit on of theseizw o depend iprimarily on determine the quality grade are those social security benefits and underline the which experience, and research, have Nevertheless, I am sure broadcasters importance of savings and investments to shown a be related and eating quality. h across the country would welcome an supplement retirement income. In fact, the 450 eating - improved system of natural disaster elderly who depend entirely on social se- curity D So Some Some 450 graders, . r them r and Marketing Service, them betcoooordinated effort to permit th the rising cost of liv bu provide meat grading service throughout provide their listeners there is no financial leeway for any rise in pro dent to those who request thro g. It and viewers with the necessary data in living standards or any way to share in the the c It time of emergency. Obviously not every Nation's prosperity. it provided on a fee-for-service basis. group of broadcasters can, within itself, The Consumer and Marketing Service, make the type of arrangement success- nearSin 19,50 ly doubled rto ptoday personal e out- which administers all USDA grading pro- fully implemented by Kansas broad- pacing the 34 percent cost of living rise. grams, makes sure that the grader in casters i f rk n rise enough to keep ers w ^ fashion as is the grader in New York. "'"A'`'"' *bwr, can establish the same type of arrangement which is Ares- them ahead. Th us consumers in all parts of this eat in Kansas. For that reason I feel In contrast, by the and of 1966 well over ha ID65s country can rely on the USDA grades for the proposed NADWARN system is of d w ill of have been Social security bybenefit increase beef to mean the same thing no matter vital importance to the welfare of the dollar put away swallowed at the end d of inflation. last ion. year a al- where they live or where they shop. people, has ready has dwindled ed in value to less than n Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 we neea to strive for savings and invest- ments with which to supplement pension benefits. I ask unanimous consent that this ar- ticle be inserted at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the REcoRD, as follows: [From the Evening Star, May 24, 19661 YOUR MONEY'S WORTH-RETIRED HURT BY INFLATION (By Sylvia Porter) The elderly American couple who retired in 1950 and qualified for the then $120 maxi- mum monthly benefit is now receiving $168.60-reflecting the increases in benefit levels over the years. But because of the relentless climb in living costs in these 16 years, this couple's "real" income has been raised, not $48.60, but only $6.67 a month. In actual comparative buying power today the $168.60 benefit check shrinks to $126.67. The very elderly couple who retired as far back as 1940 and drew that year's top $68.40 in monthly social security benefits is now re- ceiving $152.50-or more than double the benefit a quarter-century ago. But because of rising living costs, this couple's benefit check will actually buy $1.32 less than in Approved For Rel I 0 00080019-0 pRT~f~l~fi~-~ June 1, 1966 and redistricting would create still further problems. One possible way out of this dilemma has been suggested by Representative DONALD RUMSFELD (R., Illinois). His proposal calls for alternating two- and four-year terms for each member. Over a twelve-year period a member would run four times, as compared with the present six elections: twice during presidential years, and twice in non-presi- dential years. This would seem to mitigate a division of the House into two classes, one overly responsive and the other unresponsive. Such a proposal seems preferable to still a fourth variation: three-year terms for House members with one-third of the members up for re-election every year. Yet, both run the risk of further confusing a relatively unin- formed, if responsible, electorate. What are the chances that any of these variations will end up a constitutional amendment? In passing, let us note that constitutional amendments are difficult to create. More than twenty thousand have been proposed in the history of the country and only twenty-four have become the law provided of the land. The founding fathers provided for change but they did not intend for change to come about easily. Hence the require- ment that constitutional amendments re- ceive two-thirds of the votes of both Houses, followed by ratification of three-fourths of the state legislatures. For the current proposals to tamper with the two-year terms for House members, the probabilities of adoption are becoming in- creasingly slim. Hearings held before the House Committee on Judiciary in February, 1966, have, if anything, dampened some of the early enthusiasm for either the Presi- dents' or Representative CHELF's proposal. A January poll by the Congressional Quarterly revealed a stiffening opposition. Of those members who replied, the vote was 105 to 90 in favor in the House and 19 to 20 opposed in the Senate. Among key Democrats who oppose four- year terms are EMANUEL CELLER of New York, chairman of the House Committee on Ju- diciary; FRANK THOMPSON of New Jersey, an influential House liberal; and, predictably, a number of Southern conservatives, includ- ing HOWARD W. SMITH of Virginia. The two most influential House Republicans, minor- ity leader GERALD FORD of Michigan and Republican Conference chairman MELVIN LAIRD of Wisconsin, have both issued state- ments warning of the inherent dangers in the four-year term proposals. Most of what support remains for four- year terms comes from the younger members of the House, particularly those associated with the Democratic Study Group (of which FRANK THOMPSON is chairman), an informal grouping of some 175 Northern and Western Democratic moderates and liberals. Behind the growing opposition are prac- tical considerations as well as the constitu- tional arguments. A major stumbling block, heretofore, has been opposition from United States. Senators. Without built-in restric- tions against running for other statewide offices, a four-year term would be virtual in- vitation for sitting House members to take on incumbent Senators or governors up for re-election in the off years. Presently a House member almost always is forced to give up his own seat in order to campaign against a Senator or governor. These public officials would prefer to keep it that way. A similar argument has been used against three-year House terms; this arrangement would allow state legislators with two- or four-year terms a free crack at incumbent House members, The President's proposal has done away with most Senate opposition on these grounds by including a section which pro- hibits rIembers of Congress from running for the other house unless the member re- signs thirty days prior to such an election. The Chelf resolution goes even further. It would prohibit a House member from seek- ing nomination or election to any office, other than a vacancy, unless he resigns in advance. A final argument from the standpoint of practical politics Is that four-year terms may lead to greater, not less, turnover among House members. There is virtual unanim- ity among successful congressmen that elec- tions are really won in the odd years. Non- election year acttvities provide them with opportunities to make non-political speeches and emphasize their role as spokesman for all their district's interests. Incumbent con- gressmen have many advantages, including franking (free mailing) privileges, the as- sistance of a trained staff of up to ten mem- bers, and multiple chances to build good will and develop favorable publicity. So great is this advantage that, over the years, more than seven out of eight incumbents who run for reelection are victorious. At first glance, four-year terms would seem to improve an incumbent's chances of being re-elected. He would, after all, have three non-election years to solidify his position. But this view may be misleading. If a mem- ber were not up for re-election every two years, the pressures on him to return to his district would be lessened. Polls reveal that, even now, as few as one-third of the elec- torate can name their congressman. Elec- tions every two years provide a congressman with an opportunity to get his name before the public. The existence of off-year elections are par- ticularly valuable, since they allow congress- men to establish their independence from the national ticket. This independence is especially important in areas where the na- tional party or its presidential candidate is not popular. Thus, a number of Southern liberal Democrats were able to withstand the Goldwater tide in their states because they had developed name-familiarity and inde- pendence from the national ticket. Simi- larly, a number of Northeastern liberal Re- publicans, most notably John Lindsay, were able successfully to divorce their 1964 cam- paigns from a losing national cause. Four-year terms would probably lure ad- ditional candidates from private and pub- lice life into competition for House seats. District-wide races would almost inevitably be lower in cost than state-wide Senate cam- paigns. Young lawyers, labor leaders, busi- nessmen, and other professionals might find running for the House almost as at- tractive as a Senate seat. Present incum- bents will undoubtedly think twice before they vote for an amendment which poses the threat of increased competition and the danger of potentially greater turnover among House members. Congressmen are overworked. Given their high responsibilities, heavy expenses, and the burden of frequent trips to and from their districts, annual salaries of $30,000 make congressmen, if anything, underpaid. Many must start fund-raising, if not campaign- ing, almost as soon as the last election is over. Yet, as the Washington Post recently com- mented in an unusually sympathetic edi- torial, "no one compels these men to run for Congress. Presumably they seek elec- tion to Congress because they like it, because they want the salary or because they see opportunity to render a national service, and we surmise that they will continue to do so regardless of how long the term is." Tie Constitution requires that all mem- bers of the House of Representatives be elec- ted every two years. Every four years they must run with the President of the Unit- ed States, thus providing an opportunity for a strong presidential candidate to bring members along with him who will be sympa- thetic to his programs. Every four years, at midterm elections, House members have their own contests. For the most part, these are relatively insulated from the forces which shape the outcomes of national presidential elections. From time to time they provide a mechanism for endorsing or rejecting ad- ministration policies. It is a relatively simple and uncomplicated election system which has withstood the test of time. Occasionaly the House responds slowly, or not at all, to the demands placed upon it by the President and the executive branch. On other occasions, its members may overreact to crisis. But the House con- tinues to come closer to reflecting the will of the diverse local interests of our coun- try than any branch of our national gov- ernment. On the whole, the House of Representa- tives has proven its worth as a viable and responsive legislative assembly. Two-year terms of office have been basic to the main- tenance of this responsiveness to the will of 7lreople. UNREST IN SOUTH VIETNAM Mr. McGEE. Mr. President, in a re- cent column carried in the Washington Post and other newspapers, Rowland Evans and Robert Novak put their finger on what I, too, have come to consider the underlying reasons for the political un- rest in South Vietnam at present. As Evans and Novak put it, the turmoil resulted. not from machinations of the other side, but from the "mad rush by Vietnamese politicians to positions them- selves for free elections." And all evi- dence indicates this maneuvering began as long ago as last January. I know, Mr. President, that the impres- sion I gained in Vietnam scarcely a month ago was largely the same. In- deed, I learned, our military efforts there were bearing such promise for future success that, for the first time, the local politicians and various pressure groups, as we could call them, were seeing the advantages to be had from control of the Government-or at least a share in that control. They all wanted a piece of the political pie, once it looked like it was worth having. A year ago, Mr. Presi- dent, it didn't look that way. Now it does. That is a hopeful sign. I ask unanimous consent that the column by Evans and Novak be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: POLITICS, SAIGON-STYLE (By Rowland Evans and Robert Novak) The turmoil that brought South Vietnam to the brink of civil war and endangered the war against the Communists resulted, iron- ically, from a mad rush by Vietnamese politicians to position themselves for free elections. Indeed, secret information available to U.S. officials shows that the origin of the turmoil can be traced with precision to Jan. 15, 1966, when Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky first began to talk seriously about a con- stitutional assembly and eventual elections. Thus, the root cause of the growing chaos in South Vietnam is not-as the U.S. peace bloc would have it-rising neutralism and a desire to make peace with the Communists. What is happening today can be traced back to Air Marshal Ky's Jan. 15 statement. It is a story worth telling. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 J1. 