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May 11, 1965
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Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 9784 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- SENATE May 11, 1965 The answers were disturbing. Five agen- cies?none of them the Office of Educa- tion?distributed nearly one and a quarter- billion dollars for research and develop- ment to universities during 1964. Their funds reached into nearly every State in the Union and went to 124 colleges and universities. And, on closer examination, it became clear that there is a definite pattern to the distribution of funds. Twenty-five univer- sities received amounts greater than $10 million. Those same 25 universities togeth- er received 58 percent of all the funds awarded to all the universities. Even more disturbing: 16 schools received amounts greater than $20 million each? and those 16 institutions accounted for more than 40 percent of all the funds awarded. Statistics in themselves don't tell the whole story. But, interestingly enough, a student told a newspaper reporter recently: "Just having a professor nod at you in the hall is a big deal. You feel like you've really arrived." And that young man was a stu- dent at one of the universities receiving the most Federal R. & D. dollars. And who sits on the advisory panels of the five Federal agencies which distribute these R. & D. funds? I asked this question because an advisory panel is very important. /t sits in judgment on research applications submitted to an agency for financial assist- ance. Advisory panels were invented so that no critic could ever say a government bureaucrat had turned down a worthwhile scientific project. If money is available and a project is turned down, it is usually be- cause the members of the panel believed it would not contribute significantly to knowl- edge in the research specialty. Warren Weaver of the New York Times once wryly described a mythical advisory panel?the "Special Committee for X." "These are men," Weaver wrote, "intensely interested 111 X, often with a lifelong dedica- tion to X, and sometimes with a recogniz- ably fanatic concentration of interest on X. Quite clearly, they are just the authorities to ask if you want to know whether X is a good idea." Where do these panel members come from? Of the advisory panel memberships of the 5 agencies here involved, 1,622?a majority of the members?come from the academic community. Amazing correlation exists be- tween the amount of Federal funds for re- search flowing into a university and the number of faculty members serving on the advisory panels which pass on the grants. The higher the number of dollars, the higher the number of panelists. In fact, the same 16 schools that receive 42 percent of the dollars send 810?or exactly one-half?of all the academic members of the advisory panels to Washington.. Clearly, we are caught up in a vicious circle. Let us take the case of Professor A. He is very learned about X. He gets a grant to do some research on X?and learns even more about X. Soon his school becomes known ' as the place to go to do research on X and attracts even more experts. So Professor A finds himself on an advisory panel advising on the directions research in X should take? and even more prestige enhances his uni- versity department. If the Government wants to pay for re- search in X, where else should they go but to professor A's school? There is no conspir- acy?no conflict of interest. If the judgment to be rendered on the Government's part Is "where do I get the best research value for my dollars?" the Government would be silly to go anywhere but to professor A's univer- sity. Our system of reliance on a small number of large universities for the great bulk of federally aided scientific research may be the best Way to get research done?but does it benefit our schools? More important?does it benefit our students? We are beginning now to debate the wis- dom of this policy. We have seen the symp- toms of dissatisfaction grow. We have seen riots on our great campuses, and on small. We have seen students battle to reverse the "publish or perish" trend among our faculties. We have seen all these things. But the real tragedy does not lie with young grumb- IMgs and unrest. The real tragedy lies in the fact that we have come all this way with- out seriously considering the consequences of our actions. We have continued to build up the dependence of our universities on the Federal Government?on the fictitious prem- ise that we were only buying research re- sults. But what we have really been doing is changing the character and content of our children's education. We have drifted too long. Federal policy on education must not be based on pure and simple expediency. Federal policy on educa- tion must be geared to a massive assault on ignorance and its evils. Only if this policy is wisely formed, and expertly administered, can education achieve its star role in the Great Society. ACTION DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Mr. LONG of Missouri. Mr. President, U.S. action in the Dominican Republic has been determined and decisive in curbing the threat of further Communist subversion in the Western Hemisphere. President Johnson's wisdom in moving promptly to protect the lives of U.S. citi- zens has brought high praise from many sources. I firmly believe that the Presi- dent has been rightly acclaimed as a dedicated and effective defender of free- dom in the Americas. Recent issues of the Washington Eve- ning Star have carried two articles in appraisal of the administration's course in this troubled area. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that these two articles be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the articles were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Washington (D.C.) Evening Star, May 3, 1965] REDS TAKE OVER DOMINICAN REVOLT (By Max Freedman) Early Wednesday afternoon of last week, the U.S. Ambassador in the Domini- can Republic reported to Washington that there was no immediate threat to the per- sonal safety of American citizens living in that country. Exactly 2 hours later Ambassador Ben- nett, in a second message, reported that the situation had deteriorated with tragic speed. The military and police forces supporting the Dominican Government were no longer able to control the situation. In some places there had been an utter collapse of military efficiency. Officers wept openly at the news of spreading unrest and at reports of growing defections. The Dominican authorities could give no assurances that the lives or the property of U.S. citizens would be protected. They were unable to protect the airfield or the railway station or the port from which American citizens could be evacuated. No longer could they protect the large hotel or other buildings where some of these Amer- icans had gathered for safety. Nor were they able to protect the U.S. Embassy in Santo Domingo from attack. _ Faced with these accumulating proofs of a critical situation growing steadily worse, the Dominican officials strongly urged the Embassy to advise Washington to send enough force without delay to protect and evacuate the endangered American citizens. The members of the U.S. Embassy, confronted with this new evidence and listen- ing to this urgent plea for American troops to prevent outrages and the tragic loss of life, unanimously agreed that the time had come for direct American assistance. Ambas- sador Bennett conveyed this unanimous rec- ommendation to Washington and the marines were soon on their way to the Dominican Republic. It seems clear that some military officers are supporting the revolt and are defying the cease-fire not because they really believe In the rebel cause but because they feel they have no alternative, having once broken their military oath and taken up arms against the Government. Equally clear to Washington is the danger that the original revolt, started to restore former President