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August 26, 1966
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19978 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDR67B00446R0004'00100004-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 26, 1966 U.S. Army Cohps of Engineers projects, Texas, expenditures for 'construction, 1962-66 fiscal years-Continl`ed Blieders Creek Reservoir (New Braunfelds I ---------------- $37, 000 Belton: Reservoir (Leon River, Brazos Basin)--------------- 527,000 Buffalo Bayou (Houston) ------ 14, 247, 000 Canyon Reservoir (Guadalupe River) ---------------------- Fort Worth Floodway (Trinity River Basin) : West Fork. extension -_____-__ Clear Fork extension--------- Garza-Little Elm Reservoir (Elm Fork, Trinity River)_________ Cooper Reservoir (South Sul- phur River) ----------------- Dam ?`B" Reservoir (Nueces River) --------------------- Freeport and vicinity (hurri- cane protection)____________ Lake Kemp Reservoir (Wichita River) ---------------------- Navarro Mills Dam-'and Reser- voir (Trinity River Basin) --- Grapevine Dam and Reservoir (Trinity River Basin) -------- Proctor Dam and Reservoir (Leon River, Brazos River 1,832,000 296, 000 434,000 1,195,000 732, 000 694, 000 180, 000 5,188,000 659, 000 Basin) ---------------------- 11,959,000 Hords Creek Reservoir (Colorado River Basin) ---------------- 252,000 Pat Mayse Reservoir (Sanders Creek) __ 3,756,000 Port Arthur and vicinity (hur- ricane protection) ----------- 1,306,000 Texarkana Reservoir (Sulphur River, Red River Basin) ______ - 1, 068, 000 Lavon Reservoir (East Fork Trinity River)______________ 1,410,000 San Antonio Channel__________ 3,902,000 San Angelo Reservoir (Colorado River Basin) ---------------- 589,000 San Gabriel River .(tributary to Brazos River) _______________ 760,000 Somerville Reservoir (Brazos River Basin) ---------------- 20, 094, 000 Stillhouse Hollow Reservoir (Lampasas River) ----------- 11, 912, 000 Whitney Reservoir (Brazos River) --------------------- 668,000 Texas City (hurricane protec- tion) _______________________ 6,916,000 Vince and Little Vince Bayous_ 247, 000 Wallisville Reservoir ----------- 554, 000 Waco Reservoir (Brazos River Basin) ---------------------- 34, 432, 000 Total___________________ 140, 063, 000 FLOOD CONTRQS MULTIPLE PURPOSE INCLUDING POWER Sam Rayburn Reservoir (An- gelina River) ---------------- 'Denison Dam and Reservoir (Red River) ----------------- Aquatic plant control ---------- Brazos Island Harbor__________ Colorado River locks ----------- Gulf Intracoastal Waterway____ (Channel to Victoria) (Channel to Port Mansfield) (Channel to Palacios) Galveston Harbor and Channel_ Port Bolivar Dike (repair) ------ Houston Ship Channel (bend easing to 40-foot project) ___ Matagordo Ship Channel______ Port Isobel____________________ Sabine-Neches Waterway----__- Texas City Channel, 40-foot--_- 13,000 1,635,000 84,000 9,483,000 51087 , 000 188, 000 13, 448, 000 13, 109, 000 47,000 6,197,000 400, 000 Total___------------ 49,691,000 Grand total_____________ 226,867,000 FUTUREF DEVELOPMENTS The overwhelming view is that a lot more Funds have been requested in the 1967 men will head for Vietnam, that a lot more budget for the restudy of the Trinity River Americans will be killed and that there is no navigation project ($200,000) and $150,000 sign whatsoever that North Vietnam and its to start advance engineering and design of allies and agents in the South are headed the El Paso local flood protection project. toward a decision to call it quits. There are a number of projects which have The prospects for peace are minimal and been authorized for which funds are not far off; the prospects for a bigger war, close currently available but will be activated to the Korean pattern in many ways, are later. These include the Chocolate Bayou rapidly increasing. navigation channel connecting'with the Gulf THE HAWKS SOAR Intracoastal waterway 65 miles south of An important date is likely to be Nov. 8, Galveston. when Americans vote in the off-year elections Flood control projects authorized for fu- for Congress. tureprosecution include: Highland Bayou, President Johnson's conduct of the war a small coastal stream in Galveston County; will not, as Hanoi apparently thinks, be re- local protection for the City of Pecos; Taylor pudiated. The Democrats probably will lose Bayou which drains the segment of coastal seats in the House, and perhaps in the.Sen- plain between Port Arthur and Galveston ate, but the Republicans who replace them, Bay; Rockland Reservoir on the Neches in sum, probably will be more hawkish about River, for flood control, water supply and the war than they were. hydro power; and Big Pine Reservoir, in A number of Democrats who deplore the Red River County. war's escalation have tried in primaries to Units of the Trinity River Projects, au- make an issue of it, but they have been con- thorized but still in the future, include the spicuously unsuccessful. This has produced Elm Fork Floodway; Dallas Floodway Ex- something of a deemphasis on the war as an tension; Duck Creek Channel Improvement; issue though some peace candidates are still local flood protection at Liberty; Lakeview; to be judged in coming primaries. Tennessee Colony, Aubrey and Roanoke Res- On the Republican side, the most pub- ervoirs. licized peace candidate, Oregon's Gov. Mark The Corps of Engineers is cooperating with Hatfield, is finding himself in an uphill fight other Federal agencies and the State of Texas, for a Senate seat that he appeared certain to in formulating plans for development of the win-all because he seems to be too much of surplus water resources of eastern Texas for a dove to the voters. utilization in central and west Texas. This Ho Chi Minh has told visitors that he ex is designated the Texas Basin Study. A half pects Mr. Johnson's political base for his million dollars is requested for fiscal year military action to be shattered at the polls. 1967 for this purpose. Every sign thus far is that he will be vastly Recommendations of the Corps and the disappointed unless in self-indulgence he other agencies will undoubtedly result in a foolishly misreads the expected Democratic Two years after November, President John- son himself will face the electorate. His in- VIETNAM clination between elections, reinforced by Mr. McGOVERN. Mr. President, two more hawks in Congress, is likely to be to pour it on in the war. significant and interesting articles On No President would choose to face the the Vietnam conflict appear in the Wash- voters during a war, though some have done ington Post for Sunday, August 21, 1966. so successfully in the midst of a conflict The first by Mr. Chalmers Roberts supported totally by the people. No one is projects a deepening American involve- saying that the war in Vietnam is such a ment designed to secure an American conflict, however; indeed, the politicians call it the most unpopular war in American decision by 1968. history. The second is a discussion of Mr. Furthermore,, Mr. Johnson is all too pain- Richard N. Goodwin's stimulating book, fully aware that, as the Republicans so often "Triumph or Tragedy: Reflections on note, all the wars in this century began while a Democrat was President. Vietnam, " as seen by the reviewer, Mr. Ronald Steel. Hence, the best possible posture for Mr. I ask unanimous consent that these Johnson in November, 1968, would be to stand before the voters with the war ended in two pieces be printed at this point in the a fashion most of the public would consider RECORD. at least honorable even if not totally suc- There -being no objection, the articles cessful. were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, To reach such a happy day within two as follows: years, then, the President most probably will [From the Washington (D.C.) Post, Aug. 21, pour it on in Vietnam militarily while trying 19661 to confine the conflict to its present partici- pants and geographic limits. THE GRIM VIEW : A HOTTER WAR BEFORE 1968'' That he will do just that is the predomi- J DOMINANT BELIEF HERE Is THAT L.B. . WILL Want view inside the Administration and in POUR MEN AND ARMS INTO VIETNAM BE- Congress. It is hardly necessary to add that TWEEN ELECTIONS no man is more unhappy about the war than (By Chalmers M. Roberts) the President, or more aware of the crimp it In the corridors of power in Washington has put in his Great Society program and these days, one occasionally hears the view his hopes of ushering in an era of world that a critical turn will come in Vietnam peace based on a live-and-let-live relation- within a year, or even that the war will be ship with the Soviet Union. over in the next 12 months. He wants to end this -unpopular war, to This reflects, in part, a sort of Micawberish respond to the mood of the Nation and to hope that something will turn up to end the prove to the skeptics that he has been right bloodletting, and in part, it is an Occidental all along. reading of an Oriental enemy-a deduction THE WILL TO PROSECUTE that the Communists have to fold because , The other day, after conferring with G-n nobody could stand the military punishment William C. Westmoreland, the commander in they are taking. the field, Mr. Johnson said that "the single But such views, albeit built partially on a most important factor now is our will to now-receded wavelet of official optimism ex- prosecute the war until the Communists, Declared inactive 1964 pending local in- early July, are swamped by far grimmer read- either end the war or seek a peaceful settle- terests' study of alt rnative. ings from the corridors of power. ment." Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 August 26, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD --SENATE The Palmetto Project, consists principally of Palmetto Bend Dam and reservoir located at the, junction of the Lavaca and Navidad Rivers in Jackson County. The project would provide municipal and industrial wa- ter supplies to support economic growth and industrial development of the area. It would also provide fish and wildlife benefits and recreation opportunities. This project is now before the Congress for approval. The Columbus Bend Dam and Reservoir Project, located on the Colorado River above the city of La Grange in Colorado and Fay- ette counties would provide additional de- pendable water supplies to meet the rapidly increasing downstream requirements for mu- nicipal and industrial water. It would also provide substantial fish and wildlife and rec- reation benefits, and incidental flood control benefits. This project too Is awaiting con- gressional approval. Soil Conservation Service watershed protec- tion and flood prevention program (Public Law 566 projects) -Watershed (years active) Amount 1962-1966 Agua Dulce Creek (1962 to 1966) - $231, 862 Alamo Arroyo (1966)___________ 9,632 Attoyac Bayou (1966)________-_ 29, 207 Auds Creek (1962 to 1966) ------- 318, 596 Big Creek (1965 to 1966) --------- Camp Rice Arroyo (1962 to 1964) _ 350, 751 261 260 Castleman Creek (1966)________ 3,734 Chiltipin-San Fernando Creek (1962 to 1966)________________ Chocolate, Little Cho., L.B. (1966) ---------------------- 2, 970 Cummins Creek (1962 to 1966) -- 192, 969 Diablo Arroyo (1962) ---------- 817 -Donahoe Creek (1966) ---------- 7, 906 Dry Devils R. and Lowrey Draw (1962 to 1963) --------------- 22, 255 Duck Creek (1966)______________ 5,762 East Bay Bayou (1963 to 1966) -- 215, 952 East Keechi Creek (1962 to 1966) ----------------------- 911, 941 Escondido Creek (1966) -------- 31 581 Hondo Creek (1964 to 1966) ____ 183, 053 Johnsons Draw (1966) ---------- Kent Creek (1963 to 1966) __ __ 454,660 Kickapoo Creek (1962 to 1966) -- 754, 769 Knob Creek (approved) -------- 0 Langford Creek (1962 to 1966) -- 249,173 Logan-Slough Creek (1964 to 1966) ----------------------- 376,792 Lower Brushy Creek (1962 to 1966) 70b,977 Lower Plum Creek (1962 to 1966) _ 448, 837 Macho Arroyo (1962 to 1963) (credit) 16,409 Madden Arroyo (1962 to 1964) -- 17, 035 Martinez Creek (1962 to 1966)__ 546,383 Mimms Draw (1962 to 1964) ____ 33,998 Nolan Creek (1964 to 1986) ----- 11,493 N.E. Tributaries of Leon River (1963 to 1966) - 1,632,394 Olmitos-Garcias Creeks (1962 to 1966) ----------------------- 976,130 Pine Creek (1964 to 1966) ------ 426, 474 Plum Creek (1962 to 1966) _____ 919, 227 Ramirez Creek (]962 to 1966) 54, 145 Salado Creek (1963 to 1968) ----- 20, 978 San Diego-Rosita Creeks (1962 to 1966) ----------------------- Sulphur Creek and Supplement (1962 to 1965) (net) _________ 744 1, 284,619 Town Branch (1962 to 1966) ---- 42,493 Turkey Creek (Approved) ----- 0 Upper Bosque River (1964 to 1966) -- ---------------- Upper Bushy Creek (1962 to 1966) ----------------------- 878, 595 Upper Lake Fork Creek (1962 to 1966) ----------------------- 671,924 Upper Las Moras Creek (1962 to 1965) -_ ------------ 330, 577 Valley Creek (1963 to 1966) ----- $13,419 Soil Conservation Service watershed protec. tion and flood prevention program (Public Law 566 projects) -Watershed (years active)-Continued Amount 1962-1966 Williams Creek (1966) ---------- $2, 680 York Creek (1962 to 1966) ------ 1,441,645 Pilot projects: Cow Bayou (1962 to 1966) ____ 1, 201, 891 Escondido Creek (1962 to 1964) --------------------- 60,894 Total 1,262,755 Flood prevention projects: Middle Colorado (1962 to 1966) 9,319,271 Trinity River (1962 to 1966) -- 21,075,196 -Total ------------------- 30,394,467 Grand total Public Law 566, pilot and flood pre- vention, fiscal years 1962 to 1966 ------------ 49, 934, 797 National Park Service-Expenditures, 1962-66 Big Bend National Park (Brewster County) : Roads, trails, drain- age structures, parking areas, walks, driveways, trailer park, water supply and distribution, sewage disposal system, com- fort stations, house trailers and utilities in place, employee res- idences and utilities, rehabil- itation of historic structures, bridge, signs, and markers, fencin f b d 1962 o n u g o ary, -66__ To, 2C?2, 600 Fort Davis National Historic Site: Signs and markers, reha- bilitation of historic structures, employee residences, utilities, visitor center rehabilitation, roads, parking area and pav- ing, 1962-66________________ Padre Island National Seashore: Water system, picnic' area de- velopment, comfort stations, employee housing and util- ities, sewer and power systems, 1966 ------------------------ Total National Park Serv- ice expenditures ------- 4,666,000 Construction planned, 1967 Big Bend National Park: Construction of Nine Point Draw Bridge, Routes 1 and 2, and repair decks on Tor- nillo Creek bridges__________ Water system at Castalon_____ Rehabilitation of sewage dis- posal system at Panther Junction __________________ Fort Davis National Historic Site: Entrance road, trails, and visi- tors' parking area---------- Stabilization of ruins, fencing, signs, and markers_________ $127, 800 132, 000 19977 Construction planned, 1967---Continued South end-Spur road and parking area ________________ -$65,800 Utilities --------------------- 67, 100 Radio tower_________________ 31,600 Total for 1967 ------------ 1,524,000 PROJECTION 1968, FISCAL YEAR AND BEYOND Big Bend National Park Beginning in 1968 the North Entrance Road, Route 1 from North Boundary to Tor- nillo Road; 21 miles, will be reconstructed and Nine Point Bridge will be completed. By 1972 this project will be completed at an estimated cost of $1,868,900. In 1973 recon- struction of Grapevine Spur Route 37, 8.9 miles, will be started, to be completed in two years for $767,100. A similar amount will be expended in 1975 to reconstruct Dag- ger Flat Spur, Route 6 from Route 1 to Dag- ger Flat, 10 miles. Other roads and trails costing approximately $777,500 are planned over a period of over a decade beginning in 1968. In the period 1968-1975 construction of utilities, buildings, and various facilities are planned as follows: Chisos Mountain Basin area------ $450,000 Panther Junction area----------- 844, 000 Rio Grande Village area.---------- 770, 900 Castolon area___________________ 1,247,600 Park general____________________ 20,000 Total for 1968-75 ---------- 3,332,500 Fort Davis National Historic Site The current building program will be coin- pleted by 1970 fiscal year. This calls for ex- penditures of $17,400 for roads and trails and $215,600 for buildings, utilities and miscel- laneous facilities. Padre Island National Seashore Padre Island National Seashore's develop- ment will extend over a period of years. The Bureau of Public Roads will begin an access road of 20 miles at the North end in 1973 at a cost of $2 million. At the completion of that road a 23-mile access road will be con- structed at the South end with cost esti- mated at $2,600,000. Meanwhile a number of lesser circulatory roads into the seashore area will be com- pleted In 1971 fiscal year at an additional cost of $1,195,900. A circulation and access road in the Mur- doch Landing area will not be undertaken until 1976 or later, to cost $800,000. In the North Entrance area utilities to cost $313,700 are planned for 1969 through 1971. Those in the South Entrance area, 1968-1970 will cost $994,100; in the Murdoch Landing area, beginning in 1972 through 1974 planned utilities will cost $950,000 and at Mansfield Cut, beginning in 1974, $1,194,000, Buildings for park use and visitors, in- cluding miscellaneous facilities for the same areas are: 279,800 North entrance area, 1969-73____ $1,683,400 142, 800 2;i, 900 Total for 1967___________ 167, 700 Padre Island National Seashore: North end-Main road from boundary to developed area, campground roads and por- tions of circulating roads and parking area----------- 649,300 Public use building and util- ities ---------------------- 562,700. Sand stabilization, site prep- aration and signs----- 1571500 South entrance area, 1968-70 ---- 1,098,200 Murdoch Landing area, 1972-74 --------------------- 1, 610, 000 Mansfield Cut area, 1974-75 ----- 3,435,000 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers projects, Texas, expenditures for construction, 1962-66 fiscal years FLOOD CONTROL Abilene improvement channel (Brazos River)______________ Bardwell Reservoir (Waxa- hatchie Creek, Trinity River Basin) ______________ Benbrook Reservoir (Clear Fork, Trinity River) --------------- 1319 Fossil Creek (local protec- tion) --------------------- 10,334,009 543, 000 1,, 822, 000 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 August 26, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 19979 The President added that "no one can say destroy strategy-hunting out the hard core Beneath the rival polemics of hawks and when this will be or how many men will be enemy units, but moving on after destroying doves, the pragmatic justifications of escala- needed." them or spoiling their offensive plans. This tion, and the anguished search for a political Probably there will be new peace efforts, has its military value, of course, but it is not settlement, lies the greater tragedy of the but the big emphasis'will be military. The as effective in the long run as holding ter- war in Viet Nam: the erosion of the belief President has denied there are studies esti- ritory taken. by the American people in the virtue of their mating the war will go on for eight years But to hold the territory after all search- cause. Within the tragedy of Viet Nam, and require 750,000 men. But this was hard- and-destroy operations would take more there is an American tragedy as well. Confi- ly more than a technical denial at election men than are now available in Vietnam. dente in national leadership has been re- time. The fact is that plans are well laid Indeed, to search-and-destroy thoroughly placed by doubt, commitment by baffled for increasing the manpower in Vietnam and will take many more. But whether adds- acquiescence, moderation by a growing im- doing it over whatever period is necessary. tional manpower and firepower will produce patience with stalemate. This is a war where Last May, in a much-discussed article In altered Army strategy remains a secret. It open dissent has become a matter of course, The Washington Post, S. J. Deitchman of the has in the past, however, as the American where draft-dodging is not considered un- Institute for Defense Analysis calculated strategy changed more and more from coun- patriotic, where the Administration has lost that, assuming a massive American escalation ter-guerrilla tactics to seeking direct con- the support of its own party in Congress. in Vietnam, the war's duration could be frontation in the Korean war fashion. This is a Presidential war, for today, as limited to about six years with the employ- All this assumes continued waging of war Richard Goodwin comments in this provoca- ment of some 675,000 men. The casualties, he by the North Vietnamese. Experts here see tive essay on our Involvement in Viet Nam, figured, would total about 100,000 killed no reason to doubt that they will. The re- "the Congressional power to declare war is (compared to 33,629 battle deaths in the Ko- cent evacuation from Hanoi of virtually all little more than a ratification of events and rean war and 4,741 so far in Vietnam, plus old people'and school-age children, for in- acts already past" 1,018 nonbattle deaths in Vietnam). Deitch- stance, is an act of determination, not of For the first time in our history, we do not man's chilling estimates have never had of- - desperation. know why we are fighting, who our enemies ficial sanction. But Sen. JOHN STENNIS If the war must go on, some ask, why not are, or even what we mean `by victory. Are (D-Miss.), who last January first suggested attack the North with land and sea forces? we trying to contain China, to punish ag- that 400,000 men would be needed by the Why not try a Vietnamese version of the gression, to show that wars of liberation end of 1966, is now saying that an eventual famous Inchon landing by Gen. Douglas Mac- cannot succeed, to build an anti-Communist 500,000 to 600,000 men will be needed to Will Arthur's forces in Korea? bastion in South Viet Nam, or, as the Presi- in Vietnam. It could, of course, come to that. But dent said recently in Omaha, to "determine STENNIS' first estimate was very close; to- Administration officials say they doubt that whether might makes right"? Does anyone tal American manpower in South Vietnam it will-not on military grounds but on po- really know? Have the American people by the end of 1966 apparently will be between litical grounds. The premise of Administra- ever been honestly told? The President says 360,000 and 380,000, not including the 40,000 tion escalation of the war thus far has been he seeks a negotiated settlement, yet he pur- to 50,000 men of the Seventh Fleet task force that Red China will stay out as long as the sues a course of military escalation that im- off Saigon or the airmen and troops in Thai- United States does not invade North Vietnam plies a search for total "victory." He has land. The Thailand manpower is kept secret, or threaten the existence of Ho Chi Minh's transformed this confusing struggle among but is expected to reach 32,000 by year's regime. Mr. Johnson has said over and over dissident groups of Vietnamese into an end. that the United States has no intention of American war against the tiny state of North .Adding the higher figures gives a total of threatening the regime and does not covet a Viet Nam. He has tried to force the leaders 462,000 men, compared'to a Korean war peak foot of the North's soil. In Hanoi to negotiate with him by progres- of 472,882 men directly involved, plus what The use of nuclear weapons is ruled out- sively devastating their country, yet he has was termed "direct support" manpower. unless, of course, China enters the war and not been able to break their will. His policy Thus, the war's escalation looks like this it becomes a vast Asian or world conflict. of escalation has been a military monstrosity in terms of Americans directly committed to The United States does not want war with and a political disaster, yet, as Mr. Goodwin Vietnam alone: China, but it wants to deny China a proxy observes, "Every step that fails calls forth not 1 1 f but a demand no miscalculation End of 1960--------------- End of 1961--------------- End of 1962--------------- End of 1963--------------- End. of 1964--------------- 785 2, 000 11,000 15,500 23,000 End of 1966--------------- 360,000-380,000 Later --------------------- 500,000-600,000 STENNIS is not alone in suggesting the fu- ture figures, but his sources of information as chairman of the Senate Preparedness Sub- committee, and the vitual fulfillment of his earlier prediction, lend great credence to his estimate. (The Administration refuses to give an official estimate.) Furthermore, the massive logistical build- up inside South Vietnam has reached a point .where many more men can be absorbed. And the end of the monsoon season, now ap- proaching, will add to the ability to move more men within the country. CONTRASTING STRATEGY But more than just men and equipment are involved, of course. One point Marine Gen. Wallace M. Greene, Jr., the Marine com- mandant, appeared to be making in the re- cently disclosed background briefings he gave in Saigon had to do with the strategy of fighting the war. In sum, he appeared to be saying that Marines are fighting a take-and-hold