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May 18, 1965
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Approved For Release 2005/05/12: CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 DIX . A2521 Fidel's Sister Warned Dominicans of Revolt EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. DONALD RUMSFELD OF /LLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 18, 1965 Mr. RUMSFELD. Mr. Speaker, to those who doubt that the Communist threat in Latin AmerIca is very Teal, I call attention to the following story carried in the American edition of the Times of Havana, April 1965, of the warning given by the sister of Fidel Cas- tro to the Dominicans that a revolt was being planned in their country. This is a timely reminder of the well-known Communist strategy for political take- over in countries undergoing social, eco- nomic, and political change. The article follows: FIDEL'S SISTER WARNED DOMINICANS OF REVOLT "I know that Castro wants to take over this country." The speaker was ridel's sister, Juanita, and the country she had in mind was the Domin- ican Republic. She should know. Early in April Juanita Castro spoke to the Dominican people at Santo Domingo, the capital city. Three weeks later the tragic revolution against law and order began. "The Cubans," Juanita said, "Do not want the Dominican Republic to travel along democratic paths so that it will become a happy and progressive people." BROKE WITH FLDEL She recalled that her brother, Fidel, had been very happy about 3 years ago when he told her that his agents had "cleared the path" for the future. Juanita fled Cuba about a year ago. She went to Mexico and since that time has traveled? throughout the hemisphere. Some Cuban sources in the underground used to count on her help even while she was still in Cuba. It was long suspected that she would come to a final break with Fidel. This finally happened about a year ago. WARNING Less than a month ago she warned the Do- minicans that "He has tried to take your country several times. This is not the first time. It will not be the last time that Com- munist imperialism will use its Caribbean puppet." She reported that Castro had ordered his agents "to infiltrate all sectors, professional, economic, labor, agriculture, and among students since communism always tries to find allies to reach power and then elimi- nate." To block democratic processes at Santo Domingo "many of the local leaders of the Dominican Popular Socialist Party received training in subversion in Cuba. "The Castro Communists have many tac- tics. They capture prospects and turn them into fanatics. What Lenin used to call use- ful idiots. They fall for false promises and are soon used for subversion. In the end they are Jailed or shot." EXILE OPIN/ON Miami's Cuban colony knows that only quick U.S. action kept the Dominican Re- public from taking Castro's road to commu- nism. They have been through it once. They know it when they see it a second time. Where, they ask, did the thousands of Castro Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120025-7 Approved or Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 A2522 blIve green uniforms come from on the first day of the revolt? The answer to them is , Clear: from Cuba. ; :But riders sister called the shots on Santo oiningo. And she did it on the spot lust 3 eeks before it happened. CON( "'Preserving Competition"?Statement Supporting the Enactment of the L Quality Stabilization Act of 1965 EXTENSION or REMARKS op HON JOHN J GILLICAN - - OP can? 1 IN THE ROTJSt OF nEVRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 20, 1905 - 1 Mr. ifir,T,TQA.N. Mr. Speaker, since , the 1930's many manufacturers, trade associations, independent retailers, State 1 legislators, and Congressmen have I *orked for the enactment of various I forms of legislation which would elimi- t hate or control certain unfair trade 1 practices associated with the resale of !1" brand name commodities. Traditionally attempts have been made on bath a na- tional and State level to legislate against t Stich abuses as false advertising, bait merchandising, and excessive price cut- s ting. During this period some of these I attempts have been enacted into law, 1 While others have failed of enactment or have been negated by court decisions fol- lowing their passage. In seeking to elim- inate these trade abuses, the proponents Of fair trade legislation over the years I have continuously argued that such I abuses, if left unchecked, would seriously . threaten the proper functioning of the American free enterprise system. , Ever since my election to Congress in INovember of last year, I have devoted a considerable amount of tirneand study , to this matter and I have now come to i the conclusion that the Congress of the I'United States at the earliest possible date , Must enact a law which would provide t added protection to the American busi- nessman from certain unfair and harm- fuluidoeni).resictisis:ekisll till:n:11m engaged in on a rather wide scale by unscrupulous participants in the free enterprise sys- tem. Shortly after reaching the conclu- Sion that additional legislation was need- ed, I introduced a bill on May 10 of this Tear, HR. 7841, which calls for the ins- Mediate enactment of a law to be known as the Quality Stabilization Act. ?' In short this bill, which is quite sirni- ar to those introduced in the 87th and 1? Of certain unfair trade practices which X, along with other proponents of such ?legislation, believe not only tend toward Monopoly but seriously affect the quality and good name of name-brand commodi- ties.1 Moreover, and probably most im- , l3ortant, this bill would permit a manu- _ t facturer or owner of a brand; name or itrademark, to protect his property rights attached to a brand, name, or trademark by establishing a price or price range at which goods carrying that brand, name, ? r trademark may be sold by wholesalers i and retailers n the marketplace. I wish Approved or Release!2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120025-7 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 May 18, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE 10509 tion projects, or to project areas or facilities authorized by law for inclusion within a na- tional recreation area or appropriate for ad- ministration by a Federal agency as a part of the national forest system, as a part of the public lands classified for retention in Federal ownership, or in connection with an authorized Federal program for the conser- vation and development of fish and wildlife. (e) As used in this Act, the term "non- reimbursable" shall not be construed to pro- hibit the imposition of entrance, admission, and other recreation user fees or charges. (f) Subsection 6(a) (2) of the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (78 Stat. 897) shall not apply to costs allocated to recreation and fish and wildlife enhance- ment which are borne by the United States as a nonreimbursable project cost pursuant to subsection 2(a) or subsection 3(b) (1) of this Act. (g) All payments and repayment by non- Federal public bodies under the provisions of this Act, and revenue from the convey- ance by deed, lease, or otherwise, of lands under subsection 3(b) (2) of this Act, shall be deposited in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts. SEC. 7. The Secretary of the Interior is authorized as a part of any water resource development project under his control here- tofore authorized, except projects or areas within national wildlife refuges, to construct, operate, and maintain or otherwise provide for basic public outdoor recreation facilities, such as boat ramps, picnic tables, beach areas, sanitation facilities, and parking areas of a total cost not to exceed $50,000 for each water resource project. SEC. 8. (a) The Secretary of the Interior is authorized to enter into agreements with Federal agencies or State or local public bodies for the administration of project land and water areas and the operations, mainte- nance, and replacement of facilities and to transfer project lands or facilities to Fed- eral agencies or State or local public bodies by lease, conveyance, or exchange, upon such terms and conditions as will best promote the development and operation of such lands or facilities in the public interest for recrea- tion purposes. (b) No lands under the jurisdiction of any other Federal agency may be included for or devoted to recreation purposes under the authority of this Act without the consent of the head of such agency; and the head of any such agency is authorized to transfer any such lands to the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior for purposes of this Act. The Secretary of the Interior is au- thorized to transfer jurisdiction over project lands within or adjacent to the exterior boundaries of national forests and facilities thereon to the Secretary of -Agriculture for recreation and other national forest system purposes; and such transfer shall be made in each case in which the project reservoir area is located wholly within the exterior bound- aries of a national forest unless the Secre- taries of Agriculture and Interior jointly de- termine otherwise. Where any project lands are transferred hereunder to the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Agriculture, the lands involved shall become national forest lands: Provided, That the lands and waters within the flow lines of any reservoir or otherwise needed or used for the operation of the project for other purposes shall continue to be administered by the Secretary of the In- terior to the extent he determines to be nec- essary for such operation. Nothing herein shall limit the authority of the Secretary of the Interior granted by existing provisions of law relating to recreation development of water resource projects or to disposition of public lands for recreational purposes. SEC. 9. Effective on and after January 1, 1966, neither the Secretary of the Interior nor any bureau nor any person acting under his authority shall engage in the preparation of any feasibility report with respect to any water resource project unless the preparation of such feasibility report has been specifi- cally authorized by law or specifically di- rected by either the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, or the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs by a resolution adopted by such committee, any other provision of law notwithstanding. Sec. 10. As used in this Act? (a) The term "project" shall mean a project or any appropriate unit thereof. (b) The term "cost" shall mean the value of goods and services (land, labor, and sup- plies) used for the establishment, main- tenance, and operation of the project. (c) The term "separable costs" shall mean the cost for each project purpose which is the difference between the cost of the mul- tiple-purpose project and the cost of the project with the purpose omitted. (d) The term "joint costs" shall mean the difference between the cost of the multiple- purpose project as a whole and the total of the separable costs for all project purposes. (e) The term "feasibility report" shall mean any report of the scope required by the Congress when formally considering author- ization of the project of which the report treats. SEC. 11. This Act may be cited as the "Fed- eral Water Project Recreation Act". AMENDMENT OlvERED BY MR. ROGERS OF TEXAS Mr. ROGERS of Texas. Mr. Speaker, I offer an amendment. The Clerk read as follows: Amendment offered by Mr. ROGERS of Texas: "Strike out all after the enacting clause and insert the provisions of H.R. 5269 as passed by the House." The SPEAKER pro tempore. The question is on the amendment. The amendment was agreed to. The bill was ordered to be read a third time, was read the third time, and Passed, and a motion to reconsider was laid on the table. A similar House bill (H.R. 5269) was laid on the table. GENERAL LEAVE TO EXTEND REMARKS Mr. ROGERS of Texas. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that all Mem- bers may be permitted to extend their remarks in the RECORD on the bill just passed, The SPEAKER pro tempore. Is there objection to the request of the gentle- man from Texas? There was no objection. INCIDENT AT BIEN HOA, VIETNAM (Mr. RIVERS of South Carolina asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. RIVERS of South Carolina. Mr. Speaker, there have appear in the press some rather detailed accounts of the un- fortunate incident at Bien Hoa airfield in Vietnam. This catastrophe resulted in the loss of life of some of our finest air crews and maintenance personnel. As soon as he heard of this tragic event, General McConnell, the able Chief of Staff of the Air Force, immediately dispatched to Vietnam a team of his most experienced and competent personel under the Inspector General, Lt. Gen. William K. Martin, to inquire into this incident. The Committee on Armed Services was notified and has been briefed on this affair. Obviously, there will be a great amount of speculation and postulating about our activities at this base in an effort to ex- plain, or condemn, the cause of the ex- plosions. I remind all who are aroused, as I am, and as we all should be, by this incident, to remember our overall aims and ob- jectives in Vietnam. The Air Force is keeping us advised? it is making a thorough investigation of the affair?we still are fighting the Vet- cong?we still have security problems? we still have to win a war. Therefore, I urge everyone to refrain from any unnecessary discussion of the details of this incident, which could re- veal classified information and jeopard- ize our military efforts. To those who gave their lives so un- expectedly, yet so gallantly, we owe a reflective pause. When the facts are known, they will be disclosed to the extent that security will permit. I can assure you of this, and I hope and pray that you will help. We need help. Thank you very much. MINICAN REPUBLIC (Mr. O'HARA of Michigan asked and was given permission to address the House for I minute, to revise and extend his remarks, and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. O'HARA of Michigan. Mr. Speak- er, I was heartened by the report in this morning's newspaper that the White House mission to the Dominican Repub- lic, headed by McGeorge Bundy, was at- tempting to obtain the resignation of the Imbert junta and restoration of a con- stitutional government under the direc- tion of persons associated with the party and program which received the over- whelming support of the Dominican peo- ple in the only free election held in that unhappy nation in over 30 years. It is my fervent hope that we will per- severe in these efforts in spite of the Pre- dictable reaction of the junta leadership which evidently equates popular govern7 ment and opposition to military dictator- ship with communism. While it is proper and essential that the United States be determined to pre- vent the establishment of Communist- oriented governments in the Americas, it is equally important that we demon- strate a solid commitment to the crea- tion and support of democratic and con- stitutional governments. If we fail to demonstrate convincing- ly our hemisphere commitment to popu- lar government, we will have let down the people of the Dominican Republic and our friends throughout Latin America and will have severely damaged our rela- tions with other nations in the Western Hemisphere. The twin objectives of opposition to Communist imperialism and support for democratic government are not mutually irreconcilable. In the Dominican Republic, assuming the accuracy of our assessment of an at- Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 STAT Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 10510 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ?HOUSE May 18, 1965 tempted Communist takeover of the rev- olution, it must nevertheless be conceded that the forces of rebellion include a siz- able cross section of Dominicans commit- ted to constitutional government which is overwhelmingly non-Communist in its orientation. It is our responsibility to work with the democratic elements of the revOlution and to insist upon the crea- tion of a constitutional regime commit- ted to the social and economic principles endorsed by the Dominican people in the 1962 elections. Mr. Speaker, Walter Lipprnann's col- umn in this morning Washington Post, entitled "The Cornerstone of a Policy," succinctly expresses the problems we face in the Dominican Republic and the principles to which we must adhere. Under permission granted, I include the text of Mr. Lippmann's column at this point in the RECORD: THE CORNERSTONE OF A POLICY (By Walter Lippmann) There is, we can be sure, no quick way out of the Dominican affair. There is no soltition available which will not, even with the best of luck, take a long time. There is no prospect of our being able to withdraw soon leaving behind some sort of reasonably democratic and stable government. The reason why the future is so difficult Ls that during the 30 years in which Trujillo ruled the Dominican Republic, he exter- minated or drove into exile or into hiding all the educated, competent public men who did not take part in his cruel and corrupt tyran- riy. The men who should have taken over power after Trujillo are a lost generation. Dr. Bosch spent the Trujillo years in exile, and therefore he had no practical experience in Dominican politics before becoming President. It is this lack of able and honest and pro- gressive leaders which is the fundamental difficulty in extricating ourselves from the embarrassing and ominous situation in which we find ourselves. There is the reac- tionary military junta, which represents a revival of the Trujillist oligarchy, and there are the constitutionalists, whO represent the bitter discontent of the Dominican masses. They are without practical experience in gov- ernment, and they are vulnerable therefore to infiltration from agents of or sympathizers with Castro. Between these two groups there is nothing, no middle group of eminent and respectable men who could provide a care- taker government. The predicament of the United States arises from the fact that it may -take the OAS and the U.N. year to overcome the po- litical vacuum, to find, to promote, to de- fend and to finance a governnient which can be independent because it rests on popular consent. In the past one alternative would have been an indefinitely prolonged U.S. Occupation of the Dominican Republic, ruled by a high commissioner who is not a Dominican. It is too late in the day for that. This sort of solution is not acceptable in the modern world. Another alternative, which has been favored by the State Depart- ment, is a coalition government. Caamano would represent the constitutionalists and Imbert the military junta. Almost certainly, this is not really a valid option. It proposes to ignore the depth and the width of the conflict between those who are fighting to perpetuate the inheritance of Trujillo and those for whom life is intolerable without far-reaching progressive reforms. The first requirement of U.S. policy is that the President make himself free and uncom- mitted, and specifically that our troops cease to favor the military junta in the civil war. It is as certain as anything can be in a situatich of this kind that a workable policy mutt irevoke the principle of legitimacy and must 'ae directed to progressive reform. Legitimacy is important because only a gov- errunent which derives from the only genu- ine election the Dominicans have ever known can hoe to command the confidence and respect of the Dominican masses. It is no doubt true that Dr. Bosch was a weak President. But he is the only Domini- can wh.5 has ever been genuinely elected, and therefore the political succession from him to Caatnano should be respected and ob- served. - The government which the OAS backs, and we along with it, should have as Its coraerstone the Constitutionalist Party. It would be strange indeed if there were no Communists in the Constitutionalist Party, But there is no evidence whatever that they are in control of the party and, conside ring the certainty that troops will remain in the Dominican Republic for a con- siderable time to come, there should be no serious danger that the Communists, admit- tedly ti small number, could take over as they d d in Cuba. In view of the power de- ployed in and around the island, the threat of a Soviet intervention to support a Corn- munisl coup seems to be small. It Is so small that it is a risk we can well afford to take. Thei a are two great advantages to be had from treating the Constitutionalist Party as the co merstone of a new government. The first is that with good advice from its Latin American neighbors, and with plentiful eco- nomic assistance from us, such a government would, be the one most likely to succeed. The second advantage is that this de- cision on our part is the only one that can prove our good faith, which is profoundly suspected throughout the hemisphere. For the decision to make the Constitutionalists the cornerstone will be the certain proof that Presidnat Johnson did not intervene in order to suj port a militaty dictatorship working for reactionary interests, arid that he is in fact genuinely committed to popular pro- gressive reform. There is no real alternative to this line of policy For no government can be built arounii the military junta which has any hope of winning the support of the Domini- can people or of obtaining approval from our Latin American neighbors. RESOLUTION FOR UPDATING IMMI- GRATION LAWS (Mr. ANNUNZIO asked and was given perm ssion to address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend his remarks, and t 3 include a resolution.) Mr, ANNUNZIO. Mr. Speaker, on May 12, 1965, the City Council of the City of Chicago and its distinguished maycr, Hon. Richard J. Daley, adopted a resolution urging the enactment of pend- ing bgislation for liberalizing our immi- grad m laws. This resolution represents the overwhelming attitude of almost 4 million people who reside in the city of Chicago. The resolution follows: RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE CITY COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF CHICAGO URGING ENACT- MENT OF PENDING LEGISLATION FOR UP- DATING IMMIGRATION LAWS Whereas four previous administrations of the 'United States of America and four Presi- dents of the United States, including former Presidents Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisen tower, the late John F. Kennedy and the incumbent, Lyndon B. Johnson, have each declared that the present quota system for ii emigration into the United States of America was false and unworthy in 1924 and is even worse, now, and completely contrary to the ideals and philosophy of America and that which made America gres.t: Now, there- fore, be it Resolved, That the members of the City Council of the City of Chicago, in session as- sembled, hereby memorialize the House of Representatives and the Senate of the United States of America to support and pass pend- ing immigration legislation in said Congress, known as Senate bill 500 and House of Repre- sentatives bill 2580; and that it is the sense of this city council that our current immi- gration laws 'should be enlarged, amended, and brought into conformity with our basic desires of continuing to make America avail- able to deserving immigration on a fair and equitable basis. APPROPRIATIONS FOR '1'HE VETER- ANS' ADMINISTRATION AND PRO- POSED VA HOSPITAL CLOSINGS (Mr. EVINS of Tennessee asked and was given permission to extend his re- marks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. EVTNS of Tennessee. Mr. Speaker, as we consider the budgetary recommendations of the independent offices I want to particularly discuss the appropriations as they relate to the Vet- erans' Administration. It was my privilege to chair the hear- ings on this agency and I, therefore, feel that I can speak with some familiarity of the inner. workings and the programs of the agency. I know there is much concern about the proposed Veterans' Administration hospital closings. Our committee has given full and thorough consideration to the matter. The hearings will docu- ment each 'individual project in which Members are interested. I personally questioned the Veterans' Administration Administrator, Mr: Wil- liam J. Driver, and the Chief Medical Director, Dr. J. H. McNinch, regarding every one at the hospitals concerned in the proposed closing?as to location, conditions, number of patients at each hospital, and the reason for the proposed closing. All of this is documented in the hear- ings. As you know, the President has ap- pointed a blue-ribbon Committee headed by James G. Gleason, former Adminis- trator of the Veterans' Administration, to study and consitier this matter. This committee is currently engaged in this study. Also, the House Committee on Vet- erans' Affairs headed by our distin- guished colleague, the gentleman from Texas, Chairman OLIN TEAGUE, is look- ing into the closings. When these re- ports are in, we will be in a better posi- tion to make a judgment in this matter. We have the greatest veterans program of any nation in the world. Our com- mittee recommended a total of $5,653,- 192,000 for all the programs of the Vet- erans' Administration for fiscal 1966. This is an increase of $22,445,000 over the budget for fiscal 1965. The bill includes an appropriation of $1,177,417,000 for medical. care. We did not cut the medical care program by one dime. In fact, we increased the Vet- Approved For Release 2005/05/12: CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 May 18, 1965 wow moving. then the small business moues nibbling at its feet can be frightening. What's needed hers as an antidote is for executives In the top echelons to think of the organisation as compact, muscular, and alert. ? 