Juan D. Bosch to power, is being supplanted by highly trained Commu- nist agents who are seeking to gain control of a revolutionary situation by an almost classic application of Communist tactics. There are three Communist parties in the Dominican Republic. The first is the Do- minican Popular Socialist Party, an orthodox Communist party looking to Moscow for guidance. The second is the Dominican Popular Movement, a small aggressive party with leanings to China. The third is the 14 July Movement, not completely Communist in character but with a strong Castro influ- ence. These three groups have not yet formed a united front. That may come later. They are still fighting for the leadership of the revolt. But they are exploiting every weak- ness, every breakdown in authority, to spread the influence of Communist power. Their success can be measured by one stark and tragic fact. Many of Bosch's origi- nal supporters have left the revolt and have gone into hiding. Officials in Washington have a list of names of the 58 most important Communist leaders who have seized key strategic positions in the revolt and are twisting it into a Commu- nist pattern. This list contains the names of these Communists and their military and technical training as agents of revolutionary upheaval. Some of them were trained in Russia, others in China, still others in Cuba. All of them have been identified as active and sinis- ter figures in the present stage of the revolt. No signs exist as yet of any significant movement of Communist agents from Cuba to the Dominican Republic. It is the judg- ment of Washington officials that Cuba was taken by surprise by the success which marked the uprising and the weaknesses thus revealed in the crumbling fabric of gov- ernmental power. The local Communist agents, expertly trained and strategically placed, moved in quickly to exploit the situation for Commu- nist purposes. Cuba's future role has to be watched carefully. Bosch's supporters made a serious mistake. They gave some seized weapons and ammu- nition to people more eager to loot and plun- der for private gain than to fight for the proclaimed cause of the uprising. Thus, the revolt lost popular favor and became a weapon of anarchy instead of a movement to restore Bosch as the last con- stitutionally elected President. These ex- cesses drove many moderates into silence or retreat and again gave added strength to the Communist minority. Even at this critical hour the situation might have been restored if Bosch, by a greater display of personal daring, had left Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 May 11, 1065 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE exists. Second, it recogniies that every school child in America, regardless of the type of school that he attends, is entitled to the best education attainable. This $1.3 billion law channels funds to help the children of the poor; but in so doing, all American children benefit. It also provides funds to buy textbooks and expand school libraries?including the purchase of books and periodicals. It aims to raise educational services to all students in our communities, in any way local school districts see fit. Bookmobiles, portable science laboratories, special classes, special projects in music or the arts or with museums?only the imagi- nation of our communities themselves will set the limit. This new great law also provides for funds for basic research to find new techniques and new teaching concepts. And it strives to strengthen State departments of education. Like the elementary and secondary law, the intent of the higher education bill now . before Congress is to provide educational opportunities for needy students attending any college or university?and to a lesser extent for all students attending so-called "developing institutions." In all of its titles, the $250 million bill is a general aid to higher education measure. If this bill becomes law, we could expand and develop continuing education, com- munity extension services and adult educa- tion. We could strengthen college and uni- versity libraries and train librarians. If this bill becomes law, we would have up to 160,000 scholarships for qualified high school students from low-income families. So we strengthen our massive national commitments to the cause of education. But we have not yet taken one step I believe Is absolutely necessary to complete the commitment. What is needed desperately in the Federal Government is a focal point for education?a voice at the highest levels of Government? an agency to coordinate the expanding pro- grams of Federal aid. In short, we need a Department of Education. I proposed such a Department this year in Congress. I proposed the Department of Education because a chorus of voices, each with its own point of view?its own pro- gram?its own mission, says it speaks for education today. Nowhere is there a com- prehensive policy. The President has made a valiant attempt to bring order out of chaos. By Executive order he set up an Interagency Committee on Education, chaired by a very able and dedicated man?Francis Keppel, U.S. Com- missioner of Education. But where is Dr. Keppel's office? Buried In the tangled web of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; a Depart- ment responsible for running nearly 150 dif- ferent programs, including aid to education, and with a budget that has soared from un- der $2 billion in 1953 to more than $7 bil- lion in fiscal 1966. But Dr. Keppel and one Office of Education do not administer most Federal education spending. This year, less than a third of Federal funds for education?or $1.6 bil- lion?is being channeled through the nominal agency for education, the Office of Education. Where is education in the Federal Govern- ment today? It might be more appropriate to ask where it isn't. From the green lawns- of Bethesda's National Institutes of Health to Foggy Bottom?from the space age world of NASA to the complex of Health, Education, and Welfare, 42 separate Federal depart- ments, bureaus and agencies are involved in Federal education programs and spending a total of $5 billion. And each of them makes educational policy?often indifferent or ignorant of the broad national objectives in the field of education. Look at some of the agencies spending Federal education dollars: The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare itself spends $800 million for educa- tion. These millions are channeled through the Public Health Service, the Vocational Rehabilitation Administration and the Wel- fare Administration?all separate and equal parts of the Department?all separate from and equal to the Office of Education. The Department of Agriculture spends half a billion dollars a year on education. Directly concerned with education, the National Science Foundation will channel $400 million into our schools and colleges this year. The Housing and Home Finance Agency spends one-third of a billion dollars for college housing loans, the Labor Department 6362 million, and $77 million is spent for war orphans and veterans education by the VA. The Department of Defense, NASA, and the Atomic Energy Commission together con- tribute another $443 million to education? for the most part primarily in the area of research and science. And other agencies have their finger in the education pie: The Department of In- terior spends $123 million; the State Depart- ment, $60 million; the District of Columbia government, $12.5 million; the Canal Zone, $12.4 million; the Department of Commerce, $7 million; the Treasury, $6.1 million; the Justice Department, $9 million; and the Job Corps of the equal opportunity program, $190 million. Next year most of these figures will be even larger, as we add $1.3 billion from the recently enacted elementary and secondary school aid legislation and hopefully $250 million for higher education, to the Federal education budget. Each of the agencies I have mentioned has Its own narrow responsibility; none of them is concerned with the whole