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May 24, 1965
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Approv d For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 May 24, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX A2569 L.B.J. Was on Top of the Crisis turn of former President Juan Bosch -to I think it is well to give consideration to the office he lost in a military coup 2 years the points raised in the following edi- ago ceased to be an acceptable solution to torial from the Wall Street Journal of EXTENSION OF REMARKS the crisis. Under Fideiista auspicies, Bosch's May 19: or brand of liberalism and ineffectual if well- PROTESTING Too LITTLE J. J. PICKLE meant anticommunism would have lasted HON. about as long as an icicle on the Avenida People have been tolerating Federal sub- OF TEXAS Independencia. sidies in one form or another for so long IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES The revolution in a few days destroyed that the administration's new rent subsidy all domestic authority. The rebel side was proposal has stirred scarcely a ripple of Monday, May 24, 1965 split three or four ways-among various protest. schools of Communists, apparently sincere The subsidy scheme-which officials call a Mr. PICKLE. Mr. Speaker, I call your anti-Communist constitutionalists and a rent supplement to make it sound more attention to two editorials-one from the heavy admixture of trigger-happy kids. The palatable-envisions church or other non- fit anizations building housing into or Austin, Tex., Statesman on May 7, 1965, and the other from Life on May 14, 1965-concerning the U.S. action in the Dominican Republic. I found the point well taken, and I commend these edi- torials to the attention of my colleagues. They follow: [From the Austin (Tex.) Statesman, May 7, g "loyalists"-rightist military leaders-were pro also divided for a time. The civilian gov- which eligible families of low and moderate ernment of Donald Reid Cabral, which suc- income would move, paying about 20 percent ceeded Bosch in 1963, disintegrated alto- of their annual income as rent. The Fed- gether 2 weeks ago. The resulting power eral subsidy would give the owners the dif- vacuum has been filled by U.S. marines and ference between that amount and whatever airborne troops. an economic rent would be. By intervening unilaterally in Santo Do- When the plan came to its first legislative mingo, the United States broke the letter of hurdle in a House banking subcommittee the the treaties governing inter-American re- other day, the discussion did not center on hether the whole rent subsidy theory is w ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES To lations, which called for collective hemi- unsound and ought to be thrown out of the SPONSOR A DOMINICA PEACE FORCE spheric action or none at all. We also in- proposed housing legislation. The question, Though a truce between the contending curred, as the cost of our decisiveness, a rather, was whether the administration's for- factions in the Dominican Republic has been propaganda disadvantage. But President mula was perhaps a bit too generous. signed, its net effect still leaves much to be Kennedy had already served warning that In some high-rent cities, as the adminis- desired. Communist fire has continued, we could not afford to be bound to a dan- tration wanted it, families with an annual gerous do-nothing policy. If, he said in a though seemingly at a lesser pace. income as high as $8,550 could have part, of 1961 speech, "the inter-American doctrine their rent paid by the Government. The The lesson dealing r co r11 of noninterference merely conceals or ex- hard-learned over the the years, , is that at truces es cuses a policy of nonaction . . . this gov- subcommittee members evidently concluded are made to be broken, jst as serve their treaties pur- are ernment will not hesitate in meeting Its that as a little on the high side, for they made to be broken. They reduced the ceiling to $6,850, and they pro- pose by gaining time for the Reds. But in- primary obligations, which are to the se- portionately dropped the ceilings for cities evitably they are junked and conditions then curity of our Nation." where rents are lower. relapse into greater disarray than before. From the very first, however, President However, this and other less consequential It required some fast footwork for the Johnson had sought to mobilize the 20- revisions do not face up squarely to the issue: President to anticipate the Communist pur- member Organization of American States, Should the Government, already deep in the pose of stealing the revolution and taking it which is supposed to deal with crises like housing business and making a botch of it, out of the hands of the forces that have a this. It proved difficult to get the OAS off go even deeper by handing out rent sub- stake in the sovereignty and future of the mark. Then last week the necessary 14 sidies, no matter what income limitations Dominica. members gave grudging recognition to the arbitrarily are decided on? Surely our social The decision to send U.S. troops to the necessity of our fast action and voted to and moral fabric is badly torn when hardly island Republic was a difficult one, but it was establish an OAS military force to create anybody sees anything wrong with a citizen twice justified: To enable Americans and "a climate of peace and conciliation" in being beholden to the Government for part other affected nationalities to get out of war-ravaged Santo Domingo. The force will of. his rent for as long as 40 years, which Dominica in safety, and to nip in the bud a include some of the U.S. troops already there. is What the bill provides. Communist takeover the pattern . it this significant possible to break OAS is not the absence explain. A sweating farmer sequences followed by Fidel Castro in Cuba. may be p Poss Thus it is a matter of some dismay why peacekeeping function and eventually to on a tractor in Iowa, say, may mutter about some nations of Latin America, all of whom set up a trusteeship be hecil against the time the Government osometimaking him nhelptto pay grit or have had run-ins with Communists and ter-wheh rorists at one time or another, look with The Dominican crisis has shown again that New York. But he isn't going to mutter hostility on intervention in Dominica by the the danger of Castroism is still teal. It much when, at the same time, the Govern- United States to prevent repetition of the even raises the somewhat nightmarish ment is making those city people help to conspiracy that made of Cuba a Soviet thought that a few hundred Fidelistas pay subsidies for his farm. And that is the satellite. scattered about Latin America could cause sorry state to which Government's extension President Johnson has repeatedly assured the dispatch of thousands of U.S. troops. of subsidies has come; who is there left to these critics that the United States will get While our actions have given new life to the be free to cast the first stone? out of Dominica when the mission of stamp- Monroe Doctrine, at the same time the very ing out the Communist scheme is completed, existence of the OAS makes the Monroe or when the Organization of American States Doctrine a hemisphere affair. Hemisphere meets its responsibilities. security has become a responsibility to be The OAS has divided support among the shared. Castorite subversion is far more a Latin American nations, and has always threat to other OAS members than it is to dragged its feet in an emergency while some the United States. The clear need is for a members accuse-the United States of having permanent collective mechanism capable of improper designs in its effort to prevent combating such subversion wherever it sur- Communist takeovers in the New World. faces. It is neither to our interest nor to Now it has agreed to sponsor a peacekeeping the interest of the OAS that the United force. States should by default have to do the job Critics of the President's action might well alone. ask themselves the question of whether ? it would be right to stand idly by and permit the Dominican trouble to result in the im- position of a Communist dictatorship? Protesting Too Little [From Life, May 14, 1965] EXTENSION OF REMARKS L.B.J. WAS ON TOP OF THE CRISIS OF President Johnson's decision to send U.S. HON. J. ARTHUR YOUNGER forces into the Dominican Republic was OF CALIFORNIA wise, courageous and timely. Depending IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES on how successfully the United States is now able to follow through in a principled fash- Monday, May 24, 1965 ion, it may look equally good in longer retrospect. - -Mr. YOUNGER. Mr. Speaker, in view The moment the rebel leadership was of the fact that the House will shortly infiltrated by Castroite Communists, the re- be considering the Housing Act of 1965, Health and Safety Committee Resolution - EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JOEL T. BROYHILL OF VIRGINIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, May 24, 1965 Mr. BROYHILL of Virginia. Mr. Speaker, Mrs. Ruth Desmond, president of the Federation of Homemakers, and a tireless worker for the health safety of the people of our Nation, has asked that I commend a resolution unanimously passed by the board of management of her good Organization to the Members of Congress for their consideration. I -am happy to read this resolution into - the RECORD so that my colleagues may have the opportunity to study its contents: Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 A2570 Approved For Releaser 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX May 24, 1965 Whereas scientific and technological changes have proliferated in the last two de- cad$s as never before, and Whereas health hazards and threats to personal safety has also multiplied, and Whereas there has been a vast increase of problems involving health and safety at- tending the expansion of novel practices in industry, agriculture, and Government, and Whereas the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce has become increasingly burdened by the diversification of modern commerce and problems hitherto unknown to mankind, and Whereas itis unlikely that even so dedi- cated a group of legislators as the Commit- tee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce can devote the necessary time and energy to the myriad tasks and responsibilities facing them, created by the aforesaid technological revolution: Now, therefore, be It Resolved, That the Federation of Home- makers, a nationwide group of public-spirited housewives, requests the Congress of the United States to create a new standing com- mittee in the House of Representatives to be known as the Committee on Health and Safety, and that this aforesaid committee be assigned the task of studying and reporting to the Congress and the public on all na- tional problems relating to health and safety, and considering legislation which would vi- tally affect the public in these specific fields. Unanimously passed by the Board of Man- agement of the Federation of Homemakers at its regular meeting, April 8, 1965. RUTH G. DESMOND, President. Double Standard EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. MASTON O'NEAL OF GEORGIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, May 24,,1965 Of 113,780 found outside the vault, $3,300 were :found by the police locked in a closet in the classroom of one of the teachers. There were no prayers for 71-year-old Bank Pres.dent Tom C. Woodruff, who was kid- naped that Monday night when he returned from a church meeting. No ministers wept over him. No cardinal or archbiship offered prayers for him. President Johnson did not send his personal plane to bring relatives to the uneral. The President didn't call the family of Tom Woodruff on the phone. Whir the double standard? This news- pape? will tell you why. It is because the uproar over voting rights in Alabama is care- fully contrived by the Communists who are attempting to stir up,discord between black and white In this country and to keep the Negr) situation aggravated to the point when Negroes can be used as the shock troops of tae revolution which the Communist Part' plans in the United" States. So carefully organized Is the hysteria over the civil rights issue that if the right button is prsssed newspapers and radio commenta- tors all over th@ United States. go to work with Bob stories about the so-called warriors for racial justice. Whenever an unfortunate tragedy occurs, as it the Evers case or in the case of the Unitarian minister from Boston, this gives the Communists what they always want-a martyr. They have been lugging the bodies of their so-called martyrs through the streets from one end of this world to another ever since the Communist Party came into power in Russia, following the end of the First World War. This is a standard technique. If th are aren't any martyrs, naturally, they see to it that some are made. Yoi don't see any of these sanctimonious civil ~ fighters talking about colored murderer, while 30 white people didn't lift a finger when they heard her screams under their windinvs. You never hear one of these hypoaittieal civil rights leaders talk about the necessity of Negroes behaving themselves like civilized people, not like animals. Yet when something happens as happened to the Unitarian minister, screams of anguish arise from one end of the country to the other and Presllent Johnson l i p ays r ght in with the Mr. O'NEAL of Georgia. Mr. Speaker, propaganda plan because, of course, there are under leave to extend my remarks in the millions of Negro votes to be considered. RECORD, I submit the enclosed article Whit about the white people? What by Mr. William Loeb, publisher of the about Bank President Tom C. Woodruff, who Manchester, N.H., Union, Leader. This lived all his life as a respected citizen of Una& imely Ilan of Ga.? Did you hear any condem- timely and informative article has been t reproduced on the front page of the peoplu? this crime from the word about t Cordele Dispatch on May 11, 1965. the fact that you the animals single robbed ethe The Cordele Dispatch is a widely read bank, broke his fingers, one by one, trying and much respected newspaper which to for ze him to open a vault that he couldn't is published by my good friends, E. W. open 3eeause it had a timelock on it and and Jack C. Mathews of Cordele, Ga. would not open again until the following I commend this article to those who morning in time for banking hours? Did would not believe its context had it been you hsar any outcry over the fact that the written b southern robbers fractured his skull and that they by a publisher. Mr. shot 1dm once in the side before. they fled Loeb knows his subject very well and it with the $3,780 that they found In the bank muting and, since there are nine whites to every colored person, the revolution Will be put down in a bloodbath that will be on the shoulders of these phony crusaders. WILLIAM .LOEB, Publisher. Repairs To AAvoiil Repairs HON. J. ARTHUR YOUNGER OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, May 24, 1965 Mr. YOUNGER. Mr. Speaker, much has been said and written about the in- ternational monetary situation and what should be done to protect and enhance our gold supply. The following editorial, which appeared in the Wall Street Jour- nal on Thursday, May 13, sheds consid- erable light on this question: REVIEW AND OUTLOOK: REPAIRS To AVOID REPAIRS In the view of a number of bankers and economists,. as well as an occasional peripa- tetic prime minister, the world is in danger of running out of spending money. If the international monetary machinery isn't over- hauled soon to create lots :more "liquidity," they contend, world trade simply may shrivel up. It's a frightening picture, all right, but it's also one that appears to Ignore a few simple _principles of economics. In the first place, as Professor Boarman stressed on this page the other day, day-to- day transactions in the markets of the world are not financed by passing out gold bars or otherwise digging into nations' monetary reserves. Such transactions are financed in- stead by extensions of ordinary commercial credit. As a result, there is no necessary connection at all between the rate at which the world's liquidity grows and the speed at which trade expands. In. the decade of the 1950's, for ex- ample, trade grew almost twice as fast as the world's monetary reserves. Problems arise principally when one or more nations persistently spend, lend or in- vest more abroad than they take in from overseas. Other countries can be fairly pa- tient, extending sizable amounts of credit for long periods of time, but eventually they are sure to insist on something more solid than credit. Foreign nations have certainly been pa- tient with the United States. Despite a healthy excess of exports over imports, this Nation for more than a decade has hardly ever been able to balance its income with its outgo, even for limited periods Y t it _ . e s ers will acquaint themselves with the FBI agents arrested the two Negro school- creditors for years went on piling up dollar subject as it truly exists: teachers, one of whom taught English and credits with hardly a murmur. DOUBLE STANDARD the other taught science in a nearby high In the past few years, however, the credi- Two men died in the school did you hear any cries from civil tors have become increasingly concerned. So South on the same ri ht ' g er on behalf of dead President Tom C. they ve been coming around with their dol- day. The emotionally hysterical civil rights Woodruff? You did not and you will not. lar credits and insisting that the United supporters made sure that you knew all the This newspaper, like any decent American States pay them off with its gold; since the details regarding the deatkt of one of these newspaper, detests violence against any citi- end of 1958 America's holdings of gold have men, the minister who was beaten by some zen of the United States, white or black, but shrunk by about one-fourth. The foreigners' white people in Selma after he had invaded it is silk and tired of the double standard of Willingness to go on piling up dollar credits their hometown and tragically died. those who would forgive the Negro every has been lessened, too, by America's evident The other man, the Itory of whose death crime and only concentrate their condem- unwillingness to put its own house in order. was buried on page 14 of our own paper- nation* against the white people in this Confidence In the dollar, for example, was and probably wasn't mentioned at all in country. hardly enhanced by Washington's proposed papers-was that of 71-year-old Bank' This Is not justice. This is not even cam- cut in tourists' customs allowances, its efforts President Tom C. Woodruff, ofUnadilla, Ga., Inonserese. Just let them keep it up. What to sell savings bonds to servicemen abroad, its who died from a fractured skull after having will happen in the United States, unfortu- emergency borrowings here and there over- his fingers broken by robbers who tried to nately, is not a gradual and sensible adjust- seas. For a good while the Government's force him to open the vault of,his bank. went cI the relationships between the races. efforts seemed either too small to matter or Two Negro schoolteachers from a nearby What?clil come Will be a revolution on the too likely only to postpone the day of reck- town are accused by the police of the crime. part of the black people than they are pro- oning. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1. Approved For Release 2003/10/15: CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 May 24, 1965 boycott questionnaire; representing an Israel company; promoting or selling products made in Israel; belonging to oversea Israel chambers of commerce. The Arab boycott has obstructed foreign investment in Israel. It has succeeded in making Arab-Israel peace more remote. The Arabs will not admit that they are hurt by their insistence on a state of war with Israel; the Israeli do'admit it; they want and need peace. The boycott impedes logical trade relationships between Israel and the Arab States, slowing Arab economic development and endangering Israel's economic security. The boycott prohibits free transit of people and literature. It discourages the exchange of ideas, breeds fear and distrust, and widens the gap for compromise and peaceful exist- ence on both sides. The Democratic and Republican platforms of 1960 pledged action against the Arab boycott and that year Congress adopted an amendment to our foreign aid program which provided that aid should be withheld from any country which persisted in boycotts and blockades. The amendment was supported by President Johnson and the late President Kennedy, both then Members of the Senate. It was adopted over opposition of the State Department, which feared, as today, that such legislation would be counterproductive. It seems that everyone deplores the Arab boycott, but unfortunately the administra- tion expresses concern over restrictive trade practices and boycotts between countries which are friendly to us, but opposes our amendment on the ground that it would weaken American effort to enlist other gov- ernments in our program of economic denial against Communist China, Cuba, North Vietnam, and North Korea, and on the grounds that it- would challenge the Arab States to intensify their boycott rather than end it.` Yielding to blackmail, and cooperation with blackmailers, only makes it more diffi- cult to extricate oneself. West Germany delayed far too long, and as a result when she did recognize Israel, 10 Arab States re- taliated by "breaking relations." On the outset, Nasser threatened that he would recognize Communist East Germany if Bonn recognized Israel. But only 2 of the other 12 Arab States were willing to follow him, and Nasser had to back down. The Arab boycott is directed at business- men all, over the world. There is nothing to stop them from such activities an their own soil, but conduct of Arab economic warfare on American soil should not be tolerated. By refusing to comply with boycott de- mands, small American business firms would have a Government export regulation to protect them if our amendment is approved. It would immunize American exporters of goods from involvement in foreign boycotts; it would protect our legitimate American business interests in foreign markets, it would contribute to export expansion and trade promotion and would assert our deter- mination and Intention to trade where we wish and in markets where there is demand for our American goods and services. A united front of defiance would cut down the deceit and the distrust which the boy- cott has bred. We might ask: How can the vulnerable businessman defy the boycott when the most powerful government in the world, which should-be his protector, does not protect him? The State Department, which is the logical agency to consult when there is threat from a foreign government, has failed to act forcefully to defend U.S. businessmen. There is an erroneous notion that the United States practices trade restrictions similar to this boycott with respect to Com- munist countries. In our export regulations we control the utilization of only American products and resources. We do not presume to unilaterally control products originating in a third country. This is contrary to America's sense of "fair play" in world trade. In the amendment before us, we seek fair play and Government protection for our American companies operating overseas. The purpose of the antiboycott legislation is to neutralize the effect in the United States of the Arab boycott and any compa- rable restrictions that may originate else- where on American firms by blocking the sources of information on which the restric- tive practices thrive. The provisions of the bill affords a measure of Government protec- tion to companies who desire to invoke it. The restrictive remedy in the antiboycott legislation would provide equal treatment for all American companies. Some American firms, because of their stature, resources, or strong competitive position, are able inde- pendently to resist Arab boycott pressures. However, there are other U.S. companies who consider themselves in a less favorable com- petitive position, and who, therefore, feel compelled to comply with requests for in- formation from the Arab boycott organi- zation.. Our Government should establish its op- position to this harassment and pressure against American firms and oppose any such trade practices which are designed to intimi- date countries friendly to the United States. Passage of this important piece of legisla- tion will provide long overdue protection 'to American firms engaged in foreign com- merce. _ I strongly 'co end it to you for your favorable consicjgr on. DOMINICAN CRISIS EMPHASIZES NECESSITY FOR REAFFIRMA- TION OF MONROE DOCTRINE (Mr. FLOOD (at the request of Mr. BINGHAM) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. FLOOD. Mr. Speaker, following the overthrow on April 24, 1965, of the Government of the Dominican Republic, a strategically located country on the rim of the Caribbean Basin, President Johnson acted with decisive promptness in landing U.S. forces to protect the lives of our citizens and other foreign na- tionals there, and.to prevent a Red take- over of that island country. What he did was in line with the highest tradi- tions and practices of our country. Although the recent emergency ap- propriation by the Congress of $700 mil- lion to cover the costs Of military and naval operations in Santo Domingo and Vietnam is an important measure of ap- proval, this action is not enough. There must be a positive clarification and re- affirmation of our historic policy of self- defense to show the world that our peo- ple and the Congress are squarely behind the President in combatting world con- quest by the most sinister and brutal force in history. Also we must under- stand the significance of what was at- tempted in the Dominican Republic. In anticipation of situations in the Caribbean such as that which erupted in Santo Domingo, on January 18, 1965, I introduced House Resolution 124 to ex- tend the Monroe Doctrine to declare sub- versive domination or threat of it not only a violation of this doctrine but also of collective security as set forth in vari- ous acts and resolutions of the American Republics. Because of the magnitude of the situa- tion in which our country faces absolute 10887 power, our statesmen and the Congress must show absolute fearlessness; and we must do it legally, forthrightly, and deci- sively for which purpose House Resolu- tion 124 was formulated. I have written the chairman of the Committee on For- eign Affairs requesting immediate hear- House Resolution 124 follows.: H. RES. 124 Whereas the subversive forces known as international communism, operating se- cretly and openly, directly and indirectly, threaten the sovereignty and political inde- pendence of all the Western Hemisphere nations; and Whereas the American Continents, by the free and independent position which they have assumed and maintained, are not sub- ject to colonization or domination by any power; and Whereas the intervention of international communism, directly or indirectly, or how- ever disguised, in any American state, con- flicts with the established policy of the Amer- ican Republics for the protection of the sov- ereignty of the peoples of such states and the political independence of their govern- ments; and Whereas such a situation extended to any portions of the Western Hemisphere is dan- gerous to the peace and safety of the whole of it, including the United States: Now, therefore, be it Resolved, That (1) any such subversive domination or threat of it violates the prin- ciples of the Monroe Doctrine, and of collec- tive security as set forth in the acts and resolutions heretofore adopted by the American Republics; and (2) That in any such situation any one or more of the high contracting parties to the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal As- sistance may, in the exercise of individual or collective self-defense, and in accordance with the declarations and principles above stated, take steps to forestall or combat in- tervention, domination, control, and coloni- zation in whatever form, by the subversive forces known as international communism and its agencies in the Western Hemisphere. SILVER DOLLARS (Mr. FASCELL (at the request of Mr. BINGHAM) was 'granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. FASCELL. Mr. Speaker, the an- nouncement that the U.S. Mint will coin the 45 million silver dollars which were authorized by the Congress last July raises the serious question of what will happen to the dollars. Will they enter into circulation? The Legal and Monetary Affairs Sub- committee of the House Committee on Government Operations, of which I am chairman, delved into these possibilities in its studies of the coin shortage. I be- lieve that the history of what has hap- pened to the silver dollars which the United States as already coined throws great light on what is likely to become of the 45 million silver dollars. In our coin shortage report, part 1, House Report No. 194, 89th Congress, 1st session, we said: SILVER DOLLARS Early in 1964, the Treasury ran out of silver dollars, and they became, in effect, collectors' items. Therewere 855,661,153 (in- cluding 50,026 Lafayette commemoratives), standard silver dollars minted between 1793 and 1935. None has been minted since 1935. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 May 24, 1965 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 10967 of Representatives. Senate Joint Resolution 65 is identical in text with that earlier pro- posal with the following two exceptions: (1) The compensation of the Curator would be set at $22,000 rather than at $17,500; and (2) the expense authorization of the Com- mission would be set at $15,000 per fiscal year rather than at $10,000. PURPOSE The underlying objective of Senate Joint Resolution 65 is to centralize responsibility for the preservation and enhancement of the Capitol's work of art and historical objects in a bipartisan Commission on Art and An- tiquities of the Capitol. The Commission would be empowered to select a Curator of Art and Antiquities of the Capitol to safe- guard, maintain, and bring to greater public awareness the treasures of art, culture, an- tiquity, and architecture contained in the Capitol. In addition, the measure contains ancillary provisions to carry out its general purposes, as indicated in the summary-analy- sis below. Further explanation of the background and objectives of Senate Joint Resolution 65 is contained in a statement made by Senator MISS MANSFIELD, its principal author, on March 22, 1965, when he introduced the measure in the Senate. His statement is as follows : "CURATOR OF ARTS AND ANTIQUITIES "Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, recent acts of vandalism in the Corcoran Gallery under- bers of the Senate sought to deal with sev- eral years ago. On June 6, 1962, I introduced engrossed for a third reading, was read test on behalf of myself, Senator DIRxsEN, the the third time, and passed, as follows: s tion.5 onescr d by hthe ave ommission under for minority leader, the Senator from Mississippi S.J. RES. 65 the supervision, protection, and placement [Mr. STENNIS] and the Senator from North Resolved by the Senate and House of Rep- of all works of art, historical objects, and Carolina [Mr. JORDAN] Senate Joint Resolu- resentatives of the United States of America exhibits which shall have been accepted on tion 195 entitled 'Joint resolution establish- in Congress assembled, . That (a) there is behalf of the Congress by the Capitol Coo- ing the Commission on Arts'and Antiquities hereby established a Commission on Art and mission or acknowledged as United States of the Capitol, and for other purposes.' On Antiquities of the Capitol (hereinafter re- property by inventory of the Commission, July 18, 1962, the Senate passed the bill but ferred to as "the Commission") consisting of and which may be lodged in the Senate and it died in the House Committee on Admin- the Vice President of the United States, the House Office Buildings, respectively, by the istration. Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Commission. "The art treasures and antiquities that chairman and ranking minority member of SEC. 3. (a) The Commission shall have re- have accrued to the Congress over the years the Committee on Rules and Administra- sponsibility for the supervision and mainte- represent an Immensely valuable and irre- tion of the Senate, the chairman and rank-- ante of the National Statuary Hall and the placeable part of our American heritage. ing minority member of the Committee on old Senate Chamber on the principal floor of This collection should be assured maximum House Administration of the House of Repre- the Senate wing of the Capitol insofar as safety and should be treated in an ante- sentatives, and the Architect of the Capitol. they are to be preserved as patriotic shrines grated fashion. But at the present time no (b) The Commission shall elect a Chair- in the capitol for the benefit of the Congress single body in the Congress is charged with man and a Vice Chairman at the beginning and the people of the United States. its care. The Capitol Architect, committees of each Congress. Four members of the (b) The Commission, with the advice of of each House, and other custodians do the Commission shall constitute a quorum for the Commission of Fine Arts, is authorized best they can to preserve portions of the the transaction of business, except that the and directed to relocate within the Capitol collection over which, in a somewhat hap- Commission may fix a lesser number which any of the statues already received and placed hazard fashion, they have been assigned jur- shall constitute a quorum for the taking of in the National Statuary Hall, and to provide isdiction through the years. But it is likely testimony. for the reception and location of the statues that in years past much of value has been lost. And there is no question that what (c) The Commission shall select a Curator which hereafter may be received from the of Art and Antiquities of the Capitol who States pursuant to section 1814 of the Re- remains can be more effectively utilized in shall be an employee of the Office of the vised Statutes, as amended (40 U.S.C. 187). an inspirational, educational, and patriotic Architect of the Capitol. The Curator shall SEC. 4. Whoever willfully defaces, injures, sense. What is involved are priceless bench- serve at the pleasure of the Commission, or damages any work of art, historical object, marks of our society and its history which shall perform such duties as it may prescribe, exhibit, or architectural feature in the have been entrusted to us for safekeeping, and shall receive compensation at a gross Capitol or in the Senate and House Office The Congress has a responsibility to see to it rate, not to exceed $22,000 per annum to be Buildings, which is the property of the that they are passed along unscathed and fixed by the Commission. At the request of United States, or violates any of the provi- undiminishednitur These paintings, books, fur- the Commission the Architect of the Capitol sions of the regulations adopted by the Com- loong ng e,o all statues and generations other of historic Americans, items bepast- , shall detail to the Commission such addi- mission for their care and protection, shall l t tional professional, clerical, and other assist- be fined not more than $100 or imprisoned not more than sixty days, or both, and pros- a present, future. which Their cannot be preservation taken n ants as, from time to time, it deems neces- lightly, for once marred, lost or destroyed sary. ecuion for such offense shall be had in the d The Commission shall be empowered municipal court of the District of Columbia, they can never a replaced, and acts of van- ( ) upon information by the United States at- witnesses, th Capitoldalism,. minister may I say, are not unknown in the holdinister oaths, , hearings, employ summon reporters, , request the e torney or any of his assistants: Provided, "I call to the attention of the Senate the production of papers and records, take such That in any case where, in the commission ..fact that Senate Joint Resolution 195 in the testimony, and adopt such rules for the con- of an offense under this section, any such 87th Congress had the strong endorsement duct of its hearings and meetings, as it work of art, historical object, exhibit, or and support of the minority leader and other deems necessary. architectural feature is damaged in an Senators who share a keen interest in our SEC. 2. (a) The Commission is hereby au- amount exceeding $100, the amount of the past history and its tangible legacies. The thorized and directed to supervise, hold, fine for the offense may be not more than Senate Committee on Rules and Administra- place, and protect all works of art, historical $5,000, the period of imprisonment for the tion at that time also gave Its unanimous objects, and exhibits within the Capitol, and offense may be not more than five years, and support io the resolution. which the Senate in all rooms, spaces, and corridors thereof, prosecution therefor shall be had in the proceeded to adopt on a bipartisan basis. which are the property of the United States, United States District Court for the District "Since the Douse did not act one way or and in its judgment to, accept any works of of Columbia by indictment except that, if the other on the proposal to establish a joint art, historical objects, or exhibits which may the defendant after he has been advised of commission and to provide for a Curator of hereafter be offered, given, or devised to the Arts and Antiquities, I again offer at this Congress, its committees, and its officers for time a similar resolution. The purpose of placement and exhibition in the Capitol, or this resolution is to provide coordinated pro- in rooms, spaces, or corridors thereof. tection and the best possible utilization of (b) The Commission shall prescribe such the objects of arts and the antiquities of the regulations as it deems necessary for the Capitol for the mutual benefit of the tens care, protection, and placement of such of thousands of visitors who come to their works of art, exhibits, and historical objects Capitol each year and the Members of Con- in the Capitol and the Senate said House gress. Office Buildings, and for their acceptance "Briefly, the resolution would create a on behalf of the Congress, its committees, commission comprised of the Speaker of the and others. Such regulations shall be pub- House, the Vice President, the chairman and lished in the Congressional Record at such the ranking minority members of the Senate time or times as the Commission may deem the Mem- tRules Committee and the House the Architect Administra- of the bero Congress and the public. Capitol. It would, as well, create the posi- (c) Regulations authorized by the pro- tion of Curator of Arts and Antiquities. I - visions of section 1820 of the Revised Stat- would hope and expect that the Commission utes (40 U.S.C. 193) to be issued by the pletely nonpartisan basis antoutstanding au- House of Rep esentatives for the protection thority on arts and antiquities and their of the Capitol, and any regulations issued, preservation and display. or activities undertaken, by the Committee "If the joint resolution is passed by the on Rules and Administration of the Senate, Senate, I hope the House will see fit to con- the Committee on House Administration of sider this pressing need and, concur with the the House of Representatives, or the Archi- Senate in establishing a Commission on Art tect of the Capitol, in carrying out duties and Antiquities of the Capitol." relating to the care, preservation, and pro- ' tlon of the Capitol and the Senate and The PRESIDING OFFICER. The joint resolution is before the Senate and open to amendment. If there be no amendment to be proposed, the question is on the engrossment and third reading ec House Office Buildings, shall be consistent with such rules and regulations as the Com- mission may issue pursuant to subsection (b). (d) The Committee on Rules and Admin- istration of the Senate and the committee Approved For Release 2003/10/15: CIA,RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 10968 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE May 24, 1965 the nature of the charge and his rights The report further declares that par- 'REMARKS BY SENATOR MANSFIELD va;aives in open court prosecution by Indict- ticipants in the discussion in the Domin- AT JEFFERSON-JACKSON DAY mint,. such prosecution may be upon Infor- mation by the United States attorney or any y DIPTNER Of his assistants. Washington to submit the name- of An- SEC. S. The commission shall, from time tonio Guzman to be President. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I to time, but at least once every ten years, _ What has been proposed is a coalition ask unanimous consent to have printed publish as a Senate. or House document a government. My purpose in speaking on in the RECORD a speech delivered by me list of a,ll works of art, historical objects, and this subject is to express my apprehen- at the Jefferson-Jackson Day dinner at exhibits currently within the Capitol and sion that in the selection of the coalition the Armory, Wilmington, Del., on May the Senate and House Office Buildings, to- government we may find ourselves in the 15, 1965. gether with their description, location, and position that we occupied when Castro There being no objection, the speech with such notes. as may be pertinent to their was allowed to become the was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, history. leader of appropriated for the expenses of the Com- In 1963 the evidence clearly showed REMARKS OF SENATOR MIKE MANSFIELD, DEM^ mission the sure of $15,000 each fiscal year, that the Bosch government was over- OCRAT, OF MONTANA, AT THE JEFFERSON- to be disbursed by the Secretary of the Sen- thrown because Bosch, a poet and ideal- JACKSON DAY DINNER, THE ARMORY, WIL-MINGTON, ate on vouchers signed by the Chairman or 1st, had no sense of reality. The testi- I came here MAY 15, 1965 Vice Chairman of the Commission, Pay- mony given before came here this afternoon by plane. It is went on such vouchers shall be deemed and the Foreign Relations a very pleasant flight. It is mostly over Dem- are hereby declared to be conclusive upon all Committee was to the effect that Bosch ocratic territory--in Maryland and in Dela- departments and officers of the Government, allowed the Government radio to be used ware. Not that you can recognize Democrats and these vouchers shall be reported in the by the Communists in propagandizing from the air. But you can see the hallmarks annual report of the Secretary of the Senate: the citizens of the Republic. He also of the Democratic Party-smoke rising from Provided, That no payment shall be made allowed the Communists to use school busy industrial plants and fine crops on rich from such appropriation as salary. buildings for the purpose of indoctrinat- farmlands. SEC. 7. (a) The first sentence of section Lug citizens of the Dominican Republic I was also going to claim the beauty of 1814 of the Revised Statutes (40 U.S.C. 1,87) Delaware beaches for the party. But there is amended to read as follows: "Suitable i$ communism. Third, he allowed the are limits to partisanship-even at a Jeffer- structures and railings shall be erected in Youth of the Dominican Republic to go to son-Jackson Day dinner. This lovely stretch the old hall of Representatives for the re- uba to be trained in communism. of sand, sea, and inlets is above politics. ception and protection of statuary, and the Fourth, he allowed the leaders of the Nevertheless, Delaware's Riviera does give same shall be under the supervision and 3xiled Communists to return to the point to the President's suggestion that we direction of the Commission on Art and :aominican Republic and to operate. spend some travel dollars in the United Antiquities of the Capitol." ` The practically unanimous judgment States. So far as I can see, these beaches (b) Section 11331 of the Revised Statutes ly businessmen, professional men, mer- have just about everything that you find on (40 U.S.C. 188) is repealed. the French Riviera except, perhaps, Brigitte (c) Section 1(115 of the Revised Statutes, 1:hants, miners, and others was that com- Bardot. (40 U.S.C. 189) is amended to read as follows: I nunism was about to take charge of the If there are any travel dollars to spare "SEc. 1815, No work of art or manufacture ])ominican Republic. It was then also here-after this dinner is paid for-I urge other than the property of the United States ,aid that in the Bosch government were you to visit Montana-the Nation's Treasure shall be exhibited in the National Statuary i ome men of character friendly to our State. We have magnificent mountains and Hall, the rotunda, or the corridors of the cause. lakes, and great plains, and a lot of Demo- Capitol, and no work of!art or exhibit shall crats. 'We do not have an ocean but we do be offered for sale or displayed for gain in any the real reason for the over- Y have more ocean-going any other per capita of the rooms, spaces, or corridors of the throw Was the fear that Communists the Navy than any other State in the Union. n. Capitol or of the Senate or House Office mould take charge. I do not know the We are drawn together, tonight, in a po- Buildings." lackground of Guzman; nor the back- litical gathering. It honors two of the great (d) The paragraph under the heading ? round of the men who have been chosen historic figures of the National Democratic "Miscellaneous", relating to the use of rooms tO constitute the Coalition government. Party. But, in a.sense, it honors all party in the Capitol for private studios or works of g fy only purpose in making this state- members--those who axe elected and those art, in the Act of March 3, 1875 (18 Stat. nient today is to call upon our Govern- who work: to get them elected. Here in Wil- 376; 40 U.S.C. 190) is amended to read as rent to make sure that those who are to mington, this dinner :honors your distin- foll s: guished Governor, your able Congressman, "No room in the Capitol shall be used for ke part in the coalition government your outstanding mayor, and the many other private studios or works of arts, without per- will not be hostile to our cause and Democrats who lead this. State in consonance mission from the Commission on Art and f ?iendly to the cause of communism, with the great national Democratic tradition. Antiquities of the Capitol, given in writing." We cannot have another Communist And this dinner honors all of you Demo- (e) The second paragraph under the head- g vernment off our southern shores. If crats who are In attendance, even if you have ing "Public Buildings" in the appropriations teat happens, all the problems which we to pay for it. For, in all seriousness, in the for the Department of the Interior in the end there is no Democratic Party here or Act of March 3, 1879 (20 Stan. Interior , is re- now feel to be grave will become incense- anywhere else in the sense we know it, unless pealed. g4ential in the multiplication of diffi- there are men and women in great numbers c'~i ties. who are prepared to give their time, their Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I The PRESIDING OFFICER. The energy, their devotion, and their money for ask unanimous consent to reconsider the tithe of the Senator has expired. the cause of decent and honorable and effec- vote by which the joint resolution was Mr. LAUSCHE. I ask unanimous con- tive government in the United States. passed. sent that I may proceed for 2 more min- As we :meet tonight, when the Nation is at Mr. KUCHEL. Mr. President, I move ul?s. a pinnacle of economic prosperity and the to lay that motion on the table. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without Democratic Party at a pinnacle of political The motion to lay an the table was objection, the Senator may proceed. prosperity, I ask you to think of an earlier period. It used to be, not so long ago that agreed to. n Mr. LAUSCHE Ex erien d i . p e n the many of us cannot remember, that these Jef- world has shown that coalition govern- ferson-Jackson dinners wer e occasions THE SITUA1Ik'N THE DOMINICAN ments are finally taken over by the Com- primarily, for mutual commiseration and re-, m ni t c o s s. I assume that Bundy and the assuran e. We knew, or rather we hoped, REPUBLIC her men who w that someday the people of th N ti i h e a ere on would n t e Dominican Mr. LAUSCH:E. Mr, President, this Republic were conscious bf this danger. again turn to the Democratic Party for na- That morning's newspapers carry the report However, I would not be fair to myself all there was top hold the nation onwas ai part y o- that an agreement has been reached by urless I made the statement today that gether. That period was--as the present era the United States and the rebels on the I :lave grave apprehensions that the re- is-an era of great prosperity for the Nation. new Dominican governmental setup. su .t will be that the coalition govern- There was one big difference: It was also an The report states that a choice has been m,tnt will finally be found to be on the era of Republican Party prosperity. It was made as to who shall act as the President sic of the Communists. 1929. To the Republicans of that time there of the Dominican Republic. The selectee t sincerely hope and pray that that was not a cloud onthe horizon. is Antonio Guzman. He was a member win not happen, but I felt impelled to hand then look what happened. Look what of the Bosch government before its over- make that statement expressing my year. happened. to to not to again laugh at the November ub- throw in 1963. . I ask you not Views for whatever they may be worth. lican experience but rather to learn from it. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 Mau 24, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD- SENATE with mobility limited by the effects of arthl4cis or accidents. Not included in these numbers are those temporarily "handi- capped" with broken legs, sprained ankles, pregnancy, small children or other limita- tions to their normal mobility. ARCHITECTURAL BARRIERS FACT SHEET 1. Architectural barriers defined: Architectural barriers are any architectural feature which prohibits handicapped persons from entering or using buildings where they may need to go for business, recreation, or civic duty. 2. The Architectural Barriers Project Com- mittee: The ABPC in Washington is a part of a nationwide attack on architectural barriers sponsored by the National Society for Crip- pled Children and Adults, and the President's Committee on Employment for the Handi- capped. The local committee is sponsored by the District of Columbia Commissioners Committee on Employment of the Handi- capped, the District of Columbia Society for Crippled Children, and the Crippled Chil- dren's Societies of Prince Georges County and northern Virginia. 3. Activities: An architectural barriers survey of 1,500 buildings in Metropolitan Washington which are intended for public use has been com- pleted. These include hotels, motels, restau- rants, theaters, office buildings, apartments, banks, and shopping centers. Some of the points surveyed were widths of doors, availability of ramps or level en- trances, accessibility of phone booths and drinking fountains to persons in wheelchairs, February 19, 1964: "Campaign To Remove Architectural Barriers for the Handicapped" inserted in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD (Sen- ate p. 3016 and 3017) by Senator Moss, of Utah, the report of the Architectural Bar- riers Sterring Committee, State of Utah. Year 1965: Several new bills under consid- eration, dealing with rehabilitation, include reference to the elmination of architectural barriers as they relate to the effectiveness of rehabilitation services. 6. Financing and personnel: The project committee is entirely a vol- untary effort and has no budget whatsoever. Mrs. Allan B. Fay, is chairman of the project committee; Paul O'Donnell is chairman of the survey committee; Dr. Thomas Stein, of Chicago is national director of the project. Volunteers: The several hunderd volun- teers who carried out the survey were drawn from such groups as: National Association of the Physically Handicapped, Inc.; Para- lyzed Veterans of America; Washington Building Congress; Washington Chapter of American Institute of Architects; Opening Doors; Federation of Citizens Associations; Indoor Sports Club; District of Columbia Department of Vocational Rehabilitation; Multiple Sclerosis Association; Association of Oldest Inhabitants, Junior League. For information call: Project Headquar- ters, Mrs. Miller or Mr. Evans, AD 2-2342; call Mrs. Allan B. Fay, project chairman, 652-5397; call Paul O'Donnell, survey chairman, 961- 2249 (office), AD 4-1142 home. STUDENTS ENACT VITAL EDUCA- TION BILL Mr. TOWER. Mr. President, I have been advised by Jerrold Pesz and Bill Walker, of the University of Houston, that the university's student association senate recently gave unanimous approval to a bill that I regard as most important. In order that all Senators may be ad- vised of this action, I ask that the text of the bill be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the bill was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as elevator service, width of stalls in public washrooms, touch marks to guide the blind. Information was gathered on standard sur- vey forms provided by the national project. Similar surveys are being carried out throughout the country and have been com- pleted in Pittsburgh, Seattle, Cincinnati, San Francisco, Chicago, Boston, New York, and other areas. A directory of accessible buildings based on the survey and entitled "Guide to Washing- ton for the Handicapped" is available for 25 cents. Educational work is underway to alert the public to the need for accessible buildings and to contract builders and landlords to in- terest them in considering the needs of handicapped citizens in their building and remodeling plans. Architectural standards and specifications have been developed by the national project and are available to builders. New Govern- ment buildings must comply with these standards. Cost of incorporating the stand- ards in a new building is insignificant, but remodeling costs are sometimes high. 4. Need for the project and for the survey: National figures: 139,000 people with arti- ficial limbs; 260,000 blind; 200,000 in heavy leg braces; 5,000 with heart conditions: 250,- 000 in wheelchairs; 20,000 over 65 who need easier access to buildings. Locally, based on the general population, 12 percent of the people have limited ability to move around freely. Washington, D.C., population is 2 million therefore, some 240,- 000 here would benefit by more accessible buildings. The lack of access is the only factor which prevents many of -these from leading useful lives. 5. Interest of Capitol Hill: February 6, 1962: "Standards for Making Buildings Usable by the Physically Handi- capped" inserted in the CONGRESSIONAL REC- ORD. Reprints are available. April 8, 1963: "Sites in Washington, D.C., With Facilities for the Handicapped" 'inser- ted in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD Appendix by Congressman TORBERT MACDONALD. 10989 from Texas, and to the Presiaent ana vice President of the United States, urging pass- age of this bill. Unanimously passed by the student senate: RICHARD GAGHAGEN, President, Student Association. WILLIAM YARDLEY, Dean of Students. SOUTH & EAST DALLAS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OPPOSES REPEAL OF SECTION 14(b) OF THE TAFT- HARTLEY LAW Mr. TOWER. Mr. President, the'board of directors of the South & East Dallas Chamber of Commerce recently unani- mously voted to oppose repeal of section 14(b) of the Taft-Hartley law. I fully agree with the chamber's posi- tion; and in order that other Senators may judge the views of Texans about this vital matter, I ask that a letter I have received from the chamber be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the letter was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: SOUTH & EAST DALLAS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, Dallas, Tex., May 20, 1965. Senator JOHN G. TOWER, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR TowER: The board of di- rectors of the South & East Dallas Cham- ber of Commerce has unanimously voted to oppose repeal, amendment, or change in section 14(b) of the Taft-Hartley Act. We Texans believe in every freedom for all citizens and especially the workingman. The requirement that a worker join or not join a union as a term of his contract with his employer should not be permitted in our State. We have prospered well under the right-to-work law which has been a statute in.Texas for more than a decade and we want to continue on this basis. We therefore urge you to vote against any change in section 14(b) and use your good influence to keep this section as it is presently written in the Taft-Hartley law. Sincerely, _ A bill to support legislation introduced in the U.S. Senate by Senator ABRAHAM RIBI- Cosr Democrat of Connecticut, and co- sponsored by Senator JOHN TowER, repre- sentative of Texas, providing for income tax credit for college students Whereas a bill introduced in the U.S. Senate by Senator ABRAHAM RIBCOFF, Demo- crat, of Connecticut, and cosponsored by Senator JOHN TOWER, representative of Texas, provides for an income tax credit of $1,500 of tuition, fees, books, and supplies for a stu- dent at an institution of higher learning; and Whereas the Student Association of the University of Houston has been asked to sup- port Senator RIBICOFF's bill; and Whereas this bill would be an effective aid to higher education and would be of benefit to many students and their families: Now, therefore, be it Resolved by the University of Houston Stu- dent Association ARTICLE I That the University of Houston Student Association, which represents the students of this university, firmly supports this measure and urges the approval of this bill by the Congress of the United States of America. ARTICLE II That this bill, with supporting material, be sent to the Representatives and Senators ADOl~F BERLE SUPPORTS PRESI- DENT JOHNSON'S MOVES IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, an excellent article on the present situation in the Dominican Republic appears in the current-May 20-issue of The Re- porter. It is by Adolf A. Berle, former Assistant Secretary of State, and former U.S. Ambassador to Brazil. Obviously, Mr. Berle is extremely knowledgeable on Latin American affairs. He starts by writing that he "began his career fighting to end Woodrow Wil- son's occupation of that country"; and he believes that President Johnson made the right decision. His experience parallels mine. In 1920, as managing editor of The Nation, I launched an editorial crusade against our gunboat diplomacy in Latin America. It began with an article by Herbert J. Seligman, on "The Conquest of Haiti." This conquest has taken place under strict military censorship by the U.S. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 10990 CONGRESSIONAL ,R:ECORD - SENATE May 24, 1965 Navy and Marine Corps, during the first will emerge, President Johnson's ac- The elements he had to work with were not administration of Woodrow Wilson. It t cm will be fully justified. I am not un- promising. Juan Bosch had been elected in. was wholly contrary to President Wil- aware of the great. difficulties of having 1962 by-some 65 percent of the Dominican son's pronouncements about the right of vich a program succeed; but the objet- voters. His government had received. all the small nations to self-determination, five is most worthwhile and, indeed, is was acclaimedUas a worthyecompani give. to the I first learned of this during the war, essential. democratic Governments of Venezuela, Co- while I was a candidate for a commis- Needless to say, I sincerely hope that lombia, and Costa Rica. Unhappily, there sion in the Field Artill ry, in Camp the reports that in carrying out this was little solid party organization behind Zachary Taylor. One night, in the "Y", rrission our policy has been one of lean- Bosch. Thirty-one year,; of Trujillo dictator- I found an item indicating that the U.S. flag toward rightwingers and aiding fipoli d wipe uctureracBoschy himself, hon marines had been bombing Haitian vil- them militarily, rather than one of neu- est and idealistic, a well-known Latin Ameri- lages from the air. This struck me as tl aiity, will prove to be unfounded. can literary figure, found trouble in man- such a violation of the Wilsonian pro- If, in our desire to avoid a Communist aging affairs of state. Some of his supporters nouncements, that I mentally vowed takeover, we supported fascist-minded intrigued with the Communists or with the that I would try to find out what this d: etators who oppose essential reforms- military, An ill-fated Castro-supported ex- wit s all about. My opportunity came sic, regrettably, we have done Oriseveral edition of Dominican leftists and Cuban after the war, when I became managing occasions, such a policy would foster "volunteers" against Santo Domingo in 1959 editor of the New York weekly, The Na- e(irnmunism and would defeat our de- had left bac s a nucleus, the 14th une ttent tion. I sent James Weldon Johnson, who clared purpose Party, that m t parties, r es cti t tr rouuble. had ba former United States Am- . We must be determined Two Communist parties, respectively Rus- ad been ee to former Haiti; and he n,)t to have that happen. sian- and Chinese-oriented, were allowed to I ask unanimous consent that Adolf function. Castro Communists were also in- wrote a series of four excellent articles B friers article, entitled "A Stitch in filtrating some important labor unions. entitled: "Self-Determining Haiti." Some Dominican Army officers and also Lewis . Gannett wrote an excellent T:me," from the Reporter magazine, be some civilian elements believed that doors Lewise n a meat w of the Dominican printed at this point in my remarks in were being opened for a Communist take- Republic. Much else-editorials and the RECORD. over, in which case they would have their special articles--was printed, including There being no objection, the article throats cut. That fear led Gen. Elias Wes- same on the subject of our invasion and wis ordered to be printed in the RECORD, sin y Wessin and other army chiefs to bring off occupation of Nicaragua. It should be a; follows: the coup in Septe United that sent A STITCH IN TIME Bosch into The United States and the pointed out that our policies then were democratic governments in the Caribbean dictated by private economic interests (By Adolf A. Berle) protested. For a time, Washington cut off of banks and investors in the United On April 28, 1965, after 2 days of painful its aid, technical help, and other assistance. States. It was crude "dollar diplomac" conferences and consideration, President The generals, however, did not follow the y, Lyndon Johnson ordered a detachment of usual pattern. Declining to form a military enforced by arms. We should never have pursued such a marines to land in the Dominican Republic. government, they installed a civilian trium- policy. Tr.e writer, who began his career fighting to virate that, last year gave way to the regime I was 1n correspondence with some of end Woodrow Wilson's occupation of that of the former foreign minister Donald Reid the Senate leaders-William E. Borah, co.Intry, believes the President made the Cabral. His brother had. been murdered by of Idaho; William H. King, of Utah; right decision. Trujillo; he himself had been imprisoned. George W. Norris, of Nebraska; Robert the President had to act Immediately on He is the son of a; Scot and a Dominican LaFollette, of Wisconsin; and others who a I elephone report from Ambassador W. Tap- mother. Though Reid Cabral's regime was shared my views. As a result of my ef- lelyBennett, Jr., that hundreds of Americans illegitimate, the American Embassy came to forts, the Senate appointed a select were in danger and strong action was neeedd respect him. He was moving toward re- re- committee, headed by Medill McCormick, to save their lives. In the larger view, he establishment of "legitimacy"that is, the hat reports indicating a steady infiltration holding of elections scheduled for Septem- of Illinois, to investigate our occupation into the republic of guerrillas trained in ber. Cautiously, the U.S. Government of Haiti and Santo Domingo. The chair- Cuba and Czechoslovakia, and of more com- was moving to sustain his hand. He en- man asked me to precede the committee inl=_ This was a further move in the con- deavored to bring order out of adminis- and to make arrangements for hearings tir.uing Communist campaign of subversion trative Chace, to pul:t together the Dominican in Haiti and the Dominican Republic, ani aggression in the Caribbean. An up- economy, and to bring the army under civil- which Idid. Although the result was not ris ng designed to reinstate Juan Bosch- fan control. Many army officers disliked this. satisfactory to me, in that the committee who was dilly elected President of the Domin- Some were pro-Basch; others perhaps had whitewashed me Haitian Oco ican Republic in December 1962, but ousted played with the Communist agents. At all Upation, by a military coup in September 1963-had events, these elements planned an uprising, and recommended its maintenance, it provic%ed the opportunity for a simultaneous scheduled. for June 1, to bring back Juan did make plans for the military evacua- is.ng by organized Communist groups. Bosch. Discovery of this plan forced action tion of the Dominican Republic. Unfor- Within 48 hours the Bosch partisans, on April 25. The officers' revolt simulta- tunately, we left the legacy of Rafael seeking democratic government, were in- neously, and apparently unintentionally, Leonidas Trujillo y Molina, who had been filtrated and then dominated by the cleared the way for. the armed emergence trained Communist elements, and many of of the Communist guerrillas. trained in the. Marine Corps, and later the Bosch leaders sought refuge in foreign MAKING OUR STAND CLEAR seized the presidency; and our subse- embassies. As the pro-Bosch forces lost con- Meanwhile, the Caribbean situation as- quent recognition of, and assistance to, trot, they opened the army arsenals to the sumed Importance on the worldwide stage. this tyrant and butcher do not consti- per pie. Not surprisingly, the Communist Former President Romulo Betancourt of Mute one of the creditable chapters in groups got most of the arms. Finally Mr. Venezuela insists th:vt in Latin America the American foreign policy. Jol.neon had to consider the effect of a pot- Communist factions linked to Moscow and However, I believe that what PreSi?- sib. a Communist seizure of Santo Domingo Peiping still work together. They cooperate in 1he vast context of Communist agression in any action that may make trouble for the dent Johnson has initiated is In no sense from Vietnam to Africa. United States a revival of our gunboat diplomacy. :1 I think that the President had little choice. non-Communist d o working to overthrow governments. They had feel very definitely that his original pur?- He could have called in the Organization of been unsuccessful in Venezuela, Brazil, and pose in evacuating Americans and other American States, asked It to go to work, and other countries, but they still have small nationals was essential, and that his con.. stopped there. But the OAS has no guns units in armed revolt in Venezuela, Colom- cern lest there be another Castro-Corn-? and needs time to decide; meanwhile, events bia, and Guatemala. Their technique of monist takeover in another Caribbean were moving dangerously fast. He could infilterating genuine democratic movements island warranted his action. ha, ;o sat by, praying for the American lives and later seizing them has proved success- and Most important. of all was his prompt miricans k lledueach iother,,l then dealing as afiliationseu til Castrohe Vhade takenhis over. The calling on the Organization of American bes'; he could with the outcome. This would probability has to be faced that the Com- States to come in and assume responsi-, have meant continuation of a fierce civil munist Frente de Liberation National in bility as rapidly as possible. If, out of war, supplied with arms and reinforcements Venezuela, the "violence areas" in Colombia, this chaotic, situation, an inter-Ameri- from Cuba. In that case, the President and the dissolved Guatemalan Communist this police c siuat n, an in a Amon- might face a Dominican Republic in the Party will all become actively terrorist. ci police for force -a such at those which. hands of a Castro-style regime established, by The myth had grown up in Communist .lity have occurred in the Dominican Repub- csheior resting terror. s tuat on himself.t He elected in Latin Amt ica. Americana doctrine tdoes lie and are likely to occur elsewhere- to a;ct. indeed prohibit intervention. Too often Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 10991 May 21#, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL. RECORD - SENATE that has been interpreted to keep Latin- In reviewing the testimony presented I certainly agree with the broad outlines American rebellions armed, organized, fi- to the subcommittee, I was particularly of that message and, as a matter or fact, I had joined nanced, and directed in other countries from impressed by the statements of two of you, Mr. Chairman, in sponsor-Ing being recognized as the external attacks our colleagues, the senior Senator from help your bill, S. 14, which was designed they really are. American doctrine does the States cope with the problem of fire- they [Mr. ALLOTTI and the junior arms shipped interstate in derogation of the consider -an attack on any American state as an attack on all, giving rise to the right of senator from Arizona [Mr. FANNIN]. laws of the individual States. As you know, defense. Senator ALLOTT documents how pas- I had studied that bill, I had recognized The time had come to make several things sage of S. 1592 would work a hardship on that a problem does exist, and I had con- clear if the whole Caribbean was not to many responsible citizens of his State cluded that your earlier bill was a reasonable effective piece of legislation. erupt. and of many other States in certain sec- and But, it seems to me that there is a basic That the United States would no longer tions of this country, including my own difference in philosophy between the bill be immobilized by the fiction that exter- State of Nebraska. The Senator from which I was pleased to cosponsor, S. 14, and nally armed uprisings were merely local Colorado makes it clear that he recog- the bill which is before you today. I believe movements for reform. That "nonintervention" nizes there is a problem in keeping guns that the basic philosophy expressed in S. in the internal affairs of a country does not prevent the out of the hands of the irresponsible ele- 1592 is that must be heavily regulated. bad per United States from defending a country at- ment of our society and that the Federal and cheavi agreg. The word guns" tacked from outside-despite the camouflage Government has a legitimate contribu- philosophy, notphy phy, I letter, gre Saxon rd" wish of "internal revolution." tion to make in the solution of that prob- dirty connotations, as some seem to think, That further attacks of the Castro variety lem. In this connection Senator ALLOTT and putting the epithet "mail order" with cannot count on immunity from American force on a scale adequate to meet the con- is listed as a cosponsor of S. 14, which it still does not make it unclean. tingency. would prevent convicted felons, juve- It has been hammered home that Lee in as I That the United States cannot afford niles, and fugitives from justice from Harvey O lh d heinous a mime. r er gun another Cuba particularly not in the Car- purchasing firearms by mail. co m ng however, a has not been gfa as ibbean. The President's action made this The Senator from Colorado makes know, recognized that Lee Oswald could have clear-to Latin America, to Peiping, and to good sense when he argues that the recog recog walked into any one of several sporting Moscow. answer does not lie in, as he puts it, goods stores In Dallas and purchased a rifle "Adverse Latin American opinion" was "cutting off the head to cure the head- of the same quality across the counter and urged as an argument against action. Actu- ache" but rather in an approach which he would not have violated any law in doing ally, t Latin othe us Umuc when States would prevent the acquisition of arms so. That gun from a sporting goods store andd does esica not erica d the w ac we fail to do 'so. Argentina and d Brazil by those who, according to the statistics would wbeen surely just eapon he used .Smith Jack promptly approved President Johnson's ac- of the subcommittee, are most likely to Ruby, I mail-order weapon h, used a Furth & Wes- - tion. Costa Rica reportedly offered "freedom use them in crimes of violence. son for which he had a permit. Yet, es- fighters." The Council of the Organization Senator FANNIN points out that there tle has been said about the deadliness of a of American States sent a peace-mediating are many small businesses in his State weapon carried by an individual who has a commission; it arrived in Santo Domingo on and throughout the country such as the license from the local police authorities to May 2. The protest has not developed to the custom shops that produce fine sporting carry that weapon. The point I want to ernments are willing extent feared. Untgto Latin give AmtheericaA OAS gyve the and target arms for mail-order sale that make is that neither firearm nor mail-order forces and orces ancapacity to defend weak coun- would suffer severely under the bill. firearms by themselves are bad. It is for this reason that I have asked for due deliberation and, insofar as possible, objectivity in ap- tries, the United States offers those govern- Senator FANNIN shares the view of Sena- ments their only effective defense, and they tor ALLOTT that the proposed increased and, proaching this question. know it. Both before and after the By of license fee for selling ammunition Perhaps we of the West are more familiar Pigs affair, when the OAS was paralyzed by would cause the rural general store and with firearms and therefore fear them less, indecision, many Latin American diplomats said to me they thought the United States gas stations in his State and throughout recognizing that it is the abuse of the weap- the West to cease carrying sporting on that is the real problem. There are legi- our discuss later. Officially timate uses and legitimate users and I they may t first a gfor hardship their customers. p o on the farmers, on the e.Thisstrongly feel that we must not unduly hinder they r may vacuum our filled. action, but they want the would be a great ammunition power um these legitimate uses in attempting to curb resident Johnson has filled it. He will ranchers and sportsmen who live in the the abuses. President' have many problems as a result. They are, sparsely populated areas of our Western S. 1592 may, perhaps, accept as legitimate I believe, less dangerous than the problems States. the sporting use of firearms. It seems to me, he would have faced had he stood aside. No I ask unanimous consent that Senator however, that the bill rejects self-defense as one forgets that failure to take decisive ac* ALLOTT'S and Senator FANNIN'S state- a legitimate use, but in rejecting this it re- tion against o 1961 brought us the brink ofGnuclearnwar with the Soviet ments of last Friday be printed in the jets half of President Johnson's declaration. vthe type ery close of thing home l I just had last Union in 1962. RECORD, and I urge Senators to give at- instance mind occurred of If the President had not acted, what would tention and consideration to the perti- year. A young lady from Brighton, Colo., have been the outcome? No one will ever neat points made by our colleagues. employed in my office, owns a hand gun and know. The rebels might have restored the There being no objection, the state- knows how to use it. She was taught by Bosch regime, though this seems unlikely. ments were ordered to be printed in the her father and I can testify that she uses it The Dominican Army might have produced well and properly. About a year ago she was a dictator, perhaps a new Trujillo. The Com- RECORD, as follows: awakened at 5 in the morning by a noise in munist groups might have seized the gov- STATEMENT BY SENATOR GORDON ALLOTT BE- her apartment. It subsequently turned out ernment, making a new Cuba. They might FORE SENATE JUVENILE DELINQUENCY SUB- that there was a prowler there. The young have taken to the hills, opening a new chap- COMMITTEE, MAY 20, 1965 lady lives alone and her only real means of ter of guerrilla bloodshed against either the Mr. Chairman, I appreciate the opportu- protection against lawless elements is the forces of Wessfn y Wessin or of a democratic nity to appear and be heard today on S. 1592, gun, which she brought with her from Colo- Bosch regime. The least dangerous course to amend the Federal Firearms Act. I would rado and keeps in her apartment here in for the President was to take the initiative like, at the outset, to express my concern Washington. With that gun she was able to and dominate events. that this subject not be acted upon in an subdue the housebreaker and hold him until h e c a ld t SENATORS ALLOTT AND FANNIN PROTEST FEATURES OF ADMIN- ISTRATION FIREARMS BILL Mr. HRUSKA. Mr. President, last week the Senate Juvenile Delinquency Subcommittee, on which I serve, began its hearings on S. 1592. This is the bill sponsored by President Johnson which would ban the interstate shipment of firearms to individuals, greatly increase the fees for manufacturing and selling firearms and ammunition, and curb the importation of surplus foreign firearms. re . ae emotional manner, nor in haste, perhaps as the police arrived and cou the result of a shocking incident which still The man involved has pleaded guilty and is is fresh in all of our minds. For these rea- awaiting sentencing, but I have often won- sons, particularly, I am pleased to be able dered what I would have had to tell that to appear here and to note that this commit- girl's parents if she had not had the gun. tee obviously intends to conduct full hear- We are all proud of Joyce Morgan in our ings and give this bill the deliberation which office and I take pleasure in recognizing her it merits. today. This, gentlemen, is an example of a Members of the committee certainly are legitimate use of a weapon. familiar with President Johnson's message The Attorney General says this measure is to the Congress expressing his concern about "not intended to curtail the ownership of crime and its prevention. As a part of that guns among those legally entitled to own message, the President called for regulations them. It is not intended to deprive people on interstate shipment of guns and declared of guns used either for sport or for self-pro- the right of citizens to be secure on the tection. It is not intended to force regula- streets, and in their -homes and places of tion on unwilling States * * *. The purpose business. of this measure is simple: it is, merely, to Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 . Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 10992 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD- SENATE May 24, 1965 help the States protect themselves against people who live in rural areas, or small com- I might; mention that it appears from Di- the unchecked flood of mail-order weapons to munities. I do not happen to know whether rector, Margrave's statement that there is residents whose purposes might not be re- Walden, Colo., for example, now has a gun presently sufficient authority under the Mu- sponsible, or even lawful. S. 1592 would pro- dealer in town, but I do know that the cost tual Security Act of 1954 to prohibit all im- vide such assistance to the extent that the of a license proposed under S. 1592 is likely portation of arms and ammunition, includ- States and the people of the States want It." to make it economically infeasible for any ing those items called "destructive devices" bill That is certainly not the on the I readtthe he store in Walden to purchase such a license, in S. 1592. In view or this present author- . and people from that area will then have a ity, I would urge the Committee to explore of firearms in interstate commerce, coupled long way to go to purchase even ammunition. the enforcement of present law, and whether with the severe limitations placed on acqui- As you know, Mr. Chairman, antiques and this may be strengthened, rather than cre- sition of hand guns, particularly, seem to me unserviceable firearms are exceptions to the ate new legislation in this field. a`clear demonstration of an intent to make Federal Firearms Act. I do not know how Mr. Chairman, I commenced my state- it difficult, if not impossible, for the ordinary many collectors of such firearms there may rent with a plea for objectivity. As a co- citizen to acquire a pistol. ae in this country, but it is, I believe, a sponsor of S. 14, I believe I have recognized To be more specific, section 2(a) (2) would _egitimate hobby. An exception is made in that there is a problern and that the Federal. prohibit an individual from acquiring or 3. 1592 for such guns only in the provisions Government has a legitimate contribution disposing of a pistol or revolver while he was :relating to importation. Obviously, S. 1592 to make in the solution of that problem. I. traveling in interstate or foreign commerce. is going to work a hardship on the collector, have stated before, however, that I believe Incidentally, this section would transform ?articularly if he wants to acquire as a part S. 1592 Is not the proper solution and that any violation of State law concerning the ,yf his collection pistols or revolvers, even if with all deference to the chairman, this bill transportation of a hand gun into a Federal ;hose guns cannot possibly be fired. Appar-' is not well drawn.. offense. : Let me give a specific example of mtly, the only route of acquisition open to Again, there is a problem, but the solution what the prohibition on acquisition or dis- liim if he wants a gun presently owned by is not to be found In depriving legitimate position may mean. I own a hand gun which an individual in another State is to find a users of firearms of their liberty to acquire I brought with me from Colorado. My legal licensed dealer who will handle the trans- and use them. I believe that S. 1592 would residence, of course, is Colorado. Am I, while portation, thereby presumably adding to the cut off the head to cure.the headache and, engaged in my duties as a U.S. Senator in cost of acquisition (sec. 2(a) (4) ). while I, too, am concerned about the threat Washington, D.C., traveling in interstate Another exception in the present law, posed by guns in the hands of irrespon- commerce. If I am, and if I decide to sell which is dropped from S. 1592, is that for sible elements, I would say to the committee, or in any manner dispose of my gun, pre- hanks, public carriers, and armored car com- and to Senators, as Ben Franklin said: sumably I cannot legally do outside lies and although governmental agencies "Those;. who would give up essential liberty the regulations If this bill becomes law and I find tre excepted generally from the provision of to purchase a little temporary safety, deserve g promulgated by the Secre- the bill, the "duly commissioned officer or neither liberty nor safety." tary of the Treasury burdensome, I never- i.gent" who is exempted under the act now theless must find some way to get that gun in effect, would be blanketed in under S. STATEMENT RY SENATOR PAUL J. FANNIN, SUB- back to Colorado before I can legally dispose 1592. I see no valid reason for dropping COMMrrTEE ON JUVENILE DELINQUENCY, of it. these exceptions from the operation of the SENATE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE HEARING ON Or, presume a person who does not own law, if we start from a premise that there S. 159:2, FIREARMS CONTROL LEGISLATION, a hand gun becomes disturbed enough by Ere legitimate uses and legitimate users of FRIDAY, MAY 21, 1965 the crime statistics in Washington, D.C., that frearms Mr. Chairman and members of the sub- he decides to purchase a gun for the protec- My mail, Mr. Chairman, has reflected con- committee, my appearance here toda tion of himself and his family. After this y is i- c bill becomes law, as I read the bill, he may Secri over the wide discretion allowed the behalf of the many individuals and are not legally be able to acquire that gun here, I Will the e Treasury this is measure. rations in my State of Arizona who ho are but would have to return to his home State, ill mention only two facets of this which opposed, to S. 1592. I realize that many purchase one, and then face the problem of Particularly bother me. Section 8(c) (2), witnesses want to testify on this important legally transporting it here through each which directs the Secretary to disapprove an legislation and I want to thank the chair- chair- application for a license if the applicant is man for granting me the privilege to make State through which he might pass to arrive e Another perfectly legitimate use of guns ante with the act "by reason of his business In the interest of conserving time, Mr. i fi e xper ence, nancial standing, or trade con- Chairman, I ask permission to have two is target shooting, and meets are held all over the United States. Although I have not at- section," seems to me to be such an unneces- prepared statements included in the REc- tended one in recent years, I know that it warily broad grant of discretion to the Secre- ono following my remarks. One is Senate used to be quite usual for gun enthusiasts tary as to preclude any reasonable hope of Memorial No. 1 of the 27th Arizona Legis- used to not only long reversing the Secretary's decision, thereby lature, adopted unanimously by the Arizona to trade y g guns but hand guns lasting final authority in an executive officer State Senate and approved by the Governor at these meets. If a person attending such c mtrary to our accepted philosophies and on May 14, 1965. The other is a statement a meet has come in from outside that State, procedures. Such discretion reminds me of submitted on behalf of the Arizona State may he legally trade with another sports- the words of Lewis Carroll, the eminent au- rifle and pistol association by its president man? Under the bill as it now stands, I taor of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland: Dr. Leonard Brewster, of Tucson; and the think not. The prohibtion is an "sale or 'I'll be judge, I'll be jury,' said cunning old Secretary, Mr. Ben Avery, of Phoenix. Both other (i ;posit ion thereof," and on acquisi- Fury, 'I'll try the whole cause, and condemn statements resent. logical and factual argu- tion ,2 a (2) A and B p Presumabl Y )u to death.' " menu in opposition to 1592, and in ad- y, guns may be shipped by com- Under the importation provisions of the tion, I believe they are an accurate re- mon carrier intrastate under this bill. I b:il, section 3(e) (3), allows the Secretary- flection of majority opinion in my State. would point out to the committee that there I note that it does not direct him-to au- This is borne out by the volume of letters are many remote areas in my own State thorize importation of a firearm which "is and telegrams I have received from Arizona which are not serviced by common carrier. or a type and quality generally recognized as citizens. Very few have indicated support Hand guns, of course, are nonmailable ex- particularly suitable for lawful sporting pur- for the 'bill, while a substantial number cept to manufacturers or dealers. Add to poses and is not a surplus military weapon have expressed strong opposition to it. this the prohibition in section 2(b) (3) and that the importation or bringing in of All of us, I'm sure, share the conviction against sales of hand guns to nonresidents of the firearm would not be contrary to the pub- that an effective attack must be mounted the State where the dealer is located, and it Ii.., Interest." I would simply point out to against the rising crime rate in this coun- seeins obvious to me that we would make it the committee that aside from the difficulty try. But the regulations embodied in S. as a practical matter very difficult for a which will arise in interpreting this language, 1592 would not prevent the determined crim- rancher in eastern Colorado to acquire a pis- acid thus again, a broad discretion vested in inal from obtaining firearms; instead, it tol. There are areas in my State from which the Secretary, there are many types of sur- would impose severe penalties on millions of the residents customarily cross State lines plus military weapons which may be suit- honest, law-abiding citizens. and go into Nebraska or Kansas, Wyoming, able for lawful sporting purposes or which There are many small businesses in my Utah or New Mexico to do their shopping, may be readily converted to sports weapons. State and throughout the country which This law would be a real imposition on the The British Enfield would be a good exam- would suffer severely under this bill. Many good citizens of these areas, who have legiti- pie of such a weapon and, in fact, I believe of these are small custom shops that pro- mate need for such guns. al L Mausera are highly regarded by sportsmen duce fine sporting and target arms for mail- The high cost of licenses proposed for and could fit the definition of "particularly order sale all over the world. dealers under S. 1592 is, of course, designed suitable for lawful sporting purposes." In In addition to these small dealers, there to, and I believe will, stamp out the carrying the category of handguns, the Luger would are many sparsely populated areas of Arizona of guns and ammunition in stock by small also fall into this class. Is there any real where service stations and small general stores. It will lead to further concentration reason to put a blanket prohibition on im- stores handle firearms and ammunition as of the industry in a few sources, and these portation of military weapons, or was this an accommodation to the ranchers and farm- aources would presumably be located in the perhaps an emotional reaction to a specific ers who :need them. metropolitan areas. This is simply one fur- incident? They also serve the more than 150,000 ther facet of the hardship imposed on the Also, on the import provisions of the bill, Arizonans who engage in hunting and whose Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 May ~r4, 1 , pproved For Re13I R 1A5L' J tRN7B k 00500120021-1 11023 David Lee Bogue shall have the same citizen- ship status as that which existed immedi- ately prior to its loss. The amendment was agreed to. The bill was ordered to be engrossed for a third reading, read the third time, and passed. MING CHUP CHAW The Senate proceeded to consider the bill (S. 584) for the relief of Ming Chop Chaw, which had been reported from the Committee an the Judiciary, with an amendment, in line 4, after the name "Chug", to strike out "Chaw" and insert "Chau"; so as to make the bill read: Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That, in the administration of section. 101(b) (1) (E) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, Ming Chup Chau shall be held and considered to be under twenty-one years of age. The amendment was agreed to. The bill was ordered to be engrossed for a third reading, read the third time, and passed. The title was amended, so as to read: "A bill for the relief of Ming Chup Chau." Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, that concludes the call of the calendar. I ex- press my deepest thanks to the'Senator from Connecticut [Mr. Dona] and to the Senator from Vermont [Mr. PROUTY] for their patience. OFFICIAL ADOPTION BY BRITISH OF METRIC SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES Mr. PELL. Mr. President, I hail the action of the British Government in of- ficially adopting the metric system of weights and measures, announced in the House of Commons today by the Presi- dent of the British Board of Trade. The United States finds itself in the odd position of having inherited our anachronistic system of quarts, pounds, and inches from the British, only to find that the parent of the system has recognized its impracticability and is moving over to the metric system. This leaves us virtually alone in the world in our insistance upon our system of weights and measures, which originated in medieval times. I suggest that we get on with the business at hand and initiate a study of the feasibility of adopting the metric system in this country-a proposal that Representative GEORGE P. MILLER and I have been pressing for several years. THE D N CRISIS Mr. DODD. Mr. President, in decid- ing to send the marines into the Domin- ican Republic, for the purpose of pre- venting the emergence of a second Cas- tro regime in the Americas, President Johnson took one of the most difficult and courageous decisions ever taken by an American President. The President must have known that the decision would result in a storm of protest and criticism, some of it unin- formed, some of it calculated and ma- licious. He was aware, I am certain, that he would be accused of acting unilaterally rather than acting through the OAS, as the United States is obligated to do in such matters. He was also aware that he would be accused of intervening on behalf of a tyrannical military dictatorship against what claims to be a popular proconstitu- tional revolution. He was also aware that the Communist propaganda apparatus would exploit the situation to the utmost in renewed at- tacks on the theme of American impe- rialism. A less courageous President would have hesitated before embarking upon an action which would bring the critics swarming like hornets about his head. I am afraid, indeed, that there is more than one President in American history who would have put off acting, even confronted with serious evidence of an imminent Communist takeover. It is to President Johnson's eternal credit that he placed the security of the Nation and of freedom in this hemisphere before every other consideration. A Castro regime in the Dominican Re- public would not merely have been a tragedy for the Dominican people. It would have constituted an immedi- ate menace to the political stability and security of every Latin American nation and to the freedoms of the Latin Ameri- can peoples. I do not see how anyone who stops to seriously assess the human and political consequences of a second Castro regime in the Americas could fail to agree with the President's determination that the establishment of such a regime is some- thing the United States cannot under any circumstances tolerate. DEMOCRACY VERSUS DICTATORSHIP: FACT OR FALLACY? There has been a tendency on the part of some writers to oversimplify the situ- ation in the Dominican Republic and overidealize the rebel movement. Their articles suggest that they truly believe that what is involved in the Dominican Republic is a conflict between dictator- ship and constitutional democracy. Regrettably there is no such clear-cut choice. Stability and democracy do not return instantly or easily to a country which has lived for decades under totalitarian one-man rule. And the sad fact is that at the point of liberation from the Trujillo dictatorship, virtually all the things that are essential to the success- ful practice of democracy were lacking in the Dominican Republic. There were no tested political leaders, trained in the ways of democracy. There was a terrible dearth of respon- sible editors and newspapermen. There was no broad popular experience with the machinery of democracy. Above all, there were no knights in shining armor to be found on any side- among the military, among the political conservatives, among the so-called po- litical progressives. The government of Juan Bosch, in ad- dition to being impossibly inefficient, was far from being the paragon of democracy that some of its supporters now pretend it was. There were numerous dicta- torial actions and threats against the press, which led Dominican publishers and editors to file formal complaints with the Inter-American Press Associ- ation. There was, moreover, a serious in- filtration of known Communist elements into his government. The military junta under Gen. Wessin y Wessin, which overthrew Bosch in Sep- tember 1963, resulted in an infinitely better administration under the civilian triumvirate which it installed, and then, under the government of Donald Reid Cabral. Some articles which appeared in the American press have fostered the im- pression that the revolt was directed against a ruthless military dictator- ship, a kind of reincarnation of the Trujillo regime. Nothing could be fur- ther from the truth. The Cabral regime may not have been constitutional. But Cabral was not a Trujillo. Indeed, his brother had been murdered by Trujillo and he himself had been imprisoned by the Dominican dictator. According to a recent article by Mr. Adolf A. Berle, former Assistant Secre- tary of State for Latin American Affairs, Cabral-I quote-"endeavored to bring order out of administrative chaos, to pull together the Dominican economy, and to bring the army under civilian control." Mr. Berle further pointed out that Cabral was moving toward the reestab- lishment of legitimacy and that he had scheduled elections for this coming Sep- tember. And he said that as a result of all this, the American Embassy had come to respect Cabral in the period before his downfall. I believe this estimate of the Cabral government is all the more significant because, Mr. Berle, in addition to pos- sessing unsurpassed knowledge and ex- perience in Latin American affairs, is a man of impeccable liberal credentials and a lifelong friend of the so-called "liberal left" in Latin American politics. This, then, was the government against which the Bosch forces and the Communist forces and certain misguided army officers, acted in unison on April 24. I think it important to note the strik- ing similarity between the situation in Cuba at the time of the Castro takeover and the situation in the Dominican Re- public today. In Cuba the Castro revolution was os- tensibly directed against Batista. It is generally forgotten that Batista had al- ready agreed to step down, that Rivera- Aguerra had been elected President in elections which had been held in Sep- tember 1958, and that, if it had not been for Castro's seizure of power in late December 1958 Batista would have de- parted and Aguerra would have been sworn in as President on January 28. Similarly, the Dominican revolution of April 24 was directed not against a government of military dictatorship, but against a civilian government which was doing its level best to reduce the role of the military; not against a government which was ruling by increasingly dra- conian measures, but against a govern- Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 11024 Approved Fe /1~/ DP?JR0680005001200 1CtT 24 1965 ment that was seeking to return to dem- ocratic.rule and had scheduled elections for this. coming September. There is another parallel that I be- lieve. deserves noting. Both the Bosch elements and the Communists in the Dominican Republic made the return to constitutionalism the prime plank in their platform. In Cuba, Castro also committed himself to the return to con- stitutionalism. The American people have tradition- ally looked upon their Constitution as something almost sacrosanct. Indeed, I think it would be no exaggeration to state that we are probably the most constitu- tionally minded people in the world. It is perhaps because of the. deeply rooted attachment to our own Constitution that certain American correspondents have been. taken in by the cry of "constitu- tionalism" in the Dominican Republic, Certainly their articles convey the im- pression that they are inclined to regard the . so-called government headed by Colonel Caamano as "constitutional," and therefore good and democratic, while they regard the military junta headed by Brigadier General Imbert as "uncon- stitutional," and therefore bad and un- democratic. There are no paragons and no giants in the military junta, and I would not attempt its defense in these terms. But I challenge the hypothesis that all those on the side of the junta are, ipso facto, completely bad, while all those on the side of Bosch and Caamano are, ipso facto, good. There could be no more fatal over- simplification of the Dominican situa- tion than to seek to understand it in terms of a division between "good guys" and "bad guys," between "constitution- alists" and "`anti constitutionalists." This oversimplification had led some critics of the administration policy into a preposterous position. On the one hand, they oppose General Imbert because he is a soldier; on the other hand, they support Colonel Caa- mafio despite the fact that he is also a soldier. They oppose Imbert because Imbert is anti-Bosch; but they drool over Caa- mafio as a pro-Bosch leader ignoring the fact that he played a key role in the coup which displaced Bosch and that Bosch, in his memoirs, denounced him vigor- ously. To justify their supportof Caamanoas a constitutionalist and therefore a dem- ocrat, they have uncritically repeated all the charges made by the rebels against the Cabral government; but in doing so they ignore the fact that Caa- mafto was an officer under Trujillo, while Cabral went to prison under Trujillo. They are all for Caamafio because he purportedly represents the constitution. But in their enthusiasm they conven- iently close their eyes to the fact that Caamafio's appointment as President violated the constitution on two counts. First, the constitution states (lately that the President cannot, be a military man. Second, it requires that the Presi- dent be a member of the majority party-which Caamano Is not. They accept Caamano's protestations that he is anti-Communist and that there fore no Communists in his move- ment; but they gloss over the hard evi- dence of mysterious foreign figures in the Caamaflo set-up and . of . known Communist cadres in command positions among.-his forces. They, are for progressive, orderly, efficient government, which they identify with constitutionalism. But they seem oblivious to the. fact that the Bosch gov ernmer was, by common consent, one of the most monumentally inept and in- efficient governments that ever existed in this hemisphere, while the military junta Isnd the Reid to democratic rule and hid scheduled elections for this coming _ September. There is another parallel that I be- lieve a serves noting. Both the Bosch elements and the Communists in the Dominican Republic made the return to constitutionalism the prime plank in their platform. In Cuba, Castro also commit ed himself to the return to constit itionalism. The American people have tradi- tionally' looked upon their Constitution as something almost sacrosanct. Indeed, I think it would be no exaggeration to 'state that we are probably the most con- stitutionally minded people in the world. It is lierhaps because of the deeply rooted attachment to our own Constitu- tion the ,t certain American correspond- ents have been taken iii by the cry of "Constitutionalism" in the Dominican Republc. Certainly their articles con- vey the impression thatthey are inclined to regard the so-called government headed_by Colonel Caamano a$ "consti- tutional," and therefore good and demo- cratic, while they regard the military junta Beaded by Brigadier General Imbert ps "unconstitutional," and there- fore ba I and undemocratic. Thera are no paragons and no giants in the military junta, and I would not attempt its defense in these terms. But I challenge the hypothesis that all those on the side of the junta are, ipso facto, completely bad, while all those on the side of Bosch and Caamano are, ipso facto, good. Thera could be no more fatal over- simplification of the Dominican situation than W. seek to understand it in terms of a division between "good guys" and "bad guys," between "constitutionalists" and "aikticonstitutionalists." This oversimplification had led some critics )f the administration policy into a preposterous position. On the one hand, they oppose General Imbert -because he is a soldier; on the other hand, they support Colonel Caamano despite the fact that he is also a soldier. They oppose Imbert because Imbert is anti-Bosch; but they droll over Caamano as a pro-Bosch leader ignoring the fact that hi!; played a key role in the coup which displaced Bosch and that Bosch, in his memoirs, denounced him vigor- ously. To justify their support of Camaano as a aynstitutionalist and therefore a democr,it, they have uncritically repeated all the. (barges made by the rebels against the. Cabral government; but in doing so they ignore the fact that Camaano was an officer under Trujillo, while Cabral went to prison under Trujillo. They are all for Camaan.o because he purportedly represents the Constitution. But in their enthusiasm they conven- iently close their eyes to the fact that Camaano's appointment as president violated the Constitution on two counts. First, the Constitution states flatly that the president cannot be a military man. Second, it requires that the president be a member of the majority party-which Camaano is not. They accept Camaano's protestations that he is anti-Communist and that there are no Communists in his movement; but they gloss over the hard evidence of mys- terious foreign figures in the Camaano setup and of known Communist cadres in command positions among his forces. They are for progressive, orderly, ef- ficient government, which they identify with constitutionalism. But they seem oblivious to the fact that the Bosch gov- ernment was,, by common consent, one of the most monumentally inept and in- efficient governments that ever existed in this hemisphere, while -the military junta and the Reid: Cabral regime at least gov- erned half efficiently and did something to improve the lot of their :people. I come back to the point that this is not a situation which can be understood in terms of "good guys" versus "bad guys" or constitutionalism versus anticonstitu- tionalism. In general, the great majority of Americans are for democracy and for constitutional government everywhere. In general, too, they do not like mili- tary coups or rule by military juntas. But it would be folly to convert these completely valid general attitudes into fetishes, into rules of conduct from which there must never be any deviation. We must recognize the fact that there are countries that are not yet prepared for democracy in the Western sense, countries for which autocratic govern- ment is still as natural. as it was for the Kingdom of Israel in the (lays of King David and Solomon. We must further recognize the fact that there are other countries where a temporary suspension of constitutional rule has been .the only alternative to com- plete chaos and the installation of a Communist dictatorship which would permanently negate all constitutional- ity. This was so in Guatemala in 1954, when the Arbenz regime was using the facade of democracy and legitimacy for the purpose of imposing communism, and when the country was saved at the last minute by a small band of determined men under the leadership of Col. Castillo Armas. There were those who had doubts about our support of Castillo Armas at the time, just as there are those who have doubts about our intervention to prevent a rebel takeover in, the Dominican Re- public. The doubters on both issues would do well to consider the fact that Mr. Arbenz, the supposedly constitutional and non-Communist President of Guate- mala, has been living in Castro's Cuba ever since 1959. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 U May -24, 1965 Approve~F-G~g03/RCA=RpN6~Q446R000500120021-1 11025 We were confronted with the same hard choice in Brazil in April 1964, un- der the nominally constitutional govern- ment of Juan Goulart. Brazil, too, was saved at the last minute by a popular re- volt spearheaded by the military. And from all the evidence, there is serious reason for believing that the Americas were confronted with a simi- lar situation in the fall of 1963, when the Dominican military intervened to depose Bosch. As much as we may regret the need, under any circumstances, to resort to unconstitutional government, it is essen- tial to realize that a number of the gov- ernments installed as a result of military coups have been efficient. and socially progressive, and that they have, after a period of time, moved back in the direc- tion of democracy and legitimacy. From the totalitarian political dic- tatorship of communism, once it is im- posed, on the other hand, there is no escape and no reprieve. Although we cannot reconstruct the past, we can learn from it. I feel strongly that it would have been an act of wisdom and mercy from the standpoint of the-welfare of the Domini- can people, if it had been possible to in- stall a provisional OAS government to rule for a period of at least 1 year after the downfall of Trujillo. And although there will be some who protest that this is undemocratic,, I would strongly favor the installation of such a caretaker government by the OAS at this juncture. If, for reasons of practical politics, a 1-year provisional government by the OAS should prove impossible, then the only alternative, it seems to me, is some kind of mixture of military and civilian rule by a provisional Dominican Gov- ernment, until conditions can be stabi- lized sufficiently to permit free elections. WHY THE PRESIDENT ACTED The question of why the President acted as he did has, I believe, been amply answered by the President him- self and by Ambassador Stevenson and by other spokesmen for the adminis- tration, The hard fact is that, by the time the first American marines landed in the Dominican Republic, Communist ele- ments and elements whom we have every reason to suspect of being Communist, had taken over effective control of the Dominican revolution. As Haynes Johnson reported in the Washington Evening Star, Latin Amer- ican diplomats stationed in Santo Domingo, even though they would not say so for publication, felt that President Johnson had taken the only possible action open to him and that he had acted literally with hours to spare. - From other sources of information, inside Latin America and outside, I am convinced that Haynes Johnson re- ported accurately on the attitude of the Latin American diplomats in Santo Domingo, and, I am convinced further that this was the attitude of the great majority of the Latin Amreican govern- ments, despite all the noise about Amer- ican intervention. The fact that there were only hours in which to act is, I think, the best and only answer to those who have argued that we should have endeavored to act through the OAS. The OAS is, unfortunately, not set up for this kind of lightning reaction. Had the matter been referred to the OAS, the chances are that the discus- sions would have dragged on for weeks and months, while a neo-Castro regime firmly established itself in the Domini- can Republic. FIFTY-FOUR COMMUNISTS--NO PROOF OF DOMINATION? The New York Times and some other papers have argued that the adminis- tration has failed to submit conclusive proof that the rebel movement was Communist dominated. It. has been said that 54 identifiable Communists is not proof of domination, that there are bound to be this many Communists or more in any popular movement the Americas. I would like to remind my colleagues of our experience with Castro and Cuba, because it is only against this back- ground that the President's interven- tion can be intelligently assessed. When Castro and his band of rebels were in the Sierra Maestra mountains, concentrating on acts of terrorism and sabotage in their bid for political power, Castro was visited by several American correspondents. Most prominent among these were Mr. Herbert Matthews of the New York Times and Mr. Robert Taber of CBS. Mr. Taber produced a half-hour TV documentary on the Castro movement which portrayed it in a decidedly favor- able and indeed heroic light. I believe that this documentary and the general newscasting that resulted from it did much to create the condition of gullibility that made the American people, for a period of time, regard Cas- tro as a latter-day version of Simon Bolivar, the great Latin American liberator. Mr. Taber later emerged as the chief organizer and secretary of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, an organization which, according to evidence given to the Senate Subcommittee on Internal- Security, was launched wiith the help of Castro funds. The subcommittee's hearings also re- vealed that Mr. Taber had a felony rec- ord which included convictions for armed robbery and kidnaping, and that, after Castro had come to power, he had traveled to Czechoslvakia for some mys- terious purpose on a Cuban passport. So much for Mr. Robert Taber, author of the CBS documentary on Fidel Castro. But even more damaging in terms of its total impact were the writings of Mr. Herbert Matthews of the New York Times, whose romantic attitude toward Castro led him to describe the Cuban tyrant as a cross between Thomas Jeffer- son and Robin Hood. The New York Times has over the decades come to be regarded as one of the world's foremost newspapers, if not the foremost. This is a reputation it richly merits. In the quality of its jour- nalism, in the scope of its coverage, in its open-minded approach to the prob- lems of our society, I can think of no other paper that compares with it. But the New York Times, like all other human institutions, is fallible; and its correspondents and editors, like all ordi- nary mortals, sometimes become in- volved in errors of judgment. Moreover, the quality of correspond- ents and editors is bound to vary con- siderably. Some correspondents are fa- natics for thoroughness and objectivity; others are less assiduous, more subjec- tive, more inclined to stretch a point in favor of the headline. Some are more astute, more balanced, more mature. Others are less astute, less balanced, less mature. That is why the quality of the cover- age will vary from one situation to another. As understandable as these variations may be, it is nevertheless a tragedy for all of us whenever a Times correspondent goes completely astray in his estimates or his judgments. The influence of the New York Times on a national level cannot be overesti- mated. It is read by every Member of Congress, by every member of the' ad- ministration, and, in much of the coun- try, by virtually every member of the clergy and of university faculties and by others who participate in the general task of forming public opinion. In addition, there is an understand- able tendency, even in the newspaper profession, to regard the New York Times as gospel. I have heard from more than one competent correspondent that when they- sent in dispatches from foreign countries that contradicted or conflicted with the dispatches being printed by the New York Times, their editors would im- mediately react by becoming worried and difficult. "Surely, the New York Times cannot be completely wrong," they would say to their correspondents-thereby implying that their own correspondents must somehow be in error. Because of the universal respect the Times enjoys, Matthews' misleading re- ports on the Castro movement did wide- spread damage. Long after Castro came to power, when evidence concerning his Communist ac- tivities became available in an increasing volume, Herbert Matthews clung to his conviction that Castro was not a Com- munist. On July 14, 1959, Maj. Pedro Diaz Lanz, former chief of Castro's Air Force, told the Senate Subcommittee on Inter- nal Security that Castro was trying to convert Cuba into a "tool of Russia." The subcommittee at the time it took this testimony, already had substantial evidence on hand from other sources that Castro was himself a Communist and that his movement was Communist- dominated. Twenty-four hours later, Herbert L. Matthews, of the New York Times, filed a dispatch from Havana from which I quote : This is not a Communist revolution in any sense of the word and there are no Commu- nists in positions of control * * * The ac- Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 11026 Approved For Relea8 3J/SIN61%- ljWPB 004 0f 00120021-1 May 24, 1965 cusations of Maj. Pedro Diaz Lanz before up the first plans for the revolutionary belief that they would be able to control the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee government; them. yesterday are rejected by virtually all Ramiro Valdes, political commissar un- Whether or not there was a formal 1Cubans. * * * The only power worth con- sidering in Cuba today is in the hands of der Raul Castro, now head of the secret agreement between the Bosch lieutenants Premier Castro, who Is not only not Com- police; and the Communists, the fact, neverthe- munist, but decidedly anti-Communist. Celia Sanchez, Fidel Castro's mistress; less, is that within 1 or 2 hours of the Regrettably, there Vilma Espin, who is today the wife of first. rebel actions, members of the three were many people, Raul Castro. Communist movements in the Domini- both in government and out, who con- As for Castro himself, there was no, can Republic were out in the streets of tinued to "give Castro the benefit of the proof that he was a Communist, but his Santo Domingo calling on the people to doubt," some for another year, some for participation in the Bogota uprising of join the demonstration for the restora- almost 2 years. 1948, during which he broadcast over the tion of constitutional government under Mr. Matthews' exceeding reluctance to rebel radio, was much more in the pat- ex-President Bosch. describe anyone as a Communist seems tern of the young Communist revolu- The Communists moved with precision to have communicated itself on a num- tionary who looks upon the entire non- and' discipline, and according to an ob- ber of issues to the editorial columns of Communist world as the target rather vious master plan. the Times, either because he himself than in the pattern of the young Latin First they obtained quantities of arms wrote the editorials or because of his American nationalist revolutionary who personal influence. takes to the streets, rightly or wrongly, and ammunition from the "27th of Feb On July 17, 1961, In a speech on the because he is concerned over the situa- ruary camp" outside Santo Domingo, floor of the Senate, I warned that the tion in his own country. where rebelling army officers had seized election of Dr. Cheddi Jagan in British There were elements in our intelligence control when the coup began. Guiana might give us' another Commu- community at the time who were seri- Then, armed paramilitary teams fan- nist-dominated government in the Amer- ously worried over the degree of Com- ned out into the downtown and slum icas. On August 23, the New York Times munist participation in the upper oche- areas, taking control of secondary targets commented editorially: Ions of the Castro movement and who and organizing the inhabitants. Dr. Jagan has been labeled. by some high submitted warnings that because of this According to a communication I re- American officials and some Senators as a- infiltration a Castro takeover would al- ceived from Mr. Paul Bethel, director of Communist, or the equivalent of one. If, most certainly mean a Communist take- the Citizens Committee for a Free Cuba this were to prove the official U.S. Govern over. and an old Latin American hand, the ment attitude, Dr. Sagan and his government The Subcommittee on Internal Secu- next move of the Communists, after alongside would of certainly Cuba in t very the communistic soon. . If if camp Britishp. rity received no evidence that any of arming their adherents, was to seize the r Guiana is handled by the United States with these warnings had ever been transmit- radio station. some understanding, sophistication, and sym- ted to the Secretary of State Herter. "At 2:30 mm. on Saturday," said Mr. pathy, there is every reason to hope it will On the other hand, the evidence estab- Bethel in his memorandum to me "mobs become a desirable member of the inter- lished that reports had come to Secretary led by Cuban Communist Luis Acosta American system. Herter from Mr. William Wieland, direc- seized Santo ',Domingo's radio and televi- Fortunately, the Department of State tor of the Caribbean desk, stating that Sion stations. Acosta paraded people did not follow the advice of this editorial - there was no conclusive proof that the across the TV screen with rehearsed and today British Guiana is no longer Castro movement was Communist-domi- shouts of "We demand a return to con.- ruled by Jagan. nated or that Castro himself was a Com- stitutionality and we want Juan Bosch It would be bad enough if Mr. Mat- munist. as President." Some of the demonst:ra- thews did not learn from his own errors In the purely literal sense, this was tors were dressed as sailors, others wore It must be stated with regret that the true. army uniforms. All were armed to the New York Times apparently has not yel There was no conclusive proof, if by teeth with machineguns and rifles. evaluated Mr. Matthews' oft-punctures this one means evidence that will stand Viewers were told that the military had romanticizing on the subject of Latir. up in a court of law. joined in the demand for the return of American Communists. But to anyone who has any under- Juan Bosh. Mobs were told to "pour Against the background of his dismall standing of the nature of Communist into the streets and celebrate the victory misleading performance in Cuba, I find iii operations and of how much power can of the people over the downfall of Reid ironical in the extreme that Mr. Herber; be wielded by a half dozen or a dozen Cabral." Matthews should again have undertaken,' Communists in key positions in a small Mr. Bethel described how the Com- in an article in the May 10 edition of this movement, the participation of this very munists handed out rifles, tommyguns, Times, to lecture the President and Cone limited number of clearly identifiable and grenades to the so-called turbas, gress and the American people on thii Communists at command level In the or :gangs of street toughs. He quoted a noncommunism of the Dominican revo? Castro movement was ample reason for series of eye witnesses by name, describ- lution and on the wickedness of American concern. ing how the turbas roamed the streets intervention. . There were far more clearly identifi- for 2 days, attacking homes and loot- To those who say that the presence of able Communists in key positions in the ing and raping and killing all those who several score Communists in key positionl Dominican rebel movement when Presi- disagreed with them or simply killing for does not necessarily make a movement o - dent Johnson decided to intervene, than kicks. One Scotch news photographer, a revolution Communist dominated, I there had ever been in the Castro move- he said, had counted 90 bodies in a would reply by again referring to our ex - ment before it came to power. single block and had come back sick- perience with Cuba. Fifty-four Communists may seem a ened at the wanton murder. There were only a handful of clearl:r trifling matter to the innocent, but as a The list of Communist participants in identifiable Communists in the uppe ^ highly knowledgeable and respected Eu- the Dominican revolution made public by echelon of Castro's movement. Among ropean socialist said when he received the administration, include 18 persons them were: the information: who were known to have received train- "Che" Guevara, the No. 2 man in th - Fifty-four Communists is fifty-four too ing In subversive and paramilitary tac- Castro movement; many. Even one Communist in a key posi- tics in Cuba. The others on the list, al- Raul Castro, commander of the so- tion would be extremely dangerous. though not as important, have been called second front; HOW THE COMMUNISTS STOLE THE REVOLUTION identified over a period of several years Gen. Alberto Bsyo, who fought wit: The attempted coup d'etat of April 24 as Communists and Castroite adherents. the Comi"nunists in the Spanish civil war was originally engineered by prominent To run through the entire list would and who had a reputation as an expert oh Dominicans who were followers of ex- be tiring and meaningless. Let me guerrilla tactics; President Bosch. therefore give you a few examples of the Carlos Rodriguez, former editor of the There is some reason for believing that type of Communist participation which Communist newspaper, "Hoy," who was they solicited the assistance of the Do- was clearly established in the early days in charge of propaganda and who dreiv minican Communists in the mistaken of the revolt. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 Approved For Release 2003/1015 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 May '.24, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 11027 Among the activists who were identi- drawing from it because he did not wish lose all sight of the basic moral and fled as prime organizers of the paramili- to support a Castroite grab for-power. human Issues. tart' teams that roamed the streets of Colonel Hernandez, the most promi- The Communists have intervened, are Santo Domingo were Buenaventura nent army officer associated with the intervening today, and will continue to Johnson and Fidelio Despradel, leaders revolt, is reported to have suffered a intervene in every situation where they of the pro-Moscow Communist Party, nervous breakdown and to have sought can serve their own evil ends. which calls itself the Dominican Popu- asylum. Sometimes, they have intervened by lar Socialist Party, or DPSP for short. It cannot be emphasized too much that direct and massive military action, as in Also identified as prime organizers of President Johnson's decision to intervene Korea, Hungary and Tibet. the paramilitary units were Jaime Duran, came only after the non-Communist Sometimes they have intervened a Dominican who had received training leaders of the revolt had admitted defeat through quisling minorities, operating in Cuba, and Juan Ducoudray, a known and abandoned the movement, leaving it under the protection of Red army bay- Castro agent who had been actively en- in the virtually undisputed control of the onets. This was how they seized power gaged in smuggling weapons into the Do- Communist activists. in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and minican Republic from Cuba. The Communists began to infiltrate Hungary. It was also established that one of the and take ? control of the insurrection al- Sometimes they have intervened by chief directors of the rebel forces, Man- most from, the moment It was launched fostering, training, equipping, and di- uel Gonzalez Gonzalez, was a veteran of on the morning of April 24. recting guerrilla and terrorist move- the Spanish Communist Party who had By April 26, they already exercised a ments. been working with the Dominican Com- serious degree of control. In this way, they almost succeeded in munist Party for several years. , By April 27, their control had reached seizing power in Greece; they threat- I think It interesting in this connec- such alarming proportions that virtually ened and seriously retarded the postwar tion to quote a paragraph from the re- all of the authentic non-Communist recovery of the Philippines, Burma, and port put out by the OAS Committee on leaders had abandoned the revolution. Malaya; they conquered the greater part its interview with Colonel Caamano- On April 28, as Ambassador Stevenson of Vietnam, and are now threatening the The special committee was witness during pointed out in his speech before the U.N. democratic Republic of South Vietnam. that interview with the so-called Constitu- Security Council, the situation in Santo And, it is in this way, and with logisti- tional Military Command to one detail that Domingo was one of complete chaos. cal support from the Soviet Union, that could not pass unnoticed. This was the Hundreds of bodies lay in the streets. they have today occupied large parts of presence of a uniformed person carrying anus,who said he was part of the command Armed bands, he said, roamed the city, the Kingdom of Laos and now threaten and who spoke Spanish with a pronounced plundering, burning, and murdering; its total subjugation. foreign accent. The Secretary General of and international Communist agents It Is what Soviet intervention stands the Organization of American States inter- continued to pass out arms to all those for, rather than intervention per se, that rogated him in a loud voice before everyone, who could be incited to follow them. makes their intervention, whatever form asking him: "who are you? What are you On that day, the military junta, which it may take, a crime against mankind doing here?" The person replied: "I am appeared to be the only responsible au- fought in the French army in Indochina and against freedom. Andre Riviere, my nationality is French, I thority in the whole of Santo Domingo, When human life is threatened, it is , and I am working in Santa Domingo. I have addressed a request to the American our moral duty to intervene to save it, if joined this command." While he took no Ambassador for "temporary intervention it is reasonably within our power to do part in the conversations, Riviere was in the and assistance in restoring order." so. discussion room during the.time of the in- It is clear that, In consequence of early When human rights are denied, or hu- terview, and the authority with which he. man freedoms are threatened, it is also gave orders to the guards posted at the win- reports from Santo Domingo, prepara- the moral duty civilized men to inter- tions had been made to respond to any dows and the door where we were was quite vane. Herein lies es the entire justification obvious. contingency in the Dominican Republic. f th i In stating these facts I do not mean to say that the revolt from its inception was engineered by and under the con- trol of the Communists. On the con- trary, the evidence is that the revolt, to the extent that it was organized, was initially organized by followers of ex- President Bosch, but that they were out- maneuvered by the Communists and that the control of the movement was taken out of their hands within a matter of days. The revolt got underway on April 24. By April 27, virtually all of the au- thentic non-Communist leaders, recog- nizing that their movement had been captured by the Communists, had taken asylum in foreign embassies or had gone into hiding. Rafael Molina Urena, who had been named provisional president when the revolt began, took asylum in the Colom- bian Embassy. Martinez Francisco, the secretary general of Bosch's party, publicly called upon the rebels to lay down their arms. Jose Francisco Pena Gomez, another member of the provisional cabinet, who had been one of the chief architects of the revolt, informed a member of the American Embassy that the Communists had taken over command positions in the revolt and that he himself was with- No. 93-26 Llights movement in our own However, it cannot be etoo o or a civ that U.S. r, the landing of the emphasized ze mo country. But precisely the same con much e rines did not take place until the evening to to other countries, oter cshould apply when we our attitude of April 28-after the request from the when of can reasoii- junta had been received, and a full 24 ably inn the intervene m behalfmunists of justice. hours after the Communist infiltration When Communists intervene they of the rebel command had been con- are e now w they doing in did the Cuba and Dominican R they firmed by the desertion of Bosch's chief aepub- lieutenants. lie to establish tyrannical regimes which THE QUESTION OF INTERVENTION deny all human freedoms and which massacre those opposing them on a It is a truly superlative exhibition of genocidal scale, then I say that it is the gall when the Soviet delegates to the moral duty of civilized nations to come United Nations assail American inter- to the assistance of those whose freedom vention in the Dominican Republic, be- is thus threatened. cause this is the same delegation that It is in response to this moral duty defended the Soviet action in sending that President Johnson acted in the 5,000 tanks into Hungary to put down Dominican Republic. the Hungarian revolution and in mas- THE NATURE OF OUR INTERVENTION sacring 25,000 citizens of Budapest. President Johnson acted forcefully. There is somewhat more reason to be But in my opinion he also acted with the concerned when American editorials greatest restraint and propriety. come out in very similar terms against The marines took up positions de- our intervention in the Dominican Re- signed to limit the fighting and protect public, and even go so far as suggesting human life. Although they had the that there Is little to choose, morally, power, if they had desired to use it, to between Soviet intervention in Hungary crush rebel resistance and take over and American intervention in the Do- rebel held areas within 24 hours, they minican Republic. refrained from, any military action All of this suggests to me that the against the rebels beyond a number of Communists have been able to twist the isolated incidents where they were word "Intervention" for their own propa- obliged to fire in self-defense. ganda. purposes in a manner that has Moreover, the administration made it Induced some of our decent citizens to abundantly clear from the beginning Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/15: CIA-RDP67B00446R0E0500120021-1 W Y1965 11028 CONG 1.ESSIONAL RECORD - SEN May 24, that it considers interventions a stop- This is simply not so. you a passage'from "La Prensa," of Lima. gap measure, that it plans to hand over it is true that before the basic facts Peru, which is regarded as moderately to an OAS force as soon as such ?,bout American intervention in the Do- conservative: a force can be established, and iilinican Republic were circulated and That the myth of absolute "noninterven- that it is its intention to withdraw com- i similated, press reaction in Latin ti the suits si only taken b against ole Cora- soon as arrangements have been made over the past several weeks there has North American intervention have not been by the OAS for the establishment of a Been a dramatic shift in the attitude of so obstreperous as it has been against the Dominican Government capable of as- i kit Latin American press and. Latin possibility of collective intervention. suring the people of that country of the American leaders, because word is get- right Summing up the Latin American re- This to determine their own future. '.;tng back from the OAS Commission and n in last week's Newsweek, Milan This position has been made abun- :prom Latin American diplomats in Santo action cLatin American can J. dantly clear by every spokesman for the Domingo. spondent, chief pit this way administration from the first day of our Today there is an increasing aware- The nt, put u absence this of riots and other intervention. aess of the essential fact that the United relative The fact that American soldiers have States acted as it did because there was demonstrations on this continent emphasizes sometimes fired upon the rebel forces in imminent danger of a Communist the general feeling that, while intervention is bad, a second Cuba, would be far worse. and that they have not fired on the takeover and because every hour was U.S. Justifications of its actions are being forces of the junta, has been construed precious. And there are many who were listened to attentively. as proof that we have been giving mili- critical of U.S. intervention during the i- to have unanimous e consent, tary support to the junta against the first days who are now prepared to I dent, ask in remarks the Mr. . Presi- ret bels. Such an interpretation has a admit that their initial reaction was the conclusion of td in hks RECORD at surface plausibility. But it ignores the "overly legalistic." appeared in Latin other American editorials that newspapers have have and fact that our men have been firing at As of this juncture it is my under- from the rebels on occasion because the rebels standing that in a few countries notably statements made Latin American of- has and have been firing at them, and that it Mexico, Venezuela, and Chile, the ma- state , nts madr e our tin action a the Do- junta not been firing at the forces of the jority of the newspapers still remain ficials, Rppubng u well n some sun- junta for the simple reason that the critical of U.S. action in the Dominican dry items public, the a American well as - mess junta has not been firing at them. Republic. In virtually all of the other this subject. There are standing orders that the countries, however, there has been far The .PRESIDING [NG OFFICER. Without V.S. forces will not fire unless fired upon more press comment supporting U.S. ion, it is so ordered. and the right to return fire has been action than criticizing or condemning objection, it is s reserved to battalion commanders. it. Mr. DODD. I have taken the trouble Moreover, I 2L111 assured by competent - I believe that some of the critics in to read these several quotations of the authorities that these instructions- are our country could learn a good deal many that have come to my attention, understood and that they have, with from a reading of the Latin American because I believe that an infinite amount negligible exceptions; been honored. press. Let me quote to you just a few of damage is done by supposedly knowl- Our forces have had to pay a high samples of the items that I have had edgeable commentators and editors who price for the restraint underwhich they -researched. tell their readers in sweeping terms and must operate. The American as Example No. 1 is the following state- without troubling to check the facts, that 9his weekend was 19 Ameriqun dead and and ment which appeared in the influential our action in Vietnam has earned us the ce wounded-this in consequence of 462 and moderately liberal newspaper "El hatred of the peoples of Asia or that our cease-fire violations by the rebels. Tiempo" of Bogota, Colombia, on May 5: action in the Dominican Republic has There has been an unfortunate tend- So long as the Latin American Republics earned us the hatred of the peoples of ency to report rebel charges and allega- do not have an international force that can the Americas. tions without troubling to check or con- intervene in cases like that of the Dominican THE EUROPEAN REACTION firm. Thus, several American news- Republic, we must accept, much as it hurts papers on May 20 reported rebel charges our national pride, the inevitability of Amer- While it has been reported from many that American troops had fired without ican intervention. - directions that the British Foreign Office provocation from the U.S. zone into rebel The second item which I should like and most other allied chancelleries in positions near the national palace, kill- to quote is an editorial which appeared Europe accept the harsh necessity for ing 5 men, among them, Colonel Rafael on May 4 in "El Mundo," a liberal daily President Johnson's action, there canbe Fernandez Dominguez, special envoy of published in Caracas, Venezuela: no question but that there has been far ex-president Bosch, who had been named more criticism than support in the col- minister of the interior in the Caamano Communist, with its claws hovering over umns of the European press. Dominican territory, tried to take over one To a very large extent, this criticism group. more front in America and establish there According to a report I have received, a branch of the island governed by Fidel is a playback of the criticism that has Fernandez was one - of a group of 20, - Castro ^ . * we freemen of America ought appeared in several major . American operating in the area of the palace, which to be on the side of freedom. And the United newspapers. And thereby hangs a moral fired into the U.S. communications cor- States, besides being a free country, and which I believe has been most eloquently ridor. American soldiers returned the - being the traditional friends of Venezuelans articulated by the veteran columnist fire and soldiers of the Junta forces also and of all American nations, is defending Joseph Alsop in his article of May 12. I our right to live in our own way without the opened fire on the rebels. The cross fire intrusion of foreign doctrines which harm want to quote a few paragraphs from apparently killed five of the rebels, in- and corrupt the thinking of our peoples. this article, because I believe it merits eluding Fernandez. But also among the Our peoples, traditionally Catholic, never the attention of all of us in this body as rebel leaders slain in this exchange was have been on theside of communism. well as of the American press. Juan Miguel Roman, a member of the Next, I should like to call to the atten- The ugly, unhappy business in Santo Do- central committee of the Castroite expert ite 14th tion of my colleagues this statement by mingo is another, especially clear proof of a of June party, and a guerrilla eof a commentator on the Honduras official rule that should always be borne in mind by some reputation who has, since 1961., vis- - radio, Radio America, on May 7: all Americans who have a public voice, ited the U.S.S.R., Cuba, Czechoslovakia, whether in the Senate, or in the press or and Algiers. The humanitarian decisions of the North elsewhere. American President Lyndon B. Johnson has When the going gets rough-so the rule Told in these terms the story has a opened the way, over the heads of the timid somewhat different ring. - and the professional pacifists, to authorize runs--think twice or even three times about ; you say; for what you say will always be THE 'REACTION ~ LATIN AMERICA the sending of North American soldiers of what of a sister country. used- to embarrass or restrict your own Gav- liberty'of America to-mitigate the tragedy SWme writers ssertions have been made ernment's policy, if this is at all possible. by some wrthat President Johnson's _ In the present instance, the Times of Lon- actions in the Dominican Republic has' As a final sample of the editorials that don appears to have gone through the U.S. done lasting damage to our relations- have recently been appearing in the press with a fine-toothed comb, with special with the Latin American peoples. Latin American press, I wish to read to emphasis on its great opposite number in Approved For Release: 2003/10/15: CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 May, 1965 Approved Wle"?gl/~0yiCRD~ii46R000500120021-1 314 New York, to find means of presenting the American action in Santo Domingo in the worst possible light in its news columns. A good many of the British newspapers have followed suit. Using the main raw material of American public statements critical of President John- son's decision, but also using far more free- dom of invention, the French television and radio networks and most Gaullist newspa- pers in Paris have managed to sound pretty much like the Communist East German ra- dio, though with a greater knack for snide insinuations. THE BALANCE SHEET It would be senseless to pretend that the President's action in $anto Domingo will overnight usher in an era of tran- quility and plenty and simon-pure de- mocracy for the Dominican people. The road ahead for the Dominican people will be a hard one, no matter what the composition of the government that emerges from the present turmoil. Let us hope that, through the OAS, it will prove possible to establish either an interim caretaker government, or else a provisional Dominican administration which is as broad as circumstances will permit, which recognizes the importance of preventive action against the Commu- nist conspiracy, and which contains enough men of ability and dedication to make orderly and progressive govern- ment possible. Whatever the difficulties and uncer- tainties that lie ahead in the Dominican Republic, all the indications now are that President Johnson's courageous action has struck a decisive blow for the cause of freedom in the Americas. By his action, President Johnson has prevented the emergence of a second Castro regime in the Americas. He has saved the Dominican people from the merciless tyranny of commu- nism and has created conditions which will assure them, let us hope at a not- too-distant date, of the opportunity to determine their own future. He has served firm notice on Havana and Moscow and Peiping that under no circumstances are we prepared to toler- ate the establishment in this hemisphere of another regime committed to the sub- version and subjugation of the Americas. He has created an image of America that will serve us in good stead with friend and foe alike. But, perhaps most important, his leadership has encouraged the Organiza- tion of American States to come to grips with the problem of subversion through stealth and fraud. To my mind, one of the most encourag- ing developments of recent days is the universally negative reaction, throughout the Americas, to the decision of the U.N. Security Council to dispatch its own observers to the Dominican Republic. . There are places where the U.N. can help and places where it cannot help. The governments of the Americas re- sent the intrusion of the United Nations observers because they are convinced that it will only undercut their position and complicate their task. They feel, that this is their problem, and they are determined to deal with it on their own. This is a most wholesome and welcome reaction. In the light of this reaction, indeed,. I think our representatives at the U.N. erred in failing to veto the estab- lishment of a U.N. observer team in the Dominican Republic. As distasteful as it may be to resort to the veto, I hope we will not hesitate to employ the veto to prevent further meddling by the U.N. in a situation where their presence can do no good and may do much harm. Despite all the criticism and abuse and misunderstanding and misrepresentation that has attended President Johnson's action in the Dominican Republic, it is my firm, conviction that history will en- dorse and posterity will applaud his courageous intervention against the Communist conspiracy in the Dominican Republic. Mr. President, I am sorry that I had to detain the officers of the Senate until this late hour. I am equally sorry that Senators who had obligations at this hour of the day which they were re- quired to attend could not be present. Many Senators spoke to me and told me that they desired to be present but could not be, and that they would read what I had to say. I am grateful for that. I consider the subject important. When asked by the leadership today if I would wait until we had concluded our work on the voting rights bill, I was happy to do so. That does not in any sense lessen my feeling that the subject is an important one. I hope Senators will take the time to read what I have said. I am confident that some Senators may wish to comment on the subject at a later date. I will be glad to be pres- ent when that takes place. Mr. President, I yield the floor. EXHIBIT i LATIN AMERICAN MEDIA REACTION: RE DoMIm- CAN CRISIS Jornal do Comercio of Rio said editorially May 4: "Now there can be no doubt whatever about the necessity of the peacefully inspired intervention in the Dominican Republic which was in the grip of professional revolu- tionaries. President Johnson's speech last Sunday was convincing because of the detail with which he described the facts." The Mexico City Ultimas Noticias de Ex- celsior, conservative, said on May 4: "The Castro-Communist menace was what moved President Johnson to send marines and sol- diers to the island, a unilateral act for which he should have been able to count on the decision of the rest of Latin America." Rio de Janeiro's 0 Globo said May 5 in its editorial entitled "A Historic Decision": "Determined to deter the advance of Soviet imperialism not only in the West but in the East, as the sacrifice of so many American lives bears witness, it is evident that the United States could not remain idle when in our own hemisphere forces directed from Moscow tried to establish a new beachhead, delivering the Dominican Republic to some native Fidel Castro ready to play the Krem- lin's game in America. The action of the United States in the Dominician Republic is not an isolated episode but part of its anti- Communist strategy. It is not an imperialist act, as is alleged by some whenever liberty opposes tyranny." Rio de Janeiro's liberal Diarlo de Noticias editorial on May 7 approved the U.S. 11029 action and said: "In its intervention the United States is complying with the exten- sive obligations imposed on it by its status as the major democracy of the hemisphere." 0 Estado de Sao Paulo, moderately con- servative of Sao Paulo, said May 4: "In Cuba, in Vietnam, in Zanzibar, in Tanzania, we have seen every year over the past 10 years a repetition of the Communist attempt to establish its domination. 'Realpolitik' de- mands that we must face these situations despite protests by public opinion and cer- tain diplomatic taboos. Ours must be the policy of the United States and the OAS." Rio's 0 Jornal said May 4: "The interven- tion of the American Armed Forces in Santo Domingo at that moment was not only ur- gent but indispensable." El Espectador, liberal, very influential, of Bogota, said on May 4: "We would have preferred it if from the first day, from the hour of the first debarkation, statements to the world had been in the same frank and precise language as. that employed by Johnson Sunday night." Jornal do Brasil of May 6 said : "Acting unilaterally in open violation of the inter- American principles, the United States moved to prevent the establishment of one more Soviet beachhead on this continent." El Mercurio, right center, 'Influential, of Santiago on May 8 declared that: "Democracy cannot be an inoperative and blind concept which permits its own structures to be de- stroyed and replaced by Marxist totalitarian- ism." Independent La Nueva Provincia of Bahia Blanca, Argentina, approved the U.S. action and said May 6: "Everyone knows that for a long time the only country in the Caribbean that has violated the rules of noninterven- tion has been that of Fidel Castro, in back of whom are Peiping and Moscow supporting unconditionally his activities aimed at sub- version and the destruction of liberty on the continent. Those who criticize the United States now are the same ones who would later beg for V.S. intervention to crush the Communist aggressor after he had invaded another Latin American country. Or was it not that which took place in Cuba?" Managua's La Prensa said May 5 in one of its columns.: "As a British newspaper said, being a world power is such "a thankless task that nothing that it does sits well with any- one. When they planned to invade Cuba, the Yankees were atrocious imperialists. When they did not invade it they were fools for not having invaded and prevented the Communists from taking oven" La Noticia, liberal, of Managua, on May 5 editorially approved Ambassador Stevenson's explanation of the U.S. position. It said: Mr. Stevenson, one of the most able poli- ticians and brilliant orators and man of let- ters in the United States, clearly established in his speech before the Security Council: (1) the United States has no intention of dictating the future policy of the Dominican Republic; (2) the United States will not fail to honor its pledge to defend the rights of all free peoples to choose their own destiny; (3) a revolution becomes a matter of hemi- spheric preoccupation only when its objec- tive is the installation of a Communist dic- tatorship. In the case of the Dominican Re- public the arguments of Adlai Stevenson were crushing. The propaganda of the Soviet Union were rendered counterproductive." La Nacion, conservative, of San Jose, said on May 4: "How can we silence those who speak nonsense about Yankee imperialism?" La Religion, Catholic, of Caracas, Vene- zuela, declared May 5 that: "The North American intervention, with all its ob- stacles and inconveniences, is completely justified because the Dominican conflict can become a new Cuba." Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 11030 Approved For Re, pg~lf~ISALCWt~ B0 %0500120021-1 May 2 i-1965 ANl) ,J'1'A'1' YW11Sr+ VN wvyW Iu- OJ.IVA'JJJN On May 3 former Argentine Minister of Economy Alvero Alsogaray, and Raul On- darts, leader of the Centrist Udelpa Party, as well as private "anti" Communist association Faeda, justified U.S. action. Text of Brazilian foreign ministry com- munique, May 3, 1965, supporting a United States proposal on the Dominican situation: "Aware of its duties as member of the Organization of American States, the Bra- zilian Government has decided to give its af- firmative vote to a proposal presented by the United States to the Foreign Relations Min- isters' Consultative meeting for the crea- tion of a, good offices commission to examine the situation. in the Dominican Republic.. "The Brazilian Government will exercise every effort In order to find a solution which, without jeopardizing the principles of non- intervention arid self-determination, will contribute to restore order in Santo Do- m l.ngo and to preserve the democratic lib- erties, peace, and security of the continent. "The Brazilian Government has received from the Government of the United States the assurance that the landing of infantry marines was effected to protect the lives of its subjects and other foreign residents in that country, in. view of the prevailing in- security and the authorities' declarations that they could not offer guarantees to the population." In a press interview on May 4 in Rio, lnoreign Minister Vasco Leitao da Cunha gave strong support to the United States. He said that he had hopes that the OAS wofor' ulad act favorably on the U.S. proposal n International force. He said "there is no time now for hyprocritical postures. Countries that now, for public effect, con- Me assembly declared: "The bloody events which occurred in the Dominican Republic during the past week as a consequence of Ike fratricidal struggle between the Domini- .an armed forces and popular militia lirected and backed by Castro-communism place in danger the survival of the inter- American system. The Dominican Republic al suffering armed and ideological aggres- lion at the hands of totalitarian commu- At the same time the security of the '.see nations of the continent is threatened." The assembly "urged the OAS and member dations to take charge of the situation so ',hat peace and order may be reestablished iii the strife-torn Caribbean island." On May 5 the President of the Supreme court of Honduras, Gustavo Acosta Jejia de- Jlared that "The landing of U.S. Armed Forces in the Dominican Republic, rather Sian being a violation of American pacts, should be called a preventive action in de- .ense of democracy. The United States of America does not seek territorial gains nor my of the other things which the recognized .eftist militancy of the hemisphere has ac- .used them. They are only trying to avoid the Dominican Republic's being converted .nto another advanced base of international onimunism such as, unfortunately, what the bland of Cuba is today." Nicaragua's President Rene Schick Gutter- 46z said May 7 in his monthly press confer- &iice that Nicaragua, as an OAS member, 'could consider itself obligated to take part :11 the inter-American force requested by the AS for the Dominican Republic.. The Presi- iflint added that the `OAS resolution was nec- demn the North American Initiative should President Schick said _ the OAS Charter 1?1ot be applauded, as the defense of the con- aust be reformed to deal with the type of tinent is also in their interest. I wish to situation that is occurring in the Dominican point out to you gentlemen that neither republic since existing agreements do not the U.N. nor the OAS Charter foresaw es- 5ithorize either unilateral or collective in- tablishment; of an international force for ;.ervention in such a case. peacekeeping operations. The U.N. case, Distinguished international Jurist Victor i.e., the grave Suez crisis of 1956, stimulated 1I'1orencio Goytia wrote in El Panama Amer- the creation 'by an emergency meeting, of Jo I a on May 8 that "on May 6, 1965, an event ari'international force that was quickly. as- of American interdependence marked a new sembled to operate in the area of coniiagra- _ara of unity through coercive power, a for- tion. We are absolutely sure that in the 14ula demanded by the new times for the American system is has also become necessary ecurity and independence of nations, pro- to.'adopt courageous measures and to put section of popular sovereignty and the them into practice therein. In the future, defense of the democratic regional system should (present) experience make it ap- threatened by extracontinental totalitarian 'pear advisable, the subject might become a absolutism:" matter for institutionalization." " On May 8, several deputies of the National On May 5, the Honduras Constituent As- (fonstituent Assembly of Honduras were selnBenibiy 'rejected a liberal motion to condemn asked what they thought of the "invasion" military intervention in the Dominican l`y the United States of the Dominican Re- Republic. public. The vice president of the assembly, On May 5, the press of San Jose, Costa .,enor Urmeneta Ramirez, said: "In my opin- Ricagave wide coverage to a.statement ad- rn the erroneously labeled 'invasion' by the dressed to the Costa Rican nation by Otilio United States of the Dominican Republic Ulate Blanco, ex-president of the republic it a legitimate act, born of necessity and and head of the liberal opposition's National rovoked by the undeniable intervention of Union Party. He denounced Communist foreign forces whose mission is to undermine penetration in the Dominican Republic and the bases of the democratic American sys- said: "If the United States should lose the tem." Senor Jose Mazzoni Obando, Nation- 'leadership of democracy in the hemisphere alistDeputy, said"the intervention is justi- or" stiffer a weakening of that leadership, Led since it has .to do with rescue from democracy would be in danger of disappear- another intervention which would be more ing in a short time 4 " *.- If the United c lsadvantageous, as in the case of Cuba States had not come to the defense of human v~hich all of Latin America laments." rights in the Dominican vortex, those rights, Deputy Odilon Ayestas Loped, a liberal, the most sacred that men have, would have slid: "I consider that in the matter of the been wrecked in the midst of devastation and I spminican Republic the United States has slaughter. To save America, to save democ- done nothing more than to preserve democ- racy, to protect human rights by all the r icy in America." means In its power, to save liberty and peace, Nationalist Deputy Senora Henrizuez To have been imposed o rite sSta "T do e consider that the these the Ue are United the t stet tasks States. n which', refuse support to t L lifted States invaded d the Dominican Re- pf its severest hours public for imperialist reasons; its act in my of trial is unworuhy and cowardly." Y opinion is in the defense of, the democratic The National Constituent Assembly of i+ieals to which all countries of America are Guatemala passed a resolution May 5 step- obligated." ,porting "all means the OAS may adopt to Paraguayan Foreign Minister Raul Sapena avoid allowing the Dominican Republic to Pastor declared on May 8 that Paraguay backs the formation of an inter-American force and Is. in .a: condition to contribute to it with troops so the OAS can cope with the Dominican crisis. Sapena Pastor said the Paraguayan position in the OAS sup- ports the U.S. operation, which has been carried out very successfully. He added that Paraguay would not presently recognize any Dominican Government. Although Col. Francisco Caamarto has asked for Paraguayan recognition in a cable sent by Dominican Foreign Minister Cury, the Paraguayan For- eign Ministry has not answered it. [From the Washington (D.C.) Sunday Star, May 9, 19651 , INTERPRETIVE? REPORTS: THE DILEMMA IN SANTO DOMINGO -UNITED STATES AVERTED RED TAKEOVER, DIPLOMATS SAY (By Haynes Johnson, Star staff writer) SANTO DOMINGO, DOMINICAN REPUBLIc.- Some of the pieces of the Dominican puzzle are falling into place. What emerges is a clear pattern of all the classic Communist attempted takeovers-with some new ele- ments added. U.S. Government sources on Thursday made public a portionof the intelligence in- formation which led President Johnson to decide to send American forces ashore. Boiled down to the essentials, the intelli- gence reports showed that widespread Com- munist and Castroite activity had infiltrated and were dominating the Dominican revo- lution. The :information in this story comes from top-ranking foreign diplomats here, some of whose countries publicly have expressed crit- icism of the United States dispatch of troops to the Dominican Republic. INTERVENTION ESSENTIAL In private, their story is quite different. All agree that the U.S. military Interven- tion was essential-and that it came with only hours to spare. Without the presence of U.S.. troops, they say, thousands of more lives would have been lost. All agree that if U.S. troops are withdrawn now the situation will return to complete anarchy. All agree that a definite Communist con- spiracy. exists within the Dominican Repub- lic. The consensus is that the Communists are small. in number, but highly trained and extremely effective. For the ' United States, the outlook ? is gloomy. There appears no way out, of the present situation. And. the best guesses are that the U.S. occupation will be long and costly. POORLY EXECUTED Here is the way one diplomat explained the events of the past 2 weeks: ' It began, he said, with the revolt of the Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD), Juan Bosch's party. The revolt started with sin- cere elements who wanted to return to the constitutional government and bring Bosch back from exile in. Puerto Rico as President. The Dominican generals, led by Elias Wessin y Wessin, a strong anti-Communist, swiftly reacted with a countercoup. General Wes- siil's planes bombed and strafed the city in- discriminately, killing many innocent people. "I may say it was very poorly executed," the diplomat said, referring to Wessin's mili- tary efforts which resulted only in thoroughly alienating the people. When the PRD people gave up, General Wessin and the military appeared to have gained a decisive victory. Then the Commu- nists took over. "My own sources told methat the Commu- nists reorganized with a rapidity that was astounding," the diplomat said. WESSIN FORCE POSTED Within 48 hours Wessin had won-and then lost. The ragtag rebels totally routed the Wessin forces. Twenty thousand weap- Approved For Release: 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 May `24, 1965 Approved Fc&Ce*ft3f11EE&WP6~EIVER000500120021-1 11031 ons were distributed to the people. Santo Domingo lived in days of terror and butchery. "Now bear in mind this was organized by a small number of men. Very small in num- ber, but not in quality. The quality is the point, not the quantity. "This leadership without any doubt has been expertly trained for this precise pur- pose. It is sufficient to say that no amateurs could have achieved those results. It was brilliant, a remarkable achievement." It was at that point that many of the original pro-Bosch leaders of the revolt learned that they had been betrayed-and taken over by Communists. They took ref- uge in foreign embassies. One prominent pro-Bosch Dominican, for example, surrounded his own house with barbed. wire. NEW ELEMENTS "A small body of Communists had achieved a success of significant measure," the diplo- mat said. There were new elements in the situation. None of them was promising for the United States and Latin America. The Communists had shown greater capacity, more expertise, and a higher degree of effective use of ter- roristic attack than many people had thought possible. "This is what the Marines were met with when they arrived," the diplomat said. "It was very trying, and I don't think it's unfair to say that they were shaken. "Complete anarchy swiftly fell on this city. It was a highly terrifying position. "I believe the Marine force came to the city with only hours to spare. If they had not been sent in, thousands of lives would have been lost. That is my honest opinion." ALTERNATIVES POSED Turning to the future, the diplomat posed three alternatives-none of them attractive for the United States. These were: First, returning Bosch or backing the rebel leader, Col. Francisco Caamano Deno. If that happened he predicted there would be an- other crisis it 9 months and the country would collapse economically. Second, back one of the "old faces"-a politician from the past who might be an acceptable compromise. If that happened rioting would continue. The youths who have had a taste of the power of weapons would make assassination the order of the day. The country would be prostrated. Third, a long occupation by the U.S..forces coupled with a major economic commit- ment to the island. In effect, the United States would be ruling the Dominican Re- public. "And that is the only bright feature of that prospect, for the economic position of the Dominican Republic would be greatly im- proved. Another good feature of that direc- tion is that the old generals would be re- moved from power. "The political problem is absolutely, with- out solution unless you (the United States) take over completely, and that means you have to solve a problem that is damned dif- ficult to solve." Then, in the understatement of the day he said: "I would not want to be advising the American government now." [From the Washington (D.C.) Post, May 10, 1965] HOURS OF GREATNESS-U.S. SHOULDERS RESPONSIBILITY (By William S. White) These are hours of greatness in the long life of this Nation, as both in Asia and in this hemisphere it shoulders the pack of its responsibilities and so walks the hard, and lonely road of duty discharged and honor satisfied. Still, these are hours also of a poignant sadness. For in acting for the safety of free men, specifically and presently in the Domin- ican Republic in the Western World and in .South Vietnam in the East, the U.S. Govern- ment is under the most shrill and in some instances the most venomous attacks from tiny but violent minorities that any respon- sible Government has had to bear in our lifetime. At home, a bitter half-handful of Demo- cratic Senators snipes tirelessly at an Ameri- can mission, for the defense of the South Vietnamese victims of a brutal Communist invasion, to which the solemn word of three successive American Presidents and of both political parties has been pledged. At home a bitter half handful of Demo- cratic Senators snipes tirelessly at an Ameri- can intervention to halt an attempt at a Communist takeover in the Dominican Re- public, which might one day have confronted us with another Castro Cuba. These criticisms are presented as only that "free debate" which all Americans expect and defend. But they are not really in the tradition of free debate. For these critics have loaded the dice by ignoring or even denying the immense and crucial truth that it was not we who invaded South Vietnam but rather the Communists; that it was not we who sought to subvert a Latin neighbor but rather the Communists. The bottom innuendo of such criticis is that it is their own country that is the ag- gressor-that the United States, which is spending blood and treasure to halt a pattern of aggression-is no less plain, no less savage, If at the moment less wide, than was the Hitler pattern long ago. And the Inescapable bottom logic of some of these critics-men like Senator WAYNE MORSE, of Oregon, whose inevitable con- temptuous animus against any who may disagree with him is notorious in his own "You must understand that this is an ex- 'Chamber-is simply that we should cut and plosion of rage and fury." run from Asia and leave it to somebody else By that he meant that the Dominiian Re- Abroad, the European minority of one that public is afflicted with all the ills of a Carib- is ' President Charles de Gaulle of France bean country-poverty, ignorance, and dis- takes step after step to destroy that Western ease. To these are added the legacy of the Alliance, which lifted his own country from police state of Trujillo, the oppressive opal- a petulant powerlessness and for half a gen- ence of the wealthy contrasted with the eration has protected it behind a shield of misery of the many. primarily American power largely raised up And there are new factors. At the present on the backs of American taxpayers. the country is in the midst of a terrible His latest in these steps is to denounce the drought. From the parched soil of the peas- United States for halting Communist expan- ants springs a genuine restiveness-and a sionism in Latin America and for attempting reception to follow a revolutionary banner. to stop it In Asia-and Britain for trying to With these facts In mind, it is easy to see save Malaysia from Communist-backed Indo- why the diplomat commented: nesia. "If your marines are taken away, a great many lives will be lost. War is organized It is quite u Gaulle; to impute motives anarchy. This Is unorganized anarchy." to Charles de Gaulle; he himself years ago Another high diplomat Viewed the future Publicly disclosed them. this way: s s s , [From the Reporter, May 20, 1965] EDITORIAL: OUR NO-NONSENSE PRESIDENT (By Max Ascoli) In Vietnam and in the Dominican Repub- lic, President Johnson has more than ever before exhibited his immoderate passion for detail, a passion nourished now by a tech- nology that keeps him in close touch with the soldiers whose lives are endangered by the use he makes of his authority. This consuming passion for personal intervention has been characteristic of Lyndon Johnson ever since he started his career In politics, but as long as it could be thought of as a superb exhibit of a wheeler-dealer talent, it was more admired or envied by his fellow politicians than criticized. He has always known how to make people vote freely as he wanted them to vote. But he had been spared, until comparatively recently, the ex- perience of giving men orders that involved the risk of their lives. Neither had he had occasion to command that any wholesale category of people called enemies be killed. His Immense knowledge of domestic poli- tics used to be accompanied by a limited acquaintance with international affairs. When, during the Eisenhower administra- tion, he was Senate majority leader, he played a part, although a secondary one, in all major decisions affecting the conduct of our diplo- macy; during the Kennedy administration he became more closely associated with the making of American policy abroad, sat on ,the National Security Council, traveled widely, and established relationships with statesmen and camel drivers. Still, as is the case with every Vice Presi- dent, the ultimate responsibility did not lie with him. Once President, he asserted him- self from the start as If supreme authority were conatural with his being, and his sub- sequent triumphal election showed to what an extent the Nation recognized itself in him. Somehow it also happened that he had no compelling international difficulties to face for a time, a respite he used to lay his plans for the Nation's future. He had known poverty and the difficulty of getting an ade- quate education, and he had known success. He could not legislate his luck for everybody, but he wanted to -see to it that a new Amer- ican breed could grow free from the cruelties of hazard. The new perils from abroad that came In the first year of Lyndon Johnson's elective Presidency were singularly mean, orginat- ing in some of the most improbable spots on earth, either in lands too far away or too close to our shores. In the distant lands, we were hampered by inadequate knowledge of their strategic and political relevance; in the lands close to us, we had always tended to act as colonizers or as imitation natives. Our present perils have been aggravated by the policies of the preceding administra- tions and by obdurate ways of thinking that are mostly inspired by a desire to negotiate our way toward peace. Day in and day out, we hear the same old chatter about spheres of influence or about the benefit of polycentrism; we hear about the splintering of monoliths so reassuringly keeping pace with the splintering of what was never a monolith, our alliance. Even before the last war the idea was cherished of the miraculous solidarity and legal equal- ity of the nations, great, medium, or pocket size, all called American, all sticking to- gether, each of them going its own merry way. President Johnson is not a man inclined to look for trouble In foreign affairs until trouble stares him in the face. Then he reacts, and if he has to react militarily, he does so without any of the bravado of the movie frontiersman shooting from the hip. Now his responsibilities have become far greater than any within the previous range of Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 Approved For (I 3 f 7. ~ 1$67E~ 11032 ~tP00500120021 -1Y ay 24,`1965 his experience, and this experience he is com- cave, the President might face a Dominican Venezuela, the "violence areas" in Colon;bla, gelled to broaden, for it has been the inac- Republic in the hands of a Castro-style re- and the dissolved Guatemalan Communist tions or mistakes of some of his predecessors girie established by sheer terror. Or the Party will all become actively terrorist. that have placed him inhis present predica- President could act, creating the situation The myth had grown up in Communist circles that the United States cannot act in nient. He cannot, for instance, look back for hiiIIself. He elected to act. guidance in his action in Vietnam even if he The elements he had to work with were Latin America. American doctrine does in- reaches the conclusion that what is going on not promising. Juan Bosch had been elected deed prohibit intervention. Too often that there is just a civil war. 'T'here Was Another in 1962 by some 65 percent of the Dominican has been interpreted to keep Latin American civil war, in Hungary in 1966, but the West voters. His government had received all the rebellions armed, organized, financed, and carefully avoided intervening. Should he de- support the United States could give. It was directed in other countries from being rec- rive from this notion that whenever com- aoslaimed as a worthy companion to the ognized as, the external attacks they really munism, indigenous or imported, fights a democratic Governments of Venezuela, Co- are. American doctrine does consider an at- civil war, its victory should be considered a 10:nbia, and Costa Rica. Unhappily, there tack on any American state as an attack on natural right? W it ' little solid party organization behind all, giving rise to the right of defense. Vice President Johnson was in Berlin a Bosch. Thirty-one years of Trujillo dic- The time had come to make several things very few days after the wall was erected. He tagorship had wiped out practically every clear if the whole: Caribbean was not to saw there what defeat looks like. Under vestige of political structure. Bosch himself, erupt: the administration Mr. Johnson served as ht& tst and idealistic, a well-known Latin That the United States would no longer be Vice President, there occurred the Bay of American literary figure, found trouble in immobilized by the fiction that externally Pigs tragedy, and then the missile Crisis, managing affairs of state. Some of his sup- armed uprisings were merely local move- which ended without onsite inspection. ptrters intrigued with the Communists or ments for reform. Once Cuba was made safe for communism, is w.-th the military. An ill-fated Castro-sup- That nonintervention in the internal there any reason to be surprised that com- parted expedition of Dominican leftists and affairs of a country does not prevent the munism started spreadinPg all around? C'aban volunteers against Santo Domingo United States from. defending a country at- Sn southeast Asia the President is unroll- 1x:1959 had left behind a nucleus, the 14th tacked from outside-despite the camouflage lag his air attacks, each one because of his of June Party, that caused intermittent of "internal revolution." will and each one under his watchful eyes. tiouble. Two Communist Parties, respec- That further attacks of the Castro variety As for the Dominican Republic, he reached tiveiy Russian- and `Chinese-oriented, were cannot count on immunity from American his decision with great speed, without con- a;lowed to function. Castro Communists force on a scale adequate to meet the con- t labor ._< ? ......t . - - - ar ome charged with giving him advice. There is u afons. scarcely any comparison between the two dome Dominican Army officers and also situations, except that in running both, he shine civilian elements believed that doors exhibits a supreme sense of personal respon- were being opened for a Communist take- sibility. Why is he so overcommitted? peo- aaer, in which case they would have their ple ask. We venture an answer: he is Lyndon taroats cut. That fear led Gen. Elias B. Johnson, President of the United States. Vfessin y Wessin and other army 'chiefs to being off the coup in September 1963, that [From the Reporter, May 20, 1965] amt, Bosch into exile. The United States and tiie democratic governments in the Caribbean A STITCH W TIME (By Adolf A. Berle) F.rotested. For a time, Washington out off i-s aid, technical help, and other assistance. On April 28, 1065, after 2 days of painful The generals, however, did not follow the conferences and consideration, President 1sual pattern. Declining to form a military Lyndon Johnson ordered a detachment of government, they installed a civilian tri- Marines to land in the Dominican Republic. tenvirate that last year gave way to the The writer, who began his career fighting to regime of the former Foreign Minister, end Woodrow Wilson's occupation of that Donald Reid Cabral. His brother had been country, believes the President made the right ourdered by Trujillo; he himself had been decision. imprisoned. He is the son of a Scot and a The President had to'act immediately on a Dominican mother. Though Reid Cabral's telephone report from Ambassador W. Tapley regime was illegitimate, the American Em- Bennett, Jr.-that hundreds of Americans 1jassy came to respect him. He was moving were in danger and strong action was needed Toward reestablishment of 'legitimacy"- to save their lives. In the larger view, he had i a:at is, the holding of elections scheduled reports indicating a steady infiltration into Ior . September. Cautiously, the U.S. the republic of guerrillas trained in Cuba and ilovernment was moving to sustain Czechoslovakia, and of more coming. This iiis hand. He endeavored to bring order out was a further move in the continuing Com- i jr administrative chaos, to pull together the munist campaign of subversion and aggres- ;)oimnican economy, and to bring the army sion in the Caribbean. An uprising designed 'miler civilian control. Many army officers to reinstate Juan Bosch-who was duly disliked this. Some were pro-Bosch; others elected President of the Dominican Republic ;Ierhaps had played with the Communist in December 1962, but ousted by a military agents. At all events, these elements coup In September 1963-had provided the Tanned an uprising, scheduled for June 1, opportunity form simultaneous rising by or- ,p bring back Juan Bosch. Discovery of this ganized Communist groups. Within 48 hours .Ilan. forced action on April 25. The officers' the Bosch partisans, seeking democratic gov- revolt simultaneously, and apparently un- ernment, were infiltrated and then dominated Atentionally, cleared the way for the armed by the trained Communist elements, and mergence of the Communist guerrillas. many of the Bosch leaders sought refuge in MAKING OIIR STAND CLEAR foreign embassies. As the pro-Bosch forces lost control, they opened the army arsenals Meanwhile, the Caribbean situation as- to "the people." Not surprisingly, the Com- ruined importance on the worldwide stage. Finally Former President Rhmulo Betancourt of M . =.=,o =...".. possible of Santo Da- Communist factions linked to Moscow and ter of guerrilla bloodshed against either the Communist seizure 3=Ingo in the vast context of Communist ag- Peiping still work together. They cooperate forces of Wessin y Wessin or of a democratic gression from Vietnam to Africa. in any action that may make trouble for the Bosch regime. The least dangerous course I think that the President had little choice. United States and in working to overthrow for the President was to take the initiative th cunt s u Y k H --_ , irrom e ? , stopped there. But tnevaS nas no guns and a needs time to decide; meanwhile, events were units in armed revolt in Venezuela, Colom- moving'dangerously fast. He could have sat pia, and Guatemala. Their technique of in- ltratin enutne domocratic movements h f t g d erald Tribune, or the New May 4, 1966] WALTER LIPPMANN t - g wa a by, praying for the American lives an tug unlimited bloodshed as Dominicans killed and later seizing them has proved successful, In the state of emergency, there was no each other,, then dealing as best he could with as when Castro concealed his Communist time for a thorough investigation of all the the outco}ne,. This would have meant con- affiliations until he had taken over. The facts. President Johnson took his decision tinuation of a fierce civil war, supplied with probability has to be faced that the Com- to halt, the rebellion On what, it seems to me, arms and reinforcements from Cuba. In that munist Frente de LiberaciOn National in was the right ground. Approved For Releas other Cuba-particularly not in the Carib- bean. The President's action made this clear-to Latin America, to Peiping, and to Moscow:: Adverse Latin American opinion was urged as an argument against action. Actu- ally, Latin America. expects the United States to act and does not respect us much when we fail to do so. Argentina and Brazil promptly approved President Johnson's action. Costa Rica reportedly offered free- dom fighters. The Council of the Organi- zation of American States sent a peace-medi- ating Commission; it arrived in Santo Do- mingo on May 2. The protest has not de- veloped to the extent feared. Until Latin- American governments are willing to give the OAS the forces and capacity to defend weak countries, the U.S. offers those gov- ernments their only effective defense, and they know it. Both before and after the Bay of Pigs affair, when the OAS was para- lyzed by indecision, many Latin American diplomats said to me they thought the United States should act first and discuss later. Officially they may decry our action, but they want the power vacuum filled. President Johnson has filled it. He will have many problems as a result. They' are, I believe, less dangerous than the problems he would have faced had he stood aside. No one forgets that failure to take deci- sive action against Castro in 1961 brought us to the brink of nuclear war with the Soviet Union in 1962. If the President had :not acted, what would have been the outcome? No one will ever know.. The rebels might have restored the Bosch regime, though this seems unlikely. The Dominican Army might have produced a dictator, perhaps a new Trujillo. The Com- munist groups might have seized the Gov- May :#4, 196Approved For RR.hl/k1f1@ 67 i6f000500120021-1 It was that, if the Communists in the revolutionary forces took over the Govern- ment, the result would be for all practical purposes irreversible. There would never be another election while they were in power in Santo Domingo. On. the other hand, while the Bosch restoration has been halted, the way is still open to the return of the party which won the 1963 election. By acting promptly and decisively the President has kept the way open as otherwise it might well have been closed forever. It is quite plain from the President's speech that the United States does not want to see a restoration of the old reactionary regime and that it does want the kind of popular democratic revolution, committed to "democ- racy and social justice" which President Bosch represents. If President Johnson, working with the OAS, can help the Dominicans find that something in between, can restore President Bosch, and shore him up while he carries through the drastic reforms Which are neces- sary in order to extirpate the evils of Tru- jillo, evils that breed communism, it will be a bright day for the American Republics. .,Our intervention in the Caribbean island will, of course, be looked upon all over the world in the context of our intervention in southeast Asia. "How then can we defend and justify ourselves? "The ground, which is the one I take, is the old-fashioned and classical diplomatic ground that the Dominican Republic lies squarely within the sphere of influence of the United States, and that it is normal, not abnormal, for a great power to insist that within its sphere of influence, no other great power shall exercise hostile military and po- litical force. "Since we emerged from isolation in the beginning of this century, American foreign policy has been bedeviled by the utopian fallacy that because this is one world, spe- cial spheres of influence are an inherent evil and