1966 ApprovecVF F~ June 11405 sentatives. A member of the House repre- sented but 30,000 inhabitants. Only 144 bills were introduced in the First Congress, 108 of which became laws. Today, the population of the United States numbers more than 190,000,000 people. Al- ir..ost two-thirds of the people live in urban areas. Social mobility, ease of travel, tele- vision, and newspapers have brought more and more people into communication and contact with one another. As the federal Government has grown and the role of gov- ernment in the economy has increased, the demands on Congress have multiplied. Each House member now represents, on the aver- age, 430,000 constituents. The workload of Congress has Increased in volume and com- p'lexity; over 14,000 bills were introduced in the first session of the 89th Congress alone, and of these, 349 became public laws. Con- gressional sessions increasingly run for ten months or more of the calendar year. In his first two or three terms, a House member's effectiveness as a legislator is re- duced by his need to build a firm base of district support. As he gains in experience, of course, his ability to check upon and ameliorate the impersonal impact of the fed- eral bureaucracy on his constituents is in- creased. As he begins to master the skills of serving his campaign and his constituency, a congressman can afford to devote more and more of his time to committee work and in- fluencing the outcome of legislation. He must still face the hazards of mounting campaign costs. Federal and state expendi- ture ceilings are ineffective and totally un- realistic. While campaign costs vary consid- erably from "safe" to competitive districts and from rural to urban districts, expendi- tures of $50,000 to $60,000 per campaign are not uncommon. Attempts to unseat incum- bents can send these costs much higher. For example, a frshman Democrat from New York filed campaign expenditures of almost $200,000 in a successful bid to defeat a Re- publican incumbent in 1964. As another freshman Democratic member argued: "Four-year terms would prevent congressional offices from being 80 per cent campaign headquarters and only 20 per cent offices for legislative activities. As it is now, I am constantly involved in fund-raising." The most direct approach to these prob- lems, however, would be sensible revision of laws governing campaign expenditures and contributions. Third, it is argued, four-year terms would probably attract more and better-qualified candidates for public office. By reducing the frequency of elections and the costs of con- tinual campaigning, presumably more peo- ple would consider running for public office. The caliber of congressmen, already quite high, would no doubt be improved. Sound as this argument may be, from a political standpoint it may be self-defeating. For this argument, unlike the others, can cut two ways in terms of mobilizing support for this constitutional amendment. A fourth and crucial argument, used by many advocates of four-year terms for House members, is that it would enhance the influence of the President by centralizing party organization and making members more responsive to presidential programs. Members running with or against the Presi- dent would be forced to campaign on na- tional issues. "Coattail effects," or the ten- dency for congressional candidates of the same party to benefit from the size of the vote for strong presidential candidates, would be magnified. President Johnson did not make use of this argument in his presidential message. However, Attorney General Nicholas Katzen- bach, in testimony before the House Judici- ary Committee, did emphasize the impact of concurrent terms on executive-legislative party unity. Under this proposed amend- ment the President and Congress would be more likely "to be able to carry out a pro- gram without unreasonable deadlocks." The rationale for closer harmony between the President and Congress is given its more positive statement in Senator JosEPH S. CLARK's book, Congress: The Sapless Branch. If a House member, CLARK argues, comes from a competitive district, he will be more of a statesman and less of an errand boy if he runs always at the same time and on the same ticket as the presi- dential candidate of his party. The strength- ening of the national interest in terms of the effective dialogue on issues which such a procedural change would bring about is sub- stantial. The strengthening of the national parties is even more so. The strengthening of the hand of the President, who alone speaks for all Americans, is the most sub- stantial of all. There rests the case, a strong one, for longer terms for House members. The first three arguments are especially appealing. A much stronger case, however, can be made for maintaining the present system of two- year terms. The argument turns on commitment to the principle of coordinate branches of gov- ernment. The practice of "separate institu- tions sharing power" is insured by multiple checks and balances built into our Consti- tution. Variation in the lengths of terms among our political leaders is one of the most fundamental safeguards against any single leader or institution dominating all the others to the detriment of democratic freedoms. In our government, the House, Senate, and President frequently represent quite dif- ferent political interests. These different in- terests deserve a hearing and need to be rec- onciled if public policy is to reflect the will of substantial majorities. Members of the House act as spokesmen for local, sometimes even parochial, interests. At the same time, they are called upon to legislate in the na- tional interest. Which interest should House members represent? Edmund Burke, in his "Speech to the Electors of Bristol" in. 1774, presented what has become the classic argument in favor of representation of the national in- terest over local concerns. As Burke said: "Parliament is not a congress of ambassadors from different and hostile interests; which interests eacri must maintain, as an agent and advocate, against other agents and advocates; but Parliament is a de- liberative assembly of one nation, with one interest, that of the whole; where, not local purposes, not local prejudices ought to guide, but the general good, resulting from the general reason of the whole." What is sometimes overlooked is that hos- tility among the electors of Bristol to Burke's national views later forced him to withdraw as a candidate from this constituency. In our country, A Representative must re- main sensitive to the wishes of his constitu- ents. He recognizes that they can turn him out If he does not vote in their best interests. If a legislator decides, as he not infrequently does, that national Interests outweigh local considerations, then he does so at some risk. It is this sensitivity to the will of the peo- ple which two-year terms of office help to preserve. This continuing tension between local and national interests is a strength, not a weakness, of the representative process. Many factors in our political system are at work to reinforce the impact of national interests; two-year terms assure that local needs will not be overlooked in an era in- creasingly characterized by expanding federal powers. Furthermore, the elections of House mem- bers that occur between presidential elec- tions perform several basic functions which add to the stability of our political system and strengthen our two-party system. Off- year elections provide an opportunity for a review of presidential policies. The results can either extend the presidential mandate, as the election results of 1934 and 1962 were largely interpreted, or dampen it, as in the elections of 1918, 1946, 1954, and 1958. The election of 1966 may well turn on the success or failure of President Johnson's policies in Vietnam, Midterm elections also provide the "out" party an opportunity to increase its strength in Congress. Since 1900, the party which does not control the White House has aver- aged a net gain of thirty-eight seats in off- year elections. In only one midterm election, 1934, was the party in power able to make a net gain of House seats. When the same party controls the White House for eight, twelve, or a longer period of years, midterm contests may become crucial for preserving a minority that can successfully criticize and provide alternatives to the majority. A third and related point is that two-year terms provide a fundamental check on the powers of the Presidency. As the federal government has grown, the power of the President has Increased. Four-year terms running concurrently with the President would weaken Congress .at the same time that it would enhance the powers of the President. Some Democratic congressmen clearly owe their seats to the length of the President's "coattails" in the election of 1964. Yet few of these congressmen would welcome the idea of becoming more depend- ent upon- presidential favor and national party, as distinct from congressional cam- paign committee, contributions. Supporters of four-year terms may argue that these would give Representatives great- er independence from Interest-group and constituency pressures. But they can hardly argue that it would make them less suscep- tible to White House pressure at the same time that they say that it would lead to greater executive-legislative party solidarity. Four-year terms would remove one of the most effective shields now. used by congress- men to withstand pressure. Almost every congressman has, at one time or another, found it convenient to take refuge from ex- ecutive "arm-twisting" by the simple but almost irrefutable argument: "My people back home are opposed to this measure, and I am up for re-election next year." Thus, it is for the very reasons that Burns, Senator CLARK, and others support four-year terms running concurrently with the Presi- dent, that this constitutional amendment should be opposed. Such a change would drastically alter the separation of powers and checks and balances upon which our govern- mental system is based. Congress needs to maintain Its Independence from the Presi- dency. Re-election every two years furthers this independence, helps to maintain a viable minority party, and thus promotes the bal- ance of power within the Government. The staggered-term proposal advocated by Congressman CHELF would counter this danger, but impose further problems of its own. Each state delegation would be divided by lot into two classes as equal as possible. One-half of the members would run with the President and the other half would run in midterm elections. Such a proposal runs the risk of splitting the House of Representa- tives into two classes of congressmen: those disposed to support the President, and those members elected in the off year who would likely oppose presidential programs. This might well lead to greater "deadlock" and prevent the occasional extraordinary Con- gress, such as the 89th, where legislation comes of age and productivity is exception- ally high. In short, four-year terms concurrent with the President would promote a Congress overly responsive to the President. Stag- gered terms, on the other hand, would create a class of half the members who quite likely would be unresponsive. Reapportionment Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67BOO446ROO0400080019-0 June T 966 Approved For Sg ~'3R $P6744000400080019-0 Less than a month after Ky's statement pointed the way toward genuine political and governmental changes within South Vietnam, the militant Buddhists headed by mystical, 'enigmatic Thich Tri Quang began secretly to plan for future elections. Tri Quang's plan was somewhat similar to the political organizing of, say, a democratic big-city boss in preparation for a presiden- tial election in the U.S.A. If an election were really going to be held in South-Viet- nam, the agile, ambitious Tri Quang wanted his agents to be ready for it. This meant many things had to be done. It was necessary, for example, to set up an organization-nothing so precise as the political organization in the precincts of an American city, but a political organization in rudimentary form. Militant Buddhists who follow Tri Quang had to be assigned specific political chores, taught how to pro- mote candidates and conduct a campaign. A blueprint complete to the last detail, drawn up in January has been studies by U.S. officials and conclusively demonstrates that Tri Quang's political agitation pre- dated President Johnson's celebrated meet- ing with Ky at Honolulu Feb. 6. This should partially lay to rest the myth that President Johnson is personally respon- sible for the political crisis because he put his arm around Ky at Honolulu. But if Tri Quang was organizing a dis- ciplined core of student-politicians as long ago as January, Ky's conduct after the Hono- lulu conference unquestionably added fuel to the political agitation. The Johnson Administration had hoped that when Ky returned to Saigon after Honolulu, and later, pushed by the Bud dhists, announced a specific date for the election of a constitutional assembly, he would close his eyes to pressure tactics by the Buddhist militants in central Vietnam, centered in Danang and Hue. The hope was that General Ky would con- centrate on the war, on reconstruction and most important on talking up the election- and let the militant Buddhists stir up a lit- tle trouble without retaliation. Instead, buoyed by his meeting with the President and alarmed at Buddhist agitation in the northern First Corps area, Ky fired Buddhist-backed Gen. Thi, First Corps com- mander. Ever since, the political battle has steadily escalated. The discovery of electioneering plans drawn up In January illustrates one hard fact: feuding political forces in South Viet- nam are preparing in dead seriousness for an election this September. The activities of Tri Quang should be judged more in that light than as an effort either to bring down the Ky government or undermine the U.S. military effort. The political zeal, despite its hazards, poses opportunities for the long-term U.S. interest. Each of the hostile, feuding fac- tions in South Vietnam-the Buddhists, split into many groupings, the Catholics, the religious sects, the military-are worried about getting left at the gate when the elec- tion is held. They all want a piece of the political pie that will result from that elec- tion. It was an understanding of this fact that led President Johnson to murmur to Ambas- sador Henry Cabot Lodge, just before Lodge returned to Saigon: "I've been in public life for 30 years and I've learned that the proper role of politics is to include and not to exclude." The basic reason for all the agitation in South Vietnam is that every one wants to be Included. NEW HAVEN'S VOICE IN HART- FORD STILL ROARING AFTER 50 YEARS Mr. RIBICOFF. Mr. President, the above headline appeared in the May 28 issue of the Hartford Courant, Hartford, Conn. The article then goes on to tell about an unusual man. For 50 years Abe White has given information to thousands upon thousands of travelers who came to the big central information desk at the Union Station in Hartford. Abe 'knew them all-the high and the mighty and the hesitant and the con- fused. During all this time, his friendli- ness and good humor was a joy to all. He has a host of friends. Personally, it was always a pleasure to stop and chat with an old friend during the many times I have had occasion to use Union Station. His commonsense and wisdom makes him a real down-to-earth philos- opher. I join his many friends in wish- ing him many more years of happiness and service to his fellowmen. I ask unanimous consent that the arti- cle from the Hartford Courant be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: NEW HAVEN'S VOICE IN HARTFORD STILL ROAR- ING AFTER 50 YEARS (By Malcolm L. Johnson) About 30 years ago or more-Abe White can't recall the year exactly-The Courant sent a photographer down to Union Station to take a picture of the great Irish tenor John McCormack when he rolled into town. "They wanted to black me out of the pic- ture," says Abe White, then, as now, at the information desk at the station. McCormack interceded (and White does a nice brogue to mimic him) : "If you don't take his picture, you don't take mine." Friday The Courant sent a photographer to the station to get a picture of a man who's been 50 years in railroading. And White didn't have any trouble getting in the picture as Trainmaster Joseph F. Daly wrote on the information board: "50 Years!!! Still on Time!!!" in tribute to White's punctuality. During a half century in the business of portering mail and "grabbing numbers" in the baggage room, working in the branch engine house and-for 42 of the 50 years- bawling out the time of arrival and de- parture of engines, he has always-unlike the trains-always been on time. White, now a youthful, still sentorian 64, recalls his first shout from the information desk 42 years ago. There was no public address system, at the desk, then at the far north end of the station. LET IT ROAR "That first train came in and I let out a shout . . . there were 500 or 600 in the waiting room in them days . . . I just opened my mouth and let it roar out; and the boss said 'You don't have to get mad at the train.'" John McCormack, who