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July 25, 1966
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Approved For Release 2005/06/29: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 July 25, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX The presence of American flyers held cap- tive in North Vietnam and now threatened with inhuman treatment, illegal prosecution and perhaps even public execution, gives you and me a most singular opportunity to bring peace to our time. It gives me the chance, once and for all, to answer the question: Is peace worth risking freedom for? It gives you the chance to answer the question: In a representative republic do those who repre- ,sent still function as the voice of the people or has this land become the bureaucratic republic in which those who represent function only as the whipping boy of the people and the liaison of a dictatorial executive branch? The American flyers in Vietnam, like Fran- cis Scott Key, are looking across a great body of water and wondering, "Oh say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave, o'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?" Our only answer to them and to the world must be this ultimatum by Congress to North Vietnam: The sovereignty of American human rights and dignity has been desecrated by the parad- ind of American flyers as a public spectacle on the streets of Hanoi. We would not treat our basest criminals in this manner. To have another country do so to our heroes cannot be tolerated. The time for consideration has ended. If withdrawal of North Vietnamese troops and a firm appointment to negotiate a peace- ful settlement of the disagreement over the Vietnams is not effected by October 1, 1986; or should American prisoners now held by the Government of North Vietnam be han- dled in any manner other than that pre- scribed for prisoners of war by the Geneva Convention; that is to say, should they be further displayed publicly as criminals of war, should they be tried as criminals of war, or should they be executed as war criminals, the Government of the United States shall, through its Armed Forces, neutralize North Vietnam by destruction of its war making industries, acquisition of its natural resources and annihilation of any of its people who resist. This will be done without reserva- tion and by invasion and blockade. Furthermore, interference by any nation in the world in these actions will be con- sidered as a hostile act against the United States and dealt with accordingly. Every man must make his own choice when the whole world hangs in'the balance. I am too proud to sacrifice freedom, dignity and individuality at any cost, peace not- withstanding! I am as the Bald Eagle. This letter expresses my choice. I have the strength of conviction that faced with such an ultimatum not only North Vietnam but any country in the world would meet the demands. And ultimately prove that the powers of the Bald Eagle, not the virtues of the dove will bring peace to our time. Best personal regards, DONALD R. COLLINS, D.V.M. He made his choice, and his letter in the July 21, 1966, Martinsville Reporter is one of the very finest statements of personal conviction, integrity, and dedi- cation I have ever read. We should all be grateful to boys like Craig; upon them rests the hope of our survival as a free nation: To the EDITOR: Recently I received my papers to report for induction into the United States Army. I was quite surprised after failing my physi- cal for enlistment last summer. Last week I was offered a chance for a deferment because of the death of my father which left me as the eldest son capable of helping with the family in case of emer- gency. The decision was left up to me to choose between staying home or going to serve my country. The way I came to my decision is why I am writing to you. Friday night, as usual, I came into town to get one of my buddies. He had a new album that he wanted me to hear so I went in to listen. I never caught the name of the album, but the words stuck in my mind. It was a protest song against draft dodgers and the description went something like this, "They are the ones who would never be caught dead with their eyes closed at public prayer. They wouldn't put their hands any- where but behind their backs during the Pledge of Allegiance, or would they let the little ones hear them sing 'America' at the ballgame." The communist cause does not have to fight us to win, they just have to wait until we rot in our own cowardice. I might not get back, and if I do I might not find a fine job, another car to compare with the one I have now, or the girl I want, but I will be able to hold my head up and walk down the street. I personally would be grateful if you would do an article to get my point; across. Every boy has a responsibility to god, his country, and to his loved ones to do is part to make his country and their ccun y a free one. Thanks a lot, OF HON. ROBERT H. MICHEL OF ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, July 25, 1966 Mr. MICHEL. Mr. Speaker, F. F. McNaughton of the Pekin Daily Times, dated July 23, comments on a speech by British Foreign Secretary, Michael EXTENSION OF REMARKS Stewart. OF Secretary Stewart points out clearly HON. WILLIAM G. BRAY the terror that the Vietcong have wrought in South Vietnam. He leaves of INDIANA no doubt that there is no balance of ter- IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES TOT in, that war-torn country, only the Monday, July 25, 1966 heavy weight in the deaths of key South Mr. BRAY. Mr. Speaker, a young man Vietnamese. For those who believe that in my hometown of Martinsville, Ind., our bombing of oil facilities is inhumane, was recently faced with a difficult deci- Secretary Stewart's presentation is must sion: Should he accept'a deferment from reading. the Army, because of the death of his Under unanimous consent I Include .father or , should he go ahead and be Mr. McNaughton's column in the RECORD inducted, at this point: A3003 THE EDITOR'S LETTER (By F. F. McNaughton) The U. S. bombs key things. Viet Cong kill key men. Like Stalin killed key farmers. Like Mao killed key Chinese. To us has just come a speech made in Parliament by the British Foreign Secretary Michael Stewart. American fliers had just bombed oil tanks. They had done it so skillfully that hardly a civilian was killed-as expertly as a surgeon's knife takes out a tumor. But it caused angry cries from the Labor benches and from Yank haters in the House of Commons. So Michael Stewart told them: "You are screaming about some careful bombing; but what about the cruelty that the Viet Cong has carried on for years?" He went on to say: "There is a long story of the most merciless cruelty carried out by the Viet Cong over a long period of years, As far back as 1960, the number of persons, quite apart from operations of battle, being murdered or abducted by the Viet Gong was running at 6,000 a year." By 1965 it was 9,000 a year. In the first half of 1966, 5,000. Secretary Stewart say it is important to note who these victims are. Not only are they civilians and unarmed, but they are particularly people who held any kind of governmental position, or positions of au- thority in their villages. Stewart said their aim is: "To fill every- one with so much dread that he dares not take on a responsible position." These continuing, cold blooded murders in South Vietnam all but prevent competent government. This, says the British Foreign Secretary, is one reason why the Geneva Agreement can not be fulfilled. Whereas U.S. bombing of oil tanks may have killed watchmen, the Viet Cong are murdering mayors and other officials and civilian leaders of their communities at the rate of 10,000 in this year 1966. Retardation Legislation: What It Means To Massachusetts EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JOHN E. FOGARTY OF RHODE ISLAND IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, July 25, 1966 Mr. FOGARTY. Mr. Speaker, under leave to extend my remarks in the REC- ORD, I include the following: RETARDATION LEGISLATION: WHAT IT MEANS To MASSACHUSETTS (Representative JOHN E. FOGARTY, remarks to the Massachusetts Association for Retarded Children, annual convention banquet, White Cliffs, Manomet, Mass., May 22, 1966) President Frankel, distinguished guests, ,ladies and gentlemen, I am always pleased to visit my neighboring State of Massachu- setts, and even happier to address the Mas- sachusetts Association for Retarded Children at this convention banquet. Actually, I feel somewhat humble to speak to citizens of this great State who have contributed such a great deal in the continu- ing battle against mental retardation. It is rather an odd feeling to be standing here where the Kennedy family virtually started the great movements against mental retardation we are involved in today. You can all be very proud of this State's Kennedy family, for it was from this State that John F. Kennedy traveled to Washington Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 A3904 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -APPENDIX July 25, 1966 as a young Senator and later won the Press- tardation resulting from inadequate care aged in mental or tuberculosis institutions,, dency. As President, he fought, succesfully, during pregnancy. to create a bold, new approach to mental re- Construction aid, authorized in 1063, has including the passed r196 isc5 "The tardation problems. He, and the panel of been initially successful. Advances made A second law passed n 19n is "Mental experts he called together, formulated the under three basic programs of this law in- Rental Health and uctionAct national plan to combat mental retardation elude the following: Mental Health Centers Construction Acs of .1' that has meant so much to this State and Community mental retardation centers- Amendments extend and p 1d6pr These for the train- to the country. As of last December, two such centers had extend and expand programs fcr the train- From this place, also, you have sent an- been approved for funding, and 175 other for fog research teachers and of demonstration c ro tgram and of , other young Senator, EDWARD M. KENNEDY, applicants were interested in receiving such and teaching mentally re- who who is no less interested in furthering plans aid. This program will g tared to training and teaching mentally re- conquer mental retardation. State planning programs are e gain more momentum de-as A A t t- ta and handicapped children. ftIIly dehird law-"The Elementary and :iec- As a Senator and as President of the veloped. Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, "TED" University-affiliated facilities-This pro- a three-year p onrogram Act Of 1965 decal grants iz to KENNEDY has the same spirit of action that gram, to aid in the construction of build- the States to Improve p the e education of some his older,brother John possessed. Upon his ings in which professional and technical es to children In low-income of some return to Massachusetts at the end of the training for mental retardation can be given, 5 million cne it those low-income families. last Congressional session, he quietly toured has so far received over 55 applications for This retarded chidren who are con- con- State State schools and residential institutions for grants. Nine of these havbeen funded vatlo d retarded because of cutural depri- retarded to gain first-hand knowledge of with a total money value of nearly 17 million ation. the problems they face. dollars. y Finally, Amendments The 9 tded 65"-pro Res As President of the Kennedy Foundation, Mental retardation research centers--Since further d o help rehabilitate r per- "TED" KENNEDY, arRd other members of the the inception of this aid program, 8 awards, s through id tonal rehabilitation retarded pro- family, have diligently worked to get retarded totaling nearly 20 million dollars, have been grass thh vocational rehpro- persons accepted as grams. Under these new amendments, pro- persons of the national work made to aid in constructing large, multi- grams for service and for rehabilitation facll- force. disciplinary centers to be used for research sties l be expanded and improved. Their efforts have begun to pay off in and research training in retardation. All will the recent years. For example, the Kennedy Your State is participating wholeheartedly t ltarded mentioned here win i Foundation was instrumental in opening up in the programs authorized by 1963 legis- benefit the reared and their families y. an Important area of employment for the lation. In fact, this year the State will re- Massachusetts and throughout the country. retarded-the Federal government. ceive 57,200 dollars for planning money, and then Federalog to these Is esosuppo, however, Prior to 1964, there were only a handful of a like amount next year. government research inns ious lions dollars worth of retarded citizens working in Federal jobs. Also, Massachusetts' institutions have re- p ivate institutions. The Federal govern- Then, in 1964, through the efforts of the ceived large awards for both university- ment, through its own agencies such as the Kennedy Foundation, the Federal`Civil Serv- affiliated centers and for research centers. National Institutes of Health and the Chil- ice was persuaded to waive its usual written The Walter E. Fernald School in Waltham dren's Bureau, is also conducting far-reach- examination in cases involving the mentally has received some 1.5 million dollars to help ing research and reasearch training programs retarded. Now the Civil Service Commission Construct a retardation research center, and aimed at solving the problem of mental re- will accept mentally retarded workers if State a community evaluatioh and rehabilitation tardation. vocational rehabilitation officials will certify center on the school grounds. that a retarded man or woman can We In the Congress will continue fighting certain jobs. perform General it, Working closely with the MassacY.iusetts for new and better legislation to combat By the end of last year, this procedure had Medical ISchooll thoesto es archthcentervaat B.eJohns n, President Johson'se own corn- already resulted in more than 500 retardates Fernald School will focus on basic research mitment to this fight was made very plain being placed in Federal jobs as copy machine in retardation with scientists working in this year in his Health and Education Mes- operators, messengers, clerical workers, and such areas as neurology, psychiatry, pedi- sage to Congress. In that message he said, as custodial personnel in Federal buildings. atrics, epidemiology, and the like. The Kennedy's were also instrumental in The school's Community Evaluation and of the ament beg retarded and their fam lies developing a model project to train retarded Rehabilitation Center will concentrate on . (and) . We shall continue our in- workers. Just last month, they saw their diagnostic and evaluation procedures and creasing attack on this problem. It deserves idea become a reality when the Vocational will. provide training for special education, the concern and attention of our most able Rehabilitation Administration granted $149,- psychology, social work, nursing, and other specialists . 000 to run the John F. Kennedy Flame of allied disciplines. he would ap- Hope Candle Project. Through this project, In Boston, the Children's Hospital Medical pints a new commit then 196 to study new more than 1,200 mentally retarded workers Center was recently awarded over 3.3 mil- od a new ca s to at in 1966 to study new will be employed to make hand-molded lion dollars in Federal matching funds to and better waysto aPresident Johsona fol- candles. It is hoped that this pro ect will g lion. In saying serve as a model for training the retarded hell) construct facilities for research and for lowed the lead set by your own State son, for simple model craft jng the private a child development research and evaluation John F. Kennedy, who created the first Pres- hand obs In center. industry. ident's Panel on Mental Retardation several Federal y. for mental retardation Nearly 2.5 million dollars of the Children's years ago. programs, like the one under which the Hospital money will go toward the con- Since the establishment of the original pro rams, lik grant was made, has been struction of a large research center with President's Panel, the Nation had made great possible as the grant of some majors ben research areas including experimental neu- advances in its attack on mental retardation. legIsla five developments over the. hree years, rological sciences, behavioral sciences, ge- I think that now we would all agree even Mental remension programs began to be netics, and metabolism and clinical research. more with the words of President Kennedy truly eff ret d 1963, even programs many of As at Fernald School, this medical center is delivered to the 1963 White House Confer- truly CongvesI had , eve c though fm more closely-linked to the Harvard Medical School* ence on Mental Retardation: "We have left Federal support since shortly after World The Child Development Research and Eva- behind prejudice, superstition and ignorance War II. At any rate, the big push for action nation Center at Children's Hospital will be which since the dawn of time distorted our against mental retardation was started by constructed as a two-and-a-half floor addi- thinking about the mentally retarded. We President John F. Kennedy. In 1963, his ad- tion to Children's new outpatient building- hohavpe enteredga new era of understanding, ministration put forward two bills which This extra space will allow the hospital to o and sell htenment." became milestones in the fight against re- increase its services to the mentaly retarded tardation. These two bills, signed into law in Massachusetts and from surrounding New by President Kennedy, were "The Mental England States. Retardation Facilities and Community Men- Besides the activities generated by the Right To Know tal Health Centers Construction Act of 1963," planning and construction acts of 1963, four and "The Maternal and Child Health and other major pieces of legislation related to Mental Retardation Planning Amendments of mental retardation were recently signed into EXTENSION OF REMARKS 1963." law. program a ized the HON. ~ of the S tonal and child healthuandrm n al reta da- authors eQ 2.75SmillionA ollars, efors each6of HJOHN cFALL tion planning law, over 50 States and Ter- the years 1966 and 1967, to assist the States of CALIFORNIA QRritories have completed initial planning for in implementing retardation plans started IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES comprehensive programs against mental re- with earlier Federal aid. This law authorizes tardation. In addition, the same law has further funds to help train professional per- Monday, July 25, 1966 given assistance to insure better prenatal sonnel to care for the mentally retarded and Mr. McFALL. Mr. Speaker, the Sac - care for mothers in low-income, areas, thus other handicapped children. In addition, ramento Bee, Sacramento, Calif., ex.- further combating a cause of possible re- financial aid Is authorized for the needy presses its pleasure with the recently en.- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 :'CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 The Factor of Morale in Vietnam Appendix tinuing process; and third, and sure the most important matter, that current and planned replacements as of this time contemplate an average,monthly rota- tion for in excess of the 2 percent of unit personnel-or four riflemen per com- pany, per month, that had been my sug- gestion in my speech on the floor of the House on February 24, 1966. I wish to quote from a communication sent to me by General Berg, the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, regard- ing the effect of this type of rotation pol- icy. His letter of April 23, contains the following: I realize it might appear that under a prescribed 12 months tour of duty for Viet- nam, unit composition will change only upon the anniversary dates of unit arrivals in Viet- nam. In this regard, it is true that some members who initially arrived in Vietnam with their units will remain for a full 12 months' tour of duty. Hopefully, there will be many in this category for their Vietnam EXTENSION OF REMARKS Or HON. TENO RONCALIO 1Y1 v7GUUy, .r wig - _..,,,. ..........-_ .------ Ill Mr. RONCALIO. Mr. Speaker, in ad- teed to a career as a Congressman. We dition to the report made Tuesday, July impressed on each and every one of these 12, with my colleagues on our recent trip soldiers that this role is open for them to Vietnam, I am pleased to add to my and that the sky is their limit, too-and report of that date the following items that the greatest achievement they have made is to begin their careers as infan- aed the with the morale of r sideour troops- trymen in time of war. We believe this and the Tolstoy morale the out in side. is the strongest and best thing we could As Tpointed out "War and do for the morale of these gentlemen. Peace," morale is is the x factor in a fight- ROTATION OF TROOPS ing force which can compensate for many other deficiencies and which is so There is no question but what the 1- often decisive. year rotation policy is one reason that I have never known the morale of morale is as good as it is. based upon my experience Following my speech to request rota- men hti fi t , ng g e- Ing and giving guidance to new replacements in the two wars since my youth, to be any tion in Vietnam, I was particularly gra higher than I found in Vietnam. On the ful to staff officials at the White House, as they are integrated into operating units. one particular day I spent with the to the Secretary of Defense, and memr But the fact is that not all unit members troops of the 18th Infantry Division, I bens of his staff, and particurlarly to had 12 months remaining to serve on active was pleased to notice that nearly all rifle Gen. Earle G. Wheeler, Chairman of the duty or on their units' arrival in Vietnam. company combat infantrymen seemed to Joint Chiefs of Staff, for their help and some had as little as four months remain- have had a. calm approach and profes- assistance to me in the discussion of the ing. Obviously, these personnel have to be serv g ten ac- sional, businesslike demeanor in their complicated factors involved in rotation. replaced e and e hr ome for diofschar combat duties. Further, Mr. Speaker, had it not been ces with th oideted into Vietnam from other Pacific cases, units bases derediint members who I was particularly struck with the fact for the great loyalty and help of the other that a large percentage of the troops chairman of the Veterans' Affairs Com- had already served portions of their overseas were colored and I made a point of visit- mittee, my distinguished and widely re- tour. These members also were rotated home ing for a few minutes with several squads spected friend OLIE TEAGUE, of Texas, I early. Inevitably, too, there is personnel at- at a time to discuss the tremendous op- doubt very much if the success now en- trition resulting from battle casualties. portunities open to these men, all of a joyed cmin th de policies could have been As a result, Mr. Speaker, the process them, following their service in Vietnam. TEAGUE gave me of change in unit personnel composition I believe every veteran there will wear In March, Chairman his assurance of cooperation and his ef- tends to be a continuing one, wherein re- f his Vietnam shin f a a badge of ques- forts to establish a tour of duty and rota- placements are being effected on a weekly probobabbly will tion from combat assignment is perhaps and monthly basis. Obviously, there will for the but rest what his life those and who I have tion iarl be peaks and valleys in in the rotational rotation come to the front of leadership in Amer- another of the many accomplishments of flow. But, as a minimum, the ica-in our rights movement and in the this remarkable man in his service to the should average about 8 of unit progress for all people-will come from people of America-from his vantage personnel per month. For e a riflo curet the ranks of those now serving in Viet- point of power as chairman of the House pans, this should amount to an e com- nam. It disturbs one very much to read, Veterans' Affairs Committee. of about 14 to 16 men per month depend- in the current issue of Life magazine, the I also feel I should pay great tribute ing on the size of the company-180 of- constant repetition of the fact that the to the Vice President of the United ficers and men for an Army rifle com- masses in the Watts area and other ghet- States, the Honorable HUBERT H. Hum- pany; 203 for a Marine rifle company. toes of the colored sections of the large PHREY, and to three members of his orga- Thus, while the morale of American towns of America simply do not have nization, who were kind and patient troops improves, that of the e Communist leadership. We lack leaders, we have no enough with me to sit down and go forces improves, to be declining. Recent leaders, is the saying. through the difficult work in distinguish- Rand Corp., studies of captured cent iet- BLACK POWER MILITANTS Ing the factors of rotation as they would tong show that, in contrast to It is my true belief that what a few effect combat efficiency, personnel aa few months ago, our opponents rights activists in the States now ought changes, morale, and numerous other longer seem on feel ago, o they onee a cr success. em to el that they rate to do is to get to Vietnam without further items, which had a bearing upon this no attitude Their dese ado and to fulfill the proof of loyalty to complicated subject matter. Without the chance a been steadily increasing. the Nation and to its institutions with a personal help of the Vice President, I has been insight y in the tof morale thtrends tour of duty in the infantry ranks there doubt very much if these changes could on bore sides insight into th a perceptive tine and then return to speak of equal oppor- have been effected. editorial id Bernie provided Horton, in a recent tunity, once proof is available of the It has now been established by the Of- edition l the Ho Eagle, published equal responsibility and the equal accom- fice of the Secretary of Defense, Mr. edition of the Wyoming plishments of defending America and Speaker, that, first: rotation and re- in Cheyenne. He points to major s which confirm that the devel- tide i- protecting it from foreign aggression. placement will be accomplished on an in- protecting With these particular troops it was my dividual basis; not on a unit basis; and now running in our favor and will con- pleasure to be accompanied by my col- second, the personnel rotation is a con- tinue to do so as long as those of us here A3893 league, ROMAN PUCINSKI, and we made it a point to stress that the two of us stemmed from immigrant parents and the lowest economic levels possible in the United States of America and we stressed that in one short generation each of us was able to practice his profession, serve honorable duty for our country in a war, experience is most essential, not only for unit combat effectiveness, but also for orient- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 A3894 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX July 25, 1966 at home provide the necessary moral sup- port to our fighting men in Vietnam. Mr. Speaker, I have unanimous con- sent that the editorial be printed in the RECORD, so that I may share these worthy ideas with my colleagues: NOTES OF OPTIMISM Slight as they may be, there have been notes of optimism in connection with the war in Viet Nam this week. Tuesday, President Johnson said there were indications that the Communists no longer really expected to achieve a military victory in Viet Nam. The President told a news conference at his LBJ ranch that these indications had come to him through diplomatic channels but he did not pinpoint any specific source. It was the first time a top U.S. official had reported evidence that the Communists had come to a conclusion that they could not win on the battlefield. The President's remark attracted partic- ular attention because it came after a French magazine report that North Viet- namese leader Ho Chi Minh had advised Pek- ing and ? Moscow that unless he received greatly increased help, he would have no choice but to undertake negotiations with the United States and South Viet Nam. Meanwhile, Premier Nguyen Cao Ky in- stalled a new 80-man military and civilian council to "help unify the nation," and he predicted a victory over communism within a year. Ky said allied forces are within sight of final victory over the Viet Cong. "According to intelligence reports, the Communists have strengthened their forces," Ky said. "But with the greater firepower of the United States, Allied and Vietnamese troops-with ability and flexibility-we may have victory by the end of the year." Yesterday, Undersecretary of State George Ball said the leaders of North Viet Nam ap- parently had given up hope of a military victory in the war. At a Washington news conference, Ball said this was the tone of reports from other governments with con- tacts in Hanoi. Ball also said there is no evidence that the Red Chinese are likely to intervene directly In the war. The undersecretary, who is run- ning the state department while Secretary Rusk tours Asia, said he did not want to draw "an overly optimistic picture" of the Viet Nam situation, But he said the reports the department has been receiving bear out the war-wariness of the North Vietnamese people. All of this points up the importance of our presenting a unified front to the world. It has long been apparent the Communists had no intention of moving from the battle- field to the conference table so long as there was any hope they might win. Only last week, Secretary Rusk said the Communists apparently were pinning their hopes on criticism of the Viet Nam war from within the United States. "America has reason to think Hanoi has been banking heavily on criticism from within the United States and elsewhere In the free world as well as on political dissent within South Viet Nam," he said. The time is now for the arch-critics of American policy in Viet Narn to put away their megaphones. We must make it clear to the Cornmu- ists that the United States is united in its effort and determination in Southeast Asia. Once the Communists realize their final hope for success is gone-that they are not going to be allowed to take over South Viet Nam-perhaps they may be willing to end the fighting and move to the conference table. Remarks of U.S. Representative John E. Fogarty at New England School Li- brary Association Spring Conference, Newport, R.I., Saturday, May 21, 1966, at 1 P.M. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JOHN E. FOGARTY OF RHODE ISLAND TN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, July 25, 1966 Mr. FOGARTY. Mr. Speaker, under leave to extend my remarks in the REC- ORD, I include the following: REMARKS OF U.S. REPRESENTATIVE JOHN E. FOGARTY AT NEW ENGLAND SCHOOL LIBRARY ASSOCIATION SPRING CONFERENCE, NEWPORT, R.I., SATURDAY, MAY 21, 1966, AT 1 P.M. I am happy to be here today to address the New England School Library Association on new legislation and its impact on school li- braries. In the past 3 years, it would seem that the Congress has been extremely busy increasing the demands to be placed on school librar- ians. The Vocational Education Act of 1963, the Library Services and Construction Act of 1964, the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, the Higher Education Act of 1965, the Na- tional Foundation on the Arts and the Hu- manities Act of 1965, and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 are six pieces of major legislation that will either directly or indirectly affect school libraries. The poverty programs of the Economic Op- portunity Act, as we all know, are creating a market expansion of library books and text- books geared to the culturally and educa- tionally deprived. School librarians are meeting demands for aftersehool programs and paperback lending libraries for the un- derprivileged with every ounce of their ener- gies. They are being called upon to survey existing resources and to absorb great quan- tities of new resources. And with their help these programs for tutoring, independent study, and general strengthening of com- munity education are working. Programs under the Library Services and Construction Act are calling upon coopera- tion between public librarians and school li- brarians in assessing the overall needs of the community for expanded library services. Interlibrary agreements will be formed to extend the flow of books in areas which must be upgraded educationally. Vocational education programs will place greater listings of technical and vocational education reference books in school libraries. Programs of the National Foundation on, the Arts and the Humanities will bring greater quantities of instructional materials in these two categories to be placed in school libraries. The Higher Education Act of 1965, which includes a title for community service and continuing education programs, will create an increased request for books on social problems to be made available in both school and public libraries. School librarians will be called upon to assist public and school ad- ministrators in pulling together inforrma- materials for the study and solution of community problems. These are just a few of the acts which will place indirect demands on school librarians as the administrators of school library pro- grams, The act most responsible for direct involvement of school librarians in new pro- grams is the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. Because of these new responsibilities, I would like to turn our at- tention to this act for the next few Inin- utes. Last year, when considering the proposals for strengthening elementary and secondary education In the United States, my Colleagues and I were alarmed by the status of school libraries. We felt that quality in textbooks and school library programs was directly related to a student's academic achievement and future educational goals. Yet, almost 70 percent of the public and more than 50 per- cent of the private elementary schools had no libraries. Nearly one-half of our elemen- tary school children were attending schools that did not have libraries. Public schools were spending from $2 to $4 less per pupil than was recommended to maintain even minimum school library standards. As a result of reports relating to us the extreme needs of schools for assistance to build up their libraries, we drafted Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. Later, when the bill was passed by the Congress, the U.S. Office of Education and the State Library Agencies joined to- gether to administer the program for strengthening school library resources, text- books, and other instructional materials. The State plans that have emerged from State Library Agencies show great promise for the future of school libraries. State plans had to illustrate specific needs by category within the three main headings of library resources, textbooks, and other instructional materials. In order to pinpoint such needs, many States had to take inventories of library books within each major classification of the Dewey decimal system for the first time. This meant that school library problems would no longer be clouded by simply vague statistics on the need for a number of esti- mated volumes. Each State Library Agency would have a quick catalog of all school library resources and could draw up specific title listings of standard volumes to be pur- chased. Each State Library Agency would also know whether grant funds should be concentrated on library books or on items such as filmstrips, globes, encyclopedia sets and classroom reading books. Title II State plans reflect the reports of these surveys. Acquistion of library re- sources has been given priority by the States. Every State plan calls for spending at least half its money from school library resources. Twenty of the 34 State plans require at least two-thirds of their allotments to be used for this category. The progress in the New England area under the Title II program has been ex- tremely encouraging. In our State of Rhode Island, a special Title II coordinator has been appointed to the Office of the Commis- sioner of Education to assure effective ad- ministration of the program. The State plan for Vermont calls for 100 percent of Title II funds to be used for school library resources. It calls for the Director of the Division of School Libraries to administer Title II. His position is financed by by an- other section of the Elementary and Sec- ondary Education Act of 1956. The State: plan for Maine similarly emphasizes library resources by calling for 100 percent of the allotment to be spent on this item. One good feature of the Maine plan Is the stip- ulation requiring that each project applica- tion contain an assurance that all teachers were given an opportunity to submit lists of materials needed by them and their pupils. This kind of stipulation brings the teacher and the librarian into even closer coordina- tion as they work to achieve the best possible educational atmosphere for their students. Connecticut's Title II plan, in addition to concentrating on school library resources, establishes an index of need to determine grants to local school districts. The four criteria for grants include: the quantity of Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 16224 Approved For ReJeA ~ ~(~N 9Ai5h- $BWQJBO%J4 RRQQQ400090005-4 July 25, 1966 tion rose to $17.18 1 $15.97 a year earlier. U.S. FLIERS Mr. McGEE. Mr. President, although today's press suggests there might be some ' second thoughts in North Viet- namese policy circles over the advisabil- ity of submitting American fliers to war crime trials, I think some rather inter- esting observations were made on this subject last Saturday by the senior Sen- ator from Connecticut, Senator THOMAS DODD. As one who served as executive trial counsel at the Nuremberg trials at the close of World War II, Senator DODD convincingly outlines the inapplicability of the propaganda which has suggested that the Nuremberg trials established legal precedent which could now be in- voked to prosecute the captured Ameri- can fliers. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that a press statement issued by Senator DODD on this subject be printed at this point in the RECORD,. There being no objection, the news re- lease was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [A news release from Senator THOMAS J. DODD, July 23, 1966] WASHINGTON, D.C.-Senator THOMAS J. Dow? (D.-Conn.) today released the following statement on the Nuremberg war crime trials and the proposed prosecution of American airmen in North Vietnam as war criminals: "President Johnson spoke for the entire American people, including those who have been critical of the war in Vietnam, when he warned the North Vietnamese communist leaders that if they bring the captured American flyers to trial as war criminals, they will harden the resolve of our people, not weaken it, and they will earn themselves the contempt of civilized opinion through- out the world. "The communist propagandists in Hanoi have been putting out the claim that the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials established a legal precedent which they can now invoke to prosecute the captured American flyers as war criminals. "As Executive Trial Counsel at the major Nuremberg trial, I want to state categori- cally that there is not an iota of truth or an iota of logic to this claim. "I believe it is important to make this point, because there are apparently some people in our own country who mistakenly believe that the Nuremberg trials set a prece- dent which the communists can now use to their own advantage. "The Charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal listed three types of crimes as coming within its jurisdiction: "(-1) 'Crimes against peace,' which in- volved waging or consipring to wage a war of aggression, in violation of international treaties and agreements; "(2) 'War Crimes,' which involved the murder, ill-treatment, or deportation of civil- ian population in occupied territory, the murder or Ill-treatment of prisoners of war ... and the killing of hostages; "(3) 'Crimes against humanity,` which in- cluded 'the extermination, enslavement, de- portation and other inhumane acts commit- ted against any civilian population, before or during the war.' "The Charter made it clear in its opening paragraph that the trials would be limited to major war criminals. "The Charter also made it clear that simple obedience to orders could not be used to `Justify participation in a major capacity in !any war crimes. "However, no member of the German armed forces, of any rank, was prosecuted because he had served as a member of those forces or because he had obeyed orders of a clearly military nature that involved none of the crimes against humanity specified by the Nuremberg Charter. "No Luftwaffe, pilot, or Luftwaffe com- mander, for example was brought to trial be- cause of his participation in the bombing of London, despite the fact that the Luftwaffe bombings were directed primarily at the civilian population and not confined-as we have been seeking to do in Vietnam-to oil storage tanks and bridges and other clearly military targets. "The war crimes and crimes against hu- manity specified by the Nuremberg Charter were criminal by standards generally ac- cepted in all civilized countries. They were clear and grave offenses against the spirit of International Law, which was described in the Fourth Hague Convention of 1907 as in- cluding the 'laws of humanity and the dic- tates of public conscience.' "The Nuremberg trial did set a precedent- but it was a necessary precedent. As Secre- tary of War H. L. Stimson eloquently put the matter: . Now this is a new judicial process, but it is not expost facto law. It is the en- forcement of a moral judgement which dates back a generation. It is a growth in the application of law that any student of our common law should recognize as natural and proper, for It is just this manner that the common law grew up. "'There was somewhere in our distant past, a first case of murder, a first case where the tribe replaced the victim's family as judge of the offender. The tribe had learned that the deliberate and malicious killing of any human being was, and must be treated as, an offense against the whole community. The analogy Is exact. "'All case law grows by new decision, and, where those new decisions match the con- science of the community, they are law as truly as the law of murder . . . "This was the meaning and intent of Nuremberg. "The American airmen in Vietnam are soldiers performing military duties in the strictest sense of the definition. They have been guilty of none of the crimes against humanity condemned by the Nuremberg Charter. Indeed, since the development of military aircraft, I do not think there has been a war in which any Air Force has exer- cised so much care and placed such rigid restrictions on itself, to avoid bombing civil- Ian targets. "No amount of twisting or legal skuldug- gery will enable the communists to use the Nuremberg trials as a precedent justifying the show trials they now propose to stage with the captive American airmen in their hands. "If the Nuremberg trials have any applica- tion at all to what is going on in Vietnam, it is my conviction that they established a precedent which would brand as criminal both the treatment to which the captured American flyers have already been subjected, and the trial and sentencing of these airmen by communist kangaroo courts pretending to operate with the power and authority of an internationally sanctioned tribunal. "I join the President of the United States and my colleagues who have already spoken on this matter, in warning the leaders of the Hanoi regime of ` the possible conse- quences of their projected action." THE CALENDAR Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Senate proceed to the consideration of meas- ures on the calendar in sequence, be- ginning with Calendar No. 1344, H.R. 10104, to and including Calendar No. 1362. The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- out objection, it is so ordered. GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION CODE The Senate proceeded to consider the bill (H.R. 10104) to enact title 5, United States Code, "Government Organization and Employees," codifying the general and permanent laws relating to the or- ganization of the Government of the United States and to its civilian officers and employees which had been reported from the Committee on the Judiciary, with amendments, on page 2, line 1, after item 7, "Judicial Review", insert: 9. Executive Reorganization------------ 901 Page 6, at the beginning of line 21, strike out down to and including "1902" and Insert in lieu thereof "1884, 1891- 1902, and former section 1641(b)(2),". Page 10, line 32, strike out "hearing examiner" and insert in lieu thereof "employee". In line 36 after the comma,-strike out "a hearing examiner" and insert in lieu thereof "such an employee". Page 18, line 3, insert a comma after "States". Page 21, line 9, strike out from "1641 down to and including "1902" in line 27, and insert in lieu thereof "1884, 1891- 1902, and former section 1641(b) (2),". At the top of page 23, insert the following: CHAPTER 9-EXECUTIVE REORGANIZATION Sec. 901. Purpose. 902. Definitions. 903. Reorganization plans. 904. Additional contents of reorganization plans. 905. Limitations on powers. 906. Effective date and publication of reor- ganization plans. 907. Effect on other laws, pending legal pro- ceedings, and unexpended appropria- tions. 908. Rules of Senate and House of Repre- sentatives on reorganization plans. 909. Terms of resolution. 910. Reference of resolution to committee. 911. Discharge of committee considering res- olution. 912. Procedure after report or discharge of committee; debate. 913. Decisions without debate on motion to postpone or proceed. f 901. Purpose (a) The President shall from time'to time examine the organization of all agencies and shall determine what changes therein are necessary to accomplish the following pur- poees: (1) to promote the better execution of the laws, the more effective management of the executive branch and of its agencies and functions, and the expeditious administra- tion of the public business; Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 July 25, 1966 Approved CONGRE99IONA/L6 COC ii RD 5 7~?nt46R000400090005-4 16223 calls the Hartford National Charge Card in operation by August. Major banks also appear, surprisingly, to be cutting back only slightly on loans to se- curities dealers, who relend the money to traders buying stock on margin. The banks consider loans to brokers an excellent tem- porary use for the funds they keep around to meet unexpected loan or deposit-with- drawal demand. Such loans are usually made on ,a one-day basis (though they are made every day) and they can be called im- mediately, if stock prices plunge sharply or if the bank needs its money. With their bank borrowings, plus funds of their own that have been generated by this year's immense stock-trading volume, brokerage-firm members of the New York Stock Exchange between Jan. 1 and April 1, the latest period for which figures are avail- able, expanded their loans to stock buyers nearly 6%, to a total of over $5.8 billion out- standing. In the like period of 1965, broker loans to customers declined, though only a fraction of 1%. True, some stock buyers are paying fancy interest to make margin transactions (on such a transaction the buyer puts up in cash 70% of the value of the stock he purchases, and borrOws the rest). A stock-market tyro borrowing money to buy his first few shares on margin will pay interest at an annual rate of 7% at some brokerage houses. But a veteran speculator borrowing to finance a huge margin trade will pay only 8% interest to some brokers. If stock-market speculators have been rela- tively unaffected by tight money, home buy- ers have been hit harder than anyone else. The main reason: Individuals-including would-be home buyers-are saving much less money than a year ago, putting a pinch on the supply of money available for mortgages. This trend generally has been blamed on in- creased payroll withholding for Social Se- curity and Federal income taxes, which has bit into workers' take-home pay. In the first four months of 1966 net sav- ings (new savings minus withdrawals) re- ceived by U.S. savings and loan associations plummeted to $740 million, from nearly $1.8 billion in the 1965 period. April saw a large outflow of savings, as withdrawals exceeded new savings. S&L officials are certain savings they nor- mally would get have been flowing into bank CDs, which are available to individuals as well as corporations, at rates up to 51/2 % (savings and loan associations aren't per- mitted to offer such high savings rates with- out losing their borrowing power at the Fed- eral Home Loan Banks). But in total the drop in savings at banks has been more dra- matic even than the drop at S&Ls. . Big commercial banks that report weekly to the Federal Reserve System by May 25 had increased their CDs outstanding by $1.7 bil- lion, or about 10%, from the start of the year. But in the same period they suffered a $2.2 billion drop in their outstanding totals of passbook savings, on which they are per- mitted to pay only 4% interest tops. So their totals of CDs and passbook savings went down a net $500 million. The drop in savings has accentuated the squeeze on banks, and with corporate loan demand booming they have cut back on mortgage loans. The reaction at S&Ls, which make many more mortgage loans, has been more drastic. With money flowing out in April, some have stopped making mortgage loans entirely for the time being. or will the home buyer find any relief at life insurance companies, which normally make many mortgage loans. The insurers' sales of policies have been expanding at a rapid clip. But the lendable funds that the policy sales supply have been snapped up by corporations that have been unable to borrow as much money as they would like at their banks. The corporations are lining up to arrange private sales of bonds to the insur.? ante companies. An official at Prudential's main office in Newark, N.J., says the company is short of funds for mortgage lending throughout its Eastern region, and that the cash is being conserved mainly to satisfy the demands of builders and developers who regularly do business with Prudential. Frustrated home buyers might console themselves by buying something else-plush furniture for the old quarters, perhaps. If the increased withholding tax rates leave too little cash in their paychecks for the pur- chase, personal finance companies will lend them the money gladly. Personal-loan companies, like some other non-bank lenders and some corporations, raise money by selling "commercial paper" (essentially a form of IOU) to investors. The rates they have had to pay on the paper to attract funds have risen sharply; they now range from 51/2 % to 57/8 % on 90-day to six months notes. But the small-loan com- panies have no qualms about paying such rates, since they can lend the money to con- sumers at interest rates ranging as high as 20% annually. "NO SLOWDOWN HERE" Buoyed by high interest rates, the market for commercial paper has been strong. The total outstanding rose 4% just in April, to a record $11.6 billion outstanding; that was 20% greater than a year earlier. So the finance companies have plenty of money to lend. "There's no tendency for a slowdown in lending by personal loan companies," says beWitt Paul, chairman of Beneficial Finance Co., one of the largest of these concerns. "We want to get good customers while the stream is flowing, and have been continuing to do all the things we always do to promote our business." - Some non-bank lenders that concentrate on loans to businesses, and also raise their funds by selling commercial paper, take the same lftW. Example: Factoring concerns, which lend money to companies in return for the right to collect the bills that customers owe to those companies. The basic factoring loan rate now ranges from 7.2% to 8.4%, up from 6% to 7.2% in late 1965.. But the rise has not hurt vol- ume. The factors are getting a heavy de- mand from businessmen who have been turned away from banks where they had sought loans. Mill Factors Corp. in New York expects to expand its new-loan volume to $400 million this year, from $390 million in 1965. "We don't have to compete for new accounts today; they come to us," says Walter D. Yankauer, president. Mill Factors, he says, long has concentrated on loans to textile and soft goods manufacturers, but now is making loans to such new customers as steel dis- tributors. CORPORATION CASH SQUEEZE An expansion of lending on the modest scale Mill Factors talks of, however, hardly will meet the credit demands of business. As a group, U.S. corporations, like the banks from which they are trying to get loans, are in a tight cash squeeze. To finance day-to-day operations and ex- pansion plans, corporations ordinarily rely largely on internally generated funds-- chiefly retained profits and sums charged off by the company as depreciation but kept in the treasury. During 1965, however, cor- porations as a group turned nearly none of these funds into cash or Government securi- ties. At the end of the year holdings of cash and Governments by U.S. non- financial corporations totaled $64.1 billion-- exactly the same as at the end of 1964. Some apparent reasons: Corporations chose to put much of their internally generated funds to use financing higher inventories. Inventories held by non-financial corpora- tions expanded to $126.6 billion at the end of 1965, from $114.3 billion at the end of 1984, a rise of nearly 11%. Companies also apparently made many more of their sales on credit. While the cash and Government-security holdings of nonfinancial corporations didn't rise at all during 1985, the National Association of Credit Management figures that by March 31 this year U.S. manufacturers' holdings of accounts receivable-bills owed to them by customers-jumped to a record $54.7 billion, up almost 12% from $49 billion a year earlier. Whatever the reason, since U.S. corpora- tions' debts grew while their cash holdings didn't, non-financial companies finished 1965 with cash and Government securities equal to only 27% of their current liabilities-a record low ratio. At the end of 1964 the ratio was 30%; as recently as the end of 1962 it was 34%. This ratio is an important measure of corporate "liquidity"-the ability of businesses to meet unforeseen expenses. With less cash on hand, in relation to their debts, corporations also are less able to meet those well-foreseen expenditures, spending for new plant and equipment. Their need to do so is much greater, though; according to the most recent Government survey, corporations plan capital spending of $60.8 billion this year, up 17% from 1965. PAY UP QUICK In 1965, for the first time in the current boom, corporations' capital spending ex- ceeded the funds they got from "cash flow" .