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14530 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE July 12, 1966 and I commend the resolution to my colleagues for their endorsement. Whether we like it or not, this Nation and this globe are faced with water prob- lems which could spell the end to civil- ization as we know it-and, if we are to solve these problems, we are going to have to explore all' avenues of research, supply, re-use, and conservation. It Is time that we begin. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, the name of the Senator from Utah will be added as a cosponsor of the joint resolution. NOTICE OF HEARING ON NOMINA- TION OF FRANK Di LUZIO TO BE ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR Mr. JACKSON. Mr. President, the Committee on Interior and Insular Af- fairs on July 20 will conduct a hearing on the nomination of Frank Di Luzio to be Assistant Secretary of the Interior. President Johnson on July 5 nominated Mr. Di Luzio to be in charge of water resources research, water pollution, and similar water programs in the Depart- ment of the Interior. The hearing will begin at 10 o'clock a.m. In Room 3110 of the New Senate Office Building. Mr. Di Luzio, of_,Kensington, Md., was staff director of the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences from April 1963, until his appointment as Di- rector' of the Office of Saline Water in December 1964. In the new position, he would continue to supervise the saline water program. REPUBLICAN CALL FOR HIGHER TAXES ECONOMICALLY WRONG AND UNSOUND Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, yes- terday a group of eminent Republicans contended that if the administration or the Congress were to increase spending then Federal taxes should be Increased. Mr. President, there will be substantial opportunities for the Congress to cut spending in various construction pro- grams, the space programs, and else- where without seriously impeding the national defense, or the building of a better America and a better world. There may. have been a time for a cross-the-board tax hike. In fact, a .strong case can be made against the action of the last Congress in 1964 re- ducing taxes by some $11 billion. But, Mr. President, the economic case against a tax increase today is very strong indeed. Opposition to a tax in- crease right now is a matter of solid economic sense, not political advantage. President Johnson is right in not calling for a tax increase. This morning's newspapers reported that unemployment continues at 4 per- cent, well above the February low of 3.7 percent. To raise taxes when unemployment is not declining is not only bad 'economics, This morning's newspapers reported that wholesale prices were stable again last month. They remain at virtually the same level they reached, in February. That is 6 months of stability. And it is clear that wholesale prices lead, and to a very considerable extent determine, re- tail prices. Last month retail prices, the Consumer Price Index, rose only one-tenth of 1 percent, a figure the economists call not statistically significant. Mr. President consider what 51 of the Nation's economists in Government, la- bor unions, industrial corporations, uni- versities and research organizations, in- vestment firms, and commercial bank- ing said in reply to a midyear question- naire by Financial Commentator J. A. Livingston. Do they expect an out-of-control booming economy, runaway inflation? First they expect a tapering off-that is right, a tapering off in the rate of growth of the economy. The second half increase this year will be 2.8 percent, followed by an increase of 2.6 percent in the first half and 2.2 percent in the second half of 1967. This is an increase in the gross national prod- uct. This increase will be achieved, ac- cording to these economists, without major inflation. The economists are bet- ting that the cost of living will rise only 4 percent during the 18 months. There is solid statistical support for this position. The weekly hours of work, according to economic indicators, were: February, 41.6; March, 41.5; April, 41.5; and May, 41.4. It is clear that our work force is expanding and it is unnecessary for us to have as much overtime as in the past. Weekly earnings were the same in May as they had been in April. There is no indication that they increased last month. Total industrial production has been rising since March at about one-half of the rate in 1963. Installment credit in- creased last month by the lowest amount since 1965. The stock market is down. Sensitive commodities, according to labor statistics, indicate we are more likely to have a falloff. All of these statistics, together with be a serio se, and that it would for the President to Congress to adopt it. standing to the confusing flow of events in Vietnam. The articles do not make pleasant reading but they are well worth the attention not only of the readers of the Post-Dispatch but of all thoughtful Americans and of the Senate and the officials of the Government who have re- sponsibilities involving Vietnam. I ask unanimous consent that the series of five articles previously referred to be included at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the articles were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: "REVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENTS," VIETNAM PACIFICATION VENTURE, RAISES SOME SERI- OUS DOUBTS-MILD BUREAUCRATIC SCRAM- BLE GOING ON AMONG U.S. OFFICIALS To TAKE PART IN NEWEST EFFORT OF "OTHER WAR" (By Richard Dudman) (NOTE.-Richard Duciman has just re- turned from a two-month assignment in Viet Nam covering the political crisis and military developments. It was his third as- signment there since 1962. This is the third in a series of articles on the situation, and prospects.) WASHINGTON, July 6.-"Revolutionary de- velopment," the latest pacification program in Viet Nam, has received heavy promotion and has stirrred great expectations but its test of performance still lies ahead. The prospects appear only marginal. This "other war" was given a strong send- off by President Lyndon B. Johnson when he told the South Viet Namese leaders at Honolulu that he was "determined not only to achieve victory over aggression, but to win victory over hunger, disease and despair." So far, the chief result of the Honolulu meeting has been a political crisis that para- lyzed much of the pacification and military effort for three months. But so much money and importance have been given to the program that there has been something of a bureaucratic scramble among officials of the Embassy, the Agency for International Development, the Infor- mation Service and the Central Intelligence Agency, each trying to get a big piece of it. In a place where careers can easily be de- stroyed, there is a feeling that reputations can be made in the Revolutionary Develop- ment business. On paper, the new program shows great promise and .is a big improvement over the old "strategic hamlets" and .the various other plans for organizing the population and ferreting out the Vie', Cong. The new plan calls for a combination of self-defense, good government, economic aid, welfare assistance and population and com- modity control to cut off support to the insurgency. The first 90-day class of 4800 cadres fin- ished training a month ago at a special school run by Viet Namese officers assisted by the CIA at Vung Tao. Plans call for training 20,000 this year and eventually 150,- Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, 000 of these pacification agents. there has appeared recently in the St. They learn techniques of paramilitary de- Louis Post-Dispatch a series of five arts- _ fense and rural organization as well as such political tricks as how to spread rumors, how Washington correspondent, Mr. Richard Dudman. Mr. Dudman has made a number of journeys to Vietnam and southeast Asia in recent years. At the end of each, he has reported his firsthand observations in articles of exceptional candor, objec- tivity, and balance. Subsequent develop- ments have frequently attested to the accuracy of Mr. Dudman's reporting and to the acuteness of his perceptions. The present series of articles helps to bring a measure of order and under- to set up demonstrations, and how to counter antigovernment or anti-American demonstration when, say, a friendly village has been bombed by mistake. Perhaps the most important part of the course is an effort to implant patriotism in a hurry. This political motivation training in- cludes drills in Viet Namese slogans, songs and in the history of the nation's heroes. Discussion groups cover French colonialism, the history of the Diem regime, past govern- ment mistakes, third-country assistance, and the reason for United States Intervention. (Group leaders describe the United States and South Viet Nam as two houses in the it is cruel. But the advocates of a tax hike argued yesterday that without such action, the country will suffer inflation. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 July 12, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 14529 the government of such Member State has Unsafe water causes the death of 5 finally formulated, will be presented to agreed to take appropriate steps, within a million children per year and incapa- Congress for its consideration. It is, I reasonable time, for the restoration of con- citates another 500 million people. The am told, based on the premise that the eonal government, the holding of free elections, and the application of human and problems of famine are increasing, and interests of the United States in a peace- civil rights and liberties within such Mem- increased water supplies are needed fill world are paramount, that water is a her State."' merely to maintain current starvation global problem, and that all nations WATER FOR PEACE-ADDITIONAL COSPONSOR OF JOINT RESOLU- TION Mr. MOSS. Mr. President, since the beginning of time, the people who have inhabited the western portion of this continent have been faced with one cen- tral, controlling fact of existence: With- out water there can be no progress, no peace, and, indeed, no life itself. The pueblo ruins preserved in Mesa Verde National Park bear silent witness that, even during the days when Mongol hordes were invading Europe, water was the life blood in what is now the western part of the United States-and drought meant death, destruction, and decay. We of the American West have learned this grim lesson, and we have learned the lessons of water conservation. We have been frugal and thoughtful in making do with that which we had. Just a few short years ago it was the common belief that only the western half of America had any water problems. There was plenty of water east of the Mississippi River-all you had to do was turn on the tap. Yet, today, the northeastern part of this Nation-where o;le-third of our population live and work-is entering the fifth year of the most severe drought in the history of the region. Our Great Lakes are dying of pollution, and every major river system, east and west, suffers under growing loads of pollutants. We are gearing to clean up the mess we have made of our water resources. Hopefully, there is still time. In 1963, Congress enacted the Land and Water Conservation Act-basically a recreation measure with water conser- vation benefits. In 1964, we approved the Water Resources Research Act. In 1965, we passed the Water Resources Planning Act, and the Water Pollution Control Act, and we accelerated the program to desalt ocean and brackish waters. The Clean Rivers Act of 1966 has received committee approval, and will be before this body later on this week. Meanwhile, the old, established water programs continue. The 60-year-old re- clamation program moves on to develop the water resources of the west, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers presses ahead with its active program of civil workers throughout the Nation. The water picture throughout the world is as equally distressing as the one levels in many lands-much less improve should contribute their fair share to im- the quality of life. prove the lot of all nations. The impact of population growth alone In addition to a substantive, long-term on water resources is frightening. From program to achieve the goal of water for the beginning of time to the birth of mankind, President Johnson has planned Christ, the total' world population was an International Conference on Water one-quarter of a billion people. Eighteen for Peace-a conference which could hundred and thirty years later, the easily be the most important of this gen- world's population stood at 1 billion. A eration. This meeting, however, will be century later, this figure doubled-and, in the past 36 years, another billion peo- ple have been added. By 1980, it is esti- mated that 4 billion people will live on this planet, and that by the beginning of the 21st century there will be 6 billion. Yet, there is no more water on this planet than there was when the pharaohs built the pyramids, when Hannibal crossed the Alps, or when Christ was crucified. Obviously, something must be done. While there are billions more people than at the dawn of creation, there is not a single additional drop of water. The stake that this world has in water can- not be understated. For centuries, man has been trying to find ways to supply himself with water and to use it properly. Where he has failed, the consequences have been tragic because a thirsty man is also a hostile man. If history teaches any lesson, it has taught us that no civilization has climbed on a falling water table, on polluted streams, or on and acres. Mr. President, last October, President Johnson called for a water for peace pro- gram. In addressing the first interna- tional symposium, the President said: Since the beginning of time, fresh water has been one of humanity's precious needs. For it, wars have been fought. Without it, whole civilizations have vanished from the earth.... Our generation can end all that. We have the power-the power of science. But if we are to use that power effectively, we must work together. The earth's water belongs to all mankind. Together, we must find ways to make certain that every nation has its share, and that there is enough for all. Today, I want to announce the beginning of a "Water for Peace Program." Under this new program, we will join in a massive, co- operative, international effort to find solu- tions for man's water problems. The United States is prepared to contribute its share of the resources needed for an international crash program to deal with world water re- sources. We ask other nations to join with us now in pursuit of a common objective-- water for all humanity. Let future genera- tions remember us as those who freed man forever from his most ancient and dreaded enemies, drought and famine. at home. Some 90 percent of the people Responding to the President's initia; in the less developed nations lack ade- tive, Secretary of the Interior Stewart L. quate water service or are being supplied Udall and Secretary of State Dean Rusk with unsafe water. In 79 of the major joined together to begin this assault on nations of the world, only 11 percent of humanity's water problems. Task forces the people have water supply systems representing the finest water resources rated good or fair. The remaining 89 talent in the Federal Establishment have percent have unsatisfactory or grossly been working since then to develop a co- unsatisfactory water supplies. In some operative, international program to parts of the world, people exist on 3 gal- achieve the objectives of the, Johnson ad- lons of water per day. ministration. This program, when it Is more than the usual international meet- ing for the exchange of technical and scientific information. Delegates at a ministerial level will attend the confer- ence so that specific problems can be identified and specific action programs and policies can be discussed. In a cer- tain sense, the International Conference on Water for Peace will be the prolog to a vast, cooperative effort to develop the water resources of this planet. This international conference, which also could be the largest international meeting held in the Nation's Capital, is the most effective means of bringing to- gether representatives of governments to focus attention of the massive water problems which we all share in common. The subject matter to be covered at this meeting will be extensive: Municipal and industrial water re- quirements; urban and rural supply problems and solutions, including health; water pollution; water for agriculture and fisheries; development and manage- ment of international river basins for flood control, navigation, hydroelectric power, water supply, fish and wildlife, and outdoor recreation; water desalina- tion, including atomic dual-purpose plants; collection and dissemination of scientific data; water re-use; weather modification; water economics; and in- ternational water law. There will be many things that we will teach-and, equally, there will be many things we can learn from other nations in this endeavor. There are many reasons why I sup- port the President's water-for-peace program, and why today I urge my col- leagues to support the International Conference on Water for Peace. I will cite only one: Despite aggressive efforts, famine stalks this planet. A 35-percent increase in world food production is required merely to keep up with population growth. Two-thirds of the people of the world live on an inadequate diet. This is not a world which we want to bequeath to the next generation. It is not a world of which we can be proud. It is not a world on which we have in- telligently expended our talents and our time. It is, rather, a world which be- speaks of our neglect, our indifference, and our ignorance. The distinguished chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee introduced, on June 15, Senate Joint Resolution 167 that would authorize President John- son's International Conference on Water for Peace. I ask unanimous consent that my name be added as a cosponsor, Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 ?.- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 July 12, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE .e '40- S same village. The South Viet Namese house stroy" and "search and clear." The old con- has caught fire. If the fire spreads, the cept of "clear and hold" is being postponed. American house could burn, too. So the "The oil slick strategy is pretty well down United States is helping put out the fire the drain," a briefing officer tells newly ar- now.) rived correspondents. "It was all right when These first cadres, organized into 59-man all we had was a few guerrillas. Now, with teams, now have moved into hamlets in rela- all these northern troops coming in, the oil tively secure areas. Their task is to help slick system isn't worth a damn." the residents take over their own defense, American combat commanders take pride root out any Viet Cong agents, govern them- in their growing offensive capability against selves effectively and support the Saigon gov- enemy units, whenever they can be found. ernment. After three to five months, when But they concede generally that territory this job is supposed to be completed in the cannot be held until the South Viet Namese first group of hamlets, each team will move forces are prepared to follow up with occu- on to another hamlet and begin again there. pation of the ground. This has happened- Subteams are assigned to organize com- only rarely so far. tnunity defense, handle political indoctrina- Apparent progress in the heavily populated tion and help the people get available public Mekong delta, where ground fighting still services from the government. Is a South Viet Namese monopoly is largely The key to success is a six-man census- the result of local accommodations between grievance subteam, which studies and reports Viet Cong and government commanders. on the economic level, political beliefs, re- Neither pushes the other too hard. ligious affiliation, aspirations and complaints As a result, when a political action team of every family in the hamlet. Information distributes blankets, rubber sandals and is gathered through a confidential interview bulgur (parched, cracked) wheat in a hamlet, every 10 days with every person in the ham- it sometimes is taken for granted that Viet let over 10 years old. Cong agents will come in the night and A tacit quid pro quo is the real significance demand half of the new supplies. of the census-grievance group. It serves as As the war intensifies, United States forces an intelligence unit. In return for protec- rely increasingly on bombs and artillery. tion, help, sympathy and advice, the hamlet Commanders concede that targets sometimes residents are expected to tell which of their are selected on inaccurate or outdated in- neighbors are or might be working for the telligence, so that whatever Viet Cong were Viet Cong. present have filed. Much of the artillery Subsequent investigations are intended to fire is "harassing and interdiction" fire aimed prevent mistakes, as when someone tagged as merely at likely places of enemy travel and a Viet Cong agent actually is an undercover concentration with the results unobserved. government agent or has been accused falsely Much of the bombing and shelling is simply because of personal or factional malice. at the request of Viet Namese commanders, Despite official enthusiasm for this new with no independent American check on the pacification effort, serious doubts and reser- validity of the targets. vations are expressed privately even by some A pattern is emerging in which bombs and of the men most dedicated to trying to make shells pound the countryside, civilians are it succeed. encouraged and helped to move to the cities The very ballyhoo that has surrounded as refuges, and anybody left in an area is the program is cause for some misgiving. assumed to be hostile. When all resistance Some of these officials urge that it be con- has been smashed, the idea is that the people sidered a 10-year effort, not a quick formula will be transplanted back and helped, for victory. through revolutionary development, 'along "Don't ask us to show any results at all the road to pacification. in the first two years," said one. "The time The immediate military objective has come to begin to judge success or failure will be to be to kill the Viet Cong-or, as a Viet about four years from now. Namese general kept shouting at a recent "We'll have all kinds of problems at first. cocktail party, "zap the V.C.1 zap the V.C.!" Some of the cadres will be terrible. Some of . Some of the men most deeply involved in them will rape, loot, steal, extort and try to making Revolutionary Development work live like kings. Some will turn out to be Viet consider that the military and pacification Cong agents, infiltrated into the program as efforts are working at cross purposes. They provocateurs." believe that mounting civilian casualties The wholesale nature of the program and the destruction of the social fabric of arouses some doubts also. An official asks, the countryside help the Viet Cong more "Where are we going to find 150,000 cadres than they help build an effective non-Com- when we are already short of administrators munist society. to run the government and even recruits for One of the officials most widely respected the army?" as a pacification expert would like to see a There is a question also, whether this in- prohibition on all artillery fire on unobserved stant patriotism can be achieved among a targets and all bombing and shelling based mixture that includes former strategic ham- merely on intelligence reports, let cadres under the Diem regime and mem- "Killing the Viet Cong is not the answer," bers of political and religious factions that he says. "The answer is to give Viet Nam a often fear and distrust one another more government and an economy that will com- than the Communists. pete with the Viet Cong." 14531 But Gen. Thi wanted no medical treatment. In dismissing him, Premier Nguyen Cao Ky had said that Thi suffered from a nose ail- ment, apparently referring to Thi's chronic sinus trouble. Thi later made a joke of the matter and said that his only nose trouble was that the political maneuvering smelled bad. - To plot-minded Viet Namese, Gen. West- moreland's letter looked like part of a scheme to break the political power of the Buddhists in the country's northernmost provinces. They already had assumed that President Lyndon B. Johnson's meeting with Ky at Honolulu had included a secret understand- ing that the United States would keep Ky in power indefinitely. Indeed; Ky began act- ing as if he had such a guarantee. Actually, Westmoreland's invitation was doubtless merely a generous gesture to a fellow officer. And President Johnson cer- tainly made no under-the-table deal with Ky at Honolulu. But the events of the three-month politi- cal crisis that was touched off by Thi's dis- missal suggest that the United States since then advised and assisted Ky in subduing the Buddhist political movement. American planes moved three Viet Namese battalions to De Nang for the first nearly disastrous confrontation with dissident troops. American advisers accompanied the loyal battalions when they returned in May to besiege the pagodas and smash the rebel- lion. Later in Hue, American officers took part in marathon meetings that eventually led to the use of combat police and Viet Namese marines and airborne troops to move Bud- dhist altars out of the streets, arrest the ring- leaders and suppress the anti-government movement. American planes carried the troops. There have been deep disagreements among American officials in Viet Nam over what could and should be done about the Bud- dhist dissidents. Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge was said to have given some sort of cautious ap- proval to the dismissal of Thi, whom the embassy in Saigon regarded as an ambitious troublemaker who was soft on the Buddhists. But Americans who worked with Thi in Hue and Da Nang considered him one of the country's most effective military leaders and one of the few persons who could deal effectively with the Buddhists there. "Getting rid of him was the worst blunder of the war," a high United States Marine of- ficer said. "I don't know if this country has any patriots, but mile the nearest thing to one I've seen." Aids of Lt. Gen. Lewis W. Walt, commander of Marine forces in Viet Nam, with headquar- ters in Da Nang, said he felt that he had been stabbed in the back. The Embassy was shocked at the uproar over This dismissal. There was a scramble as officials tried to escape any responability for the move. They all but washed their hands of Ky, giving him less than a 50-50 chance. One said, "We're ready to take him by the hand and go to the cliff's edge, but we're not going over the precipice with him." They advised Ky strongly to give in to Bud- dhist demands for early national elections. Then, as Ky toughened his stand and showed signs of surviving, the dominant view at the embassy came to be that the young air force commander offered the best chance of stability. With American encouragement, he made it clear that he would remain in power at least a year longer and that the elections set for Sept. 11 would merely choose dele- gates to draft a constitution. ernmost provinces have been drawn largely DISAGREEMENT BY U.S. OFFICIALS OVER THE from the Viet Nam Quoc Daa Dang, a politi- OUSTER OF GENERAL THI AND SUPPRESSION cal party that bitterly opposes the majority of BUDDHISTS-SOME CONSIDER OFFICER'S Buddhist movement there. DISMISSAL AS BAD BLUNDER THAT LED TO About all, there is a question of conflict POLITICAL DIFFICULTIES IN VIET NAM between the pacification program and the (By Richard Dudman) changing nature of the military effort. The announced strategy line calls for mils- WASHINGTON.-The day after Maj. Gen. tary action to extend the area of government Nguyen Chanh Thi was dismissed as com- control gradually. Behind this widening se- mander of South Viet Nam's First Corps, Gen. curity screen, the revolutionary develop- William C. Westmoreland invited him to go ment program is intended to proceed with to the United States for a medical checkup pacification. and treatment. But the military effort is increasingly aimed "If this offer appeals to you, I wish you at breaking the back of North Viet Namese would let me know and I will immediately and main force Viet Cong armies. Methods make all the necessary arrangements," West- being used are increasingly "search and de- moreland wrote. Two broad assumptions embassy decision. First, the dominant view of the Viet Cong is that it lacks the essentials of the powerful nationalistic movements like the National Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 14532 Liberation Front in Algeria. Instead, the Viet Cong is seen as relying solely on coercion and terror and not at all on persuasion. The second assumption is that the militant leaders of the Buddhist political movement are acting in the interests of the Viet Cong, if they are not actually the agents of the Communist-led conspiracy. Thus the Viet Cong are considered to pose no political threat. Even if they did, the Buddhist movement is seen as no proper force to oppose it. One high official speculated that the Sep- tember elections would show a 10 to 12 per cent Viet Cong vote and a 35 to 40 per cent Buddhist vote. "If you take them together, that's a dangerous combination," he said. Independent inquiry suggests that these assumptions are nonsense. A dissenting view expressed privately by some American officials in Viet Nam seems to fit the facts of the situation better. In this view, the Viet Cong movement is truly a political force, the most powerful in the country. Although it does increas- ingly use terror and coercion, it continues to attract considerable willing support and manpower by posing as the defender of the people against government corruption and colonialist intervention. The Buddhist movement, say these dis- senters, is the second most powerful political force in a country that is about 80 per cent nominally Buddhist. It overthrew the Diem regime and several subsequent governments and came close to toppling Ky. Contrary to some reports, only a small mi- nority of the Buddhist leaders sympathize with the Viet Cong or even would consider negotiating with the guerrilla movement. Most Buddhists among many who have been gaestioned on the point are vehemently anti-Communist. Their belief. seems to be not that they could make peace with the enemy, but that a government in which they were well represented could be more effective In fighting the enemy. Even Thich Tri Quang, the most militant of the Buddhist stategists, until recently de- scribed his anti-Americanism as nothing more than a tactical device and spoke strongly against the Communists. More recently, embittered over the shoot- ing of monks and nuns in Da Nang, he said he had come to hate America and might reach the point of warning his followers that unless the U.S. troops departed every Viet Namese woman would become a prostitute. Allowing for a politician's exaggeration, it must be conceded that prostitution in Viet Nam is increasing rapidly. Other grievances Include mounting inflation, overcrowded cities, uncollected garbage on the main streets of Saigon, and massive traffic jams as military vehicles, motorbikes, pedicabs and big American automobiles of newly rich Viet Namese try to bluff their way through the shoddy, bursting capital. More moderate Buddhist leaders differ as to tactics but agree as to objectives. They want representative government, an end to favoritism and corruption, and, as soon as possible, an end to the war. They want to drive out the Communists, but they object to having their country used as a practice field for counterinsurgency operations. They object also to what they see as outside control of the issue of war and peace. If these goals and objections seem con- tradictory and fuzzy minded, that does not mean that the Buddhists are dominated by the Viet Cong. Even the student mob that sacked and burned the American library and the consulate in Hue was essentially an extremist nationalist group, infiltrated by the Viet Cong no more than militant civil rights groups in the United States are in- filtrated by the Communists. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- SENATE July 12, 1966 The failure of the Buddhists to overthrow "friendly" deaths by five or 10. Afterwards, the Ky government probably is partly a re- the men making the actual count just go sult of Ky's forceful use of police and troops through the motions to reach the predeter- and also of a deep belief by many Buddhists mined total. including most of their leaders in the im- An American lieutenant colonel with long portance of patience and nonviolence. experience as an adviser to Viet Namese The outlook for the elections is that Ky forces says that their totals for enemy sol- will make wide use of his promise to exclude diers killed are frequently inflated. pro-Communists and "neutralists" and con- "It's a case of accurate reporting of false trive to maintain his military clique in information," he says. "American officers power. get the figures from Viet Namese officers? who of temporary stability may well he that the best potential anti-Communist political force is being either destroyed or driven into die- hard anti-Americanism. WASHINGTON AGAIN IS MUCH MORE OPTIMISTIC THAN SAIGON OVER PROSPECT OF ENDING WAR SOON-DIFFERENCE PARTLY THE RESULT OF FALSE STATISTICS (By Richard Dudman) WASHINGTON, July 7.-Once again, Wash- ington is being far more optimistic than is Saigon about the war in Viet Nam. The current hopeful mood here, encour- aged. by the White House, the Department of State and the Pentagon-with assurances that this time they really mean it--scarcely matches the general view in Saigon that a long war lies ahead. Part of the explanation for this discrep- ancy lies in a falsity in the statistics used to paint ,a rosy picture of progress. Another part is a pair of serious omis- sions in the flood of figures that makes this the most high quantified war in history. Still another part of the explanation is a number of influences and pressures that cause many of those along the chain of in- formation reporting to accentuate the posi- tive and eliminate the negative. The statistics in question are the enemy "body count" and the "kill ratio," two im- portant yardsticks by which progress Is meas- ured in the military effort to destroy the Viet Cong guerrilla organization and its rein- forcements fam North Viet Nam. As every military operation progresses, Americans on the scene give their headquar- ters in Saigon a daily report of how many enemy soldiers have been killed. Most com- mands also keep tally of the "K.B:A." (killed by air) estimate, generally a higher figure,. for their own records. They also estimate how many enemy bodies may have been dragged away. But the kill totals reported to Saigon are supposed to be not an estimate but a true figure based on actual count of bodies. Any overstatement of the number of enemy troops killed improves the kill ratio, which is a weekly figure obtained by ` comparing Allied killed in action with enemy killed in action. Although some commands are conscien- tious in making the count and some battles are more conducive than others to this score keeping, many of the men doing the fighting acknowledge freely that the "body count" is partly fiction. One clear indication that this is the case is the fact that reports of enemy prisoners of war often break them down into Viet Cong and "Viet Cong suspects," whereas there is no such breakdown for bodies. "We kill no suspects," said a high-ranking American information officer in Saigon. "When they're dead, they're VC." Some officers and enlisted men insist that their body counts are scrupulously accurate. Others tell of instances where men, women and children have been included in the totals, In somhe cases, they point out, bodies ever possible the people will be warned of are almost indistinguishable after a bomb- impending air-strikes or operations by leaf- ing, artillery or napalm attack. lets and broadcasts." Other instances are cited by men who par- But an Army information officer In Saigon ticipate in these counts, in which a quota is says that warnings allowed the Viet Cong to set in advance, obtained by multiplying escape and are now given only infrequently. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 get them third of fourth hand from Viet Namese sources. At each level, there is a tendency to minimize the bad news and ex- aggerate the good news." A high official of the Agency for Interna- tional Development gives reason to doubt the rising totals for the "open arms" program for enemy defectors. He says that a sizable number of them disappear after being fed and clothed for a few weeks in the relatively comfortable amnesty camps. "We believe that the Viet Cong is using the open arms program for their own R. and R," he says. ("R and R" Is American military slang for the rest and recreation program under which each U.S. military man gets a week's :leave in Hong Kong or Bangkok or some other place to break his year's tour of duty.) Official insistence on the absolute accuracy of such figures makes it difficult to learn the extent of these exaggerations in official sta- tistics. One of the omissions in the statistical pic- ture is caused by a flat prohibition on re- porting of allied casualties in any individual' engagement. As a result, a dispatch must say, for example that 381 Viet Cong were killed, and American and Viet Namese casu- alties were "light," "moderate," or "heavy." Figures on the American and Viet Namese casualties are given out only in weekly totals. A correspondent in the field often can learn the exact number of allied casualties. But reporting them in a dispatch is grounds for suspension of this accreditation. The men on the ground sometimes com- plain that when a platoon or company is vir- tually wiped out the casualties are called "moderate" by diluting them in total losses for the entire company or battalion. It is clear that the system tends to lessen the public impact of American and Viet Namese government, defeats. The reason given for imposing it last year was that pre- cise figures on Allied casualties would help the enemy. The other place where statistics are lack- ing is in civilian casualties resulting from bombing and artillery attacks by American and Viet Namese government forces. "We don't keep them. Maybe the other side does," said a briefing officer when ques- tioned about civilian casualties in an inten- sive American bombing and shelling attack in a heavily populated area in Quang Ngai province. The officer had just given precise figures on enemy troops whose bodies had been counted in a subsequent ground sweep. Comparable figures on civilian casualties, if kept, would provide a guide to the effec- tiveness of a directive issued several months ago by Gen. William C. Westmoreland, Com- mander of U.S. forces in Viet Nam. Westmoreland warned that "the use of un- necessary force leading to noncombatant casualties in areas temporarily controlled by the Viet Cong will embitter the population, drive them into the arms of the Viet Cong, and make the long-range goal of pacification more difficult." +^ The directive also said: "With due regard Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 x;,.42, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE M We require a report from~some Viet ^*amesa official in the area-a province chief or a district chief-that the people in the target zone are all unfriendly," he said. "We give a warning only when we're after some- thing other than personnel, like an enemy ammunition factory, when we don't care whether the people get out or not." Maj. Gen. James Humphreys, assistant director for health at the American aid mis- sion in Viet Nam, says there are times when there are a great many more civilian casual- ties than military casualties in this war. He says, however, that sometimes the civilian casualties are less. Among the less tangible influences on in- formation about the war is the one-year tour of duty for military men. Whatever its merits for service morale, it has the disad- vantage of giving an individual little perspec- tive for judging progress In carrying on the war. He sometimes believes he is liberating. a hamlet or clearing a road that has been in Viet Cong hands for 20 years, whereas the same hamlet or road was classed as secure as recently as three years ago. As a result, says a lieutenant colonel who llas been in Viet Nam for many years, there is a tendency to look on the bright side and send up the "positive" reports that are gen- erally more pleasing to superiors. "We live in what sociologists call a success- oriented society," says this officer. "Opti- mism and positive reporting may work well In running a corporation, but out here they just bring delusion and perpetuation of errors." Civilian administrators who do not share the official optimism tend to keep their thoughts to themselves. Some of these say privately that it would not be good for their careers to let their doubts and reservations show up in their reports. The comment is sometimes heard that it would be unwise to resign or ask for transfer because that would mark a man as a dis- senter, and dissent in Viet Nam is akin to disloyalty. The way to keep a career intact iLto look on the bright side. NEW QUESTIONS AFTER ESCALATION Or WAR- THus FAR UNITED STATES HAS WON ONLY A STALEMATE ` (By Richard Dudman) WASHINGTON, July 2,-The best that can be said for the massive American military build- up in South Viet Nam over the last year is that it has achieved a military stalemate. The new escalation-bombing the all In- stallations at Hanoi and Haiphong-thus must be counted as another effort to use American armed might to break this stale- mate. Earlier such efforts have failed to break the stalemate. They included the use of American troops for general offensive com- bat, intensified bombing in North and South Viet Nam, and the landing of additional American forces as fast as possible short of mobilization of the reserves. What the American escalation achieved as early as last fall was to avert imminent military defeat. United States officials who denied early last year that the Viet Cong guerrillas were winning now say that Amer- ican combat forces entered the war barely in time to prevent the utter collapse of the South Viet Namese army. What the escalation has failed to do is to show any solid tread toward victory. A reporter returning to Viet Nam after a year's absence notices two things above all. First, overwhelming American military strength has removed any question of mili- tary defeat. Whehever enemy troops mass for an attack, their defeat is virtually auto- matic. American artillery, bombs and troops are brought to bear so quickly that the Com. munist fortes must resort to hit-and-run tactics. To stand and fight means annihila- tion. Additional armed power, as yet unused, is on hand to back up possible future decisions. American aircraft carriers on station off the Viet Namese coast carry a wide range of nu- clear weapons. Marines clear the hangar decks of all unauthorized persons during reg- ular loading drills using nuclear bombs. The second major point is that, despite constant pounding by the tremendous Amer- ican military machine, the Communist forces are at least holding their own or perhaps do- ing a little better than that. Roughly 10 per cent of the land area of South Viet Nam, about the same as a year ago, is rated under secure government Con- trol. Even the "secure" areas are subject to mortar attack, terrorist bombings and forays by bands of guerrillas. Nearly half the population lives in these so-called secure areas, mainly Saigon and other coastal cities. The rest lives either under outright Viet Cong domination or in areas where the guerrillas move with relative freedom at night. These population figures, like the area figures, have changed little in the last year. Despite figures showing an enemy "kill" running from 3000 to 6000 a month, Ameri- can estimates of enemy strength continue to increase. The Pentagon's current estimate is 255,000 to 270,000, compared with 230,000 at the first of this year and 106,000 at the beginning of 1965. Infiltration from North Viet Nam obviously accounts for part of the steady net increase in enemy' strength. But there is much doubt and disagreement over how the stream of men and supplies enters South Viet Nam. The fact that the men and material keep coming despite heavy bombing of the so- called Ho Chi Minh trail leads some military men to suspect that the importance of the trail is overrated or that other routes may be more important. Some officers believe that the hard-surface road visible from the air amounts to a stage seta route built for bombing while the bulk of the traffic moves along parallel paths obscured by the jungle canopy. The Com- munist Chinese used that trick in supplying Viet Namese besieging Dien Bien Phu in 1954. Others are convinced that much of the infiltration is by sea, either by landings on the long, rugged coastline or travel up the Mekong river, with transfers to sampans sailed into Viet Nam from Cambodia through the network of canals and streams that run through the huge delta. Navy officers admit the impossibility of registering the many junks that sail in coast- wise trade or performing more than a spot check on their cargoes. Ocean-going ships steam up the Mekong without any effective check on their cargoes. A high Navy officer says: "I wish we could devise a practical way of controlling infiltra- tion through the canals. We know there is relatively free movement between Cambodia and South Viet Nam. But it would be suicide to operate small naval vessels in those canals, since the whole area is under Viet Cong control." Another American official suspects that most of the infiltration Is through Cambodia. He supposes that no one wants to acknowl- edge the fact because it would remove the justification for bombing the routes in Laos and North Viet Nam. If the views of the responsible civilian and military leaders directing the operation in Viet Nam can be summed up in a few words, most of them believe that they see slow progress, that the right formula Is being devised, and that, given persistence in the field and patience at home, the country can eventually be pacified. Estimates range from several years to as long as 10 years or more. A sizable minority, including some highly placed officials, remains deeply skeptical of the value of bombs, artillery and napalm in suppressing what is seen as essentially a po- 14533 litical insurgent movement. This group doubts that the present formula ever will succeed. Few share the optimistic estimate being circulated by Administration officials in Washington that the major fighting will be over by the end of 1967. Another minority, Including some top military leaders, had been restless at re- straints on bombing targets in the Hanoi- Haiphong area and welcomed the decision to bomb the oil and gasoline tank farms. Such slim hopes as there are for an early end of the conflict rest on the supposition that more troops and more bombing must eventually break the will of Hanoi to con- tinue the fight. Some observers are impressed by reports of prisoner interrogation indicating that captured North Viet Namese now believe that their side faces defeat. Others con- cede that enemy morale may be sagging, but await what they consider a clearer In- dication, in the form of mass defection of Communist forces in squad or platoon strength. American planes are delivering explosives at twice the rate of the peak month of the Korean war. Roughly, 10 tons of explosives are being fired for every enemy soldier coun- ted as killed. American planes make about 100,000 flights a month, including helicopter and reconnaissance missions. That means be- tween 10 and 30 flights for every enemy counted as killed, when combat strikes alone are considered the ratio is two to three sorties for each enemy killed. Officials cite as another indication of fal- tering enemy morale the fact that the Com- munists have been avoiding large-scale confrontations with American forces. But this trend cuts two ways. American com- manders continually hope for setlpiece bat- tles where they can fix an enemy battalion or regiment as the best chance of smashing the elusive foe. As these set-piece battles disappear, am- bush and terrorism are on the increase. A Marine regiment commander says that fully half his casualties are from mines, booby traps, snipers or poisoned bamboo "pungee sticks" hidden in grass or shallow water. The dominant view among responsible Americans in Viet Nam, even among those who support the bombing of North Viet Nam, is that those raids are really a side issue, They believe that the outcome will be deter- mined in South Viet Nam. Heavy emphasis in Washington on Hanoi as the source of aggression tends to obscure the fact that the Viet Cong are fighting what continues to be an important degree a civil war In South Viet Nam. And through its political arm, the National Liberation Front, the Viet Cong continue to operate an effec- tive shadow government that rules much of the country. Viet Namese political leaders in the popu- lous Mekong delta say that the enemy con- tinues to collect taxes in rural areas and even in provincial capitals. They say also that the Viet Cong continue to recruit troops in the delta. As the intensity of the war has increased, the Viet Cong have resorted increasingly to coercion in taxing and recruiting troops. But, particularly in the delta, the guerrilla force still relies largely on persuasion. Rice merchants in the big cities have a grudging respect for the Viet Cong tax col- lectors. Some of these merchants prefer to ship rice through solid Viet Cong territory because the first Communist checkpoint will give a receipt that will be honored all the way. The merchants complain that a ship- ment moving by government controlled route must pay legal and illegal taxes to govern- ment collectors over and over again along the whole route. They find it cheaper to pay the Viet Cong. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 14534 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE July 12, As the ear y s pass and the war continues to escalate, Viet Nam is said to demonstrate ever more clearly the limitations of over- whelming military power in dealing with a political insurgency. YEARS-LONG U.S. BUILD-UP FORECAST; ROLE OF VIET NAM TROOPS DIMINISHINCu-6000000 AMERICANS MAY BE iw WAR LATE NEXT YEAR (By Richard Dudman) WASHINGTON, July 8.-A G.I. folksinger was entertaining American officers at An Khe with a ballad for a popular battalion com- mander being rotated home at the end of his year in Viet Nam. This was the refrain: "So in Viet Nam we will stay, Forever if need be. To guard the hopes of freedom Is our destiny." The singer's "forever" was artistic exag- geration, of course, but most indications suggest that the American military effort in Viet Nam will require many more American troops, many more billions of American dol- lars, and time reckoned not in months but in years. Barring collapse of the enemy's will to fight-an eventuality that still is more hope than expectation-the direction promises to be steadily upward in American manpower commitments, intensity of bombing in South Viet Nam, intensity of attacks on North Viet Nam and employment of American com- bat troops in offensives against the enemy. American officers on the scene speak in terms of 400,000 men there by the end of this year and possibly 600,000 by the end of 1967. Some speak seriously of needing a total American buildup of 1,000,000 men. As the American build-up progresses, South Viet Namese forces play a relatively less important role. Some of their units win American praise, and their heavy casualties prove that they still are doing a big share of the fighting. But there is continuing criticism that they lack aggressiveness and good leadership and that most of their units are infiltrated by Viet Cong agents. Operation Georgia, launched recently south of Da Nang after supposedly secret joint planning by U.S. and Viet Namese ma- rines, was announced in advance by radio Hanoi. South Korean forces in Viet Nam, now numbering about 20,000 and expected to rise soon to 40,000, are considered first class troops in aggressiveness, discipline and gen- eral fighting ability. "They go through an area and kill every- thing in sight," says an American officer recently. Some American officials believe, however, that their high "kill ratio"-running up to 20 enemies killed for every Korean killed- must mean that many noncombatant men, women and children are counted among the enemy dead. The trend is evident that the war is being taken over by the American forces and to some extent, by the South Korean forces, which are financed by the United States. The base at An Khe, where the ballad singer sang of staying forever seems to be the wave of the future for the war in Viet Nam. It is 160 per cent American operation. An Khe is headquarters for the American First Cavalry Division (Air Mobile), which keeps its helicopter-borne troops out on op- erations an average of 68 per cent of the time, hunting and trying to destroy nine enemy regiments thought to be skulking in the jungles of the central highlands, A striking feature of the huge base, which contains the largest heliport in the world, is that no Viet Namese national is allowed in- side. At most other American bases, Viet Namese troops guard the perimeter, and there ,are Viet Namese laborers, truck drivers, cooks, Waiters, laundrymen, maids and bartenders. At An Khe, the men of the First Cavalry do those jobs themselves except when, they can go off base to the Viet Namese shack town that has mushroomed outside the gate, to get their clothes laundered or their trucks washed. Officers attribute to this quarantine policy the fact that An Khe is one of the few bases never yet infiltrated. Mortar attacks and satchel-charge raids at other bases are traced to espionage by Viet Cong agents among the Viet Namese workers. Even the security of Route 19, the base's road link with the coast, is put into the hands of Americans and South Koreans. They guard the bridges along the dangerous stretch of Highway, the explanation being that South Viet Namese troops can. be used better elsewhere. Military leaders speak of sending a similar, division to the densely populated Mekong delta, south and west of Saigon, until now the military responsibility of Viet Namese government forces. Although the delta has been considered well along the way to pacification, the appar- ent progress now is regarded by some as at- tributable to tacit agreements by Viet Namese and Viet Cong local commanders not to bother each other too much. Eighty per cent of the Delta's huge rice crop is taxed by the Viet Cong. American advisers complain that the Viet Namese troops, who set up hundreds of elaborate ambushes every night, chatter and play their transitor radios so loudly that the traps rarely are sprung. The. announced strategy of having Viet Namese troops move in to hold ground gained by the Americans is more and more being put off. The main effort is to use American mili- tary force to break the back of enemy strength in the south and to persuade Hanoi that it should give up the fight. The latest upward step, considered for many months before the President ordered it last week, is the bombing of oil storage de- pots near Hanoi and Haiphong. Other steps being discussed include min- ing the Haiphong harbor, bombing industrial targets and taking some battleships out of mothballs and using them to bombard posi- tions near the coast. There is serious talk of an American ground offensive against North Viet Nam. Some high-ranking officers say this would be .more likely than the often-mentioned pos- sibility of a ground offensive from Thailand across Laos to cut the Ho Chi Minh trail. Carried to its logical conclusion, the Amer- icanization of the war could conceivably lead to a complete American takeover of South Viet Nam. A widely respected American com- there--and no one can be sure where manger advocates this course privately in so the spiraling process is going to lead us. many words. There is no ceiling that appears to hold, "We should occupy and rule this country," unless it may be that of a "bust," which, he says, "instead of pretending to respect the of course, none of us would want. sovereignty of a government that really is These news stories about rising intrest only temporary and illegal and could change rates collected from one short period of tomorrow. a, week are not only telling what is hap- "It would be more efficient, and probably pening but should give concern as to the end result would be better, if we aban- doned the idea of assistance and pacification whether there is any gain t0 be expected and settled for subjugation, regarding South from Competitive boosting of rates. Viet Nam as an enemy country. The sheer numbers of these separate "That's what we did in Korea, Germany news stories seems to me to add a new and Japan. Can you honestly deny that the dimension to the news itself. results you see now in those countries are I ask unanimous consent to have better than anything we have reason to ex- printed in the RECORD at this point ex- am? the way things are going here in Viet cerpts from articles published in the Wall Still ailLtn `1.rsome new political cri, throwing the country into such a turmoi, that the United States would withdraw. Barring some such development, the pres- ent trend seems clear. It is toward indefinite occupation by an American force of hundreds of thousands of men. ONE INTEREST RATE RISE BRINGS ON ANOTHER Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, sometimes when one reads about tight money or is shown an index of average charges in interest rates, it has a rather cold, abstract, and impersonal flavor. This is not so for those who are having to face their bankers and listen to the in- terest demands which the bankers make, not necessarily because of their cupidity but because of their inability to do other- wise because of the lack of reserves sup- plied by the banking system. For some time now attempts have been made to control the expansion and growth of the economy through mone- tary measures, that is to say, tight money, higher interest rates, and a ra- tioning of credit. When the news of increasing interest rates occupies large parts of the financial journals, those people who read them tend to skip over them; and, of course, many people are not regular readers of the financial journals so that they are unaware of the day-to-day happenings. The Wall Stret Journal undertakes to keep its readers advised of significant money market changes, and from the last week of June, I have collected the fol- lowing examples of monetary policy at work. Note that these include some Increase in interest paid as well as in- terest asked since the spiral goes on and on. These items are essentially head- lines, or a selection of a key sentence from a number of stories. Note, more- over, that these are not one story but literally scores of stories from which these disturbing headines have been taken. The point which I wish to make is that interest rate rises begun at one point tend to spread throughout the economy- that one rise here prompts another rise change everything. But an Administration There being no objection, the excerpts official told a group of Congressmen recently, were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, "If anyone had said a year ago that we could as follows: do what we're doing now without China's EXCERPTS, WALL STREET JOURNAL, JUNE 27 coming in, I'd have said he was crazy." Dime Savings Bank of Brooklyn, the na- Another possibility is that the toughening tion's second largest mutual savings bank, American military blows at last will break will pay a 5% annual divident rate-up down the enemy's will to continue the war, from 4%2--on regular savings in the quar- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 July 12, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE and guidance in drafting this Resolution and for pointing out the real necessity for such action. As is so often the case, unless someone stands up to speak in defense of an impor- tant issue, often times it continues down the same path with little or no attention. In this case Senator McGovE* raised his voice, from the call of his t f and it will be sometime e bbe]~ear will l fully ly realize all the benefits to er from his actions on THE PRESIDENT'S DECISION Mr. MILLER. Mr. President, in the July 6 issue of the Washington Post there was an article by Joseph Alsop en- titled "The President's Decision," which also fits the same philosophy expressed in the editorial I placed in the RECORD, explaining the rationale behind the stepped-up bombing of North Vietnam. I ask unanimous content that the article be printed in the RECORD at this point. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: THE PRESIDENT'S DECISION (By Joseph Alsop) The President's decision to intensify the bombing of North Vietnam, so long antici- pated, has been warmly welcomed by. the country. The first public opinion tests have already been taken, and they show an over- whelming majority behind Lyndon Johnson on this occasion. This will surprise a lot of people here in Washington, because this is the place where criticism of Presidents reaches the highest decibel level. But in reality the opposition to his Vietnamese policy is largely restricted to a sector of the intellectual community, a sector of the press, mainly on the East Coast, and a small minority in the Senate. Being very vocal people, the critics are ex- tremely audible; but they do not speak for the voters. Among the voters, as many earlier public opinion tests have clearly shown, there was mounting disquiet before the recent bomb- ing decision. But the disquiet mainly arose from the appearance of aimlessness inflicted on the President's Vietnamese policy by his repeated concession to his exceedingly vocal critics. This has now been cured, with the result above-noted. Ironically enough, the new bombing deci- sion might not have been taken, or might at least have been further deferred, if it had not been for the powerful contribution of the people who most loudly deplore It. In the Anal round of the interminable argu- ment in the White House, a very great role was in fact played by the political intel- ligence concerning the North Vietnamese as- sessment of the war. The message of the intelligence was both clear and well buttressed with facts. It in- dicated that the North Vietnamese leaders still count on winning the war in South Viet- nam, not in South Vietnam, but in Wash- ington, precisely as the Vietminh won their war against the French-in Paris, It indicated further that whenever this reliance on a failure of American willpower began to be questioned, it was invariably strengthened again by another speech by Senator WAYNE MORSE of something else of that sort. Thus the need to show that the United States really does mean business was one' of the three principal factors in the President's decision. Another factor was, of course, purely mili- tary. Bombing the fuel stores was the ob- vious, indeed the only logical, response to the increasing North Vietnamese invasion of South Vietnam, which has reached the point of a nearly complete Northern takeover of the Communist war effort in the South. Furthermore, dispersal of the Northern fuel stores was beginning, which made the response fairly urgent. Finally, the main obstacle to the decision was removed by the restoration of compara- tive political stability in South Vietnam. The bombings would have been made much earlier, perhaps, if it had. not been for the political troubles in the South that began in March and continued for so many long weeks. Given these factors, it is hard to see what the President's opponents really want him to do. Quite aside from the facts that trying to win is the usual thing to do in a war, there is no evidence at all that any of the opposition's proposed solutions have the smallest relation with a practical situation. Negotiations have been persistently re- fused by Hanoi, quite largely becauseof the false encouragement given to Hanoi by the attacks on the President by the critical mi- nority in the United States. Even the dissident Buddhist, Thich Tri Quang, has publicly denounced the slightly different proposal of Senator ROBERT KEN- NEDY that negotiations be sought with the Vietcong and that places in the government be offered to Vietcong leaders. No South Vietnamese of the smallest stand- ing, however much opposed to the govern- ment of Gen. Nguyen Cao Ky, has either called for immediate negotiation with Hanoi, or has endorsed Senator KENNEDY'S halfway house. Nor has any South Vietnamese of any standing, including all those who tried to overthrow the Ky government, shown the smallest inclination to join the Vietcong. By any rational test, the position in South Vietnam ought therefore to be clear to every- one. As to the position in this country, It is only necessary to look at the most politically sensitive group In Washington-the 77 Demo- cratic freshmen in the House of Representa- tives, who must seek reelection in November. The head of the freshmen's Eighty Nine Club is from the old Isolationist heartland, southern Indiana; and his district was almost continuously represented by Republicans from 1940 until 1964. Yet Representative LEE HAMrLTON says, "I support the President without qualification, because I think he's right, and that is what my people want, too." Among the more left-wing, Democratic members of the Eighty Nine Club, there is a sprinkling of members like the Club's able vice chairman, Representative PATSY MINK of Hawaii, who says, "I support the President's policy, but I would like to see more done to get negotiations'-whatever that may mean. Careful checks in fact reveal no more than two or three of these 77 Democratic fresh- men who may take an overtly critical line on the stump in the autumn. You could have no stronger confirmation of the post decision test of public opinion. CONGRESS SHOULD APPROPRIATE $110 MILLION FOR SCHOOL MILK PROGRAM THIS YEAR Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, I was deeply disappointed that the Senate Appropriations Committee saw fit to ap- propriate only $105 million for the special milk program for schoolchildren for fiscal 1967. This was $3 million less than the Senate appropriated last year. It would permit a 5-percent increase in the rate at which the Federal Government reim- bursed the states for program expenses but it would not fully restore the 10-per- cent cutback in the reimbursement rate that was necessitated this year by the lack of sufficient funds. 14541 Furthermore it would take no account of the increase in the school age popu- lation. If this increase accounted for a proportionate increase in school milk program participation, an additional $2 million would be necessary to take care of additional participants. Finally the $105 million makes no allowance for pro- gram expansion. I am carefully exploring the advisa- bility of asking my colleagues, 67 of whom cosponsored my bill setting a $110 million floor under the milk program for fiscal 1967, to amend the agriculture appropriations bill on the floor -of the Senate to provide $110 million for the program. This is no reflection on the magnificent work Senator HOLLAND has done in behalf of the program, both in the Senate Appropriations Committee and the Senate Agriculture Committee. It is merely an indication of my concern lest the schoolchildren of America be shortchanged in any way. RESOLUTION PROPOSING A U.S. FISHERY POLICY FOR THE EAST- ERN NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN Mr. MAGNUSON. Mr. President, con- cern continues in the Pacific Northwest over the continued fishery offshore by a growing fleet of vessels from the Soviet Union. Many of our citizens are con- cerned over the security aspects of the' Soviet appearance, others are aware of the dangers to the fishery stocks in the adjacent sea, ;some of which our fleets are not harvesting. In Seattle, Wash., recently, four of the major fishery organization representa- tives made a thorough study of the prob- lem and agreed to a "U.S. Fishery Policy for the Eastern North Pacific Ocean." Mr. President, I commend these or- ganizations for their interest in the problem and recommend that the policy be a matter for close study by the Mem- bers of this body. I ask unanimous consent that the resolution be printed in its entirety at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the resolu- tion was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: A RESOLUTION PROPOSING A U.S. FISHERY POLICY FOR THE EASTERN NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN Whereas both Inshore and high seas Ash= ing off the West Coast of the United States holds great potential from the standpoint of economic activity for United States citizens as well as from the standpoint of providing needed food, and Whereas this potential if it is to be fully realized requires the implementation of a sound fisheries policy by the United States so as to encourage expansion by the U.S. fishery industry into hitherto unexploited fishery stocks, to provide for an adequate conservation program for all stocks of fish so as to maintain their productivity on a permanently sustained yield basis as far as is practicable, and to assure the protection of existing fully developed fisheries so they may not be unnecessarily harmed during any expansion into new fisheries, and Whereas this policy is most urgently needed now that large numbers of foreign fishing vessels are operating on the high seas fishing grounds off the West Coast of the United States: Be it therefore Approved For Release 2005/06%29 :, CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 14542 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- SENATE July 12, 1966 Resolved, That the undersigned organiza- tion urge the United States government to take the following action to protect all stocks of fish found off the West Coast of the United States: 1. Pass immediately pending legislation to extend U.S. jurisdiction over fisheries from the present three miles to twelve. 2. Initiate efforts as soon as possible to se- cure extended jurisdiction beyond twelve miles through international agreements wherever adequate protection of fisheries re- sources off the United States cannot be se- cured otherwise. 3. Continue efforts to secure international recognition of the abstention principle for the protection of fully developed and uti- lized fisheries such as those of salmon and halibut. 4. Press for efforts to prevent depletion of stocks of fish off our shores not covered by the abstention doctrine such as ocean perch, bottom fish other than halibut, hake, an- chovies, etc. This should be based upon the terms of the 1958 Geneva Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Re- sources of the High Seas and' should be pressed against all foreign fishing, irrespec- tive of whether or not the countries involved in such foreign fishing are si natories to the Geneva convention. 5. Monitor the operations of all foreign fishing off our coasts to provide the basis for an immediate protest If such fishing appears to endanger the continued maximum sus- tained productivity of the stocks fished. The United States government under this rec- ommendation and the precedent set by the 1958 Geneva Convention on Fishing and Con- servation of the Living Resources of the High Seas, should contact the Soviet Government and ask that government to provide scien- tific proof that continuation of their pres- ent fishing off our shores will not deplete the stocks of fish being taken to levels below that of maximum sustained yield. 