stood up for White's right to be in a photograph long before the New Haven Railroad decided to give him a diamond pin and a gold pass card for 50 years in railroading, is the man White thinks of first when he turns his mind back 11407 to the people he's seen passing through the station and talked to. But as he gets talking he also recalls Bebe Daniels and Ben Lyons coming info town to play at the old Parsons, Rudy Vallee, Henry Agard Wallace, Al Smith and Harry S. Tru- man-"It was his second trip through and as he came down the steps, two FBI men shoved like they were the president." RECALLS BETTER DAYS Abe White has seen a lot of years of rail- roading from the information desk and re- calls the days when the New Haven line thrived. "For a Yale-Harvard Game," he says, "we'd have 24 sections stringing back behind Flow- er Street." Now there are only 25. But, White says, 90 to 95 per cent of them are on time. Only when the New Haven's management "let the equipment go to hell" were there breakdowns and delays of two or three hours that gave the local line its now undeserved reputation for tardiness. Forty-two years at an information desk have meant that Abe White has had to take a lot of wisecracks. "What time does the 3:21 get in?" is his unfavorite. He has as he says, also had to "take a lot of people by the hand." Some people, he doesn't mind helping, he says. "My specialty has been trying to help any individual who is handicapped or can't speak English." HANGOUT And in the old days, all kinds of people used to stop by at the Information Desk to talk. Lou Gehrig used to hang around the desk when he played with the Hartford Chiefs, Morgan B. Brainard, then president of the Aetna Life Insurance Co., used to say: "When I want to meet my friends I come down to the information desk," according to White. When he thinks back on it all, White says: "The information Desk was actually the crossroads of the country." I. W. ABEL AND THE UNITED STEELWORKERS Mr. NELSON. Mr. President, I should like to call to the attention of the Senate an article in the Business Week of May 28 concerning the splendid leadership of Mr. I. W. Abel, president of the United Steel- workers. I think it is very significant that this respected business publication would carry such a laudatory article on this exceptional labor leader, Mr. Abel. I am also pleased with this fine article because a key member of Mr. Abel's lead- ership team in the Steelworkers is Mr. Walter Burke, a distinguished leader of the labor movement in Wisconsin who was for many years director of District No. 32 of the Steelworkers at Milwaukee. Walter Burke was elected secretary- treasurer of the Steelworkers Union at the same time, Mr. Abel was elected pres- ident. I ask unanimous consent that the arti- cle be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: ABEL FINDS A BROADER ROLE FOR THE USW- HE WORKS WITH REUTHER, AND SERVES AS A UNIFYING FACTOR IN AFL-CIO The new attitudes that I. W. Abel brought to the leadership of the United Steelworkers Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 11408 Approved For eft iggfb? Aj :R f~67B.44 RE 00400080019- June 1, 1966 McDonald's inability to get along with Reuther lessened his interest in joint proj- ects sponsored by the federation's Indus- trial Union Dept., of which Reuther is head. And in later years, McDonald seemed to lose much of his interest in AFL-CIO affairs. "McDonald would spend about an hour and a half in, executive council meetings, and then disappear," says a federation spokes- man. "Abel is there on time, stays through- out, and takes part." CLOSE TIES Abel's closeness to Reuther, says an IUD official, has led to "more participation in IUD by more people, and by more USW lo- cals." Under Abel, the union has thrown In with other IUD unions for joint bargaining and organizing efforts, more than it did in McDonald's day. Abel shares Reuther's economic and po- litical beliefs so closely that in government circles he is already being treated as Reu- ther's alter ego. Recently, with Reuther busy with the Auto Workers convention, Abel was named-along with federation President George Meany-to a subcommittee to draft a position paper on wage guideposts for Presi- dent Johnson's Labor-Management Advisory Committee. Not long ago, Reuther boasted: "When USW and UAW are marching arm in arm, there is no power in America that can halt the American labor movement." Whether the alliance will gallop as fast as Reuther's rhetoric remains to be seen. But officials of both unions point to practical effects of the improved relationship. USW is helping the Auto Workers to organize a new General Motors plant at Lordstown, Ohio. A new feeling of good faith is going into the solu- tion of jurisdictional squabbles. Pat Greathouse, Auto Workers vice-presi- dent, points out that there was cooperation before Abel came to power. But he-adds that Abel is "much more available on mat- ters of day-to-day operations-the problem with McDonald was that he wasn't there." A Steelworkers staff man says there are indications that Abel's interest in avoiding jurisdictional fights with building trades unions is having some effect. Abel, he says, gives "personal testimony" to understandings reached at staff level. "McDonald," he adds, "couldn't be bothered." RANK-AND-FILE Whether the new ideas being pushed by Abel, Molony, and Burke are seeping down to the rank-and-file is questionable. To the locals, what Abel says to Reuther at an IUD meeting in Washington is pretty remote; local and plant matters are more important. There is some rank-and-file restiveness over the "washing out" of many local griev- ances at the end of the contract negotia- tions that Abel led last year. In some steel companies, the backlog of unsettled griev- ances has been growing, although the trend is not industry-wide. In 1968, Abel will be under pressure, but no over-all membership revolt is in sight. There is also no sign of a power struggle being initiated by the union's middle man- agement-where the pro-Abel movement be- gan in 1964. Abel is giving his 30 district directors more say, and is keeping them on their toes. And his entrenched position in the federation leadership helps protect him from the sort of attack that he successfully launched to unseat McDonald. only a year ago are having far-reaching effects on the labor movement. Abel's friendship with Walter Reuther, president of the United Auto Workers, and the closer ties between the two largest in- dustrial unions have altered the power struc- ture of AFL-CIO. With the solid backing of the 1.1-million-member Steelworkers, "Walter is relatively stronger within AFL- CIO than he has been for a long time." says a federation official. Many unionists think Abel's infiuencef ex- tends even beyond the industrial unions. Abel has been cementing relations with other segments of labor, even while his appearances at UAW and United Packinghouse Workers conventions were being hailed as signs of a new solidarity among AFL-CIO's industrial unions. CATALYST An Israeli bond drive dinner honoring Abel In Pittsburgh last month drew 16 interna- tional officers of other unions; many building trades officials were there, though their crafts have long been cool to the Steelwork- ers. Said a USW official, looking over a large gathering: "Abel is the catalytic agent that can bring unity to the labor movement across the nation." Abel, a pleasant, rumbling former mill- hand, has an aura of "fundamental trade unionism" that appeals to the old-line AFL. Yet his concept of labor's role as "the squeaky wheel in our Cadillac society" is close to Reuther's brand of social unionism. Abel isn't the only one stirring new in- terest in USW. He is just one of the trium- virate that runs the union; Vice-President Joseph P. Molony and Secretary-Treasurer Walter J. Burke also spread the union's influence, though less visibly and at lower levels than Abel. These three are remaking USW into the so- cially and politically active union that it was under Philip Murray. Within the Steel- workers, worry over the Abel team's policies and bargaining effectiveness still lingers, but in wider labor circles there is little doubt of the impact. MORE PARTICIPATION An AFL-CIO spokesman says the best way to describe the changed role of the union in federation activities is that "the United Steelworkers is now an active participant, not just a dues-paying member of AFL- CIO." The change springs as much from a differ- ence in attitudes and personality between Abel and his predecessor, David J. McDon- ald, as from any difference In basic union philosophy. Abel is a hard-working team player, a committee man, who believes strongly in identifying USW's interests with those of the whole labor movement and society. McDonald pursued a more independent course; he tried to create a separate identity for his union. Working in bursts of energy, making his main effort in bargaining, he often neglected the old Murray and CIO tra- dition of broad political and social involve- ment. "In terms of politics," says a USW staff man, "Abe is more liberal than Dave. In terms of organization, he's more effective- not because he's an organizational genius, but because he works harder." AND MORE COMMITMENT It wasn't that McDonald lacked belief in AFL-CIO (he helped set up the 1955 merger), or in social causes such as civil rights (his 1962 steel contract contained significant se- niority improvements for minorities). But many unionists felt McDonald didn't push hard enough in these and other areas. "Dave's approach to civil rights," says a USW man, "was something between great enthu- siasm and complete neglect." BARGAINING Still to come, though, is a union-wide de- bate on bargaining procedures. Abel has opened the door to increased local partici- pation in negotiations; now he must find a way to make this more meaningful to the locals, without drowning talks in a deluge of local issues. A top-level committee headed by Molony may soon unveil recommendations for changes in bargaining; hints dropped by Abel suggest the changes may be in un- expected areas. The committee discussed the old policy of bargaining jointly with a group of major companies, but insiders doubt there will be substantial changes here, since sepa- rate talks at individual companies might raise more problems than they solve. It is known that the committee is con- sidering disbanding the 163-member wage- policy committee, which ratifies steel con- tracts. Abel recently told a press confer- ence that he prefers the ratification meth- od used In aluminum contracts, where a ma- jority of locals must vote approval, and where locals are free to strike on their own issues. This would be a radical departure, and the industry is worried lest it lead to more strikes. Already the industry and some un- ion officials are worried over a possible re- turn to crisis bargaining in 1968, with even- tual government intervention. Says a union man: "When I consider the level of this so-called debate on bargaining in the union, I shudder. And this inability of our union officers to see the danger of government in- tervention is frightening." QUEST FOR EFFICIENCY It's a long time to 1968, and meanwhile the Abel team can point to internal changes that they say make for a more efficient union. Most of these moves sought to shore up an organizational structure unresponsive to central direction, and thus to Abel's stronger social and political efforts. For example, a civil rights committee was reorganized after 15 years, and for the first time was put under an international officer, Molony. A Negro unionist, Alex Fuller, was brought in as director, and the committee is pressing locals, particularly in the Birmingham area, to give up discriminatory seniority agree- ments-now under fire from the National Assn-for the Advancement of Colored Peo- ple, which threatens demonstrations this summer. In the political area, Abel is urging officers at all levels to take a personal interest in labor legislation; he himself went to Wash- ington a few months ago and "hit the Sen- ate lobby." EDUCATION Abel has also set up a broad educational program for staff and district and inter- national officers, very similar to a Reuther- UAW program. The International's fiscal controls over a sprawling, unwieldy union are being tight- ened by Abel. Reorganization of the union's legal department, under a new general coun- sel, will save $250,000 a year. The union's monthly paper, Steel Labor, will save $80,000 a year by switching to offset printing Econo- mies in Abel's own office include cutting the number of New York Times subscriptions from five to one. Abel runs executive board meetings with a touch of formality-only board members are admitted. In McDonald's day, depart- ment heads, technicians, and "a whole con- gregation of people" might be packed in the meeting room. Where McDonald used to travel "in an entourage of bodyguards and flunkies," with Cadillacs awaiting him at airports, Abel as often as not travels alone. OTHER GOALS The Abel team hasn't done everything it wanted to. In many ways, the past year has been one of "evaluation and review." Some changes have been put off until after the convention in September when a reading can be gotten on rank-and-file reaction to the changes already made. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 Jitine 196-6Approved For WP R]g99f 14] :i$ 67TRI 00400080019-0 '11441 Massachusetts congressional 'delegation in the words of Secretary McNamara, a VIETNAM'S ECONOMIC LESSON: 'PEACE CAN and concerned citizens have contested a thorough and thoughtful case to the YIELD FATTER PROFITS THAN WAR Defense Department decision to close the American people. Their only only aim (By T. George Harris, Look senior editor) Springfield Armory. was to demonstrate that the closure of On a hot night in, Saigon not long ago, re- When this decision was originally the Springfield Armory was not in our porters in combat boots held a martini semi- made in November 1964, the Department Nation's interest. nar to consider the war's cost in goods and . lives. one U.S. correspondent, just back of Defense indicated that the Springfield Because the Defense Department has from a tank attack in the hills, doubted that Armory operation was uneconomical and maintained its position, the Massachu- "this kind of thing can be paid for forever." must be discontinued. Immediately, setts congressional delegation, the He was hooted down. "All it's doing is tak- members of the Springfield community Springfield Technical Committee, and ing the slack out of the American economy," organized the Springfield Technical the people of Springfield have agreed said an English writer. He shares the Euro- Committee to investigate the facts. This that the wisest course of action now is pean dogma that Yankee business needs to committee of armory employees knew to plan for the future private use of this feed on the blood of war to stay healthy. Back in the States, innocent millions hold from personal experience that the facility. roughly the same thought. University of armory operated efficiently. The objec- Consequently, Mr. Downey and the Michigan pollsters have asked people in key tive of this committee, therefore, was to members of the Springfield Technical U.S. counties how Vietnam will affect busi- provide the concrete analysis and solid Committee will be working with Defense ness conditions, and them. A majority- argument to prove this fact. The Department officials, civic leaders, and percent-ex wecstmeir family budgets to Springfield Technical Committee, led by officers from private industry to bring benefit adults feel, 'make ul ed boom. Mr. Henry T. Downey, a local certified about conversion of the Springfield If you belong to ake for ooty,you need a that maj public accountant, compiled and ant- Armory facilities to private production. visit with my tough-minded friend, Dr. lyzed data obtained from Department of It is essential that there be no doubt re- Pierre Rinfret, 42, economic adviser to a Defense sources, and questioned the De- garding the ability and integrity of Mr. blue-chip stack of corporations. He has been fense Department's assumptions on Downey and the members of the Spring- betting his hefty reputation, plus $4 billion which the decision to close the armory field Technical Committee. worth of pension and other investment funds had been based. The Massachusetts These men and women have given he manages, on a simple premise: "Vietnam congressional delegation and the Spring- selflessly of their time for 18 months to doesn't mean boom. It means trouble." Rinfret believes we have come quietly to field Technical Committee met per- serve our Nation's welfare. These men an economic pivot point as important to the sonally with Secretary McNamara On and women deserve our admiration and history of war as the first atom bomb. February 27, 1965, to present this re- esteem. I think the Defense Depart ent Though men and women still talk "wartime port. After hearing the arguments of should correct the impression it h so prosperity," we have at last broken, he in- Mr. Downey, Secretary McNamara unfortunately made. \` J~ lists, the ancient bond between war and prosperity. Already on the Vietnam casualty stated: a more thorough and list, little noticed, is the tradition that arms I have never received comprehensive and more thoughtful presen- PEACE. CAN YIELD FATTER PROFITS spending fattens the bulls of the upswing THAN WAR and the "threat of peace" brings out the tation... bears of the downswing. From here on, the Because of this impressive presenta- Mr. CHURCH. Mr. President, does old war bulls and peace bears will scramble tion, Secretary McNamara subsequently war help the economy? In a recent sur- to swap places. ," Rinfret hollows, or coos, at sr is b bearishcompany et el. "Peace coos, ordered a private consulting firm to con- vey, 54 percent of Americans said "Yes," duct a comprehensive study of the and there can be no doubt that many in- bullish." Springfield Armory operation to deter- telligent people elsewhere in the world Why? Because, he says, "of a major revo- mine the feasibility of its continuation. suspect this to be our outlook, and find lution in capitalism." In the New Econom- In its report in November 1965, even this it cause for mistrusting us. its-pap label for national policy today-the firm concluded that closure of the armory The truth is just the opposite: war, home office of capitalism has gained the skill would result in definitely marginal cost and the Vietnam war in particular, hurt to guide its growth rate, plus the political savings. However, because of other pal- the modern economy which depends upon will to do nothing less. The Federal Govern- icy consideration, this firm also recom- stability, not the overtaxation of war- ment can, and has to, keep the economy running in peacetime at its most productive mended closing the armory. time demands. In an interview with rate. Result: War, once a shot in the arm to The Massachusetts congressional del- Look magazine's senior editor, T. George lagging business, now throws a shock into a egation and the Springfield Technical Harris, Dr. Pierre Rinfret, economic ad- smoothly functioning system set for peak Committee again challenged this deci- visor to business, lays out the facts which long-term growth. To compound the shock, sion and carried the case to the Senate prove the point. Rinfret points out: war also wastes resources, human and ma- Preparedness Subcommittee. During in- In practical terms, wealth invested in war terial, that would otherwise flow back each tensive hearings on March 22, 1966, the goods might as well be sunk in the ocean. year to expand the economy and, through it, Tanks and fighters do not produce new better the lives of men. Springfield Technical Committee and wealth. Teachers and factories do. Peace In practical terms, wealth invested in war Mr. Downey presented their costs is the environment in which the flower of goods might as well be sunk in the ocean," analyses and arguments. As a result, free enterprise grows, flourishes and bears says bullnecked Rinfret. "Tanks and fight- the chairman recommended that the fruit. ers do not produce new wealth. Teachers Secretary of Defense review the closure and factories do. Peace is the environment decision in light of the impressive data Rinfret expects the Vietnam war to re- in which the flower of free enterprise grows, stilt in a recession in 1967 if war-created flourishes and bears fruit. Peace is now the put forth by the Springfield Technical expansion levels o$. Without the war, stable ground of prosperity." Committee and Mr. Downey. This economist, one of the freethinkers of he says, the economy would reach great- big business, speaks with more passion than The Defense Department in the reply er heights in 1968 than those the war a Vietnik at a peace rally. He earned his of Deputy Secretary of Defense Cyrus now makes likely. doctorate on a Fulbright grant in France, Vance confirmed the Department's orig- Whether Rinfret's predictions come once grew a beard to bug the Brooks Bros. inal decision stating: true again, as they have in the past, only types. Expert in Marxian economics, he is, None of the cost charts displayed by the time will tell, but the article "Peace Can however, a robust Republican who supports Technical Committee at the 22 March hear- Yield Fatter Profits Than War" from the Johnson Administration's Viet policy be- ing were (sic) accurate. ' cause "the Communists gave us no choice." the May 31 edition of Look should help For hawk and dove alike, he feels, the crisis It was further indicated that the peo- lay to rest the popular myth that war revises ideas about war, wealth and nations. ple who had prepared the cost charts "makes for good times." The "good "Capitalism has stolen the march on com- had not acted objectively. times" are like an all-night binge: they munism," he says with delight. "Marx taught Mr. President, I feel the Department must be paid for the next morning. that acsei capitalism is chaos, and h Mato keep It-on war. ism, of Defense has, by this reply, questioned I ask unanimous consent that the arti- twould use central m unisy to rx ar the order the character and integrity of Mr. cle be printed in the RECORD. planned development of economic mankind. Downey and the Springfield Technical There being no objection, the article A curious thing has now happened. Capi- Committee. These men have given long was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, talism has bought the case against chaos, but hours of their private time to present, as follows: rejected Marx's system. We aren't stuck Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 Approved Fo I 3 O P67 AftR000400080019:Dune with a single master plan. We have thou- the easy dodge for those who had not seen sands of different plans, not all of which will the peaceful pressures for boom. A best- be wrong at one time. In our steady growth selling academic explained business opti- and flexibility, we now have far greater sta- mism in one sentence: "The new deciding bility than communism," factor is the escalation of war in Vietnam." Rinfret's opinions on basic trends would His statement comforted all who think our be less compelling If he didn't make such a economy still feeds on war. In Moscow, fat living (he's 5' 10%%". 202 lbs.) out of Pravda used it to headline a story: "Death them. More than any other private citizen, Merchants Count Profits." he gets his views tested every workday by the Rinfret saw it the other way around. Cer- precise gauges of the marketplace. He is tain that the system was already straining board chairman and boss thinker of Lionel toward the limits of its capacity, he feared D. Edie & Company, a top firm of economic the overload of weapons orders. "We're consultants with 134 corporate customers. tight as a drum, and this will blow off the So he tells business chiefs what's ahead in top." He also found out that the rise in their businesses, and they, investing billions, war spending would be at least $8 billion, don't tolerate mistakes. much of it hidden by accounting tricks and Most economic forecasters sell cagey some of it to be admitted later in special doubletalk. This rowdy near-genius revels appropriations. intakiag an unpopular stand on hard num- "We'll have a salami budget-one slice at bers and watching events confirm him. "We a time," he said in December. "The stock don't equivocate," he says. "We lay it on the market will soon figure out that the Gov- line." ernment has to slap down on inflation, but In early '57, when many businessmen nobody knows how hard. That means un- thought they were taking off toward the certainty." "Soaring 'Sixties," he sneered that they would He turned around and sold hundreds of instead wade painfully toward the "Soggy millions worth of high-priced stock well in 'Sixties." On existing policies and popula- advance of the market's February plunge. tion trends, he forecast the '57 recession, Setting cash aside, he resolved to go on a more frequent waverings to follow and a buying spree when the war is stabilized- slower growth rate well into the 'Sixties. or peace breaks out. And that's the way we went until 1963, He feared, however, that Vietnam would When John F. Kennedy proposed to "get the destroy the U.S. hope for steady, long-term country moving" with a whopping tax cut. growth into the late 'Sixties and early 'Sev- (See Mr. Tax Cut, Loon, June 18, 1963.) enties. "'Sixty-six is dangerous," he said. Businessmen balked, spooked by the thought "If we don't have the guts to face it, the of a deliberate deficit. Rinfret understood economy will crack apart and get sicker than the deeper issue, and badgered his conserve- it was in the middle 'Fifties. Right now, tive clients to back the Democratic Presi- we'll make or break the next five-year dent's bill. It treated sales and profits as trend." the sources of economic growth and proposed Heckling both business and Government, to expand total demand through private he worked over clients eager for price boosts. buying, not bigger Federal programs. "It's "You're greedy," he told one basic manufac- based." he said then, "on purely capitalistic turer, who soon ended up in a price battle, principles." The President's advisers bor- losers with the White House. "You'll bring rowed Rinfret's technical charts to help sell on big wage demands, maybe direct controls. the tax cut to Congress. You'd better live with the verbal, jawbone The tax cut ca th h b me roug etter than the controls the President is using now.,, Pony Express. Up charged the economy into . Then he tangled with the President him- the longest growth period ever known, The self. The issue: How much was industry ghost of John Maynard Keynes, father of actually going to spend on new plants? Edie modern economic thought, came vividly alive & Co.'s survey of big companies, having In the New Economics-which was old hat spotted the makings of a peaceful boom last to economists, brave new stuff to politicians. September, indicated by February that our Men were using the dismal science to drive Viet buildup had piled on a dangerous extra. the snakes of uncertainty out of business. It showed manufacturers raising plant con- The banishing of uncertainty brings confi- struction by 32 percent, half again as much deuce, and confidence brings basic changes as the Government was expecting. Presi- in the economy. Consumers become less dent Johnson, who had previously cited afraid to live it up. Not many months after Rinfret data as gospel, took a public swipe the big tax cut, with Medicare already' in the at this embarrassing new evidence of eco- air, one Edie & Co. customer reported an un- nomic overload. "One does not debate with expected surge in its car sales, mostly to peo- the President," retorted the forecaster. ple over 40. Many other buying habits be. "Nevertheless, we'll stand by our figures" gan to shift, upward. Why? "Prolonged The President soon backed away, in effect, prosperity and the conviction that It's here by jawboning for restraint in factory build- to stay," noted Rinfret, "has a snowball Ing. effect."' He also knew that, In addition The danger has now become clear. If the to the two-stage tax cut's lasting help, the war causes industry to create too much economy would get a boost from population capacity, a leveling off in war demand will trends. Not only was the postwar baby crop shut hundreds of factories and out off growing to the family-making age, but for further plant building. The result will be the first time in years, we were to have a net an "overcapacity" recession far rougher than increase in the age bracket, 40-to-44, that those brought on in the `Fifties by nothing earns and spends the most money. "The worse than inflated inventories. "We can't middle-aged," Rinfret saw, "are making up sustain this growth rate in the long haul," for their youth." says Rinfret. "We'll pay for it later, in a "Hell, we're going to have a boom on top dead economy. By this fail, you'll hear a of a boom, he told me late in '64. He fore- lot of yelling about recession. The war cast a bigger jump in the Gross National makes us unstable." Product than any other big-name pro. The Johnson Administration can, with Chomping his Corona, he huffed at others businessmen's help, keep the crisis in bounds. for predicting a mid-'65 slump. Rinfret had All of us feel Johnson's pressure right now in it right. By last September, his survey of the bigger tax withholdings from our pay- corporate plane to expand showed a boom so checks. LBJ has plenty more muscle. In big that many pros could not believe the addition to tax bites, tight money and a figures. hammerlock on the budget, he knows dozens The argument over the future growth rate of sneaky pressure points: slow processing led to disagreement over the economics of of FHA mortgage applications; delay in pay- peace and ware When U.S. Spending on ing bills and a deliberate squeeze in every Vietnam rose sharply `last fall, war became area where bureaucracy reaches the private 1, 1966 sector- But most politicians doubt that Democrats will do this unpopular job joyfully in an election year. Worse yet,. the political split over Vietnam policy makes for fudging on the economic front. Conservatives, all-out for action in Vietnam, are slow to admit its cost at home. Liberals, eager to pass more Great Society programs-now! have been dismally slow to admit how badly the economy is strained. And both sides seem uneasy in this strange new world in which war itself, no longer a practical stimulant, produces neither hidden benefits nor the chance to cry against war profits. Perhaps too many of us are silenced by the knowledge that we have been acci- dental beneficiaries of past wars. Even Negroes, left out of most breaks, got their first fair chance at factory