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June 20, 2005
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September 22, 1966
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. 22690 Approved Fo e AfL12 C &~RP6ffift4fPR00040RI~U, gr 22, 1966 Ing about 10 percent of this year's acre- age are expected to be called out of re- serve. Mr. President, the American farmer can supply us with the foods we need in abundance. He can go a long way on the path toward feeding millions in other countries. But the only way he can succeed is by continuing his efficiency. This means he has to have new equipment and machin- ery. And he has to have the incentive. A dairy farmer needs an absolute minimum of $50,000 worth of plant and equipment to begin to realize a decent return. To make what we could call a "good" living, he must have $100,000 or more invested. In the face of this, it seems sheer folly to call upon the farmer for more food and simultaneously revoke the means which would help him produce it. Foor price rises have featured the in- flation. This action will aggravate the food shortage and shove food prices up more. What a way to fight inflation. The Agriculture Department has esti- mated that in its first year of existence, the investment tax credit meant returns to agriculture of about $85 million. That figure probably would be closer to $100 million today. This is less than one-tenth of 1 per- cent of the funds ,asked by the adminis- tration for the fiscal 1967 budget. It is slightly more than one-third the amount the Senate voted to help develop a supersonic plane to reduce the flying time of the jet set from New York to Paris. The income of most American farmers is so low that they pay no income tax, but many of the Nation's most produc- tive, efficient, and hard working farm- ers pay an income tax and need this credit badly. To them this $100 million is a big and critical amount. To take it ,away now would be a serious injustice. While we vote millions to benefit two or three aircraft companies, and a hand- ful of fat cat air travelers, we are being INVESTMENT CREDIT SUSPENSION WOULD TAKE $100 MILLION AN- NUALLY OUT OF POCKETS OF FARMERS Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, I have spoken out a number of times against the proposal to suspend the 7-percent investment tax credit, which has contributed so much to the expan- sion of our Nation's industry and the creation of new jobs. Today, I say to my colleagues that this proposal, if adopted, would seriously hurt another vital sector of our economy-the farmers. The distinguished senior Senator from Kansas [Mr. CARLSON] has made this point, and made it very well. I should like to emphasize it. I have opposed suspending the invest- ment credit because it would not do the job which we need to have done right now. We have inflationary pressures today which could be met by the proper administration action. The results of lifting the investment credit would not show up for at least a year and probably longer. No one can say what the state of the economy will be a year from now. This argument carries even more validity when applied to agriculture. Farmers are making plans for next year. One thing already is clear: They will be called upon for more food production and, at the same time, be denied the incentives that would make higher out- put possible. Our immense surpluses of a decade ago no longer exist. Milk production has declined to 1939 levels. Dairymen still are finding other, more profitable careers and selling their herds. Young people in my State of Wisconsin are less and less willing to risk the hazards of going into dairy farming. The corn crop this year is estimated at about one-half billion bushels below expected demand. Wheat will be short by 100 million or more bushels. Soy- beans, the new wonder crop, will fail to meet demand levels by almost 100 mil- lion bushels. The carryover of all these grai far below minimums established by the Department of Agriculture. The fact that our food production will be as high as it is is good news in one way. Just a few weeks ago, there were growing fears of a general crop failure across the country. Only desperately needed late summer rains averted this catastrophe. Our own population keeps gaining at the rate of one person every 12 seconds. We are committed to help feed the starv- ing millions of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. How can we do this? Only the increased efficiency of the farmer has permitted him to produce the abundance we have enjoyed. But he has been receiving less and less of the national dollar for his efforts. Now, we are asking the farmer to re- new his efforts. We are asking him to increase his wheat acreage and to grow more soybeans. In 1967, croplands total- asl ed to penalize the farmer for trying to grow more food for the millions. LET US AID POPE PAUL AND CON- STANTLY SEEK AN END TO BLOODSHED IN VIETNAM Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President, within the last few days two of the most respected and trusted world leaders have made important statements regarding the urgent necessity for further at- tempts to bring about an end to the mis- erable civil war in Vietnam. Pope Paul VI, in A dramatic appeal for peace, called for an end to the war in Vietnam before it is too late. He again urged a meeting of all responsible parties to negotiate a settlement. He warned that the bloody and difficult war raging in Vietnam threatens a more extensive and more disastrous calamity that could endanger the entire human race. This great man of peace called on men "to lay down their arms at least before it be- comes too late to do so because of the mounting pressure of events." United Nations Secretary General U Thant, in his blunt annual report to the General Assembly of the United Nations, expressed his fear that the way to the peace table in Vietnam will be perma- nently blocked if both sides continue to use the conflict as an ultimate ideologi- cal testing ground. He warned that "the cloud over Vietnam has grown larger and more ominous." Mr. President, historically there are ,no such nations as North Vietnam and South Vietnam. The Geneva agreement recognized that fact, referring to the 17th parallel as being a temporary di- vision or separation of Vietnam. Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam both north and south of the 17th parallel formed the lush French Indochinese colonial em- pire. Throughout the 19th century and part of the 20th century, the people of what was termed Indochina lived as subjects of French colonialism. They fought for national liberation and achieved their freedom following World War II. Following the Japanese with- drawal in 1945, the French sent in more than 200,000 troops to continue their colonial oppression of Indochina. In 1954, the forces of the National Libera- tion Front overran Dienbienphu, and in September of that year the French withdrew. Mr. President, we would do well to heed the advice of Pope Paul VI and Secretary General U Thant. Unpleas- ant as it may be, the time for reappraisal has come, and thoughtful Americans should resolve to be realistic about it. The first step is to cast off the illusion that the civil war in Vietnam represents a final showdown with world commu- nism. As U Thant pointed out so well, the basic problem in Vietnam is not one of ideology but one of national identity and survival. It is a war that millions, of Vietnamese have been fighting since 1940. While the Communists may have captured leadership of the nationalist movement, we must not lose sight of the fact that this is also a continuation of a war of national liberation. The Saigon military junta is composed of 10 gen- erals. Of the 10, 9 of the generals now ruling the Saigon Government fought on the side of the French colonial oppressors in 1953 and 1954 against their own fellow countrymen seeking national liberation. Prime Minister Ky, who was born in Hanoi, was in the French air force as a cadet in training. In other words, in the Vietnam war for liberation they were the tories and the Viet Minh fighting for national liberation were the patriots. We can hardly claim that North Viet- nam threatens our vital existence as a world power. Very definitely, Vietnam is of no strategic importance to the defense of the United States. We must then fall back on the argument that we are de- fending a free people against military aggression. However, at that point we face the embarrassing fact that very few nations in the world accept this as an accurate description of the war. More important is the fact that the great majority of the Vietcong-more than 80 percent fighting in the Mekong Delta- were born and reared in South Vietnam. It is a factually incorrect claim that State Secretary Dean Rusk makes that we are in southeast Asia with our hundreds of Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400110006-0 September 2~.p1r~ d For R~I8 1s8KESSI06NA ~ A7B0S 4 9E 0400110006-0 General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Orga- nization (UNESCO) at its third session in Beirut, Lebanon, in 1948. The agreement was there developed and adopted in its pres- ent textual form and recommended to mem- bers states for signature. A copy of the agreement is contained in the appendix to this report. Your committee is advised that at the pres- ent time the agreement is formally opera- tional in 17 countries. In accordance with its terms, the agreement entered into force on August 12, 1954, when the 10th country commenced formal participation. The U.S. Senate gave advice and consent to ratification of the Beirut agreement on May 26, 1960. Deposit of ratification is be- ing withheld pending enactment of this im- plementing legislation. Upon enactment of this legislation it is expected that the instru- ment of ratification will be deposited with the United Nations. SUMMARY OF THE RESOLUTION'S PROVISIONS House Joint Resolution 688, as passed by the House and agreed to by your committee, would authorize the President to designate a Federal agency or agencies to carry out the provisions of the Beirut Agreement. Your committee was advised that it is expected that the President will designate the U.S. Information Agency to perform this func- tion. This work consists of certifying that outgoing materials are educational, scientific, or cultural, in order to facilitate their free importation into a foreign country. It also involves review of certificates accompanying incoming materials to verify that these ma- terials are educational, scientific,-or cultural, entitled to duty-free treatment in this coun- try. The measure would also authorize other agencies of the Federal Government to fur- nish facilities and personnel for the purpose of assisting the agency or agencies designated by the President in carrying out the provi- sions of the agreement. Section 3(a) of the resolution would add a new provision, item 870.30, to the special classification provisions of the Tariff Sched- ules of the United States to permit free entry for certain specified types of articles which are determined to be visual or auditory ma. terials In accordance with a new headnote to be inserted after the heading to schedule 8, part 6, of the Tariff Schedules. The proposed new headnotes specifies that no article shall be exempted from duty under item 870.30 unless a Federal agency or agencies desig- nated by the President determines that such article is visual or auditory material of an educational, scientific, or cultural character within the meaning of the agreement. The visual and auditory articles, which would be permitted to enter free of duty under the