2. Identify the strengths and umbrage's of small rivals. Conapsuries often oversim- plliy the capabilities of an opponent. Stunned by the speed with which a Mall competitor was this to service an amount. a steel supplier spent oonsiderable .Unts bathing. Geer poitible omuitennethures. It wasn't until the mirrating director -pointed out that the rivers capabilities were limited to just a few duns that the problem was seen In perspective.. The big eompany must learn to avoid get- ting Involved in exhausting guerrille War- fare in the oompetitor's .11$01 Technology, the traditional big gun of the large Arm. should be used wisely In this connection. The small Ann is Ulcer to remain strong In operations not subject to the. cOropliter reVoltition?Atnique .producte. custom pro- duction, personal and special services that machines can't handle. The larger Arm can afford to be selective; In some ,oales, deciding nat to become active in a given area may be the height of wisdom. ? ? I. the smelt company's erase of time. An employee of a large food oompany recently ost, about looking fori0 new job. complaining: "!'rankly,.frightened. find myself taking 1. hours,,to, do Agorae- thing know I can do in itilidur and ? halt This is no way to work. I wane i job that stimulates. me. not one that puts me to sleep." . The point Is, tbe Company expects the assignment to take 4 hours. Despite widespread Acceptance of Parkin. - son's law, that work expands to At the time available, to do It, many :larger companies often operate under lex work schedules. This doesn't mean you should put on the screws. But workload and work pace should be in keeping with ?Individual oapsoityy The benefits to be gained are not only In- creamed efficiency. but.also,heightened oath- faction and the pelf Anteem of. the individual who feels hire carrying a mane load.. . The larger. company that thinki a sure- Are method. of. acquiring, a .unall-company MUG of time Is toning it must be cautious. "An executive moving /ran a small company to a large one often faces difficulties," com- ments recruiting consUltant Kiernan, who has seen numerous auniples of 'loch trans- fers. "Many a fine performer in the small firm flounders and can't seem to mesh in a big organization. On the other. hand, many men who grow up In smell companies may reach a point Where their encl.. me- turity and desire to grow glee them the beds for suooses In a larger trimpeny. It depends on the inclividtril, his personality and adaptability." 4. Decentralize "electively. Practitioners of organizational planning Often admit con- tusion when faced with the time-honored dilemma of the eentralbse-decentralize see- saw. Without the rerantralisetion that re- sults from automation and 'the Mee of com- puters. the idea of derantralbring May seem Impractical. Nevertheless; largo organisa- tions have discovered some functions may remain centralised while others are decen- tralized. When line functions Can be put in the latter category, the shortening of communi- cations noes, the increased flexibility Ot action can put tha big company, at least in selected areas, more on a per -with the rtner Arm. 5 Centralise selectively. The anal ram- VOnerallY benefits from short and un- ted communications lines. In add'- , ...,. the :ewer waystations there are In a ,1111!, 'Int...Li tons link, the easier It become . trial mununications to operate, whl,?? orrn,t1 COMMUniallti00.11 are WOO Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP671300446y000500120025-7 A2443 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? APPENDIX practical for the larger firm, now techno- logical advances make instant communica- tion possible. Nor 'sample, computers for loading ran and air pamenger carriers, hotel bookings and so on now make it possible to centralize scheduling. warehaming, filing systems and the like, regardless of how ex- tensive they may be. Entire functions, such as purchasing, pay- roil. Inventory oontrol, also may be ?outlet- lath for larger firms, using oomptiterised equipment and advanced infeeinetion re- trieval systems. S. !Cambodia small group loyalty and ideintifleatIon. A ? sufficient number of studies, as well ea comma overlent*, have established the fact that the individual can develop great emotional ties to a Anishiese. Members' loyalties and emotional Involve- ment tend to be stronger In relation to sub- ordinate groom than to ihe !digger mentor lion. The obligee alumnus tends to have stronger ties to the class of '48 than to the university as a whole. .flimilarly, the em- ployee has greater feeling tar the department In which he operates than for the comPany as a whole. The Organisation that Makes it possible for the individual to develop a sense of Identity with his department or immediate work group by treating It as a unit can ex- pect more in the way of loyalty and Interest In Job objectives. But here's Where masty companies lull themselves Into dangerous complacency by so-callea "enlidlitenedpolicles"-.rach as that of the "open door"?dgeigned to give eln- Pierop a roding of (Apothems ,to eseeUtives and the company, ? Says Sermon H. Scott, president' of It I. Scott, of Maynard. Maas, hi-ft equipment manufacturer: "In I small company, the top executivep are generally available to anybody at any time. wIthit reason.. In the big parry, Oen though the ,top man. may be In the mute building, It la difficult for anyone to see ,hint without an appointment, open door policy or not." Or. as one disgruntled employee put it: "Sure. mY boot door is open--so he can kick PectPle Out." ? 7, Cheek for'orgardrationel blockage. *- Mont of organisational' Obstacles can put big company reflexes More on a per With the smaller Inn. Managers Are 'familftr with bottlenecks in production. Somewhat the same thing may take place with management procedures. A deoision may get hung up somewhere along a chain of command; a communication may fall to penetrate a mid- dle echelon. A number of specific questions can help pinpoint the bottlenecks: If there la Insufficient flow of ideas up- ward. where is the tranerniesion failure, If decialorunaking and implementation are unsatisfactory, where doss the hesita- tion, buthpassIng or failure to sot take piece? What department tends out of step In. Ma/Mg Out,00MPSUY AMOY?! Studies have indicated that everything from pilfer- age to higher absence rates results from Mal- munlcation blockages typical of some large Arms. Equally -important is the need to **Un- to' Loh betWeen quantity and quality of com- munication. A weekly house ocean may seem a worthwhile medium but is useless If nobody reads it. Failure to distinguish between going .throtigh the motions and ac- tually producing results is 'often at the root of poor contrinintattlons in the larger sno: As far deeision-Making, often'major ? big-oompony, problem. Specific procedures tend to point up satiOn-biocksge: Over-use of thmmitteve: /n 'Soaps 0o- en- Pantos, there la a tendency toward prolltica- don of committees for anything and .very- thing?planning. problem-solving. develop- ment of ideas. In other instances, procedures normally given over to one executive are made the responsibility of many. A typical example Is the hiring committee. An executive job opening is idled when a committee Ana, 'selects the best candidate. The troUble is that under this practice the man who Usually gets the Job may not be the best man at all, but merely the one to whom no one on UM; committee objects. Foggy lines of authority: in some meee, aragesary deolarate are delayed . bemuse tie dm question of who bas the euthodtg. to decide. Traditionally, this problem has In- volved line and staff executives in ottsithi- veirey. In many thew the perthaditisii of the respectlee executives cause Oil thitlif- ? The problem may easurne a variety of shapes: A power-minded top executive may inglin on making decisions handled by a subordi- nate. An indecisive executive May try to Pais critical decision either up or down the line. The small-firm executive usually lacks this alternative, and therefore mods to make the disedsions required anywhere in his am* al responsibility. The big company can fore* the same degree of decisiveness on its managers by clarifying It. policies and procedure. ot decision- making,pioning down who Is responsible for what, seeing that necessary decisions are not delayed. An occasional decision review to see how executives have been scoring With their decisions can clear the lines and stimu- late the proms. Larger firms must also be careful SO re- ward Individual enterprise. companies sometimes tend to MIMI sit ,ramosphere of apathy and an attitude Of let's play it safe. This can only be dradpated by. positive policies and action by the rans- pany? When an organization, by its re- wards?protnotion, salary increases, and so ow?ithows that it appreciates original think- ing and responalble, tradition-breaking se- Non,- it fosters ? the creativity end drtre it must have at all levels to keep moving Ahead. Incidentally, the assumption that big cons- pante" pay higher salaries than small ones Is not generally substantiated: "There's not much difference In starting salaries betimes' large and smell Arms.' obeerves filmdom Scott. "Obviously, top salaries in the largest corporation' are higher than any small emit- piny can pay.. But actually, there are few such jobs. I would even go el far as to say that after the first couple of years, the aver- age income for iimall-company earautives tends to be higher than for larger a.m. prudes." Accordingly, disoovering just how youirsid- ary trade compare with others in your in- dustry and area may explain some mysteries of executive discontent and quitting. The nature of our economy is such that there Ise need for both large and small bud- DOM. Certain servlue and products fall naturally within the sphere ei each. Few small Arras ornral produce an automobile. a - computer, or an airplane.. POW WS* Anal can Us up large pieces of equipment with custom orders or highly specialised smell runs. In between are areas In which big and small compete for customers. When this competition is carried on at high levels of efficiency. everyone benefite. Amur Oats. Research Institute o/ America. , . ? U.S. Policy Is Defoolliog FroomlOot EXTENSION OF REMA Or HON. HOWARD W. or IfIVADA IN TIM SENATE 0? THE UNITED STATES Tuesday. May IL 11065 Mr. CANNON. Mr. President, the re- cent actions by the United States in Viet- Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 A2444 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD APPENDIX May 18, 1085 nienl. and In the Dominican Republic have brought a new determination and firmness to our policy of de/ending free- dons in various sections of the globe where America has vital Intermit& Basically, our military actions have served notice that we do not intend to follow a policy of appeasement wherever the ComMunists deterMfne to test our will. The essential meaning of this policy Is recognised in several recant editols published in the New York Journal- American and the New York World-The- gram. I ask unanimous consent to have three of these editorials printed In the Appendix of the ReCORD. There being no objection, the edi- torials were ordered to be printed in the Bacons. as flows: 'From the New York (N.Y.) Journal-Amer- ican. Apr. 28, 10681 L.B.J. &rums Puss In recent weeks, even days, the war in Vietnam has escalated to Its most danger- ous level. 17 .8. marines have fought with Vietcong guerrillas, and the presence of reg- ular North Vietnamese Army formations In South Vietnam has been reported by Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara. Hewn, it was widely speculated that Pres- ident Johnson's news conference would pro- vide news of major importance. But it is simply a measure of the consistency of American policy in the Par gest that it did not. President Johnson, looking solemn but confident, merely realirmed that Use United Stems would not yield to aggression in that area and repeated his offer to talk peace "with any government, anywhere, anytime, without any conditiona." Thus there were no surprises, nor sicruid there have been. The President declined to speculate about the possible future outright commitment of American ground forces in Vietnam and gently elided those who interne him on whether nuclear weapons might be used in Vietnam. No one la the Oessinement has ever brought the issue Up, he told his lis- teners. But in view of the tact that there are Many In this country who Orin do not ap- pear to have grasped the meaning at the American *anon he Vietnam. President Johnsen appropriately reminded them that we have sanoty learned the lesson taught at Munich--that appeasement leads to war. fIrroes the Kew York (NY.) World-Telegram, May 4, 19451 Ova Pima= Mato Bemuse of our Involvement in Vietnam and in the Doininlean Republie. the United States is bring treated to an ?Medan of world attentam?anteb of It 'critleaL and 'a lot of 1t5 of muse, not very well founded. This is MIA 'we can 'expect for trying' to be helpful an around, and tor *yams to look out for our 'awn Intereris. We base OCION 1AP-shoo:Awe in the British Parliament charging us with "monstrous ag- greerion" for eending troops to the Domini- can Republic. Newspaper Mitosis in Rumps and elsewhere are busy soaring the eon- fused situation in Musto Domingo?and some who Monomial) the United States for inter- vening also say we should me our twee to put former President Juan Bosch, back in power. Bosch amnia to think so, too. Approved ? It would be Mos to have everybody think- ing we me Mee, generous, and altogether pure. We have apse* .and given wsray bil- of &Mem to help others easel hopefully, to We oureame better under- .. , Mad. Due we seen combat ocatinnniens. repel armed aggression, meths nuseeent souks trapped in mob scenes, or look atter Dew own beet interests and the general meet, of Irse alnes?and worry too much about our Imam all over the globe. Our Oovenunent has to snake declasses and sometimes they nave to be made fest. We cant base densions by gumming bow everybody is going to react. The Comersu- nal governments are predictable, but every- body in friendly countries Is not. As the President said, we like Wends, but when we have a job to do, we will go ahead and do it, "whether we make friends or lose them." In the long run, the current squawks not- withstanding, we will make more friends by being honest with our own wril-known prin- ciples. and acting on them. (From the New York (N.Y.) Journal-Ameri- can. May 4. 10661 W* SHOW Pam The enemy is the same. The reason for the presence of American troops is the same. The only real difference between the U.S. mili- tary actions an the Dominican Republic and Vietnam?apart from their extent?is that they are taking place on different sides of the world. In Vietnam, we are witnessing one phase of ts long-term Communist plao to seise and subjugate a densely populated. ria0 rich re- gion of eoutheest Asia. Di the Dominican Republic It Is Cease Of win, *Med Ootrinni- Met exploitation of a tragic *octal eruption? with the Identical aim Or setture end sub- jugation?this thus in Use strategic Carib- bean. There, in 1958, a eubinerged Communist element rode the crest of a wave of popular discontent, surfacing may when Victory was achieved. Thus a bridgehead hostile to the United States was established in Cuba. It is simply the matter of U.S. notional self-inter- est mat this strategy of the overt or Menai soup, by an hurled. organised minority not be permitted to repeat MOIL certainly not this close to home. , cater souls= ma same& Lest anyone tabs undue moth of Smart and ether Communist rantinos In the Vatted Na- none or elsewheee, let us recall ,Ronfis87. There in Me tboueseds of deMis-deeling So- vist.eanks rolled into Budepeet--?bereansi the Soviet Union was not prepared to permit a free, democratic eta** to establish itself Mar Russia's borders in nartern lartme. For the Soviet Union, freedom Ireland the Iron Curtain?ea in West Ikelin?le a ace. Por tor the Untied States, tioneasunians tn the Westerns iletedephere?ae Oubs-4a ? SWUM Let the faint heels and those who enter- tain qualms about our action in Um Dorand- min Republic dwell Upon this. atoreover It must be noted that the Charter or the U.N. itself expreody nosigaises the right of nations to act when their fundaments* national MU- interests am threatened. Finally, we are hapraired by the decisive- nem of President ihnsm's of troops to Us* embattled In eddltion. we are demled by the of logistics width brought leo ntheh to bear within so short ? nine. Lot students of American muscle, Whether eased or foe, er this and draw tuai It the For Release lieneee's Match Tireerh the Ceram 1EXTB21810N or itratAuor jia, HON. WILLIAM M. WM Cir 111111111MINA ? in TS'S HOUeut or awns's:nit:inn Tuesday. May 18, 1988 Mr. TUCK- M. Eipeaker. on May n I had the privilege of attending a dinner given by the Civil War ? Round Wile of the District of Columbia at the Amu- Navy Club. Dr. John 0. Barrett, profes- sor of history at the Virginia 'Institute, was the speaker for the wen- slob. delivering a speech describing Oen. .WIlliam Tecumseh Sherman's march through the Carolinas. He is the author of a book bearing thattitlei. Dr. Barrett's speech was most inter- esting and enlightening, bringing out many Important facts and features about both the march and the man who led it. I consider the address of keen historic significance and worthy of being Printed and preserved in the CormitgegIONAL Recono. ? Under leave previously granted pie to extend My remarks, I include the sem, which is as follows: aliMill'ea Masai TIMOLICit Csarintes Aithcrugh Iranians Tecumseh Oberman ?odd not recall saying "War is bell," be did state: "Too cannot qualify mu in beireber terms than I will. War ts ermetty and you combo. realm it." It was in the fall IOW OM he developed his philosophy of total war Mitch he though would make tundMe terrible" that the South would edema ell peaceful remedies before eumnithoing an- other struggle. Considering all the people of the South as enemies of the Uniest;liber- man planned to use his salutary forms against the civilian population as was sel the armies of the enemy. He believed thes ?plan of *trios would not only (lemmatise the non- combatants bat also the men Wider than The southern armies in the Ssld, be felt certain, could be disheartened 'by a on the civilian population, as easily as by Orate on the battlefield. Sherntanli littera%Vi total WM also called for the destruction kif the enemy% eocnondc resources. oaralyg- ing the Confederate economy he hepcod to desuw/ the floutisti ability to imply nifngin- ing ftroat With war' inatolc , Thus in bringing war to the lognefront he honed to destroy both the South's esVacitl to 1,,IP war and Its vrill to ilghL . . . "Collective responsibility." that theory upon which total was rests, made poesiblea new mode of warfare In which the Auks' or Use time were tranegressed. The act we. . ?anent disregard for human righaa mid digolty. But with sharman "war 1 ai Inas! war and not popularity seeking-",. Vithought the South. Jai its part in osiosieg se the connica. dammed . "all the curses and. WO- Motions a pupa can pour out." ileveribel- less. be held OM to his enemies. the sneer* Promise of helping hand if they would LOY down their WOW and rejoin the Maori, It warn not ? sense or cruelty and barbarian that prompted /Merman to formulate his theory or total war. This otmosption was the otitgrowth or a search for the epdamt. surest and most enleient means to Win a strogglo. Victor/, he determined.' could be 2: CIA-RDPertarniMitleteBetrirEtefneWsors by ApprovedcFcgalggaMON&EV_RINKI?g0446R000500nR35,77, 10252 1 1965 I should like to pay tribute to the out- standing personalities of the entertain- me, , t world who will appear on this nigh:, and who are paying their own ex- penses, paying for their own transporta- tion, their room and board, and are con- tributing their talents in order for out home to net from the show on this night over $200.000 which will be used to Pa) out the principal and the interest On the loan. These great entertainers, in the best of American traditions, are helping to create a private home for the aged solely by their own efforts and without dep,eidIng on public funds. They are to tit. hailed and congratulated, not only by all the Members of Congress, but by the people of America, for their generosity and public-spirited interest in helping to build an institution that will eventu- ally have over 950 golden seers spending the last days of their lives in the tran- quility of this house of God. Thank you. Jimmy Durante, limo Stuare, Dean Martin, Connie 'Francis, Louis Prima with Sam Butera and The Witnemes, Vic Diunone, Rocky Marcino, Ford and Mercer, Anna Marie, Jimmy Roma, The Saltines, Jimmy Faro, and Lou Breese. My heart is full of joy? full of profound gratitude?to each and every one of these performers for their gracious contribution to Villa Scalabrini. Too often we have heard that movie stars and entertainers show no Interest In their communities and in the affairs of those less fortunate. Yet, this is a concrete example of the generous contri- butions that these great stars of radio, television, and the movies are making. day in and day out, to the American way of life. Throughput America, stars of all races, colors and creeds are contribe- ting daily of their time and talents to benefit Institutions which are trying to raise private funds to alleviate the suf- fering and the miseries of the poor. They are doing a tremendous job in helping to raise funds to combat juvenile delinquency, to aid the mentally re- tarded, to aid in the fight against cancer, to aid In the fight against heart disease, and countless other worthwhile causes. How eian we ever forget the contribu- tions they made during World War I and World War II and the Koren wart How can we forget the programs they provided for our soldiers and the Job they are still doing today entertaining our soldiers both at home and abroad? STATWe in America can be proud of the iestriotism and the good will that, these stars are showing toward their fellow sTArran and their tellow Americans.] i A REFERENDUM IN THE DOMINICA . - REPUBLIC (Mr. KR.ASEit asked and was given )erruision to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr FRIER. Mr. Speaker, the United States Is keeping marines In the D,Jiiiinican Republic for the announced purpose of maintaining law and order whit 11 political settlement is worked out Pt the Organization of American Our deeds, however, do not fully cor- respond with this policy. From daily press reports it appears that US mili- tary forces have been working with the military Junta. Whether or not this one- sided cooperation is inadvertent or even inevitable under the circumstances, our Impartiality and good faith are brought into question. This apparent lack of tin- Partiality is. given further credence by some of our actions in the UN., the OAS, and in the character of negotia- tions with the rebel group. Moreover, the mere passage of time tends to shift the relative balance of power between the two sides. This inevitably intensifies the anti-American feeling which is devel- oping rapidly on that island. Of the utmost importance, therefore. is the posture of the United States in remitting a political settlement. When the United States intervened, two forces were struggling for control of the Domin- ican Republic. Lives were being lost Intervention could be Justified on the grounds that the citizens of that nation should not be forced to accept a govern- ment which could muster the greater military power rather than the allegiance of the larger number of citizens. We have sought a political settlement through the formation of a Coalition government. Whether or not a coalition Is being blocked by extremists on either side is uncertain, but delay in finding other political solutions will lead to fur- ther aggravation of the; conflict. More- over, even if a coalition government were formed, that such an Uneasy Weldon could successfully sponsor fair elections in the near future is open to serious question. Therefore, it seems to me. Mr. Speaker. that the United States should announce Its support of a plan to Derain the -Peo- ple of the Dominican Republic to choose one of the contending factions to save as an interim government until regular elections can be held later. This refer- endum should be conducted?not Just supervised?by the OAS or the U.N. The mode of carrying out such a referendum should be determined by the OAS or the U.N. in consultation with all . aides, but should be carried out whether or not agreement is obtained from all sides. If necessary, mem media facilities should be imported and operated under niter- national control to assure equal access by all sides. The United States should announce its support In advance for the victor at such a referendum. We need to recognize that such a refer- endum might bring to power persons with whom we are In disagreement. It may bring to power persons who fail to recog- nize the antidemocratic character of the Communist movement or who choose to temporize with that movement. It may also bring to power persons who have shown little devotion to democratic pro- cedures. It may be appropriate for the OAS or the U.N. to require that any fac- tion represented on the referendum bal- lot make a commitment to sponsor free elections within a stated time. Mr. Speaker, the course I recommend carries risks, but the risks are lase than those we incur with other couraes of action. We have a bearcat by the tail. The CAB nations appear reluctant to come to our aid in solving the problems of the Dominican Republic. If we could an- nounce our intentions now?and make them explicit?OAS nations should not hesitate ? to intervene more actively in support of these goals, but when our in- tentions are obscured as they largely are when we seek to manipulate the Junta government to make it more attractive, lack of enthusiasm on the part of many OAS members is understandable. Mr. Speaker. the U.S. national interest will become increasingly Jeopardized as we are drawn more deeply into the in- ternal dispute in the Dominican Repub- lic. We urgently need to Proclaim now that our intervention continues for but one purpose: to give effect to the prin- ciple of national self-determination. Ac- tion needs to follow this proclamation. With this action we would stand Preedie before the world community of nations as the defender of the right of people everywhere to choose their own govern- ment. 