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June 21, 2005
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August 2, 1966
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Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 August 2 1966 reporting any gift or eiil3enditures. In 1964, for instance, the Democrats obtained sub- stantial funds on the state level, so that they never showed up In Washington reports. And the reports of candidates for the Senate and House are often a farce. Most candidates simply embrace the fiction that the commit- tees which worked to elect them did so with- out the candidates' "knowledge and con- sent," so that a candidate only reports "per- sonal" expenditures of an insignificantly small amount. Some report nothing at all. In 1964, four U.S. Senators reported they had neither received nor spent money in their campaigns: Senators VANCE HARTKE (D-Ind.), EDMUND S. MUSKIE (D-Maine), JOHN STENNIS (D-Miss.) and ROMAN L. HRUSKA (R-Neb.). Yet in at least three of these instances, the Senator had major opposition and major sums were spent to win re-election, Pre- sumably others acting on their behalf spent it in ways not required to be reported. Some candidates file no reports. In 1964, 38 House candidates-12 Democrats, 26 Re- publicans-falled to file the required reports with Congress. The Corrupt Practices Act stipulates fines of up to two years in prison or a $10,000 fine for willful noncompliance. Yet there has never been a single prosecution of a candi- date for failure to report, or for false or in- complete reports, under the Corrupt Prac- tices Act. The stated policy of the Justice Department, spelled out in a 1963 letter to this writer, is "not to institute investigations into possible violations of (the Act) In the absence of a'request from the Clerk of the House of Representatives or Secretary of the Senate," Those officials, chosen by a vote of the Representatives and Senators, have never referred any possible violations to the Justice Department. Plainly the law is not effective. Over the years, various laws have been pro- posed to close some or all of the loopholes in the Corrupt Practices Act. Some have passed the Senate, but none has cleared the House, The outlook for any kind of reform action in 1966 was extremely dark until President Johnson, in a section of his State of the Un- ion address that surprised most of official Washington, suggested substantial reforms in the field of election finance. The President said he backed revision of "present unreal- istic restrictions on (campaign) contribu. tions-to prohibit the endless prolifera- tion of committees, bringing state and local committees under the Act-to attach strong teeth and severe penalties to the requirement for full disclosure of contributions." Thus, if Presidential backing can make the difference, there is a chance that the nation's most consistently evaded law may get a real facelifting some day. In the Con- gressional Quarterly poll, 88% of the Con- gressmen said they favored more thorough campaign spending requirements, covering both primaries and general elections. Key points to watch, when Congress finally does get down to work an the problem, will be whether the requirements for reporting are extended to primary elections, both for Presidential and Congressional candidates; whether the multitudinous committees work ing for the candidates, as well as the can- didates themselves, will be required to re- port; and whether responsibility for receiv- ing spending reports and checking them for accuracy and completeness will be left in the hands of the politically chosen patronage employees on Capitol _ Hill or moved into the hands of a nonpartisan Government agency like the General Accounting Office, as the President's Commission on Campaign Costs recommended four years ago. If Congress does act to stimulate small gifts to the parties and candidates by an income tax incentive, and then moves to revise the election finance reporting laws, the country will have made a real effort to make special interest groups count for less CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -HOUSE in the counsels of Government and put cam- paign spending out on the top of the table for all to see. But it is beyond reason to e ect the law- makers to adopt a remedy whi h only satis- fies the moral appetite o tie pls. Cam- paign costs being w at Jh# , any remedy will still have to as ur t t e money will be forthcoming, orj i t 11 fail. THREATS OF PREMIER KY (Mr. OTTINGER (at the request of Mr. FARNUM) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. OTTINGER. Mr. Speaker, I would like to associate myself with the June i9, 1966, statement by 47 of my congressional colleagues deploring the threats of Premier Ky to carry the Viet- nam war to China. Premier Ky has no right to make such unilateral decisions which could bring about World War III and immediately jeopardize the lives of the hundreds of thousands of American boys in Vietnam. Military experts from Gen. Douglas MacArthur to Gen. Maxwell Taylor have warned against the folly of a land war on the mainland of China with its 700 million inhabitants. To provoke a war with China could well bring about nuclear holocaust and the end of modern civiliz ion. I congratulate my Coll ues for ex- pressing the sense pl. Co gress against Premier Ky's r h ar , and urge the President to str n y e date them. I regret that I a here to join in their original to ent. SAIGON ELECTION PROCEDURES (Mr. VIVIAN (at the request of Mr. FARNUM) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. VIVIAN. Mr. Speaker, 2 weeks ago, on July 19, I inserted in the RECORD, for the benefit of Members of this body, several news reports from South Vietnam expressing concern that its government, under Premier Ky, might unwisely try to rig the national elections set there for September 11. As I remarked at the time, Mr. Speaker, I consider these elec- tions to be of enormous significance to every citizen of the United States, as well as to every Vietnamese citizen. Thus, I am anxious that the elections be con- ducted as fairly and openly as possible. I am pleased at this time, therefore, to be able to bring to the attention of the Members a recent news report, published in yesterday's Christian Science Monitor, from its news correspondent in Saigon, who indicates that in Saigon the election procedures appear to be being carried out fairly and responsibly. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that this article be printed at the conclusion of my re- marks. Let me remind Members, however, that in spite of my satisfaction that favorable reports are being heard on this situation,. I believe it remains incumbent upon us to observe continuously and very closely 17105 the conduct of these elections in South Vietnam. We must be certain that the procedures are being followed fairly in the rural provinces, as well as in Saigon. We must be sure that no candidates al- ready named who have significant sup- port are disqualified by the Government for political reasons. And we must be sure that each candidate receives a fair chance to present his views, without har- assment, to his electorate. (From the Christian Science Monitor, Aug. 1, 1906] CANDIDATES HURDLE BAR TO VIET POLL (By John Dillin) SAIGON.-Twenty-five out of 26 slates of candidates have leaped the first hurdle in Saigon to qualify for the upcoming National Assembly elections, it has been learned on good authority. The source said only a single slate of five candidates was disqualified by the local review board. If true, this indicates that the govern- ment of Premier Nguyen Can Ky may be judging potential candidates with a rela- tively lenient eye. That would be a good sign for those supporting honest elections here. The source said the disqualified slate was struck because two of the candidates engaged in "questionable activities." But the source did not know what these alleged activities were. The disqualified candidates still have the opportunity to appeal the local council's decision. Under Vietnamese law, all lists of candidates are first reviewed locally to make sure they have met the qualifications for office. Then, on July 28, the review boards all over the country were to send the ap- proved lists of candidates to a central council. DISMISSAL GROUNDS This council will have until Aug. 8 to re- view the lists and to hear complaints from those disqualified earlier. On Aug. 12 the final lists of candidates are to be posted. However, this process of judging the can- didates' qualifications is filled with pitfalls. The bases of judgment are sweeping and open to very broad interpretations. For example, candidates can be disquali- fled "Who have directly or indirectly worked for the Communists or pro-Communists neu- tralists, or neutralists whose actions are ad- vantageous to the Communists." Such phrases in the election law have led to widespread speculation in the local press that many, if not almost all, of the potential candidates would be struck. One leading newspaper had said it expected at least 60 percent of the candidates in Saigon would be eliminated. But apparently this is not to be the case. ELECTION CRITICIZED If the 25 lists of candidates for Saigon are also approved by the central council, it could partially undermine some of the opposition which has developed to the election among various religious, labor, and political groups, They have contended vigorously in the past month that the election was to be a fraud. Rumor has been rampant that the "khaki party" would dominate the election around the country. However, only a few of the 130 candidates approved to run for Saigon's 16 seats are military men. The lists span a wide range of the city's citizenry. One list is comprised of city councilmen. Another consists largely of businessmen of Chinese origin. There are leading journal- ists, such as Dr. Dang Van Sung, publisher of the leading newspaper Chinh Luan. There are teachers and professors, a building con- tractor, civil servants, doctors, and numer- ous others. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 17106 CONaRE SSIONA L 1-Mr-Ii 1'Mim r'EDERAL EFFORT other hand, some children have no and ages of these children, that there is SHOULD BE MADE FOR CHIL- homes. Others cannot remain in inade- an enormous need for a wide range of DREN quate or dangerous hone situations. For child welfare services and facilities to The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under some of these, the public child welfare care for them and heal their hurts. previous order of the House, the gentle- agency can offer adoption and a perma- Therefore, the bill that I am introducing man from Rhode Island [Mr, nent home. For many others, foster provides for the Federal Government to FOGARTY] is recognized for 30 minutes. families or group care facilities may be share in costs of these services and facili- Mr? FOGARTY. Mr. Speaker, as necessary, especially for the most de- ties. When a child needs to live in a cer- chairman of the subcommittee that prived young children, the handicapped tain kind of faster family or in a certain hears the request of the Department of and older children and youth, until they kind of group care facility it will be pos- Health, Education, and Welfare for are able to take responsibility for their sible to provide the living experience appr have Healthriations, I Education, become arerefor own lives. which he needs. When a distraught apply aware that, on balance, too little Children receiving public child wel- mother begs for help in coping with her of our Federal effort is going to our chile fare services today are not the orphans retarded child, that cry can be heeded. dr~~ee n n. of is the time for n our that agencies frequently served in the The bill also provides for Federal match- tibP problems-the peridd eve past. About 10,000 of these children, ing of costs for child welfare staff on the which f should try a prevent lasting less than 2 percent, have lost both par- same basis as already provided for public damage e a ol r in order n pasting ents by death. Currently, the majority assistance staff. future damage, to meet as effectively as are te helpless victims of a complex Our children are growing up now. ptible those losses et which children society which for all its magnificence, They cannot wait. There is a great need poe vulnerable whirs are hic children also contains immature and inadequate for Federal help. I do not know the avoidable. Because of this aan d after parents, often themselves damaged by number of children needing help but not careful discussion this with awareness, ness in and own harmful family conditions. it is esti- being served, but I do know that in 1965, careful ware ion people about my own mated that at least 10,000 child abuse 34 percent of the counties in our Nation State t knowledgeable itebchild cases annually result from injury in- did not have full-time public child wel- wel e who today uci Itthe Fed- flicted on children by their own parents, fare services available. On March 31, tIon to strengthen oral to trearg and expand od providing child the welfare Fed- and this figure represents only 10 percent 1965, 531,200 children were receiving ral program ne .i , oprov by title ch d part 3 of the larger problem of child neglect. A child welfare services from departments se va r of th c Social hrizedy Act. recent study of newspaper reports indi- of public welfare, a 9 percent increase The Federal Government has long cates that at least 500 children are killed over the previous year. On this same accepted responsibility for substantial each year. day, 283,300 children lived in foster fam- aece to the sped, the yisfor bst wadi The bill I am introducing is designed ily homes or institutions for dependent owed, the blind, the sick, and the child to give today's children a second children, a 15 percent increase. In 1975, In his own family when he child in chance--a chance to escape this vicious according to the mandate of this Con- living liIn need as the result when cycle. We want them to grow up to be gress, child welfare services including financial him. result of parental ntal ntal good parents and good citizens. This bill foster care, must be available through- inability to to care a for But thFed- e represents a vital investment in the out every State for all children in need of eral Government has himates failed in to offer r meeting com- future. such services. It is extremely doubtful heavy a herl of the care States inn who sufh- Just to pinpoint the terrible plight of that the States, despite their efforts ac-childre from the devastating effect of famile y these victims of family disaster and the celerated by this stimulating congres- disorganization and breakdown, and high quality of one service alone foster sional action, can reach this important which result in nbuse, exploits- family care-required to reverse the goal without much more substantial which result in neglect, lect, al disturbance, damage they have sustained, I would financial help from the Federal Govern- tion, a delinquency, other ear psychological and like to give you two examples from my ment. and host of own State: behavioral difficulties. Child welfare In 1963 Provision money for personnel, ed- behavioral which both supplement and sub- , the Rhode Island Child Wel- ucational leave and administrative e statute for parental care and supervision, fare Services Division of the State De- costs, as well as,for payment for direct are the primary defense for children who partment of Social Welfare had to place care of children, is extremely vital. As are in need of protection, care, and physi- on an emergency basis, a family of 7 I have illustrated, many children need- cal and emotional sustenance. These children whose ages were from 5 to 16 ing care have already endured in their children can be helped only through a years. Their father had become men- short lives much neglect, inconsistency of true partnership of Federal, Stag, and tally ill and had killed the mother. He treatment, or abuse. These children are local governments, yet the costs involved was placed in a State mental hospital. difficult to help and require child wel- in providing the necessary care, whether The children required intensive help to fare workers who are trained and who within or outside their own homes are a overcome the shock of their experience. can concentrate their skills on a rea- heavy drain on State funds. There are They will continue to need extended sonably limited number of children, so many costs included in child welfare foster care. that they can work at the same time to services, such as those for safeguarding A mother deserted two boys, ages 5 help the natural parents, the child, and abused or neglected children, those for and 7 and the father attempted to care the foster parents or child care staff. It foster care, day care, homemaker sere- for them. However he had to be h requires i , oc- spec alized training and ade- ices, as well as personnel for licensing, pitalized. On examination, it was found quate time to provide these children an supervisi}lg and directing the programs. that both boys had tumors of the spine even break to develop their true poten- The Federal Government meets only requiring extensive medical care and a tial. To develop these skills in their about 16 percent of the total. In 1965, special foster family who could under- staffs, and at the same time to help meet State and local governments provided stand and work with the ensuing medi- the critical manpower shortage, this bill approximately $318 million for all public cal and convalescent problems. will help States to provide educational child-welfare services, while the Federal I am sure that there are similar cases leave for staff and to pay other cost of Government provided about $34 million. in. every State in the Nation, Rhode Is. training personnel. The shortage of Child welfare services should be avail- land was able to give immediate service, child welfare personnel has been und'er- able to all children through State and but I understand that because of the lack scored in the recent report of the De- local public welfare agencies, to help to of funds, other States are not always able partment of Health, Education, and Wel- prevent family breakdown and unneces- to accept all children needing service. fare Task Force on Social Work Educa- sa'ry separation of children from parents. Expenditures for faster care of children tion and Manpower, which revealed that Through the skilled intervention of a in 1965 were about $229 million. State an additional 10,000 child welfare staff child welfare caseworker, a combination and.local governments met 98 percent of will be needed by 1970, almost double the of casework counseling and the use of this cost, number presently employed. such community facilities as homemaker Many children have difficulties in ad- In their report to the Secretary of service and day care