conditions and limitations spe- cified in the new headnote are developed photographic film, including motion picture film on which pictures or sound and pictures have been recorded; photographic slides; transparencies; sound recordings; recorded video tape; models; charts; maps; globes; and posters. Materials moving from commercial consignors to commercial consignees are within the reach of the agreement. The bill also provides that whenever the President determines that there is or may be profitmaking exhibition or use of the articles entered under the agreement which interferes significantly (or threatens to inter- fere significantly) with domestic production of similar articles, he may prescribe regula- tions imposing restrictions on the entry of such foreign articles to Insure that they will be exhibited or used only for non-profit- making purposes. This language is con- sistent with paragraph 5 or article IV of the agreement which permits the issuance of such regulations by the contracting states. The word "significantly" as used in the amendment does not contemplate a mathe- matical test or measure of interference as a guide to the President, but the term means more than de minimus and certainly less than serious injury. EFFECTIVE DATE Section 3(b) of the resolution :provides that the amendments to the Tariff Schedules of the United States are to apply with respect to articles entered, or withdrawn from ware- house, for consumption, on or after a date to be proclaimed by the President, which date is to be within a period of 6 months be- ginning the day after the day on which the U.S. instrument of acceptance of the agree- ment is deposited with the Secretary Gen- eral of the United Nations. EENFFITS TO THE UNITED STATES The United States produces more educa- tional audiovisual materials than all other countries combined and is the world's major exporter of such materials. Your committee is informed that enactment of this legisla- tion will have the effect of increasing the in- stitutional use abroad of certified American educational films and comparable materials. In addition, your committee believes that full participation of the United States in the agreement, as would be provided for in this legislation, would promote better under- standing of the United States in other coun- tries and would increase mutual understand- ing between the people of the United States and those of other nations. JOINT RESOLUTION PASSED OVER The joint resolution (S.J. Res. 76) to provide for the formulation, adoption, administration, and periodic updating of a long-range land use plan for the U.S. Capitol Grounds and contiguous related and influencing areas was announced as next in order. Mr. MANSFIELD. Over. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. The joint resolution will be passed over. W. P. FRANKLIN LOCK AND CON- TROL STRUCTURE, FLORIDA The Senate proceeded to consider the bill (S. 212) to designate a navigation lock and flood control structure of the central and southern Florida flood con- trol project in the State of Florida as the W. P. Franklin lock and control structure which had been reported from the Committee on Public Works with amendments, on page 1, line 7, after the name "Franklin", to strike out "lock and control structure" and insert "Lock and Control Structure"; and on page 2, line 4, after the name "Franklin", to strike out "lock and control structure" and in- sert "Lock and Control Structure"; so as to make the bill read: Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the navigation lock and water control structure known as structure 79 of the central and southern Florida flood control project located on the Caloosahatchee River in the State of Florida shall hereafter be known as the W. P. Franklin lock and control structure, and any law, regulation, document, or record of the United States in which such structure is designated or referred to shall be held to refer to such structure under and by the name of the W. P. Franklin look and control structure. The amendments were agreed to. The bill was ordered to be engrossed for a third reading, read the third time, and passed. The title was amended, so as to read: 2.PO "A bill to designate a navigation lock and flood control structure of the central and southern Florida flood control project in the State of Florida as the W. P. Franklin lock and control structure." Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the REcoRD an excerpt from the re- port (No. 1628), explaining the purposes of the bill. There being no objection, the excerpt was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: PURPOSE OF THE BILL The purpose of S. 212 Is to designate the navigation lock and water-control structure known as structure 79 of the central and southern Florida flood-control project lo- cated on the Caloosahatchee River in the State of Florida, as the W. P. Franklin Lock and Control Structure. GENERAL STATEMENT The central and southern Florida flood control project, authorized by the Flood Control Act of June 30, 1948 (Public Law 858, 80th Cong.), and subsequent acts of Congress, covers an area of some 18,400 square miles, lying generally within the southeasterly 18 counties of Florida. It is comprised of the upper St. Johns River Basin, located in the northeastern section of the project; the Kissimmee River Basin, in the central section; the Lake Okeechobee- Everglades area in the central and south- western section; and the east coast-Ever- glades area in the southeastern section. The project is for flood relief and water conservation. It will provide water control and protection from the recurrence of dev- astating floodwaters from the Everglades and local sources, for the highly developed urban area along the lower east coast of Florida, and for the productive agricultural areas around Lake Okeechobee (including the towns around the lake), in the upper St. Johns and Kissimmee River Basins, and in south Dade County. Construction of the project was begun in January 1950. To date, more than 550 miles of levees (including most of the east coast protective levee) have been completed to intermediate or final grades and accepted for operation and maintenance by the cen- tral and Southern Florida Flood Control Dis- trict. A number of important canals and control structures and large pumping sta- tions have also been completed and turned over to local interests for operation and maintenance. The project as a whole was about 50 percent completed on September 1, 1966. Mr. W. P. Franklin is a retired prominent businessman and pioneer resident of the Fort Myers, Fla., area. He is 95 years of age, and throughout his lifetime has been an ardent advocate of water resources development in central and southern Florida. He was the leading force behind the development of the Okeechobee Waterway, on which the lock and dam to be named in his honor are located. COST TO THE UNITED STATES IF LEGISLATION IS ENACTED Enactment of this legislation will not result In any cost to the Federal Government. COMMITTEE VIEWS The committee believes it fitting and proper to name the navigation lock and water control structure located on the Caloosahatchee River, Fla., and known as structure 79 of the central and southern Florida flood control project, In honor of Mr. W. P. Franklin, whose untiring efforts have resulted in great contributions to the national welfare and to his beloved State of Florida. Accordingly, enactment of S. 212 is recommended. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, that concludes the call of the calendar. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400110006-0 Septonber 22, 19 Approvedeff, 16-RD ?( 468000400110006-0 AMENDMENT OF THE ATOMIC EN- ERGY ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED, Mr. PASTORE. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Senate pro- ceed to the consideration of Calendar No. 1571, S. 3830. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. The bill will be stated by title. The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. A bill (S. 3830) to amend the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. Is there objection to the present consideration of the bill? There being no objection, the Senate proceeded to consider the bill. Mr. PASTORE. Mr. President, I rise in support of enactment of S. 3830, a bill to amend the Price-Anderson nuclear indemnity provisions of the Atomic En- ergy Act of 1954. The Price-Anderson nuclear indemnity legislation was enacted in 1957 for two principal purposes. First, to protect the public by assuring the availability of funds for the payment of claims arising in the extremely unlikely event of a catastrophic nuclear incident. Second, to remove a deterrent to private indus- trial participation in the atomic energy program which flowed from the threat of tremendous potential liability claims. The act accordingly affords protection to the public and to AEC's licensees and contractors from the risks associated with atomic energy by providing for a program of private insurance and gov- ernmental indemnity amounting to a maximum of $560 million to cover dam- ages that conceivably could arise from a nuclear incident. Last year the Joint Committee recom- mended, and there was enacted, legisla- tion extending the Price-Anderson Act for 10 years-to 1977. During our hear- ings on the extension legislation, our committee identified a number of poten- tially serious problems which required further study. These included the diffi- culty that might face a claimant if he were unable to prove someone's negli- gence was the cause of a nuclear inci- dent. In addition, concern was ex- pressed that the statutes of limitations of many States are inadequate to provide for delayed manifestation of radiation injury. Our committee has continued to study these problems, in consultation with representatives of the private insurance industry, the nuclear industry, and the AEC. As a result of the cooperative ef- forts of all concerned a bill was drafted which attempted to remedy the deficien- cies in the existing legislation. In July of this year our committee held 3 days of hearings on the proposed bill, and we believe that we have now re- ported out a measure which will substan- tially improve the protection to the pub- lic afforded by the Price-Anderson legis- lation without in any way operating to the detriment of the nuclear industry. Moreover, it is important to note that S. 3830-while providing for the elimina- tion of certain serious legal obstacles which might face claimants in the event of a substantial nuclear incident-does 22691 not establish a new body of Federal tort law. Instead, this bill follows the ap- proach of the original Price-Anderson Act; that is, making a minimum inter- ference with the laws of the several States insofar as legal liability for nu- clear incidents is concerned. Our com- mittee continues to endorse this general approach. Mr. President, a detailed analysis of S. 3830 is contained in our committee's re- port which is before you. Our report dis- cusses the provisions of this bill in depth and explains the policy bases of our com- mittee's recommendation. I will summarize the major provisions of S. 3830 very briefly as follows: First. The bill would authorize the AEC to establish coordinated procedures with the nuclear liability insurance pools for the prompt settlement of claims aris- ing out of a nuclear incident. Second. The bill would authorize the AEC to incorporate provisions in its in- demnity agreements with AEC's licensees and contractors, and to require incor- poration of provisions in nuclear liability insurance policies and contracts which are