'BON. BASIL L. WHITENEFt, DOCTOR OF LAWS ' (Mr. KORNECIAY asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 mhuite and to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. KORNE.OrAY. Mr.. Speaker, our etstingulahed colleague, the gentleman front North Carolina, Hon. Been L. Warman, Is at Pfeiffer College. elle- cetheimer. N.C., today taking part in the commencement exercises of that out' standing institution. I am happy to say that the trustee of Pfeiffer College reo- Agnighle, the greet Oentributions that our follows has Wide -to) his State And Na. cee conferring upon him the dames of b000raiy doctor of laws. know of no one who more richly de- serves to be honored today at Pfeiffer College than BASIL Weirsiesit. I am pleased that the college has recognized his outstanding record of public service Is conferring won him the degree of doctor of laws. ? Mr. Speaker, Pfeiffer College is a Splen- did senior institution of hither learning located In the eouth centred Piedmont section of North Carolina. Under the dynamic leadership of Dr. Lemuel Stokes the college has witnessed rapid groWth In recent years. Pfeiffer College has an outstanding faculty, and the school is fulfilling a vital role in the field of high- er education in North Carolina. Our distinguished colleague who is be- ing honored today at Pfeiffer College has always been interested in education. At an early date he developed an apprecia- tion of the role that higher education has in the life of our Nation. BASIL WHITE/RR has always supported public and private efforts in behalf of educa- tion. He was educated In the public schools of Gaston County, N.C.: Rutherford Col- lege: the University of South Carolina: and Duke University. Rom has a sister who is a schoolteacher, and he, him- self, was an instructor in commercial law In Belmont Abbey College, Belmont, N.C., In 1939, 1940. and 1941. Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 May 17, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE 10291 things the world needs for peace and free- dom and note the men who are meeting these needs today. Who has made a greater contribution to world understanding among nations than the great, former Secretary of the United Nations, Trygve Lie. He knew that the United Nations was not perfect because it was an instrument of man, but he resolved to do his best to make it work. He knew that Norway, in her wisdom, was one of the first 24 nations to sign the United Nations Charter, and he knew the value that Nor- wegians place upon the rule of law. The very introduction to Norway's ancient code of laws reads: "With law shall we build our land, and with lawlessness lay it waste." Let us then in the spirit of Trygve Lie look upon international law, in the develop- ing and evolving concept of the United Na- tions, as a freedom-loving world's best hope of reaching our aim of peace on earth. This means that we are not ready to aban- don the United Nations to oppressor nations to be used as they would be by Soviet or Chinese oppressors, or any other totalitarian forces on earth. It also means that in the interest of the preservation of the United Nations we must insist upon all nations, large or small, liv- ing up to their obligations of membership? and this includes the payment of dues and just obligations without delay or abatement. In the language of children, let it also be said that the rule of law live and let live which governs all international affairs is that any and all nations must abide by covenants and agreements and desist from acts of ter- ror and anarchy. This means that if Mr. Sukarno of Indo- nesia, and Mr. Nasser of Egypt persist in the burning of libraries given in friendship and the bombing of embassies placed for good will, then they must learn to live without our aid and without our friendship. There is an end to American patience with anarchy just as there is no end to American faith in firm and friendly alliances. Of these alliances, the Great Atlantic Community, as we know it in the NATO is cause to speak of the great contribution of other figures on the horizon of the world who are Norwegian. The first, of course, is Prime Minister Einar Gerhardsen, who only this week re- affirmed the faith and enduring confidence of the Norwegian people in the United Na- tions. The second is the man who is looked upon as a chief architect of the NATO alliance, the great Foreign Minister of Norway, Halyard Lange, who has done more than any man to preserve and perfect this great al- liance as a barrier against aggression and a bulwark for the peace of Europe. It is fitting also to note that the entire existence of NATO, one of its most able leaders and distinguished commanders has been Gen. Lauris Norstad, a courageous Nor- wegian-American from Minnesota. I point to the work of these men, not be- cause they owe their ancestry to Norway, but because their work truly represents the four great principles which underlie the Norwegian Constitution. These four concepts are, of course: 1. National independence. 2. Sovereignty of the people. 3. A division of power. 4. The inviolable rights of the individual versus the state. It is this last key concept which becomes more important day by day?the inviolable right of the individual. This we must com- municate to our children in all its sig- nificance. It is the supreme worth of the individual as a creature of God which we must identify, dramatize, and teach our children to appre- ciate in their time. The supreme worth of the individual, the dignity of the human person, Is a meaningful difference between the world of freedom, the world of America, of Norway, of all free na- tions, and the world behind the walls, the Berlin wall, the wall of China, the wall of Cuba. In the world of freedom, for our chil- dren. We believe that dignity means at least these things. Dignity demands freedom for all men to worship God and pray at will?and our chil- dren enjoy that right now and forever. Dignity demands equality of opportunity to learn and to know in any school accord- ing to the desire of the parent. This means schools of equal quality, and we recognize this right and obligation because at all levels of government, local, State, and Fed- eral, we will not rest until all children par- ticipate in the growth of knowledge to the limit of their capacity. We took a long first step toward that goal when President Lyn- don Johnson signed the great Education Act of 1965 on April 11 of this year. I want to pay tribute to the part which Vice President Humphrey played in the preparation and passage of this act. I want to thank you for sending me to Congress to contribute what I could to this vital legislation. Further dignity demands freedom from the threat of deadly illness and crippling disease for want of care and want of cure. We mean to respond to that in our time. I say here and now that our children must not grow up to learn that our land lags behind Norway and other countries in the care of our elders and the winning of the war against heart disease, stroke, and cancer?the scourge of man. Dignity demands freedom from the op- pression of poverty, want, and the indignity of the dole, for too many Americans need the kind of self-help that has made the land of Norway a haven of full enjoyment. We must put into practice in this country through improvement in education and eco- nomic growth what Norway has had in her constitution since 1954 when the storthing approved this paragraph: "The authorities are instructed to adjust things so that any fit human being can make himself a living by his work." How simply stated?but how rich in mean- ing. Here is the great test of our system today. We must seek again for the benefit of our children to so develop our great enter- prise system so that it can call upon all its resources and Government services as well? to adjust things?so that recession and de- pression are only memories and never pros- pects. Norway has done it, and with a little Nor- wegian ingenuity, we can do it over here. Finally, dignity demands that we live up to our covenant with all our fellow men on earth who seek to live with us in freedom and to resist oppression and enslavement. Freedom cannot mean one thing at Eids- voll in 1814 and another thing in Saigon or Santa Domingo in 1965. In our time, as in that time, the call is for courage, for unity, for determination, and for understanding. I say here and now that President Johnson, as leader of the free world and President of the greatest freedom-loving Nation in all of history, is giving us that leadership. Of all your qualities, my Norwegian-Amer- ican neighbors, your most characteristic trait is indomitable and fearless calm in the face of danger. Leif Ericson, explorer of North America, faced all the ravages of weather and tem- pest, but he prevailed. In his image and in our time Norwegians and, Norwegian-American seamen were called upon to risk their lives in the treacherous sealanes of the Atlantic and the North Sea, and they prevailed in thee ause of victory. At Trondheim and Screen, all the Nazi might could not smother the resistance of the Norwegians and they refused to bow to tyranny until they prevailed in 1944. Now the time has come to test this generation. As the late President Kennedy said, "To few generations is given the opportunity of defending freedom in its hour of challenge? that challenge has come to this generation, and we do not shrink from it." If we would have peace in their time and for all time for our children and their chil- dren, then we cannot compromise with aggression. Let aggression halt and we will talk peace, and food for the hungry and growth for the small nations and help for suffering humanity. Let aggression persist and I pray and hope that you, my beloved Norwegian-American neighbors, will write to our President and let him know that in this hour of tribula- tion we are one and indivisible, because we are all free and freedom is not divisible. What a fitting remembrance of, this day it would be if you would take the time to write to your President on this Constitution Day?Children's Day?and say to him and to Vice President Humphrey, and, yes, to Senator Dirksen, too: We unite with you. Whatever the price of preservation of freedom may be, we are de- termined to resist aggression in southeast Asia and in America. We, the Norwegian- Americans who love liberty, cherish dignity, and despise tyranny, pray that our foes will fail, but we shall not falter in defense of freedom. To you, the sons of Norway, my neighbors, Norwegian-Americana, today I would close with a quotation from the great Norwegian novelist, Arne Gabore, who wrote of his people: "They are a stormy, stubborn folk who dig their way through a life of brooding and care, putter with the soil and search the stars, force a little corn from the earth and hopes from their dreams?put their faith in the penny and trust in God." Today your hopes and my hopes, your dreams and my dreams, your faith and my faith, for together as children we trust in God. BANK MERGERS (Mr. WOLFF (at the request of Mr. FARNSLEY) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. WOLFF. Mr. Speaker, the Con- gress enacted the Bank Merger Act in 1960 with the intention that the con- trol of bank mergers should be regulated by those Federal agencies who had spe- cialized knowledge in this field?the Federal banking supervisory agencies. This intention of the Congress has been thwarted by recent judicial deci- sions. The effect of these decisions is to place the final decision on bank mergers with the Justice Department. Under the present system, there have been re- peated incidents where a bank merger has been approved by all the necessary Federal bank supervisory agencies only to be subject to litigation by the Justice Department. This lack of consistency and guidelines cannot be considered an aid to banking stability in this country. In one recent case the Justice Depart- ment attacked a merger that had existed 31/2 years before final court decision de- clared it invalid. Coherent bank merger Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 ? CIA-RDP67130044613000500120025-L, CONGRESSIONAL. RECORD ? HOUSE may 17, 1965 policy is, therefore, becoming non- existent. ? I am submitting a bill which asks for regulation of banks. And that we de- termine once and for all that the in- tention of the Bank Merger Act be com- plied with?that we leave regulation to the agencies who have expertise in this ? Federal banking agencies. AN REPUBLIC CRISIS ?(Mr. POOL (at the request of Mr. FARNSLEY) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. POOL. Mr. Speaker, many Amer- icans may be puzzled by the rush of events recently in the Dominican Repub- lic. Why, they may wonder, are U.S. paratroopers and marines on guard in a tiny land whose people are our friends, not our enemies? But there are enemies there: Enemies which threaten not only our friends in the Dominican Republic and Latin America, but our own national security. They are subversion, totalitarian doc- trine, and the insidious work of Castro- type Communists in Latin America. Fortunately, President Johnson has seen this threat and acted courageously to combat the real enemies of the people of the Dominican Republic and the free countries of our hemisphere. And for- tunately, an overwhelming majority cif Americans support his actions. Mr. Speaker, I submit for the RECORD three competent and informative edi- torials on this matter; they appeared In the May 8 Burlington Free Press; the Portland Oregonian of May 4, and the Houston Post of April 30: [From the Burlington Free Press, May 8, 1965] JOUNSON DOCTRINE DEFENDS FREEDOM President Johnson's modern version of the Monroe Doctrine proclaims that the United States will not tolerate the establishment of another Communist regime in the Western Hemisphere. This is called the Johnson doctrine, and it is being proclaimed with a minimum regard for world opinion and a maximum regard for American freedom and security. We strongly approve of the Johnson doc- trine. Our only regret is that such a doc- trine was not proclaimed by President Eisenhower or President Kennedy. If it had been, Castro's Red totalitarianism would not be a threat to hemispheric democracy today. The power of the United States is the only major deterrence to Communist enslave- ment of the entire world. The United States must not hesitate to use that power when- ever necessary to discourage Communist aggression. Power which is claimed, but not used, is not much of a deterrence. Totali- tarians respect power when they know it exists; they pay little attention to vacant threats. This is not to say that the United States should use its power nervously in response to every Communist probe. But it should use its power convincingly in the defense of vital interests?and the security of this hernia- phere from Communist totalitarianism is a vital interest. The Johnson doctrine promises to spare the world a lot of grief. It should have been proclaimed sooner. [From the Portland (Oreg.) Oregonian, May 4, 1865] No SECOTZD CUBA The American people should support President Johnson's decision to use military for ie as well SS diplomatic negotiations to preterit the establishment of another COM- mt nist government in the Western Hemi- spi.ere. fldel Castro, who brought Communist rule to Zuba, has been infiltrating "14th of June" revolutionaries into the Dominican Republic for _years. President Johnson sent marines and paratroopers to Santo Domingo initially to evacuate Americans and other nationals. But U.S. forces were increased, and engaged the rebels, when the President became con- vir cod that the revolt initially intended to return exiled President Juan Bosch to power hail been taken over by Castro Communists. he United States fell into Castro's trap in Cuba, initially welcoming his defeat of the Batista dictatorship, then recoiling in the fax e of the bloodbath Castro gave the Cubans to establish his own dictatorship, finally realizing that Castro was a Communist and fully intended to communize the nation. President John F. Kennedy's historic mis- take was the withdrawal of U.S. air and sea au; Tort for the Cuban exile army slaugh- tered at the Bay of Pigs. This led to the placement of Soviet missiles with nuclear warheads in Cuba and the U.S. blockade and theat of invasion which forced Nikita Ktrushchev to withdraw the missiles. 'Po allow Castro communism to take over tho Dominican Republic would be to repeat our Cuban errors and to meekly sanction the swead of aggressive communism to other Latin American areas. The security of the United States is directly at stake, if President Joonson's premise is correct?Le., that the Castro Communists have seized control of th3 revolt in Santo Domingo. So is the se- curity of every other nation in the hemi- sir -Jere. 'Nhat needs now to be explained to the people in both North and South America is th3 factual evidence on which President Jotinson based his action and his statement that the United States "cannot, must not, and will not" permit establishment of another Communist regime in the Western misphere. Juan Bosch, the Dominican Republic's eltcted President who was displaced by an Army revolt and a civilian-military junta, bi-rterly rejects President Johnson's premise. Ot her Latin American leaders have spoken out against U.S. troops in the Dominican Republic as an "invasion." The Organize- tien of American States has a five-man team in Santo Domingo, but it is almost certain that it cannot deal with the revolutionists. En every Latin American nation there is a 2ro-Communist, pro-Castro force awaiting its chance to seize power. Furthermore, La tin Americans generally are fearful of U.S. imperialism and intervention. Some leaders who secretly support U.S. action in the Dominican Republic are afraid to say so pt.blicly. They, too, need strong evidence of Castro-Communist control of the revolt to gi-re them courage. &nd if the heavily armed civilians in Santo Domingo can be forced to disarm, there must be early fulfillment of President John- so a's pledge of democratic elections. Can Johnson guarantee that? One doubts it, but every effort must be made to bring the OAS into command of the situation, re uctant as these governments may be to appear to be on the side of the United States, the Dominican military chiefs, and the feu- dal landholders who survived the Trujillo di rtatorship and the Bosch reform regime. [From the Houston (Tex.) Post, Apr. 30, 1966] MAE/NE LANDING BLOCKS CASTILLO Despite denials that the possibility of a Castro-Communist takeover was the real rea- son for President Johnson's sudden decision to land Era marines in the Dominican Re- public, some things are so obvious that they do not need to be stated publicly or officially. If the danger of Cuban-Soviet intervention was not a factor in the decision, it certainly should have been, and the President would have been less than alert to the possibilities. The situation was made to order for a Castro enterprise. In fact, it was an invi- tation that the bearded Cuban leader and his Moscow masters could hardly resist, if indeed they did not have something to do with instigating the military uprising which producedl the chaos, confusion, and a tem- porary vacuum. They would have been drawn to it as flies to honey. At the same time, because of the sensitivity of all Latin Americans to any kind of U.S. action that even appears to be intervention in the affairs of another country of the hemisphere, it was only prudent and good sense for the President and his spokesmen to be very careful not even to mention Castro or Cuba in their public statements. Two IV/embers of Congress who attended the White House meeting prior to the President's announcement have been quoted as saying that William F. Reborn, who had been sworn in only a few hours before as the new Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, emphasized at the meeting the danger of Cuban-Communist action if the United States did not act to forestall it. The report later was denied at the White House, where it was said that the President's public statement of the reason for the land- ing, protection of American and other foreign nationals, was the only reason given the legislators. The Cuban-Communist danger, however, was so obvious that there really was no need for it to be stated. The fact is that the public had been won- dering all along if Castro and his Moscow backers had not had some hand in launching the rebellion by young army officers, who said they wanted to restore ousted President Juan Bosch to office. There were reports that some of the rebel leaders were sympathetic to Castro if not ac- tually his agents and that there had been some movement into the country recently of Dominican Communists- trained in Cuba and Czechoslovakia. In any case, there was danger that, if quick and decisive action was not taken, the Dominican rebellion would degenerate into a civil war in which Castro and his backers cer- tainly would become involved. By landing marines, the United States served notice that it would, not stand by and let this happen. Castro was blocked, whether this was a con- sideration or not. If further foreign intervention is necessary, however, it is preferable that it be by the Organization of American States, and the promptness of that body in reacting to the Dominican situation gives hope that It will be effective in restoring order and keeping the Communists out. 11=1111?1?mi LEAVE OF ABSENCE By unanimous consent, leave of ab- sence was granted to Mr. MArmAs (at the request of Mr. GEitALD R. FORD) , for the balance of the week, on account of Illness. SPECIAL ORDERS GRANTED By unanimous consent, permission to address the House, following the legisla- Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 ewe .4- Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 -- 10308 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE May 17, 1965 Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President, negotiations on the contract referred to in this article were dropped by officials of the Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. be- cause leaders of an extreme rightwing organization, Young Americans for Freedom, so called, threatened to mount a massive publicity campaign and had already made arrangements to spend large sums of money on urging a boy- cott against the purchase of Firestone tires. Here is a dastardly wrong per- petrated by narrowminded, bigoted, self-appointed vigilantes who consider themselves super-duper patriots. They did a disservice to their Nation. Their action not only injured the Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. but was to the preju- dice Of every businessman and of every working man and woman in the great Akron area. Under Secretary of State Ball will re- peat his statement that our Government approves the sale of the synthetic rubber plant to Rumania and had nothing to do with the Firestone action withdrawing from the contract. At the NATO con- ference in London Tuesday Under Sec- retary of State Ball said publicly, "Red China is the greatest menace to world peace." Our officials regret that Ru- mania is now negotiating with West German and English plants for this same contract which would have brought ad- ditional employment to Akron workers and additional money deposited in Akron banks. Who are these so-called Young Amer- icans for Freedom? This extremist, radical, rightwing fringe group was or- ganized in 1960. Five members of the John Birch Society serve on its national advisory board. We know that one of Its first directors was an editor of the John Birch Society magazine. We know it is closely associated with other radical rightwing organizations and par- rots the lunatic extremeist fringe line. It seems unbelievable and unconscion- able that a group playing God with other people's patriotism can intimidate and browbeat officials of a nationally known and respected company with threats of a boycott. No wonder that our dis- tinguished colleague, Senator Ton( KUCHEL, of California, an outstanding American, terms these witch hunters "Birchsaps" and "sons of birches." America comes last with these right- wing radical leaders of Young Americans for Freedom, so-called, who, by this sort of action, undermine our national policy and help deny employment to worthy and Industrious working men and women and diminish the prosperity of an entire community. It is most unfortunate that this $50 million contract will be enjoyed by some English or West German firm. These vigilantes of the extreme radical right, beating their breasts proclaiming their own patriotism, would do better to devote their efforts to provide steady em- ployment and economic security for their fellow Americans. Communism thrives on unemployment, misery, and hunger. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, who should know, said: The Communist Party in the United States has lost 90 percent of its membership since reaching its numerical strength peak in 1944. Instead of 80,000 Communists, he esti- mates there are 8,000. Of these 8,000, I suspect a large number are FBI agents posing as Communists. Yet, these right- wing extremists talk about Communists In the State Department, in our uni- versities, and in the Protestant clergy. Not one of these extremists could name one Communist in our State Department, on the faculty of any of our universities, or in the ministry. Former President Eisenhower said of them: They take extreme positions, make radical statements, attack people of good repute. I don't think the United States needs super- patriots. These people are self-defeating. These Young Americans for Freedom, so-called, overlook altogether the threat of Communist aggression from behind the Iron Curtain, but let out their Birch barks against fellow Americans, even-go- ing so far as to falsely assail officials of a corporation with a great history and tradition such as the Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. They proposed to set up a "Committee Against Slave Labor" office in Indianapolis urging a boycott of Fire- stone tires hoping to damage that com- pany by ruining its normal promotional activities at the time of the Indianapolis auto races. Behind the Iron Curtain there are 700 million Chinese and 300 million other people living under Communist rule in the Soviet Union and other countries. These billion people will not simply cease to exist. It is for us to seek coexistence or we will likely meet coannihilation. These radical rightwingers term their poison as conservatism. It is contami- nated conservatism that would conserve nothing but might destroy basic institu- tions of our Nation, founded by men and women in search of religious and politi- cal liberty. Our President has urged increased trade with the Soviet-bloc nations. His policy has been affirmed by industrial leaders throughout our Nation, not the least of whom is the newly elected pres- ident of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. If we are to achieve lasting peace in our modern world, it is likely to be achieved through experiments in cooper- ation on specific joint ventures between the nations of the free world and those of the Communist bloc. Cooperation in limited areas is the policy I propose. For example, this Nation and the So- viet Union might work together on some development projects we both favor to help an impoverished country such as India. There should be joint coopera- tion in the exploration of outer space for peaceful purposes, just as satisfying agreements have already been made be- tween our Nation and the Soviet Union to neutralize the vast Antarctic area. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tern- pore. The time of the Senator has ex- pired. Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that I may be permitted to continue for an additional 3 minutes. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tern- pore. Without objection, the Senator is recognized for an additional 3 minutes. -Air. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President, having in mind the welfare of the family farmers of Ohio and of the Nation and the welfare of men and women who work In factories producing goods needed the world over, I urge as a means of easing International tension and at the same time bringing added prosperity to the people of our country that we proceed without delay to establish normal trade relations with Red China and the Soviet Union in nonstrategic goods, selling at the outset to those nations whatever we produce that the Russians and Chinese may eat, drink, smoke, and wear and buying from those nations products which we need and can use and of which we are lacking in this country. Furthermore, I propose that such trade be made at world prices for cash on the barrelhead and without any special fa- vors or special discrimination. This would bring in needed gold and help end our chronic deficit caused by the out- flow of gold by actions of De Gaulle and other allies and by our necessary mainte- nance of our Armed Forces and thou- sands of their dependents overseas. Why should we Americans stand at the sidelines while Canada, Great Britain, Australia, West Germany, and other of our allies trade on a huge scale with the Soviet Union and Red China? Last year West Germany exported more than $1 billion in goods and capital equip- ment to Eastern Europe. One-third of France's exports of capital goods accord- ing to plans will go to the Soviet Union during the next 5 years. England and other of our allies are not only selling nonstrategic materials in tremendous quantities to Communist countries but are exporting to Cuba and behind the Iron Curtain buses, and other goods termed strategic products. Ohio industrialists have come to their U.S. Senators seeking assistance in cases where they have lost contracts with Iron Curtain countries for nonstrategic mate- rials to West German, English, French, and Italian competitors. On top of this now come these witch hunters, threaten- ing a ruinous boycott. It is unconscionable that West Ger- many, France, and Italy attain full em- ployment and enjoy unparalleled pros- perity in large part as a result of their trade, while we, their ally and protector, are depriving our businessmen and work- ers of the opportunity to engage in this trade and are losing markets which in the near future may be of much greater value. APF STAT F GOVERNMENT AC- r_l_P0/ 101 IJUMINICAN REPUBLIC Mr. YOUNG of North Dakota. Mr. President, I approve of the action taken by President Johnson in sending troops to the Dominican Republic. It was nec- essary to take this action to preserve the present and future security of the United States. However, it is regret- tably true that the lives of our boys who are being killed in this conflict are no different than those that are lost in a great world war. They, too, have but the one life to give for their country. Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 May 17, 1965 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE 10307 DASTARDLY ACTION OF RIGHT- WING EXTREMIST GROUP Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President, recently on the front page of the Wash- ington Evening Star there appeared an almost unbelievable feature news story. To me it was shocking. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that the article appearing recently in the Washington Evening Star entitled "Firm, Facing Boycott, Drops Rumania Deal," be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, ELS follows: [From the Washington (D.C.) Evening Star, May 8, 19651 UNITED STATES EMBARRASSED: FIRM, FACING BOYCOTT, DROPS RUMANIA DEAL (By Bernard Gwertzman) Faced with the threat of a boycott cam- paign by a conservative organization, the Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. recently halted negotiations to sell Communist Rumania a $50 million synthetic rubber plant even though the deal had the official approval of the U.S. Government and the personal bless- ing of President Johnson. Because Firestone ended the talks only a few weeks before the final contract was to be signed, it was a blow to Rumania's planned economy, and a severe embarrass- ment to the State Department. The aborted deal and the boycott threat have received little public attention be- cause none of the interested parties?Fire- stone, Rumania, or the State Department? has Wanted to say much about it. However, from information on the public record and from confidential disclosures by diplomatic and rubber industry sources, it was learned that the conservative Young Americans for Freedom, almost single- handedly caused giant Firestone, the Na- tion's second largest rubber manufacturer, to drop the deal. The incident demonstrates anew that trade with Communist countries is a major polit- ical problem for many 'U.S. firms, even when such deals have the encouragement and ap- proval of the U.S. Government. It also points up why President Johnson's special committee on East-West trade said yesterday in urging more such trade, that the t.T.S. Government "should act to remove any stigma from trade with Communist coun- tries where such trade is determined to be In the national interest." The Firestone story began on June 1 last eyar when the United States and Rumania signed a joint communique to improve rela- tions between the two countries. The talks were initiated because the administration's experts believed that Rumania, although an ally of Russia, was charting a more inde- pendent course in foreign affairs, part of which was an increased trade with the West. COMMUNIQUE PAVED WAY The communique paved the way for Ru- mania to purchase a synthetic rubber plant from any American company that would sell to it. For years, Rumania had sought to buy such an industrial plant. A major oil producer, Rumania knew that synthetic rubber is a convenient and profitable byproduct of pe- troleum. Rumanian officials, as long ago as 1960, had offered to spend more than $100 million to buy such plants in this country. For a long time, the Defense Department argued against selling the Rumanians such an advanced technology, but finally, because such technologies are now widely available in Europe, and because Rumania was no longer a close ally of Russia, the Pentagon agreed with the State and Commerce De- partments that such a sale would be in the national int irest. It was arg red that the sale would encour- age RumaniE, to go further in its independent course. R'IMANIAN EXPERTS VISIT Soon efts iward, top Rumanian experts toured many American Shins, including ,Goodyear, the Nation's biggest rubber man- ufacturer, a id Firestone. In late NnVember, Rumania and Firestone entered intc final negotiations for a $50 mil- lion plant. Both Rmaania and Firestone claim ex- perts from Bucharest chose the Firestone process, and that Goodyear, In addition, had certain legal problems involving its process that made it almost impossible to sell to the Rumanians Goodyear however, said It was offered the Rumanian tohtract, but rejected it as not in the U.S. national interest. On December 8, in fact, the "Wingfoot Clan," Goodyear's house organ, published an editorial saying that "even to a dedicated profitmakir g organization, some things are more impoz tent than dollars. Take the best interests oi the United States and the free world, for example. You can't put a price tag on freecom." : ISTD SEVERAL REASONS The editc rial went on to list several reasons why Goodyear turned down the Rumanian contract. t Said that Goodyear "stood firmly on the side of freedom, as a foe of aggression ? * ever. though the company stood to lose Eutaw: ally." Some co aservative organs began contrast- ing Goody ar's "patriotic" refusal to sell, with Firestone's obvious willingness. They did not mention tint last summer President Johnson determined it was in the national interest of the Linnet. States to sell the plant, and au- thorized the Export-Import Bank to grant normal 5-year credit guarantees for indus- trial sales *x) numania. The conservative criticisms began to pick up In February, after the escalation of the Vietnam Var. It was the Young Americans for Freednin, a college-age conservative or- ganization which claims 25,000 members, that led the anti-Firestone campaign. OITTLETS PICKETED David It, Jones, the national director a the YAF, which has its headquarters at 514 C Street NE., said his group became involved when loca chapters in Philadelphia, Brooklyn and Prov deuce began picketing Firestone outsets. The YAF people handed out flyers which said: "In Sot Mt Vietnam, Americans are being killed dar y by Communist bullets. It would be disaatraus for American companies to sup- ply the ,rtheistic Communist governments with valuable materials, especially rubber, which the Reds must have to wage their war on free nE tons. "In thE past month, Communist Rumania shipped ,;00 heavy-duty trucks of military value to Red China, the principal supplier of the North Vietnam Communists. "The synthetic rubber plant which Fire- stone plaos to build in Communist Rumania parallels the steel which the United States sold to J,bpan prior to World War II. Amer- ica got that steel back?at Pearl Harbor. No nation can wage war without large quanti- ties of synthetic rubber." QUOTES GOODYEAR ORGAN After cuoting Goodyear's house organ, the flyer min "Firestone's plans to build a syn- thetic rubber plant in Communist Rumania can only strengthen the Communists and throw away American jobs." It urgid people to protest to Firestone in Akrdn, Chlo. The chairman of the Bay Ridge, Brooklyn, chapter of YAF, Thomas F. Harrison, was quoted in the organization organ as saying that &petition driVe to get signatures to stop the Firestone deal "is an opportunity for everyone to do something positive in sup- port of an anti-Corn.munist policy; Goodyear deserves the praise and encouragement of all freedom-loving Americans." The campaign apparently caught Firestone ?facials off guard. Many franchised dealers whose concern is .strictly with selling tires asked Firestone to get the conservatives off their back, since they were losing business to Goodyear. Firestone sent its Eastern region public re- lations man, Bernard Frazier, to speak to YAF leaders in different cities. Frazier was described by those who listened to him as a sincere individual who believed Firestone was acting in the national interest by "building bridges" to Eastern, ,Europe, as President Johnson has urged. Firestone also spread the word that some Rumanian trucks and tractors, photographed in Red China had Goodyear thee on them, and that Goodyear, with Commerce Depart- ment approval, had been selling synthetic rubber (but not plants) to Rumania. Goodyear has denied it knowingly sold such tires to Red China, a:nd says Peiping might have purchased them somewhere on the black market; The Firestone publicity campaign, deliber- ately handled in a low key, failed to sway YAF. Even appeals by Firestone to certain conservative Senators and Representatives failed to halt the YAF activity. Jones says it is very passible Firestone de- cided to call off the deal with the Rumanians when it learned of the YAF's plans to set up a "Committee Against Slave Labor" office in Indianapolis the week before the Memorial Day, Indianapolis BOO auto race. YAF planned to mount a massive publicly campaign urging a, boycott of Firestone tires which it was hoped would ruin Firestone's normal promotional activities at that time. Jones says pla,ns were made to hire air- planes to fly over the track with streamers against Firestone. "A top Firestone executive heard about this on April 18," Jones said. "Two days later the deal was off." All Firestone Said publicly was the follow- ing: "The Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. has ter- minated negotiations for a contract to design and equip a synthetic :rubber plant in Rutaania." UNITED STATES INFORMED EARLIER The State Department was told about the collapse of the negotiations about 2 days be- fore it was publicly announced. This was about the same time Rumania heard about it. On April 19, Under Secretary of State George W. Ball called in Rumanian Ambas- sador Petre Balaceantt to repeat that the U.S. Government still approved sale of the syn- thetic rubber plant, and had nothing to do with Firestone's decision. Because of great State Department sensi- tivity over the issue, Ball's meeting with Balaceanu was n,ot announced to the press. The State Department did not want to ap- pear as having a direct interest in the Fire- stone-Rumania. deal, since it already had been attacked by conservative groups for "ordering" Firestone to Sell to the Corn- munits. Originally organized 4 years ago, YAP worked on behah of defeated Republican presidential candidate Barry Goldwater. Recently, YAF members .picketed the White House in support of Johnsc,n's Vietnam policies?one of the few student groups in favor of the escaltition of the war. Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP671300446R000500120025-7 May 17, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE Mr. President, a rather touching arti- cle dealing with this subject was pub- lished in the Washington Evening Star of May 15. The article, written by Ar- thur Hoppe, is entitled "Encouragingly Light Casualties." I ask unanimous consent that this article be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Washington (D.C.) Evening Star, May 15, 1965] ENCOURAGINGLY LIGHT CASUALTIES (By Arthur Hoppe) The photograph in the news magazine showed the body of a marine lying in the back of a truck, his combat boots hanging limply over the tailgate. The caption said merely: "One of 13 American dead." There may be a few more by now. But on the whole our casualties in the Dominican Republic have been, as one military spokes- man put it, "encouragingly light." Yet you couldn't help wondering briefly who this dead marine was. And, if you had an idle moment, perhaps where he came from. And whether his parents were still living. And if he had a girl friend. Or a wife. Or even children. And how they had taken the news. And who killed him? But it was good to know our casualties have been encouragingly light. The photograph didn't show his face. But the odds are he was young. Maybe he grew up in a small town with long, hot summers and a dusty main street. Or maybe on the hard sidewalks of a big city. He must have played one-o'-cat in a schoolyard somewhere and teased girls and blown candles out on a birthday cake. Most boys do. And he was probably killed by a rebel sniper. Most of our casualties have been from rebel snipers, though thSy've been encourag- ingly light. But you can't blame the rebel sniper. Not really. He thought he was fighting for liberty. Or maybe communism. Or possibly just to save his own life. And allyway, he must have been acting on orders from his sergeant or his captain. But you can't blame the captain. It was a tactical problem. If he placed his snipers here and the marines came this way * * *. Perhaps some marine officer failed to see the trap. But they haven't made many such errors. For our casualties have been encouragingly light. You certainly can't blame the Dominican generals on either side. They are engaged in a civil war, a power struggle to crush each other?each doing his duty to save his coun- try from the other at all costs. We are fortunate our casualties have been encourag- ingly light. Some may blame the Communist leaders? Kosygin, Castro, or Mao?for trying to take over the rebel cause. But, even if true, they were concerned only with the strategic prob- lem. If they could seize control of this square on the chessboard, thus putting pres- sure on us here, thereby causing us to * * *. Killing a few marines would do them little good. And our casualties have been encour- agingly light. Some may blame President Johnson for sending the marines to intervene. Yet it is a vital square, deep within our "sphere of influence." And in the game of global strategy such a square is worth great risk. And look what a victory we've won. For our casualties have been encouragingly light. So no one's to blame. Not really. And now we will bring him home. And now we will bury him in flag-draped coffin with a fusillade of rifle shots, just as we always do. For whoever he was, he is now a dead hero. No, no one's to blame. And yet as you glame idly at the photograph of his sprawled out body, you can't help wondering, however briefly, who this dead hero once was. And What he wanted to be. TRIBUTE TO THE LATE FRANCES PERKINS Mrs. SMITH. Mr. President, one of the greatest women in the history of the world passed away on May 14, 1965? Hon. Frances Perkins. She was the first woman Cabinet member. She served with great distinction as Secretary of Labor and brought great pride to women everywhere. She proved the potential of women as executives and Government officials. I was personally very proud of Frances Perkins. I was proud of her because she lived in Maine and counted Maine as one of her homes. I was proud of her be- cause she was my personal friend. We ? were of different political parties but she always gave me great support. I was very proud of Frances Perkins as a woman. Her achievements and her career were a source of inspiration and challenge to me. But I was proud of, and grateful for, Frances Perkins most for the very warm human being that she was and for the dedication of her life for the betterment of all human beings, especially the work- ing people. She truly made this a better world to live in. I ask unanimous' consent to place in the RECORD at this point an editorial in today's Washington Post. ? There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: PRANCES PERKINS Frances Perkins provided the most con- cise summary of the turbulent years in which she served so ably as Secretary of Labor. "Almost the entire period of the Roosevelt administration," she wrote, "was marked by difficulties in normal relation- ships between workers and employers. It must be remembered that from 1933 to 1945 we were always in a crisis." Coming to Washington at the pinnacle of a distinguished career in the State govern- ment of New York, Frances Perkins WM plunged into seething controversy. There were times when it appeared that labor and management could cooperate only in venting their spleen upon the Secretary of Labor. But Madame Perkins, who wore simple black dresses and tricornered hats, could not be easily intimidated. In a self-effacing style, not always emulated by her fellow Cabinet