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May 20, 1965
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V V V Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 10658 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE May sZO, 1965 ea this occasion will live forever in my mind and heart: I am deeply grateful for the boner yetkiin me today. ' It will *erre as an iiiipbratron awe an a source of .etrength-to ml. 40Will challenge to me in the taskantate Re ahead. May tufty that r:Laro greatly Impressed by the Work and actittittes" which I hatrwhiteh privileged' to fobserve durinE ode tOuP4thkr afternoOn. ft' Is tretitersdateily=rea encouraging: to Oa. siach 'a ? " supported 6y' each dierotal citizen*, making visible peogritize inrand rehabilitation sal the tigorftnta ohlidrin mideryout 10044 ea*, The vtair yeti lattairduzie loirerlittlatteidgii ham itelpedlalakethis; fien0Wei thW more iewstiver the 'probitirre,ot'irsitirith retarded and has provided Irina** how to th eiedilio4u It begre utstusla oh *W M& erierfoett Sate' laA *OW sit atati tiallialinithat iatiallabrit Abentatatatiatiatail . / Mee important, the ludo/anon provides that *Oolstitinal ',veliabilltation evaluation *anima may extend to a maximum period of le Menthe '411ring Width the ellirdornent painted et ?enrstfeeted Individual may be determined. Under preen* law, thme we; ides oniutte tte :Orizaba-is disabled person t*fll4NLt tarstdetetUu4 that the a...via* will aotuaurprepare hint * till spaying job. he .We klirrirj,Pirdatilatlf Au' the mdatelly retataedi thtTIuimgsUtIhi.a hartilthiP; the swerliberalteitiett edit permit More per. ateF holm ind viilretives. Atitittit are giv.1 ilitlaseCaibiptithisy would *Of tariature of litsh sons to be pripleell4or t'Verent'Plietfidte oomfort to MS theen.1110 b. fortivir You umantlarlital Iherelrith blithe Who Os Cloil !hen beittAppabli P115.1)17 The President acted firmly Sunday in doing what was necessary in the face or, anowating Intelligence reports that Conuntukleta were taking over the Dominican revoltit,eit. Re made It Unmistakably clear tbatt.limfd- sphere will 'not under any condi permit another Cuba, and that there was ID *me to lose in ordering American ferrate, Vtite *bind to prevent a takeover and - Men instirmala. .. But then, the President epee,. Latin Ainerican nations?and ; the Members 14 the OSS--to this country in performing what In r a htmtaphiric - ditty. Re re . Strained the fact that ?Moen* of SO f countries in the Dothinican. Republic 9 enjoying protection -o(- American troops ?0 hinted strongly that it weethe duty of other int-77,es well as that . et, United lef...40 perticipitte in the' ng of *it; ithinson oittainly was ?aw of the criticism he risked by Undertaking t his.ori gene/ riotion:Usul' the. tri Winn tang lMcleillill. gills latita Wok by Chiba. Commutdat China. and?in United E: b . ,. y the Soviet Moo. , *clam =4iircual Was te Ile ted. the Latin American ha un- , y is e thing that is time oat in "Prioldenta mind. ? ? - esIlliori the um* part, the teactiatif other - hkellheless* Sise0A8 has been Multrfeelhe. late*beent criticism tronk. . Ulla VI .i0.10 countries, but this is to be tak AC the, danger posed 14,i, De: 04'.0,140?tittil is fully ductesed, ;'?, .?Abbe"'?took apecird paitii-lareday itagtittoWipla n that this countrif% Cady iii- totes in Wei Dl loan Reptibli0' r 4 any: wham el* In ?-lotin Amer 'M .Its :deter,. Itilitioa the establielunebtrai an. isCreitiMe and. to Perfficie the with the opyrootanits? lo or- itlef01;010 1104(Ankellic . ; ",the onisenert Wreak wad Xiatin Amerlauf- nations intaketed not only troth Clanimunist /faders but also train corrupt ahd Wets* tig that dewiest-Sheltie- * anti, the resource, of %hair ae this requires the. effort of ? . an :Ann smart*" ISO seed 404 Slimiest& regtakele taWraterdatiW tialtereltit eritterkedbf' uttapwitte reitaiwttell for meatal retardaidat Ott ritalattagoleiboattrationaV STATosomDipputzusat ar the tisoil yeah t to apprewhiterd2h0 01111101 Oldbler4111 posetivolts *We lizm the OM* ternisst,I bsysAllalliertithlttatht 41)0.0Pebt * 4 tirta "Cfrt?is att,ot 49. ? ? ? with ine rarticov t . amebas' it tele'itittieed, ' that lby that* *Meta: ad 113mulUoa nsentallyvettirded in the Diablo:U*6ton St is ireeir mositellstrelernit to Laos the reaheatioin that in breactit'OtIont melthslit.rrdto_:___11_0",11 we not know the west cet the Pr99toglit j 'in VIA rEn Yes. We hare *tnaclaut,A0Od 1144, ,we nude Pruitt*, olnO: let.?.#001.4.talts have just tilted, we See ttos ,bstiekWers is to be done, ricer' grebe the obantieW the future. Inn I am glad to tell 'Pei hire' Ililriffiy **Sal have-- eonadenoi we will priiie!legisiation; "Utah I have been privileged to tairedues; to gnely expand the tacillUss of the. Voos- liOnel Rehabilitation adasinistratilen, Vested with thefiespopeibility tor tihtt POW" rem or this fine school, you will be Interested to know that VMS hill "ituttstriami'grants to pay part of the costs Of construetingotebw, bilitation facilities and ghettoes* workshops, as well se grants to help pay foe the initial operating carte. It will prorkie training grants, including stipends ? for trainees In workshops, project grants for the improve- meat or sheltered watt:shops, and technical assistant* to wortehops. 4 With the &Balaton?, of ? National Polity and Performance Counollorsaied under the bill, the elates will be helped to expand and *mend their vorononal milahUltaUon par- grams, and their research and development work. -ralleMittlestIr MOM, 'that entingitoctm.a ,oFrijetif corn& thettftnar4s10114, (tett:Wan tuldesiltihirtAheo tiottiterelreVeproteet attbeequalt*tottlwart effertUreocittOlthe Went .0.14 the May 4 editertat. Tentiesseearipohibsd Out f?tikeeirldior JOhniehlitihr the fedi Ot oertalit rehires inisunderiteedfte to floinuhtedialaiwetitle ? atibileand ,pitarentee spg !fi:j004 deutootatte ite .P.Thet,?Riehntond May iv, ?Modal* that , . at,zirradd' hie '0.11 but impollisti 'for ' the United /natal& Ottempt to lamas ell of the poternial.:Itrtiuble rareee in .1.estit- Ansgrioa atonswi.1.0renit thing., this would be elm- *gladly unifine;perinitting the 'Conununists to matter ourfamee while they increased the , ? 1st Southeast Asia. or some other .1 Tbo, it would create resentments that : ot senate criticism and eddeeptead Wanly intensify the unrrat.1 1.1ohnaon moved eourageovely in to prevent all 'apparent 'unlit takeover in the Deadnisan sr 4 guarantee that nation a abeam a demooratio government. the Dominican future turns out . a large talent upon the people .thanueirer. nd upon the cooperative spin* .01 the rest .'Yetlin America. The Tneeklent . . awed in an regency and he acted in the Went* of all hemisphere. Matt la time 'foe the Oreardattion of American States to twairairie tilt; prOtoetion or the -Issentsphen is everybody ,bunintis. and get on with the planning for nth erhereencies in the future. It appears ti t there ;rmay be quite w few Of them. , ? 1 ? ? ? , inain the litholitaid (Vw.) rillheePierateb? 111Ay 11.196111 . , etain) ny" 1 1;M has bash , , LAME 4.11;:t0.4 MAT Lisa in The "d ' ap- plied to Mutherel.' Asia might end* hare bli- come operatitel (or Latin Araitioi, If the lhdted Matra had 'toad idly by. and,* the kAmtrotionts WO, war the Dominican Re- public. Once tin hods found that we would wn mob. Proof-ally te stop them, they would Johriswi's decisive winds* certainly s Mon in Latin Am I ask unanim consent to hAVe printed in the Rnm I these two edlibri and also an etlitiot _ published inCheyenne, Wyel, Rale tt ut May T. There being ho the editixiS were ordered Go be;printed in the RICO 011 Iolketh: (Prom the nathrine lirsineratenn. Mob 4.1. 0661. . iseenents PIMA at414111 POINT% TM 11114T btial OAR The administration baa prverly laid eat- plums upon the rob, ttak needs to he philad by the Oreeninative of interims State* 011 dealing with the crisis, iii the Lkernatriv Republic. 1: ? to the tt the Redau4 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 May 20, 1965 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE have stepped up their drive to seize the gov- ernments of such countries as Venezuela, Colombia, and Guatemala. Special cadres from these and several other Latin American countries are reported to have been in Cuba for training in guerrilla warfare and subversion at the very moment when the disorders broke out last week in Santo Domingo. An attempt by Communists to assassinate President Leoni, of Venezuela, was thwarted last month. An Italian who was said to be trying to smuggle in $330,000 from Soviet Russia to finance the assassination and re- volt, was arrested, An extensive Red con- spiracy was uncovered. Guerrillas in Colombia have been carrying out kidnapings every few days?apparently with a view to raising money to finance the revolution there. One is reminded of the bank robberies that Josef Stalin and the other early Bolsheviks carried through in Czarist Russia for a similar purpose. As for Guatemala, the United States was largely instrumental in 1954 in ousting the Arbenz regime, which had been collaborating closely with MOSCOW. For the past decade, there has been undercover agitation in Guatemala by Communist-led elements, and these same elements have been trying to ex- pand their beachhead. These and all other Communist revolution- aries in Latin America may well have been slowed down by President Johnson's swift action in recent days to prevent Reds trained in Havana, MOSCOW, orPelping from grabbing the Dominican Republic, At the same time, it could be that Mr. Johnson has pleased a great many Latin Americans and increased respect for the United States in the Caribbean and below the Rio Grande. After the Bay of Pigs fiasco, many Central and South American leaders were much dis- mayed. They wanted to see Washington move forcefully to block the Communist takeover in Cuba, and we muffed the chance. Hence today, despite the cries that are be- ing heard in certain quarters concerning our unilateral intervention, and our so-called imperialism, it may well be that the overall effect in Latin America of our forceful action has been good. Even Walter Lippmann, who has been arguing that we should pull out of Vietnam, is strongly in favor of what President John- son has done in the Caribbean. We have moved, he says, to assert our rightful au- thority within our sphere of influence. And that, he declares, is exactly what we should have done. He is right. [Prom the Wyoming Eagle, May 7, 19651 IMPORTANT STEPS The crisis in the Dominican Republic is by no means ended. Indeed, the crisis will not be ended until the citizens of the revolt-torn Caribbean is- land, through self-determination, have re- established a firm government?a non-Com- munist government. But several important steps in the right direction already have been accOmplished. The first was when President Johnson act- ed promptly and decisively to prevent a com- munist takeover in the Dominican Republic. Recognizing that what had begun as a popular revolution, dedicated to democracy and social justice, had been taken over "by a band of Communist conspirators," the President sent American troops to the island to protect 13.5. citizens and to prevent the establishment of another Communist regime in the Western Hemisphere. The next step was the establishment of a cease-fire and "firm truce," Another very important step was taken early yesterday when the Organization of American States (0A5) voted to send an In- ter-American peacekeeping force to police the Dominican Republic. The OAS voted 14 to 5, with Venezuela ab- staining, to approve a U.S.-sponsored reso- lution calling on member governments to provide army, navy, air force or national po- lice troops for the new force. Chile, Mexico, Uruguay, Ecuador, and Peru voted against the peace force resolution. And Mexico's Ambassador said he did not be- lieve his government would be able to spare troops for the force. On the other side of the picture, tiny Costa Rica, which boasts it has no army, immedi- ately offered to place its 3,500-man national police force at the disposal of the OAS. U.S. Ambassador, Ellsworth Bunker said he was gratified by the vote, which was exactly the two-thirds majority needed. And he in- dicated that the Inter-American force might become a permanent part of the OAS peace- keeping machinery. Under the resolution, the OAS will be in complete control of the peacekeeping force, which will be directed by a unified command with power to determine when it is no longer needed in the Dominican Republic. It is to be hoped that all the nations, in- cluding those which voted against the reso- lution, will participate in the peacekeeping force in the interest of hemispheric har- mony and security, now and in the future. In the meantime, it seems to us that Pres- ident Johnson has given new meaning and new life to the doctrine laid down by Presi- dent James Monroe on December 2, 1823. THE CALENDAR Mr. HART. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Senate pro- ceed to the consideration of measures on the calendar to which there is no objec- tion, beginning with Calendar No. 183, but excluding Nos. 188 and 189. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tern- pore. Without objection, it is so ordered. The clerk will proceed to state the measures on the calendar, as requested. REPRINT OF REPORT OF COMMIT- TEE ON AGING ENTITLED "FRAUDS AND DECEPTION AF- FECTING THE ELDERLY; INVESTI- GATIONS, FINDINGS, AND RECOM- MENDATIONS" The resolution (S. Res. 92) to permit reprint of the Committee on Aging re- port entitled "Frauds and Deception Af- fecting the Elderly; Investigations, Find- ings, and Recommendations," was con- sidered and agreed to, as follows: Resolved, That there be printed, for the use of the Special Committee on Aging, six thousand additional copies of its committee print of the Eighty-ninth Congress, first ses- sion, entitled "Frauds and Deceptions Af- fecting the Elderly; Investigations, Findings, and Recommendations, 1964", a report by the Subcommittee on Frauds and Misrepresenta- tions Affecting the Elderly. REPRINTING AS SENATE DOCU- MENT OF COMMITTEE PRINT ENTITLED "PROPOSED FEDERAL PROMOTION OF 'SHARED TIME' EDUCATION (A DIGEST OF RELE- VANT LITERATURE AND SUM- MARY OF PRO AND CON ARGU- MENTS) " The resolution (S. Res. 98) to print as a Senate document the proposed com- mittee print entitled "Proposed Federal Promotion of 'Shared Time' Education (a Digest of Relevant Literature and 10659 Summary of Pro and Con Arguments)" was considered and agreedto, as follows: Resolved, That there be printed as a Senate document the committee print en- titled "Proposed Federal Promotion of 'Shared Time' Education (a Digest of Rele- vant Literature and Summary of Pro and Con Arguments)", prepared by the Legis- lative Reference Service of the Library of Congress at the request of Senator WAYNE MORSE and issued by the Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare during the Eighty-eighth Congress, first session; and that there be printed one thousand additional copies of such document for the use of that com- mittee. REPRINTING AS SENATE DOCU- MENT OF COMMITTKE, PRINT ENTITLED "STUDENT ASSIST- ANCE HANDBOOK (GUIDE TO FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FOR EDU- CATION BEYOND HIGH SCHOOL)" The resolution (S. Res. 99) to print as a Senate document the committee print entitled "Student Assistance Handbook (Guide to Financial Assistance for Edu- cation Beyond High School)" was con- sidered and agreed to, as follows: Resolved, That there be printed as a Senate document the committee print entitled "Student Assistance Handbook (Guide to Financial Assistance for Education Beyond High School)", prepared by the Legislative Reference Service of the Library of Congress and issued by the Subcommittee on Educa- tion of the Committee on Labor and Pub- lic Welfare during the Eighty-eighth Con- gress, second session; and that there be printed four thousand additional copies of such document for the use of that com- mittee. ADDITIONAL FUNDS FOR COMMIT- TEE ON APPROPRIATIONS The resolution (S. Res. 101) to pro- vide additional funds for the Committee on Appropriations was considered and agreed to, as follows: Resolved, That the Committee on Appro- priations hereby is authorized to expend from the contingent fund of the Senate, dur- ing the Eighty-ninth Congress, $35,000, in addition to the amounts, and for the same purposes, specified in section 134(a) of the Legislative Reorganization Act, approved Au- gust 2, 1946, PAYMENT OF GRATUITY TO CARRIE WALTON The resolution (S. Res. 108) to pay a gratuity to Carrie Walton was considered and agreed to, as follows: _Resolved, That the Secretary of the Senate hereby is authorized and directed to pay, from the contingent fund of the Senate, to Carrie Walton, widow of Barriteer L. H. Walton, an employee of the Senate at the time of his death, a sum equal to one year's compensation at the time he was receiving by law at the time of his death, said sum to be considered inclusive of funeral ex- penses and all other allowances. PRINTING OF POCKET-SIZED EDI- TION OF "THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMER- ICA" AS A HOUSE DOCUMENT The resolution (H. Con. Res. 383) au- thorizing the printing of a pocket-sized Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP671300446R000500120023-9 10660 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE May 20, 15 edition of "The Constitution of the United States of America" as a House document, and for other purposes, was considered and agreed to. Mr. HART. Mr. President., that con- cludes the call of the calendar. I suggest the absence of a quorum. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. The clerk will call the roll. The Chief Clerk proceeded to call the roll. Mr. HART. Mr. Presideni), I ask unanimous consent that the- order for the quorum call be rescinded. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. Without objection, it is so ordered. PRESIDENT JOHNSON'S PATIENCE FOR PEACE DRAMATIZED Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, the recently ended lull in the bombing of military installations in North Vietnam lute demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt President Johnson's willingness to travel more than halfway down the road toward negotiations to end the fighting in that war-ravaged corner of southeast Asia. The temporary discontinuance of the bombing raids represented further evi- dence of American restraint in the face of provocative Communist aggression. While the 6-day lull was undoubtedly a considerable sacrifice on the part of our military operations there?particularly in view of the fact that the monsoons will soon close down our air operations-- it was ordered by the administration to give every chance for a beginn;ng of ne- gotiations to end the fighting. The failure of the Communists to re- spond to our invitation places the burden of guilt for the continuation of the fight- ing squarely on the shoulders of the re- gimes in Hanoi arid Peiping. This point is clearly and concisely made In the lead editorial of the New York Times for May20, 1965. , Another important point on the Viet- nam situation was scored in an article written by John Chamblerlain and pub- lished in this morning's Washington Post. Mr. Chamblerlain reports that Rajmohan Gandhi, the grandson of Mahatma Gandhi, believes that the presence of American forces 'In Vietnam "lengthens freedom's duration in India" and in the other southeast Asian countries. Gandhi's support of President John- son and our military posture in Vietnam is significant evidence that all Asiatic Intellectuals are not opposed to our pol- icy. In his weekly magazine, Himmat, Gandhi pointed out with cold realism the need to fight the determined Com- munist program of forcing communism on the countries of southeast Asia. Gandhi obviously realizes that passive resistance?employed by his grand- father to free India from Great Brit- ain?works only against a nation that is fundamentally humane. The tactics of passive resistance--peaceful marches, demonstrations, and walks to the sea? are futile against the ruthless and ter- roristic militancy of Red China. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that the New York Times editorial and the Washington Post article ?be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article and editorial were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: (From the Washington Post, May 20, 19651 Suppoar E'Rota INDIA (By John Chamberlain) We are constantly being told that there is :L. "world opinion" to which we must defer fl foreign policy moves. But the former ),Itate Department official who, in a scoffing reply to a well-known commentator, re- marked that the vast majority in Asia don't even know where Vietnam is was probably pretty close to the truth. In any event, there is no single opinion, no consensus, even among literates in Asia about the action cf the United States in South Vietnam. ,The Indian intellectuals are supposedly against what we are doing?or, at least, so ve are asked to judge from the words of D'ehru's successor, Prime Minister Shastri. 10th Nehru and Shastri can be truly repre- suited as the heirs of Mahatma Gandhi. Ent they are not the only heirs. For Rajmohan. Gandhi, the grandson of India's revered liberator, has come forward with a new interpretation of his grand- tether's doctrines that differs somewhat from the Nehru-Shastri variety. In his own weekly magazine. Himmat, young Gandhi has chosen, in the name of peace and his own Indian version of the Western idea of "moral rearmament," to support what Lyn- don Johnson has been doing in Vietnam. 'Since the Moral Re-Armament movement in the West was identified in the 1930's with pacifism, Rajmohan Gandhi may appear to be 'a walking contradiction. But the young min makes a good deal of basic sense. He argues that there are two colliding realities In- southeast Asia. The first reality Is that Hanoi and Poking regimes will, "short of in- vii nig serious damage upon themselves," ad )pt every means to force communism on So ith Vietnam. The second reality is, that by -fighting to prevent the communization of South Vietnam, "America is stemming communism in Asia as a whole." I ike his grandfather, young Gandhi do(sn't believe you can conquer ideas with bu lets. But he is realist enough to know thtt passive resistance only works against an en( my who is himself fundamentally hu- mane. Fighting the British, a nation with a inng Christian and parliamentary tradi- tion, by sit-down tactics and marches to the sea as Mahatma Gandhi did, is one thing. Butt fighting Communists by such tactics ohlri. invites disaster. B flowing the difference between enemies, Rajmoban Gandhi says that "whether or not we like the American manner of fighting in Viefham, and whether or not we believe that the Vietna.mase people want the American military presence, this presence lengthens freelom's duration in India. We need to be grateful, therefore, for the American soldier who leaves family and comfort and roughs it (Mt in Vietnam at considerable risk. Shand the Americans decide to pull out of Vietaam, a pro-Communist or fully Commu- nist government will soon be installed in Salgm. "Laos will then speedily succumb, and Thailand will be In a precarious state. If Thailand goes Communist, what remains of Burr:la's freedom will disappear and Ran- gon'E status will quite likely be reduced to that of a provincial capital of China. Malay- sia wffl be unable then to stay outside of Pei- ? control. China's grip on India will be- come tighter and stranger and will not fail, In filet, to crush us." Go ng beyond his realpolitik, however, young Gandhi picks up the main thread of his giandfather's thinking. The "third real- ity" ia South Vietnam, he says, is that "corn- muni an is strong * * * and will not vanish if mi Itary and financial aid from Peiping and Hanoi were to end * * *. This basic truth has got to be faced?you cannot kill an idea with a bullet or a bomb. You can only defeat it with a better idea." It is at this point that young Gandhi of- fers "Moral Re-Armament" as a superior idea. [From' the New York Times, May 20, 19651 END OF THE PAUSE The failure of the Communists to respond favorably to the pause in the bombing of North Vietnam is a tragedy for Vietnam and for the world. It inevitably will lengthen and intensify a war which serves the interest of no people and already has gone on too long. That war, as President Johnson said last week, has "no purely military solution in sight for either side." It can only be ended by negotiation and a political settlement. The United States has made or agreed to numerous proposals for negotiations ever since the President on April 7 called for "unconditional discussions." Yet the Com- munists, at every turn, have given a negative response. North Vietnam and Communist China have rejected not only all American proposals but also the plea of 17 nonalined chiefs of state for unconditional negotiations. They have turned down the French suggestion of a new Geneva conference without precondi- tions, the Soviet endorsement of a Cam- bodian Conference, the British effort to send former Foreign Minister Gordon Walker to consult them, Secretary General Thant's offer to visit Hanoi and Peiping for explora- tory talks, and India's proposal for a cease- fire monitored by an Afro-Asian force. Nevertheless, it WAS essential to make still another demonstration both to American opinion and to the world that Washington was prepared to be flexible and reasonable. Also it clarified whether the bombing of North Vietnam was the chief block to nego- tiations--as Soviet, French, Indian, and even Canadian leaders had suggested. There can be little doubt on this question now. Hanoi asserts that the pause was ac- companied privately by- a time limit and an American demand that Vietcong attacks in South Vietnam halt; these are points that Washington would be wise to clarify. But the remainder of the statement by the North Vietnamese Foreign Ministry makes It clear that a decision has been taken against nego- tiations at this time. In the end, Peiping's proximity has proved the potent factor, and Hanoi has decided to continue the war?at least through the mon- soon offensive that now seems to be opening. It is extraordinary, in these circumstances, to find Prime. Minister Shastri, of India, joining Moscow in calling for an immediate halt in the bombing of North Vietnam?without any reference to the halt that has just been tried. The focus of attention now will turn to the battlefields of Asia. ?The summer rains will hamper American air support for Govern- ment forces, but the basic military-political balance in. Vietnam is unlikely to be altered in the comae of the summer or afterward. The negotiations rejected by the Commu- nists now will have to be accepted by them at some later date. When that date ap- proaches, the precedent of a bombing pause undoubtedly will be invoked again to help bring about the negotiated settlement that not only is desirable, but inevitable. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION SPEEDUP NEEDED Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, dur- ing the past 3 months I have heard many Senators voice their views in this Cham- ber with regard to the importance of soil and water conservation to the future of America. Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 United States of America Approved For Release 2005/05/12: CIA-RDP671300446R000500120023-9 Congressional Rcrord PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 89th CONGRESS FIRST SESSION Vol. 111 WASHINGTON, THURSDAY, MAY 20, 1965 No. 91 The Senate met at 12 o'clock meridian, and was called to order by Hon. DONALD RUSSELL, a Senator from the State of South Carolina. The Chaplain, Rev. Frederick Brown Harris, D.D., offered the following prayer: God of our fathers, in the secret of Thy pavilion, we would take refuge from the strife of tongues. By tasks too diffi- cult for us, we are driven unto Thee for strength to endure and for wisdom to rightly interpret the signs of these trying times. To Thy sustaining grace, in this dedi- cated moment, we lift up the thronging yearnings which haunt us day and night, the grievous problems affecting Thy children in all the world, for which our human wisdom finds no answer. Above the noise of crashing social systems, hearing and heeding the voice divine, may our devotion and compassion help to heal the open sores of the world, as we serve the present troubled age. Through the lips that speak in this forum of freedom, above all differences, may there be heard by a listening world the solemn summons to men of good will, of all colors and all nations, to a new commonwealth of all people, in which power shall be administered as a sacred trust, dedicated to the common good. In the Redeemer's name we ask it. Amen. DESIGNATION OF ACTING PRESI- DENT PRO TEMPORE The legislative clerk read the following letter: *U.S. SENATE, PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE, Washington, D.C., May 20, 1965. To the Senate: Being temporarily absent from the Sen- ate, I appoint Hon. DONALD RUSSELL, a Sen- ator from the State of South Carolina, to perform the duties of the Chair during my absence. CARL HAYDEN, President pro tempore. Mr. RUSSELL of South Carolina thereupon took the chair as Acting President pro tempore. Senate THE JOURNAL On request of Mr. DIRKSEN, and by unanimous consent, the reading of the Journal of the proceedings of Wednes- day, May 19, 1965, was dispensed with. MESSAGE FROM THE HOUSE A message from the House of Repre- sentatives, by Mr. Hackney, one of its reading clerks, informed the Senate that pusuant to the provisions of section 1, Public Law 86-42, the Speaker had ap- pointed Mr. YATES as a member of the U.S. delegation of the Canada-United States Interparliamentary Group for the meeting to be held in Ottawa, Canada, from May 20 to May 23, 1965, vice Mr. ST GERMAIN, excused. The message announced that the House had passed the bill (S. 327) to provide assistance to the States of Ore- gon, Washington, California, and Idaho for the reconstruction of areas damaged by recent floods and high waters, with amendments, in which it requested the concurrence of the Senate. The message also announced that the House had passed a joint resolution (H.J. Res. 436) to amend section 316 of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 to extend the time by which a lease transferring a tobacco acreage allot- ment may be filed, in which it requested the concurrence of the Senate. LIMITATION ON STATEMENTS DUR- ING TRANSACTION OF ROUTINE MORNING BUSINESS On request of Mr. DIRKSEN, and by unanimous consent, statements during the transaction of routine morning busi- ness were ordered limited to 3 minutes. NOTICE OF BRIhaeiNG FOR SENA- TORS ON FRIDAY ON SITUATION IN DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, the Secretary of State will brief the Committee on Foreign Relations in exec- utive session at 10 o'clock tommorow morning, Friday, May 21, in the corn- mittee room, S-116, the Capitol, on the situation in the Dominican Republic. Any member of the Senate who is inter- ested is inivited to attend. REPORTS OF COMMITTEES The following reports of committees were submitted: By Mr. RIBICOFF, from the Committee on Government Operations, reported adversely without amendment: S. Res. 102. Resolution to disapprove Re- organization Plan No. 1 (Rept. No. 203). Mr. RIBICOFF subsequently said: Mr. President, at its next printing, I ask unanimous consent that the name of the Senator from Alaska [Mr. GRUEN- INS] be added as a cosponsor of Senate Resolution 102. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tern- pore. Without objection, it is so or- dered. By Mr. EASTLAND, from the Committee on the Judiciary, without amendment: S. 125. A bill for the relief of Armando S. Arguilles (Rept. No. 207); S. 133. A bill for the relief of Faustino G. Dumaplin, Jr. (Rept. No. 208); S. 402. A bill for the relief of Oh Wha Ja (Penny Korleen Doughty) (Rept. No. 209); S. 442. A bill for the relief of Carleen Coen (Rept. No. 210); S. 449. A bill for the relief of Stanislaw Bialoglowski (Rept. No. 211); S. 450. A bill for the relief of William John Campbell McCaughey (Rept. No. 212); S. 579. A bill for the relief of the State of New Hampshire (Rept. No. 213); S. 582. A bill for the relief of Aleksandr Kaznacheev (Rept. No. 214); S. 585. A bill for the relief of Santiago Woo and Morjin Chee de Woo (Rept. No. 215); S. 586. A bill for the relief of Maria Tsilis (Rept. No. 216); S. 1039. A bill for the relief of Andreina Viselli (Rept. No. 217); S. 1040. A bill for the relief of Giuseppa Rafala Monarca (Rept. No. 218); S. 1064. A bill for the relief of Mr. and Mrs. Juan C. Jacobe, and their four children, Angela Jacobe. Teresita Jacobe, Leo Jacobe, and Ramon Jacobe (Rept. No. 219); S. 1084. A bill for the relief of Shu Helen Chang (Rept. No. 220); S. 1103. A bill for the relief of Kathryn Choi Ast (Rept. No. 221); S.1104. A bill for the relief of Mirhan Gazarian (Rept. No. 222); 10649 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 10650 Approved For Releas62005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 CONCRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE May By Mr. LONG of Missouri, from the Com- m ttee on the Judiciary: F. Russell Millin, of Missouri, to be U.S. ataorney for the western district of Missouri; Francis M. Wilson, of Missouri, to be U.S. mitrahal for the western district of Missouri; and )lin N. Bell, of Missouri, to be U.S. mar- shal for the eastern district of Missouri. :3y Mr. JAVITS, from the Committee on th 3 Judiciary: 3dwin L. Weisl, Jr., of New York, to be an assistant attorney general; Joseph P. Hoey, of New York, to be U.S. at- toiney for the eastern district of New York; an Justin J. Mahoney, of New York, to be U.S. attorney for the northern district of New York. 7Iy Mr. SMATHERS, from the Committee on the Judiciary: Bdward F. Boardman, of Florida, to be U.II. attorney for the middle district of Plc rida. By Mr. KENNEDY of Massachusetts, from the-Committee on the Judiciary: W. Arthur Garrity, Jr., of Massachusetts, to le U.S. attorney for the district of Massa- chi tsetts. Ity Mr. HART, from the Committee on the Jue ticiary rawrence Gubow, of Michigan, to be U.S. attzney for the eastern district of Michigan; anc Earold D. Beaton, of Michigan, to be U.S. att miney for the western district of Michigan. Sy Mr. KASTLAND, from the Committee on the Judiciary: Eon J. Young, of Ohio, to be U.S. district judge for the northern district of Ohio; Junes E. Doyle, of Wisconsin, to be U.S. district judge for the western district of Wisconsin; LaNern R. Dilweg, of Wisconsin, to be a mei Ober of the Foreign Claims Settlement Con mission; Joseph P. Kinneary, of Ohio, to be U.S. attcrney for the southern district of Ohio; Newell A. George, of Kansas, to be U.S. attcrney for the district of Kansas; Emest W. Rivers, of Kentucky, to be U.S. attcrney for the western district of Ken- tucky; Raymond J. Pettine, of Rhode Island, to be U.S. attorney for the district of Rhode Island; Mlles W. Lord, of Minnesota, to be U.S. attorney for the district of Minnesota; Lt?wrence M. Henry, of Colorado, to be U.S, attorney for the district of Colorado; William T. Thurman, of Utah, to be 'U.S. attorney for the district of Utah; John Terrill, of Wyoming, to be U.S. mar- shal for the district of Wyoming; George A. Bayer, of Alaska, to be U.S. mart hal for the district of Alaska; and Ccvell H. Meek, of Iowa, to be U.S. mar- shal for the northern district of Iowa. By Mr. TYDINGS, from the Committee on the Judiciary: Fred Moore Vinson, Jr., of Maryland, to be an A asistant Attorney General. S. 1138. A bill for the relief of Lt. Robert C. Gibson (Rept. No. 223); S. 1197. A bill for the relief of Angelina Martino (Rept. No. 224); 5.1209. A bill for the relief of Sp. Manual D. Racelis (Rept. No. 225) ; 8.1390. A bill for the relief of Rocky River Co. and Macy Land Corp. (Rept. No. 226); S. 1405. A bill for the relief of Jozsef Poz- sonyi and his wife, Agnes Pozsonyi, and their minor child, Ildiko Pozsonyi (Rept. No. 227); S. 1468. A bill for the relief of Dorothy Eyre (Rept. No. 228); S.1498. A bill for the relief of Nikolai Ar- tamonov (Kept. No. 229) ; HR. 1153. An act for the relief of the Jef- ferson Construction Co. (Rept. No. 230); HR. 1870. An act for the relief of Edward G. Morhauser (Rept. No. 231) ;. HR. 2139. An act for the relief of Mrs. Mauricia Reyes (Rept. No. 232); HR. 2354. An act for the relief of William L. Chatelain, U.S. Navy, retired (Rept. No. 233); and H.R. 3995. An act to transfer certain func- tions of the Secretary of the Treasury, and for other purposes (Rept. No. 234). By Mr. EASTLAND, from the Committee on the Judiciary, with an amendment: S. 409. A bill for the relief of Betty Tin- Sang Chan Cho (Rept. No. 235); S.469. A bill for the relief of Timoteo A. Tuazon (Rept. No. 236) ; S.616. A bill for the relief of Miss Choun Seem Kim (Rept. No. 237) ; 8.826. .11. bill for the relief of Har Gobind Khorana (Rept. No. 238); S.1196. A bill for the relief of Wright G. James (Rept. No. 239) ; and S.1388. A bill for the relief of David Lee Bogue (Rept. No. 240) . By Mr, EASTLAND, from the Committee on the Judiciary, with amendments: S. 584. A bill for the relief of Ming Chup Chaw (Rept. No. 241) . By Mr. DIRKSEN, from the Committee on the Judiciary, without amendment: S.313. A bill relating to the appointment of the Director of