(profits plus depreciation), notes Eli Shapiro, Harvard University finance professor. The same thing is expected to happen in 1966. What to do? Besides besieging banks for loans, and trying to sell bonds privately to insurance companies, cash-pinched cor- porations have been selling many stock and bond issues to the public. Also, while ex- tending credit liberally to customers, they have been demanding that the customers pay up faster. At the end of March, according to the Na- tional Association of Credit Management 85.7% of the bills owed to manufacturers were being paid on time and only 2.5% were over 90 days past due. A year earlier, only 84.3% of manufacturers' accounts re- ceivable were classed as "current" and 2.8 were 90 days or more delinquent. "We can invest our idle money and get a return of better than 5% nowadays, but when the money is tied up in old unpaid accounts it's dead," says Peter McLaughlin, comptroller of Union Camp Corp., a leading maker of paper products. So, he says, his company has begun a stricter collection pro- gram, with some success. The average period of Union Camp's unpaid bill has been cut to 29 days, from 31 days a year earlier, he says. Some companies have gone even further. In the aluminum industry, which is swamped with defense orders, one major fabricator is simply refusing to sell any more goods to some of its slower-paying customers. Union Camp, too, is becoming more selective about whom it sells to, says Mr. McLaughlin. DUNNING CONSUMERS As big companies dun smaller. ones to pay their bills faster, smaller companies are simi- larly dunning consumers. The American Collectors Association says both the number of bills referred to collection agencies and the size of the original bill that becomes delinquent, have risen in the past year. In the first quarter of 1966, a spokesman says, the number of accounts held by the average collection agency increased to 1,333, up 4% from 1,278 in the 1965 period. The .average size of the individual account re- ferred for collection rose to $62.14 from $51.31. A bright note: If the American consumer is unable or unwilling to save as much as a Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 July 25, 1966 Approved Fora32~9~fiBP67Qg4A4,,2000400090005-4 16217 Apropos of this subject, a timely and curred in the tragedy-filled saga of Viet- and Oregon over the increasing threat of pertinent editorial appeared in the Beck- nam. the Soviet Union fishing fleets. As you ley, W. Va., Post Herald on July 23, titled It is understandable, and admirable as know, I have continuously urged that our The Inevitable Course Taken in 'a point of courage and conviction, that a Government sit down with the Soviets Chicago." member of a religious organization would and discuss the problems of conserva- Iask unanimous consent that this edi- knowingly, willingly, and without coer- tion, for it is my judgment that our re- torial be printed in the RECORD. cion, makes the supreme sacrifice for a sponsibility to maintain the harvests of There being no objection, the editorial cause in which he believes. It is quite the adjacent sea for future generations was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, another thing when a band of self-serv- is even more important than the ques- as follows: ing monks throw one of their drunk or tions of jurisdiction. I was pleased [From the Beckley Post-Herald July 23, 19661 drugged confederates into a village when I was advised of the talks in Mos- THE INEVITABLE COURSE TAKEN IN CHICAGO! square, douse him in gasoline, set him cow which are getting underway this "Shoot to kill if you are attacked," were afire, and then hurl invectives against a week to discuss some data exchange and the orders issued National Guardsmen government that had nothing to do with a basis for conservation of the coastal brought, in to help keep peace in Chicago. the whole thing. The news dispatch fishery resources. When word of the order swept through areas from Saigon would seem to suggest that The timing of the arrival of the dele- of the city where the riots were occurring, such "involuntary suicides" have been gation from the National Fishermen the streets became virtually deserted. been When the arm of the law is strong and practiced in South Vietnam. and Wives, Inc., was excellent, for they purposeful, lawbreakers usually become were able tom with the leaders of the peaceful and law-abiding immediately. U.S. fishery mission to Moscow, just When the arm is weak and vacillating, how- PROBLEMS OF THE U.S. FISHING prior to their departure. roughshod. > ves in nations where the freedom Mr. MAGNUSON. Mr. President, on sition in these meetings with the Rus- e Thursday of last week an eight-mem- sians, the ladies brought with them a individual is a truly cherished right, the arm of the law can and should become mighty ber delegation from the National Fish- resolution on the offshore fishery prob- and awe-inspiring if one of the greatest free- errnen and Wives, Inc., arrived in the lems which now enjoys widespread sup- dom of all, freedom from fear, is endangered. Capital to discuss a number of our fish- port, not only in Washington and Ore- In New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and cry problems, particularly those asso- gon, but in other States as well. It calls many other American cities, fear roams the ciated with the present Soviet fishery for the proclamation of extended con- streets of down trodden and affluent neigh- off our coasts. They are all ladies, all servation zones predicated on the prin- borhoods alike. It is the fear of brutality, wives of fishermen in the Oregon and ciples set forth in the 1958 Geneva Fish- of fire by night, of looting, of rape, of a Washington area. ing and Conservation Convention. knife in the back, of sinister strangers, that makes decent people tremble for their lives Those arriving were, Mrs. Peter Mos- There is nothing unreasonable about and those of their loved ones. ness and Mrs. John Lervold, Seattle; this approach, and I would urge that it Only a strong and vigilant arm of the law Mrs. John Malchow and Mrs. Lawrence receive broad support by Government. can drive that fear away and make the Prest, Chinook, Wash.; Mrs. Rea Green, I have recently had a communication streets safe again. Only a gutless ad Is- Mrs. Iola Kelly, Mrs. Delores Hart, and tration from the Governor of the State of allo ws lawbreakers to gain the per and. h hand. Mrs. Sally Smotherman, all of Warren- Washington supporting the 12-mile fish- risked the revenge of a~growiig litic bloc I would extend a rather belated wel- senior Senator from Alaska [Mr. BART- when it called in the meccfor, s t estore come today to these dedicated ladies and LETT] and myself, and I am told that the all other American c ti s t e fled this the good impression they 11" ull'y lux have made the other House to urge adoption of this summer by ana.rnhv nn I-. fis_h___eri._-_" "? --r f-.,""?"."` VV"" Whenever we speak of jurisdiction es, and Members of the Congress, of the fisheries we fid tht th ,nae MANDATORY SUICIDE IN SAIGON but for their courage in attempting travel U.S. fishing industry tends to divide Mr. SIMPSON. Mr. President, an ar during these times of great difficulty. itself due to the variation of intere t s s . title published in the July 24 Washin - A telegram which they sent to me and This is regrettable, and I am always ton Post has shed an interesting light on which I received upon my arrival in the hopeful that we can achieve some under- tmatter that hhad the emotional wal- Capital on Friday said in part: standing whereby we may be united in lop at produce has least one change emotional wal- our fishery is in peril. Fish in the seas the protection of our resources, and still lo ern in ptept d e atnam. adjacent to the coast of North America has preserve the historic fisheries which - been conserved by commercial and sports Compiled from news dispatches, the fishermen for over 50 years. Now huge Rus- some of our fleets enjoy off other shores. article told o; the death of a young Bud- scan and Japanese fleets are fishing con- This is not necessarily a question of hav- dhist monk who was apparently to, have tinuously off our coast with gear designed to ing our cake ar{d eating it too, for our been the latest in Vietnam's so-called take even the smallest fish. When they distant fishing fleets have asked only,for suicides by fire or immolation. The deplete an area, their hundreds of vessels fair treatment and a reasonable oppor- monk gave police adeath-bed statement: move on to more lucrative grounds.... The tunity to continue in their historic and seas are eventually to be the main source of traditional areas, but as we well know I don't know who wanted to assassinate protein when population growth renders our me but I really had no intention of commit- land inadequate to meet our needs. the conditions off South America in the ting self-immolation. The women further case of the American tuna fleet have called attention been intolerable. It is to be remembered that many to our failure to heed the warnings of the One of the misunderstandings in the months ago when Buddhists were in- needs of the ocean, even as President question of jurisdiction results from the cinerating themselves, ostensibly in pro- Johnson, in dedicating the Oceanogra- loose application of the principle of free- test of the various regimes in Saigon, a pher the other day, referred to the great dom of the seas. One of the longtime few journalists had the courage to specu- hope we hold for fish protein concen- leaders in America's international fishery late that perhaps all of these immola- trate to feed the hungry of the world. relationships, Edward W. Allen, Seattle tions were not suicides. In my judgment, I have long urged our Government to in- attorney, and honored member of many this story from Saigon would support crease its efforts both in the area of gen- of the treaty commissions, recently made that premise. eral oceanography and in the harvest some remarks at the Law of the Sea It has been reported that Buddhist of the resources of the sea, and I share Conference at the University of Rhode leaders have systematically doped and the concern of these women for the Island. coerced their monks . and nuns and future. I ask unanimous consent that Mr. burned them in a manner which would For a long time my office and the Allen's remarks be included in the REC- hardly be called suicide in order to have Commerce Committee has been literally ORD at this point in their entirety. a political impact in Saigon. If this is deluged with protests and communica- There being no objection, the remarks true, it is among the most reprehensible, tions of concern from citizens, particu- were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, disgusting, and tragic acts that have oc- larly in the coastal areas of Washington as follows: Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP671300446RO0040009000534 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 16218 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE July 25, 1966 First. Certainly one of our major INTR ELR CONNIVENT OF EDWARD ALAND eries essential their preservation, f of recent progress has been the AT PANEL o OF UNIVERSITY OF RHODE E ISLAND should d not be hampered by the popular ularity o of marks CONFERENCE ON THE "LAW OF THE SEA," an attractive phrase. upgrading of the fisheries office in the JUNE 26, 1966 Mr. MAGNUSON. Mr. President, U.S. Department of State. For too long Various elements of the United States though we might find some disagreement we have been handicapped by the po- fishing industry are united as to certain prac- with. Mr. Allen's views as to the future sition of our negotiator in our dealings tical aspects which affect their approach to of fish flour, or fish protein coxlcen- on international fisheries where across government and law, and are divergent trate, i see no conflict as to the interests the table we have been faced by men of to other aspects. All unite in desiring competency in the of the United States, for the protection much higher status. The new am as- fishery divisions of Federal and State gov- of the Pacific hake off my State's coast sador title for this office will be very ernmental agencies. This was demonstrated may well provide some protection for helpful in our future gene dealing eillamce of The recently in the unanimous support for up- the salmon. Second. Depart- grading the fishery division of the Depart- The National Fishermen and Wives the Soviet fishing fleet-a matter of great ment of state. Also, they all avidly supe delegation has made a strong case for Concern and criticism from citizens-has dove oceanographer resehery. But they are damage to the salmon resource by the been strengthened and I have been able divergent h to no ocean fishery fisee people openly protection. pis- Soviet Union, and I am told that the rep- to annougce the appointment of an in- Although clatin their attachment to the cause of con- resentatives from the Department of the dustry-government committee to study nervation, some emphasize the necessity for Interior and the State Department were the results and advise improvement. its being applied right now to coastal fish- much impressed by the depth of their Third. The long-sought meeting with eries, whereas others contend that the po- evidence. That the Soviet Union is in- the Soviet Union is now underway, and tential of ocean fisheries is so great as to flitting damage to our coastal salmon our technical team is now in Moscow for negate necessity for high seas limitations. resource seems beyond debut, regard- the first meeting today. This is an in- ashThoeery who exploita option cation point out ticout that on ocean less of whether their fishery is a specific formal meeting-it is only a beginning-- any kind of fish can be made into t Into almost flour to one or if the salmon are taken inci- b1zF, uit is rth. I gams hopeful for favorable meet the protein needs of billions of peo- dentally to their fishery for hake. plc; hence, that the beautiful phrase "free- I am regularly receiving affidavits from consideraiton of Senate Joint Resolution dom of the seas" must be kept pure, sacred fishermen attesting to fresh net marks 29 which will assist us in getting some and absolute, whereas the first group, while on the troll and sportsmen's salmon needed data on the offshore resources so not disparaging the value of fish flour, sug- taken offshore, and there are no Ameri- that we will not again have to make prefer to gent that, in this country at least, people can seines or gillnets out there, for we statements that we do not know the con- re- tuna, shrimp, know that they are cod, ragathe er almon, than are banned from such net fishing for servation requirements of adjacent re- tuna, rimp, pompano or coo, r risk a diet of spoon-fed conger eel and rat salmon on the high seas by conservation sources while foreign fleets are in heavy harvest. fish powder; hence that practical protection law. The ladies brought with them dep- Fifth. I am hopeful for favorable of coastal fisheries is more important than ositions from fishery biologists who be- Ficonsi by the other ouse of the some theory. lieve the marks were not made by Soviet consideration fish protein concentrate the o r us of the These two divergent approaches to the law trawls, but by gillnets. of the sea met at Geneva with the result I have just received another of these which will authorize the construction of In 1958 the was a compromise; conadopted there affidavits on net-marked fish, this one up to five developmental and demonstra- plexity. Although the fisheries was a hence its nom- from Otto Fitterer, a 21-year veteran in tion plants, a huge step forward toward purported pueedoms convention mar to endorse freedom of the seas, the coastal fisheries, and a resident of establishing substantial production of such both it and the Continental Shelf Conven- Westport, Wash. kets for as stan hake. tion in fact contain provisions demonstrat- I ask unanimous consent that Mr. Fit-specie Pacific Sag that such freedom Is neither absolute nor terer's notarized statement to appear in Sixth. I hold equal hope for the pas- sacrosanct, thereby leaving the principle the RECORD in full at this point. sage of S. 2218, to establish a 12-mile open for rational application. This fisheries There being no objection, the state- fishery zone, which is a useful step to- convention was the last of the four Geneva ment was ordered to be printed in the ward proper protection of the resources bring tin to secure enough United St ratifications Geneva RECORD, as follows: and a move toward establishing the con- reservation operation. to 'T its he ratification, sStates attached aa a to and I, Otto Fitterer, being duly sworn, depose cept for the separation of the fishery itorial sea. the convention need not be considered to Able" and that on July 3, 1966 a gill net zone and the Theropeniing of the fishmeal be the e last word on the subject. Hugo Grotius, champion of freedom of the marked fish was caught on my boat by Mr. plant of Pacific Protein, Inc., at Aber- seas, was no theoretical dreamer, but a great Morgan of Yakima in 22 fathoms of water deen, Wash., and the resultant beginning advocate. The English translation of the off the North Whistler of Grays Harbor. of harvest by American fishermen of the title to his thesis is "The Freedom of the The fish weighed between 9 and 1.0 pounds, Pacific hake is noteworthy. The efl'ort Seas or the Right which Belongs to the and was caught about 12:30 pm. Is a small one alongside the huge Soviet Dutch to Take Part in the East Indian The marks on the fish are definitely net Trade," is, of the Dutch to burns, Was h and demo t at concentrated course -will the he India Ocean and to break into The gill net marks are definitely the Portuguese incurred, be helpful in our talks with the Soviets. Euete monopoly of the highly profitable East Indies spice trade. Though I was born in Hoquiam in 1918 and have Eighth. The increasing national fish- not In the same publication, he also extended been engaged In fishing for 21 years, and ermen's representation as demonstrated the application of his thesis to cover freedom have raised two boys in the fishing business. iii this present visit of delegates of the of the Dutch to continue their own near I feel qualified to identify the gill net marks National Fishermen & Wives, Inc., and monopoly of the herring fishery off the on this fish. the recent delegation from the Con- British Coast. [SIGNED ] OTTO FIT'rERER. sAmerican upport of Fishermen 0 and S. 221- Factually there is as much reason in the Sworn to and subscribed before me this peared gress of 20th century as In the 17th to avoid curtail- 13th day of July, 1966. In testimony whereof ing trade and communication between na- I have set my hand and seal the day and at the Senate Commerce Committee tions, and a territorial sea width of not more year aforesaid. hearings. It would be extremely helpful than three miles is highly desirable as to MARTIN R. THURMAN, if the fishermen of the Nation could navigation. But with mechanical power, Notary Public for Washi n.gton. riatiOnal voice, and I would e Wlth a unified such oranization. refrigeration, floating canneries, radar, sonar, My Commission Expires: January 2, 1970. speak power g has blocks, e, nylon beyond oday's ocean fish- Mr. MAGNUSON. Mr. President, the Ninth. The progress toward a World in ing has an efficiency beyfishing imagination done delegation of National Fishermen and Fisheries Conference is a prime example the oGroti days when fishing was of recent progress. Though I would have from row or sail t boats and it was believed Wives have asked what progress we are that ocean fisheries were inexhaustible. making in this problem of foreign fishing. wished it much sooner, the Interest of The American Bar Association in 1964 I believe that we are making some head- the State Department at present is passed a resolution urging our Government way, but I would hasten to add that it is heartening. We must provide for the to seek international agreement giving wholly not enough, not nearly enough, and we conservation of the world ocean resour- separate consideration to freedom of the seas are still some distance from solutions to yes or we will have violated one of our , and to of for co onservatio of ocean the fisheries. problem the basic problems. prime responsibilities to those who are International al law should d be be kept abreast We have made some progress in some hhungry today unger tomorrow. those who will be in of the times. If protection of coastal fish- areas: - Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 : CIA- July 25, 1966Approved Formle,GRESSIONAL RECORD 67 ENATE000400090005-4 vides an analysis of Issues, ghostwrites speeches and briefs the incumbent on sub- jects that are important to him-all of which can his advantage over the challenger. At election time, the members may ask the Service to coddle more of the voters who write in. The people at LRS were delighted when Lindley Beckworth was beaten in the recent Democratic primary in Texas. They weren't interested one way or the other in his politics. But Beckworth had sent over quantities of constituent mail to be answered. GHOSTWRITING SCHOOL PAPERS While the LRS is meant to be used judi- ciously by members to help them with their work, in practice, requests are usually ac- cepted from anyone calling in from a mem- ber's office. This presents interesting op- portunities for people on the make. As- sistants to members have got the LRS to do research for books they were writing. In one case, the staff was asked to prepare an out- line for a lazy political science professor who was a friend of a Congressman. Secretaries have called in with requests for reports, which, as it turns out, are papers for boy friends at college. Students who work as interns in Congress during the summer sometimes send over queries that will be of use to them in college. Lester Jayson, director of the LRS, says his people catch most of the phony requests. As for constituent mail, while it is increasing, he feels these requests take relatively little time to process, and are not a major obstacle to the researcher in getting work done. But some of the staff people I talked to said the queries meant, the interesting substantive work they were assigned had to be rushed and was sloppy as a result. In some quarters In the Congress the service has got itself the reputation of turning out poor, dull stuff. In 1962, for instance, Senator NEu- BERGER asked for a rundown of the previous legislative history on smoking and health preparatory to the debates on cigarette labeling. Her office got back a list of pre- vious bills and a brief description of what each one said. The LRS report said the Con- gress had held no hearings on the subject. As it turned out, the Congress had held an .important set of hearings in 1957. .The Service is at its best analyzing matters of public policy when there is a mass of pub- lished information and the arguments are clearly drawn. Two of the staff members, Fred Amer and Helen Livingston were useful to members during the Medicare debates last year. They were loaned first to the House Ways and Means Committee and then to the Senate Finance Committee, where they helped prepare questions for expert witnesses, worked on drafting legislation, and in the final stages were on the floor to-advise mem- bers, In an effort to avoid partisan politics, the LRS staff is not permitted to offer opinions in their research papers, which makes the re- ports dull, and over the long run, very prob- ably discourages spirited people from working there. The researchers also are expected to stick closely to published material, a rule which sometimes prevents a research analyst from giving a member the nuances of what he has discovered. The Service hasn't the money to put together the sort of investiga- tory research which played an important part in helping Congrews make up its mind about auto and tire safety, pesticides, water and air pollution, and poverty. The Congress ought to have imaginative and expert information in such areas before the executive depart- ments and lobbyists descend on it. As it is now, because the LRS is so ineffective, mem- bers will ask the executive departments to prepare expert testimony, and write questions for witnesses which, in effect, means that the Administration not only writes the legisla- tion it wants, but exercises oversight as well. There are signs that the LRS may be slowly changing. A new division of science policy research is beginning to put out the wide ranging reports on science and technology which should go some way towards helping members stand up to the executive depart- ments. Jayson is asking the House Appropri- ations Committee to give him more staff, and he wants to get the constituent mail and other spot requests out of the researchers' hair. The Joint Committee on Organization has been preparing a report which would strengthen the LRS by creating a separate division to handle routine inquiries, and thus freeing researchers for more substantive work. It also would encourage the Congress to hire expert consultants when needed on a temporary basis. All this will help. But the Congress would find things considerably more lively If it staffed the Legislative Reference Service with people whose opinions the mem- bers found stimulating. NEED FOR NEW TRADE POLICY TO OVERCOME RESTRICTIONS AGAINST AMERICAN FARM PROD- UCTS Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, in commenting on our present international economic position, I have attempted to identify some critical areas where policy or natural changes may affect our over- all balance of payments. Today I draw the attention of the Senate to the vital contribution of agricultural exports. It is easy to overlook their importance. The growth of world trade has been largely in exchanges between industrial countries. The recovery of the war-torn countries of Europe has brought a new competitive challenge to our manufac- turing industry. There, as here, the share of agriculture in total output and in the employment of labor has been declining. But, the United States has continued as the world's largest exporter of farm products. It has supplied about one-fifth of the world's total of these exports. And the market is a growing one. The total value of farm product exports is expected this year to be almost double that of only 7 years ago-$6.7 billion compared with $3.7 billion in 1959. Cash receipts will approach $5 billion. Agricultural exports represent almost one-quarter of the value of our merchan- dise exports, excluding military aid items. A prosperous and increasingly populous world creates growing demand for our produce. The less prosperous, but also increasingly populous, countries need our supply of food. It is in a real sense food for peace. But the critical role of our agricultural exports is based on our trade with the in- dustrialized countries. They account for about one-third of our total exports to Western Europe, whereas our agricultural imports from these countries are one- tenth or less of our total imports. It is very easy for us to strike a balance and say we have an annual surplus, of over $1 billion on our agricultural product trade with the countries of the Common Mar- ket. It is just as easy for these same countries to look at the same trade and see a large deficit. And when some of these countries are in overall deficit, there is a ready political appeal, even if no economic case, for a policy of restrict- ing their imports from us. 16205 Now the Congress has made very clear its expectations that trade negotiations under the Trade Expansion Act must as- sure improved access to world markets for U.S. agricultural exports. Yet we have, since November 1964, been ne- gotiating on industrial products only, and the EEC, while it has recently reached internal agreement on agricul- ture, has yet to present its agricultural proposals to our negotiators in Geneva. The evidence is accumulating that we shall be facing a common agricultural policy of the EEC that is protectionist and restrictive in its international as- pects. Let it be made clear that we in the United States understand by the term "reciprocity" an agreement on trade that includes agricultural trade liberalization. We need that, and we shall not quietly grant concessions on industrial products without it. Let me make a serious proposal. If the negotiators of the EEC go on their August vacations without submitting their agri- cultural proposals, a failure which would cast doubts on their serious intention to bargain, the United States should begin to give thought to a change in its trading policy. This would have two aspects: First, an abandonment of our uncondi- tional most-favored-nation approach, so as to exclude named customs unions that have demonstrated unwillingness to move toward trade liberalization. Sec- ond, an offer to negotiate with any and all other nations with a view to the elimi- nation of trade barriers. If the Common Market of Europe will not play, let us show that we can make a common mar- ket of the rest of the free world. If we are unable to reduce restrictionism by the EEC, the United States has no p o- spect of gain from a general retaliat ry policy or a broad retreat from of its postwar trade aims. TT Un S tes has a clear interest in lib ra zi rade with those who are like e w fling to liberalize it. PUBLIC OPINION POLLS AND VIETNAM Mr. MCGOVERN. Mr. President, at time when major foreign policy and mili- tary decisions relating to the war in Viet- nam seem to be made more and more on the basis of public opinion polls, Mr. Art Buchwald's column on this subject in the Sunday, July 24, Washington Post is of special interest. I ask unanimous con- sent that the article be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: BOMBING OUT-AH Ris POLL SHOWS ONLY 13 PERCENT OF NORTHVIETNAMESE LIKE BOMBS (By Art Buchwald) LONDON.-There has been a lot of emphasis on polls of late, particularly on the Vietnam war. After the United States bombed the outskirts of Hanoi and Haiphong, President Johnson announced that 75 percent of the American people approved. Unbeknownst to most people, a recent poll was taken in Hanoi by the North Vietnamese political pollster, Lu Ali his, and someone slipped it to me. The results were very in- teresting. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 16206 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD --SENATE July 25, 1966 Ali Ris revealed that 75 per cent of all the dents. At the same time, as I have fre- t I nterim agreements to initiate the insured North Vietnamese said they did not like be- quently noted, the new program canno ing bombed by American planes, 13 per cent be expected to carry the full load of need student loan program during the 1966-67 aca- said they didn't mind being bombed and 12 without the continuance at its present demic year have been signed by the U.S. per cent said they didn't know. Office of Education with agencies in 13 states Sixty per cent of the people asked said level of the National Defense Education and the United Student Aid Funds which op- they would rather be bombed than strafed, Act loan fund program. erates a nationwide student loan program. 23 per cent said they would rather be strafed But it is significant that the bankers The United Student Aid Funds, 5259 N. Ta- than bombed and 17 per cent said they had of the Nation are girding for participa- coma Ave., Indianapolis, Ind., is a nonprofit no preference. tion in the new federally guaranteed pri- student guaranteed loan agency with pro- A large segment of those questioned said vate loan program. According to Dr. grams in all 50 states. that, while they didn't agree with President The USFA guarantees the loans, reimburses Ho Chi Minh's domestic policies, they felt he Benjamin Fine in his syndicated column the banks and continues the collection pro- was doing a good job In foreign affairs. At appearing in the Washington Star re- cedure if the loans become delinquent. The least 96 per cent replied yes when asked if -Gently, the Association of Reserve City loans, of course, are supplemented with they were happy with President Ho's han- Bankers has pledged full support to the scholarships, fellowships and outright grants dling of the war. The other 4 per cent turned program. Charles E. Walker, vice presi- from private, federal and state sources. up as refugees in South Vietnam. dent of the American Bankers Associa- Under the government-guaranteed loan President He still has a good following in tion, is quoted as saying that eventually program the government assists state and North Vietnam. In answer to the question, all banks will participate in the loan private student loan insurance plans in "If elections were held tomorrow in Vietnam, process established by the act. underwriting loans up to $1,000 is year for would you vote for Ho Chi. Minh, Gen. K y, students and $1,500 for grad- President Johnson, Gov. Romney or BOBBY In this time of rapidly rising interest uate students. KENNEDY?" President Ho,got 63 per cent of rates and tight money, it is encouraging I have prepared a series of bulletins that the vote. that the Nation's banks are willing to spell out the sources available for scholar- But in the follow-up question, "If elec- make such a universal commitment to ships, fellowships and loans and the steps to tions were held in 1972 ...?" KENNEDY came loans which will bring the banks a lower follow in getting college funds. Write to Dr. out 2 percentage points over President Ho return than they might receive from Benjamin Fine, in care of The Star, and ask and 34 percentage points over HUBERT Hum- other types of lending. for these bulletins: Bulletin No. 1, "College PHREY. Help for Children of Veterans"; Bulletin No. When asked if they thought President Dr. Fine's article also contains infor- 2, "Where to Get Federal, State and Private Johnson was doing a good job in Vietnam, mation about available materials for stu- Loans"; Bulletin No. 3, "Major Scholarship 98 per cent of the North Vietnamese felt he dents who wish to become familiar not Sources"; Bulletin No. 5, "Scholarships Avail- wasn't doing enough bombing of South Viet- only with the Federal program but with able Through Business and Industry" and nam. Two per cent said they "didn't know." others as well. The suggestions made Bulletin No. 10, "Federal Scholarships, Fel- President Johnson's popularity in Hanoi there many be useful to Members of lowships and Loans." Please send a long, hit a new low after the bombing near Hanoi the Senate in responding to student in- stamped, self-addressed envelop and 25 cents and Haiphong. therefore ask unanimous con. in coin for each bulletin desired to cover Seventy-three per cent of those questioned quiries. I handling charges. (All five for $1.) said they would have thought twice about sent that the Fine article may appear in One of the major sources of scholarship aid supporting President Johnson if they knew the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD. are the colleges themselves. During the com- he was going to bomb North Vietnamese There being no objection, the article ing year the colleges are scheduled to offer cities. Twenty-three per cent of those inter- was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, $100 million in scholarship aid to 300,000 viewed said they saw no reason to go to the as follows: students. Not everyone who applies gets conference table now that all their oil sup- help, of course. But two important con- plies were burned up and 7 per cent said [From the Washington (D.C.) Star, June 26, siderations are involved: academic record and Barry Goldwater's approach toward North 19661 need. Vietnam was much more honest and straight- COLLEGE FOR THE ASKING: BANKERS BACK YALE EXAMPLE forward. STUDENT AID Yale University is a good example. At When asked what they thought of the (By Benjamin Fine, Ph. D.) present the total financial assistance received escalation of the bombing, only 6 per cent The top management of the nation's larg- by the four Yale classes amounts to $3 mil- of the North Vietnamese thought it was a est banks, members of the Association of Re- lion each year. A request for financial aid "good thing." serve City Bankers, have pledged their full will in no way handicap an application. Badod thinngg---6 per cent. support to finance student loans under state This is generally true among all colleges. Bad -32 per cent. Financial aid, accordance with need, Not sure, but probably bad-59 per cent. and private guarantee plans. The bankers plan to develop methods and will be continued all four years, provided early to tell-3 per cent. only that the the student remains in good d aca- The final question of the poll was about procedures to provide adequate amounts of demic and personal standing. Jobs will what the average North Vietnamese felt was funds in all sections of the country. An esti- normally be offered but are not mandatory. the most pressing problem facing Hanoi at mated 775,000 college students will be eligible Yale loans may always be substituted for this time. to borrow $620 million during the next school the job. Every effort is being made by Yale Urban renewal-2 per cent. Year to finance their education. to find on-campus jobs when requested. Air and ,water pollution-5 per cent. According to Charles E. Walker, executive More than 40 percent of each recent class The move of large masses to the suburbs-- vice president of the American Bankers Asso- of Yale has received financial aid. 6 per cent. ciation, all banks will eventually participate You can get a listing of the scholarships, The draft-3 per cent. in. the program. He predicted that students loans and jobs available at each college and The Seventh Fleet-84 per cent, will borrow primarily in their home towns university in the United States from the -rather than in their college towns. 360-page U.S. Office of Education book STUDENT LOAN PROGRAM MOVING FORWARD Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, one of the milestone legislative accomplish- ments of this Congress, which has been dubbed by some the education Con- gress, was the passage of Public Law 89- 329, the Higher Education Act which was signed into law last November 8. As one who has long sought to improve the opportunities for financing a college education by all those who are qualified to make profitable use of such training, I was particularly pleased that title IV incorporated the proposals I offered in the 88th Congress for student loans guar- anteed by the Federal Government, for a program of work-study assistance, and for grants in aid to the neediest stu- The federal government is the principle "Financial Assistance for College Students: source of college loans. More than $190 mil- Undergraduate." (U.S. Government Print- lion a year is loaned to some 250,000 students. ing Office, Washington, $1.25.) But the federal government wants private For those interestd in graphic arts, the and state agencies to take over this job, Educational Council of the Graphic Arts In- though the government will continue to un- dustry, 1411 K St. NW, Washington, has set derwrite the loans and subsidize the interest up a national scholarship trust fund for 12 rate. Thus, if the banks Charge the students fourth-year scholarships to be used at Insti- 6 percent interest, the i'ederal government tutions offering degree programs or majors will pay 3 percent and the student will pay in printing design, printing teaching, print- the other 3 percent. ing management and technology. The As the importance of education continues values of the scholarships range from $100 to to mount, so does the cost of obtaining a $1,000 a year. Additional scholarships are higher education. The cost of financing a offered by several companies, foundations higher education at either a public or pri- and other donors in the industry. vate school has increased by 50 percent in the last 10 years and will jump another 25 percent by 1970. Enrollments are climbing along with costs. The number of students in college doubled between 1955 and 1965, going to 5.5 million. By 1970 enrollments will reach 8 million. ALL IS LOST IN DISORDER - Mr. BYRD of West Virginia. Mr. President, the Dominion-News of Mor- gantown, W. Va., carried an editorial on Approved, For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 16196 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE July 25, 1966 cflil it, of a work of' art. And although George Stewart's East Front now appears as an exact replica, future generations will, no doubt, instantly recognize it for what it is- a mid-20th century imitation. Even Latrobe, aside from his jealous am- bition, rebelled against Jefferson's and Thornton's pure classicism, though in the end he, like Bulflnch, faithfully executed Thornton's design. Besides he created the marvelous interiors of the original building. Another difficulty was lack of skilled crafts- men. , It proved hard to recruit carpenters and stone cutters who could build anything higher than thresholds. Money, furthermore, was short. Washing- ton's public buildings were to be financed from the sale of lots. But in the trackless wasteland where few streets were even marked, the real estate business was slow. The Government had to borrow money. Under the circumstances, President Wash- ington would not hear doing the building in marble as Thornton urged. There was none about at the time and it would have had to be imported at tremendous expense. Instead the original Capitol was built of sandstone from the nearby Acquta quarry and painted white. CORRODED AND PAINT-CAKED Sandstone is porous and has, as the in- cumbent Architect of the Capitol keeps painting out with much alarm, corroded in spots and is caked with the innumerable coats of paint. But Washington's sandstone is part of our history, too. And although it must, of course, be repaired, and although marble is unquestionably the most suitable building material, it should no more be changed for the sake of prettiness than we should put up plastic cherry trees around the Tidal Basin. On Nov. 22, 1800, President John Adams welcomed Congress in the completed north wing of the building, congratulating the gentlemen "on the prospect of a residence not to be changed." Seven years later, built under the direction of Latrobe, the identical south wing was completed. The two were joined by a wooden arcade where the Ro- tunda now stands. Latrobe was appointed by Jefferson in 1803. He was a most accomplished architect and engineer but just as arrogant and trouble- some as Hallet had been-at least for poor Thornton. The two kept harpooning each other with bitter accusations and acid sar- casm. Latrobe was born in England and trained partly in Germany. On a visit to Phila- delphia, in 1798, he met the president of the Bank of Pennsylvania and in the course of a casual conversation made a sketch of what a bank ought to look like. Nine months later, to his great surprise, he had the com- mission. Latrobe was almost unique among the architects of his time in believing in function as well as form. This led him to his many quibbles, not only with Thornton but with Jefferson as well, who would not have his conceptions of classic design altered for the sake of a more workable building. Latrobe and Jefferson, for instance, dis- agreed violently over roofing the House of Representative. Latrobe, for functional rea- sons,.wanted a hemispheric dome lighted by a lantern with vertical glass panes that could be easily waterproofed. Jefferson wanted something like the dome over the new Halle aux ales he had seen in Paris with long ribs springing from a drum and horizontal glass strips between them. It seemed to him more like the Pantheon in Rome. The President had his way.. Latrobe was sarcastic.. "Presidents and Vice. Presidents are the Only architects and poets," he wrote his assistant. . . Therefore let us. fall down and worship them . ." The leaks Latrobe had predicted were fixed with some extra putty. But Jefferson, like everyone else to this day, much admired Latrobe's landsome "corncob" capitals on the ornamental columns in the original Senate wing. It was a patriotic deed of much daring to replace the 2000-year-old acanthus leaf of antiquity with a motive as lowly-and American!-as carved ears of In- dian corn. BRITISH SET FIRES "The Cossacks spared Paris," as one Eng- 118h newspaper remarked, but the British did not spare Washington and the fire damage they did to the Capitol in 1814 was exten- sive. The District Commissioners promised Congress, which had retreated to Sam Blod- get's nearby hotel, to have the building re- stored by 1816. It took 14 years longer. Latrobe now did over much of the formerly wooden interiors in marble and metal, but was out of town a lot on other business and an increasing irritant to the growing bu- reaucracy. In 1817 he stiffly informed Presi- dent James Monroe that he had "no choice between resignation and the sacrifice of all self-respect." He was spared the sacrifice. Bulfinch took over and to him goes the cred- it for completing the Capitol much as Thorn- ton had envisioned it. That job completed in 1830, there seemed no more need for an architect of the Capitol and the position was abolished for many years. In 1850 the country's population exceeded 23 million and even distant California had become a state. The 62 Senators and 232 Representatives who assembled that year felt crowded. Again, following precedent, a competition was called. Again the munificent sum of $500 was offered as first prize. And again the entries proved most unsatisfactory. Robert Mills, the official government archi- tect and engineer at the time, was asked to combine the various ideas the competition had brought out into a new scheme. Mills had designed the Washington Monument, the Treasury and the Patent Office (now the National Portrait Gallery), among oth- er handsome buildings, but failed to please Congress on this job. After much hassle, President Fillmore appointed Thomas U. Walter to build the Capitol as we know it today. Walter's design reflects a different Amer- ica than Thornton's. The age of elegance and almost aristocratic refinement had yielded to a new sense of power-in fact, to a certain arrogance, and to the esthetic con- fusion of the beginning industrial revolu- tion. Waiter's idea of "classic" architecture was different from that of Thornton and Jefferson. He would, he once lectured, have architects think as the Greeks thought, not do as they did. And what he thought the Greeks thought was really what most Amer- loans thought of-the manifest destiny of a new industrial empire. Walter's nine million pound, cast-iron dome reflects this spirit. Besides, it was a great engineering feat. People often wonder how Walter got the 16-foot figure of Free- dom way up there. It's quite simple. He merely built scaffolding straight up the mid- dle of the rotunda, through the eye of the dome. From there he swung a derrick by means of which the ironwork could be hoisted up on the outside. He left the interior of the original ro- tunda unchanged up to the top of the cornice. From there a new and higher in- ner dome was constructed. The last constructive and truly handsome work on Capitol Hill was performed by Fred- erick Law Olmsted, America's greatest land-/ Mr. KENNEDY of New York. Mr. scape architect, who, beginning with Central President, Mr. Philip Geyelin, of the Park in New York, gave us fine city parks Wall Street Journal, who has written all over the country. Olmsted, in 1874, spruced up the Capitol grounds. He created perceptively on this and related issues the handsome plaza on the east of the build- in the past, contributed two articles ap- ing which has now been turned into a dismal pearing in that newspaper July 21 and parking lot. And he designed the marble 22, examining the interrelationships of Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 terraces and grand stairs on the west which Stewart's extension scheme would also de- stroy, along with the architecture. They were, according to Olmsted, "to support, sus- tain and augment." By the time all this was finished, Ulysses S. Grant was President, the flag had 38 stars and Congress again felt crowded. Though long retired as Architect of the Capitol, Walter offered two remedies. His plans showed the Capitol enlarged like a blown-up balloon. Then the busy architec- tural firm of Smythmeyer & Pelz came along with a real lulu. Extending the Capitol east and west, they wanted to adorn it with tow- ers and turrets in all directions. It was filed away. In 1903, however, these ideas were again resurrected and a Joint Commission of Con- gress appointed architects Carrere & Hast- ings to study the possibility of extending the east front. They recommended an extension of no more than 121/2 feet to give Walter's dome better visual support. They called this Scheme A. In addition, they complied with the request of the Commission for more space but recommended against it. This plan, called Scheme B, was to extend the east front by 321/2 feet. With some slight amendments, the Commission approved Scheme B, despite the architects' recom- mendation to the contrary. But the Con- gress as a whole voted it down in 1905 and built the first House and Senate Office Build- ings instead. Nothing was ever said about the west front. Scheme B was brought up and voted down three times more-in 1935, 1937 and 1949. In 1955, a year after J. George Stewart was appointed Architect of the Capitol, legisla- tion to extend the east front in substantial accordance with Scheme B was passed as a rider to the Legislative Appropriations Act. There were no public hearings or public de- bate. But the measure had the emphatic backing of Speaker Sam Rayburn, Many Congressmen apparently took any criticism of the scheme as a criticism of this popular leader. The deed was done. A PROMISE BY RAYBURN Again, nothing was ever said about the west front. On the contrary, Rayburn as- sured the Congress in 1958 that "we are not going to do anything with the west end." Yet the present Commission for the Ex- tension of the Capitol says that it derives its authority from the 1955 Scheme B legisla- tion. It proposes to bring out Thornton's portico by 44 feet and change its design by adding a pediment, widening it and adding more col- umns. Thornton's wings are to be brought out 88 feet. And Walter's corridors that con- nect the original building with his wings is to be extended by 65 feet. Olmsted's terrace and stairs to be redesigned. The yield: 4%2 acres of space-a 25 percent increase in the size of the present Capitol- to be used for two visitors' auditoriums, two cafeterias, four dining rooms, several con- ference rooms and 109 "hideaway" offices for $34 million and g that for a cen- DECISIONMAKING IN SOUTHEAS ASIA Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 July 25, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE Somehow, I fail to see that the yield of 2 visitors' auditoriums, 2 cafeterias, 4 dining rooms, conference rooms, and 109 new places in which Congressmen can hide from their constituents could be adequate justification for the monumen- tal changes which are envisioned by Stewart and company. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that the article written by Mr. Eckhardt be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: A FURTHER OUTLOOK: LESSER MINDS FIDDLE WITH WHAT FATHERS FUSSED OVER (By Wolf Von Eckardt) Although busy enough making independ- ence and self-government work, George Washington and Thomas Jefferson worried and fussed a great deal about the National Capitol. The original building-the last remaining portions of which lesser minds would now entomb in a new, vastly extended marble front-is as much their work as that of archi- tects William Thornton, Benjamin Latrobe and Charles Bulfinch. As Washington and Jefferson saw it, the Nation's first building was to be the symbol for generations of the dignity and perma- nence of the new republic. Two generations later, President Millard Fillmore decided against tampering with the original building when Congress demanded more space. Instead, in 1851, he appointed architect Thomas U. Walter to add new wings to either side of the old building. They are connected with it my narrow corridors. To give harmony to this ensemble, Walter capped it with his magnificent dome. To Abraham Lincoln, too, the Capitol was a symbol of the permanency of the Union. Despite the demands which the Civil War made on manpower and finance, he ordered the work rushed to completion. His judg- ment of the country's sentiment was soon proven correct: "How is the Capitol? Is it finished?" were among the first questions the representative of the Confederacy asked the representative of the Union when South and North first met to negotiate the end of hostilities on Feb. 3, 1865, aboard a ship in Hampton Roads. It was essentially finished. -Two years earlier--not long after Gettysburg-the bronze statute of Freedom was, precisely at noon on Dec. 2, 1863, slowly hoisted atop the great cast iron dome. A flag was unfurled and a salute of 35 guns was fired from Capitol Hill. All that remained to be done now was Frederick Law Olmsted's magnificent west terrace and landscaping and, obviously, con- tinuing interior improvements of plumbing, lighting, heating and cooling. But for this the building and the symbol were complete, or should be considered so. Who would dream of extending St. Peter's in Rome, Mon- ticello, Mount Vernon or even the Houses of Parliament in London? But the unending bickering-a curious mixture of political and architectural ambi- tion, of genius and pettiness, parsimony and extravagance, respect for history and dis- repectiful vainglory-that had accompanied the work from the very beginning has per- sisted to this day. In a way this bickering helped create our Capitol. Now it threatens it. President Fillmore had ended the long de- bate in Congress about enlarging and chang- ing the original Capitol because he would not "mar the harmony and beauty of the present building which, as a specimen of architecture, is so universally admired." Yet only ten years later scheme after hide- ous extension scheme was proposed. For nearly a hundred years, Congress, sup- ported by the vast majority of the country's architects, has resisted all of them. Rather than change and disfigure its glorious home, Congress decided to accommodate the ever- growing need for additional space and facili- ties by constructing new buildings on Capitol Hill. The results are the Library of Con- gress, the Supreme Court Building, the old and new Senate Office Buildings, three huge House Office Buildings and now the proposed Madison Memorial Library which will serve as a third building for the Library of Con- gress. The old, vainglorious and long rejected en- largement proposals of the 1870s and '80s have, however, intrigued the present Archi- tect of the Capitol, J. George Stewart, who is not an architect but a builder and former Republican Congressman from Delaware. With the emphatic backing of the late House Speaker Sam Rayburn (D-Tex.), he puffed out the east facade of the original, central portion of the building by 321/2 feet with a new, slick marble replica. The work was completed in 1961. ON THE WESTERN FRONT Last month Stewart and his powerful Commission for the Extension of the Capi- tol suddenly announced that they had de- cided to similarly extend the west front, but this time by up to 88 feet and not with a replica but a somewhat changed design. The members of this Commission, in addi- tion to Stewart, are Vice President HUBERT H. HUIYIPUREY, House Speaker JOHN W. M000R- MACx Democrat, of Massachusetts, Senate Minority Leader EVERETT M. DrRKSEN Re- publican, of Illinois and House Minority Leader GERALD F. FORD Republican, of Michigan. This second extension would, of course, spell the final obliteration of the splendid building that Fillmore saved and Washing- ton and Jefferson worried so much about. Of all the politicans who fussed with the work of the Capitol's architects, Washington and Jefferson were surely the most qualified. An informed appreciation of architecture was, in their day, considered an essential part of the education of a Virginia gentle- man. True, Washington thought it best to let the design of buildings "be governed by the rules which are laid down by the professors of the art." But his active part in the enlarge- ment of his home at Mount Vernon belies this modesty. And for Jefferson, of course, architecture was a passionate avocation. He had, he con- fessed, in uncharacteristic ecstasy, "stood for whole hours gazing at the Matson Carr? like a lover at his mistress." It was not that this exceptionally well preserved Roman temple at Nimes; in southern France, seemed more perfect to him than other buildings he had seen. It was because, in the words of one scho- lar, this temple's almost austere simplicity- in contrast to the still predominant Geor- gian style which accompanied British co- lonization-"was the speaking symbol of all that America could and should stand for, proclaiming the strength of republican vir- tue, the beauty of discipline, the wisdorn of rule by laws rather than men, in a language he wanted all the United States to learn." In quest of such architecture, Washing- ton and Jefferson called a competition for the design of the Capitol. Its disappointing results may justify the slight hanky-panky which helped Thornton to win it. The fact that he had been introduced to President 16195 Washington by the famous painter John Trumbull may also have helped. At any rate, Thornton was given permis- sion to enter three months after the com- petition was officially closed and after the French architect Stephen Hallet had been given reason to believe that he had won. But surely Hallet's drawing of what looked like the fairy tale palace of a minor Renais- sance prince was hardly the simple, classic building both Washington and Jefferson had in mind. William Thornton was born in 1759 at Tortola in the Virgin Islands. He studied medicine in Edinburgh, traveled extensively in Europe and in Parisian society, settled for a while in Philadelphia where he knew Benjamin Franklin, gave up the practice of medicine and married a 15-year-old girl. He eventually became a Commissioner for the District of Columbia and later head of the United States Patent Office which he saved from destruction by the British in 1814 by stepping in front of their cannon and cussing them out. At Philadelphia he had learned of a com- petition for the design of a public library. "When I traveled," he wrote, "I never thought of architecture, but I got some books and worked a few days, then gave a plan in the ancient Ionic order, which carried the day. He carried the day again in the Capitol competition, his second architectural effort. "Grandeur, simplicity and convenience ap- pear so well combined in this plan of Dr. Thornton's," wrote George Washington On Jan. 31, 1793, to the District Commissioners who were officially in charge, that he was certain of their instant approval. And Jefferson let it be known that Thorn- ton's design "had capitivated the eyes and judgment of all. It is simple, noble, beau- tiful, excellently arranged and moderate in size. " ' * Among its admirers none is more decided than he whose decision is most im- portant." But Hallet's eyes and judgment, under- standably perhaps, were captivated not at all. He, after all, was a professional architect and Thornton was not. And the District Com- missioners, it turned out, made a bad mis- take when, to appease the cantankerous Frenchman, they awarded him the same prize as Thornton ($500 and a building lot in Washington), invited him to examine Thornton's plans (which he promptly ripped to pieces in a lengthy report), and gave him the $400-a-year job of supervising the con- struction of the building (which he pro- ceeded to change in accordance with his own ideas). When it was discovered that Hallet had laid foundations for a square court instead of the Rotunda Thornton had planned, President Washington, according to the long harassed Thornton, "expressed his disap- proval in a style of such warmth as his dig- nity seldom permitted." Hallet was fired. But since he refused to surrender the original plans, it is difficult to judge precisely how much influence he had on the design. Some historians have ac-? cepted Hallet's assertion that Thornton stole it from him in the first place. Glenn Brown, in his two heavy volumes on the history of the Capitol, defends Thornton's originality and competence with passionate eloquence. The truth is probably, as Latrobe has writ- ten, that Thornton's design was one of the most brilliant and modern of his time, but that the amateur lacked the practical skill to properly execute and articulate it. His, regardless of details, is no doubt the chaste, classic simplicity of the building that pleased Jefferson so well and that Walter's House and Senate wings lack. As any discerning art historian knows, it is impossible to recreate this spirit, the "Zeitgeist," as the Germans Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 -1 July 25, 1966 .. CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 16197 political, psychological, and military con- siderations in decisionmaking in south- east Asia. I believe these articles are important contributions to the study of policy formation and of interest to all concerned in that area. I ask unanimous consent that the articles be printed in the RECORD. ' There being no objection, the articles were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Wall Street Journal, July.21, 1966] THE ESCALATION MACHINE: POLICYMAKING SYSTEM ITSELF MAKES ANOTHER STEPUP LIKELY (By Philip Geyelin) WASHINGTON.