6. Make immediate contact with the gov- ernments operating fishing vessels off our shores with the aim of minimizing or pre venting international incidents involving loss of gear, vessels and lives, and be it fur-. ther Resolved, That copies of this Resolution be sent to all Senators and Congressmen from the Pacific Northwest States and to all ap- propriate government agencies. ASSOCIATION of PACIFIC FISHERIES. SEATTLE, WASH. DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION. SEATTLE, WASH. -FISHING VESSEL OWNERS ASSOCIATION, INC. SEATTLE, WASH. NORTHWEST FISHERIES AmocmTION. SEATTLE, WASH. keep pace with the expanding workload which constantly faces it. So that other Senators may give this matter their attention, I ask that the text of the resolution be entered in the RECORD, at this point. There being no objection, the resolu- tion was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: RESOLUTION (Passed by board of directors, Texas and Southwestern Cattle Raisers Association, June 18, 1966, at Wichita Falls, 'Tex.) Whereas the cattle industry of the South- west has benefited greatly from the work of the Packers and Stockyards Division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture; and Whereas the activities regulated by this division have increased greatly without com- mensurate expansion in personnel and travel budgets; Therefore, be it Resolved, That the Directors of the Texas and Southwestern Cattle Raisers Association go- on record as favoring a $200,000 increase in division funds awaiting the action of the Congress and that appropriate officials be so advised. PRESSURES GROW IN MONEY MARKET Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, our mil- itary commitment in Vietnam is not alone escalating these days. Interest costs throughout the land Are also on a high-speed elevator upward. The sky- rocketing cost of money and the unprece- dentedly tight state of the Nation's money markets are part of the hidden cost which-as individual householders and as a nation-are paying for this ex- panding "dirty little war." As H. Erich. Heinemann reports in today's New York. Times : There is nothing in sight ... that would. promise relief from the pressure for higher interest rates.... Rapidly rising interest rates have not only raised the cost of everyone's borrow- ing-from the Federal Government to the teenage car buyer. They have not only made the risk of a downturn in cor- porate Investment-the engine of our prosperity-a clear and present danger. They have not only reduced the home- building industry, which is utterly de- pendent upon borrowed funds, to its most depressed state in years. They have also set off a rate war between sav- ings institutions and a political war be- tween the agencies responsible for the competing groups of such institutions. In his New York Times article, Mr. Heinemann reports that the Continental Illinois National Bank & Trust Co. stated in its most recent bond letter: These pressures [for higher rates] finally appear to have taken hold in the last few weeks and the brakes have begun to screech. The question now seems to be: "Who will be hurled through the windshield." Mr. President, I submit that it is the American economy, and its unmatched record of growth, stability, and prosper- ity, which is about to be hurled through the windshield into financial distress and economic dislocation due to the reckless and uncontrolled escalation in interest rates and monetary tightness. - I ask unanimous consent that the ar- ticle in New York Times for July 12, NEED FOR EXPANSION OF FACILI- TIES OF THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS DIVISION, DEPART- MENT OF AGRICULTURE Mr. TOWER. Mr. President, cattle raisers in my State are concerned over the need for expansion of facilities of the Packers and Stockyards Division of the Department of Agriculture. Just the other day I received a copy of a resolution passed by the board of directors of the Texas and Southwestern Cattle Raisers Association in support of an increase in funds for the Division. The secretary and general manager of the association, Mr. Joe S. Fletcher, pointed out in a letter to me that it is imperative that the Division be a strong, efficient organization. To that end, as he points out, it is important that the funds made available to the Division "Pressures Grow in Money Market," by H. Erich Heinemann, be printed in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: PRESSURES GROW IN MONEY MARKET--BOR- ROWING'COSTS CONTINUE To MOUNT AS IN- CREASE IN THE DISCOUNT RATE Is AWAITED- TREASURY BILLS AT HIGH-FEDERAL FUNDS TRADED AT RECORD LEVELS--CHARGES TO BOND DEALERS RISE. (By H. Erich Heinemann) The money market was on tenterhooks yes- terday, waiting for the Federal Reserve to raise its 41/2 per cent discount rate. The common assumption was the short- term interest rates have soared so far above 41/a per cent that the money managers now have no choice but to bring their own lend- ing rate in line with interest charges In the free market. The discount rate has been at 4V2 per cent since last Dec. 6. Meanwhile, heavy upward pressure on interest rates in the following areas con- tinued in what one banker called a "wild, - swinging market." For the second week in a row, the yield on United States Treasury bills-"the closest thing to cash"-surged to an historic high. Three-month bills were auctioned at an aver- age rate of 4.876 per cent, and six-month bills went at 4.999 per cent. These rates were up from 4.731 per cent and 4.915 per cent, .respectively, the week before. At least one major finance company, Wal- ter E. Heller & Co. of Chicago, increased to 5% per cent the rate that it pays on un- secured notes that it sells directly to In- vestors for all maturities from 30 to 270 days. Previously, the Heller Company had been 51/2 per cent across the board-a rate that it is continuing to pay on paper from five to 29 days. For the second business day in a row, a substantial volume of Federal funds trans- actions-interbank loans of temporarily sur- plus reserve funds-took place at a record level of 53/4 per cent. NO RELIEF SIGHTED Government bond dealers, also for the second day in a row, had to pay up to 61/2 per cent in order to obtain funds from. major New York City banks, and there were rumors-which were denied-that further increases were in the works in the rates that New York City banks charge on loans secured by stock market collateral-so-called brok- ers' loans. A 6 per cent rate on brokers' loans has be- come fairly general within the last day or two. In analyzing the situation, money-market specialists could see nothing in sight yester- day that would promise relief from the pres- sure for higher interest rates and correspond- ingly lower prices for fixed-income securities. The Continental Illinois National'. Bank and Trust Company observed in its latest weekly , bond letter that "the cumulative pressures of an ever-expanding economy, working against broad and spreading mone- tary controls designed to slow the expansion, finally have culminated in a severe money pinch." "These pressures," the bank added, "finally appear to have taken hold in the last few weeks and the brakes have begun to screech. The question now seems to be- 'who will be hurled through the windshield?"' Argus Research Corporation, an Investment advisory concern, said that "the scramble for cash in the past couple of weeks has reached a stage only very rarely experienced in this country during the 20th century." Assuming no sudden break in Vietnam, commented S. F. Porter in her widely read bond letter, Reporting on Governments, a Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 14544 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R00040009001-u5~ 1~ 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE y ROSTOW RIDING HIGH IN ADMINISTRATION AS THE ROCK OF JOHNSON'S VIET POLICY- HELD SAME STRONG VIEWS UNDER KENNEDY (By Chalmers M. Roberts) Before an audience of foreign journalists recently, President Johnson heaped so much praise on Walt Whitman Rostow that the Presidential aide seemed, in the words of one of the visitors, to puff up "as proud as a peacock." Rostow has reason to be proud and he has reason to be as happy as a bureaucrat can be. His long-time tough recommendations for the Vietnam war are now Johnson policy. As far back as June, 1961, Rostov was say- ing that the kind of "operation run from Hanoi against South Vietnam is as clear a form of aggression as the violation of the 38th parallel by the North Korean Army in June, 1950." In October, 1961, after a visit to Vietnam, Rostov backed a recommendation by Gen. Ph. D. from Yale. A Rhodes Scholar at Ox- ford and a wartime major in the OSS, he was a professor of economic history at the Massa- chusetts Institute of Technology from 1950 until he came to the White House. Schlesinger has aptly called him an "eco- nomic historian turned social philosopher." In 1959 Rostov wrote what the London Eco- nomist called "the non-Communist mani- festo," a series of lectures which became a book on "The Stages of Economic Growth." Some critics said his manifesto was as rigid as that of Marx (whom he once dubbed "a city boy" to explain Communist agricul- tural failures) because Rostow divided all the world's nations neatly into five stages of development. But Rostov survived that blooper as he has survived the Siberia of State's Policy Planning Staff, the criticism of his economic theory, the scoffing at his ebullient prose, his hawk-like proposals and all the rest. Last week Rostov was one of three of- ficials dispatched by President Johnson to Los Angeles to sell the Administration's story on Vietnam. And characteristically, it was Bestow who did most of the talking to the sometimes skeptical governors and ap- parently to good effect. For sue reasons there is not much time anyn;Pr f r tennis or swimming W$it Ii ostow, a fellow who has come a 1 g rom Oxford and MIT. LIKES TO PHILOSOPHIZE BOMBING OF MILITARY TARGETS Nothing delights the chunky Rostov, eyes NEAR HANOI AND HAIPHONG beaming intensely through metal rimmed glasses, sleeves rolled up and hands clasped Mr. MILLER. Mr. President, the lead behind his head, then to lean back in his editorial in the Air Force Times of July chair and philosophize. A lot of this sort of 13 clearly focuses attention on what was private talk later turns up on the lecture involved in the recent order to bomb platform or between hard covers. The relative performance of India and military targets near the Hanoi and China "may very well determine the outcome, Haiphong areas. of the ideological struggle for Asia." (1955) I think it speaks for itself. "Communism is a technique for seizing I ask unanimous consent that the edi- and holding power in sick societies." (1967) torial, entitled "The Bombings," be "Doctrinally, Marxism is increasingly placed in the RECORD. viewed by the young as a voice from the There being no objection, the editorial past, not as a guide to the present and the future; and Communism, as a technique for was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, organizing either an advanced or an under- as follows: developed society, is increasingly perceived [From the Air Force Times, July 13, 19681 as inefficient and reactionary, as well as pro- THE BoMDINGs foundly inhumane." (1962) The loud protests against American bomb- "This debate within the (Attit)Aaing of military targets near Hanoi and Hai-perhaps aues i n that tshe coungreatest y has Constitutional hon reveal more about the protesters than question that et ourselves up been involved they do about the U.S. attacks. in since we set ourselves up in the 1780," The same voices continue to remain silent Maxwell Taylor that an American military task force of perhaps 10,000 men be sent for self-defense and perimeter security and, if the South Vietnamese were hard pressed, to produce an emergency reserve. That report as much as anything led President Kennedy to take the irreversible steps into the Viet- nam war. In addition, as Arthur Schlesinger Jr. has since recounted, "Rostow argued so force- ibly for a contingency plan of retaliation against the North, graduated to match the intensity of Hanoi's support of the Vietcong, that 'RostOW Plan 6' became jocularly estab- -lished in the contingency planning some- where after SEATO Plan 5.1' It was not, however, until February, 1985, that a new President, Lyndon Johnson, adopted that proposal. And not until last month did the President agree with the Ros- tow thesis that the North's oil supplies should be attacked. In short, Rostow is now in his element. He is without doubt one of the key men Government today, physically occupying the White House basement office long used by McGeorge Bundy before he went off to head the Ford Foundation. Rostov as yet has neither the broad Presi- dential charter that Bundy had nor the power within the bureaucracy that Bundy exer- cised. But, if the Johnsonian compliments mean anything, he certainly is moving in that direction. In fact, it is a case of a return to the beginning for Rostow. It began at the start f the Kennedy administration as Bundy's (1963) "We are evidently at the beginning of the third major effort since 1945 to establish whether or not it is possible for the Soviet Union and the West to live together on this planet under conditions of tolerable sta- bility and low tensions." (1963) That word "tolerable" incidentally, is a Rostov favorite. It is the kind of a word that got him into an ironic fuse early in the Kennedy years with Sen. EVERETT M. DIRKSEN, the GOP leader. Some right-wing Republicans had jumped on reports about a secret Rostov long-term policy paper and DIRKSEN attacked him for "fuzzy thinking" because Rostow was said to believe that the Communists were "mellowing." 0 top assistant. A HORSE LA-UGH In those days Rostov was the long-range This brought a horse laugh from everybody thinker for the New Frontier (some, in fact, who knew Rostov, since his passion for both credit him with first suggesting that sobri- economic growth and anti-Communist guer- quet to JFK when he was a campaign speech rills warfare .has brought him the title of writer in 1960). "Chester Bowles with machine guns." Ros- But when President Kennedy dumped tow went up to the Capitol and convinced Chester Bowles as Under Secretary of State DIRKSEN at al that he was as tough as they in mid-1961, Rostow was shipped over to about the Communists. the State Department to be Counselor, and Indeed he is, though with a higher de- chairman of the Policy Planning Staff. gree of sophistication. It was Rostov and TOO MUCH OF A HAWK? - Jerome T. Wiesner, later to be the Presiden- There he 'produced all sorts of long-range tial science adviser, who told the Russians papers, but many in the Foreign Service in Moscow seven weeks before the Kennedy considered him either something of a inauguration that if they wanted better re- dreamer or too much of a hawk on Vietnam. lations with the United States they had bet- The word got around that he wasn't to be ter release two American fliers without be- d without attempting to bar- , taken too seriously and he seemed largely ing asked an out of touch with the day-to-day crises that gain. Nikita Khrushchev did just that. combat pay and income tax exclusion be- dominate the department. Rostov has been in the public prints cause their vessels are declared to be in com- how- bat zones Once , RotsoW found an outlet for his massive mostly for his quotable prose. . rtin the AF part of the energies in Latin American affairs. In 1964 ever, he pulled a blooper with international The men supporting he became the American representative on repercussions. In Ottawa with President raid do not get the same benefits unless they CIAP, the Spanish initials for the Inter- Kennedy in 1961, he carelessly left behind a are stationed in Vietnam. American Committee for Alliance for Prog- secret memo on which the President had The Communists claim that the AF flights ress. His enthusiasm and optimism bubbled made some -cribbed comments. originated in Thailand. The U.S. and Thai-not variou rvice- this over to the point were-again-many felt he Prime President had iewritbtener angrily claimed beside a raeasons-but there are a 0,000 U.S. se was Unrealistic. To understand Rostow, then and now, one reference to him. The incident put a strain men In Thailand. con did has to know a bit about the man and his on Canadian-American relations, especially originate isr f t some area oats de ssio background. Now 49, he has an A.B. and since Diefenbaker was correct. although the Viet Cong has murdered and kidnapped more than 24,000 South Vietna- mese civilians since 1964. They were silent when the VC bombed the U.S. embassy and killed and wounded civilians. The numer- ous bombings of restaurants in Saigon have claimed more civilian than military lives. The U.S. attacks on the oil storage tanks, clearly military targets, were carefully de- signed to limit civilian casualties. In the U.S. case the object of the attacks were mili- tary supplies. The Communist side's prin- cipal targets were civilians. The protesters are in a peculiar moral position. Particularly galling are the squawks from the British government about the U.S. bomb- ing. Britain disassociated itself with the action, its Prime Minister declared. It seems to us that Britain long ago disassociated it- self with all U.S. involvement aIn Vietnam; it has sent no troops British-owned ships have continued to carry supplies to the enemy. The U.S. decision to go after the military targets on the fringes of Hanoi and Haiphong was long overdue. While we are on the subject of the bombing raids over these flak-heavy targets, we are reminded that there is a significant inequity which needs correction in the matter of combat pay and income tax exclusion. Some of the attacks on the North were made by Navy carrier-based planes of the Seventh Fleet. The support people-me- deck crews, stewards, etc.-get both chanics Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 r ,' July 12, 1966 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE ' ;14543 oc.v.o nquee~e in eanx cream-quite prob- ably the tightest in modern history-should become painfully apparent as the fall upturn in loan demand gets under way. For the money market, the problem posed by the upward pressure on interest rates has a number of complex facets. An increase in the discount rate, some market observers believe for example, would not be an event of major importance in the money market. The discount rate, they argue, has lost much of its former importance as the inter- est rate from which all other rates are scaled. But even these skeptics concede that the dis- count rate does have great psychological im- portance. And they freely admit that the current surge in interest rates and generally price weakness in practically all fixed-income obligations stems from market anticipation that the discount rate will be increased, MISS VELMA LINFORD, DISTIN- GUISHED WYOMING EDUCATOR Mr. MOSS. Mr. President, the dis- tinguished senior Senator from Wyoming [Mr. McGEEJ bad intended to make an insertion in the RECORD today, but was called away from Washington because of the death of his father. I ask unanimous consent that a state- ment be prepared and the newspaper article 1w wished to bring to the atten- tion of the Senate be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the state- ment and article were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows : .l'Y1 TX-ENT BY SENATOR MCGEE My State of Wyoming holds the proud dis- tinction of being the first State in the Union to take the lead in insuring, equal rights for women by passage of the first legislation giving women the right to vote. Wyoming is proud of her record and she is proud of her women. Throughout our his- tory the women of our great State have made distinguished contributions that have not been confined to our borders but to the bene- $t of the entire country, One such outstanding Wyoming woman is Miss Velma Linford. Beginning her Wyo- ming career as a school teacher in northwest Wyoming, Velma was elected to serve for eight years as our State superintendent of education where she made significant con- tributions to both the quantity and quality of education. Today, Miss Linford continues to maintain a career of public service and dedication helping people all across the United States as a special assistant for Project Develop- ment at VISTA. Miss Linford was the subject of a July 10, 1966, feature story in the Washington Post. From the Washington Post, July 10, 1966] ARCTIC VILLAGERS ALL KNOW VISTA'S VELMA (By Elizabeth Shelton) When Western historian Velma Linford wrote her thesis for her master's degree she set out to prove that the beautiful adventur- esses in Rocky Mountain literature had real- life prototypes. She failed. The heroines in the Western novels were invariably fair of face and form, as well as tough and daring. The women in real life were adventurous and tough, but they were seldom beautiful. They won the West by hard work, and most of them were mothers and homebodies. "I was quite perturbed," Miss Linford con- fessed. "The real women just didn't fall into a type." the Wyoming-born redhead who is Vista's expert on rural poverty. Her formal title is Special Assistant to the Associate Director for Project Development. But Miss Linford, a no-nonsense type Westerner who can pluck a discomfiting stay from her waisteline region and toss It into the nearby wastebasket without interrupting the trend of conversation, likes to think of herself as a generalist, rather than a special- ist. Her work is establishing Vista projects in places where the poor have a need for services and welcome a person-to-person relationship with a fellow American willing to serve in the midst of poverty. This farfiung operation Miss Linford has carried on with such peripatetic vigor that the residents of 300 isolated villages in Alaska, some a hundred or more miles within the Arctic Circle "all know Velma," according to a staff colleague. Reaching these outposts to inspect projects being carried out by 61 Vista volunteers is a rugged exercise in circling the tundra or coastline while the bush pilot hunts a land- ing spot and incidentally remarks the where- abouts of a walrus he will tell the villager's hunters about as soon as he puts the rickety little plane down. Developing the Alaskan projects has been one of the most satisfying parts of Miss Lin- ford's job. Poverty there is the most abject in the United States, she observes, and. be- cause of the unusual opportunity to partic- ipate in an emerging culture the volunteers attracted there have a special enthusiasm which she shares. She tells with delight of the good works of young Americans, some hardly out of their teens in the remote, isolated locales. One 20-year-old boy in a village of 122 Eskimos felled trees to build an electrifica- tion plant through Community Action Pro- gram funds, bringing light to help children study during the long Arctic winters. Another improved a village economy by bringing in a generator to operate freezers. The fishermen were able to ply their trade only one month of the year and were sacri- ficing profits for quick sales until the Vista volunteer found a way to extend their mar- keting year-round. An archeology student taught the village elders to read and write so they could draw up council resolutions. The same volunteer taught the Eskimos to read their own language as well as English and further enriched their culture by Christ- mas carols-in Yiddish. Other Vista projects are occupying the attentions of some 2,000 18-to-80-year-olds in all parts of the continental United States and the Virgin Islands. A training program for some of the new volunteers is now being conducted on a Navajo reservation and 25 others are in process elsewhere, some in heavily populous cities where, according to Miss Linford. pov- erty breeds a loneliness even more acute than in the isolated rural settings. One project is in America's oldest city. This Is Akima, N.M., where the Pueblo In- dians built their "S"ky City" from desert adobe before white civilization came to the continent. Miss Linford thinks of Vista as "a new outreach" to the hard-to-reach. "Vista," she says, "is the expression of a need for Americans to actually contribute their talents and energies toward changing things they think should be changed. This is a new outreach that is becoming more understood. I think it will have a powerful effect on hard-to-reach individuals." . She adds that many school dropouts could be kept in the educational system if it were possible to reach their parents in time. "Sixty-eight per cent of the parents were dropouts," she explains her reasoning. "The children drop out because their parents did not see school as offering something their children could profit by." In some of the rural areas and on Indian reservations, parents are loath to educate their children because experience has shown them that educated children seldom return willingly to take up primitive existence with their uneducated parents. Besides helping the boxed-in poor people who need educational, health, welfare and other services, during an extreme manpower shortage in all these fields, Vista is helping the restless and boxed-in young people of the middle class to find focus for their lives. About one-third of them volunteer to stay in a second year after completing a year's duty and about one half of all Vista volun- teers are willing to go wherever sent. Others have a particular place of service in mind, such as Appalachia, or prefer to work in their own hometowns. Miss Linford served eight years as Wyo- ming's elected state superintendent of edu- cation before coming to Washington. De- scended from Mormon homesteaders who went West with Brigham Young, she began her public career as a grade school teacher in Star Valley. During a 20-year fight to win retirement and other benefits for school teachers, it came to her that things are more successfully accomplished on a state rather than local level. Proud feathers in her cap were the estab- lishment of special funds for the educable retarded in every school; programs for the non-educable retarded in every community, braille books and tape recorders for the blind in graded classes, and a state-operated oral school for the deaf. "We brought our children home," she said with a slight tremor in her voice. Previously the state had boarded out Its problem chil?? dren, the deaf, the blind and the mentally retarded. Miss Linford thinks of her careers as an exercise in opening doors, of which her Wyo- ming experiences were one; her Vista ex- periences another. "You asked me whether I missed Wyoming," the author of the textbook, "Wyoming, Frontier State," concluded the interview. "I am just overcome with nostalgia every time I return. But once I am back again, I am involved in a program that is important to Wyoming and is important to the entire Nation." WALT ROSTOW, KEY ADVISER TO PRESIDENT JOHNSON Mr. MOSS. Mr. President, also on be- half of the distinguished senior Senator from Wyoming [Mr. MCGEE7, I ask unanimous consent to have printed at this point in the RECORD a statement pre- pared by him relative to an article about Mr. Walt Rostow, published in the Wash- ington Post of July 10, 1966, and the arti- cle itself. There being no objection, the state- ment and article were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows : STATEMENT BY SENATOR MCGEE The July 10, 1966, edition of the Washing- ton Post carried an excellent article by Chalmers Roberts on Mr. Walt Rostow, a key adviser to President Johnson and one of the most articulate proponents of administra- tion policy in southeast Asia. The article gives an excellent insight into both the man and the policy he espouses so intelligently. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 July 12, 1Y; 66 Approved For Release-2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67BOQ446R000400090013-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE pay and tax break zones. We believe the rules should be changed so AF men support- ing the combat operations in the same way the carrier-based men do should get the same financial breaks. BIG BROTHER Mr, LONG of Missouri. Mr. President, it seems that everybody is against wire- tapping, bugging, and other forms vasions of privacy-subject to certain ex- ceptions. The Senate Subcommittee on Administrative Practice and Procedure is attempting to determine what, if any, exceptions should eventually be written into law. Art Buchwald, writing in the June 19, 1966, issue of the Washington Post, has, in a humorous vein, pointed out some of our problems. I ask unanimous consent to insert, at this point in the RECORD, this article en- titled "Still a Few Bugs." There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Washington (D.C.) Post, June 19, 19661 STILL A FEW BUGS--A PRIVATE EYE Is ALL FOR AMERICAN PRIVACY-WITH A FEW EXCEP- TIONS (By Art Buchwald) Anyone Who has been keeping up with Senator EDWARD LONG'S' invasion-of-privacy hearings is outraged to discover how much bugging and wiretapping has been going on in the United States. It appears that nobody is safe any more from the "big ear" and it Is hoped that some legislation will be passed architect to supervise all future Capitol soon to protect the rights of the American citizen. construction and renovation. Such pro- I discussed this subject with Sampson pawls will effectively prevent the further Klutznick, a private detective who assured desecration eatthe Of abour usive noble hands Federal st u - me that most private detectives were as much against bugging as their victims. He George Stewart. said, "They should pass strong. laws making The measures introduced by the able it a crime to bug or wiretap any American Congressmen, Mr. President, are not un- citizen.". like those which I myself sponsored in ""O course, ro sue' l I said. "Of f we'll have to exempt the FBI, the first session of this Congress, and I because they must tap wires and bug peo- am, of course, in wholehearted agreement ple to find out who the criminals and Com- with the goals which they were designed munists are in the United States." to achieve. The sizable expenditures I ss so" which we annually apropriate for Capi- ue h 14545 ward P. Morgan, and certain newspaper articles and editorials relating to the pro- posed extension be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the material was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS, Washington,D.C., June 27, 1966. Hon. PAUL H. DOUGLAS, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR DOUGLAS: The American In- stitute of Architects is deeply concerned that proposals for the extension of the West Front have been approved by the Commis- sion for the Extension of the Capitol. We are inalterably opposed to this exten- sion. We are cognizant that the facilities of Congress must grow wtih the Nation and the increased demands upon the Congress. However, It Is patently obvious that this one building cannot be continually extended and expanded until it is shapeless and func- tionally impractical. At some time this con- struction must stop. We urge that it be now, while the quality and uniqueness of the creativity of Thornton, Bulfinch, and Olm- sted still remain as examples of our national heritage. The AIA recognizes the state of disrepair and structural weakness that exists and that the West Front must be strengthened. This can be done and the West Front can either be restored or rebuilt without destroying the beauty of proportion and detail that comprise the Capitol's present aesthetic appearance. We ask that you oppose this extension, and urge your support of comprehensive planning for the future needs of Capitol Hill so that these needs can be planned and pro- vided with the advice of an impartial, pro- fessional group constituted to render such service to the Congress. Sincerely yours, MORRIS KETCHUM, Jr., President. EDWARD P. MORGAN AND THE NEWS JUNE 24, 1966.-After the British Redcoats burned the U.S. capitol in 1814 in the War of 1812, Congress had to move to a tavern called Blodgett's Hotel. Presumably this could have served the legislators as a perma- nent meeting place since, as legend has it, politicians most comfortably gather in smoke-filled hotel rooms. Blodgett's had a cloakroom too. Lobbyists traditionally con- tact lawmakers in cloakrooms. So every- thing was fine and dandy. But then some busybody insisted on restoring the capitol building and there has been nothing but trouble ever since. Additions here, altera- tions there; all very unsettling. So I, for one, simply cannot see what the fuss is all about when an ex-Congressman from Delaware named J. George Stewart steps courageously forward and starts to bury all this history under a facade of freshly-cut marble. Nobody, of course, is more eminently qual- ified for this delicate but heroic task than Stewart. He is not now and never has been a card-carrying architect and, as far as I know, never Intends to be one. He does op- erate with the title of architect of the capi- tol and it was under that cover that he exe- cuted-one might even say, murdered-his most famous work, the Rayburn Building, named in travestied memory of the late Speaker of the House. Into this crypto- fascist-style mausoleum, jestingly referred to as a Congressional office building, Stewart poured all of his supervisory talents and by some reports, considerably more than one hundred million dollars of the taxpayers' money. The result, naturally, was a happy combination of superlatives-the ugliest and most expensive edifice of its kind ever erected on the face of the earth. Perhaps the hap- , g Yea "And we should let the Internal Revenue tol construction and renovation as well Service continue bugging Americans so we as a recognition of the prominent place know who aren't paying their taxes." which these structures occupy as ele- "Naturally," I said. "And then we can't forbid the Post Of- ments of our national heritage makes the fice from listening in to find out what peo- acquisition of a skilled, knowledgeable, pie are writing dirty books." and technically competent architect an "That's for sure," I agreed. indispensable necessity. Furthermore "And the CIA can't be included in the the elimination of unnecessary extrava- law because there has to be counterspying. gance and the protection of the esthetic And the local police must be permitted to purity resulting from such professional bug college campuses to find out what the supervision are most necessary. "I would t are up f Vigilence and discretion demand that " wohate foor for local police not to," I we assign such projects to none save the said. "Then it's also very important that big most expert and masterful of the archi- companies be allowed to bug other big com- tectural profession. panies." Men who would lay their unhallowed hands "What for?" on these sacred structures- "To find out if they're being bugged." "I hadn't thought of that." A recent editorial observed- "And;' he said "I don't think the law are indifferent to the glorious episodes of our should apply to private detectives looking past, ignorant of the architectural merit of for evidence in divorce cases." some of the greatest buildings of the world "You don't?" and Indifferent to every consideration of "Of course not. It's very important that national pride and honor. a divorced person have a solid case against Surely no expert knowledge should be the guilty party, and, how could we get it compromised in the historic undertak- devices?" we didn't use all the latest scientific cn. de"icet?" I ask unanimous consent that a letter "But you would only bug the guilty party?" from Morris Ketchum, Jr., president of "That's correct. An innocent person the American Institute of Architects; a would have nothing to fear." transcript of a radio broadcast by Ed- "What other exceptions would you make in passing a strong anti-wiretap law?" "Politicians should be allowed to bug one another during a political campaign, and unions should be allowed to bug manage- ment, and management should be allowed to bug the unions, and salesmen could still bug customers, and members of the board of education should be allowed to bug teachers." "Shouldn't anybody be permitted to listen in on clergymen?" "Only if the clergymen are involved In civil rights or anti-Vietnam war demon- strations." "If those are the only exceptions," I said, "I think we could live with the law." "The law should have teeth in it," Klutz- nick said, "or pretty soon the American peo- ple will have no privacy at all. Don't you agree?" "One hundred per cent," I said. "Hey, is that a microphone in your martini?" "Yes It is," he replied. "My, job is to bug anybody who voices any opinion on bug- ging.l. 