furnished as proof of financial pro- tection by AEC's licensees and contrac- tors, which waive any issue or defense as to conduct of the claimant or fault of defendants. The primary end result of these waivers would be first to eliminate any requirement that a claimant prove that someone was negligent in order to recover for his damages from a serious nuclear incident and, second, any pos- sible issue as to the claimant's con- tributory negligence or assumption of risk. Waivers could also be required with respect to charitable or governmental immunity of the defendant and statutes of limitations, subject to certain condi- tions. Third. The waivers would apply only with respect to an "extraordinary nu- clear occurrence" as defined in the bill. The Commission would be empowered to determine whether an "extraordinary nuclear occurrence" had taken place in order to make'the waivers effective. Fourth. The bill would provide that in the event of an "extraordinary nuclear occurrence" the U.S. district court in the district where such occurrence takes place shall have original jurisdiction of any public liability action arising out of the occurrence, without regard to the citizenship of any party or the amount in controversy. The bill would also au- thorize the removal to such .district court of all public liability actions arising from the same occurrence which are pending in other courts. Fifth. The bill would provide limita- tions on the amounts that may be paid from the private insurance-governmen- tal indemnity fund established under the Price-Anderson Act without prior court approval. In addition, authority would be provided the appropriate U.S. dis- trict court to approve plans of distribu- tion of the fund. The Joint Committee believes this bill Is an important improvement in the atomic energy legislation. S. 3830 was reported out by the Joint Committee thousands of soldiers fighting a land war in an area 10,000 miles distant from our shores because of national aggression by one state against another. This is a fantastic claim lacking adequate basis in fact. Ho Chi Minh was waging his "war of national liberation" long before the Chinese Communists gained power in their own country. Our mission should be to help people, if they want help, and to assist in build- ing political and social conditions that will deter the people of the underdevel- oped nations from looking to the Com- munist ideology for the cure for their national ills. This does not at all mean abandoning the field everywhere to the Communists and retreating into isolation, but it does mean that we should apply appropriate measures to the particular situation we are dealing with, instead of trying to handle them all by a formula derived from a bygone set of circumstances, It means abandoning the assumption that the only way our national interest can be protected is by the direct application of our military power around the periph- ery of the Communist world. It means limiting our commitments to vital areas and bringing them into line with our capacity to fulfill them. Dean Rusk may assume the United States has a mandate from almighty God to police the world. I repudiate any such view. We, Americans, who like to regard our- selves as the most revolutionary Nation in the world, have become, it seems, the most unrevolutionary in that regard. Mr. President, in trying to bring about an armistice and peace and to end our involvement in this miserable civil war in the jungles of Vietnam, we would do well to encourage Pope Paul VI and Sec- retary General U Thant to continue leadership in their attempt to try and bring about peace. Indeed, we should follow that leadership. We would do well to make it crystal clear we would withdraw our Armed Forces in gradual stages directly following a conference to bring about a cease-fire and an armistice in Vietnam and to make it equally clear that we would meet with independent delegates of the Vietcong, or National Liberation Front, at any time and any- where and seek to neutralize Vietnam and finally end the bloodletting there. Unless this is accomplished, the future probably holds forth for us involvement with our Armed Forces in Vietnam for 5, 10, or 20 years. We should proclaim that we Americans are definitely willing to discuss a cease-fire and an armistice with delegates representing the National Liberation Front, or Vietcong, along with delegates representing the Hanoi government and Saigon government. Also, the road to an ultimate settlement lies through halting our buildup of the Vietnamese war and moving toward a deescalation rather than an escalation of the war. As U Thant said in his report: The survival of the people of Vietnam must be seen as the real issue, and it can be resolved not by force but by patience and understanding, in the framework of a will- ingness to live and let live. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400110006-0 Approved For Rele 005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400110006-0 22692 e0 (JRESS!ONAL RECORD - SENATE Se tember 92 X 966 1 without dissent, and I urge the Senate to pass this bill without delay. Mr. President, I might add that the bill has the approval of both the in- surance industry and the nuclear indus- try involved. I understand that the distinguished Senator from Massachusetts [Mr. SAL- TONSTALL] would like to ask me several questions. Mr. SALTONSTALL. I thank the Sen- ator from Rhode Island. He and I have been Governors, and we know that there are differences in State laws particularly with relation to damages, and so forth. We also know that at times we have tried to get universal State laws on such matters as banking, for instance. The reason I ask these questions is that I have read part of the report-I will not say that I read it all-but it struck me that there were certain things of which I should like to make sure, although I know that they are probably quite clear in the Senator's mind. My first question is: It is my under- standing that this bill provides definite authority to the AEC to make emergency assistance payments to victims of a nuclear incident without requiring a po- tential claimant to release his right to sue for further damages, once they may become known. Am I correct in this assumption, that the right of a person to file suit for addi- tional damages, whether in a State or Federal court, woud not be prejudiced by acceptance of such emergency assist- ance offered soon after an incident? Mr. PASTORE, That is correct. The Senator is absolutely correct. Mr. SALTONSTALL. My second question is: Do I understand correctly that it will not be necessary for the Com- mission to make the determination that the incident was an "extraordinary nuclear occurrence" before such emer- gency assistance could be offered? Mr. PASTORE. For emergency as- sistance payments, no. The Commis- sion does not have to make such a de- termination in order to make such pay- ments. I might say to my distinguished colleague that if he and I were Gover- nors once more, we would welcome this law. This law is intended to protect the claimant who, as the result of the spe- cial waivers authorized, would not be obliged to prove negligence. He would not be obliged to prove that there was no contributory negligence. Instead of writing a new body of law, what we are actually doing is permitting the AEC, in its indemnity agreements, and the in- surance companies in their contracts of insurance with the utilities, or any other person who runs a reactor in any com- munity where we might have this ex- traordinary incident that we have been talking about, to agree that the claim- ant can make his claim for any damage without proving negligence. He also N r-* 1 ciainu,nt, he can get emergency pay- and ask people in the neighborhood what meats. they thought of having an atomic energy Mr. SALTONSTALL. I ask the Sena- plant in Massachusetts, and the response tor, because he has answered my third was overwhelmingly in favor of it. question-but I have two or three more- Mr. SALTONSTALL. Mr. Webster what special advantages not now cov- can take a great deal of credit for that; ered by the operation of the act could re- can he not? suit from this authority to provide emer- Mr. PASTORE. Absolutely. gency assistance? Mr. SALTONSTALL. I thank the I think the Senator has answered that. Senator. Mr. PASTORE. Yes, I have answered Mr. PASTORE. Mr. President, before that. I ask that the bill be passed, there is an Mr. SALTONSTALL. My next question error in the printing of S. 3830 in the is: What must the claimant show or word "of" appearing between the word prove to qualify him for the emergency "prosecution" and the word "defense" assistance? on line 23 of page 5. It should read "or" Mr. PASTORE. That he has injured. instead of "of." Mr. SALTONSTALL. That he has in- I ask unanimous consent that the jured. I assume that he would have to error be corrected, and I offer an amend- get advice- ment to the bill. Mr. PASTORE. He would have to The PRESIDING OFFICER. The show that. Of course he would. amendment will be stated. Mr. SALTONSTALL. He would have The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. On page 5, to prove it, in order to qualify himself line 23, after the word "prosecution" for this emergency assistance? strike out "of" and insert "or". Mr. PASTORE. He would have to The PRESIDING OFFICER. The show that the injury was probably the re- question is on agreeing to the amend- sult of the nuclear incident. That ment. would have to be shown. Without objection, the amendment is Mr. SALTONSTALL. He would have agreed to. to to prove that before representatives If there be no further amendment to of the Commission? be offered, the question is on the engross- Mr. PASTORE. That is right. ment and third reading of the bill. (At this point Mr. BASS took the chair The bill was ordered to be engrossed as Presiding Officer.) for a third reading, was read the third Mr. SALTONSTALL. My last question time, and was passed, as follows: is: Would such assistance be in addition to or included as part of any final settle- S. 3830 ment? Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Mr. 1'ASTORE. It would be included Representatives of the United States of within the final settlement. If he was America in Congress assembled, That (a) entitled to more, he would get it. as s amended, n a 11 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, is amended- Mr. SALTONSTALL. He would get (1) by redesignating subsections J. and k. what the Commission gave him anyway, as subsections k. and 1., respectively, and by and if he was entitled to more In the fu- redesignating subsections 1. through aa. as ture, he would get that. subsections n. through cc., respectively; Mr. PASTORE. He would get his (2) by inserting after subsection 1. the maximum damage and they would de- following new subsection: duct anything that they have already "j. The term 'extraordinary nuclear cc- Mr. SALTONSTALL. So that this is charge or dispersal of source, special nuclear, or byproduct material from its intended place an effort to make it the same all over the of confinement in amounts offsite, or causing United States. radiation levels offsite, which the Commis- Mr. PASTORE. That is right. sion determines to be substantial, and which Mr. SALTONSTALL. I thank the the Commission determines has resulted or Senator. will probably result in substantial damages to persons off site or property offsite. Any Mr. PASTORE. I merely want the determination by the Commission that such RECORD to show that a claim has never an event has, or has not, occurred shall be been filed under a Price-Anderson in- final and conclusive, and no other official or demnity agreement with an AEC li- any court shall have power or jurisdiction to censee. In other words, I do not want review any such determination. The Com- to leave the impression that anyone mission shall establish criteria in writing upon de- should be frightened over this bill. We termterminginattion th o shall be basis mad e. . As s us us A ed in such o this his recognize that there is a tremendous re- subsection, 'offsite' means away from 'the lo- sponsibility on the part of the Govern- cation' or 'the contract location' as defined meat in the event that we might have in the applicable Commission indemnity that kind of incident. But I want to agreement, entered into pursuant to section say that we have come a long way in the 170."; development of plants for the production (3) by inserting after the subsection re- of electricity through the use of atomic designated as subsection 1. by paragraph (1) energy. We have not had one ma ti this subsection the following new aubsec- jor mica: incident as yet. "m. The term 'indemnitor' means (1) any Of course, the Senator from Massachu- insurer with respect to his obligations under k t ts nows that there is a plant in Rowe, a policy of insurance furnished as prof of use of limitations because sometimes, in se a e of i limitations because i no manifests- Mass., which is the pride of the Nation. financial protection; (2) any licensee, con- a went up there and inspected it, and I tractor or other person who is obligated un- tion of that injury within the period of was so pleased with it. When they tried der any other form of financial protection, the statute of limitations. to build another one in Connecticut, they with respect to such obligations; and (3) Thus, actually, this is a bill intended hired a bus and took some people in the Commission with respect to any oblige- to protect the claimant and, in the mean- Connecticut to Rowe, Mass. They were t ion entered k into pursuant to se tiona 70.e"; time, of course, for the benefit of the left there on their own to knock on doors and Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400110006-0 A oved For Release 2005/06/29: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400110006-0 September 22, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE 22695 AMERICA'S ROLE IN ASIA Mr. KUCHEL. Mr. President, in the Los Angeles Times of Sunday, Septem- ber 18, 1966, the lead editoiral is en- titled, "America's Role in Asia." In a perceptive and penetrating comment, the Times goes on to describe the fact that the United States is and has been a Pacific power, regardless of what the head of the Republic of France may have said on his recent visit to southeast Asia. The editorial quotes President Marcos, that gallant leader of the Philippine Re- public, who spoke in this Capitol just a few days ago, as follows: It was only the American presence in Viet- nam which prevented the fall of the Indone- sian government into Communist hands. Not only Indonesia, but also other countries. The Times observes: America's military role is only part of the story of our responsibilities in Asia. Building the economic and political strength of the free nations of the area, and working for rec- onciliation between hostile nations, are also major goals of U.S. policy and essential for peace. The entire editorial merits the atten- tion of the Senate and the country. I ask unanimous consent that the en- tire text of the editorial be printed in the RECORD at this point. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Los Angeles Times, Sept. 18, 1966] AMEaICA's ROLE IN ASIA In Cambodia a few weeks ago President de Gaulle, beating the drums for a greater French influence in Asia, spoke sneeringly of "the foreigner who comes from the other shores of the Pacific" to meddle in Asian af- fairs. His reference was to the United States, and his implication appeared to be that this nation has no rightful interests anywhere west of Hawaii. Some weeks earlier, conversely, President Johnson had described the United States as "a Pacific power," with obligatins and inter- ests that stretch far across the ocean to those lands where live 60% of the world's people. Asia, said the President, "is now the crucial arena for man's striving for independence and order, and for life itself," and the United States is deeply involved-and rightly so-in that struggle. It is not hard to see that reality and his- tory are on the side of Mr. Johnson. De Gaulle, who raised no objections about the foreigner who came from the other shores of the Atlantic to restore France after one of her periodic defeats, knows that the United States was a Pacific power long before she became an Atlantic one. Expediency no doubt prompted him to for- get this fact, but its accuracy remains un- diminished. U.S. interest in Asia are long-standing, multi-faceted and continuing. They are also complex, involving not only self-inter- est, which is the basis for any nation's poli- mitments aren't worth the resources they Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, will require, this group says, and besides, the the Senator yield? Asians jupt aren't our kind of people. Mr. KUCHEL. I yield to the majority These arguments, as the President noted, leader. have all been tested and found wanting. Mr. MANS7+~1ET,17 Mr. President, I sense, or , or the human tests of concegeography, rn, or , or the or ask unanimous consent that, at the con- common not stand political, economic, and military realities of elusion of the morning hour, the dis- this century. tinguished Senator from Kansas [Mr. The second world war, decolonization in PEARSON] be recognized. Asia and the commensurate rise of com- The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there munism in China all served to alter irrevo_ objection? The Chair hears none, and status quo was either a model of order or (~ preferable. What it does mean is that con- `~ MAINTAINING NATO U.S. role in Asia necessary. Mr. KUCHEL. Mr. President, on Although this role takes several forms, the August 29, I addressed the Senate to point one that most upsets critics of U.S. Policy is out that the American involvement in the military aspect of American involvement, southeast Asia is a global matter and typified, of course, by the Vietnam war. that, given the aggressive design of Com- The critical arguments are familiar enough not to need repeating, and so also are the munist China, the entire world is official responses. A point too often ignored threatened with a major conflict. These by critics, however, does merit recall. This are critical times for the survival of mod- is that non-Communist Asians strongly de- ern man. sire a US. military presence in the area; in- Whether we like it or not, Mr. Presi- deed, they depend on it. dent, the burden of preserving peace and This desire is by no means limited simply human freedom in this decade of the to the military governments in Asia. On 20th Century has fallen in large part the contrary: the democratically elected gov- ernments of Japan, the Philippines, Malaysia, on the shoulders of our great country. Australia and Singapore are equally clear in Accordingly, even a minor change in the their support for a U.S. military presence. foreign policy of the United States may These governments, and the great majority be of great significance to the entire of the people they represent, understand the world. threat to national independence posed by Members on the majority side of the militant communism in Asia, and they un- derstand the security an American presence aisle have proposed a resolution saying helps guarantee. that it is the sense of the Senate that The fact that the United States is ful- there should be "a substantial reduction" filling its military commitments in Asia has in American forces stationed in Europe a bearing not only on the war in Vietnam in connection with the North Atlantic but elsewhere. For example, President Mar- Treaty. The resolution does not state cos of the Philippines has said flatly that "It how many troops should be withdrawn was only the American presence in Vietnam nor whether this step should be taken, which prevented the fall of the Indonesian government into Communist hands. Not unilaterally or in consultation with our only Indonesia, but also other countries." allies. The phrase "substantial reduc- This view is by no means uniquely held. tion" is susceptible of many and diverse It might also be assumed, with good rea- interpretations, and Senate debate alone son, that such neutralist states as Burma will not supply a single definition. At and-yes-even Cambodia are not unhappy this point, I must add it may well be that with a U.S. presence that is a counterweight some reductions are in order, but there to Chinese threats. is a need for careful deliberation regard- the BusAmerica's story m of erica's our military role is responsibilities only in part Asia. a. ing the size and shape. If there is to be Building the economic and political strength a Senate view on the matter, it ought to of the free nations of the area, and working be based on credible testimony by the for reconciliation between hostile nations, Secretaries of Defense, and State, and are also major goals of U.S. policy and essen- the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The fact is tial for peace. that this is an executive decision, not a Military strength, and the willingness to legislative one, and the executive branch meet commitments, are necessary pre- condi-tions for carrying out these other goals, Years ago, General MacArthur told Those who would have the United States withdraw from Asia, or refuse tp meet the the Congress and the country that while security needs of countries that need help, it is true Europe is the gateway to Asia, cannot expect economic and political progress the reverse, as well, is equally true. The to go forward. resolution raises a large number of criti- Such progress is good in its own right, and cal issues of global importance. Among good for the United States. Judged either them is the fundamental question of way, it supports what this country is doing collective security, upon which our poli- cies have been based since World War Mr. KUCHEL. Mr. President, pro- II. That fundamental question touches ceeding now to another subject, I ask furthermore on the doctrine of the de- cies, but also a strong moral commitment and unanimous consent that I may be per- the fact that the United States, as the world's matted to finish my remarks on this sub- wealthiest and most powerful nation-and without interruption. a Pacific power-is the only country able and ject willing to do certain things that must be The PRESIDING OFFICER. How done, . much time does the Senator wish? Ciriticis of U.S. Asian policy, here and Mr. KUCHEL. Five minutes. abroad, view the case differently. To some The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there the United States is concerned Asia pri- objection to the request of the Senator IIlarily with economic aggrandizement. Others feel the proper sphere of U.S. In- from California? The Chair hears none, In 1951 when the Congress, with the President's enthusiastic approval, passed a resolution in support of stationing American forces in Europe under NATO, extensive hearings were held in commit- tee, to chart the course our Nation would follow as a result of that momentous step. Thereafter, the Senate acted. To- day it is proposed to amend that earlier Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400110006-0 22696 Approved For Release 2005/06/29: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400110006-0 