the Federal Bureau of In- vestigation (Rept. No. 205). By Mr. SMATHERS, from the Committee on the Judiciary, without amendment: S. 516. A bill to amend the joint resolution entitled "Joint resolution to establigh the Saint Augustine Quadricentennial Commis- sion, and for other purposes," approved Au- gust 14, 1962 (76 Stat. 386), to provide that eight members of such Commission shall be appointed by the President, to provide that such Commission shall not terminate prior to December 31, 1966, and to authorize ap- propriations for carrying out the provisions of such joint resolution (Rept. No. 206). By Mr. ERVIN, from the Committee on the Judiciary, with an amendment: H.R. 821. An act for the relief of the town of Kure Beach, N.C. (Rept. No. 204). EXECUTIVE REPORTS OF COMMITTEES As in executive session, The following favorable reports of nominations were submitted: By Mr. MONRONEY, from the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service: One hundred' and seventy-nine postmaster nominations. By Mr. ERVIN, from the Committee on the Judiciary: E. Herman Burrows, of North Carolina, to be U.S. marshal for the middle district of North Carolina; and Paul D. Sossamon, of North Carolina, to be U.S. marshal for the western district of North Carolina. By Mr, DIRKSEN, from the Committee on the Judiciary: Joseph N. Tierney, of Illinois, to be U.S. marshal for the northern district of Illinois. BILLS INTRODUCED Bids were introduced, read the first time and, by unanimous consent, the second time, and referred as follows: By Mr. RUSSELL of South Carolina: S.:001. A bill to provide for the extension of se iond-class mailing privileges to publi- cations of State educational television agen- cies; to the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. (See the remarks of Mr. RUSSELL of South Carol na when he introduced the above bill, whist appear under a separate heading.) By Mr. DIRKSEN: S.2302. A bill to amend the Internal Reve- nue Code of 1954 to allow an individual to deduct from gross income the expenses, not exceeding $300 a year, paid for transporta- 20, 1965 tion to and from his place of abode and his place of business or employment; to the Committee on Finance. (See the remarks of Mr. Draxszx when he introduced the above bill which appear un- der a separate heading.) By Mr. BREWSTER: S. 2003, A bill for the relief of Elmer Royal Fay, Sr.; and S.2004. A bill for Mallalieu: Smith; to Judiciary. the relief of Suzanne the Committee on the 111.1i111= SECOND-CLASS MAILING PRIVI- LEGES FOR PUBLICATIONS OF STATE EDUCATIONAL TELEVI- SION AGENCIES Mr. RUSSELL of South Carolina. Mr. President, I introduce, for appropriate reference, a bill to provide for the ex- tension of second-class mailing privileges to publications of State educational tel- evision agencies. I ask unanimous con- sent that the text of the bill be printed in the RECORD at the conclusion of these remarks. The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. YOUNG of Ohio in the chair) . The bill will be received and appropriately re- ferred; and, without objection, the bill will be printed in the RECORD as re- quested by the Senator from South Carolina. The bill (S. 2001) to provide for the extension of second-class mailing privi- leges to publications of State educational television agencies, introduced by Mr. RUSSELL of South Carolina, was re- ceived, read twice by its title, and re- ferred to the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. Mr. RUSSELL of South Carolina. South Carolina has pioneered in what is generally recognized as the model edu, cational television system in this Nation. Through .this system, every school dis- ? trict in our State is provided with both basic and supplementary educational ma- terial of outstanding quality. More than that, this system has broadened its edu- cational activities to include special pro- grams in medicine, in nursing, in business education, and in public affairs at the adult level. It has been an educational program to serve all segments of our pop- ulation in the fullest possible way. To aid in. its program, to make avail- able to the public its various programs, to provide essential background material, and to acquaint the public to be served with both the nature and the timing of its various programs, our educational television department publishes a news- letter. This is an essential part of bring- ing its activities to the attention of the public and encouraging the full use of educational television programs. Such a newsletter is given general dis- tribution. It represents a public serv- ice made Without charge and has, ac- cordingly, no paid subscription lists. Under a ruling by the Postmaster Gen- eral made under title 39, United States Code, section 4355, this newsletter may not be distributed as second-class matter through the postal service. This section extends this privilege to practically every other educational newsletter. Because the statute does not specifically identify educational television, however, this priv- ilege has been denied our educational television department. This proposed Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP671300446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 lingo CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE May 20, 1965 latures, as the only restricting power is in the Constitution, itself. In Butler against Thompson, affirmed by the Supreme Court, 241 U.S. 937, the Court had before it an act of Congress which was subject to an interpretation that it purported to prohibit the State of Virginia from changing its constitution with regard to certain aspects of its poll tax. The Court, in rejecting such a con- struction of the act, said: This act does not attempt to place Virginia In a straitjacket so far as the election laws of Virginia are concerned. If the act made that attempt, the act would be invalid. S. 1564 does attempt to put selected States in a straitjacket insofar as their election laws are concerned, and is there- fore invalid. CONCLUSION Mr. President, last week the Senate re- jected an amendment on the grounds that it would violate the Constitution. In view of the manifold unconstitutional aspects of the provisions remaining in the bill, one can only conclude that the Senate has resolved to strain at a gnat and swallow the camel, Be assured, however, if the Senate insists on follow- ing this course that the indigestion which results will be of a major magni- tude. THE DOi zyxJ CRISIS Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, as chair- man of the Subcommittee on American Republics Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Relations, I have withheld any extensive comment on the Dominican Re- public crisis until I felt that I had at least been sufficiently briefed so that I had a set of facts that would justify my making some judgments. The members of the subcommittee have done their best to inform them- selves in regard to developments in the Dominican Republic since the President of the United States sent in the 1st Marines to evacuate American nationals. We have asked for briefings, and we have sought the facts; but I am not in a posi- tion this afternoon to say that we are fully apprised of the events that have occurred in Latin America in respect to American activities there. However, I feel not only that I have analyzed a suffi- cient body of information and evidence to justify my presenting these observa- tions this afternoon, but also that I have a clear duty and trust to perform in so doing as chairman of the subcommittee. We are getting a great deal of infor- mation from the press. And as is the case so frequently in recent years, the press accounts of what is going on in the Dominican Republic are quite at vari- ance with what we are told in the official briefings. I desire to have the Senate know that whenever any facts can be presented to me or to my subcommittee that would warrant my forming other opinions and expressing other views, I shall not hesi- tate to do so. At the present time, there is disturb- ing news from the Dominican Republic, as we read it in the press this morning, under the headline, as the Washington Post puts it, "U.S. Troops Aid Junta As Rebels Lose Ground." Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that the story published in the Washington Post be printed in the RECORD at the conclusion of my remarks. The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. BAYH in the chair) . Without objection, it is so ordered. (See exhibit No. 1.) Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, the American people, the Organization of American States?and, indeed, the whole hemisphere?have been repeatedly as- sured that U.S. troops are not in the Dominican Republic to impose our will, but merely to maintain order until the Dominicans themselves can construct a government. However, the story pub- lished in the press this morning is not the first piece of evidence that U.S. troops have been more neutral on the side of the military junta. The RECORD Will show that the day on which the President of the United States sent marines into the Dominican Re- public I spoke on the floor of the Sen- ate and pointed out that under our in- ternational law the President had the right?and, I believe, in view of the cir- cumstances existing?the clear duty, to send American troops into the Dominican Republic for the limited purpose of evac- uating American nationals and the na- tionals of other countries who wished to associate themselves with the evacua- tion. I made that statement because we are already receiving criticism over the wires?some of it bitter?from Latin- American leaders in Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Peru, and other Latin-American countries protesting what they call a return to the Marine intervention policies of the United States from times past when our for- eign policy was branded derisively throughout Latin America as gunboat diplomacy. I said on the floor of the Senate that afternoon that I would like to assume that the criticisms that were so soon emanating from Latin America were made by Latin American allies who had not been informed, as the President had been informed, by the military junta that it could no longer give the assurance of protection to American nationals and the nationals of other countries. The criti- cism that was coming over the wires from Latin America used a fighting word in Latin America, in which the criticism of the United States is very often framed and phrased?the word "intervention." We all know the sensitivity of Latin Americans in regard to U.S. in- tervention. We have some black and sorry and bloody chapters in American history in regard to our policies in Latin America. We have nothing to be proud of concerning some of our so-called legitimate interventions in Latin America. Mr. President, as I argued on the floor of the Senate that Friday afternoon, when the President sent our marines into the Dominican Republic, intervention is not the term to apply to a situation in which the head of a state sends airplanes or vessels and the necessary personnel to take out American citizens whom the Government cannot protect. In that speech I completely supported the President's right and, as I said, duty, as the RECORD will show, to send marines in to take out those American citizens. However, after reading the criticisms from our Latin American allies, I also, in that speech, warned that we would be in violation of international law, in viola- tion of our commitments and obligations under the Organization of American States' Charter, which we signed, and in violation of the Rio Pact if we remained after U.S. nationals had been removed, or if we took sides in the dispute, or if we decided for ourselves what form of gov- ernment should be established in the Dominican Republic. I am sorry to say that as of this hour, in my judgment, the evidence is over- whelmingly against the United States in respect to our living up to our clear in- ternational obligation not to intervene by taking sides or aiding one side in a revolution in Latin America. As the result of the course of action that President Johnson has followed in the Dominican Republic, over and be- yond exercising his right to evacuate American citizens, we probably have set back our relations in Latin America 25 years, so far as the good neighbor policy and the Alliance for Progress objectives are concerned. I am sad about that. It is unnecessary, uncalled for, and unfor- tunate. It is to the credit of the President of the United States that he immediately called upon the Organization of Ameri- can States and all the members thereof to assume their obligations under the charter and under the Rio Pact and other agreements that have been signed by members of the Organization of American States. I quite agree with the attitude of the President of the United States, or my in- terpretation of the attitude of the Pres- ident of the United States, as I have read his comments in the press, that the Organization of American States did not act with great dispatch. I go further than that, speaking for myself, by say- ing that I find myself very much in sym- pathy with the observations made in edi- torials in the New York Times which I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD at the conclusion of my remarks, along with some observations that have been made by several colum- nists, including Arnold Toynbee and others bearing upon this matter. The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- out objection, it is so ordered. (See exhibit No. 2.) Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I am sorry that the Organization of American States did not act with greater dispatch and, in my opinion, is still not acting with adequate dispatch. Our good allies to the south of us must face up to the fact that it will not be possible to maintain a desirable stability in the Western Hemisphere, that we shall not be able to prevent the effectuation of serious threats to free- dom of constitutional government in the Western Hemisphere unless every signa- Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP671300446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2(105/05/12 : CORD _A_-_RDP671300446R000500120023-9 May 20, 1965 caNuttr,&,SiorsiAL RECORD ? SENATE 10729 certain of the States which fall within certain prescribed statistical formulas while feaving unimpaired the authority of other States to impose such voting re- quirements, In the case of Coyle V. Smith, 221 US. 559, the Supreme Court stated: This Union was and is a Union of States. equal in power, dignity, and authority, each competent to exert that residuum of sover- eignty not delegated to the United States by the Constitution itself. To this we may add that the constitutional equality of the States is essential to the harmonious operation of the scheme upon Which the Republic was organized. When that equality disappears, we may remain a free people, but the Union will not be the Union of the Constitution. Fifth, S. 1564 violat...s the provisions of section 2, artcile IV, guaranteeing equal privileges and immunities to the citizens Of the several States by depriving the citizens of certain statistically selected States of the constitutional privilege of setting qualifications for electors. Section 2 of article IV of the Constitu- tion provides: The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States. By invalidating and nullifying the privilege of the citizens of certain States to set qualifications for electors, the bill would deprive the citizens of certain States of privileges protected by the Constitution and which would remain in force with regard to citizens of other States. Sixth, 8. 1564 constitutes a bill of at- tainder in violation of clause 3, section 9, article I, of the Constitution. Article I, section 9, clause 3, of the Consitution provides that: No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. The Supreme Court, in Cummings v. Missouri, 71 U.S. 277, defined a bill of attainder as follows: A bill of attainder is a legislative act, which inflicts punishment without a ju- dicial trial. These bills * * ? may be directed against * * * a whole class. Punishment * * * embraces deprivation or suspension of political or civil rights. In describing bills of attainder, the Court, in the same case said: The legislative body in addition to its le- gitimate function, exercises the power and office of judge. * * * It pronounces the guilt of the party, without any of the forms of safeguards of trial; it determines the suf- ficiency of the proof produced. ? ? ? It fixes the degree of punishment in accordance with its own notions of the enormity of the offense. The bill convicts the citizens of cer- tain States of violations of the 15th amendment to the Constitution without a trial, or any of its safeguards. The Congress would by this bill deter- mine the sufficiency of proof of guilt by the imposition of a statistical formula, rather than by proof of actual fact. The punishment imposed is the de- privation from the selected States of the political right to fix qualifications for voters. No. 91---11 Seventh, S. 1564 constitutes an ex post facto Isw in violation of clause 3, section 9, article I, of the Constitution. would impose a punishment-- deprive tion of the political right to fix qualifications for electors--on the citi- zens those States or political sub- divisior,s in which less than 50 percent of the voting age population registered or voted ill November 1964. Punilamient is inflicted for the failure to vote, the set percentage. When the act of not voting in sufficient numbers was committed in November 1964, the act cal not constitute a punishable offense._ This bill, by making action committed In November 1964 punishable, which was not punishable when committed, consti- tutes ail ex post facto law. Eighth, S. 1564 violates the due process require.nents of the fifth amendment as well ai the privileges and immunities provisions of article IV, section 2, by at- tempting to establish a classification on an irre3uttable presumption. The till establishes an irrebuttable pre- sumption that when less than 50 percent of the roting age population either was not reg Stered or did not vote in the No- vember 1964 election, in States or sub- divisiors in which more than 20 percent of the population by the 1960 census was nonwhite, that there have been and are violations of the 15th amendment. In M?Laughlin V. Florida, 13 L. Ed. 2d 675, ths Supreme Court stated: Classilcation must always rest upon some differenc? which bears a reasonable and just relation to the act in respect to which the classificition is proposed, and can never be made arbitrarily and without any such basis * * albitrary selection can never be justi- fied by (ailing it classification. In Hainer V. Donnan, 285 U.S. 312, the Court 1: eld that a classification could not be based upon conclusive presumption. Ninth, S. 1564 violates the due process provisions of the 15th amendment, with- draws rights and privileges without af- fording the right to a hearing. Under section 3(a) of the bill, legally imposed voting qualification require- ments imposed by the citizens of certain States would be invalidated and the right of the citizens of those States to fix voter qualifications withdrawn upon specified certification of statistical in- formation by the Attorney General and/ or the Director of Census. The States and subdivisions affected, and the citi- zens th3reof, would have no opportunity for a hearing before the imposition of the per alty. In Garfield v. United States, 211 U.S. 219, the: Supreme Court stated: The r ght to be heard before property is taken CT rights or privileges withdrawn which hive been previously awarded is of the essence mi due process of law. It is unneces- sary to recite the decisions in which this prIncipli has been repeatedly recognized. It Is enough to say that its binding obligation has never been questioned in this Court. Tenth:, S. 1564 violates the due proc- ess provisions of the fifth amendment because .it is lacking in the requisite pre- cision iequired of statutes which affect the haste freedoms. Section 3(a) of the bill purports in certain selected States and subdivisions to invalidate and suspend powers re- served to the citizens of the several States; namely, the power to establish voter cipalifications which do not dis- criminate on account of race, color, or sex. The power to establish voter qualifica- tions was Specifically reserved to the States and- to the people of the States by the 10th amendment, and a more basic freedom is hard to imagine. In Aptheker v. Secretary of State, 84 S. Ct. 1668, the Supreme Court held that "precision must be the touchstone or leg- islation so affecting basic freedoms." Section 3(a) is so ambiguous as to Completely fail this test. This section purports to invalidate the application of "tests or devices" only in those States or political subdivisions in which less than 50 percent of the persons of voting age either were registered or voted in the elections of November 1964. The ambiguity is illustrated by the fol- lowing question. In a State in which less than 50 percent of the persons of voting age voted in November 1964, and in which the nonwhite population was more than 20 percent of the total population according to the 1960 census, would the use and enforcement of literacy tests be invalidated in a county within the State In which less than 20 percent of the total population was nonwhite and in which county more than 50 percent of the per- sons of voting age voted in. the presi- dential election of 1964? The ambiguity is apparently inten- tional, for the consequences of precision on this point would be fatal to the con- stitutional issues of the bill. Eleventh, S. 1564 violates the due process provisions of the fifth amend- ment in that it flouts the due process re- quirement of presumption of innocence until proven guilty. One of the most fundamental elements of due process is the presumption of in- nocence until there is proof of guilt. Under the bill, the people of those States and political subdivisions which fall within the selective formula of sec- tion 3(a) would be presumed guilty of the 15th amendment violations until the ac- cused initiate, an action in court to prove their innocence. To escape the punishment prescribed by the act, States and subdivisions would be required to initiate an action in which they would have to carry the burden of proof of their innocence. Twelfth, S. 1564 violates the Constitu- tion by imposing a prior restraint on a prima facie lawful and constitutional act of State legislatures. The bill would impose a prior restraint on the legislative act of selected States which touched the field of voting quali- fications or procedures,. The bill would prohibit the enforcement of such State legislative acts until the Attorney Gen- eral or a specified court, in an action ini- tiated by the State, held such acts to be constitutional. The Congress does net have the power to restrict the authority of State legis- Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 ApprovedcFoo?lalfgroianyea0-9M/a446R000500120023-9 May 2O,.1965 10731 tory to the Organization of American States Charter throws away the escape- ism of "let George do it." We are all in the same international boat in the Western Hemisphere, we free nations, and that is why I believe the Organization of American States ought to set up a peacekeeping corps, a hem- ispheric police organization, so that no nation, particularly the United States, will be Put in the position where, if threats to the peace are to be prevented, it will have to fulfill the function of "let- ting George do it." But it is a deeper problem than that, Mr. President. It is too bad that the Or- ganization of American States has not sent in an effective peacekeeping corps. It is too bad the junta and rebel forces have not given heed to the pleas of the group given the assignment by the Organization of American States to seek a cease-fire. For that matter, I think it is most un- fortunate that the Organization of American States has not given overt demonstration of delight and satisfac- tion in having the United Nations in- terest itself in the threat to the peace that has arisen in the Dominican Re- public. It is interesting to read some of the newspaper editorials and correspondents' stories based upon a false major premise that the United Nations has no right to go in so long as a regional body is not deemd to have exhausted all its proce- dures and influences. The setting up of a regional organiza- tion, be it the Organization of American States, NATO, SEATO, or any other regional group, does not supersede the United Nations in its obligations. Quite to the contrary. The United Nations has a right?and I believe, on the basis of the facts that have developed in most of the threats to the peace in various parts of the world, it has an obligation and duty?to make itself immediately avail- able to any regional organization to strengthen the arm of that regional or- ganization in taking the necessary steps to maintain peace. I was very much disappointed in Mr. Adlai Stevenson, just as I have been dis- appointed in him before, in the past 2 Years, as our Ambassador to the United Nations. It was perfectly obvious in the Security Council that he was arguing in a manner that left him open to only one interpretation, if the English language is to mean anything?namely, that he was representing the position of the United States that the United Nations should not interest itself so long as the Organi- zation of American States was express- ing some interest in the Dominican crisis. The position of the Ambassador, speaking for the United States in the United Nations, should have been exactly the opposite. Ambassador Stevenson should have had instructions, and we ought to have evidence that he made the recommendation that the United Nations should join the Organization of Ameri- can States in using peacekeeping facil- ities available in the United Nations to try to resolve the threat to the peace in the Dominican Republic by way of peace- ful procedures rather than bullets. But be that as it May, I have a great deal of sympathy for the President of the United States, if I correctly interpret the newspaper accounts of his attitude that the Organization of American States has not been the most effective instrumen- tality in trying to resolve the crisis in the Dominican Republic. However, I will not give up. I am a stanch supporter of the objectives of the Organization of American States. I want to see it strengthened, not weakened. I urge now that all the nations in the Western Hemisphere that have signed the Charter, including the United States, resolve to do what they can to make up for lost time in connection with the Dominican Republic crisis, and urge the United Nations to do everything it can do and to be as effective as possible under the circumstances that confront us in this crisis. We have troubles enough in the Domi- nican Republic?and throughout Latin America, for that matter?without com- pounding them by confirming the wide- spread Latin American suspicion that we are really on the side of such un- savory, reactionary characters as An- tonio Imbert Barrera who indiscrimi- nately brands all his opponents as Com- munists. One of the greatest mistakes we made was more than a year ago when our Government recognized diplomatically the military junta in Latin America. Once before I gave the Senate an ac- count of that situation, but I repeat it in abbreviated form today, because it ought to be made a part of this speech if my position on this matter is to be understood by those who care to under- stand it. More than a year ago I attended a briefing in the Cabinet Room in the White House, attended by several other Senators as well as by the Acting Secre- tary of State, Mr. Ball, and the then Acting Assistant Secretary of State for Latin American Affairs, Mr. Edwin Mar- tin. I can say this because the Informa- tion as to the purpose of that meeting was made very well known at the time, or shortly after the meeting, by infor- mation media that did not stem at all from the Congress of the United States. At that meeting the representatives of the State Department recommended Immediate recognition of the military junta in the Dominican Republic, repre- senting that another coup was about to take place that would be bloody and anti- American, and that one of the reasons why the coup, to be conducted by the military junta, was to take place was that the United States had not rec- ognized it. I became lost in those semantics. I could not see any thread of cause-to- effect reasoning in such a proposal which would justify my reaching the conclusion that I should join in the recommenda- tion that the military junta be recog- nized. The argument, it seemed to me, should have caused a warning flag to go up in the thinking of the Participants in the conference that we certainly are not going to recognize de facto governments, even if they are de facto, because they seem to be out of sorts with us because we have not recognized them prior thereto. The argument is always the argument heard when the State Department wishes to alibi and rationalize and seek to ex- cuse its following an unsound course of action in recognizing a military junta, that the only way we can have stability in a strife-torn Latin American coun- try, or any other country in the world, is to give our diplomatic support to mili- tary dictators, which we have been doing in Latin America for a long time past? sometimes to our everlasting discredit and national shame. As I listened to the rationalizations of the State Department, which for a long time has followed the course of support- ing strong men in uniform in instance after instance in Latin America, I real- ized that this was another example of a proposal to repeat that costly mistake. When the President called upon me for my advice on the recommendation that was made, I became the only Senator in the group who strongly urged him not to follow the advice. I pointed out that in my opinion it would play directly into the hands of the Communists, that it would weaken every free government in Latin America, and that it would increase the danger to every free government in Latin Amer- ica from two sides; namely, the Com- munists and the, military. I pointed out that we should support constitutionalism in the Dominican Republic, not military tyranny, that we should be supporting constitutionalism in the Dominican Re- public, not a military dictatorship; and that our policy should be one of saying to the people of the Dominican Republic and its military junta leaders that the only government the United States will recognize in the Dominican Republic will be a constitutional government when the country returns to constitu- tionalism. I pointed out further that I held no brief for President Bosch, that I knew nothing about the allegations as to his philosophy or his inefficiency, but, nei- ther had I heard of any proof offered before my committee which sustained the propaganda circulated in this coun- try by supporters of the military junta, that Bosch deserved to be overthrown. I have had no proof since which would Justify support of the proposition that Bosch should have been overthrown. I have studied rather carefully everything which has been offered as so-called evi- dence. I have yet to listen, to read, or have submitted to me by way of exhibit, one scintilla of evidence to show that former President Bosch of the Domini- can Republic is a Communist. I further pointed out that Bosch was out of the country, but that the Consti- tution of the Dominican Republic is not out of the country, and that the Consti- tution of the Dominican Republic calls for a succession to the vacancy which has been created. The Congress of the Dominican Republic did not flee the Dominican Republic. It remained, and Is still there. I pointed out further in the Cabinet meeting that, in my judgment, we should not recognize the military junta headed Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 Approved For Relea_se 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 1_072 U)DiVRESSIONAL RECORDSNATE May R.0, 1965 _ . by Gen, Wessin y Wessin, au Amer- ican-trained Dominican (neer who, in- terestingly enough, is a man heavily financed by American business interests in the Dominican Republic which en- abled him' to execute the military coup when the Bosch regime was overthrown. There is no clenying that in overthrow- ing the Bosch regime, General Wessin y Wessin and his military coconspirators were motivated primarily because of the fact that both President Bosch and the overwhelming majority of the Congress of the Dominican Republic were in favor of applying the good American constitu- tional principle; namely, that the mili- tary should be brought under the control and direction of the civilian government. What is wrong with that? We should have supported that great principle. We, as a great democratic Nation, lead the world as an example of constitutional excellence in government, so far, as our domestic policy is con- cerned?and note my qualification, Mr. President, so far as our domestic policy Is concerned?but, unfortunately, we do not have a clean record of supporting cOnstitutionalism so far as our foreign toolicy is concerned. There, we are a "Jekyll and Hyde" as a nation in foreign policy. Too frequently we support dic- tatorships and military tyrants to over- throw constitutionalism. We try to excuse our actions on the ground that we must bend the knee at the altar of in- ternational political e ? xpediency Non- sense. I urged further that we make very clear that we are not going to recog- nize a military junta, but that we would recognize a government in the Domini- can Republic under which its people are given the opportunity to restore their congress to power and to restore their constitution to effective operation. I said further to the President of the United States at that conference: You have the wrong group here to advise you. This is not the group from which you Should be getting advice on this issue. You Should at least get advice from another group. 