officers, she worked ceaselessly and effective- ly to establish a foundation for peaceful labor relations. Long before her death, the tower of social legislation that Frances Perkins worked so hard to build became just another profile in the skyline of this industrial democracy. The building blocks include old-age and survivors' insurance, unemployment compen- sation, minimum-wage and maximum-hours legislation and the Federal regulation of child labor. They are monuments to a splendid lady. MERCHANT MARINE WEEK; WORLD TRADE WEEK; NATIONAL MARI- TIME DAY; 15TH ANNIVERSARY OF U.S. MARITIME ADMINISTRA- TION Mrs. SMITH. Mr. President, it is my pleasure to draw the attention of my 10309 colleagues to the forthcoming obser- vance, May 17-24, 1965, in Washington, D.C., of Merchant Marine Week, World Trade Week, National Maritime Day and the 15th 'anniversary of the U.S. Mari- time Administration. I take special pride because a feature role in this program will be taken by an Institution close to my heart, the Maine Maritime Academy, one of the Nation's finest institutions of merchant marine officer training. The academy's training vessel, the State of Maine, largest ship ever to navigate the Potomac, will be in Washington throughout the week. Also on board the Maine will- be cadets from the U.S. Merchant Marine Acad- emy, New York State Maritime College, Massachusetts Maritime Academy, and the Texas Maritime Academy. In addi- tion, alumni from these five academies have joined together in arranging a splendid program of social and edu- cational activities while the Maine's 300 cadets are in Washington. It is a heart- warming display of interacademy coop- eration which bodes well for the future in our expanded efforts to foster a re- surgence of the American merchant ma- rine. The State of Maine will be open to public inspection at the U.S. Naval Gun Factory each afternoon, Monday through Saturday, from 1:15 to 4:30 p.m. and I urge you to take this opportunity for a firsthand look at our merchant marine officer training program. While you are aboard the Maine, I sug- gest that you also inspect the Maine products show afloat, an industrial-agri- cultural exhibit containing goods from downeast forests, farms, and factories. Overall sponsor of the Maine products show is the Maine World Trade Council, a private organization, with assistance of ' the Maine Department of Agriculture, the Maine Department of Economic De- velopment, the Maine Maritime Acad- emy, and scores of our fine Maine busi- ness firms. The Maine products show, though new to Washington, has been a feature on the training vessel for several years. It be- gan when the Maine Maritime Academy trustees sensed that the annual winter cruise to foreign ports had become val- uable to the State's promotional program. Trips to South America, Caribbean, the Mediterranean, and Europe have pro- duced significant results in the export Governor John H. Reed, of Maine, has said: Maine is proud that the U.S. Maritime Administration has invited our Maritime Academy training ship to Washington to highlight this State's progress and its eco- nomic goals. Merchant Marine Week will officially open Tuesday morning when Maritime Administrator Nicholas Johnson dedi- cates a new merchant marine exhibit in the General Accounting Office Building. The same morning Vice President HUBERT HUMPHREY will present a $500 award to the winner of a national high school poster contest commemorating National Maritime Week?the poster now appear- ing on mailtrucks throughout the coun- Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 10310 CONG1tSSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE May 17, 1965 try. Our fine Maine Maritime Academy band will play at this ceremony. On Wednesday the Maine Band and the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy Glee Club will perform on the steps of the Senate; that afternoon our Maine group will appear at the annual Maritime Rec- reational Association picnic at Rock Creek,. Park. Thursday evening our Maine musicians will play at the Shera- ton Park Hotel at which time Mr. Nich- olas Johnson, Maritime Administrator, will address the Propeller Club of the United States. Saturday, Maritime Day, will mark an- other first in Washington, as crews from all five maritime academies com- pete in an old-fashioned lifeboat rowing race on the Potomac River, off Haim Point. The race is scheduled for 2 p.m., and I recommend it to you. There are excellent facilities for spectators. Evenings during the week, the State of Maine will be the scene of a series of social events, culminating with a gala dancing party for cadets on Saturday evening. This unprecedented salute to the mer- chant marine came about through efforts of Maritime Administrator Johnson, the U.S. Department of Commerce, and re- flects our administration's concern with, the problems of the maritime industry. We from Maine are most pleased that our Maritime Academy was able to solve the many problems involved in bringing the training vessel to Washington. We are ever mindful of our historic kinship with the sea, and are proud to be mem- bers of a growing team whose objective Is a merchant marine second to none. THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE ON EXCISE TAXES Mr. DODD. Mr. President, I am con- fident that each Of us who has spoken, worked and voted for the repeal of the various excise taxes welcomes the Presi- dent's ambitious yet realistic proposal to cut about $4 billion worth of these per- nicious taxes from our tax system. The regressive nature of excise taxes, in that their burden fails most heavily and most unfairly on persons of low and moderate Income, has long demanded that as a matter of simple justice these taxes be repealed. Now, after many years and after many strong but ultimately futile efforts, we are assured success in our fight against excise taxes because the President has joined with us. We have ample time to consider and approve the President's recommenda- tions before July 1, so the changes can go into effect at that time. I hope, Indeed I am -sure, that Con- gress will take full advantage of this golden opportunity to abolish these so- called temporary taxes. VISIT TO WASHINGTON BY PRESI- DENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA Mr. MONDALE. Mr. President, today Washington will be honored by a visit from the President of the Republic cif Korea, the Honorable Chung Hee Park. . . He ?ives With good news for the United Sta,1 South Korea seems at last to. hav.3 turned the corner of recovery, on the road to economic independence. Sim* 1960, its Production index is up 60 Percent; and its exports are up four- fold----from $30 million to $125 million. They are expected to continue upward to 4110 million in 1965, and to equalize at $ a00 million by 1967. Ebrea is now self-sufficient in cement and 'electric production and in plywood and refined oil, and is almost self- suff .rcient in chemical fertilizers. Coal pro, tuction has doubled in 5 years. Con- sumer production is way up. I know that President Park's welcome her will be a warm one; and I ask unan- irncus consent that an editorial pub- lished this morning in the Washington PosC be printed at this 'point in the Rsc There being no objection, the editorial was..ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as f allows: [From the Washington (D.C.) Post, May 17, 19651 WELCOME VISITOR Pfesident Chung Hee Park of the Republic of Korea, who arrives here today for a state visii? represents a country and a people who den rye more from history than it has ac- corded them. Korea, with a long cultural tradition, has bee: i successively occupied and ravished by Its 'Ivo big neighbors, China and Japan. To- day,- because of the world conflict between communism and anticommunism, Korea is divided in two On the map, many Korean fait flies are divided in two, both physically and emotionally, and the country's economy is pitifully held back because most of the indfstry and power sources are in the Corn- mutest north while most of the food growing Is Di the non-Communist south. President Park's South Korea, a land where evet tree growth is denied on the barren, for- bid ling mountainsides, has suffered from the additional handicap of bitter struggles for pal: tical power. The latest coup attempt oc- curred within the past 10 days. President Park, who as a general headed a military coup himself 4 years ago, resigned his commission and stood for popular elec- tion in October 1963. His civilian adminis- tra:Aon since then has been torn between trying to permit the opposition characteris- tic of a democracy without letting this op- position get EO Out of hand that government becomes impossible. Lately, the President has taken two bold de:is in the international field which have been very pleasing to his host, President JolnsOn: He has pressed for a normalization of Korea's relations with its old Japanese enony in order to give Korea a badly needed eco lornic booster; and he has dispatched 2,000 troaps to South Vietnam in order to assist th( Vietnamese-American effort there. In coming here, President Park will doubt- less want renewed. assurance that the U.S. aid Program will not be tapered off too abitiptly. He also reportedly will want to see faster progress on obtaining a status-of- tones agreement from the United States. Su lb. an agreement would enable his country to establish its sovereign authority over ci- vil an crimes that may be committed by the 50,400 U.S. troops now stationed in Korea. Ilmtunately President Johnson, although canceling last month the scheduled visits of Indian Prime Minister Shasti and Pakistan Prosident Ayub, allowed President Park to come on. No doubt the President was per- Blinded that as hard-plugging an ally as Pnsident Park and the Republic of Korea del*rved priority treatment. IDE1?ITIPICATION OP IMPORTED MEAT ? AND MEAT PRODUCTS? RRSOLUTION OF MINNESOTA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Mr. MONDALE. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the REcone a resolution--adopted by the Minnesota House of Representatives? requesting Congress to enact legislation which will cause imported meat and meat products to beidentified as such to the ultimate consumer of such products. There being no objection, the resolu- tion was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: RESOLUTION REQUESTING ODNGRESS To ENACT LEGISLATION WHICH: WILL CAUSE IMPORTED .MEAT AND MEAT Pacoucrs To BE IDENTIFIED AS SUCH TO THE ULTIMATE CONSUMER OF SUCH PRODUCTS Whereas there has been much concernby the Congress and by the various States in regard to honesty in labeling; and Whereas the American housewife may have a preference in meat produced domestically. whether for reasons of taste or from a desire to assist in the economic betterment of the domestic producer; and Whereas these housewives or any other consumer should be entitled to know the origin of any meat or meat product she purchases; and Whereas it appears that attempts by States to identify these products is inconsistent with sound marketing procedures as well as U.S. trade; policies: Now, therefore, be it Resolved by the House of Representatives of the State of Minnesota, That the Congress of the United States be urged to enact legis- lation which would cause all meat and meat products imported into the United States to be identified as such to the ultimate con- sumer of those products so that they may be compared to domestic products by the con- sumer on. a fair and equitable basis; be it further Resolved, That the chief clerk of the house of represeiatatives send copies of this resolu- tion to all members of the Minnesota con- gressional delegation and to the U.S. Secre- tary of Agriculture. Adopted by the house of representatives this 5th day of may 1965. L. L. DUES-DRY, Jr., Speaker of the House of Representatives. G. H. LEANT, Chief Clerk, House of Representatives. THE YOUNGER GENERATION Mr. MUNDT. Mr. President, most of us have read, at one time or another, articles and stories indicating that to- day's younger generation of teenagers is heading penmeil toward destruction, or to use a description of an earlier day, "going to the dogs.'' Riots on a Florida beach make big news, for example. But I would submit that a beach riot?or worse, attacks by gangs of young hoodlums upon innocent citizens--are far from typical of today's younger generation who tomorrow will be our community and national leaders. For every wild youngster causing trou- ble in an Easter weekend riot, there are a hundred like him in church on that same Sunday, some attending services, others participating in the teaching of Sunday school, for example. For every punk wielding a knife in a subway, or running with a gang .on the city streets, we have dozens of dedicated young men wearing the uniform of our Approved For Release 005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 3TAT Approved For Release 2D05/O5/12 : IA-RDP671300446R000500120025-7 JSE I I 10281 U.S. AID AND SPECIAL FAVORS DO NOT STOP COMMUNISM (Mr. LANGEN (at the request of Mr. JOHNSON of Pennsylvania) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) Mr. LANGEN. Mr. Speaker, millions of dollars in U.S. aid and special favors to Dominican sugar interests failed to stop the onward march of communism in that small republic. United States dol- lars do not buy friends or guarantee sta- ble governments. I certainly supported the administra- tion stand on sending American troops to the Dominican Republic to protect American life and property. However, the basic mistakes were made over a pe- riod of years. These were mistakes that started at the Bay of Pigs and were com- pounded by mistakenly aimed foreign aid and economic trade concessions ever since. We never got at the basic cause of Communist subversion emanating from Castro's Cuba,. and now we are forced to join together in actions that should have been foreseen and prevented. While we purchased $265 million worth of sugar from the Dominican Republic over the past 3 years, the United States also spent over $280 for every family on that island. U.S. direct aid in grants and loans has totaled approximately $140 million since we again granted diplo- matic recognition to that country in early 1962 when the last remnants of the Tru- jillo regime were ousted. While we poured money and Peace Corps volun- teers into the country, the Communists concentrated on undermining the few gains that had been made. I would also like to point out the un- wise policies that were used in allotting a sugar quota to the Dominican Republic and how those policies added to the load carried by U.S. consumers and taxpayers in supporting that unstable Dominican Government. It is interesting to note that the average imports of Dominican sugar over the past 3 years is over 2,000 percent greater than it was 10 years ago, while our domestic sugarbeet growers are being asked to take a 6-percent re- duction in acreage this year. The Amer- ican farmer and taxpayer are paying the bill for the misguided effort to make the Dominican Republic the showplace of the Caribbean. Not only did it not be- come a showplace, except in U.S. mis- takes, but the American farmer who de- served and cried for increased sugar acreage found himself further mired at the bottom of the U.S. economic ladder. Sugar and the Dominican Republic constitutes only one of the many exam- ples to be noted in our misdirected for- eign policy. The extent to which highly paid lobbyists have effectively promoted foreign commodities in the Halls of Con- gress has been identified in the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearings of 2 years ago. I severely ques- tion the results of such transactions and pressurings when our efforts fail to halt subversion and succeed only in hurting American business and agriculture at the expense of the Nation's consumers and taxpayers. Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 Approved F r Release 2605/05/12 : CIA-RDP671300446R000500120025-7 6282 COD I recall my warnings of almost 3 years o during debate in the House of Repre- ntatives over the increase in the Do- inican sugar quota. It was called the oneybee bill, but our prediction of that day has been tragically proven that the !only honey was for lobbyists and foreign 'interests, with nothing but the sting left ' ;fpr the United States. I ,S7TTENDE MAI , . - (Mr. LANGEN (at the request of Mr. c 1 . Jomisort of Pennsylvania) was granted t Permission to extend his remarks at this I point in the RECORD and to include ex-? ( t traneous matter.) ?t t Mr. LANCrEN. Mr. Speaker, 151 years E o today the Norwegian Constitution 1 as adopted: It, like the Constitution t ?Of the United States, was destined to i live through years of stress and strain / , , only to' survive stronger than ever as a 1 1 representative of the free people. The i Similarity -does not stop there. The / proud Norwegians also fly a flag of red, r white, and blue. t Known to those of us with some Nor- s T, Wegian ancestral ties as "syttende mai"? 1 ,i, Independence Day in Norway claims the s i Same significance as our own Fourth of - July. The only difference, perhaps, is i ! that the Norwegians still celebrate it in I a somewhat more revered way. While it is a celebration of fun and ? merriment, it starts soberly in church. Norwegians are a religious people and many of us in this country received our firm religious background from those rigid traditions. The prayers for this day are of thank- fulness for deliverance from the evils that have threatened, but never conquered, these people. We recall the history of world turmoil that has seen Norway as- saulted in the 1930's and who struggled throughout World War II displaying un- matched courage in combat, working with the free underground. The deter- mined people of this comparatively small country struggled to reconstruct their homeland and emerged triumphant i once more. That banner of red, white, and blue waves this very day on the bor- der of the Communist empire as an em- ? blem of courage and determination. We in Minnesota, where a great num- ber of Americans of Norwegian ancestry live, have an even gerater tie with Nor- way In our history. It is believed that a mass defection from the Norse colonies in Greenland to the North American mainland in 1342 caused an expedition to be formed to search for the lost colo- nists, At least part of this expedition is known to have explored Hudson Bay, and a party of men were reported to have made their way from Hudson Bay to Minnesota by the direct and relatively easy route along the Nelson River, Lake Winnipeg, and the Red River of the North. The now-famous Kensington Runestone was discovered near Alexan- dria, Minn., and tells the story of a visit to the area in 1362 by a party of 22 Nor- wegians and 8 Goths. We, indeed, share pages in history with the Norwegians. Mr. Speaker, today we salute Norway on their Independence Day?a proud Approv d For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000$00120025-7 frfiiy 17, 1965 Approved For Release 2005105/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE 10363 ing at least for myself, and more than a majority of southern Senators who are opposed to this bill, we cannot enter into an agreement to vote at this time. Is suggested to the leadership that it might be agreeable for us to enter into a limitation of debate on the amend- ments to the bill in the hope that we might be able to obtain sufficient sup- port from Senators, which would at least remove the constitutional objections that we have been urging since the bill has been up for debate. Mr. President, this debate has lin- gered along without too much time taken by the opponents of the bill; but it seems to me that more time is spent by the proponents in an effort to obtain a meeting of the minds as to what ought to be included in the bill. With the new modification that was suggested this afternoon and the pro- posed amendment, I am merely judging that it is evident that the proponents have, ostensibly come together once again on the issue that gave them the most trouble. That was with respect to the poll tax. I have not been able to understand why the poll tax should have given so much trouble to the proponents of the bill. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, will the Senator yield to me, without losing his right to the floor? Mr. ELLENDER. Under those con- ditions I yield. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I suggest the absence of a quorum. The PRESIDING ?tenant. The clerk will call the roll. The legislative clerk proceeded to call the roll. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the order for the quorum call be rescinded. The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. HAR- RIS in the chair) . Without objection, it is so ordered. - APPOINTMENT BY THE VICE PRESI- DENT TO CANADA-UNITED STATES INTERPARLIAMENTARY GROUP The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. HAS- RIS in the chair) . The Chair wishes to announce, on. behalf of the Vice Presi- dent, the appointment of the Senator from Iowa [Mr. HICKENLOOPER7 as a member to the Eighth Canada-United States Interparliamentary Group, at Ot- tawa, Montreal, May 20-24, 1965, in lieu of the Senator from Wyoming [Mr. Smeson]. EXCISE TAX ON PASSENGER AUTOMOBILES Mr. McNAMARA. Mr. President, it was most pleasing to me to learn that President Johnson is asking the Congress to reduce the Federal excise tax on pas- senger cars from 10 to 5 percent over a 3-year period. Reform of the entire excise tax struc- ture is long overdue, and it is heartening to note that the President proposes a complete revision. On January 6, 1965, I introduced S. 255, a bill to reduce the Federal excise tax on passenger cars from 10 to 5 per- cent, over a 3-year period, beginning July 1, 1965. At that time, I said that it would be un- conscionable for any reform of our ex- cise tax system not to include a reduc- tion of the onerous 10 percent tax on new passenger cars, which is the only major excise tax that has not been changed since the Korean war. It is most gratifying to me that the President, in his message to the Con- gress today, is following the three-stage excise tax reduction first proposed in S. 255. I hope the Congress will act quickly and favorably on this recommendation, which should save the buyer of a new car about $75 on the purchase price. , The fact that the proposed excise reduc- tion would be retroactive means that it should not have a depressing effect on car sales while Congress is considering the matter. The auto industry has promised to pass on any reductions to the car-buyer. On only one point do I find myself in disagreement with the President. In his message, he recommends that the auto excise tax remain at 5 percent once that level is achieved. It has long been my position that this restrictive tax should be repealed and I will continue to work for that goal. SITUATION IN THE DOMINIOAN REPUBLIC Mr. SMATHERS. Mr nearly 3 weeks ago the cauldron of dis- content in the Dominican Republic boiled over. I am convinced more and more each day that only the U.S. prompt response to the new crisis on that bloody soil could have provided the basis for what we all hope and expect to be a meaningful peace through the auspices of the Organization Of American States. The mercurial events on the island of Hispaniola continue to present problems of vast magnitude?but they can be solved if all of the nations of the OAS give more than lip service to the respon- sibilities of an interdependent hemi- sphere. It has been said that nothing can stop an idea whose time has come. I re- spectfully suggest that the time has come to implement an idea which I have ad- vocated consistently since 1955?the es- tablishment of a permanent inter-Amer- ican police force. The concept of interdependency is one which we have long accepted in Europe. British Prime Minister Harold Wilson only recently acknowledged the impor- tance of NATO and the political-military solidarity of our allies in Europe. NATO has had its problems but it is a working, living force. In Asia, SEATO has been less viable but it cannot be dismissed. Even in South Vietnam, where at times we seem to have been carrying on a lonely if honorable campaign to save a nation from communism, we have recently been joined by our friends in Australia, South Korea, and the Philippines who recognize that democracy is not a closed shop. It was on January 21, 1955, that I first advocated the establishment of an inter- American police force to assure peace and stability in Latin America. This was long before Fidel Castro be- trayed the Cuban dream. Only a year before, however, Guatemala had under- gone turmoil and upheaval and it had become