strat- egy (on his return to Washington, he pre- dicted that his men and the South Vietna- mese would soon link the two Marine-held perimeters around Danang and Chulai into a single safe area). Only such a strategy makes possible a successful pacification program because Vietnamese civilians will not risk their lives to join in unless they are sure the allied forces will not move out. .But by contrast, Greene's implication con- tinued, the Army is fighting a search-and- victory in Vietnam. The China experts here an -m ss o differ on just what "flashpoint," as some put for something more. it is the whole history it, would bring China into Vietnam, but in of this war." general they believe Peking will stay out as No one can doubt that the President is sick long as America stays out of the North- of this war, that he would like to turn however much we bomb military targets American power away from the incineration there. of pajama-clad peasants to the achievement The net of all this is the dreary prospect of his Great Society here at home. Yet he of escalated war and more American casual- seems to have become obsessed by this war, ties, which the Administration sees no way letting it destroy his sense of proportion of avoiding. The only hope one hears, ex- and inflate his rhetoric, just as it has swollen pressed in official circles is that a crack will our involvement from a few hundred advisers develop In Hanoi's resolve if we turn up the to an army approaching half a million men. heat-a crack that could lead to a peace con- He claims that his war aims are modest, ference, a cease-fire or, at a minimum, a re- yet he is trying to achieve the virtually im- version of the war to Vietcong guerrilla at- possible task of creating a democratic, popu- tacks In the South. larly supported, pro-American government in Of course, the Macawbers In the Adminis- a land torn by revolution. He speaks of our tration could be right. The unexpected often "moral purpose" in words that would sound happens in world affairs and some factor like the most cruel cynicism if they did not now hidden by Communist secrecy could re- come from a conscience so obviously verse the trend. Or, on the other side, a troubled. But he has not been able to de- new upheaval in Saigon's political structure fine what that moral purpose Is, or how it could destroy the base under the American can be achieved by the devastation of the two effort-as has been perilously close to the Viet Nams, by the mounting sacrifice of case on several occasions. American lives for a regime in Saigon which But with those limited caveats, Washington does not even have the allegiance of its own is grim and determined to see it through- people, and by a continuing escalation that and most everybody thinks President John- will almost certainly, as Mr. Goodwin warns, son will order the military heat poured on provoke the mass intervention of Hanoi's to the fullest possible extent sooner rather 300,000-man army and quite possibly lead to than later. a war with China. m itN h WHAT ARE WE DOING IN VIETNAM? (By Ronald Steel) (Ronald Steel, the author of End of Al- liance, is currently completing a book on American foreign policy to be published by Viking.) - "Triumph or Tragedy: nam," by Richard N. House, 142 pages, $3.95. Reflections on Viet- Goodwin, Random our e a This is the impasse to whic policy has led us, and perhaps no one Is better placed to analyze its origins than Mr. Goodwin, who was one of the brightest lights of the Kennedy intellectual team and also a special assistant to President Johnson before retiring temporarily from the cor- ridors of power to his present post at Wes- leyan University. His celebrated essay from The New Yorker, now in book form and padded with a collection of relevant docu- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 19980 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- SENATE August 26, 1966 meets, is an illuminating and penetrating in Viet Nam to one of national prestige, Mr. cent history is Mr. Upton Sinclair. Per- analysis of a war that happened more by Goodwin does not give adequate weight to haps best known for his celebrated accident than by design, of a commitment arguments which have now become more novel, "The Jungle," Mr. Sinclair has in which "each individual decision seemed compelling in Washington. We may be fight- reasonable, carefully limited, even neces- ing to save our prestige, as he suggests, but carved out a place in history as a tireless sary," but where men entrusted with the fate why did we commit our prestige in the first and courageous champion of many pro- of the nation "looked cautiously ahead while place? Was it not for the purpose of pre- gressive Causes. the door closed slowly, ponderously behind venting a Communist, or perhaps even a Last Sunday's Washington Post, Au- us." Marred only by an opening section in neutral, South Viet Nam? Does anyone gust 21, 1966, carries an interesting re- appalling taste and an equivocal conclusion, really believe that this Administration, hay- flection on this distinguished citizen by this is an eloquent and incisive study that ing committed 400,000 soldiers and the pres- John Carmody. I ask unanimous con- merits wide attention. tige of the United States as a world power "Why should we try to contain China?", to the defense of an anti-Communist gov- sent that the article be printed at this asks Mr. Goodwin, going to the heart of the ernment in Saigon, will close up its bases point in the RECORD. question. For it is only on the assumption and go away once the North has been crushed There being no objection, the article that we somehow are containing China that and the Viet Cong forces dispersed-leaving was ordered to be printed in the, RECORD, the intervention in Viet Nam can be justified. it to the Vietnamese to set up a neutral gov- as follows: The question is direct, but the answer rather ernment? This is possible, but if it is true, A? 88, 111, WORLD Is LARGELY MEMORY- fuzzy. China must be contained because it makes the entire war a cri-i -,,,a "- world purpose of the United States-the creation of an international order of inde- pendent states." Further, he adds in a tanta- lizing, but unexplained, aside, such expan- sion "would inevitably feed the dark under- current of repression and militarism never wholly absent; from American life." These are debatable answers at best, and it is un- fortunate that Mr. Goodwin does not explain an argument which seems to rest on a com- bination of national purpose and national therapy. Similarly, he argues that we have, a vital interest in denying China a sphere of influence in Asia, since "nations- have no natural or God-given right to dominate those close to them"-which is perfectly true, yet this is what we grant the Russians in )Eastern Europe and demand for ourselves in Latin America. Yet even though he believes that America's "central world purpose" demands the con- tainment of China, his scale is a relative one. "We are not compelled to fight for every inch of Asian soil or hazard war each time Chinese influence begins to grow," he com- ments in pointing out that Chinese, control of Tibet cannot be measured on the game scale as an assault on India. Switching over from moral purpose to Realpolitik, he main- tains that the crucial -question is not whether Chinese influence is spreading, but where it is spreading. America's "central world pur- pose," it seems, is bounded by cold calcu- lations of geopolitics and strategy. On this scale, the fate of Viet Nam involves no vital American Interest, and Mr. Goodwin observes quite correctly that "had the Com- mtuiists succeeded In taking over the entire country, as they almost did, no sensible American would now be demanding that we go to war to recapture South Viet Nam." De- molishing the conventional reasons givefi for our Involvement in Viet Nam-the SEATO pact, the belief that this is a testing ground for wars of national liberation, or the be- ginning of the fall of dominoes-he states with commendable frankness that we are fighting in Viet Nam only because we have foolishly committed our prestige. Our only vital interest in this war is "to establish that American military power, once committed to defend another nation, cannot be driven from the field. It is not to guarantee South Viet Nam- forever against, the possibility of a Communist takeover." Given this Interpretation of our stake in since ritual anti-Communism is not a pur- pose worthy enough to justify American In- tervention in a strategically unimportant state like Viet Nam, our only vital interest (By John Carmody) The left hand was always busy, clutching a pillow, running along the top of the settee arm. Viet Nam, Mr. Goodwin believes that we must simultaneously follow the road of negotia- is to salvage our prestige. But this is not A thin, liver-freckled hand keeping time to the Administration's position, and in failing memories that only Upton Sinclair could to address himself to problems it considers hear now, up in that 12th-floor apartment to be vital-such as the containment of China where he had come to rest, the journey through United States protectorates along nearly run. her frontiers-he is not really offering an alternative policy. Mr. Goodwin's argument is also blunted by a certain inconsistency. While he believes that the United States has no vital interest in what kind of government rules Viet Nam, he argues that "in the South we have no choice but to continue the war," clearing guerrillas from the countryside and pursuing "a long, bloody, inconclusive war of attrition until returning sanity brings a political set- tlement." But if a Communist government in Saigon is no threat to American interests, whom should we fight a long, inconclusive war of attrition for a settlement we could have tomorrow? Either we are willing to accept a Communist Viet Nam-in which case we dump the Ky regime, Install a neu- tralist government which will negotiate with Hanoi, and withdraw to our coastal bases until we can gracefully retire from the scene. Or else we seek a military "victory" that will maintain South Viet Nam as an anti-Com- munist bastion-in which case we pursue the policies of pacification outlined by Mr. Goodwin. Either America has a vital in- terest in the political future of Viet Nam or it doesn't. If it does, the Administration's policy is correct, although its rhetoric is hypocritical. If there is no such vital in- terest, then we can save our prestige by work- ing out a deal with the Viet Cong. What does not make sense, however, is to con- tinue full-scale combat in the South, while allowing the North to supply the Viet Cong with men and materials. Mr. Goodwin is a man of considerable intellectual acuity who has written a lucid and forceful analysis of the tragedy in Viet Nam, but he has not fully come to terms with the contradictions of his own position. He paused. "They're bringing my library Straddling the fence between the role of an from the house In Monrovia (California) in Administration spokesman ("we are under a van,- That's what I like to do now. I attack and withdrawal is impossible and un- like to read. I don't like to do anything wise") and an uncommitted critic ("a sub- else." stantial section of the community of power "It was such a big empty house after my believes that military victory is our princi- wife died,' he said. "You must hear how I pal, perhaps our only, objective"), lie com_ i s owns argument. The architect. o . tion and the road of combat: negotiation f our Viet Nam policy is not in the State summons the story he has told a hundred ed which will permit the Viet Cong to be ad- Department or in the Pentagon, where Mr. times in tht five years since. mitted to a share of power in an ultimately Goodwin has searched for villains, but in the "No romance, now," said the former Mary neutral Viet Nam; combat to "pacify" the White House. It is here, for reasons best Hard Willis, a South Carolina belle of 84, South until negotiations take place. With known to him, that this brilliant, but not the teller of jokes, the prompter, the pourer persuasive eloquence,. he urges a cessation to altogether persuasive, prosecutor has refused of pineapple juice for her diabetic husband. the bombing of the North and an honest to look.. A gracious, kindly woman who might be 20 American initiative fo ttl r a se ement based on a cease-fire, withdrawal of foreign forces, free elections, and neutralization. All this is eminently reasonable, and in- deed the approach the Administration claims it favors. But in trying to limit the stake UPTON SINCLAIR Mr. McGOVERN. Mr. President, one of the most remarkable Americans in re- "He is a saint, you know," his wife said, such a sweet, dear man." And now in the manner of loving old couples, she was leaning forward in her chair, prompting him with a Bernard Shaw anecdote for the visitor, Upton Sinclair's 88- year-old face alive with laughter at that 1912 visit. Or was it 1926? "No, that was before the Lanny Budd stories," he said. "Love's Pilgrimage in 1911. Yes.,, Yes. And H. G. Wells and G. K. Chester- ton and the English Socialists when Socialist was a dirty word in a younger America and the white-hair-haloed old head bobbing with pleasure' at the untold stories that shim- mered in his mind. "THE JUNGLE" "The world has given its judgment," he said. "The Jungle" is what they'll re- member. "One of those publishers that makes fancy books brought out an elegant $10 edi- tion a few years ago. And I sat down in a friend's house and signed 2,500 sheets and sent them up to New York for the auto- graphed editions that cost $25." Sixty years ago: "The Jungle" ripped the Chicago packing house industry to shreds, prompted a Congressional investigation and struck a blow for the laboring man and con- sumer in this country that resounds still. The year it was published, 1906, he stood for Congress from New Jersey on the Social- ist ticket. A Socialist on the docks in Jersey. What angry memories are shimmering in years younger. Sinclair and his wife of five years, a:re soon to move into their own apartment at the Grosvenor Park apartments near Rock- ville, two floors below her son-in-law's home they are temporarily sharing now. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE----- - --- Ai gust 26, 1966 19984 S. Plan ' for securing right type of U.S. I simply see no alternative to the American I keep remembering the faces of my leadership as short, intermediate and long commitment in south Vietnam and our sup- Arkanese friends in Western Burma the day term personnel for the project. port of it. For this is not an attempt by the the Burmese Army-an army representing a 4. Develop an adequate plan for step by West to put down an indigenous peasant very Left-wing government-had bombarded step process of turning project over to in- rising, "a response to economic and political a village, killing some innocent people, in digenous leadership. Take adequate time conditions" as some intellectuals believe. order to attack local Communist guerrillas. before releasing the project. What is happening in South Vietnam is not I remember the frightened faces of rubber 5. Training of village leaders. (Illustra- only an invasion through methods. of revolu- tappers in Malaya during the height of the tion) Faith and Farm Program of Nigeria, tionary guerrilla warfare: it is part of a Communist insurrection in Johore in 1951- Study of moral and spiritual requirements grand design by China to alter catastroph- and remember my own fears as the very brave coupled with practical work as Peter Batche- ically the balance of world power. And Welsh plantation manager drove me through shadow lor, an Agricultural Missionary, has done should it succeed then world war is virtually wthe here his ayslines had rubber rl planta not tion, in 'Nigeria. The Bible and other sacred inevitable. long before. I remember the gentle face of been books can become practical. basic texts as The view presented by Mr. Fairborn a Vietnamese Army officer, seconded to civii- used by Mr. Batchelor. Many leaders are is a view which is growing throughout fan duties in the Central Highlands of Viet- adapting the above methods. the non-Communist world, especially in nam in 1962, and the frightened young-oh, V. AN OVERRIDING ISSUE so very young-faces of his militia boys as Honesty, integrity and a sense of personal Asia where the menace of Chinese power value and worth are essential. There needs to is so immediately threatening. I wish to they awaited attack from Vietnamese Com- bo this analysis with my colleagues, munist guerrillas. Indeed, I even keep erative a sense of mutuality and men- development remembering a day 20 years ago when I went rative sharing along with the developm and I therefore ask unanimous consent up-river behind the Japanese lines in of sound business practices. These are in- for its insertion in the RECORD at this Borneo: remember the fear on the villagers' terdependent and are a necessary part of point. faces lest our operation be unsuccessful and development, service motive is necessary if There being no objection, the address bring Japanese reprisals upon them. I also worthwhile changes are to be accomplished was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, remember a little boy on a beach in the anywhere. Voluntary groups have a major as follows: Philippines a little earlier: his right arm a role in helping this and the following gen- f our bombard- erations to understand, maintain and develop [Item No. 113, documents of the Council bandaged mend earlier stuminp, the the mo result ult o o our o ar I this concept. This approach will greatl aid Against Communist Aggression, March loathe both guerrilla war and the methods in meeting and solving the "root c`use of 1966] involved in its putting down. hunger. I ADDRESS To THE "UNCO GOOD" } I simply see no alternative to the American , i + : S tr. Vietna onr7 n r sup- a) t ou - ---- V . - - EDITOR'S NoTE.-Geoffrey Fairbairn, who port of it. For this is not an attempt by the THE SITUATION IN VIETNAM ( West to put down an indigenous peasant Is a gentle scholar as he w s he was a teacher and but tut political al rising, "a response to economic and political President, the na- writer lode Mr, DODD. Mr. tions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America commando officer `end early expert on the conditions" as some intellectuals believe. are 'emerging upon the international new and old guerril}a warfare developed both What is happening in South Vietnam is not scene at a time of turmoil and tension. during and after orld War II, is as aware only an invasion through methods of revo- Their own colonial backgrounds have as anyone of the odd, illogical, off again-on lutionary guerrilla warfare: it is part of a again but highly opinionated role of in- grand design by China to alter catastrophic- left an Westeern m with countries and Western Wt sestern i r stnand- of divisual and organized churchmen, partic- ally the balance of world power. And Westeen st ularly in strongly Protestant countries dur- should it succeed then world war is virtually ards. Theoretically, such countries ing the rise and fall of Hitler and, even more inevitable. should be likely prey for the false gods of notably, his (Hitler's) affectionate admirer, Contained by the wills of free men in Marxism, of rapid industrialization, and Joe Stalin and successors. Fairbairn has won Western Europe, the Soviet Union has been A quick transformation into automated, a hearing and won support of students for his forced to take stock of its position and of "profreedom" and "face the world's reality" the realities of the thermonuclear balance of modern societies. appeal of the informed anti-Communist terror. It turned its energies toward social But the fact is that, because commu- forces of the world. His appeal to Australian betterment, toward a hitherto undreamed-of nism has been so close at hand, it has churchmen, so tardy on Hitler and worse humanism, toward a real effort to cooperate not been able to mask its own particular than tardy on Mao and Ho Chi-minh, stands in keeping world peace. China acted differ- kind of reality. In a recent address be- on its merits and the rather tragic facts of ently. China is biologically unafraid of a fore the Australian Council of Churches past history.) nuclear holocaust. China talked, and talks Geoffrey Fairborn points out that these (This article is the text of Geoffrey Fair- today, in terms of war "as the highest form nations "know by now that communism bairn's address ... to a Sydney conference of struggle"-"war will become a bridge over l pass is a vast confidence trick perpetrated of the Australian Council of Churches. (The which ma Ai boa illful new into a ne aerarof Bulletin, Sept. 11, 1965.).) y' against peasants. They know-that ing to this viewpoint, will be built upon WHERE I STAND "the debris of a dead imperialism." I do ask where communism successfully grows A personal statement on Vietnam out of the barrel of a gun, the peasants you, most humbly, if we have not in such a ,are herded on to collective farms as Mr. Chairman, Reverend Sirs: I believe viewpoint a truly terrible threat to world state slaves. The result is economically that the Americans and Australians in South peace? Have the Americans ever talked in appalling. For example, the per capita Vietnam are fighting for world peace, and I those terms? I ask you at this point to re- tion of grain in the Soviet Union propose to explain why I believe that. I do member that American airpower could to- produc not stand here as some tame apologist for morrow, in a matter of hours, reduce the was higher in 1913 than in 1961. The the present Government. I have again and Red River Delta of Tonkin to a raging flood, same thing happened in North Vietnam again attacked what I believed to be its against which the energies of the Viet- after the Communist conquest of 1954." insouciance about the great issues in Asia. namese people have been bent for over 2000 No place in the underdeveloped world I have many times criticized its attitudes years. Instead of doing this, young Amer- have men and women voluntarily chosen towards Asians. icans are dying in and around Maquis D, communism. They have seen'that com- I have a kind of foster-son-for years around Chu Lai, Da Nang, Dak Sut, Kontum, munism means brutal tyranny, and that while he grew to manhood I was in effect Pleiku-dying individually near places whose his foster-father-who lives in Burma near names are probably unfamiliar to you. The it does not result in economic advance, the Chinese border and I am conscious all Americans could end the war tomorrow by but in almost total economic decay. the time of the dangers that he and his bombing the river control system of North The resources of North Vietnam, as Australian wife and their children face today. Vietnam. They do not do so. Do you really of other Communist states, are not used When I speak about guerrilla warfare I do believe the Chinese would not do so if the to improve the lives of the people but not speak as an academic. At every local positions were reversed? are used to pursue a policy of aggressive discussion such as this one, a large part of I must confess to finding the present sit- expansion, mind is in other places: the road between nation here rather eerie, rather unreal. expariSlOri. Kutkai and Namkham where that great med- When the campaign against South Vietnam Qur allies in the free world are coming ical missionary Segrave worked until he died was launched through means of revolution- to appreciate the real . meaning of the in the hospital that he and his wife and his ary guerrilla warfare, there were very few conflict in Vietnam in the light of the 'sister built with their own hands out of Americans indeed in Vietnam. The number proclaimed goal of world communism to stone laboriously moved from the Shwe-Li of village officials, and their wives and their stimulate so-called wars of national lib- River, the border between Burma and China. children, assassinated or kidnapped each year .. It was on that road that the Shan Burmese by the Vietcong vastly exceeded the number el. ati4n_ throughout the world: famiily, of whom I am an honorary member, of American advisers. I hope that the church- In his address, Mr. Fairborn, scholar, learned that guerrillas had the same day men protesters against American-Australian teacher, and political writer, presents his inadvertently killed their small niece. They involvement today protested against those assessment of this conflict: were not Communist guerrillas, murders and kidnappings. (Ed.: they did not Approved For Release 2005/06/29 CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 August 26, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 19983 13. Poor educational techniques, systems and (e) Missions programs of the denomina- can be helpful in launching programs. This dissemination of basic knowledge tions and other church groups will create new status and will put voluntary (a) Lack of understanding of what is need- (f) The work of other voluntary agencies groups in a much more favorable light in ed in practical education and information (g) All levels and kinds of educational many countries. which will help people meet their basic needs