'rou should seek the advice of the Presidents of Chile, Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, and Costa Rica. You should seek the advice of the former Governor of Puerto Rico, Mufioz Marin, and the ex-President of Costa Rica, Jose Figueres. I know that time does not permit to get that advice, but you can take judicial notice of what it would be. For those democrats in Latin America, those supporters of freedom in Latin Amer- ica, those Latin Americans with a great exe- cutive record of seeking to set up constitu- tionalism in their countries, would, in my opinion, unanimously, recommend against the advice given to you in this conference by the State Department and my Senate colleagues. I can hear them say: "You recognize the military junta headed by this mili- tary tyrant, Gen. Wessin y Wessin and his coconspirators, and you will let down freedom in Latin America. You will demonstrate that when the chips of freedom are down, the United States cannot be counted upon to support free- dom. You will play into the hands of every potential military junta in every country in Latin America?and there are very few countries in which there Is hot always the constant threat that the military may still feel its power and take over. "You will play into the hands of the Communists. You will weaken free gov- ernments in Latin America, because you will place them in greater danger, by these examples, of being overthrown." One of the most recent examples is Honduras. At the very time when we were meeting in the Cabinet room, there was great concern as to what would be the American diplomatic policy toward Honduras. We made the same mistake in regard to Honduras. We ended rec- ognizing the military tyranny in the Dominican Republic, and we followed it by recognizing the military tyranny in Honduras. Let the RECORD show what the facta were about our Siamese twin recognition at that time, hitched together with the Dominican Republic and Guatemala. Ten days before the presidential elec- tion in Honduras, when a popular can- didate for the Presidency was known to be far ahead in that election, and would be swept into power by an overwhelming vote in a free election?there was no omestion about this being a free elec- tion?the Honduran Government was pverthrown by a military junta. Why? The major reason, I am satisfied, was that this candidate for the Presidency Was running on a platform the major Plank of which set forth the good Amen- an constitutional constitutional principle, namely, that -4lie military ought to be brought under the control of the civilian government. That is the last thing that the Hon- turan military proposed to have happen. "io they staged a revolution. They over- shrew the government. The candidate or the Presidency had to flee the coun- lry. There has been no free election ,3ince. The United States, in spite of that black chapter of military tyranny in .5onduras, shortly after it recognized the Dominican military junta, recognized the Inilitary junta in Honduras. By "recognition," of course, we also )nefin "aid." It is never enough for us to recognize; we believe we have to finance i,ny Junta we recognize. ' Senators should go with me into Latin- American countries and listen te some of the biting and bitter criticism of our 13-overnment on the part of our friends In Latin America on the course of mis- taken policy in Latin America that the tohnson administration has followed tince it came into office in respect to the matter of recognizing military juntas. Of course, It can be said it was done by others, too. It was. That does not justify this administration's doing it. That happens to be some of the back- pound of- the Dominican situation. I Eln very sorry that the Johnson admin.. i3tration made those two inexcusable ciplomatic mistakes. A part of the rea- son for the problem in the Dominican Republic today goes back to both of those riistakes. We cannot follow a policy cutside the Dominican Republic of play- i ig "footsie" with military tyrants and rot have it wash off onto us by way of justifiable criticism in respect to our olicies in the Dominican Republic. I am not arguing that in the Domini- man Republic we should support the reb- els, either. I am arguing for a truly neu- tral position. I am merely saying that we should avoid taking sides in the hatred and bitterness that prevail in the Domiincan Republic. I also point out that if maintaining order was one of the reasons why we went into the Dominican Republic, we have been doing a rather poor job of it. The course we seem to be pursuing in the Dominican Republic threatens our Position, not only in the Dominican Re- public, but also throughout the hemi- sphere. It threatens to undo the slow and painful gains which have been made through the Alliance For Progress. I hope very Much that we shall reconsider this course before it is toolate. AMERICAN INVOLVE HEIST IN VIETNAM The actions of the United States in Vietnam and the Dominican Republic are linked in a number of significant ways.. Consider, for example, the inter- national legal implications of American involvement in both places. The Department of State, at the re- quest of the Committee on Foreign Rela- tions, has prepared what purport to be legal justifications for the use of Amer- ican Armed Forces in Vietnam and in the Dominican Republic. I ask that these memorandums be in- serted in the RECORD at this point. There being no objection, the memo- randums were ordered to be printed in the Rscoaa, as follows; LEGAL BASIS FOR UNITED STATES ACTIONS AGAINST NORTH VIETNAM I. THE ISSUE This memorandum considers the question whether United States-South Vietnamese action. against 'military targets in North Vietnam are justified in international law, particularly in light of the United Nations Charter and the 196t Geneva accords on Vietnam. It concludes that. these actions are fully justified. IL. THE FACTS On February 27, the Department of State issued "Aggression From the North," a report of North Vietnam's campaign to conquer South Vietnam. That report establishes be- yond question that North Vietnam is carry- ing out a carefully conceived plan of aggres- sion against the South. The evidence shows that the hard core of the Communist forces attacking South Viet- nam were trained in the North and ordered into the South by Hanoi. It shows that the key leadership of the Vietcong, the officers and much of the cadre, many of the tech- nicians, political organizers, and propa- gandists have come from the North and operate under Hanoi's direction. It shows that the training of essential military per- sonnel and their infiltration Into the South is directed by the military high command in Hanoi. It shows that many of the weap- ons and much of the ammunition and other supplies Used by the Vietcong have been sent into South Vietnam from the North. The evidence plainly indicates that under Hanoi's overall direction the Communists have estab- lished an extensive machine, both political and military, for carrying on the war against South Vietnam. The history of Hanoi's campaign to con- quer South Vietnam is a long one. It was documented earlier in a report entitled "A Threat to the Peace" issued by the Depart- ment of State In December 1961. In a spe- cial report of June 1962, the International Control Commission in Vietnam concluded Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2005/05/12: CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 May 20; 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE 10733 that there was "sufficient evidence to show beyond reasonable doubt" that North Viet- nam was sending arras and men into South Vietnam to carry out subversion with the aim of overthrowing the legal government there, in violation of the 1954 Geneva accords. To meet the threat created by these viola- tions of the Geneva accords and by North Vietnam's aggressive intervention contrary to general international law, the Government of the Republic of Vietnam requested U.S. assistance. We had been providing Vietnam - since 1950-51 with both economic and mili- tary aid. This assistance was continued after the conclusion of the 1954 Geneva accords, within the limitations prescribed by those agreements. It had become apparent, how- ever, by 1961 that this limited assistance was not sufficient to meet the growing Commu- nist threat. Consequently, in 1961, the Gov- ernment of the Republic of Vietnam re- quested additional aid from the United States. The United States responded with increased supplies and with larger numbers of training and advisory personnel to assist the Vietnamese forces in prosecuting the wax against the Vietcong. This response was pro- portioned with the design of sustaining Viet- nam in its defense against aggression with- out extending the conflict beyond the borders of the country. The Communists, however, increased their intervention without regard to obligations under international law and international agreements by. which they were bound. They stepped up the assistance from the north and increased the use of neighboring Laos as an infiltration route, in violation of the freshly concluded 1962 Geneva agreement for the settlement of the Laotian question. In more recent months North Vietnam has sharply increased the infiltration of men and equipment into the south, and virtually all personnel are coming in are natives of North Vietnam. Dramatically illustrative of Hanoi's role is the discovery along the South Viet- namese coast on February 16, 1965, of a huge cargo of arms, ammunition, and other sup- plies, delivered by ship from North Vietnam. Major attacks by organized units are being launched against government forces. The North Vietnamese have even attacked U.S. vessels in international waters in the Gulf Of Tonkin. Thus, what began as covert and indirect aggression has become open armed aggres- sion. This aggression has been carried out across the internationally agreed demarca- tion line of 1954 between North and South Vietnam, and aeross international frontiers between Vietnam and Laos. III. INTERNATIONAL LAW?THE U.N. CHARTER AS has been seen, North Vietnam is engaged in a continuing armed aggression against South Vietnam in violation of international agreements and international law. This being the case, what are the Republic of Vietnam and the United States entitled to do under international law by way of response? Under international law, the victim of armed aggression is obviously permitted to defend itself and to organize a collective self- defense effort in which others who are will- ing may join, This right is recognized in article 51 of the United Nations Charter, Ar- ticle 51 states: "Nothing in the present charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense if an armed attack occurs against a member of the United Na- tions, until the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to maintain inter- national peace and security. Measures taken by the members in the exercise of this right of self-defense shall be inunediately re- ported to the Security Council and shall not in any way affect the authority' and respon- sibility of the Security Council under the present charter to take at any time such actions as it deems necessary in order to maintain or restore international peace and security." As has been seen above, the whole course of conduct of North Vietnam, particularly as it has evolved in recent months, adds up to open armed attack within the meaning of article 51. Indeed it is more than a single armed attack: it is a continuing program of armed aggression carried on across inter- national frontiers and established demarca- tion lines. In these circumstances, South Vietnam has requested and received assist- ance from the United States and other na- tions in a collective defense effort. Article 2, paragraph 4, of the charter is also relevant to the Vietnam situation. Ar- ticle 2, paragraph 4 provides that "All mem- bers shall refrain in their international re- lations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations." In the first place, it is plain that the use of force against territorial integrity and polit- ical independence has been initiated by North Vietnam and not by anyone else. Second, paragraph 4 of article 2 of the charter does not place an absolute pro- hibition on the use of force. It permits the use of force in a manner consistent with the purposes and principles of the charter, Moreover, the charter itself specifically pro- vides for the use of force in certain circum- stances?action through the United Nations itself, action through regional arrangements and action in self-defense. The actions of the United States and the 'Republic of Viet- nam, being defensive in character and de- signed to resist armed aggression, are wholly consistent with the purposes and principles of the charter and specifically with article 2, paragraph 4. It was as a measure of self-defense under article 51 that the United States responded in August 1961 to the North Vietnamese attack on our vessels in the Gulf of Tonkin. Those measures were immediately reported to the Security Council in accordance with article 51. The Security Council did not see fit to take any action to maintain or re- store international peace and security in the area. Indeed, North Vietnam refused to participate in the deliberations of the Security Council and explicity denied the right of the Council to examine this ques- tion. The attacks against South Vietnam have mounted in intensity since August. In these circumstances, it has been mutually agreed between the Government of South Vietnam and the U.S. Government that fnr- ther means of providing for the collective defense of South Vietnam are required. Prompt defensive action has been decided upon, and airstrikes have been made against military installations and facilities in North Vietnam which support the aggression against the South. The actions taken con- stitute a limited and measured response, fit- ted to the situation that called for it. Again, these measures have been reported to the Security Council in accordance with ar- ticle 51 of the United Nations Charter. As yet, the Council has taken no action to main- tain an effective peace in the area. Until the regime in Hanoi decides to cease its aggres- sive intervention in South Vietnam, or until effective steps are taken to maintain inter- national peace and security in the area, the Governments of the United States and the Republic of South Vietnam have every right to continue their individual and collective self-defense against the Communist armed aggression coming from North Vietnam. IV. THE GENEVA ACCORDS It has been demonstrated that the North Vietnamese have repeatedly violated the 1954 Geneva accords in a most serious and flagrant manner. In so doing, of course, North Viet- nam is ignoring an international agreernent which it signed and by Which it is bound. In addition, by the continued presence in neighboring Laos of North Vietnamese forces and their use of Laotian territory for infil- tration into South Vietnam, North Vietnam is violating solemn commitments which it undertook in the 1962 Geneva agreements to refrain from such activities. In these circumstances, international law recognizes the principle that a material breach of a treaty by one party entitles other parties at least to withhold compliance with an equivalent, corresponding or related pro- vision until the other party is prepared to observe its obligations. The actions of the Republic of Vietnam and the United States are fully consistent with this principle. North Vietnamese viola- tione of the Geneva agreements have created an immediate danger to the continued inde- pendence and integrity of the Republic of Vietnam. The response of South Vietnam and the United States is designed to meet this threat created by North Vietnam's dis- regard of the accords. The extensive North Vietnamese violations certainly justify South Vietnam at least to withhold compliance with those provisions of the accords which limit its ability to protect its very existence. Both South Vietnam and the United States have made clear that the actions which they have taken will no longer be necessary if North Vietnam would comply with the ac- cords. LEGAL BASIS FOB U.S. ACTIONS IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC U.S. action in the Dominican Republic was emergency action taken to protect lives and to give the Inter-American system a chance to deal with a situation within its competence. The United States initially landed troops In the Dominican Republic under conditions in which immediate action was essential to preserve the lives of foreign nationals?na- tionals of the United States and of many other countries. This kind of action is justi- fied both on humanitarian and legal grounds. The United States continued its presence in the Dominican Republic for the additional purpose of preserving the capacity of the OAS to function, in the manner intended by its charter?to achieve peace and justice by securing a cease-fire and by reestablishing orderly processes within which Dominicans can choose their own government, free from outside interference. With the adoption by the OAS Meeting of Foreign Ministers of a resolution providing for the establishment of an inter-American armed force, the U.S. military elements in the Dominican Republic will be included in that force. The primary purposes for which the American States established the OAS, set forth in article 1 of its charter, are "to achieve an order of peace and justice, to pro- mote their solidarity, to strengthen their col- laboration, and to defend their sovereignty, their territorial integrity and their inde- pendence." The OAS thus exists to assist the American States to maintain their rights to defend their integrity and to provide for their preservation and prosperity. The ac- tion of the United States has given the organs of the OAS the essential time in which to consider the situation in the Domin- ican Republic and to determine means of preserving the rights that country has under the Inter-American system. The propriety of a regional agency "dealing with such mat- ters relating to the maintenance of interna- tional peace and security as are appropriate for regional actidn" is expressly recognized by article 52 of the Charter of the United Nations. II The initial landing of U.S. Marine forces during the night of April 28-29 was ordered Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP671300446R000500120023-9 10734 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE May 2-0, 1965 by the President of the United States to protect the lives of U.S. nationals and those of Other countries. The action was taken after the United States had been officially notified by Dominican authorities that they were nO longer able to preserve order. The factual circumstances of the breakdown of order in the Dominigan Republican were such that the landing could not have been .delayed beyond the tirne it actually took place without needless sacrifice of many :more lives?both foreign nationals and Dominican citizens?entailing serious danger to the peace and security of the hemisphere. After U.S, forces arrived in the Donlivrican Republic, it became apparent that the struc- tine of goverrunent had broken down to a point where there was not only no authority capable of preserving order but also no Mechanism by which the Dominican people could freely choose their own government. The same evening when U.S. forces were initially dispatched to Santo Domingo, the 'United States requested an urgent meeting of the Council of the OAS. A meeting of the Council was held on the morning of April 29, and organs of the OAS proceeded to meet in Gontinuing session thereafter on the Domin- ican situation. The United States refused to observe merely the form of legalistic procedures to the detriment of fundamental rights of a nation under the OAS Charter. On April 28 the military junta in Santo Domingo, which had proclaimed itself to be the government, addressed a request to the United States to send In Armed Forces and crush the rebels. The United States recognized this, group as the government of the Dominican Republic, and could have responded to their request. The United Statee dedlined to fol- low this course because it would have amounted to taking sides in the internal struggle and would, therefore, have resulted in aetuali Interference with the freedom. of the Dominican people to choose their own government. Such a course of, action would have been inconsistent with the principles that govern the Inter-American system. The obligations of nonintervention con- tained in articles 15 and ,17 of the OAS Char- -ter did not preclude the United States plac- ing Armed Forces in the Dominican Repub- lic for the humanitarian purpose of saving /Ives. Nor, did those obligations require the United States to withdraw its forces in the days immediately after their landing, when it was entirely apparent that there was no local means of keeping order and providing essential public services in Santo Domingo. In fact, it would hare been irresponsible for the ;United, States to withdraw its forces when such a course would have endangered seriously the lives of foreign nationals not yet evacuated and would haveled to a full- scale resnmption of bloody civil war among the contending Dominican factions. The United States, in maintaining elements of its Armed Forces in the Dominican Repub- lic, aeted to preserve the situation so that the organs of the Inter-American system could carry out their intended responsibil- ities under inter-American treaties and assist the people of the Dominican Republic In reestablishing democratic government under conditions of public order. The actions of the United States were designed to help give effect to the resolu- tions adopted by the OAS. These resolutions (1) called for a cease-fire; (2) appealed for the establishment of an international neu- tral _zone of refuge; (3) dispatched a five- member commission to the Dominican Re- public; and (.I), called upon member govern- ments to supply food and medicine to the people of the Dominican 5(0-labile. Without continued action by the United States, the OAS machinery could not have become effective. Acting upon the recommendation of the five-man commission, the meeting of Foreign ? Ministers resolved on May 8 to request the -establishment of an Inter-American armed -force. This resolution recognized that the formation of the force would "signify ipso facto the transformation of the forces pres- ently in Dominican territory into a force which will not be that of one state or group ..of states but that of the OAS, which Organi- zation is charged with the responsibility of interpreting the democratic will of its mem- bers." The meeting of Foreign Ministers is now considering other reports and recommenda- tions from the five-Member commission on the preservation of public order and the for- mation of a new Dominican Government. All of these efforts would have been frus- trated if the United States had withdrawn Its forces and thus invited a renewal of Anarchy. us There is a further consideration which supports the action taken by the 'United States. Available information has suggested that what began as a democratic revolution fell into the hands of a band of Communist conspirators. If a movement under such control had succeeded in establishing itself as the government of the Dominican Re- public, the seizure of power by a totalitarian regime would in all likelihood have been irreversible. The OAS would have been de- prived of any realistic possibility of assisting the Dominican people to determine freely bheir own political future. Rather than let such a risk materialize, the United States acted to preserve the situation pending con- sideration by the OAS and the taking of such steps as the OAS might recommend. Participation in the Inter-American sys- tem, to be meaningful, must take into ac- sount the modern day reality that an ittempt by a conspiratorial group Inspired from the outside to seize control by force esin be an assault upon the Independence and integrity of a state. The rights and ob- Agations of all members of the OAS must 'ea viewed in light of this reality. "The American States have formally recog- iiized the dangers of international com- munism to the inter-American system. The 3voreign Ministers of the American Repub- /Ica, meeting at Punta del Este in January 3382 declared: "The principles of com- munism are incompatible with the principles Cf the inter-American system" and "adher- (nee by any member of the Organization of /merle= States to Marxism-Leninism is in- compatible with the inter-American system end the alinement of such a government ^dth the Communist bloc breaks the unity and solidarity of the hemisphere." This fleeting of Foreign Ministers therefore ^ rged "the member states to take those steps that they may consider appropriate for their ticlividual or collective self-defense, and to esoperate, as may be necessary or desirable, t) strengthen their capacity to counteract tareats or acts of aggression, subversion, or obher dangers to peace and security resulting Mark the continued intervention in this heinisphere of Sino-Soviet powers, in ac- cYrclance with the obligations established in titaties and agreements such as the Charter o? the Organization of American States and tlie Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance." iv The United States continues to support Hi cOranaitmerit to the preservation of the ritht of all free peoples in this hemisphere to choose their own course, without falling wey to international conspiracy from any q- mrter. The United States continues to support ti e OAS as the institution through which this right can be realized when outside inter- ference Makes collective assistance to a sis- ter republic necessary. United States forces are not occupying the Dominican Republic. They are not assert- ing authority to govern any part of the country. They are not taking sides in the civil conflict. 17.5, action has been taken In order to help preserve for the people of the Dominican Republic their right to choose their government free from outside interference. Experience has shown. that If a group led by .communist conspirators and inspired by an outside power is permitted to seize con- trol of a country by force, any further con- sideration of the right of the peopleof that country to choose their own course is an empty gesture. U.S.. forces continue to be present in the Dominican Republic only in support of OAS efforts to organize effective measures to pre- vent such a denial of freedom and further loss of life: As President Johnson has stated: "The moment that the Organization of American States can present a plan that will hiring peace on the island and give us the opportunity to evacuate our people and give some hope of stability of government, we'll be the first to come back home." Mr: MORSE. Mr. President, I hope that these two memoranda will provide some 'grist for the law review mills of this Nation. These memoranda can be torn to pieces?and they should be. If these memoranda constitute a fair evaluation of the international law field of the U.S. State Department, one of the greatest needs in the State Depart- ment is to hire a few competent inter- national _lawyers, because these memo- rands. would not receive a passing grade In any international law course in any law school in the United States. I do' not blame the lawyers of the De- partment of State for the weaknesses of these_ memoranda. They had an impos- sible task?their job was as tough as that Of the court-appointed law firm designated to defend a man accused of murder whose plea is "not guilty" even though there were a dozen eyewitnesses to the. crime. This is an ignominious position for ally legal officer?to be called upon to provide legal justification for acts which on their face are ultra vires. The United States should never get itself in a posi- tion of ex post facto justification. If we expect to promote an orderly inter- national community we must, above all things, live within the law of that community. Mr. President, the United States has been living completely outside the law in Vietnam for 11 years, since 1954. We have been an outlaw nation in southeast Asia for 11 years. The Communists have, tOo. North Vietnam has, too. So has South Vietnam. So have 'the Viet- cong. But what argument is it, because others engage in outlawry, that we should engage in outlawry, rather than go to the courts to seek the enforcement of existing law? That is what we should have been doing. . It is a' sad thing that Adlai Stevenson, the Ambassador of the United States at the United Nations, has not insisted' on it, or resigned his position as Ambassador to the United Nations.. Mr. President, so far as our legal justi- fication- for ignoring the United Nations Charter In Vietnam and our unilateral stretching of the SEATO treaty to im- pose an obligation on the United States to send :troops to Vietnam to engage in an undeclared war, I refer to a chapter Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 May 20, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE 10735 in a remarkable booklet prepared by Don R. Larson and Arthur Larson en- titled "Vietnam and Beyond." In chan- ter 2 these eminent scholars state un- equivocally: The true fact is that the United States has had no obligation to South Vietnam or any- one else under the SEATO treaty to use its own armed forces in the defense of South Vietnam. I wonder if Dean Rusk, Secretary of State, will now say that those eminent international law scholars are gullible academic men. Some days ago I paid my disrespects to Dean Rusk for the shocking, disgrace- ful, uncalled for and insulting speech that he made attacking the academic men and women of this country because they do not agree with him on Vietnam. In that speech I did what I would have to be moved very deeply before offering to do. I challenged mr. Rusk to join me in a public discussion of American policies in Vietnam on any campus or any number of campuses he wishes to name, and let him present to those cam- puses any justification within the frame- work of international law, or any justi- fication on the basis of any other premise, for America's course of action in Vietnam. But I warned him that in that debate or those debates I would not protect him with any executive privi- lege, because if he desires to participate in that public discussion, the bars are down as far as telling the American peo- ple what the State Department, the White House, and the Pentagon should have been telling them for a long time past?the facts about America's policies in Asia and her plans in Asia. The American people are entitled to an open government that practices a precious safeguard of freedom; namely, full pub- lic disclosure of the public's business. They are not getting it, and they have n6t got it for a long time in Asia. Short of a declaration of war, the American people are entitled to know about the war plans of their Government in Asia, for the American people will do the dying by the many millions if the administration continues to lead our country and mankind into a massive war in Asia. Mr. President, if my country can fol- low the policy it is now following and have a great many military victories? military victories that will make it look as though our escalating of the war is paying off?none of those military vic- tories will produce peace, for all those military victories will only intensify for many decades and generations, an in- tense hatred of the Asiatics for the peo- ple of the United States. We the people will suffer because of this inexcusable, uncalled for, unconstitutional, unjusti- fied American war in Asia. The Senate knows that only a few days ago I stood with only two other Senators In voting against the bill that was in- troduced, not because the President needed the $700 million, because his own lips told us that he did not need it?he had the authority to use funds without passage of the bill?but as a vehicle to obtain another commitment from the Congress of the United States in sup- port of his policy in Asia. At the time I said, and repeat today, that it was interesting to listen to the reservationists in the Senate, for Senator after Senator, as a reservationist, rose and said, "This does not commit me. This does not mean I am giving him a blank check. This does not mean that I do not expect to be consulted when more troops are sent over or when there is a proposal made really to expand the war." My reply to them, as the CONGRES- SIONAL RECORD Will show, was, "Whom do you think you are kidding? No one but yourselves. You are being consulted right now. You vote the President the vote of confidence that he is asking for, and that is the end of the consultation." Events since that time have already proved how right I was, because already a good many thousands more have been sent over. I should like to hear the Senator who was consulted. Mr. President, what the Senate did was what it cannot do constitutionally. It sought and attempted to delegate to the President of the United States a warmaking power, and that cannot be done under the Constitution. We can- not make war legally without a declara- tion of war. That is why in my speech In opposition to the bill, in opposition to a vote of confidence in the President's Asian policy, I referred to an attempt on the part of the Congress to approve an undeclared war in Asia. In that speech I suggested?and repeat today in my speech?that there is a great deal of dif- ference in all the international legal con- sequencies between acting under a de- clared war and acting in violation of our international obligations as we are doing in Vietnam, for if there should be a rec- ommendation for a declared war, and if Congress should vote it on the basis of the present facts, the senior Senator from Oregon would still vote against the declaration, for I know of no justifica- tion for declaring war in Asia. Judging from whom we are fighting, the only country that such a declaration of war could refer to would be North Vietnam. But a declaration of war against North Vietnam, or a proposal for one, would force an interesting debate, not only in the Congress, but at the grassroots of America. We would find an entirely dif- ferent attitude on the part of millions of fellow Americans if it were proposed that we should go all the way and formally declare war?although we are making war, and it is our war. The South Viet- namese are now in a secondary position. The South Vietnamese are doing what the United States tells them to do and only what the United States tells them to do in conducting this war. But a dec- laration of war would greatly change our International law relationships with all the world. It would be interesting if we declared war against North Vietnam and Great Britain continued to send her sup- ply ships into North Vietnam, as she is doing now. It is interesting, is it not, that we get words of praise from the Prime Min- ister of Great Britain about our activi- ties in South Vietnam? But I ask him from the floor of the Senate this after- noon: "Mr. Prime Minister, when are you going to stop all your trade with North Vietnam?" We could ask that question of other so-called allies, too. If there had been a declaration of war, there would have been a great change in International law relationships with the rest of the world. I have no doubt in my mind that that is a factor that is considered in connection with the course of action we are following in South Vietnam. So far as the obligation of the United States to act under the terms of the United Nations Charter is concerned, these authors state: There is one obligation in Vietnam * * that when other means of dealing with a threat to the peace have failed, the matter "shall" be referred to the Security Council. That is not permissive; that is not optional; that is mandatory language, as we lawyers say. The sad fact is that the United States had no intention of ? doing it in the past and shows no in- tention of doing it in the future. I have yet to hear even a whisper that Adlai Stevenson has ever recommended it. We have failed in our obligation to this principle. So far as the opinion of the Legal Ad- viser of the State Department, entitled "Legal Basis for U.S. Actions in the Do- minican Republic," is concerned, I note only that it does not have the audacity to quote articles 15 and 17 of the Char- ter of the OAS: I do not wish to imply that legal counsel for the State Depart- ment has never found those articles in the charter. I do not wish to imply that legal counsel for the State Department did such a poor job of legal research that he did not even discover the articles. I only wish to imply that he found it con- venient to omit any consideration of them from his legal memorandum. What do those articles provide? I read as follows: ARTICLE 15 No state or group of states has the right to intervene, directly or indirectly, for any reason whatever, in the internal or external affairs of any other state. The foregoing principle prohibits not only armed force but also any other form of interference or at- tempted threat against the personality of the state or against its political, economic, and cultural elements. Note, Mr. President, that article 15 uses the word "intervene." It is that word that some of our Latin American critics have seized upon in protesting even the sending of American troops into the Dominican Republic to bring out American citizens at the request and invitation of the Government that we had recognized. Bad as that Govern- ment was, our recognition of it, of course, established diplomatic relations with it and placed upon us the responsi- bility of fulfilling obligations in relation to that diplomatic recognition. Thus, as I said earlier in my speech, the use of this language in the Charter of the Organization of American States does not prohibit the President from going into a country and bringing out Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release' 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 10736 CONO1 USIONAL RhCORTi ? 'SENATE May 20, 19-c5 citizens of our country when a govern- ment we have recognized informs us that it cannot protect their lives. That is not Intervention in terms of the artistic meaning of the word in international law. "Intervention" is a word of art. To apply it to the fact situation in which our Government responded to an invitation of the Government of the Dominican Re- public to come to a lifesaving rescue mission does not justify our being charged with intervention. Article 1.7 of the Charter of the Orga- nization of American States reads as fol- lows: ARTICLE 17 The territory of a state is inviolable; it snap not be the object, even temporarily, of military occupation or of other measures of force taken by another state, directly or in- directly, on any grounds whatever. I digress to say that when we have standing offshore an American ship, when we have American airplanes land- ing on an airbase, for the limited purpose of putting passengers aboard and taking them out of a country, we are not en- gaging, even temporarily, in occupation, Also, when we are dealing with the term "military occupation," we are deal- ing with words of art in international law. A country does not militarily oc- cupy unless it enters a conntry, and en- gages In a form of territorial seizure; unless it enters to engage in a process of moving out the existing government and interfering with its rights of sovereignty, If the United States had limited its ac- tivities in the Dominican Republic to rescue Operations, merely sending in troops to bring out our citizens, it would not in any way have interfered, even to the slightest extent, with rights of sover- eignty. Article 17 continues to read: No territorial acquisitions or special ad- vantages obtained either by force or by other means of coercion shall be recognized. We did not intervene, we did not oc- cupy, during that period of time, which, I am sad to report, did not last very long, a period in which we sought merely to rescue only American lives. The evi- dence Is perfectly clear that atter a short period of time the United States changed Its objective in the Dominican Republic. The information I have received from reliable sources is that there was a slow- ing up of the evacuation until it finally came to a complete halt and we desisted from evacuating. We dng in and soon found ourselves in a position in which we were not evacuating, but were oppos- ing. We were engaging in combat. When we started that operation, we moved outside the framework of the Charter of the Organization of American States. That is why we shall find that this action on our part has cost us dearly in prestige throughout Latin America. Articles XV and XVII speak for them- selves, I do not believe that the dis- patch of more than 20,000 American troops to the Dominican Republic after foreign nationals, including Americans, had been substantially evacuated, or given the opportunity to evacuate from the Dominican Republic, can be fitted into the language of the Charter of the Organization of American States. 