-The smoke had barely blown away from the Hanoi-Haiphong oil depots and the latest expansion of the U.S. effort in Vietnam When the wheels that could carry -the U.S. toward yet another "escala- tion" began, barely perceptibly but almost inexorably, to turn again. Not conclusively, necessarily, perhaps not even consciously. No Presidential "decisions" were taken. No military orders were handed down. Quite the contrary; when pressed in public, such leading Administration figures as Presidential assistant Walt W. Rostow stoutly insisted that military considera- tions-meaning the response of the enemy- would dictate the next U.S. moves, and that nobody could predict the enemy's response. After all, argued Mr. Rostow, the North .Vietnamese had really started it in 1964, by infiltrating new and heavier arms and whole divisions of their troops; the U.S. was mere- ly responding when it landed its own troops and launched air attacks on the enemy's "logistical and military bases" in the North. Similarly, it was only after the invaders continued to pour in that the U.S. did the same, while progressively intensifying the air assault. As for where it would end, Mr. Rostow begged off by declaring that "there is only one target officer in this Govern- ment-that is the President of the United States." Besides, he added, the answer rests with "the other side." There is simple logic in this portrayal of military responses to military moves, with all of it apparently under careful control. But if that was all there is to the machinery of escalation, as it has functioned so far, it would: also be a lot easier to accept the prospect put forth of late by at least some influential Administration officials of a pro- tracted conflict, at something close to the present scale, with the ' Communists ulti- mately wearying of it all and either quietly scaling down their effort, or openly seeking peace. It may turn out that way, of course. Or it might turn out just the other way. Either by a massive increase in infiltration, or a big monsoon offensive, or a war crimes trial -and execution of captured U.S. airmen, or the entry into the war of the Red Chinese, the Communists might make further U.S. escalation clearly inescapable. But if past, performance is any test, it is even more likely that nothing so dramatic or decisive will happen, but that the U.S. war effort will escalate anyway, for reasons only marginally related to strict military need. A COMBINATION OF INGREDIENTS For the fact is that the wheels propelling the U.S. toward wider war in Vietnam are not just military wheels. Some are political ar diplomatic or psychological, both within and outside the U.S. Government, and all are -ightly intermeshed under the complex proc- Ss of step-by-step consensus-building, of glancing contradictory pressures, which is resident Johnson's preferred technique for faking Vietnam policy.' The momentum, in short, is in the de- cision-making system, and nowhere has that been more graphically demonstrated than in the case of the Hanoi-Haiphong raids, and some little-noted developments that were all but lost in the excitement afterwards. The bombing of the Hanoi-Haiphong oil depots was an entirely "logical," high- priority Pentagon project from the moment the U.S. set out to interdict Communist sup- ply lines by bombing North Vietnam. Why bomb roads, bridges or convoys and leave untouched the oil that fuels the trucks that make up the convoys? But the President at first held offs adhering to the doctrine of "graduated, response" Going for the fuel supplies too fast, it was argued, would pose an intolerable provocation to the Commu- nist Chinese. By early this year, as the U.S. air strikes resumed after a 37-day "pause" for a peace offensive, the 'oil depots had moved to the top of the list of prime targets. But again the President held back; this time not out of military considerations at all, but because political unrest in South Vietnam raised the question of whether the Saigon government could stand the strain of a new expansion of the war. But the political unrest, in turn, was also helping sap public support in the U.S. for the war. Public dissent was growing loud, and with it official U.S. anxiety that Hanoi would misread U.S. resolve. Meantime, public speculation and debate was widening over the possibility that the oil depots would be attacked. The longer the U.S. held off the more Hanoi might mis- understand. Hitting those oil depots thus became more than ever a test of U.S. will. So it should have surprised nobody that, when Premier Ky finally got the upper hand over his opposition, Mr. Johnson began pre- paring U.S. and world opinion for this next step in intensification of the U.S. air war against North Vietnam. On June 18, the President warned publicly that the cost of aggression would be "raised at its source." Privately, he began the business of building Congressional, backing for the Haiphong.. Hanoi raids. The reasoning put forth was that destruc- tion of the oil depots would curtail, if not cripple, North Vietnam's infiltration capa- bility, that it was a justifiable retaliation for Communist "escalation," that it would ease some of the enemy pressure on U.S. troops in the South. But this military argument was only part of the rationale, perhaps the smallest part. In February, when the Ad- ministration didn't want to expand the bombing, Secretary McNamara was one of those arguing privately that even a four- fold step-up of the bombing of North Viet- nam's "logistical bases" would have only slight effect on the Communist war effort. Suddenly, in June, it had become an ur- gent, crucial element. The real rationale, officials have since, explained, was that a dra- matic blow at "the source"-the Hanoi- Haiphong oil depots-would serve multiple purposes. It would put some limitations on infiltration. But it would also reaffirm American mettle for Hanoi's benefit, while damping down U.S. dissent by removing the point of further debate over this particular step. It would probably also prove popular with a U.S. public grown frustrated by lack of solid achievement in the war-and thus, too, Would reduce dissent. THE ADMINISTRATION'S FOLLOW-UP That a showy display of public approval was a good part of the purpose is suggested by the follow-up effort of the President and his top men to picture the enemy as "war weary" and defeatist in spirit and -by the flourishing of the resulting, favorable, opin- ion polls. With consensus-building so much a part of the whole episode, it is hardly surprising that the news leaked out prematurely; it is hard to enlist a Congressman's backing for a military measure without telling him a little about it. Still, Government officials loudly lamented the "leaks," however un- likely it seems that Hanoi was either sur- prised or effectively forewarned. After all, the pros and cons of just such action had been a public topic for many months longer than it would have taken to beef up defenses at the target sites. Indeed, the North Vietnamese were hard at work dispersing the oil supplies when the air raids took place. Even so, officials ex- pressed outrage at the advance news report and the President ordered the FBI to search out the source. So what happened within hours after the Hanoi-Haiphong raids? First, from the Pen- tagon came published reports that "top mili- tary men" had a list of new objectives, in= cluding the closing (presumably by mines) of the Haiphong harbor, destruction of the three biggest airfields in the Hanoi-Haiphong area, and the bombing of power plants and industrial facilities, including quite specifi- cally the Thanguyen steel plant 35 miles north of Hanoi. This was all anonymously attributed. But before long, according to a dispatch from United Press International, Rear Adm. James R. Reedy, commander of the 7th Fleet Task Force off Vietnam, made it more official. He had picked out new targets in the industrial corridor between Hanoi and Haiphong, he told a press conference aboard his flagship the USS Constellation, according to the UPI account, which added: "The Admiral said one target would be a large steel plant if his five-carrier force receives orders to widen its air assault on North Vietnamese targets," (The Admiral later told superiors he was mis- quoted, but as a practical matter, the impact of the original UPI report is likely to be the same.) A few days later, in Canberra, the U.S. Ambassador to Australia was still more ex- pansive, according to the Washington Post. Arguing for a stepped-up bombing offensive, he declared "We will knock out oil, electrical grids, power lines, dams and canals." A GRIM -PROSPECT ? So Hanoi is on notice, and so are the war critics in the U.S. as well as the press. The notice won't matter, of course, if the latest turn of the screw against the Communists should prove to be the telling one. But his- tory argues for contemplation, at least, of quite a different prospect: Assuming the war drags on without dra- matic change, public patience at home is likely once again to wear thin. There will be a revival of open and acrimonious debate and fresh fears among the policymakers that Hanoi will see such dissent as a U.S. disincli- nation to stay the course. Finally, perhaps some months from now, there will be urgent consideration of the need, politically, and psychologically, as well as militarily, for fur- ther measures to reaffirm U.S. resolve. At that point, it should surprise nobody if public speculation about next moves should center on the Thanguyen steel mill, on Haiphong harbor, on those three airfields, on electricity grids, dams and canals. As the critics oppose and the proponents propound and the press probes, the President and his advisers may come to see yet another urgent test of will. As Decision Day approaches, they will doubtless also deplore the in- evitable security transgressions, perhaps without recalling their original source, and even though a span of months ought log- ically to allow a lot more time than a span of hours or days for the Communists to beef up defenses or make alternate arrangements to keep supply routes open. For now, the President can hope that his refurbished consensus, coupled with a real increase in military effort, will actually give Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 04 16198 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE July 25, rr 966 the Communists serious second thoughts. At the best, he can hope that it will carry him safely past the Congressional elections, when heavy Democratic losses, growing out of disillusionment with Vietnam policy, might serve to hearten Hanoi. But unless there is positive, demonstrable headway to show for the U.S. effort in Vietnam, serious public disillusionm'nt and dissent is almost certain to recur in time. So will serious consideration of further escalation as a log- ical, military necessity. But the "logic" of this military argument may well be less important than the political and psychological pressures inherent in the free play of business-as-usual consensus politics-pressures which give an added measure of inevitability to the escalation machine. [From the Wall Street Journal, July 22, 19661 VIETNAIai AND VOX POPULI: SOME MERIT SEEN IN CONGRESSIONAL ENDORSEMENT OF OUR AIMS (By Philip Geyelin) WASHINGTON.-Air raids aimed in large part at muffling war critics at home by way of reaffirming U.S. resolve abroad. U.S. pub- lie opinion polls employed as a psychological warfare weapon against a foreign foe. Step by step endorsement of military measures, sought privately and out loud from Congress and the public in ways that, can only give weeks of warning to the enemy. Is this any way to run a war? A short answer is that the conflict in Viet- nam is no ordinary war. It is undeclared and without any readily understandable, clearly definable goal; here is a U.S. armed force, committed to a struggle rapidly reach- ing Korean War-size, whose purpose seems to be as much political and psychological as military. By inflicting military punishment, it seeks to break the enemy's will. The pro- fessed aim is not surrender, but something much more like stalemate out of which a political settlement . might ultimately be forged. For this unprecedented purpose, the pre- ?valling Administration view remains that the war is being run in the only way it can be, given its nature and the particular talents and .preferred techniques of the man who is running it, his high premium on what the diplomats call "wriggle room," his abhor- rence of final commitment, his passion for patient building and rebuilding of "con.- sensus" under each successive step. AUTHORITY FROM CONGRESS? But there is another view, encountered in- creasingly among those policy makers and war-planners once or twice,removed from the peak of power where domestic and for- eign politics must be figured into final deci- sions (and are figured in with a vengeance by President Johnson). This view has it that the time is fast approaching-if not already passed-when the widening Vietnam effort requires something more in the way of Con- gressional authority and public endorsement than a controversial treaty commitment, or a two-year-old resolution growing out of a one-shot raid against North Vietnamese tor- pedo boat pens, or the samplings of Gallup, Roper, Harris or Quayle. Events, of course could quite quickly make this the prevailing view. A major enlarge- ment of the Communist effort might con- front the President with the need for the sort of Congressional action-a declaration of emergency, a Reserve call-up, or what,,- ever-which would constitute unmistakable endorsement of the Administration's Viet- nam policy. But even in the absence of a dramatic expansion of the war, a case can be made that if the machinery of steady escalation is ever to be halted or reversed, some better means must be found to convince the "other side" of this country's determina- tion to see the struggle through. The question, of course, is how to make U.S. staying-power as convincing as its fire- power-how to put to rest, insofar as it is possible, any doubts the Communists have about the American public's willingness to carry on the war. Almost everybody agrees that the obvious alternative to consensus politics-a formal mobzilization under a dec- laration of war-would harden demands for unconditional surrender as the goal. It would stir war fever to perhaps irreversible heights, and lack the U.S. even more tightly into the struggle when its hest chance of extrication lies in maintaining maximum flexibility. But there is a middle course open, and it is worth examining, both because it might be adopted at some point, and, even if it isn't because of the insight it offers into one of the most troublesome aspects of the Viet- nam conflict. As outlined by some of its ad- vocates, the idea goes something like this: Congress would be formally requested to approve the basic U.S. approach to Vietnam by accepting the concept of "limited war for limited objectives," to be fought, not all-out, but with a "graduated response" to the es- calations of the enemy. In the process, Con- gress would redefine and reaffirm the U.S. commitment to South Vietnam. The U.S. public, in short, would get an opportunity, in the only way available, to state its accept- ance of the war for what it has become and for the long, costly struggle it may well turn out to be. QUIETING THE CRITICS In theory, then, either the war's critics, having been offered a meaningful outlet, would pipe down, or if they continued their dissent it would be less likely to mislead Ha- noi or Peking or Moscow about U.S. intents. A vote of confidence in current strategy would reduce the. need for Mr. Johnson to drum up fresh evidence of backing for each new move, and thus reduce the need for him to tip his hand. Policy-or strategy-de- bates within his Administration could be more readily stifled; there would be less in- centive for the debaters, and in particular the military, to carry their arguments into public print or to push their points of view with sympathetic lawmakers. This, when coupled with official acknowl- edgement of a state of emergency by a solid majority vote, might even tend to discourage confusing and often misleading public spec- ulation about next steps. That's the theory-and even its propo- nents concede it has some flaws. Few seri- ously doubt that Congressional endorsement of the war effort would be overwhelming; with several hundred thousand U.S. troops already engaged in battle, and U.S. prestige squarely committed, Congress would have little choice. But the language of any very precise Congressional resolution of support would be difficult to draw. There would be a bruising debate, confusing to the enemy, per- haps prolonged. Senator MORSE, Democrat, of Oregon, for one, could be counted on for a filibuster. Moreover, a request for a fresh Congres- sional authorization would carry with it the implication that Mr. Johnson felt he per- haps did not have authority to commit the U.S. so deeply to an Asian land war and was seeking authority retroactively. To the ex- tent that Congress tempered its approval, it might seem to be putting limits on 'resi- dential prerogatives-limits which might re- strain the President's freedom. of action in Vietnam or some future crisis. Finally, a formal resolution of Congressional support might tend to make Vietnam officially "Johnson's war." Plainly, Mr. Johnson would prefer to draw on the inherent powers of the Presidency; on the original Eisenhower letter of commit- ment to former South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem; on U.S. obligations under the Southeast Asian Treaty Organization; on occasional appropriation requests which have been pointedly tied to Vietnam spending and presented as a test of Congressional support for the war; and on the virtual blank check contained in a joint resolution growing out of North Vietnamese torpedo boat raids on a pair of U.S. destroyers in the Gulf of Ton- kin in August 1964, and the U.S. air raids in reprisal. Technically, all this is probably authority enough. But the ten-year-old Eisenhower letter to Diem was in the context of eco- nomic aid. The SEATO argument was an afterthought, all but unmentioned at the moment of massive U.S. escalation over a year ago, and tossed belatedly into the argu- ment. The appropriation votes were hardly a fair test of sentiment. As for the Tonkin resolution, when the entire House and all but two Senators voted for it, there were no U.S. troops organized as combat units in South Vietnam, and no systematic air raids against the North, and election candidate Johnson, in vivid contrast with his opponent, was repeatedly promising that he would not "go North." Indeed, when an attempt was made to re- strict the language of the resolution in the Senate, so as to limit authority for any open- ended escalation, assurance was offered by the Administration's floor manager of the measure, Senate FULDRIGHT, Democrat, of Arkansas, that nothing so sweeping was either contemplated or implied. The real weakness of the Tonkin resolu- tion, however, is not so much in its "legis- lative history" as in the fact that it is out of date, unrelated to the current U.S. in- volvement, and almost certainly unpersua- sive to the enemy. Whether a new declara- tion of Congressional sentiment would be any more convincing to Hanoi is perhaps less important than the indirect impact it might have on a decision-making process which currently requires the careful building and re-building of popular-and impermanent- majorities behind each new venture in the war. The polls show powerful support for the oil depot raids. What they don't; show is what portion of that approval rests on the belief that the raids will measurably shorten the war, or how quickly this might turn to disillusionment and disapproval if the war drags on inconclusively. It's in this fashion that escalation feeds upon itself; for public disapproval would then argue for some new military blow to demonstrate U.S. will. It is perhaps unreasonable, in this election year, to expect Mr. Johnson to provoke a showdown with Congress over his conduct of war, especially when his principal advisers are telling him that the war is going rel- atively well. But if this advice proves pre- mature, criticism of the war is almost bound to swell. At some point, it may not be un- reasonable to ask whether the President can continue to demand suspension of debate-Cs- usual and dissent-as-usual for the duration, while at the White House "consensus" pol- itics-as-usual remains the rule. IRS RULING. IS A STEP IN WRONG DIRECTION Mr. MUNDT. Mr. President, on Ju15 7, the Internal;' Revenue Service an. nounced a proposed change in its reg uations administering the Internal Rev enue Code of 1954 which, if allowed t stand, would discourage every teache! skilled professional person, salesclerl and even doctors from furthering the' knowledge of their profession or skill t pursuing formal education. The Ii ternal Revenue Service proposed "clarify" paragraph 1.162-5 of sectif 162 of the code which relates to the e penses for education. These propoi changes are, in my estimation, a st Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 July 25, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE went of the Federal Government, the states, and the cities. It takes the effort of the, poor themselves-and of men and women like you. For what we must do is no less than to correct the injustice of two centuries which give men a reason to protest. But there are ways of protesting that any civilized society can tolerate. There are also ways that are unacceptable. The ballot box, the neighborhood communities, the political and civil rights organizations-are the means by which Americans express their resentment against intolerable conditions. They are de- signed to reform society, not to rip it apart. Riots in the streets do not bring about lasting reforms. They tear at the very fabric of the community. They set neighbor against neighbor and create walls of mis- trust and fear between them. They make reform more difficult by turning, away the very people who can and must support re- form. They start a chain- reaction the con- sequences of which always fall most heavily on those who begin them. So it is not only to protect the society at large that we refuse to condone riots and disorder. It is to serve the real interests of those for whose cause we struggle. Our country can abide civil protest. It can improve the lives of those who mount that protest. But it cannot abide civil vio- lence. nI The next pillar of cur task is a spacious vision of what America can be. For prosperity is not enough and duty alone cannot transform our country. "Where there is no vision, the people perish." But vision does not belong to a President alone. It must be the sum of all our dreams. For my part, I believe America can be a place where the last man among us-the last man-has an equal chance to become the best that is in him. For my part, I believe America can be a place where the impossible is unheard of and the unlikely happens today. When it comes to America, I am an opti- mist. I am an optimist because I have lived through 57 years of the best and worst years we have ever known. And I have seen what Americans can do. Think of all that has happened in the last five decades; space crafts and penicillin, com- puters and electric dishwashers, air condi- tioners and atomic power, five-day work week and movies in the skies. But those are only a small part of it. They are the "things" that make life .easier. But think of all that has happened to make life better. Think of the children who don't die- and of those who no longer labor at grueling tasks. Think of the millions of women and Ne- groes who vote-and of all the workers who retire in good health. Think of the millions who can now read and write-and the heart attacks that do not kill. We forget these victories very quickly. This may be well, for it means we always go on to the next job at hand. And our work is cut out for us. But 1976 there will be 220 million of us. We will have to create jobs for 121/2 mil- lion more people, including four million for teen-agers. We will have to provide for three million more elementary students-four million more high school students, and four million more college and university students. We will need two million more elementary and secondary school teachers. And we will have to build 200,000 addi- tional elementary and high school class- rooms and replace almost half a million more. We will need 40,000 more doctors just to keep up. And we will have to provide roads, streets, and parking places for up to 40 million more cars. We must. bring to the millions of Ameri- cans who still live in misery a better standard of living-a fuller share of justice-and' a deeper faith in our nation. And there are cities to rebuild-traffic jams to resolve-rivers to reclaim. NO STANDING STILL All these things and more we will do. There is only one thing that I am sure we won't do. We will not stand still. We know our problems and our faults. We know the dark shadows that fall across our doubts that disturb us and the frailties that undo us. But we also know-as one observer has written-that "here is a nation that in 50 years has endured two world wars, beat off a savage depression, played a major role in rebuilding a shattered world, and created the most wealthy, healthy, and educated nation the world has even seen at any time or at any place." So on this 150th anniversary of Indiana's statehood, it is good to take stock of what we have done and of how much is still ahead. Of this I am certain: The best is yet to come. (Mr. BRADEMAS (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the matter.) [Mr. BRADEMAS' remar hereafter in the Appendix. POSSIBLE TRIAL OF AMERICAN AIRMEN IN NORTH VIETNAM SHOULD BE RENOUNCED BY CON- GRESS (Mr. HANLEY (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. HANLEY. Mr. Speaker, I am in- troducing today a House concurrent res- olution relating to U.S. military person- nel held captive in Vietnam. I think it is of the utmost importance that the Congress express firmly and swiftly the outrage of thg United States at the thought that American airmen will be tried by the Government of North Viet- nam as war criminals. Such an inhuman and cruel act would only serve to destroy all of our efforts at restraint in the conduct of this war. Such an act would considerably lessen the chance of a just and secure settle- ment of the war. Our feelings on this matter ought to be made unmistakably clear to the leadership of North Viet- nam and to the governments which sup- port North Vietnam in its efforts to de- stroy the independence of South Viet- nam. UNITED STATES AHEAD IN SPACE PROGRAM IN NINE CATEGORIES (Mr. EVINS of Tennessee (at the re- quest of Mr. PATTEN) was granted per- mission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) Mr. EVINS of Tennessee. Mr. Speaker, the success in space exploration by Amer- ica's space team has become so consist- ent that it is difficult for us at times to realize the extent to which our fantastic progress has been made. I want to call to the attention of the House the phenomenal progress being made in our space program. Following the success of our latest as- tronaut team of Capt. John W. Young and Maj. Michael J. Collins, in their Gemini 10 flight, newspapers across the Nation last Friday carried a box score report of the nine categories in which the United States is ahead of the Rus- sions in space exploration. The United States has successfully completed 14 manned space flights as against 8 manned flights by the Soviets. In multimanned flights we have suc- cessfully completed eight as against two multimanned flights by the Soviets. We have had 22 men in space as against 11 for the Soviets. We have had three successful space walks as against one for the Soviets, and The United States has completed 1,661 man-hours in flight as against 507 for the Soviets. In the nine categories shown in the ac- companying table, the United States is ahead in space flights in every instance. The following table reported by the As- sociated Press, which has been confirmed in its accuracy by NASA, indicates the extent of our success and superiority. UNITED STATES AHEAD IN 9 CATEGORIES CAPE KENNEDY, FLA.