institutions (government, private, exten- and needs of trade schools (h) The general attitude and stability of The following illustrations are given as (c) Too great a desire for classical educa- the government of the country from village examples which are now being supported as dem tion which often gets in the way of economic to national and reverse (Knowledge of what th e wae world.nt The same techniques me principles esous parts of development rather than assisting it present programs include.) plied the e may be apf 14. Slow industrial m?owth 2. In gathering information from thr?ce and questions asked in other types of sumer goods at prices people can pay- necessary groups to achieve purposes of any (a) Analysis of the type of credit needed (c) Lack of capital and broad based under- development program, project or program (b) Percentage of assets which can be se- standing of economic development selection. cured and developed locally (d) Lack of understanding that industry 3. Remember that most of the technicians (c) Securing other needed assets which must be of the size and nature to be practi- and supervisors from America are lay are basic to the operation cal for a given area and at a given time churchmen. They can help decide what the (d) Credit to the borrowers at terms (Agriculture is basic but other develop- major role of each group is and how the which meet local needs. ment must be kept in balance and grow along groups can work together. The role of the (e) Agreement on proper purposes for with agriculture.) church needs to be understood and accepted b?r.rowing arza resources (This would include groups like Church (h) If an agency in the U.S. has any su- (a) Limited knowledge of the values of World Service, CARE, Foundations, Educe- pervisory control over the program its con- many foods, a taste for, and a desire to eat tional Groups, etc.) sent and understanding is needed in de- them (In certain countries abundant peanuts 1. Send appropriate persons to the country veloping the program are pressed Into oil with the cake being used to do preliminary study of present programs (i) Comprehensive educational programs as fertilizer, for which it has little value, of the group involved, using I and II above in the use of credit among the executives," when it could be finely ground and used as as a guide. In cooperation with national directors, and borrowers who are in any way a high protein food in their native breads leaders, select a comprehensive new project related to the program (Many books and and other foods.) where resources are available, using the booklets are available on the subject of (b) A new appreciation is needed by all above valuation and principles. credit for almost any kind of credit program nations as to the basic contributions of nu- 2. Develop an agreement with one of from government agencies, foundations and tritionists and home economists the colleges, universities or other educational cooperatives.) (c) Lack of understanding that most na- institutions in planning a work-study train- 2. Example 2-Water well drilling tions can produce high protein foods at ing program. Enroll only those persons who (a) A comprehensive study of the proper reasonable costs or secure them from other will work an the project and spend part time location of wells to adequately serve an area nations in exchange for local products in study (short term training.) Find the and not destroy the permanent water supply 16. Poor health conditions best training institutions which have some- (b) Cost of bringing water to the surface (a) Often caused by malnutrition thing to contribute and will work under (c) Storage of water (b) The sick and lethargic produce inade- these principles. - (d) Decision on priorities in use of water quate food supplies 3. Use U.S. personnel paired with native such as: (c) Many children born but only few reach personnel. Secure U.S. farmers, cooperative (1) direct human use adulthood managers, extension personnel and vocational (2) livestock (d) Improved health conditions result in agriculture teachers as basic leaders. Such (3) irrigation population explosion-spiral of poor health persons can be secured on loan from other (4) industrial use begins again agencies and groups to develop church and (e) Irrigation Y7. Unsound government other voluntary group programs. (The 1966 policy and often Food for Freedom Bill makes this possible.) (1) cost of land leveling lack of responsibility to the governed 4. Continue study of what (2) types of canals (a) Corrupt governments y groups have (3) distance to fields done and. are continuing to do. Do regular (4) cost of distribution of water (b) Poor tax systems (not basic to local or evaluations, with complete yearly analysis. (5) how water is owned (cooperative, etc.) national needs) 6. Go into a project or program (c) Basic ignorance of modern economic all denominations or other groups es onsi-. (f) Use of additional crops produced be- business methods in government be p cause to agefor home use and commercial ble have agreed on what is to oe done, how (1)storage for home use and commercial (d) Inadequate use of available funds for it is to be done, and under r whose authority sales development purposes and responsibility it is to be done. Attem t (e) Long histories of being governed or comprehensive projects only after long p (2) cost method of each i segment n controlled by outside governments ( term, (3) of does segment of operation riialism) tole- agreements are reached. If another group (4) what does the farmer and each per- A basic tenet of section I: Principles of can better do the project let it take the lead- son involved get out of it? Honesty, tenetty, sense of personal worth of ership but cooperate in the project. Jealousy among agencies is one of the greatest hazards 3. Example 3-Poultry and motivation for improving oneself and to successful programs. If a specific program or project is selected sharing with others are implicit in the 6. Carefully select only those new major (poultry, as an example) some questions Christian heritage and are needed. In eco- projects or programs which have a good op- must be answered: (Use the same process of nomic development these are basic to the portunity for success. Plan some projects analysis for any project.) Concept of the fatherhood of God and the for quick success, some for intermediate and 1. Is there a potential market at reason- brotherhood of man and have some basis on some for long term development. able cost? Can training and facilities be which to build in many religions. Religious 7. Continue to adapt and rebuild present made available for principles, however, are without form and programs in the light of steps and principles (a) Developing a hatching program for void if they are not involved in all the pro- found in this outline. broilers and laying flocks. grams, concepts and forces of life related to 8. Develop literature and other educational (b) Assurance of control of disease prob- overcoming the root causes of hunger among materials out of experience in the field. lems (Ususally a poultry department at an all the peoples of the earth. Solving the Most materials must be prepared on the spot. educational institution is necessary.) root causes of huliger is the overwhelming Use U.S. agencies, AID, foundations and co- m(c) Developing an adequate supply of for- challenge of our time. mula feed operative materials prepared for the area. rC. SOME STEPS AND ANALYSES IN DEALING WITH (Much promotional work must be by prat- (d) A feasible and economical marketing THE ROOT CAUSES OF HUNGER trial demonstration and by direct contacts.) program. 1. Preliminary Study of Types and Kinds 9. Prepare materials for U.S. understand- (e) Securing credit at reasonable rates of Programs with Analysis of Their Successes ing and support. There is not enough in- (f) nedifor the of necessary leadership to and Failures formation sent to the groups that furnish be trained for the entire operation ,(a) U.S. AID programs in. a given country the money to keep their support. (g) Develop salary scales above yet in (b) FAO and,other UN agencies harmony with the economy of the area. 10. Hire an executive for the country where 2. Necessary analysis of local desires vs. (c) Foundations and related groups a comprehensive program is being developed, possibilities of success. (They often dream (d) Cooperatives and other private busi- who can deal with top level persons in gov- the impractical.) How to bridge the two nesses ernment and all agencies as listed in II who and help them find success. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 August' ,26, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE either individually or collectively, even once.) Otherwise quite clearly a double standard of morality is being insinuated upon the Aus- tralian public. When over 50,000 North Vietnamese were executed after atrocious public humiliations I hope the protesters of today publicly protested (Ed.: they did not and don't even know it yet) -since this was the Inevitable consequence of Communist victory in the North, as it will be in the South. I hope protesters are aware of what will happen to supporters of the South Viet- namese Government should the Communists win. I hope that when the state power of the North Vietnamese Communist society trained artillery upon the protesting peas- ants of Nghe-An, Ho Chi-minh's home prov- ince, the clerical protesters of today pro- tested then; and when Hanoi University was closed down in order to prevent some kind of teach-ins. Otherwise a double standard of morality Is being imposed upon Australian citizens. Now today I refuse to get side-tracked into technicalities. I would rather put this to you; South-East Asia is composed of new nations that might well be supposed to favor Communist ideas. They all have, in varying degrees, memories of humiliations imposed by Westerners. They have 'all dis- covered disabilities In themselves, since in- dependence, so far as modernising techniques are concerned. They are all disappointed by their own political and economic achieve- ments, and so they are all only too apt to 'talk in terms of an economically dominating ne-0- colonialism (and there is truth; economically, in this talk). They are chiefly Left-wing in point of social policy. But no where have the presumably "higher ideas" of Commu- nism Issued in a Communist government by popular acclaim, through elections. The chief reason for this Is that they are peasant countries and they know by now that Communism Is a vast confidence trick perpetrated against peasants. They know- that where Communism successfully grows out of the barrel of a gun, the peasants are herded on to collective farms as State slaves. The result is economically appalling. For example, the per capita production of grain in the Soviet Union was higher in 1913 than In 1961 (Mr. Khrushchev's figures, not mine). The same thing happened in North Vietnam after the Communist conquest of 1954. Pro- duction in the South grew by 20 per cent, it dropped by 10 per cent in the North. I look forward to a day whet ,China, when the great energies of Chinese civilisation are forced back by the wills of free men to the task of bettering its own people. I look for- ward to the day when the nations of South- East Asia-Left-wing and Right-wing-are united in the common purpose of harnessing the Mekong River. I look forward to the day when an Australian Peace Corps will be ac- tive in the villages of South-East Asia. But first the Chinese "line," the Chinese attempt to extend violence of a brilliantly systematised kind throughout South-East Asia, Latin America, and Africa, must be re- pulsed. Peace depends upon this repulsion. Hope depends upon this repulsion. This re- pulsion simply must not be stayed on its way by the neuroses and double standards of morality and political gormlessness. I am not prepared to stand in some apologetic stance, even before such an august audience as this. ,It is we who represent the open future for the hearts and minds of men and women-we, not the totalitarians. By "we," I do not have to add that I mean those South-East Asians who are fighting and bleeding and dying-the South Vietnamese armed forces have suffered casualties equiva- lent to those of Australia dui_ ing World War it, fighting for the freedom to choose their future, I want to quote a man who once symbolised the dour, enduring decency of free men, Winston Churchill: "Never give in. Never, never, never, never. Never yield to force and the apparently overwhelming might of the enemy. Never yield in. any way, great or small, large or petty, except to con- victions of honor and good sense." After all, we are back In 1938 now. Mr. BAYH. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to place in the REC- ORD two additional statements given by witnesses before the Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments on the ques- tion of prayer in the public schools. There being no objection, the state- ments were ordered to be printed In the RECORD, as follows: SYNAGOGUE COUNCIL OF AMERICA AND NATION- AL COMMUNITY RELATIONS ADVISORY COUNCIL Testimony presented to the Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments of the Sen- ate Judiciary Committee on the Dirksen Prayer Amendment (S.J. Res. 148) August 8, 1966, by the Joint Advisory Committee of the Synagogue Council of America and the National Community Relations Advisory Council, 55 West 42nd St., New York, N.Y. 10036. Constituent Organizations of the Synagogue Council of America and National Community Relations Advisory Council- American Jewish Committee; American Jew- ish Congress; B'nai B'rith-Anti-Defamation League; Central Conference of American Rabbis; Jewish Labor Committee; Jewish War Veterans of the U.S.A.; National Coun- cil of Jewish Women; Rabbinical Assembly; Rabbinical Council of America; Union of American Hebrew Congregations; Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of'America; United Synagogue of America. I am Rabbi Seymour J. Cohen, a member of the Conservative rabbinate, Rabbi of An- she Emet Synagogue in Chicago, and Presi- dent of the Synagogue Council of America. With me are Rabbi Henry Siegman, a member of the Orthodox rabbinate, and Executive Vice President of the Synagogue Council of America, Rabbi Richard G. Hirsch, a member of the Reform rabbinate, and Di- rector of the Religious Action Center of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations in Washington, D.C., and Mr. Milton I. Gold- stein, an attorney from St. Louis, Missouri, who is Vice-Chairman of the Commission on Church-State and Interreligious Relation- ships of the National Community Relations Advisory Council. The Synagogue Council of America rep- resents the American Jewish religious com- munity through its constituent rabbinic and congregational groups. The organizations which constitute the Synagogue Council of America are the Rabbinical Assembly (the rabbinic, group of Conservative Judaism), the United Synagogue of America (the con- gregational group of Conservative Judaism), the Rabbinical Council of America (the rab- binic group of Orthodox Judaism), the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of Amer- ica (the congregational organization of Orthodox Judaism), the Union of Ameri- can Hebrew Congregations (the congrega- tional body of Reform Judaism). These rabbinic and congregational groups include in their membership virtually all religiously committed and synagogue-affiliated Jews within our country. The National Community Relations Ad- visory Council is composed of the three con- gregational bodies just mentioned, six other major national organizations-American Jewish ommittee; American Jewish Con- gress; B'nai B'rith-Anti-Defamation League: Jewish Labor Committee; Jewish War Veterans of the U.S.A.; National Council of Jewish Women-,and 79 Jewish community relations councils in, )peal communities across the United States.- We are here today as representatives of the Synagogue Council of America and the National Community Relations Advisory Council, and their respective constituent agencies. The policy statements on which this testimony is based have been approved overwhelmingly in the respective General Assemblies of these agencies. As clergymen and religious leaders in our respective branches of Judaism, and as spokesmen for Jewish lay organizations, we are deeply committed to a vision of a so- ciety that is guided by religious values and that is imbued with a transcendent sense of Godliness permeating every human activity. It is a vision described in our liturgy "of a world perfected under the Kingdom of God." That Is our daily prayer, and in our various enterprises and activities, as Americans and as Jews, we strive and hope to make that vision somewhat more of a reality. We are thus spiritually attuned and prac- tically oriented to what is surely the very antithesis of secularism. Our goal is the "holy" society. But, as we will Indicate presently, there is a crucial difference be- tween society and state. In our plural so- ciety, the state must be truly neutral if society is to achieve holiness. It is for these reasons that we appear before you, to voice our deep concern over the issues raised by the proposed amendment to our Constitu- tion. Like all American citizens, we cannot view with equanimity any effort whose effect- whether intended or not-may be to dimin- ish our Bill of Rights in any way. As re- ligionists, we have an additional and very special stake, because this Bill of Rights, and particularly the First Amendment, have since the founding of our Republic assured a climate which has made for unparalled growth of religious activity and affiliation in this country. We would therefore oppose any effort to tamper with this precious herit- age, unless such a change were to serve an overriding and urgent social need which could not be achieved In any other way. Our position, stated plainly and in brief, is that the proposed amendment would result in consequences which are undesirable consti- tutionally, and fundamentally inimical to religious Interests. The legal effect of S.J. Res. 148, it should be noted, is by no means clear. It pur- ports to be designed to permit "the voluntary participation by students or others in prayer" in the public schools. If this means only the "voluntary" offering of prayers by children in accordance with what they have been taught at home or in church or syna- gogue, the Amendment is unnecessary. Nothing in any of the recent Supreme Court decisions interpreting the First Amendment bars such activity and no school authority, so far as we are aware, had so interpreted them. The Court's decisions deal with something altogether different-organized religious practices in the classroom. And discussion of the decisions has dealt almost exclusively with such practices. Hence, It is reasonable to assume that S.J. Res. 148, despite the am- biguity of its wording, is also directed at this area. It would presumably permit a num- ber of practices that cannot be termed "vol- untary in the sense described above. Thus, Senator DIRKSEN'S statement accompanying introduction of the Resolution makes it clear that he intends it to permit joint recitation of prayers by children in the classroom and the presentation of plainly sectarian celebra- tions of Christmas and other religious holi- days. The key words in the Resolution, stressed by Senator DIRNSEN in his statement, are those that allow public school authorities to provide for as well as permit classroom prayer. Thus the Amendment woud sanc- tion placing the full authority of the school establishment behind certain religious prac- tices. That authority would in no way be Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 19986 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECOORD'- SENATE August 26, 1966 impaired either by dubbing the practice "voluntary" or by barring state determina- tion of the prayer's form and content. For example, school public address systems could be used to pipe into the classrooms specific prayers selected by student committees. The concept of organized religious activity in the public school classroom totally free of the influence of the state is, we submit, a delusion. It is our impression that that delusion is not shared by the principal spon- sors of S.J. Res. 158. Senator DntKSEN, at least, has made it entirely clear that religious practices should be affirmatively fostered by govefnrnent in the public school. While we profoundly disagree with that point of view, we respect it. We urge, however, that dis- cussion' of S.J. Res. 148 be on the basis of its true intent and effect-not in the fairy- land of a theoretical and totally non-existent voluntarism. The Supreme Court decisions holding that the First Amendment bars organized reli- gious practices in the public school rest pri- marily on the Amendment's ban or any establishment of religion by the state. It has been argued that the decisions ignore the Amendments equally important guar- antee of religious freedom. That guarantee, we submit, does not in any sense require governmental support of religion which is what S.J. Res. 148 would foster. It requires rather that individuals be allowed to act according to the dictates of their conscience with only that minimum of restraint by the state necessitated by compelling public needs. It not only does not require, it for- bids, support from governmental authority. B.J. Res. 148 would place the force of gov- ernment behind prayer. Any doubt that this would be the effect of the proposed Amend- ment can be removed by considering the context in which it would appear. It would be seen as emerging from the unfavorable reaction to the Court's prayer decisions. Hence the tendency would be to assume- and to act on the assumption-that the school prayers Which had been ruled uncon- stitutional by the Court are now allowed. SThat the laborious and historic process of constitutional amendment had been invoked without any consequent change would cer- tainly seem most unreasonable.) To most people, who are not familiar with legal minutia, this will simply mean that school- conducted devotional ceremonies with which the Court decisions dealt "are in again." But even where conscious efforts will be made to abide by the amendment's provision that school officials may not prescribe the .form or content of any prayer, the result will ineiorably be the some. Anyone remotely familiar with the dynamics of the classroom situation knows that that is inevitable. The phrase "voluntary participation" is obvi- ously not intended to suggest a situation in which each child recites his own prayers aloud; this.could only result in disorder and chaos. To have children pray in unison re- quires that someone choose a particular prayer. It requires, furthermore, the super- vision and direction of a teacher, and the teacher's supervisory role constitutes the sanctioning by the State of a particular prayer, irrespective of how the choice of prayer was made. We are therefore right back to the problem of an "establishment of religion" by the State. Furthermore, all children who happen to be assigned to the same class irrespective of their religious affiliation, must participate to- gether in this "free exercise," or be silent, or to ask to be excused from the room. To these children, the proposed amendment would deny the free exercise of religion. We refer members of this committee to the volumi- nous testimony before the House Judiciary Committee during the 1964 hearings on the Becker amendment in support of the conten- tion that children can never be wholly free of constraint in a setting whose entire atmosphere is one of compliance and con- But Constitutional considerations aside, we find such a prospect objectionable for religious reasons. Here, the insights of Jew- ish tradition may perhaps throw a'somewhat different and helpful light on the problem. Jewish tradition, not 'unlike most other religious traditions, knows of two kinds of prayer:: private prayer, and public prayer. There is hardly a place or activity that in Jewish tradition renders private prayers in- appropriate. A Jew is bidden to recite pri- vate.prayers before he eats or drinks, on the completion of his meals, on beholding the beauty of God's nature, when putting on a new garment, upon hearing good tidings- in short, there is virtually no aspect of hu- man experience that a Jew is not bidden to sanctify with prayer. There is, therefore, nothing inappropriate, from a Jewish re- ligious point of view, and we might add, from a Constitutional point of view, in a student reciting private prayers during the course of his school day, provided he does not obstruct or impede the normal school program, Public prayer is an entirely different mat- ter again. Let us be clear about the nature of the problem. The difficulty is not the location as such, nor is it essentially what some critics have prejudicially. described as "routine, formalized, mechanical recitation." In Jewish tradition, public prayers can be recidecl virtually anywhere (though the syn- agogue is its most appropriate setting.) Our prayers, not unlike the public prayers of most other faiths, are formalized both as to content and manner of recitation. This is necessarily