clear that laissez faire in the Americas was no longer possible. For it was evident that communism, like nature, abhors a vacuum. In my 16 years in the Senate, Mr. President, I have made more than 300 speeches on Latin America. Time and time again, I have emphasized that a commonality of responsibility required the establishment of a hemispheric patrol to police this part of the world so that people of the Americas could pursue their own destinies free from interna- tional conspiracy. Of course, the nations of this hemi- sphere had agreed in the Rio Treaty of 1947 that "an armed attack by any state against an American state shall be con- sidered as an attack against all the American states," and each of our coun- tries pledged to "assist in meeting the at- tack in the exercise of the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense recognized by article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations." That treaty attested to the integrity of the inter-American system. This was bolstered in 1948 by the act of Bogota, when 21 nations chartered the Organization of American States; in 1954, by the Caracas resolution?which prohibited Communist intervention in this hemisphere?by the Declaration of Punta del Este in 1962 and other acts. But most of these solemn and mean- ingful pacts called for consultative actions. NOne had yet created the "ready room" atmosphere that an international peace patrol could provide. Article 6 of the Rio Treaty, for in- stance, recognized that there could be an aggression without armed attack?yet called not for a standby emergency force but said only: The Organ of Consultation shall meet im- mediately in order to agree on the measures which must be taken. The Organization of American States Charter also called for consultation. Similarly, the Caracas agreement speci- fied a "meeting of consultation to con- sider adoption of appropriate action. In truth, each of these agreements gave an intellectual nod to the concept of subversion, but in reality organized to meet that threat largely on a parliamen- tary plane?the kind of basis which ac- commodates itself to the measured tramp of armies but not to the hidden terrorist. The OAS did provide a stable forum for the -discussion of hemispheric poli- cies. It continued to be the organiza- tion which, in the long run, will carry out the noble intentions of its members. But to do so requires implementation. In the Dominican crisis, the OAS? acting as swiftly as circumstances would allow?nevertheless took exactly 1 week to reach agreement on what to do in this situation. It has dispatched a peace Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP671300446R000500120025-7 Approved For Release 2005/05112: CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 10364 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE May 17, 1985 - Ments, resolutions, and sanctions in- voked. How many of us here recall that it was In July of 1960 that Russian Premier ichrushchev was blatant enough to say that he considered the Monroe Doctrine had "outlived its time, had died, so to say, a natural death." Thus managed from Moscow, Castro began to churn the Caribbean. From a point 90 miles off U.S. shores, within a few minutes air time from Santo Do- mingo, Castro began his attempt to sub- vert the hemisphere. Even then, however, there was purist sentiment for upholding to the letter article 15 of the OAS Charter?which prohibits intervention by any state in the Internal or external affairs of another. The Caracas agreement notwithstand- ing, there were those within the hemi- sphere who deemed a hands-off policy to be the highest order of political enlight- enment. Yet the Cuban threat magnified, re- pression grew, the link with Russia be- came more blatent. Mr. President, no man ever respected the integrity of the Americas more than our late President, John F. Kennedy. No man wanted more to work closely with the Organization of American States than he. Yet President Kennedy also knew the limitations of the OAS?and the burdens of the United States. He was well aware of article 15 of the OAS Charter. And yet he was also attuned to the magnitude of the Castro threat and de- termined that the United States would not, could not, allow it to remain. Because our President, agonized over the right and proper course for the friends of 'freedom, acting by rule of law, circumstances led us to the unfortunate Bay of Pigs invasion of 1961. It failed, and, afterward, President Kennedy stated: Let the record show that our restraint is not inexhaustible. Should it ever appear that the inter-American doctrine of non- interference merely conceals or excuses a policy of nonaction?if the nations of this hemisphere should fail to meet their com- mitments against outside Communist pene- tration?then I want it clearly understood that this Government will not hesitate in meeting its primary obligations, which are to the security of our Nation. Should that time ever come, we do not intend to be lectured on intervention by those who char- acter was stamped for all time on the bloody streets of Budapest. There came, in the ensuing months, the Declaration of Punta del Este and, it may be remembered, the congressional resolution of September 26, 1962, in which the Senate voted 86 to 1 to prevent "by whatever means may be necessary, including use of arms" the extension of the Marxist-Leninist regime in Cuba to any part of the hemisphere. But it was in the missile showdown of October 1962 that President Kennedy demonstrated that U.S. patience indeed had limits, and he acted with firmness and resolution and success. It was true that he consulted with the OAS, but, in the final analysis, it was the United States?with its great military force?which was acting as policeman commission and is making every effort within its present capabilities to restore domestic tranquillity. That is exactly what the United States of America wants the OAS to do, and what our allies of the hemisphere desire. Vice President HUBERT H. HUMPHREY, whom Latin Americans know to be sim- patico, said in a May 5 speech that the OAS must develop and maintain inter- national peace-keeping machinery, and warned jthat the days of "luxury and ease" for the OAS are gone. Again, Secretary of State Dean Rusk said in a May 8 interview with the As- sociated Press that it has become im- perative that the OAS consider estab- lishing a standby military force in order to be able to cape with contingencies that arise with speed and which present massive threats to the entire corpus of the hemisphere. In that regard, I would respectfully point out that some years ago I sug- gested an inter-American police force working under the Organization of American States would put an end to military takeovers that continue to raise the unpleasant specter of tyranny. In a speech on April 7, 1960, I pointed Mit that establishment of an inter- American security force would permit Latin American countries with tremen- dous internal problems of employment, housing and sanitation to spend less for national armies and more for badly needed social welfare programs. In turn, the establishment of domestic progress would mitigate against military juntas and in favor of true popular Government. In 1960, when I again advocated the international security force, I had just returned from a tour of 10 nations in Latin America. I reported to the Senate Commerce Committee, of which I was then a mem- ber, that in. the Caribbean, Panama was seething with unrest, Cuba was in the "grip of a bloody-handed leftist dicta- torship" and the people of the Dominican 's Republic, after 30 years of despotic rule, still lacked at that time the most ele- mentary aspects of political freedoms. Haiti was also struggling with abysmal poverty and a repressive government. "Clearly the fuse is burning very close to the bomb," I reported. At that time, there came the first in- dication that the State Department was studying the feasibility of an inter- American security force. Even then, the Dominican Republic looked to Fidel Castro like fertile ground for the 'export of communism. The ad- joining nation, after all, had gone through 22 revolutions in 70 years and had long been under the thumb of Rafael Trujillo. Among Castro's earliest acts was an attempt in 1959 to invade the Dominican Republic with an expeditionary force. But our national -attention turned from the Dominican Republic to Cuba Itself as Castro's link with Soviet com- munism became more and more obvious and threatening. During this period, the Organization of American States met many times. There were solemn discussions, agree- for the hemisphere in the Cuban mis- sile crisis. Today, once more, we stand in the Dominican Republic as a policeman?if that be intervention then I would recall the words of former Panamanian Presi- dent Roberto Chiari, who observed that if nonintervention is -carried to its most extreme interpretation it can condemn to continual and incurable oppression those peoples deprived by force of their legitimate quest for self-determination. But let us look at the timetable of events in the Dominican Republic to see exactly what the United States did. On April 24, a group of young Army officers and civilians seized two radio sta- tions and announced intention to topple the U.S.-supported junta of Donald Reid Cabral and restore Juan Bosch to power. By April 25, forces loyal to General Wessin y Wessin were resisting the rebels. _ The situation rapidly deteriorated. Arms were distributed by the rebels to the general populace. The streets be- came bloody lanes and effective govern- ment disappeared. As .armed bands roamed the streets, there was looting and burning. U.S. Ambassador W. Tapley Bennett tried in vain to restore. peace, but by April 28, the situation was so critical that he cabled President Johnson: You must land troops immediately. Lives of more than 1,000 'U.S. citizens in Santo Domingo were clearly threat- ened when, on the evening of April 28, President Johnson ordered 400 marines ashore. The President called in the leaders of Congress and he informed the Nation by television. The OAS was summoned to- gether the next day and?it is interesting to note?declined to send a mission to the Dominican Republic but instead cabled the Papal Nuncio at Santo Domingo and asked him to seek a cease fire. ? Subsequent events have indicated the U.S. action came when it was absolutely necessary to prevent an irreversible situation. We acted?because there was danger to our citizens, because there was sub- stantial evidence of Communists con- verting the rebellion to their own pur- poses---and because, in the final analysis, there was no one else to defend the in- tegrity of the hemisphere at that time and at that moment. As the President himself said to the National Association of Home Builders on May 11: We would rather that men quarrel with our actions to insure peace than curse us throUgh all eternity for inaction that might lose us both our peace and freedom. Many of our Latin American allies have voiced criticism of our action in the Dominican Republic?yet agree privately that it was a wise decision, consistent with hemispheric goals. I was in Panama 1 week ago, and my conversations there lead me to believe that there is broad individual support foe the U.S. role in the Dominican Re- public. Approved For Release 2005/05/12: CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120025-7 Mily 17, 1965 Hindsight, however, tells us that had we established the permanent interna- tional security force even 4 years ago, the technical question of intervention would not arise at this point?for each of the partners in this hemisphere would have been carrying his share of the responsi- bility. There is no better time than now to give the Organization of American States the power?which the United Nations al- ready has?to muster cooperative inter- national forces to keep the peace. I firmly believe such a force for the Americas must be permanent, that it must have the flexibility to respond to emergencies and to function as long as it is necessary to asure peace and stabil- ity consistent with the goals of self-de- termination. To paraphrase Santayaria, those who do not remember history are condemned to relive it. Mr. President, there have been a num- ber of editorial comments on the Domin- ican Re-public crisis that I believe are particularly cogent. I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD, a column writen by the noted commen- tator Eric Sevareid, which was published in the Washington Evening Star, for May 11, and excerpts from recent edi- torials in papers around the country. There being no objection, the material was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: THE MONROE DOCTRINE, 20TH CENTURY (By Eric Sevareid) President ATohnson ha., enlarged the war in southeast Asia by bombing the territory of a foreign government with which we are not legally at war and he has invaded the territory of a Latin American country without benefit of an invitation or even the prior approval of other hemisphere govern- ments in the Organization of American States. Domestic critics have said that he has made an ex post facto rationalization of the bombing by emphasizing that North Viet- nam is the vital source spring of the fighting In South Vietnam. Domestic critics now argue that he similarly rationalizes the Dominican intervention by emphasizing what evidence there is that Communists were tak- ing over the people's uprising. There are surface similarities between the two actions, but they remain on the surface. They need not and ought not be lumped together by the President's detractors or by his supporters. Critics of his Asian policy may well turn out to be wrong in the end, but there are much stronger grounds for this criticism than for criticism of his action In the Dominican Republic. Vietnam lies very far away from the United States and very close to a major power that just might enter that war. The Dominican Republic lies very close to us, very far from any other great power and carries no danger of inter- national war. What deeply puzzles those who are dubious of our Vietnam policies is how we are to make a "victory" there work over the long haul, how that area, riven by tribal and sectarian rivalries, with almoet no national consciowneSS, is to be kept stable and in one piece. The Dominican Republic is far more able to usefully employ economic as- assistance and does have a strong national sense, however bitter its class enmities. Our aims there have much more chance of realization. The OAS is a useful entity; we ought to consult it before we aet if circumstances Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE 10365 make it safe to do so. In the Dominican situation affairs were moving much too rapidly, as, in 1950, the North Koreans were moving much too rapidly for President Tru- man to throw out the question of American Intervention for congressional debate. It would be very nice, indeed, if we could always act by the book. But we cannot al- ways do so in this new era of the quick Communist coup. We cannot because no Latin American government is politically or military able to act quickly in concert with us. If it is not too strong a word, that is the hypocrisy built into the Organization of American States. Its other members can share its protection; they will not, because they cannot, share the ultimate responsi- bility of action. The New York Times, which President Johnson privately refers to as a "yes?but" newspaper, seems to be sad that because of his quick intervention we will never know whether or not the Dominican uprising was falling into the hands of the Communists or not. There are worse sorrows, as Castro has demonstrated to us. The Dominican Republic is not going to be the last of our dramatic difficulties -in this hemisphere, even though the President has used it as an example of what to expect, for the benefit of Latin Communists. And we will save ourselves a great deal of moral and intellectual agony as the future unfolds if only we can clear from our minds certain bits of debris: 1. The notion that the development work of the "Alianza" is the true alternative to physical action to stop communism. In the long, long haul?perhaps several de- cades?this is probably correct, but Commu- nists in those countries are lighting very short fuses, 2. The notion that all military regimes in Latin America are equally bad. The truth is that in some Latin countries educated, modern military leaders are quite as enlight- ened and responsible as their political op- posite numbers. We simply cannot equate the military now trying to put order into Brazil or the military who took over Peru and produced the free election they had pledged with military characters like a Tru- jillo or a Batista. Progress without stability is an impossibility and the bitter truth is that in some Latin countries there are times when the sole element of stability is the mili- tary. S. The notion that the United States is ' reverting to the "big stick," gunboat diplo- macy that characterized the earlier third of this century. We are not. There is nothing in Latin America that we want to conquer or possess; and we no longer swing our weight for any pleasureable sensations of fancied moral or racial superiority. Times have changed in another respect: we are now up against an international conspiracy that seeks to unravel from within societies that do not possess the social glue that comes from a long tradition of functioning democracy. It is a fearful commitment the President has made. We shall prevent, by force if nec- essary, the establishment of another Com- munist regime in this hemisphere. It is the Monroe Doctrine, 20th century edition, harder to fulfill than the original version, but even more relevant to the realities. ? Boston Globe: "The Soviet Union's attack on the United States in the U.N. Security Council will presumably center on the charge that our intervention in the Domini- can civil war was only a pretext for establish- ing a rightist dictatorship there. "This of course is not true. Sending in the marines was a necessary act of humani- tarianism, as the harrowing stories of these evacuated attest. "It is undoubted that Castroite Commu- nists are seeking to take over the revolution." Atlanta Constitution: "The use of U.S. military forces in Dominica was a grave move. It required careful and deliberate courage to make that decision. Mr. Johnson made it and in so doing demonstrated prudent lead- ership?the kind of leadership we need in today's world." Boston Traveler: "The United States need make no apology for sending troops into Santo Domingo to protect American lives when local authority broke down there." New York Post: "President Johnson's ad- dress last night on the U.S. role in the Do- minican crisis exhibited a sensitive concern for the decent opinion of mankind. "Franklin Delano Roosevelt faced a simi- lar Caribbean challenge in the first days of his Presidency when the Machado dictorship was overthrown in Cuba. He surrounded the island with warships and mobilized the marines but he knew the day of single- handed intervention was over. Instead of landing the marines he moved toward a policy that made hemispheric peace and se- curity the joint concern of the whole con- tinent. A similar challenge and opportunity Still confront Mr. Johnson." Daily Oklahoman: "The U.S. intervention in the Dominican Republic rebellion sud- denly has become a key test in the entire cold war. "The policy upon which we have embarked Is to say that there will be no more Castro- type takeovers. Our justification can be that if our intervention is a mistake; that can be rectified later, whereas a Red take- over precludes any later change by peaceful means." Dallas News: "In President Johnson's re- cent report to the Nation on the situation in the Dominican Republic he laid it on the line. To the Communists he gave notice that this hemisphere in general and this country in particular do not intend to see another neighbor nation enslaved by the Red colonialists: "To the many demagogs around the world who have gained political capital by Inciting violence against American lives and property he gave clear warning that such ac- tivities can no longer be launched in the certainty that the U.S. Government will not protect its own. "Lyndon Baines Johnson is no great orator but he is a very effective speaker because his word are blueprints for action. We know it and the world is learning." Philadelphia Inquirer: "Joint action by nations of the Western Hemisphere, utilizing the administrative and diplomatic machinery of the Organization of American States, offers the best hope of resolving the crisis in the Dominican Republic. "As President Johnson said in his televised report to the American people Sunday night, 'We have acted to summon the resources of this entire hemisphere to this task.' He de- fended his decision to send U.S. troops to the Dominican Republic, without waiting for OAS action, on humanitarian grounds. 'I knew there was no time to talk, to consult or to delay,' the President emphasized. To have hesitated would have been to condemn count- less men and women to 'die in the streets.' "The peril in the Dominican Republic is precisely the kind of crisis in which the Or- ganization of American States is solemnly pledged to respond. Such response should have solid support from the United States and other OAS members and should be suffi- ciently firm to assure both peace and freedom for the Dominican people within a framework of self-government free of foreign dictation from any quarters." Memphis Commercial Appeal: "Use of American troops in the Dominican Republic, and President Johnson's words giving justifi- cations to that act, will make history. "More than that they will provide guide- lines for U.S. policy for untold years to come. Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 10366 CONbRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE "Lyndon B. Johnson has enunciated what must inevitably become known as the John- son doctrine. While the immediate purpose, of this doctrine is to prevent Communist en- croachment, the broad terms are amazingly consistent with the Monroe Doctrine of 1823. The Johnson doctrine, like its precedent, Is not aggressive. It does not infringe on the independence or sovereignty of any other American state. It does not make protec- torates of them. It invites change?even revolution?if the impetus for change is in- ternal. "But Mr. Johnson identified communism for what it is?an outside force aimed at dic- tatorship. And the Johnson doctrine is very plainly an enforcement of U.S. and hemis- pheric interests against a real and present danger to hemispheric peace and security.." Houston Post: "That trained Communist leaders moved in and took control of what started as a pro-Boche revolution in the Dominican Republic, the suspicion confirmed by President Johnsen sunday night, should have surprised nobody. "Consistent Communist policy and strategy required that they do this. So did the logic of the current international situation. In any case, it was too good an opportunity for them to pass up. "President Truman net his test in Europe and Korea. President Eisenhower met his principally in the Formosa Straits and the Middle East. President Kennedy met his in Cuba and in southeast Asia, and when he showed he was willing to risk a nuclear holocaust the Communists again paused. "President Johnson is now undergoing his test, and in some ways the assault upon him is more virulent, more intense, and more savage than that against his predecessors in office, An.y show of weakness, irresolution or indeciveness would, q course, be exploited by the Communists to the maximum. How long it will take to convince the Communist leadership that he is just as tough, firm and resolute as his predecessors in office re- mains to be seen. , "In the Dominican Republic no less than in Vietnam and Laos, President Johnson has met the Communist test or challenge with firm, positive and unflinching action. If the Communists have not by now got the answer to their question of what they can hope to get away with while he is in the White House, they are really rather dense." Portland Oregonian : "The American people should support President Johnson's decision to use military force as well as -diplomatic negotiations to prevent the estab- lishment of another Communist government in the Western Henalsphere." Mr. SMATHER,S. ,Mr. President, re- cently, the able and distinguished Sen- ator from Oklahoma iMr. HARRIS] made an enlightening and Informative speech at the State convention of the Okla- homa Jxmior Chamber of Commerce at Tulsa, Okla., on the Dominican Republic crisis in support of the position of our President on the action he has taken to contain communism in this hemisphere. I am certainly in accord with the views Which the Senator from. Oklahoma has etpressed, and believe that he has made a great contribution toward enlightening the American people on the existing situation. The speech is one which I believe should receive the full attention of every Member of Congress, and I therefore ask unanimous consent that the speech de- livered by the Senator from Oklahoma be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the speech was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: SPEECH OF U.S. SENATOR FRED R. HARRIS .TO OKLAHOMA JUNIOR CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, AT THEIR STATE CONVENT/ON, SATURDAY, 'MAY 8, TULSA, OKLA. The Dominican Republic occupies a part of a =all Caribbean island near our shores. It is a country of only 31/2 million people with an area comparable to the little State of Connecticut. Yet, today, the situation in that tiny coun- try and the actions our Government has taken there have great impact on all our Lives, and, perhaps, the future peace and se- curity of this hemisphere. The prompt action of President Johnson In sending troops into the Dominican Re- public to protect the lives of American na- tionals, and, particularly, to prevent the es- tablishment of another Communist country in this hemisphere establishes, in effect, a new, policy doctrine. So far, only one critic, the representative of Uruguay to the Security Council of the United Nations, has given that new policy a name. Last Tuesday in a speech before the Security Council, calling for the removal of American troops from the Dominican Repub- lic, the representative of Uruguay called the new policy "the Johnson doctrine." I believe it will come to be called that, admiringly, by those who are in agreement with the policy. It will come to be recog- nized as an important elaboration and ex- tension of the Monroe Doctrine. I supported the action of President John- son in sending troops to the Dominican Re- public to protect the lives of our citizens and to prevent Communist takeover of that country. ? In the age of the ICBM and the communi- cations satellite, it can truly be said that every part of the world is of immediate and vital strategic interest to the United States. Yet it is as true today as it has ever been that there are some areas in which this- Na- tion has a deeper inherent concern than it may have in other parts of the world. Such an area is our own immediate neighbor- hood?the Western Hemisphere. We are linked to the people of this hemisphere by many bonds. Like us, their nations are rela- tive newcomers to the world scene. Like us, they have fought, and fought hard and long, to secure, and then to maintain their na- tional independence, although they have faced difficulties in marshaling their total resources to the task of raising the standards of living of their peoples. It is the tragedy of this hemisphere?a tragedy which we feel, and in which we have not been entirely blameless?that the hopes of this proud and freedom-loving people have Dot been fully realized, even to this day. In past years, this Nation has, too often, looked upon Latin America as an area in which our basic interests gave us the right to intervene Cu their internal affairs in order that they "might be arranged to suit our convenience Or transient wishes. That era is behind us, now. It is behind us forever. The day has gone when the United States, with all its power and might, eau casually or for light reasons, attempt to dictate its will to the people of this hemi- sphere. We are no longer?if ever we were? the landlord of the Western Hemisphere. We are, and we hope to remain, the partner of a group of sovereign nations?a group whose objectives, I hope and believe, will usually be in accord with ours?but a group whose friendship we will have earned and Whose cooperation will come freely from the =coerced recognition of a community of interest. In the early years of this century, the United States thought itself free to occupy ffie Dominican Republic, to order events there in line with our own ideas?and free to save when our objectives were achieved, without giving much thought to the after- math. May 17, 1g6'5 . - The aftermath of that American occupa- tion was one which stands forever to the discredit of the United States, and one which We cannot lightly dismiss from our - - conscien.ce. iear, of course, to the bloody and incredibly repressive dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo?a dictatorship which made the Dominican Republic a prison for its people and an affront "to the hopes and aspi- rationt of Americans of all of the American republics. Today American troops are again in the Dominican Republic. But today they are there with a far different mission, and we stand obligated to see that the results of our necessary intervention are of a totally dif- ferent order than was the case 30 years ago. In the words of President Johnson: "It is our mutual responsibility to help the people of the Dominican Republic toward the clay when they can freely choose the path of liberty and justice and progress. This is required of us by the agreements that we are party to and that we have signed. This is required of us by the values which bind Us together." The choices which suddenly confronted the Government of the United States less than 2 weeks ago, were agonizing ones. There were no easy alternatives, and few simple black-and-white conclusions. The democratic government which the Domini-. can people had established after the death of Trujillo had long since vanished, a victim partly of its own inadequacies, partly of some of the tragic legacies of the Republic's long night of dictatorship. An effort to over- throw the military junta that had replaced Juan Bosch had begun, and between the many groups that sought to direct this revo- lution and the efforts of others to prevent it, effective government collapsed in the streets of Santo Domingo. For .several days, the United States and other 'American governments watched the events in the Dominican Republic with great care. No one in our Government viewed lightly the possibility of American interven- tion. If the Dominican people had been able to order their own affairs, to secure and safe- guard the free, democratic constitutional government which they sought, we would, in my judgment not have intervened. But the people of the Dominican Republic were not to be allowed to have that simple choice. Trai:ned, dedicated Communist leaders?a number of whom have now been clearly identified?sought to take advantage of the situation and to turn the legitimate desires of the Dominican people to the service of the purposes of those who would establish a Communist dictatorshtp on that island. Our Ambassador had made a complete re- port concerning the facts of the new direc- tion in the revolution brought about by Communist leaders moving into positions of rebel strength and influence. Among the rebel forces, and playing an important role in organizing the mobs, are 55 identified, prominent Communists and leaders. They include 18 persons known, or reliably reported, to have been trained in subversive and paramilitary tac- tics by the Cuban Intelligence Service or Other similar Communist organizations. The balance of the Communist leaders there have been reliably and clearly identified over the past years as Communist and Castroist subversives. It became probable, and was so reported, that if the rebels were successful in taking over the government, the Dominican Repub- lic would shortly become a Communist state. This government, and all the free govern- ments of the Americas, have learned the hard, dangerous way, that we cannot suffer the establishment of another Communist dictatorship in this hemisphere. We have learned that as contrary to the spirit of the American Republics as military juntas may be, they represent a danger less immediate, Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 My' 17, 1965 less mortal, than allowing another beach- head for the Communist movement in this part of the world. In 1958 and 1959 and 1960, we allowed One such beachhead to be established in Cuba and become a source of mortal peril for all of us. The world was brought, in October 1962, closer to the brink of the ultimate war by that faCt than we ever hope to come again. As the efforts of the junta and the revolu- tionaries to seize power in the Dominican Republi6 teetered back and forth, order van- isted. On Wednesday, April 28, the chief of police in Santo Domingo advised the Ameri- can Ambassador that he could no longer guarantee the safety .of the Embassy or of the thousands of Americans and other for- eigners present on the island'. At that criti- cal juncture, the President of the United States, alone in the awesome responsibility which that office imposes upon its incum- bent, had to make a decision. As he has himself said, delay itself would have been a decision?"a decision to risk and to lose the lives of thousands of Americans a,and thousands of innocent people from all lands." His decision was unavoidable, and his promptness in making it may have been the reason that thousands of American 'homes are not today mourning the death of a loved one. He ordered American forces into this chaotic situation in order to save American lives. This they have done. And they have succeeded magnificently. It was, indeed, unfortunate, as our Ambas- sador to the Organization of American States made clear, that there was not in be- ing some peacekeeping force under the au- thority of the Organization of American States which could have been sent in to the Dominican Republic instead of U.S. forces alone. The responsibilities in the situation, there- fore, became apparent for the United States. Having taken action, we notified the Or- ganization of American States as rapidly as possible and asked them to take responsibil- ity for the peacekeeping operation. Our suggestion has now been approved. In early morning hours of last Friday, after lengthy debate, by a vote of 14 to 5, with 1 abstention, the Organization of American States decided to take responsibility for keeping the peace in the Dominican Repub- lic and to send in troops from the member nations for this purpose. It is hoped that when the military situation has been stab- ilized and peace restored, the Organization of American States within a year will be able to supervise free and open elections for the reestablishment of a democratic, responsible government in that troubled island, As a member of the Senate Subcommittee on National Security and International Op- erations, I believe the action of the Orga- nization of American States setting up for the first time a peacekeeping force to fill a power vacuum in a Latin American country, to bring about stability and peace and to prevent a Communist takeover is, in itself, a real advance in Latin American affairs. Hopefully, this collective action will set a pat- tern for the future of working together to Insure the security and independence of Latin American countries. America's action in the Dominican Repub- lic has brought sharp criticism from many areas throughout Latin America and may have given some additional impetus for the moment to Castro's anti-American offensive Wherein he has Most recently joined with others In calling our actions "gunboat di- plomacy." This was the risk our Government had to take, because the other alternative was much worse. In the long run, allowing the estab- lishment of a new Communist country in Latin America would have given far more Approved For Release 2005/05/12: CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE 10367 No. as-2o impetus to communism and Castro, and the critics of the hour would have been far out- weighed by the criticisms of history. It is not the policy of this Government to dictate to the Dominican people the kind of a government they shall have. It is most emphatically not the purpose of the United States to shape the future of the Dominican Republic. And it is not the policy of this Government to allow agents of the Commu- nist conspiracy to deny to the Dominican people their liberties and their hopes for progress and stability. Most of the beginning revolutionaries, as newspaper accounts have made quite clear, and as our Government is fully aware, were not Communists or Communist sympathiz- ers. On the contrary, most were motivated by hopes for a constitutional and democratic system under which their country could fol- low the quest for justice and progress? under which their fellow citizens could be free to hold and to voice their free judg- ments about their country's government. Most of them were probably as bitterly opposed to a dictatorship of the left as they are to a dictatorship of the right?more bit- terly opposed because a dictatorship of the Communist stripe would have the interna- tional support of other Communist coun- tries. Many of the more moderate revolution- aries soon recognized the increasing danger of a Communist takeover of the revolution and took refuge in foreign embassies. It was to protect them, as well as to protect Ameri- cans and other foreigners, that American troops are in the Dominican Republic. But having gone in?having moved to pre- vent the betrayal of the Dominican revolu- tion into the hands of the Communists?the United States and the other Republics of the hemisphere have a continuing responsi- bility there. We cannot now wash our hands of the Dominican Republic, and leave their liberties in the streets fOr the first opportun- ist to pick up. President Johnson has stated our long- range hopes for this freedom-loving people most eloquently, Let me quote from him: "The road is open to you to share in build- ing a Dominican democracy and we in Amer- ica are ready and anxious and willing to help you. Your courage and your dedication are qualities which your country and all the hemisphere need for the future. You are needed to help shape that future. And neither we nor any other nation in this hemisphere can or should take upon itself to ever interfere with the affairs of your country or any other country. We believe that change comes and we are glad it does and it should come through peaceful process. But revolution in any country is a matter for that country to deal with. It becomes a matter calling for hemisphere action only? repeat only?when the object is the estab- lishment of a Communist dictatorship." This latter statement is, I believe, the an- nouncement of a new policy, or doctrine, which this country, hopefully with the aid of the Organization of American States, must firmly follow in the future as firmly as it has been announced. We seek only peace and self-determination for the peoples of the Dominican Republic and of Latin America. We do not seek domi- nation or dominion. Again, the President has made this clear. He said: "The form and the nature of the free Do- minican Government is, I assure you, solely a matter for the Dominican people, but we do know what kind of government we hope to see in the Dominican Republic. For that is carefully spelled out in the treaties and the agreements which make up the fabric of the Inter-American system. It is expressed, time and time again, in the words of our states- men and the values and hopes which bind us all together. "We hope to see a government freely chosen by the will of all the people. "We hope -to see a government dedicated to social justice for every citizen. "We hope to see a government working, every hour of every day, to feeding the hungry, to educating the ignorant, to heal- ing the sick?a government whose only con- cern is the progress and the elevation and the welfare of all the people." In these words of the President of the United States there is a prescription, not for the discredited techniques of so-called gun- boat diplomacy, not for the condescension and proprietary attitude which once tar- nished our country's image in this, our im- mediate neighborhood, but for a policy in which the combined power of all the Ameri- cas?military power where necessary, eco- nomic power, and above all, moral power, will be utilized to preserve freedom and to' encourage progress, and to seek justice for all Americans and for all the Americas. Mr. HARRIS. Mr. President, will the Senator from Florida yield? The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. HART in the chair). Does the Senator from Florida yield to the Senator from Okla- homa? Mr. SM.ATHERS. I yield. Mr. HARRIS. I am pleased that I was in the Chamber to hear the remarks made by the distinguished Senator from Florida on the situation in the Domin- ican Republic, as I was a few weeks ago when he spoke so lucidly on the same subject in a speech which was partly the inspiration for the one I made in Tulsa, Okla., which the Senator has been so kind as to have printed in the RECORD. I compliment the Senator fxom Flor- ida on his statement today, and for the statements he has made concerning the situation in Latin America, and particu- larly in the Dominican Republic. Mr. SMATHERS. I am grateful to the Senator for his statements. SENATOR CHURCH'S VIEWS ON VIETNAM Mr. CLARK Mr. President, Senator CHURCH has been one of the most out- spoken public figures in advocating thoughtful consideration and debate about American objectives in Vietnam. On April 22, I inserted an article by the Senator from Idaho [Mr. CHURCH], en- titled "We Should Negotiate a Settle- ment in Vietnam," in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD. Several editorials have ap- peared recently commending Senator CHURCH for speaking out on Vietnam. I ask unanimous consent to have two of these editorials inserted at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the edito- rials were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [Prom the Idaho Observer, Apr. 15,19651 PRESIDENT "GOES TO CHURCH" IN VIETNAM President Johnson's diplomatic "escala- tion" of the war in Vietnam has brightened the prospect of a political solution short of the full-scale ground war toward which the United States was headed a few short weeks ago, and it has thereby placed the United States on stronger ground in southeast Asia. But it may not be enough to avert a debacle. Approved For Release 2005/05/12: CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 Approved For Release; 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP671300446R000500120025-7 10368 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE M ay 17, 1*65 In stating for the first time that the Unitei States attaches no preconditions to negotia- tion with Hanoi or Peiping, the President moved the Vietnamese dispute toward thi conference table, where we have some chime 3 of improving our position, and away from thi, battlefield, where our prospects are slim in. deed. The question now is whether thi Communists will choose to risk at the con. ference table the advantage we have given them in the field. In holding forth his offer of economic aid to develop all of southeast Asia, the Pres17, dent put our policy in perspective once again, reminding the world, and perhaps also hit countrymen, of the constructive purpose which, after all, underlies our presence irc Vietnam. Our military ventures in recen weeks have all but obscured that purpose and at times have seemed to replace it Whether or not the Communists may elect. to join us in this enterprise, the President'k plan offers the only sound route toward the political stability arid independence which should be our objective in southeast Asia The President has turned in the right direction, but he may not have gone far enough. The conference doqr has been opened, but the Communists are nnlikely to enter so long as the U.S. bombings of North Vietnam con- tinue to vindicate the Communist cause, to cement their inner antagonisms and to goad them toward a massive military response with which we would be hard put to deal. The economic door has been opened, but little will come of that until the United States begins to put its full weight into the long, hard, and expensive undertaking. The political door has been opened, but the U.S. public, still largely deluded by the vain - quest for a final military answer, must yet _ learn to live with compromise and accom- modation. U.S. policymakers still must grope their wax, toward a workable and enforce- able political arrangement which will safe- guard our interests, as well as the interests Of others, in southeast Asia, This will be no easy task. But a start has been made. Perhaps he did so too late, but the President at last has put his seal of approval on a policy which Makes sense. It is essentially the same pol- icy for which others, including Idaho's Sena- tor PRANK CHURCH, have been denounced as heretics because they had the foresight to grasp it earlier and the courage to speak up for it. S.H.D. [Prom the Emmett (Idaho) Messenger- Index, Apr 15,19651 VOICE OF ,DISSENT One measure of democracy's strength is the freedom of its citizens to speak out?to dissent from the popular view. So says a footnote to the Saturday Evening Post's biweekly feature, "Speaking Cart," and it is a truism that can never be overem- phasized in a society where conformity is at once Its strength and its greatest weakness. In the April 24 issue of the Post, Idaho's senior Senator FRANK ,CHURCH pursues his conviction that "we should negotiate a set- tlement in Vietnam." Ie marshals powerful logic to support the view that our deepening Involvement in the Vietnam war will have the ultimate effect of extending Communist China's influence through southeast Asia. The Senator contends that steadily in- creasing strikes to the north can only drive North Vietnam into, Peiping's arms, which it now loathes, and may eventually bring Chinese armies in a ICora-type war involving tens or hundreds of thousands of casualties instead of hundreds. He says only the South Vietnam people themselves can win or lose what essentially Is a civil war, and that although we have ' invested some prestige there, the struggle 1 by no stretch of the imagination can threaten the life of our country. The article merits thoughtful and careful reading. In the Vietnam matter, Senator Clinnictr has no illusions about his being the voice of dissent. Be knows that the popular view does not now support his deeply held convic- tions, and rumor has if that his speaking out has brought down on his head the wrath of the President. History may never record with certainty whether Senator CHURCH is right or wrong, for the sweep of events, in whatever direction they take, invariably find their own rational- ization and?their own justification. The schoolboy can find no indictment in the history books. If American policy ever has been misguided or shortsighted, the lone voices that rose in timely dissent have long since been muted and lost to all but the careful scholar. But this is not to say that timely dis- sent is without influence. It often speaks with greater power than the bland voice of popular conformity, for it speaks from the deep force of conviction that conform- ity often finds missing. It already has become apparent that Sen- ator CHURCH'S voice of dissent has exerted powerful influence over national policy. In his recent "unconditional discussions" speech, the President has adopted a position advocated by Senator CHURCH all along, Whether or not L.B.J. is willing to concede any credit to P.C. It is likely, indeed, that in his courage to speak out strongly with a minority view, FRANK CHURCH has done more than any man In the United States, including the Presi- dent, to clarify our perspective of the com- plex entanglement in Vietnam. If because of this the President is dis- pleased with Senator CHURCH, it is a dis- credit to the President and not to the senior Senator from Idaho. A man whose integrity clings to fully con- sidered convictions in the face of majority Opposition is a man of great courage. If at the same time he speaks out in reasoned dissent, he influences the headlong and some- times heedless rush of history. Senator CHURCH'S dissent already is vin- dicated. Time might well prove that his lone voice has been a critical factor in turning America away from disaster. And time also might show that if the ,Senator remains steadfast, the Presidential displeasure will be transformed into greater .respect and admiration. Mr. CLARK. My own view is that the Senator from Idaho has had a very real influence in the modification of our _foreign policy in, Vietnam. I commend him for his earnest efforts in the cause of peace. HENRY J. TASCA NAMED AS AM- BASSADOR TO MOROCCO Mr. CLARK. Mr. President, I am happy to call to the attention of