problem of education. The sums spent by the agencies in many cases are so large that they can distort the aims of the overall aid to educa- tion program. That is the tragedy here. Every year in Congress, we review and pass upon the President's budget. We review and pass on a massive document, complete to the smallest detail of the salaries of employees and the distribution of funds. But you can look all through that massive compilation of Information?and nowhere will you find a summary of all the money to be spent for education. To determine the amounts, you must look through each Department and agency's budget?and even then it would be impossible to discover all the items. One finds no concise summary. Even more Important, one finds no one place in the Con- gress where the impact of the budget on edu- cation in America is debated or considered. A Department of Education would change that. A department could give us a central source of information and a central point of responsibility for collecting the necessary data, assessing its relevance, and recom- mending a policy. Then Congress could really do its job of considering various pro- posals in the light of their total effect on education in America. For example, a large slice of the money spent by the Federal Government in educa- tional institutions comes from agencies like the Atomic Energy Commission or the De- partment of Defense. It is money purely for R. & D.?research and development. Yet it has an enormous effect on our universities, across the board, and this effect raises some serious questions. Where have our professors been disap- pearing lately? Perhaps into the laboratories with a few select graduate students. Perhaps into the depths of the Government as con- sultant. Perhaps to Washington to get them- selves grant or research contract renewals. And where has this left the student? In 9783 many cases, the student is left in the middle of hundreds of his fellows listening to an aloof figure on the lecture platform?distin- guished for his works, but unknown to his students. The student is left to discuss the course niaterial with a graduate student in a section meeting. So the student of today has become more and more anonymous?a seat in a lecture hall, a number on a card in the administration office, a statistic in the university records. There is a popular song around these days all about ticky-tacky. I'm sure you've heard it. I won't presume to sing it for you, but it does repeat a common theme: It sings of boxes?little boxes?and they're all made out of ticky-tacky and they all look just the same. And it goes on about the people in the houses, and how they drink their mar- tinis dry, and how they all look just the Same. And the people send their children to the university?and they come out look- ing just the same. The song is a bestseller; like most best- sellers it says something that means some- thing to you and me. We arc especially the young among us?greatly concerned with a loss of individuality. The revolt on the cam- pus makes big bold headlines. A growing group of American undergraduates are rebels against their college administrations. There are probably many reasons for this movement. But this much is clear?the undergraduate wants to feel he belongs to the university, he wants to feel he is more than a number, he wants to feel he is im- portant to the schools. As J. Glenn Gray, chairman of the philosophy department at Colorado College put it in the current Harpers: "There has hardly been a time, in my ex- perience, when students needed more atten- tion and patient listening to by experienced professors than today. The pity is that so many of us retreat into research, Government contracts, and sabbatical travel, leaving counsel and instruction to junior colleagues and graduate assistants. In so doing we deepen the rift between the generations and at the same time increase the sense of im- personality, discontinuity, and absence of community that makes college life less satis- factory in this decade than it used to be. What is needed are fewer books and articles by college professors and more cooperative search by teacher and taught for an au- thority upon which to base freedom and in- dividuality." If anyone has lured the teacher from the classroom, it is Uncle Sam. The Federal Government has helped bring about a fundamental change in higher edu- cation in this country?an increasing em- phasis on research?a decline in the prestige of the teacher?a growing tendency to in- volve the academician in the world of gov- ernment and the world of business. This change has come?not by design?not through regular aid-to-education funds but rather through the back door of research and development dollars spent in our schools. Who gets the Federal dollar? What kind of schools receive this Federal aid to edu- cation? For Federal aid to education it is, despite the protestations of the mission- oriented Government agencies?NASA and the rest?who administer R. & D. funds. A few months ago, I asked the heads of several departments and agencies in Wash- ington to answer these questions. I asked the Department of Defense, the Space Agency, the Department of Health, Educa- tion, and Welfare, and the Atomic Energy Commission, and the National Science Foun- dation to list all the colleges and universities that had received their R. & D. funds in 1961. I asked them to list the moneys the recipient university received. And I asked them to tell me how many members of faculties served on their advisory panels, advising them on the wisdom of their grants. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 9786 Approved For gigimiuMMOAA? 1aktdiklIPE2@1AI44100050012oo3oirlay 11, 1965 It le It is, in the words of the President "The excitement of bowling. alwefli be- coming. Wittig. probing. Millng. resting, and tering aldtbl?but itimps trying and always gaining." - Cubed we stand. And united we gain. We must gain. Our needs are multiplying. In 5 years. 211 minion people will live in our country?half or them under the age ot IS. In 10 years. we will need?molt yper?over. 2 million new homes. vie will need schools foe 10 million additional ohUdren rf ? ? wel- fare and health fisellities for 11,infltion more, Mop* over the age or Mt. We intro no time to lose. We Must than. leoptthe teaks at heed. ? Ws must make our. *time mere livable? places where children can play and Men end mete& ceis work. in safety sod health. - Vle must preeerve our **twat heritage be-- fors it is tort ? ? ? .vre met; preeerm our landscape end our rests. We must Im- ams Man air and water. ? ? We must And ways 'to 'Wapner mai M. sena adtuitt tu technologic*/ revolution and social Change. ? ; We must solve the problem or suss transit. The Commuters present in this room know what I'm talking about. We have no little dreamt. , We make we little plana. . , . ? President Johnson has proposed--sad mer Congress is lalatton which AMA help create the freedom ? and meulay . we seek. Pxograms to provide ivatit nutlike& ears. to better *Jumbo our thvis to modittato poverty, to give each men and Woman twthie country truly equal opportithity. These investments catty a Wooten. ? , ? ,.. But the coot per thousand or par man or per =Mon of Mimi jpeoblems Ulm illiteracy, school dropouts. poverty. deft- gooney. and, yen discrintinaUce la ear peat- * than the ? cost of our, Wort,. to overoothit those things. , We spend 4450 a year per child in our public ,schools. But we- spend $1,500 a -year to keep a determent in la. detention ? home. *1.400 ?It Year foe ?itreklY On. tenet And 113400 a year for an Alkinaie in &ate prison. We must mak* the investments .nereastry so that AU in our society may be pcodwritve. Toor-and uneducated mop* ore poor eon- sumers. They are a thaist oncOur economy. They are wasted resources. ? . But beyond the ecoornale Aped, there Is the seortility of our erforts.?