so, for prayer is the singular expression of a particular faith community, shaped and formed by, and giving expression to a unique historical encounter with the Divine. For this very same reason, however, it is an act of gross religious insensitivity to involve in such a deeply sectarian experience children of differing faiths. This kind of indiscriminate, and superficial religiosity leads to a trivialization and desecration of genuine worship. This, then, is the religious ground, as distinguished from the political, on which we base our opposition to sectarian prayers in the public schools. It is on this same ground that we would oppose non-sectarian prayers. Prayer that is not rooted in specific faith and in distinctive religious commit- ment is a meaningless, empty exercise. More- over, given the intimate, spiritually and historically unique character of religious faith and commitment which characterizes each individual faith community, there is no greater enemy of religion that a state that promotes non-sectarian religion. The knowledge, worship and obedience of the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, or the God of Jesus, or the God of Mohammed or instilled Within the total life of unique his- torical. faith communities. The non-sectar- ian god who is taught under the sponsorship of the state is at best a banal one. At worst; he turns out to be an idol against whom the witness of all genuine religions is directed. Does this mean that God and religion are to be banished from our national life, or that the religious foundations of this national life are being challenged? The answer is clearly and emphatically, "no!" We are in fact a predominantly religious people in our origins and in our traditions. As clergymen, we seek to make religion an even more effec- tive part of our society's life than it is. Certainly, there is room in American life for a broadening and deepening of genuine re- ligious commitment. But this spiritual heri- tage and this religious character is to be attributed to the American people and to American society as such, and decidedly not to the American state as such. The state derives its authority from society, and within that limited authority it governs society. But the state is not society. Because we are a religious society our Founding Fathers deliberately subtracted from the state any competence in the area of religion,. They A government that does not Interfere with religion is thus secular in character, but it is not secularistic. While it does not promote religion, neither does it promote seculararist ideologies that are inimical to religious faith. It assumes a neutral stance. Such neutrality, far from suggesting, hostility or indifference, creates an atmosphere in which the syna- gogue, the church and the home are free to develop and strengthen religious commit- ment. Any breach of this neutrality, far from aiding religion, can only lead to a violation of the integrity of our religious communities. Our Constitution can of course be amended; the procedures for amendment are provided for within this same document. But we. are here to assert that if the Constitution is amended in accordance with S.J. Res. 148, then let no one who supports this measure delude himself or his countrymen that he has rendered religion or liberty a service. In a plural society, it is not and should not be the business of government to aid religion, and if it does assume that role, then, in the very process and precedent it establishes, it does religion a harm and. disservice that will far outweigh the intended benevolence. For it will have compromised that free and un- fettered exercise of religious liberty without which religious faith cannot for long retain its integrity and independence. Our pro- found respect for the role of our legislature and for the sacrificial desire of its members to serve the common good leads us to say to members of this committee: your business is not the promotion of religion. It is rather the preservation of a free and just society, for that, and nothing other and nothing less, offers the surest safeguard for the preserva- tion and strengthening of our religious heritage. STATEMENT OF DR. CARL MCINTIRE FOR THE AMERICAN COUNCIL OF CHRISTIAN CHURCHES IN SUPPORT OF SENATE JOINT RESOLUTION 148, THE DIRKSEN PRAYER AMENTMENT (Presented to Subcommittee on Constitu- tional Amendments, Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate, August 5, 1966) Gentlemen: I appear in behalf of the American Council of Christian Churches of which I am a member of the executive com- mittee. This Council consists of 17 Protest- ant denominations in the United States. I am president of the International Coon- oil of Christian Churches with 111 denomi- nations over the world, of which the Amer- ican Council is an affiliate. The American Council is in no way to be confused with the National Council of Churches; in fact, it is comprised mainly of church bodies and lo- cal churches which have withdrawn from the National Council of Churches. The denominations affiliated with the American Council of Christian Churches have, in various ways, indicated their sup- port of prayer in the public schools. 'We know of no local church or even an individ- ual in any of the churches that is opposed to the youth of this country praying, on, a voluntary basis, while in our public schools. The Dirksen Amendment, we believe, should become a part of the Constitution of the United States as soon- as possible. The Dirksen Amendment in no way alters or changes the First Amendment. The effect of this amendment Is to correct this condition produced in the country as a result of a deci- sion of the Supreme Court, June 17, 1963, and to restore to all of the American people the liberty that they formerly enjoyed under the First Amendment and also the Ninth and Tenth Amendments before the Supreme Court's action. Further, in no way does this proposed amendment alter or interfere with the doc- trine of separation of church and state which the American Council is zealous to fortuity to group ac ivities. wisel understood that reli ious neutrality maintain. lkpproved For Release 1005/06/29: CIA- DP67B00446R000400100004-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R0004001.00004-3 August 26,' 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE vides that such men must start their train- ing within tour months of enlistment but the Army's training facilities are so swamped with draftees that these men-of draft age- are, legally, draft exempt. Defense Department sources, moreover, estimate that 170,000 Army reservists and 300,000 National Guardsmen of draft age have completed their training but otherwise have done no active service in the nation's behalf. Many, it is thought, have the M.O.S.'s (military occupational specialties) urgently needed in Vietnam, including helicopter me- chanics, warehousemen and others with spe- cial skills. SUBTLE HINT? To tap this rich source of manpower, Sen- ator RUSSELL prevailed on the Senate this week to vote 66 to 21 to empower-but not oblige-the President to call up individual reservists who had completed their training for approximately 18 months active duty, pre- sumably in Vietnam. The measure, co-sponsored by Senator LEVERETT SALTONSTALL, Republican of Mas- sachusetts, provides that consideration shall be given to those with (A) family responsi- bilities and (B) employment deemed neces- sary to maintain the national "health, safety or interest." But it makes no provisions for educational (college) deferments. The measure Is intended, primarily, to sweep up the young men who have volunteer- ed, legally and perhaps even patriotically, in the Army Reserve and National Guard but who, until the law changes, may be perma- nently spared active duty in Southeast Asia. The "scandal" to which Senator RUSSELL alluded appears on its way out. So far the White House and Pentagon have refrained from any major reaction and it may be that the Russell-Saltonstall measure, if accepted by the House, will be ignored by the Com- mander in Chief, President Johnson. [From the Mitchell (S. Dak.) Daily Republic, Aug. 23, 1966] Six HUNDRED THOUSAND AVAILABLE The Ready Reserve and National Guard, more than 600,000 strong, will be available for service in Viet Nam at the President's call under legislation passed by the Con- gress. The action bypasses the need for the President to declare a national emergency In order to resort to this military pool. President Johnson did not ask for this authority and may be loath to use it. But Congress has become restive about the high draft calls while the Ready Reserve and Guardsmen, who were trained axed who could be sent almost at once, were not called. Senator RICHARD B. RUSSELL, chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, argued that it was a "scandal" that young, untrained men were being drafted while Reservists and Guardsmen were enjoying sanctuary because they had signed up for these services and trained for six months and then should be called to active duty. "We're scraping the bottom of the barrel, taking men with lower mental and educa- tional standards than is required for re- servists," RUSSELL said. "It is not fair for Reservists and Guardsmen to enjoy sanc- tuary with only brief training periods while volunteers and draftees carry the brunt of the military buildup." Congress responded overwhelmingly for the call to the Reservists and' Guardsmen because they have been hearing from their constituents about the unfairness of letting them off active duty while the draft calls are rising to 40,000 and more a month. The action was bipartisan. It was led by' RUSSELL and the ranking Republican member of the Senate Armed Services Committee, Senator LEVERETT SALTONSTALL of- MasasChu- setts. However, the legislation only authorizes the President to call up Reservists and Guardsmen. He is not compelled to do so, and is not apt to unless things get much worse in Viet Nam. The members of Con- gress have discharged their duty as they THE WAR IN VIETNAM AND THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR Mr. DODD. Mr. President, I wish to call the attention of my colleagues to a historical essay captioned "Lincoln's Battle with 'Doves' During the Civil War." by Henry Owen, which appeared in the Washington Sunday Star of June 12, 1966. I feel that this essay is par- ticularly timely and pertinent because of the light it throws on some of the difficulties we are experiencing in con- nection with the conduct of the war in Vietnam. Today we are confronted with a still small but growing minority of people who feel that peace could be restored in Vietnam if only we were prepared to ne- gotiate on reasonable terms. Lincoln in his day was also confronted by a restive articulate minority which held that peace and the Union could both be restored if only the President were disposed to be more reasonable-which, if it meant anything, meant he would not insist on the abolition of slavery. Today the administration is assailed by critics who tell us that we can never win the war in Vietnam. The Lincoln administration in its day was also assailed by critics who sang a similar tune. Mr. Owen, for example, quoted Mr. Clement Vallandingham, who had been exiled for antiwar agitation, as saying: You have not conquered the South. You never will. It is not in the nature of things possible ... Stop fighting. Make an armi- stice. Accept at once foreign mediation. The conduct of the Vietnam war has been handicapped by teach-in move- ments and demonstrations; assailed by petitions and editorials, and opposed by political elements, ranging from the Communists on one side to the pacifists and isolationist Republicans and Demo- crats on the other side. But the opposition encountered by President Johnson in the prosecution of the Vietnam war is really small stuff compared with the opposition encoun- tered by President Lincoln. Mr. Owen notes that the 1862 congressional elec- tions went heavily against the Lincoln administration in the Midwest, and that after this election the Illinois House of Representatives passed an antiwar reso- lution by a large majority, while the In- diana Legislature refused appropriations for raising troops. Mr. Owen also noted that: The roster of American newspapers calling for peace included the New York Daily News, the New York Tribune (on-and-off), the Cincinnati Enquirer, the Columbus Crisis, the Detroit Free Press, the Indianapolis Sen- tinel, the Chicago Times, and many others. Mr. Owen also recalls that in August 1864 the chairman of the National Re- publican Committee warned Lincoln that he had lost so much support that if an election were held at that time Lincoln would probably be beaten. He notes that 1 month later, in September: The Democratic Party nominated Gen. McClellan for President on a platform, drafted under Vallandingham's leadership, which proclaimed that "after four years of failure to restore the Union by the experi- ment of war . justice, humanity, liberty and the public welfare demand that imme- diate efforts be made for a cessation of hos- tilities ... on the basis of the Federal Union of States. President Johnson has been called upon by critics of various political hues to deescalate the Vietnam war in the interests of peace. Here, too, there is a parallel between the situation which to- day confronts President Johnson and the situation which confronted President Lincoln. As Henry Owen tells the story- Lincoln turned a deaf ear to pressures for "de-escalation". He called for another 500,000 men to be drafted (even though the draft was highly unpopular-witness the ex- tensive draft riots In Ohio and New York the previous year.) He told the armies to press ahead, as hard as they could: "Hold on with a bulldog grip and chew and choke as much as possible". Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent to insert into the RECORD at this point the full text of the article by Mr. Henry Owen in the Sunday Star for June 12, 1966. I earnestly hope that my colleagues will find the time to give it the careful study which I believe it merits. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: LINCOLN'S BATTLE WITH "DOVES" DURING THE CIVIL WAR (EDITOR'S NOTE.-This is an essay in his- tory, not current policy. These facts are in- teresting in their own right, not as a guide to what we should or shouldn't do today in wholly different circumstances. (The author is acting chairman of the Policy Planning Council in the State De- partment.) (By Henry Owen) The peace movement in the North during the Civil War reflected: An instinctive feeling that it was wrong to try to deal with a political problem (seces- sion) by force of arms. Objections to the draft and, as the war continued, to heavy Union losses. Despair at the prospects of victory over what seemed to be not just any army, but an entire people. A growing feeling that peace and the Union could both be restored if Lincoln would only negotiate sensibly (i.e., if he would not insist on abolition of slavery). The peace movement had two centers of strength, New York City and the Ohio-In- diana-Illinois area. It first showed major political strength in the 1862.Oongressional elections, which went heavily against the ad- ministration in the mid-West. REFUSED FUNDS FOR TROOPS - A Republican leader noted: "The people have furnished men and means In abundance for all purposes to conquer the enemy; but after a year and a half on trial ... we have made no progress in putting down the rebel- lion ... and the people are desirous of some change, they scarcely know what." After this election, the Illinois House of Representatives passed an anti-war resolu- tion by a large majority; and the Indiana legislature refused appropriations for raising troops. Gov. Yates dealt with the fractious Illinois legislature by the simple expedient of Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 19990 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 26, 1966 adjourning it until 1865; Gov. Morton kept Indiana in the war only by a farefaced dic- tatorship. The 1863 elections generally favored pro- Union forces, but there was a startling de- velopment in Ohio. Clement Vallandigham, who had been exiled for anti-war agitation, not only gained the Democratic nomination for Governor but won two-fifths of the votes cast in the gen- eral election. This was the same man who, a short while before, had told his fellow Congressmen: "You have not conquered the South. You never will, It is not in the nature of things possible . . . Stop fighting. Make an armi- stice. Accept at once foreign mediation." NEWSPAPERS URGED PEACE A month later, in December 1863, the United States House of Representatives tabled a resolution calling on the President to. open negotiations with the South. The vote was 98 to 59. In the spring of 1864, as Grant's offensive against Richmond brought heavy losses, peace sentiment waxed. Large peace meetings were held in major cities of the North. The roster of American newspapers call- ing for peace included by now the New York Daily News, the New York Tribune (on-and- off), the Cincinnati Enquirer, the Columbus Crisis, the Detroit Free Press, the Indian- apolis Sentinel, The Chicago Times, and many others. In August 1864, the Chairman of National Republican Committee wrote Lincoln that "the tide is setting strongly against us ... Were an election to be held now in Illinois we should be beaten . Pennsylvania is against us ... Nothing but the most res- olute action . can prevent the country from falling into hostile (i.e., Democratic) hands." He attributed the party's misfortunes, in part, to the "widely diffused suspicion ... that we can have peace with the Union if we would." M'CLELI.AN NOMINATED He urged Lincoln to demonstrate the false- ness of this view by appointing a peace com- mission to negotiate with Jefferson Davis, on only one condition: The supremacy of the Constitution be acknowledged. Later that month, Lincoln recorded his be- lief that he would be defeated in the election, and that the new President would be unable to continue the war because of peace promises made during the election. In early September, as if to bear out his prediction the Democratic Party nominated Gen. McClellan for President on a platform, drafted under Vallandigham's leadership, which proclaimed that "after four years of failure to restore the Union by the experi- ment of war ... justice, humanity, liberty and the public welfare demand that imme- diate efforts be made for a cessation of hos- tilities ... on the basis of the Federal Union of States." The peace movement had reached its peak. LINCOLN'S RESPONSE There were four main elements in Lincoln's response to this movement: 1._ War aims. He sought to define the pur- poses of the war in terms of "an issue which had so great an emotional content that all the differences and uncertainties of the pop- ular mind would be swallowed up in loyalty." (The quote is from Prof. Kirkland.) "This war is not prosecuted upon our part in any spirit of aggression, nor for any purpose of conquest or subjugation, but to defend and maintain the supremacy of the Constitu- tion . . . and to preserve the Union . . . and as soon as these objects are accomplished the war ought to cease." CHAIN OF REASONING In his major addresses Lincoln returned again said again to this theme: That the war was being fought to ensure that "government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from this earth." How could representative government suc- ceed, he asked, if its judgments were to be overthrown by force of arms? Thus, like Jefferson in the Declaration of independence, he related the conflict to time- less beliefs about the nature of man and government. And he did this not merely by rhetoric but by a chain of reasoning which the man in the street found clear and per- suasive. (Indeed, Lincoln's straightforward arguments generally got a better reception from the public at large than from members of Congress.) 2. Negotiations. Having defined his war aim, Lincoln wanted to show that it was Jefferson Davis, not he, who blocked peace on terms consistent with that aim. To this end, he encouraged private probes of Confederate intentions, in 1863-64, by such enthusiastic "doves" as Horace Greeley, Col. Jacquess, and James Gilmore. He allowed them to travel to Canada and Rich- mond, In order to discuss peace terms with Confederate representatives (including Pres- ident Davis himself), and he promised to listen to their reports. Lincoln made clear that the U.S. govern- ment would only enter negotiations if these emissaries could report that President Davis would agree, in such negotiations, to restore the Union and the Constitution. This was one issue on which Lincoln could not com- promise without jeopardy to his essential war aim. By making this clear beforehand he reassured the "hawks" (Republican Radi- cals). PRESSED. ABOLITION The "hawks" also pressed him to make the abolition of slavery a pre-condition to peace. As the war went on, Lincoln had come in- creasingly to support abolition. Yet to make its immediate achievement a condition of peace would be to place in jeopardy the sup- port for the war that he was getting from responsible "doves," the moderate Demo- crat's. The result: Masterful unclarity on Lin- coln's part. In his famous "To Whom It May Concern" statement in mid-64 he cited two pre-conditions to peace: preservation of the Union, and abolition of slavery. When the Democrats protested that Lincoln was 'thus creating new obstacles to peace, he wrote private letters to peace leaders in the North, suggesting that if Jefferson Davis wanted to propose restoration of the 'Union without the abolition of slavery, "let him try me." The implication was that Lincoln might prove flexible on this point. This vagueness pleased no one, but en- abled the Greeley-Jaquess-Gilmore peace probes to be mounted without giving too much offense to either hawks or the doves. CHANGED TACTICS These probes served the purpose Lincoln had in mind: They proved that the main obstacle to peace lay in Richmond, not Wash- ington. President Davis indicated that the That issue, Lincoln decided, was the sur- war could only be ended by accepting post- vival of the Union and of representative war Confederate rule in the South. government. This meant that the people of Lincoln encouraged disappointed peace the Union should be able to settle their probers to share these results with the North- differences under the Constitution without, ern voters before the November election. in Lincoln's words, "successful appeal from When that election was won, Lincoln the ballot to the bullet." changed his tactics, but not his strategy. This objective was set down in the John- son-Crittenden resolution, which passed both houses of Congress by big majorities in 1861: On Grant's urging, he accepted a Con- federate invitation to talk peace at Hampton Roads with the Vice President of the Con- federacy (an old friend) and two other Con- federate Commissioners-without any prior indication of Confederate agreement to re- store the Union. He wanted to discover whether the deteriorating Southern military situation was reflected in a changed Con- federate negotiating position. It was not. The meeting, the only "official" negotiation of the war, broke up after four hours. The Confederate representatives could not agree. to restore the Union, even though both Lin- coln and Seward signalled some flexibility on abolition (at least in request of means and timing). Lincoln could not agree to an armistice without a political settlement;'thiis would only give the Southern armies needed respite, and prolong the war. 3. Pacification., During this Conference the Southern Commissioners described Lin- coln's demand that the South lay down its arms as a call for "unconditional submis- sion." Seward replied that the people of the South would have the safeguards of the Con- stitution and the Courts, once the Union was restored. Here was the essence of Lincoln's peace- making. Confederate leaders might not give up the goal of overthrowing Union rule, but Lincoln hoped that the Southern people would, if they were offered a prospect of fair treatment in the Union. His plans for pacification-restoring self- government and Congressional representa- tion in occupied areas of the South-were to him a more likely road to peace than negoti- tiori. He looked to settling the great issues that were at stake, not by negotiating under the threat of armed duress, but by submit- ting them to the normal process of free elec- tion. He hoped to restore peace by treating not with the Confederacy but with its citizens. INSURED FREE ELECTIONS All this took contrite form in the first Southern areas to come under Union rule: Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee. He sought quickly to restore state governments, and he instructed his military commanders to insure that there was a genuinely free vote. He did not want, he wrote one of them, "Northern men here (in the Congress) as representatives elected ... at the point of the bayonet." Orderly elections were held as early as December 1862 in the First and Sec- ond Louisiana Congressional districts, which embraced New Orleans and outlying areas. In December 1863 the President sought to dramatize what he was about. He an- nounced that as soon as 10 percent of the registered voters in any state occupied by Union armies were ready to take the oath of allegiance to the Constitution, he would be prepared to restore state government. The people of that state could then decide for themselves, in free elections, by whom they wanted to be governed-locally and in the Congress. With this went a sweeping amnesty. The "hawks" disapproved and passed the punitive Wade-Davis law as a substitute. Lincoln used the pocket veto to kill that law. DISAPPOINTED CROWD He hoped that as word of his pacification policy got about, the morale of the Confed- erate people and armies would be affected and the way opened for a lasting peace. All this was at the heart of Lincoln's con- cerns in the final months of his life. When a large crowd came to cheer beneath the White House windows at the news of Lee's surrender, Lincoln disappointed it: In this, his last speech, he spoke not of military vic- tory but of his plansfor restoring self-gov- ernment on generous terms in the South- and of the progress which these plans were making in Louisiana. Thus, Lincoln's handling of "negotiations" largely in terms of Northern politics was balanced by his handling of "pacification" largely in terms of Southern needs. The Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 August 26, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE first he saw as a means of defusing peace sentiment in the North; the second was, in his view, the essence of peace-making in the South. 