obsolete. Wilson proclaimed this global- ism. Franklin Roosevelt adhered to it against Churchill's better judgment. And Johnson continues to invoke it without, I think, a sufficient study of it. "As a matter of fact, experience must soon verify the truth that spheres of influence are fundamental in the very nature of inter- national society. They are as much a fact of life as are birth and death. Great powers will resist the invasion of their spheres of influence." [From the Washington Star, May 11, 1965] U.S. INTERVENTION HELD NECESSARY (By David Lawrence) The American people may as well resign themselves to the prospect that both in Viet- nam and in the Dominican Republic the conflicts may be long-drawn out. Para- doxical as it may seem, the American policy in each instance can do more to avert the disaster of a third world war than all the conferences and discussions of peace objec- tives in the last decade have accomplished. What the United States is doing in south- east Asia and in the Caribbean is both sig- nificant and constructive. Pacifists and other citizens who would like to make sure that the holocaust is avoided might well take a hard look at the facts of international behavior which led a supposedly civilized society into two world wars, causing the death of millions of human beings and leav- ing on the surviving peoples scars that have not been removed by the passage of time. In Vietnam and in the Dominican Repub- lic, the issue today is the same. Will an altruistic and humanitarian Nation, ready to supply billions of dollars for relief and development or armed forces to repel ag- gression, be thwarted and frustrated by cap- tions critics or misguided -appeasers inside and outside the United States? The fallacy they do not perceive is that, once the tyranny of Communist imperialism takes over-particularly in the Caribbean, where Cuba stands as a realistic example of the tragedy than can ensue elsewhere in Latin America-the struggle against a truly dangerous intervention in the affairs of weaker republics of this hemisphere cannot be abandoned by the United States. The cause is as much one of self-preservation of the people of this country against threats from potential missile bases in nearby islands as it is the avoidance of a world war which could involve also the peoples of every other continent. Much of the criticism of. the. policy of the U.S. Government in Santo Domingo is based on superficial thinking. Of what pos- sible avail, for instance, is it to argue that the Communists who infiltrated the Domini- can Republic. and helped to foment revolu- tion have not yet been convicted in the court of public opinion and that sufficient proof of their insidious deviltry has not been produced? Also, of what real consequence is the argument that what the United States has done by intervening in Santo Domingo will hurt us with the other Latin American nations? This is an age-worn contention. The truth is the people of the Central and South American countries want free- dom and rarely get it. They seek a better standard of living for their growing popula- tions, but they will never achieve it through communism. Their only salvation lies in such projects as the Alliance for Progress and the constant willingness of the United States to step in with its military forces to keep the Communist enemy from commiting the peoples of this hemisphere to perennial slavery and bondage. Despite the revived criticisms of the armed interventions by the United States in past years, the fact remains that this country has not annexed a single foot of territory of another country in this hemisphere. It has, indeed, made many sacrifices and even fought a major war, more than a half-cen- tury ago, to liberate Cuba from oppression by a European power. The American record of intervention has been criticized as "gun- boat diplomacy," but not a single instance can be cited to show that the American purpose was tainted. Wherever a country has been temporarily occupied not only to protect American lives but to save the native people themselves from the greater dangers that faced them, the end result has been a withdrawal of the military contingents when peaceful conditions have been achieved. In not all the instances have the villains who threatened these countries come from the outside, as there have been groups and factions which have selfishly exploited the peasons population and obstructed the re- forms that could have improved the stand- ard of living and the economic welfare of the country affected. Today in Santa Domingo the main source of trouble will not be eradicated unless the forces of the United States remain in the Dominican Republic-either alone or with the military units of the Organization of American States-long enough to make cer- tain that an established government will deal effectively with efforts of the Commu- nists to carry on subversive measures. The Washington Government has a grave problem on its hands and deserves the sup- port of Members of Congress of both parties. The situation in the Dominician Republic concerns not just that tiny island but the future of all other countries in the Carib- bean. If abandoned, Latin American can crumbled just as southeast Asia can dis- integrate, and this could lead to a third world war. 11033 [From the Washington Star, May 11, 19651 THE MONROE DOCTRINE, 20TH CENTURY (By Eric Sevareld) President Johnson has enlarged the war in southeast Asia by bombing the territory of a foreign government with which we are not legally at war and he has invaded the territory of a Latin American country with- out benefit of an invitation or even the prior approval of other hemisphere govern- ments in the Organization of American States. Domestic critics have said that he has made an ex post facto rationalization of the bombing by emphasizing that North Vietnam Is the vital source spring of the fighting in South Vietnam. Domestic critics now argue that he similarly rationalizes the Dominican intervention by emphasizing what evidence there is that Communists were taking over the people's uprising. There are surface similarities between the two actions, but they remain on the surface. They need not and ought not be lumped to- gether by the President's detractors or by his supporters. Critics of his Asian policy may well turn out to be wrong in the end, but there are much stronger grounds for this criticism than for criticism of his action in the Dominican Republic. Vietnam lies very far away from the United States and very close to a major power that just. might enter that war. The Dominican Republic lies very close to us, very far from any other great power and carries no danger of inter- national war. What deeply puzzles those who are du- bious of our Vietnam policies is how we are to make a victory there work, over the long haul, how that area, driven by tribal and sectarian rivalries, with almost no national consciousness, is to be kept stable and in one piece. The Dominican Republic is far more able to usefully employ economic as- sistance and does have a strong national sense, however, bitter its class enmities. Our aims there have much more chance of real- ization. The OAS is a useful entity; we ought to consult it before we act if circumstances make it safe to do so. In the Dominican situation affairs were moving much too rap- idly, as, in 1960, the North Koreans were moving much too rapidly for President Tru- man to throw out the question of American intervention for congressional debate. It would be very nice, indeed, if we could always act by the book. But we cannot always do so in this new era of the quick Communist coup. We cannot because no Latin Amer- ican government is politically or militarily able to act quickly in concert with us. If it is not too strong, a word, that is the hyprocrisy built into the Organization of American States. Its other members can share its protection, they will not, because they cannot, share the ultimate responsibil- ity of action. The New York Times, which President Johnson privately refers to as a "yes-but" newspaper, seems to be sad that because of his quick intervention we will never know whether or not the Dominican uprising was falling into the hands of the Communists or not. There are worse sorrows, as Castro has demonstrated to us. The Dominican Republic is not going to be the last of our dramatic difficulties in this hemisphere, even though the President has used it as an example of what to expect, for the benefit of Latin Communists. And we will save ourselves a great deal of moral and intellectual agony as the future unfolds if only we can clear from our minds certain bits of debris: . 1. The notion that the development work of the "Alianza" is the true alternative to physical action to stop communism. In the long, long haul-perhaps several decades- Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 Approved F IS?M}Wl(/1A.E BM6gM R0005001200Z-~t~y~ 24, 1965 TOM this. is probably eorreat, but Communists in the pact of the United States to exercise a showed a U.S, Marine firing at a target which those countries are lighting very short fuses. "police power" in Latin America. This was could not be seen. But the caption read: 2. The notion that 811 military regimes in the far. ious "Roosevelt Corollary" to the Mon- "On the fence in Santo Domingo, an Ameri- Latin America are equally bad. The truth is roe Dcetrlne, which was supposed to have can Marine, .,under orders to stay neutral, that in some Latin countries educated, mod- been e:ided for all time in 1928. fires at a sniper." ern military leaders are quite as enlightened What is still worse from the Latin-Amer- This is the grossest sort of distortion. The and responsible as their political opposite scan vtwpoint is that Mr. Johnson's inter- fact is that our troops in Santo Domingo are numbers. We simply cannot equate the mill- ventiawas a throwback to the Caribbean under orders: to return sniper fire if snipers tary now trying to put order into Brazil or intervicitions in Cuba, Haiti, Nicaragua, Pan- fire at them.. And this presumably is what the military who took over Peru and pro- ama Hid the Dominican Republic. They be- the Marine in the photograph was doing. duped the free election they had pledged gan w:th Santo Domingo and they ended in A correspondent for the same newspaper with military characters like a Trujillo or a the same capital in 1941 when the United reported on May 2 that "U.S. troops yester- Batista. Progress without stability is an im- States gave up its treaty rights of inter- day took over the job of wiping out rebel possibility and the bitter truth is that in ventioa. Then they began again on April resistance to the Dominican Republic's new some Latin countries there are times when 28, 19E.A, in-once more-the Dominican Re- military junta." This certainly is not cor- the sole element of stability is the military. publicrect. Quite obviously, there has been no 3. The notion that the United States is re- The longest intervention in that country massive intervention by our troops. And verting to the "big stick," gunboat diplomacy was tl:e 8-year occupation by American ma- if they had taken over the job of wiping that characterized the earlier third of this rines "Tom 1916 to 1924. That time it was out rebel resistance 3 weeks ago, it would century. We are not. There is nothing in President Woodrow Wilson who acted. have been wiped out by thus time. Latin America that we want to conquer or The landing by Marines in May 1916 was There may have been, and probably have possess; and we no longer swing our weight as flagrant a case of supporting an un- been, instances in which sorie of our troops for any pleasureable sensations of fancied popul,ir executive (President Jimenez had have not observed what Secretary of State moral or racial superiority. Times have been Unpeached on May 1) and backing a Dean Rusk calls the policy of "strict neu- changed in'another respect: we are now up corrupted status quo for reasons of "dollar trality" which they are.under orders to obey. against an international conspiracy that diploracy" as is to be found in our relations In any conflict as disorganized as that in seeks to unravel from within societies that with :satin America. A provisional govern- Santo Domingo there are bound to be some do not possess the social glue that comes ment headed by a General Arias was thrown incidents which do not coni;orm to a policy from a long tradition of functioning democ- out b l the Marines, who forced the general of strict neutrality. But it is an absurdity, racy. to six Tender. in our judgment, to claim, as has been it is a fearful commitment the President Whin the Americans withdrew 8 years claimed, that "while the United States in has made. We shall prevent, by force if nec- later, the excellent reforms they had forced diplomatic negotiations with the rebels is essary, the establishment of another Commu- upon the Dominican people crumbled away leaning toward the overwhelming public nist regime in this hemisphere. It is the quick.y. After all, they had been imposed opinion supporting the Caamano forces, the Monroe Doctrine, 20th century edition, by foreigners who had violated Dominican U.S. military and the junta are going about harder to fulfill than the original version, soveridgnity. This happened in the case of methodically destroying those people to but even more relevant to the realities. all the American occupations in the Carib- whom the United States is leaning diplo- bean and Central America. matically:". The junta evidently is attempt- [From the New York Times, May 10, 19651 What the United States did leave in 1924 ing a methodical destruction of the rebel SANTO DOMINGO AND "NONINTERVENTION" Was a:, military and police structure whose forces. But we are notaware of any evidence (By Herbert L. Matthews) memliSrs were armed and trained by Ameri- that the American troops are participating cans, out of which in the course of nature in this methodical effort. Back in 1904, the year of our first inter- came it military dictptor, a certain Lt. Rafael There is no denying that the President has vention in the Dominican Republic, it was Leonidas Trujillo, a protege of the Marines. a real mess on his hands in the Dominican suggested to President Theodore Roosevelt The rest is history. Republic. He may not know how to get out that the country be annexed. "I have no Thy{ whole Caribbean history helps explain of it. But he is trying to find a way out, more desire to take over Santo Domingo," the the fiemness of Latin-American opposition to and this effort should not be made more historian Foster Rhea Dulles quotes the U.S. intervention in their internal affairs. difficult by careless, inaccurate or irresponsi- Pesldent as saying, "that a gorged boa con- It is (Sow being argued-for instance, by Mr. ble reporting. strictor would have to swallow a porcupine." Johnson's special envoy to South America, -- President Johnson, who likewise has no W. Azerell Harriman-that the historic doc- STATEMENT Si AMBASSADOR ADLAI E. STEVEN- desire to annex the Dominican Republic, trine of nonintervention is obsolete. It was SON, U.S.' REPRESENTATIVE TO THE UNrrED must nevertheless feel as if he has swallowed aimed, against external aggression, whereas NATIONS, 11N THE SECURITY COUNCIL ON THE something highly indigestible. Like "Teddy" the present danger is from internal Commu- DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: QUESTION Roosevelt, he did intervene, and by so doing nist iggression. The United States, mindful Mr. President, we have by now heard the he violated what is the' most treasured of of t1,.0 1962 missile crisis, is primarily con- complete catalogue Of all the past sins- Latin American doctrines-the principle of cerned with the danger of "another Cijba:" relevant and irrelevant, real and imaginary- nonintervention in the internal affairs of a La'ln Americans, while overwhelmingly committed by the U.S. Government over the Latin country. anti-Communist, are convinced that the de- past century or so. A NEW DOCTRINE fence' gainst Communist penetration must Mr. President, there is something ludi- The "Johnson doctrine"-that the United not lreconie an excuse for renewed U.S. in- Brous-and transparently false-in the spec- States will intervene automatically against terVeation, with all its bitter memories. tacle of Ambassador Fedorenko talking about the threat of a Communist takeover in any They 'demonstrated their hostility to Com- the sanctity of the doctrine of non-inter- Latin American country-involves a basic run st incursions by anOAS condemnation vention. I shall not detain you with the conflict with this nonintervention principle. Of Cuba last year for shipping arms to Van- long and spiry record. of interventions and So does the Monroe Doctrine, which has ezue an terrorists, attempted interventions by Communist-con- never been welcomed by our southern neigh- OAS STEPS IN trolled states in the affairs of other nations. bors, although it was passively accepted. Nova they have voted, by a two-thirds ma- It is enough to recall the following state- The historic doctrine is a unilateral instru- jorit;r to set an inter-American peace force ments of the Havana Conference of the ment of American policy. No Latin Ameri- as an instrument for collective responsibil- Communist Parties Of Latin America. last pan nationneed be Consulted to implement ity ia this hemisphere. Its immediate ob- November: it. No Latin American nation has the power jecti'ie is to do whatever is now possible to "Active aid should be given to those who to stop the United States from applying reduie and shorten .the _ American occupa- are subject at present to cruel repressions- either the Monroe Or the Johnson doctrine. tion of Santo Domingo. for instance, the freedom fighters in Vene- But the price, this being 1965 and not In -Latin America the principle of nonin- zuela, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, Y82S or 1904, would be to make a shambles tervc ption is very much alive; and, so far Paraguay, and Haiti. of the Inter-American System, as it was as ti;e Latins are concerned, It is still chiefly "An active movement of solidarity of all painfully and doggedly built up in confer- aimed, against the kind of military interven- the Latin. American countries with the ence after conference over more than half tion just carried out by the United States liberation Struggle of the people of Vene- a century. in ti g Dominican Republic. zuela should be organized on a continent- IhSTORY TURNS BACK wide scale. key article of the OAS Charter, No. 11, From the Sunday Star, May 23, 19651 "It is necessary to intensify the movements reads: of solidaritywith the people of Panama who SANTO DOMINGO REPORTING are waging a struggle against imperialism in "The territory, of a state is inviolable; it may not be the object, even temporarily if the President feels he is being badly difficult conditions." pf military occupation or if' other measures used 'by segments of the American press in And this recalls the opening statement of pf 'force taken by another state, directly theirs reporting from Santo Domingo, he is the representative of Cuba, in which he ex- or. indirectly, under any grounds whatever." not without justification. pressed with moving eloquence his passionate The Dominican .intervention was a throw- Fi_r example, a newspaper of national cir- devotion to international law and interna- back to 1904 in more ways than one. In that culaiion published a four-column photo- tional organization and nonintervention. year President Roosevelt asserted a right on graph on its front page Friday. The picture This display of feeling comes from the repre- Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 May- 24, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE sentative of a government which invited So- viet missiles into Cuba, which has ostracized itself from the peaceful society of the West- ern Hemisphere-which has proclaimed its contempt for the Organization of American States and all Its works-which works to subvert the governments and destroy the machinery of the inter-American community. Well, Mr. President, enough of this. The Security Council is not seized with the sub- ject of Vietnam, of the Congo-nor with re- sponsibility for passing historical judgments on events that occured in the last century or In the last generation. The Security Council is seized with the subject of the Dominican Republic in the here and now. I.therefore propose to address myself once again to the Dominican Republic situation and to review once more in simple and factual form the activities of my Govern- ment in connection with those events. I hope we can then recognize that effective ac- tion is currently being taken by the proper regional body, the OAS, and permit it to do its work. The basic nature and the overriding pur- pose of my Government's action can be summed up in one simple sentence, which I shall read slowly: The U.S. action in the Dominican Republic was emergency action taken to protect lives and to give the inter- American system a chance to deal with a situation within its competence. On April 28 unburied bodies lay in the streets of Santo Domingo while unorganized and rival bands roamed the city committing murder and arson. Agents trained abroad for internal subversion were passing out arms and taking control of marauding groups. The embassies of half a dozen nations were attacked. The rebels claimed to have formed a gov- ernment but some of their leaders were tak- ing refuge in foreign embassies. The fact of the matter is that no one was in charge and no one was capable of taking charge. In brief, a human and political tragedy of the first magnitude was at hand. And this is not our judgment but the judgment of Dominican security officials who notified the U.S. Embassy that the situation was completely out of hand, that the city police force had disintegrated, and that no guarantees could be given for the safety of thousands of foreign residents of Santo Do- mingo, including several thousand citizens of the United States. On the same day, April 28, the only ap- parent responsible authority in Santa Do- mingo addressed a request to the U.S. Gov- ernment to send in armed forces. At this point the U.S. Government had three choices of action. First, we could have decided not to do anything-at least for the time being. But the lives of thousands of people from nearly 40 countries hung in the balance. Second, we could have recognized the mili- tary junta claiming to be the government and could have responded to its request for military support. But this would have amounted to taking sides in an internal struggle among Dominican political factions and such a course of action would have been inconsistent with the principles that govern the inter-American system. Third, we. could send in our own. security forces on a provisional basis until the Or- ganization of American States could meet and consult and decide what to do. III It is at moments like this that nations which possess the capacity to act must make their decisions to exercise or not exercise the unwanted responsibility that sometimes devolves upon them suddenly and unexpect- edly. In this case-when hours and even minutes counted-there was no time for de- liberate consultation and for the organiza- No. 93-26 tion of international machinery which did not yet exist. My Government elected the third alterna- tive. The United States initially landed troops under these emergency conditions to pre- serve the lives of foreign nationals- nationals of the United States and of many other countries. Such action is justified both on humanitarian and legal grounds. Iv I am aware, Mr. President, that some have felt that perhaps we moved too hastily-that more time should have been allowed for the OAS to go into action. My reply to them is this: Try to imagine, if you can, the fate of Santo Domingo if the United States had not acted when it did. A full week has passed since April 28 and the only effective forces of law and order in and around the capital city of Santo Do- mingo this afternoon are still much to our regret, the U.S. forces dispatched there dur- ing the past week. As it turned out, the emergency dispatch of these forces was undertaken just in time to avert wholesale deaths by violence and terrorism, compounded by the threat of disease and starvation. The death toll al- ready had reached at least 3,000 and prob- ably more than 1,500. By now, some 4,067 persons have been evacuated, of whom 2,694 are U.S. citizens and about 1,373 are citizens of 41 other nations, and 4 stateless persons. Emergency shipments of medical supplies and of food have been rushed to the scene. They are now being distributed to all per- sons in need without regard to their politi- cal affiliation by the Dominican Red Cross, CARE, 'a relief organization of the Catholic church, and by U.S. forces. This morning food from this country has been distributed in the so-called rebel held area by clergymen and officials of the Dominican Red Cross. This is a task of considerable magnitude and of great, urgency. Economic activity has been at a standstill for 10 days. People in Santo Domingo are not working and they are not being paid. Increasing numbers of them are hungry. We are now bringing in 60 tons of rice daily, which. Is enough to feed about one- quarter of a million people. Distribution is being made from checkpoints around the neutral security zone and three food distri- bution centers are being established in areas outside the center of town to be manned by Dominican businessmen and clergymen. Twenty-five trucks have been borrowed to handle the food supplies for distribution to Santo Domingo and in areas of the country- side which are dependent upon the city for v their supply of food. So I leave it to the conscience of every fair and humane person to decide for him- self whether the United States acted in precititate haste a week ago tonight. I am aware, Mr. President, that_ some have questioned the need for such a large force as the United States has dispatched to the Dominican Republic. Perhaps a few words on this point would prove enlightening. In times of peace and tranquillity a police force of 8,000 men is employed to maintain law and order in the city of Santo Domingo alone. Is it surprising that roughly twice that many men would be needed to restore order in circumstances that amounted to civil war? Would a larger or smaller force minimize the number of casualties on all sides? Moreover, this force has many tasks. It has the task of evacuating civilians; and de- spite the speed at which it has worked, several thousand foreign residents have still not been evacuated. It has the task of establishing and guard- ing a large' neutral security zone against 11035 sniper fire around the clock; and only yes- terday two more foreign embassies urged the extension of the security zone to include their property. It has the task of handling and distributing food and medical supplies; and this part of the job grows daily heavier rather than lighter. It has the task of protecting and sup- porting the emissaries of the OAS which are seeking to mediate the underlying dispute and to arrange conditions under which the people of the Dominican Republic can ex- ercise their right to choose their own of- ficials without outside subversion or inter- ference of any kind. Now, Mr. President, that concludes my re- view of the basic facts with respect to the first of the two purposes of the action under- taken by my Government: to protect lives and sustain life in a large city paralyzed by violence and anarchy. The mission has been carried out with ex- traordinary skill and bravery and we are rewarded by the gratitude of those who have been protected and guided to safe havens. And we feel we have done our humane duty by supplying emergency medical care to the wounded and sick and food to hungry thou- sands. I might mention in passing that the dis- tinguished representative of the Soviet Union has tried to make something of the fact that not a single citizen of the United States had been killed in Santo Domingo. And let me inform hint that not a single other foreign resident has been lost in the evacuation. I do not suppose Ambassador Fedorenko would have insisted on either U.S. citizens or other foreign nationals being killed as a condition precedent to our action. The reason why no one was killed is obvious: Their rescuers got there in time, in sufficient force, and acted with sufficient dispatch to get them to safety. vi Now for the second purpose for which we acted: to give the inter-American system an opportunity to deal with a situation within its competence. The United States continues its presence in the Dominican Republic for this addition- al purpose of preserving the capacity of the OAS to function in the manner intended by its charter-to achieve peace and justice by securing a cease-fire and the reestablishment of processes within which Dominicans can choose their own government, free from out- side interference. The primary purposes for which the Amer- ican States established the OAS, as set forth in article I of its charter, were "to achieve an order of peace and justice, to promote their solidarity, to strengthen their collab- oration, and to defend their sovereignty, their territorial integrity and their independence." Please note, if you will, that the first pur- pose of the Organization of American States is "an order of peace and justice." There are, of course, certain basic prin- ciples which the OAS seeks to promote throughout the hemisphere. One of these is respect for the fundamental rights of the individual; and in Santo Domingo last week not only were these rights being obliterated but individuals were being obliterated. Another fundamental principle of the Inter-American system is the effective exer- cise of representative democracy. This prin- ciple is clearly set out In the charter of OAS, the Rio Treaty, and the charter of the Al- liance for Progress, But in Santo Domingo the prospects for representative government have been violently challenged, After U.S. forces arrived it became ap- parent that the structure of government had broken down to a point where there was not only no authority capable of pre- serving law and' order but there was no Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 11036 Approved For 5 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 L RECORD - SENATE, May 24, 1965 Mechanism by which the Dominican people a rofsolution which the OAS is now consider- ban Republic launched an open guerrilla war- could freely choose; their own government. ing for an inter-American force to perform fare movement in the hinterland of the The obligations of nonintervention con- the peacekeeping duties which my govern- Dominican Republic. Dominicans known to tamed in articles 15 and 17 of the OAS meat reluctantly assumed under the des- have received training in Cuba took part in Charter did not preclude the use of armed per,[te conditions prevailing a week ago to- that abortive effort. The bulk of the cap- foitces for the humanitarian purpose of sav-. nig',it. We are now hopeful that such action tured rebels were deported in May 1964, and ing lives of foreigners. Nor did those obli-? will be taken very soon. gations require the United States to with- And President Johnson has stated: "All Francemost of them became political nxiles In draw its forces immediately, when it was tha; we are in the Dominican Republic for is sled France. the From Soviet et blob m any have since trng apparent that there was no local means of to ; reserve freedom and to save those people Cuba, , i s countries, including keeping order pending the creating of a frori conquest. And the moment that the and ar, m is n Co. government capable of keeping order. It Organization of American States can resent Last Ye~ux Domi nican Communists pub rev- wouldhave have been irresponsible for the United a plan that will bring lished the Marxist justification for ratio rv- g peace on the island, olution In k terms of national liberation, " States to withdraw its forces when such a perxait us to evacuate our people, and give handbook entitled "Seven The hemes of Study." course would have endangered the lives of us some hope of stability, we will be the first Later, in September, they issued a call for those not yet evacuated and would have led to came back." to full-scale resumption of "bloody warfare Mr. President, it is evident on the face of leadership o thof "theforces of the Dominican left omm 1st the among the contending Dominican factors. things that it is only the tem orar . Communis The United States has P y presence party .