services may pre- justing because of their experiences, Health, Education, and Welfare, sub- vent the destructive experience of a child their personalities, and their complex mitted on June 29, 1966, the Advisory being separated from his family. On the needs. It is apparent from the problems Council on Public Welfare, authorized by Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 RECD L"D - HUUSE August 2, 1966 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE 17107 great August 2, 1966 the the 1962 Public Welfare Amendments, paying higher e, from acquiringemore du try.M . Tuohy, the chiefiexecut ve declared The existing prograiA of child welfare and better trained workers and super- officer of the combined Baltimore & Ohio services, authorized by Title V of the Social visors, and from properly expanding our and Chesapeake Ohio iodRaimy favorits cal Security Act and State legislative enact- adoption and family day care programs, said to preside en" by President , "my f vohn- d , ments, has pioneered in the provision of among other things. services for children and youth but its cov- To illustrate further, in Rhode Island, son. Vice President HUMPHREY, on erage is so spotty, both geographically and payments to foster families currently learning of Mr. Tuohy's death said: it guar was a in scope p tection that a offers l ber of the average less than $2 a day for food and Walter and a drama dable fan- ble and nation's 's children. children. n to scaorle a of rge nu the mb merost th vule- maintenance of children, scarcely enough ta t nerable, especially children in minority to meet minimal health standards of But the charm and consideration were not wernot groups who need it most, have had the least basic needs, and nothing at all to the fos- which inspired of these power comments and position. protection. Adapting to these needs and ter mother for her time and devotion. reserved for men deprivations as best they can, today's neg- This is one reason why the recruitment Ted DeAlba, the assistant trainmaster lected children become tomorrow's social of foster homes is becoming difficult. at Huntington, W. Va., recalls: problems. Many pressures are leading more moth- He was never too busy to stop and pass This is a national problem and a national ers into employment in order to increase the time with other railroaders. Maybe . reasons Advisory Council Council For all Pub bslic Welfare ellfare fare , recog- the family income thereby reducing the you've heard of the time Mr. Tuohy was in Adviso nizes that child welfare services constitute te number available to accept foster chit- hChicago im, and they were holding the train for porter, who knew he was pa major component in the proposed coon- dren in their homes. through, had brought his several was passing ass to prehensive program of social guarantees. The bill I am introducing would en- the station to meet him. Well, sir, to The Advisory Council has r6com- able the Federal Government to provide Tuohy stopped and meet him. hands and talked. an expanded program to assist State with each child and told the reporter what shook -reaching in publ basic and famong their schanm- public welfare agencies in meeting the a fine-looking family he had. Mr. Tuohy m ndio s for iAmongmmediate action is the costs of child welfare services, includ- just wouldn't brush that man aside.... following: n for ct ing the crushing costs of foster care, de- and to provide special project grants for Retired yard conductor, Wayne Bevard followin vard of g: welfare and youthaservices veloping new and necessary child welfare and nthers example of Tole o, Tuohy Ohio, con- of certain (including professional. staff and their im- resources. another e mediate supporting clerical staff, and costs Each State would receive Federal funds sidera: met him forgot at us Veterans' retired railro railroaadders. he of professional education) should be financed to pay for part of the cost of child wel- He When never and talk. alwa immediately on the same open-ended fare services for children who are the re- When took time to shake n Meetin matched basis provided for comparable sponsibility of the State or local public He was a really big man, even if he wasn't State costs in the e administration of Title welfare agency. Purchase of care from tall. We'll miss him at Christmas when he of the Social Security Act (Aid to Families s voluntary agencies is also included. Pay- always sent a card. wive Dependent Children) and the Federal ments would be on a variable matching aril Mr. Tuohy himself had a modest back- This for all such should vices. establish adequate stand- basis according to a State's per capita se This s measure is urgently needed to equal- income and with Federal participation ground. The son of a police sergeant on Chicago's South Side, Walter Tuohy from 50 to 83 percent. in the a rovisio of services to chi dren and raThe Fede al Government would match had to. leave school at the age of 16 to , to youth the provision of Federal government and help support his family. In the daytime ysince the Fe a government now 75 percent of salary and training costs of he worked in the Chicago Freight Office carries a far greater share in the costs of personnel employed or preparing for em- of the Illinois Central Railroad, while at personnel and training in the e administration Children ployment. of Aid to Families with Dependent order to make sure that the adds- night he went to school, where he earned than for Child welfare services. tional Federal moneys made available by a high school diploma, a college degree The increase in the number of children the bill will be used to strengthen and and a law degree. He rose to be presi- coming to the attention of public child expand the child welfare program, the dent of the Chicago-based Globe Coal Co., vice president of the Chesapeake & welfare agencies nationally is reflected legislation requires that State and local for coal traffic, of Assistant Deputy by developments in my own State of expenditures for child welfare services Administrator hio for coal Mines ii the Depart- served Island. The rate of children may not be less than such expenditures merit the coal In tofrly, Pr rt- served by the State department of social for the year ending June 30, 1966. dent of th Inerior, and the & Ohio. welfare has steadily increased from 1960 In addition, because I think it is essen- In f MChesapeake 'e achievement was to 1965. There was a 138-percent in- tial to encourage new and different ideas crease in the rate of services initiated for and to try them out, Federal project recognized by the presentation to him children, a 111-percent increase in the grants would be available for developing of the Horatio Alger Award for "Amer- volume of children served, and a 75-per- and maintaining new or experimental icans whose careers typify individual ini- cent increase in children being served forms of child welfare services, includ- tiative, hard work, and honesty in the at the end of the fiscal year. In foster ing services for children with special tradition of the Horatio Alger novels." care, for example, the department is needs. If our services are to meet the Reverend Father O'Malley, who de- providing foster care for over a thousand needs of children with special problems, livered Mr. Tuohy's eulogy referred to children, a 25-percent increase since the mentally retarded child, the child of this and another award when he said: 1961. a minority group in need of adoption, the The qualities of his character were recog- It cost over a million and a half dollars homeless child needing emergency shel- nized by the honors and awards given him in 1965 to provide public child welfare ter and care, project funds must be avail- throughout his life. They were underscored services to Rhode Island's children, one- able to develop and provide such services. by the pope in naming him a Knight of Malta; by his peers In naming him for the third of which was expended in our Clearly, from the facts I have pre- Horatio Alger Award in 1961. Something of O'Rourke Children's Center, which I sented, substantial help from the Federal his true stature and personality is revealed visited last fall. No Federal funds are Government for child welfare services is in a letter he wrote me wherein he said, used in Rhode Island for the payment of urgent. I would hope that every effort "The real joy of these ,n came, not , foster care costs or for operating the will be made to bring this legislation be- and associarec teo nWhateverht for ttribute is ily,due en sure children's center, which means that these fore the full House at an early date. because of oosts are borne entirely by State funds The quaties .which Father O'Malley funds there are n the local funds. Lack of WALTER J. TUOHY refers were well known in my home city ecs is de a am group homes special foster family and g group homes to The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under of Cleveland where Mr. Tuohy main- care for an increasing number of mental- previous order of the House, the gentle- tained his residence and headquarters. s Terminal ly retarded, emotionally disturbed, phys- man from Ohio [Mr. FEIGHAN] is rec- ToHe had an wer where he i knewn names of ically handicapped, and predelinquent ognized for 15 minutes. the children who need such resources. In- Mr. FEIGHAN. Mr. Speaker, the re- every elevator operator as well as the "sufficient funds are preventing us from cent death of Walter J. Tuohy was a names of their children. Approved For Release 2005/06/2? : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 17108 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 President Johnson stated that: CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE August 2, political problems of railroad merger became, he seemed never to falter in his devotion to The Greenbrier; actually a very minor segment of his corporate responsibilities. He made us feel that The Greenbrier was his Pride and joy. He treasured the, all too few, hours of recreation that were his here. He found it an impressive place for confer- ences. He saw it as a "status symbol" for the C&O-B&O system. He felt with its age and historical association, "White Sulphur" had an obligation to carry on the finest American traditions of hospitality. This unique legacy of Walter Tuohy Is left in our trust. His constant thoughtfulness, encourage- ment, and staunch friendship, to me per- sonally will never be forgotten. But I speak for each of us at The Greenbrier . Wal- ter Tuohy enriched our lives. He was never too busy for a personal greeting, a warm handshake, and he called us by name. It is our privilege to have known him. We can be certain his message to us would be, in railroad parlance-"clear signal!"--full speed ahead! --E. TRUMAN WRIGHT. 1966 regard to the flowers was based on a "wild rumor" and that he did not have anything to substantiate it. He further said that he would like to retract the statement and he asked me to help him see that the statement was retracted. I told him that I would quote to the House, now in session, that he wished to retract the statement as to the transportation of the flowers for the wedding. I told him that his statement was already on the press wires blanketing the country and that in my judgment it might be difficult for the retraction to catch up with the original story, or words to that effect. After my conversation with Mr., Eno- moto, I went to Mr. YOUNGER on the floor of the House and told him that I felt I should follow through on the request of Mr. Enomoto that his statement be publicly retracted. I make this state- ment here today. In fairness I could not do otherwise. Of course, I think we have other mat- Walter Tuohy brought great dedication and ability to all his responsibilities. He will be greatly missed by all of us who knew him. We in Cleveland will miss him espe- cially-and extend sympathy to his fam- ily, friends, and associates. Mr. Speaker, I insert in the RECORD at this point an editorial from the May- June issue of Brierchat, an excellent edi- torial on the life of Walter J. Tuohy, 1901-1966: WALTER J. TUOHY, 1901-1966 "And now abideth faith, hope, love, these three; but the greatest of these is love."- $t. Paul's greeting to the Corinthians Of all the wonderful qualities Walter Tuohy possessed, the greatest was love of his Fellow man for he rightly assigned to everyone, that individual's creation in the image and likeness of God, As he rose from obscurity to become one of the truly outstanding business leaders of our time, his relationship with people, his total Involvement with them, will mark him in men's memory. The President of John Carroll University said of him-"few men have left a richer legacy of love than Walter Tuohy. A deeply s iritual p person, he had a regard for his fel- low man that never left him from his hum- ble beginnings to the great heights he at- tained In his outstanding business career." Reverend O'Malley, delivering the funeral eulogy said, "the qualities of his character were recognized by the honors and awards given him throughout his life. They were underscored by the Pope in naming him a Knight of Malta; by his peers in naming him for the Horatio Alger Award in 1961. Some- thing of his true stature and personality is revealed in a letter he wrote me wherein he said, 'the real joy of these. honors came, not as a personal recognition, but for family, friends and associates. Whatever tribute was due came because of others.'" Supreme Court Justice Thomas Clark wrote, "Walter Tuohy was a member of the construction crew, not the wrecking gang." President Lyndon B. Johnson stated, "Wal- ter Tuohy brought great dedication and ability to all of his responsibilities. He will be greatly missed by all of us who knew him." He demanded more of himself than he asked of others. He was always thoughful, kind and considerate in his relationship with associates yet strong as hardened steel whenever the situation demanded it. His energy, enthusiasm, his zest for life were integral parts of Walter Tuohy. I wish it were possible to fully transmit his feeling for The Greenbrier ... as often revealed to me ... to each one of the 1,180 men and women on our staff today. He had, of course, a personal love of its beauty and en- joyment of its comfort and service. He knew it as a place of recreation and relaxa- tion. He let each of us-as many can testi- fy-know that he loved to come here, and thereby added to our pride in being a part of it. There were many long, trying years, when the Railroad found The Greenbrier a finan- cial burden. It took Walter Tuohy's faith. confidence, leadership, and his unique ability to inspire others, to guide us through the years of expansion of our facilities to bring The Greenbrier to profitable operation. In the light of the tremendous responsi- bilities which were his as President of a great Railroad, the warmth of his interest in The Greenbrier was always encouraging, and the depth and scone of his grasp of FLOWERS FOR LUCI BAINES ters of Importance to discuss here, but JOHNSON'S LUCI BAINES I think the. people of the country want The SPEAKER the flowers brought here for this historic pro tempore, Under wedding. All the world loves a lover. ver. previous order of the House, the gentle- I did feel that since Mr. Enomoto man from Texas [Mr. MAHON] is recog- wanted to retract his statement and had nized for 10 minutes. no substantiating evidence, and since I Mr. MAHON. Mr. Speaker, a few mo- could find no substantiating evidence ments ago in the House, the gentleman from any sources in the Government, it from Florida [Mr. CRAMER], was on the was only fair to young Luci and Pat, floor discussing the airline strike. He whom I know quite well, to make this yielded to the gentleman from California statement. [Mr. YOUNGER]. The gentleman from Mr. McCLORY. Mr. Speaker, will the California [Mr. YOUNGER] read a tele- gentleman yield? gram from Mr. Bill Enomoto, of Redwood Mr. MAHON. I yield to the gentleman City, Calif., to the effect that the flowers from Illinois. for the Luci Baines Johnson wedding Mr. McCLORY. Mr. Speaker, I thank were being flown by Government aircraft the gentleman for yielding. I also ap- while others are denied transportation, predate his having made his Investi- The telegram, of course, will appear in gation so that this allegation, which. was the RECORD. I do not have the exact unfortunately made. here on the floor of wording before me at the moment. House, can be refuted. I made appropriate inquiry of Govern- I, for one, want to reject it as far as it ment agencies as to whether or not this may be attributed to any Member on this allegation by Mr. Enomoto was true, and side. I believe we have here a very at- I was told categorically that it was not tractive young couple. I am proud in- true, that none of the flowers were being deed that the groom comes from my dis- flown from California in Government trict in Illinois. I know the Members aircraft. i was given the name of the are interested, as the whole Nation is, person who is arranging for the flowers in the couple having a happy and long and I was given the airline routing for and successful marriage. Any suggestion the flowers.. It was stated that the which would in any way detract from. the flowers are scheduled to be flown on significant and historic and lovely cere- American Airlines from San Francisco to mony, I believe, is most unfortunate. Los Angeles and thence to Washington. I regret that the Incident occurred. I I was able to get Mr. Enomoto, the am happy that the gentleman from head of the Farm Bureau for San Mateo Texas has ascertained the truth, so that County, Calif., the sender of the. tele- the matter does not reflect in any way gram, on the telephone. I told him that upon the ceremony which is to take palace his telegram had been read to the House, on Saturday. explaining to him that as chairman of Mr. MAHON. I thank the gentleman the Appropriations Committee I was in- for his remarks. terested in the proper expenditure of (Mr. MAHON asked and was given per- Government funds, and I wanted to know mission to revise and extend his re- the facts about these flowers allegedly marks.) being flown here for the wedding at Gov- Mr_ FARNUM. Mr. Speaker, will the ernment expense. gentleman yield? MI'. Enomoto said that when he wrote Mr. MAHON. Mr. Speaker, i yield the telegram he was very angry over the to the gentleman f rom Michigan. fact that the airline strike was causing Mr. FARNUM. Mr. Speaker, i take flower growers in the area to lose large this opportunity to commend the distin- sums of money. He said that he has amazed me, His concern and devoted in- were being flown to Wash- 1 w"uu.l.s ~~"LIIL Il'''ee sor pursuing this matter, as terest grew with the years. No matter hone Government plane. xlgton in a lie does nil are maetbes, to make sure that involved and difficult the legal, financial, and Mr. Enomoto said that his charge In Public bed only for the purposes for which being they are intended. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 17130 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 2, 1966 FIVE O'CLOCK SHADOW Since the strike started, MORSE has risen in the Senate almost daily to denounce the union and the strikers and anyone who sup- ported them. He has revived a technique he once used on behalf of Oregon's sheep raisers to break price control on wool. In the years after World War II, he became famous as the Senate's "5 o'clock shadow" for his late-afternoon speeches denouncing the Office of Price Administration. Old timers report that in his bitterest moments he never treated the old OPA to such a bombardment of intemperate invec- tive and insult as he has heaped on the airline, strikers and their union officers. MORSE began by calling the union leaders unpatriotic, charging them with failing to carry out their responsibilities to the troops in Vietnam. He has repeated the charge on several occasions despite the fact that De- partment of Defense officials were praising the union for continuing to service military flights without interruption. At last week's Senate hearing, Secretary Wirtz testified that air movement of materiel and military personnel had actually increased during the strike. To Senator Moass, the strikers' failure to embrace his recommendations was "uncon- scionable," a "flagrant irresponsibility," an attempted "extortion." One day on the Senate floor he described AFL-CIO President George Meany as one "who claims to be a labor leader." Almost daily since the strike began, MoasE has questioned the competence, the sincerity, the emotional and mental stability of union negotiators. It was Senator MORSE, not the President or A he Department of Defense who decided that the airline strike had created a national emergency. Their testimony to the contrary did not influence him. In the Senator's opinion, any settlement including a Cost-of-living clause, hospital coverage for dependents, a company-paid pension plan, or a 10-cent premium for air- line mechanics when they are using their Federal licenses would "lead the country over the brink into the bottomless pit of economic inflation." In the last hysterical hours before the Sen- ate Committee blocked his resolution, MORSE was charging that the union proposals would destroy the value of the dollar. THE METAMORPHOSIS Those who probe for reasons why Senator MORSE switched from labor's champion to strikebreaker say that the change has been coming on gradually for several years. In foreign affairs, Senator MORSE has been moving steadily away from the AFL-CIO position. MORSE has become an implacable critic of the U.S. foreign aid program which the Gov- ernment has used to encourage and strengthen resistance to Communist aggres- sion. Moass even left last week's Senate hearing on his own resolution to vote against the Administration's foreign aid program. The AFL-CIO has always supported the foreign aid program, THE AGGRESSIVE DOVE On Vietnam, Senator MORSE has been the most aggressive of the Senate doves, attack- ing U.S. military involvement in Southeast Asia. He has insisted that the job be done by the United Nations although the Hanoi government has spurned every effort of the UN to intervene. The AFL-CIO, including the Machinists, has been outspoken in support of the Presi- dent's policies of halting Communist aggres- sion in Southeast Asia and elsewhere. Coincidentally, two other Senate doves, BARTLETT Of Alaska and CHURCH of Idaho, entered material in the CONGRESSIONAL REC- ORD denouncing the airline strike. Labor's mast serious break with Senator MORSE happened last month in the Oregon Senate primary. MORSE hand picked Howard Morgan, former member'of the Federal Power Commission, for the Democratic nomination. The AFL-CIO and the IAM backed Rep, ROBERT B. DUNCAN. Morgan---sand MORSE---- were defeated. Here too, the big issue was Vietnam. DUNCAN supporting the Prescient, Morgan supporting Moass. Labor already misses Senator MORSE's able support. To his adversaries, the Oregon Senator has always been implacable and ferocious. One thing is clear, Senator MORSE has won himself a whole new set of friends. Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I wish to say about the article that, as the head- line would seem to indicate, the machin- ists have appointed themselves to ana- lyze what they think my motives are. Of course, they know my motives are not what they attribute to me. This is what happens in a situation such as this. This is really a disservice to the great record of the machinists for industrial statesmanship In labor disputes, for it is not like them to engage in this kind of character assassination. They start out with the statement: The question has been asked a thousand times these past few weeks: What happened to WAYNE MORSE? Let me say to the machinists: Not one single thing has happened as far as vary- ing from my 32 years of record In the field of labor relations, and my 21 years of record in the Senate. Whenever I have felt that any group in the country, be it labor or any group, was following a course of action that could not be recon- ciled with the paramount public interest I disagreed with them on the merits. What has happened in this case is that I think the machinists are following a course of action which cannot be sup- ported by the merits of the dispute, when we look at the para>vaoun public interest. I intend, as I have 1 of my public career, to plate top ub 'c Interest first and the labot logo f down on the scale of Impo WASHINGTON: THE DEADLOCK OF SUSPICION Mr. CHURCH. Mr. President, the re- spected journalist, James Reston, writes in the July 31 edition of the New York Times that the apparent decision of the Government of North Vietnam to spare the captured American airmen has given new hope to those who advocate a de- escalation of the Vietnam conflict. Mr. Reston continues: The opportunity exists on the larger ques- tion of a negotiated settlement of the war. He makes perfectly clear both that it is a gross miscalculation for Hanoi to be- lieve that the U.S. military presence can be removed from South Vietnam by force, and that it is error to think that the so-called "doves" in America can bring about such an American military with- drawal before, negotiation. I strongly endorse Mr. Reston's analy- sis, and ask unanimous consent that the article entitled "Washington: the Dead- lock of Suspicion" be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: WASHINGTON: THE DEADLOCK OF SUSPICION (By James Reston) WASHINGTON, JulyS0.-After almost every war, the historians think they can Identify a point where both sides had more to gain by compromising than by fighting. It may be that this point has now been reached in Vietnam. In the First World War, the Allied powers were so convinced that the Kaiser was the ultimate enemy that they insisted on fighting on to a military victory, and thereby helped bring Into existence two much more dan- gerous and formidable forces-the Nazis on the one hand and the Communists on the other. In the second World War, this same deter- mination to achieve a military victory, pur- sued in the name of liberty, resulted in the loss of liberty for various countries in East- ern Europe and the Balkans-the very places whose freedom was the primary aim of both world wars. This is one of the major lessons of war in the 20th century. No matter how hard the antagonists have tried to anticipate, the con- sequences of war, the fighting has inevitably produced unexpected results beyond their control. WASHINGTON'S REACTION Washington has learned this lesson better than Hanoi. In fairness to President John- son, he has tried to start the compromising process, but has been rebuffed so consistently that the fighting is again dominating the scene. The air war on North Vietnam was more severe In the last week than in any other week of the conflict. The Prime Min- ister of South Vietnam, General Ky, has started talking about either an invasion of North Vietnam or a very long war, and while it is easy to repudiate him, there is a certain tragic logic In his point that so long as the enemy has a jungle sanctuary in North Viet- nam, bombing will not bring the conflict to a military conclusion. The tragedy of this Is that Hanoi now has a better chance of achieving its major objec- tive by negotiation than it has by fighting, and does not seem to realize it. The major objective of both the North Vietnamese and the Chinese Governments seems fairly clear. They want all American military power out of Vietnam. No doubt they would like to establish a Communist regime in Saigon, but primarily they want to get rid of an air and naval force which could destroy every city in North Vietnam and Communist China, and even if their main aim is to communize South Vietnam, they still have to achieve the evacu- ation of the American forces in order to do so. Hanoi has chosen to try, to achieve this objective by force of arms rather than by negotiations, and this must be the worst political miscalculation since the Bay of Pigs. The United States Is obviously not going to lose the first test of arms in its history to North Vietnam, of all places. China and the Soviet Union might compel a military solu- tion by raising the cost beyond what Wash- ington Is willing to pay, but they are no more eager for a vast military test of strength there than the United States. In this situation, North Vietnam has no hope of driving the American expeditionary force out of the country, but it could un- doubtedly negotiate us out. The President has been quite explicit about this. "We seek neither territory nor bases, eco- nomic domination nor military alliance In Vietnam," he said in his State of the Union Message in January of 1988. "We seek no bases or special position for the United States," Secretary of State Rusk told the Congress on August 3, 1965. And dozens of similar statements have been made Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R0004001.00021-4 August 2, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD --SENATE herded into the camps of Europe-and o8 In the distance a strange, untried land. The United Jewish Appeal played a heroic role in joining these people with that land. I remember going to Eddie Warburg back in those days when he was the UJA chair- man. I felt very deeply that the task of resettling this exodus of homeless Jews was a challenge and responsibility not only of the Jewish community but of free men of all faiths. Therefore, I asked him if he would permit me to organize a Non-Sec- tarian Community Committee for the New York United Jewish Appeal. His response was immediate, and I was proud to have be- come its first chairman. To me, the work of the Non-Sectarian Committee dramatized an enormously im- portant principle. It demonstrated our con- viction that all civilized men shared the duty of redressing the outrage committed against the Jewish people. Israel succeeded. The UJA played its part in that success. And I am grateful to have had the chance of playing even a small part over the years. But there is one thing, Mr. President, that I assure you we understand only too well. Israel was born and Israel prospers in a sea of deep hostility. And as long as fear and danger cloud the lives of your brothers, as long as help is needed, I know that the USA, under your able chairman, Max Fischer, will keep open its lifeline to Israel. But I would also like to see fresh, new initiatives emerge from Washington in pur- suit of a true and lasting peace for your troubled corner of the world. America 'must not let its vital and active commitment to freedom in other parts of the world obscure the dangers to the peace of the Middle East. The United States should and must exercise its full moral force within the United Nations to bring Arab and Jew together in lasting peace. Mr. President, over 140 years ago a great American said, "I am happy in the restora- tion of the Jews." In the fullest sense, Thomas Jefferson's words were premature. But'today his sentiment is echoed by Amer- icans from coast to coast. We are happy in the restoration of the Jewish homeland. We are thrilled to have witnssed Its birth in our time. We are proud to have assisted its swift growth. And we wish you and your brave, young na- tion long life . . . prosperity . . . free- dom ... and peace. , EASE OF OBTAINING FIREARMS RESULTS IN SLAUGHTER Mr. KENNEDY of Massachusetts. Mr. President, Charles Joseph Whitman shot 15 people to death yesterday, and wounded 32 others. There was no rational explanation for this senseless slaughter; it was the product of the maniacal impulse of a diseased mind. But Charles Joseph Whitman was not alone. He was aided and abetted by the system of laws in this county-a system which makes it ridiculously easy for any criminal, any madman, any drug addict and, indeed, any child to obtain lethal firearms which can be used to rain violence and death on innocent people. When the police flnaly stopped this mad killer, they found next to him on the Texas tower an incredible array of deadly weapons: a 12-gage shotgun bought on credit at Sears, Roebuck that day, a 6-millimeter Remington magnum rifle, a .35-caliber Remington pump rifle, a.30-caliber reconditioned Army carbine, e. 9-millimeter Luger pistol, and a .357- magnum pistol; also, two rifles and two derringer pistols were found in his home. It may be, as some people argue, that if someone wants a gun badly enough he will be able to obtain it one way or an- other, regardless of the existence of laws regulating the sale of guns. But it seems obvious to me that we have a responsi- bility to do everything we can to mini- mize the senseless bloodshed and crime effectuated through these instruments of destruction. I know of no other civilized country in the world where it is as easy for the dangerous and misguided inem- bers,of a society to obtain firearms as in the United States. We are all familiar with the statistics of our failure: 200,000 victims of gun atrocities each year, and the crimes of violence committed with a gun every 2 minutes in the United States. Decisive action to regulate and control the dangerous traffic in firearms is long overdue. The Senate Juvenile Delin- quency Subcommittee, of which I am a member, has reported to the full Judi- ciary Committee a firearms control bill which would provide basic minimum controls over mail-order interstate traffic. This bill is not a panacea, and it will have to be matched by responsible leg- islative action at the State level before truly effective gun regulation can be achieved. But this Federal action is clearly a necessary first step. Unless the Federal Government regulates gun -traffic between the States, even strong State laws will be easily circumvented by gun traffic interstate. In 1963 alone, for example, over a million weapons were sold by mail order. In Massachusetts, which has strong gun laws, the traffic in guns cannot be halted because guns are easily purchased out of State. As a mat- ter of fact, Commissioner Caples, of the Massachusetts Department of Public Safety, testified before our subcommit- tee that 87 percent of the concealable firearms used in crimes in Massachusetts came from. out-of-State purchases. Massachusetts cannot control this in- terstate traffic in guns, but the Federal Government can, and the Federal Gov- ernment must, because such regulation is a precondition to effective State regu- lation, without which the grim statis- tics of death and destruction can only, continue to mount. It is well known that this legislation is strongly opposed by the National Rifle Association and other members of the gun lobby. I do not quarrel with their rights to express their opposition to this legislation, but I also do not believe that their opposition represents the best in- terests of this country or the wishes of the great majority of our citizens. This legislation is supported by the President of the United States, by the American Bar Association, and by a host of religious and civic groups. It is given a high priority by the law enforcement groups throughout our Nation, and I think it commends the support of the great majority of the American people. Senator Done's bill, S. 1592, will be taken up by the full Judiciary Commit.. tee in the near future. I intend to work 17129 to see it is favorably reported by our com- mittee and that it is enacted into law. We have heard from the lobby repre- senting the gun manufacturer and the sportsman and the hunter. Now let us hear from the lobby of the American people, for those of us In Congress who are concerned about the need for effec- tive gun control need their support in the fight which looms ahead. Mr. SMATHERS. Mr. President, will the Senator yield? Mr. KENNEDY of Massachusetts. I yield to the Senator from Florida. Mr. SMATHERS. Mr. President, I wish to associate myself with the Senator from Massachusetts (Mr. KENNEDY] on this particular legislation. I hope that this bill will, be reported by the Committee on the Judiciary. It is long overdue. I, think that the unfortunate tragedy in Texas yesterday more than anything else points out the necessary of passing the bill. Mr. KENNEDY of Massachusetts. :f appreciate the comments of the Senator from Florida. SENATORMORSE CITES RECORD IN REPLY TO ARTICLE ENTITLED "HELL HATH NO FURY LIKE WAYNE MORSE SCORNED" Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I have received a copy of the publication, the Machinist, for August 4, 1966. The publication has an article under the heading "Hell Rath No Fury Like WAYNE MORSE Scorned." I am sure that the machinists would want that In the RECORD. I am sure that no one in the Senate would think he was free to insert it in the RECORD because of the rules of the Senate, but I cer- tainly would like to accommodate the machinists by asking unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD at this point the article from the Machinist of August 4, 1966. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: HELL HATH No FURY LIKE WAYNE MORSE SCORNED The question has been asked a thousand times these past few weeks: What has hap- pen to WAYNE MORSE? The Senator from Oregon has been one of labor's heroes. With only the late Sen. Wil- liam Langer of North Dakota beside him, he defied the steamroller that stamped the anti-union Landrum-Griffin bill into the law books. In his 20 years in the U.S. Senate he has had scarcely a wrong vote in the Machinist's annual report card on Congress.. Last week, it was a new WAYNE MORSE who goaded the Senate, trying to ram through an emergency resolution to break the solid airline strike. Last month, Senator MORsZ chaired the Presidential Emergency Board that recom- mended an unacceptable settlement of that dispute, When airline employees struck, rather than accept the Morse Board recom- mendations, he tried to declare a national emergency and force union members to accept his terms. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 August 2, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 17131 ernin on behalf of the Washington Government I have no reason to doubt the accu- ever since. racy of the statements attributed to Mr. Hanoi obviously does not believe this. The Freeman, for, according to the article, officials there see the United States building the reporter, Mr. Beckman, was present an air naval base at Ham Ranh Bay that is for this conference, which was intended deceived d by negotiation- Asia. Theyegotiationfeel- to instruct candidates in the techniques they the mweroeretwicic me en bate once at the end of the Second World War, of how to win elections. when the United States helped restore Mr. Freeman also has a suggestion on b 1 11, housewives of Amer- e d g marks by administration officials conc farm prices, Freeman told the candidates. "Farmers know what a tremendous minority they are and they are very sensitive." Several weeks ago, President Johnson in- dicated that high farm prices were partly to blame for the increased cost of living and two days later, Freeman announced he was "pleased to report" that certain farm prices were down. e French power in Vietnam, and again now to han DIRECTED TO CONFERENCE Geneva in 1954, when they thought the ica, who are up in arms because of the Both remarks triggered almost instant United States would keep its power out of tremendous increases in the cost of living criticism from farm belt congressmen and Vietnam. which have occurred in recent months. THE UNITED NATIONS from farm leaders thruout the nation. The United States could be held to its no- While Mr. Freeman is quite right in A Chicago Tribune reporter listened in on saying that farm prices are not the cause Freeman's discussions with congressional bases promise, however pr, s international , and of inflation, he expresses a wariness that candidates, after a girl, who was a staff mem- this of a compromise this is another of the mysteries of Hanoi's Congressional candidates should report her of the Democratic national committee, directed diplomacy. The U.S. has offered to bring the this fact, with unless, a of situation course, they where are `sl- drhim into the room for a scheduled United Nations and the International Con- "news ws reporter was wearing a badge which trol Gosnmission into the negotiations, but slide, and duck" will not work and a had The re orterd was press officials, but w was Hanoi has rejected both, apparently counting candidate must state his position. Then, similar to those wby it orn by the candidates and on the peace sentiment in the United States believe it or not, the spokesman for was never checked closely. The reporter to of p force the forces before he American ex- American agriculture believes it is ap- later learned that the news briefing, which pedis is undoubtedly forces befri t will talk. suggests farer's side. was to be taking the Washingtonhhotel, in an adjacent room had been canceled. of a This is a major blunder. political pr Mr. Freeman the the doves in in America, backed by pressure for peace, cannot bring about such farmer's side only if pressed to do so, ASKS FOR ADVICE an American military withdrawal before and then because he also believes it is the A candidate from Columbus, Ohio., told negotiation. Hanoi misinterprets both the easier course to follow, for the politically Freeman that a poll in his district showed objectives and the influence of those of us expedient reason that "housewives are that the major issue was inflation, and he th- not nearly as well organized." sought advice on how to handle questions who nam.wif tits a mnegotiated objective settlement wiViet- drawal of American power from the country, To compound the confusion of Mr. about the increased cost of living. been trying to figure out an answer to that question for six years," Freeman re- it can get it by negotiation, supervised by Freeman's campaign suggestions, the "I've the U.N. or some other international body, Secretary attempts to explain his action plied. "Slip, slide, and duck any question of but it cannot compel withdrawal by force in urging the Defense Department to higher consumer prices if you possibly can." of arms or pacifist sentiment in the United quit buying pork. "Don't get caught in a debate over higher States. Mr. Freeman said the controversy was prices between housewives and farmers," he On the contrary, the longer the war goes ? cautioned. "If you do, and have to choose a side, take the farmers' side. It's the right on and the greater the American sacrifice in a "complete bunch of nonsense," because lives, the stronger the pressure will be here his action "did not affect farm income side, and, besides, housewives aren't nearly in the United States to justify the War by one bit." However, the Chicago Tribune as well organized." retaining precisely that American strategic reports that Mr. Freeman said he asked GET 40 PERCENT presence at Sam Ranh Bay the Communists the Defense Department to resume their Freeman said that farmers get only 40 per are seeking to avoid. pork purchases as soon as the market cent of the dollar that housewives spend for THE DOMINION OF FEAR price dropped several cents. If his ac- food at the supermarkets and suggested that This is the tragedy of the war. Both sides tion did not have any effect on market candidates could point out that housewives are caught up in the dominion of fear- prices, why did he bother to make his pay extra for the luxury of ready-made foods. Washington in the fear of a Coinmunidt suggestion to the Department of Defense "A TV dinner that costs 60 cents at the store conquest of the peninsula and Hanoi and in the first place? And why did he later could be fixed at home for 20 cents," Freeman Peking in the fear of permanent U.S. bases said. that could dominate both North Vietnam withdraw it? He urged the candidates to emphasize that and China. The problem is to break this I have no idea what the candidates net farm income is at its highest in history. deadlock of suspicion. thought after hearing Mr. Freeman's "Farm income and farm outlooks are better In recent days, a hopeful thing has hap- outline of how to campaign, but if they under this administration than they have pened in Vietnam. The Hanoi Government are not confused, I am certain the Amer- been under any other in years," he said. has listened to the appeals of the world to ican farmers and the American house- "But," he warned, "farmers never like to spare the ortunity exists onn Heels ques- wifes are confused over this latest effort be told they're doing all right." war. to refuse, to pin the blame of inflation BUNCH OF NONSENSE negotiated The opportunity exists settlement eh la of rger the war. problem everals years surpluses have were If lo get rid of exactly where it belongs: Administration such am s If Hanoi's objective e really is s t t American power in Vietnam, it can un- spending policies which have resulted in such aid so much that " may be able i- doubtedly do so in an internationally super- a national deficit accumulation of about inmintshwe to crease wheat acreage allotments" this fall. vised negotiation. It cannot do so by count- $30 billion in the past 6 years. He described as a "complete bunch of lag on the force of arms or the force of Mr. President, I ask unanimous Con- nonsense," the controversy over his letter to peace sentiment in the United States. sent to have printed in the RECORD this Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, ask- most interesting report on how to run Ing the defense department to stop buying A NEW CAMPAIGN TECHNIQUE for office without talking about the issues, pork several months ago, when the farmers and also an editorial on the same sub- were receiving 30 cents a pound for hogs at Mr. MUNDT. Mr. President, the Fri- jest which was published in the Chicago the market. "It didn't affect farm income day, July 29, edition of the Chicago one bit," he said. - "It was the absolutely Tribune on July 31. logical thing to do and was consistent with Tribune reveals what is to say the least, There being no objection, the article the farmers' interest." an astonishing new technique for po- and editorial were ordered to be printed He indicated he would take the same ac- litical candidates, a recommendation in the RECORD, as follows: tion if a similar situation arose again. "It is suggested by Secretary of Agriculture. [From the Chicago Tribune, July 29, 1966] only good sense that the defense depart- In substance, what the Secretary is ment should buy beef when there is less de- LBJ AID WARNS CANDIDATES OF FARMERS' IRE- mand for it by the nation's consumers," he telling Democratic the best congressional can- DON'T TALK INFLATION, FREEMAN ADVISES said. dictates ii that the Ignore ay to handle a (By Aldo Bechman) THEY WON'T BUY IT tendutt its it is isn' to ithit. "Just pre- - WASHINGTON, July 28.--Secretary of Agri- Freeman said he asked the defense depart- what he i thans it saying about c coounr ntr to b culture Orville Freeman has told Democratic ment to resume their pork purchases as soon woversial congressional candidates at a closed briefing the the market price dropped several cents. Issues such as inflation, according to this that they must overcome deep resentment The former Minnesota governor told the report by Chicago Tribune reporter Aldo against the administration in farm areas and candidates that the percentage of each pay Beckman, who quotes Mr. Freeman as should stay away from discussion of inflation. check that now goes for food is lower than saying: "There is a reaction far deeper and more in 1960. "You could tell them [the house- slip, slide, and duck any question of high- bitter than I could ever have anticipated" wives] that, but we know they wouldn't er consumer prices if you possibly can. among the nation's farmers over recent re- buy it," he said. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 17132 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 2, 1966 The three-day closed meeting will end to- Mr. Freeman has maneuvered himself into and operation of communications satellite morrow. During the sessions the candidates an unenviable position. He is no more popu- facilities" by others than recognized common were permitted to question either cabinet lar with the farmers than the administration carriers. I am also addressing this same let- members or representatives from each cab- is with the consumers. The only out for ter to each of the other Commissioners. inet-level department_ both is to try to do a snow job on the people. In this covering letter I want to sum- [From the Chicago Tribune, July 31, 1966] marize our conclusions-and also to explain informally the deep concern which moved SECRETARY FREEMAN OVER A BARREL LET TELEVISION REACH ITS us to make the studies which have led to (The newspaper is an institution developed POTENTIAL this submission. by modern civilization to present the news of First, I note that the Ford Foundation the day, to foster commerce and industry, to Mr. BARTLETT. Mr. President, once has no commercial interest and no operating inform and lead public opinion, and to fur- again the Ford Foundation has done our interest in this matter. We exist for the nish that check upon government which no Nation a great service. purpose of giving money away-as wisely constitution has ever been able to provide.- The foundation's suggestion that Con- and constructively as we can. This is the The TRIBUNE CREDO.) sideration be given to formation of a source of our deep interest in the present Secretary of Agriculture Orville Freeman nonprofit nationwide satellite television question, has managed to drape himself over a barrel We have a wider and longer experience of in a confidential" briefing of Democratic system which would carry an extensive the effort to establish effective noncamuner- congressional candidates on the subjects of schedule of educational programs fi- cial television than any other single institu- inflation, food costs, and the political mood nanced by transmission of commercial tion in the country. We have been by far of the nation's farmers. A Tribune reporter TV shows is a bold and exciting proposal the largest single source of funds for this who wandered into the supposedly closed to help upgrade the quality of American effort. We have fifteen years of experience. session heard Mr. Freeman unload the fol- life. We have made grants, directly and indirectly, lowing observations, Few persons will argue that television of more than a hundred million dollars a - There is a reaction far deeper and more has lived u year; currently we are making additional bitter than I could ever have anticipated" p to its great potential or to grants at the rate of more than ten million among farmers. its great responsibility. If the techno- dollars a year. -To a candidate who asked how to handle logical revolution is to have any meaning From this experience we have learned questions about the increased cost of living; for our culture, that revolution must not three lessons: "I've been trying to figure out an answer to only be concerned with making daily (1) The first and most important lesson that question for six years. Slip, slide, and tasks easier to perform, It must not only is that noncommercial television has unlim- duck any questions on higher consumer be concerned with offering people ways to ited potential, for human. welfare and for prices if you possibly can." escape the realities of the day, the quality of American life. The best Don't get caught in a debate over higher achievements of the best existing stations prices between housewives and farmers. If This revolution must also be shaped to are proof enough-but there is still more you. do, and have to choose a side, take the serve the cultural, intellectual and in- powerful evidence in the best achievements farmers' side. It's the right side, and, be- formational needs of the people. Tele- of the best services abroad. And the most sides, housewives aren't nearly as well orga- vision offers unique opportunities to meet powerful evidence of all is in the all-but- nized." these needs. Freed from the tyranny of unanimous conviction of the ablest men in -On the contention of the administration audience polls, freed from some of the American television today: that nothing is that the percentage of each pay check that harsh economic facts of producing pro- more needed-for television itself as well now goes for food is lower than in 1960: "You as for the country-than a first-rate national could tell them [the housewives] that, but grants, television can reach its potential noncommercial service. we know they wouldn't buy it." as a great instructional and cultural wrapped up as deceitful a body of political For that reason I welcome the Ford (2) The second lesson is that existing philosophy as has ever been produced by any Foundations' proposal. servicop e to develop pg more t means t of han sua pport, fraction of exponent of the Great Society, which covers For that reason I strongly ur e the this pot n systems re a lot of ground. This administration has Federal Communications Commission potential. The existing are distinguished Itself Commission to much better than nothing. Compared to its iction "managing the news," by MrrFreeman isfin delay any decision on proposals for the what this country deserves, they are a de- a class by himself. construction and operation of communi- pressing failure. This is not the fault of cations satellite facilities by other than the talented and dedicated men who have What he told the Democratic candidates worked their hearts out for noncommercial for confidential consumption is something recognized common carriers until the television. It is the fault of all of us-in quite different from what the administration proposal of the Ford Foundation has been that we have not yet found a way to give chooses to tell the people publicly. The ad- carefully reviewed and other important this work the resources it needs. It can ministration has engaged in the window studies relating to this question are com- well be argued that we at the Ford Founda- dressing of establishing a "consumer coun- pleted. - tion have contributed to this failure. When selor" in the person of Mrs. Esther Peterson Regardless of how the FCC rules on we give $6-million a year to the National labo to the evide cor its d huge epartm concern for intended this matter, I will consider introducing Educational Television and Radio Center Burner, who is usually depicted as a nitwit legislation designed to make certain that (NET), we seem to have done a lot. And for us who can't read the label on a national legislation does not stand in the annual g is a lot- rant. Bt is our largest continuing the Another of the administration's Potemkin way of educational television reaching its our big gift is much too brutal fact is that villages calls for enactment of "truth-in- potential when new communications sat- (3) Thethird lesson follows from the first packaging" legislation. The consumer is ellites are launched to serve this Nation, two: it is that the nation must find a way supposed to be befuddled by the large range In addition, I hope that when commu- to a wholly new level of action in this fleld- of packages on the store shelves, so that, as nications satellites are launched service one which will release for our whole people one proponent of the legislation contends, he all the enlightenment and engagement, all is unable to buy knowledgeably and stay to Alaska will be included in the plan, the immediacy and freedom of experience within the family budget. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent which are inherent in this extraordinary But the fact is that it is Democratic fiscal that the letter of McGeorge Bundy, medium and which commercial services--as policy that promotes inflation and drives up president of the Ford Foundation, to they freely admit-cannot bring out alone. prices to new records with each succeeding Rosel H. Hyde, Chairman of the FCC, These three general conclusions are broadly month. As Mr. Freeman made clear, it is a concerning the foundation's proposals, be shared, I believe, among all who have studied subject from which the administration pre- fers to steer away, because there is no sensi- printed in the.RECORD as it appeared in this problem-by leaders in the Congress, by bee political answer to It. So the party's this Ino;'s edition of the New York the members and staff of your Commission, candidates are advised to "slip, slide, and Times, and by independent experts. They underlie duck." There being no objection, the letter the establishment last year of a distinguished commission of Secretary Freeman on a field trip around was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, future of non- private tureens i t study r a commerci the middle west learned of widespread dis- as follows: chharargege from Carnegie t Corporation under a content among farmers. They resent Presi- c fthe he C anroie eoratton and Auce :1966. with en ement from President Johns dent Johnson's statement that high farm DEng MR. CHAIRMAN: I have the :a senor to son. Under der the chairmanship of Dr. James prices were partly to blame for the increased submit herewith a statement from the Ford Killian that commission is working hard to cost of living, and they were not mollified Foundation which responds to the invitation produce a prompt and constructive report. when Freeman followed up with the state- of the Federal Communications Commission, It will be good if we can avoid major deci- ment that he was "pleased to report" that for "the views and comments of interested sions affecting the future of educational tele- some farm prices were down, parties" on "proposals for the construction vision until we have the benefit of the Car- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 17144 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD 'SENATE August 2, 1966 Eisenhower's and Vice-President Richard Nixon's re-nomination. In 1960 she sought the Republican nom- ination for Governor, but was defeated in the primary by State Senator John Cooper of Humboldt. She was a member of First Plymouth Con- gregational Church of Lincoln, and served on its board of trustees. At various times she also served as trustee for Lincoln General Hospital, Doane College, Nebraska Wesleyan University, Hastings Col- lege and the University of Nebraska Founda- tion. U.N. AWARD IN '44 She received the U.N.'s distinguished serv- ice award in 1944, an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from Doane College in 1955 and the distinguished citizen award of Ne- braska Wesleyan University in 1958. Survivors include her son and four daugh- ters: Alice Abel of Lincoln, Mrs. Gene (Hazel) Tallman of Lincoln, Mrs. Harry (Helen) Ragen of n Diegbo, Cal., and Ann Abel Nice, Fr a l Eugene Hempel l of S t r ara, cal., a a si sister,. Mrs. A. J. Sistek 6 rly Drive, Omaha; and WHERE IS ESCALATION LEADING US? Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, al- though it has not been called a new step in escalation of the war in Vietnam, 1 think there can be little doubt that our bombing of the demilitarized zone in Vietnam this week is in fact another new stepup in escalation. We are told that this is a military necessity, that the zone which is sup- posed to be militarily free under the Geneva agreements, and which until now has not been deliberately bombed, is har- boring enemy forces we must destroy. This has been the plea-military nec- essity-each time we have expanded"fur ther our operations in Vietnam. When we began the bombing of North Vietnam in February 1965, we were told that the rate of infiltration from north to south was about 1,600 men a month, and that our air strikes would halt or slow that flow. But within a few months we learned that, far from that being the case, the rate of filtration had tripled to 4,500 or 5,000 men a month. I have said before that escalation breeds escalation. The President has said repeatedly that "we seek no wider war," but our constant increase of mili- tary pressure is widening that war. There is good reason to believe that we are moving our forces constantly upward toward a projected mark of at least 800,000. The result is that, declarations of war or their lack notwithstanding, we now have far more than guerilla skirmishes, far more than a peacekeeping operation, far more than subsidiary support for the South Vietnamese forces. In looking at these facts- the New Republic recently spoke out editorially. In the course of doing so, the editorial noted the belief of Gen. Ben Sternberg, who commands the 101st Airborne Divi- sion, that 500,000 more U.S. troops are needed in Vietnam. Will this further escalation draw in, not just the present 12 North Vietnamese regiments now en- gaged, but the 300,000-man army which it has in existence? Will this bring us to a further escalation, perhaps a mil- lion of our boys? Will it bring the "mili- tary necessity" for landing of troops in the north? Will it bring the land war with China we have long sought to avoid? These are gloomy possibilities, fearful to consider, but logical and all but in- evitable under our present policy. In the meantime, we have a war psychology growing apace, a war economy coming into being, and, as the editorial is en- titled, a "War President." Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that the editorial from the July 16 issue of the New Republic may appear in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the New Republic, July 16, 19661 THE WAR PRESIDENT In Omaha, the day after Hanoi and Hai- phong were first hit, the President called on God to forgive his critics, "for they know not what they do." All of us stand in need of enlightenment; human judgment is fallible. Just how fallible, Mr. Johnson Illustrates. "We have made it clear," he said, "that we wish negotiations to begin on the basis of international agreements made in 1954 and in 1066"; and, "those who say that this is merely a Vietnamese 'civil war' are wrong. The warfare in South Vietnam was started by the government of North Vietnam in 1959." God forgive us, we don't think so. As early as 1956, the then government of South Vietnam with the backing of the United States, violated the 1954 Geneva agreements, which provided, among other things, for "general elections which will bring the unification of Vietnam"; it also pro- hibited "the introduction into Vietnam of any troop reinforcements and additional military personnel." Within two years, Ngo Dinh Diem, with our military aid, had made himself a dictator, smashed all political op- position and spurned elections to bring about unification. The Viet Cong began as an armed rebellion against Diem (of whom the U.S. Itself finally tired and in 1963 allowed to be overthrown and murdered by a military junta). Intervention from outside Vietnam has been largely American--so far. Nevertheless, the President now affirms that he will accept and abide by those.Geneva agreements. Why, than, don't the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese agree to negotiate on that basis? Our hunch is, because they don't believe him, and they may well be right. Actions do speak louder than words, and Mr. Johnson is acting out his determina- tion to preserve South Vietnam as a client state, close to China, so that there may be another link in a solid chain that includes South Korea, Formosa and Thailand. The well-being of the Vietnamese is a secondary concern. They must serve our purpose-the military containment of Peking. That is the objective, and it is nonnegotiable. We therefore cannot, Secretary Rusk Informed the SEATO conference in Australia the end of June (and later told Congressman FRANK HoRTow [R., N.Y.] on TV), permit the Viet Cong to be formally admitted to a peace con- ference: that would give them a veto on a settlement; they might haggle over terms, whereas what Mr. Rusk and the President really want is unconditional surrender. When the bombing of North Vietnam be- gan in February last year, the Pentagon stated that the rate of infiltration from North to South was about 1,600 men a month; air ,strikes, so the logic then ran, would halt or slow down this infiltration. After 15 months of constant pounding from the air, the infiltration rate is said to have tripled to 4,600-5,500 men a nionth, and the jungle tracks, according to the President, have become "boulevards." Therefore, the original justification had to be discarded and another found. It was. In his July 6 press conference, Mr. Johnson acknowledged that: "We do not say that [the raids] will even reduce it [infiltration]," but they will make life "more difficult" for the enemy. And so they will. We have been seeing, week after week, where such logic leads us. The estimate of Peter Arnett, who has been reporting from Vietnam for the Associated Press since 1962, is that by bombing the North and pouring American, Korean and Australian troops into the South, "we can beat the major units of the enemy," but "in so doing, we make very little impact on the other two levels of the war." By "the other two levels of the war," Arnett means the battles of,the "very tired" Vietnamese army against "local, homegrown" Viet Cong battalions; and the battles of local militia forces against Viet Cong guerrillas in the mountains, In the Mekong Delta rice fields, and along the highly populated coastal plains. It is at this third level that "the real blood of Vietnam is seeping away," and also "at this -level the war could continue in- definitely." The Viet Cong can go on fighting as guerrillas for a long, long time. American forces, who are "beginning to bear the brunt," according to Arnett, are waging war on the enemy units with vastly superior air power, modern artillery and such refinements as the "cluster bomb unit" that shoots out both napalm and hand grenades. But he warns that in order to destroy the main enemy units, the US will have to double its forces; "certainly at least twice as many as are here now will be needed." And, he adds, "it will also probably mean the de- struction of much of Vietnam-both North and South. As the war grows, the destruc- tion Is getting very considerable over the countryside. Villages are being devastated as a matter of course." The end of this road is genocide, with no one left with whom one need negotiate. Arnett is a top-flight reporter, but he is not a professional soldier. General Ben Stern- berg Is. Commander of the 101st Airborne, he recently returned from 26 months in Viet- nam, where he served on General Westmore- land's staff. General Sternberg sees "no sta- bilization of the military regime, at least in the near future"; he thinks Premier Ky even- tually "will have to go," but "civilian govern- ment is not possible in South Vietnam now." He believes that 500,000 more US troops are needed In Vietnam-a total of about 800,- 000-to seal off infiltration and supplies from the North. But first, the gamble of victory through air power must be played out, with doubled and redoubled bets, even though the systematic destruction from the air of North Vietnam, as Richard N. Goodwin, former Special As- sistant to both Presidents Kennedy and Johnson has pointed out, is more likely to pressure the North into sending into battle its 300,000-man army, instead of the 12 North Vietnamese regiments thus far engaged. This In turn would bring a million or more GIs into the war and make it very tempting to consider landing US troops in the North. Politicians in both parties meanwhile press the President to "get it over with," hit harder and more often-and hope that a fist In the face of the North will not provoke too brutal a counterpunch. At the moment, official Washington is rather complacent about the danger of Chinese intervention, believing that Peking has enough troubles without borrowing more. It is a hazardous assump- tion in view of the history of our entrap- ment in Vietnam, a history that is littered with miscalculation. Who could have foreseen it? The Great Society exponent, the practitioner of com- mon sense, compromise and consensus, has become The War President-sworn to prevent Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 August 2, 1966 ;~ '-- CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE :E7143 school system, or for a better salary, even citizens. I know that I speak for this She also was president of the Hospital's wom- though this was not the intention of the entire body in extending to her family y. teacher when he enrolled for the course or S' g en's auxiliar courses involved. I also take exception to our words of sincere sympathy. Mrs. Abel has been president of the Lin- this interpretation. Teachers should be able Mr. President, I wish to extend my re- Coln Branch of the American Assn. If Uni- to have considerable latitude in the edifca- marks by including the account of Mrs, versity Women, Parent-Teachers Assn. and tional means they choose to improve their Abel's death which a Native Sons and Daughters of Nebraska. teaching, regardless of the ob consequences, in the She was also a key leader in the Nebraska J Omaha World Herald and the LinChe League of Women Voters, the Lincoln YWCA, good or bad, of such additional work on their journal. Both articles were published Lincoln Camp Fire Girls, Lincoln Girl scout part. I strongly urge that these portions of the on July 31, 1966. Council, National Board of Camp Fire Girls, proposed changes in the regulations be elim- These being no objection, the articles and the Women's Division of the Lincoln inated, and also request that youdevelop re were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, Chamber of Commerce. ulations which will allow teachers to claim Sur P. as follows: coin, ln; four four iudaughters, a sonMiss, Alice George Abel el of of Lin- all legitimate educational and other related MRS. HAZEL ABEL DIES; STATE LEADER ghter Lin- expenses they incur. Mrs. Hazel Abel, 78, of Lincoln, whose sue- coin, mss' Harry (Helen) ltaen Gene (Hazel) genlof San of Diego, Sincerely yours, cessful business and political careers were alf Mrs. France; RALPH W. YARBOROUGH. Calif., and Ann Abel of Nice, Dapped with a term In the U.B. Sesnate, died a brother, Eugene Hempel of San Bernadinonadino, Saturday night at a Lincoln hospital. Calif.; a sister, Mrs. A. J. Sistek of Omaha; THE LATE FORMER SENATOR HAZEL foSsev had drepor.tedly been at the hospital and seven grandchildren. Services A$EL, OF NEBRASKA M r rs. Abel was elected at a 19154 general Mortuary. are pending at Roper and. Sons' Mr. CURTIS. Mr. President, I wish to election to fill the two months unexpired Sp Mr concerning a former Member to Senate term of the late Dwight Griswold, DEATH TAKES EX-SENATOR HAZEL ABEL- this body, Senator Hazel Abel, who died former Nebraska governor. NEBRASKAN, ALSO ONCE MOTHER OF YEAR ory Nebraska III a Lincoln, Nebr., hospital on Satur- thShthird in first be elected to the day, July 30, Nebr., Hazel Abel, the only woman elected 1966. U.S. Senate. to the United States Senate from Nebraska, Senator Abel's service in this body was Her other political venture was a cam- died here Saturday evening at the age of 78. short, but it was impressive. She had paign for governor in 1960, when she finished Mrs. Abel was the widow of George P. a broad grasp of public questions. She second in the Republican gubernatorial Abel. After he died in 1936, she became pobrossed a very keen mind, and she was primary.( president of the Abel Construction Com- rep Possessedative y everything miixig that is fine Following this defeat, she never became pany, a post she held until her son, George and esen at our of every active in Nebraska politics. P. Abel, Jr., assumed it in 1951. Senator Dwight Griswold, of Nebraska, MOTHER of YEAR Among her other honors was her selection died in the spring of 1954. Senator Abel Named American Mother of 1357, Mrs, as Ameriaan Mother of the Year in 1957. was elected to fill out the unexpired term seAel rvice oawardv olth theeaNa the di Sons and She was also Nebraska Mother of the Year on November 2, 1954. She received Daughters of Nebraska and in 19511 the Ne- that year. 233,589 votes as against the Democratic BORN IN PLA ssTII braska Distinguished Citizen Award from A third-generation NNeebraskan, she was candidate who received 170,823 votes. Nebraska Wesleyan. bron in Plattsmouth on July 10, 1888, daugh- ction will be remembered by She was chairman of the board of Abel In- ter of a Burlington Railroad employe, Charles That many election ter serving s . It wathree U ^oa_ the Abel Construction Co. from 1916 to 1936 in the Civil War. ators. My senior Collea and president from 1936 to 1951. She had She was graduated' from Omaha High gue, Senator also been president of the George Philip Abel School (now Omaha Central High) In 1904 ROMAN HRUSKA, was elected to fill the Memorial Foundation. unexpired term of 4 years plus of the In May, 1958, she was elected vice president wat age of . The ould not lace pt her at University th that age, Nebsoraskashe late Senator Hugh Butler. In addition of the American Mothers Committee. waited a to Senator Abel and Senator HRUSKA, I During that month, she was named to the years. year and then graduated in throe wag elected to the U.S. Senate on that resolutions committee for the 10th biennial She was a high school principal at P'apil- day for a full 6-year term. convention of the National Federation of Re- lion, Ashland and Crete and taught mettho- Mr. President, all of NPhrecbo ?a Publican Women. She was Nebraska nrw.ci_ many, tuvaoi,s owe a In July, 1958, she accepted chairmanship great debt of gratitude to M Abe r . l for of the fund-raising campaign for the con- SUCCEEDED EVE BOWRING her generosity, her help, and her lead- struction of the W. K. Kellogg Center at She served as secretary of the Abel Con- ership. I, as an individual, am greatly the University of Nebraska. struction Company from 1916 until :1936. Indebted to her. She was helpful to me She was chairman of the 1958 Governor's Later she was chairman of the board of the 111 many Ways, and she resigned her seat Commence for Youth and a delegate to the Abel Investment Company and president of in the U.S. Senate effective at the end White House Conference on Education. the George P. Abel Memorial Foundation. of the day of December 31, 1954, so that I STATE CHAIRMAN In the fall of 1954, she was elected to might become Nebraska's Senator on Mrs. Abel was state chairman of the Coin- Senator serve the Dwight unexpired Griswold, months of the term January 1, 1955. mittee working - for the Juvenile Court spring. an who died that Amendmelit and vice president of the Lin- spAs the first woman elected to font Senator Abel was a distinguished buss- coin Centennial. cress from Nebraska, she succeeded the first nesswoman. She was prominent as a She had been a member of boards of di- Eve - woman Bowr represent the state in Congress civic leader. She was a philanthropist. rectors for Doane College, Hastings College ed wh was ap ing of en Mr. Merriman, who was ap- She helped many individuals and many and Nebraska Wesleyan University. pointed when Mr. Griswold died. causes that were never publicized. Hos- The Plattsmouth native had also been a CENSURED M'CARTHY pitals, colleges and universities, churches, former member of the First-Plymouth Con- Mrs. Abel resigned on December 31, 1954, and a multitude of gregational Church board of trustees. allowing CARL CURTIS, who had been elected I W Youth orthy individuals organizations were the recipient of She enrolled at the University of Nebraska to the seat for a full term, to be a Ppointed Mrs. Abel's time, 'ls wer, she mono at the age of 15, graduating in 1908 with a a few days before other freshmen Sena ors y major In Mathematics, a B.A. degree and a began to serve, thus gaining in seniority. 