'The President's effort to seek an OAS cloak for our forces in the Dominican Republic is having the most dubious suc- ces,t in Latin America. The damage has been done. Once again our actions have spoken louder than our words. 3 r. President, I am as conscious as arnpne of the dangers implicit in the expansion of communism in Latin Amer- ica or anywhere else in the world and the record will show that I was one of the first Members of this body to oppose Cal tro. 'e RECORD will show that I was the first to oppose Castro, and I was the first to impose him for some days. It did not take me very long to see that all that we had done was to substitute a totalitarian dic ;ator with at least some Communist leanings. M I said in one of my first speeches, "I do not know whether he is a Clommunist or not. However, I know he Ls following the Communist line and Is lidopting the Communist procedure." All we did was substitute one type of to- talitarian for a Fascist totalitarian Bai &sta. Mr. President, that is the sorry record against us in Latin America. And we are not going to be allowed to forget it. labile the Eisenhower administration WaiE seeking by its aid programs to buy the affections of the Cuban Communist, I I ;as protesting his wholesale execu- tions and reading into his disregard of the rule of fair trial and law, a sure indi- cation of the direction of his develop- me it. I e that as it may, I am deeply appre- hersive that the actions of the United States in recent months in both Viet- nam and the Dominican Republic are encouraging Communism, rather than discouraging it. The very presence of 20,000 American troops in the Dominican Republic, and their aid to the junta, has given a shot in ihe arm to anti-American sentiment in ill the hemisphere. After 30 years of Effort to remove our imperialist image in natin America we have by one stroke of policy destroyed the good neighbor ediitce which we and our neighbors had so laboriously built. We speak of encouraging the holding of 'tree elections" in the Dominican Re- putlic. I think we can safely predict tha; the only kind of candidate who could now-win a free election in the Dominican Republic would be a candidate running on anti-American platform. This is whOre our policy has led us, not only in the Dominican Republic but in much of the rest of Latin America. 'I he American Nation is on the verge of reaping a harvest of hatred for our act] ns in Vietnam and the Dominican RePublic. Our hypocrisy has been ex- pos:id. We have talked of the law, of the __United Nations Charter, of the Or- ganization of American States, in tones of sanctimonious morality. But our deeis have not filled our words. I am afraid that we must pay a costly price. I close by saying that I hope that in the het-too-distant future, as the chair- mar k of the subcommittee on Latin Amer- ican, Affairs, I may be able to give a happier report than, I am satisfied, the facts have compelled me to give today in regard te: the most unfortunate and mis- taken whey which we have come to practice in the Dominican Republic. Would that we had taken our nationals out and then gotten out ourselves. Mr. ?resident, I yield the Boor. ? [From the Washington Post, May 20, 1965] U.S. TROOPS AID JUNTA AS REBELS LOSE GROUND.?DIBERT'S GAINS ARE PROTECTED BY AMERICANS (By Barnard L. Collier, Herald Tribune news service) SANTO POMING0,, May 19.?U.S. Marines and paratroopers gave both direct and indirect help to the forces of Gen. Antonio Imbert Barrera today as Imbert's junta troops cap- tured the rebel-held Radio Santo Domingo and conducted a house-by-house cleanup of rebels in the northern sections of the city. United States officials still denied that U.S. forces were aiding the Imbert junta, but officers on the U.S.-controlled perimeters said they were under orderr to shoot any rebel who tried to stop the junta forces. American troops were seen several times firing into rebel positions facing the junta corridor" across the city. Late this afternoon, the American forces moved a mile north along the corridor, se- curing territory won 'by the junta. At the Same time, they moved 2 blocks south all along the corridor into the main rebel stronghold, the Ciudad Nueva water- front district. . U.S. troops at three checkpoints, leading into Ciudad Nueva stopped all trucks car- rying food, from entering today. American officers at the scene said the intention was to starve the rebels into submission if they put up too much resistance to junta troops. [In Washington, Ellsworth Bunker, U.S. Ambassador to the Organization of American States, told an OAS meeting that he is "not prepared to commit troops of the United States to slaughter Dominicans." [Bunker's remark came as he. opposed a Venezuelan resolution calling on the Inter- American peace force in Santo Domingo to intervene in the fighting there and bring about a cease-fire. Since almost all the out- side troops there belong to 'U.S. forces that President Johnson has promised to commit to the peace force, the Venezuelan request, in effect, called on the United States to stop the fighting. [The resolution was withdrawn by the Venezuelan delegation after it became appar- ent that the United States would not agree to it. The OAS then unanimously adopted a substitute Argentine resolution calling on both sides in Santo Domingo to submit to -a new cease-fired IMBERT E:ARS TALKS Earlier in the day, Imbert insisted that he was "going to win this war against the Com- munists" within a day or two. He refused to listen to any talk of a cease-fire or negotia- tions with Col. Francisco Ca,amano Deno, leader of the rebels who overthrew a mili- tary-backed civilian junta on April 25 in an effort to bring back exiled constitutional President Juan Bosch. Imbert said he would talk with Ottoman? only to discuss surrender terms. Imbert had been under heavy American pressure until today to call off his military drive again the Caamano forces and step down in favor of a coalition government. He now 'appears to have won this clash. The U.S. Embassy continued to say Wednes- day it was displeased with the junta's ac- tions. But American forces appear to be helping the junta troops in any way they can, short of directly fighting their way into rebel territory. Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP671300446R000500120023-9 May 20, 41965 Approved Fe6geftsmagar/iioStEIRD pggiog6R000500120023-9 CLAIM U.S. HELP The junta-held radio station broadcast Wednesday that the 24,000 U.S. troops here were helping them, to win the battle "against international communism" and that the as- sumption of power by any man allied in any way with Bosch was out of the question. This appeared to rule out any chance of Antonio Suzman, a wealthy pro-Boschist, from taking power. Suzman was said to have been approved by both the United States and Caamano's forces as an acceptable compro- mise leader in this crisis. REPORTS FROM somrz News dispatches from Santo Domingo re- ported: A spokesman for the U.N. mission here said both the junta and the rebels have agreed in principle to a 12-hour cease-fire Friday so that the Red Cross can evacuate dead and wounded from. the battle area in northern Santo Domingo. This truce was requested by the U.N. Security Council today. At a rally after the capture of Radio Santo Domingo, Imbert told 1,000 followers, "We have absolute control of the Dominican Republic." Dan Kurzman of the Washington Post reported, however, that four newsmen who toured the country this week were unan- imous in finding overwhelming popular sup- port for the Caainano forces. The junta forces' main advance was a 10- block drive eastward from the radio station. Commodore Francisco J. Rivera Caminero, armed forces secretary and Imbert supporter, told reporters that rebel fire from the run- down houses in the area, strong early in the week, had nearly ceased Tuesday after- noon. REBELS MAKE CLAIMS A rebel spokesman claimed the junta ad- vance had been halted roughly at the middle of the northern sector. The spokesman pre- dicted junta troops would pull back during the night under rebel counterattack. Rebel forces claimed to have captured a U.S. marine. U.S. authorities acknowledged a Marine was missing from his post but de- clined details. A. U.S. official said efforts to form. a coali- tion government of national reconciliation? presumably under Guzman?had failed, at least for the moment. "There must be a re- appraisal," he said. "There has to be when something doesn't materialize." The death toll from the battle was not known, although hospitals reported 30 dead. Some estimates said there were more than 100 dead, including civilians. A junta spokesman said 800 rebel prisoners had been taken. The rebels issued no fig- ures, MANY HOMES DAMAGED Newsmen driving through the battle area said many homes were damaged by machine- gun and tank cannon fire. Junta troops en- tered nearly every house and searched for arms, according to refugees fleeing the area during the fighting. Many of those at Imbert's side during the rally had served in the government of Donald Reid Cabral, ouSted by the rebels 26 days ago in the coup that led to the civil war. In a bid to gain support for the junta, Imbert's aides announced after the rally that two of Reid's unpopular austerity measures had been canceled. CANCELED MEASURES One was a $30 tax on any Dominican leav- ing the country. The other required an im- porter to deposit for 6 months 40 percent of the value of all imports. Both measures were designed to adjust an unfavorable bal- ance of payments and prevent a devaluation of the peso. Imbert said that $10 million deposited with the Central Bank under the 40-percent No. 91-12 law would be returned this week. Commer- cial banks in the capital are closed and there has been a shortage of currency. Junta sources said that U.S. Under Secre- tary of State Thomas C. Mann talked with Imbert Tuesday night before returning to Washington with another special American presidential envoy, former Ambassador John Bartlow Martin. The sources said that Mann discussed re- newal of economic aid with Imbert but did not mention the idea of a coalition govern- ment. The meeting could not be confirmed with U.S. officials here. Exinsrr 2 [From the New York Times, May 4, 1965] DOMINICAN SEQUEL The cold war is getting hot again. Local wars and civil wars are confined with diffi- culty to one country, as Vietnam and now the Dominican Republic are proving. The world Is getting more dangerous as the United States actively shows its determination to stop Communist subversion in other coun- tries, or even, as in the Dominican Republic, the threat of communism. In the Caribbean, U.S. intervention has undoubtedly resulted in a grave setback to the inter-American system. Decades were spent in creating a policy of noninterven- tion in the internal affairs of hemispheric nations and in a collective system of security based on the Rio Treaty and the Bogota, Charter. These documents stand; but they are fractured, and time will be needed to heal the wounds. The Organization of American States is re- luctantly but wisely moving in?as the United States has urged?to do what it can to take the issue from its unilateral North American phase into a collective heinispheric mediation. President Johnson Is trying to repair the breach with other American states by sending special envoys to the various capi- tals and by stressing the OAS role at the present stage. Under the United Nations Charter, regional organizations such as the OAS are given the task of settling regional affairs if they can. The significance of yesterday's Security Council meeting was merely to provide a forum to attack the United States and for the United States to defend itself. Ambas- sador Stevenson, as always, was as eloquent and effective a spokesman as possible, but since the American case was put so recently and so fully by President Johnson there was nothing new that he could say. The overwhelming strength of the Ameri- can forces in Santo Domingo should bring an uneasy peace fairly soon. What will never end is argument about the 'U.S. contention that it is saving the Dominican Republic from a Castro-type revolution. President Johnson concedes that the uprising began as "a popular democratic revolution." The former Ambassador to Santo Domingo, John Bartiow Martin, who talked to the rebel lead- ers, was quoted afterward as saying that the movement became "Communist dominated" only in the last 3 or 4 days. It is therefore arguable that 'U.S. inter- vention was what brought the Communists to the forefront. This is what ex-President Juan Bosch believes. He claims that his liberal and democratic followers had victory in their grasp when the United States inter- vened and turned the tables. Ideas of this sort are going to plague hemispheric rela- tions for some years to come. [From the New York Times, May 12, 19651 THE DOMINICAN MORASS The United States is getting more and more deeply involved inside the Dominican Re- public, politically as well as military. What began as an uprising has become a civil war in a state of suspended animation. Whether 10737 there was or was not a genuine threat of a Communist coup?and U.S. correspondents are emphatic in casting doubt on Washing- ton's assertions that there was?it is clear that Dominican and Latin American com- munism has been strengthened in reaction against the American intervention. What may have seemed to the American public to be a simple operation when Presi- dent Johnson first sent in marines on April 28 has become a complicated, confused, and potentially explosive act of force majeure, with profound effects on the whole Inter- American System. Some of the United States' best friends in Latin America are included among the anti-Communist governments and peoples whom American intervention has alienated. The man in whose name the rebellion was started, the strongly anti- Communist Juan Bosch, may yet prove cor- rect in his bitter comment that the United States, by its intervention, will create far more Communist sympathizers in the Do- minican Republic and Latin America than were on hand?whatever their number? when the revolt began. The Dominican situation is proving that the best intentions mean little or nothing In the face of contrary realities. No one could doubt the sincerity of Under Secretary Mann when he stated in an interview with the Times that the United States does not want to dictate the kind of government the Dominicans choose. But the fact is that the U.S. intervention bolstered a right- wing military group against a movement that, while it had some Communists within it, was for the most part democratic in spirit and intention. The idea of supporting the Bosch elements against the Communist mi- nority in the rebel ranks was apparently never even entertained. When it became clear that the military junta's first leader, Gen Wessin y Wessin, was adamantly opposed in the Dominican Republic and throughout Latin America, Washington came up with another?but equally unpopular and rightwing?protege. American correspondents on the spot agree that General Imbert, now head of the junta, was chosen, groomed, and put in by the Americans and is being kept in power by Americans. U.S. representatives refused even to talk with the rebel group headed by Lieutenant Colonel Casznatio until yesterday although Colonel Caamafio clearly has a considerable following throughout the Dominican Re- public. In his enclave in Santo Domingo, surrounded by American _troops, he has thousands of fanatically dedicated and well- armed followers. In present circumstances the stalemate can be broken in only two ways. One is a cleanup by the American troops of the rebel enclave in Santo Domingo, with inevitable slaughter and destruction. The other is continued negotiation with the Caamafio- Bosch group. Of the two methods, it is a peaceful settlement that holds the best hope?we believe the only hope?of control- ling ultimately the Dominican Communists. In the long run, even if the marines once again stay on for years, it is the Dominicans and not the Americans who are going to decide the fate of the Dominican Republic. [From the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, May 6, 1965] A LITTLE Too VEHEMENT - The vehemence of President Johnson's ef- forts to defend his military intervention in the Dominican Republic suggests an inner uncertainty that does not quite square with the clenched fist and the bellicose front he presents to the public. Sympathetic Ameri- cans will be inclined to overlook some of his excesses?such as the rocking-chair remark which was widely interpreted as a subcon- , Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 107U CONGRESSIONA-L RECORD ? SENATE May-20, sCious thrust at the late President Kennedy? in view of the strain lie has experienced. But bald distortion of the truth cannot and should not be ignored. At his walking news conference Tuesday, the President represented himself as having decided to send troops to Santo Domingo after the Organization of American States "met and talked and talked and debated and then adjourned" without a decision. Thus he sought to convey the impression that he took unilateral action?which is clearly prehibited by the OAS Charter?only after failing to obtain collective action under the treaty. ? This is a serious misstatement of fact. Mr. Johnson ordered the Marines into the Do- minican Republic on Wednesday night, April 28, and did not lay the question before the OAS until the following day. It is true that the OAS could not agree on immediate ac- tion, but one of the reasons may have been that it then faced an accomplished fact of American intervention. By the time Or- ganization met on the United States call, Marines and troops were pouring into Santo Domingo by the thousands. The plain truth is that the President simply kicked the treaty procedures of hemispheric consultation and collective decision into the ashcan when he decided to use American armed power. Mr. Johnson contends he had to act quickly in order to save the lives of Ameri- cans in a deteriorating situation. Perhaps history will prove him right in that respect. But evacuating Americans is clearly not the mission of our troops now. The main ques- tion at the moment is pot why the troops went in, but what purpose they are going to serve by staying there, and for how long. One week after American intervention the OAS has voted to send an international force to Santo Domingo. That should help. But there is a warning in the fact that such im- portant countries as Mexico, Chile, and Vene- zuela refused to support the move. Unless American influence is promptly thrown be- hind a political settlement that will permit our occupation to be ended, the President's hasty adventure bids fair to poison inter- American relations for years to come. [From the New York Times, May 20, 1965] WAR CHANGES SANTO DOMINGO INTO CITY OF THREE HOSTILE WORLDS (By Tad SZU1C) SANTO DOMINGO, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, May 10.?It is nearly 4 weeks since war?and war is the word to describe what is happening here?has come to shatter the life of Santo Domingo. In 25 blood-spattered days, the 300,000 in- habitants of this Caribbean capital have learned how to live under a rain of missiles and bullets in a city slashed by war into three hostile, miniature worlds separated by mili- tary lines. First, there is the shrinking world of the rebels of Col. Francisco Caamafio Dena. It is the passionate, often hungry, but defiant world of the constitutionalist revolution. Its brain is the great Copello Building on nar- row Conde Street downtown where the rebels have their headquarters. Its heart?and its defenses?are in the narrow streets and ancient houses of the rebel zone. There, armed soldiers and civil- ians, including women and teenagers, kept their vigil as the junta forces pounded the rebels in the north, on the far side of the security corridor manned by US. troops. The rebel zone downtown is sealed off from the outside by the security corridor in the north, the Caribbean in the south, and Ozama River in the east and the interna- tional safety zone in the west. ? From the international zone, rebel terri- tory can be entered only through one check- point where U.S. marines and junta police- men behind tanks, barbed wire and sand- lkam carefully funnel through long lines of traffic during the day. At night, the check- points are the outposts of a no man's land. From the security corridor, the rebel world can be entered through checkpoints held by paratroopers of the 82d Airborne Division, who search all passersby for weapons. The only economic activity in the down- town rebel territory is in an occasional bar, lOodstore or barber shop. 'Food is not yet in short supply. But the ebels say that 'U.S. troops have stopped the now of food from the countryside. The rebels try to keep their area orderly. There has been virtually no looting along (Sande Street, the city's main shopping area, end sanitation employees and rebel fighters dear away the rubbish. The Caamano regime has tried to function s a government, but its "ministers" cannot g ay its employees and their control of the city's activities is bounded by the limits of the rebel zone. The rebels control the telephone exchange and the US: military commanders and the Ilnabassy communicate with Washington through two direct lines. The second world of Santo Domingo is the territory held by the junta. It is, how- ever, spread all over the city's area. The headquarters of Brig. Gen. Antonio Ienbert Barreras, head of the junta, is on the grounds of the international fair in the vrestern section of the city, behind the U.S.- controlled international safety zone. The junta world then reappears on the east bank of the Ozama River, which is also controlled by U.S. forces. There, the center of the junta's activities in San Isidro Air Force Base, where the junta 1: as its military headquarters and its aircraft. Part of the junta world is also in the r orthern area, following the last 5 days of f ghting. But that area is still a battlefield. This is the world of the cannon, the ba- zooka, the recoilless rifle, and the machine- g on. DIPLOMATS AND SNIPERS The third world of Santo Domingo is the iternational safety zone. Two U.S. Embassy and U.S. military head- q Garters are at its eastern fringe, the Marine e Cpeditionary brigade is in the Hispaniola rote' and the international diplomatic cen- tor is in the Hotel Embajador. This world is perhaps the most frantic of t: ie three. Diplomats of the United States, the United Nations, and the Organization of American States rush from place to place in cars. At night there is sniping, and yesterday t] ie zone was shelled for the first time by antitank weapons fired from an undeter- mined spot. The lobby of the Hotel Embajador is filled with Marine patrols, airborne rangers, Chi- n3se farmers awaiting evacuation, newsmen a! 11 nationalities, agents for the junta and for Colonel Caamafio, moneychangers, carpet- b Iggers, and children who play games with the soldiers. [From the Los Angeles Times, May 9( 1965] h U.S. GOLIATH OR ST. GEORGE 2?AMER/CA IS MAKING ITSELF HEIR OF COLONIAL/SM, TOYNBEE WARNS (By Arnold Toynbee) LONDON.?For the past 20 years the Govern- ment and people of the United States have been acting on the belief that communism is on the march for the conquest of the world and that it is the manifest destiny of the Uaited States to save the world from this fate. According to this view, America has not oily been saving the world; she has been ea ring it with the world's grateful, and in- deed enthusiastic, support. This is why Americans have been puzzled and angered at 1965 demonstrations of anti-American feeling in Asian, African, and Latin American countries. These facts are incompatible with the Amer- lean picture. This picture is not founded on facts. The current picture resembles the medieval Chris- tian picture of the Church's struggle with heretics, and the Roman picture of the Roman Empire's struggle with the Christian church. In each of these cases the adver- sary who had to be defeated had been iden- tified with the, powers of evil and had been credited with superhuman wickedness and potency. He had not been studied objec- tively, to find out what he was really like. COMMUNIST OBJECTIVE Whether or not "history is bunk" and whether or not it was Henry Ford who said that, the American picture of current his- tory is "bunk" unquestionably. It is true that the conversion of all mankind is one of the official objectives of the Communist faith. Communism has taken over this ob- jective from its parent, Christianity. It is also true that communism, like both Chris- tianity and Islam, has not propagated itself solely by preaching, but has sometimes re- sorted to force. Yet, during the 20 centuries of the Chris- tian era up to date, Christianity has not come near to achieving its objective of con- verting the whole of mankind and, in the second century a the Communist era, the prospects for communism do not look any more promising. Moreover, communism has never been the paramount ideology of any government that has subscribed to the Com- munist faith. SAME IDEOLOGY The predominant ideology of the govern- ments--and the peoples?of the Communisi countries is, in fact, the same as the Amer- ican Government's and people's predominani Ideology. All over the world today, the pre- dominant ideology is neither communism nor free enterprise: it is nationalism. Today, the nationalism of the non-West. ern peoples is pitted against the national. ism of the Western peoples. The revolt o: the "native" majority of mankind against the domination of the Western minority? this, and not the defense of freedom agains- communism by the leading Western country the United States, is the real major issue ix the world today. The American people have not yet recog. nized this. The mirage of communism is still veil. ing the truth from their eyes. The preset]: American misreading_ of the facts is periloul for America and for the world. Is the United States St: George fightim the dragon? Or is She Goliath fightim David? The question is important, becaus St. George was a winner but Goliath was not RING OF SINCERITY While there is an unmistakable ring o sincerity and of genuine desire for peace President Johnson's two, recent public de clarations, his assumption is that the Unite( States is St. George, whereas she may ii truth be the Goliath that the Vietnames( and the Chinese and the Russians see in her "There is no human power capable of fore- Ing us from Vietnam," the President has said An ancient Greek would have shuddered te hear his leader thus provoking the envy GI the gods. Twice within one lifetime, Germany's min - tau power has appeared to be irresistible and, each time, Germany has crashed. Go- liath has succumbed to David, and this ha: been the usual fate of Goliaths in the past America, without realizing what she ha; been doing, has made herself the heir o British, French, Dutch, and Japanese coloni alism, and consequently has drawn upon her self all the odium that the European an Japanese .colonialists formerly excited. Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP671300446R000500120023-9 May 20, 1965 Approvtlfstitt433R0195M08ft?lARAggiii20446R000500120023-9 10739 UNTENABLE POSITION The United States leaped into France's forcibly vacated place in Vietnam at the mo- ment when France's debacle in Vietnam had demonstrated that colonialism had ceased to be practicable. In assuming this anach- ronistic role America was lending herself in an untenable position. Today, President Johnson is willing to negotiate without making it a condition that America's opponents in Vietnam shall first stop fighting. He has, however, made it a condition that South Vietnam shall remain separate from North Vietnam, whatever the wishes of the Vietnamese people may be. The United States also insists that South Korea shall remain separate from North Korea, and Taiwan from continental China; and, in all these three cases, the United States in enforcing her flat by military action. Now the imposition of the fiats of West- ern governments by force is the humiliation that has been inflicted on the non-Western peoples during the last 200 years. ABSOLUTE EQUALITY When they had got rid of the European and Japanese imperialists, they thought, for a moment, that they had recovered their freedom. But now the Americans have jumped in and are dictating, in their turn, to the Asians what the Asians may or may not do, and this is infuriating them. The only practical basis for coexistence between the non-Western majority and the Western minority of mankind is a relation of absolute equality. All Western powers, Including the puissant United States, as well as feeble Portugal, will have to accept equality in the long run. The sooner they accept it the smaller the price that they will have to pay. If only America could see through her mirage of communism, perhaps the truth might move her to make an agonizing re- appraisal of her present unrealistic policy. ADJOURNMENT Mr. HART. Mr. President, if there is no further business, I move, under the order of May 19, 1965, that the Senate stand in adjournment until tomorrow at 12 o'clock noon. The motion was agreed to; and (at 5 o'clock and 25 minutes p.m.) the Senate adjourned, under the order of May 19, 1965, until Friday, May 21, 1965, at 12 o'clock meridian. Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 I . The Rouse net at 12 o'clock noon. Rabbi Ezra M. Finkelstein Town and Village Synagogue, New York City, of- fered the following prayer: Then Daniel praised the God of the heavens. Daniel spoke, saying: Praise, be the name of God from everlasting to everlasting, for wisdom and might are His; He changes the seasons and times r He removes kings and He sets up kings. He gives wisdom to the wise and knowl- edge to those who are endowed with un- derstanding; He reveals things deep anc: secret; He knows what is in darkness and with Him dwells the light. Elohenu V-elohe Avotenu, Our God and God of our fathers, 10?1 upon us with mercy, and graciously grant, our petitions, spoken before Thee in the words of our teachers the Rabbis Elazar and Ray. May it be Thy will, 0 Lord, our God, to cause to abide in our fortune love, broth- erliness, peace, and friendship; to en-- rich our boundaries with students; to prosper our goal with hope and with fu- ture; to set us a share in paradise; to cause us to obtain good companions ant good impulse in Thy world, that we may rise in the morning and And our heari longing to hear Thy name. May it be Thy will, 0 Lord, our God, tc grant us long life, a life of peace, of good; a life of blessing, of sustenance, of bodily vigor; a life in which there is fear oi sin; a life free from shame and disgrace; a life of prosperity and honor; a life in which we may have the love of Thy teachings and a fear of heaven; a life in which Thou shalt fulfill all the wisheE of our hearts for good. Amen. THE JOURNAL The Journal of the proceedings of yes- terday was read and approved. MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE A message from the Senate by Mr. Ar- rington, one of its clerks, announced that the Senate had passed a bill of the fol-, lowing title, in which the concurrence of the House is requested: 8. 1734. An act to conserve and protect domestic fishery resources. LEGISLATIVE PROGRAM FOR THE BALANCE OF THIS WEEK AND NEXT 'WEEK (Mr. GERALD R. FORD asked and was given permission to address the Rouse for 1 minute.) Mx. GERALD R. FORD. Mr. Speaker, I take this time for the purpose of de- 10740 THURSDAY, MAY 20, 1965 termining the program for the rest of this week, and next week. Mr. BOGGS. Mr. Speaker, as the gen- tleman knows, we will consider, if the rule is adopted, the atomic energy au- thorization today. I would hope we would complete consideration of it to- day. If we do, at the end of the day we hope to go over until Monday. The program for next week is as fol- lows: Monday is District Day, but there are no bills from the committee. We will call up on Monday and con- sider on Monday and Tuesday, H.R. 7'750, the Foreign Assistance Act of 1965. For Wednesday and the balance of the week we will call up the agricultural ap- propriation bill, followed by R.R. 5883, bonding provisions of Federal labor laws. This will come up under an open rule with 1 hour of general debate. Then H.R. 3584, the Federal Coal Mine Safety Act amendments. This is under an open rule providing 2 hours of gen- eral debate. Then H.R. 5241, amending section 20a (12) of the Interstate Commerce Act re- garding interlocking- directorates. This will be called up under an open rule with 1 hour of general debate. Mr. GERALD It. FJORD. The last three bills mentioned would follow the appropriation bill for the Department of Agriculture? Mr. BOGGS. Exactly. We will take them up in that order after the appro- priation bill is acted on. Of course, conference reports may be brought up at any time. Mr. GERALD R. FORD. Can the gentleman from Louisiana give us any guideline as to what the legislative pro- gram might be or might not be on Me- morial Day weekend? Mr. BOGGS. That is week after next. Memorial Day comes on Sunday. Mon- day is an official holiday. So / presume there will be no legislative business on that day, but I think we will have a full week thereafter. SUBCOMMITTEE ON INTERNA- TIONAL TRADE OF THE COMMIT- TEE ON BANKING AND CURRENCY Mr. BOGGS. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that the Subcommit- tee on International Trade of the Com- mittee on Banking and Currency may be permitted to sit during general debate today. The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Louisiana? There was no objection. 'SUBCOMMITTEE ON IRRIGATION OF THE COMMITTEE ON INTERIOR AND INSULAR AFFAIRS Mr. B000S. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that the Subcommit- tee on Irrigation of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs be permitted to Sit today during general debate. The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Colorado? There was no objection. E:ANIKSU NATIONAL FOREST, IDAHO Mr. ASPINALL. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent for the immedi- ate consideration of the bill (H.R. 5798) to extend the boundaries of the Kaniksu National Forest hi the State of Idaho, and for other purposes. The Clerk read the title of the bill. The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Col- ? orado? There being no objection, the Clerk read the bill, as follows: HR. 5798 /3e it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That, for the purpose of authorizing appropriations from the land and water conservation fund estab- lished by section 2 of the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 for the ac- quisition of lands adjacent to national for- est? as authorized by section 6 of such Act, the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to acquire by exchange, purchase, or otherwise, the real property described in section 3 of this Act. Upon such acquisition the bound- aries of the Kaniksu National Forest are extended to include such real property. Sec. 2. In the acquisition of the real prop- erty described in section 3, the Secretary of Agriculture shall be guided by the following - (1) He should make every reasonable ef- fort to acquire the property by exchange or negotiated purchase. (2) The property should be appraised by the Secretary of Agriculture before the ini- tiation of negotiations, and the owner or his designated representative should be given an opportunity to accompany the ap- praiser during his inspection of the property. (3) Before the initiation of negotiations for the property, the Secretary of Agriculture should establish a price which he believes to be a fair and reasonable consideration there- for and should make a prompt offer to ac- quire the property for the full amount so established. In no event should such price be less than the appraised fair value of such property, as determined by the Secre- tary. Sec. 3. The real property authorized to be acquired under authority of this Act is more particularly described as follows: Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 May 2?,1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE Township 63 north, ,range 4 west, Boise meridian: Section 18, southeast quarter southeast quarter; section 19, northeast quarter north- east quarter, lot 3 (southeast quarter north- east quarter); section 20, southwest quarter northwest quarter; section 33, lot 1 (north- east quarter northwest quarter), lot 2 (southeast quarter northwest quarter), lot 3 (northeast quarter southeast quarter), lot 6 (southeast quarter southwest quarter), west half southwest quarter northeast quar- ter, west half northwest quarter southeast quarter, southwest quarter southeast quar- ter. Township 63 north, ,range 5 west, Boise meridian: Section 24, northeast quarter northeast quarter, east half northwest quarter north- east quarter, northeast quarter northeast quarter southwest quarter northeast quarter, northwest quarter southeast quarter north- east quarter, lot 2 (northeast quarter south- east quarter northeast quarter), lot 3 (northeast quarter southeast quarter south- east quarter northeast quarter), With the following committee amend- ments: Page 1, lines 3 to 7 inclusive, strike out "for the purpose of authorizing appropriations from the land and water conservation fund established by section 2 of the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 for the acquisition of lands adjacent to national forests as authorized by section 6 of such Act,". Page 2, line 5, strike out "exchange or". Page 2, line 7, after "appraised" insert "at its fair market value". Page 2, line 11, strike out "his" and insert "an". Page 2, lines 12 to 19 inclusive, strike out allot paragraph (3). The committee amendments were agreed to. The bill was ordered to be engrossed and read a third time, was read the third time, and passed, and a motion to recon- sider was laid on the table. Mr. ASPINALL. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent for the immediate consideration of the bill (S. 435) to ex- tend the boundaries of the Kaniksu National Forest in the State of Idaho, and for other purposes. The Clerk read the title of the Senate bill. The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Colo- rado? There being no objection, the Clerk read the Senate bill, as follows: S. 435 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That, to pro- mote protection and conservation of the out- standing scenic values and natural environ- ment of Upper Priest Lake in Idaho and lands adjacent thereto for public use and enjoyment, the boundaries of the Kaniksu National Forest are hereby extended to in- clude those of the lands hereinafter de- scribed which are not now within such boundaries. In Order that they may be man- aged under the principles of multiple use and sustained yield, the Secretary of Agricul- ture is hereby authorized to acquire the following lands at their fair market value: Township 63 north, range 4 west, Boise meridian: section 18, southeast quarter southeast quarter; section 19, northeast quarter northeast quarter, lot 3 (southeast quarter northeast quarter); section 20, southwest quarter northwest quarter; section 33, lot 1 (northeast quarter north- west quarter), lot 2 (southeast quarter north- west quarter) , lot 3 (northeast quarter south- east quarter), lot 6 (southeast quarter south- West quarter) , west half southwest quarter northeast quarter, west half northwest quarter southeast quarter, southwest quarter southeast quarter. Township 63 north, range 5 west, Boise meridian: section 24, northeast quarter northeast quarter, east half northwest quarter north- east quarter, northeast quarter northeast quarter southwest quarter northeast quarter, northwest quarter southeast quarter north- east quarter, lot 2 (northeast quarter south- east quarter northeast quarter), lot 3 (northeast quarter southeast quarter south- east quarter northeast quarter) . SEC. 2. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated not to exceed 8500,000 to carry out the purposes of this Act. AMENDMENT BY MR. ASPINALL Mr. ASPINALL. Mr. Speaker, I offer an amendment. The Clerk read as follows: Amendment offered by Mr. ASPINALL : Strike out all after the enacting clause, and insert the provisions of H.R. 5798, as passed by the House. The amendment was agreed to. The bill was ordered to be read a third time, was read the third time and passed. A similar House bill (H.R. 5798) was laid on the table. A motion to reconsider was laid on the table. (Mr. WHITE of Idaho (at the request. of Mr. ASPINALL) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD.) Mr. WHITE of Idaho. Mr. Speaker, I speak today on behalf of the preserva- tion of Upper Priest Lake in Bonner County, Idaho, unquestionably one of the most remote and beautiful bodies of water in the Nation. And there is urgency in my message. H.R. 5798, a bill that would seal off the lake from private development and protect this scenic gem in its unspoiled forest setting, must become law before this month ends, or the lake's shoreline will be subject to subdivision and com- mercial development. In its present state, Upper Priest Lake can be reached only by boat and is sur- rounded by State and federally owned land, including the Kaniksu National Forest. I believe it is in the public in- terest that the 417 acres of private land involved be made a part of the national forest through negotiated purchases, as provided in H.R. 5798. It has ,been only through the interven- tion of a national omniscient& organi- zation, Nature Conservancy, that sub- division of a 140-acre parcel of private land for cabin sites has been delayed. This organization provided a loan to the owners to buy a year's time in which to save the lake. This period of grace is nearly over, and because of this, Mr. Speaker, I request that the membership be allowed to pass H.R. 5798 by unani- mous consent. COMITTEE ON BANKING AND CURRENCY Mr. PATMAN. Mr. Speaker, on yes- terday I asked unanimous consent that the Committee on Banking and Currency 10741 may have until midnight on Saturday to file a report on H.R. 9874, the housing bill. The bill number I used in this re- quest was an error. Therefore I renew the request and ask unanimous consent that the Committee on Banking and Currency may have until midnight Sat- urday to file a report on the bill H.R. 7984, the Housing and Redevelopment Act of 1965. The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Texas? There was no objection. CALL OF THE HOUSE Mr. HALL. Mr. Speaker, I make the point of order that a quorum is not present. The SPEAKER. The gentleman from Missouri makes the point of order that a quorum is not present. Evidently, a quorum is not present. Mr. BOGGS. Mr. Speaker, I move a call of the House. A call of the House was ordered. The Clerk called the roll, and the fol- lowing Members failed to answer to their names: [Roll No. 103] Adams Grabowski Nix Andrews, Griffin Pelly George W. Halleck Powell Andrews, Hansen, Iowa Price N. Dak. Hansen, Wash. Race Baring Harvey, Ind. Resnick Battn Harvey, Mich. Roberts Blatnik Hebert Ronan Bonner Holland Boncalio Brown, Ohio Jacobs Schmidhauser Callan Johnson, Calif. Belden Callaway Kluczynski Shipley Clark Landrum Sickles Clausen, Lindsay Smith, N.Y. Don H. Long, Md. Stafford Culver McMillan Teague, Tex. Curtis Mackay Thomson, Wis. Diggs Martin, Ala. Todd Dole Martin, Mass. Toll Flood Martin, Nebr. Tupper Fogarty Mathias Watkins Foley Morrison Willis Fraser Morton Yates On this rollcall 368 Members have answered to their names, a quorum. By unanimous consent, further pro- ceedings under the call were dispensed with. FOREIGN ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1961 Mr. YOUNG. Mr. Speaker, on behalf of Mr. MADDEN of the Committee on Rules, reported the following privileged resolution (H. Res. 395, Report 359) which was referred to the House Calen- dar and ordered to be printed: H. RES. 395 Resolved, That upon the adoption of this resolution it shall be in order to move that the House resolve itself into the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union for the consideration of the bill (H.R. 7750) to amend further the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and for other pur- poses, and all points of order against said bill are hereby waived. After general debate, which shall be confined to the bill and con- tinue not to exceed four hours, to be equally divided and controlled by the chairman and ranking minority member of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the bill shall be read for amendment under the five-minute rule. At the conclusion of the consideration of the bill for amendment, the Committee shall rise and report the bill to the House with such amendments as may have been adopted, and the previous question shall be considered as Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2005/05/12: CIA-RDP671300446R000500120023-9 10742 CONtRESSIONAL RECORD -- HOUSE May ,e(1.; 1965 ordered on the bill and amendments thereto tc? Anal passage without intervening motion except one motion to recommit. ? AtIrl'HORIZINCr APPROPRIATIONS FOR THE Nromic Ei4Ettair CO1v1- MIS,SION FOR FISCAL 'YEAR 1966 Mr. YOUNG. Mr. Speaker, by direc- tion of the Committee on Rules, I call up the resolution, House Resolution 394, and atk for its immediate Consideration. The Clerk read the resolution, as follows: ' H. ass. 394 Resolved, That upon the adoption of this resolution it shall be in order to move that the House resolve itself into the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Hilton for the'dOnsideration of the bill (MR. 3122) to authorize appropriations to the Atomic Energy COMMISSion in accordance With section 261 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and for other purposes, And an points or order against said bill are hereby waived. After general debate, which ,Shall be confined to the bill and continue not to exceed two hours, to be equally divided and controlled by the chairman and ranking Minority member of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy', the bill shall be read for amendment under the eve-minute rule. At the conclusion of the consideration of the bill for amendment, the Committee shall rise and report the bill to the House with such amendments as :may have been adopted and the previous question shall be considered as 'ordered on the bill and amendments thereto to final passage without intervening motion except one motion to recommit. Mr. YOUNG. Mr. Speaker, I yield 30 miraltes to the gentleman from Tennes- see, and pending that, I yield myself such time as I may consume. (Mr. YOUNG asked and was given per- mtssion to , revise and extend his f?e- marks.) Mr. YOUNG. Mr. Sneaker, House Res- olution 394 provides for consideration of H.R. 8122, a bill to authorize appropria- tions to the Atomic Energy Commission a.ccordanee with section 261 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and, for other ,purposes. The resolution,oPen rule, waiving points of Order, with 2 hours of general debate. As originally submitted to Congress, the Atomic EnergY Commission't request called for a total authorization 'of $2,592,- 035,000 for fiscal year 1966. HA. 8122 authorizes a total of $2,555,- 5,21,000?$2,266,776,00 for operating ex- pentes and $294,745,600 for plant and eanital equipment?for, the Ccanmission for figcal year ,1966?a difference of $36,- 514,000. ' In addition, the bill would authorize the 0.c, to enter into two new coopera- tive _arrangements with organizations Outside the Federal Government for con- struction and operation of nuclear power- plants,embodying advanced concepts. Included- Within the total amount,' this bill would authorize te be appropriated to the AEC is the sum of $132,363,000, which the AEC could Utilize for these coopera- tive arrangernents. 'the bill wont& also authorize AEC' to waive use charges on leased speCial nuclear Material for one Project in an amount estimated to be $6,443;000, and to purchase uranium en- Yichcd in ths isotope 233 produced, under the arrangement. -There is a provision in the bill rescind- ing prior year authorizations for five Projects amounting to $60,955,000, ex- Ousive of waiver of use charges. No additional funding is provided for these projects unless justification is subse- quently resubmitted to Congress and new authorization provided. Mr. Speaker, I urge the adoption of House Resolution 394. Mr. QUILLEN. Mr. Speaker, I yield riyself such time as I may consume. (Mr. QUILLEN asked and was given permission to revise and extend his re- x aarks) . Mr. QUILLEN. Mr. Speaker, we are considering HoUse Resolution 394, which will permit consideration of H.R. 8122, to authorize appropriations to the Atomic Energy Commission. A 2-hour ()pen rule is requested, waiving points Of order. I am in support of the rule. H.R. 8122 authorizes appropriations I or the Atomic Energy Commission for the fiscal 1966 of $2,555,521,000. - It also authorizes the AEC to begin Iwo civilian cooperative power reactor projects which are to utilize a so-far- unused source of energy. - Of the authorization, $2,260,776,000 Is for operating expenses and $294,745,- 000 is for the plant and capital equip- nent expenditures. Great progress is being made by the AEC in harnessing atomic power for 'ieareful uses. Under section 106 of the bill, authort, tion is given to the Commission to ,mter into a cooperative project with a 13tate, its departments and agencies, or With privately, publicly, or cooperatively owned utilities or industrial organiza- ;ions, for participation in the research and development, design, construction arid operation of a thorium seed-blanket nuclear power plant. Section 107 of the bill would give au- thorization to the Commission to con- tract with a utility or group of utilities and an equipment manufacturer or other industrial organization for partici- 3ation in the research and development, design, construction and operation of a Etigh-temperature gas-cooled nuclear powerplant. ? Under this section-107?the Public Service Co. of Colorado plans such a plant in its system. I am advised by the sommittee that this electric utility sys- tem would spend approximately $45 mil- lion, which will purchase the power fac- tor from the AEC manufacturing unit. ' The Government authorization is $47,- 306,000 making a total estimated cost tor this project of some $92,306,000. Under section 106, an agreement is un- der consideration for construction by the State of California to supply power to Pump water for the State's water supply project. I am advised that the State of California's estimated participation is $80 million, of which $40 million will go toward reactor costs and the remainder toward normal plant construction. The Government authorization is $91.5 mil- lion, 'for 'a total of $171.5 million. I _What payments or other charges are Contemplated in the future by companies Which then desire to obtain the patent Information "derived from these coopera- ;-. tive programs? The answer, as I under- stand it, is that no payments are to be made. The Government owns the pat- ent rights to all patents developed under the cooperative program, even those traceable to the private participant. The Government policy is to make all such information available free of charge to other companies. Once the process is developed, the patents are available to all interested parties. In Tennessee we are fortunate to have the oak Ridge project of the Atomic Energy Commission. It has meant much to the State of Tennessee. Al- though it is not in my district, it is in the district of my good friend and colleague, the gentleman from the second district of Tennessee, JOHN J. DumAN. It per- forms a very worthwhile service, as am sure the other agencies and opera- tions of this commission do throughout the United States. Mr. Speaker, I urge the adoption of the rule. Reserving the remainder of my time, I have no further requests for time. Mr. HALL. Mr. Speaker, will the gen- tleman yield? Mr. QuruJEN. I am glad to yield to the gentleman from Missouri. Mr. HALL. I wonder if the gentleman on the Rules Committee or the gentle- man who brought the rule to the floor of the House today will explain for the benefit of the House, why all points of order are to be waived under this rule, House Resolution 394. Mr. QUILLEN. Mr. Speaker, I will be glad to explain to the gentleman. As I understand, the restrictive language in section 103, on page 7 of the bill, makes the waiver necessary. It reads as fol- lows: (1) such construction project has been in- cluded? in a proposed authorization bill transmitted to the Congress by the Commis- Sion and (2) the Commission determines that the project is of such urgency that construction of the project should be initi- ated promptly upon enactment of legislation appropriating funds for its construction. As I understand it, the waiving of the points of order was necessary in a time of national crisis and urgency for the Commission to commence construction of a necessary project immediately, with- out authorization by the Congress. Mr. HALL. In other words, the gen- tleman is saying that this is an authori- zation for an immediate start on this particular construction because of a na- tional emergency? Mr. QU'll.t.RN. Crisis or urgency. Yes. Mr. HALL. I thank the gentleman. Mr. YOUNG. Mr. Speaker, I move the previous question. The previous question was ordered. The resolution was agreed to. AUTHORIZING APPROPRIATIONS FOR THE AEC 1966 Mr. HOLIFIELD. Mr. Speaker, I move that the House resolve itself into the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union for the considera- tion of the bill (H.R. 8122) to authorize appropriations to the Atomic Energy Commission in accordance with section Approved For Release 2005/05/12: CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 May 20, 1965 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP671300446R000500120023-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE 10791 In other cities which have managed to re- new themselves, some strong, high-spirited knight has entered the stage at this point? a determined, courageous mayor, like Rich- ard Lee in New Haven; a brilliant planner, like Ed Bacon in Philadelphia; or a skillful urban renewer, like Ed Logue in Boston or Justin Herman in San Francisco. In Fresno, the "knight" was the collective effort of three groups?Downtown Asso- ciation of Merchants and Property Owners; the city government, which adopted the council-manager system in 1958; and the urban renewal agency. Each had strong lead- ers, but it is a measure of the solid political ground under the Fresno Mall that all three groups closed their ranks tighter after, strangely and tragically, their three leaders died within a year. By that time, says a Fresno official, "Victor Gruen's plan had captured us and kept us together." It also helped that the three groups shared equally in the cost of preparing the plan. Even the chamber of commerce accepted the untried idea with enthusiasm?perhaps be- came Fresno's businessmen, for the most part, are young. "Maybe that also makes us more daring and broadminded," said one. "At any rate," he added, "we decided right from the start that if we did anything at all, we'd do it right." Fresno chose architect-planner Victor Gruen because it liked his famous Fort Worth plan. It called for closing off the entire cen- tral business district of the Texas city to automobile traffic. The streets and squares were to be converted into pleasant outdoor spaces where people could roam at will. To make this possible, a freeway lined with parking garages would loop around the pe- destrian haven. From the garages, people would either walk, or ride on little electric trains or moving sidewalks. The buildings would be serviced by underground track pas- sages leading right into them. Fort Worth, for various reasons, never carried out the plan. But it works extremely well in the heart of rebuilt Coventry, the center of England's car industry, and several other European cities. In this country, the idea of separating peo- ple and cars has, of course, proven itself in several suburban shopping centers. And some 50 cities from Miami Beach to Kala- mazoo, have attempted to cure downtown automotive paralysis by closing a block or two to motor traffic. But Bruen warns that a well-functioning urban heart is not just a matter of paving a street and putting up a few potted trees. You can't just simply subtract automobiles, he says. You must also add new dynamism and variety. In Fresno, the first to apply the idea ex- tensively as part of a comprehensive redesign of an existing American city, it took 5 years of planning and building before the mall was constructed, And the mall is just the be- ginning. Both functionally and esthetically it is carefully related to a whole new down- town, including a new courthouse, conven- tion hall, and civic center which are now under construction, "Our aim," says Gruen's partner in charge of the Fresno project, Edgard() Contini, "is to eke out as much beauty and urban design of the existing grid system and the existing, still serviceable buildings as possflole with- out destroying either." The planners began by getting, the high- way people to change the location of their proposal for new freeways so that they would effectively serve and define a downtown area large enough to be viable and leave room for expansion. It was probably the first time in America that planners got ahead of high- way engineers and that both collaborated fruitfully for the benefit of a city. The next step was to create the necessary parking spaces to make the pedestrian mail possible and to rearrange the traffic 1304-tern. The mall, covering six long continuous blocks as well as a block each of three cross streets, was completed last September at a cost of $1.5 million?a good bit of which disappeared un- derground for the re-laying of utility lines and building new drainage systems. Designed by landscape architects Eckbo, Dean, Austin & Williams, it is sheer and sus- tained delight. The artistic sophistication of the patterned pavement, the fountains, sculptured waterways, light fixtures, trash bins, planter boxes, and islands of trees and greenery matches that of the best sculpture courts in our modern art museums. The almost overly rich variety of forms, colors, ideas, and surprises is only matched by the Inventive thoughtfulness with which it serves the comfort of people. The pavement is easy to walk on and softly ebbing and flowing so rain water won't col- lect. The fountains, cascades, pools, and jets, all different and fascinating designs, are automatically geared to the wind velocity so people won't get wet. In some, the water gushes along stylized brooks that splash over richly colored and patterned blazed adobe sculptures. Some you can cross on little bridges; others tempt you to run along them, dragging your hand in the water. All of them help to cool the mail in the hot Fresno sun. For the grownups, there are places to sit in the sun amidst greenery, in the shade under arbors or protected from the wind behind handsome mosaic walls. For the children, there are marvelous little playgrounds, some donated by mer- chants, with enchanting, modern play equipment. There is, of course, a sidewalk cafe and another to come. There is the almost obli- gatory clock tower, a little reminiscent Of Naum Gabo's famous street sculpture in Rot- terdam and a little skimpy and skinny. But there are also eight excellent sculp- tures, some commissioned from young un- knowns, others by famous sculptors. The "piece de resistance" is a cast of Auguste Renoir's "La Grande Laveuse," handsomely displayed under some chaste planting in a quiet corner of the mall. These sculptures were donated by local businessmen. Such was their enthusiasm that their art committee collected $200,000. It would accept only a $5,000 minimum and no interference with its professionally guided selection and placement of the art works. Yet, even the car dealers pitched in. The fact that these sculptures are placed, not in a serene museum atmosphere, but amidst the bustle of a lively marketplace, gives them a new, exhilarating quality. This is still a typical, rather jazzy Ameri- can main street. A few of the stores, to be sure, have been handsomely remodeled. One rather rundown block will be replaced. But the rest is still a jumble of high and low, passable and ugly business buildings and store fronts. There is still, despite hopes for some esthetic control, the usual, often vulgar array of advertising signs. In time, greater consistency and some restraint may still assert itself. But even as is, the strong design of the mall itself seems to drown out the visual noise on the sidelines. For once good design beats bad design. And between all these wonders, shaded by 169 trees, wind noiseless and slow-moving little electric trains, driven by attractive girls who will collect a dime from you and let you on or off wherever you wish. It is not surprising that business along the Fresno Mall has already improved by more than 20 percent. It draws people from afar, not only to shop but also because It is simply a nice place to be. The new sense of belonging and cohesion the mall has given Fresno and its more than 60 ethnic groups, is most tangibly expressed in the art festival it inspired, It started with the mall's opening festivities last fall but is to become an annual affair held in May. Devoted to dance, drama, literature, music, and painting, the festival presents some serious offerings by out-of-town guests at places other than the mall and under roof. This any city might do. What makes the festival Fresnian and unique are the high school band concerts, the Japanese and Armenian folk dancing, the Buddhist choir,- the children's gymnastic performances, the puppet shows, the ama- teur art exhibits. This is the city where William Saroyan was born and lives, and its new mall is where Saroyan's America comes to life?as you watch the little Japanese, Mexican, Cauca- sian, or Negro faces become enraptured as they listen to a pretty young Fresno actress telling them about Cinderella. Around the corner from the story teller and the clown kneels Renoir's strong, yet graceful, bronze nude. She holds her cleansed laundry with almost surprised in- credulity. She, too, seems astonished to find herself in a small California city, a symbol of what may herald the renaissance of urban life in America; a new merging of art and life. JOHN uN NU- NSENSE DIPLO- MACY SETS BACK MARXISTS IN CARIBBEAN (Mr. HATHAWAY (at the request of Mr. FARNSLEY) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. HATHAWAY. Mr. Speaker, I was happy to see the Portland Press-Herald endorse the President's policy in the Do- minican Republic. The President well deserves the assurance contained in the paper's editorial of May 3, which follows: JOHNSON'S NO-NONSENSE DIPLOMACY SETS BACK MARXISTS IN CARIBBEAN The dust has not yet settled in Santo Domingo?or to use a euphemism, the Do- minican Republic?but the fog is clearing a bit, and it is beginning to appear that the prompt intervention by this country pre- vented 'the Reds from turning the country into another Cuba. The revolt was touched off a week ago Saturday by young army officers seeking re- turn of constitutional rule and reinstalla- tion of Juan Bosch as president. They failed to win a quick victory and, discour- aged, began dickering with metnbers of the ruling civilian junta, then supported by most of the navy and air force elements. During this lull in the fighting the leftists moved in to take advantage of the breakdown in au- thority, and by Tuesday morning thousands of civilians had somehow been armed by the rebels and the fighting in Santo Do- mingo became so fierce that Washington be- gan offering to rescue Americans and other nonresidents. By Thursday night President Johnson had decided to send in Marines and Army personnel, and despite the criticism of other Latin nations it seems to have been a wise precaution. Fidel Castro's sister is being quoted as saying that the Cuban dictator has been slipping men and arms into the Dominican Republic ever since the 1963 expulsion of Bosch. The Allen-Scott column this morn- ing declares that after the Bosch overthrow the Republic's new envoy to the Organiza- tion of American States submitted shocking evidence of Red infiltration both to the OAS and to the Senate Armed Services Prepared- ness Subcommittee. With the CIA also busy there, it may be that the administration was not taken by Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 10792 CDNGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE Complete surprise when the rebellion was taken over?as it appears now?by M.arxistc, But for Johnson's hard diplomacy, the Carib ? bean might well be witnessing an extenslo: of Castro's rule, and we hope the OAS wEl be sufficiently impressed as to take collective secitrity measures of its own. OTJR RESPONSIBILITIES IN VIET- NAM AND THE WORLD (Mr. HULL (at the request of Me. FARNSLEY) was granted permission to eX- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. HULL. Mr. Speaker, in his hi$.- torte speech at the Johns Hopkins TJni - versity on April 7, President Johnson said this about the situation in Vietnam and abou4 our respOnSibilities elsewhere in the world: '9Ve fight because we must if we are to lb e in a world where every country can shape I own destiny. And only in such a world will our own freedom be finally secura. We must deal with the world as it is, Lf it is ever to be as we wish. In the long history of the world, den- potism has become a venerable insti- tution?but freedom is still young. [1 We are to see liberty succeed and prevail in the world, I believe we must be pre- pared for many a long and bitter strug- gle in its defense. I have no illusions about the difficul ,y of those struggles. But the knowledge of our President's resolute and resourc3- ful actions in matters of foreign poliey has given me confidence recently. For- tunately many other Americans?news- paper editors among them?agree; todi I would like to offer for the RECORD en editorial from the St. Joseph, Mo., Gi- zette of April 28: L.B.J.'s MESSAGE Once again, at his news conference yester- day, President Lyndon B. Johnson set forth in easily understandable terms the purpoc es Which guide his decisions regarding south- east Asia and the conflict in South vietna z. The primary intent, one which has been voiced by this country for all the years sir cc the end of World War IT, is to block the swallowing-up of free and independent coun- tries by communism through subversion fed and financed by their Communist neighbors. Overthrow of free governments by terror- ism in the streets, across the countryside in hamlets and farming areas, hit-and-run tec- tics of guerrilla gangs is the Commun9st idea of "wars of liberation." Communt an has openly pledged to support such wars as a means or subverting the entire world to that ideology. It was Cctstro's tactic. Indonesia practiced it to gain control of independent areas in that Pacific region. And, although Sukarno disclaims communism, he is associated w th Russia and Red China and continues to send his guerrilla bands into areas of Malaysia in an effort to further subvert free people. The same tactic disrupts many governmeats of Latin and South America. By refusing to bow to terroristic talleoier of a nation this country pledged to supp3rt as a neutral product of the 1954 agreeme its on Indochina, President Johnson is tellng the world?and Communism specificall;f? that Communist inspired "wars of liberatloh" will not be condoned. He is telling he world that such armed assault on a neight Or, fed by convoys along back roads and by shadowy ships which slink at night along he shore, is just as much aggression as attack He is telling the world that the 'United States will no longer be *ken in by the term "wars of liberation." ABOLITION OF RESIDENCE IN AID TO THE BLIND BELL The SPEAKER pro tempore (Mr. MAT- suwaoA) . Under previous order of the House, the gentleman from California [Mr. KING] is recognized for 10 minutes. Mr. ZING of California. Mr. Speaker, today I have introduced a bill to 'elimi- nate residence as an eligibility require- ment to receive aid to the blind in the federally supported State programs of aid to the blind. My bill does not embody a novel con- cept, nor does it represent a departure from our accepted practices and estab- lished legal provisions. Rather, it is completely consistent with our American traditions and constitutional precepts that an American is a citizen of the en- tire land, not just of a boundaried part; that the whole Nation is his domain; that he may travel from State to State without restriction or restraint, seeking his fortune where he will, abandoning an old life of frustration and failure for a new life of promise and challenging hope. By tradition and by legal concept and provision, an American is a citizen of all America, and all America is his home- land, he may establish his home in any Part of America. The greatness of America has come, in no small measure, from the free move- ment of its people?from East to Mid- west, from Midwest to Far West?from farms to factories?from centers of static society, stagnant economy, to the very edge of the wilderness, where life?fluid and unfixed?offered opportunity for all who dreamed and hoped for the one new and better chance, and found it waiting for them. Yes, Mr. Speaker, America has grown to greatness because its people held full rights of citizenship throughout the whole Nation, asnd they were free to go wherever fortune beckoned them from the life they knew?a life of failure or success; a life low or high in station? to the challenge of new lands and new industries, new hopes fulfilled, new dreams transformed into reality, a life that put renewed vitality into old and weary aspirations. The full width and length of America should always be?must always be?the open and unrestricted domain of all Americans if we are to continue to grow and develop as a nation?and this should be so, must be so, whether a man is in need of public help or is prosperous; whether he is rich or poor; highly trained and skilled in a trade, business, or pro- fession, or without any training or skill at all, but still is desirous of trying once more in a new place to find his place; to build his life in a new locality, in a dif- ferent field of economic endeavor. Mr. Speaker, I have long been an op- ponent of residence laws in programs of publie welfare, for they freeze a man in his place; deny to him the right to go somewhere else, to try again in spite of ill fortune or adversity, to seek again for the realization of his shattered hopes and scattered dreams in a fresh assault on May 20, 71965 gers?a strange land to him, but never- theless a part of vast America?strangers to him, but still his fellow Americans. It is my belief that all Americans must possess the right to move freely where their dreams lead them in America; where -opportunity invites them in America. This right to move freely throughout America should riot be denied to men in need who have their sight; it certainly should not be denied to men in need who are without their sight. Mr. Speaker, I am opposed to a require- ment in all Federal-State public welfare programs that, to qualify for aid, a per- son must live in a State for a specified length of time. I am particularly opposed to such a residence requirement in the federally supported aid to the blind programs pro- vided for under title X of the Social Security Act. Over the years, Congress has en- deavored to make the Federal-State aid to the blind programs a means by which needy blind persons might be helped to achieve rehabilitation?might ultimately free themselves through their own efforts from a lifetime of dependency upon pub- lic assistance; might free the community of the obligation of providing support for them the remaining years of their lives. 'Abolition of residence requirements in the Federal-State aid to the blind pro- grams would be another forward step in making these programs truly programs offering a means of achieving full re- habilitation to normal, productive lives. The bill I have introduced would abolish residence requirements in aid to the blind programs in the States. It would restore to men and women who are blind and dependent upon such programs a basic right of their American citizenship: the right to move anywhere in the country without loss or hazard, without forfeiture or restraint. A man who has lost his sight still pos- sesses an almost limitless capacity for profitable productivity, but because of the nature of the economic environment in which he resides he may be unable to find employment; because he is needy and dependent upon public sources for support, he cannot leave his home com- munity or State, devoid of job oppor- tunities for him, to reestablish himself in a more advantageous area of the Na- tion, because public assistance would not be available to him in the new State-- since he would lack the years of residence in the new State to qualify him for such aid. So, Mr. Speaker, this man remains in his barren community?barren for him?barren of employment opportuni- ties for a man who is blind. And, be- cause he dare not venture toward new horizons that offer him hope and a better future, but also offer only starvation until he can find work, until he can earn again?he remains where he happens to live and continues to live?not too well-- but continues to live for the rest of his life as a public charge, a permanent re- cipient of public assistance. 