-The manned space flight box score: Manned flights: United States, 14. Russia, 8. Multi-manned flights: United States, 8. Russia, 2. Manned hours in flight: United States, 1,681 hrs., 52 min. Russia, 507 hrs., 16 min. Men in space: United States, 22. Russia, 11. Time outside capsule: United States, 2 hrs., 56 min. Russia, 10 min. Space walks: United States, 3. Russia, 1. Maneuverable spacecraft: United States, 6. Russia, 0. Rendezvous in space: United States, 7. Russia, 0. Space link-ups: United States, 2. Russia, 0. In addition, the NASA space team has successfully launched more than 1,000 flights in other space probes and our sounding rocket program, which has con- tributed greatly to weather reporting and communications, as well as our manned flights into space. Administrator James E. Webb, of NASA, and every man and woman who has played a part on the U.S. space team in these remarkable achievements, de- serve our highest commendation. They have contributed to writing a great and new and exciting chapter in space de- velopment. I congratulate all of America's space team that has made this Nation first in space. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 16114 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE July 25, 1966 PRESIDENT JOHNSON COMMEND- ED FOR DEPLORING CIVIL STRIFE (Mr, EVINS of Tennessee (at the re- quest of Mr. PATTEN) was grarfted per- mission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) Mr. EVINS of Tennessee. Mr. Speaker, President Johnson in a major speech last Saturday made some very basic and bed- rock statements concerning the epidemic of riots occurring in cities throughout the Nation. The President declared that "Our country cannot abide civil vio- lence." He emphasized that the riots re- act against those who begin them. The President pointed out that civil strife tears at the very fabric of our dem- ocratic society. He deplored the recent violence, looting, theft, and murder. He urged all of our citizens to have respect for law and order and orderly processes. I commend the President for his forth- right statements. I support his position wholeheartedly. This Nation cannot tolerate street vio- lence, theft, and plundering destruction of property-in short, anarchy. As a nation, we have developed demo- cratic procedures for correction of abuses and righting of wrongs. The courts are available for relief of injustice. The legislative process is available, Street riots and anarchy are not the way to correct civil wrongs. In city after city we have seen this pat- tern of riots rear its ugly head in Chi- cago, Cleveland, Brooklyn, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, and other cities. The pattern of this wave of riots has all the earmarks of being Communist-in- spired, Communist-directed insurrection. It is a technique and pattern all too fa- miliar as a Communist trademark. Recently I requested Attorney General Katzenbach to investigate this situation and to determine whether and to what extent, these repeated riots are Commu- nist-inspired and directed. I have been assured that the Attorney General is in- vestigating the matter. Mr. Speaker, where anarchy reigns, de- mocracy dies. This swelling wave of riots and rebellion must be stopped. Again, I commend the President for his action and leadership. We should heed his words and act upon them. interdenominational religious organiza- enjoy reading and absorbing the sugges- tion, a paperback book, entitled "26 tions made by Officer Jensen. Years on the Losing Side," written by a _ retired officer of the New York: City Po- lice Department, Deputy Inspector Con- rad Jenson, who spent 26 years of his life on the department, attaining the rank of deputy inspector. He is now associate director of Youth Development, Inc., an evangelical organization working with youth gangs in East Harlem. I do not know what caused me to start ding this book but I do know that (Mr. ASHLEY (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) [Mr. ASHLEY'S remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] rea after I had read a few pages, I could not CURBSIDE MAILBOXES AT ALL FU- put it down without reading the entire TURE COMMUNITY HOUSING DE- book, consisting of only 83 pages, requir- VELOPMENTS ing less than 2 hours. Those 2 hours was one of the most rewarding experiences I have had in some time, and for this rea- son, I am recommending to. my col- leagues who are seeking some solution to many of the problems which are facing this country, in this era of deteriorating morals, increasing disrespect; for our moral and legal laws, increasing in- stances of mob violence, marches, sit-ins, lie-ins, and so forth, and an apparent disregard of the laws of God, that they take the time to read this book. It may have the same effect on others that it had on me, to rekindle the feeling of respon- sibility, which we are prone to, forget. As Officer Jensen points out, "Lawful living does not necessarily imply right- eous living. Most people only keep the law because of their fear of the con- sequences," and "it is a comfort to know that the Lord deals righteously and many a person who having escaped punishment here, will one day be tried by a different kind of judge." I agree, and I believe many of you will agree with Officer Jensen when he says: I am convinced that law enforcement is engaged in a losing fight against crime and criminals. And he backs up this statement with statistics and statements from no less an authority than J. Edgar Hoover. And I am among those who believe as Mr. Jen- sen believes, "that the general unrest and tension in our land will continue to in- crease until enough of us are honest enough to face the facts and return to the discipline of the word of God." He said: Crime has increased five times faster than the population growth, and with the road- blocks which are constantly and continually (Mr. EDWARDS of California (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted per- mission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) Mr. EDWARDS of California. Mr. Speaker, in 1963 the Post Office Depart- ment issued an order requiring all fu- ture community housing developments to be equipped with curbside mailboxes. Since that time, the residents of my dis- trict, and indeed residents from all over the country, have vigorously pretested this order. I have received resolutions in opposition from the city councils of San Jose, Livermore, Milpitas, Fremont, Newark, Hayward, Union City, and Pleasanton. In fact, the city of Pleasan- ton is investigating the possibility of en- gaging the Federal Government in a law- suit to get the Post Office Department to rescind its mailbox order. California newspapers have carried daily stories on the battle between the residents of Cali- fornia and the Post Office Department. On their editorial pages they have sym- pathized with the protesting citizens. The objection is one of esthetics-it does not make sense to me or to my con- stituents to construct new community developments which from their inception plan for a recreational and pleasing at- mosphere and then require each home to put up a curbside mailbox which, regard- less of the design of the individual box, is an"eyesore for the total area. The Post Office Department has. labeled this order an economy measure, and I am in sympathy with the administration's efforts to economize. But in this case, I do not think the economic advantages outweigh marring the landscape of our new residential areas. I feel quite sure the path of the law en- ON THE LOSING SIDE FOR 26 YEARS being thrown into that in a few years we will either spend t ffi I am convinced that "the er (Mr. JONES of Missouri (at the re- quest of Mr. PATTEN) was granted per- mission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) Mr. JONES of Missouri. Mr. Speaker, I realize that there is no dearth of read- Ing material in the office of any Member of Congress. Most of us have the prob- lem of trying to allocate our time in such ,away that we can keep informed on what is going on, here in this House, in our dis- tricts, and throughout the Nation, as well as to know something about world prob- lems that affect us both directly and indirectly. During the-past few days, I believe all of us received through the mail, from the American Tract Society, a nonpolitical, , men o c only thing that can stop this tide of law- more money tearing down these boxes or else live with another blight on our land- lessness only is for the people of America a to return to the simple faith of those who first settled Scape Which, with a little forethought, here. Theirs was a faith based on an open could have been avoided. Bible. Today we boast of the Bible being I had hoped that public opposition the "best seller" yet how little we turn to would convince the Post Office Depart- its pages and live by its precepts. ment that this is indeed an unpopular I could mention the apparent disdain and unwanted measure and that the De- that the majority of the members of our partment would ultimately change its Supreme Court have for the Bible, but I position. But, unfortunately, this has have long since given up hope that the not been the case-the Post Office De- rights of the innocent, the law-abiding partment remains adamant. and,_ God-fearing citizen, will be pro- Therefore, Mr. Speaker, I am introduc- tected by this present Court. ing a bill to amend title 39 of the United Mr. Speaker, I could quote many other States Code to provide city delivery mail succinct passages from this little book, service on a door delivery service basis "26 Years on the Losing Side," but I know for postal patrons receiving curbside de- the Members would receive greater in- livery service who qualify for door de- spiration if they would take the time to livery service. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 Approved Fdr Release 2005/06/29 CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 16088 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE July 25, 1966 Peet the congressional members of a thority, the appointment of its chairman political party-again, regardless of the and members by the Speaker, and the party-to subject executive branch ofll- slim, one-vote margin by which the ml- cials of the same party to the kind of nority will control the committee. complete and searching scrutiny required _ In previous discussions of alternative for the proper exercise of congressional ways of providing for improved over- oversight authority. sight by Congress, proposals have tended While it is understandable in human to center on the idea of utilizing an exist- terms that majority party Members of ing committee, generally the Government Congress-whatever the party-should Operations Committee, or one of its sub- be reluctant to expose their opposite num- committees, to be controlled by the mi- bers in the executive branch to serious nority for this purpose. After consider- political embarrassment, the integrity able reflection, it seems to me that the g s oud I performance of oversight by the Congress simultaneously be exercising an en- The only encouraging note is the state- using those means which already exist, hanced degree of oversight. Or, to put. ment that most of the foreign ships en- There are other features of my pro- it another way, the need for checks and tering Haiphong Harbor with supplies posal, Mr. Speaker, which will also help balances increases in direct proportion and munitions for the Vietcong are So- assure restraint and responsibility on the to the practical difficulty of achieving it. viet and not those of our allies. part of the select committee, but without The only dependable way of accom- The new travel guidelines appear to be inhibiting its ability to do a good job. plishing both objectives-the checks as the latest in the State Department's at- These include the temporary and renew- well as the cooperation-under condi- tempts to give a little bit more and ask able nature of the select committee's au- tions, of single-party control of both for a little less in return. The only clear Approved For Release 2005/06/29 CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 and constitutional authority of Congress use of standing committees or subcom- cannot be allowed to be compromised by mittees would be inappropriate for sev- inaction, however understandable, when eral reasons including the following: abuse of authority, incompetence, in- Standing committees must, under our efficiency, or wrongdoing may be involved. system, be controlled by the majority; This is a problem, Mr. Speaker, of such minority control, however, would be es- great significance for the proper exercise sential to assure the kind of sustained of congressional authority that a sys- interest and determination effective con- -ematic alternative should be provided gressional investigations require, and whereby Congress can assure itself of there would be no impediment to mi- meaningful oversight of the executive nority control of a single select commit- even when the same party controls both tee. branches. Standing committees have perma- This need to strengthen the check-and- nence; the oversight group would need balance role of Congress has been recog- only temporary authority, for those pe- nized by students and Members of Con- riods in which Congress and the Presi- gress alike, even though there has been dency are politically united. disagreement with respect to the best Standing committees have legislative way of achieving the objective. I am responsibilities which cannot realistically hopeful that my proposal may provide a be delegated to the minority; an over- realistic basis for agreement whereby sight group would require only investi- effective oversight could be assured gative authority. without interfering with the prerogatives A standing committee, under majority of established committees or the respon- control, would be unlikely to guarantee sibilities of the majority party. a minority-controlled subcommittee the . Briefly, Mr. Speaker, the select com- necessary independence concerning staff, mittee I propose would function only funds, the issuing of reports, and so when the executive and legislative forth; an oversight committee would by branches of the Government were con- its nature possess the required independ- trolled by members of the same political ence. Party. Its 15 members would be ap- For all these reasons, Mr. Speaker, a pointed by the Speaker, 8, including the select committee such as I have proposed chairman, from among minority Mem-. would seem to be the most desirable ve- bers of the House, and 7 from the major- hide with which to accomplish our pur- ity. The minority party appointments pose, maximizing the potential for effec- would be made from a panel of at least tive oversight while minimizing the pos- 24 Members nominated by the minority sibilities of irresponsibility or interfer- leader. The committee's jurisdiction ence with established procedures. would be Government-wide but it would In the final analysis, we come back to be specifically precluded from investi- this central consideration-if there is gating any subject which was under any sense to or valid purpose to be served active investigation by a standing com- by Congress oversight or watchdog or mittee or subcommittee. investigative authority, then that pur- I emphasize this last point, Mr. pose is surely heightened when the exec- Speaker. The select committee could utive and legislative branches are both investigate only when a standing com- controlled by members of the same party. mittee or subcommittee-under majority For it is then that the human and politi- control-failed to conduct an active cal pressures are at their strongest to study. A major part of the select com- limit, in the interests of party harmony mittee's significance, therefore, could and political success, the checks and bal- well reside in its function as goad or ances applied by Congress. stimulant, with standing committees But the country needs the checks and always aware that the select committee balances just as it may require a reason- could investigate if they themselves able degree of legislative cooperation be- failed to exercise their prior jurisdiction. tween the two branches. In fact, to the The very existence of such a select com- extent that Congress provides more or mittee, under such conditions, could less ready approval of an adminiitra- serve to encourage a substantially better tion's legislative pro ram it h branches is by entrusting a minimum share of Congress' investigative responsi- bility, subject to prudent limitations, to the minority party. This is what my resolution would do, Mr. Speaker, and I urge our colleagues to reconsider this age-old problem of governmental control in the light of this new and I believe especially realistic proposal. (Mrs. DWYER (at the request of Mr. REiNECxE) was granted permission to ex- tend her remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) rMrs. DWY VIETNAM Mr. REINECKE) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter. ) Mr. ASHBROOK. Mr. Speaker, new guidelines prepared by the State De- partment reportedly will allow travel to Communist China, and Albania, Cuba, North Vietnam, and North Korea. This condescending gesture by the State De- partment which further relaxes the re- striction on travel to Communist coun- tries was announced little more than a week ago. The guidelines Propose that visitors to these countries be Important and that their visit benefit the United States. Without delving into the vague delineation which the State Department is evidently prepared to make between "important" and "ordinary" tourists, I wonder what effect the easing of travel restrictions will have. It would appear that the agency is attempting to, at the least, develop a closer relationship between the United States and these countries. This, pre- sumably, would lead to concessions by the Communists. What is really evident Is that the Communists will concede, but only when they are, in fact, gaining. Certainly, they will be happy to permit Americans to visit their countries, but only when they have something to gain, That is, when the Communists benefit. Keeping in mind that the State De- partment's guidelines were issued re- cently, an article in the New York Daily News written under the byline of Joseph Fried indicates how interested the Com- munists are in concessions. The article states: Communist countries have begun a fresh flow of aid to North Vietnam, including mili- tary hardware, with a sharp increase in the number of cargo-laden vessels putting into July 25, 1966 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE co::lnection with pork purchases, "I might Red River Valley area of Minnesota and venj well do again what I did before." North Dakota, were not given the oppor- :ft is obvious from such statements that tunity to realize their full potential in the this administration has no intention of raising of top-quality beets. letting supply and demand work for U.S. Aroostook County is the site of a sugar agriculture. _ processing plant, built in 1964, that was nesota farmers I emphasized price as the key both to farm income and to an ade- quate food supply. Fair prices are the most important ingredient in our efforts to assure farmers a satisfactory return for their production, and to assure con- sumers a plentiful supply of food. Price is the incentive for the production we need to meet our domestic food require- ments and to fulfill our foreign commit- ments as well. And yet, our Secretary of Agriculture told me and members of the Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee that parity prices are too high, and that the whole concept of parity prices is really mean- ingless today. I am sure that some of the nearly 3 million farm people who have been forced to migrate from the land during the last 5 ' years believe that parity prices have a very real meaning. The American farmer deserves far more consideration than he has been getting, but the administration's attitude seems to be hardening instead. The State Department just gave its "very warm blessing" to an arrangement which will bring at least $100 million worth of Rumanian canned pork and ham into this country over the next 10 years, and in. the last 2 weeks the Department of Agriculture has expanded sugar imports by a quarter of a million tons. As if the uncertainty of weather were not enough, the American farmer is also faced with the uncertainty of Govern- ment actions in agriculture. This pre- sents him with a formidable challenge, but the days ahead are going to present even greater challenges and will require a further concentration of cooperative effort among farmers all over this Nation. THE AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT SHOWS DISREGARD FOR U.S. SUGAR PRODUCERS (Mr. LANGEN (at the request of Mr. REINECKE) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. LANGEN. Mr. Speaker, recent developments in the sugar industry, in- volving changes in the Aroostook County, Maine, processing plant and fluctuations in the foreign import quotas prompt me to express concern over the administra- tion's lack of sound reasoning in sugar- related decisions. The Department of Agriculture is It's plain to see, however, their actions in showing its disregard for the interests of these and other areas are not geared to- America's domestic sugar producers and ward the best interests of the domestic o)nsumers by its inconsistent approach to producer and consumer. ll t o - the sugar import situation and its a raent of domestic acreage to questionable areas of production. Back in 1964, the area of Aroostook County, Maine, received a 33,000-acre sugarbeet allotment before it was even definitely established the area could sup- oft the growing of high quality sugar- istration-ARA-funds. 'ine pianti was originally intended for the processing of sugarbeets and was backed up by the 33,- 000-acre allotment granted to the area. It is now been found the Maine plant is being forced to add additional equip- ment, again government financed, for the refining of sugarcane. Figures show they have not even come close to plant- ing their allotted acreage of beets. The new equipment, costing over $2 million, is being financed by the Eco- nomic Development Administration, the 1965 successor to ARA. We questioned the original decision on the loan. and acreage allotment and our argument seemis to be bearing out. The desperate move to keep the factory run- ning by adding facilities for the refining of sugarcane is not the answer either. This addition of cane refining facilities will produce a "double-pronged effect." The increased facilities will either force further increases in the importation of sugarcane or will take away from the cane available for refining by existing, established plants in other areas. The latter effect would only result in the transfer of jobs and materials from one place to another and would reflect no overall gain. If imports should be increased, it would only be another confusing move in the Department of Agriculture's inconsist- ent approach to import quota decisions. Since the first of the year, the sugar im- port quota has been raised three times but, last month, the Department sought to lower imports by reducing the per- centage of sugar allowable in quota-free, sugar-butterfat mixtures. A late July increase of 125,000 tons in the import quota for sugar was preceded by 'one earlier in the month of 100,000 tons and another in April of 200,000 tons. However, in. June the Department of Agriculture, "to limit the importation of products or mixtures containing sugar and butterfat," placed import restric- tions on any sugar-butterfat mixtures containing over 25 percent sugar. Original approval by domestic sugar and butterfat producers on hearing of Department intentions to limit the im- port of this mixture turned to criticism when details of the order, labeled inade- quate by producers, were revealed by Department officials. Contradictory moves such as these by the Department of Agriculture and the administration make their position on THE NEED FOR A HOUSE SELECT INVESTIGATING COMMITTEE UN- DER MINORITY CONTROL (Mrs. DWYER (at the request of Mr. REINECKE) was granted permission to RECORD ter.) 16087 Mrs. DWYER. Mr. Speaker, on July 14, I introduced House Resolution 915, to create a select committee of 15 members, to be controlled by the minority, which would have general authority to conduct studies and investigations of the admin- istration and enforcement of Federal laws, subject to certain reasonable limi- tations. At this time, I should like to set forth for our colleagues some of the reasons that have impelled me to introduce such a resolution and to explain how and under what conditions the committee would function. The constitutional principles of the separation and balance of powers, Mr. Speaker, impose upon the Congress the obligation to exercise careful oversight of the administration and enforcement of the laws by the executive branch. This oversight function has increased notably in scope and importance within recent years as the size and complexity of our society have grown and as the activities of the Federal Government have kept pace. The Congressional Reorganization Act of 1946 issued a clear and compelling mandate that Congress "exercise con- tinuous watchfulness" over the adminis- tration of laws. Students of government are in general agreement that the over- sight function has become equal in im- portance to Congress lawmaking author- ity. And, certainly, from our own ex- perience in the House, we are daily aware of the great significance of providing adequate means to control, check, stimu- late, supplement, and ameliorate the Federal bureaucracy. Congress today has a number of means available which it can exercise its over- sight responsibilities vis-a-vis the exec- utive branch. Among them are: the Government Operations Committee with respect to the economy and efficiency of Government activities; the Appropria- tions Committee through its annual re- view of the administration's budget re- quests; the standing committees of the House with reference to the administra- tion of the laws within their respective legislative jurisdictions; the Senate's power to advise and consent to Presiden- tial appointments; and the power of im- peachment, among others. Under certain circumstances, I believe that these means are adequate to permit Congress to do an effective oversight job. This is especially true when Congress and the executive branch are controlled by members of different parties, a cir- cumstance which encourages closer su- pervision by congressional committees of executive branch activities. On the other hand, Mr. Speaker, al- though the authority of Congress to in- vestigate the operations of the executive branch is clear and undisputed, existing methods and procedures are, I believe, demonstrably inadequate when the same party controls both branches of the Gov- ernment. I need mention only the well- known case of the Bobby Baker investi- gation as evidence of such inadequacy, though other examples readily come to mind. The problem exists regardless of the beets. Proven beet areas4pprovegd I-or eleaserzr0 06/29th CIA-RDP67B00446R~400090005-4 istic to ex- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 x:,16106 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE July 25, 1966 unless there is an agency responsible for de- veloping programs and fighting for the at- tention of the Executive Branch and the Congress. This would be the role of a Bu- reau of Older Workers. It should be emphasized that the Bureau of Older Workers provided for in my bill would not duplicate, or conflict with, the ex- cellent Holland-O'Hara-Bennett proposal for a -National Commission on Older Workers; in fact, the two would complement each other. The National Commission would be tempo- rary, for the purpose of getting the attack on the older worker problem started. The Bu- reau of Older Workers would be permanent, for the purpose of carrying it, on. The Na- tional Commission would plan the strategy and coordinate the efforts of the many agen- cies in our national government concerned with older workers' problems. The Older Workers Bureau would do the actual research and administration work for the National Commission, as well as carry out it own con- tinuing missions of persuading employers, through facts and figures, that older workers are worth hiring. If the Congress in 1966 decides to build on the basis of the blueprint set forth in the legislation proposed last year, millions of de- spairing men and women would have new assurance that life-not old age-can begin at 40. 