4. Making war. But none of this would avail, Lincoln believed, unless Union mili- tary successes convinced the Southern peo- ple that resistance was futile. "Peace" pres- sures on the President to relax the pace of military operations got short shrift. This issue came to a head in the summer of 1864. Grant's offensive against Richmond had bogged down in heavy casualties. A his- torian notes that "every day the North was sinking deeper in despair, as hopes of a speedy victory vanished." There were de- mands for firing "butcher" Grant and call- ing off his offensive. AVOIDED SHERMAN A stepped-up offensive would mean heavy losses and a new draft call, and would hurt Lincoln politically in the short run. On the other hand, if this offensive succeeded, fewer people would probably be killed in the long run, and the Northern peace party's position in the election would be weakened. Some eminent Southerners were weighing the same factors. Gen. Stephen Ramseur of North Carolina wrote his wife: "If our armies can hold their own, suffer no crush- ing disaster before the next election, we may reasonably expect a termination of this war. McClellan will be elected and his elec- tion will bring peace. . Gen. Joseph Johnston, fighting ably in Georgia, sought to avoid pitched battle with Sherman- judging that a delaying defense was best calculated to enhance war weariness in the North. He and other Confederate Military leaders had long since ceased to think of vic- tory; their only object was to keep the war going long enought to give peace sentiment in the North a chance to prevail. Lincoln turned a deaf ear to pressures for "de-escalation." He called for another 500,000 men to be drafted (even though the draft was highly unpopular-witness the ex- tensive draft riots in Ohio and New York the previous year.) He told the armies to press ahead, as hard as they could: "Hold on with a bulldog grip and chew and choke as much as posible." STORM OF PROTEST A storm of protest broke about his head, as he knew it would. His biographer records: "All the submerged discontent broke into open clamor. The awful losses of the last few weeks had horrified the nation. The thought of further bloodshed brought re- Vulsion." The language with which some Northern newspapers greeted his demand for "five hun- dred thousand more victims" probably did not surprise Lincoln. His election prospects seemed to dip further. But Lincoln's other expectations were also borne out: As Sherman and Grant pressed forward, Northern peace sentiment receded, Southern peace sentiment mounted, and Mc- Clellan's fortunes declined. After the No- vember election, the Northern peace move- ment never troubled Lincoln again. Lincoln's responses to the peace movement were effective and mutually reinforcing, be- cause they were grounded in the principle of self-determination. BASED ON PRINCIPAL Seeing the war largely as a means of pre- serving this principle, he was able to define its meaning eloquently and effectively. Because he insisted that any peace negoti- ations be based on this principle, he was able to handle pressures for negotiation In a way that strengthened, rather than weakened, the war effect. Because his pacification plans were directly related to this principle, they offered con- vincing hope for the future. And because he perceived that this prin- ciple was at stake he was able-sensitive though he was to human suffering-to ex- plain why pressures for abating a cruel war could not be accommodated. AUTO INSURANCE PIRATES Mr. HART. Mr. President, it is a pleasure to call my colleagues' attention to "Auto Insurance Pirates," from the .August 14, 19-66, issue of the interesting and informative Parade. This is a vivid description of the harm being done Americans by the failure of many high- risk auto insurance companies. Basis for much of the article is information de- veloped by the senior Senator from Con- necticut [Mr. DODD] during and follow- ing hearings of the Senate Antitrust and Monopoly Subcommittee. Certainly I, for one, am grateful to Senator DODD for focusing the public spotlight on this seri- ous problem. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that the article be inserted in the RECORD at this point. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: AUTO INSURANCE PIRATES: How THEY MENACE THE PUBLIC-AND REPUTABLE COMPANIES (By Charles W. Stickle) In Indiana, where high school basketball is "big league," 16-year-old Ronald Barricklow, leading rebounder on the Holton High School team, enjoyed near-celebrity status. On the cold wet morning of Jan. 13, 1959, after boarding the schoolbus near his home, Ronald found himself the center of a lively discussion of his team's chances for victory in a forthcoming game. Ronald Barrlcklow would not play in that game or any other basketball game from that morning on. Nor would he ever walk nor- mally again. When the bus carrying Ronald and 30 other students stopped to pick up more passengers, it was rammed from the rear by a trailer truck. Young Barricklow awoke the next day in a hospital, his right leg broken in three places, his left thigh fractured, his left hip dislo- cated. Eight operations and nine months later, Ronald was discharged from the hos- pital, his left leg three inches shorter than his right. Medical and surgical expenses totaled $19,- 340.53. Ronald's father, a construction work- er, paid the bills by mortgaging the Barricklows' small farm. The truck that crashed Into the schoolbus was insured by an out-of-state firm, which did a multi-million dollar business in 43 states. It was found completely insolvent In 1962 and left the Barricklows and 8500 other claimants without payment. The story of the Barricklows and their in- solvent insurance firm is but a single episode in a sordid casebook of mismanagement, fraud, embezzlement and financial machina- tions by carpetbaggers and incompetents who have invaded the American auto insurance market. The soaring highway accident rate and the resulting heavy insurance losses have caused established companies to exercise painstak- ing care in choosing whom to Insure. The careptbaggers, taking advantage of this cli- mate, have moved into the so-called "high- risk" market that services motorists who have difficulty obtaining insurance coverage because of poor accident records, age, poor health or physical disability. The result has been catastrophic. States Dean E. Sharp, assistant counsel to the Senate Subcommittee on Antitrust and 19991 Monopoly: "Passing virtually unnoticed has been the insolvency of 62 insurance firms In 21 states since 1960, Including 33 in the last two years alone. These companies have left more than $275 million in unpaid claims, filed by more than 175,000 persons, many of them badly injured, and more than one mil- lion individuals with worthless automobile insurance." Subcommittee counsel Sharp describes the situation as "one of the greatest scandals ever to affect the insurance industry." The scandals, of course, have been limited to a relatively small percentage of companies, while many of the nation's most reputable insurance firms also write high-risk auto- mobile insurance and reliably meet their claims. (Of 900 firms in the auto casualty insurance field, 350 perform the essential function of underwriting insurance for risky motorists.) But the scandals threaten to give an economic black eye to all. A "FESTERING SPLINTER" Illinois State Insurance Department Direc- tor John F. Bolton Jr., who was appointed last year when the state literally was being blitzed by hit-and-run insurers, says: "We are dealing with a splinter-a painful, fester- ing splinter, but still a splinter." The "splinter" Director Bolton refers to has two jagged edges. One of them jeopardizes the financial security of the motorist insured by the shaky high-risk company every time he gets in his car. According to Vincent A. Carroll, judge of the Court of Common Pleas in Philadelphia, "There are thousands of motorists who be- lieve they have fulfilled their social duty by purchasing insurance when, in fact, for all practical purposes they are not really in- sured." His assertion proved bitterly accurate for a young Maryland couple who lost their home when an accident victim obtained a $12,000 judgment against them. They felt they were covered, but when the claim was filed, the insurance company was insolvent. The other side of the "splinter" endangers the innocent motorist, when he is Injured or his car is damaged by a high-risk driver. who carries a worthless auto liability policy. How many Americans are affected by these failures Is reflected by the following statistics. In Illinois, 19 companies have failed in the last three years. Cosmopolitan Insurance Co. of Chicago left 22,000 persons holding claims totaling $68 million. When examiners looked into the insolvency, they found assets of only $2.5 million. The collapse left 130,000 Indi- viduals without Insurance. In Missouri, Guaranty Insurance Exchange, one of six high-risk companies that failed in that state, was found able to pay only four cents on every dollar of the total $2 million In claims against it. WHY THE SCANDALS? What are the reasons for the recurring failures and the resulting losses to motorists? The basic one Is that most reputable in- surance companies have sustained mounting losses in recent years because of soaring claims and high jury awards. Rates, usually regulated by state law, have not been allowed to keep pace. Caught in this squeeze, the companies have' been forced to pick and choose whom they Insure, placing more and more motorists in the "high-risk" market. Such drivers then face the alternative either of obtaining in- surance through "assigned-risk" pools (by which established companies agree to carry a percentage of less desirable risks) or of going to a company that offers its own plan. For many drivers, the latter choice has been more Inviting, because many assigned risk plans offer only minimum coverage and because few motorists wish to be labeled an "assigned risk." Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 19992 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 26, 1966 Elderly motorists, even with good driving records, can find themselves thrown into the high risk mafiket if they have an accident. If a driverlas epilepsy, he probably will find himself a high risk. Companies very care.- fully underwrite prospective policyholders with diabetes, heart disease, arthritis, total deafness or loss of sight in one eye. Social factors also .may- count against a driver. The individual who cannot read or speak English can be marked "high risk." Ex-convicts or those on probation or parole are often in the same category. But the high-risk market is by no means limited to the unhealthy or disadvantaged. Single men, 16 to 25, who own and drive their own cars probably comprise the largest single group of high risks. Of the nation's 2.5 mil- lion youthful drivers, nearly one-third buy insurance through assigned-risk pools. The remainder carry no insurance at all or are carried by high-risk companies or standard companies trying to accommodate parents al- ready carrying insurance with their firm. All these motorists have provided a happy hunting ground for hit-and-run insurance operators. As Charles W. Gambrell, chief insurance commissioner of South Carolina, explained to this reporter: "When a large number of people find themselves unable to buy auto- mobile liability insurance, and when they are under some form of real or quasi-compulsion by the state to buy insurance, the stage is set for the high-risk insurance pirate." In many cases it is surprisingly simple for high-risk racketeers to get into the business. Thomas Finley, executive vice president to the Pennsylvania Federation of Mutual In- surance Companies, says that "charters of some small mutual companies are bought and sold like liquor club licenses. The going price may be from $5000 to $25,000." After acquiring a company, unscrupulous promoters may wheel and deal to build an apparently legitimate corporate structure. But every move is calculated to enrich them. Such companies, Commissioner Gambrell as- serts, are organized to "go broke." A common practice of the insurance pirates is to resurrect a company and run its affairs through "management contracts," which permit them to exert unlimited con- trol and milk the companies of assets. The case of one Minnesota high-risk in- surance company is classic. Minnesota At- torney General Robert Mattson, whose in- vestigation led to indictments in the case, ex- plains it: In 1963, after acquiring the management contract to operate an insurance company, a group headed by an ex-bail bondsman formed a new company and immediately transferred $100,000 in cash and govern- ment bonds to the new enterprise. Their next step was to arrange another manage- ment contract giving them power to run the second firm, charge it management fees and operate it with no question asked. The promoters then began to raid the new company of every asset they could get their hands on. They set up a so-called "investment" plan that permitted them to sell to their insur- ance company real estate of highly inflated value and dubious title. They received in return nearly half a million dollars. Within six months, they had obtained title to the company's "home office" building and had mortgaged it for $250,000. This money later was deposited to the account of an insurance agency they owned. The report by the Minnesota attorney gen- eral states that 250 of every dollar paid in premiums went to the promoters either through the investment plan or the manage- ment contract, As long as the premiums rolled in, the promoters lived off them. Out of policyholders' funds, they purchased three houses for themselves, a $6000 motorboat, furnishings and clothing. In about two years, according to Attorney General Mattson, more than $3.5 million had been drained from the company, leaving it broke. The promoters now face federal charges. Another device Is to incorporate a high- risk company in the Bahamas, where there is little regulation and where a company can be chartered for $14. British International Insurance Co. of Nassau, Bahamas, is an 11- lustration. Already under indictment in Illinois on charges of embezzeling $180,000, Charles Bray incorporated British International to sell more high-risk insurance to the U.S. But first he had to prove that his company was financially sound. Most states require that foreign insurance companies establish sub-, stantial trust funds to assure payment of claims should the company fail. HOW TO START A BUSINESS This proved no obstacle. Bray simply incorporated his own bank, the Market In- surance Bank and Trust Co., in Nassau. His next step was to present to a Kenosha, Wis., bank certificates of deposit, indicating that the funds. in the name of British Interna- tional were on deposit in the Nassau bank. A trust fund based on the worthless certi- ficates was established and Bray was back in the insurance business. Operating out of Kenosha, Bray's company took in more than a million dollars from policyholders throughout the U.S. But be- fore too long post office inspectors, tipped off by Illinois insurance authorities, identi- fied Bray with the earlier indictment. He was convicted of mail fraud and has received five years. Even before high-risk companies fail, motorists are frustrated in attempts 'to re- cover losses. Some never receive acknowl- edgement of their claims until they hire an attorney. Others are bluffed and eventually shortchanged on claim settlements oi' "stal- led" in efforts to obtain payments. Still another trick is to twist policy pro- visions. A woman whose collision policy provided for $100 deductible skidded, struck one car and then another and wound up against a fence. Instead of deducting $100 from her claim, the company applied the de- ductible to each collision, two cars and the fence and would settle only if $300 was de- ducted 1 Reputable insurance companies set aside a cash reserve for unsettled claims, but many high-risk companies make a mockery of this practice. For example, when a claim for $1,000 was presented to a Maryland insurer, its adjuster determined that it might be settled for $600. The company reserved $60. Companies also capitalize on the heavy backlog in court, calendars. In Philadelphia, where the delay in trial of auto negligence cases is nearly four years, Common Pleas Court Administrator Edward Blake states that four mutual casualty companies that failed had an accumulation of more than 1000 cases. He describes this backlog as grossly excessive and indicative of a reluc- tance to settle claims. How do the reputable companies view the problem of insurance pirates? Many of them are concerned. "Certainly there is a place in our mobile society for the specialized companies that insure high-risk motorists who have dif- ficulty obtaining automobile coverage in the open market and prefer not to go in to the assigned-risk plans ." says Bowman Boss president of the Nationwide Mutual In- surance Co. "But there is no place for any insurance company-of any kind- that does not meet its obligations to the people whose premium payments it has accepted." Adds Thomas C. Morrill, vice president, State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Companies: "Only the very worst drivers- 'repeater drunks' for example-need to buy high-risk insurance. Everybody else who can't get coverage from a regular company can always get liability insurance through the assigned-risk plans maintained by in- surance companies in every state." Clay Johnson, president of Royal Globe Insurance, declares: "The fact is that the price of insurance is not right. Failure to approve needed rate adjustments in full and long delays before any adjustments are made have resulted in serious rate inadequacies and consistent underwriting losses. As a result, responsible insurance companies have been forced to restrict their underwriting, making it more difficult for many persons to buy insurance. [And] when insurance is not available through established channels an economic vacuum develops that sucks in a black market, which does not serve the public interest." Traditionally, insurance regulation has been left to the states. Some have faced up to their responsibility. At the same time, the high-risk scandals provide stark evidence that state regulation has been a sham in many places. New York Superintendent of Insurance Henry Root Stern is on record as saying that "The adequacy of state regulation is not judged by the performance of states where it is strongest.... Regardless of the merits of state superivsion, the least diligent states are used as the gauge of its effectiveness." State insurance commissioners themselves admit that a lack of coordination and liaison has enabled high-risk predators forced out of one state to proceed to another and start all over again. The Senate subcommittee is considering legislation to establish a regulatory agency similar to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. In this way at least some of the funds lost by claimants would be paid when an insurance company fails in the future. The same legislation also would provide for federal insurance examiners. Dean Sharp considers the failure to employ enough competent examiners as the "under- lying weakness of state regulation." In at least six states, the job of standing watchdog' over the industry has been left to fewer than four examiners. Nine states have no examiners. The subcommittee's study also disclosed all too many instances of nonfeasance by state insurance departments. These in- cluded failure to: Make annual audits to determine if com- panies are financially sound. Examine the structure of newly formed companies. Investigate out-of-state or foreign insur- ance companies. Several states, rocked by insurance corn- pany collapses, are overhauling archaic in- surance regulations. A notable example is Maryland, where In- surance Commissioner Francis V. (Bill) Burch, who came to office only last July, has taken the lead. Prior to his taking office, Maryland had been shaken by the failures of three high-risk companies which had left 35,000 policyholders without coverage. Burch has begun cleaning house through administrative and legislative programs. His legislative program has two objectives: (1) to extend additional protection to both policyholders and claimants and (2) to give his office additional weapons to drive un- desirable and financially unsound companies from the state. Major legislation enacted this year in- cluded laws to: Increase the minimum capital surplus re- quirements of companies seeking to do busi- ness in the state by 50 percent. Impose fines up to $25,000 on companies that violate the state insurance code. Require companies whose licenses are subject to revocation proceedings to prove in court that they were entitled to continue Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 20030 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 CONGRESSIONAL, RECODHOUSE August 26, 1966 More long-range problems should also be considered now, before public misun- derstanding and suspicion seriously hinder and delay the real progress which can be achieved through controlled, re- sponsible research in weather modifica- tion. Although the case law in this field is still relatively "small, it is already clear that many complex legal questions will have to be faced. To quote the Report on Law, Controls, and Operations: Since weather is "transient" and can not be bounded by political borders and since experimentation over broad areas is or may become necessary, the utility of uniform rules with respect to licenses, operations, liability, ownership, use and control of the elements, and the like seems beyond ques- tion, Reporting, both' before the activity in order to prevent interference and con- tamination and afterwards to permit the collection and evaluation of scientific data, is crucial to progress. Uniform protection of the general public and of those with spe- cial concern in the weather against inex- perienced and/or irresponsible persons en- gaged in weather activities and a sharing by all the public in the risks involved in careful, needed experimentation in this new field are also essential. Mr. Speaker, legally and scientifically, we are just at the beginning of a long, long road. Last November, in a meeting I sponsored at Hagerstown, Dr. F. W. Reichelderfer, retired Chief of the Weather Bureau, discussed some of the complex variables which must be anal- yzed in each specific meteorological sit- uation, before the results of experimen- tation could be accurately predicted. The list included temperature, humidity, the structure of wind, topology, the height of clouds, the turbulence within the clouds, and the synoptic situation. In my, judgment, far more precise ,knowl- edge of all these factors should be se- cured before large-scale " experimenta- tion with the weather can be safely tried. At the moment, it seems most impor- tant that we know exactly what is ac- tually being done, by whom, and when arid where, The bills which I.have spon- sored were" directed toward this end, as are my recommendations today to the National Science Foundation. In `closing, I would like to note that the reports, however incomplete, which have been collected by the National Science Foundation indicate that no weather modification projects have been undertaken in, Maryland. this year, and only one research project in Pennsyl- vania and. one commercial project in West Virginia. The grand jury con- vened in Washington County this month also found no hard evidence of violations of the Maryland moratorium on cloud- seeding. Yet the grand jury concluded by urging `the Federal