-. ? ; ? ,/ ?Wwth.telestalt, Mee akintips drawn sieength from, our belief that densooracy OA shit the grimiest reward dt ells the otntotaunity fore each man end women to maks some- Wag bettor of insaaelf, In hi. ,birn way. We bellow* in the dimity . and worth we ovary eme?not just our male* sea who*. but each man in it. That- is why we satiate a child. MAIM a, .imento those. Without Jobe Whop* or do the Wage we must do to insure that each Amer. loan, whatever his eoler 'or national origin, shall have hie 'quota *tenon We must do here at home the respoceibie tasks of freemen it we ea Americans are to nye up to our beliefs. I ask your sup- port and your work for the programs which will maks thee* things possible. ? lideo ask your support and work for some- thing *an for the belief that the world need sot destroy itself by war. and UM we Americans can help others, too, in other places. And a . better ? life. We hear many *time thee, days saying that America is overextended in the mid ? ? ? that other peopWs protegees itiodn't be our problems ? ? ? thot we ought to elm up shop overseas and enjoy our fruits here in the good old U.S.A. Toe easy my friends. And too dangerous. Who in the world Wilt work .for tsemoormy U we do not? Who in the world can preserve the mom if we do eat? Who in the wield tun set the example. ?an over the needed bane, if we do Mt ?.when there are no more or easy W. WA i Um* Wheel is soot- answers. We live in a time when we must exert our patience as never before. Sam we the patience, foe hottenee, to continue a die- agreeable struggle thousands of nMes frota home?perheps for months and years ahead?without any guarantee Of Oval emcees, I can tell you that the forces of totentari- *nista have that patielsoil.1 ? We must stand abroad as we steed et home! for the 'pledges made by Anweiosiis tillo*ulte boffin MI: ? We tined TOM rimier= afld Judie, -*Loud% to greet*. it ? ? ? peg defend tt. President Johnson has made his **unit. - mint to an or us. I fain him in that oommitmentiv... ,?..1? ? ? - Vir At; THE /MB VINfnuoz-31v Mr. CIRUIRSDP3. igr.lorseklent, uni- versity commindtles?tamiltles and 'In- dent bodies-4na1kide a very eubstantial- Minim% of, 0PPOnents at our soutbesat Ada 11411Ctell... 'They properly reject Sec- 1:MaXY of Mate Rusk's chiding of the academie world for whit he chows to label. he "stubborn disregard ?rot plain facts,' ? A' reply :from New lIngland uni- versity facelty members was published se a three-quarter page advertisement in last Sunday Net:fork Times. It points otit.their vimr that Settetitry Rusk and the sdeethletreAtan enakelniei ore the ones- who aro exilty at "stubborn dine- mad of the facts.0'?. ? ? ? The adVartisementwee Signed by deer 760 faetiltYliteinbers Of 26 New lIngland universities. Ilarvard leads the list. With 200 -signers. , -Alessachwoetts Institute of Technology is second. with .127, Bran- deis is third. with 00; Yal, fourth. with OA Baotou University hair -411: North,. eastern University and 'Tufts Urdveretty, 43 each. Cdberi are: 'Andover Newton Theological School. neaten C011effe. Brown Univereito, Clarit;Z toufeity. 001- lege' of thik School. 11017.- Oit& dard Oollegei, College. .itudth College, University-et Connecticut. Dab. versity of Verasont.'Worcester Polytech- nic Institute, Cardinal Cushirot College. Nithetten, Willicins, and an, limited** One 013hc standing !Malty tnemtilis;', but 1- do get libib to; IsUgaint.Rie.,tiblio .Prbitair by hiving the list printed the Ream. However, I do ask unanimous consent that the text of the message. entitled `A Reply to Secretary Rusk on Vietnam,* be printed at this point in my remarks In the Rscorte. . There being no obJectIon, the excerpt from- the advertisement was ordered ' to be printed in the Recorte, as follows: {Prom the New Yost Tinos. flay 0, 10651 A Reny to escarrsee linen on Vuentatt In his addiesit on April 25 lietore the lean Society of international law, Secretary or State Bean faith attacked soldeninnorides of the adtnintehation for talking "nonsense about the Mum ? of the st e" in Viet- nam. Ile continued: "I sometimes wonder at the gullibility of educated rneu and the stubborn disregard of plain facts by man who are supposed to be helping our young to learn--especially to learn how to think.- This abusive language suggests that the ad- miniMation *ratite to Atom its attics. . This' suggestion Is confirmed by simians- lions from other adminietration epelcesmen about the loyalty of such crake. Precisely in this time of crisis, however, the academie community has both ? right and an oblige- 1104 to point out hazards and inconsistencies in our military and diplomatic policy. It is easy to see why the Secretary of ?Hete- t* 10g17. The reasons have to do with "gunibillty" in the readmit commu- nity. He is angry because the feet, end wider obosiderations brought up by Woe critical have contradicted so many odkdal pronounee- Mints. it is not the scholars tekt-tbe leaders of the atimaistrstion who letve shown w "stubborn disregard Of Plain faft&" Main F AMU For maniple, on March ea, MI. Preeident Jonagoa said, "We seek no mom than a se- turn to the essentials of the agreement. of 1954?a reliable agreement to guarantee the indestendence and mcurity of alt in southeast Asia." But the "plant hut* is that the Geneva agreement did not provide for ? Mei.. Non ot Vietnam into two &Moen On the Maier,, the agreement spoke of the two porta of Vietnam as "regrouping SOW" atul saki that "the military demarcation line is provisional and should not in any way be interpreted as omatitiating a political or ter- Morita bounden." It Provided that "? ? ? general elections shall be held in July, UM, under the supervision ot an inter- national commission ? ? ?." So such unify- ing ens:Alone have been held.. TM IMMO re- gime. with United States approval, refused. Wet Mos, the United Males has theists* that Vietnam remain divided. On April 7, 1965, the President g^ ave an- other description of the administration's goals. He said. "Tonight &meioses and Asians' are dying for a world where each people may choose its own path to change." and further on : "Our objective is the inde- pendence of South Vietnam, and Its freedom from attack. .We went nothi4 for our- selves?only that the people ot South Viet- nam be allowed to guide theft own muutry In their mu my." The plain Mei is that the reale of American intervention is Mem- patties with the goal of self-deterathastion. North .Vittnam has, to be mum intervened ' by helping the Vietcong. But at story stogy of the war the scale of Artmerloan Warm- tien'tes been' far greatee.- .11be meacer er combat shove that we have seteivilsettoulli Vietnam With -every kind of etiltedt'squip- Mist law terrain allows. We eanitt trot,' and Supplies continually.We deep napalm ed *populations littecniteglied Wlth geserrinee. We burn and defoliate crepe and forest.. Wo have resorted to incelpecitettng gee. An intervention as massive m this doge net furnish a choice to the people. It de- prives them of one sommur retroesa or ' Pilot Mtra If American actions In Vletnain are de- re:Male, administration attempts to defend them should square with the pieta tents. 134M-deception about Arassissis intervention can be a greater peril than disortatitutting protest. Only by ritommising ibmallablinl- ties of the situation Gan ere resoliseeted with the deepest levels of the American eoneelence and with the common ?omelettes of man- Mad. The administration may have wina Weed the discreet *Ilene* es? the grudging UPeervic? of some torsion governmeeta and of some VS'. Senators. but the Meares and ineonsistencise of the peaseet policy as. widely reorspueen both at noise *ad islets:ad. 'The siteatiou In Venoms salsas Wises moral questions, not merely dipioceseir toad tactical ones, ea a nation Wa beldiinininase power. To permit It to be lime In vecidess and barbarous ways is to imperil the entire basis of American leadership. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 May 11, 1965 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE 9791 my office received a letter from Nathan H. Cohen, president of Monarch Con- struction corp., developers of the Amer- ican Towne House. At that time, sug- gestions and comments on Monarch's program were requested. Knowing very little about Mr. Cohen's enterprise, I merely replied, in a routine fashion, that I strongly favored middle-income housing projects, and that his programs seemed designed to produce such projects. Shortly after that, there was published a full-page advertisement which con- tained both my letter and letters from many other Senators and from Members of the House of Representatives. The impression created by the advertisement was that all those whose letters appeared there were endorsing and praising the Monarch Construction Corp. ?An en- dorsement was not my intention; and I strongly condemn the careless use of my name in a commercial advertisement of this type. What has particularly distressed me is that I have recently received information that Mr. Cohen, the Monarch Construc- tion Corp., and the American Towne House program have been charged with numerous instances of fraud and deceit, and are now under intensive investiga- tion by the office of the U.S. Attorney. Therefore, I wish to reiterate and to make crystal clear, for the purposes of anyone interested in these enterprises, that I have never given any commercial endorsement to this concern, and that Mr. Cohen has been instructed to cease all use of my name in his advertise- ments. It is my sincere hope that no unsuspecting buyer has been led astray by the appearance of these misleading newspaper advertisements. PRESIDENT JOHNSON'S ACTION IN REGARD TO THE DOMINICAN RE- PUBLIC , Mr. TALMADGE. M.?kiesident, once again all Americans have every reason to be proud of the President of the United States for the swift and de- cisive manner in which he has exercised his position as leader of the free world. The President's determination to re- sist communistic aggression, wherever it may exist, and especially in the West- ern Hemisphere, was never more clear than in his swift action to aid in the perilous situation last week in the Dominican Republic. While the United States and the Pres- ident may receive some criticism in the world community, and even within the boundaries of our own Nation, I, for one, want to go on record as affirming my confidence in his action and my pride in his leadership. As President Johnson said time and time again, the United States desires to extend its control over no other nation and no other territory. We merely desire to insure that any country which wishes to do so, may freely choose its own form of government, with- out outside intereference. Anyone who has doubts about the in- tentions of the United States need only reflect upon the words. of President Johnson in his address to the Nation on the nature of our commitment in the Dominican Republic: Our goal in the Dominican Republic is the goal which has been expressed again and againl in the treaties and agreements which make up the fabric of the inter-American system. It is that the people of that coun- try must be permitted to freely choose the path of political democracy, social justice and economic progress. The action of the President can in no way be interpreted as a return to "gun- boat diplomacy." The primary reason for sending in marines was to protect American lives when law and order com- pletely broke down in that war-torn country, and when officials of the Domin- ican Republic informed the United States authorities that they could no longer insure the safety of Americans. The marines were protecting both the lives of Americans and the lives of thou- sands of citizens of the Dominican Re- public and of citizens of European and other Latin American republics, which were made safe because of the action of President Johnson. Furthermore, all Americans and the citizens of all other countries should be reassured that the United States is not interfering in foreign internal politics or ting sides with any of the factions in the Dominican Republic uprising. Our sole purpose is to protect human lives and to insure that the cancer of com- munism does not gain another foothold In our own backyard. The United States has announced and demonstrated its good intentions in the Dominican Republic by providing food for the hungry and medical supplies and treatment for the sick and the wounded in that troubled area. Surely, for these reasons, all freedom- loving people of Latin America who yearn for the decency and dignity of de-. mocracy will join President Johnson in his hope that shooting and bloodshed will cease and that a stable government will be instituted in the Dominican Republic. It has been a source of pride for me to see the response from the editors of our Nation's newspapers to the President's actions in Latin America. Eugene Pat- terson, the Atlanta Constitution, and the outstanding editorial department of that newspaper have been in the forefront of informed news analysis. I ask unani- mous consent to have printed in the REC- ORD three of the informative editorials which have been published in the At- lanta Constitution. There being no objection, the editori- als were ordered to be printed in the REC- ORD, as follows: [From the Atlanta Constitution, May 1, 19651 GIVE UP WHAT IN VIETNAM? (By Eugene Patterson) My difference with the quit-in-Vietnam wing of U.S. liberalism is a deep one because I believe they are advocating?without mean- ing to, which makes it worse?that this Na- tion quit on liberalism. The sword they de- mand be surrendered is their own. In varying degrees of anguish or triumph these good people write to tell me the Viet- cong is winning thus far, which is true, that President Johnson ought to negotiate an end to the war, which they do not seem to recog- nize is the very thing he is trying to do, and that the United States is just plain wrong in Vietnam, anyway, which is an in- credible irony, coming from them. For it will be peaceseeking idealism, not hotspur jingoism, that will lose if the United States loses in Vietnam. This country had its taste of the dangers and failures of Dulles-Radford brinkman- ship based on a politics of status quo and threats of massive nuclear wax. Then lib- eralism especially was cheered when Presi- dent Kennedy and President Johnson tried to limit the nuclear danger by developing the Option of limited war. Failure in Vietnam will mean the failure of that option, rekindling all the dangers in- herent in a resurgence of the bomb-Moscow mentality. Civic action, counterinsurgency, grassroots aid, U.S. special forces?these were Mr. Ken- nedy's bright new hopes for prevailing against communism's small "wars of libera- tion" on the home ground without having to pulverize Peiping. The bomber wing at the Pentagon never did much approve. The new tactics were based on helping the people e were to defend; on creating political and economic systems that were to be better for them than any other; on teaching national armies to become the friends and helpers of their own peoples, and not just instruments of author- ity or tools of feudalism. It was to be an historic experiment, based on the codes of military honor, to humanize the soldiery, to use the plowshare as well as the gun, to repel the guerrilla aggressor by winning the peo- ple to something better. In short, it was to be an experiment in Idealism, a search for a positive pro-people program as an alternative to a negative anti- communism frozen in the nuclear syndrome. Naive, gullible, infantile?all these adjec- tives have fitted mistakes made during the tryout of this new kind of war in Vietnam. But one would have expected to hear them come from the big-war believers in nuclear force, and not from the wing of political thought that advocates more idealistic so- cial and economic reform and less blind reliance on the bomb. Yet now that the going has gotten rough, and mistakes have mounted, and success has not come conveniently within sight? and indeed, may not?the demand that we give up comes first and loudest from the very people who ought to stay longest and fight hardest. With no illusions at all