'thus, this man who is blind, denied freedom of movement because he is needy and because of the restrictiveness hitiP8Ved For Release 206g7C18/i/tfa8VA_lgi5Fst0608/Agtffono-05ojoStitar3s-,4.ives a lifetime of depend- by marchin Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP671300446R000500120023-9 A2516 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? APPENDIX nickname that probably accounts for the use of more parentheses than any other moniker in the public print. The name, sometimes causes confusion. Witness Perle Mesta, the hostess with the mostest, writing in McCall's magazine about one of her galas in connection with the last Democratic National Convention at Atlantic City. Among the guests, she gushed, was her "good friend from Alaska, Senator ED. BART- LETT." Alaskans wouldn't make such a social blunder about our Senator E. L. (BOB) BART- LETT, being honored here this weekend for a distinguished career which now spans 20 years in Congress. Who is this man among 99 others who sits in the highest legislative body of the land, and represents Alaska with pride and honor CII the national and international scene? Well, don't look here for an analysis of his contributions to the territory, the State, and the Nation. But here is an inside glimpse at Bartlett-behind-the-headlines, the Sena- tor who enjoys grapes for breakfast, nibbled while shaving with a cordless electric razor While he studies the latest news from every newspaper published in Alaska. This is an Alaskan who lives on 49th Street in the Nation's Capital, and zips to his office (a 12-minute drive if he hits the traffic right) in a Volkswagen bearing Alaska li- cense plate No. 49. The Senator from the 49th State arrives at work in the Old Senate Office Building each day with a fresh rose in his lapel. He carries two other roses with him--one of which is given daily to Senator MARGARET CHASE Smarn of Maine. The other Is a spare, in case the steamy heat of Wash- ington wilts the one in his buttonhole. The roses are cut each morning by BARTLETT from among the many in his back- yard?a garden tended with great skill by the Senator's wife, Vide. But the brilliant array of roses must share space in the yard with an old-fashioned grinding wheel, at which BARTLETT occasionally sits, pedaling away at a knife-sharpening chore. He works at a desk pileti high with a col- lection of papers reflecting the ebb and flow of the affairs of state, using two spindles rising from the clusters of reports and docu- ments on which to spear important memos, reminders, and messages. His work at sena- torial duties occupies him from early morn- ing to late in the ?evening, and the Bartletts shun all but the most important of the countless social functions which sap the strength of many in the Washington whirl. There's a 7-foot toten pole in his office and an Alaskan bearskin rug on the floor of his den at home and the only television set in the house is on the blink, unrepaired be- cause he reads so much that he doesn't have time to which it anyway. Like all of us, he worries about his weight?but has given up on such things as a grapefruit diet to beat the bulge. He's one of the most popular men in the Senate, a friend of the President, a friend to every displaced Alaskan in the Nation's Capital, He has an unabashed love affair for Alaska, a deep respect for his office and for the U.S. Senate. The Senate, he once said, is "the very highest goal one can attain, un- less you consider the Vice Presidency or the Presidency." Who's this fellow BARTLE'TT? He's a man Who keeps a king-size sack of dog biscuits Inside the kitchen door so he can feed the neighbor's hound every morning. He's an ex-gold miner. He's an ex-newspaperman. And he's rated by the veterans of the Senate Press Gallery as one of the top dozen Members of the Senate. That's who Senator E. L. (BOB) BARTLETT Is. Proliferation of Obscene Literature EXTENSION OF REMARKS OP HON. JAMES M. HANLEY OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 20, 1965 Mr. HANLEY. Mr. Speaker, through- out the Nation communities are being made aware of the grave dangers created by the proliferation of obscene literature. It is well known that the purveyors of pornography have concentrated their efforts to get their wares into the hands and the minds of the young. There can be no doubt that this situation has cre- ated a national problem of great and growing proportions. On April 5 of this year, the House of Representatives passed a bill, H.R. 980, the purpose of which was to establish the principle that a parent, as a patron of the postal service, has the right to be Protected from receiving through the U.S. mails unsolicited mail matter which, in his opinion, is obscene. I believe that all of us agree that the most effective way for citizens to combat the spread of pornographic literature is to wage a community campaign on the local level. Such a campaign has been undertaken in the city of Syracuse. The local news media and many civic organi- zations have joined in an effort to make parents aware of what is being pushed upon their children by the sellers of por- nography, to arouse their concern and sense of outrage, and to plan an effort to put an end to the sale of indecent literature to children. I should like to Include here a portion of a speech by Mr. Thomas Higgins, who is president of the Merchants National Bank and Trust Co., of Syracuse, in which he mentioned this effort. The occasion of the speech was the annual Tipperary Hill, Post 1361, American Legion award dinner. The speech follows: A PORT/ON OF A SPEECH BY MR. THOMAS HIG- GINS AT THE ANNUAL TIPPERARY HILL, POST 1361, AMERICAN LEGION AWARD DINNER The Tipp Hill Past is to be commended on another score. It has always embraced the principle that we tell all America not just what is pleasing to hear, but what is true and good and right to hear. Furthermore, that we tell all America not only what we have done in the past, but what we are re- solved to do in the future. I think the greatest thing that the Tipp Hill post has done in the past year has been to join forces with our two local newspapers; and with all decent thinking people in wag- ing a war on smut literature which gradu- ally is poisoning the minds of our youth. You may be interested to know that this smut industry is now a $2 billion a year busi- ness. Just think of it?$2 billion of dirt and the sad part of it all is that '75 percent of this obscene, foul, and filthy literature finds its way into the hands of youngsters Under 18 years of age. The other day I was discussing this smut literature with a friend of mine and he made a statement which really shook me, and I have thought about it many times since. He said: May 20, 1965 "Tom, I would rather have a nand dog loose In my backyard with my children than to have this smut literature in their hands." Tomorrow and for a lot of tomorrows, let us all think of that statement by my friend. May I suggest to all of you good people that you do one of two things, preferably both. Either join the Citizens for Decent Literature Committee which is active in On- ondaga County under the chairmanship of Judge Leo Yehle or at least write to the Reader's Digest and ask for a reprint of an article entitled, "Poison in Print and How to Get Rid of It." We all owe it to our children, our grand- children, to ourselves and our community to do everything in our power to help eradicate this vicious disease which is eating away at the minds and souls of our youth. Please don't be apathetic about this threat to our children. Don't let anyone tell you this is censorship. I abhor censorship as much as anyone else but believe me this is not censorship iriS any form whatsoever. I would like to see all of the clergy of Onondaga County unite in a march against smut literature. We all want America to be the greatest country in the world. Let's make certain that she does not become the pornographic capital of the world. U.S. Acted in Santo Domingo as OAS Should Have Done STAT NSION OF REMARKS OF HON. WINFIELD K. DENTON OF INDIANA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 20, 1965 Mr. DENTON. Mr. Speaker, under leave to extend my remarks in the RECORD, I include the following article from the Evansville, Ind., Courier of May 2, 1965: COURAGE OF COMMONSENSE: UNITED STATES ACTED IN SANTO DOMINGO AS OAS SHOULD HAVE DONE Sending U.S. forces to the neighboring Dominican Republic was an act of necessity. We may deplore the necessity, but we can- not deplore the action. President Johnson's prompt decision illustrated the courage of commonsense. The action had to be swift, or not at all. There are signs that some members of the Organization of American States are unhappy with this action. But the United States merely did what the OAS should have done, had it been equipped. If the action had awaited time for the OAS to go through its usual mumbo jumbo, it would have been too late. The urgent issue was the rescue of Ameri- cans whose lives were in danger. That is a first duty of the American Government in any situation. Rescue of other nationals who wanted to leave, including even some Dominicians, could be nothing more than an act of mercy. At the time of this writing, it still was un- clear whether the disorder was being pushed primarily by Communist elements, or whether a few simply had followed the usual Communist practice of joining any disturb- ance. The presence of some known Com- munist agitators was enough to indicate the possibilities. The Western Hemisphere cannot tolerate any more Castros in its middle. Whatever Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 May 20, 1965 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? APPENDIX this time. We switch you now to "The Man from 'UNCLE!' MYNA lanin and BYE-BYE BIRDIE (rushing to the set). Hot-ziggety. Whoo-pee. At last. EL= (glowering) . Birdie Bird, whyrat you take those kiddies out and show theni how to plant flowers on the freeway? (puzzled). But how come they cut me off like that? BIRDIE BIRD (consolingly). It's because you aren't on regular, Elbie. Just odd hours, night and day. ELS/E. You're right, Birdie Bird. I'm go- ing to get me a regular peace program-7 to 9 nightly, all three networks. And I even got a title: "My Day and Why I Did It," Will Elbie explain things? Will he ever stop? Be sure to tune in to our next epi- sode, folks. And meantime, as you mosey on down the trail of life, remember what Elbie's ol' granddaddy always used to say: "Talk is cheap. And there's a lot of other good things to be said for it, too." Labor's Reward EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. E. Y. BERRY OF SOUTTI DAKOTA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 20, 1965 Mr. BERRY. Mr. Speaker, we are ex- periencing a new philosophy in this drive for Central Government control?the drive is for a $2 minimum wage. Of course, we can expect few employers to provide jobs for the young and unskilled at $2 an hour, but the Great Society is going to take care of that by having the unskilled trained in some Government- financed school. Instead of using the minimum wage as a floor below which no one is permitted to fall, the plan is to establish the level as a bed upon which all can rest. It can only mean deterioration of the presently bad system which keeps young people from finding jobs and puts them on the street to spawn crime. The Washington Evening Star carried an editorial in the May 19, 1965, issue which is worth serious consideration of -every Member of Congress before they consider selling their vote for a mess of AFL-CIO pottage. The editorial is as follows: LABOR'S REWARD President Johnson bas called upon Con- gress to give labor a very large slice of the Great Society pie. This follows the election returns of 1964, in which labor contributed much to the President's victory and to the Democratic sweep of Congress. Political debts of this sort have to be paid, or at least an attempt must be made to pay them. Clearly, however, the President recognizes the dangers which lurk behind some of the AFL-CIO demands. This is especially evi- dent in his comments on his recommenda- tion to broaden and presumably to increase (no amount was specified in the labor mes- sage) the minimum wage. Congress, Mr. Johnson said, should consider carefully the effect of higher minimum wage rates on the incomes of those employed, and also on costs and prices, and on job opportunities?"par- ticularly fer the flood of teenagers now en- tering our labor force." This is another way of saying that if Congress goes to extremes In this area, it will not only be inviting in- flation, an unduly high minimum wage will collide head on with the administration's ef- fort to proviie jobs for those who are both young and unskilled. The AFL-CIO has urged an hourly minimum of $2. This is more than many employers could or would pay for the services of the unskilled, yet these constit tate the bulk of the unemployed, The Presidela and Congress cannot have it both ways. Little or no progress will be made in red icing this segment of unemploy- ment if the lost to prospective employers be- comes prohibitive. Another absurdity in the message is the proposal to spread employment by imposing double, or penalty rates, for excessive over- time. It may be that some employers would rather pay aline and a half overtime than to increase th.iir labor force, with accompany- ing fringe-aenefit costs, But this does not take into ascount those industries in which intermittent peak workloads call for occa- sional over time. Why should the Govern- ment be trying to force these employers to hire permanent additional workers whose services might be needed only 3 or 4 months in the year? There ale numerous other economic rec- ommendat.ons in the message, and no esti- mate of costs. The costs, however, will be high. The proposal with the highest emotional content concerns repeal of section 14(b) of the 1947 Taft-Hartley Act?which permits States wia ch wish to do so to ban the union shop. Under the union shop, employees must join a union, usually within 30 to 60 days after taking a job. It is our view that, as a matter of principle, no man should be compelled to join a union in order to hold his job. This will be a close fight and a bit- ter one. If Congress finally repeals section 14(b) , however, then at least a provision should he written into the law to prevent unions from denying membership to Negroes and thereby depriving them of job oppor- tunities. Roy Wilkins, NAACP executive sec- retary, h is just made an interesting speech to the International Ladies Garment Work- ers in which he said that "deeply ingrained patterns of discrimination" in labor unions have not been broken. This speech should be read by every Member of Congress who may be inclined to vote for repeal of sec- tion 14 (b) , and then call it a day. A Salu e to Senator E. L. (Bob) Bartlett of Alaska EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. RALPH J. RIVERS OF ALASKA IN TiE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 20, 1965 Mr. RIVERS of Alaska. Mr. Speaker, I have just returned from a trip to my home State of Alaska, where I joined with eountless other Alaskans in honor- ing Alaska's senior Senator E. L. (BOB) BARTLETT, through the medium of a testinionial dinner, recognizing his 20 years of dedicated service to Alaska in Waslington, D.C.?first, for 14 years as Alaska's lone territorial delegate; then, for the last 6 years as U.S. Senator. On the day of the Bartlett dinner, Alasla's Anchorage Times printed two excellent tributes to this outstanding citizEn of the 49th State. In order that my colleagues may be aware of the ap- 42515 predation which we Alaskans feel to- ward our senior Senator, I insert those editorials here: [From the Anchorage Daily Times, May 15,- 1966] WHY ALL THE FUSS ABOITT SENATOR BARTLETT? Why all the fuss about Senator BARTLETT? Because he has done so much for Alaska during 20 years as a Member of Congress, that's why. Alaskans are swarming around to take part In a festive tribute to him tonight. Every- body wants in the act. They ought to want in. 'The celebration is more than an opportunity to show proper gratitude for extraordinary service rendered by an extraordinary public servant. It is also an opportunity to be associated with a man who will loom high in the his.. tory of Alaska. A man who inspires good and noble qualities in all of us. A man who has reached the heights of achievement with- out losing the original quality- a humility that makes him a true friend and neigh- bor. When the Alaskans are seated for dinner tonight with the Senator in the position of honor, a great moment will have arrived. Here will be a group of Alaskans who are grateful to their leader. They will be representative of thousands of more who would be present if they were able. At the same time, the guest of honor will be able to see that good work is not in vain. That constituents are not all greed, selfishness and demanding. That public life is not all tension, anxiety and strife. Only a great man could have come through 20 years of public service with a record like Senator BARTLETT'S. He was tutored on the ways of Washington in the territorial days when a Delegate to Congress was hardly more than a dignified beggar. 'He went hat in hand to committees and agencies trying to get them to do him the favor of provid- ing something good for Alaska. BARTLETT's training stood him in such good stead that he has grown into a position of influence as a full-fledged Member of the up- per House. While Alaska made the transi- tion from Territory to State. BARTLETT made it from Delegate to Senator. And that is no simple taski for it meant sharing the re- sponsibility for the Nation and much of the world in addition to the problems pertain- ing to the baby State. Historians will tell of the benefits that accrued to Alaska from BARTLETT'S hand. The list will be long. And no historian can make such a list without emphasizing the work of Senator BARTLETT in winning statehood for Alaska. For 13 long years it was BARTLETT, then serving as Delegate, . who worked with the committees of Congress to win favorable ac- tion on statehood legislation. It was BART- LETT who worked with the numerous Federal agencies to win their support. It Was BARTLETT IO Whom Most Members of Congress and the other Federal agencies looked for their impressions and .observa- tions that could either help or hinder state- hood legislation. Alaskans take personal pride in BARTLETT. Each one considers him "my man." Each feels he has a proprietary right to a part of him. And why not? His successes are our sucesses, and he has enriched us by pro- viding so many. [From the Anchorage 'Times, May 15, 19651 VIGNETTES AND VIEWS, SATURDAY SUNDRY (By William J. Tobin) His real name is EDWARD LEWIS BARTLETT, but if you call him anything but Boa most people won't know who you're talking about, But everybody knows Bos?a childhood Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 May 20, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ?APPENDIX is necessary to prevent a Communist take- over in any American country, big or little, ought to be undertaken in self-protection for the whole area, especially the countries of Central and South America. If any of our Latin American friends feel unhappy about this regretful necessity, they need only ask themselves: Which would they rather have? A temporary U.S. rescue mis- sion? Or another Communist dictatorship to be used as a base for new infiltrations in Venezuela or Peru, or some other free American country? The United States already has announced It is prepared to "transfer its responsibility to the OAS at the earliest possible moment." The sooner our forces can leave the better Americans will like it. But we will not leave U.S. citizens, or other innocent vic- tims, to the mercies of mob rule, whether inspired by local ruffians or more sinister elements. Until then, the whole hemisphere should have but a single, prayerful hope: That some leader in the Dominican Republic can estab- .11sh a stable, non-Communist government, capable of keeping order?and quickly. Student Opposes United Nations China, killed just to stay in power?only 49 million (13 million people alone in 1962). The U.N. said nothing. When the United Nations was established in 1945, communism controlled only 200 mil- lion people, in and around the Soviet Union. Today, communism strikes terror in some 900 million people in Europe and Asia. Roughly almost one-third of the world's population Is living under Communist influence and control. Is this the peace guaranteed by the United Nations? By all means let's give Communist China a seat in the United Nations?our seat. And since we do not want the Red Chinese coming to New York, let's ask them to move the U.N. headquarters to Peiping or Moscow where it really belongs. If mere survival has become more impor- tant to Americans than freedom, then the men who sacrificed their lives for us in bat- tles of the past have been asked to fight, to bleed, and to die in vain. BILLY MCILHANY U.S. Forces in the Dominican Republic EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JAMES B. UTT OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 20, 1965 Mr. UTT. Mr. Speaker, under unani- mous consent to extend my remarks in the Appendix of the RECORD I include a letter written by Billy McIlhany, an eighth-grade student from Roanoke, Va., , High School which appeared in the Roa- noke World News on Tuesday, April 20, 1965. It is gratifying to find so many young students in America who do a little think- ing for themselves and recognize the dan- gers which can come to this country by way of a world government. The letter follows: [From the Roanoke (Va.) World News, Apr. 20, 19651 STUDENT OPPOSES UNITED NATIONS Congratulations to the United Nations and their friends everywhere. Another great suc- cess for peace has been accomplished. This is of course in the light of news reports stat- ing that legislation will soon give Alcatraz Island to the San Francisco chapter of the United Nations Association, which will con- vert it into an international peace symbol, flying the United Nations symbolic flag. And of course most of these good but misguided people do not realize that the peace sought by the United Nations, and to be symbolized by their island, is the Communist peace, which means literally and simply, a situation or condition, in any country or for any people, in which all resistance to communism has been completely destroyed. For certainly that is exactly where the United Nations flag belongs?over a maxi- mum security prison, or an island which will be remembered in the public mind as a maximum security prison. The action seems to me quite symbolic, as a maximum security prison is exactly what the whole world will become if the United Nations is successful. Less than 1 month ago a report said how many people the Red Chinese under Mao Tse-tung have murdered since 1949. These were just anti-Communists, citizens in XTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. CLAUDE PEPPER OF FLORIDA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 20, 1965 Mr. PEPPER. Mr. Speaker, I submit for insertion in the RECORD three highly interesting editorials from recent news- papers: one from the Miami Herald of April 30; one from the Miami News of the same date; and a third from the Herald of April 29. In the midst of increasing public con- fusion, these articles enunciate quite simply the reasons for our dispatching U.S. forces recently to the Dominican Republic: to protect American lives; to prevent another Cuban-style Communist takeover in our hemisphere, and to pre- vent the kind of anarchy which would make impossible any international peacekeeping and stabilizing action. I strongly recommend these informa- tive articles to my colleagues: [From the Miami (Fla.) News, Apr. 30, 19651 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: PRESIDENT JOHNSON'S SW/FT RESPONSE President Johnson's reply to the informa- tion that some 2,000 American lives were en- dangered by the Dominican revolt was swift and effective. His sending of the Marines may raise some hackles among Latin Americans who recall the "gunboat diplomacy" of earlier years, but those feelings can be soothed later. The President's immediate responsibility was to respond to a notice that no one could guarantee the safety of U.S. nationals in the Dominican Republic. This is entirely believ- able, considering that one of the first acts of the rebels was to put guns in the hands of a few thousand unorganized civilians. U.S. spokesmen have been careful to state that the Marines are there only to protect Americans and other foreign nationals who request aid. Nevertheless, the presence of American forces could, or should, impose some restraint on the Santo Domingo rebels. We shall see. The U.S. suggestion that the Organization of American States put its peacemaking machinery to work at once was a wise one. The chaos in the Dominican Republic en- A2517 dangers more than the safety of 2,000 Ameri- can civilians. It is a threat to the security of the entire hemisphere. The situation is made to order for Fidel Castro and his well-organized sub- versives in the Caribbean. [From the Miami (Fla.) Herald, Apr. 30, 1965) MARINES FOR A DOUBLE PURPOSE The landing of Marines to protect Ameri- cans in the Dominican Republic should also serve a larger purpose. This is to preclude a Communist takeover along the lines of Fidel Castro's conquest of Cuba for the Reds. President Johnson acted forthrightly in sending the Marines ashore. He did so with approval from congressional leaders of both political parties, and we believe they rep- resented the views of their constituents in supporting the President's action. Mr. Johnson also saw to it that full in- formation on developments was supplied to the council of the Organization of American States. The OAS, representing all the free nations of the new world, is properly as con- cerned as the United States to prevent an- other Cuba. No government in the hemisphere is safe if Communist agents can foment insurrec- tion?whatever the pretext?in order to seize power. Members of the OAS might well send token forces to Santo Domingo to help snuff out the threat to peace there. Such steps are clearly authorized by OAS pacts, and were invoked during the Cuban missile crisis. ? Squeals of outrage over the use of Marines already are being heard from the Commu- nist bloc, and may be expected to grow louder. These merely underscore the truth about the bloody doings in Santo Domingo. President Johnson is proceeding with meas- ured prurience. The lives of the 2,000 Ameri- cans in the Dominican Republic certainly must be safeguarded so long as teenage hood- lums with machineguns are allowed to spray bullets where they please. [From the Miami (Fla.) Herald, Apr. 29, 1965) THE MARINES HAVE LANDED Yesterday this newspaper pleaded: "Let's have no second Cuba in the Domini- can Republic." Today it makes no difference whether we said this or whether someone else did. The pertinent fact is that President Johnson has acted swiftly to prevent just such a catas- trophe. He has sent a powerful Marine unit ashore fen' the ostensible purpose of protect- ing American nationals in the hotted-up civil war. One faction in that conflict would return Juan Bosch to power with the help of undisguised cadres of Communists. It is all very well to argue that we have no real business in Santo Domingo. The same argument was made?much to our woe?in that vacillating venture known as the Bay of Pigs, which has cost the United States worldwide prestige and a Red foothold one jump from the U.S. mainland. We think that Mr. Johnson moved wisely last night. He was careful to consult the friendly council of the Organization of American States. He conferred with and responded to the Dominican Government in power (though beleaguered) which reqnested our help. He brought in the congressional leader- ship. It is clear, however, that the marines are there to stay a bit, for their "assistance will be available to the nationals of other coun- tries." Well, let them stabilize the situation, not in the selfish name of any entrenched and selfish colonialism but to protect the na- tional interests of two proud peoples in po- litical freedom in the Caribbean. Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP671300446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2005/05/12: CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 A2518 Aid to Higher Education wk." ENSION OF' REMARKS? OP HON. JOHN V. TUNNEY CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? APPENDIX May 20, 1965 OF CALIFORNIA IN ME HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 20, 1965 TUNNEY. Mr. Speaker, I would like to place in the REcosn a series of three editorials by the Riverside, Calif., Press-Enterprise. H.R. 3220, a bill to strengthen the edu- cational resources of our colleges and universities and to provide financial as- sistance for students in postsecondary and higher education, will soon be before the Kouse. This proposed legislation would pro- vide approximately $1,450,000 to the State of California. a large portion of which would be allocated to the Uni- versity of California Extension Service which plays an active role in programs relating to community problems such as housing, poverty, government, recreation, employment, youth opportunities, trans- portation, health, and land use. I believe that the University of Cali- fornia Extension Service has done a re- markable job for the educational system of California as well as for the people of the various communities which it serves. ? The following editorials are historically important as few newspapers in this country have become really informed about the possibilities for using the uni- versity extension service in nonagricul- tural areas: [From the Riverside (Calif.) Press, Apr. 6, , 1964] EXTENSION: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT RIVERSIDE, CHANCELLOR BACES Am PLAN Chancellor Herman T. Spieth of the Uni- versity of California at Riverside, today pub- licly annriunced his support Of a proposed Federal plan to finance additional university extension programs. The bill, introduced in Congress by Rep- resentative CLEVELAND BAILEY, Democrat, of W. Va., would make it possible for the university to inerease its education services to business, industrial, and professional groups and to the general public. A publicly supported program of general extension as provided by Congressman BAILEY'S bill (H.R. 4386), to be operated by State universities and land-grant colleges would stimulate these institutions to bring nevS research and other knowledge to indi- vidual and groups in communities through programs of adult education, Chancellor Spieth said. The bill provides for a yearly appropria- tion of $20 million to each State and an ad- ditional $8 million to be divided among the States on the basis of population. Each State would have to provide its own matching funds to share in the $8 million fund. Under the proposed program, each college or University could use the money to offer adult education courses in any field of study taught at the school or in which the school conducts research. However, duplication of instruction offered by the cooperative agricultural or home economics programs or by federally financed vocational education-progrann would not be allowed. [Fron, the Riverside (Calif.) Press, Apr, 6, 1961] EXTENDING EXTENSION Whilo the program for aid to education which he President is urging on Congress may mem comprehensive, it neglects one import pit phase of education: adult educa- tion. In an effort to fill this loophole, Congress- man Cleveland Bailey, Democrat, of Ohio, has introduced a bill providing a modest plan of sup:sort f Or the adult extension programs of Stale universities and land-grant colleges. The plan does not include agricultural instru(tion. Agricultural instruction is al- ready Substantially supported by the Fed- eral Governrilent arid has been for many years. Indeed the record of success in the joint Peden I-State program of agricultural exten- sion his undoubtedly contributed in a major way to the unique character of this coun- try's farm problem. We refer, of course, to Ameriia's farm surpluses as compared with the s aortages which plague most of the world. Extonsion of Federal aid to other areas of adult education promises similar benefits. The increasing complexity of modern in- du,strr demands greater knowledge and great- er ski Is. And the task of helping people find this ltnowledge and skill can't be accom- plished entirely during the normal school years. Part of it is the problem of adult edu- cation t, Tho same can be said for the greater de- mands Of citizenship in a shrunken, terrify- ing world. Here, too, part of the educational task, and an important part, is with adults. Th 3 need for Federal encouragement is in- d1catd by the great disparity in what various States are attempting. Some universities (Sou ;hem Illinois University is a notable ex- empt s) have extension programs which have a constructive influence on almost every phaso of community life. In other States noth ng at all is being done. Cosgressrnan Bailey's bill would provide a mocitzt push?a $9 million one?toward a natic nal program. It deserveswide support. 1From the Riverside (Calif.) Press, June 1, 1964] 13SEATEST EDUCATIONAL INsTr1UixON Te Nation has just passed the 50th anni- versbry of the act of Congress which estab- lished the Agricultural Extension Service ad- mm by the land-grant colleges. This prog,rarn was a sort of internal point IV jrogram. Herbert Hoover once called it "the, world's greatest educational institu- tion" Certainly, it has been of great mo- ment to California?now producer of the larg)st value of agricultural cash crops in the Ration. It has been of prime importance to Eiverside, with the remarkable contribu- tions of the University of California's Citrus Expsriment Station, now known officially as the Citrus Research Center and Agricultural Expsriment Station. Nit only has Agricultural Extension been tecl.nical adviser to the Nation's farmers as the'r reduced the ratio of manpower required to feed the Nation from 1 farmer for every 7 consumers to 1 for every 27. But it has enr .ched the whole context a rural life with Its home demonstration programs, its net- work of 4-H clubs and other youth activities, and, more recently, its nonpolitical and social pro blems. nly more recently have the Nation's uni- vet fities begun to cultivate a field now far mo le crowded and just as much in need of hel ? as the rural districts of the Nation. Bin; in the last decade Or so they have been coming alive in a variety of ministrations to urban and suburban populations. University Extension, almost since the founding of the liberal arts college at Uni- versity of California at Riverside, has been offering a wide variety of adult education courses, seminars, and institutes. In the last 2 years they have come under such subject groupings as "The Executive Profile," "Gov- ernment in Action," "Value of the Arts," "The Southern California City," "Race, Property, and Government," and "Develop- ment of Creative Abilities in Children." To extend its reach the division has spotted its offerings not only in Riverside but also in San Bernardino, Ontario, Barstow, and Palm Springs. The extension efforts of the university, a fledgling in a limited field a half century ago, now begins to approach saturation coverage of areas which touch the Lives of almost every Californian who harbors a desire? for knowledge and self-improvement, or an urge to make an informed and effective contri- bution to his community. The President Makes Some More Good Appointments EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. FERNAND J. ST GERMAIN ? OF RHODE ISLA ND IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 20, 1965 Mr. ST GERMAIN. Mr. Speaker, on Saturday, May 1, an editorial appeared in the Providence Journal, which voices ? strong approval of many of President Johnson's recent appointments. I heartily concur and place the edi- torial as part of my remarks: [From the Providence (EL) Journal, May 1, 1965] THE PRESIDENT MAKES SOME MORE GOOD APPOINTMENTS Several of the Federal appointees just named by President Johnson will find ticklish or controversial problems awaiting them as they step into their new positions. Their approach to the problems is expected to re- flect any changes in direction or emphasis that the administration may have decided upon in these various areas. One area. is antitrust activity. Specula- tion has been heard for dome time that the Johnson administration prefers a more cau- tious and less vigorous prosecution of the antitrust laws. The administration has made great efforts to win the support and respect of the business community, but these efforts have been handicapped from time to time by the energy and zeal of William H. Orrick, Jr., Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Antitrust Division. Mr. Orrick now is stepping down to re- turn to his law practice in California. He will be replaced by Dr. Donald F. Turner, an authority on antitrust legislation and a member of the faculty at Harvard Law School. It remains to be seen whether the change in the leadership of the Antitrust Division van mean any change in the divi- sion's policy, emphasis or scale of activity. Three of' the presidential appointments lie in the field of transportation, Alan S. Boyd, Chairman of the Civil Aero- nautics Board, has been named Under Secre- tary of Commerce for Transportation. Mr. Boyd has demonstrated exceptional admin- istrative skill while heading the CAB. In his new positio:n, he will asstune broader respon- Approved For Release 2005/05/12: CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP671300446R000500120023-9 May 20, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? APPENDIX materials, and counseling?consistent with the effective use of the assistance to reach sound, agreed-upon objectives. The em- phasis is upon self-help and a growing sense of community and individual responsibility. One result of this principle in operation is an unusual economy in rendering assistance; it also runs counter to the concepts of "for- eign aid" held by many of its practitioners. 