Government "to expedite their investigation and studies into this matter to that the matter can finally be resolved." Mr. Speaker, I would like to insert in the RECORD at this point the report of the Washington County grand jury, and the text of my letter to Dr. Haworth: ;GRAND JURY Room, Cy~O~URTHOUSE , IlAGEasrowN, MD., To the Honorable, the Judges of the Circuit Court for Washington County: The March Term 1968. Grand Jury for Washington County met in special session at 9:06 a.m. on August 17th, 1966, to consider possible violations of the cloud seeding laws. The following witnesses appeared: Captain W. E. O'Hara, Trooper First Class Cecil Bit- tinger, of the Maryland State Police, State Senator George Snyder, and Sheriff Charles Price. The Maryland State Police has re- ceived many complaints, all of which have been investigated, including areas in Penn- sylvania and West Virginia, and in no case has cloud seeding been established. Senator Snyder, author of the bill for two year mora- torium, also appeared and related his exten- sive investigation into this matter. All com- plaints received by him were referred to the Maryland State Police for investigation. Sheriff Price has also received many com- plaints and he also has not been able to es- tablish any violations of this law. It Is the opinion of the Grand Jury that there has been no evidence produced to this date which would indicate a violation of this law. However, the Grand Jury strongly rec- ommends that the police agencies of Wash- example, can be of great value in helping to identify aircraft suspected of cloud-seeding operations. In general, I feel that the present level of public misunderstanding and suspicion makes full reporting too important to be implemented simply by the goodwill of individual operators. I hope that you will take all possible steps to insure full com- pliance with your agency's regulations. Very sincerely, CHARLES MCC. MATHIAS, Jr. (Mr. WYDLER (at the request of Mr. DEL CLAWSON) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) [Mr. WYDLER'S remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] forced. The Grand Jury is the public to V IRRESPONSIBLY consider the following facts: (1) This geographical area is in the cen- ter of a large aerial traffic pattern along the eastern seaboard and extending in all direc- tions which results in many planes moving through this area at all times. (2) The type of plane capable of cloud seeding must be a particular type of plane capable of withstanding the turbulence of a storm cloud and not the ordinary small plane. (3) It is a violation of the Federal law to engage in cloud seeding without approval of the Federal Aviation Agency, the local base being located In Martinsburg, West Virginia, and to date there have been no known violations. (4) The Grand Jury being without funds and staff sufficient to make a thorough in- dependent investigation urges the Federal Government to expedite their investigation and studies into this matter so that the mat- ter can finally be resolved. The Grand Jury requests all citizens to comply with the law and to report any and all violations to the proper authorities for investigation rather than to take any inde- pendent action. Three other witnesses appeared before the Grand Jury this morning and one true bill of indictment was returned. O. N. CARRYER, Foreman. JUANITA MAATI, Secretary. CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES, HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, Washington, D.C., August 26,1966. Dr. LELAND J. HAWORTH, Director, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. DEAR DR. HAWORTH: Despite the two-year moratorium on cloud-seeding in Maryland under state law, doubts and suspicions about weather modifications activities in Western Maryland have persisted and actually increased this summer, to the point where a grand. jury was actually convened in Wash- ington County to investigate many allegations of weather modification actions in violation of the state law. I feel that this episode dramatizes the need for far more vigorous enforcement of the reporting regulations which your agency promulgated last December. If NSF itself has no field office structure to expedite imme- diate, on-the-sppoot investigation of alleged unreported act Ivi Is ,- I urge you either to develop a satisf`aotory nationwide operation, or greatly extend liaison with appropriate Federal and state offices-..' ]Might plans main- tamed by the Federal Aviation Agenov, for (Mr. VIVIAN (at the request of Mr. WALDIE) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the REC- ORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. VIVIAN. Mr. Speaker, in recent weeks, reports have been published that leaders of the South Vietnamese Govern- ment advocate the invasion of North Vietnam. Not long ago, President Ky demanded that American. forces, in conjunction with his own armies, carry the ground war into North Vietnam. It is. under- standable that South Vietnamese soldiers who have watched cohorts be killed by the North Vietnamese should in turn wish to attack their antagonists at the source. But Mr. Speaker, as President Johnson so often has said, we do not seek and cannot support "any mindless esca- lation" of this war. He has pledged often that no attempt will be made to conquer North Vietnam. In order that persons in other nations are not misled by these reports, I con- sider it important that we, in Congress make clear our concurrence with the President in this matter. In the August 9 issue of the Adrian Daily Telegram, a newspaper published in my district, the editor of the Telegram states, very effectively and very concisely, the importance of this question. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that the editorial be printed at this point in the RECORD and I commend the edi- tor's remarks to my colleagues. [From the Adrian Daily Telegram, Aug. 9, 1966] PREMIER KY SPOKE IRRESPONSIBLY South Viet Nam's Premier Nguyen Ky has created embarrassment for the United States by repeating his demand that Ameri- can forces in. con junction with his armies carry the ground war into North Viet Nam. It's embarrassing because what he proposes Is in the last analysis aggression. The United States is fighting in South Viet Nam against aggression from the north. American forces are there precisely to show that crossings of the 17th Parallel are immoral, unjustified and must not be permitted. The United States' position is that South Viet Nam must have its freedom. President Johnson has pledged that no attempt would be made to conquer North Viet Nam nor force a change In its government. To be sure; the United States has directed air attacks at North Vietnamese ' oil bases, has bombed Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 A'ugust' 26, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE I have been studying the activities of the Defense Department, namely, defense procurement and supply as it affects our domestic economy-and I have been de- fending him-I am now about ready to conclude that the gentleman is unaware of the limitations of the power that rests in the executive branch and the Defense Department, if the news items describe correctly his plans to use the draft for something other than providing the mil- itary manpower that this society needs to defend itself. This, too, bears upon the basic ques- tion. Mr. COLLIER. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. CURTIS. I yield to the gentleman from Illinois. Mr. COLLIER. Mr. Speaker, I thank the gentleman. I commend the gentleman from Missouri [Mr. Cuaris] for raising this issue, not that it is in any manner a new issue, because, as the gentleman well knows and as most Members of this body must know, this very issue Is indeed a source of great concern and disturbance to a great number of citizens. I am sure many Members of the House have, as I have, received letters from home, wherein our people indicate they are troubled by the fact that we are at war, and that the war has not been de- clared. There are all kinds of associated problems that go hand in hand with the dilemma in which we find ourselves, such as those relating to the questions of "war prisoners" as applied to the terms of the Geneva Treaty, and many other things. I would hope that sometime we could perhaps have an even more extended discussion, so that we may have the necessary rules and guidelines by which to conduct ourselves under the situation which presently prevails. Mr. CURTIS. I thank the gentleman from Illinois. I fully agree with him. WEATHER MODIFICATION: THE FACTS, THE LAW, AND THE PROBLEMS The SPEAKER. Under previous order of the House, the gentleman from Mary- land [Mr. MATHIAS] is recognized for 15 minutes. Mr. MATHIAS. Mr. Speaker, about 2 years ago I first warned of the need for more and b tter public information about the important science of weather modification. Although some progress has been made since then, our continuing problems were dramatized on August 17, when a grand jury was convened in Washington County, Md., to investigate persistent charges that weather modi- fication work was being carried on in western Maryland in violation of State law. This episode clearly illustrates the need, to review the facts, the laws, and the problems in this entire field, so that we can insure that weather modification work will proceed along the lines dic- tated by the public interest. perimentation was almost $5 million, broken down as follows: Department of Agriculture------- $140,000 Department of Commerce------- 115, 000 Department of Defense: Army ------------------------ 254,1500 Navy ------------------------ 999,408 Air. Force -------------------- 193,000 Total Defense Department- 1,446,908 Department of the Interior------ 1, 262, 268 National Science Foundation---- 2, 007, 386 Total -------------------- 4,971, 652 Perhaps the most renowned federally sponsored projects have been attempts to moderate oceanborne storms, and to disperse fog at airports. Certainly the most controversial projects, public or private, have been in the field of cloud- seeding. Despite extensive research and com- merical activity in various forms of cloud-seeding, many basic questions in the field still have not been resolved. As noted in the 1965 annual report of the National Science Foundation: At the present time, there is no analytical evidence from commercial operations that seeding will reduce natural rainfall, and there does appear to be some evidence that existing rainfall can be augmented by seed- ing. No one has yet devised a scheme for producing rainfall where natural moisture is lacking in the atmosphere, and it is un- likely that seeding Lan produce rainfall where drought conditions are produced by large- scale movements of dry air. The same report also declared that drought alleviation is "a field of inquiry in which the path toward appliactions is sufficiently long, and the possibilities are so diffuse, that a decade or more may be required to determine whether or not much large-scale efforts are economically feasible." From these statements I think it is clear that our present fund of "hard" fact about weather modification in gen- eral, and cloud-seeding in particular, is still very small despite the efforts made to date. Under these circumstances, it is not surprising that attempts to alter the weather have produced public uncer- tainties, misunderstandings, suspicions, and doubts. THE LAW At present several types of restrictions on weather modification activities are in force. My own State of Maryland is the only State in the Union which has en- acted a fiat moratorium on weather m ed- ification work, under a law passed last year and effective until September 1967. Twenty,-one other States have imposed varying restrictions, ranging from care- fully drafted provisions requiring strict licensing and notice before projects are undertaken, to general requirements for registration or licensing of operators. All of these State statutes are summarized in "Weather Modification Law, Controls, Operations," a report to the Special Com- mission on Weather Modification of the National Science Foundation, released earlier this year. On the Federal level, two civilian agen- cies administer rules and regulations af- fecting weather modification projects. The Federal Aviation Agency, while en- 20029 forcing no special rules specifically against operators in this field, does strictly enforce its flight plan and clear- ance requirements against all individuals seeking to fly planes in the clouds. Obvi- ously these rules, prompted initially by air safety considerations, have a direct bearing on airborne cloud-seeding efforts. I might point out that the flight plans required by the FAA are held on file at the respective FAA field offices for up to 30 days after each flight, and are open for public inspection. The most specific Federal regulations were Imposed last winter by the National Science Foundation, and are generally in accord with recommendations which I have been offering since 1964. These regulations, printed in 30 Federal Reg- ister 16202-3, December 29, 1965, require 30 days' advance notice by anyone planning to engage in any type of weather modification activity, plus exten- sive reporting on actual experimentation and apparent results. There is a fine of up to $500 for willful noncompliance. THE PROBLEMS Our most immediate challenge, in my judgment, is the strict. enforcement of these existing laws. Given the uneven nature of regulation by various States, it is essential that Federal requirements for reporting all weather modification work be completely complied with by all researchers and commercial operators. In the legislation I introduced in the 88th Congress in 1964, and again in the 89th Congress in 1965, I provided that the Department of Commerce, and spe- cifically the Environmental Science Serv- ices Administration-Weather Bureau- be assigned authority to publish and en- force reporting regulations. This task was asigned to the Department of Com- merce because I felt that the large num- ber of Weather Bureau field offices, and the detailed, up-to-date meteorological data collected and maintained by those offices, provided an appropriate frame- work for the efficient administration and enforcement of such regulations. As I have noted, however, regulations similar to those I proposed were promulgated. last winter not by the Commerce De- partment, but by the National Science Foundation, acting under its genera], mandate in the National Science Founda- tion Act of 1950 as amended. Mr. Speaker, I feel strongly that now that the National Science Foundation has assumed this responsibility, it is up to the NSF to carry it through. Yet the agency has a very small staff in this area, and lacks the full field structure equipped, and manned for on-the-spot investiga- tions. Consequently I have written to- day to Dr. Leland J. Haworth, Director of the National Science Foundation, urging, him to strengthen and expand his en-? forcement staff, so that the rules can be more vigorously enforced, rather than relying on the good will of individual operators for compliance. I have also urged that, where possible violations of Federal or State law by cloudseeding from planes have been alleged, every ef-. fort should be made, through searches of FAA records and other means, to deter- mine the accuracy of these allegations without delay. Weather modification, as a science, is about 20 years old. In fiscal 1965 the Federal investment in research and ex- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29,: CIA-ROP67B00446R000400100004-3 August 26, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD HOUSE 20031 bridges and supply routes. But this is done to shut off the flow of gasoline and other ma- terials to the North Vietnamese forces fight- ing in South Viet Nam. Communist propa- ganda holds differently, and Ky's demand provides some fuel for the Red propaganda mills. The Ky demand to which was coupled a remark that a battlefield confrontation with Communist China is eventually inevitable was irresponsible and harmful. His state- ments tend to confirm the world's suspicion that his wisdom and judgment are not of the highest. They are like statements made in recent years by President Chiang Kai-shek on Formosa and the former president of South Korea, Syngman Rhee. Chiang ex- pressed the wish to invade mainland China. He had to be persuaded to be quiet. Presi- dent Rhee wanted American backing for a military campaign to reunite North and South Korea. The United States had to make it clear that neither Chiang nor Rhee would be allowed to embark on such a periolous course. Similar pressures have to be applied to Pre- mier Ky's ambitions. Every effort must be made to limit the Vietnamese war to the legitimate aim of assuring South Viet ,Nam's independence. When Premier Ky speaks of invading the North, he has to have the Ameri- can purpose in South Viet Nam made crystal clear. (Mr. VIVIAN (at the request of, Mr. WALDIE) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) [Mr. VIVIAN'S remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] (Mr. MACDONALD (at the request of Mr. WALDIE) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) [Mr. MACDONALD'S remarks will ap- pear hereafter in the Appendix.] TAX DEDUCTION FOR EDUCATIONAL EXPENSES OF TEACHERS (Mr. WILLIAM D, FORD (at the re- quest of Mr. WALDIE) was granted per- mission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extra- neous matter.) Mr. WILLIAM D. FORD. Mr. Speak- er,.today I am cosponsoring a bill, origi- nally introduced by my distinguished friend and colleague, CECIL R. KING, ranking member of the House Ways and Means Committee. This legislation follows in the foot- steps of the July 28 House concurrent resolution, which I cosponsored, dealing with the proposed regulations, 26 CPR 1, as carried in the Federal Register for July 7, 1966. These regulations would prevent teachers from deducting educa- tional expenses from their personal in- come tax. It was the purpose of the con- current resolution to deter, the Internal Revenue Service from enforcing this regulation until Congress authorized it. Now I am following up this resolution with a. bill t.Q.~lnend the. Internal Reve- nue Code of 1954 to allow teachers to -deduct from gross income, the expenses incurred in pursuing courses for aca- demic credit and degrees at institutions of higher education, and including travel. It is my sincere hope that the House of again, but after much pain and suffering I resentatives will act on it as soon as learned to use what I had left of a hand. Re p possible. RIOTERS, MARCHERS, AND DEMONSTRATORS (Mr. WAGGONNER (at the request of Mr. WALDIE) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. WAGGONNER. Mr. Speaker, an article appears in the current August 22 . issue of U.S. News & World Report, which manages to cut through all the verbiage, all the excuses, all the explanations, and all the apologies that we have all heard on behalf of the rioters and demonstra- tors who have made the streets of the Nation unsafe at any hour. This article was not written by a constituent of mine, though she is from my State of Louisiana. Because it is so crystal clear in its logic and because it presents an un- deniable and irrefutable argument against the rioters, marchers, and dem- onstrators, I commend it to everyone's attention. I know that no one will have the nerve to deny the points made in Mrs. Irene Palmer's letter, but It would be very amusing reading if someone would attempt it. Therefore, I unqualifiedly Issue a challenge to all the so-called spokesmen of all the rioting groups to come forth with a response to what is printed below. [From the U.S. News & World Report, Aug. 22, 1966] A DOWN-TO-EARTH LOOK AT A GROWING PROBLEM (A plain-spoken woman has written a letter to the editor that is attracting widespread attention. (In this letter Mrs. Irene Palmer of De Quincy, La., challenges the theory-often stated by top officials-that hardships and poor living conditions explain riots, crime, and growing dependence on government doles. To Mrs. Palmer, this is nonsense. (Crippled, forced to leave school at 17, Mrs. Palmer has worked hard, without luxuries, but: "You will never see us in a marching demonstration line wanting something for nothing. We're too proud for that.") Following are excerpts from a letter to the Beaumont (Tex.) Enterprise from Mrs. Irene Palmer of De Quincy, La., and published in the Enterprise on August 3, 1966: "These marches, demonstrations, riotings, lootings, police slayings and the such makes me literally sick, especially the reasons our Government officials are trying to cram down our throats as causes of these law-breaking episodes. "Sir, I know what hard work, hardship, pain and suffering is. I had polio at age 5 months which left my left leg one and one- half inches shorter than my right and about oi}e third the size. "My father died at 6 p.m. Sunday in 1935, was buried Monday on my seventeenth birth- day. My brother died at 5 a.m. Tuesday and was buried Wednesday, leaving me with two small sisters and my mother to support. "At 17 I was not a drop-out in school. With no education-not enough, anyway- no experience and with only one good leg, I quit school and went to work to support a family. I didn't have a teen-age life because my working hours were always from 10 to 20 hours a day.' In 1948, I got my right hand- my working hand; I'm right-handed-in an electric ice shaver and mangled it. It was doubtful whether I'd ever be able to use it This left me with one good leg and one good hand, but I didn't give up. "FOLLOW ME JUST ONE DAY- "I would like for Earl,Warren, President Johnson, H. H. HUMPREY, Martin Luther King, and all the hell-raising juveniles to come to my home and follow me just one day. I can guarantee that they wouldn't have enough pep left to go on a demonstration, marching or rock-throwing party. "My day begins at 4 a.m. and ends about 8 or 9 p.m., when my health permits. I do my own housework, cooking, washing, ironing, sewing, raising flowers and a garden. In fact, for the past three weeks I have been standing in a hot kitchen, over a hot stove canning my vegetables. Have an air conditioner? Are you kidding? Neither do I run up town when I get hot and turn on the water hydrants, nor start rioting and loot- ing stores. Do you see any civil-rights work- ers doing this kind of work, trying to add to their income? If you do, show me. "I have two wonderful children who were reared most of their lives in hot, crowded apartments. They know what it is to do without a lot of the better things of life. If we could have afforded just one vacation for them, it would have been a luxury, yet neither are rioters, rock-throwers, nor law- breakers. "I would like to show some of the officials in Washington, the marchers, rioters, and all those who have their hand stretched out for a handout, some of the handicapped people who are making it on their own and not ask- ing Mr. Nobody for anything.... "EXCUSES FOR RIOTS ARE TOMMYROT "Sir, can our President, Vice Presiednt, any civil-rights worker, agitator, or whomever they may be, stand up and look us handi- caps, whose very life itself has been a strug- gle for most of us, in the eye and try to cram down our throats an idea as idiotic as hot weather, crowded living quarters, low in- come, hard working conditions and all the other excuses they try to pass on to the peo- ple as being reasons for these riots we are having? I for one cannot nor will I swallow such tommyrot. "You may see us handicaps become furious when we see a gang of able-bodied men and women, whether they are black, white, pur- ple or spotted, running up and down our nation saying I want this, gimme that, with- out lifting a finger to earn it, but you will never see us in a marching demonstration line wanting something for nothing. We're too proud for that. "I believe a great lesson could be learned from the handicaps. First, faith; then, cour- age, patience, love, kindness, long suffering, pride, competence and all the things that make life worthwhile. "Sir, I didn't intend to write a newspaper when I started, but I have watched so much of these disgraceful crime waves, which are so useless, on television, and read so much about it in the papers, until I just had to say my piece. "So I will close and leave an open invita- tion for the President, H. H. H., Martin Luther King and his followers, the agitators or who- ever it may be who thinks it takes a crime wave to make a living in this old world, to come and follow in my footsteps just one day and I'll show them what can be done if anyone has the get-up about them to try." FANNIE MAE RULINGS (Mr. TUNNEY (at the request of Mr. WALDIE) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00.446R000400100004-3 26632 Approved Then the area gradually became indus- trialized. Industrialization made ours one of the most wealthy, the most power- ful, and the greatest countries in the world. But in our zeal to grow, too often we were indifferent to the effects of in- dustrialization on some of our most precious resources. One of these natural resources was our clean water. In the Charles River Basin, the beauty of the water and the beauty of the landscape go hand in hand: One cannot exist without the other. The days when the Charles wound through the rolling hills of eastern Massachusetts, undisturbed and un- touched, are gone now. The purity of the water has also gone. Now the river has become a discolored blight on the landscape, running afoul to the sea. Many areas of the Charles are not fit for swimming, water sports, or recreation. Sections of our once pure river have been condemned by the health authorities. The Charles has been regaled in song and poetry for more than 200 years. But now a popular song currently leading the lists mentions the Charles not as a thing of bueaty, but as "dirty water." "Those of you who have seen the Charles will remember the beauty of its tree lined banks and the grace of its bridge-arched flow. But it is useless for anyone, even the college students who walk along the banks of the river in the spring, to turn to anything beautiful if he is in the path of a strong breeze from the Charles. Conditions along many parts of the river have deteriorated to the point where fishing is a tragedy in- stead of a sport, beaches have been con- demned because they are unsafe for bathers, and water sports are unthought of by people who enjoy the outdoors. We must do something about the Charles. We must act now to clean up its waters and to preserve the serenity of its banks, the stillness of its quiet coves, and its dignity as it winds from wooded hills to the center of a major city. The Charles and Its tributaries are precious assets. They have been placed in this generation's care, and it is our duty, to leave for posterity a thing of beauty, cleanliness, and scenic and natural wealth. We cannot allow the basin to continue deteriorating. We cannot fail in our task of preserving and restoring our Na- tion's natural resources. I do not mean to sound like an alarm- ist. We can act now to clean up this basin, but we are fast reaching the criti- cal point. Unless we act soon, we may never be able to restore the beauty of one of our most prized river basins. Before we can act, however, we must know what the causes of this decline are and what must be done to reverse the trend of continuing decay. The sad truth is that we do not know all the causes of pollution in the Charles. We do not know what measures must be taken if we are to save this river basin. But we must find out, and soon. For these reasons, Mr. Speaker, I in- troduce today, for appropriate reference,. a bill which will enable, us to find out what must be done. My bill. provides that the Secretary of the Department of the Interior shall con- duct a study of te Charles l ,iver Edsin to determine what it's problems are. On the basis of this study the Secretary shall make recommendations and suggestions to the President concerning what needs to be done. - The study by the Secretary is Intended to be a comprehensive one, reaching in- to all areas of water pollution, beautifi- cation, and planning activities. While conducting the study the Secretary will cooperate with all appropriate State and local agencies, commissions, and authori- ties relating to the Charles River Basin. This is not intended to be simply a Federal study. It will involve all inter- ested State and local bodies. By coordi- nating the findings, recommendations, and views of all interested agencies, the study should embody their best efforts. The Secretary's study shall cover three major fields. First, he shall conduct research with respect to the quality of the waters of the basin. This is intended to reveal possible contaminants of the water, other foreign matter in the water, and the overall quality of the water at the pres- ent time. In addition, the Secretary shall make an analysis of the present and pro- jected future water quality of the basin under varying conditions of waste treat- ment and disposal. He shall evaluate the future water quality needs of the basin, and shall evaluate the municipal, indus- trial, and vessel treatment and disposal practices with respect to such waters. He also consider any alternative shall methods of solving water pollution prob- lems, including additional waste treat- ment measures, with respect to the waters of the basin. Second, the Secretary shall consider, among other things, all the resource and scenic values of the basin, its economic and recreational potential, and its ecol- ogy. He shall consider the present urban and Industrial uses of the waters of the basin, and how the waters can be used most effectively for future urban and industrial needs. He will explore the most appropriate means or methods of preserving or protecting the recrea- tional, historic, and fish and wildlife values of the basin. This does not nec- essarily involve any Federal land acqui- sition of Federal administration, but the Secretary, after consulting with State and local authorities, may recommend Federal land acquisition of Federal administration. Third, the Secretary shall coordinate his study with-applicable highway plans and other planning activities relating to the basin, including plans completed or in preparation pursuant to the act of May 28, 1963, the Water Resources Plan- ning Act, and the Land and Water Con- servation Fund Act of 1965. During the course of this study the Secretary of the Interior shall hold hear- ings to obtain views and recommenda- tions from interested parties, public or .private. Such hearings shall be held when the Governor of the State of Mas- sachusetts so requests. Within 3 years after the Secretary is authorized to begin his study, he shall submit to the President a complete re- For Release 2005/06/29?: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- HOUSE August 26, 1966 Mr. 7."UNN1JY,. Mr. Speaker, I am in favor of expansion of the purchasing au- thority of the Federal National Mortgage Association so that It will be the dynamic institution Congress originally intended It to be. I think the bill being considered today is very important because it will make money available to help the people and building industry in California and the rest of the United States. The addi- tional purchasing power that is given to the FNMA will provide a degree of liquidity for mortgage Improvements. It will allow the corporation to function With to needed flexibility and dynamism so ne ssary to a healthy economy and a productive institution. I therefore support the bill but I want to make one point quite clear. Earlier this year, FNMA, in an effort to reduce the heavy flow of FHA and GI loans being offered for purchase, issued a rul- ing which made any mortgage with an original principal amount of $15,000 or higher ineligible for purchase by FNMA. I view this administrative ruling as arbitrary and capricious. It completely ignores the wide differential in construc- tion costs which exists between different parts of the country. Per instance, in California, recent estimates indicate that approximately 90 percent of new resi- dential mortgages are in excess of 415,000. The average FHA-VA mortgage is ap- proximately $20,000; $5,000 more than the FNMA maximum. I also think this arbitrary ceiling discriminates against -larger families whose need for additional bedrooms naturally requires them to pur- chase a higher priced home than a young couple just beginning family life. With the very large addition to FNMA's mortgage purchase authority provided by the conference substitute, I would like to see the $15,000 ruling corn- pletely abolished-within the limits of -FHA insurance or VA guarantee-but in any event, I expect FNMA, if it insists on some ceilings, to revise the maximum ,substantially upward on both old and new homes. It should be at least $25,000. CHARLES RIVER BASIN STUDY (Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts (at .the request of Mr. WALDIE) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. Mr. Speaker, the people of the Eighth District of Massachusetts are proud of many things in their area. One of the things of which they have been most proud in the past is the potentially beautiful and often regaled Charles River. The Charles River and the basin of which it is apart is one of the most his- toric areas in the United States. Only a little while after the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, our forefathers were wend- ing their way through the area now known as the Charles River Basin. When this country was young, the wa- ters of the Charles were pure and crystal clear. The basin itself was virtually un- touched. The beauty of the area could not have been described in too glowing terms. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 A4554 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD- APPENDIX August 26, 1966 HIGH "WASHOUT" RATE The BAC 111 has a cruising speed of 550 into O'Hare is like landing in Cincinnati and The pressure on Federal Aviation Agency m.p.h., but in the first quarter this year Mo- walking to Chicago." controllers in the O'Hare tower is great. As hawk's fleet of five, hampered by delays, aver- The terminal is a city In its own right. at other busy airports they man critical aged only 231 m.p.h. from gate to gate. The About 12,000 people are employed in the positions only for an hour at a time before 5:15 p.m. flight from Kennedy to Syracuse, complex, including one man who does noth- taking breathers doing less demanding tasks. N.Y., averaged 198 m.p.h.-only 36% of Its ing but replace an average of 875 telephone The "washout" rate for controllers is astro- cruising speed. "This calls for special ac- directories a week. Six restaurants and cafe- nomical; in one period 77.8% of all the men tion, pronto, if the true potential of these terias, three cocktail lounges, seven stand-up who tried to transfer to O'Hare from other small jets is to be realized," comments Air liquor bars and six stand-up snack bars can FAA facilities outside Chicago failed to make Transport World, a trade magazine. serve 2,400 people at a sitting-or standing, the grade. This may not be surprising con- This problem may grow more acute as the as the case may be. sidering the demands placed on controllers airlines continue to turn in their remaining THEY NEVER SEE TOWN here, where roughly half of all the pure jet propeller aircraft for more jets. And the air- O'Hare is so self-contained that many busi- aircraft operated by the nation's airlines liners can only cringe at the vision of a nessmen fly in, conduct deals over a drink or touch down at least once a day. supersonic transport of the 70s crossing the dinner, and fly out again without ever going O'Hare's ground control radio frequency is continent in. less than two hours-and then into Chicago. Or they stay in one of the sometimes overwhelmed by the traffic load. circling its destination for another hour or motels that have sprung up around the air At 6 p.m., for example, no less than 20 flights so, waiting to land. are scheduled to leave their gates simultane- ON A TIGHTROPE ously and each pilot is trying to get the tow- Some business and commercial pilots, Gon- er's ear. "It's frustrating. Pretty soon you cerned about the increasing congestion, have get two or three guys keying the mike and ' sounded safety alarms. Leonard Kmiecek, you can't get a chance to talk and you cant secretary of the 40-member Chicago Area down your understand yang Ake and. walk al just have to l- Pilots Association, believes that the volume aid R. mike and supervisor. You away," says Dann- of aircraft handled at O'Hare is so great that Such . Kemmerling, a there is little margin for human or mechani- to c conconongestinuing "inflation" at many any airports inflation" or "padding" has led of cal error. "Though most airline, city and scheduled flight times, as airlines seek to a1- FAA officials argue that O'Hare is completely low for delays. Capt. J. D. Smith, director of safe," he says, "it reminds me of a man on a flight safety for United Air Lines says, "It's a crowded tightrope saying that it is safe be- helluva big cushion. We put buffer on buf- cause nobody has fallen off-so far." fer as experience dictates." Elsewhere business pilots have had some In fact, says Capt. Smith, fully 26% to close calls, often because they cannot carry 28% of the average United flight schedule is enough fuel to enable them to circle landing padding. United is the unhappy carrier with fields during long delays. . the snail's pace jet flights from New York to Business and Commercial Aviation, another Philadelphia. trade publication, said recently that "long Even these big chunks of padding have delays are growing common" and claimed failed to reduce delays extending well beyond that "more than a few- of the fuel-limited scheduled flight times. The longest of these business jets are calling in for priority (one appear to be at Kennedy and O'Hare, where step below declaring an emergency) to avoid two and three-hour waits are not rarities. holding or to expedite the approach." The Newark Airport, however, wins the dubious magazine says one of its readers, waiting 45 honor of having the highest incidence of de- minutes to take off at Newark, witnessed the lay in proportion to flights handled. Accord- landing of a JetStar without enough fuel left ing to the FAA, a whopping 42.7% of all in- to taxi to the ramp, the landing of a Sabre- coming flights were delayed last year at the liner with only 200 pounds of fuel remaining Newark end of the line. The figure does not and the departure of a Lear Jet from the include those planes which had no trouble takeoff line for refueling. getting into' Newark but were delayed at ' Doesn't all this add up to a threat to air another airport. safety? Says Archie League, director of the The FAA estimates that delays last year at FAA's air traffic service: "The more airplanes the 292 U.S. airports with air traffic control in a given amount of air space the greater the centers cost civil and military carriers $63.6 congestion and also the greater the possibility million in direct operating costs. More than 35% of the total delay costs were incurred at nine airports, among them the biggest and busiest in the nation. Delays at Kennedy cost users $6.8 million, and at O'Hare the figure was $6.5 million. Delays at seven other airports cost carriers more than $1 million each. They are, in or- der, Newark, Love Field (Dallas), La Guardia (New York), Atlanta, Lambert Field (St. Louis), Los Angeles International and Na- tianal (Washington, D.C.). LIMIT ON AVIATION GROWTH? The airlines fret over the inconvenience to their passengers as well as the rising costs. Carl A. Benscoter, executive vice president of Mohawk Airlines, recently issued a public warning-that "the situation is becoming in- tolerable" at Kennedy. On April 28, four of Mohawk's seven flights out of Kennedy sat on the runway for more than an hour apiece awaiting takeoff clearance. George Keck, president of United, recently told stockhold- ers the airline faces "a critical situation" in 20 major 'cities and warned that if -uncor- rected, Congestion could "be a limiting factor in the growth potential we know to be present." The carriers are deeply concerned that air- port congestion will undermine advances in aircraft technology. Mohawk, for example, has had a particularly frustrating experience with its fleet of speedy BAC 111 two-engine jets. The BAC III is one of several new types of jets designed to operate profitably on short-haul trips. Despite the size of the complex, O'Hare's terminal facilities are taxed "everywhere, from the rest rooms to the bars," says Her- bert H. Howell, planning chief for Chicago's aviation department. Sample: A monumen- tal traffic jam the Sunday after Thanksgiving, when cars backed up 51/2 miles trying to get into the airport. There are many partial remedies offered to ease the congestion that afflicts O'Hare and other major air transport centers: The de- velopment of high-speed rail transportation to carry short-haul passengers (already planned in the Northeast); more non-stop flights to medium-sized cities, removing some of the traffic from the bigger airports; and separate airports for bnsiness and private planes, a proposal which evokes considerable opposition from non-airline flying interests. But any real solution, according to most experts, must include an immediate program to expand some existing airports and build others. According to the Airport Operators Council, the American Association of Airport Executives and the National Association of State Aviation Officials, some $2 billion will have to be spent ' over the next 4 years if this is tobe done. These groups have been hoping to get about 30% of this total, or roughly $600 million, from the Federal Government. They seem doomed to disappointment; bills currently in Congress call for Federal aid to airports to- taling less than $300 million over the next 4 years-and it's not a certainty that Con- gress will appropriate that much. Also, the trol is all about." on ` FLOW CONTROL HELPS Mr. League notes that the FAA's control t 1" n ro centers delay, hold, or impose now co Vietnam to prevent dangerous oversaturation of traf- fic in a given area. This, of course, often requires the FAA to sacrifice on-time ar- rivals and departures in order to further safety. As for O'Hare, officials maintain there is no danger even when scores of planes, sep- arated by 1,000 feet of altitude, are circling in the "stacks" in the sky. Carl Eck, air safety specialist with the Air Line Pilots Association, says O'Hare's procedures are "adequate and safe." All agree, however, that O'Hare Is crowded, to say the least. J. P. (Pat) Dunne, airport manager, says its traffic load is running five to ten years ahead of predictions by "the socalled experts." This has led to con- gestion not only on the runways and in the air around O'Hare and other major hubs, but in the airline terminals themselves. It takes a lot of doing to crowd O'Hare's huge, sprawling terminal complex. It is so big that a passenger getting off a flight at one end of the terminal's long fingerlike ex- tensions may have to walk up to three-quar- ters of a mile along its "bunion boulevards" (the main through corridors) to board an- other flight at the tip of another distant "finger." Trudging along a bunion boule- vard, a footsore Gorgie Jessel quips: "Coming Gets the Goods: An Exclusive Report EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JOHN M. MURPHY OF NipW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Friday, August 26, 1966 Mr. MURPHY of New York. Mr. Speaker, amidst the criticisms of weapon and supply shortages in Vietnam, I wish to take note of one segment of the mili- tary effort which has gone well beyond the call of duty. Those responsible for the movement of supplies and equipment to this distant land-the Defense De- partment and the transportation indus- try-certainly have not waivered in "de- livering the goods." During my recent inspection of logis- tical management in Vietnam during the month of Jaly, I saw first hand the value of this accomplishment at ports, airfields, and supply lines. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29: CIA-RDP.67B00446R000400100004-3 August 26, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL .RECORD - APPENDIX grams. Some projects will have full-time, does nothing constructive. This is a Re- guidance counselors to visit the schools send- publican bill, both imaginative and :real- big students, to the program. They will work Istic, and I am proud to support it as a on college planning and "reentry" into their Republican, regular school routine. FREE-WHEELING APPROACH approach to packing as much into the sum- mer's luggage as possible, teachers are deeply Impressed by the quality of the learning going on. . Some of the students will be entering white schools for the first time. Counselors are attempting to help students prepare for this change. As Upward Bound director, Dr. Ruth Brad- ford Of Grambling College (Louisiana) put It: "There is all the difference in the world between desegregation and integration, and we are asking some of these students to shoulder an enormous burden. I am deeply touched by their willingness to do so." Although all the projects were to be inte- grated, seven of the eight visited in the South were all-Negro. For the first time the ma- jority of students encountered white teach- ers and tutors. The director of the Talladega College proj- ect commented: "During the first three weeks the white tutors had to convince the stu- dents that they would not do them any harm. Now our job in the remaining weeks is to prove to these students that they can be confident in the help offered them." At Tougaloo College several girls were a Week late entering the program because they were hospitalized from the gassing in Can- ton during the Meredith march. It did not take them long to catch up. The Upward Bound dropout rate is remarkably low (less than 5, percent) in spite of the fact that most students have never been away from home. One girl who went home wrote back to her counselor: "Just a few lines to let you know that every word you said was true. And I am truly sorry I didn't come back.... I wish I could, Has my space been filled yet? I know now that I made the biggest mistake of my life. "You never realize you've made a mistake until after it's too late. I know there's not a possible chance I could come back-is there? I just needed some time to think things over, but It's too late now?" The girl has been readmitted. As one young man stated: "I didn't know I was capable of so much, and there is so much out there for me if I can only make up for the bad years." If the programs in the Deep South are typical the Office of Economic Opportunity may have begun a small revolution in second- ary education. Managing the Public Business SPEECH OF HON. JAMES C. CLEVELAND OF NEW HAMPSHIRE IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, August 25, 1966 Mr. CLEVELAND. Mr. Speaker, I am proud to have joined in sponsoring the legislation to enlist the genius of private industry in the solution of great public questigns. I want to pay tribute to the leadership of the gentleman from Mas- sachusetts [Mr. MORSE] in taking the Initiative in getting this proposal orga- nized, shaped into a bill, and introduced. With this legislation, we lay to rest once more the false charge that ours is merely a party of opposition and that it The approach we have taken in this legislation is more than a Republican approach; it is an American approach. It calls upon the private sector to help Government and provides a convenient means through which this can be done. It is based on the traditional Republican belief-and the traditional American be- lief-that the Government is the serv- ant, not the master of our society. It also recognizes that every element of the society has an obligation to every other element to contribute to the general wel- fare its talents and resources. Above all, this legislation is realistic and for- ward looking. By drawing on the sys- tems analysis techniques developed by our sophisticated industries, it proposes a constructive method that, in my opin- ion., Is capable of coping successfully with some of the vast and complex prob- lems that face the country. I urge its prompt consideration by the House. Airport Problems EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. J. J. PICKLE OF TEXAS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Friday, August 26, 1966 Mr. PICKLE. Mr. Speaker, the avia- tion industry is currently facing the big- gest threat to its' growth in its entire history. Both commercial and general aviation must contend with crowded air- ports, runway shortages, and general air and ground congestion. Lately, this problem has become of such an emergency nature that I feel it is time Congress should take up this mat- ter immediately. To give you a clear idea of the situa- tion that is before us, I am offering for the RECORD an article written by Mr. Philip M. Boffey that appeared in the August 22 issue of the Wall Street Journal. This article is well documented, con- cise, and presents a frightening picture. The article is as follows: CLOGGED AIRPORTS: CONGESTION AT BIG HUBS Now LOOMS AS THREAT TO GROWTH OF AVIA- TION-AIRLINES PAD SCHEDULES, LOSE MIL- LIONS AS DELAYS INCREASE-SAFETY QUESTIONS POP UP-CROWDS ON BUNION BOULEVARD (By Philip M. Boffey) CHICAGO.-All the airplanes are flying again--right Into another thunderhead. This is not the sudden turbulence of a labor dispute, but a storm of major propor- tions that has been building up for years. Its effects already are being felt by airports, airlines and passengers, and the worst is yet to come. The trouble is severe congestion at the na- tion's big air transport hubs. Airports at many of the nation's principal cities, some of them built or expanded only recently, are strangling in traffic undreamed of when the jet age began. "Every major airport in the United States will run out of runway capac- ity in the foreseeable future unless they do something about It," says E. ard, executive vice president Operators Council. A4553 Thomas Burn- of the Airport The airlines have been forced to lengthen their scheduled flight times repeatedly to al- low for weaving in and out of clogged traffic on the ground and in the air. In 1940 a pas- senger could board a 185-m.p.h. DC-3 at La Guardia Airport in New York and expect to reach Philadelphia in 46 minutes. Today, on at least two flights, the same nonstop trip from Kennedy International Airport (which is closer to Philadelphia than La Guardia) is scheduled at 53 minutes-on a 550 m.p.h. DC-8 fan jet. Congestion is one reason for the stretchout. FRAZZLED NERVES And flights may take a lot longer than even the lengthened schedules show. De- lays far in excess of scheduled flight times, are growing commonplace, costing the air.. lines tens of millions of dollars in extra op.