about the many failures our experiment in idealism has suf- fered in Vietnam, I'll say, thanks. War is with us. I am proud my country has tried? whether it fails or not, has tried?to learn limited war based on creation of needed re- forms, as an alternative to unlimited war based on unfeeling power. Those are, I am afraid, the untidy alternates. [From the Atlanta (Ga.) Constitution, May 1, 1965] SWIFT U.S. ACTION IN DOMINICAN REPUBLIC WAS NECESSARY; IT'S Now UP TO OAS Vietnam is not the only trouble spot for the United States and its long-range goal of world peace. Our awesome power, which has prevented a major conflagration, has not prevented those frustrations of nationalist revolutions, rivalries and clashes between states and the ever-present threat of a major explosion. We're now involved in the Dominican Re- public, the Caribbean island co.untry, which is in the throes of a violent revolution. An undisclosed number of Marines and airborne troops have landed on the island, presum- ably to protect Americans until such time as they can be evacuated. Estimates of the number of troops already involved range up to 5,000, indicating our ability to move swiftly and perhaps decisively in what obviously has been determined in Washington to be an Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120030-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 9792 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE May 11, 1965 attempted repetition of Castro's Communist takeover in Cuba. Already there are Outraged voices from some of the members Of the Organization of American States. Memories of the old cry, "the Marines have landed," have aroused lingering suspicions of the giant from the north. Faced with the necessity of a quick decision to protect American nationals, Presi- dent Johnson had no time to consult OAS members. If at the same time he was fol- lowing the Hennedy doctrine that this coun- try will not tolerate Communist takeovers of any more Latin republics, he has acted in our own and the hemisphere's interests. The President disclaims any intent of occupying the Dorniniean Republic. But the presence of American troops will tend to act as a brake on 'violence, permitting the OAS to move in as ' intermediary in the absence of an organiied government. If necessary, our presence will prevent a Com- munist takeover, Castro-style, which no Latin country wants. The Dominican Republic, after its many "years of dictatorial rule by Trujillo, faces a long and tortuous road to democracy. After his years of cruel dictatorship, the door to an even more cruel dictatorship of the left has been left open. That is the vacuum into which the United States has been forced to move and the OAS should lend its support. The main concern now is to establish a rea- sonable government so that the marines can leave. [From the Atlanta Constitution, Apr. 30, 1965] THE JOHNSON BRAND (By Eugene Patterson) WASHINGTON.?Disparaged often as a merely political animal, President Johnson likes to point earnestly and a little sensi- tively to the character of his appointees. The Johnson cadre now taking full form can hardly be called partisan, he points out. He adds that he simply sent for the best men, that none among them asked him for the job they got. This President has, in truth, gone about staffing the Government in unique ways. For his principal tarentscout he did not choose a political adviser but a civil service professional, John Macy. Macy does oper- . ate loosely through the politically knowl- edgeable White House staff, but they report back to him and he recommends to the President. Their telephone inquiries cover the country and final selections are made from long lists of carefully weighed possi- bilities. The faces fit no set forms. Nicholas Katzenbach, an abrupt and intense intellec- tual, and john Doer, a ruggedly reticent John Wayne type, were considered Itennedy men (even though Doar joined the Justice Department under Ike). But Mr. Johnson chose them for his own, on merit, as Attor- ney General and chief of Justice's civil rights division respectively. Secretary of the Treasury Henry Fowler is small and silver haired, soft spoken and pleasant?a southerner. ("You fellows have a dynamic base down there in Atlanta," he says.) But the steel shows in his eyes, his mind is quick and his word is firm. He may work some quiet surprises. Secretary of Commerce Conner is a strong man in a post that has not always been strongly filled. He has differed in the past and still does with some L.B.J. A maverick and a man of action, he has about him a tough vitality that you sense in the top businessmen. He stopped for lunch is Atlanta a couple of years ago, when he waE head of the Merck pharmaceutical empire and I remember him then etc:Pressing somE reservations about Medicare. But not blinc. ones. He felt industrial retirement plans had created the inadequacy of medical caro I 3r the elderly masses, and he was searching Its mind for some positive way whereby pri- tate employers might fill the gap before government did. Of the now Johnson crop, one of the most iMpressive is Adm. W. P. (Red) Raborn, Jr., who was sworn in Wednesday as chief of the (IA. Sandy haired and weatherbeatert, gaborn is a hardflsted administrator who demands the impossible. In developing the :?olaris submarine missile years ahead of schedule, he got it. But he laughs off com- ?niments about that. "I know what they mean when they call me the father of ?olaris," he smiles. "They know how little the father has to do with the baby?and they know it's somebody else who really has to_get the job done." Raborn recalls with pleasure, incidentally, a recent trip to Callaway Gardens in Georgia. He says he has been a great admirer of Georgia Representative HOWARD (BO) CALLA- WAY since the Congressman let him fish his well-stocked bass pond. ARMENIAN INDEPENDENCE DAY, 1965 Mr. FELL. Mr. President, today we live in an era when the future of many groups of peoples around the world hangs in the balance. The world is un- settled and no one can now say how the pieces will fall back together. Uncer- tainty and instability are the rule in many areas of every Major continent. The nature and rate of economic and political progress will unfortunately not be determined solely by the people them- selves, but instead by the larger struggle known as the cold war. Self-determination of peoples remains, a noble ideal which we shall never aban- don no matter how difficult it is to ? achieve in practice, and in spite of the apparent permanence and stability of oppression from without. The 47th an- niversary of the Armenian peoples' declaration of independence on May 10, was a reminder that the situation of minorities and nations today is nothing new to history. We learned a bitter lesson from the events that followed the achievement of independence of the Armenian people and many others in 1918. We learned that minority na- tionalities cannot maintain their own independence unaided in the face of more powerful neighbors. Today it is our policy to try to forestall this all-too-familiar pattern. We finally have come to the realization that a pas- sive role, and the attempt to be a side- line umpire play into the hands of the aggressive power seekers and ideologs at loose in the world. The Armenian Republic was not only a victim of her oppressors, but a victim also of apathy and inaction on the part of those who could have helped her be- fore it was too late. The historic home- land of the Armenian people was at- tacked and divided in 1920 by the ancient enemies, Russia and Turkey, taking ad- vantage of the general state of postwar chaos and exhaustion to dominate oth- ers and extend their borders. There is not a single barbarity known to man that the Armenian peoples have not suffered. For many people in the Western World their first realization of genocide was that of the Nazis in World War II. But in 1915, while the great powers were locked in the First World War, Turkey took the opportunity to massacre and