15. There is a maximum use of indigenous resources; always there are resources avail- able to a community, some nearly always unknown to the people. 16. The professional counselors are citi- zens of the country. The philosophy, pol- icies, and methods of Futures can be, and are, learned. Indigenous men and women of the highest quality, intelligent, sensitive, devoted, and otherwise well equipped to serve the less fortunate, can be found. 17. A modest Futures' loan or grant is essential for some projects. Nominal grants sometimes have great morale value. Loans are made when there is to be an economic return, and always there must be a direct, significant benefit for the children. 18. The Futures program operates success- fully in rural areas and in the slum out- skirts of urban centers. These are the areas, throughout the world, where underprivilege is most prevalent, with a vast population movement from the former to the latter. 19. Important to an extension of the work is the inevitable "chain reaction" as com- munities learn from the achievements of other communities. 20. Futures cooperates with institutions and other organizations, foreign, interna- tional, and indigenous, which have con- sonant aims and programs. 21. Futures believes that a nationwide pro- gram of improvement is most likely, to suc- ceed as the result of collaboration between government and indigenous private orga- nizations developed for this purpose. Such collaboration is already underway success- fully on a local and state basis in Antioquia, Colombia, through Futures' counterpart or- ganization, Futuro Para la Ninez. Govern- ment can contribute material resources and trained personnel on a nationwide basis while Futuro, with more adequate financing, can furnish professional leadership in the areas of policy formulation, personnel train- ing and inservice development, program demonstration and experimentation, and op- erational research. In such an arrangement, the private and governmental sectors of so- ciety each makes its distinctive and in- Valr ble contribution to the common good. Sun Valley Receives International Publicity SPEECH OF HON. GEORGE HANSEN OF IDAHO IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 13, 1965 Mr. HANSEN of Idaho. Mr. Speaker, world famous Sun Valley, in my con- gressional district, is mentioned in an advertisement being used this spring in 47 leading national newspapers and magazines in England, France, Germany, Mexico, and Australia/New Zealand by the U.S. Travel Service, Department of Commerce. I believe, Mr. Speaker, that the U.S. Travel Service has done well to include this rare and beautiful spot in its cam- paign of "see America." However, I commend Sun Valley to all Americans, as well as to Europeans and those others to whom the ads are directed. In addition to the recreation and pleasures to be had at Sun Valley, it is just a short distance from Craters of the Moon, unique among all national monu- ments. It is also a "jumping off" place for the rugged Sawtooth Mountains and Idaho's primitive area. Mr. Speaker, it is with pleasure that I place this advertisement in the RECORD. It is also with pleasure that I extend an invitation to all of you to visit with us in Idaho. I know you will like us. The advertisement follows: BRONCO-BUSTERS AND BACH?THIS YEAR EN- JOY THE ROCKIES AND NORTHWEST: START AT SEATTLE, WASH., AND DISCOVER THE SPEC- TACULAR UNITED STATES?GLACIERS, TOWER- ING PEAKS AND DUDE RANCHES Dine in the revolving restaurant atop Seat- tle's 60-story Space Needle, golf at the hill- top Jefferson Park course, cruise beautiful Puget Sound. Plan to be there between June and mid-August during the Seattle Sea- fair?boat races, water shows and gay parades are all part of the festivities. At Mount Rainier, drive up through the clouds to walk on a "live glacier"; 5,000 wild elk are an attraction at nearby Olympic Na- tional Park. So are the lush "rain forests." Ideal growing conditions produce magnificent flowers and trees--spruce up to 51 feet around. AMERICA'S LAST FRONTIER?ALASKA The largest State in the Nation?and still not completely explored. Today, dynamic Anchorage is only a 3-hour side trip from Seattle by air. You'll see Mount McKinley, highest peak in North America. Turn south to the State capital, Juneau. Then enjoy Alaska's spectacular scenery by riding the car-carrying ferries along the Inside Passage to Skagway. You'll be fascinated by the city's reenactment of Alaska's gold rush days?complete with can-can girls, gambling halls, and gun duels. FLY TO THE CITY OF ROSES One-way air fare from Seattle to beautiful Portland, Oreg., is ?4.13s.2d. If you arrive in June, the famous weeklong Rose Festival (June 1-13) will be a highlight of your Northwest tour. Rent a car and drive to snowcapped Mount Hood, only 60 miles to the east. An- other day, see famous Crater Lake, a giant blue jewel set in the heart of an ancient volcano. COWBOYS AS TOUGH AS SADDLE LEATHER Sun Valley, the international sports center In Idaho, should be one of your stops in the Rockies. Then on, higher and higher, to Montana's Glacier National Park?nature's dazzling display of jagged peaks, valleys, lakes, and waterfalls?with 1,000 miles of horse and foot trails. Now you're in the Big Sky country, where a man can breathe deep and free. Stay at a "dude ranch" and have steak and potatoes for breakfast before riding the range with broncobusting cowboys. Dance under starry western skies. Fish trout-packed waters. And stop at colorful, historic Virginia City, Mont., an authentic old mining town. Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming is a sightseer's paradise. There are over 200 geysers, and you'll like meeting the huge black bears (from inside your car). And the border of another national park, Grand Teton, is only 10 miles away. A 22.28.11d. car fee entitles you to tour and camp in all 32 great national parks. Then drive on to join the riproaring fun at Cheyenne's "Fron- tier Days" (July 27 to August 1)?one of the country's most famous rodeos. BACH IN THE ROCKIES Drive south to Colorado and take a day's excursion on the cliff-hugging railroad be- tween Durango and Silverton. It will trans- port you back to the days of the great silver strikes. Nearby, at Aspen, extensive pro- grams (June 28 to August 30) of classical and modern music, lectures, and forums at- tract international visitors every year. A2529--- With One Eye Toward Beauty?And An- other on the Dump EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JAMES ROOSEVELT OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, April 28, 1965 Mr. ROOSEVELT. Mr. Speaker, Compost Science is published quarterly, and is sent to about 10,000 municipal and industrial officials throughout the country who are responsible for the treatment of organic wast materials. Its editorial policy has been to stress the im- portance of utilization of such wastes ' and report on research and experiences of waste utilization throughout the world. Mr. Jerome Olds, the editor of Compost Science, has brought to my at- tention the editorial in the current issue. I believe my colleagues, particularly those from large urban areas, will find this editorial of particular interest, and it follows: WITH ONE EYE TOWARD BEAUTY?AND ANOTHER ON THE DLTMP American research is truly fantastic. We've been reading about Early Bird?the first "product" of COMSAT and what it will mean to the communications field. We've been reading about Houston's Astrodome? the Eighth Wonder of the World (as long as baseball games are played at night there). And bridges, and antibiotics, and jets. One accomplishment after another. Chalk them up to research. But one field has been continually plagued by lack of research?the solid wastes dis- posal field. Somehow when the R. & D. proj- ects were being assigned, this one got left by the wayside. And the result of this no research are showing?stinking and pol- luting, in fact. Warned President Johnson earlier this year: "Modern technology, which has added much to our lives, can also have a darker side. The air we breathe, our water, our soil, and wildlife are being blighted by poisons and chemicals which are the by- products of technology and industry. The same society which receives the rewards of technology must, as a cooperating whole, take responsibility for control." In his message on natural beauty, Presi- dent Johnson had this to say about solid wastes: "Continuing technological progress and improvement in methods of manufacture, packaging, and marketing of consumer prod- ucts has resulted in an ever-mounting in- crease of discarded material. We need to seek better solutions to the disposal of these wastes. I recommend legislation to? "Assist the States in developing compre- hensive programs for some forms of solid waste disposal; "Provide for research and demonstration projects leading to more effective methods for disposing of or salvaging solid wastes; Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 STAT Approved For Release 2005/05/12: CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 A2530 CONGRE5SIONAL RECORD? APPENDIX May "Launch a concentrated attack on the accutnulation of junk cars by increasing re- search in the Department of the Interior leading to use of metal from scrap cars where promising leads already exist." A START IN LEGISLATION The legislation recommended by the Presi- dent has been introduced in the past few months into the House of Representatives. Nine identical bills--whose purpose is to launch a national research program for improved solid waste handling?have been sponsored by the following Congressmen: ROOSEVELT, ROYSAL, HAWKINS, VAN DEERLIN, CORIVIAN, and BROWN, of California; KLIJCZYN - SKI of Illinois; CELLER of New York; and DINGELL of Michigan. The bill, known as the "Solid Waste Disposal Act," would pro- vide the funds necessary to carry out the program. Composting would specifically benefit from the proposed legislation, which would also provide for research into sanitary landfills, incineration, grinding and disposal to sewers. The grants would be used to demonstrate the "reliability, engineering, operating, agri- cultural, horticultural, and economic poten- tials of the processes under study." In order to assist States to inventory exist- ing practices of 'solid waste handling and disposal and "develop State programs for the improvement of such practices in the interests of protection of the health and safety of all the people," the Surgeon Gen- eral would be authorized to appropriate $2 million for each of 3 ancceeding fiscal years. To provide for the construction of demonstration plants, up to $7,500,000 would be available. An additional $7 million would be authorized to carry out the other pro- visions of the act. The act itself would be administered by the Surgeon General under the supervision and direction of the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare. The Surgeon Gen- eral may appoint a Solid Waste Advisory Committee to advise and assist in the for- mulation of programs authorized by this act. The Committee shall also advise on the establishment of a program for the dis- position of grant-in- aid and project grant funds to carry out the expressed intent of the act. NEED FOR. ACTION There can be no question of the need for this national research program into the solid waste disposal field. The problems are nationwide?rapidly expanding urban areas - unable to cope satisfactorily with solid wastes exist throughout the United States. Pollution, health hazards and just plain ugliness have become all-too-common char- acteristics of our metropolitan areas. Without doubt, it is time for an intensive national effort to come up with the needed solution. Sweet Reason Prevails in Big Steel Talks EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JOHN E. MOSS OF CAL EFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, May 19, 1965 Mr. MOSS. Mr. Speaker, President Johnson's persuasive influence in help- ing avert a nationwide steel strike is known to most of us. The President's brilliant success in getting men of op- posing views to sit down and reason together is interestingly described in an editorial of May 3, 1965, edition of the Sacramento (Calif.) Bee. Tie-editorial f ollows SWELT REASON PREVAILS IN BIG STEEL TALKS A :iew dimension in labor-management re- sponsibility was written in Pittsburg by the United Steelworkers Union and big steel When-they agreed to a 4-month interim con- tract .pending final settlement of their dis- pute?thereby averting a strike which could have depressed, even crippled, a booming, healthy economy. Up to now steelworkers slavishly had fol- lowed that old, old union battlecry, "no con- tract, no work," and lacking a contract, would strike. By agreeing this time to ac- cept an interim 11.5 cent hourly pay hike whilo negotiating outstanding differences, the stetlworkers displayed a mature, respon- sible attitude which does labor proud. No should it be overlooked either that President Lyndon B. Johnson's influence had a pal t in bringing about this interim agree- ment. Again his persuasive hand is felt at a critical moment; again men sat down at his trging, and as Johnson fondly likes to put t, "reasoned together." The interim contract may have a new in- fluen ze upon labor-mangament relations. If this represents a precedent, hallelujah. If the example may help avert other strikes? halle .ujah. Few realize how disastrous a steel strike coulc have been to the economy. At the moment the Nation is experiencing a pros- perit 7 which has triggered expansion, expan- sion, expansion at a time when expansion, expansion, expansion is crucial to the na- tional fortune. The strike called, the long battle begun? all of the gains, or a great part of the gains, coulc be lost. Never has the steel industry gone into a strike, but that shock waves ricocheted thronghout the entire industrial base, pro- ducing retrenchment, withdrawal. P01 example, the 116-day steel strike in 1959 idled more than 500,000 directly asso- ciated with producing steel and 250,000 in induaries directly dependent upon steel. Dwindling stockpiles produced black market sales. Foreign steel, taking advantage of the i ile furnaces here, rushed in to service markets the American steel industry never has regained fully. The direct cost to workers was estimated at $1 billion in wages alone. On top of this, the companies lost more than $1 billion in profits, never to be recouped; railroads lost more than $175 million in freight revenues and the Government lost more than $1.2 bil- lion ; n taxes. This time commonsense prevailed. Men reasoned, and the furnaces remain lit. Now the pressure is off of negotiators as they proce Ki toward a solution of their differences. The Dominic Republic; Why We Are ere EXTENSION OF REMARKS Os' HON. JACOB H. GILBERT OF NEW YORK IN HE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 20, 1965 Mr GILBERT. Mr. Speaker, I do not know what the outcome will be of the tense drama now in progress in the Domi zican Republic. But I do know that this grave crisis has given all Amer- icans a telling glimpse of the quality of President Lyndon B. Johnson. He has shown boldness and decisive- 20, 1965 ness in the face of great danger; resolu- tion in pursuing a difficult and lonely task; dedication and purpose in search- ing for stability in a highly threatening situation. Mr. Speaker, I have been particularly impressed by two recent editorials, one in the May 4 edition of Newsday, and the other in the Richmond, Va., Times-Dis- patch of May 7. They comment quite effectively:. I believe, on affairs in the Dominican Republic and on the Presi- dent's conduct, and I submit them now for entry in the RECORD: [From Newsday, May 4, 1965j THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, AND WHY WE ARE T President Johnson, as of noon yesterday, was sticking to his explanation that Marines and paratroopers are in the Dominican Re- public purely to protect Americans still there and to assist in their evacuation. That is the diplomatic explanation. If by chance it happens-.that the presence of U.S. forces and tanks cuts off a left-wing-cum Castro Communist uprising at the roots, that is so much gravy. In fact, the United States has every reason to prevent a takeover either by Communists or by those willing to work with them. A little reflection on what happened to Cuba upon Fidel Castro's accession to power will elucidate the reasons. We cannot risk an- other focus of infection in the Western Hemi- sphere. If the heads of most Latin Ameri- can countries could at this moment speak frankly, they would express great relief that we acted as resolutely as we did. The difficulty is that just about every Latin American country has a powerful left-wing component, along with a lesser number of Communists willing to fish in troubled wa- ters. That accounts for the public expres- sions of shook and dismay by such delicately balanced heads of state as Eduardo Frei, of Chile. We wouldl not now have Castro in Cuba if - we had moved with more toughness at the time of the Bay of Pigs. We cannot afford to have ,a government in the Dominican Re- public that is susceptible to Fidel's influ- ence, infiltration, and possible future take- over. The Monroe Doctrine was written to deal with foreign infiltration. Communism is the ideology of a foreign power. Perhaps we had better recast the Monroe Doctrine to cover infiltration as well as actual invasion. The events in the Dominican Republic urgently suggest that such a reconsideration is in order. [From the Richmond (Va.) Times-Dispatch, May 7, 19651 HISTORIC STEP BY THE OAS The Organization of American States took an historic step yesterday when 14 of its 20 members voted to send military forces to keep order i:a the presently chaotic Domini- can Republic. True, it was a close decision, since 14 was the minimum number required for action, but the vote could have great significance for the future. Details remain to be spelled out, and the OAS will doubtless creak into action with vast heavings, but a far-reaching step has been taken. It may ultimately provide a so- lution for the urgent Dominican problem. Some such solution is sorely needed. Various Latin American countries which have dragged their feet when asked to do something effective against Castro's Cuba, opposed the proposed Dominican operation. Those voting "no" were Mexico, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, and Ecuador, with Venezuela (sur- prisingly) abstaining. Since Venezuela is probably next on the Communist agenda of Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 ay 20, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? APPENDIX Infiltration and conquest, one would have supposed that its government would be anx- ious to cauterize the festering Red sore In the Dominican Republic by joint action. The percentage of Communists who are In leadership positions in and around Santo Domingo is a subject of dispute. The John- son administration has been emphatic in declaring that the Reds have been running the show. Even if that is not quite correct, they undoubtedly are in important leader- ship positions. Let us not forget that in the early stages of the Cuban revolt, few Com- munists were involved, and Castro loudly de- nied any connection with communism. The Christian Science Monitor's corre- spondent in Santo Domingo lists the prin- cipal OAS objectives as follows: "To bring in at least token elements from a variety of Latin American lands. "To set up OAS diplomatic machinery to support whatever Dominican Government emerges from the current uncertainty. "To target in on a date for removal of all foreign troops and hold to that date." If the foregoing, or most of it, can be achieved, it will be cause for congratulations all around. It is to be presumed and hoped, however, that the OAS would not support just any government that happened to get the upper hand?such as one dominated and controlled by Communists. Meanwhile conditions in the Dominican Republic, and especially in the capital, Santo Domingo, are indescribably bad. Bodies litter the streets, the smell of death hangs over the city, garbage is uncollected and there is general chaos. Food, medicine, and public order are sorely needed. Much remains to be done before the situ- ation in the Dominican Republic can be stabilized. It appears, however, that events are moving in the right direction, The New Jersey Investigation Into the War on Poverty SPEECH OF HON. WILLIAM B. WIDNALL OF NEW JERSEY IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 13, 1965 Mr. VVIDNALL Mr. Speaker, the con- troversy over the conduct of the war on poverty has resulted in considerable at- tention to the details of the battle in my home State of New Jersey. Since the appropriate committees of Congress appear too preoccupied to carry out the full study of the program nationally, as suggested by Members from both sides of the aisle, it is encouraging to know that the New Jersey State Legislature will be acting in this area. Under the chairmanship of State Sen- ator Nelson Stamler, of Union CountY, a bipartisan committee of three assem- blymen and three senators has been created to examine the workings of the poverty program within the State. The justifiable criticism of the high salaries being paid poverty war officials is only one phase of the investigation. Although some partisan outcry has been heard over the study, I think that most New Jersey citizens, and most Americans, will agree with the editorial appearing in the April 30, 1965, edition of the Herald- News of Passaic, N.J. The editorial points out that there has been no dif- ficulty in recruiting workers for the Peace Corps, where no salary complaints have been heard, and that the bureau- crats running the poverty program have as yet to test themselves against the late President Kennedy's admonition to ask not what their country could do for them, but to ask what they could do for their country. As the editorial concludes, "Let the investigation proceed," at all levels of government. The editorial follows: [From the Herald-News, Apr. 30, 1965) PROBING THE POVERTY WAR The decision of the Republican-controlled legislature to investigate the administration of the war on poverty in New Jersey may be politically inspired, as the Democrats claim, but no one can deny that there is need for turning the spotlight on the program. The investigating committee of three as- semblymen and three senators is headed by Union County's Senator Stemler, who will be remembered for his gambling investiga- tions in Passaic and Bergen Counties when he was in the State attorney general's em- ploy. Properly conducted the investigation should be much more than the "witch hunt" which Democrats have branded it in an at- tempt to discredit it before It starts. The high salaries which are being paid to top officials in the poverty war have been widely publicized, not only in New Jersey but throughout the Nation. Criticism of what appear to be exorbitant salaries has been defended by Sargent Shriver, national di- rector of the Johnson administration's pov- erty program. Mr. Shriver has said that the high salaries are necessary to attract the best qualified people. But comparison has been made between the war on poverty and the Peace Corps, which is also directed by Mr. Shriver. The dedicated men and women who make up the Peace Corps have not been accused of being overpaid and yet they are among the Nation's most valued servants. In his inaugural address the late President Kennedy admonished Americans to ask not what their country could do for them, but to ask what they could do for their country. The men and women who are running the war on poverty at all levels apparently have not tested themselves along the lines sug- gested by the late President. Let the investigation proceed. Lawson B. Knott, Jr.: The Logical Man To Head General Services Administration EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. L. MENDEL RIVERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES ? Thursday, May 20, 1965 Mr. RIVERS of South Carolina. Mr. Speaker, President Johnson made an ex- cellent choice in selecting Lawson B. Knott, Jr., to head the General Services Administration. Mr. Knott is a 30-year veteran of Gov- ernment service. He is a dedicated civil servant, extremely capable, and at 53 has an excellent record of faithful serv- ice to our Government. I personally do not think the President could have selected a more capable ex- ecutive. Under Mr. Knott's able leader- A2531 ship, I am confident that GSA will con- tinue to render the high quality of service it has provided in past years. Born in Wendell, N.C., Mr. Knott grad- uated from Duke University at Durham, and later from the National University Law School here in Washington. He be- gan his Government career with the Re- settlement Administration in 1935, and continued his employment when it merged with the Department of Agricul- ture. In 1942 he joined the Corps of Engineers, and after World War II, served in a legal and administrative ca- pacity until he transferred to GSA in 1956. His rise in GSA was rapid and within only 3 years his abilities moved him up- ward to the position of Deputy Commis- sioner of General Services Administra- tion's Public Building Service. Here he served until November 28, 1961, when he was appointed Deputy Administrator of GSA. He is married to the former Miss Marion Lunt, of Cedar City, Utah, and they have two children, Mrs. Neil E. Churchill, of Atlanta, and Gregory, a college student. Mr. Speaker, Mr. Knott's record serves as a splendid example for young people entering Government service to follow. The purpose of my remarks here today is to warmly congratulate him be- fore Members of the Congress. Bonneville Power Authority Still Attempt- ing To Invade Area EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. LAURENCE J. BURTON OF 'UTAH IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 20, 1965 Mr t BURTON of Utah. Mr. Speaker, the following editorial appeared in the Salt Lake Tribune on Sunday, May 16, 1965. It cogently sets forth reasons why the request of the Bonneville Power Au- thority for $1 million for planning of transmission lines to southeastern Idaho should be denied. I commend it to my colleagues for their consideration: BPA STILL ATTEMPTING To INVADE AREA Defeated last year in an attempt to get a "foot in the door" appropriation for a Fed- eral transmission line to southern Idaho, the Bonneville Power Administration is trying again. The request is the same as it was in 1964?$1 million to design the proposed line. But the ultimate cost to the taxpayers has been raised to $80 million from the original $73 million because of the change in routing. The figures, however, are estimates which have a habit of falling short of reality. Moreover, the cost of the 1964 proposal, if related customer facilities were included, would have been $130 million?not $73 million. But the huge price tag is not nearly as objectionable as the idea behind the proposal. BPA wants to carry federally subsidized power long distances over a federally subsi- dized transmission line. And this despite the fact that southern Idaho, served by two pri- vate utilities (Utah Power & Light and Idaho Power) has ample electric power available. Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2005/05/12: CIA-RDP671300446R000500120023-9 A2532 CONGRE5 RONAL RECORD ? APPENDIX May 20, 19t) SUGGESTS JOINT EFFORT During an appearance before a Senate Pub- lic Works Subcommittee, Charles P. Luce of EPA suggested that the Federal Government and private companies might agree on joint construction of the proposed line. This was done on the Pacific Northwest-Pacific South- west intertie. His suggestion would be more impressive, however, if EPA had been more successful In carrying out congressional instructions to negotiate with private companies for the wheelino of Bonneville power to southern Idaho. wheeling Luce blamed one private com- pany for the so-called deadlock and explained that as a result BPA is now asking for funds to plan for its own transmission line. Could it be that EPA hopes to use talk of a Federal transmission line as a lever in negotiations over wheeling? SELLS AT LOW RATES EPA sells power at amazingly low rates, now averaging about 2.35 cents per kilowatt- hour, although the agency operates in the red some years. This point was raised dur- ing the Senate subcommittee hearing, with Mr. Luce defending bookkeeping methods which, according to the General Accounting Office, enable the agency to hide some costs of power generation. Mr. Luce explained that GAO accounting metho& would not reflect congressional policy requiring Federal investments in Co- lumbia River plants to be repaid in 50 years. Yet he also said BPA is considering a rate raise which would increase power revenues by about 4 Pereent. Perhaps widespread Criticism of EPA's low rates and deficit oper- ation is finally being heeded. UDALL OPENED WAY EPA began operating in Southern Idaho in 1963 when Secretary of the Interior Udall placed that territory in the agency's market- ing area and gave it the marketing function for ,power generated at southern Idaho rec- lamation projects. Now BPA hopes to add to its power empire by getting congressional aA>rovai of a Federal transmission line. We opposed EPA's request for planning funds a year ago. We oppose the latest re- quest. And the million dollars for planning is only a first step. BPA appears determined to enter an area where ample electric power is already available, taking advantage of Fed- eral subsidies for the cost of both generation and transmission. Congress said "no" last year. It should do so again. Bridges Versus People EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. WILLIAM S. IVIOORHEAD OF PENNSYLVANIA IN THE 1101.TSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, April 28, 1965 Mr. MOORHEAD. mr. Speaker, the Pittsburgh, Pa., Press recently carried an editorial entitled, "Bridges Versus People," in which the newspaper ex- pressed its puzzlement over critics of America's policies in Vietnam. I, too, share the bewilderment of the newspaper. I cannot understand why citizens criticize American and South Vietnamese bombing of Communist bridges, depots, and supply lines in which few if any humans are killed and at the same time overlook Vietcong bombings of the American Embassy and terrorism of villages and hamlets in which many lives are lost and numerous injuries are suffe :ed. The United States is not in Vietnam by choice. We are not there to gain con- quest;. We are not there to destroy prop- erty and people. Our sole purpose in Vietnam is to protect freedom in this vital area of the world. If we withdraw from Vietnam. now, we breal our commitments to these freedom lovirg people. Then the cause of de- moo:acy will be damaged beyond repair. The people of Thailand, the people of the Philippines, the people throughout southeast Asia are looking to the United States to see if we will adhere to our agreements and if we will fight to protect free tom. We must not let them down. We must keep our word. The President is doing this. Si) I am proud of President Johnson's leadership. I am proud of the manner in whith he is conducting our efforts in Vietnam. I think recent events have al- ready proven that his policies are paying off Nith victory and I am sure that vic- tory will be ours. At this time I include in its entirety the Apill 28, Pittsburgh Press editorial: BRIDGES VERSUS PEOPLE P Tsident Johnson at his press conference yesterday expressed wonderment that peo- ple who are disturbed by our bombing of bric.ges in North Vietnam never seem to be US at by such events as the Communist bombing of our embassy in Saigon nor by Vie ipong murders of women and children. lhat will puzzle others, too. 