~ acted to preserve of our forces in Santo Domingo which has And in November the Havana Conference the situation so that the organs of the Inter- ma 15 it possible for the Organization of of the Communist Parties of Latin America, American system may carry out their in- American States to carry out its consulta- to which I have already referred, called for tended responsibilities under Inter-American tiorif, to organize-its machinery, and to take "active aid" to the so-called "freedom fight- treaties and assist the people of the Do- its ;roper place on the scene of the fighting ers" in Latin America. minican Republic in reestablishing demo- in tale Dominican Republic. cratic government under conditions of public vii fled Castro Be astro in and late e4, various the ex- ex- order: Chine party leaders began On the same evening, April 28, when the Tiese are the essential facts of the situa- to infiltrate back into the Dominican Repub- United States initially dispatched forces to tion in the matter before us. Obviously the lie, some clandestinely, to rejoin their re- Santo Domingo, my government also re- situation is still far from clear and there are spective political organizations. quested an urgent meeting of the Council unknowns or imponderables in the swirling Then on the very evening of the army of- of the Organization of American States. A affaiug of the Dominican Republic in recent fibers' revolt inspired by the PRD, the party meeting of the council was held on the days and weeks. Indeed, wherever conspir- of Juan Bosch, April 24, these top-level Com- morning of April 29, and organs of the OAS acy lurks there are hidden factors and secret munist leaders, especially those of the Mos- proceeded to meet in continuing session forceat work-a fact whichno doubt has cow-oriented old-line Communist Party, the thereafter. much to do with the angry distortions and PSPD, seized upon the unstable situation as The OAS first issued a call' for a cease-fire malkiously false allegations which we have ripe for subversive exploitation. Word was and appealed to the papal nuncio in Santo hearts from two speakers at this table in re- issued to party members and to other ex- Domingo to use hisgood offices in an effort cent days. tremist groups, calling for agitation and the to help bring it about-then it called for the Th.- fact of the matter is that it appears staging of ""spot rallies and demonstrations" establishment of the neutral international that what began as a democratic revolution In the streets. safety zone-then it dispatched the Secre- was c trickly penetrated by a group of trained Within I or 2 hours of the first rebel moves, tart' General to give assistance on the scene, Communists. If that movement had sub- members of the Castroist movement were then it sent a five-nation commission to the ceedeA in establishing itself as the govern- busy in the streets of Santo Domingo. Dominican capital to mediate an end to hos- ment of the Dominican Republic, the events Communist and Castroist leaders shortly tilities and the beginning of a political set- woul(t, have been irreversible. The OAS thereafter got quantities of arms and ammu- tiement. woulc have been deprived of any realistic nition from the armory at the "27 February" In the course of these proceedings, Mr. possibility of assisting the Dominican people camp outside Santo Domingo, where rebel- President, the U.S. delegate, in addition to to determine their political future by the ling army officers had seized control as the supporting the resolutions adopted, has re- free exercise of self-determination. opening act of the coup. A sizable quantity affirmed our adherence to the inter-American it is not the "bogey of anticommunism," of arms and ammunition thus fell into the system, including the doctrines of nonin- or a time worn record," or an imaginary hands of leaders of the PSPD-the Moscow tervention and self-determination. He has danger with which we are concerned-to bor- party-and the members of this party were urged the OAS to help restore constitutional row is of Ambassador Fedorenko's words. quickly iorrned into armed paramilitary government by free choice, deplored the lack In the Dominican Republic there are three teams which fanned out in the downtown of available Inter-American machinery to Comxrlrnist political organizations. They and "Barrio" (slum) areas, taking control of deal with such emergencies, and approved are tie Partido Socialists Popular Domini- secondary targets and organizing the inhab- the establishment of such machinery as cano (PSPD, Dominican Popular Socialist itants. At the same time a party military soon as possible. Party), which follows Moscow's direction; headquarters was established and arms col- We have asked the OAS repeatedly to as- the Movimiento Popular Dominicano lected from loyalist d heree, and military per col- - We responsibility In the Dominican Re- (MPD,- Dominican Popular Movement) a sonnel were stored there. public as a common duty and a common task. small but aggressive Marxist-Leninist revo- tive With nizaten, tight extreme discipline and groups, And we have earnestly requested the orga- lution:`ry party which follows the Chinese particularly hoe, the extreme leftist groups, nization to act with a sense of urgency to Communist ideological line; and the largest particularly the PSPD, but also, prominently, relieve the United States of an unwanted of the three, the Agrupacion politics Catorce the MPD and the Castro movement, were burden. de Juldo (APCJ, Fourteenth of June Po- soon providing a significant portion of the As things stand now, the OAS commission litical Group), which is Castro oriented and the forces and were decisively Influencing is on the scene and appears to be making with c nnections to Soviet and Communist the political leadership had the rebellion the hopeful progress. Although It has not been Chinesi regimes as well. which, in the beginning, been in the fully respected by all hands an initial cease- All three of these parties have represents- hands of the democratic leaders of the Bosch fire was arranged on April 30. And yesterday rives ix: Cuba and have received training and paxty' t the commission reported by cable that agree- financi it support from abroad. All have par- when This the was k evrire PRD complexion leaders, the aebellion went had been reached with the contending ticipatcad in armed revolutionary attempts: , who had orgt- parties on confirmation of the cease-fire, the PS.?D in the Invasion of 1959; the MPD Caked she mvolt to restore Bosch, began to demarcation, and enlargement of the security in guerrilla fighting in 1963; and the PACJ take asylum: zone to include all embassies, evacuation of in the unsuccessful Castro-style guerrilla at- Now ugh are some these leaders who a&Ylees and refugees, and distribution of food, tempt (if late 1963. have sought to turn this rebellion into o a medicine, and medical equipment to all sec- Direct Involvement of Castro in Dominican Communist takeover? tors of the population without regard to affairs is also of long standing. As lon g the Playing a key role in the tanGonz direction tleal parties. za arebel n forces is Manuel Gonzalez Gon= ago as 1959 Castro organized, trained, and tarty an experienced Spanish Communist And today the commission also informed equipped an expedition which invaded the the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the OAS Domini,,an Republic, whose leadership in- can Party activist who 19has 4 been in the member of as follows: "We consider that it would be use- eluded i Cuban army officer and which was Republic since 1940 and rated Cuban n fui, in order to aid in bringing a return escorted to Dominican shores by the Cuban the Moscow party, and a purported Cuban of the Dominican situation to normality, for Navy. Intelligence agent. the member states that are in a position to In November 1963 it launched another ac- Other PSPD :leaders ohnso the revolt do so to establish a combined inter-American tion against the Dominican Republic, un- include Buenaventura Johnson, whose house military force under the Organization of successfully sending a paramilitary team is one of the party's munition dumps and American States. to achieve the objectives with sulspiies of weapons to the north coast strongholds, re- d guerrilla , and training Despradel, who re. that are set by the meeting of consultation." of the island. Leading the organization iin Cuba in i try This is to say that the commission which is In 19(8 also the Castro and the Chinese- units were Jaime Dura, ho received para- on thescene has recommended adoption of oriented Communist Parties of the Domini- paramilitary military training In Cuba in 1962, and Juan Approved For Release 2003/10/15 CIA-RDP67B00446R0005001.20021-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 May" 24, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE Ducoudray, who has been a liaison link be- tween Cuba and the Dominican Republic for the supply of weapons. Also participating actively among others: Rafael Do La Altagracia Mejia Lluberes, an APCJ leader, long-time Communist revolu- tionary: He wat involved in a 1963 attempt to overthrow Venezuelan President Betan- court, and has had guerrilla training and political indoctrination course, Cuba 1963. Nicolas Quirico Valdez Conde, a high-level PSPD member, who has lived in Moscow, speaks Russian fluently, and was Russian interpreter for Fidel Castro in Cuba. Miguel Angel Deschamps Erickson, an MPD member, who received guerrilla war- fare training and explosives course In Cuba In 1962, and carried Instructions from Cuba to Dominican Republic for MPD in 1963. Juan Miguel Roman Diaz, a high-level member of APCJ who was key man in guer- rilla activities in the Dominican Republic in late 1963; and subsequently deported and went to Cuba In June 1964. Mr. President, it may, of course, be said, I think accurately, that the bulk of the par- ticipants in the rebellion are not Communist and that even in the present leadership non-Communists are active. I do not pur- port to predict the future. But I would remind you that only 12 men went to the hills with Castro in 1956 and that only a handful of Castro's own sup- porters were Communists. I would also re- mind you that Castro, too, came into power under cover of constitutionalism, moderation, and cooperation with others. But within months the true complexion appeared and the list of leaders imprisoned, expelled, or forced to flee once control was achieved is well known. It is an impressive list: the first provisional President of the revolu- tionary government, Dr. Manuel Urrutia; the first Prime Minister, Dr. Jose Miro Cardona; the first president of the supreme court, Dr. Emilio Menendez; nearly two-thirds of Castro's first cabinet, including the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Roberto Agramonte, Minister of Treasury, Rufo Lopez Fresquet, Minister of Labor, Manuel Fernandez, Minis- ter of Agriculture Humberto Sori Marin, and Minister of Public Works, Manuel Ray; com- panions-in-arms of Fidel Castro, such as Sierra Maestra Commanders Hubert Matos, Mine Diaz, and Jorge Sotus; labor leaders such as David Salvador and Amaury Fragi- nals; editors and commentators such as Miguel Angel Quevedo, Luis Conte Aguero; even Juan Orta, the head of the Prime Minister's own office, and ultimately Casro's own sister. Mr. President, participation in the Inter- American system, to be meaningful, must take into account the modern-day reality that an attempt by a conspiratorial group, inspired from the outside, to seize control by force can be an assault upon the indepen- dence and integrity of a state. The rights and obligations of all members of the OAS must be seen in the light of this reality. But the fact remains that the action of the United States in the Dominican Republic was not for the purpose of intervening in the affairs of the Dominican Republic or for the purpose of occupying that country. There is no new "doctrine" at work in that part of the world. The fact remains that United States forces are not asserting any authority to govern any part of the Dominican Republic, nor do we want any such authority even in that neutral zone within the city of Santo Do- mingo. The fact remains that U.S. forces are not taking sides in the Dominican con- flict-and explicitly declined to do so. Thus the United States is in no sense act- ing against the Dominican Republic, but in the interests of the Dominican people. Our action is for the purpose of helping to restore order and to preserve for the people of that nation their right to freely choose their government. To preserve that right, the United States has protected and evacuated foreign citizens from the danger zone and has provided the Organization of American States with the necessary time to take over its responsibili- ties in the area of its competence. Whatever else has been said around this table, that Is the whole story as far as it can be known, and these are the relevant facts In the matter before this council. The case is now In the hands of the com- petent regional organization. This Is an official OAS Commission as the scene ' ac- tively engaged in negotiations which appear to have reached an advanced stage. The council of the OAS was in session this morn- ing. I therefore trust that this council will keep the question of the Dominican Republic un- der review until the Organization of Ameri- can States completes its work and the people of the Dominican Republic have been able to exercise their own political choice. STATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR ADLAI E. STEVEN- SON, U.S. REPRESENTATIVE TO THE UNITED NATIONS, IN THE SECURITY COUNCIL, ON THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC QUESTION, MAY 5, 1985 Mr. President, I noted what you said about the hour and I noted it with sympathy. I shall try to be very brief. At the outset of his remarks, Mr. Fedor- enko compared me to a reptile. Well, I must say I had not expected to be called a reptile by Ambassador Fedorenko, which adds an- other colorful epithet to his rich inventory of. discourtesies. However, I have been lis- tening to these gracious remarks from repre- sentatives of the Soviet Union on and off since 1945 and I am neither surprised nor, indeed, upset. I am insulated by experience from Soviet diplomatic niceties. Moreover, I won't even react in the manner of reptiles by striking back. Ambassador Fedorenko asks me how many U.S. troops were in the Dominican Republic. Well, I sent out for an evening paper where the figures are published daily, but I haven't got it. However, I have called my Govern- ment and as of 5 o'clock the figure was 17,134. I am sorry that that Was the figure as of an hour ago, but that was when you asked me. As to what these forces are doing, I thought I explained that at some length. I explained that they were policing the city, that they were guarding the neutral safety zone, they were evacuating asylees and refu- gees, they were distributing food and medi- cine. But evidently Ambassador Fedorenko was not listening when I spoke and I com- mend to him the transcript of my remarks which will appear in tomorrow's journal, in- cluding the information that he apparently overlooked, that It took 8,000 police to main- tain order In Santo Domingo In peaceful times when there was a police force. At the end of his remarks just now, he raised the question of article 53 of the charter. As to this allegation, that the Organization of American States cannot act because enforcment action requires Secu- rity Council approval under article 53, there Is, of course, a long history of Soviet ob- struction and effort to equate all OAS re- gional action to enforcement action. The reason is obvious because the Soviet Union could then veto the action in the Security Council. But the steps being taken by the OAS do not constitute enforcement action within the meaning of the United Nations Charter. What enforcement action is being taken against the Dominican Republic? None. What order is being enforced? None. What is being done by the Organization of Ameri- can States is fully within the proper scope of the authority of regional organizations to 11037 deal with the maintenance of peace and security, to quote the language of the char- ter, within their jurisdiction as provided for by article 52. This issue has, of course, as. all of us at this table know, been exhaus- tively considered in the Security Council in the past and I think hardly requires re- opening at this time. The Soviet representative has again laid great emphasis this afternoon on noninter- vention in the affairs of the Dominican Republic. In my remarks earner today, I described in some detail the Communist in- tervention in the Dominican Republic which has gone on for some years and which was renewed a few hours after the revolt broke out on April 24. Of course, Communist intervention begins in a clandestine and secret fashion. I reminded the Council of the manner in which the Communist took over the Cuban revolution and executed or exiled many of the original leaders of that revolution. The result of such Communist intervention is however decisive. Once a country has been taken over, democratic liberties are destroyed and the opportunity for self-determination ends. That is why the Communist intervention in the Dominican Republic is the most vicious and the most. fatal which can be imagined. And now perhaps you will permit me to ask Ambassador Fedorenko and his Cuban colleague a question: How many Communist agents are now active in the armed uprising in the Dominican Republic? In other words, how many agents of international commu- nism are intervening arms in hand with the obvious intention of setting up another Castro regime in that unfortunate country? If he has to cable to Moscow and to Havana for the latest statistics, we shall be happy to wait until tomorrow for his reply. Mr. President, the United States has re- peatedly announced its intention of with- drawing Its forces from the Dominican Re- public as soon as arrangements have been made by the OAS for the establishment of an indigenous Dominican Government which will assure the people of that country their right to determine their own future. I be- lieve there are few around this table who do not believe that this pledge will be kept. In Cuba, on the other hand, despite Mr. Castro's pledge of free elections, he has never dared to hold them. The Cuban people have never been given a chance to choose their own government. We doubt that the Commu- nists ever will give them that chance. And I believe that no one around this table, ex- cept perhaps Ambassador Fedorenko and his Cuban colleague, want that to happen to the Dominican Republic. I think, Mr. President, that in view of the hour and the circumstances and the fact that everyhing has been said and resaid so many times, that I shall detain you no longer. I should welcome an answer to the question that I asked the Soviet ambassador. (In a further intervention, Ambassador Stevenson Said:) Ho hum. Mr. President, the representative of the Soviet Union asked me one question and I got him the answer. And now he has asked me a lot more. I think I have perhaps nothing more to say except that I pray God that I can grow up to be a big boy and ask questions. (In another intervention, Ambassador Stevenson said:) I know my proverbs, too, but I am going to mercifully spare both my colleague, Am- bassador Fedorenko, and the members of this Security Council from repeating any of them at this hour. But I would like to tell you a story that an old lawyer once told me when I was a young practitioner In my home State of Illinois. He said, "My boy, if you haven't got the facts, argue the law before the jury; and if the law isn't with you; argue the facts; and if you have neither the facts nor the law, then just talk a lot." Thank you, sir. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 1U 8 Approved For Rp~ R 2003/10/15: CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1 C~1V zRESSTONAT. RPCnur%- Ct TTA"rV ,i.---- Mr.:DODD. Mr. President, I suggest the absence of it quorum. The' P#ZESB)ING OFFICER. The clerk will call the roll. The legislative clerk proceeded to call the roll. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the order for the quorum call be rescinded. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. ORDER FOR RECESS UNTIL NOON TOMORROW Mr. MANSFIELD, Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that when the Senate completes its business today, it stand in recess until 12 .o'clock noon tomorrow, The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- out objection, it is so ordered. 'Mr. MANSFIELD. I suggest the ab- sence of a quorum. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The clerk will call the roll. The legislative clerk proceeded to call the roll. Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the order for the quorum call be rescinded. The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- out objection, it is so ordered. VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965 The Senate resumed the consideration of the bill (S. 1564) to enforce the 15th amendment to the Constitution of the United States. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that after the vote on the Miller amendment-which is to occur at 12:20 p.m. tomorrow-has been concluded, the time until 1. o'clock p.m. be .equally divided between the distinguished Senator from North Carolina [Mr. ERVIN] and the majority leader. The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- out objection, it is so ordered. REPLY TO WALL STREET JOURNAL CRITICISM OF UNEMPLOYMENT STATISTICS Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, last Tuesday, May 18, the Wall Street Journal published a lead editorial entitled "Poor Statistics and Worse Economics." The editorial attacked the present statistical methods of our Government in deter- mining unemployment in this country. It is a serious matter when the leading financial journal of the United States ocuucu r0 me and should "11u who com- our Government and by Congress in de- not be restricted to those who are In dire prise the bulk of the labor force." They fur- termiriing much of our policy. need of a job. then note that "By any standard they (mar- in connection with my first point it should tied men) are far more deserving of concern As chairman of the Subcommittee on be fidrly obvious that idle resource-unused than me jobless teenagers about whom there Statistics of the Joint Economic Com- is so much weeping." mittee, I was particularly concerned with plan, facilities, excessive inventories, or idle manpower seeking jobs-diminishes the at- This seems a somewhat different emphasis the editorial, so I wrote to Mr. Raymond ficier[cy of the economy. Unemployment also than set forth by Mr. Lubell in an earlier T. Bowman, Assistant Director for Sta- affec?s the individual Jobseeker, including article in the series of articles dealing with tistical Standards, Bureau of the Budget. those who may not "need" the job. Employ- unemployment to which the Wall Street Mr. Bowman is more directly responsible meni. is not only a means for meeting the Journal editorial refers. Mr. Lubell says in for policy in the statistics field in the pressing needs of individuals but, in part at his article entitled "The 'Manager Crisis," executive branch of the Government least and end in itself-or at least a means ,We will need not only further increases in than anyone else. He has ending heavy re- to much more advanced desires. available jobs, but a frontal assault on the thansibiyo for re has ing heavy policy second point Is that just as employ- many restrictive barriers that wall the job- Y mentincludes those who have a job whether less off from the more secure, prospering with regard to all our statistical pro- they need one or not, so unemployment part of the economy." includes those who seek a job whether they need it or not. It should be clearly recog- nized that need is largely subjective and very difficult to measure in a practical and objective manner. Working- wives want their families to have the things their earnings can provide. Many teenagers, even those going to school, wish to contribute to their own support or to save for future educa- tional or other purposes. Married women and teenagers alone account fora over one- fourth of the total of persons counted as employed. Surely if we count them as em- ployed when they are working we should count them as unemployed when they do not have a job and are seeking one. What 11 have said above, however, should not be interpreted to mean that the degree of personal hardship resulting from unem- ployment is identical, for all unemployed persons. ' Nor that these differences should not be taken into account in the develop- ment of social policy. But my point clearly is that measuring unemployment (in a free society) cannot appropriately be based on the need: of the individual for a job-but must be:based on his not having a job and seeking one. For the reasons just noted, and in recog- nition of the fact that no single figure on unemployment can possibly meet all analy- tical purposes, the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics publishes each month in Employment and Earnings statistics showing employment and unem- ployment by age, sex, color, marital status, industry, and occupation, with hours of work for the employed and duration of un- employment for the unemployed. The un- employment rates for household heads, for married women, for persons living alone are all published each month in the detailed report. po56 of the statistics. Economists both in `works a mucn greater hardship on married men with family . out of Government do, of course, in- teenagers our responsibilities than oo terl[ret these figures and do not always ar- earn extra or housewives t looking for ways to at the same interpretation of them as nal editorial money. points As out, WaL Street Jot the Wall Street Journal. ment does publish i , the Labor aryare- t nemployment is measured in order to in its first summary rnt det,irmine the total number of persons not port the seasonally adjusted unemployment employed who are offering their services in rate 2fo5r married mean, h Inn April 196e a free labor market. This is an important was percent. in adWhhicditiicon, same measure of available manpower releasse e separate unemployment the t rates are utilized by the economy. The Employment published for teenage, rs, adult 2 women, men Act of 1946 made it the official policy of the and 20 to over,, 24 years of age, men o ups. The years The an- Federal Government to foster and promote d uh are many subdivided other acacccordi ording to the coniitions under which there will be useful employeand e employment opportunities "for those able, ing to whether theer r th h their ey y ewere sre seymegt full- accord- 1965, or p- will ng, and seeking to work." One of the time work. eeking fllr l most important functions of the monthly 60000, ,000 of the 3.6 million unemployed were re statistics is to measure the degree of success looking for part-time jobs. This figure is with which the American economy is achiev- published 'very prominently on the very first ing-this goal. table of the first release of the figures each Tie complaint of the Journal seems to be month. (A copy of the April report is en- that the unemployment measure "does not closed for your information.) provide an accurate estimate of how serious is the need for more jobs." I want to make the tTheobless Wall Street o Jmurri :i is satisfied for all two points in this connection. First, the rate for marred men is "for all unemployment statistics do provide a basis seem to practical imply purposes full ergroups n Tnot for iissessing the effect of idle manpower on concern is gT that other groups that not the economy and the unemployed lndlvi_ ern us greatly. They note that married g:;arcs. He is a man of distinguished al fility. Frankly, when I read the Wall Street Journal editorial I recalled that the many outstanding statisticians, from all over the world, who testified before our Joint Congressional Economic Commit- tee on our statistics program, had unani- mously concluded that ours are the best statistics to be obtained anywhere in the world, although, of course, they are sub- jelt to criticism and improvement. The reply by Mr. Bowman should be called to the attention of the Congress ar,fl the country, in view of the fact that our policies are seriously influenced by the statistics concerning the level of un- employment in our country. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- se: at to have printed at this point in the RECORD the editorial entitled "Poor Sta- tistics and Worse Economics," published in the Wall Street Journal of May 18, and Mr. Bowman's letter to me dated May 20, which analyzes, point by point, that arguments set forth in the editorial. There being no objection, the editorial and letter were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: IiXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT, BUREAU OF THE BUDGET, Washington, D.C., May 20, 1965. Hoc. WILLIAM PROXMIRE, Ch lirman, Subcommittee on Economic Statistics, Joint Economic Committee, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. VkAR SENATOR PROXMIRE: The criticism of the Federal unemployment figures which appeared in an editorial in the May 18 issue of the Wall Street Journal is based on a Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120021-1