'But that's a violation tional rights." "Maybe so, but how else are we going to know who is for the law and who is against it?" PROPOSED EXTENSION OF THE WEST FRONT OF THE CAPITOL Mr. DOUGLAS. Mr. President, it is indeed gratifying and encouraging to note that a number of my distinguished colleagues in the House have approved in principle my bill providing for the ap Approved For Release 2005/06/29: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 14546 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- SENATE Jul -121, 1966 pleat note of all was the fact that it cost man of the Commission of Fine Arts, to Vice [From the Washington Post] only approximately twice as much as Stewart President HUMPHREY and Speaker MCCOR- MATTER OF FACT: OUR FOREFATHERS' GLORY originally said it would. With such a monu- MAc e. It goes like this: ment around, the Great Society doesn't need "The Commission of Fine Arts has asked (By Joseph Alsop) urban renewal, it needs a camouflage corps. me to express its grave concern over pro- The first point to note about the official But now, oh let joy be unconfined, we are posals to alter the West Front of the Capi- Architect of the Capitol is that he never has about to be treated to another sterling Stew- tol. The Commission, established by Con- been, is not now, and never will be an archi- art contribution to the beautification of gress in 1910 to advise the President and tect. Washington. At a starting price of just $34,- the Congress on matters of art, feels that J. George Stewart is an amiable, aging Re- 000,000-a steal, really-he is going to stick this is the single most important architec- publican congressional lame duck from Dela- the west front of the capitol out a maximum tural'proposaj of the 20th Century. We have ware, who was named architect of the Capitol of 88 feet so it can house more offices, two therefore studied the matter deeply and come by President Eisenhower. This was an ap- big auditoriums, two cafeterias, four dining to the conclusion that to erase this great pointment almost as whimsical as the Em- rooms seating more than a thousand people historic facade would be a national tragedy. peror Caligula's famous nomination of his and an information lobby to take care of the "The Capitol as a whole Is one of the great favorite horse to the Roman consulship; and tourist explosion. The sheer beauty of the buildings of the world, comparable in size It has produced far more practical results, all Stewart plan is that in one fell swoop, or in and shape to St. Peter's in Rome and St. of them perfectly godawful. what may come to be know as one swell foop, Paul's in London. While it finally cannot The worst of the damage might have been it will destroy the capitol's historic vestiges- rank with either of them in architectural prevented by the normal operation of the the last traces of the original work of Thorn- purity, It has a style and a quality that is laws of pork and patronage, if the Architect ton, the West Indian doctor who won the unique. of the Capitol did not have such a remark- $500 first prize for the building's first de- "It has been developed piece by piece as able gift for attaching himself to speakers sign; the embellishments of Latrobe, the this Republic grew from a small nation to of the House of Representatives. Unfortu- contributions of Bulfinch, the famous Boa- become the greatest world power. And that nately, however, at the very first leaders' ton architect, and the terrace with its ma- history is reflected in the architecture of the meeting held by President Kennedy, Sam jestic flights of steps designed by Frederick West Facade. In the process of growth the Rayburn's opening remark was: Law Olmstead. You don't hardly get a demo- Capitol has taken on a patriotic symbolism "Now Mr. President, I want you to keep lition job like that anymore. that scarcely needs to be pointed out. Un- on George Stewart. He's a good man, and I Indeed, while he's at It, Stewart might well questionably it is the single most important want him to stay on the job." consider razing the whole structure, includ- building in our great Republic, expressive of Stewart was kept on, and therefore the ing his other handiwork, the east front, our noble ideals and great achievements. To. great speaker and doughty old patriot is now which cost $22,000,000, the customary double preserve it, other lesser needs such as those cruelly commemorated by the Rayburn of his beginning estimate. Then the space for additional office space, restaurant facili- Building. It cost the taxpayers close on $130 could be used for a parking lot, which Wash- ties, and tourist accommodations must be set million and is certainly the most monstrously ington needs anyway and the Congress could aside for a larger goal. ugly, ludicrously wasteful and vulgarly move down the street to Union Station and "The Commission has made a very careful t ntious structure erected anywhere In the thus save that little-used landmark from study of the Congressional proposal with Western world since Joseph Stalin ruthlessly destruction. special attention to the engineering report inflicted his Palace of Culture on the de- An alternative plan, which I like better, by the Thompson and Lichtner Co. On our fenseless city of Warsaw. would be to let Stewart run rampant on a own we have sought the advice of an inde- After Speaker Rayburn died, one of Presi- field of bad taste across the entire face of pendent structural expert with considerable dent Kennedy's cherished projects was the L'Enfant's famous city. Thus with his experience in analyzing old buildings. Our replacement of the Architect of the Capitol ravenous appetite for eating places, we could report indicates that it is feasible even tho with an honest-to-God architect. But the hope to see a Stewart restaurant revolving difficult, to restore the original walls or par- President was killed before the deed was around the tip of the Washington Monu- tially rebuild them In their present loca- done. And in very short order thereafter, ment to rival the space needle in Seattle. tion. We strongly support this view ? .. non-architect Stewart apparently managed The lethal hydroplane races could be shifted In the meantime the Commission believes to attach himself to Speaker JOHN McCoR- from Hains Point to the reflection pool, the that it is of the greatest importance that MACK. Lincoln and Jefferson Memorials could be no steps be taken which might make in- So J. George Stewart's fell career continues. converted into public restrooms and shoe evitable the vandalism of the Capitol's his- In fact, it is grimly appropriate to remember shine parlors. The cherry trees around the (Grit and beautiful West Facade." him at this holiday time dedicated to the tidal basin would of course be cut down be- The second statement is from Senator founding of this republic. For the great cause they obstruct the view that billboards JOSEPH CLARK, Democrat, of Pennsylvani% non-architect is now planning the destruc- would supplant. And it might be a good who said: - tion of one of the last architectural memen- Idea to Install a couple of gas pumps on the "I desire to solicit the interest of Senators toes of the rounding Fathers, the superb Pennsylvania Avenue side of the White in a bill which I am thinking about intro- Bulfinch-Latrobe West Front of the Capitol House. Their revenue could help finance ducing to designate the U.S. Capitol build- itself. the Stewart master plan. Ing as a National Historical Landmark. As It is an extraordinary record. It began. Don't be so timid as to think all this is im- I understand it, this would have the effect of with the new Senate Office Building, which possible. The Commission for Extension of making it a Federal offense for anyone to seemed Impossible to surpass in extrava- the U.S. Capitol, including those well-known deface, mutilate or in any other way dese- gance, impracticality and tastelessness until aesthetes and city planners, Vice President crate it. It would apply to all persons, the Rayburn Building was constructed. HUMPHREY, Speaker MCCORMACK and Minor- including architects, nonarchitects, and Then followed the extension of the Capitol's ity Leaders FORD and DIRxsEN, has already nominal architects. East Front, with the machine-made marble blithely gone along with Stewart's west front "I come from the Commonwealth of Penn- exterior and the new interiors that appear job. All he needs now is money. He figures sylvania where we have many national land- to have been imitated from the costly men's he can easily wheedle that out of the Con- marks. We do not like to see our landmarks rooms in the Moscow subway. The Rayburn gress with the argument that the front's an- 'improved'-we are quite happy with them Building followed. And now the West Front cient sandstone blocks are crumbling and a the way they are. If someone proposed to is to be extended, and this time, instead of an jet's sonar boom may bring the whole build- 'beautify' Independence Hall in Philadelphia exact though machine-made copy as on the ing down, dome and all. After careful study, with the addition of a modernistic hot-dog East Front, we are to have improvements on the Fine Arts Commission reports the capitol stand--or even a colonial reproduction. of a Latrobe and Bulfinch by non-architect can be repaired, restored and its priceless hot-dog stand-we would strenuously object. Stewart. architectural history preserved, all at a trifle "I do not believe we should do less for If you seek the answer to this mystery of of the cost of Stewart's folly. That would be the U.S. Capitol building. It, too, is a na- mounting horror in Stewart's lair in the the sensible way to do things. But thank tional shrine. It is as much entitled to pro- Capitol basement, you find a kindly though Heaven that's not the way things are done tection against vandalism-whether from occasionally testy old gentleman, with an in this crazy, wonderful town. Ask George high places or low-as Independence Hall antique congressional air about him. If you Stewart. or Old Swedes' Church. ask him if there is any committee of design This Is Edward P. Morgan saying good night "It is true that we do not have our own to pass on his projects, he answers cheerfully from Washington. Architect at Old Swedes' Church. This is that "ft's usually confined to the leadership." an advantage. Not only does this save us There is more to it than that, of course. [From the Washington Daily News, June 24, a great deal of money-it has also tended to Just how the pork and patronage work in 19661 have a beneficial effect on th t e t Today's guest editorial is'really two edi- torials on the same subject, namely the , proposal by the Architect of the Capitol to alter the building's west Front. The first involves a letter from William Walton, chair- s a e of pres- this case is not immediately apparent. But THE CAPITOL ervatlon of this fine old building. This is there is an enormous amount of both, as all the more reason wh the U S U S y . . . Capitol, the price tag on the Rayburn Building indi- which does not have this advantage, should cates; and it can hardly be accidental that begiven the protection which the bill which the same architects' names seem to appear I am contemplating Introducing in the Sen- again and again as Stewart's "associates," ate would afford." One imagines them all together, cheerfully To all of which we add a fervent "Amen I" opening their meeting with the famous Approved For Release 2005/06/29: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 ? Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 July 12- 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -HOUSE Klores yesterday confirmed this, saying he Representative JAMES C. CORMAN, tionalist movements. It is clear that the felt a new organization would be "more Democrat, of California. subversion of this entire area is the representative" than a private foundation Representative WILLIAM D. HATHAWAY, Working of the Communist-controlled controlled by people who donated private Democrat, of Maine. government at Hanoi. After these brief- Hefunds. said Shriver had no policy against Representative EDWARD J. GURNEY, ings we toured the Pearl Harbor naval family foundations but said: "Private foun- Republican, of Florida. and port complex, and departed early dations are filled with all sorts of problems." Representative TIM L. CARTER, Repub- on July 4 for Clark Air Force Base in Mores also said he thought at least one lican, of Kentucky. the Philippine Islands. member of the board was a migrant worker. Representative ROMAN C. PUCINSKI, At Clark we were met by Lt. Gen. The name he mentioned, Mrs. Myrtle Mae Democrat, of Illinois. James W. Wilson, commander of the Walker, was not listed by Hardeman as a Representative BASIL L. WHITENER, 13th Air Force. After a tour of our sup- director last week and does not show up on Democrat, of North Carolina. ply and logistical areas, as well as the the secretary of state's records of original Representative GALE SCHISLER, Demo- Air Force Material and Tactical Aircraft directors, Herdsman said he is busy expanding lnern- crat, of Illinois. we went to the Clark Air Force Base bership of the CAF board, and said three Representative ROBERT B. DUNCAN, Hospital, which is the air evacuation hos- new members have been added within the Democrat, of Oregon. pital for all of our Asian forces. past month. He listed these as Ray Houston, Representative HASTINGS KEITH, Re- This hospital is one of the most com- executive director of the Community Wel- publican, of Massachusetts. plete medical complexes I have ever in- fare Council; Jack Ross, assistant professor Representative JOHN B. ANDERSON, spected. Col. William Hernquist, a most Florisociology at dada; and and Ben en the 'University Fraticelli, nive executive of south director Republican, of Illinois. qualified surgeon and administrator, of personally conducted us through the op- But the Florida Christian Migrant Ministry. The Members represented virtually personally and recovery areas and describ- But for nearly a year CAF was run entirely every section of our country, both poli- by op- by Hardeman, Mansfield and Garrett. tical parties and are decorated combat ed in detail the operations of his air Last month a new group, Migrant Legal evacuation and treatment facilities. The Services, was formed to handle a $806,000 veterans of World War II and the Ko- ability to move a wounded soldier from U.S. grant to provide legal help to migrants. rean war. We departed Washington, the battlefield to this hospital in 5 hours Original officers were Garrett, president; D.C., on Saturday, July 2, and returned was clearly an indicator of the top effi- Hardemari, vice president; and Mansfield, late last night, Monday, July 11; upon ciency of our battlefront and medical secretary-treasurer. our return we went directly to the White concepts of today. In effect, instead medical Since then the board has been expanded, House and reported to the President and with Garrett moving up to chairman of the to the Speaker of the House in the Cabi- trying to bring the hospital to the front board, Mansfield to president, and Hardeman net Room. The U.S. Air Force provided lines, we bring the frontline wounded to becoming a regular board member, our transportation and coordinated our the hospital in a matter of hours. Never Tabulation of grants, contracts to date in itineraries at the different countries we in our history have we provided such CAF-CFS operation visited. At this time I would like to ex- complete medical care and treatment to press our appreciation for the very effi- our soldiers. The attitude and morale 1965-66 1966-67 cient and professional assistance ren- of the men at Clark made me proud of dered by Maj. Gen. Lawrence S. Light- our American fighting men. community action fund migrant ner, U.S. Air Force, and Col. John M. Without exception, the men I spoke program________ ______________ $626,410.00 $610,706 Community action fund migrant Chapman, U.S. Air Force, throughout the with were fully confident of our inevita- legal services________________ ___________ 806,099 entire tour. ale victory in Vietnam and more impor Community action fund migrant tant, they were fully aware of the reason VISTA conference_____________ 4,900.38 ___ Prior to our departure during the week for fighting in this faraway country. Communitraini ce foundation June 27-July 2 we were briefed at sepa- 1316, 635..50 (2) We departed Clark at about 6 p.m. and VISTA trai in g-ie ------------ rate times by the Defense Department, Costs hr headed for San Son Nhut Airbase in tr rafiining ning thro ougghh: : the State Department, and by our AID July21,1165 -------- $27,336.23 ------------ ___ Officials in Washington. We departed Saigon and arrived on Tuesday evening, July 28 to Aug. 24__ 15,910.55 July 5. Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge Aug.25toSept. 30__ 36,320.31 __---------- --------- Andrews Air Force Base at 6 p.m. on Oct. Ito24---------- 17,069.41 ____________ __ ______ Saturday, July 2, and arrived at Hickam met us at the airport and welcomed us Total____________ 96.035.50 947,945.68 1,416,807 Air Force Base, Hawaii, shortly alter South Vietnam. We had a very short Grand total__________________ 2,364,752.89 midnight. We met with the acting com- Fourth of July having crossed the inter- mander in chief of our Pacific Forces, Lt. national date line shortly after we de- l Estimated total, since records beyond Oct. 24, 1965 Gen. Paul S. Emrick, U.S. Air Force- parted Hawaii. not open to inspection. Estimate made on basis of state- ments by Director Thomas P. liardonl, that some Admiral Sharp was in the Eastern Pa- Early Wednesday morning we met $220,000 beyond the $96,635.50 has b pad under the cific at the time-Gen. John K. Waters, with Ambassador Lodge at the American present fixed-fee contract of $1,00 pe tr ' . Training commander in chief, U.S. Army, Pacific; Embassy and received a comprehensive cycle for each volunteer is 6 week 2 Contracts not yet negotiated fo is a od. Gen. Hunter Harris, Jr., commander in detailed analysis of the situation from chief, U.S. Air Force, Pacific; and Adm. the Ambassador. He pointed out that we were beginning to achieve a mililtary commander in chief Johnson L R , , .. oy REPORT ON TRIP TO SOUTHEAST ASIA BY SOME MEMBERS OF CON- U.S. Navy, Pacific, and their respective victory but that in this era of "modern" staffs. These senior U.S. commanders war, a total victory would have to be ac- GRESS conferred with us for about 4 hours de- companied by an economic and political The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under scribing, in detail the constitution, dis- victory as well. The Ambassador previous orders of the House, the gen- position, mission, and operations of the stressed that the Ky regime had been the tleman from New York, [Mr. MURPHY], U.S. Forces in the Pacific. longest continuous government in the is recognized for 60 minutes. The emphasis was placed on southeast country since the Diem era. Ky was Mr. MURPHY of New York. Mr. Asia and concentrated on the activities now in his second year as Premier and Speaker, with the approval of President in South Vietnam, North Vietnam, Laos, had stabilized the Vietnam Government. Johnson and with your approval, the Cambodia, and Thailand. The interrela- The Vietnam Government with the following Members of Congress jour- tionship of all of these countries was advice and the assistance of the allied neyed to the Southeast Asia area to in- stressed politically as they related to ter- forces had instituted social, economic, vestigate the U.S. military, economic, rain, culture, and the political and eco- political, and administrative reforms and political commitments: nomic factors. It was clearly pointed throughout the entire country. Representative JOHN M. MURPHY, out at this conference that the control Under the revolutionary development Democrat, of New York. and direction of subversive forces acting program, it was evident that the people Representative JOHN J. GILLIGAN, ' not only in South Vietnam but in Laos were making impressive strides toward Democrat, of Ohio. and Thailand as well were centered in complete stability. Facts related by the Representative TENo RONCALio, Demo- Hanoi. Ambassador left no doubt as to the crat, of Wyoming. There were no illusions that the South Hanoi direction and conduct of the main Vi t e - Representative THOMAS C. MCGRATH, Vietnamese or the Laotians or their force Vietcong units and North -Democrat, of New Jersey. guerrilla activities were independent na- namese units in the country. The South Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 Vietnamese never were the least bit at- tracted to communism and have been resisting this aggression for 20 years. According to the Ambassador's esti- mates the Vietcong have about 24 per- cent of the population under 'their domi- nation while the RVN government has secured about 54 percent of the popula- tion. Living in a sort of twilight zone are 22 percent of the South Vietnamese people. A cursory examination of Viet- cong tactics rev@@ais that more than 10,- 000 Vietnam civilians have been killed by the Vietcong in their wholesale terrorist tactics to intimidate the country into! submission. In May of 1966, the lives of 115 officials were added to this list, many of them schoolteachers and hamlet leaders who were valiantly trying to educate and lead their people in a democratic life. The fourth dimension of this war was clearly portrayed by the Ambassador when he remarked that we are not only fighting a war, but we are trying to build a peo- ples' confidence in themselves and to win an economic struggle as well. Our Army can catch the whales- He said- but the terror fish requires a finer mesh to our net of tactics. Proceeding to the political situation, the Ambassador stated, and later in the day Premier Ky confirmed, the intention of the Vietnam Government to have the September 11 elections to the constitu- tional convention. This election will be the second in Vietnam history and once the convention draws its constitution, the people will then have the opportu- -nity of participating in the democratic way of life. It must be stated, however, that the Army in South Vietnam has been the nationbuilder in a laa~rrd which was dedicated to people in a srfrall fain- fly concept instead of a nation as we know it. The Buddhist Institute headed by Thich Tom Chow has agreed that this is a good election law and this ac- tion confirms the fact that the much publicized Buddhist uprising and demon- stration represented only a small minor- ity of Buddhist thought. Although there have been demonstrations against the government by different factions, at no time has any of thees factions evidenced a pro-Communist line of ;philosophy. Further at no time has any minor or significant political figure or leader in South Vietnam defected to the Commu- nist side. Ambassador Porter charged with the economic development of Vietnam de- scribed his efforts in working with the Government of `South Vietnam. At all times the junta shows cohesion and willingness to take advice from the U.S. to work in three areas simultaneously, namely to run the war against the Vietcong, to re- structure the country, and to institute an electoral system. He stated that more and more people are feeling that their Government is worthwhile and not just a tax collector. The pacification program which is now operating in areas already swept by the Army consists of political action teams which go into the hamlets and villages to create peoples action elements to struc- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE July .12, 1966 .true and stabilize the local governments. This ambitious program envisions 25,000 men per year in 59-man teams per ham- let going to 40,000 men per year in 1967 with the express mission of restoring economic and political life to areas form- erly terrorized by the Vietcong. Charles Mann the U.S. AID Director described in detail the assistance ren- dered to the South Vietnam Government. This program is the most complox ever undertaken by the United States. This year alone, this amounts to $650 mil- lion-part of a total of $21/2 billion since 1955. The 842 Americans in this AID program are dedicated to working with the Royal Vietnam Government on ac- tivities to support and strengthen their Government and to reestablish the fiber and fabric of government. These activities are in the fields of police, public works, with the emphasis on port development, road construction, rural electrification, city powerplants, and provincial electrification. In field operations over 2,800 projects have been undertaken on the local level. In the field of public health the total of 1,000 indigenous medical doctors which must serve a population of 16 million people are augmented by 33 medical health teams in the country at present with 20 of these teams being U.S. military per- sonnel. The Republic of China Govern- ment has sent medical teams to help. This area of public health needs greater emphasis. Preventive health with a program to conquer malaria and other diseases as well as the communicable disease prob- lem are also being attacked by medical teams. This is part of a worldwide medi- cal assistance program titled "Project Vietnam." Refugee coordination is most vital to insure proper disposition of 1 million ref- ugees in the last year alone. One-half million are still in temporary shelters. Fifteen international voluntary agencies are helping this refugee program. The International Red Cross as well as West Germany and New Zealand are partici- pating in this program to aid the 40,000 to 50,000 new refugees per month. The agriculture program is aided by a 200-man American staff. Key.problems they are solving are the land reform programs to insure land tenure con- tracts, proper land and crop pricing, and farmer services to foster cooperative de- velopments and farm credits. The police program has 5,000 men cur- rently in training. The very simple op- eration of maintaining checkpoints to apprehend smugglers, Vietcong infiltra- tion, and other subversives 'will be expanded. Education is of course basic to the de- velopment of this country as pointed out earlier, teachers are a target of the Viet- cong terrorist activities but nonetheless the hamlet school program has seen 6,000 classrooms completed with 2,000 having been constructed through: a self- help program. Seven million textbooks have been printed and 14 million are programed by 1968. These texts were written by Vietnamese teachers. Sec- ondary school education is being em- phasized and teacher training is a nec- essary part of their program. Over 5,000 have been trained to participate. In the vocational education field, 20 rural trade schools have been programed with 7 already completed. Five technical in- stitutions to teach 1,000 students are completed. On Wednesday afternoon, Gen. Wil- liam C. Westmoreland conducted a de- tailed briefing on the mission and oper- ation of MACV-Military Assistance Command Vietnam. Our participating allies under his command are the Re- public of Korea, Australia, New Zealand, Republic of China, Republic of the Phil- ippines, and Thailand. - General Westmoreland traced the es- calation of the war by the North Viet- namese. In 1961 they used battalion strength organizations. By 1963, six regiments of Vietcong were identified in the field. By 1965, 14 Vietcong regiments and 9 North Vietnam Army regiments were identified. Today 13 Vietcong and 14 North Vietnam Army regiments, co- -ordinated by 5 division headquarters are operating against the South Vietnam Government and Allied forces. The effects of allied military opera- tions against the Vietcong and North Vietnam Armies was a source of pride to everyone. The cumulative effects of U.S. Air Force, naval carrier-based aircraft, B-52 bomber units, naval gunfire, and the U.S. combined Army operation in the field, completely reversed the course of the war. The problem of winning the peace must, however, be carried on simultane- ously. The Vietcong terrorists are oper- ating in the 43 Provinces, 235 districts, 2,558 villages, and 13,211 hamlets of this country. To drive this subversive ter- rorist organization out of this grassroot area is going to take a long time and very strong effective action by the RVN Government. The answer is the revolu- tionary development program which I referred to earlier. On Wednesday departed Tan Son Nhut Airfield-the main airport at Saigon-which is busier than Washing- ton National and Kennedy Airports com- bined, and flew to Cam Ranh Bay about 250 miles north of Saigon where the second largest port is located. We have enlarged the unloading capacity :here from about-1,000 short tons daily to 8,000 short tons daily. We have also establish- ed a bulk oil terminal. The logistical problems appear to be solved although there is a wait for some dry cargo ships in unloading. Much lighterage is used for discharging ocean vessels, unloading in some cases is done on a selective basis. This port will be a $300 million facility when completed and will be a big asset to the economy of the country when the war is over. In the bay were two power ships for electricity, an ammo storage ship, air- craft ordnance maintenance ship. Four dry cargo ships were being unloaded and four were waiting for berths. All in all this is a very huge but efficient port oper- ation. The' Cam Ranh Bay Airfield is an example of an "instant airfield"; 90 F-4 fighters and 90 large cargo transporters move in and out daily. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 I It". Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 July 12, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE The runway is aluminum and they carrier doing about 30 knots, the tail have the usual aviation facilities. Com- hook caught the first arresting cable and bat sorties were taking off and landing we were stopped in about 100 feet. every few minutes. Pilots fly about 200 Capt, Vince Macri, the captain, briefed missions during their 11-month tour. us as to his mission and then we pro- They usually operate in the same area ceeded to inspect this 23-year-old vet- and consequently are experts on the eran of World War II, Pacific action. terrain. This carrier incidentally was the last one We flew to Que Nhon in an Army Cari- to be refitted at the Brooklyn Navy Yard. bou aircraft, a two-engine small cargo The Intrepid has 32, A-4 jet fighter type, and visited the ROK Capital Di- aircraft and 24 A-1 propeller fighter, vision. We received an honor guard dive-bomber-type aircraft. She launch- which was the best I have ever seen. The es and receives back 10 planes every South Koreans are really a model unit. hour. The launch is by steam catapult They have adapted to the country com- and one plane goes off every 30 seconds. pletely and have formed a personal bond I spoke with the returning pilots in the ir t th th with the South Vietnamese. They have been most effective in combat operations. Twenty-four thousand troops are in Vietnam now and by November 1 they will add another division which will bring their force to 48,000-plus. They have been very effective in civil action programs. Many of their soldiers are farm boys and have greatly assisted the Vietnamese in improving productivity. We flew to An Khe in the interior to the 1st Cavalry Division. This is our air mobile assault division. We observed several air strikes which were in process along our route of travel. This division actually has units in combat over a 300- mile'area and can still support itself be- cause of its great mobility. The "Air Cav" were experiencing difficulty in try- ing to make contact with the Vietcong. The Vietcong seemed reluctant to close with U.S. units and more interested in attacking Royal Vietnamese Army units. From here we flew to the 1st Brigade of the 101st Airborne Division at Dakto, about 18 miles from the Cambodian bor- der. This was the unit which was in- volved in the heavy action during which Capt. William Carpenter had called the air strikes in on top of his unit. Car- penter described this action as necessary because the Vietcong were 15 yards from his men hidden in the bamboo under- growth. The 101st are astride a main infiltration route and consequently in action all the time. The area is in- habited by the Montonyard-mountain people. Very primitive, the men were in loin cloths and the women are bare breasted. Obviously, the coastal areas are rich and the target of the Communist action. We returned to Saigon via the Pluku Airfield, about a 400-mile trip. The strongest impression of the day was our base development and use of air and mobility of our units. These three di- mensions of the war are going well. The fourth we are obviously going to have to concentrate on, and that is to restore confidence in the minds of the Vietna- mese people-confidence in themselves and their Government. a e readyroom and they told me armament of rockets, machine guns, Napalm, and 500 to 2,000 pound bombs are very effective against the Vietcong units. Pilots know the terrain inti- mately and they felt they were effec- tively supporting the ground combat elements. The Intrepid launches 90 strikes per day, about the same as the 12th Fighter Wing at Cam Rahn Bay airfield that I described earlier. The carrier is in every respect a floating, mobile, airbase. We flew from the Intrepid to our II F FORCEV Headquarters at Long Binh and were briefed by Maj. Gen. Jonathan 0. Seaman, the commander. He com- mands the Southern U.S. Forces which includes the Saigon area and runs to the Cambodian border. He has Vietnamese as well as United States, Australian, and New Zealand forces under his command. He is very confident of our efforts and showed graphically on his situation maps the definite turn to our side that the war has taken. We traveled to the III Corps Headquarters of the Royal Vietnamese Army and were briefed by the deputy commander, General Tinch, and then visited the 25th Royal Vietnamese Divi- sion. The Viet soldier impressed me with his toughness and firm purpose. They have been fighting for 20 years and want to end this war as quickly as possible. They showed some very re- vealing tonnages of rice and other sup- plies captured from the Vietcong. They now control the rice-producing areas and it is obvious that the Vietcong are hard pressed in the productive areas of the country. Traveling by helicopter now, we went to Cu Chi, headquarters of the U.S. 25th Infantry Division-a real operation, Maj. Gen. Fred Weyand, commander. His base camp is right on top of the town that was the main Vietcong headquar- ters. It took a tough fight to drive the Vietcong away, but he now controls and secures the entire north flank of . the Saigon corridor. Every day this is proceeding effectively Using B-52 strikes, armored artillery, and it is endorsed by more schools under and our vastly superior firepower, the construction, more commerce on the Vietcong is forced to break contact when roads, and more importantly by defec- they engage U.S. forces. The problem, tors from the other side. as usual in this area, is to restore confl- On Thursday we departed Tan Son dente to the local village and hamlet Nhut Airbase. We boarded a Navy two- people. Confidence in United States and engine eight-seat plane, the C-lA the Royal Vietnamese Armies to report T.rader" and headed for the U.S. Air- the Vietcong terrorists in the villages so craft carrier Intrepid which is on duty that action can be brought to bear in the South China Sea. The landing against the terrorist. This is being done was a real thrill. We came in with the on an increasing basis. On Saturday we traveled by Army Caribou aircraft to the 5th Special Forces Group Detachment at Phuoc Long Province. A very fertile valley due to the Song Be River which flows through the Province. The special forces work closely with the provincial police and the revolutionary force units to pacify the area of 68,000 population. About one-half are under control of the Vietcong and no production has been forthcoming from a large rubber planta- tion in the Province. The provincial chief hopes to resume production in the near future. That afternoon we went to the 1st Logistical Command installation in Saigon and toured the port, pier, ware- house, and distribution facilities with Maj. Gen. Charles W. Eifler. The port congestion of Saigon has been relieved both here and at Can Ronh Bay. A port authority under the con- tract of the Vietnamese Army will co- ordinate all logistical movements both civilian and military in the near future. It was evident that our logistical base has been carefully and soundly com- pleted and is efficiently supplying the needs of our military and economic operation. For example, of 97,296 items on requisition for. 7 days, 83,539 had been filled; 95 percent of aircraft requisitions were filled. We departed Vietnam and arrived in Dong Muang Airbase, Bangkok at 6 p.m. on Saturday night and were met by Maj. Gen. Richard G. Stilwell, commander, of the U.S. Military Assistance Com- mand, Thailand. We proceeded to the U.S. Embassy and were briefed by the Charge d'Affaires and General Stilwell. The U.S. concern for the development of Thailand can be readily understood by analyzing the past development at Sat- tahip which in effect is the creation of a new port city to meet the increased eco- nomic development of this entire country of 31 million people. New highways, railroads, pipelines, and airfields are proceeding with increased American em- phasis. There is a real threat in the northeastern areas of this country along the Laotian and Cambodian frontiers. Hanoi-trained terrorists are employing the same terror tactics of ruthless mur- der and intimidation of town people as in Vietnam. The Thai Government is meeting this threat with American as- sistance and advice. We departed Bangkok Sunday after- noon for Taipei on Taiwan arriving at 7 p.m. We met with Ambassador Walter P. McGonnaby and Vice Adm. William E. Gentner, on Monday morning and were briefed on the military, economic, and political situations. Our AID program has been such a success here that we are phasing out our program and the For- mosans will be completely on their own. The threat of Red China is always pres- ent. Numerous clashes at sea and in the air occur in the straits between the mainland and Formosa. At 10 a.m. we met with the Vice President, C. K. Yen and then had an hour conference with President Chaing Kai-shek. Chaing Kai-shek expressed his admi- ration for the U.S. role in southeast Asia, stating we were there in the nick of time. He felt that a negotiation would have to Approved For'Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 F 14686 take place in Vietnam before any powers I have not had an opportunity to-pre- would withdraw their armies. He fur- pare a detailed and formal report, but ther stated that the problems on the will do so within the next few days and I mainland would prevent any Chinese in- hope to bring to the attention of the model for the full enterprise system in Asia. Booming industry, agriculture, and educational systems were evident from the people on the streets. Mr. Speaker, I support President Johnson's policy in Vietnam and com- mend him for his continuance of the policy supported and enunciated by our last five Presidents. That we as a na- tion will honor our international agree- ments and that we will fight if necessary to prevent the totalitarian agressors from overcoming our, allies, The President has committed and I support his com- mitment of American troops in Vietnam an the frontier of freedom. The American people should fully understand that we here in the citadel of freedom are secure only as long as the frontier of freedom is protected. Every patriotic American has an obliga- tion to support our commitment and the voices of doom should be hushed lest they give aid and comfort to an enemy that may misgage our national purpose. Mr. GALLAGHER. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. MURPHY of New York. I am delighted to yield to the gentleman from New Jersey. Mr. GALLAGHER. Mr. Speaker, as a member of the Foreign Affairs Commit- tee, I would like to compliment the gen- tleman from New York on his splendid report on Vietnam. I join with my col- leagues in paying tribute to him and the other Members who just returned from Vietnam on their factfl.nding tour. Mr. Speaker, the gentleman from New York [Mr. MURPHY], was one of the most outstanding soldiers ever to serve his country. He won a distinguished service cross in Korea among other dec- orations. He is now demonstrating as a Member of Congress a capacity to prove equally valuable to his country as a statesman. It is a rare combination for a man to be both an outstanding sol- dier and an outstanding statesman but these qualities JOHN MURPHY Possesses. I would like to compliment too my col- league from New Jersey, Congressman MCGRATH, who went to Vietnam, for his excellent service to our country. A graduate of Annapolis fully trained on the ways, of war but who has dedicated himself to the search for peace and the security of our country. To all the Members of this Vietnam study mission, Mr. Speaker, please allow me to extend my admiration and grati- tude for a job well down. Mr. MURPHY of New York. Mr. Speaker, I thank the gentleman from New Jersey. Mr. WHITENER. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. MURPHY of New York. I am happy to yield to my colleague. Mr. WHITENER. Mr. Speaker, I would like to join my colleague, the gentleman from New York [Mr. MURPHY] in this report on our visit to Vietnam and to the Far East, CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -HOUSE July 12, 1966 that it is unfortunate that they cannot have the experience which the gentle- man from New York and the other 12 who joined us on this mission have had in seeing firsthand what is happening. As I have thought about the matter from a firsthand rook, I think we do have a very serious problem. Assuming that, we could accomplish a total military vic- tory today, I am afraid that we would not have gained much unless we had time to proceed with the civil action program which will mean so much in the preser- vation of this country, its freedom and its independence in the future, with the orientation of the Vietnamese mind to- ward the village and the province, and not toward the nation, which is a serious problem. I would urge the U.S. In- formation Agency and other bodies to give attention to some unsophisticated approaches to those problems. I think, too, that we cannot delude the people of our own country by thinking that this is purely a military action. The people of that area have, I believe, a great potential if we cooperate with them in technological and particularly agri- cultural training programs. So, while I do not want to transgress upon the gentleman's time unduly, I do think that this mission of which we were a part, having had the opportunity not only to talk to people, but to see our troops in combat, and actually almost to be a part of it, gave us a picture which we would hope in some way we could convey to more of our people, because America is not willing to turn down. any people who are craving for freedom. I know that if the people had the facts, they would feel as the gentleman from New York, the gentleman from Wyo- ming, the gentleman from Ohio, the gentleman from New Jersey, the gentle- man from Illinois, and the others of us felt-that we have an opportunity in Vietnam, not only to restore freedom to that country, but also to preserve free- dom in all of southeast Asia and, in doing so, to strengthen freedom here at home. I thank the gentleman for yielding to me, and I look forward to having an opportunity to develop some of my thoughts more fully after a few days. Mr. MURPHY of New York. I thank the gentleman from North Carolina. I would like to point out at this time that in 1941, when the gentleman was a member of the House of Representa- tives of the State' of North Carolina, he resigned his seat so that he could enter the service of our country. During that critical period in World War II he be- came a gunnery officer, and finished, the war as a lieutenant in the Navy. Having served overseas in the defense of our country, he is the voice of experience when he speaks about our armed services. Mr. PUCINSKI. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. MURPHY of New York. I yield to the gentleman from Illinois. Mr. PUCINSKI. Mr. Speaker, I asso- ciate myself with the remarks of the gentleman in the well and the gentleman from North Carolina in thanking .the Mr. Speaker, were were gratified that we were given an opportunity by the President and the distinguished Speaker of the House of Representatives to make this important mission, which we feel has great significance for the Congress as well as for the people of the country. As the gentleman from New York has said, while we .must be cautious in our optimism, we have every reason to be proud of the efforts that are being made in Vietnam. We have many iridicia of the progress that has been made as we look about that country. One of the in- dicia is the information which was given to us with reference to the defections under the Chu Hoy or open arms pro- gram that is now in effect in Vietnam. In the entire year of 1965, we were told that there were only, 11,124 Vietcong de- fectors whereas through June of this year 9,200 such defectors have shown up on our side, . May I say also, as the gentleman has said, every American should be proud of the .young men we have sent to 'Vietnam for the courageous and patriotic attitude that they have. Those of us who visited' with the marines in the northern part of 'Vietnam and we were told when we visited with General Westmoreland in Saigon and with Ambassador Lodge and when we visited the II Corps area and visited with General Larsen-wherever we went, whether we talked to Marine, Navy, or Army commanders, we were told that never in their experience, either World War II or in the Korean war, had they seen America's young men perform with such zeal and devotion to duty as they had experienced in this military conflict. I would like to quote briefly several statements that were made to us by Gen- eral. Larsen who has command of the U.S. forces in the II Corps area of Vietnam. One of the things he said was, this: Every month things look a little hit better. then with reference to the criticism that some have made with reference to the alleged shortage of ammunition, General Larsen had this to say and I quote: We have never been short of any type of ammunition at any time we needed it. Then, in discussing the situation of our acquistion of intelligence data, General Larsen said: Vietnamese civilians are now making much valuable information available to our side. This, as the gentleman from New York knows, is another indicia of the -effec- tiveness of our effort. Then I thought it was significant that General Larsen had this to say: I think President Johnson has fought the smartest war, psychologically and militarily of any war that we have engaged in during my lifetime. So when we hear this criticism from the beatniks and the peaceniks and, if you please, the so-called doves, I think Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 'July 12, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE 14687 President and the Speaker of this House There is no question that the helicop- utional assembly has been elected on Sep- for making it possible for 14 of us to ter has seriously challenged the old tember 11 the people of Vietnam not only make this trip to Vietnam and to see axiom that one must never get one's self will have a constitution but also will have firsthand the situation there. involved in a land war In Asia. This an elected constitutionally formed gov- I -congratulate the gentleman from may have been true many years ago. ernment, which will take over the reins of New York CMr. MURPHY] who served as Thank God, our Defense Department government in that country. the chairman of this House task force. and our industries have developed the These are all things which point to a He certainly handled himself very well great team that has been able to meet hopeful picture. throughout the trip. It was a great the challenge in Asia. Otherwise this I join my colleagues in cautioning pleasure to travel with him. He con- great territory would have fallen to the against too much optimism. Certainly it veyed the wishes of this House to our Communists. With the aid of the heli- has been a long struggle. The fact re- troops and to the various leaders in a copters, we are making every part of mains that we are today unequivocally manner that would make every Member Vietnam inaccessible to the enemy, winning this war. Our forces have taken of this House proud that he is a Member It is my judgment, from speaking to the initiative. We have denied the ene- of this House. the PW's and those who have questioned my all mobility and all initiative. Mr. Speaker, this has been a very help- the prisoners of war, that the prisoners It may be that more troops will be ful, instructive, and informative trip. of war are reporting their morale' has needed in Vietnam. It may be that more The Members of the House had the op- never been lower. The supply of food is bombings will be needed in Vietnam. portunity to see firsthand the deploy- short. The supply of medicine is liter- President Johnson has properly stated ment of U.S. troops and of South Viet- ally nonexistent. The problems of am- that he intends to give General West- nam troops, the deployment of the Aus- munition are certainly slowing down moreland all he needs. tralian troops and the New Zealand their activities. General Westmoreland will go down in troops, totaling 1 million men. I think the other war is equally im- history as one of the great generals of It is quite obvious the question is no portant. I was very happy to hear the our Armed Forces. The President is longer whether we are going to win the gentleman from New York mention the ready to give to General Westmoreland war; the question rather is, How soon peace program there. Too often the whatever he needs to assure total can we win the war? daily headlines we see in the press tell us victory. The gentleman In the well has quite only about the military aspect of the For those whom I have heard question properly stated that we view the progress great challenge that we have accepted whether we have a plan for victory in with caution but with optimism. My in Vietnam. Vietnam, I would recommend a visit to own judgment, in watching the deploy- In fact, a great portion of our forces Vietnam. When they see the spirit of ment of these troops, is that the enemy is being deployed in the pacification pro- our American soldiers and when they see has been so thoroughly pinned down by gram, to secure the hundreds of villages the deployment of our American troops our own troops and our allies that we from the Vietcong terrorism and subver- and when they see the great teamwork, have reason to believe the Communists sion. Through this pacification program, they will understand. There is only one are indeed ripe for a massive knockout developed by our Armed Forces, we are goal, and that goal is victory for free- blow. able to restore local governments and to dom. I believe history will show that Presi- make it possible for Vietnam to be ready I say there is a great tide of freedom dent Johnson's decision last year to slug for self-government. In my judgment, sweeping through southeast Asia, in It out with the Communists in Vietnam, this pacification program holds the key Vietnam, and the victory we are going to rather than to abandon this very rich to our long-range success in Vietnam. have in Vietnam is going to pace that tide and important territory to the Commu- I should like also to take this oppor- of freedom. nists, will constitute the turning point tunity to congratulate and commend our I have every reason to believe that in our 20-year struggle with the Red medical forces in Vietnam. It is a source when victory is ours in Vietnam we shall menace. President Johnson's decision of great hope, of great courage, and of have demonstrated to the enemy that big to bomb the oil depots in Hanoi and Hai- great consolation to all of us to know that wars are too costly and small wars are too phong last week was acclaimed very such teamwork has been developed costly and indeed we can look forward to loudly by our troops as certainly a sign among the Navy, the Army, the Air Force, an era of prolonged peace in this world. that we are moving in the direction of the Marines, and the Coast Guard that To that goal, I congratulate the men total victory in Vietnam. we are able today to move a wounded and women who are doing such an excel- It is my hope that these bombings are soldier from the field of battle to a major lent job in Vietnam. going to continue. It is my hope that hospital installation where he can get I am proud to have been a member of there will be other targets of a military major medical attention in less time than the delegation headed by the gentleman nature that will be bombed. It is my it took during World War II to move a from New York CMr. MURPHY]. This has hope that Hanoi is going to realize the soldier from the place where he was been one of the greatest experiences of folly of continuing this war in Vietnam. wounded to a field hospital, for limited my life. Certainly I can appreciate the It is my further hope that we are going care, in an ambulance. Our casualty rate great effort today more than ever before. to hit the powerplants in the area of has been kept down because the medics I congratulate the gentleman for his ini- Hanoi, to totally immobilze Hanoi as the have been doing a truly outstanding job tiative and the effort in putting together great supply depot for the troops that of giving excellent and quick help to our this task force to visit Vietnam. are waging warfare against our own men soldiers. Mr. MURPHY of New York. I thank and our allies in Vietnam. Also, we ought to commend those gal- the gentleman from Illinois. It is quite obvious that the deploy- lant civilians who work in the Agency I should like to point out to the House ment that has been accomplished by our for International Development. They are that the gentleman enlisted in World forces in the relatively short time is as much soldiers as the boys who are car- War II as a private and rose to the rank nothing short of spectacular. Our rying guns. These men in Vietnam are of captain. He also was selected to lead forces have denied the Communists all bringing new dimensions of hope to the a B-29 bombing raid in one of the first initiative in Vietnam. They have denied people of Vietnam and giving new mean- raids over Tokyo, Japan. He was them mobility. It is indeed a source of ing to America's presence there. awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross great pride to all of us who were there to We were very much impressed by our and many air medals in that war. Be- see the high degree of proficiency and interview with General Ky, who assured cause of his past career and experience, efficiency with which our troops are en- us that the elections are coming off on he made a great contribution to the con- gaging in their mission. ' September 11, and who assured us that duct and understanding of the air war I am quite positive that if every Amer- he sees no difficulty in transferring the by the other members of the committee. ican could have the opportunity we have reins of government from a military gov- Mr. RONCALIO. Mr. Speaker, will had in viewing our troops in Vietnam, ernment to a civilian government. More the gentleman yield? their hearts would swell with pride, as important, I place great credence and Mr. MURPHY of New York. I am ours did, in watching our men meet the great hope in his statement that he hopes happy to yield to the gentleman from great challenge. that within 6 months after the consti- Wyoming. No. 110-23 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 14688 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 :-CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE July 12, 1966 Mr. RONCALIO. Mr. Speaker, much as we are aware that a 10-day stay in South Vietnam is hardly time to ,permit a candid appraisal of many of the key issues, it is nevertheless sufficient time to acquaint one with some of the difficult problems in this involvement. First off I want to pay my respects, Mr. Speaker, to the gentleman who has the time for this special order and who was kind enough to yield some of his time to me for this partial report. I believe Mr. MURPHY was an excellent chairman of our delegation and was most gracious in sharing his time with all members of the group. We were at all times free to ask questions of Ambassador Lodge, General Westmoreland, and General Ky. Mr. MURPHY was gracious in his tribute to our leaders and to General Shea of the Republic of Korea. Of course, I was particularly proud and pleased to be a member of his committee, and I am proud to take the floor now to pay trib- ute to my colleague on the way he han- dled this delegation. I am also grateful to you, Mr. Speaker, and to the Presi- defit for having been included in this delegation. I am pleased to have been able to re- port to the President last night at the White House on the results 'of our trip. Many critics of the administration had questions often raised on particular mat- ters. I am convinced a beginning toward an honest answer to these questions was made during the trip. If permissible by the gentleman from New York, I should like to take about 5 minutes to cover these questions and to indicate my an- swers to them. Most critics of the administration limit General Ky's support to the mili- tary, merchants, and upper class, and ask "What is the U.S. interest in South Viet- nam?" At the present time, whether or not a majority of the citizens of South Viet- nam would vote for a continuation of the Ky administration is begging a far more important question. There is no ques- tion at the present time but that a vast majority of the citizens of South Viet- nam desire peace first and foremost. It is in the pursuit of this peace that Gen- eral Ky's administration is doing the most commendable job. Therefore, I be- lieve it follows, Mr. Speaker, most of the people of South Vietnam who are con- cerned with peace appreciate the fact that his leadership is making it all the more possible and all the more soon. He has every belief that there will be widespread participation in the Septem- ber 11 election. Our talks with him, as well as was possible in our short time, convinced me, in any event, that General Ky established a framework of govern- ment upon which we can rely once peace is obtained. Peace must come first and then will come the planning, which will justify one particular administration's election as against another and the adoption of a democratic society by the free people of South Vietnam. There are many disturbing factors, to What is the relationship between labor There must also be concurrent with and the government in South Vietnam? the waging of this war the teaching of We do not know, but we know if this political structures, establishments of modus operandi permits the preserve- political stability, and the constructing tion of these plantations and trees until of physical assets that are being ravaged such time as peace can be restored, we by the enemy. presume there will be a reason to Justify The training of civil police also these arrangements at the present time, continues. Question No. 2 which was most fre- Building of public works, railroads, quently asked by our critics is, ".How free airports, airways, ports, and waterways will these elections be?" continues a vital part of our program We believe there is little question but there. Public health and medical facili- what they will be open to all people ex- ties need more attention and are in need cept the very hard core Vietcong and of immediate and marked improvement. those neutralists dedicated to insurgen- Seventh. "What is being done for refu- cy. It is hoped that all groups of all gees from bombing and battle areas?" religious denominations will participate There is admittedly a crowded condi- in South Vietnam's election of a consti- tion in the hospitals near those areas that tuent assembly. If they do not, it will have suffered war damage. This is not be of their own free will and not be- without full attention of all officials, cause of any coercion by the government. however, and we do believe improvements The exclusion of dedicated Communists in this regard will be made as fast as is in an election in a free country was pro- possible. vided in Greece and other countries that Eighth. "How deep is the anti-Amer- had large Communist groups, and there ican feeling?" is no reason why it should not prove as The burning and ransacking of U.S. successful in bringing stability in Viet- consulates is undeniable nam. proof of anti- Question No. 3 is "What is the attitude Americanism particularly by the militant north- encountered outside of the cities toward Buddhist groups in Saigon and the nn in the war?" We were not long in ern Provinces. The superficial conclu- getting the Ky sion is that anti-Americanism prevails eve the answer answer is to to this be found question. in I the in be- in all South Vietnam, but, Mr. Speaker, answer to question No. 1 above. the problem appeared much more com- Question No. 4 is "What is the attitude p. Time, the plac and circum- of the Buddhists and the students?" It stacatedancfo should be consider red. seems a few militant Buddhists hoped to there is for no the need time factor, explain is that war anti- be be able to establish a theocracy, and in Americanism is one e aspect war any event it is certain they sought to which w wee pecct n t of this her bring about a downfall of the govern- war have to include the with. internal ment. Having overplayed their hand and po'litiscs in this and unfortunately tiers of come to the inevitable result of any politi matters of group who would take such means in religion in South Vietnam. When pol- .time of war, it is doubtful if they will i tfcs and religion are involved in a war again attempt similar strategy, at least in a country which still claims freedom not against the same administration. as the only reason for its existence, there are those who raise anti-Americanism in Fifth. "Do one-third of all U.S. sup- order to gain popular support for their plies go to the black market?" private cause. We also found, Mr. As in all military engagements at all Speaker, that in South Vietnam, it is times, a far too large percentage of sup- easy for the "anti" group to cry "Amer- plies do find their way to the black mar- icans go home" and to find ready public- ket. What can be done about this is an ity channels available; but it is not easy extremely complicated and difficult mat- for the "pros" to shout "Americans ter; we must keep constant vigilance in please stay" and find headlines available the hope that the problem can be at- to their expressions. tacked, the harms remedied, and correc- Concerning the place factor, we Arner- tions placed into effect. icans are exposed to a people still reeling Sixth. "How effective and how wide- from a hundred years of French misrule spread is nonmilitary aid?" and abuse and a good bit of what may Perhaps more effective and more wide- be interpreted as anti-Americanism now spread than anyone really knows in is nothing more than the understandable America. If there has been a failure to resentment of foreigners in their midst, give credit where credit is due, it is in the particularly of some whose marauding tremendous work of pacification and in complexes far overshadowed any desire the civil action programs now un.dertak- to share the bounties of Asian life with en by the South Vietnamese Government whose sweat made them possible. and more and more by the military About circumstances, it is a known fact troops of the United States. Much will that a few anti-American slogans on be said on this particular program, and banners carried by children in a square it is hoped that much more will be done in Saigon may be read by millions of in this tremendous field of assistance in Americans on TV screens. But repeated every facet of South Vietnamese life. expressions of gratitude to allied troops Political action teams are at work. now in may not even come to the attention of the villages and hamlets in a part of official U.S. circles. Anti-American is a their own revolutionary development. catch phrase and is ready made for use These teams are made up predominantly in Vietnam. It is, however, a matter of South Vietnamese trained also by which b d fi it i cgs a n ons. The pI oblem will plantations in South Vietnam. A tax or cadres of South Vietnam in cooperation remain involved because none of the levy is paid to Communists and the with our own Government officials. Ter- South Vietnamese leaders wish to waste French managers still run the planta- rorism is being abated, and much sta- time to define words at this juncture. tions. bility is being brought to the country. We firmly believe that both the Ameri- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67BOO446R000400090013-5 Approved For Release 2005/06/29: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 July 12, 1966 'CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE can officials and the people of South Vietnam are now determined that there is only one decision at the present time and It is to forget the words and to go ahead with defeating the Communists. The peoples of both nations, South Viet- nam and America realize that they have a common responsibility with all of the nations of the free world in this regard. Ninth. "To what extent are the South Vietnamese people participating in this war? More and more the South Vietnamese people are being drawn into the struggle to preserve peace, in the pacifications of South Vietnamese villages and in return- ing the nation to the processes of order. A recent expression of the Armed Forces Council to include all segments of South Vietnamese society is an encouraging step. PERSPECTIVE ON VIETNAM Thus, Mr. Speaker, are the answers to specific questions often raised. What follows touches on the "big picture" our ultimate role as a result of these crucial days. Mr. Speaker, there are a number of valid ways to view the current conflict In Vietnam but some are more valid than others. One point of view comes from the reporting of day-to-day events, a pic ture which is often distorted by dramatic happenings such as bombings, demon- strations, and attempted coups. Of course, these events are of great impor- tance but they are often exaggerated and their significance can be transitory. Instead of emphasizing the isolated events, a broader perspective can be gained by analyzing the war effort in its entirety. It seems clear that there Is no longer a threat of military defeat for South Vietnam, as opposed to the situa- tion about 18 months ago. The Vietcong still control large parts of the country- side but they are extremely weak in the cities. United States and South Viet- namese forces are winning most of the big battles and the Ky regime seems to have found a few sources of hidden strength. THE NLr The National Liberation Front tactic has been an abject failure. The North Vietnamese commanders established the front in an attempt to gain the support of those South Vietnamese .who would not support an avowed Communist orga- nization. It is an old Communist tactic to establish the allegedly non-Commu- nist front, which in reality is controlled by the central Communist organization. But not one prominent South Vietnamese citizen has joined the National Libera- tion Front. Its top executives include an architect and a lawyer, both of whom are considered "mavericks" by their pro- fessional colleagues. Another indication of solid support behind the Saigon government came from the 1065 provincial elections, where over half the eligible voters cast ballots, despite a Vietcong order for a boycott of the elections. The Vietcong have called for several general strikes in South Vietnamese cities but their suggestions have gone almost totally unheeded. It appears the September 11 elections will not be boycotted to any substantial degree. Another way of looking at the war is from the viewpoint of the international political system. The Vietnam war has damaged our understanding with the Soviet Union and France, while compli- cating our policy toward NATO. THE ASIAN VIEW But perhaps the most important per- spective on the war is from the viewpoint of long-term trends in Asia. From this stance, it is clear that the rising power of China must be kept within certain limits, by military means if there is no other alternative, but more preferably by the same diplomatic processes of contain- ment and communication. These proc- esses led to a profound modification of the world outlook of the Soviet Union. Undue conciliatory advances- on our part may not be wise at the present time, since they might run the risk of being interpreted as a sign of weakness in Viet- nam. But we can look forward to and prepare for the day when the Chinese will conduct their policies on a basis of prag- matism, rather than on blind faith in a revolutionary ideology, and will join the responsible community of nations, as the Russians appear to have done. We must keep In mind that there is a dichotomy between what the Chinese seem to be saying and what they seem to be doing. This Is partly due to the im- mense cultural gap separating Chinese leaders from the outside world. The Chinese idea of world guerrilla counter- encirclement may be a compensation for the actual isolation and military weak- ness of China. When viewing the Vietnam conflict from an Asian perspective, it is clear that the region faces a problem which is a recurring one in international affairs. This is the problem of how to handle a rising power in the midst of a number of weaker states. The experiences with Germany and Japan should provide les- ' sons on how not to handle the situation, while our approach to the Soviet Union seems to have been more successful. China has much in common with these other three states-her troublemaking, though motivated partly by defensive intentions, could still develop into a seri- ous danger if wrongly handled, mainly because the` philosophy behind it is so vague and opportunistic. According to W. A. C. Adie, in International Affairs, April 1966: This vagueness Is a function of the fact that Mao has not yet properly conquered China nor organized it as a coherent modern state within definitive borders; he estimates that it may take one ar more centuries to consolidate his revolution. In the mean- while the old confusion between China as a way of life and as a territorial state re- mains; is Mao Caesar, Pope--ter Messiah? It is significant that the message of a contemporary Chinese dance-drama is that Mao is the savior of mankind, as well as of China. Chinese nationalism is motivated by the same revolutionary ideology that once spurred the Soviet Union; its aim may be the same as that of the Japanese militarists who wanted to establish the hegemony of a single state over south- east Asia: it also has certain affinities with Hitler's nazism, arising from simi- lar conditions. As Adie states: Both countries suffered from humiliating defeat and fragmentation of a patriarchal society; this created the need for a mass- nationalist "cement" to turn the "sheet of sand" Sun Yat-sen complained of into a rock. Both idealize mass hysteria and ber- serk fury. In both it is the march that is Important rather than the direction. There is much to indicate that the leaders of other Asian states also see Vietnam from this broader Asian per- spective. Although, with the excep- tions of Thailand, the Philippines, South Korea, and Formosa, the Asian states have not openly professed support for our efforts in Vietnam, there have been reports that their leaders privately back our commitment there. They are glad that someone is fighting the Communist insurgency to keep it away from their borders. THE PROTECTIVE SHIELD In many ways, the U.S. effort in Viet- nam is providing a shield behind which the rest of southeast Asia can develop. The war in Vietnam is providing a diver- sion which keeps China and North Viet- nam occupied and prevents them from interfering freely with peaceful change in the rest of the area. As an editorial in the Honolulu Sunday Advertiser of July 3, 1966, put it: To only buy time can sometimes be worth the price. There are indications that buying time in Vietnam has been worth the price in shielding Thailand. In Eastern World, May-June 1966, Simon Head reports that one consequence of the escalation in South Vietnam has been a reduction of Communist pressure on the other two areas in Indochina most vulnerable to Communist subversion-Laos and north - east Thailand. With the increasing in- volvement in South Vietnam, the Com- munists are unwilling to risk U.S. retalia- tion on a second front. This explains why, in northeast Thai- land, Communist strategy has not yet progressed beyond preliminary stages. There has been infiltration only in a few isolated areas, directed toward estab- lishing "liberated zones" which can be used later as bases for operations on a larger scale. These activities have prompted the Thai Government to embark upon a program of rural development. Rural poverty in the northeast is accounted for by the fact that most families make their living from growing rice in areas totally unsuited for its cultivation. Yields are low because of inadequate rainfall and poor soil. A farmer can rarely increase his Income by producing a surplus-even when he does, it may not be worthwhile to send it to market due to the bad roads. There is no landlord problem in the area-almost 90 percent of the land is owned by the farmers. The fact that the benefits of increased production do not have to be shared with a landlord increases the impact of the reforms and deprives the Communists of their most powerful propaganda weapon. There is enormous scope for agricul- tural development. Even on the unfa- vorable northeast soil, it is possible to treble the annual production of rice by the application of fertilizers and insecti- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 :.CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 14690 cides and the use of higher quality seeds. But the effect of these discoveries has been limited by inadequate supplies of seeds and fertilizers and a shortage of trained agronomists. Authorities have enough resources to operate effectively in only one or two chosen villages. In some of these, extension services have worked well and spectacular increases in production have been recorded. According to Head: But the fact remains that the majority of villages are hardly affected and their continuing poverty will always be a source of potential strength to the Communists. The area in northeast Thailand where the Communists have been most active has been chosen for its suitability as a base area because of its proximity to Ho Chi Minh trail. In some places, it is only 20 miles away. This reduces the problems of supplying and reinforcing a guerrilla organization. This demonstrates further. that the war in Vietnam must be seen from the broader Asian perspective. It is encour- aging that our leaders take this view. PRESIDENT'S VIEW SUSTAINED 11 In President Johnson's 1965 address at Johns Hopkins, he spoke these wise words: Let no one think for a moment that retreat from Vietnam would bring an end to con- filet. The battle would be renewed in one country and then another. The central les- son of our time is that the appetite of ag- gression is never satisfied. To withdraw from one battlefield means only to prepare for the next. This makes it clear that the value of our commitment in Vietnam must be assessed In conjunction with the overall situation in Asia. This determination shows that we must ,continue to pursue our present difficult task of diplomacy in southeast Asia which requires a mix- ture of containment without isolation, firmness with restraint, and tenacity with flexibility. Mr. Speaker, given these guides, it is not too much to hope that within the foreseeable future we may see peace and stability in southeast Asia. If so, the peace of the world will have been secured for the time of our lives and quite possi- bly for the time of several generations to follow. Mr. MURPHY of New York. Mr. Speaker, I would like to point out that at the beginning of World War II the gentleman from Wyoming enlisted in the U.S. Army. The gentleman served with the 1st Division for 3 years and partici- pated in the invasion in north Africa, Sicily, and Europe. The gentleman was decorated many times and is the wearer of the Silver Star. Mr. SCHISLER. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. MURPHY of New York. I yield to the gentleman from Illinois. Mr. SCHISLER. Mr. Speaker, I thank the gentleman from New York for yield- ing to me at this time. Mr. Speaker, along with a number of my colleagues from this House, I have just returned from an inspection tour of Vietnam. I went on this tour to get a firsthand look at both our military and nonmilitary activities there. CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE July 12, 1966 I would like to make a few brief ob- servations about our trip and what we saw. First of all, I want to mention that we stopped in the Philippine Islands on our way to Vietnam. We visited our troops at the Clark Air Force Base Hospital. This is one of the most modern and up- to-date hospitals it is possible to have. Just about every day a planeload of wounded are brought in from Vietnam. These wounded troops receive better medical attention than we have managed to provide in any other war. :[ am sure the helicopter is one of the contributing factors because of the speed with which our wounded can be evacuated. Clark Air Force Base also sends a planeload of wounded just about every day back to hospitals based in the United States. This excellent followthrough on medical care for the wounded is an indication of the kind of treatment that our troops are receiving. Once we arrived in Vietnam, I was im- mediately impressed by the esprit de corps of our troops. They know they have a job to do. They want to clean up this situation as soon as they can. They are determined to do the job. I had an opportunity to visit with many troops in the field. I was espe- cially pleased to be able to talk with many GI's from Illinois. The equip- ment they have is more than sufficient for the military tasks they are carrying out. I ate with troops in the field. Their food is as good as any I had dur- ing my 4 years in military service. I am happy to report, Mr. Speaker, that our military supply situation will be even better when Saigon's port facilities are improved. We are also building port facilities at Cam Ranh Bay, and this ad- ditional unit will further improve the supply situation. As we all know, Mr. Speaker, the Viet- cong have won no major battles recently. We have captured thousands of tons of rice that the enemy had stored and hid- den away in secret supply area in South Vietnam. We have been capturing many, many North Vietnamese. Many of the enemy troops are defecting, which is a development that will improve the situ- ation by demoralizing the North Viet- namese leaders and troops. Our field commanders in Vietnam told me that our American troops there are superior to any we had in World War II or the Korean war. Our Air Force and Navy pilots are doing an outstanding job of air support for our ground troops. I think that Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge is the right man for the job. I was very impressed by Gen. William C. Westmoreland. He has surrounded himself with the best generals and staff members available in our time. I went to Vietnam, Mr. Speaker, to make a grassroots, personal inspection of the military and nonmilitary situation there. Having made this inspection, I am satisfied that our troops are doing an outstanding job, that our military and nonmilitary funds are being spent wisely and to the best advantage, and that we are well on the road to victory. I would like to make mention of our nonmilitary efforts in South Vietnam. Because of my previous experience as a teacher, I was especially impressed by the progress being made in elementary and secondary education. Projects by the Agency for International Development and the Department of Agriculture will do a great deal toward creating a society which will develop an immunity to the promises and false blandishments of communism. This is peaceful, construc- tive activity being carried on by our Gov- ernment agencies, and I am delighted to know that alongside our military efforts, we are waging another war-the war against poverty, hunger, and disease. I would like to note, Mr. Speaker, that our efforts in Vietnam appear to have the support of the people there. The Viet- namese people seem to be more than glad that we are there. Mr. Speaker, I would also like to say something about our own attitudes here at home toward this war in Vietnam. Our GI's are very conscious of what we are thinking here at home. They know that most of us are in full support of what they are doing, what they are trying to accomplish. But more than one of them remarked to me that they fail to un- derstand the motives of the draft card burners and the demonstrators who pa- rade in opposition to our policies in Viet- nam. I personally think it is high time, Mr. Speaker, that the draft card burners and the demonstrators go home, wash their feet, and take a new look at the world. Our servicemen in Vietnam are demon- strating with raw courage and weapons in combat, while others here at home are demonstrating with dirty feet, placards, and beards. Somebody has their sense of values turned around, and I can report without qualification that it is not our men in Vietnam; Finally, Mr. Speaker, I would like to say a word in behalf of President John- son's conduct of this war. Everything that President Johnson has done has been a calculated risk. But what he has - done has been right. As long as we con- tinue on this course he has charted, we will come out all right. Mr. MURPHY of New York. I want to thank the gentleman from Illinois and point out to my colleagues that he Is a veteran of service during the Korean war and that he served for 3 years over- seas and is an expert in gunnery both on the B-29 and the B-26 aircraft. Mr. DUNCAN of Oregon. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. MURPHY of New York. I am happy to yield to my colleague. Mr. DUNCAN of Oregon. Mr. Speaker, I am sure that all of the Members are aware that 9 days is all too short a period in which to absorb all that we are doing and all that we should do in southeast Asia. It is too short a period of observa- tion in which to reach conclusions on the merits of what we are doing and what - we should do to restore peace to that troubled part of the world. And yet we are forced to reach such conclusions as we, can, as we vote on measure after measure setting the policy of this country. Those of us who have made the trip to Vietnam are infinitely better equipped to make these decisions than we were before we went. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 14691 July 12, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE It is easy, sitting in this country and The significant thing about the vote of cry was for more cement, and we must reading the self-anointed expert colum- the Governors is not the Oregon Gov- get more cement to them. nists' prophecies of gloom to become ernor's dissent, but the unanimity of the The civilian hospitals we visited are discouraged. It is easy to feel that this other 49 Governors' support of our policy. deplorable. In one province of a half country is hopelessly divided and that And when I am critical of the dissension million people, there was only one hos- we are floundering in a morass of inde- and the disagreement which I hear in the pital which had only two doctors. cision and doubt when. we read the con- country today, I am not being critical of There is almost no sanitation. People stant and sometimes virulent criticism the right of free speech. My political are two and three to a bed. The Sea- of this country's Asian policy by certain record, both in the State legislature and bees are at work constructing a surgery, more present and would-be Congress of the United States, as well as been one of unfailing support oft he right must be do e. The public heathtprob- others outside of Government. And I of free speech. But I have always taken lem in Saigon is a tremendous one. With have no doubt but that is exactly the the position that this constitutional right over 1 million refugees flowing into that impression which the Communist leader- of free speech carries with it a correla- city, the garbage and sewage disposal ship in Hanoi and Peiping have gained tive obligation to speak responsibly, problems are tremendous. This is an as they scan our papers for an indica- and to point out specifically the defects area in which we must work harder. tion of our future course of, ction. of our policy and to offer some construe- I, too, am convinced there will be elec- But this is not the feeling in Vietnam. tive suggestions as an alternative. It is tions. I am convinced of this for a num- There is no indecision there. There is in this area that the critics are failing, ber of reasons, not the least of which no doubt as to why we are there nor of and I have never yet seen one of them is the independence of the Government the importance of what we are doing who has felt the slightest reluctance in of South Vietnam to achieve the status there. There is a feeling of dedication criticizing my support of American policy oof legitimacy. coup. Premier . They were born e through to duty, of guarded optimism as-to our in southeast Asia, without a thought for ability to succeed both militarily and in the right of free speech, which I am en- Dai is still in existence and is now a solving the political and social and eco- titled to, and do claim for myself. French national. He still makes a claim nomic problems of the region, and a I think that all of us who went to torSouth of Vietnam. et Gaulle to Sofear above all etnam spirit of cooperation between ?? the southeast Asia are convinced that mili- aa fter having uffeed under French rule branches of the service and between the tartly things are going well. There are military and civilian officials of Gov- significant problems, the main one being for over 100 as. but Premier has y is no ernment from the Cincpac headquarters to find and maintain contact with the George achieved ed in Hawaii to the private in the field in the elusive enemy. The strategy and tactics a has waaired crises. is only central highlands of Vietnam and the of General Westmoreland seem adequate several certain severe unity and Washington, political he official working in the hamlets of to Mcope with ost of us, problem. agree that the oil brought stability to South Vietnam. But the delta lta region. So much does this sense of mission and depots were a legitimate military target. we do not suggest that Ky or any other bring accomplishment pervade the air in I think there are others, particularly one man in in South and freedom Vietnam could d this southeast Asia that I find myself amazed, powerplants, which ought to be consid- peace, ece, stability after only a 10-day absence, to return to ered. I know that the President has country. we saw not one a reading of the American newspapers problems, but they ought not to be con- is ry. significant and the reports of the differing view- sidered as immune. single unfriendly face or heard one un- points of all of our "statesmen," view- Logistically there have been problems, friendly voice in southeast Asia. If they, points which offer "doubts" and criticism but considering the tremendous buildup want us to leave, it certainly was not but which do not offer constructive sug- of men in 1 year, the results-have been apparent to us. g gestions of courses of action not already amazing. Some shortages have been ap- This war is Inot f wver. It may be long tried. parent, but never without acceptable sub- and are as The fact of the matter is that our stitutes being available. as are the people in southeast Asia, it can problem is not with the hamlets of South All of our military people and all of be terminated and this immense area Vietnam. The problem is with the the Vietnamese with whom we talked are preserved to the free world and not lost Shakespearean-type "Hamlets" in the well aware of the importance of the sec- to the Communists. United States. This war will not be lost and war-the war on economic, social Morale in Vietnam is high. We must in South Vietnam, but it can be lost on and political problems. The effort by unite to raise morale in this country. the political battlefields of the United the military, by AID, by the Vietnamese, Mr. MURPHY of New York. Mr. States. The Communists do not forget needs more emphasis. Its success varies Speaker,. I thank the gentleman from that the French lost their struggle, not at from province to province, according to Oregon for his remarks. Dienbienphu, but in France. I believe the degree of pacification and according Mr. Speaker, I wish to commend the that the Communists know that they to the ability of the Vietnamese Gov- gentleman from Oregon for his activi- cannot win militarily in South Vietnam, ernment. ties and to remind.the Members of the but they believe they can win if the Unit- Colonel Diep in Vinh Long seems to be House that the gentleman in World War ed States loses its will to win. a good one, a good soldier who is clearing II served as an aviator `overseas. Well, I say let them be disabused of any his province with provincial troops, a In conclusion, I would like to point such hope. Let each of us, in both good civil servant who uses his elected out that President Johnson is carrying parties, take the message to the American provincial council, and who works at de- on a commitment that the last five people. This is a time of crisis for the veloping schools, hospitals, powerplants, American Presidents have made, and that United States and the free world. This and water systems. Other provinces are is to stand by our treaty obligations, par- is a time for political cooperation, not not so fortunate. It is their country and titularly in the defense of freedom. The political dissension. This is not John- their war, but there are weaknesses in United States is fighting on the soil of son's war or McNamara's war. This is an administration, in some of the provincial Vietnam so that we here in the citadel important free world struggle in which capitals, which we must work with the of freedom may enjoy it fully. n America must, take the lead and has administration in Saigon to clear up. The Poe s de negotiation through d to open taken the lead. It is just as important Our people ought to have more train- efforts today that Communist tyranny not take ing in speaking the Vietnamese language. Vietnamese, with other countries, and to over Asia as it was that in 1941 Japanese Not enough do. Where some of the try through his intermediaries to bring tyranny did not prevail. Special Forces people speak the language, about settlement. The Governors of the United States re- the contact is so much more valuable, The bombings, as we have pointed out, cently met, and with the single exception and we should not forget that the Com- we feel are necessary to bring a total of the Governor' of my State, endorsed munists do speak their language. military decision to this farfiung battle- our policy in southeast Asia. In dissent- We visited schools built by self-help, field. We are using an economy force in ing, our Oregon Governor follows again which are most appreciated. Far more this area, but we are using enough force the lead set by the senior Senator from kids are in school in South Vietnam now so that in the future Communist ag- my State. than there were 2 years ago. The big gressors will know that it is just too Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 146 2 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -HOUSE July 12, .1966 costly to dare to try to transgress on freedom-loving people everywhere. think the RECORD should show that I agree with the position of the Governor of Oregon, and I have listened here today without objection, simply out of cour- tesy due to my colleagues who requested this special order for time to discuss their observations with respect to their trip to Vietnam. GENERAL LEAVE TO EXTEND Mr. MURPHY of New York. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that all Members may have 5. legislative days In which to. extend their remarks on this subject. The SPEAKER. pro tempore. With- out objection it is so ordered. There was no objection. PERSONAL EXPLANATION Mr. SCIiMIDHAUSER. Mr. Speaker, early today, the House of Representatives voted on the conference report on the defense procurement bill. I would like to explain my absence at the time of that vote. Mr. Speaker, had I been present I would 'have voted in the affirmative. However, it was impossible for me to be present because of adverse flying weather conditions and flight scheduling diffi- culties. REPORT ON TRIP TO SOUTH VIETNAM The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under previous order of the House, the gentle- man from New Jersey [Mr. McGRATH] Is recognized for 60 minutes. (Mr. McGRATH asked and was given permission to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. McGRATH. Mr. Speaker, I ap- preciate the honor of being permitted to take this trip to Vietnam over the Fourth of July recess. I am grateful to the Pres- ident and to the Speaker for approving this, trip. I join in the statement of the gentle- man from New York [Mr. MURPHY], the chairman of the delegation, and compli- ment him for his very comprehensive narrative of our trip. I would like to touch upon a few of the incidents that impressed me during this trip. I was in Vietnam last Decem- ber. It appears to me that both the military and the political situations in South Vietnam have improved tremen- dously since my visit there 7 months ago. I might remind the House that the members of this delegation were per- mitted to go anywhere in Vietnam that we expressed a desire to visit. We now have more troops in South Vietnam. The amount of supplies going into that country has doubled since De- cember. Excellent progress is being made in readying new port facilities to im*irove the supply situation even fur- ther. I believe it was the unanimous con- clusion of our delegation of 10 Demo- crats and 4 Republicans that the U.S. presence in southeast Asia is in the na- installation at Camranh Bay will great- tional interest and that our policy In. ly alleviate the shipping problem caused Vietnam is the correct one. by congestion in Saigon. We also agree that the leadership We also had the privilege of. visiting being shown by Ambassador Henry with the Republic of Korea Tiger Divi- Cabot Lodge and Gen. William West- sion at Qui Nhon. moreland is excellent, and that the Now, this is a crack infantry division morale of our troops is at an alltime of Koreans. The Korean troops put on a high. demonstration for us of taekwondo, About the most impressive indication which is a form of self defense. I think that our conclusions are correct came it is interesting, Mr. Speaker; that one of from, talking to a. defector, a former the creeds of taekwondo may be stated North Vietnamese Army captain, who as follows: said that the North Vietnamese and We will be the cornerstone of anticommu- Vietcong leaders now realize they cannot nism by training ourselves with the Taek- win a military victory. Other prisoners wondo art. and defectors have verified that attitude. On the political side, it is obvious that Khe Later whethat re the b b same ase day m went to An Premier Ky has consolidated his position Cavalry Division, cau of the Ise and that the September elections will Division, atedthe famous Air briefed by proceed as planned. The Buddhist and the c chhie chief of i o loc. We were briefed by Catholic groups have, withdrawn their and the I staff there, Colonel Beatty, opposition and. announced they will par- caliber of think offiitcers is an nnd troops in in tha a the di- ticipate in the September elections. vision i to point out that Colonel onel t try When we stopped at Clark Field in the s Beatty Phili learned to fly a helicopter in his forties ppines we learned that there were after serving practically 20 years as a about 55,000 people-Filipinos, Ameri- ground Army officer. I had been at An can civilians and armed services per- Khe with the 1st Cavalry in December of sonnel-in that area. The Air Force last year. At that time most of the di- hospital at Clark Field services all these vision was contained within the base people. While touring the hospital I camp. Last week I was informed that talked with a young helicopter pilot who all six of their battalions were out in the had been shot with a machinegun bullet field fighting the Vietcong and the North in the leg and arm. As a result of this Vietnam regulars. I think it is a sig- wound his kidneys went into shock and nificant sign of the aggressive attitude of stopped functioning. While I was talk- ing to him, he was being serviced by an our Armed Forces i Vietnam. artificial kidney machine. The doctors I was also particularly impressed by my in the hospital informed me that they visit to the U.S.S. Intrepid, a great naval had two artificial kidney machines in In reps carrier. that at ship While we were an the re- that hospital plus a portable unit that g air wm missions w launching cnd had in air strike rmissions which had they could take out to the field. I doubt been covering support e- that any hospital in the United States ground on South in in a city of 55,000 people has that kind tween the troops in launching South and recovering In bf of equipment, such as we found in the these an recovering of Air Force hospital at Clark Field. and also aircraft rearmed the U.S.S underway at se a refueled . Intrepid In addition to the fine hospital treat- We went to a h and e Special l Forces c. ment that our wounded servicemen are Song Be near the e Cambodian camp border. receiving in the hospital, I was im- This village was overrun about a year ago o pressed by a program of people-to-people by the Vietcong. However, it is now built assistance. Philippine doctors, nationals up and is being protected by our Army of the Philippine Islands, are serving units. We crossed the Song Be River in residences in the Air Force hospital at dugout canoes, and I was very happy Clark Field in various specialties. I be- there to meet Capt. H. R. Taylor, Jr., of lieve this is very helpful to the relations the U.S. Army Special Forces, the famous between the United States and the Phil- Green Berets, who was stationed there. ippines. He is from my district in New Jersey. He While we were in Vietnam, of course told me how important it was in his opin- we talked with Ambassador Lodge and ion that the United States stay in South General Westmoreland. I was happy Vietnam and defeat the Communist ag- that we had an opportunity to talk with gression there. Charles Mann, our AID Director there. Following my visit to South Vietnam After talking with Mr. Mann, I bumped last December I was quite concerned into one of my constituents in Vietnam, about the congested nature of the Saigon Mr. Jim Habron, who resides in Pleas- Harbor. On this trip I went to the 1st antville, N.J., in my district. Mr. Logistics Command at Saigon. We flew Habron works for the AID program in over the entire Saigon River port area Vietnam, and at that time was working in a helicopter. The Army there is build- on a bridge project at Nha Be, several ing a new quay in the Saigon River miles south of Saigon., Since I have which will be able to handle deep draft come back to the States I have vessels and is also building a new port read in the newspapers that South Viet- on the Saigon River where they will have namese Army units are conducting oper- two LST landing ramps and various ations to rid the Nha Be area of Viet- warehouses. The intention is to build a cong. berth at the new port which will handle We also went to Camranh Bay. Mr. four deep draft vessels. The cargo un- Speaker, it is my opinion that when the loaded at the new port, facility will be facility at Camranh Bay is completed able to bypass the Saigon city traffic and South Vietnam will have the best port be shipped immediately out into the field between Singapore and Hong Kong. The to support our troops. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 July 12, 1966 M{. Speaker, in conclusion, I have con- sistently supported President Johnson and his policies in Vietnam and in south- east Asia, and on the basis of my experi- ence in South Vietnam last week, I Intend to follow that course, because I think the President has maintained and pur- sued a sound policy for the United States of America in the manner in which he has conducted our affairs in Vietnam. Mr. RONCALIO. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. MCGRATH. I shall be happy to yield to the gentlema-_ from Wyoming. Mr. RONCALIO. Mr. Speaker, I should like to associate myself with the remarks of the gentleman from New Jersey [Mr. MCGRATH] and to express my appreciation upon his report from the standpoint of one who is well versed in the field of naval affairs. Mr. MURPHY of New York. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. McGRATH. I yield to the gentle- man from New York. Mr. MURPHY of New York. Mr. Speaker, I would like to point out to my colleagues that the gentleman from New Jersey [Mr. MCGRATH] is a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis. The gentleman served in both our At- lantic and Pacific fleets and is an expert in the Pacific waters, particulary having won five battle stars in the Korean war where the gentleman served on the U.S. battleship Missouri. Mr. GILLIGAN. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. McGRATH. I yield to the gentle- CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE 14693 that they can successfully achieve the goals that have been set for them? Third. What is the possibility" of a meaningful and reasonably free expres- sion of the popular will of the people of South Vietnam in the election that the Government has announced for Septem- ber 11? Is there enough of a social and political fabric left in the Republic of Vietnam, and will conditions permit what we would regard as a reasonable election? In reverse order, I can offer some answers to all of these questions with some real confidence in my knowledge of the kind of factual information which necessarily forms a basis for answers to questions like these. I am satisfied, for instance, that there is a very good chance-barring some sort of violent civil tumult in the next 2 months-for an honest and orderly election in Sep- tember. It should be understood, how- ever, that the election is for the purpose of choosing, by popular vote, a Con- stituent Assembly of 117 Members who will write a new constitution for the Re- public of Vietnam, while the country will continue to be governed by a directorate, which includes 10 generals and 10 civil- ians. Following the promulgation of the new constitution to be written this winter, it is then proposed that a national election be held sometime late next sum- mer, 1967, to fill the various posts estab- lished by the terms of the constitution. The members of our committee were privileged to attend a dinner given on the evening of July 6 by Lt. Gen. Phan- Xuan-Chieu, who is president of the Vietnam Veterans Legion, and Secretary- General of the Directorate, which pres- ently is governing the country. During the evening I had the pleasure of spend- ing a considerable period of time with Mr. Tran Van An, who was elected chair- man by the members of the election law drafting committee, established on May 5, by the Government and empowered to draft the election laws to be employed on September 11. The ELDC was composed of 32 mem- bers including all elements of the Viet- namese body politic-except the Viet- cong-and specifically such groups as the Buddhists, both moderate and militant, Catholics, Cao Dal, and Hoa Rao, various political parties, northern, central, and southern regional groupings, provincial and municipal councils, ethnic minorities such as the Montagnards, and ethnic Cambodians, professional groups, and trade unions. Mr. Van An had been a respected publisher and national leader in South Vietnam for many years, and if anything his stature was increased by the fact that he spent 9 years in prison dur- ing the Diem regime for criticizing edi- torially the authoritarian tendencies of that administration. My conversation with Mr. Van An, as well as with others, convinced me that a meaningful elec- tion is not only possible, but highly prob- able on September 11, and, as Mr. Van An wryly concluded, the Vietnamese hope for a voter participation in this election somewhat better than the Americans ex- perience in the presidential years. On the question of the attitude of our troops, and our civilian personnel in Vietnam, you have heard from some of my colleagues on the committee, and you will unquestionably hear from others. Our opinion, I think, is unanimous and categorical: the attitude and demeanor of our men and women in Vietnam is nothing short of magnificent. I could-but will not-spend hours talking about the day that two of my colleagues and I spent with some of our AID people down in the Mekong Delta country, including a regional director of the AID program who is a lieutenant colonel on loan from the Defense De- partment who has extended twice his tour of duty in Vietnam to carry on his very dangerous but very rewarding work of rebuilding the social fabric of that tormented region. I could tell you of the warrant officer, helicopter-pilot I talked with in the Clark Field Hospital outside of Manila, who was, during our interview, hooked up to a kidney machine because his kid- neys had stopped functioning after his left leg and right arm were shattered by a 30-caliber bullet. This young man has won 10 Air Medals and two Distinguished Flying Crosses, and his only concern is how rapidly the medical people can get him patched up to the point that he can return to his duties in Vietnam. I could tell you of the two American civilian nurses, who have just arrived in a civilian hospital in the provincial cap- ital of Vinh Long, where they have vol- unteered for a tour of duty in an area which has been for years terrorized and dominated by the Vietcong. Or I could comment about the young Special Forces captain who drove me in a jeep over a rough trail near the Special Forces camp at Phouoc Binh, who drove with an M-16 rifle across his knees, be- cause he felt "more comfortable" that way, but who, at the same time, carried a pocketful of candy for the Montagnard kids. Perhaps the best indication of the ex- traordinary attitude of our people in Vietnam can be conveyed by reading the nine rules issued by General Westmore- land for the conduct of our troops in Vietnam: - NINE RULES FOR PERSONNEL OF U.S. MILITARY ASSISTANCE COMMAND, VIETNAM The Vietnamese have paid a heavy price in suffering for their long fight against the communists. We military men are in Viet- nam now because their government has asked us to help its soldiers and people in winning their struggle. The Viet Cong will attempt to turn the Vietnamese people against you. You can defeat them at every turn by the strength, understanding, and generosity you display with the people. Here are nine sim- ple rules: (Distribution-1 to each member of the United States Armed Forces in Vietnam.) 1. Remember we are guests here: We make no demands and seek no special treatment. 2. Join with the people! Understand their life, use phrases from their language and honor their customs and laws, 3. Treat women with politeness and re- spect. 4. Make personal friends among the sol- diers and common people. 5. Always give the Vietnamese the right of way. 6. Be alert to security and ready to react with your military skill. (Mr. GILLIGAN asked and was given permission to revise and extend his re- marks and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. GILLIGAN. Mr. Speaker, I am grateful to the distinguished gentleman from New Jersey CMr. McGRATH] for yielding this time to me. Mr. Speaker, no one, and certainly not I, can harbor pretentions about being a Far Eastern expert on the basis of a week's trip, but it is possible for me to report to the House certain personal im- pressions and observations about our activities in Vietnam, and our general involvement in the Far Eastern theater. With all deference to my distinguished colleagues on the committee that made this trip, I shall undertake very briefly to offer my comments. When our committee left Washington on the evening of July 2 for the Far East, I had three basic questions in mind about our situation in Vietnam, and I hoped to be able to come back with some sort of answer for each of these ques- tions because I believe them to be mat- ters of the greatest concern to everyone in America. The questions were: First. Do the people of South Vietnam really want the forces of the United States to remain in their country, de- spite the devastation and suffering that war inevitably brings? Second. Do our men in Vietnam- serving both in the military and in civil- ian services-believe in the job that they have'undertaken? Do they believe their task worth doing despite the sacrifice and suffering involved? Do they think Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 I Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 7. Don't attract attention by loud, rude or unusual behavior. 8.. Avoid separating yourself. from the peo.. pie by a display of wealth or privilege. 9. Above all else you are members of the U.S. Military Forces on a difficult mission, responsible for all your official and personal aatipns. Reflect honor upon yourself and the United States of America. All of us on this trip were combat vet- erans of World War II or Korea, and I think it is fair to say that none of us has ever experienced such an attitude on the part of American troops as is presently being displayed by our people in the Far East, who fully realize the complex and delicate nature of the job which con- fronts them, and of the fact that they have two wars to win: the military paci- fication of South Vietnam, and the re- building of the social and political fabric of the country. They are working with equal fervor and dedication on both fronts. In all candor, I must admit that I did encounter two people who were highly skeptical about our national effort in Vietnam, about the motives underlying it, and about its chances for success. Both were newspaper correspondents sta- tioned in Saigon, a fact which may help us to understand why the American peo- ple do not fully appreciate what we are doing in southeast Asia. On the first, and possibly most impor- tant, question of the attitude of the South Vietnamese people toward our con- tinued presence in their country, I can only report that in our very brief stay, I encountered no one who wanted us to leave the area and permit them to deal with their problems unaided. This was true of Premier Ky; it was said by Tran Van An, by Tran Van Do, by General Chieeu and his legionnaires. Our contin- ued presence was fervently urged by the two province chiefs we talked with, by the lone doctor in the civilian hospital at Vinh Long, by the hamlet chieftain of a primitive Montagnard tribe in a little village on the Cambodian border; in other words, by everyone we spoke to whether of low or high degree. Even those we could i.ot speak to indi- cated that the presence of Americans was more than welcome. One of the most eloquent expressions of that wel- come was on the part of some local, provincial soldiers. who were manning the pathetic little mud forts, established along the length of Route 4 in the Mekong Delta, south of Saigon. These brave men are fighting night after night a lonely and desperate struggle to keep the roads open and clear of the Vietcong, so that their fellow-villagers may move their rice into the market, and when we passed by they stood on the walls of their forts and waved to us and saluted. Down in that area of Vietnam, the war is. an ugly, brutal, savage encounter fraught' with stealth and terror, and the bravery and dedication of those humble people would move a heart of stone. I hope, at a later time, to request the privilege of addressing the House under special orders to describe in more detail and in greater depth the nature of that desperate conflict, but at the moment, suffice It to say that I hope that our peo- ple at home have the courage to match CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE the courage and dedication of our men in the field, both military and civilian, and to match the bravery and dedication of the men and women of Vietnam who are toiling and fighting for the chance to live in decency, security and peace. I again thank the distinguished gen- tleman from New Jersey for having yielded me this time to offer this report to the Members of the House. Mr. McGRATH. Mr. Speaker, I would like to remind the Members of the House that the gentleman from Ohio tMr. GILLIGANI served for 27 months during World War II as a lieutenant (jg) in the U.S. Naval Reserve. He acted as a de- stroyer gunnery officer in the Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Pacific Theaters. He was awarded three area campaign ribbons, five battle stars, and two naval unit citations. At Okinawa he was awarded the Silver Star for gallantry when his destroyer was hit by a Japanese kamikaze. Mr. HATHAWAY. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. McGRATH. I yield to the gentle- man from Maine. (Mr. HATHAWAY asked arid was given permission to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. HATHAWAY. Mr. Speaker, you can read about a country until your eyes water, you can listen to lectures about a foreign land until your ears ache, but you cannot get the all-important feel of the situation until you have been there. Contact with reality brings all of your senses into play and indelibly stamps in your makeup a gestalt-the place be- comes a part of you. To be sure a 10- day trip to southeast Asia does not make you an expert on the area, but it does give you an awareness that you could never get from periodical readings and stateside briefings. This trip has given us an experience we shall never forget, an understanding that cannot adequately be conveyed by words, and opinions that deserve attention. Our group made up of veterans with previous combat experience departed Andrews Air Force Base at 6 p.m., July 2, stopped at Travis Air Force Base, near San Francisco, for refueling, on to Honolulu for a briefing by CINCPAC, a tour of Pearl Harbor with its stinging memories, and a brief respite before going on to Saigon via the Philippines where we stopped briefly at Clark Field to tour the logistics base, and the general hospital. Saigon hits you like Wash- ington, D.C.-hot and humid. We ar- rived in the rush hour; made our way to the hotel through streets that were jam- med with small cars and bicycles built for one, but oftentimes carrying as many as four. The next morning at 9 a.m. we received a thorough briefing from Ambassador Lodge and his staff on the military, political, and economic situation in the Republic of Vietnam. This was followed by an enjoyable luncheon at the Lodge homestead where we met General West- moreland and had an opportunity to question both Mr. Lodge and the general at some length. After lunch we pro- ceeded to MacVee Headquarters where General Westmoreland and his staff gave us a detailed briefing on the military July 12, 1966 situation. After this we visited, with General Ky for half an hour or so and obtained his views. In the evening we attended a dinner hosted by Lt. Gen. Pharr Xuan Chieu. The next morning we began intensive tours of military bases and installations in South Vietnam starting with, the logistics base at Cam Ranh Bay. Then on to the 12th Tacti- cal Fighter Wing, the Korean Qui Nhon Division, 1st Cavalry Division, the air- craft carrier Intrepid, a Vietnamese division in the field, 25th Infantry Divi- sion, and the 5th Special Forces. Some of our group visited the 1st Marine and 1st Infantry Divisions. In all of these areas, most of which were in close con- tact with the enemy, we were given in- tensive briefings and had an opportunity to talk to the troops. On the eve of our departure we had dinner with General Westmoreland which was also attended by Ambassador Lodge, and we again had an opportunity to question both of them about the observations we had made. Saturday, we went to Bangkok, Thailand, where we received a briefing on the situ- ation there. On Sunday we flew to Tai- Pei, Taiwan, and the following day we had the pleasure of talking at some length with the Vice President and Presi- dent Chaing Kai-shek. Although the time spent in Vietnam was only 4 days, they were 4 days crammed with activity, giving us an op- portunity to observe just about every aspect of life in that country. I carried a tape recorder with me and taped most of the briefings and many of the inter- views, but at this time, the day after my return, I have not as yet had a chance to play back the tapes and garner from them some of the detailed information I was able to obtain. Consequently this report I consider as only an initial report based on the outstanding recollections of the trip. I intend to supplement this report in more detail at a later date. Based uponthese first arrival recollec- tions of the trip my evaluation of the total situation is that militarily, economi- cally and politically the situation is generally good. With respect to the military situation, It would appear that our intelligence is excellent, that we are being constantly informed as to the whereabouts of the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese. This is borne out by the fact that in re- cent months there has been no success- ful ambush of our troops by the enemy. It is further borne out by the fact that our group was able to travel to various camps in the field located not far from the enemy without even the threat of a mishap. The overall administration of the war is excellent. No commander or individual complained about the lack of supplies. The supply lines from United States to the front line is running very smoothly. Our operation from a stra- tegic point of view is geared very well to the type of war that is being fought there. This is entirely different from World War II and the Korean conflict. There is really no front line. The enemy is in various pockets throughout the Repub- lic, but with the ingenious use of air power, in particular helicopters, we are able to ferret out and annihilate these hostile pockets. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 July 12, 1966 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE 14695 It was heartwarming for a former Air Force man to hear infantry men highly commend the good close air support they have been receiving even from high al-, titude flying B-52's which have been pinpointing targets close to our troops and doing it successfully, something un- heard of in World War II. I would say that the military aspect of the war is well in hand. The part of the conflict that is going to take some time is the securing of the villages after the enemy has been driven out. This is being accomplished through pacification units composed entirely of Vietnamese who are trained to come into a village and make it secure against counterin- filtration by the Vietcong. The recruit- ing and training of these units will take some time. It is difficult to say at this time how long it will be before all the villages will be secured. This war is es- sentially one of fighting against gang- sters and we will not be, assured of peace in Vietnam until we have a large enough police force to protect the villages and hamlets from the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese terrorism. The political situation appears to be fairly stable at the present time. I would predict that the elections scheduled for September 11 will come off without being boycotted to any great extent by any group. The presence of our soldiers in Vietnam has boosted the morale of the people. There are no "Yankee Go Home" signs. They have at least realized that, unlike the French, we are not there to stay. We do not intend to colonize the Vietnamese and our presence there fight- ing for a cause along side their troops has given the people a spirit of nation- alism which heretofore they never had. Economically the country is making great progress under our AID programs. There is the danger of inflation which will have to be watched and against which necessary steps will have to be taken from time to time. The Viet- namese people are not materially well off, but nearly all of them are employed at some task or other and no one is starv- ing. It is difficult to make a prognosis. I would venture to say that within a year the situation would be such that any reasonable enemy leader would quit. It Is difficult to tell just exactly what Ho Chi Minh will do. I am sure he realizes that he is losing, but whether or not this will force him to negotiate is highly specula- tive, probably doubtful. He has to save face as well as hid head, and he undoubt- edly will make an effort to hold on as long as possible. It does not appear that our actions, even if escalated, would bring in either Russia or Red China. I would recommend that we continue to hit more military targets in North Vietnam and that we send more troops. In advocating that we send more troops I do not mean we are going to increase our losses. I make the recommendation only to make it easier on our fighting forces over there. At the present time we do have a great ratio of firepower to the enemy firepower, and due to our flexi- biljty and mobility we are able to cope No, 110-24 with any situation; that is, we can move a battalion or regiment from one division to help another with very little difficulty. If we were to send more troops, such movement would be obviated and make the war considerably easier to conduct. Let me conclude by saying that there is no question of Communist aggression from Peiping in southeast Asia, and that this aggression manifests itself in the form of well organized terrorism. The Communist plan being to begin at the re- mote villages and eventually move into the larger cities. There is no question in my mind that we have an obligation to stop this aggression, and it appears that our mission in this regard is presently meeting with great success. Mr. McGRATH. Mr. Speaker, I was happy to hear the gentleman from Maine [Mr. HATHAWAY], comment on the use of our airpower in Vietnam. The gentle- man from Maine served on active duty with the U.S. Army Air Force in World War II from 1942 to 1946. He entered the service as a private and was dis- charged as a captain. While serving as a navigator on a Liberator bomber he was shot down in an air attack on the Ploesti oilfields and finished World War II as a prisoner of war in a Rumanian prison-of-war camp. He was awarded the Air Medal and the Purple Heart. TAX RELIEF FOR COMMUTERS The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under a previous order of the House, the gentle- man from New York [Mr. HALPERN], is recognized for 10 minutes. Mr. HALPERN. Mr. Speaker, the re- cent increase in the New York City transit fare underscores the mounting cost, in terms of both money and ordi- nary comfort, exacted each day from millions of Americans who struggle val- iantly, against enormous odds, to get to work. I speak of the plight of the'dash- ing commuter. New York's fare increase is the latest offshoot of the persistent neglect and paralysis afflicting urban mass transpor- tation, and it is invariably the commuter who must pay the price In terms of higher fares and steadily deteriorating service. I have consistently taken the floor here to explore this crisis in urban transpor- tation. It is still with us, and it is get- ting worse. Fare increases are only one indication of a situation which threat- ens the welfare and well-being of the cities. The House Banking and Currency Committee, on which I serve, recently ap- proved a bill increasing authorizations under the Mass Transportation Act and providing for technological research grants for the development of new forms of commuter service. This measure should break new ground. in attempting to modernize our means of public trans-. port. I shall continue to press for an amend- ment to the Mass Transportation Act which would correct the discriminatory State limitation on the amount of funds available to any one State. This now stands at 121/2 percent of the total authorization. It is obvious that such an allocation cannot possibly begin to meet the problems with which the Na- tion's major cities are faced. And yet it is precisely these sprawling metro- politan areas where conditions of public transport are most acute; the premise and validity of the legislation is indeed discolored by the very fact that these large cities are not receiving the pro- portionate attention to which they are entitled. Today, I am introducing a bill to grant the commuter a yearly Federal in- come tax deduction for expenses in- curred in traveling to and from work. Together with other perfecting legisla- tion I am sponsoring, this new tax ap- proach will help to- offset the growing financial burden of commuters who de- pend upon mass transit as a necessity. The legislation provides a deduction of up to $200 annually. I believe the Congress should recog- nize, additionally, that transportation costs to and from work are in essence a legitimate business expense. I urge that this matter, and that the variety of other pending legislation on this question of mass transit, be given prompt and close attention in Congress. CONCENTRATING FOREIGN . ECONOMIC AID (Mr. JACOBS (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. JACOBS. Mr. Speaker, we are concerned, as are all Americans, with the question of whether the money we spend for foreign aid is going where it will do the most good-for the people of de- veloping countries and for our own. The proposed foreign aid program for fiscal year 1967 calls for an intensified policy to direct most of our aid to the countries whose need is greatest, the countries which have clearly shown they will match our assistance with strong self-help efforts of their own. Call it a policy of selectivity if you will, or good administration, or even a hard- boiled approach to foreign aid. But whatever the term, it makes good sense. Before a country qualifies of assistance, AID takes a careful look at the type and purpose of the proposed development program, the availability of assistance to the country from other sources, the abil- ity of the country to make effective use of U.S. aid, and above all, its determina- tion to make maximum use of its own national resources to promote economic and social development. Because of this realistic policy, the great bulk of the AID program next year as-last will be directed to a relatively few countries-those where the need is greatest, or those that have proven, by outstanding self-help, that they can best use substantial U.S. aid. More than 90 percent of AID's direct country assistance next year will go to just 20 major countries of Asia, Africa, Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 14696 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R0004QO090013-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE July 12, 1966 and Latin America. Eighty-four percent of all AID development loans will go to only eight-India, Brazil, Pakistan, Tur- key, Colombia, Korea, Chile, and Nigeria. These countries are engaged in strong, self-help, development programs. Ninety-three percent of AID's support- ing assistance-which is used to further our urgent foreign policy or national se- curity objectives-is slated for five coun- tries: Vietnam, Laos, Korea, Jordan, and the Dominican Republic. Vietnam alone will account for 72 percent of this support. This instead of a widely scattered ap- proach as was true a few years ago, our foreign aid today is a purposeful pro- gram aimed at specific objectives. Besides concentration of economic aid in a few selected countries, there are other encouraging new aspects of the aid program. Ten years ago, about two-thirds of our aid was for military assistance, and much. of our economic aid went to help threat- ened countries resist Communist pres- sures. Today, the situation is reversed. Two-thirds of our assistance is now eco- nomic, providing capital and technical assistance the developing countries need for long-term development and progress toward self-support. And even where survival is. still at is- sue, as in Vietnam, we are helping in- dustrial and agricultural development go forward behind the defenses built up by our military assistance programs. We are helping other nations of the free world guard their independence through military assistance, but at the same time we are making a concentrated and determined effort to build solid, foundations for their future economic growth. Those are two of the most significant changes in our foreign aid program- concentration on countries and concen- tration on their economic and social progress. They are wise changes. They are promising changes. And they are two of the reasons why I believe that the foreign aid program we are now considering is the most practical and effective ever sent to us, and deserves our fullest support. A BILL TO PROVIDE PAYMENT OF COMMERCIAL AIR TRAVEL EX- PENSES FOR CERTAIN MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES (Mr. MULTER (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this, point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, we are fighting a war in Vietnam, and we are asking hundreds of thousands of our young men to travel many thousands of miles at their own expense in emergency situations or when they are coming home to convalesce from wounds received in battle. It is my belief that one of the least things we can do for these men is to pay their commercial air transportation costs In these situations: emergency leave, convalescent leave, and leaves before go- ing overseas or upon returning from. overseas. I have therefore today intro- duced legislation to authorize the par- ticular service Secretary concerned to pay such expenses pursuant to appro- priate regulations. I hope that the Armed Services Com- mittee will take immediate action on my bill. A PROPOSAL FOR IDENTICAL POWERS FOR COMMERCIAL BANKS AND MUTUAL SAVINGS INSTITUTIONS (Mr. MULTER (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, Federal Reserve Governor James L. Robertson has recommended that Federal and State legislatures grant identical powers to both commercial and mutual savings banks subject to their jurisdiction. The Council of Mutual Savings Insti- tutions has endorsed Governor Robert- son's, proposal and has issued the follow- ing statement andresolution calling for the enactment of legislation to accom- plish Governor Robertson's suggestions and urging that each type of institution be defined only as to its corporate structure. The council's statement and resolution follows: COUNCIL OF MUTUAL SAVINGS INSTITUTIONS SUPPORTS ROBERTSON PROPOSAL OFIDENTICAL POWERS FOR COMMERCIAL BANKS AND MUTUAL SAVINGS INSTITUTIONS NEW YORK, N.Y.-Termination of the con- stant strife between the two types of finan- cial institutions (commercial banks and mutual savings institutions) would result if the legislative bodies at the state and federal levels would grant identical powers to the commercial banks and the mutual savings institutions subject to their jurisdiction, as recommended by Vice Chairman James L. Robertson of the Federal Reserve Board in a recent address, according to a resolution adopted at a meeting of the board of direc- tors of the Council of Mutual Savings Insti- tutions held here during the past week and released yesterday by George L. Bliss, Presi- dent of the Council. "It must be recognized that the days are over when commercial banks largely limited their field of operation to demand deposits and their investments to short-term loans and highly marketable securities, while sav- ings institutions apd life insurance com- panies, whose deposits and policy reserves constituting long-term funds were the ma- jor source of mortgage and other long-term credits," said Bliss. "Although there may be some argument as to which group started it," he continued, "the fact is that it was the McFadden Act, passed by Congress in 1927, which first granted commercial banks at the federal level the authority to invest in mort- gage loans. Since then, the commercial banks have been steadily increasing their volume of long-term credits. While at one time the commercial banks had little in- terest in savings accounts, and in some states were specifically prohibited from ac- cepting them, the bars and inhibitions which held them back have been removed. This has led the mutual savings institutions to seek broader fields of service. The result has been a continuous hassle between the two groups, for the past couple of decades or more, and which the legislative bodies have been "called on to referee." In endorsing Governor Robertson's pro- posal, the resolution of the Council of Mu- tual Savings Institutions calls for com- mercial banks and mutual savings institu- tions to be "granted identical statutory au- thority with respect to the services they may provide," the only distinction to be as to the type of corporate structure. The Council's resolution provides that such in- stitutions, "if organized on a privately-owned capital stock basis, shall be known as com- mercial banks; and, if organized on a mutual or cooperative basis, shall be known as sav- ings institutions." "The directors of our Council," Bliss said, "believe this course would be in the public interest, since the competitive element would relate to the type of organization, i.e., stock or mutual, and not as to the nature of the services available." He suggested that the bill to authorize federal chartering for mu- tual savings banks, now under study by the. House Banking and Currency Committee and which the Council has endorsed, would be an appropriate legislative vehicle for the first step in such a program. "The directors of the Council of Mutual Savings Institutions," Bliss concluded, "urge the commercial bank- ing groups to withdraw their opposition to this bill, including any expansion of services now included or that may be added, where- -upon the mutual savings groups should sus- pend their opposition to legislation which would enlarge the services authorized to be provided by the commercial banks." COUNCIL Or MUTUAL SAVINGS INSTITUTIONS Whereas, for many years it was the tradi- tional concept of sound banking operation in this country that commercial banks, as demand deposit institutions, should restrict the investment or lending of their funds to a short-term basis; and that deposits in sav- ings institutions and policy reserves of in- surance companies, which constitute long- term funds, in fact, should be the major source of long-term credits, and Whereas, over a period of years the com- mercial banks have been steadily increasing their volume of long-term credits, which change in policy has been rationalized by aggressively seeking, and in numerous in- stances accomplishing, legislative amend- ments empowering them to accept savings deposits and to extend long-term credits in the mortgage loan and other fields, and Whereas, this development has spurred the savings institutions, the great majority of which are chartered or organized on a mu- tual or cooperative basis, to act defensively by seeking an expansion of their powers into other fields of investment, and Whereas, the public press has reported that the Honorable Jaynes L. Robertson, a member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, in an address delivered at Peoria, Illinois, on May 17, 1966, proposed that "all depository institutions be permitted to become comprehensive lenders and bor- rowers, subject to uniform bank-style limita- tions on the exercise of their powers," now, therefore, be it Resolved, That the Board of Directors of the Council of Mutual Savings Institutions does hereby endorse in principle the pro- posal thus advanced by Governor Robertson, to wit, that the commercial banks and the savings institutions be granted identical statutory authority with respect to the serv- ices they may provide, subject to the dis- tinction that such institutions, if organized on a privately-owned capital stock basis, shall be known as commercial banks; and, if organized on a mutual or co-operative basis, shall be known as saving institutions, and be it further Resolved, That the officers and appropriate Committees of this Council be, and they are Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 July 12, 1966 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -HOUSE 14707 he said. Although Mr. Truman did not refer Vietnam, in his "Dear Genya" letter tells to Israel, a similar problem has confronted of his detest of all war and his particular many Israelis. and personal hatred for this war. A FRESH START Mr. Speaker, the full text of John "So we meet here to try to make a fresh Steinbeck's "Dear Genya" letter con- start," Mr. Truman said. "Here we will give tained in a press release from Newsday, serious consideration to any new practical Garden City, N.Y., is set forth at length approach that could help to advance the cause of peace." because I share the sentiments of John "All will be bewelcome," he added. "There Steinbeck that we must "stop the whole are no restrictions as to national origin, war-not just our half." I commend it ideological commitment or religious differ- for reading to my colleagues in the ences." He said that the annual peace award was now in effect and that he hoped to "greet the preson" who in the judgment of the trustees will have been responsible for "significantly advancing the cause of peace in the year of 1966."' Mr. Truman asserted that "the emphasis is on significantly advancing." Earlier Mr. Noyes had said Mr. Truman had received many telegrams of good wishes, in- cluding one from President Habib Bourguiba of of Tunisia, whose call to his fellow Arabs to adopt a more realistic attitude toward Israel created a sensation. Mr. Bourguiba said he would be unable to attend the ceremonies, but he wished Mr. Truman "every success in your enterprise.'; A HOPE FOR SHARING Mayor Teddy Kollek of Jerusalem said he hoped that some day the center "will serve both sides of the city," which has been di- vided since 1948. Last week, a group of students urged that the old Hebrew Univer- sity campus on Mount Scopus, abandoned in .a demilitarized enclave in the Jordanian sec- for of Jerusalem, be reopened as a peace uni- versity concentrating on Mideastern studies .and be open to both Jews and Arabs. Thurgood Marshall, who had been asked by Mr. Truman to attend the ceremonies, received prolonged applause when he rose to speak. He accepted the ovation on Mr. Tru- man'e behalf although much of the warmth was obviously intended for the distinguished Negro leader, who has been associated with the struggle for civil rights. "Not only is the occasion unprecedented but the undertaking is audacious," Mr. Mar- shall said. "In a smoldering world, we here give physical embodiment to our faith in the capacity of reason and science to bank the fires of violence, to seek out the causes of war, to lay out paths to peace." The Solicitor General, said that first nourished the principles o worthy of man. GARDEN CITY, N.Y.-John Steinbeck re- plied today to a plea by Soviet poet Yevgeny Yevtushenko that the Pulitzer and Nobel prize-winning American novelist speak out on the war in Vietnam. In a poem published July 7 in a Moscow literary newspaper, Yevtushenko had chided Steinbeck, among U.S. intellectuals, for his silence and urged him to protest against the bombing raids on North Vietnam. Today Steinbeck, a resident of Sag Harbor, replied to Yevtushenko in an open letter published in Newsday, the Long Island newspaper, for which he has been writing a nationally- syndicated weekly column. Steinbeck asked Harry F. Guggenheim, editor and publisher of Newsday, to make his copyrighted reply available simultane- ously to all other news media. In releasing the letter, Guggenheim said that Steinbeck's own 20-year-old son, John (Catbird) Stein- beck, is now fighting as a U.S. soldier in Vietnam. Following is the full text of Steinbeck's open letter to Yevtushenko: My DEAR FRIEND GENYA: I have just now read those parts of your poem printed in the New York Times. I have no way of know- ing how good the translation is, but I am pleased and flattered by your devotion. In your poem, you ask me to speak out against the war in Vietnam. You know well how I detest all war, but for this one I have a particular and personal hatred. I am against this Chinese-inspired war. I don't know a single American who is for it. But, my beloved friend, you asked me to denounce half a war, our half. I appeal to you to join me in denouncing the whole war. Surely you don't believe that our "pilots fly to bomb children," that we send bombs and heavy equipment against innocent ci- vilians? This is not East Berlin in 1953, peace Budapest in 1956, nor Tibet in 1959. it that You know as well as I do, Genya, that we JOHN STEINBECK SAYS STOP THE WHOLE WAR NOT JUST OUR HALF heavy and sophisticated weapons they carry tqq kill our sons. And where that oil and ti'iose weapons come from, you probably know better than I. They are marked in pictograph and Cyrilic characters. But even this is not necessary to stop the war. If you could persuade North Vietnam to agree in good faith to negotiate, the bomb- ing would stop instantly. The guns would fall silent and our dear sons could come home. It is as simple as that, my friend, as simple as that, I promise you. I hope to see you and your lovely wife Galya soon. With all respect and affection, JOHN STEINBECK. Mr. Speaker, in a news article in the same newspaper under the byline of David R. George, after referring to John Steinbeck's reply he includes some refer- ences to Yevtushenko's poem as follows: In his poem published in Russia's Litera- turnaya Gazeta, Yevtushenko, 33, recalled Steinbeck's visit to Moscow in 1963 and his advice to young writers then under attack for criticizing shortcomings in Soviet society. Steinbeck said, at that time: "Well, young wolves, show me your teeth." The time has come, the Soviet poet said, for the 64 year-old Steinbeck, "an old wolf," to "show his teeth" against the U.S. bombing raids on North Vietnam. Yevtushenko has been, intermittently, a daring critic of the Soviet scene, as Stein- beck was of his own country during the De- pression. The young Russian poet has been officially censured for poems denouncing anti-Semitism and for attacking the traces of Stalinism which remain. "Grapes of Wrath" Referring to the foremost of Steinbeck's novels, "The Grapes of Wrath," which de- picted the ordeal of Oklahoma farmers forced from their land during the Depres- sion, the Soviet poet wrote to Steinbeck: "Some other writers' `Grapes of Wrath' /Are still to come/But is it possible that yours/Are only in past?/You always were able to hear the voice of time./Do you hear /From far-off Vietnam? /Through the jungles to New York and Moscow/There flies/The cry for help/'Mama, Mama.'" "Not to Be Silent" Yevtushenko reminded Steinbeck that "you, yourself, taught us not to be silent" and asked why the American novelist did not speak out on Vietnam: "Is it not dreadful for you these nights, /When a pilot flies to bomb the children, /And perhaps/Is carrying with him your book about Charley?/The winter of our dis- content/Is now,/It is impossible to live quietly/For if the politians are lying/They /Lose their right to politics./You may say: /'Why get involved in politics? /Everyone knows that politics is a whore.'/No, John,/ /Politics also is bravery and honor,/When carried out in the name of conscience and Ideals." I hope you also know that if those weap- Yevtushenko said in an introduction to (Mr. TENZER (at the request of Mr. ons were not being sent, we would not be PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- in Vietnam at all. If this were a disagree- his poem that many of his friends in Amer- tend his remarks at this point in the ment between Vietnamese people, we surely tea "are fulfilling their national and inter- RECORD and to include extraneous mat- would not be there, but it is not, and since national duty by speaking out against war I have never found you to be naive you must He cited poet Robert Lowell, who re- ter,) jetted a White House invitation to an arts Mr. TENZER. Mr. Speaker, the dis- be aware that it is not. festival a year ago in protest against the This war is the work of Chairman Mao, Vietnam war, and folk singer Joan Baez, tinguished American Pulitzer and Nobel designed and generaled by him in absentia, who has refused to pay taxes to be used for Prize winning novelist has broken his advised by Peking and cynically supplied war. Yevtushenko wrote: silence on the war in Vietnam, with a with brutal weapons by foreigners who set thunder which will be heard "around the it up. Let us denounce this also, my friend, "Not a Warrior" world" in less than 80 days. but even more, let us together undertake a "Joan Baez, of course, is not a warrior, In his reply to a plea from Soviet Poet program more effective than denunciation. /But listen,/Joan Baez sings/In the name of: I beg you to use your very considerable /'Mama, Mama' in Vietnam." Yevgeny Yevtushenko, urging him to influence on your people, your government, In concluding his poem, Yevtushenko said protest American policy in Vietnam, the and on those who look to the Soviet Union he hoped Steinbeck would not regard him author of "The Grapes of Wrath" said: for direction, to stop sending the murderous merely as a strident propagandist. He I am against this Chinese inspired war, I merchandise through North Vietnam to be wrote: don't know a single American who is for it. used against the South. "These lines are not a provocative trick, But, my beloved friend, you ask me to de- For my part, I will devote every resource /But I cannot remain silent and isolated. nounce half a, war, our half. I appeal to you I have to persuade my government to with- /Yes, we are little wolves./But John, you're to join me in denouncing the whole war. draw troops and weapons from the South, an old wolf./So show your teeth,/The teeth leaving only money and help for rebuilding. of John." John Steinbeck, an outstanding Amer- And, do you know, Genya, if you could ac- ican intellectual, whose 20-year-old son complish your part, my part would follow Mr. Speaker, John Steinbeck's voice is John is now fighting as a'U.S.' soldier in immediately and automatically. raised at a most appropriate time, a time Approved For Release 2005/06/29 CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 14708 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE July 12, .1966 when there appears to be on the interna- tional scene a new peace offensive, Am- bassador Goldberg's visit to the Vatican, Mrs. Indira Gandhi's call for a new Geneva conference, Prime Minister Wil- son and Mrs. Gandhi's forthcoming visits to Moscow, all seem to indicate that there is developing a world recognition that peace cannot be unilateral. Let us hope and pray that all the forces who truly "seek peace and pursue it" will unite to "stop the whole war-not just our half." ADMINISTRATION'S EFFORTS TO CUT COSTS AND INCREASE EF- FICIENCY The SPEAKER. Under previous or- der of the House, the gentleman from West Virginia [Mr. STAGGERS], is recog- nized for 5 minutes. Mr. STAGGERS. Mr. Speaker, it seems desirable to bring to the attention of the Congress and of the American people specific instances of the adminis- tration's efforts to cut costs and increase efficiency. Instances of supposed waste and inefficiency get publicity from sources that may not wish the adminis- tration well. I therefore request that the accom- panying letter from the President to the Honorable William F. McKee, Adminis- trator of the Federal Aviation Agency, be printed in the RECORD. The letter does two things very clearly and very directly: It points out the ex- cellent job being done by the FAA and its distinguished Administrator. Sec- ond, it illustrates the President's close watch over the details of the multitudi- nous agencies for which he is responsi- ble. The,FAA is one of the agencies com- ing under the purview of the House committee on which I have the honor to serve. Naturally I am gratified to have the President's approval, in which I heartily concur. Further, I wish to note with satisfaction the President's in able practice to commend good work wherever he finds it. THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, July 6, 1966. Hon. WILLIAM F. MCKEE, Administrator, Federal Aviation Agency, Washington, D.C. DEAR Bozo: I have noted with satisfaction the excellent work which you and your as- sociates at the Federal Aviation Agency have been doing in reducing costs and manpower while absorbing additional workload and im- proving service to the public. I have taken particular note of your cost reduction program under which you saved $47 million during the 1966 fiscal year. These savings have been accompanied by a reduction in Agency employment of more than 3,500 empyloyees-eight percent, since 1963. The Agency has succeeded in com- bining economy in administration with a safety program which has helped the com- mercial air carriers of the United States achieve the best safety record in the world and the best record for any five-year period in the history of American aviation. You have clearly demonstrated that outstanding performance in a critical and complex pro- gram can be continually achieved while re- ducing costs. I am pleased to observe that the House Appropriations Committee, after thoroughly reviewing your program and budget for the 1967 fiscal year, singled out the Federal Avia- tion Agency for special commendation for the efficiency and economies achieved in recent years. As you know, in my budget message for the 1967 fiscal year, I stressed the importance of strengthening the coordination of Federal programs in the field and giving more free- dom of action and judgment to the people on the firing line. The FAA has provided an example of what can be done to decen- tralize management to field officials who have the authority to act promptly and effectively in meeting the needs of the public. Your success in establishing regional and area centers of field supervision while simultane- ously reducing employment in field offices has demonstrated that decentralization can mean better public service and more pro- ductive use of field personnel. I shall count on you and the good people at the Federal Aviation Agency to continue to provide examples of public service at its best. LEAVE OF ABSENCE By unanimous consent, leave of ab- sence was granted to: Mr. CONABLE (at the request of Mr. ARENDS), for the balance of the week, on account of death in the family. Mr. MATSUNAGA (at the request of Mr. ALBERT), for an indefinite period, on ac- count of illness. Mr. KING of New York (at the request of Mr. GERALD R. FORD), through July 21, on account of illness. Mr. CUNNINGHAM (at the request of Mr. GERALD R. FORD), for today and tomor- row, on account of official business. Mr. FLYNT (at the request of Mr. AL- BERT), for Tuesday, July. 12, 1966, on ac- count of official business. SPECIAL ORDERS GRANTED By unanimous consent, permission to address the House, following the legisla- tive program and any special orders here- tofore entered, was granted to: Mr. STAGGERS (at the request; of Mr. PATTEN) for 5 minutes, today; and to re- vise and extend his remarks and. include extraneous matter. Mr. HALPERN (at the request of Mr. KUPFERMAN) for 10 minutes, today. Mr. WHITENER (at the request of Mr. RONCALIO), for 30 minutes, on tomorrow, July 13, 1966; to revise and extend his remarks and to include extraneous mat- ter. EXTENSION OF REMARKS By unanimous consent, permission to extend remarks in the Appendix of the RECORD, or to revise and extend remarks was granted to: Mr. HORTON and to include extraneous matter. Mr. PRICE following the remarks of Mr. HOLIFIELD. Mr. HOLIFIELD and to include extran- eous matter. Mr. TEAGUE of Texas (at the request of Mr. RIVERS of South Carolina) to follow the remarks of the gentleman from Illi- nois [Mr. PRICE]. Mrs. KELLY and to include extraneous matter. Mr. MULTER (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) to extend his remarks during debate on H.R. 15750 in the Committee of the Whole today, and to include ex- traneous matter. Mr. HANNA (at the request of Mr. PAT- TEN) and to include extraneous matter, notwithstanding the fact that it exceeds two pages of the RECORD and is estimated by the Public Printer to cost $286. (The 'following Members (at the re- quest of Mr. KUPFERMAN) and to in- clude extraneous matter:) Mr. QUILLEN. Mr. CLARENCE J. BROWN, JR. Mr. HALPERN in three instances. Mr. GUBSER. Mr. KEITH. Mr. CONTE. Mr. BOB WILSON. Mr. BRAY in three instances. Mr. AsHBROOK in three instances. Mr. KUPFERMAN in three instances. Mr. RUMSFELD. Mr. HALL. Mr. WATKINS. Mr. PELLY. Mr. DOLE. (The following Members (at the re- quest of Mr. KUPFERMAN) and to include extraneous matter:) Mr. CONTE. Mr. RoNCALIO to revise and extend his remarks on the special order of Mr. MURPHY of New York. Mr. DUNCAN of Oregon to revise and extend his remarks and include extra- neous matter. (The following Members (at the re- quest of Mr. PATTEN) and to include ex- traneous matter:) Mr. CALLAN. Mr. MULTER in three instances. Mr. KEOGH. Mr. ST. ONGE in three instances. Mr. MARSH. Mr. FLOOD. Mr. GONZALEZ in two instances. Mr. PATTEN. Mr. RONcALIO in five instances. Mr. JOELSON in two instances. Mr. DYAL in six instances. Mr. FISHER in two instances. Mr. Moss in six instances. Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts in 10 in- stances. Mr. MOELLER in two instances. Mr. MATSUNAGA in three instances. Mr. CAMERON in five instances. Mr. CELLER. Mr. WOLFF in three instances. Mrs. GRIFFITHS. Mr. HAMILTON in two instances. Mr. WILLIAM D. FORD in two instances Mr. WELTNER. Mr. TENZER in five instances. Mr. MORRISON in two instances. Mr. HAGAN of Georgia in three in- stances. SENATE BILLS REFERRED Bills of the Senate of the following titles were taken from the Speaker's table and, under the rule, referred as follows: S. 309. An act creating a commission to be known as the Commission on Noxious and Obscene Matters and Materials; to the Com- mittee on Education and Labor. S. 1312. An act to amend the District of Columbia Public School Food Services Act; to the Committee on the District of Co- lumbia. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 A3640 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX July 12, 1966 "On this day of devout remembrance, dedi- cated to them, this day of prayer, of fond recollection for departed loved ones, let us once again, as we have done for so many years, throughout the grand history of our beloved citadel of liberty, turn our hearts and our prayers to them with tender, endur- ing thoughts of appreciation deeply har- bored in the heart of every American." GREAT HEROES "Hail to these great heroes, hail to these men, and these -women too, of revered and honored memory, who have bequeathed to us such a precious, noble legacy of true Amer- icanism, and who have consecrated with their blood, their sacrifices and their love, the shrines of this great country and the exalted purposes for which it exists. "Their sacrifices have not been, and will not be, in vain. They will live forever in the hearts and minds of true Americans. These heroes will be revered and they will be emulated, as they have been throughout our history, to the end of time, and as long as men and women strive, struggle and sacrifice to be free from oppression. "This day, and these days of struggle, tur- moil and strife serve to remind us of the price that a great free people are always will- ing to pay to defend and preserve their liberties. "Today, our honored dead, resting in their eternal, heavenly bivouac, speak to us again in the voice of freedom, in the example of their spirit of sacrifice and loyalty, more elo- quently than words, and more nobly than we can describe." BURDEN OF CALL "It is for us today, as it always has been for real Americans, to take up. the burden of their call, to give living expression to the memory and example of their sacrifice, to carry out the inspiration they have given us to defend our blessed free country and the priceless liberties that have made it great against those who seek our destruction, and who strive to turn this free nation and the free world into a fiery shambles of conflict and tyranny. 1 "With prayerful tribute and flowers and the flag for which they fought and died, let us honor and exalt on this day of remem- brance, all those who have served us so gal- lantly, so faithfully and so well with such imperishable devotion, sacrifice and love. "Let us in our time, make very sure that their example shall never die, and that their sacrifices will never be forgotten by a grateful American people who owe them so much," Freedom EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. THADDEUS J. DULSKI - OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, June 21, 1966 Mr. DULSKI. Mr. Speaker, an ex- cellent address on the subject of freedom was delivered recently by Lt. Col. George A., Maloney,., U.S. Army, at the Fourth of July observance at the Monument grounds in Washington, D.C. Colonel Maloney, a graduate of West Point and the recipient of a number of military decorations and awards, has served in Korea, Iceland, Okinawa, and southeast Asia. He recently completed a 3-year tour with the lst Special Forces Group, which included duty in Vietnam 'as commander of the 1st Corps, U.S. Special Forces, at Danang. Under leave to extend my remarks, I wish to include Colonel Maloney's ad- dress which follows: FREEDOM Tonight we celebrate a great national holiday. A day which has meaning for free- men throughout the world. A day which marks the attainment by our forefathers of an individual, political, spiritual and na- tional freedom, previously unknown. A free- dom for which our forefathers paid a heavy price. A freedom- which successive genera- tions of Americans have rebought with their blood. In the 190 years of our freedom, we have learned that freedom brings responsi- bilities to defend it as well as rights to enjoy it. We have learned that freedom isn't free, that it can be lost and once lost is seldom regained. We have learned that freedom lost anywhere, weakens free men everywhere. We have learned that to surrender freedom anywhere invites attack on free men every- where. Because we have learned this, tonight, at this very moment, this generation of Ameri- cans is making another payment for freedom. On the other side of the globe, closer to us now than California was 20 years ago, 30 nations of the free world are united in a struggle to keep the peoples of southeast Asia free. We lead this struggle as we have led others in the past 20 years for our heritage of free- dom includes the burden of free world lead- ership. Our forefathers pledged their lives, their fortunes and their sacred honor to their struggle. The four most recent Presidents of the United States have pledged that we will honor our commitment in southeast Asia and we shall. - Our Vietnam commitment is total and extends from national to village level. Our military men, statesmen, medics and builders make their contributions both to freedom and to the improved living standards, which make freedom meaningful. Our Viet Nam commitment is both similar to and different from others we have honored. Similar in that we are containing aggression in the form of Red inspired, Red supported, and Red directed infiltration forces. Com- munist forces that disguise their true iden- tity and purposes. The Chinese Reds of Mao Tse Tung called themselves agrarian reform- ers. The Cuban Reds of Fidel Castro called themselves liberators. The Vietnamese Reds would be known as civil warriors and re- formers. We know better. We know them as scav- engers of human misery found wherever pov- erty, disease and illiteracy make men des- perate. We know them as false promisers of peace, progress and liberty but deliverers of immediate violence and the eventual cap- tivity of a state society. Our Viet Nam commitment is similar to Korea in that once again we find ourselves fighting in a difficult place. Once again, we are at the end of a long supply line, once again in a terrain which limits the effective- ness of our military machines and saps the strength of our men. Once-again fighting for a small nation' whose divisions and con- fusion are exploited by the same Communist techniques that would divide and confuse our American people. Our Viet Nam Commitment is similar to Korea, Berlin and Cuba in that the threat of nuclear war hovers in the background limit- ing our efforts and lending urgency to the ,requirement for eventual success. But there are also differences in our Viet Nam commitments. To a greater degree than before, people are both the objective and the tools of war. This is a war in, amongst and for people. We fight, not for cities, roads or other terrain features, but for the hearts and minds of men. There are also differences in the timing of the efforts of our national agencies in Viet Nam. In prior wars, the military fought, then the statesmen made peace and finally the aid specialists rebuilt the devastated areas. But in this war, all of our agencies operate concurrently under a single control at the very top level of our government. Finally and sadly, this war is different in that a small portion of our people have mani- fested a violent and irresponsible dissent to our national purposes and efforts. I speak not of those who seek to clarify issues within our democratic process but of those whose dissent is neither reasoned nor honest. Whose dissent reflects their craven self in- terest, their cruel distortion of facts and their callous support of causes detrimental to our common defense of freedom. In so doing they sully that common resolve, that unity of purpose, that universal determina- tion which has characterized our national will in every past war. They distract our at- tention from the utterly magnificent fashion in which our valiant youth are conducting their defense of freedom. I flee a requirement that we insure that those of these splendid men who must die for us do so free of doubt that their sacri- fice is unappreciated. I see a requirement that we so broaden and pass on this priceless heritage of freedom that it can never be said of us that we were so involved in enjoying freedom that we couldn't successfully defend it. His Holiness Pope Paul VI Continues His Quest for an [11 to the Fighting in EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. LESTER L. WOLFF OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, July 12, 1966 Mr. WOLFF. Mr. Speaker, His Holi- ness Pope Paul VI has been untiring in his efforts to bring about peace talks to resolve the Vietnam conflict, and in this quest His Holiness deserves the thanks of all mankind. I would like to insert the following excerpts, released by the National Catholic Welfare Conference, in the RECORD. I commend the Pontiff's re- marks on the Vietnam question to the careful attention of my colleagues. The Holy Father's patient devotion to peace should be an inspiration to our Nation's leaders not to falter in the vital task of bringing a just peace to Vietnam. . [From the N.C.W.C. News Service] POPE PAUL CONTINUES PEACE EFFORTS VATICAN CITY.-Pope Paul VI is determined to press his thus-far fruitless campaign for a negotiated settlement of the war in Viet- nam. He said that although his suggestions for neutral arbitration of the war have not been successful, "we are not on this account dis- heartened in the pursuit of our efforts." Vietnam, he said, is "tormented by a con- flict and by struggles that make it suffer greatly and seem to have no end." He con- tinued: "With the worsening of the situation and the terrible prospect of a possible extension of the conflict, the demands of our apostolic ministry have spurred us to strive in every .way,- even blazing new trails, that a solu- tion may be sought and achieved through frank and honorable negotiations." Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 July 12, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD- APPENDIX tunate that any segment of our society should feel this way. And, it is to such groups that the fringe of unscrupulous, un- American hangers-on attach themselves. it does not take a large force of well trained, Un-American individuals, indoctrinated with some foreign'ideology to transform a rabble of individuals into an active violent mob. Thus, we project an image to the world of a dissatisfied people, which on the whole is not true. Certainly, many of us do not agree with many things going on in Washington but we will attempt to use our ballot to change matters rather than the violence in the streets. Now, we are having hearings in Washing- ton regarding the draft. I believe and have so stated previously that the draft was a war time measure and should be abolished. However, if we must have it let us at least administer it constructively. For example, why should a young man wait around until 24 or older before he is called. In the in- terim he cannot secure a cereer job since companies know he is subject to the draft. Why not induct each youth at age 18 or upon graduation after that birth date. He would spend one year in the Armed Forces during which time he would undergo fair and impartial screening and testing for apti- tudes and College potential. Then, if he shows such potential he would be released to go to College at 'his own expense if pos- sible or at Government expense if necessary. Others would he screened out or into other areas of service for their country. The sal- ary scale would be raised materially for mili- tary service to encourage those qualified to make such service a career. I believe through these efforts we would solve the problems of our youth and maintain an ade- quate fighting force composed of men who are there because. they want to be. What do you think? Tight Money-Remedial Legislation EXTENSION. OF REMARKS or HON. EMANUEL CELLER OF NEW YORX IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, July 12, 1966 Mr. CELLER. Mr. Speaker, presently, the economy of the Nation is faced with the growing scarcity of bank credit. Commercial banks cannot supply the present credit demands. Today, credit at the Federal Reserve is available at the discount rate of 41/2 percent but only on eligible assets and then only for 15 days. These eligible assets are Treasury securi- ties and certain short-term paper. Other assets like customers' loans and other ob- ligations are eligible, but at a penalty rate of an additional one-half of 1 percent and also for 15 days. This penalty and this limitation of time are the rub. In today's economy, these are costly bur- dens and are contributing to tigher mon- ey. These restraints and limitations should be removed if commercial banks are to serve adequately business and in- dustry generally. Banks are competing one with another for funds in all markets in all sections of the country. When banks thus compete with each other, no new credit is estab- lished to meet. growing demands. They are hampered by their ineligibility to borrow readily and economically from the 12 Federal Reserve banks which com- prise the country's central banking system. The outmoded and obsolete borrowing restrictions are intensifying present dif- ficulties. The Federal Reserve has rec- ognized a need for change and has rec- ommended legislation. There is a bill pending in the House, which has already passed the Senate last August. It is S. 1559. It. is presently lodged in the House Banking and Currency Committee. The proposed bill would permit a member bank to borrow from a Federal Reserve bank on the security of any assets ac- ceptable to the Reserve Bank without paying a penalty rate of interest. The 15-day limitation would be removed. William McC. Martin, Jr., Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, has stated: As long as member banks bold a large enough volume of Government securities, they need not, of course, be particularly con- cerned as to the eligibility for discount with the Reserve banks of customers' paper held by them. Since World War II, however, there has been a sharp net decline in the aggregate holdings of Government securities by mem- ber banks. If a continuing substantial in- crease in economic activity should cause banks further to reduce their holdings of Government securities in order to meet in- creased credit demands, many banks would be obliged to tender other kinds of collateral if they should seek to obtain Federal Reserve credit. In order to avoid cumbersome admin- istrative procedures and problems arising from the necessity of distinguishing be- tween "eligible" and "ineligible" paper, the Reserve Board urged Congress to move in and revise and update the law so as to eliminate the existing restric- tions with respect to "eligible" paper. The administration approves of this new procedure. This legislation would remove techni- cal impediments to ready access to Fed- eral Reserve credit without penalty. The Federal Reserve Board wants to make the discount window an effective means of supplying funds to commercial banks. Enactment of this measure would benefit all banks-large and small--in all sections of the country. It would re- lieve the pressure and reduce destruc- tive competition for funds among banks and between banks and nonbank finan- cial institutions. Clinton Memorial Day Observance EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. PHILIP J. PHILBIN . OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, June 16, 1966 Mr. PHILBIN. Mr. Speaker, on May 30 this year, I was privileged to partici- pate in the stirring and impressive Memorial Day exercises in my own hometown of Clinton, Mass., and under unanimous consent`I insert in the Rgc- ORD the news account of this event which appeared in the Clinton, Mass. Item. The material follows: A3639 MEMORIAL DAY RITES OBSERVED IN CLINTON "Memorial Day is a great, nationwide, spon- taneous outpouring of tribute, honor, grati- tude and remembrance of the gallant and the great, of those in every American genera- tion who thought so much of American free- dom and the American way of life that they willingly laid down their lives." So said Congressman PHILIP J. PHILBIN, in his Memorial Day address in Central Park Monday while hundreds of Clintonlans par- ticipated in the annual ceremonies there to honor their dead. loved ones. In both Woodlawn and St. John's ceme- teries, graves were decorated and prayers were said as taps were sounded and the National Guard firing squad saluted deceased veterans from all past wars. Three bands and the Joanette Drill Team from Leominister highlighted the musical portions of the parade and marchers in- cluded the Veterans units, their auxiliaries, Gold Star mothers, Boy and Girl Scouts, Cubs and Brownies. Parade marshal was Lt. Col. William M. Duncanson U.S. Army Ret., assisted by Ger- ald Ruberti, Francis M. Ponyta and Donald McGuirk. Prayers were read by the Rev. Richard L. Harding of the First Baptist Church, Miss Nancy L. Anderson (highest honor pupil at CHS) delivered the Gettys- burg Address, and John Bandalewicz Com- mander of the Polish American War Veterans from Maynard read the general orders. The musical units were: The Clinton High School Band, the Clinton Junior High Band and the Shirley P.A.L. Band. ALL AMERICANS The Congressman's remarks follow in part: "Memorial Day has deepest significance to us and to all Americans. The day was first officially established following our Civil War and many gallant young men of Clinton served and fought in that bloody conflict to establish national and civil rights. . "Most of the bitterness of that fratricidal conflict has disappeared, but the :memory of these gallant heroes remains, and their de- votion to country is permanently enshrined in the hearts of our people and inscribed upon permanent monuments in our beautiful. park, side by side with fitting memorials to the gallant service and sacrifice of those who fought and died in the Spanish-American War, World War I, World War II and veterans of other Americans wars. "While Memorial Day came into being to commemorate the brave veterans of the Civil. War, it has thus been extended to pay fitting; tribute to all those who have given of them- selves, who have made the supreme sacrifice, or who have served faithfully and heroically to uphold American liberty and justice." OUTPOURING OF TRIBUTE "Today, Memorial Day is a great, nation-? wide, spontaneous outpouring of tribute, honor, gratitude and remembrance of the gallant and the great, of those in every Amer- ican generation who thought so much of American freedom and the American way of life that they willingly laid down their lives, or offered their lives, most of them in the flower of their youth, in order that this great government dedicated to human freedom. might survive, grow, prosper and become, as it has become, the greatest nation in world. history. "No honor we could confer upon them would be enough to express our thanks, and the thanks of the country, to these valiant veterans for what they have done to protect, preserve and save this great nation, its homes, its freedoms, its vaunted institutions of enterprise and justice. "No monument, no plaque, no words can measure their noble sacrifices. They rest in honored glory. They are enshrined in grate- fur American hearts with eternal love, devo- lion and gratitude. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 July 12, 1..66 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD APPENDIX A3641 He recalled that he had made "reiterated appeals both public and private" for peace in Vietnam and had left no stone unturned "to hasten the meeting of minds." He also recalled his proposal for a Christmas truce and his hopes that it would be not only pro- longed but would serve as "a base for launch- ing peace negotiations." He indicated that he had channeled his suggestions for neutral arbitration in Viet- nam through the United Nations: "Trusting once more in the work of the United Na- tions-of that organization that works for peace and in the 20 years of its existence has prevented so many conflicts and settled so many others-we thought it good to sug- gest aribtration, to be confident in neutral nations, for a pacific solution of the grave problem." He continued: "You well know the inconclusive outcome of our sincere and unselfish efforts in favor of peace. But we are not on this account dis- heartened in the pursuit of our action, for we are anxious to foster in the society of men the concord and brotherhood proclaimed by the Gospel message. "Meanwhile we renew to the heads of state and to all men of good will-who have so generously and enthusiastically responded to our solicitude as universal father and shep- herd-our sincere and profound gratitude, and the appeal to focus their thoughts on a just peace that may give those peoples lib- erty, order and prosperity." gardless of the merits of any of the in- dividual projects. As a result; all 51 new watershed work plans are still pending in the Budget Bureau and, even though there has been no change in the law, the appropriate committees of the House and Senate have not been given an opportu- nity to review and approve these new watershed projects. This new policy of the Budget Bureau threatens to endan- ger one of the most effective programs for soil and water conservation. It is my understanding that the Budget Bureau has held up these watershed projects because of a contention that the provision for congressional review and approval of individual projects is an un- constitutional infringement on the power of the executive branch. Very frankly, I do not think this matter in- volves any great constitutional crisis. The Soil Conservation Service water- shed program has operated under the provision for congressional review and approval of individual projects for a dozen years. During this time, the House and Senate Agriculture Commit- tees have approved 293 projects, and the House and Senate Public Works Com- mittees have approved 153. In other words, 446 watershed projects have been approved under the Present.. Provisions of the law, and there have been no pre- vious complaints that this law violated Budget Bureau Policy Threatens To En- the Constitution. Only last year the danger Soil Conservation Service Wa- Congress, with the approval of the ex- ecutive branch, amended the Watershed tershed Program Protection and Flood Prevention Act so EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. BERT BANDSTRA OF IOWA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, June 13, 1966 Mr. BANDSTRA. Mr. Speaker, I would like to express my deep concern over the Bureau of the Budget's recently adopted policy with regard to new proj- ects under the U.S. Soil Conservation Service watershed program. Since last December, the Soil Conser- vation Service has sent 51 new water- shed work plans to the Budget'Bureau for review. In the past, the Budget Bu- reau has checked watershed work plans and, if no objections to their economic feasibility were found, has transmitted the projects to the Congress for review and approval by the appropriate com- mittees of the House and Senate. Un- der provisions of the Watershed Protec- tion and Flood Prevention Act, projects with a. single structure of more than 4,- as to permit Soil Conservation Service to provide assistance to watersheds with structures of up to 12,500 acre-feet flood detention capacity. Nothing was said at that time about the possible uncon- delayed by a dispute over abstract legal- ities. In my opinion, the soil Conservation Service watershed program is far too valuable to be endangered by arguments over the alleged unconstitutionality of a law which has been in operation with- out previous objections for a dozen years. Any question as to the constitutionality of the provision for congressional ap- proval of projects can be resolved at a later date, when the Congress has the time to consider the matter with care. In any event, if there is anything certain about this dispute, it is that nothing in the Watershed Protection and Flood Pre- vention Act authorizes the Budget Bu- reau to deliberately hold up projects which merit approval. I therefore think the Budget Bureau should. reverse its policy of holding up watershed work plans and allow this program to move forward, as it has in the past, under the procedures established by law. Statement Made by Irvin M. Frankel, President, American Society of Travel Agents, Presentation of Plaque to Senator Magnuson EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. CHARLES L. WELTNER OF GEORGIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, July 12, 1966 Mr. WELTNER. Mr. Speaker, my friend Mr. Irvin M. Frankel, of Atlanta, Ga., is president of the American Society of Travel Agents. The society recently paid tribute to Senator WARREN G. MAGNUSON for his contribution to the travel agency indus- try and the public which it serves. Be- cause of my respect for Mr. Frankel's- distinguished leadership in the travel in- dustry, I place his statement on that occasion in the RECORD at this point: STATEMENT MADE BY IRVIN M. FRANKEL, PRES- IDENT, AMERICAN SOCIETY OF TRAVEL AGENTS, PRESENTATION OF PLAQUE TO SEN- ATOR MAGNUSON, JUNE 23, WASHINGTON, D.C. Honored Guests and Fellow Members of ASTA, thank you very much for taking time from your busy schedules and important re- sponsibilities to participate in this occasion. I know that I voice the sentiments of all the members of the American Society of Travel Agents when I say that we long have looked forward to this opportunity to pay tribute to our guest of honor, WARREN G. MAGNUSON, who-although a Senator repre- senting the State of Washington-is, in our opinion, a Senator representing all of the United States. During his more than 30 years of public service in the House of Representatives and the Senate, he has demonstrated that im- perative quality which, in the words of Alexander Hamilton, distinguishes a repre- sentative of all the people as contrasted with a parochial approach. "Learn to think continentally," Hamilton admonished his contemporaries. Senator MAGNUSON, in answer to-the de- mands of the present and in response to his own profound awareness of the course of history, has exceeded that heretofore valid injunction and thinks internationally. stitutionality of review and approval of these projects by congressional commit- tees. In fact, it was not until late May of this year that Soil Conservation Serv- ice officials first learned of the Budget Bureau's objections to this procedure. If the Budget Bureau's new policy is not reversed, and if the new watershed work plans are not sent to the Congress for review and approval, Sit will be ex- tremely unfair to the local officials who have spent years preparing detailed plans for these projects. Among the projects now being held up by the Budget Bureau is the Three Mile Creek Watershed, which is of great importance to the Union County area in Iowa. This project was officially proposed in 1958 and it has been in the planning stage since January 1961, more than 5 years ago. After a great deal of hard work on the part of the local sponsors, plans for the Three Mile Creek project were sent to the viewW and approval to the House and project, which I have been following Senate Public Works Committees, and closely for more than a year, would pro- projects with a single structure of less vide valuable soil conservation, flood than 4,000 acre-feet Capacity are sent to control and recreation benefits to the the House and Senate Agriculture Com- Union County area. In addition, it would mittees. The provision for review and offer a source of municipal water supply approval by congressional committees to the town of Afton, which has been has been part of the law since it was en- hampered by acute water shortages in acted in 1954. the past. And, in the long run, the Three Within the last month or so, however,' Mile Creek Watershed would provide the the Budget Bureau has changed its long- basis for future economic growth in the established policy and has refused to area. I feel it would be most unfortu- send any new watershed projects to the nate if this project, as well as the others Congress for review and' approval, re- pending with the Budget Bureau, were Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5 A3,642 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- APPENDIX . The important legislation which marks his drying up the market of free money career in public service is monumental testi- which can create a depression. This is mony to his fidelity to the philosophical ob- servation that "the difference between a poll- tician and a statesman is that a politician The unemployment rate is rising again thinks only of the next election and a states- and serious unemployment, particularly man thinks of the next generation." in the building trades, may be the re- Every proposal advocated by WARREN MAC- sult. Meanwhile, we are going up and wusoN, every piece of legislation which he down on an economic roller coaster. has authored, sponsored and successfully has The banks have been encouraged to brought to enactment, is incontestible evi- buy what are called "certificates of de- dence of his fidelity to this concept. We, in the American Society of Travel posit" for 51/2 percent. and, under the Agents, long have watched with deep and rules, a little more. This looks good be- personal interest his devotion to furthering the best interests of all--his steadfast ad- herence to the principle that all legislation must be based upon equity and justice. We are here today to express our deep ap- preciation of his inspired leadership and rec- ognized wisdom during his many years of public service. His sound imagination has assisted ma- terially in creating a strong, self-sufficient air transportation system. He prophetically pioneered in an appreciation and under- standing of the benefits which would be de- rived by our national economy from travel and tourism. And he, time and time again, has .directed the specific attention of the nation to the tremendous contribution to our gross national product made by the inde- pendent, private enterprise businessmen- who constitute the Travel Agency Industry. He has listened sympathetically and per- ceptively to our problems, lauded our effort to serve the public in accordance with the highest standards of responsibility and pro- fessionalism and has given us that sound ad- vice which is the distillation of experience and statesmanship. No single tablet of bronze adequately could describe our appreciation of his services to our nation and, of course, to our industry. So-we are forced to be content with the following phrases which, even at their best, are inadequate to express the full extent of our genuine sentiments. On behalf of the American Society of Travel Agents, Senator MAGNUsoN, and In accord- ance with the resolution adopted by our Officers and Directors, we present, with pride and pleasure, this testimonial of apprecia- tion in recognition of your distinguished leadership and positive contributions to the Travel Agency Industry and the public which it serves; and for your significant achieve- ments in the development of travel and tourism. We wish you many more years of similar outstanding service to our peoples and our nation. Scramble for Cash Unprecedented EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. BOB WILSON OF CALIFORNIA IN fHE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES .Tuesday, July 12, 1966 Mr. BOB WILSON. Mr. Speaker, the President is not sending a tax increase bill to Congress at least until after the elections. Instead, he is trying to check escalating inflation resulting from wild and wasteful Federal spending by apply- ing the monetary brakes. Now no one knows whether the public is going through the windshield or up through the roof. L.B.J. has reached the point where, having spent too much to try to create prosperity, he is now cause it increases their deposits. But these "certificates of deposit" are rela- tively short term, often 3 months. A bank must earn better-and usually far better-than 6 percent quickly to pay these high interest rates. This has shoved, and is shoving, the price of money for borrowers to ruinous rates. It is hitting the construction and other trades and will hit more. This is a new twist on robbing Peter to pay Paul and only this corkscrew administration could have nurtured it. By unanimous consent, in this con- nection, I introduce in the RECORD an article by Harold B. Dorsey in the Wash- ington Post: SCRAMBLE FOR CASH UNPRECEDENTED (By Harold B. Dorsey) NEW YORK, July 10.--The scramble for cash that has been so evident in the past few weeks has reached a stage that has only rarely been experienced in this country dur- ing the 20th century. The competition for money by the savings institutions, com- mercial banks, non-bank lenders, Federal agencies and business borrowers is now on a knock-down, no-holds-barred basis. One result of this condition is a distortion in normal interest rate relationships which is tending to cause violent shifts in cash flows. For instance, the recent increase in dividends paid on savings and loan shares is probably more than some of the S&L's can afford to pay out of interest earned. Nevertheless, the boost In the rates seemed to be necessary to restrain an even more embarrassing out- flow of deposits to higher yields obtainable elsewhere. But the yields obtainable else- where are also rising in this most unusual scramble for money. One cannot help but wonder what is go- ing to happen to the approximately $43 bil- lion of ordinary passbook savings deposits of the weekly reporting commercial banks. The ceiling interest rate on these deposits is only 4 percent. The depositor can probably put his money in the savings bank or the S&L next door and obtain 5 percent. Some of them could probably do better than that if they wanted to buy Certificates of Deposits issued by commercial banks or to invest their money in top quality relatively short-term debt issues of the Federal agencies and corporations. Over $17 billion o3' the deposits of the commercial banks is represented by Certifi- cates of Deposits on which the ceiling is 51/2 per cent. But in the secondary markets C.D.'s maturing in six months are available on a 5.60 per cent basis. A substantial por- tion of the C.D's represents a temporary in- vestment of the surplus cash of corporations. But to the extent that the commercial banks lose the C.D. money, and it ultimately comes back to them 'in the form of demand deposits, the money available to the com- mercial. banks for lending and investing would be reduced because the reserve re- quirements on demand deposits is nearly 3 times the recently upward revised require- ment on C.D.'s. Meanwhile, the 41/2 per cent Federal Re- serve discount rate (the rate which the July 12, 1966- Fed charges for its loans to member banks) is now further out of line with most other interest rates than has been in many years-- if ever. The historical interest rate relation- ships suggest that the discount rate should have been boosted a couple of months ago. I suggest that it has not been raised be- cause this particular rate is considered a symbol of monetary ease or tightness and an increase under present circumstances might be a psychological shock to the financial sys- tem-although anybody that does not already know that the credit situation is extraordinarily tight doesn't read the newspapers. The rarity of this financial situation makes it difficult to envision just where the scram- ble for cash is going to end, and what its consequences may be. It is clear that the cause of the condition is the most unusual demand for credit necessary to finance the abnormally high rate of demand for goods and services. These pressures certainly would have been less excessive if the govern- ment had decided late last year to siphon off $5-$7 billion of the purchasing power of the private sectors by boosting tax rates. Since this step was not taken, the cor- rectives are coming in the form of extreme tightness in the capital and credit markets and also in the form of higher prices, which reduce the ability of the economy to move units of goods and services into con- sumption. How AEC Report Pictures Ann Arbor EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. WILLIAM D. FORD OF MICHIGAN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, July 12, 1966 Mr. WILLIAM D. FORD. Mr. Speak- er, the interest of the Michigan del- egation in this and the other body of Congress in the location of the Atomic Energy Commission's 200 Bev. acceler- ator facility on a site in our State is, I am sure, well known to all Members. I should like to call to the attention of my colleagues an article which appeared in the Detroit News on Sunday, July 10. This article, written by Mr. Robert L. Pisor, of the News Washington bureau, is one of the most lucid and comprehen- sive I have had the privilege of reading on this complex subject. Mr. Pisor writes of the role of our dis- tinguished colleague, the gentleman from Michigan [Mr. VIVrAN], in leading the Michigan effort to secure the Atomic Energy Commission research facility. The gentleman's efforts on behalf of the Michigan site have been tireless. His colleagues in the Michigan delegation have been much impressed not only with his broad knowledge of scientific and re- search matters, based on his background as a scientist and businessman, but also with his seemingly boundless energy on behalf of his State and his district. This work is well documented in Mr. Pisor's article. Finally, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Pisor em- phasizes the facts, well known to many of my colleagues, regarding the failure of the Federal Government, to date, to bring about an equitable geographical distribution of Federal research and de- velopment funds. He points out the Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400090013-5