'I-here can be many arguments against war as :in institution. But to condemn the use of :nrce on one side, while condoning it on the other, must be either ridiculous or coldly cyr ical. b'evertheless, a good many Americans?not a raajority, to be sure?seem to have been cat ght up in this frenzy. fact is that the Communists are count- in R on just such a reaction in this country to help them achieve their goal. They be- lie,re our natural disclination toward the use of force eventually will cause us to give in rather than fight to the finish in Vietnam. is the President made clear, however, the Viotnam war is not going to conclude that way. We did not make the war, but we are there to stay. We are, in Mr. Johnson's wcrd.s, not about to "tuck our tails and run home." Meanwhile, it will be good for the Amer- ief al people to remember that, as the Presi- dent indicated, it is more useful in war to blow up a cold steel bridge than to murder S. 2hild. No Compromise for Veterans EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. WM. J. RANDALL OF MISSOURI IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 11, 1965 Mr. RANDALL. Mr. Speaker, there a:e many rumors floating around about tile content of the report of the Special Commission appointed by the President to review the closing of 32 Veterans' Ad- ministration installations. About a week ot so ago our body of the Congress added hi the appropriation for independent of- fees the $23 million necessary to operate these particular facilities for fiscal year 1966. Our action was a direct response to the strange and peculiar circumstance that the Appropriations Committee had provided no money in the bill for these 32 facilities, apparently proceeding upon the premise that the Commission would order all the facilities to remain closed. It was my understanding the report of findings would not be submitted to the President until on or about June 1. But there must have been some premature leak last week, because the story is going the rounds that 5 of the 11 hospitals, 2 of the domiciliary homes, and 8 Of the regional offices would be retained. May I comment that if there are any who feel this sort of a compromise is victory over the Veterans' Adrninistra tion, I do not want to be included withii, their number. If one single hospital o ? one single regional office is allowed to closed, it will be a loss through impair ment of services to the veterans of our Nation. I want to make it very plain here and now that --I will continue opposition to all the closings with all the strength I can muster. I am sure other Members will keep up this fight and it will not be confined simply to those who have districts that have directly felt the detrimental effects of this order. Every Congressman should realize that what can happen to one district can happen very soon to an- other and that unless there is a deter- mination to fight now the closing order of last Jaatudry can be just one step that will be followed by others over the years. Since last January I have voted against several money bills which, if they had been defeated, would have provided the money to replace the alleged $23 mil- lion savings many times over. Before this session of the Congress is over I will vote against other authorizations and appropriations in an amount greater than the amount of $23 million which the Bureau of the Budget has said it must save, or should I say take away from our deserving veterans. Compromise is not enough. The fight must continue for out and out revocation of the closing directive of January 13. In conclusion, I wish to commend to my colleagues an editorial on the proposed compromise which appeared in this week's issue of the Stars 8i Stripes and which reads as follows: [From the Stars Sc Stripes, May 20, 19651 VA HOSPITAL REPORT When the President . appointed a special commission to review the closing of some 32 VA installations it was ordered to report its findings to him by May 31. Apparently some decision has been made by the Commission and what appears to be a premature release was announced last week. It is now reported that the Com- mission hat agreed that 5 of the 11 hospitals cited in the VA order should be retained. Two of the four domiciliary homes would also remain open. It was also reported that at least one regional office in each State should be retained. Whether this compromise is politically motivated is difficult to say at this time. Some observers feel that the ultimate de- cision it a victory for the opposition to the VA direetive. However, there seems to be a strong under- current of opposition to this particular line Approved For Release 2005/05/12: CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 May 20, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? APPENDIX country over the apathy and lassitude of college students. Public issues?even crises and conflicts?failed to move our students from their lethargy, and they were dubbed "the silent generation." ? Today, however, if we worry about our students it is not for their lack but for their occasional excess of zeal. It is, Perhaps, a sign of the growing maturity of our collegians that where once spring was heralded by panty raids we now have the teach-in. I welcome the institution of the teach- in. It offers, I think, an opportunity for free discussion and debate which is en- tirely in keeping with our best traditions. But I am disturbed by the prospect that these events may, if seized by the imma- ture and the irresponsible, become mere demonstrations rather than genuine debates. At Cornell University recently, for in- stance, Mr. Averell Harriman, our dis- tinguished ambassador at large, was prevented from explaining this Nation's policy in Vietnam by an unruly and hos- tile mob. Mr. Speaker, the search for truth can only be carried out in an atmosphere of open-mindedness and between men of good will. The purpose of any teach- in, as I see it, should be to produce clarity?not chaos; perspective?not propaganda. In this connection, I submit two excel- lent editorials from the Pittsburgh Press of May 7 and May 13 for insertion in the RECORD Appendix: [From the Pittsburgh Press, May 13, 19651 THE LOADED TEACH-INS Few Pittsburghers were surprised when it 'was announced that a teach-in would be held on Saturday at the University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Institute of Technology to de- bate U.S. policy on Vietnam. Teach-ins are fashionable on American campuses these days and it was to be expected that the fad would spread here eventually. It's not surprising, either, that the chief organizer of the so-called debate here is Dr. Robert G. Colodny, associate professor of his- tory at Pitt who was affiliated with the pro- Castro Fair Play for Cuba Committee. A national Vietnam debate will be broad- cast by telephone from Washington to the Student Union Lounge at Pitt and Porter Hall at Carnegie Tech, McGeorge Bundy, special assistant to President Johnson, will defend the U.S. position and he will be opposed by George Kahin, professor of Asian studies at Cornell University. More than 40 faculty members from 5 local colleges will speak at an 8 p.m. session at Pitt. Perhaps it's too much to hope that a reasonable number of these professors will take the "pro" side of the discussion of American foreign policy. Previous teach-ins throughout the country have been loaded in favor of opponents of Washington's policies. Even when the Johnson administration's views have been defended, the audiences have tended to be hostile, preferring to ignore some of the frustrating dilemmas of inter- national issues and favoring, instead, simple solutions to complex problems. For example, at a Cornell lecture this week, W. Averell Harriman, U. S. Ambassador at Large, was interrupted repeatedly by unruly students when he tried to explain American policies in Vietnam and the Dominican Re- public. He was unable to conduct a question and answer period and was forced to leave. The boisterous students didn't want to hear the U.S. side of the story. Properly condlicted, the so-called teach-in at Pitt could be an aid to understanding of the U.S. Government's policies in the trouble- spots of the world. But the course of such demonstrations in other colleges and univer- sities does not support such a hope; most of them have given rise to the idea that their organizers were more interested in pro- paganda than in fact. [From the Pittsburgh Press, May 7, 19651 BASED ON ERROR: CRITICS IGNORE VIET FACTS? INTELLECTUALS NEED THINK-INS (By Bruce Biossat) WASHINGTON?America's intellectual com- munity is under the heaviest fire it has felt in many years. It is worth inquiring why this is so. The attacks, of course, represent a response to the sweeping criticisms many intellec- tuals (and a lot of others) have levied against U.S. policy in Vietnam. In rebuttal, some of these are now complaining that President Johnson and his supporters appear to want to muzzle them. Even if the President would like to quiet his critics, he knows he cannot. And many who are assailing the intellectuals among them have no thought of that. Their real complaint is that they are not being intellectual enough. The charge is that their critical comment has far too often been founded on the quick- sand of factual error, has been painfully im- precise, and has lacked the hard bite of well-thought-out judgments. The critics' rejoinder has been to fault the President for not giving them the facts. But much vital information is a matter of open record. WHOLESALE KILLING Their high-pitched complaints against U.S. bombing of North Vietnam as dangerous, unnecessary, and above all inhumane, seem very close to being hypocritical. Despite some protests to the contrary, they have not exhibited similar verbal compassion for the many thousands of South Vietnamese killed by the Vietcong since they began their murderous depredations back in 1957. Nor have the North Vietnamese escaped Hanoi's brutality. Pursuing land reform, the Reds executed 50,000 civilians and jailed another 100,000. Stripped of obscuring language, the case some intellectuals are making consists of categorical assertions?repeated with a kind of visceral stubborness. They say bombing is both bad and use- less, that the great danger is escalation to- ward general war, that a proper neutrality can and should be achieved for Vietnam and all of southeast Asia, that America is overextended and has no business in Asia. PROPAGANDA, NOT FACT The role of bombing in any war deserves fair debate. In this instance, the complain- ing intellectuals have, somewhat arrogantly, made their own determination of its pur- pose and prejudged its effect. In the nuclear age the prospect of escala- tion can never be dismissed lightly. But John P. Roche, a Brandeis University pro- fessor who is one of the intellectuals' own, is just one among many thoughtful men who can argue plausibly that escalation bringing Moscow and Peiping into the war is an un- likely thing. What can be levied against some intellec- tuals, then, is that they have not been liv- ing up to the best of their own breed. They have been making propaganda, not reasoned argument rooted in fact. ?They have made their case in a rash of teach-ins around the country. From their performance to date, their greater need would seem to be for a long round of read-ins and think -ins . A2535 Financial Situation in the Nation's Capital SPEECH Os, HON. ALVIN E. O'KONSKI Or WISCONSIN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 18, 1965 (Mr. O'KONSKI asked and was given permission to address the House for 5 minutes.) Mr. O'KONSKI. The Nation's Capital Is like the weather. We all generally talk about it but very few of us do any- thing about it. I am referring to the financial situation here in the District of Columbia. It is no different from that of any other growing city. The District of Columbia needs more schools. The people here need more policemen. They need more firemen. They need better streets and they need more of everything and anything that any mod- ern growing city needs. Yet through- out the years the District of Columbia has been strapped financially because somehow or other the Congress of the United States has not provided enough money for them to do the job that needs to be done. This year I decided to do something about it. So I have taken a deep per- sonal interest in this matter and have made a very thorough study of the tax structure and the revenue structure here in the District of Columbia. I am today introducing a bill which I think will help to solve the financial problems of the Nation's Capital. I was amazed to learn, for instance, that the tax burden borne by the people within the Nation's Capi- tal is not fair?I should really say it is small compared to the tax burden that we bear in other parts of the country. I might well say that this is sort of a taxpayers' heaven compared to the rest of the country. I am glad to observe that the citizens of the District of Columbia realize this is true and are willing to assume a more fair share of the tax burden. Let me use a few illustrations to show what I mean. The tax on a package of cigarettes in the District of Columbia is only 2 cents a package. Across the line, in the State of Maryland, the tax on a similar pack- age of cigarettes is 6 cents. How can we justify a 2-cent tax, a small tax, in the District of Columbia, which needs revenue, as compared to the tax in the State of Maryland of 6 cents? Let us consider the matter of gasoline. The District of Columbia tax on a gallon of gasoline is 6 cents. Across the line in Maryland it is 7 cents. Across the line in Virginia it is 7 cents. How can we justify such a low tax in the District of Colum- bia, when there is a higher tax in areas surrounding the District? In my own State, incidentally, the tax is also 7 cents a gallon. Let us consider the matter of beer. The tax on a barrel of beer, across the line in the State of Virginia, is either $7 or $7.50 a barrel. The tax on a similar Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2005/05/12: CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 A2536 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD APPENDIX May 20, 1965 barrel of beer in the District of Columbia is only $1.50. Let us consider the matter of real estate taxes. I own a home here in the District of Columbia, for which I paid $43,500, and it is only five blocks from the Capitol. The taxes on that piece of property are $530. I also own a home in my hometown in Wisconsin for which the market value is $26,000. I pay $870 in property taxes on that home, or almost twice as much. That gives -an idea of the fact that the residents of the District of Columbia are not bearing their fair share of the burden of the tax load. I have introduced today a bill to raise the real estate taxes by 40 cents per hundred; to raise the individual income taxes, which are "out of this world" com- pared to income taxes in many States and many localities; to increase the cigarette tax by 1 cent per pack; and to increase the beer tax to $3.50 a barrel, which will still be $4 less than in the State of Virginia. If we pass this tax bill which I have introduced and give the city the $50 mil- lion which is already authorized by law as a Federal payment, then for the first time in the 23 years I have been in Con- gress the District of Columbia finally will have enough revenue to do the job which needs to be done. I hope that the Members of Congress will take a look at this bill and examine the tax structure and support my pro- posal. President Johnson's Policies in Vietnam Have the Support of the American Public EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JACK BROOKS OF TEXAS IN THE HOUSE 01, REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 20, 1965 Mr. BROOKS. Mr. Speaker, President Johnson has made it clear to the world that we will not be defeated in Vietnam but that we are willing to enter into dis- cussion with our enemies in southeast Asia if they will do so in good faith. He has shown that we are ready to defend the freedom of Vietnam and we will take whatever steps are necessary to do so. In this determination, our President has the support and backing of the American people. An editorial in the Beaumont Journal, an outstanding news- paper published in southeast Texas, ex- presses this support. The editorial which was printed April 26, 1965, follows: [From the Beaumont (Tex.) Journal, Apr. 26, 1965] IT'S DP TO THEM Communist China's rejection of a British proposal to reconsider its refusal to allow Patrick Gordon Walker, former British for- eign secretary, to visit Peiping for talks on Vietnam is not surprising. Red Chinese leaders had rather fight than talk, probably because they know they couldn't find words to justify their actions in southeast Asia. But they waste a lot of words in refusing entry to Walker, touring southeast Asia as a special envoy on the Vietnam problem for Prime klinister Harold Wilson. Here's what they say in Hsinhua, the official Chinese press tgency, about Britain's attitude on Vietnan and Walker's proposed visit: "It [the British attitude] inflates the ar- roganc3 of the U.S. aggressors." For that reason the agency explains, the request to al- low Walker to visit Peiping "cannot be given consid3ration." The refusal dashes the faint hope that if the Cl inese were ready to consider President Johnson's offer of unconditional discussions, the pi esence of Walker would give them a good opportunity to pass the word to the waiting world. What the Communist Chinese 'leaders fail to see, or refuse to consider, is the Presi- dent's determination to hold our ground in South Vietnam. Yet, in a recent ringing speech that echoed around the world, the President made it clear to everyone that "we will not be defeated." The fact is that the United States is pre- pared to pursue either of two courses: To step up the shooting in Vietnam or stop it comp etely. We will escalate the war if the Comnmnists continue their aggression. We will stop the shooting if they shaw a will- ingness to talk peace in good faith and on sensible and acceptable terms. The choice is theirs, not ours. It is up to them to decide whether to widen the war or narrcw it; whether to fire the guns or silence them. The Dominican Revolt EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. CLAIR CALLAN OF NEErRASKA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 20, 1965 Mr. CALLAN. Mr. Speaker, few Amer- icans want to Commit our boys to fight on foreign lands. But in many cases this action is a necessity. When such necessities arise, every American wants his president to act decisively. I an proud that President Johnson had not flinched, but has exerted power- ful and positive leadership. This was nev3r more true than when the Presi- dent's mettle was tested in the Domini- can Republic. "lhe necessity for American interven- tion was evident. The actions of Pres- ide:it Johnson were truly those of a great sta ;esman, and a great leader. resident Johnson made it clear about our purposes in sending marines into the Dominican Republic. America supports neither side in the Dominican dispute, only the side of freedom and democracy. WE support self-determination without tha subversive influence of international cox amunism. am proud of the decisiveness which Pnsident Johnson displayed and I am sure his actions paved the way for prog- ress and peace in that small but im- po-tant nation. kt this time, with permission, I include in the RECORD, two editorials which com- ma-it on America's actions in the Domin- ican crisis. They are the April 29 edi- torial from the Chicago American, and May 6 editorial from the Omaha W )rld-Herald. [From the Chicago (Ill.) American, Apr. 29, 19651 THE DOMINICAN REVOLT President Johnson displayed good sense and firmness in ordering a Navy task force and 400 Martnes to the Dominican Republic to protect and evacuate Americans. Not only were more than 1,000 U.S. nationals rescued, but the presence of the fleet, including the carrier Boxer., undoubtedly helped to stabil- ize the confused Dominican situation, In the past, a similar demonstration by American ships helped to quell another Dominican revolt, that time against the junta which had ousted Dictator Rafael Tru- jillo. Whatever may be the criticism of our foreign policy elsewhere in the world, it seems we do know how to deal with the Dominican situations. , The present uprising demonstrates that the Dominican Republic has not quite come of age politically. But -there are signs that this land, the cradle of Spanish civilization in the New World, may yet attain the stability that Venezuela, for example, has been dem- onstrating in recent years. Caracas, too, has had some recent violence, but on the whole, there has been a continuum of government that in Latin America amounts to stability. The latest assault on the Dominican Gov- ernment seems to have occurred because the army commanders were dissatisfied with the economy 'edicts of the junta leader, Donald Reid-Cabral, who represents the ruling fami- lies of the island. They were opposed by the air force commander, Brig. Gen. Elias Wessin y Wessin. General Wessin led the coup that ousted Dr. Juan Bosch September 25, 1963, making way for President Reid. The navy also supported the government. President Bosch had been accused of pro- communism, although his closest friends are such stanch anti-Communists as ex-Gov. Luis MufloZ Marin, of Puerto Rico, and ex- President Itomulo Betancourt, of Venezuela. In the present uprising, in any event, three Communist parties in the Dominican Repub- lic joined the army leaders in favoring the re- call of Dr. Bosch. Under the circumstances, the United States was forced to favor pro tempore Presi- dent Reid, who was persona non grata with the United States immediately after the oust- er of Dr. Bosch. Reid has been proving since that he wants to restore the economy of the Dominican. Republic, and that he ultimately favors popular elections. - Also, he definitely will not let Fidel Cas- tro's Communists get a foothold in the Re- public. Reid at the moment is not in the new junta but he doubtless will be shortly. The Communists, for their part, couldn't care less who was causing the upheaval. They supported Dr. Bosch as they support anyone who will destroy the existing order to make way for instability and ultimate communisin. The prompt American action, and the support of the Government by the Dominican Air Force and Navy, may have given the ruling junta another chance to work for progress and peace. [From the Omaha (Nebr.) Evening World- Herald, May 6, 19651 A VICTORY FOR. AMERICA This has been a week of soul sereaching in America. Columnists, commentators, editors, and barroom experts (the latter sometimes more realistic than their more learned brethren) have been examining and weighing Lyndon Johnson's blunt and brave words of last Sun- day evening. They have been trying to deter- mine whether this reaffirmation of the Monroe Doctrine in terms of the 20th cen- tury has enhanced or degraded the quality of America's leadership among the decent nations of the earth. Naturally the conclusions vary as widely as the prejudices of those who draw them. Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 May 20, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? APPENDIX Some writers and speakers of a generally liberal persuasion are shocked and apprehen- sive. They see the President's stand as a revival of dollar diplomacy and colonialism. They fear it will alienate the smaller nations. They sense a return of McCarthyism. They are convinced that Communist hands played no important part in the Dominican rebel- lion, but that, rather, this was a classical case of the downtrodden rising up against their oppressors. Those who support the President, and hap- pily (in our view) they are in a majority, see the Dominican affairs as a continuation of the Communist attempt to take over the unstable nations of Latin America. These Americans hold that the evidence of Communist plotting in the island?not only the evidence supplied by Government sources, but also that which has come from experienced reporters?is overwhelming. They are convinced that if the United States had not taken a stand, promptly and vigor- ously, the Dominican Republic soon would have gone the way of Cuba, and the Com- munist takeover of tottering regimes in the Caribbean and Central and South America would have taken a tremendous stride for- ward. This newspaper has no more knowledge of the events that took place in the Domini- can Republic than our readers have had access to. We could not prove that Juan Bosch or any of the other revolutionary leaders were Communist stooges. But over the years we have seen an al- most uninterrupted succession of Commu- nist victories in diplomatic and military af- fairs. We have seen the Baltic States and Mid- dle Europe taken over by the Soviets. We have seen China seized by "agrarian reformers" who turned out to be violent Communists. We have seen Cuba occupied by the Com- munists. We have seen Communist spies infiltrate the State Department in Washington, we have seen them steal out atomic secrets and deliver them to Moscow. And through these American defeats, and many more, we have heard from our home- bred ultraliberals the endless refrain: Old Joe is a good fellow; Mao is just a reform- er; Castro is a man of the people; Alger Hiss was a tragic victim of McCarthyism. And so on and on, ad infinitum. Now in the Dominican Republic, as well as Vietnam, is heard the same sobbing ad- monition: We Americans must back down. Revolution, whether Communist or other- wise, must be given a free hand to burn and murder and seize the reins of power. Quietly but very firmly, Lyndon Johnson said America would not permit such suicidal nonsense. Instead of calling a committee meeting and consulting interminably with the emerg- ing and the uncommitted, he sent the Ma- rines. If he stands firm, if he continues reso- lutely to protect America's interests as he said on Sunday night he would do, we think the Dominician rebellion is already over, and has ended in victory for America. And for that we say Hallelujah! Some American liberals will quiver and quaver. Propagandists in the United Nations will thunder and threaten. But responsible people the world over ad- mire to see a powerful man take a strong position in defense of his own just inter- ests. And as we see it, that is precisely the position Lyndon Johnson has taken on behalf of this Republic. A Tired American Gets Angry EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ANCHER NELSEN OF MINNESOTA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May, 20, 1965 Mr. NELSEN. Mr. Speaker, as a vivid, expressive writer, Minnesota's own Al McIntosh, editor of the Rock County Star-Herald, Luverne, Minn., takes a backseat to none. We are pleased to in- clude in today's RECORD one of Mr. Mc- Intosh's latest editorials which, obvious- ly, speaks for many of us in our country today: A TIRED AMERICAN GETS ANGRY I am a tired American. I'm tired of being called the ugly American. I'm tired of having the world panhandlers use my country as a whipping boy 365 days a year. I am a tired American?weary of having American embassies and information centers stoned, burned, and sacked by mobs operat- ing under orders from dictators who preach peace and breed conflict. I am a tired American?weary of being lectured by General DeGaulle (who never won a battle) who poses as a second Jehovah in righteousness and wisdom. I am a tired American?weary of Nasser and all the other blood sucking leeches who bleed Uncle Sam white and who kick him on the shins and yank his beard if the cash flow falters. I sin a tired American?choked up to here on this business of trying to intimidate our Government by placard, picket line, and sit in by the hordes of the dirty unwashed who rush to man the barricades against the forces of law, order, and decency. I am a tired American?weary of the beat- niks who say they should have the right to determine what laws of the land they are willing to obey. I am a tired American?fed up with the mobs of scabby faced, long-haired youths and short-haired girls who claim they repre- sent the "new wave" of America and who sneer at the old-fashioned virtues of honesty, integrity, morality on which America grew to greatness. I am a tired American?weary unto death of having my tax dollars go to dictators who play both sides against the middle with threats of what will happen if we cut off the golden stream of dollars. I am a tired American?nauseated by the lazy-do-nothings who wouldn't take a job if you drove them to and from work in a Rolls Royce. I am a tired American?who is tired of supporting families who haven't known any other source of income other than Govern- ment relief checks for three generations. I am a tired American?who is getting madder by the minute at the filth peddlers who have launched America in an obscenity race?who try to foist on us the belief that filth is an integral part of culture?in the arts, the movies, literature, the stage, and the mobs who see Lenny Bruce as brightly amusing and Norman Mailer as compelling. I'm tired of these artists who scavenge in the cesspools for inspiration and who refuse to look up at the stars. I am a tired American?weary of the bearded bums who tramp the picket lines? and the sit-ins?who prefer Chinese commu- nism to capitaliam?who see no evil in Castro A2537 but sneer at President Johnson as a threat to peace. I am a tired American?who has lost all patience with that civil rights group which is showing propaganda movies on college campuses from coast to coast. Movies de- nouncing the United States. Movies made in Communist China. I am a tired American?who is angered by the self-righteous breastbeater critics of America, at home and abroad, who set im- possible yardsticks for the United States but never apply the same standards to the French, the British, the Russians, the Chinese. I am a tired American?who resents the pimply faced beatniks who try to represent Americans as the "bad guys on the black horses." I am a tired American who is weary of some Negro leaders who, for shock purposes, scream four-letter words in church meetings. I am a tired American?sickened by the slack-jawed bigots who wrap themselves in bedsheets in the dead of night and roam the countryside looking for innocent victims. I am a tired American who dislikes clergy- men who have made a career out of integra- tion causes yet send their own children to private schools. I am a tired American who resents those who try to peddle the belief in schools and colleges that capitalism is a dirty word and that free enterprise and privtae initiative are only synonyms for greed. They say they hate capitalism but they are always right at the head of the line demand- ing their share of the American way of life. I am a tired American who get more than a little bit weary of the claque in our State Department who choose to regard a policy of timidity as prudent?the same group who subscribe to a "no win" policy in Vietnam. I am a tired American?real tired of those who are trying to sell me the belief that America is not the greatest nation in all the world?a generous hearted nation?a nation dedicated to the policy of trying to help the "have note achieve some of the good things that our system of free enterprise brought about. I am an American who gets a lump in his throat when he hears the "Star Spangled Banner" and who holds back tears when he hears those chilling high notes of the brassy trumpets when Old Glory reaches the top of the flag pole. I am a tired American?who wants to start snapping at those phoney "high priests" who want us to bow down and worship their false idols and who seek to destroy the belief that America is the land of the free and the home of the brave. I am a tired American who thanks a mer- ciful Lord that he was so lucky to be born an American citizen?a nation, under God, with truly mercy and justice fOr all. Amazing Boy, Amazing Race EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. GARNER E. SHRIVER OF KANSAS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, May 17, 1965 Mr. SHRIVER. Mr. Speaker, Kansans are proud of the outstanding achieve- ment recorded on Saturday, May 15, 1965, by Mr. Jim Ryun, a senior at Wichi- ta East High School. Jim became the Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 Approved For Release 2005/05/12: CIA-RDP67600446R000500120023-9 A2538 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? APPENDIX May 20, 1965 first high school track athlete in the Nation to crack the 4-minute mark in the mile run in strictly high school com- petition. He established a national high school record of 3 minutes 58.3 seconds in the mile run during the 1965 Kansas State High School Track Meet held at Wichita State University. We place great emphasis today upon physical fitness for all Americans. Jim Ryun's accomplishments in track ex- emplify the results of personal sacri- fice, training, and good coaching. His achievements are a source of pride and honor for his school, the city of Wichita, Kans., and our Nation. Under the leave to extend my remarks in the RECORD, I include the following ? editorial from the Wichita Eagle: AMAZING BOY, AMAZING RACE Wichita's Jim Ryun is an amazing boy, Who ran an amazing race here Saturday, breaking all high school records for the mile With his time, 3 minutes, 58.3 seconds. Ryun, with his usual modesty, turned the spotlight right back on his teammates and coaches, praising them for their part in help- ing him set the record. It does take teamwork to accomplish great things, and it takes nothing away from Ryu14's feat to agree with him that he owes much to others. It took great coaching to help him get where he is. Fermer Wichitan Bob Timmons, who as east high coach was the first to notice Ryun's ability, particularly deserves credit for his patient and intelligent coaching of this great young runner. It's good that KU has won Timmons back as head track coach, and that Ryun will be running for KU next year. The whole State is proud of this boy, and happy that he will continue to run under Kansas colors. Despite the help, however, Ryun of course owes most to himself. Others could coach and inspire, but nobody could give him the great courage and tenacity to keep working hour after grinding hour to turn himself from a good runner to the best. Nobody else could make him continue simultaneously to work hard to do well in his studies, either. Nor could anyone but himself make him con- tinue to be modest and high-principled in the heady atmosphere of fame. Kansas is accustomed to turning out great runners. But as the famed Olenn Cunning- ham said last year, nyun is potentially the greatest of them all. We're very proud of him. The Teachers and the Taught in the U.S.S.R. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. BERNARD F. GRABOWSKI OF CONNECTICUT IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES ? Monday, May 17, 1965 Mr. GRABOWSKI. Mr. Speaker, the race for supremacy of the world has boiled down to the race for supremacy over men's minds. This is reflected in the classrooms of nations all over the world, and particu- larly in the classrooms of the Soviet Union. Mr. William Benton's article, "A Personal Report: The Teachers and the Taught in the U.S.S.R.," reflects this thinking on the part of the Soviets, as well likS anything which I have read on the s'fbject. The use of television by the masters of Russia gives a good idea of their manner of thinking in the area of education. Mr. Benton explains this in chapter VI of his articl3. Ch tpter VI follows: CHAPI ER VI: THE T IN SOVIET TV MEANS TEACH (A personal report: "The Teachers and the Tnught in the U.S.S.R.," by William Ben- ton, f >rmer Assistant Secretary of State and U.S. lenator from Connecticut; presently U.S. A rnbassador to UNESCO and U.S. mem- ber of its executive board; publisher and chain aan, Encyclopedia Britannica.) CHAPTER VI. THE T IN SOVIET TV MEANS TEACH To _Moscow's television chiefs, Minister Yelut.n, SS chief of higher education, is a close, welcome, and respected collaborator. That is because in the Soviet view the prime purpcse of television is not to entertain but to enlighten. This, of course, means pri- marily Communist propaganda. But it also mean( culture and education. And Minister Yelutn stands for higher education. Responsibility for all broadcasting in the U.S.S.R. is placed on the State Committee for Radio and Television. This functions as a ministry. At the time of my visit the chairman of that committee was Mikhail KhaX amov, a handsome and self-assured younger man who had served as. Chairman Khrushchev's press officer at the Vienna sumnrit conference, when Khrushchev talked with President John F. Kennedy. Khirlamov was removed from his chair- manship when Khrushchev was ousted in Octoler 1964. Alexei Adzhubei Khrushchev's son-ii-law, was removed as editor of Izvestia at th same time. One may assume perhaps that 00th were removed partly because they were personally so close to Khrushchev, but partly because the Communist Party and the Soviet Government have always been so acutely sensitive about the control of com- munications. The new Government wanted its own men in the key posts. However, the views Kharlamov expressed to ma seem so thoroughly representative of the Boviet social process, and so likely to carry over into any new TV regime?and thus to remain valid?that I shall not hesi- tate ';o quote them here as representative of Soviet policy and goals. Kb arlamov was wholly confident about the forthcoming rapid development of Soviet educational television. He was almost ex- uberliat about it, and his enthusiasm was conticgious. He was convinced that most peop:e underestimate the potential of this- visiomi for education, and I agree. "Tie U.S.S.R.'s forthcoming development Of ed Ucational TV is the most important ven- ture in the history of television," he declared with absolute assurance. A [obit council for educational television, with representatives from the broadcasting miniitry and from the major fields of edu- caticn, is being established. The council will work with a group called the Television Autt ority in developing and directing edu- cational programs. Many top educators are to be inducted as consultants. Kharlamov seemed regretful that "the educators don't wani_ to take the authority and the respon- sibility; it's easier for them to sit around and criticize!" He thus proposed to draft them. He proposed to use them to help him learn better how to use TV to speed up the :earning process. Why should students, he anked, spend 10 years in the schools when muci less time is needed? TV is part of the answer to the speeding up of education. "Students now get so much redundant knowledge in the classroom," Kharlamov said. "Why study the history of mankind from Adam and Eve to the present? I don't object to students knowing history, but can't they learn it outside of school? Fur- ther, why shouldn't we introduce all kinds of teaching machines (e.g., programed learning) to help them instruct themselves? These new teaching methods will free a great deal of time for students. The teach- ing machines make it much easier for the students to cover all of mathematics through algebra, geometry, and calculus. Of course, some of these new _techniques are experi- mental. We shall have to await the results of the experimentation. But we want to use not only TV but all modern techniques." Charles Benton, Milan Herzog, and Ralph Buchsbauni,I who followed up, my Moscow visit in September, spoke with another key figure in Soviet television, Vyachesla.v Cher- nishov, minister of television for the Rus- sian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. He described to them?as Kharlamov had described to me?the plan for increasing Moscow's present two TV channels to five or six. But whereas I was told that one of the new channels was to be reserved ex- clusively for educational TV, they were ad- vised that present planning called for the programing of educational material on all channels "interchangeably, so that there will be 24-hour educational television." I sus- pect both things are planned. Said Minister Chernishov: "The aim of Soviet television is not to entertain but to elevate." At the prese]at time the TV sched- ule is so laid out that the very early hours of the morning are devoted to preschool children's programs, with puppets, cartoons, fairy tales, etc. Then come the elementary school programs, and these usually consist of films, with actors, addressed to the 7-to-9- year-old audience. These programs are de- signed to sharpen the child's ability for ob- servation and perception. They are planned not for the classroom but for the home, and the hours are so set that the children will be at home and able to see them. The cur- rent philosophy in television programing for youngsters professes that children get enough curriculum activity in school, and therefore can afford to see at home a broad- ening rather than a teaching program. A program later in the day called "Outside the School Books"?aimed at the equivalent of our junior and senior high school stu- dents?consists of features designed to broaden knowledge. There are contests in geometry, chemistry, physics, etc. The pro- grams have a game spirit?but with the purpose of enlightenment. Many programs are aimed. at the 30- to 40- year age group, especially persons who have not finished high school and are trying to complete their education with the help of television and correspondence courses. Spe- cial programs are also offered for professionals in various lines of national life; a program period may be directed on one day to the medical profession, the next to biologists, the next to pharmacologists, and so on. Asked about pure entertainment, Minister Chernishov said, "We have one ,program called 'The Blue Light.' It is a Saturday evening spectactilar and lasts several hours. These Blue Light programs have become so popular that people in the villages dress UI on Saturday evening as if they were going out and go to the community television rooms to watch the programs." He made "The Blue Light" sound like an amateur hour version of the "Ed Sullivan Show." our Britannica Films people felt that the Moscow programers- are slightly chagrined at the fact that Leningrad has mbved ahead of them on educational programing; a new third channel in Leningrad, devoted entirely to education, opened in the autumn of 1964. This channel is integrated entirely with the curriculums of the higher educational in- stitutions. It went on the air for the first time with courses in higher mathematics, Approved For Release 2005/05/12: CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120023-9