deport nearly 2 million Armenians within the crumbling sphere of Turkish power. It is a tribute to the vitality and re- sourcefulness of the Armenian people that they were able to establish them- selves as an independent republic only 3 years later when the opportunity came. We salute the Armenian people and pray that their unquenchable spirit of freedom will once again find expression in the world's political structure. MISSOURI RIVER RESOLUTIONS Mr. McGOVERN. Mr. president, I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the Moose 10 resolutions adopted by the Missouri River States Committee, and forwarded to me by Gov. Nils Boe, of South I)akota. The resolutions deal with resources matters before the Congress, and will consequently be of wide interest. There being no objection, the resolu- tions were ordered to be printed in the REcoark, as follows: REsorairroN 1?WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH LABORATORY Resolution of Missouri River States Com- mittee, Omaha, Nebr., April 15, 1965 Whereas the Missouri River is-the longest, river in the United States; and, Whereas this river serves some 529,000 square miles of land important to the welfare of both Canada and the United States; and Whereas water is the lifeblood of this area Serving human, natural habitat, agricultural and industrial needs; and Whereas the quality of this water must be maintained at a level to serve intended uses; and Whereas the development of this area tends to degrade this water quality to a level unfit for intended use; and Whereas the degradation of this water is peculiar to this area, demanding special restorative measures and practices; and Whereas the Secretary of Health, Educa- tion, . and Welfare, under Public Law 89-88, approved July 20, 1961, shall establish, equip, and maintain field laboratory and research facilities in various sections of the country to prevent and control water pollution; and Whereas laboratory sites have already been selected for several. reigons outside the boundaries of the Missouri River Basin, mak- ing service to this basin impractical, if not impossible: Now, therefore, be it Resolved, That the Missouri River States Committee on this 15th day of April 1965, requests the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to locate a regional water pollu- tion research laboratory in the Missouri River Basin at a site selected on the basis of the criteria set forth in the Gross committee report, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1962. RESOLUTION 2--S011, CONSERVATION AND ACP FUNDS Resolution of Missouri River States Com- mittee, Omaha, Nebr., April 15, 1965 Whereas the work of millions of years in soil formation can be completely destroyed in et century, a generation, or overnight. Therefore, soil conservation is the most im- portant of all resource conservation pro- grams, for it is from this resource that the food. and fiber for this generation and all future generations must come. Whereas preventable erosion of topsoil through lack of adequate soil conservation contributes to the floods so damaging to both rural and urban areas. Uncontrolled Approved For Release 2003/10/15: CIA-RDP671300446R000500120030-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 May 11, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE The fact is, however that in the Dominican Republic the emergency was believed to be so acute that there was no time for a thorough inquiry before acting, and that neither the Charter of the OAS nor the ex- isting setup of the OAS provided the ma- chinery for dealing with the emergency. It can be said, as President Bosch is saying, that his supporters were on the verge of win- ning when President Johnson stepped in. But it appeared to President Johnson that Communists trained by Castro were very near to seizing control of the Bosch rebellion. If they had done so, the situation in the Dominican Republic might well have been irreversible. There would then have been no more constitutional elections. The U.S. in- tervention, though it was unilateral and in Violation Of Article 15, has to be justified on the ground that it prevented an irrever- sible situation, whereas now the way is still open for a democratically elected govern- ment. If the United States is to come out of the affair with clean hands, it must persuade its neighbors in this hemisphere that the char- ter, which was adopted in 1948, must be sup'- plemented and developed in order to meet the conditions which were not known or realized 17 years ago in 1948. The charter was based on the proposition that, with the defeat of Hitler in 1945, there was no further external threat to the peace of the hemi- sphere, and that the problem was how to end forever the U.S. interventions in Latin Amer- ican affairs which had been going on for something like a hundred years. Article 15 is directed to this. ? The United States agreed to the doctrine of the charter, being itself convinced that the hemisphere had nothing further to fear from Europe, and that the U.S. interventions in order to protect Ameriain interests were out of date. But what neither the Latin American governments nor the United States realized in 1948 was that an American Re- public, Cuba, was to undergo a revolution that might make it, as happened in 1962, a military outpost of a foreign power. For this contingency the OAS was not pre- pared, and public opinion in the American Republics was not prepared. Even before the Cuba missiles crisis of October 1962, as a matter of fact, as early as the autumn of 1961, the American Republics have been talking about the problem. The Conference at Punta del Este, Uruguay, was convoked in December 1961 in order to discuss the prob- lem of "the intervention of extracontinental powers directed toward breaking American solidarity." (From the resolution of the Council of the OAS on December 4, 1961.) The fact of the matter is that the OAS had not carried that discussion to a point where the organization was ready to deal with the emergency which broke out last week. It is this deficiency which needs to be repaired, and only when Itis repaired will our uni- lateralism in the emergency be overcome and our violation of the letter of an inadequate treaty be purged. It is, I believe, upon such a foundation of candor and humility that we can bring about the solidarity of the hemisphere. On our part, candor and humility compel us to admit that we acted outside the law because we deemed it obsolete for the emergency. On the part of our neighbors, candor and humility call for a recognition that the OAS is an underdeveloped institution for realizing the ideals which it proclaims. EVANS AND NOVAK BIAS IS SHOWING- .,c) The SPEAKER pro tempo?. Under Previous order of the House, the gentle- man from Ohio [Mr. Asnsitoox] is rec- ognized for 10 minutes. Mr. ASHBROOK. Mr. Speaker, I take this time to again call attention to the recurring effort of many news commen- tators and writers to treat the left and right in American political thinking in a different and, I feel, unfair manner. I have pointed out several occasions where the New York Times referred to "far right" or "rightwingers" while at the same time calling their counterpart "lib- erals" with no adjective. In the Washington Post column of Rowland Evans and Robert Novak, which was carried on Sunday, May 9, 1965, we once again see this device. I point this out with particular interest because it has long been the stock and trade of Marquis Childs, Walter Lippmann and, other writers of the left but not Evans and Novak. They have usually been fairer. Referring to the seven Demo- crats who voted against the $700 million additional authorization for Vietnam and the Dominican Republic military ven- tures, Evans and Novak charitably re- ferred to them as super liberals. Now there is a real label?super liber- als, In the same article they refer to a "group of rightwing Republicans who financed Ronald Reagan's speeches." Now, tell me Rowland and Bob why is it "far right" or "rightwing" when