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE September 22, 1966 resolution and to urge a withdrawal,of a substantial number of our troops but With no prior sifting of the facts by com- mittee. Such.a proposal may be no less Important to our policy and .must be given the same care as its predecessor, Several days ago, my distinguished friend, the senior Senator from New Hampshire [Mr. COTTON] pointed Out that a substantial withdrawal of troops from Europe could imply a return to the outmoded concept of "massive reL- taliation," and with It, the abandon- ment of many of the safeguards that have since been erected to prevent a global holocaust. I agree with him. The. resolution implies a major change in military policy, in effect stating that the United States will not employ her troops as the first defense against aggression In Europe. In my view it Implies that we might well go all the way to a nu- clear response at the moment of attack, whether it be a feint, a probe, or even a miscalculation in maneuvers. The truth Is that we should take extraordinary pains to prevent any nation from mis- judging or falsely interpreting our re- solve. A great power must make its purposes clear lest its allies be confused and Its enemies miscalculate Its intentions, No nation, friend or foe, should have to guess or grope for the basis of our inter- national policy in this nuclear age. We have already learned in Vietnam how our enemies listen to the,voices? they wish to hear. Ho Chi Minh believes Americans will give up. He heeds the cry of those who claim that the majority of Americans will not support our efforts In southeast Asia, it has taken months of perseverance to give the lie to this contention. A great number of Ameri- can lives have been lost, and may yet be lost, in convincing the North Vietnamese that they have miscalculated our inten- tions. would be a Soviet failure to understand U.S, determination to defend Europe? ate In its present form could deepen Britain's quandary about her costly commitment on the Rhine. It could and, i o doubt, would, enlarge West Germany's- doubts about the adequacy of her de- fense, putting her in a position where many Germans would be tempted to con- template measures leading to a nuclear force as an alternative to dependence on Gaullist France. And, most important, It could well tempt the Soviet Union into renewed adventures in Europe, prompted by too great a fear for a renascent Ger- many and too little for the United States. As the Washington Post pointed out in a recent editorial, a return to the doc- trine of massive retaliation "simply would not be credible to either the So- viets or the Western Europeans in all sorts of marginal situations, such as a Hungarian style revolt In East Germany that might transgress the border." The United States cannot afford to play these critical events on the blind. My position at the time, the resolutioii was first in- troduced, remains the same. It must be subjected to close scrutiny in. committee, where careful cross-examination can bulld.a printed record on which Senators may more clearly chart the position of this House. No major troop withdrawals should be considered without full consultation with our allies, and, If possible, without exact- ing a reciprocal withdrawal of forces opposing the free world on the other side of the Iron Curtain.. Revision of the res- olution to take these factors into ac- count would do much toward increasing its merit. Some reduction of forces may be desirable, and, indeed, quite accepta- ble to both us and our allies. But the essential need is to make certain that all concerned know the purpose and import of this resolution, both in terms of our foreign policy and our national security. Its meaning must be made crystalclear. It must be understood not only on the floor of the Senate but by members of the executive branch, the Armed Forces, and the people at large. The actions of the Senate will have a great impact on American, policy. More- over, it is the task of the Senate to bring to bear on the forces making our foreign policy the will of the American people. This resolution, as I say, must be given the most careful hearings to record the views of the President, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and other interested Americans. I intend to move that ap- propriate hearings be held. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, will the Senator yield? Mr. KUCHEL. I yield. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I listened with great interest to what the distinguished acting minority leader has said about Senate Resolution 300. I must say that I disagree in large part with the logic which he used to explain his point of view. This subject will be brought before the Senate and the Senate will have an op- portunity to disucss it in public, as I think should be done, and, if the Senate so desires, it will be referred to a com- mittee or committees. I should like respectfully to make a suggestion to the acting minority leader, if I may, and that is that he be on the floor at the conclusion of the morning hour to listen to a speech to be given by our distinguished colleague, the Sen- ator from Kansas [Mr. PEARSON], on this very subject. I think we will all find the speech en- lightening.' It goes into facts and figures and, I think, does a good job of express- Ing his point of view as a sponsor of the resolution, which now has 31 names attached to it, and which will. be before the Senate either later this month or early next month. Mr. KUCHEL. Mr. President, I thank my friend, the majority leader. That statement gives me an opportunity to express to my colleague on the floor what I think is quite obvious-my own high respect for the ability and patriot- Ism and experience which mark the conduct of the senior Senator from Montana. MIKE MANSFIELD is an able Senator. In this instance, however, I simply disagree with him. Mr. President, I do not want to make a mistake In casting my vote on a reso- lution that concerns as delicate and im- portant a problem as that which is Inherent in the resolution to which my n.ble colleague, the majority leader, has referred. I do not want to make a mis- take, and, taking that position, I want to be armed as best I can, not, simply with benefit of the debate that will ensue In the Senate, but also with the careful and deliberate and considered opinion of those in the executive branch who, In the last analysis, will make the decision. A hearing will permit a careful cross- examination of each of them. I say quite frankly that many Sen- ators-and my able friend, the majority leader, is one of them-have far more knowledge and experience on which to draw in reaching a conclusion than does this Senator. It is in great part for that reason that I do desire that this resolution go through the Senate processes of com- mittee hearings. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, the Senator is too modest when he speaks of his capabilities, which are great and varied. But I hope the Senate will not forget one aspect of the Constitution, and that is the Senate's right and duty of advice. That is something that we had better keep in mind and pursue in the days ahead, perhaps more so in the future than in the past. Mr. KUCHEL. Mr. President, I agree again that the Senate has a responsibility which It must discharge. In discharg- ing it, I simply want the Senate to be as fully armed with the facts as it may be before each 100th part of the Senate renders its decision. ASTRONOMICAL LEVEL OF, FEDERAL CIVILIAN EMPLOYMENT Mr. WILLIAMS of Delaware. Mr. President, the President's announcement that he has ordered the Director of the Budget to freeze Federal civilian employ- ment at existing levels and then hailing this as a great demonstration of economy is an insult to the intelligence of the American taxpayers. The fact is the Federal civilian em- ployment today is at an astronomical high level, having been increased by 234,- 387 in the past 7 months, and then to have this move described as a reduction of 30,000 in their plans for future employ- ment is a farce. This is the second grandstand play of fictitious economy with the Federal em- ployees as the pawns. On December 1 of last year President Johnson held a press conference at his Texas ranch and announced that Federal civilian employment was too high and that it was going to be reduced by 25,000 during the remainder of that fiscal year, or by June 30, 1966. What happened? Instead of reducing employment by 25,000, the administration actually has added another 234,000. The rate at which Federal civilian em- ployment has been increased since his statement of December 1965 is as fol- lows: Approved For Release 2005/06/29.: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400110006-0 September 22,'r9~~roved Feb e gSia(R./Rf/2& l5DPU8 6R000400110006-0 22767 ciations. If the personnel involved is other parts of Africa there is a possibility Calif. I have reviewed H.R. 17757 intro- inept, management of the association that known deposits of manganese, duced by my colleague, Congressman will handle the problem in the normal bauxite, and other minerals may prove WILLIAM CRAMER, and find myself totally course of business activity. If the per- economically exploitable. in accord with its provisions. sonnel in rare instances is guilty of crim- It is the wish and expectation of the While I realize it would be the height inal offenses in connection with opera- United States that Mali will achieve its of optimism to anticipate passage of this tion of the association, there exists a aspirations in harmony with the other legislation this year because of the late- whole body of criminal law with adequate developing nations of Africa. ness of the session, by this action today, sanctions to punish those convicted of The Malian delegate to the United I have seen fit to coauthor this legisla- such offenses in accordance with the tra- Nations last year, the Honorable Ous- tion, thereby placing myself on record in ditional Anglo-Saxon due process safe- man Ba, stated his country's policy in support of this very important and very guards. I have yet to be convinced that his speech in general debate before the necessary legislation. the Federal Home Loan Bank Board re- 20th session of the General Assembly as I call upon Congress to give this legis- quires any authority as to personnel that follows: lation its closest attention and I include it cannot exert with due application of The delegation of Mali is happy to note the ext of the bill for information pur- powers it presently possesses. that common sense and our common win to pps s ether in the achieve- 1 1 f1 ork to ti t g nue o w I believe that my bill will supply the con Federal regulatory agencies in the finan- ment of the noble ideals of the Charter have made it possible for us all to overcome pas- cial field with the intermediate cease- sions, national chauvinism and pride so that and-desist powers they should have, the United Nations might continue to live while at the same time adequately safe- in the best interests of all mankind. guarding the rights of institutions and It is my personal pleasure to extend their personnel through opportunity for my felicitations to the President of Mali, timely and adequate recourse to the the Honorable Modibo Keita, and the judiciary. Malian Ambassador to the United States, I encourage each Member of of and the sup- His Excellency Mousse Leo Keita, with tot the bill I a am upon this top introducing in prefer- whom I became personally acquainted pence at the United Nations last year. once t to he S. bill 3158 as passed by the Senate e e on August 22. (Mr, O'HARA