jobs in World War II. There is, happily, one irresistible force pushing in the right direction: Lyndon John- son's ego. He is not running this year, but he will be up in '68. If he lets the economy blow the roof off now, it will fall back too hard in '67 to be raised by November '68. But if he holds the lid down for the rest of this year, he can keep the '67 recession shal- low, and we will be back on the healthy, peaceful growth curve by voters' day, '68. The President's advisers, I find, have ex- plained the arithmetic to him. To show what's ahead, forecaster Rinfret has projected the President's alternatives for Look (see chart below). [Chart not printed in REcoRD.] We've been riding the top line Into danger. But what is good for the coun- try in this situation is just as good for LBJ, and he's begun to look like a strong man. with both the jawbone and the hold-down powers of his office. The power to control economic growth, or to fall to, is, In a quiet way, as shocking as the power to command nuclear weapons. Both give fallible men the capacity-and with it, the necessity-to make deliberate deci- sions that nobody may be wise enough to make. Yet, for Lyndon Johnson, the promise is as great as the menace. He has the chance, with luck, to turn the New Economics into a practical equivalent of war. A NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL TELE- VISION VIEW ON VENEZUELA Mr. WILLIAMS of New Jersey. Mr. President, National Educational Televi- sion has given its audience many valu- able insights into major issues of our times. One recent production-"Vene- zuela, Last Chance for Democracy' =was especially timely and helpful to anyone who wishes to understand the deep- rooted challenges confronting the Alli- ance for Progress and other efforts to strengthen democracy in South America by improving the lives of its, people. NET and Its series on the "Changing World" are to be commended for this latest production. I ask unanimous con- sent to have the transcript of the pro- duction printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the tran- script was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: A COMPLETE TRANSCRIPT OF NATIONAL EovCA- TIONAL TELEVISION'S CHANGING WORLD #12: VENEZUELA-LAST CHANCE FOR DEMOCRACY From: National Educational Television, 10 Columbus Circle, Now York, New York 10019. This documentary report from Venezuela- the richest country -in Latin- America and the number one target for communist ac- tivity-is the story of people, described by a Latin American journalist as "the faceless ones"-the people who will decide ultimately Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 11452 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE June 1, 1966 .year. The question which is not easy to answer is: Where will the fish meal be found to meet a demand which has not stopped .growing with the fish catch? This is a world fish meal problem which will, no doubt, be anxiously discussed when manufacturers gather In Cape Town in April for the yearly conference of the International Association of Fish Meal Manufacturers. In the meantime what of Peru and the still callow giant of an industry nourished by the anchoveta? Many of the country's 160 or so fish meal factories and some 1,700 boats supplying them must be feeling the effects of the 1965 decline. Even In record 1964 Peruvian plants overall were working at only about 65 per cent of capacity. As any fish meal plant owner or operator will explain, factories of the type operating in the major fish meal countries are expen- sive to set up and carry high fixed costs. They are geared to large-scale production of abundant raw material and, unless the fac- tory owner has accumulated reserve funds, a drop in the catch quickly sends up the danger signs. For Peru, therefore, the next few years may be a period of factory closings far more rapid than have been taking place since an earlier period of consolidation in 1962 and 1963. Unfortunately for Peru the boom in an- choveta has not extended to other fish species. Writing in the Yearbook of the Peruvian fishing magazine Pesce, marine biologist Isaac Vasquez points out that 98 per cent of total landings in 1964 consisted of anchoveta. In recent years an effort has been made with the assistance of FAO to develop other fishing activities along the South American west coast. But there is no apparent substitute for the little fish which gave us the most astonishing of all fishing booms and which now seems to have no n%Qre S ON SOME PERTINENT COMMENT VIETNAM Mr. GRTJENING. 'Mr. President, as confusion becomes compounded in South Vietnam and the folly of our military involvement there grows more evident with the steady growth of that involve- ment, it is pertinent and useful to in- clude some diverse . comments which point up some of the unfortunate con- comitants of our misguided entry into a civil war which did not jeopardize or involve our security or national interest. Three recently published articles de- serve to be read. They are first, "An- other Turn of the Screw," by Walter Lippmann; second, "The Costs of War in Civilian Skills," by Marquis Childs; and third, "No Exit Government," by Joseph Kraft, all from recent issues of the Washington Post. I ask unanimous consent that they be printed in the RECORD, and urge their reading by both my colleagues and others. There being no objection, the articles were ordered to be printed in the REc- ORD, as follows : [From the Washington Post, May 31, 19661 TODAY AND, TOMORROW-ANOTHER TURN or THE SCREW (By Walter Lippmann)' Now even the semblance of. American aloof- ness and impartiality in the internal affairs of. South Vietnam, has disappeared and the United States is giving General Ky military and moral support in fighting his opponents at home. In Washington at, least, though perhaps not in Saigon, the Administration would have preferred to keep its hands off the internal conflict, and to be regarded as wait- ing dispassionately for the verdict of the South Vietnamese voters in the promised elections. But the Administration in Wash- ington has not controlled what happens in Saigon. Against its will, contrary to its hopes, perhaps contrary even to its own or- ders, it has become inextricably entangled with the actions of the Ky government. The development Is not surprising. In- deed it was bound to occur, and no one not the victim of the official illusions could ever have supposed that there could be an Inde- pendent government in Saigon or free elec- tions in South Vietnam while the preponder- ant military and economic power in the country, is foreign. It does not follow that General Ky Is a United States puppet, and that Ambassador Lodge pulls the strings. It can easily be, and indeed it is, that General Ky is pulling the strings and that Ambassa- dor Lodge has now to respond. For the situation in South Vietnam is be- coming more uncontrolled as it becomes more tangled, and it is increasingly doubtful whether the Administration can exercise any decisive influence In Vietnam beyond the reach of the guns of its troops. Increasing- ly it Is true that the United States controls only the ground on which its soldiers stand. There can be little question that in support- ing General Ky we have opened up a widen- ing gulf between ourselves and the Buddhists. It will not be easy to close it. For General Ky has identified himself with an intermin- able war for victory and with a regime of corruption and privilege and Inefficiency while the interminable war goes on. Yet we cannot replace him. It is impossible to see our forces doing almost all the fighting and at the same time providing good government in the thousands of villages of Vietnam. Although the situation Is bad and our en- tanglement is deep and dangerous, it would not be Impossible, even now, to regain control of our Intervention to shape events for a rational solution. But this cannot be done by a President who- thinks that any course of action different from the one he is taking is "abject surrender." In the realm of states- manship, to believe that is to be a defeatist. Losing control of the war can lead to an irrestible demand in this country to go all out by using airpower to destroy North Viet- nam and the Vietcong territory in South Vietnam. Or, if the President rejects this catastrophic solution, losing control of the war can mean that South Vietnam will come apart at the seams and will become un- ravelled as a state capable of waging war. To regain control of the American Inter- intervention the President will have to set limits on our purposes and on the power we are willing to commit to them. Now any serious setting of limits is tantamount to adopting the holding strategy which General Gavin and General Ridgway have advised us to use. With a limitation of forces there must necessarily be a limitation of our ob- jectives. Even if we fix the military commit- ment at the high level of 400 thousand men, we must reduce our present objectives which are to reconquer the whole territory so com- pletely that General Ky's junta is able to govern it. Such a limitation on our means and ends 'would not be abject surrender. It would be honorable in that it would provide asylum for the Vietnamese who need it or want it, and it would be enormously significant in that it would without fail set in motion the negotiations which we profess to desire. For if we take the position that we will not use unlimited American forces to con- quer and occupy the whole of South Viet- nam, and at the same time we say that we will not evacuate Vietnam without a politi- cal agreement, the Vietnamese themselves will soon be compelled to negotiate their own arrangements. [From the Washington (D.C.) Post, May 30, 1966] THE COSTS OF WAR IN CIVILIAN ,SKILLS (By Marquis Childs) Part of the cost of the spreading conflict in Vietnam can be lumped under the heading of the brain drain. The military to one side, the concentration of brains, skill, ability in Southeast Asia has put a strain on a half- dozen civilian agencies. Roughly one-tenth of the total American staff of the United States Information Agen- cy Is there. The State Department, the Central Intelligence Agency and other branches of government are feeling the pinch. More often than not the ablest and most dedicated men are singled out for serv- ice in Vietnam. Agencies such as Agriculture and Health, Education and Welfare, charged with a share in the program of rehabilitation, must as- sign experts to the difficult task of trying to rebuild the countryside and win the allegi- ance of the peasantry as the war continues. The inroads of disease-with a new virulent form of malaria that defies normally effec- tive drugs and viral hepatitis-are taxing medical resources in Vietnam, both civilian and military. As the President's economy drive pinches the budgets of most agencies the demands growing out of the Vietnam commitment cut deeper into normal func- tions and the responsibilities of government at home and abroad. It is in foreign policy that the conse- quences are felt most acutely. The number of hours spent on Vietnam by the President's principal advisers add up to an overwhelm- ing total. This means, along with the drain of skilled and able manpower, the neglect of other vital areas of American Involvement. Certain of the President's advisers are aware of,how costly this can be. With gov- ernment resources and public attention con- centrated on Southeast Asia the slippage in other areas goes almost unnoticed. There are signs that the Soviet Union is taking advantage of this country's absorbtion in a war that will shortly ?ee 400,000 American troops on the ground in Asia. The Middle East is a prime example. A blowup can come this summer. The degree to which Premier Aleksei Kosygin backed President Gamal Abdel Nasser during Kosy- gin's recent visit to Cairo is not clear. But the Soviet Union has provided Egypt with massive arms aid and has made loans avail- able up to a half-billion dollars for the Aswan dam. Nasser continues to keep more than 50,000 troops in Yemen. Knowledgeable observers here fear that he may launch a direct attack on Saudi Arabia over control of the primi- tive desert state belatedly moving out of the remote past. This could involve Jordan, since King Hussein has aligned his nation with Saudi Arabia. In 1958 President Eisenhower :ordered 10,000 Marines Into Lebanon at the request of the Lebanese government. The area was In an uproar with leftists in Iraq violently overthrowing a Western-oriented govern- ment. Lebanon today is said to be far more stai?le. Yet if a request should come from, say, Jordan or Saudi Arabia for help in the face of an Egyptian attack, with the threat of the whole area going up in flames, Ameri- can resources would be strained in view of the ever-widening Vietnam commitment. Africa is another area in which the drift of events can present Washington with grim, if not impossible, choices. Increasingly the militancy of black Africa is directed at the remaining enclaves of white supremacy, no- tably South Africa and Rhodesia. The Presi- dent's initiative in his address to the ambas- sadors representing the Organization of Af- rican Unity was a recognition of the need for a new approach. Approved For Release 2005/07/13: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 J, une .1, 1966 vs- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 --r CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE 11451 it has become clear, was protecting her bor- ders while she rapidly developed her own society. In general, Russia, succeeded. And it is now also clear that the strongest barrier to Russian national expansion is the national identity of neighboring states which, even under Communist governments, resist ab- sorption and seek peaceful relations with both East and West. One frequently hears that the United States is doing in Viet. Nam what it did in Greece. under the Truman Doctrine-build- ing a barrier of armed power against a Com- munist tide rolling on toward world con- quest; and it is assumed that our stand in Greece triumphed. The truth is we might be engaged there yet had not Tito closed the Communist supply route after falling out with Stalin. In other words, what saved Greece was not primarily our military and economic power but the indigenous national- ism of Communist Yugoslavia. The one great lessen of the cold war with Russia is that national interests, and not Communist ideology, are controlling on both sides. The Russians, like the Chinese, have talked a lot about their revolution some day embracing the world, but at the critical points they have invariably acted in behalf of Russian interests rather than of Marist dogma. National interests can be accommodated, when the will to reconcile them exists on both sides. By and large, the United States and Russia have learned after 20 years of cold war that their conflicts must be recon- c1led-that in the nuclear age neither can undertake an ideological war against the other. Only the Viet Nam issue stands in the way of a steady improvement in relations that would, in effect, end the cold war with Russia. Can we not apply these lessons of the past to our future with China? Must we go through another period of ideological con- flict in which vast portions of our national energies are devoted to military power at the expense of our social and cultural development? We must now possess, many times over. the military power