1907, which was the worst yea{on record, 11,839 employees, passengers and others were killed in railroad accidents. Over 111,000 people were injured. In 1964 only 2,423 were killed and 27,614 were injured. Even allow- ing for a considerable decline in passengers carried and a reduced exposure to accidents this looks like a good record. Let us remem- ber, that these are American lives we are talking about and not merely statistics. 2,500 is just as appalling to me as is 11,000. This reflcts all the more clearly the need WHEN WILL TIDE UNITED STATES SIGN THE GENOCIDE CONVEN- TION? (Mr. MULTER (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, in 1948 the General Assembly of the United Na- for taking further action such as this sub- tions adopted the Genocide Convention. committee is considering here today. Over Since that time 69 countries of the world the years the many other safety measures have signed the convention including which have been taken on railroads have had most recently the Netherlands. their effect. But, we have reached today no better than a plateau in accidents on rail- As pointed out in the following article roads. We need new safety measures. from the July 21, 1966, edition of the Indeed, there is evidence that in recent American Examiner, the United States is years we have been losing rather than gain- one of the few remaining great powers ing in our railroad safety record. If we take which has not signed the convention. the ten years from 1954 to 1963, to minimize I believe that we should do so immedi- number impact of the recent reductions in the number of firemen employed, we find that ately. There is no doubt as to our posi- the number of fatal accidents on railroads tion on genocide and we should affirm it dropped from 2,475 to 2,141. But during now. this period the number of train-miles fell The article follows: from 764 million to 590 million. Thus the NETHERLANDS 69TH STATE TO SIGN GENOCIDE number of people killed per million train- PACT; UNITED STATES STILL BALKS miles went up from 3.2 to 3.6. As far as (By Ruth Gershon) accidents are concerned, they went up even more, from 3.54 per million train-miles in UNITED NATIONS.-The Netherlands has 1954, to 5.10 in 1963. just become the 69th country to ratify the re- Thus, even before the recent reduction in nowned Genocide Convention which was D REVISE STANDARDS REGULATING HOURS OF SERVICE OF EMPLOY- EES ON RAILROADS (Mr. MULTER (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, it was my privilege on July 22, 1966, to present the following testimony to the Subcom- mittee on Transportation and Aeronau- tics of the House Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee in support of my bill,. H.R. 11263: STATEMENT OF HONORABLE ABRAHAM J. MULTER BEFORE SUBCOMMITTEE ON TRANSPORTATION AND AERONAUTICS OF THE HOUSE INTERSTATE AND FOREIGN COMMERCE COMMITTEE IN SUPPORT OF H.R. 11263 ON JULY 22, 1966 Mr. Chairman, I appreicate this opportil- nity to testify in support of my bill, H.R. 11263, which would bring up to date the antiquated standards regulating the hours of service of employees on railroads. H.R. 11263 amends a law enacted, and last sub- stantively amended, in 1907. The standards which the original law es- tablished in 1907 were probably not even adequate for that horse and buggy era. They were standards for employment on steam lo- comotives, pulling wooden coaches with much, smaller boxcars. Trains also ran much more slowly then. This was before the day of the diesel, even before we had electrified railroads. It was back when only 140,000 automobiles were registered in the United States. We had practically no paved roads. Today we have millions of miles of sur- f 90 million regis- rd o faced roads and upwa Any further'. delay tered motor vehicles and so the chances for needed safety measure. accidents occurring between the general mo- will place sus the responsibility for any toeing" public and the trains have also be- further increase in the already shocking come substantially greater, despite the number of deaths and injuries on our rail- decline in railroad traffic in recent years. roads. Until recent years we could look at The standards Congress set forth in 1907 are the safety record of the railroads and say It simply not adequate for 1986` was getting better, year by year. As I have Much has been made of the point that pointed out this is no longer true. It is travel on trains is much safer today than getting worse. It is time to act. H.R. 11263 previously, that the number of accidents and will help reduce the hazards to everyone, injuries is substantially less. This only be- including the operating personnel on rail-one com m exhaust co s- roads, ticrhoofs t1907iwith today s. the e aample,tiin ficient rest after 6e hours ofswork with insui- the number of operating employees, the like- lihood of an accident was increasing with each mile a train moved. It is still increas- ing, even more rapidly as the years pass. In fact the figure I cited earlier for 1964- 2,423 dead-was a shbcking increase from 2,145 in 1963, to the highest figure since 1956. We are losing, not gaining, ground In rail- road safety. No man, especially one over 50 years of age as most engineers are, should work 16 hours operating a train without any rest. Personal- ly, I believe the figure In the bill of 12 hours is too long. I certainly favor the provision of the bill that no engineer may be alone in a cab without relief for longer than 9 hours. The requirement of the bill that an oper- ating employee must have at least eight con- secutive hours off duty before returning to work seems to me a minimum amount of rest if we are to protect the safety of the pub- lic and the railroad employees themselves. I do not see how we in the Congress can overlook our responsibility to bring this ap- parently obsolete law up to date. I am well aware that the motives of many who support this bill extend beyond an interest In safety. It is my personal feeling that, in this re- spect, the firemen have merit in their con- tentions that their job rights have been taken away without just compensation. But this is not the prime reason for my support of this bill. In bringing to the attention of our colleagues the failure of Congress to bring up to date this Important piece of legisla- tion, the firemen, whatever their motives, have put us all in their debt. The law must be altered. I cannot too strongly urge this subcom- mittee to act without delay to favorably re- ecem- adopted by the General Assembly on ber 9, 1948-the year Israel gained her inde- pendence. The United States remains the single big power which has not yet acceded to the Convention which had come into force on January 12, 1951. The Convention seeks to prevent and punish genocide, whether com- mitted in time of -war or in time of peace. It also requests States adhering to the Con- vention to take legislative steps to give effect to it and to grant extradition in cases of genocide. The Convention was originally inspired by the late Dr. Raphael Lemkin, a Jew of Polish origin. The 69 states which have thus far ratified the Convention include: Afghanistan, Al- bania, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burma, Byelorus- sia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Den- mark, Ecuador, Cambodia, Canada, Ceylon, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, El Salvador, Ethiopia, West Germany, Finland, France, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Ice- land, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Replblic of Korea, Republic of Vietnam, Ro- mania, Saudi Arabia, Syyy'''ed )~n, yria, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, S R, Upper Volta, Venezuela and Yu sl Ia. WAR BY NORTH VIETNAM PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. FASCELL. Mr. Speaker, the re- cent statements by the Government of North Vietnam concerning our captured American prisoners of war are cause for grave concern to this Congress and this Nation. It Is for this reason that I am introducing a resolution condemning any mistreatment, trial, punishment or ex- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R00040G090005-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 July 25, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE 16105- A direct attack is the bill of Rep. ROMAN The permanent organization would be pro- arrangements for this further education now PucnvsK! (D.-Ill.) to make it an unfair labor vided by my bill (HR 2062) to set up a Bu- exist, The report even proposes "education practice to discharge, or to refuse to hire, or reau of Older Workers in the Department of sabbaticals," financed from contributory in- otherwise to discriminate because of age, Labor. The Older Workers Bureau would surance programs, to enable the alder worker "when the reasonable demands of the posi- have for its prime mission a long-term cam- to make up for his failure to complete grade tion do not require such age discrimination." paign to persuade employers all over the school or high school. The Pucinski bill would also make it unlaw- country voluntarily to lower barriers against This proposal is intriguing. How well it ful to hire through any employment agency, the older workers-as the Department of would work would depend on how effectively placement service or labor organization Agriculture did in selling new methods to it were implemented and sold to the older which discriminates because of age. farmers through local agents. Persuasion is worker. Poorly educated people do not have Age is most discriminated against in firms far more effective than force or propaganda. an abundant faith in education and, since where sheer size, complicated pension and But if employers are to be persuaded, the they spend little time reading or listening to Insurance programs, bargaining relationships arguments must rest on solid facts support- the news, are scarcely aware of the existence with many unions in different regions and ing the contention that older workers--at of these training programs, let alone appre- trades, as well as unwillingness to rely on the least some older workers-are worth hiring. ciate their value. Without a powerful and judgment of personnel departments, lead to The second mission of the Bureau of Older imaginative selling program-under the lead- highly formalized procedures. One result: Workers would carry out the research ership I visualize for the Bureau of Older rules against hiring people over a certain and demonstration projects to establish these Workers-the education and training of older age. facts. workers will continue to be a limited-success Laws forbidding this kind of discrimina- ' The most serious detterrent is the too story. tion could scarcely eliminate it completely; general belief that older workers are less Still another mission of the Bureau of for firms determined to discriminate against efficient. A corporation executive-himself Older Workers would be to conduct, or at older workers can find ways to do so, regard- in his sixties-states that "keeping older least see that some other agency such as the less of law. For one thing, age discrimina- people with diminished capacity in the labor U.S. Employment Service conducts, a nation- tion is enmeshed in certain hiring and retire- force appreciably reduces efficiency." Other wide program of showing workers how to ment policies which provide powerful insti- employers believe that older persons have look for a job. tutional reinforcement of this discrimina- more accidents, do not get along well with Knowing how to do a job is one thing; tion. Many firms hire only at the bottom others, are not receptive to new ideas. knowing how to look for a job is another. and promote solely from within. As the di- Without question, some older workers are Many excellent craftsmen come in unshaved, rector of personnel of a famous insurance less effective than the average younger clothes soiled. They slouch, mumble, mess company once pointed out, "We pay nothing worker. But so are some younger workers! up simple forms. Asked what they can do, for experience." Such practices, although The central question is, does age affect effl- the say, "anything"-employer's translation: designed to retain and reward long-service ciency so adversely as to justify rigid rules "nothing!" Asked where they have looked, employees, nevertheless close the door against against hiring older workers, regardless of they say, "everywhere"-translation: "a few older workers who have lost their jobs. If their individual capacities? What are the well-known companies!" Asked how often, hiring only at the bottom is widespread, the facts? they say, "all the time"-translation: "a only openings will be at the "office boy" level. Certain capacities do diminish with age, couple of times a week 1" Discrimination is also reinforced by the beginning almost at adulthood. Studies at Early last year, I initated a do-it-yourself "nailed-to-the-floor" pension. The employee Stanford University revealed that manual job-finding program in the Baltimore area. who leaves-because of slow business, a de- mobility and reaction speeds reach an opti- Six clinics-financed by the Labor Depart- partment closing or a new process-and mum in a person's twenties or thirties and ment as a pilot project-meet in fire houses, thereby loses his pension, must find some speed of learning peaks shortly after the Knights of Columbus halls, Y.M.C.A.'s, Amer- way of providing for his retirement. A po- teens. As a man grows older, investigations ican Legion buildings. Classes meet in late tential employer is torn between the horns of _the Cambridge University Psychological afternoon or evening, giving the worker time of a dilemma. On the one hand, if he hires Laboratories have concluded, he has in- to look during the day, and in the evening the man at, say, age 60 and must buildup a creasing difficulty in comprehending verbal talk over his experiences and discover any full pension for him in the 15 years to re- or visual data, particularly when new or mistakes he may have made. The worker is tirement, the annual pension cost will, of unfamiliar, and as a result has to rely more coached by experts drawn from the U.S. Em- course, be greater than that for a younger and more on his past experience. ployrnent Service, vocational and guidance man. On the other hand, if he provides the Nevertheless, the deterioration is usually counselors from public schools, the MDTA older recruit with a smaller pension or no slow. Some persons maintain mental abil- Center and personnel staffs of local firms. Inhume. The ension at all, he can criticized is for therefore sties without loss until late maturity; others Rehearsals show him how to get leads on p not to hthe older humane thing i worker at alll There is suffer from disuse or lack of training. "Al- job openings; size up requirements and de- nbtito hire a need for a ortab though speed may decrease among older tide which jobs he has a chance for; fill out y p pension sys- people," the Cambridge study concludes, application forms; dress, sit and speak when tem, as well as modification of such hiring "the deficiency is often more than offset by interviewed; take tests. and promotion policies. These are, of course, gains in quality , and accuracy." complicated matters and call for considerable Scattered studies suggest that the average been a bonus kind d of -it- of the do group thetherap clinics has study. The Holland-O'Hara-Bennett bill with group the same Talking H.R. 10634 would older worker may even excell in output, fit- things over with others in the same fix pro- (H.R. provide for an investiga- tendance, turnover, safety and attitude, in vides the bitter and frustrated with an out- tion into such hiring and pension policies, some cases, output is slightly lower, in other let for hostilities, and the, defeated a balm and for proposals to Congress for remedial cases steadier-especially compared with the for bruised confidence. legislation. worker in his early twenties or late teens. The program has not been a precision op-But dares well not rid tf o formal a rules and proce- c Convincing employers is another matter, eration; perhaps no job program can be. job. The however, and requires thorough research- Some older workers turn out to be unem- attack on the problem must proceed by con- comparing older and younger workers ployable. Others become disillusioned and vincing employers that older workers are as in productivity, absenteeism, accidents, drop out. At the end of three months, effective as younger ones and no i,sore costly; turnover, pension costs and other important however, about one in three of the partici- by making sure that older workers have the dimensions. pants who reported information on subse- training both to qualify for the new jobs that Another mission of the proposed Older quent progress had found a job and nine are opening up, and almost as important, to Workers Bureau would be to see that older per cent were in training. know how to sell themselves to employers; workers get the job training they need for These do-it-yourself clinics have attracted and by creating adequate organizations in the jobs that are vacant. attention outside Baltimore; a report was re- our national government to carry out this Breaking down barriers against older cently requested by the International Labor attack. workers will not get them the jobs if they Organization. A Bureau of Older Workers Two broad types of organizations, one tem- are not able to do the work. As a result of could extend the $altimore-type do-it- porary, one permanent, would be created by the Manpower Development and Training Act yourself clinics throughout the nation. bills introduced in 1965. The temporary or- of 1962, training has been approved for These missions-convincing employers of ganization would be created by the Holland- 400,000 persons in 700 occupations. These the desirability of hiring older workers, carry. O'Hara-Bennett bill, already mentioned. training programs are being directed by the ing out research and demonstration pro- This bill would set up a National Commission Manpower Administration of the Labor De- grams, strengthening training and education on Older Workers designed to be a kind of partment slid the Division of Vocational and programs, and extending the do-it-yourself temporary general staff, to get the war on dis- Technical Education in the United States Of- job-finding experiment-would not exhaust crimination off to a start. The National floe of Education. the functions of the Bureau of Older Workers. Commission would attack the problem on a But these programs are not getting to the Others can be visualized, including a pro- nationwide ale-plan the board strategy, older workers. In 1964, only about one In posal in the Wirtz report for a Neighborhood initiate research and coordinate the marry nine trainees was over 45; in the case of Ne- Older Workers Corp. to hire older people to agencies concerned with the problem. The grows, 1 in 17. Among men 45 to 54, one- imprdve and beautify communities. authors of the bill intend that the National third of whites and two-thirds of nonwhites But no program can hope for success unless Commission on Older Workers would go out have not gone beyond eighth grade. Yet the effectively developed and sold. In our highly of business at the end of two years. Wirtz report acknowledged that only limited organized federal government, little gets done Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -HOUSE 16107 JulyV5, 1966 remarks will appear ecution of U.S. military personnel held major city served eas airreported lines in- hereafter the L'S Appendix.] Yorky talone he five captive by North Vietnam. volved. New The terms of the Geneva Convention of a three-quarters of a million dollars a 1949 were established to provide and as- day cost in lost tourist revenues. Chi- THE SCHOOLBOY AND THE VICE sure humane treatment of war prisoners cago, Washington, Kansas City, and doz- PRESIDENT and any violation of these terms would ens of other cities report similar losses. be a reprehensible offense against the I do not doubt that there will be many (Mr. BARRETT (at the request of peoples of the world, and would certain- in both Houses of the Congress who will Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ly diminish the opportunity for the join in support of immediate action on extend his remarks at this s point iextraneousn achievement of a just and secure peace this measure. RECORD and to inclu in-southeast Asia. This resolution is patterned on the law matter.) Mr. Speaker, I know that my colleagues enacted in 1963 to settle the railroad dis- Mr. BARRETT. Mr. Speaker, this will join me in realizing the gravity of pute. Like that law, Public Law 88-108, past May, the Honorable HUBERT H. this situation and will take prompt and this measur@ would not create any per- HUMPHREY, the Vice President of the favorable action on this resolution. manent apparatus to settle labor dis- United States, while on a visit to the putes. Neither would it in any way in- great city of Philadephia announced the terfere with the future rights of airline first of the magnet schools, Bartram A RESOLUTION TO SETTLE THE labor and management to engage in free High School, which is located in my dis- AIRLINE STRIKE collective bargaining. It is addressed to trict. This will become one of the finest schoo the (Mr. FASCELL (at the request of Mr. the present dispute and to that dispute comme ci l The education t" schlools is a new tend PATTEN) was granted point the Only. tend his remarks s at at this this point in n the The Arbitration Board would be di- and imaginative concept and, as the term RECORD and to include extraneous mat- rected to end the present strike, settle implies, is designed to draw an inte- ter) the dispute by a binding award, and grated student body from all parts of the Mr. FASCELL. Mr. Speaker, I am to- would then go out of existence. It would city. The Bartram High School will day introducing a resolution to deal with be set up, like the Arbitration Board have a dual role of both preparing stu- the national emergency. The resolution established in 1963, as just another dents for college courses in such fields as would bring the present strike on the air- emergency board, operating under the accounting, bookkeeping and all other lines to an end. It would further provide usual procedures of sections 7 and 8 of facets of higher commercial and finan- for a special arbitration board to settle the Railway Labor Act. The difference cial education, while at the same time the dispute. I think we all recognize would be that it would lave power to preparing other students for the busi- that these two objects can only be at- make a binding award to settle the dis- ness world directly after high school tained by our intervention. pute. This award would remain in effect graduation. for 2 years. This new program represents one of Continuation of the present rounds of I am not unmindful of the feeling on the most meaningful and most exciting r,abor Jame is, as ynol s s Saptly in di- the part of some Members of the Con- adventures in education today. The In- tear James Re ynolds so aptly indi cated, an exercise in futility. Action by gress that action of a permanent nature creased cost of providing for such out- he Congress is clearly needed to pre- is needed to prevent situations like the standing educational programs and fa- ent drastic injury to public convenience present strike arising. I am also aware cilities is being met by a productive part- nd the welfare of the entire Nation. that many other Members stand ready to nership of government and private Mr; Speaker, the airline strike, now oppose any interference in the collective groups at all levels. This pilot effort will has reached alarming bargaining process. serve to benefit the education of our zits 18th day, We face a specific and urgent problem. young people throughout the country. tefullifro and we have not yet f v - e There is no time for long-range decisions. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent he full frun of its kern at. their Thirty- Our problem is to end the airline strike. to print at this point in the RECORD the ~lousan its are union wwhileo he fame ftve This resolution would do it. It would do article written by the Vice President of ts are d tl it without in any way committing the the United States, which appeared in t approximately s costs mile Congress either to favor or not to favor yesterday's Sunday Bulletin magazine, [onnes amount to lst revenues. - ion each day in lost heairline em- this or any other labor-management on the challenge which faces Phila- has trike iloyees to be caused lough d while em- legislation in the future. delphia's exciting new magnet school undr s thousands nof while literally In 1963 we faced a similar problem, program so that all those concerned with whose obs epworkers been then a threatened strike on our railroads. the education of our young people can obs depend d on on airline service have ave b been We acted to settle this problem. We did have the benefit of this great American's effected. settle it. I see no reason now why we views on this fine program. rly rd Florida trik been addition to should not adopt the same method to THE SCHOOLBOY AND THE VICE PRESIDENT We in ; e hit of this ste. In add; o k rs settle the present dispute. When I was in Philadelphia last May I ,he tare re of thousands strike edfurloughed, firlineworkers another A question has been raised that in 1963 visited several schools and met a lot of who a a strike threatened, but had not taken children. Your papers reported how, as I 80,000 aviation-oriented employees who place, whereas, today we have a strike in was leaving John Bartram High, I took the do not work for the struck carriers are being, which must be ended. This meas- opportunity to kiss the cheeks of some kind- affected. Their payroll alone amounts to ore would restore the conditions existing eTNot that there's anything soda usual about there. $10 a ted that million the each total week. It due been the prior to the strike. It would continue a politician kissing kids. But what moved strrike, in Florida , xce .5 mile them while the arbitration board is meet- me to this display of good will and affection? strike, alone, exceeds $2.5 - ing and until it makes its award. This I think you'll understand if I tell you lion each day. proviso would end the strike, or provide about a little boy I remember very clearly. The five principal air carriers serving the legal basis for an injunction to end it. He was wearing a bright red sweatshirt. I Miami and Dade County, an area which After that, the award is binding upon asked him what his name was. His eyes grew I have the honor to represent here, are very round. He was silent. all on strike. Dade County is losing be- both parties for 2 years, during which Just as I was thinking, "Poor kid, he's so time a strike over this issue will not be scared he's forgoten his name," he came out tween $18 and $20 million each week be- possible. with it. cause of the strike. I am certain that Mr. Speaker, I urge that the greatest "Larry," he whispered, barely audibly. every other tourist area in America is possible speed be made in acting on this Then, gaining some courage, he went on to suffering a loss comparable to that of resolution in this emergency. say, "I want to be an ast'naut!" Miami Beach, where hotel occupancy is Why not? only 50 percent of capacity. Well, the problem is, or perhaps I can say Mr. Speaker, an endless list of statis- (Mr. FASCELL (at the request of Mr. the problem used to be, that Larry happens tics could be cited to show the immense PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- to go to school right in the center of the damage which this strike is causing tend his remarks at this point in the city. er- across the Nation. Suffice it to say that RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ice For yearlacd s the central city schools of sand this pattern is being repeated in every ter.) No. 119-8 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 16108 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE July 25, 966 teachers-and even clean and safe facilities. All these programs will be to no avail if During his press conference of July 19 But to be an astronaut, Larry is going to need young people are allowed to drop out of the President urged the Congress to re- a t In the past, central opflight education. school. duce nondefense expenditures to avoid schools high hopes ofithei students dThe - As ar r of the to elimi Youth ate the od Opportunity the alternative of either inflationary de- erred the de- ened buted too unit ho tents. and Campaign, designed y problem and provide for youth employment flcit financing or a tax bill. I am sure despair. They halve all too often produced i am greatly concerned over certain statistics: that the Congress will respond to this delinquents and dropouts rather than high request and cut expenditures, school, college and job-bound youth. A college graduate earns nearly two-thirds q and I hope With little or no education past grade more than a high school graduate over the that such a reduction will be of sufficient school "graduates" of these schools have span of a lifetime, magnitude that a tax increase will not be swelled the ranks of the unemployed and A high school graduate earns three- necessary. However, the future is dif- joined the vicious cycle of poverty that con- quarters more than the worker who has only ficult to predict and, after adjournment, d8mns so many persons to lives of idleness, an elementary education. It may develop that such reductions in uselessness and despair. The blunt fact is this: the unemployment expenditures were not sufficient to halt In the usual course of things, a boy like rate for dropouts is four times that of workers inflationary pressures and that a tax in- Larry would have little chance indeed of be- with high school diplomas. crease is necessary. The bill which I coming an astronaut. Young people should know that their own have introduced is desi But with proper education, the vicious health, housing and o fined to protect cycle can and will be broken. This is Why opportunities of their children in the years In the past, proposals to give the Presi- Philadelphia's new and imaginative magnet to come-are directly related to the education school program seems to me to be one of the they now acquire. rates dent or m powm rely the increase and d to dcr tax foremost steps taken in,urban education in An individual's capacity to chart his own er t0 decrease recent years. destiny is directly related to the level of edu- tax rates have not been been looked upon upon I had the privilege of announcing the first cation which he has favorably by the Congress because they of the magnet schools, Bartram High School, acquired. One trained which will become one of the finest commer- to use only the muscles of his arms and would grant to the executive branch, hl h will become one in the finest o back can only dream of the frontiers in phys- which has gained power over the year, Heed ca wnl cave the lt word country. tom- ics, space exploration, medicine and human the opportunity to gain additional power we in relations mercial education. training, which are open to those with proper granting a politically popular tax A new dimension in staffing by using pro- decrease. fesional people from business and industry The goal of the educator-arid of every The bill which I have introduced does as part-time instructors to keep the students citizen-must be to provide and participate just the opposite. It imposes on the ex- abreast of the latest advances in the buss- in an educational program which will widen ecutive, the onus for imposing a politi- ness world. the freedom of choice of each individual to The new equipment-business and book- that breadth which is limited only by his cally unpopular tax increase. Under the keeping machines, calculators, comptometers, own ability and initiative. bill, at any time during the period after duplicators-which increasingly play such a Our job, so to speak, is to make it possible the sine the adjournment of the second critical role in industry today. for Larry to be an "ast'naut" if he's got the session of the 89th Congress and before Imaginative new materials and methods of makings of one. the convening of the 90th Congress in instruction to be used by specially trained January 1967, the President would be teachers. authorized to act to increase corporate Additional teachers, non-teaching assist- (Mr. GONZALEZ (at the request of and individual income tax rates and ants, counselors. Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to withholding rates. And perhaps the best part of the magnet extend his remarks at this point in the Such an increase would be effective school will be Its "magnet," its power of edu- RECORD and to include extraneous only for 6 months except that the bill cational excellence to draw an Integrated matter N 1, reniarxs will appear ...w-ii oawusions of Lne new, rates Another new and most welcome concept of hereafter in the Appendix.] However, such extensions would not take Bartram's commercial magnet school will be effect if Congress approved a concurrent its, dual role of both preparing students for resolution ex ressin o college courses in such fields as accounting, p g pposition to the bookkeeping and all other facets of higher (Mr. GONZALEZ (at the request of extension. commercial and financial education, while at Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to These provisions insure the temporary the same time preparing other students for extend his remarks at this point in the nature of this standby authority. They the business world directly after high school RECORD and to include extraneous would safeguard the authority and re- graduation. matter.) sponsibility of the legislative branch in The increased cost of providing for such the field of tax policy. However, the bill GONZALEZ' outstanding educational programs and fa- [ ' remarks will appear r In the Ap levels. weapon to deal with an overheated Happily, this has been done in Philadel- STANDBY TAX INCREASE economy. phia In a manner which should serve as a. AUTHORITY You and I hope that inflation can be prototype for the nation. halted and that the President will not The federal government has provided great (Mr. MOORHEAD (at the request of have to use the authority which would and necessary help through the Elementary Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to be authorized by the bill which I have in- and Secondary Education Act. extend his remarks at this point in the troduced, but we recognize that the The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania last RECORD and to include extraneous anti-inflationary tight money policy has year authorized the payment of an additional matter.) $19 million in state educational subsidies to been used such an extent that it is the Philadelphia Public Schools, beginning in Mr. MOORHEAD. Mr. Speaker, I seriously threatening the home building g late 1967. have today introduced a bill which industry and that there is not much The City of Philadelphia has played an would authorize the President, during the room for further tightening if inflation- integral role. Last year the City Council period in which the Congress is ad- ary pressures should increase after the authorized a real estate tax increase to raise journed sine die, to increase on a tem- Congress has adjourned. $13 million to support the public schools. porary basis individual and corporate For this reason, standby tax increase The schools will receive additional support taxes up to 5 percentage points, authority should be granted. from the recently approved $60 million school bond issue. On July 18, according to a gashing- For this reason, I ask your support for And private foundations-Carnegie, Ford ton Post article, the President told his this legislation. and Field-have made large grants to the Advisory Committee on Labor-]Vfanage- The bill follows: school district. ment Policy that: H.R. 16486 This new program represents one of the The upward pressure on prices and costs A hill to authorize the President during the most meaningful and most exciting adven- is continuing and threatens to overheat the period which the Eighty-ninth Congress is tures in education today. economy in the last half of the year. adjourned sine die, to increase certain in- But the fight against complacency and come tax and withholding rates tempo- mediocrity in education is a never-ending In view of this threatening situation rarily one. Momentum must not be lost. InitIa- the Congress should not adjourn with- Be it enacted by the Senate and House of tive and endurance must be maintained and Out providing a weapon to deal with an Representatives of the United States of supported by all. overheated eco 0 Approved For Release 2005/06/2 :TIA-RDP67B00446Rb'6'346ft 3'dtf,,5- sembled, / Hpprovea i-or Kelease ZUU01Ub1Zy : L IA-KUIrbftsUU44bK0004UUU IUUUD-4 Juy 25, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE result is cited in the last sentence of Mr. Fried's article: An unofficial toll of Americans killed in 5 years of war rose to 4,304. Mr. Speaker, I now ask that the arti- cle be printed in the RECORD. [From the New York Daily News, July 22, 1966] RED BLOC DOUBLES AID TO NORTH VIET (By Joseph Fried) SAIGON, July 21.-Communist countries have begun a fresh flow of aid to North Viet Nam, including military hardware, with a sharp increase in the number. of cargo-laden vessels putting into the port of Haiphong. Intelligence sources said the traffic was about double the usual number of foreign ships calling at Haiphong, and most of the vessels are Soviet. PLEDGED MORE AID The Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact members promised to step up their military and economic assistance to North Viet Nam after the United States began bombing oil storage areas on the fringes of Hanoi and Haiphong last month, Over North Viet Nam, Americaan fliers yesterday encountered MIG jets, surface-to- air and air-to-air missiles. Six MIGs were spotted and one fired two air-to-air missiles which missed, Air Force and Navy planes encountered nine surface-to-air missiles, TEN PLIERS MISSING Three more American planes were brought down yesterday, bringing the number lost over North Viet Nam in a 48-hour period to five, Ten American fliers are missing. In South Viet Nam, the Communist death toll in Operation Hastings rose to 425. Con- tact was light in the jungle-covered moun- tains of Quang Tri province where the U.S. Marines have been conductirig their biggest sweep of the war; close to the North Viet Nam border, A series of clashes yesterday, one of which cost the enemy 30 dead, helped to increase the enemy casualties. Overall Marine losses were described as light. The US. command disclosed a decline last week in total American casualties, A spokesman announced 65 Americans were killed, 368 wounded and none missing in combat July 10-16, compared with 110 killed, 620 wounded and seven missi g in the pre- vious week. In all th fed combat dead totaled 279; Co un ad ere listed at 1,200. An unoflici 1 1 ericans killed in five years of war toA to 4, 04. FORM HANOI OF THE PERI THREATENED IN TRIAL OF U. SERVICEMEN (Mr. HORTON (at the request of Mr. REINECKE) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the. RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. HORTON. Mr. Speaker, recently there has, been much concern in our Nation over the question of whether North Vietnam will try as war criminals our military personnel held captive in Vietnam. It is therefore imperative that we in,Congress act to inform the North Vietnamese regime that they will be embarking on a perilous adventure should they follow such a course. I think it is clear by now that the United States is anxious to find a solu- tion to the Vietnamese situation, our sole aim in Vietnam is to insure that a climate exists in which free institutions can grow and prosper. As soon as the infiltration from the north ceases and the Vietcong abandon their bellicose pos- ture, the United States will gladly end its military operations in that corner of the world. However, should the North Vietnamese proceed with the trial, punishment or execution of any of our servicemen, the chances for achieving a just and secure peace will be greatly diminished. The American people will not stand for such a flagrant breach of the Geneva Con- ventions and of the accepted standards of international behavior. Mr. Speaker, I repeat, any trials of captured U.S. mili- tary personnel would seriously endanger this country's ability to work for peace in Vietnam. Because of this fact, I have today in- troduced a resolution calling upon the President to inform the Hanoi govern- ment that it is the sense of Congress that any such proceedings will imperil chances for a just and stable peace in southeast Asia. Passage of this resolu- tion will put Congress on record as recog- nizing the peril in Hanoi's threatened course of action and will serve to dem- onstrate that we are attempting to divert North Vietnam from this adventure in folly. A SLAP AT THE HOMEMAKER (Mr. NELSEN (at the request of Mr. REINECKE) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat ter.) Mr. NELSEN. Mr. Speaker, as a mem- ber of the House Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee presently studying the so-called truth-in-packaging pro- posal, I was especially interested in the editorial observations of the Mankato Free Press, Mankato, Minn., concerning parts of the bill. I place the editorial at this point in my remarks for the benefit of my colleagues. A SLAP AT THE HOMEMAKER It takes a brave man to resist voting for a bill whose tag is "Truth in Packaging." The label may have helped push the bill, co- sponsored by Senator MONDALE, through the Senate by an overwhelming 79 to 9 vote. We believe, however, that the bill, which is in two parts, is half bad and we hope that a more careful House will take a close look at the Senate measure before it votes. The good half of the bill demands that manufacturers clearly label their packages in even pounds, pints or quarts, etc., and do away with such "gimmicks" as a "Giant Pint" or "Big Pound," which may confuse a consumer. Most manufacturers have been putting net weight on packages for years. To require all to follow the same standard will give the careful buyer a chance to com- pare values. We doubt if It will change many buying habits. Too many surveys have shown too many reason why people buy cer- tain products, and price very often is not the compelling reason. However, the label- ling provisions may be of help to some. It is the second half of the bill to which we object. This section gives the Secretary of Commerce the right to dictate the weights or quantities in which a product could be marketed if he decided there were so many different sized packages that comparative shopping was impossible. True there are situations where compari- son of contents to price is difficult. The cos- 16089 metic counter-for men as well as women- is one place. Potato chips have been used to illustrate another. There are, Senator PHIL HART of Michigan, another cosponsor, tells us 50 variations in packaging chips. But so long as the buyer can find out what weight she is getting for what price, what difference does it make as to how the package looks? If some buyers didn't want to buy in cans, others in sacks and still others in boxes, there would not be 50 different packages of potato chips. The government has a duty to protect the health, safety and welfare of the consumer. We question whether it has the duty to limit her choice of packaging. A counter full of drab square containers is going to take a lot of fun out of the housewife's buying trip. It is going to kill packaging in- centive-and a lot of packaging has been developed for convenience as well as sales stimulation. It puts the long, unimaginative arm of the do-good government in another new field. Passage of this portion of the bill by the House would be, in effect a slap in the face of the American homemaker who does most of the buying. It says to her that confront- ed with modern packaging she is gullible, confused and apt to throw her money away. We don't,think it takes the Great White Father to tell her what to buy and we hope House members do away with this second section of the bill. If they don't will soon have another gran d bureaucra im- mersed in grave decisions a orrect angle of bend in the -Aacaltni e size EDITOR SUGGESTS A FIRMER LINE (Mr. NELSEN (at the request of Mn REINECKE) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. NELSEN. Mr. Speaker, Al McIn- tosh, editor of the Rock County Star- Herald in Luverne, Minn., suggests a firmer line in dealing with allies who will not support the American position in Vietnam. I place his editorial on the subject in the RECORD at this point: HERE COMES MR. WILSON RATTLING His TIN Cup AGAIN There is a polite little fiction that always jars as when President Johnson or Vice Presi- dent HUMPHREY refer to the Viet Nam war and they use the term "the Allies." When you look at the casualty lists the South Viet Namese are doing precious little fighting. Outside of some gallant. Austra- lians we "just ain't got no allies." We are financing and fighting that war- alone---and that is the way it is going to be. We will say this for President Johnson . , . he has reversed the "gutless" policies of some State Department officials of the past who not only turned both cheeks to be slapped- but also said "thank you." When some of these nations now threaten us with blackmail if we don't "kick thru" the president has been known to say "go ahead." Which is about time. It is about time too he uses some plain, raw four letter Texas words on Prime Minis- ter Wilson during his conference here at the White House. We have plucked Britain's chestnuts out of the fire time and time again. Again just lately when we joined In Britain's blockade of the tiny nation she was trying to crush. You may not admire that country's racial policies but you have to respect her gallantry in defying the Motner County and the world. So-what did we get in return? Nothing! Britain still keeps on selling and shipping to the Communists regime in Viet Nam., Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 16090 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD --HOUSE July 25, 1966 Things are easier now for Britain now that Sukarno is "out," except in name only, in Indonesia. Now that Britain no longer has to protect Malaysia we asked her to help us in Viet Nam. Would she? Not one tiny bit. Heck no. Not one soldier would she send. In fact---she won't even sell arms to the U.S. to be used in Viet Nam. Prime Minister Wilson even "disassociated" himself from our bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong. Prime Minister Wilson's White House con- ference is on military and financial matters. He's rattling the tin cup again. When we talk about "allies" let's not kid ourselves. It is American blood that is drenching the ground . . . and other than that of some gallant Australians and some South Viet Namese blood ... that's it. And it's about time that we talked brutally frank to Mr. Wilson and tell him that this allies bit is not a one way street. r POOR PERFORMANCE REWARDED (Mr. GROSS (at the request of Mr. REINEcaE) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. GROSS. Mr. Speaker, it is almost impossible to believe that the No. 2 of- ficial in the Department of Defense, Dep- uty Secretary Cyrus Vance, would help clear the way for the appointment of J. Robert Loftis to a $25,000 a year job with the Communications Satellite Corp. Loftis was one of three high Defense Department officials who were indicted on charges of embezzlement and false statements. Two were convicted and sentenced to prison terms. Loftis, ac- quitted in a jury trial, resigned his $20,000 a year job in the Defense Depart- ment in the heat of the controversy. Vance is reported to have said that he would not rehire Loftis at the Pentagon because-- I don't think he (Lotis) was a very good manager. Yet Vance was perfectly willing to help send Loftis to his reward of a substan- tially higher paid job in the Govern- ment subsidized Communications Satel- lite Corp. If he was not a good manager in the Pentagon at $20,000 a year what reason would there be to think he would be a good manager on the payroll of Comsat at $25,000, plus a Government pension of $8,820 a year, compliments of Defense Secretary McNamara? Unanswered, too, is the question of why Loftis resigned his position at the Pentagon pending the outcome of his trial. This situation further indicates the need for congressional scrutiny of the handling of civilian personnel in the De- fense Department. Mr. Speaker, I submit for printing in the RECORD at this point the following article on this subject as published by the Des Moines Register of the date of July 21, 1966: CONTROVERSIAL EMPLOYEE GOT VANCE AID ON JOB (By Clark Mollehhoff) WASHINGTON, D.C.-Deputy Defense Secre- tary Cyrus Vance said Wednesday that he cleared the way for J. Robert Loftis to be hired in a $25,000-a-year job with the Com- munications Satellite Corp. The deputy defense secretary told The Reg- ister he put his okay on the hiring: by the government-subsidized corporation because Loftis, a former administratice assistant to Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara, was acquitted on charges of embezzlement of government funds and false statements. WILLIAMS CRITICAL Senator JOHN J. WILLIAMS, Republican, of Delaware. has been critical of the fact that Defense Secretary McNamara had arranged for special circumstances under which Loftis was permitted to resign a $20,000-a-year Pentagon job in the midst of the controversy with a pension of $8,820 a year. Vance told the Register that we would not hire Loftis at the Pentagon today because "I don't think he was a very good manager." He said that he had a role in the decision to abolish the job Loftis held in 1964, and that this gave Loftis a choice of whether he would "bump" some person with less senior- ity from some other post or leave with a pension that was higher than normal. Vance said that Loftis could have stayed with the Defense Department at that time because it was before the facts came out that resulted in. the indictment. The deputy de- fense secretary denied telling Loftis that he would hire him back at the Defense Depart- ment if he wanted a job. Loftis was one of three high Defense De- partment officials indicted on charges of embezzlement and false statements. The other two-John A. Wylie and William H. Godel-were convicted and sentenced to five- year federal prison terms. PENSION AT 52 Loftis, who was acquitted in a jury trial, resigned from a $20,000-a-year job in the De- fense Department in the midst of the con- troversy, but under special circumstances that permitted him to take a pension at age 52. Vance stated that there were indictments and a trial and an acquittal of Loftis, and as far as he is concerned this ended the gov- ernraent's interest. Although Loftis told The Register he was "recommended" for the Communications Satellite Corp. job by Vance, the deputy de- fense secretary drew a distinction between a "recommendation" and the action he took to clear the way for Loftis being hired. "I was not asked to recommend," Vance said. "I was called by (Chairman and Chief Executive Officer James) Jim McCormack of Oomsat. I was asked if he (Loftis) were taken on, would this have any adverse im- pact on relations (between Communications Satellite) with the Department of Defense. I said 'certainly not.' " Vance said he did not write to Communi- cations Satellite, as Loftis has indicated, but that he had written "a personal letter" to Loftis and had given Loftis permission to use the letter in seeking the job. WATERSHED PROJECT RELEASED- SENT TO CONGRESS BY BUREAU OF THE BUDGET (Mr. MOORE (at the request of Mr. REINECIiE) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. MOORE. Mr. Speaker, I am pleased that the Bureau of the Budget finally threw in the towel in its bid for more power and bowed to the public in- terest by sending to the Congress and for House Committee consideration. 56 Soil Conservation Service watershed :projects. As is known, the Bureau has not sent up a single watershed project for con- gressional consideration since last Sep- tember because of an attempt to wrest from the Congress the right to determine on an individual basis which of such projects should be authorized. Included among the 56 projects is one from my own district in West Virginia. It is the upper Buffalo Creek watershed project in Marion County, W. Va. This was cleared by the Soil Conservation Service more than 6 weeks ago and sent to the Bureau of the Budget. I pointed out in a public protest last week the Budget Bureau's highhanded action and sought to encourage the Bu- reau to release these projects. For nearly 12 years, the Congress has been giving careful consideration to water- shed proposals, and as a matter of fact, has approved 446 such projects. I ex- pressed the hope that the President and the Director of the Budget would break loose this logjam and permit the Con- gress to continue to give its careful con- sideration to each of these projects as it has done over the past dozen years. This logjam also threatened a delay in the construction of another important proj- ect in my district. This is the Wheeling Creek watershed project which is ex- pected to be approved by the Soil Con- servation Service in about 2 months. This action by the Budget Bureau in releasing these 56 pending projects is, in my estimation, a victory for the public. STUDY OF EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL- ISM ON TRAFFIC SAFETY PRO- VIDED IN HIGHWAY SAFETY BILL, H.R. 13290 (Mr. CRAMER (at the request of Mr. REINECKE) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. CRAMER. Mr. Speaker, during the past year, the Congress and its com- mittees have directed a considerable amount of time and attention to the varied and intricate problems of high- way, traffic, and automotive safety. During the past year, no less than. five congressional committees have held ex- tensive public hearings on bills to pro- vide for greater motoring safety. The recognition by the Congress that the senseless slaughter of over 49,000 Americans on our Nation's highways each aid every year had to stop was made last year. THE 1965 BALDWIN AMENDMENT With the enactment of Senate Joint Resolution 81 last year, Congress recog- nized that the problems of highway safety could no longer be ignored by either the Federal or State Governments. As enacted on August 28, 1965, the Bald- win amendment, section 4 of Senate Joint Resolution 81, which I supported with enthusiasm, provided that after De- cember 31, 1967, each State should have a highway safety program, approved by the Secretary of Commerce, designed to reduce traffic accidents and deaths, in- juries, and property damage resulting therefrom on the 382,600 miles of high- ways on the Federal-aid highway sys- tems. The Baldwin amendment further Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090005-4