of Illinois asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his.remarks.) Mr. O'HARA of Illinois. Mr. Speaker, today is the sixth anniversary of the Republic of Mali and, as chairman of the Subcommittee on Africa of the Com- mittee on Foreign Affairs, I am happy to extend hearty congratulations and sincere good wishes to the Government and the people of that young and proud nation in Africa. The Republic of Mali, which covers an area somewhat smaller than Alaska, is in the interior of western Africa and borders seven different countries, all of which are former French territories. Mali is steeped in history. Mali is partial heir to the succession of great African empires that formerly occupied the upper valley of the Niger. These empires were in touch with Mediterran- ean and Near Eastern centers of civiliza- tion by way of the trans-Saharan cara- van routes. The old Kingdom of Mali, from which the present Republic takes its name, was founded around the year 1200. Its an- cient capital stood on a site near the present capital of Bamako, and its realm extended as far as Timbuktu and Gao. On September 22, 1960, the colony of Soudan proclaimed itself the Republic of Mali and withdrew from the French Community. Mali is a predominantly agricultural country. The first 5-year plan was intended to encourage industrial growth by improving the infrastructure. Of all those resources deriving from the land, Mali's greatest potential is in its live- stock-more than 10 million head, of 'which $ million are cattle and 7 million sheep and goats. At' the present time she has no appreciable mineral wealth, but as in AMENDMENT TO THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE (Mr. DON H. CLAUSEN asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend his remarks, and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. DON H. CLAUSEN. Mr. Speaker, I am today introducing legislation which would amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to allow teachers to deduct from gross income certain educational expenses. It has come to my attention that the Internal Revenue Service has proposed that expenses incurred by teachers ob- taining advanced degrees will no longer be tax deductible, a policy that will work a definite hardship on our teachers, since most State and local governments are encouraging, if not requiring, teachers to obtain additional training. In my opinion, if we are going to en- courage better education through Fed- eral action in many areas, it seems in- comprehensible that we should neglect this simple device of tax deductions which can be accomplished through a clearer interpretation of existing law. I am sure we will all agree that teach- ers should be encouraged to increase their knowledge and training. We would all agree as to the importance of com- petent and well-trained teachers in our educational system. We would also agree that teachers should be given every in- centive to gain new knowledge of teach- ing techniques. Certainly, one way we REPUBLICAN WHITE PAPER ON VIETNAM (Mr. BOLAND asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend his re- marks, and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. BOLAND. Mr. Speaker, in the past few days we have witnessed a bit of a flop on the so-called white paper issued by the Republican research and planning committee relative to the ad- ministration's handling of the war in Vietnam. The pamphlet is considered a flop by some responsible editorial writers in the Nation. One of the most devastat- ing attacks on the Republicans research and planning paper comes from the New York World Journal Tribune. Mr. Speaker, I include the editorial of Wednesday, September 21, 1966, in the RECORD at this point: EMPTY-HANDED GOP House Republican leaders have disgorged a document whose timing makes its purpose altogether clear. That purpose is to exploit widespread discontent over the Viet Nam war by labeling it, in effect, as Johnson's war. Significantly, the new document omits portions contained in last year's model, which urged all Americans to support the war effort in order to defeat Communist ag- gression and assure South Viet Nam's free- dom and independence. Instead, the emphasis is on the deepening commitment, involvement and risks that have evolved under the Johnson administration. It's the privilege of the Republican estab- lishment to make what hay it can out of the administration's miseries-but a sense of responsibility should also impel a loyal op- position to set forth alternatives. Avoiding resemblance to either hawk or, dove, about the best the GOP manifesto offer is that there must be some way to end the war "more speedily and at a smaller cost" while still "safeguarding the independence and freedom of South Viet Nam." Negative and nebulous all the way, it ends up as a nothing document. Once again Re- publicans seem determined to prove Harry Truman was right in saying that," like their party symbol, they never forget anything and never learn anything. can do all of these things is by clarify- Negativism throughout the Roosevelt years ing the Internal Revenue laws and reg-' kept the GOP perpetually in the doghouse. ulations so that teachers will, by law not It took a political miracle, passed by an un- regulation, be permitted to deduct from beatable war hero, to rescue the party from their gross income any proper expenses its 20-year exile. for educational purposes relating to If, after the debacle of 1964, Republicans teaching activities. want to spend another generation in the dog- house, they're going about it just right. I have been requested to support such The Viet Nam document confected by legislation by Mr. Walter Egan, assistant House Republican leaders is a perfect superintendent of curricular services, example of the empty-handed non-leadership Sonoma County Schools, Santa Rosa, that may scare up a fat fistful of "agin" Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400110006-0 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400110006-0 , 22768 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD --HOUSE September 22, 1966 votes-but will scarcely impress thoughtful voters who examine the wares of political challengers for signs of positive,. constructive alternatives. ATTENTION CALLED TO A MOST SIGNIFICANT REPORT BY THE HOUSE ARMED SERVICES COM- MITI'EE (Mr. GROSS asked and was given per- mission to address the House for 1 min- ute, to revise and extend his remarks and to include extraneous matter.) DECEPTION AT ITS WORST Mr. GROSS. Mr. Speaker, I call at- tention to a most significant report by the House Armed Services Subcommittee, which is headed by the gentleman from Virginia, Representative PORTER HARDY. It is a unanimous report by some of our colleagues who are deeply concerned about the way the Defense Department is administering the so-called cost-re- duction program. All of us are inter- ested in cost reduction, and the subcom- mittee members emphasize that they were working on cost reduction in de- fense a good many years before Mr. McNamara was fiddling with the prob- lems of the Edsel at the Ford Motor Co. Undoubtedly, the cost'reduction pro- gram has resulted in some savings, but the House Armed Services Subcommittee is troubled over the "degraded military capability" that has accompanied some of the "inordinate pressure" to cut costs. There is a fear that Mr. Mc- Namara's image-building activities are not taking precedence over what our military leaders believe is necessary for our armed services. The subcommittee indicates that McNamara is using a "secret" label to hide the facts from the American people, and to try to keep the Hardy subcommittee from making the full facts known. It was shocking to read some aspects of the report for it demonstrates the worst in news management through those phony press conferences in which McNamara claimed he saved the tax- payers $14 billion in the past year. I wish he had saved that much, but the Hardy subcommittee has demonstrated that it is mostly ballyhoo and misrep- resentations by McNamara and his press office. I would call attention to the evidence that there is nothing really new about McNamara's cost reduction operation except that he has centralized the op- erations of activities that were in being in the Army, Navy, and Air Force. He has spent more money and time accumu- lating a lot of exaggerated figures on savings and he has spent a lot of money printing expensive brochures and memeographing voluminous graphs to try to demonstrate that he has saved $4 billion to $5 billion a year. The Hardy subcommittee states that it just is not so, and that all of the phony busi- ness is in danger of undermining proper cost, reduction. efforts. But, most sig- nificant is the fact that the unanimous report shows a deep concern over meas- ures that are undermining our defense posture. The fact that the United States has a force that is superior to that. of the Vietcong should not lull us into any false security relative to the con- dition of our Armed Forces, Experienced men on the Armed Serv- ices Committees have raised warning signals In a series of reports, and I think it is tune for the Congress and the Amer- ican people to take a closer look at what is going on under McNamara. Mr. Speaker, I say again that the en- tire report should be must reading for everyone in Congress. I would call special attention to the case of "the sub- stitution of the M-107 projectile in lieu of procurement of the M-470 projectile." The committee finds that in this in- stance, McNamara is trying to clothe a "failure in the shining garb of a claimed multimillion-dollar cost reduction item and present it to the public as evidence of management excellence." This is deception at its worst. Mr. Speaker, the following newspaper article by one of Washington's most as- tute newspaper reporters, Mr. Clark Mollenhoff, of the Des Moines Register, provides additional information on the exposure by the House Subcommittee of the deceptive techniques that have been used by the Secretary of Defense: 11QCNAMMARA GETS REBUKE ON SAVINGS (By Clark Mollenhoff) WASIINCTON, D.C.