1957ashellwasrAmericano MoMrs. ther of the teacher's years before her marriage to George campaign. For r0 Mrs. Abel had supported Mr. CURTIS In his Year. In the same year she received the P. Abel she taught in several Nebraska sec- Probably her most important act as a Sen- Distinguished Service Award of the Na- ondary schools. tive After her marriage e( was vote for the motion censure SOI1S and Daughters of Nebraska. in 1918. Mr. and Mrs. Senator Joseph McCarthy (Rep., , Wis.). She In 1958 she received the Distinguished Abel moved to Lincoln into the house in made a Citizen Award from Nebraska Wesleyan. which Mrs. Abel lived until her death. minute" opoint of "every single f debate ran the to censure motion The University of Nebraska gave her a For many years Mrs. Abel had been on and was the first Senator to vote on it. He- Distinguished Service Award in 1944 and the board of directors and executive! com- braska's other Senator, ROMAN HRUSKA, voi:ed an honorary doctorate degree was given mittees of the community chest and Red against it. to her by Doane College in 1955? SUPPORTED EISENHOWER Me. byeoane, Nebraska 95 the Na- HOSPITAL POSTS In 1956, she was' chairman of Nebraska's and She was also a director of Lincoln General delegation to the Republican National Con- tiop has indeed lost one of its stalwart, Ho?pital, .and Ypr pile year was president. vention, where she supported President Approved For Release 2005/06/29-: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 August 2, 19'66 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE at any cost one set of Vietnamese (unfriend- ly, we have guaranteed that) from overcom- ing other Vietnamese (who could not hold power without us). A PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER WRITES OF VIETNAM Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, in the considerable volume of mail which I have recently received concerning Vietnam, one letter in particular has appealed to me as deserving of wider attention. This is a letter which came to' me, handwritten on the thin paper of an overseas self-mailer letter sheet, from a Peace Corps volunteer living and working in a southeast Asian country. From the standpoint of a dedicated. person, con- cerned with improving the living condi- tions of the underprivileged in another land, the writer looks at our,actions in Vietnam. Our escalation-and in this there is indication that many others in the Peace Corps have similar feelings- is seen as an embarrassment which un- dermines the work and morale of this Peace Corps worker. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that the contents of the letter to which I refer may appear in the CON- GRESSIONAL RECORD. There being no objection, the letter was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: JULY 15, 1966. Senator VANCE HARTKE, Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR. MR. HARTKE: I do not know how to adequately express my vast indignation and shame for the pathetic atrocity of our posi- tion In Viet Nam. Continual escalation, such as was recently carried out on Hanoi and Haiphong, capnot from this vantage point be interpreted as anything but an arro- gant and childish show of force. The ques- tion of who the real aggressor is, could, I be- lieve, stand some clarification. I am not deluded into thinking that the protestations of a few, or even very many, people, will have any effect upon the dognatic and power-opulent men in the State De- partment, Pentagon, and White House. How- ever, I would be pleased to add my name to a list of 12,000 Peace Corps Volunteers who would commit themselves to leave their countries of assignment unless something is soon done about the embarassing escalation. Although such an action may be slightly radical, r feel it could be one of the few ade- quate means of significant protest. Sincerely, BUSINESS The PRESIDING OFFICER, further morning business? morning business is closed. Is there If not, THE AIRLINES LABOR DISPUTE , Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Senate Proceed to the consideration of the un- finished business. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Pur- suant to the previous order, the Chair lays before the Senate the pending busi- ness, which the clerk will report. The L4EGISLATIVE CLERK. A joint reso- lutloii (S.J. Res. 186) to provide for,the Approved settlement of the labor dispute currently existing between certain air carriers and certain of their employees, and for other purposes. The Senate proceeded to consider the joint resolution. Mr. CLARK obtained the floor, Mr. MORSE and Mr. MANSFIELD addressed the Chair. Mr. CLARK. Mr. President, I shall yield first to the majority leader and then to the senior Senator from Oregon CMr. MORSE]. Mr. MANSFIELD. I was going to suggest the absence of a quorum. Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, the Sen- ator's resolution is the pending business, and I, by way of an amendment In the nature of a substitute, wish to send to the desk a substitute. Mr. CLARK. To be called up later? Mr. MORSE. To be called up later. Mr. CLARK. Mr. President. I yield for n- Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I will can strike, as in earlier strikes of the five have copies of my substitute shortly for airlines, was for a period of 60 days. the Members of the Senate. This is the The resolution recites that this strike first copy that I have obtained from the "threatens substantially to interrupt in- typewriters and the Mimeograph ma- terstate commerce to a degree such as chine. I send to the desk for myself and to deprive any section of the country of certain other Senators, whose names I essential transportation services." Those will announce to the Senate shortly- are the words of art used in the Railway there will be several Senators joining me Labor Act. A finding to this effect is in offering this measure as a substitute; a prerequisite to an order under the I do not have their names on it yet and Railway Labor Act. I would like to have it in printed form- The resolution finds, on behalf of Con- an amendment to Senate Joint Resolu- gress, that emergency measures are es- t ' 186 ' t h f ion n e orm of a substitute. Mr. CLARK. Mr. President, I now yield to the majority leader [Mr. MANS- FIELD], with the understanding that I shall not lose my right to the floor. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I suggest the absence of a quorum. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there objection to the Senator from Pennsyl- vania [Mr. CLARK] yielding the floor for that purpose? Without objection, it is so ordered. The clerk will call the roll. The legislative clerk proceeded to call the roll. Mr. CLARK. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the order for the quorum call be rescinded. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. Mr. CLARK. Mr. President, it is my understanding that our Republican col- leagues have a luncheon in progress, which probably is due to end soon. Since there are no Republicans here on the floor as this important legislation is about to be considered, I am going to suggest the 17145 day from the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare by a final vote of 10 to 6. The joint resolution provides the mechanism for the settlement of the labor dispute currently existing between certain air carriers and their employees. First, let me briefly describe the measure which resulted after long and arduous consideration by the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. The committee, over a period of 5 days, discussed, in con- siderable depth, the airline strike and what, if anything, to do about it. The joint resolution recites that there is a strike called by the machinists' un- ion, which represents employees of East- ern, National, Northwest, Trans World, and United Air Lines. Machinists on a sixth airline, American, also voted to strike, but were restrained from doing so by a Presidential finding that such a strike would substantially interrupt in- terstate commerce, the order issued u tends for a period, not to exceed 180 days, the time during which no strike or lockout will be permitted. In the measure as reported, the President is given discretion to invoke this new au- thority. He is also given discretion as to whether he wishes to break that 180-day period up into one or more segments, but in no event may the period exceed 180 days. Roughly speaking, this would result in the authority expiring about the 1st of February of next year. The resolution then gives the Presi- dent permissive, not mandatory, author- ity to appoint a special Airlin Dispute Board, which shall attempt t~ediate the dispute between the parties. It also provides that any wage settlement even- tually entered into should be retroac- tive to January 1, 1966. Section 6 of the joint resolution pro- vides that if, prior to the settlement of the present dispute between the five air- absence of a quorum. I am no t going to line carriers and their employees, a dis- a b a run vary long, but I will ask going to pute affecting any other air carrier, such let advise the as American Airlines, shall in the judg- on the Republican, llong side w to substan Republican Senators that the bill is about ment of the President threaten mmerc - up. tially to interrupt interstate commerce, to. be called I suggest the absence of a quorum. the President can by Executive order in- The PRESIDING OFFICER. The elude such an airline and its employees clerk will call the roll. in the directive forbidding a strike or The assistant legislative clerk lockout for a period short Of the 180 pro- days. ceeded to call the roll. Injunctive relief is by the Mr. CLARK, Mr. President, I ask resolution, and the provided of the unanimous consent that the order for the provisions Norris-LaGuardia. Act are waived. quorum call be rescinded. Those are the essential provisions of The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without the committee measure. I shall now objection, it is so ordered. briefly explain the background which re- Mr. CLARK. Mr. President, Senate sulted in this proposed legislation having Joint Resolution,186 was reported yester- been brought, to the floor of the Senate. For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 17146 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE At guk- 2, 1966 The five airlines to which I have re- Those recomlgendations form. the frame- interstate commerce .today, 94 percent of ferred represent more than 60 percent of work for a rust and prompt sttlement, it is by other than aircraft. That traffic which is in the national interest. has not been interrupted-89.5 percent the a red dames In ass I t r tic ris e n er air miles. The Industry. Inn- as The union rejected the report. The of the travel was by automobile,. includ- ternational sociation of Machinists carriers accepted it as the basis for ing truck-2.6 percent was by bus. Two represents some 35,000 employees who negotiation. percent was by railroads, and only 5.9 are on strike. Those employees are pri- On July 8 the union called a strike percent was by domestic air carriers. x arily mechanics, ramp and store, flight and the men left their jobs. They are Those are the figures for passenger in- kitchen, dining service, plant protection, still out today, on August 2, almost a terstate travel. and related classification employees. month later. With regard to freight, less than one- The controversy with which we are The process of collective bargaining, tenth of 1 percent of all domestic inter- dealing began on August 9-almost a so much respected by all of us as a basic city freight traveled by air. year ago.-when an agreement was en- precept-a basic right, if you will--in In my judgment one cannot fail to con- tered into between the carriers and their management-labor affairs has thus been elude, that disruption of the relatively employees establishing a procedure for operating since August of last year in- small amount of air traffic does not con- joint negotiations between the five air- eluding the month since the strike stitute a national emergency threaten- lines and the employees of each airline. started. ing the health and safety of the people I shall not dwell on the intricate ne- On July 22, the senior Senator from of this country, or indeed threatening gotiations which ensued. The National Oregon [Mr. MORSE], the Chairman of the national security. Mediation Board attempted to mediate the Emergency Board-and. one of the It was alleged by at least one member the dispute. On March 18 last, it prof- most competent and skilled labor media- of the committee-and he had some tele- fered arbitration, as authorized by see- tors and arbitrators in the country today, grams from his own State to support tion 8 of the Railway Labor Act. The and certainly the most skillful one among him-that the strike was impeding the carriers accepted arbitration; the union our membership-offered a resolution, war effort in Vietnam and that essential rejected it. Senate Joint Resolution 181, which was material-and transportation of military Then, on April 21 of this year, it being referred to the Committee on Labor and personnel were being slowed down thus apparent that the parties were nowhere Public Welfare for consideration. endangering the military effort. Secre- neara settlement, the President, pursu- A number of other resolutions most of tary Wirtz was very clear that this is ant to the provisions of section 10 of the them authored by our Republican friends not so. I read from his prepared state- Railway Labor Act, created an Emer- were also referred to the Committee on ment before the committee, under the gency Board, and the union withdrew a Labor and Public Welfare. Some called heading "The Military Program": strike notice which it had theretofore for compulsory arbitration. The Department of Defense reports little Issued. The Committee on Labor and Public direct impact upon the movement of mili- Under section 10, no strike or lockout Welfare determined to hold a 1-day hear- tary personnel, except for those service per- was permitted for 60 days after the Pres- ing to explore the desirability of report- sonnel traveling on leave status. idential action in appointing the board. At the inception of the strike arrange- ing legislation to the Senate. That hear- ments were made through the Department 'Note well that It was the President, and ing was held on July 27. Witnesses were of Labor, in cooperation with officials of the 'not Congress, who triggered the 60-day the Secretary of Labor, W. Willard Wirtz, Machinists Union, to provide for the orderly order requiring the men to stay at work. Mr. Curtin, representing the five carriers, and expeditious clearance of all commercial He did so because he found, in the words and Mr. Siemiller, representing the Ma- charter flights requested by the Depart- of the Railway Labor Act, that the strike ehinists Union. ment of Defense. As a result, group move- "threatened substantially to interrupt yesterday morning, in view of other meats of military personnel have been ac- interstate commerce to a degree such as complished with little delay and in numbers critical developments, Secretary Wirtz comparable to those transported by com- to deprive any section of the country of came back and was examined by mem- mercial air carriers before the strike began. essential transportation services." " bers of the committee for the better part Thus, the President last April made a of :3 hours. At the hearing a number of The Defense Department, speaking finding on his own that a condition matters were clarified, while others were through the Secretary of Labor, made no existed which, under present law, re- not, complaint about the strike so far as his quired him to keep the men at work. There has been a great deal of talk in operations were concerned. He made the same finding 3 or 4 days Congress and in the press as to whether Thus, the committee had no hesita- ago when the American Airlines strike a national emergency exists which justi- tino in accepting the position of Secre- was threatened. The President acting fies congressional intervention in this tary Wirtz that there was not a national in his own discretion has twice within dispute. emergency which would threaten the recent months taken action to prevent The phrase "national emergency' health and safety of the counry. How- the men from walking off the job. comes from the Taft-Bartley Act and has ever, the Secretary testified that if the The president appointed a distin- reference to a condition in which the strike continued indefinitely, conditions guished Board of three, chaired by our national health. and welfare are adversely might change. He said that there is an colleague, Senator WAYNE MORSE, of Ore- affected by a labor dispute so that the ever-present threat that if the strike gon. The other members were David national security is involved. continues indefinitely, a national emer- Ginsburg, an extremely competent An important point to make is that the gency might well occur. lawyer from Washington, and Richard question of whether a national emergency . Mr. AIKEN. Mr. President, will the Neustadt, a well-known professor of gov- exists has nothing whatever to do with Senator yield? ernment at Harvard University who also whether the Senate should presently act. Mr. CLARK. I shall yield in one mo- served President Kennedy with distinc- The airlines are not under the Taft- ment. tion. Hartley Act, but are under the Railway The Secretary said: The Board filed its report with the Labor Act. The test for, intervention We are confronted with a serious, substan- ~President on June 5. under the Railway Labor Act is not tial adverse impact on the national interest, In my opinion the Senator from Ore- whether there is a national emergency an impact which, however, has not yet gon and his colleagues did an outstand- which threatens the health and safety of brought the country to an emergency stage. tog and statesmanlike job in making the country, but whether the labor dis- However, any prolongation of the current a comprehensive and incisive report of pute, strike or lockout, threatens to in- strike, by increasing the strain on existing services, and by multiplying the current de- the Issues between the parties, and in terrupt substantially interstate com- lays and inconveniences may well bring the recommending terms for a just settle.- merce to a degree such as to deprive Nation to that crisis, emergency stage. went. any section of the country of essential I am happy to yield to the Senator I concur, fully In the statement with transportation services. respect to the report made by the Presi?