- erating expense, robbing new high-speed jets of their efficiency and frazzling the nerves of countless passengers. The increasing con- gestion also is breeding new air safety wor- ries in some quarters. The problem is people. Since the dawn of the jet age, commercial air travel has drawn more customers than most experts ever dreamed it would. In 1965, U.S. scheduled. airlines flew 51.6 billion revenue passenger miles (one paying passenger flown one mile) over domestic routes compared with 43.9 bil- lion in 1964 and only 19.7 billion in 1955, before jets were used. It is predicted that the 1965 total may be doubled by 1970. What's more, the boom in air cargo, private and business flying Is expected to continue, too. After 1970 the crush may grow worse. Around then airlines will be operating super- sonic jet transports and "jumbo" carriers capable of hauling 500 passengers at drastic- ally reduced rates. While this greater ca- pacity might seem likely to trim the number of flights, these new aircraft are expected to give another mighty boost to air travel, just as today's conventional jets did after they were introduced in the late 1950s. Some of the nation's large metropolitan airports are barely able to cope with today's traffic, much,less the crowds of the future. The predicament of many is exemplified by one-O'Hare International Airport, the world's busiest terminal since 1962, when a massive expansion program was completed. THE COMPLETE AIRPORT O'Hare, Chicago's principal terminal, has a reputation as one of the best-equipped and best-run airports, as well as the busiest. It is blessed with relatively unencumbered ap- proaches, has more runways equipped for Instrument landings than any other, and is the only airport that can bring in two planes simultaneously on instrument landings. But despite its vaunted efficiency, O'Hare is slowly choking on its mounting traffic load. It logged nearly 520,000 landings and takeoffs last year, a world record, 24% more than in 1962. Some 21 million passengers passed through its terminal, up 56% from 1962. In good weather, the airport must strain to the utmost to handle takeoffs and landings occurring once every 20 seconds in peak periods. In bad weather, jam-ups become hopeless. On one particularly foul day last winter, 88 incoming planes were backed up in four "stacks" in the sky, according to James R. Rugg, a veteran supervisor in the O'Hare control tower. On another occasion it took the pilot of an empty passenger plane 3 hours and 55 minutes just to taxi across the air- port after a snowstorm. So many planes were waiting to land and take off that har- ried controllers couldn't let the taxiing pilot waste precious seconds crossing the run- ways. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 August 26, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX In this connection I wish to call to your attention an article in'Traff'ic Manage- ment, a Cahners publication, which deals thoroughly and completely with the huge task of getting material from the manu- facturer to the fighting men in Vietnam. Harry Tennant, author of the article, has documented the subject well, as I learned on my recent trip. The Cahners people are to be congratulated for point- ing out that this massive job has not only been well done but has been accomplished without the administration having to impose any stiff transportation regula- tions. As Vincent F. Caputo, Defense Department transport head says, we have made a heavy buildup on a crash basis without imposing emergency contro ls. The article follows: From oxen to computer, the transport complexities that have been overcome in fighting this nation's greatest single long- distance war are phenomenal. For the lo- gistics system employed in moving men and goods in the Vietnam conflict is altogether as sophisticated as the weapons it moves. Among other things, it keeps air transports carrying men and materiel flying six minutes apart across the Pacific while making full use of more than 370 Military Sea Transport Service vessels. And it would take an army of statisticians to determine how many tons are moving hourly in this country by train, truck, domestic water carrier and pipeline. There have been only two major hitches thus far. One is the port congestion at the Vietnam end where there is a shortage of harbor and berthing space, inadequate port facilities, and often not enough stevedores to unload the cargo. (Defense transporta- tion people think it unfair that they should be criticized for this set of circumstances so inherent to an underdeveloped country after they have "delivered the goods.") The other problem is that distribution of supplies has been disrupted, requiring diversion and re- routing, as a result of the recent anti-Saigon government demonstrations in the military headquarters city of Danang. Outlines for this country's huge transport effort have long been set. Out of bitter les- soins learned in other conflicts has come a system which thoroughly integrates the functions of the three services and those of their civilian counterparts in one of the most efficient operations of the Vietnam conflict. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara is un- derstandably proud of this feature of the war effort and has repeatedly defended it against censure, both through the public press and in Congress, with the counter- charge that any talk of a shipping shortage is "absurd." For one thing, he need not do any prodding in this area because there have been few bottlenecks on the transportation side. Problems are ironed out before they reach the worrisome stage. Mr. McNamara's chief troubleshooter, DOD's Director for Transportation and Ware- housing Policy Vincent F. Caputo, at the first sign of any disorder contacts the service and joint staff transportation representative and the single managers. Foreseeing trouble, such as the possibility of a ship walk-out, he carefully lays plans-in this case for the best use of maritime labor who have continued to load Vietnam supplies in spite of picket lines. As the world's largest corporate organiza- tion, the Defense Department naturally has one of the, largest transportation budgets. And it is on the three freight-moving agen- cies covered by that budget-the Military Airlift Command, the Military Sea Trans portation Service, and the year-old Military Traffic Management and Terminal Service- that Mr. McNamara, Mr..Caputo and close to 300,000 fighting men must depend. A4555 'These agencies fu action in vastly differ- hours. By way of comparison, 42 C-5As could ent manner in fulfilling their duties. MAC is made up of 100,000 men. After a long post- World War II history highlighted by the spectacular Berlin Airlift, this unit (then known as the Military Air Transport Serv- ice) has moved with such success that its C-141 Starlifter, the first military jet de- signed solely for troop and cargo transport operations, has moved to the glamour pages. Another cargo workhorse, the C-135, which has moved heavy loads of cargo from inland points to Vietnam, is now being phased out of service and it is the C-141, which joined the MAC fleet less than a year ago, that is the backbone of what MAC calls its "Red Ball Express," which hauls Army cargo. Pat- terned after the logistics supply line of World War II, when vitually needed supplies were trucked across the continent on an around-the-clock basis, the "Express" has updated its operation to carry out its Viet- nam role. John M. Malloy, Deputy Assistant Defense Secretary for Procurement, has dusted off the old World War II plan, substituting planes for trucks, and has some impressive results to show. Twenty-four hour use of construction and materials hauling equip- ment with little or no time for preventive maintenance has multiplied the need for spare parts. The same holds true for air- craft and automotive parts and the Express handles components for fighter aircraft, helicopters, tanks, bulldozers and trucks as well as materials-hauling equipment. "Spare parts, in most instances," Mr. Mal- loy said, "were available but getting them to the man who needed them was the big problem. To cope with this emergency the jet-age 'Red Bail Express' was organized with a fleet of jet transports carrying pri- ority spare parts and equipment, all marked with the Red Ball." The idea behind this World War II scheme (when the trucks were given a priority rating and identified by a red ball marking on the bumper) was to have the needed parts in the needed place within 168 hours or seven days. Malloy points out that de- fense contract awards for Vietnam during the first half of fiscal 1966 totaled $15.57 billion, of which the most essential items were sent via the Red Ball Express. The C-141s now carry supplies to South- east Asia from two Air Force bases on the East Coast, at Dover, Del., and Charleston, S.C., as well as two in California: Travis near San Francisco, and Norton, near San Bernadino. Norton only recently began air- lift operations to the war front when 43,000 pounds of cargo departed on a 24-hour flight to Saigon. With its 160-foot wing span and 143-foot long fuselage, the C-141 can haul more than 30 tons nearly 4,000 miles. Equally import- ant is its ability to load or unload its cargo in 15 minutes. Still to come is the giant C-5A transport which Gen. Howell M. Estes, Jr., MAC com- mander, hopes to have in operation by 1969. To be built by Lockheed in Marietta, Ga., the C-5A will be capable of carrying upwards of a quarter million pounds more than 3,000 miles nonstop. With lesser loads its range can be extended to more than 5,000 miles. Considering its tremendous cargo capacity, military planners expect C-5A operational costs to average about four cents less than the corresponding figure for the C-141, 11 cents less than the C-135 and about 18 cents lower than the much slower propeller-driven C-124 Globemaster, also being phased out of MAC service. The C-5A is a genuine breakthrough in terms of bulk cargo loads. According to Gen. Estes, MAC moved 15,500 troops from Texas to Germany during "Operation Big Lift" in October, 1963. "We used 204 aircraft, flying 234 missions, and completed the lift in 63 mixing of C-141 and C-5A aircraft would meet the most exacting transportation re- quirement the military can anticipate-the airlifting of large combat forces and equip- ment to Europe or the Far East, or in both. directions, at the same time. Meanwhile, Robert H. Charles, Assistant AF Secretary for Installations and Logistics, to- day terms Saigon's Tan Son Nhut the busiest airfield in the world. He said AF pilots have carried more than 667,000 troops and de- livered over 265-000 tons of cargo. "Each day approximately 225 MAC transports are in the air over routes connecting the U.S. and several Pacific locations and every six minutes, somewhere along the immense span of the Pacific, an AF transport touches down." Charles says the need for airlifting high priority cargo "rose sharply" in 1965 and that by December more than 12,000 tons per month were required. Last year's Pa- cific airlift totaled more than 96,500 tons of cargo and more than 275,000 passengers. By comparison, 80,000 tons of cargo and 215,000 passengers were airlifted during the three years of the Korean conflict. Supplementing the use of Government- owned aircraft are flights operated by com- mercial airlines under contract with MAC. Pan American, Flying Tiger, Seaboard World and Continental Airlines have been among the most active participants in the military airlift, and Trans World will begin flying 22 roundtrips a month between the U.S. and Saigon in July. Although MAC pays the airlines less than their rates for commercial service, they realize a profit be- cause of the high utilization of their aircraft. But, while air travel to Vietnam is fast and sometimes glamorous, it nonetheless is still expensive, restricted to the relatively small size of the airplane and limited to the num- ber of airfields available. Currently with thousands of plants and factories across the U.S. again geared to the war effort, more than half a million tons of supplies flow out each month to the battle area. Except for high-priority items which can travel by air, most cargo must go by ship. In fact, every day about 170 ships belong- ing to or chartered by the Military Sea Transportation Service are on their way to or coming back from Vietnam. In their holds they carry virtually everything imag- inable-boots and beer, toilet paper and tanks, helicopters and helmets. And they carry the troops that will use the equip- ment. Best estimates now are that nearly 98 percent of all supplies and two out of three soldiers destined for the Far East travel by ship. The vast job of controlling these vessels belongs to MSTS, the Navy's "single man- ager" for providing sea transportation for all the armed services. Commanded by Vice Admiral Glynn R. Donaho, MSTS currently has control or operation of 413 vessels, a large portion being commercial ships under government contract. Unfortunately, many of these have been sailing on a stormy sea of discontent. Normally, the task of delivering military goods falls on U.S.-flag lines and they do, in fact, carry most of the tonnage. For the ag- ing fleet of tramp steamers, which are avail- able for special charter, additional military volume is a welcome find. The same, how- ever, is not the case with the 14 subsidized steamship companies and their 340 liners. Since most of them operate regular trade routes on tight schedules, they have had to forego more lucrative commerical con- tracts in order to carry defense cargo. Foreign flag lines, in turn, are picking up the commercial contracts, and U.S. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 :.CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 A4556 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3 ; _. CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX August 26, 1966 carriers make no secret of their fear that when the crisis in Vietnam is ended the business will be hard to get back. According to best estimates, transpacific shipments on U.S. ships have recently been averaging close to 60 percent war goods, an Increase of from 20 to 30 percent over a year ago. Like the airlines, the ship op- erators say the Government pays much less than commercial shippers for their service. And in a further cost-cutting step, MSTS beginning July 1 will purchase ship space through competitive bidding between Indi- vidual lines, instead of negotiating rates with carrier conferences. DOD officials expect a 25% saving as a result of this change. The ship lines, of course, are not legally obligated to accept any set amount of gov- ernment business although commercial ships could be "drafted" into service under MST-13 control. This is considered highly unlikely, especially now that more than 75 World War II freighters have been reactivated from the reserve mothball fleet and another 25 are due in service by late spring. There is widespread concern among steam- ship experts that a disaster could befall the transportation industry if more attention is not given to the merchant fleet in the current struggle. This fear is based on the fact that no additional ships are being built. No one is bold enough to believe the giant airlift could do the task alone. Figures show that to keep the nearly 800,000 Vietnam fighting men (plus another 100,000 men in other sections of Southeast Asia) in material and equipment, MSTS has enlarged its fleet through charters and ves- sels from the mothball fleet to more than 400 ships. But shipping men compare this to the Korean conflict. They say the vessels taken out of mothballs are now years older than when they entered the Korean War, and supply lines are much longer. Palling somewhere in the middle between (1) MAC-MSTS operations and (2) coordina- tion, direction and management of the flow of men and materiel to the proper destina- tion, is the newest of the three "single man- agers" for military transportation-the Mili- tary Traffic Management and Terminal Service. Historically, this command came into being a year ago when Secretary McNamara, em- ploying the foresight he is sometimes criti- cized for possessing, instructed Army Maj. Gen. John J. Lane to consolidate the man- agement and operation of military traffic, land transportation and common-user ter- minals within the continental United States. The charter handed to Gen. Lane gave him broad powers. In essence, it directs him to control and' supervise all functions pertain- ing to the procurement and use of freight and passenger transportation service within the continental 48 states. This includes negotiations with commercial for-hire com- panies, including rail, highway, air, in- land waterways, coastwise and intereoastal carriers. Also, he controls the movement of cargo and passengers into appropriate air and ocean terminals in order to meet the avail- ability of air and sea lift. Previously, this had been an area of divided authority with unclear lines of responsibility resulting in duplication and overlap. What is important here is that MTMTS now has control over military traffic into air terminals and into and through ocean ports. The last of the continental U.S. (CONUS) functions is direction of the Defense Rail Interchange Fleet operation. DRIF, as it is called, is composed of military-owned rolling stock registered for interchange service op- erations, Although the fleet is comprised of both passenger and freight equipment, freight care make up the largest segment and thereby require the greatest effort to control. The latest tally shows there are 5,276 cars In the Interchange fleet including 2,590 gen- eral purpose tank cars, 756 special purpose tank cars, 931 heavy duty flat cars, 8913 de- fense freight box cars, 95 other box cars and eight gondola cars. All are strongly geared to the Vietnam war. Understandably MTMTS does not publi- cize shipments for Vietnam and other areas where supplies are needed to maintain troops. But some figures showing the magnitude of its operations in the first year may throw a little light on the big job in Asia. For in- stance, the Command: (1) Contracted for the movement of 1.3 million passengers traveling in groups of 15 or more. (Smaller groups or individuals are still handled by their respective services.) (2) Directed the movement of close to 10 million tons of cargo through ocean, Gulf and Great Lakes ports. (3) Monitored key ocean terminals on the east, West and Gulf coasts in addition to su- pervising more than $50 million in steve- doring contracts and related activities. (4) Managed the movement of $350 million worth of household goods throughout the world for DOD personnel. What this amounts to in dollars and cents Is that MTMTS during its first year of opera- tion was responsible for the expenditure of $1.3 billion of the Defense transportation budget, a significant portion going toward the supply and re-supply of U.S. forces in Vietnam. Considering that the total DOD transpor- tation appropriation runs between $2 billion and $3 billion, this means that MTMTS, the newest of the three transportation agencies, is responsible for managing the largest Chunk. It means, too, that this Command has had to take over some of the responsi= bilities of MAC and MSTS, a fact that at times has been difficult for either to accept. This, then, is one of the big problems fac- ing Vincent Caputo. As a major point of con- tact between the three agencies and Defense Secretary McNamara on transportation mat- ters, it is his lot to see that neither IVIAC, MSTS nor MTMTS becomes short-sighted in its operations. Each, of course, thinks in terms of its own Command and wants to show the respective service Secretary that its responsibility is the most important of the three. The size of the job in Vietnam can be seen from an assortment of reports produced by the Defense Department. In the final five months of last year a total of 3,200,360 tons of war goods was shipped by water from Atlantic;. Gulf and Pacific Coast ports des- tined for Southeast Asia. The shipments were divided about like this: Atlantic ports, 15.8%, or 504,882 tons; Gulf, 14.1% or 450,- 085 tons;, and Pacific, 70.1% or 2,245,393 tons. (To Vietnam directly, 355,875 tons went from Atlantic ports, 342,802 from Gulf ports, and 1,307,577 from Pacific ports, with lesser amounts from each range sent to Thailand, Subic Bay in the Philippines, Guam, Okina- wa, Japan, and Korea.) Some DOD officials, basing their estimates on what is assumed to be a projected ten- year period (military transport people never plan on a short, Hitler-type blitzkrieg), have estimated railroad car requirements for de- fense needs for the first six months of this year. They estimate a total of 51,690 rail cars needed from January to June-consid- erably higher than the 36,481 actually used in the same period last year. These figures apply to all railroads, although the western carriers are used the most extensively since the bulk of the shipments are consigned through West Coast ports. Defense officials have carefully avoided any part in the Capitol Hill battle over freight car shortages. This is because the arrange- ment between DOD and the carriers through the Association of American Railroads has given the military adequate hauling space. While Brig. Gen. Raymond C. Conroy, com- mander of the western area for MTMTS, has shown concern over the commercial oar shortage, Gen. Lane agreed some months ago that, although the number of cars available will continue to decrease, "the fact that the new replacement cars are of greater carrying capacity" will do the job. Piggyback and containerization will also aid in relieving the situation, he said. "Since a limited engagement, such as prompted the present build-up, does not require any significant diversion of certain types of shipping," Gen. Lane said, "the De- fense Freight Railway Interchange Fleet could be augmented to meet the increase in car requirements and at the same time permit control of their movement and supply. This increase in the fleet could be brought about by leasing cars from the carriers, the mobi- lization of service-owned, intraplant equip- ment into the interchange fleet, or limited purchase of selected types of equipment." The trucking industry, like the railroads, has not blown its horn over Its Vietnam role. But DOD figures are impressive for this mode. In the third quarter of fiscal 1966 trucks transported 187,679 less-truckload shipments valued at nearly $11 million and 49,728 truckloads valued at $23,700,000. The shipments have included such commodities as airplanes and airplane parts, iron and steel items, ammunition and explosives, petroleum products, auto and machinery parts, motor vehicles, electrical equipment, printed mat- ter, furniture, containers, chemicals, and ordnance materiel. With regard to the Saigon port conges- tion-which worsened with the increase of military shipments to a point where at one time last November 122 ships were unloading or standing idle in Vietnam ports or holding areas-the situation is now improving. According to Lt. Gen. William F. Cassidy, the Army's Chief of Engineers, the port bottleneck has been broken, with monthly military tonnage unloaded from ships in Vietnam presently in excess of that shipped from the U.S. to Korea at the peak of that war. In the third week of April, some 36 ships were waiting for berthing space, usually four to five days. Previously delays extended as long as 30 days before a ship could find space to unload its cargo. Defense officials also are working on plans to bring about better cargo control, whereby supply items will be identified in each ship- ment to permit priority handling. Recently a fleet of barges and some floating piers, 110 by 300 feet, were in operation. And there are plans to use containership to facilitate faster unloading and turnaround at the ports. As in previous wars, many of the innovations developed to expedite the move- ment of supplies to the front will likely find commercial applications in the future. The latest estimate is that supplies are now arriving at Saigon at the rate of about 700,000 tons a month. Mr. Caputo sums up the performance thus far in a single sen.- tence: "We have made a heavy buildup on a crash basis of troops and materials in an underdeveloped country 7,000 miles from our West Coast, and our emergency govern- mental powers are still in reserve." Marine Reserve Anniversary EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. TENO RONCALIO OF WYOMING IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, August 22, 1966 Mr. RONCALAO. Mr. Speaker, I am pleased today to call attention to the 50th anniversary of the Marine Corps Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100004-3