-Defense Secretary Robert McNamara was blamed Friday for forcing "cost reduction actions that have had a significant adverse effect on our defense structure in terms of degraded combat potential." The charge was made in an unanimous re- port by a House Armed Services Subcom- mittee that has been investigating Mc- Namara's claim that his cost reduction pro- gram has saved the government $14: billion in the last five years. "FALL SHORT" Chairman PORTER HARDY (Dem., Va.) said that McNamara's cost reduction program has undoubtedly resulted in some significant sav- ings, but "its true accomplishments fall con- siderably short of the results publicly claimed." HARDY said he and other members of the subcommittee had been pressing for effective cost reduction steps for years prior to the McNamara era, and that they thought a "properly administered" program could be a powerful weapon against waste and extravh- gance in government. The subcommittee recommended that im- mediate steps be taken to correct the cost reduction program and to bring about "a more credible reporting of its accomplish- ments." The subcommittee's investigations started in August, 1965, and resulted in hearings in July, 1966. Auditors for the General Accounting Office had testified that about one-third of the savings McNamara claimed in 1964 and 1965 did not meet the criteria that he had es- tablished, and cases involving another one- third of the savings did not have documenta- tion to support the claims of billions in savings. "SHARP CONFLICTS" "The evidence also strongly suggests that these actions (which degraded military capa- bility) would not have been taken by the services had it not been for inordinate pres- sures from the OSD (McNamara's office) to report large savings," the Hardy report stated. The report said there were "sharp conflicts between military services and the secretary of defense" with respect to certain military requirements, "Generally, in such cases military judg- ments have bowed to civilian dictates," the subcommittee stated. "The subcommittee has evidence that the OSD, in exercising its dominant power, has at times taken unnecessary risks and com- mitted the services to an unwise and pre- cipitous course of action." In recent months, McNamara has been subject to sharp congressional criticism on a number of important decisions concerning the TFX warplane (now designated the F- 111A and F-111B), the phaseout of the B-52 and B-58 bombers, and the lack of progress on a nuclear-powered fleet. However, it is doubtful that any of the comments on these decisions had more bite than the report of the Hardy subcommittee. The Hardy subcommittee accused Mc- Namara of unjustified use of national secu- rity classifications to bar the subcommittee from making public key documents that it says demonstrate how U. S. military capa- bility has been degraded. "Our efforts have been unsuccessful. OSD has taken the position that public disclosure would result in 'comfort to our enemy,' but, undoubtedly the enemy derives more com- fort from our attenuated military capability resulting from the combat use of inferior weapons," the subcommittee said. "Public disclosure of the facts could do much to bring about an improvement in the decision making process responsible for the above condition. "A skeptic might question whether dis- closure in such a situation could adversely affect the national defense or merely the public image of the decisionmakers." The Defense Department claimed savings of $32,575,000 in fiscal year 1965 on the basis of a decision by McNamara that the Navy and Marine Corps could accomplish their mission with fewer F-4 aircraft. McNamara cut the number of aircraft in each squadron from 14 to 12 desipte the pro- tests of the Navy. He figured that increased firepower in the F-4 made it possible for 12 planes to do the job of 14. The Navy said it was an erroneous judgment. The defense secretary also decided to con- tinue the less capable F-8 aircraft on some classes of carriers rather than replacing them with the superior F-4. He also cut the number of F-4s assigned to training missions. DEGRADED EFFECTIVENESS In the fact of the warnings, McNamara went ahead with the reduction in new planes, and then claimed a savings of $32,575,000. The subcommittee found this to be a degrad- ing of combat effectiveness. The report also said testimony developed that McNamara, or someone in his office, had on a number of occasions ordered substantial claims of savings of as much as $50 million after Army auditors had said such claims could not be justified. Other claims of "savings" were admitted by the Army, Navy, Air Force and Marines to be no more than a use of excess inventory, or a normal prudent management decision. McNamara's office established a criteria that made it possible to list such things as "savings." FEDERAL ANTIRIOT LEGISLATION (Mr. FASCELL asked and was given permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD.) Mr. FASCELL. Mr. Speaker, I am to- day cosponsoring a bill which would make it a Federal offense to move in in- terstate commerce or to use any facility in interstate commerce, including the mail, in order to incite to riot or to carry on a riot or to commit any crime of vio- lence, arson, or bombing in the course of a riot. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400110006-0 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400110006-0 September 22, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX They will come, he knows, in that expanse of life after he retires this month as the spiritual leader of Rodef Shalom Congrega- tion in Oakland. His departure from the city's religious scene will be marked Oct. 2 by a banquet in his honor In the Freehof Hall of the temple on Fifth Avenue, where he has presided for 32 years. Dr. Freehof, his hair steel-gray now, re- laxed in an imemnse leather chair at his desk in his apartment at the Park Plaza on North Craig Street. Books, part of his 9,000- volume library lined the walls to the ceiling, and late-afternoon sunshine filtered through the blinds. The world-renowned scholar, author, ora- tor leaned back and closed his eyes in thought-a mannerism which his audiences can remember with delight. "If I were to advise a young man consider- ing the ministry for his work," he said, "I'd tell him it's a happy profession. Provided that he is suited for it, and to whom public life is not a trial. "Religion brings out the best side of peo- ple, and the minister represents them best. He Is happy because he helps make people better than they look-what they want to be." The rabbi paused in contemplation, then spoke the thought he wanted for emphasis. "Put on an intellectual basis as well as a spiritual one," he said, "the ministry has become a public service. "And there is today a comradeship among the clergy, such as there was never before. This brotherliness among us, I think, will seep down among the people, for Americans are pioneers in easy comradeship." Declaring tht ecumenism "has firm soil" in the United States,. Dr. Freehof said that the "prospect for church unity is greater than ever before." "To see this late in my ministry," he said, "is a great satisfaction." A man of simple joys, he rose and contem- plated the color of flowers in a "finger pad" on the door-one of those triumphs of pos- session from a journey over oceans. "You couldn't find it here," he said. He paused in the hallway, caught the visitor's arm. "Look," he said. Triple-decked on the wall were prints of native South African art, acquired there, the lines as simple as nature could contrive, In color perfection. Mrs. Freehof Invited the visitor to see one of her treasures, a magnificent piece of Swedish crystal-"Jonah and the Fish." "The Bible doesn't say it was a whale," Dr. Freehof observed, "It was a 'fish: You'll notice here that the flippers are vertical, but the whale's are horizontal." He paused before his bookshelves and fondled a volume bound In vellum, well pre- served although dating from the 15th Century: "Handling old books Is play," he said. "Books keep me busy." They have indeed, for he has written 15, mostly concerning Hebrew canon law. Mrs. Freehof has written 12 treating of Bible themes. The rabbi has plans for four more. Dr. Freehof's book reviews, Bible classes, and his Shakespeare lectures became famous among ever-increasl.hg audiences down through the years. He assumed the pulpit of Rodef Shalom Congregation in 1934. Previously he was a professor at the Hebrew Union College from which he was graduated and the rabbi of the Kehillath Anshe Maariv Temple in Chicago. During World War r he was a chaplain in the American Expeditionary Force. He is a past president of the Central Con- ference of American Rabbis, and a member of the executive board of the Union of Amer- ican Hebrew Congregatiaons. He was the first American to be president of the World Union for Progressive Judaism and Is now its honorary president. Besides more writing, travel Is ahead for Dr. and Mrs. Freehof. There'll probably be more visits to Israel. He sees that country as "constantly im- proving, and it's a pleasure to see how very dynamic it is." "Those people love to argue, he chuckled, "so I'd better take some boxing gloves along- but I'm in good shape." "Do it all over again?" he said at the ddpr. "Certainly--even in reincarnation!" \ United States Not Waging a Holy War EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ABRAHAM J. MULTER OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, September 22, 1966 Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, it does not seem quite clear to some people why we are aiding the South Vietnamese in their struggle against outside aggression. The following article by Crosby S. Noyes helps clarify the situation. It appeared in the Washington Evening Star of September 20, 1966. I com- mend the item to the attention of our colleagues: UNITED STATES NOT WAGING A "HOLY WAR" IN VIETNAM (By Crosby S. Noyes) United Nations Secretary General U Thant had a bacf word for just about everyone in his doleful report on the state of the world to the new U.N. General Assembly. But his reproaches presumably addressed to the United States over the conflict in Viet Nam were, in fact, not reproaches at all. What particularly distresses the secretary general is the idea that negotiations to end the conflict in Viet Nam are being blocked by considerations of great power politics and that the conflict has become "a kind of holy war between two powerful ideologies." "I remain convinced," U Thant wrote, "that the basic problem in Viet Nam Is not one of ideology, but one of national identity and survival." It may come, as a surprise to U Thant, but there is no responsible official in Washington who would disagree with this sentiment. When it comes to the problem of explaining and justifying what the United States is try- ing to do in Viet Nam President Johnson himself might well use the same words. It is precisely to ensure the national identity and survival of South Viet Nam that the United States is fighting. In Viet Nam itself, it is the claim of South Viet Nam to national identity, rather than any unre- concilable ideological differences with the re- gime in Hanoi, that is the root of the conflict. This claim to separate national identify has been sustained by the South Vietnamese for more than six years of intensifying strug- gle to avoid armed conquest by the north. It has been reaffirmed most recently by a vote in which more than 80 percent of the coun- try's registered voters defied Hanoi and the Viet Cong to cast ballots for a representative constitutent assembly. Without American help, no doubt, the issue would have been settled long since by force. But whatever. U Thant may think, the growing American involvement in Viet Nam has not given the conflict the character of a holy war, either in Saigon or in Wash- ington. A4939 So far as the- statements of American lead- ers are concerned, there has been nothing to sustain the charge that the war is looked on primarily as an ideological confrontation. When Johnson, Rusk and company speak of the necessity of containing Communist ag- gression in Southeast Asia, the operative word is "aggression." From the very beginning, the U.S. govern- ment has justified its effort purely and sim- ply on the principle of self-determination- the right of the people of Viet Nam to decide their own destiny. The phrase "Communist aggression" is little more than a convenient shorthand for identifying the source of the aggression, whether it is applied to Hanoi or Peking. And the notion of a global ideolog- ical Armageddon has been studiously re- sisted by all responsible American spokes- men. From the American point of view, the ideological character of the struggle Is very largely irrelevant. It is not the fact that China and North Viet Nam are Communist nations that matters. What does matter is that they seek to impose their domination and their system on people who do not want them. The Communists have, to be sure, made a considerable effort to turn the struggle in Viet Nam into a holy war. The Chinese, in particular, have made no bones about link- ing the outcome of that struggle to their doctrine of the ultimate universal triumph of militant communism. The North Vietnamese, while subscribing, of course, to Chinese theories about "wars of national liberation," are somewhat more re- strained in their theology and more inclined to view the war in terms of their own na- tional aspirations. American experts believe that even China's ideological trumpetings on Viet Nam are largely windowdressing to cover up what are in reality China's traditional national ambitions in Asia. Perhaps the most convincing evidence against U Thant's holy war thesis are the persistent efforts that the United States has been making to enlist the aid of the Soviet Union in getting peacetalks started. It is, to say the least, an odd way to run a crusade, And recent developments in New York-including U Thant's own sudden de- cision to stay around for a while longer- offer at least a glimmer of hope that the way to a settlement may not be as hopelessly blocked as the secretary general has thought. Agreement on Development of Savannah River EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. W. J. BRYAN DORN OF SOUTH CAROLINA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, September 1, 1966 Mr. DORN. Mr. Speaker, an utterly ridiculous, incredible, misleading, and false article was mailed to the members of my Committee on Public Works in the envelope of the Anderson Independent and was postmarked at Anderson, S.C. Without question, this article was mailed from my own district in an attempt to create confusion and hinder the fulfill- ment of an agreement we have worked out for the development of the Savannah River between South Carolina and Georgia by both public and private means. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400110006-0 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400110006-0 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX September 22 1966 , For many years there has been a stale- erate attempt to distort the facts shows a for too long by too man mate on the Savannah River between m desperate man Wh e l . y op y did a whole year pass y p e, water, , now district and Georgia with the people of after an engineering alteration was an- one of our great national assets, advocating a Government dam pounced that made Middleton Shoals and has also become a great national prob- at Trotters Shoals while the public of- Trotters .Shoals compatible? Why didn't he lem. Pollution from many sources has fcials and myself in South Carolina have switch a year ago? Why was all this time fouled countless rivers, streams, and lakes held out for private development arof the wasted? I don't know the answers to these robbing them of both their beauty and questions, but my opponent will undoubt- their usefulness at the very time when river. A compromise was inevitable be- edly come up with some soon. fore construction of either private or "When we got the first news stories of m our needs for water are increasing rap- public project. o y idly. nent's switch, I made some andcfound that he had been faedhto switch Our so-called water problem actually Speaker, I have worked for 20 or else Keowee-Toxaway and Middleton problems, of course: ; ol years to bring about full development of is a number ber of of p oals might be lost. The license from the lution, improper distribution, thought- the Savana River. An agreement has Sh'PC must be obta by this Ober. Sen. less waste, unrealistic pricing, and many been worked out which will permit the THURMO DDS office in Washington confirmed others. Most of these problems are om- great Mead ? Pulp & Paper Co., to build my Opinion. A meeting was taking place at plex not only in themselves, but in their a plant on its new site in Abbeville that time (Wednesday morning, July 20) interrelationships as well. Their solu- County, which will permit Duke to build and we would get more information as soon tion will not be easy. the world's largest steamplant on its site as It was over. Sen. THURMOND told me In Anderson County and for a Govern- Saturday night in Saluda County what took Legislation now before the Congress ment dam to be built at Trotters Shoals place. will substantially increase the pace and pan "About six weeks ago Duke Power Corn- the scope of our efforts to combat these below Calhoun Falls on the Savannah problems. River between Abbeville County, S.C., Keoweea learnedit from theget FPC lase thinfor ut, as we know, pathy can blunt the aeffect venessblof gs a and Elbert County, Ga. Also involved stood. At the same time my opponent real- any law. Whatever the final form. of in this agreement is withdrawal of op- ized that we mean business in this race. A the "water" legislation presently pend-w panion to another fantastic power-gen- p the oerledforpmdin the press to pre- ing in Congress, it must have the sup- are ng complex at Keowee-Troxaway in p p Y ppoe a ase switch. port of an interested and informed pub- Pickens and Oconee Counties. "When the time came to release the news, Mr. Speaker, this is a superb agree- his vepoonnofj t ep storyeearly. and Becauserelease of lic Recently, to President Johnson purposestool, a went-the very best that could be hoped this and because of the distortion of the firsthand look at the pollution of Lake for. I hope that partisan politics will facts, I learned from reliable sources that pri- Erie at the mouth of the Buffalo River. not enter, into this agreement. i hope vately, the senators and congressmen from This occasion focused attention on the further and recommend to my colleagues both South Carolina and Georgia were quite that this ,agreement be approved. The put out with him. At any rate, he reversed water problems in our area. The solu- Into place. It looks is position and at long last he reversed article, which was mailed to the mem- h fell tion to our monumental water problems bers of the Public Works Committee and will be built. We alllhope lits not too late. local governments bal ne ehelpssa needed referred to above, follows: "I predict we can expect more switches from other responsible segments of our K. Grisso Republican Congressional candidate John from my opponent. You are aware that the society if the general public is to have a BRYAN DORNOna Monday appointed charged Richard when Anderson Post Office e has and after postmas- ter for about nine S; sound understanding of our complex wa- acting postmaster r in Anderson he deprived Johnston passed away an appointment was ter problems. 12 career postal employes promotions which made to put a man from outside the postal In this regard, I would like to call the Would have carried salary increases of ap- service in as acting postmaster. attention of my colleagues to a report on proximately $22,000 a year. "This meant that qualified men with long water that has recently been pr Copeland, son-in-law of defeated state postal service were not given the chance to by Worthington Corp. I am oud to Sen. J.. B, Lawson, may now become "polit- compete for the position and that promotions proud to ically expendable," Grisso said, and he pre- for approximately 12 employees who would say that Worthington been a credit whose and eC.OBuffalo eted Doam would pull another "compro- have moved up were not forthcoming. These plant has long been a - diinise." promotions would have carried salary in- nomic benefit to the Niagara Frontier, At the time of the appointment, various creases totaling approximately $22,000 a year. has been extremely active in the field of groups in the post office here filed protests This happened because an outsider was ap- water handling and treatment. against DORN appointing Copeland. pointed for political reasons by my opponent Mr. Speaker, I sincerely believe that DoRN announced last week a compromise to be acting postmaster. on the Savannah River development. After "The word is out now that my opponent this tepow, d a greater rnatio l u der- a talk made Monday before a group of An- realized his mistake and in all probability tribute toward a national nr standing derson County "Grisso For Congress Com- will do something about it before the Novem- vario s of our water problems, and the e neittee Members" who honored him with a ber election. It is just this kind of monkey- various alternative solutions to those luncheon celebrating his 38th birthday, Gris- shine that is behind a bill which I am in- problems. I commend Worthington so issued this statement: formed, will be introduced today or shortly Corp. for what I consider an outstand- "This last week we saw a spectacle that in the Congress that would take the appoint- ing public service. may be witnessed quite often in the coming ment of postmasters out of the hands of the Mr. Speaker, the following are key ex- months. As you know, my opponent was politicians and put it into the hands of Civil forced to reverse positions on the develop- Service examiners. In other words, this bill cerpts from "Water": ment of the Savannah River Projects. would prohibit appointments such as my op- EXCERPTS FROM "WATER" BY WORTHINGTON "My opponent's records show clearly that ponent has made here in Anderson. It may CORP. he has always opposed the building of Trot- be that the acting postmaster, will be politi- Water is one of man's blessings and perhaps ters Shoals. He said this years ago. It tally 'expendable' due to the reaction that his greatest natural resource, but it is also was in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD last July hasset in against my opponent, as a result of a commodity. While it comes in free abun- 27, and I quote: `Trotters Shoals is not needed overlooking the postal employees in making dance to some, others must treasure a trickle. for recreation. It is not needed for navi- the appointment. Fortunately it is an almost infinitely re- gation. It is not needed for flood control. "You can expect now-with the election usable commodity; we can enjoy and employ It is definitely not needed for power . . coming up-an examination to be called or it over and over through reclamation proc- Least of all do we need a panel to promote some other so-called 'compromise.' " eases that keep it clean. As a commodity Trotters Shoals moving from abundance to scarcity, water And this July, the 11th of July to be must be looked at in terms of the true costs exact, the Greenwood Index Journal carried Facing the Facts of Water of a continued supply. a story from Washington from which I quote: The tasks of tapping new supplies farther As a member of the flood control subcom- away and cleaning up old ones nearby will mittee, he managed to get all mention of EXTENSION OF REMARKS be both extensive and expensive. Municipal Trotters Shoals eliminated from the bill of waste treatment could cost up to a billion reported out by the panel.' dollars a year for man "There are many other statements clearly HON. HENRY P. SMITH III the cost of decontaminy years. of ating a1lll Industrial strial indicating my opponent's tactics on the OF NEW YORK billion waste rd dollars from a one year for billion the next as high ten as four Savannah River development. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES at years; ,S"In a fashion that will become a trade- spent. east For needs iI million a year is now being mark, my opponent issued ambiguous state.- Thursday, September 22, 1966 spFor neds c spewa arena the de- ments that imply that he caused or effected Mr. SMITH of New York. Mr. Speak- saltinglifise water will require water and the de or brought about a compromise. This delib- er, because it has been take salting of sea water will rvery large in.- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA IW~' b 104 bb4 1tfIF0]8 ()developments will