necessary to defend our- selves and to deter overt aggression any- where. It would be a national tragedy if, nevertheless, we embarked on a new nuclear arras race and a series of peripheral wars designed to "contain" Chinese Communism by military encirclement, Ideas cannot be so contained. Revolutions cannot be perma- nently suppressed with guns. Not all revo- lutions are against our national interest. We cannot impose our will everywhere, and we defeat our purposes by trying. The way to meet Communist boasts of coming world rev- olution is not to believe them, but to help free peoples create the conditions that make Communism. impossible. Just as we have learned at great cost and hazard to live at peace with Russia, weshall some day have to make up our minds to accept Red China's existence, to respect her legitimate interests, to meet her challenge by other means than military containment. It would be the part of wisdom to make this decision before, rather than after, another 20 years of cold war and arms race. Man- kind may not get a second chance to avoid nuclear suicide. FISHERY CONSERVATION NEEDS OF THE WORLD Mr. MAGNUSON. Mr. President, I have spoken often on this floor on the subject of the fishery conservation needs of the world. I feel very deeply about this and am constantly heartened by growing world opinion and concern that the high seas operations of many of the coastal and fishing nations are not- being operated with enough regard for the fu- ture. Today, off the coast of my State, as well as off Oregon and Alaska, huge Soviet fleets are harvesting the fishery resources above the Continental Shelf; and it is my conviction that the conservation consid- eration is inadequate. The very fact that this huge fleet has spread down from the Bering Sea, first to the Gulf of Alaska, then to British Columbia, then Washington, and finally Oregon, is ample evidence that depletion is being left in its wake. There are now explorations by Soviet vessels off the coast of California, and it is quite obvious that a fleet will soon be working in those waters as well. Mr. President, we cannot afford to glibly cast off the fishermen's com- plaints of fishery depletion by these for- eign fleets on the assumption that we do not know the conservation requirements of our coastal stocks. The Soviet and Japanese fleets have been operating for more than 5 years in the Gulf of Alaska, and the fact that they would now journey so much further to fish off Oregon is ample demonstration that the yield has seriously declined. It is my feeling that we must move to protect our special in- terest as a coastal State and accept our responsibilities toward the conservation of the fishery resources. We should learn by experience, and we have such experience in this area of fish- ery conservation. There is a recent ex- ample for our consideration. The leading nation in world fishery production on the basis of the most re- cent Food and Agricultural Organiza- tion statistics is our South American neighbor Peru. In 1958, the fabulous off- shore fishery for anchoveta was close to 1 million tons, and 3 years later it had reached the unbelievable total of 51/2 mil- lion tons with some 840,000 tons of meal entering the world market. In 1964, that nation exported a total of 1.426 million tons. But today, Mr. President, Peru's grasp of the No. 1 production position in world fisheries is faltering, and I would suggest that recent declines may be the result of overfishing. More important, per-' haps, is the uncertainty of the situation; we really do not know whether the fish- ery off Peru has merely reached a sort of production plateau at around 8 million tons, or whether the production may de- cline and evaporate as with the Cali- fornia sardine. It is increasingly obvious to me that the coastal and fishery nations of the world must hasten to the conference table, not to further selfish individual desires by garnering more fishery stocks for them- selves, but to take a long, hard and prac- tical look at the ocean resources as we know them and to come forward with some conservation rationale in the in- terest of mankind. - Mr. President, I pray for the day when America's fishery industry may take its rightful place in this question of world production. But I do not wish for the United States to do so at the sacri- fice of a resource. We have a responsibility to the entire world in this question of fishery conser- vation, and I am convinced that others will be prepared to meet their responsi- bilities in this regard when we can sit down at the conference table. As you know, the State Department is now pro- ceeding with plans for a World Fisheries Conference, as suggested unanimously in resolution by this body more than 3 years ago. The State Department ac- tion is long overdue, but that depart- ment of government should reassess its timetable, with a determination to bring the conference about even sooner than present plans dictate. There is no time for delay. Mr. President, as I mentioned earlier in my remarks, others are becoming concerned about this conservation prob- lem. The British fishery trade journal, Fishing News International, has regu- larly called attention to such world needs. I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the REcoan the text of that publication's recent editorial on the problems in Peru. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: PEau, FISH MEAS. AND THE END or An ERe In the Peruvian fish meal industry the end of an era may have been reached. With this observation the US Embassy in Lima rounded off a review written in September last year of the short- and long-term out- look for the industry. Events since then have tended to confirm that the soaring rocket that has been the Peruvian fish meal industry since the middle 1950's has levelled off in its flight. In future the strongest in- fluence on it may well be the gravitational pull of a pelagic shoal fish resource ex- ploited very near to or perhaps even beyond safe limits. A fishing world conditioned almost to planned developments, restrains in the in- terests of conservation and other such in- fluences stared agog at the fishery explosion that took place in Peru. Growth is too mild a word todescribe what happened there. It was a rampant, joyous surge of free enter- prise. Suddenly the small anchoveta, which had contributed only about 30 per cent of a yearly catch around 130,000 tons, became the most exciting of all fish pulled out of the oceans. By 1958 Peru's catch was touching one million tons; three years later a 51/2 million ton catch had pushed 840,000 tons of fish meal into world markets. In those three years the amount of meal in international trade rose from 657,000 tons to 1,350,000 tons. Prices tumbled and one major exporting country alone dropped #1 million in earn- ings from a higher catch. While this alarmed meal exporting coun- tries. its long-term effect was to open up a vast new market. The lower prices en- couraged previous importers to use more meal in their growing output of fortified feeds; new buyers appeared and by 1964, even with exports at 2.4 million tons and total world production at 3.8 million tons, the price was reaching its pre-1961 level. By then 30 per cent of the world's catch was being fed into reduction plants, compared with 15 per cent ten years before. Other fishing nations-Norway, Iceland, Chile and South and South West Africa-were all con- tributing to the rise in production. But Peru, with exports in 1964 of 1.426 million tons, was the colossus in markets which were already taking all the meal available. Now the halt appears to have come. Dur- ing the last three months of 1965 there was the expected drop in the Peru catch and this may level air at around eight million tons a Approved For Release 2005107/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 Approved Fg/7/$DP?IRO6R000400080019-0 The growing tenslofi throughout'black`Af- rice. is related to the drift in the United Na- tions. Control in the U.N. is passing to peo- ples of color under the one-nation, one-vote rule. With the prospect of the admission of Red China in the not-too-distant future the domination by `Asian and African nations aimed at the little _plateau. of white superior- ity, as gauged by the economic indices, is an ominous portent for the V.N. This has been Ambassador Arthur Gold- berg's increasing concern. But he finds it difficult to get attention focused in Wash- ington on what can happen to the` U.N. Goldberg has scarcely concealed his unhap- piness over certain administration policies. The plain fact is that resources of trained and able civilians, as well as the supply bf money, are limited. The more they are drawn into the vortex of Vietnam the fewer there are_for other urgent needs. [From the Washington (D.C.) Post, May 30, (By Joseph Kraft) Marshal Ky's show of force in Danang and Hue has been hailed by his admirers in the Saigon Embassy, the State Department and the press as a great success. But for whom? Not, certainly for the United States. For ,the chief result of the recent events is to identify the American stake even more closely to the fate of the Ky regime. But whatever its immediate ups and downs, the Ky government is a no-exit government-a government without a future. ,It cannot fight a war. Still less can it pacify the country in the wake of American military success. Least of all can it work out an agreement with the other side. The basic weakness of the Ky regime is that it, is not a government so much as a ,ramshackle collection of opportunists who have risen to the top through a crazy suc- cession of military coups. Far from working together on government business accord- ingly, the chief military figures in the regime tend to pursue their own private and local interests. And nothing shows it better than the basic military command built around the four Army Corps. The III Corps around Saigon, because of its proximity to the capital, has in general been responsive to central direction. `But the I Corps has been mainly taken up, one way or another, with the Buddhists. 'The IV Corps in the rich delta region has been largely a fief for the accumulation of per- sonal fortunes. The II Corps, embracing the highland district, the scene of most of the American military activity, has been much the same. In these circumstances, morale in the Viet- namese army has steadily sunk. Desertions, which gre mainly cases of men going home, have been running at the rate of at least 7500 per month. The capacity and interest of the Vietnamese army in fighting the war have dropped accordingly. And thus it hap- pens that Americans are doing most of the fighting and now absorbing most of the casualties. ? The weaknesses that debar the Ky regime .from waging the war effectively are even more critical when it comes to pacification. For pacification involves chiefly winning the confidence of local people through civil po- lice actions and social reforms. But the Ky regime, after the fashion of most military regimes, has only contempt for the civil police function; the police re- main among the poorest paid and worst trained officials in South Vietnam. As to social reforms, they are constantly being obstructed and diluted by the corruption endemic in the regime. Even absent cor- ruption, the true condition of social reform ,fe the one thing the Ky regime seems unable to admit-that is a feely elected civil gov- ernment with popular support. 'Lastly, with respect to wrapping the war up through negotiations, the Ky regime is doing so poorly in fighting and in pacifica- tion, that the insurgents are bound to be- lieve that time is working on their side. The transparent ineptitude of the regime, in other words, can only encourage the rebels to step up their activities-the more so as they must now see the prospect of enlisting some of the Buddhists. Moreover, even if the time came when the other side was ready to negotiate, the Ky regime would constitute an insuperable ob- stacle to talks. Most of its leading members, including Marshal Ky himself, fail to pass the acid test of nationalism. In the Indo- chinese' struggle for independence, they fought with the French against their own people. It is not thinkable that the Viet- cong, or Hanoi, or Peking would deal with such men. In these circumstances, it is sheer folly for American officials to celebrate -Marshal Ky's victories and to imagine that some glowing future presents itself. The fact is that Marshal Ky's victories are American defeats. The American interest at this junc- ture is to take distances from Marshal Ky, while searching for occasions to promote a shuffle in the Saigon government. The truth is that so long as the Ky regime stays in power, for so long, the United States will be obliged to intensify its own war effort. Mr. LONG of Missouri. Mr. President, recently I commented on a Federal Data Center that is being considered, into which all Government-held information .about individual citizens would be fed. Such a center would take from Ameri- cans any chance they might have for individualism. The citizen would be- come merely a number and much of his life's history could be retrieved from the computer. .. Last Sunday's Outlook section of the Washington Post contained a most in- teresting article entitled "There's a Dos- sier on You," written by Richard Har- wood. Mr. Harwood points out that an enormous industry has been created- in the United States for the purpose of com- piling dossiers on our innocent citizens. Mr. Harwood suggests Government "security" reports on private citizens often end up in the hands of private em- ployers and vice versa. Mr. President, the Subcommittee on Administrative Practice and Procedure is presently investigating this so-called Federal Data Center, and we intend to hold hearings on this "dossier concept" in the near future. I ask unanimous consent to have printed at this point in the RECORD the article published in the Washington Post of May 29, 1966. Tilere being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: THERE'S A DOSSIER ON You-IT MIGHT NOT BE IN CIA OR FBI FILES; IT MIGHT ONLY BE FHA's CHECK ON MARITAL STABILITY (By Richard Harwood) On an ordinary working day, the Federal Housing Administration puts away in its files "confidential" reports on the marital stability of approximately 4,000 prospective home buyers. More than a million of these reports were collected for the Government last year by private tinve'stigating agencies whose assignment is to spot people likely to wind up in a divorce court. Their snooping is done so discreetly (and often so superficially) that few if any FHA loan applicants are aware that their domestic problems are the subject of public interest. If one asks what interest the Government has in, say, the indiscretions of an Arlington suburbanite, he is given an answer worthy of the counting house: "The reputation and marital amicability of an applicant for a mortgage loan ... are a vital part of our risk determination. One of the leading causes of foreclosure is divorce." The same sort of logic is used to justify snooping of every description into the per- sonal affairs of American citizens by both public and private institutions in our society. "The ideal," as a security official at the Defense Department has put it, "is to elimi- nate risk in advance." A SIX-MONTH BAG In pursuit of this ideal, Defense has created an elaborate investigative apparatus which in a