- Secretary Wirtz testified that no na- from Vermont. dent when he said: tional emergency existed, and he gave Mr. AIKEN. I was just wondering The recommendations of the Hoard reflect some persuasive statistics to cause most what Secretary Wirtz meant by the term committee s h concur does it andhwisdom order of judgment, imaginad;ion, theFor example,oof the trave iin r ach Indefinitely"?o I indicate take that Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 A4072 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX August 2, 1966 They Had Security but Valued Freedom More EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ABRAHAM J. MULTER OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 2, 1966 Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, freedom does not come easily. Men must fight and some must die to secure that free- dom. That is the price that is paid. Many of our citizens today take their freedom for granted. Perhaps these Americans would think twice about their security if they would read about the men who signed the Declaration of In- dependence, and the prices they paid to obtain our freedoms, I commend to the. attention of our colleagues an article by Bishop Joseph M. Harte entitled, "They Had Security .But Valued Freedom More," which ap- peared in the Empire State Mason of July-August 1966. Our troops are fighting and dying right this minute to preserve our free- dom and our security. We owe them our material as well as our moral support. The article follows: THEY HAD SECURITY SUT VALUED FREEDOM MORE (By Bishop Joseph M. Harte, D.D., S.T.D.) You are afforded the high privilege of liv- ing at one of the great times in history. But with privilege comes responsibility. Let me put it like this, with sober startling frank- ness and clarity: It may be that God has entrusted you personally and individually with a particular mission to perform. It may make a difference to all eternity what you do! In the differing days ahead for each of you, there will be problems. Let no one try to tell you that life is meant to be easy. Life is not easy, and It is not perfectly ordered. Let me tell you a story. You didn't read this in your history books. I don't know why. And I think it a shame that every .American citizen doesn't know what hap- pened to the inspired men who risked every- thing at the time of our Nation's history when the Declaration of Independence was signed. Five signers were captured by the British as traitors, and were tortured before they died. Twelve had their homes ransacked and burned. Two lost sons in the Revolutionary Army, another had two sons captured. Nine of the 58 fought and died from wounds or the hardships of the Revolutionary War. What kind of men were they? Twenty-four were lawyers and jurists. Eleven were merchants, nine were farmers and largo plantation owners, men of means, well-educated. These men were not swept up in any delusion of security or comfort. They signed the Declaration of Independ- ence knowing full well that the penalty would be death if they were captured. They really did pledge their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor. Carter Braxton of Virginia, a wealthy planter and trader, saw his ships swept from the sea by the British Navy. He sold his home and properties to pay his debts and died in rags. Thomas McKean was so hounded by the British that he was forced to move his family almost constantly r He served in Congress without pay, and his family was kept in hiding. His possessions were taken from him and poverty was his reward. Vandals or soldiers or both, looted the properties of Ellery, Clymer, Walton, Gwin- nett, Heyward, Rutledge, and Middleton. At the battle of Yorktown, Thomas Nelson, Jr., noted that the British General Corn- wallis had taken over his home for head- quarters. He quietly urged General George Washington to open fire, which was done, The home was destroyed and he died bank- rupt. Francis Lewis had his home and properties destroyed. The enemy jailed his wife, and When the American commitment in Vietnam was limited to an advisory one, we were not in a position to deal with prisoners of war, However, having as- sumed a principal military role in the struggle, we should now also accept re- sponsibility for all prisoners whom we capture. When we accept this responsi- bility, we would, of course, comply with the letter and the spirit of the Geneva Lewis Morris was about to sign, when he received word the enemy was at the gates of his Long Island home, but that his prop- erty would be spared if he would withhold his vote for liberty. "There are plenty of homes," he said, but only one country. Somehow we avoid talking about the sac- rifices of the American Revolution. But these were not wild-eyed, rabble-rousing ruffians. They were soft-spoken men of means and education. They had security, but they valued liberty more. Standing tall, straight and unwavering, they pledged: for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our Fortunes, and our EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. BENJAMIN S. ROSENTHAL OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 2, 1966 Mr. ROSENTHAL. Mr. Speaker, I have noted with interest and relief Ho Chi Minh's recent statement concern- ing the treatment of American prisoners of war. He has reprieved our captured airmen for the present, but his pro- nouncement does not. in any way guar- antee their futures. I have, therefore, introduced today a resolution indicating that the sense of the Congress and the American people is firm on insisting that humane treat- ment be accorded our captured soldiers now and in the future. As signatories to the Geneva Convention of 1949, the Gov- ernment of North Vietnam should abide by the provisions in the agreement con- cerning prisoners of war. Any violation of accepted codes of international be- havior in this regard would be inhumane, and would tend to estrange North Viet- nam from the family of nations. Fur- ther, improper treatment of American prisoners of war justifiably arouses the anger of the American people thus damaging the prospects of ending hos- tilities. Unfortunately, the issue of proper con- sideration of prisoners of war is not as clear as we might desire. In the Wash- ington Post of August 1, Joseph Kraft astutely comments on the difficult posi- tion of the United States vis a vis cap- tured North Vietnamese troops. Cur- rently the United States turns over to the South Vietnamese all North Viet- namese prisoners taken by American forces. Our South Vietnamese allies have themselves often been accused of inhumane treatment of such prisoners. national Red Cross should be permitted to inspect all existing detention facilities in the South and to otherwise carry out their obligations to prisoners. Their re- ports should be made public and sub- mitted to the International Control Com- mission. In return for such considera- tion of North Vietnamese prisoners, it is hoped that North Vietnam will take equivalent humanitarian steps for their prisoners. It is my hope that my colleagues in this Congress will support the President in his endeavors to explore all possible channels leading to the humane treat- ment of prisoners on both sides. Justice and humane consideration for these in- dividuals is an essential part of our ef- forts to establish groundwork for nego- tiations in an atmosphere of trust and mutual respect. Civil Rights and Riots EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. EDWARD J. DERWINSKI OF ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 2, 1966 Mr. DERWINSKI. Mr. Speaker, as we continue in the second week of de- bate on civil rights, we are troubled by the expanding riots across the country; and, naturally, ask for the reason. Two very frank, timely newspaper commen- taries written on this subject caught my eye. I would like to insert the follow- ing editorials from the August 1 edition of the Chicago Tribune and the August l edition of the Evening Star: [From the Washington Evening Star, Aug, 1, 1966) THE RIOTS AND THE WAR Floyd B. McKissick, national director of CORE, says President Johnson's policies in Viet Nam have caused "widespread frustra- tion and anger in the ghettos," and that this may have contributed to the recent rioting, vandalism and looting by Negroes in the big cities. Perhaps so, although the more familiar statement of reasons for the riots runs to resentment of such things as the "white power structure," "police brutality," slum housing, lack of job opportunities and so on. If there is any basis for Mr. McKissick's belief, however, it is also a fact that his ap- praisal of the Negro mood in the ghettos stands in noteworthy contrast to Whitney Young's evaluation of the attitude of Negro soldiers actually fighting In Viet Nam. After an extensive tour of the combat areas, the executive director of the Urban League said on Saturday that morale among Negro servicemen there is high. "In addition to such things as patriotism," Mr. Young told Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 CIA-RDP67B00446R00040010002'1-4 August 2, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL, RECORD -APPENDIX Milk is scheduled to go up in price an- other, cent a quart today, butter and eggs are st high levels after sharp price rises and bread Is at a record. price of 30 cents a pound .loaf. Mr. Bearing told a television audience in an appearance on WNBC--TV's "Direct Line" show that the first item on the agenda of the supermarket committee was an inquiry into why prices vary between one food chain outlet and another. Complaints to the city's Markets Depart- ment have pointed out that not only do prices vary between one outlet and another, but within the same chain they sometimes tend to be cheaper in "silk-stocking" neigh- borhoods and higher in slums. Mr. Rearing said in an interview after his television appearance that such differences sometimes reflected different competitive conditions but that he also suspected that they sometimes reflected a difference in con- sumer reaction to higher prices. "We try to publicize prices so housewives will know what prices to expect and will resist paying prices higher than the market," he said. "We don't organize anything like boycotts, but we do try to get consumers to buy sub- stitute items which are a bargain. and leave the high-priced items alone." The Commissioner said that a municipal agency was limited in its legal powers for fighting excessive prices but that he hoped to make consumer education an effective weapon in moderating the price rises. Apart from dealing with consumer com- plaints, such as the variation of prices be- tween outlets of a single chain, the com- mittee will seek to aid the consumer to com- bat rising prices by intelligent shopping, he explained. On the committee, the Commissioner re- ported. are representatives of all food chains operating stores and supermarkets in the city. Education of consumers can be achieved through newspaper advertisting and point- of-sale information in posters in supermar- kets, he said. With the variety of goods in stock in supermarkets, the possibilities for substituting lower-priced commodities for higher-priced items were greater, he pointed, out. "If housewives would switch from the large white Grade A eggs most of them buy to medium eggs, white or brown, which are a bargain right now, they would get more egg for their money and the price of the large would be more reasonable," he said. "Any time mediums sell for 7 or 8 cents a dozen below the large, they're a bargain. Right now mediums are selling for 20 cents a dozen less," he added. But for the family with children, substitu- tion is no solution to the problem of rising milk prices, he said. Once they could switch to powdered milk, but now, he pointed out, prices of powdered milk have risen in the same proportion as liquid milk. "The creameries and the distributors of milk, and the bakeries in the case of bread haven't given the consumer a satisfactory explanation of the rising prices," Mr. Kearing said. "They claim higher farm prices are respon- sible. But if they are, milk should have gone up 11/4 cents a quart, not 3 cents, and bread should have gone up half a cent a pound, not 2 cents." Commissioner Searing said he suspected there was collusion in the case of the milk price. In May, he pointed out, he turned over to the United States Attorney's office affidavits from dealers stating that they were subjected to. trade pressure when they sought to sell milk at a penny or so below the prevailing price. But the antitrust division of the Department of Justice, which has been investigating, has not indicated that any action can be taken, he said. "When prices cluster around the average as they do with milk," he continued, "it cer- tainly argues that there is an explicit price understanding in the trade." NO CONCRETE EVIDENCE But his inspectors have not been able to turn up any concrete evidence of collusive price fixing', he said. He pointed out that some farm prices that went up had been abnormally low and that milk prices have been affected by the reduction of herds and of producers. Also some produce prices have been affected by drought. But this does not explain why bread is at an all-time high, the Commissioner said, since wheat and other materials account for less than 20 per cent of production cost. One glaring omission in public policy is the failure of the Federal Government to have the consumer interest represented when the Department of Agriculture works up Federal farm price programs, Mr. Rearing said, These are producer-dominated, he believed, Asked if Mrs. Esther Peterson, the Presi- dent's consumer counsel, was not supposed to represent consumer Interest, he said that Mrs. Peterson was concerned with developing consumer protection programs and had no effective voice in food price policy. Introduction of Legislation To Estab- lish the Sheep Mountain National Monument EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. TENO RONCALIO OF WYOMING IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 2, 1966 Mr. RONCALIO. Mr. Speaker, north- western Wyoming contains a complex of physiographic features of exceptional scenic and recreational value, some of which are of great scientific interest. Here, in the Middle Rocky Mountain province of the Rocky Mountain physio- graphic division, Sheep Mountain lies in the depression of the Bighorn Basin sur- rounded by mountains and plateaus. Sheep Mountain Is an impressive sight, rising some 1,000 feet above the immedi- ately surrounding and relatively low- lying country. The sides of the moun- tain reveal successive layers of multi- colored rock, beginning at the bottom with a gray limestone of Mississippian Age, continuing with bright red sand- stone of the Triassic Period through green arid yellow shales of the Jurassic, and ending in rather dark and drab Cretaceous sediments. The Bighorn River, as it flows northward through the Bighorn Basin, has cut a deep canyon directly across Sheep Mountain. This deep, narrow canyon provides a natural trench or cross section across the moun- tain in which one may view the structure of the rocks. The structure of the mountain as clearly shown in the canyon Is that of a relatively large upfold of bedded sedi- mentary rocks. The upfold, or anticline, is convex upward and both limbs or sides of the fold dip away from one another in opposite directions. Walking through the canyon, one can readily trace indi- A4071 vidual strata or beds from one side of the fold to the other. This anticline, which can be so easily traced both at the surface and in cross section at the canyon, represents one of the principal types of structures formed during moun- tain-building movements, which add to the construction of the landscape. Equally obvious in the vicinity of Sheep Mountain are the results of erosion which, through the action of wind and water, cause destruction of the landscape of the fold on the sides of the mountain. observe that sedimentary rock layers, which once were continuous over the fold, have been worn away and only their truncated beds are found on each limb of the fold on the sides of the mountain. The mountain owes its topographic ex- pression to a very resistant sequence of beds which are now exposed over most of the crest of the fold. Erosive forces active even today can be seen at work destroying this fold which was formed millions of years ago, Numerous heart-shaped patches are cut through the resistant beds on the mountain and mark the sites of inter- mittent streams which during flash storms carry water and cut ever deeper into the core of the fold, exposing older rocks to erosion. Gravity, along with water runoff, causes the endless down- ward movement of rock fragments and particles to the flanks of the fold. The Bighorn River, while cutting the canyon ever deeper across the fold, carries off particles and fragments that have moved downslope from the mountain itself. All these processes of destruction act very slowly, but they have greatly reduced the original size of the fold over the millions of years since its formation. Sheep Mountain thus represents an unusual exposure of a breached, topo- graphically expressed anticline where the results of both the constructive and de- structive forces that shape the face of the earth can be easily observed. This area presents such excellent possibilities for depicting many significant geologic proc- esses that Sheep Mountain has been cited in Life magazine in the series "The World We Live In" and in college histor- ical geology textbooks. The area has been mapped, geologically, by the U.S. Geological Survey. In addition, Sheep Mountain has been visited by numerous oil company geologists making detailed stratigraphic studies and by students from many universities across the coun- try in connection with summer field studies. Today, Mr. Speaker, it is my pleasure to introduce legislation designed to estab- lish Sheep Mountain as a National Monu- ment in the State of Wyoming. This proposed legislation would pre- serve this site for the benefit and enjoy- ment of present and future generations and would provide another link in this historic and scenic chain of Teton Na- tional Park, Yellowstone National Park, Bighorn National Recreation Area, Cus- ters Battlefield National Monument, Devils Tower National Monument, the Black Hills, and Mount Rushmore. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 August 2, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL, RECORD - APPENDIX Overcrowding at National Airport EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. SAMUEL N. FRIEDEL OF MARYLAND IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 2, 1966 Mr. FRIEDEL. Mr. Speaker, two re- cent editorials in the Washington Post point out clearly the dangers of over- crowding at Washington National Air- port. Without advocating the resump- tion of the ban on jets at National-and it may be that this is the only real solu- tion-I have urged airline officials, the Federal Aviation Agency, and the Civil Aeronautics Board, to divert this jet traffic away from the densely populated urban areas that surround National. Friendship and Dulles were planned in sparcely populated areas to lessen the danger to residents, and to limit the noise factor associated with jets to rural areas. I am sure we can all recall what hap- pened in Buckroe Beach, Va., just a short time ago when a military trainer crashed and devastated a block of homes. I do not want to hang black crepe. But I do want to stress the hor- ror of such a possibility right here in this area. As members of the highest delibera- tive body in our country, as leaders in our own communities, as men capable of thinking through problems and antici- pating ramifications, we cannot close our eyes to the serious threat being per- petrated just across the river by this senseless overcrowding. It has even been rumored that we should open Boll- ing and Andrews to take care of some of this jet traffic, because of their longer runways.. The plain truth, gentlemen, is that there is only a limited amount of air space above our Capitol and longer runways is not going to be the solution. We have Friendship and Dulles air- ports, both underused and capable of increasing the volume of traffic they now handle. The other day I intro- duced a bill to authorize a comprehen- sive study of rapid ground transporta- tion linking these airports to the down- -town areas of Baltimore and Washing- -ton. As thinking men and responsible citizens, we must find a solution before It is to late. At this point, I would like to share these editorials from the Washington Post with my colleagues and with per- -nission granted I insert them in the RECORD at this point: !From the Washington (D.C.) Post, July 28, 1966} TRAFFIC AT NATIONAL The Federal Aviation Agency, batted back .nd forth like a shuttle-cock between the .irlines and Midwest members of the con- :ressional Tuesday to Thursday club, has is- -ued a new order limiting flights at Wash- ngton National Airport. It provides no permanent solution either Dr National or for the air traffic pattern of _iis area. The new order will impose a limit e 40 operations an hour. This is four less -ian the volume, desired by the airlines. nd, of course, it abandons the 500 mile limit and permits several schedules in excess of 650 miles. The daily operations will be limited to 600. Without the limitations, according to FAA, the number would have risen to 760. Within the instrument limit of 60 an hour there can be 40 airlines operations, 16 general aviation operations and four air-taxi flights. If the airlines can agree on the allocation of the available operations-and they have not done so yet-the volume will exceed the amount of traffic that ought to be allowed in and out of National. This amount of busi- ness still will overburden the facilities at the airport, oppress the residents of the com- munity with an intolerable amount of noise and inconvenience, those who travel by air and those who do not, throughout the met- ropolitan area. The time will arrive when no city will tolerate the risks and hazards of in- creasing traffic over built-up urban areas. This city would not do so if it had self-gov- ernment. Any elected government would promptly close National or limit its use to general aviation and move the airlines to Dulles International Airport, The new rule, no doubt, will move back to National a number of schedules that would go to Dulles under a 500 mile limitation. The finest airport in the world will continue to be only partially utilized. The Conven- ience of Congressmen and airline operators has won out over the comfort, safety and con- venience of citizens. Residents of the Dis- trict are not totally without means of show- ing their own preference. They cannot vote, but they can "vote with their feet" by using the services available at Dulles International Airport and Friendship Airport. The last word has not yet been said on Washington National Airport. Sooner or later, the great volume of Washington traffic will be moved to an airport that is convenient, comfort- able, commodious and safe. [From the Washington (D.C.) Post, July 22, 19661 BAN THE JETS The Federal Aviation Agency is being so unmercifully pressured by Congress and by the airlines industry to relax current re- strictions on jet use of National Airport that it ought to reconsider the decison which opened National to jet use on April 24. The initial decision of General William McKee was commended by this newspaper. But the commendation rested on the as- sumption that jet traffic could be kept by regulation at a level consistent with the convenience, comfort and safety of the com- munity. As soon as any jet traffic became possible the industry proved itself incapable of keeping the volume within reasonable limits without arbitrary Federal controls. And as soon as FAA imposed arbitrary Fed- eral controls, confining National's use to or- iginating and terminating flights of less than 500 miles, the airlines and Congress set up intolerable clamor for alteration. It is pretty clearly indicated by this deplorable experi- ence that the airlines, animated by a passion for volume and Congressmen solely concerned with their own convenience are not going to permit intelligent limitations on jet use, of National. General McKee ought to go back and start all over again, beginning with no jet flights at all into National. The CAA first recommended a second Washington airport in 1949, The demand for another and safer airport was greatly sharpened when, a little later, a Bolivian mil- itary plane collided with a passenger trans- port. The community was frightened at one point by the report of 33 near misses in a year at WNA. Now it is argued that the accelerated traf- fic at National has not brought movements up to the 1969 peak-but the 1959 peak was not satisfactory or safe. And the type of air- craft now involved present greater difficul- A4083 ties than the piston aircraft of 1969. It looks as though neither the airlines nor the Con- gressmen will be content with a limited jet use of National. An unlimited use will im- pose hardships on passengers, as it did a few weeks ago. And ultimately it will in- volve genuine risks to pasengers and to the citizens in the densely populated urban areas that surround National. It will certainly result in delays by stacked aircraft waiting to land and by overcrowded luggage facilities and congested parking conveniences. Of course, many Congressmen are able to escape some of the ground inconveniences by VIP treatment, but rank and file users without congressional prerogatives cannot by-pass these annoyances and delays. The traveling public apart, the citizens of this city have a great stake in the way Na- tional is used. Only some seven per cent of the population ever travels by air. And the non-flying majority of the public has its rights to air space over the great cities. They ought to have a voice in decisions that deluge their communities with sound, blacken them with soot and threaten them with the worst consequences of air disasters involving crashes in built-up regions. All in all, it looks as though the FAA ought to go back to its point of departure-the ban on jets at National in effect before April 4. If FAA is coerced by the pressures of Con- gressmen and airline operators into promot- ing, against its judgment, an unlimited use of National, with all the hazards entailed, it will be a sorry day. The names of those who have pushed FAA into such a capitula- tion ought to be set in standing type in every newspaper in the country, to be held for the day when the inevitable air tragedy oc- curs. And then these names could be promptly and appropriately published along with other "causes" fdr the disaster. 777- Hanoi Risks Brink if It Mistreats U.S. Prisoners EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. JOHN E. MOSS OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, July 12, 1966 Mr. MOSS. Mr. Speaker, a recent Sacramento Bee editorial points out the grave consequences to North Vietnam should the Hanoi government attempt to try American prisoners as war crim- inals. I commend this editorial to the - attention of my colleagues: [From the Sacramento Bee, July 22, 19661 HANOI RISKS BRINK IF IT MISTREATS U.S. 'PRISONERS The threat of North Viet Nam to try American prisoners as criminals poses both a tremendous threat to world peace and the risk to communism of having. Its tactics of aggression exposed for what they really are. The greatest threat is to North Viet Nam, for the United States has left no doubt that the suggested breach of the Geneva conven- tions in force since 1864 will have the gravest consequences. These conventions spell out the obligation of warring nations to accord their enemies humane and healing treat- ment. North Viet Nam has argued that the present strife in Viet Nam is not a war but merely a political struggle into which the United States has illegally intruded itself. The world may be forced finally to con- front the tactics of the Communists and to Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4 Approved For Release 2005/06/29: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021 -4 A4084 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD APPENDIX call them by their right nhme. All over the world for more than two decades the Reds have been seeking to expand their sway by subversion, civil strife and infiltration. Oh, this is not war, they cry, despite the fact the guns sound like war, the dead and dying make it indistinguishable from war and the planes bomb and spray bullets just as they do in war. It is war, all right, but the Reds have hoped to hide behind the technicality of their jargon and their decep- tion to escape the responsibilities of war. In line with their disclaimers of war the Hanoi government has refused the Interna- tional Red Cross access to prisoners, to North Viet Nam territory and to that held by their puppets, the Viet Cong In South Viet Nam. When U Thant, United Nations secretary general, urged "all sides" to comply with the Geneva conventions, he demonstrated that the chief peace enforcement body in the world regards the war in Viet Nam as just that war. Already the North Vietnamese have trundled American prisoners through the streets, just as savage, uncultured nations and barbarians used to do. Hanoi by treating American prisoners like criminals can only unite America against North Viet Nam and shatter all hopes for a negotiated peace. Hanoi may be trading on dissent over Viet Nam within the U.S. Let it treat American prisoners cruelly and it will find it has done more to quell that dissent than anything else could have done. Nations before have underestimated America at the price of their final destruction. One Standard for All EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. THOMAS P. O'NEILL, JR. OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, July 26, 1966 Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. Mr. Speaker, one of the primary concerns of the American people is the quality and effectiveness of modern drugs. The or- gan of the Federal Government respon- sible for policing the drug industry to insure that the drugs which reach the public are safe and effective is the Food and Drug Administration. Its Commis- sioner, Dr. James L. Goddard, is a very competent and highly principled man. He has been working hard to provide the public with the safest and best drugs we can get. On June 8, 1966, he made a speech at the annual meeting and seminar of the Drug & Allied Products Guild in Ellen- ville, N.Y., entitled "One Standard for All." In this speech Dr. Goddard de- clared that only one standard will be used to enforce the law against all the drug companies, big and small alike. He remarked that the Food and Drug Ad- ministration will never interpret the law so as to deliberately stifle research on new drugs. He also discussed the mat- ter of manufacturing practice in which both large and small companies share the burden of an unsatisfactory perform- ance. it is a revealing and informative speech. It clarifies the position of the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Ad- ministration and shows what must be done to provide the people with the best and safest possible drugs. The speech follows: ONE STANDARD FOR ALL (Address by James L. Goddcrd, M.D., Com- missioner of Food and Drugs) As you know, these have been very busy weeks for us at the Food and Drug Adminis- tration. Our friends in Congress have been quite interested in us lately, and this is good. This is as it should be. Yesterday and today we appeared before Representative L. H. FOUNTAIN of North Caro- lina. You are probably familar with the "Fountain Committee." Representative FOUNTAIN Is Chairman of the House Sub- committee on Intergovernmental Relations. He has given us the opportunity on three occasions, since I became Commissioner last January, to lay the facts of our operations before him and the Members of his Sub- committee. Frankly, we welcome this kind of assign- ment. It makes me and my staff take a second, hard look at what we are doing and how we are doing it. I'm sure many of you here this evening have been told by an accountant or treasurer or legal counselor or brother-in-law to take stock of your business situation-to take a look at your books and your inventory and weigh these against the kinds of decisions you've been making. It may be an uncomfortable assignment sometimes. But very good organization-in or out of Government-should go through it at least a couple of times a year. In our case, we have found that our control over Investigational New Drugs has not been all that the public should expect. The rea- sons are many, but I won't bore you. now with a recitation of them. I can tell you, however, that I am not satisfied either with our performance or' with the drug industry's performance in this matter. During this coming fiscal year, and for succeeding years, more of our field staff will routinely review the activities of an increas- ing number of clinical investigators listed by IND sponsors. Our agency needs to have a clearer understanding of what clinical in- vestigators are doing. We intend to get it. We have already brought to light one in- cident in which a research group, regularly used by manufacturers to do clinical research on new drugs, furnished false data to manu- facturers for use in support of IND's. The group worked for 80 different manufacturers, urge and small. We have Issued one notice, proposed with- drawal of an NDA and have asked three other manufacturers to come through with replace- ment data or face the loss of their NDA's, also. Nor does this end the affair. The re- search group-known as Cass Research As- sociates, ?Inc., of Cambridge, Massachusetts- has been in this field since before the passage of Kefauver-Barris. So you can see the prob- lem we are faced with. We will place additional people to work on this problem as of the beginning of fiscal 1967-that is, beginning next month. Let me reinforce this message if I can. I think it is important because of the massive effort industry is putting into new drug re- search. Manufacturers of every size and specialty are investing in the future. In 1955, manufacturers put about 91 mil- lion dollars into research and development for new human ethical products. Ten years later, 1965, the figure climbed to an estimated 317 million dollars for human ethical drugs, with an additional 22 million dollars going to back up the new and growing veterinary ethical market. We are aware, of course, that this vast re- search effort in ethicais is largely due to the increased demand made by the public for more sophisticated, more effective, more care- fully targeted drugs. The public expects the doctor to be able to prescribe such a drug. August 2, 1966 The public is willing to pay for it, whether directly out-of-pocket or indirectly through private or government health insurance. In addition, I think we must recognize that the medical profession itself has been keep- ing up the pressure for more and better products. Therefore, at this time I think it would be appropriate for me to make two flat state- ments that reflect fundamental policy of the Food and Drug Administration as long as I am its Commissioner: First, we will never interpret the law in such a way as to deliberately stifle research on new drugs. Second, we will never use more than one standard in the enforcement of the law and regulations entrusted to us. There may be disagreements between the FDA and Industry on our interpretation of law. There may be disagreements on the standard of enforcement we adopt. But let me emphasize that we wish neither to inhibit research nor discriminate against any single company or group of companies. I believe we can serve the public interest to the fullest extent and still maintain those two fundamental policy positions. I make this point specifically before this group, gentlemen, because I know you may feel your group has problems that are differ- ent from the problems in other groups; bas- ically they are not different, In my opinion. You may recall the message I carried to the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association in April. The audience was comprised of ex- ecutives representing the major pharmaceu- tical companies in the world. My speech was not an easy one to deliver, at it was not easy to receive. But since then I have been encouraged; many leaders in the PMA have said both privately and publicly that they were going to press, for better clinical investigations, better NDA material, a more responsible approach in advertising, and a general lifting of standards throughout the industry. While we have appreciated these senti- ments, we have continued, nevertheless, to carry out the law as the agency sees it. There is, of course, no moratorium. Nor can there be-and I am happy to report that no one has been foolish enough to even ask for one. I have been told, however, that the ap- proach of the Food and Drug Administration is one that favors the big corporation; that our approach demands costly IND work, costly NDA preparation, costly advertising talent; and that on a dollar basis, the FDA is pricing the smaller firm out of the market. Let me answer, first, that we will not en- force the law in a strong manner among large companies and enforce it in a weakened manner among small companies. There is one law and there will be one standard of enforcement: we will not discriminate among companies. Secondly, we all know that there is waste right now in the IND and NDA stages be- cause work presented to us is poorly done. I believe our approach will stimulate better animal work, better clinical work, and the introduction of the same number-or pos- sibly more-really new drugs per year than otherwise. And these drugs will cause their sponsor- ing companies fewer problems in the future, than if our agency relaxed its vigilance at any stage or at any time in the drug develop- ment process. I need not remind this group what a drug withdrawal or recall can cost. And I need not remind you that many of these withdrawals and recalls can be traced back to sloppy work at the IND and NDA stages. Now let me turn to another area which we must discuss candidly. This is the area of manufacturing practice. After all the research effort, after. the clinical work and Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400100021-4