the Sen- ate the fact that President Johnson has appointed Henry J. Tasca, of Philadel- phia, to be our Ambassador to Morocco. Mr. Tasca is a loyal alumnus of South Philadelphia High School, and attended Temple University, the University of Pennsylvania, and the London School of Economics. It is greatly to Mr. Tasca's credit to note that this 11th of 11 children is the ion of an immigrant tailor who came to Philadelphia from the Umbrian region 3f Italy many years ago. _ I am happy indeed to note the fine ,Iareer of this distinguished Philadel- ' phian; and I ask unanimous consent that an article published in the Philadelphia Sunday Bulletin for April 25, 1965, be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was Ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: Naw Exvoy To MOROCCO IS LOYAL SOUTH PHILADELPHIA GRADUATE (By Anthony Day, Bulletin Washington bureau) WASHINGTON, April 24.?The career diplo- mat President Johnson has chosen to he his new Ambassador to Morocco is a passionately loyal alumnus of South Philadelphia High School. It was at the school (class of 1930) that the President's nominee, Henry J. Tasca, the .11th of an immigrant tailor's 11 children, learned 3 elements of a diplomat's educa- tion: Languages, chess, and democracy. He later studied economics at Temple University, the University of Pennsylvania and, the London School of Economics. Add to this acquired knowledge a natural talent for persuasive reasoning, a vigorous consti- tution, imposing looks and a gentle manner, and you have the formula that made a sue- cesf ul diplomat of a poor boy from South Philadelphia. ? TRIBUTE TO AMERICA Tasca, 52, is unabashedly proud of his rise from an obscure origin to a high rank in the foreign service of the United States. He is now 'Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs. He expects to go to Rabat, Morocco, in about 6 weeks, after the Senate confirms his appointment as Ambassador. "It is a great tribute to America that the son of an immigrant can go as an Ambas- sador to an important country," he said yes- terday.lasc was born in Providence, R.I. His father, Julius, and his mother, Philomena, came to the United States in the 1880's from the Adriatic coast of Italy across the penin- sula from Rome. LIVED ON SOUTH 17TH STREET Julius Tasca brought his family to Phila- delphia when Henry Tasca was 7. They settled in a house at 1820 South 17th Street, and lived there during most of the Tasca's boyhood. Several brothers and sisters still live in the Philadelphia area. The father died when Henry Tasca was 11. The boy went to Vare Junior High School, then to South Philadelphia High. Summers he worked, part of the time he cut cloth, at a clothing factory near 7th and Arch Streets. At the big high school?it was the old building?Tasca excelled in Latin, winning a gold medal for his excellence in the lan- guage.. (Now he is fluent in German, French, and Italian.) As for chess--"I think chess is a great thing for any diplomat," he said. "Just as in chess,, there is much in diplomacy that de- mands a very clear notion of consequences. You have to look ahead." ? SOUTH PHILL 1' DEMOCRACY Thel South Philadelphia variety of demon- racy has Tasca's total allegiance. "It was a great time, a wonderful time," he said as he recalled how the student body was a har- monious mixture of many nationalities. "We. Americans are made in our junior high schools and high schools," he said. "Other people- do not understand us until they understand that. We learn in our schools that we've got to be fair. We learn to live together." After obtaining advanced degrees?and publishing two books on international trade?'Tasca spent the war years in the Navy as an economic specialist in U.S. mili- tary government. He played an important part ft establishing European monetary pol- Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 Approved For Release 2005/05/12: CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 A2420 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD APPENDIX May 17, 1965 No nation offers its citizens more of an op- portunity to advance on economic, political, social, and cultural levels than does ours. Every American within and without this Chamber has a duty to strengthen and im- prove our institutions and to protect the free- dom of body and mind that gave birth to them. One hundred years ago Walt Whitman wrote: "The United States themselves are es- sentially the greatest poem. Here at last is something in the doings of man that cor- responds to the broadest doings of the day and night." Let us look forward to tomorrow with hope, clarity of purpose and new dedication. The years ahead are fraught with danger. We not only have the menace of Communist arms and subversion; but domestic unemployment, poverty, disease, and inequality of opportu- nity. But I, like you, believe that the United States themselves are essentially the greatest poem. I believe we can overcome the ob- stacles in our path. I believe our Government is consecrated to serve the will of the people. We must act with courage?not sit transfixed by fear. We must regard the past without regret; we must contemplate the future with- out alarm. America is on the move, and all of us as citizens, as Democrats, are obliged to serve he Our Stand in the Dominican Republic EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. CLAIR CALLAN OF NEBRASKA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, May 17, 1965 Mr. CALLAN. Mr. Speaker, the edi- tors of our Nation's newspapers have been almost unanimous in backing the policies of President Johnson in his stand against communism in the West- ern Hemisphere. As so many papers have noted, we can- not tolerate another Castro in our own backyard. President Johnson's bold and decisive leadership to the Dominican Republic crisis merits the praise of all Americans. As the May 5 editorial in the Rochester Times-Union pointed out, "Uncle Sam is standing straighter," because of the President's actions. The Omaha World-Herald, another of the Nation's outstanding newspapers, re- pelated the President's announced rea- sons for sending troops to the Dominican island. The United States is there to protect lives and to stop the spread of Communist aggression. In the long run, peace and freedom owe a debt of gratitude to President Johnson for his timely action. Mr. Speaker, at this tithe, I ask consent to include in the RECORD the editorials from the Omaha World-Herald and the Rochester Times-Union. [From the Omaha (Nebr.) World-Herald May 4, 1965] ON WITH THE JOB President Johnson summed up the reason for the presence of U.S. troops in the Do- minican Republic in one sentence Sunday night: "Our goal is to help prevent another Com- munist state in this hemisphere, and we would like to do this without extensive bloodshed." The address was an impressive account of the President's reasons for the actions he has taken since the Dominican crisis began, and an equally impressive declaration of our country's intentions. The decision to intervene in the Domini- can fighting came because of the immediate threat to the lives of Americans and other foreigners in Santo Domingo. As the revo- lution disintegrated into apparent anarchy, the original rebels were "superseded by evil forces." The Communists saw a chance to create more disorder and seize control, the President said, and he added: "The American nations cannot, must not and will not permit the establishment of another Communist government in the West- ern Hemisphere." Mr. Johnson chose to act first and then to invoke the official machinery of the Organi- zation of American States to ratify his de- cision. There is good reason to hope that his forthrightness in facing up to what he termed "violence and terror and interna- tional conspiracy" will serve to rally support in Latin America. But if events should prove otherwise, if our Central and South American allies should fail to cooperate in the effort to prevent the establishment of another Communist regime in the Americas, President Johnson indicated that he is fully determined to go it alone. That determination was apparent in the concluding paragraph of his report when he said that, come what may, the American people will not be "buried" by their Com- munist enemy. If the Communist bosses were looking for a sign of weakness, they did not find it in the President's words. This time the United States has met a Communist-precipitated crisis head on, with- out hesitation that might be mistaken for timidity, and without any hint of appease- ment. The President underscored his strong words by ordering more troops into the city of Santo Domingo, not only to evacuate American civilians and others, but to dis- tribute food and medicine, and to bury the dead. "We must get on with the job immedi- ately," said the President. Clearly this "job" is no mere rescue opera- tion for American citizens in danger. It is an operation to rescue another American nation from communism, to pre- vent another Castro-type takeover. The President's prompt action and his unequivo- cal words give every promise that the "job" will be done. [From the Rochester (N.Y.) Times-Union, May 5, 1965] PROTOCOL WON'T DEFEND FREEDOM. Uncle Sam is standing straighter. Through President Johnson's bold action in Asia and in the Caribbean, America has stopped being a musclebound giant, ever- lastingly frustrated in checking commu- nism's nibbling at the free world. Direct action in Vietnam to give the Com- munists second thoughts about aggression and in the Dominican Republic to nip a Castroite plot in the bud?this admittedly is not polite, striped-pants diplomacy. Some call it "unwarranted unilateral inter- ference in the internal affairs of other coun- tries." Others call it "brinkmanship." They miss the main point. President Johnson said last week of Viet- nam: "Defeat * * * would deliver a friendly nation to terror and repression. It would encourage and spur on those who seek to conquer all free nations * * * within their reach." And he said this week of the Dominican Republic: "We don't propose to sit * * * with our hands folded and let the Commu- nists set up any government in the Western Hemisphere." This has been the theme of U.S. policy for nearly two decades. Unfortunately, it has been applied only in fits and starts. Free- dom has suffered many a loss while diplomats haggled and U.S. leaders did too little too late. Emerging now is a new determination to resist aggression and subversion as the occa- sion warrants. America's tactics sometimes may appear distressingly similar to those of the Com- munists. But the purposes of the opposing forces are as different as the bright sunshine of freedom and the black darkness of tyranny. America wants not to dictate a form of government but to permit free choice. It seeks not to conquer new territory for itself but to prevent others from expanding their dominion. It wants not to destroy interna- tional peacekeeping organizations but only to act when their complex machinery breaks down. Those who protest that the conflict in Vietnam is just a civil war ignore the plain evidence of Red aggression from the north. Those who argue that the Dominican rebel- lion would not play into Communist hands forget the duplicity of Fidel Castro. And to those who cringe at the new fight- ing, the President replies: "From Munich until today, we have learned that to yield to aggression brings only great- er threats and * * * even more destructive war. To stand firm is the only guarantee of a lasting peace." Importance of Rural Life in Civilization EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ROBERT A. EVERETT OF TENNESSEE IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, May 17, 1965 Mr. EVERETT. Mr. Speaker, I have the honor and privilege of representing the Eighth Congressional District of Tennessee. A few days ago the Future Farmers of America in their annual State convention meeting in Memphis, Tenn., heard outstanding members of their or- ganization, participate in a speech con- test. Ernest Pounds of Bradford, Tenn., which I have the honor of representing, won the statewide speaking contest. His speech is so outstanding and timely that I felt it should be brought to the atten- tion of the Congress of the United States. This speech follows: IMPORTANCE OF RURAL LIFE IN CIVILIZATION (By Ernest Pounds) Honorable judges, Future Farmers, friends, I am concerned about the future of our Nation, not today, not tomorrow, not a decade from now, but a more distant future. Although one of the youngest nations of the world, we are excelled by none. Our na- tional resources seem almost unlimited. We possess more copper, zinc, aluminum, cement, pig iron, steel, and petroleum than any other nation. We lead the world in the produc- tion of corn, cotton, total small grain, meat, and milk, making America the leading agri- cultural nation of the world. With one of the greatest merchant fleets we lead all other nations in both imports and exports. We boast of having the tallest and finest buildings and the greatest network of high- ways, and of being the wealthiest nation in the world. This Nation has almost as many telephones, radios, television sets, and motor Approved For Release 2005/05/12: CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 May 17, 196 RiSS1ONAL RECORD ? APPENDIX A2419 18 Minion people over 65 with the average cot pie over 65 haying an annual income of approximately $1,700. The cost of 1 day of hof pitalization is over $40 a day. Over 50 percent of our senior citizens do not have ins/teal insurance because they cannot afford it. Many do not go to doctors as the symp- toms of disease appear because they are afraid of having their meager savings wiped out. By the time they do see a doctor and are hospitalized, many have passed the point where medical science can benefit them. The only answer to this dilemma of in- adelua.te medical treatment of our aged is to enable each person during his productive yea:ks to put aside a small amount of money so that when he gets to be 65 he will be able to aave hospital care without impoverish- met it or charity. It is important in addition, tha; an option be given our elderly citizens to allow them to make small monthly premium pay nents with matching Federal payments so that private insurance may be acquired to pay doctors' fees. This is what the medicare bill provides. This is why it is good legisla- tion and this is why it will become the law of tie lend. We are currently engaged in a bitter and acri:nonious war in Vietnam. There are som s, who are fainthearted and say the United States should pull out. There are others who are overly bold and claim that the United States should begin bombing civilian population centers. In my opinion, the slow and studied escalation of our mili- tary activities as directed by President John- son .s the only course of action open to us. What is the real issue in Vietnam? We certainly are not fighting for the small piece of real estate with wet and fetid jungles. We we fighting for a principle. That prin- ciple is that the United States lives up to its international agreements, that we will not give up our military commitments in far- flung_ areas around the world where the Com- mun Lsts practice naked aggression?that our treaty commitments to fight to defend West- ern Europe and Berlin are credible. I am remiaded of the words of Abraham Lincoln in his second inaugural address: "With mal- ice for none; with charity for all; with firm- ness in the right as God gives us to know the right." President Johnson and the Ame:ican people are not interested in a war of aggression in Vietnam. The President has offer 3d to meet the Communist leaders to discu ss methods and means of peacefully set- tling the hostilities. The Vietcong Commu- nists are not interested. They believe they can win the war by force of arms. We have no malice toward the Communists but we are firm in our commitments to South Viet- nam because we are right. Our President symholizes the spirit in America to resist armei conquest by those who have an insa- tiabli: thirst for power and that is why all of us in this room tonight along with 180 mil- lion other Americans support his courageous stand. Th e Congress and President Johnson have not Just been concerned with education, medicare, and Vietnam. They have recog- nized that the only way we can maintain the vitality and strength of our economy is to have jobs available for all who must work to lite. We have to develop and continue progrims to train young men for employ- ment in this age of complex technology and to re rain those whose skills have become antiq aated. Under Presidents Kennedy and Johrn on, we have seen new approaches ap- plied to solving old manpower problems. Vo- cational training programs have been ini- tiated to help those who want to help them- selves._ Regional recovery programs such as the Area Redevelopment Act and more re- cently-the Appalachia Act, have been inacted to inilgorate areas of great poverty and job- lessness. An antipoverty program has been created to give employment, training, and Skpproved ForIlmse 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7 spent much of his life in the wilderness. He possessed a toughness of spirit and resiliency of character which was best demonstrated by his championing of the cause of the com- mon man. Be gave men from all walks of life a chance to participate in politics and in government. His credo was equal oppor- tunity for all. The heritage of Jefferson and Jackson has extended down to the present, and the result has been that what was considered new and controversial and dangerous in the adminis- trations of Wilson, Roosevelt, and Truman, is today almost taken for granted. The history of progress in our country is a revolutionary history?not just a revolu- tion of arms and an overthrow of oppressive British rule, but a revolution of ideas, dis- coveries, and laws. As our Nation has pro- gressed and the dignity of man has been constantly reaffirmed, the Democratic Party has served a great purpose. I think that we Might ask ourselves what are we doing now to meet the problems of today and tomorrow. Our country is undergoing dynamic and rapid changes. Changes wrought by a de- veloping technology, rapid communications, vast population migrations, and spiritual unrest. We accept man's freedom of will and cor- poreal independence and yet are confronted by his singular inability to secure his job and his family income against downward trends in the national economy over which he has no control. We have as a Nation created a fiscal para- dox whereby we spend only $450 a year per child in our public schools, but spend $1,800 a year to keep a wayward child in a deten- tion home; $2,500 a year for a family on relief and $3,500 a year for a criminal in a ? State penitentiary. In the past 4 years, under the leader- ship of two great Democratic Presidents, a Democratic controlled Congress has come to grips with the realities of life for modern man living in an era of social, economic, and political transition. Hard-hitting programs have been enacted to meet the national needs of education, unemployment, civil rights, and air and water pollution. Just this past month, Congress passed an education bill which is a major step forward in guaranteeing equality of educational op- portunity for all children in our land. It authorizes $1.3 billion in the first year for grants to States for allocation to school dis- tricts with large numbers of children from low-income families. Its purpose is to strengthen primary and secondary school education. It is a bill that is needed because over 1 Million children drop out of school every year without a high school diploma and because in most poor communities, children are destined to receive a poorer education resulting from a lack of textbooks, school facilities, and insufficiently trained teachers. This bill was passed by a Congress and signed by a President who, knew that unem- ployment of -young people with an eighth- grade education is four times that of the national average; that the lifetini income of a person tvho graduates from high school is $60,000 higher than one who does not go to high school, and that the lifetime income of a college graduate is $135,000 more than for one who has only a high school diploma. This spring was a busy spring for the House of Representatives. We not only passed an education bill, of. historic scope, but we also voted overwhelmingly in favor of medicare. It see= strange that there aee still so many people in our country who argue with self- righteous fervor that every man ought to be - totally responsible for his own old age medi- cal needs. The great majority of people, old or young, do not want to be charity cases. They want to be independent, yet secure in their .needs. In our Nation today, we have hope to thousands -of youth out of school, out of work, and disillusioned by an appar- ent gray . destiny of economic dependency. Much has been done but much more Is required. This year the number of 18- and 19-year-old workers, is expected to increase by 500,000?twice the increase of last year. The labor force is expected to grow by 71/2 million workers in the next 5 years-50 per- cent greater than the last 5 years. Certain groups face greater challenges than others. Negroes presently constitute 10. percent of our population, yet will ac- count for 18 percent of the coming man- power increase. The level of Negro unem- ployment is twice that of whites in our society. We can never be satisfied until all races, colors, and creeds, have equal oppor- tunity in all spheres of life. The prospective and vast increase in our labor force over the next 20 years comes at a time that machines are replacing men at an increasingly faster pace. Automation is desirable in that it relieves man of the drudgery of having to spend all his time scratching out a living from the soil, the mine, or the factory. It gives him time for recreation, leisure, and cultural pursuits. It provides opportunities for man to notice himself and his relationship to his Creator. Automation does, however, present thorny obstacles and grave dangers to our people. Year after year, throughout our land, pro- ductivity per man-hour of work has risen. Fifty years ago, it was considered- good if a man could mine one-half a ton of coal in a 10-hour day. In 1965, a miner using the latest equipment can produce 60 tons in an 8-hour day. Over 500,000 jobs a year are lost out of our economy as a result of machines replacing men and the era of a strong willing back being a passport to success- has passed forever. It is true that automation fashions new jobs for our people, but the new jobs require new skills and all too often the num- ber of new jobs fashioned does not equal old jobs lost. What is needed is a strengthening and broadening of college education and voca- tional education so that the skills of our work force will always match the jobs avail- able in our economy. Counseling and job replacement services must be expanded so that the right man will be able to find the right job. Job development activities must be increased in order to create new service employment opportunities in fields where they have not existed in the past because of an inadequately trained work force. The people of our country want improved home and equipment maintenance, they want greater recreational opportunities for their children and stricter supervision in play-, grounds. There is no reason why these serv- ices cannot be provided as automation stead- ily frees more men from work on the farm and in-the factory. What is needed in addition, is a reaffirma- tion of our cultural and spiritual heritage. It is written in the Bible: "Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every work that proceeds out of the mouth of God." These words have great meaning to a so- ciety such as ours. We are a rich nation and our people on the average work but 5 days a week. We have time to reflect on our begin- nings and op our destiny. We have time to read, to play, to watch telev:Lsion, to listen to music. Yet with all the free time we have to relax and understand ourselves, we are a country with 10 percent of the people suf- fering from mental disease requiring treat- ment and countless more from jangled nerves requiring tranquilization. In a sense, mere life itself within the community of man has become one of our greatest challenges. In fu- ture years of automated free time, our churches, colleges, and cultural centers will have a heavy burden to lift from many men the yoke of uninspired existence and re- store to theiia the joy of living. Approved For Release 2005/05/12 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120025-7