recent six-month period turned up 22 sexual perverts, three alcoholics and ten "psychiatric cases." They were all private citizens who required "security clear- ances" because their companies held defense contracts. . The military, of course, is not alone in this business. The Civil Service Commission spends more than half its budget probing into the lives of present and prospective job- holders. In the past five years it has dis- covered a dozen communists and several thousand homosexuals, excessive drinkers and otherwise "immoral" people. The National Aeronautics and Space Ad- ministration inquires into every facet of the lives of its astronauts and their families and weighs the findings against the model "public image" it seeks. (The process broke down last year when an astronaut unpre- dictably was sued for divorce.) The Passport Office. demands detailed per- sonal histories from all passport applicants who have been married more than twice. It also engages in a curious political sur- veillance program which, in theory at least, could deprive a Senator like J. WILLIAM FUL- BRIGHT Or WAYNE MORSE of the right to travel abroad. The Immigration and Naturalization Serv- ice snoops on an international scale. It has dossiers bn "sex-deviates," prostitutes, rapists and criminals in countries all over the world. To harvest and handle information of this kind, an enormous industry has been created in the United States in the past 30 years. It spends hundreds of millions of dollars and engages the talents and inquisitive instincts of thousands. The Federal Government alone employs far more investigators than doctors-40,000-plus-although they are not all compiling personal dossiers. The Retail Credit Co., largest of the pri- vate investigating concerns, grosses more than $100 million a year from activities that have little to do with "retail credit." The Federal Civil Service Commision spends $17 million a year on personnel investigations. For the same purpose, Defense spent $45 million last year, the Internal Revenue Service spent $10.3 million, the Atomic Energy Commission spent $5.6 million. The $170 million FBI budget included about $145 million for "security" and criminal investi- gations. The fruit of these investments is tangible. The names and numbers of virtually all of us can be found in somebody's filing cabinet and for millions of us there are extensive life histories with intimate details of our sexual habits, friendships, financial affairs, oddi- ties and political and religious beliefs. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 11453 11454 110 FBI MONOPOLY One automatically thinks, In this con- nection, of the FBI with 17614 million Sets pf nuts, its bulky dossiers on 11.000 ` t Party' members and 160- 000 Communist "sympat izers and Its su- perse t list of people to be arrested im- me4ately In the event of war. But the I has no .monopoly in these affairs. The Retail Credit Co.'q,7000 investigators malntaig, dossiers on 42 .million people at any given time. Some of diem contain such incriminating information that they are kept under lock and key in the offices of the com- pany's top personnel. The Defense Department has a central index of 21.6 million name card* plus 14 million life histories compiled in the course of Its security investigations. The disclo- sure of Information in its possession could wreck the lives and careers of thousands of men and women. The Civil Service Commission has the same power. Its files include eight million secret dossiers on people investigated for Federal employment. They contain thousands of allegations (and in many cases proof) of "criminal conduct," "immoral conduct," i'dishonest conduct" and "notoriously dis- graceful and Infamous conduct." M6' Credit Bureau, Inc., the largest of Washington's credit-rating companies, has records *Oh 2.5 Million past and present resi- fients and has access to millions of similar records in cities all over the United States. 'its regular reports to the FBI and other Government agencies often are sufficiently damaging to costa mad his job. The FBI, foe example, on the basis of Credit Bureau reports, weeded out a large number of peo- pie chosen to work for Sargent Shriver's Office of Economic Opportunity. AA ADMrrrm TIM AT The Government's chief personnel investi- gator, Kimbell Johnson of the Civil Service Commission, is conscious of the power he and other investigators could wield. "Whenever a, bureaucracy amasses files about its citizens," " he says, "an inherent threat to liberty exists." Vale Prof. Staughton Lynd experienced this "threat" a few months ago when the State Department revoked his passport, in part, because of "anti-American statements" in his dossier. They had been collebted_ by State Department investigators who trailed him to public meetings in this country and ftlonitored his speeches for criticisms of American policy in Vietnam. These criti- cisms then became factors in the decision of the Passport Office to deny Lynd the liberty to travel abroad. Another case involved Harvard Prof. H. Stuart Hughes, whose plans to visit Europe next fall were known months in a4vance to the FBI. Drawing on Hughes's political dos- sier, the FBI asked the State Department and United States agents overseas to place the professor under surveillance when he reached Europe. These Incidents suggest, if nothing else, that the sweep of the Government's investi- gative Interests is far broader than a citizen might assume in a free society. saoozrTY "OBLIGATION" In both the public and private sectors of American life, investigations are defended in terms of the search for security and certi- tude. And Institution, It is argued, has an obligation to know who it is hiring, who it is lending money to and who may threaten its existence. The inherent dangers in the process are everywhere recognized. Retail Credit, for example, acknowledges that some of its dos- siers would be a gold mine for blackmailers; hence, they are handled even within the agency like top-secret documents. Wash- ington's Credit Bureau, Inc., uses a compli- June 1966 It holds from failing into the wrong hands. Even CIA people concede that it is useless The FBI, Defense and the Civil Service Com- when the subject is a congenital liar. mission make a fetish of protecting their A CRIPPLING PARADOX "raw files." To Johnson and Deputy Assistant Secre- Thus, the investigators claim, dangers to the y of Defense Walter Skallerup, the whole citizenry from snooping areminimal. process of personnel investigation is dis- "No one need worry," one is old, "about toned by the preoccupation with turning up the unauthorized use of his file." dirt." They urge a system aimed at di~- The record, however, does not support this covering talent rather than spotless claim. What a man reveals about himself mediocrity. in an application for department store credit Finally, there is a paradox in the present may later prove the crucial factor in the loss system that makes absolute "security" unat- Of a Government job. A "confidential" re- tamable even if it were desirable in a free lpart-discrediting a reporter for The Wash- society. The people privy to the highest gton Post-which later proved to be totally secrets of the Government and the men on false-went all the way from the State De- whose judgment and emotional stability the partment to the White House, the CIA, the world's fate may hang are exempt from the Defense Department and, ultimately, to the screenings of the investigators. managers of the newspaper. "Who," asked a CIA man not long ago, Government "security" reports on private "is going to give Lyndon Johnson a polygraph citizens often end up in the hands of private test or a psychological examination?" employers, and the reverse is true. The Civil The members of Congress who deal with Service Commission, the FBI and credit- these matters are never checked out by the rating agencies work hand in glove. The FBI. Psychologists do not probe the mind confidential" FAA reports on applicants for of the Secretary of Defense the way they housing loans are available to mortgage lend- probe the minds of some of his underlings. ers for $1.50. IN HIGH PLACES A DALLAS AFTERMATH Nor are disclosures of this kind always In the aftermath of President Kennedy's accidental. A President of the United assassination, there was irltense concern with States-h-'-sing office in the 1900s-has dis- the problem of presidential security. There cussed at "off-the-record" meeting with were suggestions that thousands of potential journalists the contents of a secret report security risks he arrested or at least confined on the sexual Indiscretions of a Senator. to vhe homes whenever the President was The governor of a Mid-South state has, travelin ng. within the past five years, tried to peddle to you would "That," call totalitarian Hoover security replied, "is what newsmen the Federal income tax returns of think you can have th that at kind of . I security nn a political opponent. The same thing has this country without great wave of happened with politicians in other states, having a great wave of notably Florida and Ohio. criticism it " If a visitor stumbles. onto the right There e are e signs that a similar reaction is pri- setting in against snooping. General Motors vats detective in Washington, he may be has promised that there will be no more shown photographs of a prominent political Ralph Nader investigations. Secretary of figure in bed with the wife of a prominent State Dean Rusk has promised to curtail socialite. Getting information out of the the surveillance of American citizens travel- "closed files" of the House Un-American Ac- ing abroad. The Civil Service Commission tivities Committee is about as difficult as is having second thoughts about psychologi- getting a weather report. cal testing. The President has ordered a cur- Just a couple of years ago, a foreign lob- tailment of electronic eavesdropping. byist obtained an HUAC report on the lobby- Meanwhile, however, the dossiers continue ing activities of a Senate staff member. The to pile up. in the offices of Government and report was taken to the White House in an industry. What will become of them, nobody effort to discredit the staffer. knows. Whenever things of this sort occur, men of good will in Government or private in- dustry respond with new suggestions for protecting the "sanctity" of the files. But it is obvious, as they concede, that so long as dossiers exist, they will be abused to one extent or another. A trusted secretary In Johnson's office In the Civil Service Commission divulged a great deal of information about Government personnel to the late Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy (R-Wis.), She acted out of patri- otic motives and she was finally fired. But the damage was done. The more difficultquestion is whether the millions of dossiers piling up in Government and private offices are really necessary. How much does one need to know before hiring a man or lending him money? Not even the investigators have those answers. The retail credit agencies, for example, acknowledge that even though credit is freer and easier today than at any other time in history, the loss rate from deadbeats remains infinitesimal. The FHA justifies its ques- tions about marital stability in terms of the foreclosure problem. But it has no figures to support the claim that "one of the lead- ing causes of foreclosure is divorce." The CIA and the National Security Agency compel job applicants to take an offensive Ile detector test that include such questions as: "Have you engaged in homo- sexual acts since the age of 16?" But there is great controversy over the value of these tests. The Civil Service Commission's John- DEATH IN VIETNAM-CAPT. JOSEPH J. POLONKO, JR., OF PLUCKEMIN, N.J. Mr. Wn,r.rA vIS of New Jersey. Mr. President, a constitutent of mine, Capt. Joseph J. Polonko, Jr., of Pluckemin, N.J., recently lost his life while serving on active duty in South Vietnam. A close friend of his has brought to my attention a letter he wrote, describing the life and work of Captain Polonko, to the Somer- ville Messenger-Gazette. This eloquent letter describes Captain Polonko's cour- ageous service to his Nation and the out- standing job he did as a member of our Armed Forces presently assisting the Vietnamese people. I know that this let- ter will be of interest to my colleagues, and I ask unanimous consent that it be printed in the RECORD at this point. There being no objection, the letter was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: ARLINGTON, VA., May 7, 1966. EDITOR, SOMERVILLE MESSENGER-GAZETTE, Somerville, N.J, . DEAR SIR: On Friday, the sixth of May, 1966, Joseph J. Polonko, Jr., of Pluckemin, New Jersey, Somerville High School, Rutgers University, the UD114W States Army, and Kien Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 ForRelease 2005/07/13: CIA-RDP67B00446R0O0400080019-0 I '''r' CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 June 1, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE ADDITIONAL COSPONSORS OF BILLS AND JOINT RESOLUTION Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the name of the junior Senator from Kansas [Mr. PEAR- sox] be added to S. 3273, the Dairy Im- port Act of 1966, as a cosponsor at the next printing of the bill. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. Without objection, it is so ordered. Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that on the next printing of Senate Joint Resolution 148, the name of the junior Senator from Michigan [Mr. GRIrrIN] be added as a cosponsor. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. Without objection, it is so ordered. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that at the next printing of the bill, S. 3107, to provide for a comprehensive review of national water resource problems and programs, and for other purposes, the names of Senators CHURCH and NELSON be added as cosponsors. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. Without objection, it is so or- dered. NOTICE OF HEARINGS ON CIVIL RIGHTS Mr. BAYH. Mr. President, due to a viral infection recently suffered by the chairman of the Subcommittee on Con- stitutional Rights, hearings originally scheduled to commence June 2. 1966, on S. 3296, the administration's Civil Rights Act of 1966, six other civil rights bills, and an amendment to S. 3296, have been postponed for 4 days. Hearings have been rescheduled to begin June 6, 1966, at 10:30 a.m., In room 2228, New Senate Office Building, Arrangements made for the receipt of testimony are expected to remain the same. ADDRESSES, EDITORIALS, ARTI- CLES, ETC., PRINTED IN THE AP- PENDIX On request, and by unanimous con- sent, addresses, editorials, articles, etc., were ordered to be printed in the Ap- pendix, as follows: By Mr. JAVITS: Address by Hon. Charles H. Silver, con- sultant to mayor of New York and president, Beth Israel Medical Center, delivered at dedi- cation of Belle and Jack Linsky. Pavilion, Beth Israel Medical Center; Now York City. By Mr. CHURCH: Excerpts from speech, entitled "Public Affairs; The Demanding Seventies," delivered by Sol Linowitz, chairman of the board of the Xerox Corp., before a conference of the National Industrial Conference Board. Review of the motion picture "Born Free," written by Richard Schickel, and printed in Life magazine of April 8, 1966. By Mr. MORTON: Editorial entitled "The Revisionists," pub- lished in the Washington Post of Thursday, May 26, 1966. NATIONAL FLAG WEEK Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, at the request of the chairman of the Commit- tee on the Judiciary, the Senator from Mississippi [Mr. EASTLAND],, I submit a resolution, and ask for its immediate consideration. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tern- pore. Is there objection? There being no objection, the resolu- tion (S. Res. 269) was read, considered, and agreed to as follows: Resolved, That the Committee on the Ju- diciary be, and hereby Is, discharged from further consideration of the House joint resolution (H.J. Res. 763), authorizing the President to proclaim the week in which June 14 occurs as "National Flag Week." Mr, DIRKSEN, Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Senate pro- ceed to the consideration of I-louse Joint Resolution 763. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. The joint resolution will be stated by title for the inforintion of the Senate. The LEGISLATIVE CLERK, A joint res- olution (H.J. Res. 763) authorizing the President to proclaim the week in which June 14 occurs as National Flag Week. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tern- pore. Is there objection to the present consideration of the joint resolution? There being no objection, the Senate proceeded to consider the joint resolu- tion. Mr, DIRKSEN. Mr. President, al- though June 14 is the date usually ob- served as Flag Day, it is observed in some States at different times. It has been suggested by a great many patriotic or- ganizations that instead of fixing the date, we accept the week in which June 14 falls as the week in which to observe Flag Day; and this resolution calls on the President to make such a proclama- tion. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. The joint resolution is before the Senate and open to amendment. If there be no amendment to be offered, the question is on the third reading and passage of the joint resolution. The joint resolution (H.J. Res. 763) was ordered to a third reading, was read the third time, and passed. Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President, in June 1965, 10 South Vietnamese gen- erals spearheaded a military coup, over- turned the civilian government and then selected flamboyant Air Marshal Ky as Prime Minister. Unfortunately, as fur- ther evidence that the United States has become involved in a miserable civil war in Vietnam, the fact is that Ky was born and reared near Hanoi considerably north of the 17th parallel. Throughout the last 12 months that militarist regime, although supported by our Armed Forces and the CIA, has never won control over the major part of the area south of the 17th parallel and termed "South Viet- nam" in the Geneva agreement. The facts are at the present time this mili- tarist regime has only questionable con- trol of one-fourth of the area of South Vietnam. Lacking the support of our Armed Forces and the CIA, Ky could not have maintained himself as Prime Min- ister,. Ky very definitely is on his way out as Prime Minister. At the Honolulu conference he was embraced by our President. Then he announced he was going to bring democ- racy to South Vietnam and hold elec- tions in August, Despite the fact that our leaders tried to make a sweet-smell- Ing geranium of Ky, throughout the en- tire period from the time of the military coup, he had never made any effort nor taken any steps whatever toward civilian rule to displace the militarists who seized power. In retrospect, the Honolulu con- ference, about which so much has been said by administration leaders, was an unfortunate episode in the recent history of our country. With revolt and unrest glowing daily in South Vietnam, it is evident Ky could not last as Prime Minister for even a few days except for our support. It is obvi- ous that his time as Prime Minister is rapidly drawing to a close. It is evident that this administration has involved our Nation in an unpopular war in Vietnam. There is no viable gov- ernment in South Vietnam. Sallust, the Roman philosopher said: It Is always easy to begin a war, but very difficult to stop one, since its beginning and end are not under the control. of the same man. A recent editorial in the St. Louis Post Dispatch quoted Walter Lippmann's statement that it is becoming plainer every day that "The American Inter- vention in South Vietnam is the most unpopular war within the memory of living Americans." I ask unanimous consent that this edi- torial, entitled "Unpopular War," be printed in the RECORD at this point as a part of my remarks. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: In his column the other day Walter Lipp- mann said what is becoming plainer every hour, that "The American Intervention in South Vietnam is the most unpopular war within the memory of living Americans." Indicators such as academic demonstrations amply support this judgment; the Gallup poll shows public approval of the way Presi- dent Johnson is handling the Vietnam situa- tion continues to slip. The basic reason for the American attitude is simply that the people are not persuaded the effort Is either wise or necessary. They are not convinced a few Asian guerrillas 10,000 miles away constitute a genuine threat to the security of the United States, Should the United States be attacked, or genuinely threatened, by an adversary worthy of its steel, we are sure the people would rally just as they did after the attack on Pearl Harbor. The unrealistic arguments of Administra- tion spokesmen, and President Johnson's continued sniping at his critics, seem to us to be having the effect of increasing popular discontent. Mr. Johnson's speech to a Democratic fund-raising dinner in Chicago is a case in point. The President said the American effort would continue "until the gallant people of South Vietnam have their own choice of their own government." He spoke of aiding "this young nation." Everyone who reads the newspapers knows this does not reflect the real situation, Even as Mr, Johnson spoke "the gallant people of South Viet Nam", were engaging in fratricidal strife. What began as a civil war between the Saigon regime and Communist-led guer- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 Approved For Release 2005/07/13: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE June 1, 1966 rillas, with the United states supporting who fought against the nationalist forces, Saigon and North Viet Nam the guerrillas, then termed Vietminh, fighting for free- was turning into a second civil war between dom from French Colonialists, and then the crumbling Saigon regime and dissident returned to civilian life. Many from the military, student and Buddhist factions in north migrated to the south as they were central Viet Nam. In his Chicago address Mr. Johnson char- despised by some of their neighbors who longed "those who speak and write about fought for liberation. On the other Viet Nam to say clearly what other policy hand, many from South Vietnam whose they would pursue," as though his critics sympathies were with the Vietminh or had offered no constructive counsel. On the who had actually fought with the Viet- contrary, as the public knows, Mr. Johnson's minh migrated to the north. critics have urged that the escalation of the President Diem, who was installed as war be stopped, that the bombing of North Viet Nam be halted, that the buildup of American troops and bases be stopped, and that a credible effort be made to secure negotiations. If this advice had been followed months ago perhaps the present upheaval could have been avoided; after all; fighters on all sides are using American weapons. At least it should be clear that South Viet Nam is no more a nation now than it over was, and that the United States has been supporting a transitory coalition of warlords who have a personal stake in keeping the military strug- gle alive and who are incapable of governing. Washington cannot very well interfere in a fight between two factions of its "allies." But it can count on a still more rapid de- cline of American support for the war if the, "allies" do not stop killing each other. The United States supposedly is in Viet Nam at the- request of a duly-constituted govern- ment; what if there is no government? We do not believe Mr. Johnson can ever make the war popular, but he could increase his own stature, and perhaps begin to pave the way for an honorable withdrawal, by convincing the people that he is honestly and clearly facing the facts as they are, not as he would like them to be. We do not know of any morale in Saigon that now could be damaged by such a frank appraisal. Secretary of Defense McNamara made a remark in his Montreal speech that seems particularly apropos. "The realistic mind," he said, "is a restlessly creative mind-free of naive delusions, but full of practical alternatives." We hope Mr. Johnson was listening. Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. The great Eng- lish statesman Edmund Burke stated: Wax never leaves ...,.ere it found a nation. President of the Saigon Government, re- fused to permit the elections called for by the Geneva agreement, which our Government approved. General Eisen- hower, in his reminiscences, stated it was well understood that Ho Chi Minh, re- garded as the George Washington of Vietnam who had led the fight for the nation's freedom from French colonial- ism, would have received 80 percent of the vote in both North and South Viet- nam had the elections been held, and the question of reunification of all of Viet- nam would have been resolved. Without a doubt, the sinister hand of the CIA participated not only in installing Diem as President, but in directing his policies. Many years ago Martin Luther, in a sermon, stated: War is the greatest plague that can afflict humanity. It -destroys religion, it destroys states, it destroys families. Any scourge is preferable to it. He said this centuries before war- planes, heavy artillery and napalm bombing. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. The time of the Senator has ex- pired. Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that I may pro- ceed for 3 additional minutes. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. Without objection, it is so ordered. Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. The primary reason for our being in Vietnam today is our stubborn refusal to admit a mis- Ch , MoRs inese a ti? in Vietnam, with our tremendous fire- pro-American and an anti- I introduce President Johnson's E power and napalm bombing we are en- More than anything else, we are fighting KUCHEL, Act of 1 gaged in defoliating and depopulating a to avoid admitting failure. We lost face pro osed Election nimouRefo ent that i19l66 at nation of approximately 32 million men, by messing into a miserable civil war in I as i week o permit additionat women, and children living in an area Vietnam in the first place. We would the the desk desk for or join as cosponsors; I about 21/3 times the area of the State of not lose face were we to withdraw our Senators to ask that the text of she bill and Ohio where we have some 10 million forces to our coastal bases. As Walter further he thPresident's text omessage and ccompan the message be people. In Vietnam in the north-cen- Lippmann bluntly put it: the e text , ask of the tral area and in the northwest there We are fighting to save face. - May printed in 66, accomp at the the bill, be are vast mountain ranges and rice in paddies other We would save face and win respect of my remarks. coliclusioA areas nnh rivers, s, , by withdrawing our forces from Vietnam. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- and uninhabitable jungpungles. Let it not be written by future his- Secretary of State Rusk continually torians that American boys died need- pore. The bill will be received and ap- talks of aggression from the north as if ately referred; and, without ob- talks in far distant jungles because of Jectio ection, the bill will be held at the desk, North Vietnam were a foreign aggres- weakness of diplomats and indifference as requested by the Senator from Penn- sor nation. Very definitely it is not. The of politicans. I wish I had as much con- sylvania; and, without objection, the Geneva agreement which Secretary of fidence in the skill and intelligence of text of the bill and the text of the Presi State John Foster Dulles approved, spe- our diplomats in trying to settle this war dent's message will be printed in the cifically stated: as I do in the bravery and high compe- RECORD. The military demarcation line at the 17th tence of our soldiers fighting the war. (See exhibit 1.) parallel is provisional and should not in any I was in southeast Asia most of the way be considered as constituting a political time from last September 28 to October Mr. CLARK. Mr. President, without or territorial boundary. 19. In South Vietnam I was in the field describing at length the various provi- Historically, there is no North Vietnam at every airbase, was at Camranh Bay sions of this bill, I should like to call to nor South Vietnam. The Vietnamese are and on a carrier off the coast. In addi- the attention of Senators three key one people. tion, I made observations in Thailand features which I find particularly com- In 1954 the French forces numbering from whence our bombers have been mendable: 200,000 were supplemented by thousands striking targets in North Vietnam. My First, It would close the existing loop- of Vietnamese, the Tories of that time conclusions, based on my observations hole under which State political commit- and conferences with Generals West- moreland, Stilwell, Prime Minister Ky, and others, changed from my views be- fore making this on-the-spot survey. I had been led to believe that the Vietcong fighting us were Communist infiltrators from the north. Instead, I was informed by General Stilwell that 80 percent of the Vietcong fighting us in the Mekong Delta were born and reared in the Mekong Delta in what is called South Vietnam. General Westmoreland stated that the bulk of the Vietcong fighting the Americans and other Vietnamese were born and reared in South Vietnam. Of course, there can be no armistice or cease-fire unless representatives of the Vietcong or National Liberation Front are seated as delegates along with dele- gates of the Saigon government, either the present regime or the one that will probably be-succeeding the Ky regime. Also, delegates from Hanoi, as well as delegates representing the United States. Let us hope that administration leaders will be guided by the wisdom of U Thant, Secretary General of the United Nations, and will earnestly seek a cease-fire and withdraw our forces to coastal bases in South Vietnam and then withdraw alto- gether from what has become an Amer- scan war. Mr. President, every possible effort should be made to extricate ourselves from this miserable civil war in a land which is of no strategic importance what- ever to the defense of the United States. We must not only explore alternatives to winning what is, in reality, an impos- sible war to win. Administration leaders must also give more serious consideration to the alternatives for deescalation of the war and eventual withdrawal-painful though that may be. ELECTION REFORM ACT OF 1966 Mr. CLARK. Mr. President, on behalf of myself and Senators NEUBERGER, Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080019-0