it comes to conservatives and Republicans but it is only "liberals," or in this case "super liberals" when it comes to the other side of the political spectrum? This is not to take anything away from the small group of Congressmen whicb opposed the President's request. They are very ardent in their views but by any honest political termination they would be as far left as the right-wing backers of the Ronald Reagan speeches of last fall. Why is it that most writers con- tinue to use this unfair terminology in labeling the various shades of American political thought? The conservatives never seem to get a fair break. Is this deliberate? You can read the New York Times for weeks and rarely see "left wing," "far left" or "leftist" but they label most conserva- tives by the "far-right," "right-winger" label. The entire article is included at this point in the RECORD: L.B.J. FEEDS ON GOP: PRESIDENT QUICK To SNATCH UP FORD'S IDEA OP VIET FUND AS VEHICLE POR SUPPORT (By Rowland Evans and Robert Novak) All Washington has been ooh-ing and ah- lug about President Johnson's political mastery in getting a congressional vote of confidence for his foreign policy without realizing that the idea really came from a Republican: House Minority Leader GERALD Forth, of Michigan. The Ford assist came Sunday night during a bipartisan emergency session of congressional leaders called at the White House by Mr. Johnson because of the Do- minican crisis. With congressional leaders from both par- ties seated around the Cabinet table, the President made it clear he was upset about the Capitol Hill sniping?Democratic snip- ing?against the U.S. hard line in Viet- nam and the Dominican Republic. Through much of this monolog, Mr. Johnson was glaring at Senator J. WILLIAM FULBRIGHT, of Arkansas, his old friend who has called for a pause in the bombing of North Vietnam. 9859 Mr. Johnson implied that Congress ought to show the world it really backs up his policies. Moreover, he went on, if his critics in Congress desired, they could amend the resolution of August 1964, giving him a blank check in Vietnam. It was at this point that FORD got his in- spiration. Congressional resolutions are old hat, he said. Besides, that blank check au- thorization on Vietnam was passed by Con- gress only last August. Asked FORD: Wouldn't .it be more effective for Congress to give the President a vote of confidence by passing a special appropriation for Vietnam? Mr. Johnson snatched FORD'S fast ball and ran with it. He sent the $700 million re- quest to Congress 2 days later (after first taking it up privately with White House aids). Although the money isn't really needed, the appropriation was widely billed as a dis- play of confidence. Moreover, there were fewer defecting Democrats (only seven superliberals in the House) than would have been the case with a policy resolution. A footnote: Although the appropriation was a Republican idea, House Republican leaders had to work hard to get a unanimous Republican vote. One conservative southern Republican was ready to vote "no"?not be- cause he opposes a hard foreign policy but because he opposes unnecessary appropria- tions. An offer by the California group of right- wing Republicans who financed Ronald Reagan's speeches on television last fall has been rejected by House Republican leaders. The offer: To promote a regular series of money-raising political shows over nation- wide TV. This group is the old TV-for-Goldwater- Miller Committee headed by James Kilroy, a militantly conservative Los Angeles realtor. The Kilroy committee has sent public rela- tions man, Robert Raisbeck, to Washington on several visits the past few months. Raisbeck's mission was to get permission from the House Republican campaign com- mittee, headed by Representative Has Wn..- sox, of California, to starts regular series of money-raising political shows (to get con- tributions from viewers). Initially financed by the Kilroy committee, the shows' pro- ceeds would go to House candidates in 1966. Most important, the programs would have been produced under the overall direction of Ralsbeck's firm, P.R. Counsellors, Ltd. (which produced the Reagan shows for the Kilroy committee). Wilson, House Republican leader GERALD Foie) and National Party Chairman Ray Bliss were understandably suspicious. What worried them was that in the hands of militant conservatives like Kilroy (who still controls an estimated $160,000 left from the Goldwater-Miller campaign), the films might embarass the Republican Party. To guard against the possibility, Raisbeck and two members of the Kilroy committee on their last visit here guaranteed not to interfere with the political. "line" of the TV series. But Wir...sox and Foal) remained skeptical. More significantly, so did Bliss. Again they said "no." Kilroy will have to look elsewhere to spend his money. Alaska's Democratic Senator, ERNEST GRUEN/NG, IS hurting badly back home be- cause of his passionate opposition to Presi- dent Johnson's no-retreat policy in Vietnam. What is damaging the 78-year-old Senator is not so much his stand on southeast Asia but the fact that his violent disagreement With the President has undercut his prestige in.the White House. More than any other State, Alaska depends on the good will of the Federal Government. It lives on Federal benefits. There are deep fears that these benefits might be affected as a result of the Gruening-Johnson split. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000500120030-1 9860 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE Despite this, GanEtyma voted against the President's request for $700 million for the war effort in Vietnam but (attempting to temper the effect of that vote) came out strongly in favor of Mr. Johnson's interven- tion in the Dominican Republic. NEED FOR IMMIGRATION REFORM (Mr. OTTINGER (at the request of Mr. KREBS) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. OTTINGER. Mr. Speaker, on January 13 of this year we were privi- leged to receive a message from the President on a matter vital not only to our country but to our friends and neigh- bors overseas as well. On the same day, my distinguished colleague from New York [Mr. CELLER] introduced a bill to effect the President's proposals?HR. 2580. Because this legislation is of such great significance, I should like to take this opportunity to present the statement I sent to Subcommittee No. 1 of the Com- mittee on the Judiciary for insertion into the hest-rings on H.R. 2580: STATEMENT 05' HON. RICHARD L. ?WINGER, OF NEW YORK, TO SUBCOMMITTEE No. 1 OF THE HOUSE COMMITTEE ON THE JIM/DIARY, CON- CERNING HR. 2580, A BUJ, To AMEND THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Mr. Chairman, I thank you and the mem- bers of the committee fOr allowing me to submit a written statement into the hear- ings on H.R. 2580?a measure of great im- partance and one on which action is long overdue. I feel there are few areas in our law which more urgently demand reform than our pres- ent unfair system of choosing the Muni- grants we will allow to enter the United States, particularly under the archaic and in- equitable national origins quota system. This system embarasses us in the eyes of other nations, it creates cruel and unneces- sary hardship for many of our own citizens with relatives abroad, and it is a source of loss to the economic and creative strength of our country. While I believe that our immigration laws must first serve the best interests of our Nation and must contain a clearly defined system of selective controls, I feel that the provisions contained in H.R. 2580 are far better than the national ,origins quota sys- tem, which makes no attempt at all to dis- tinguish which immigrants will best serve the interests of our Nation. As President Kennedy so aptly noted in his book "A Nation of Immigrants": "The use of a national origins system is without basis in either logic or reason. It neither satisfies a natinoal need nor accomplishes an international pur- pose. In an age of interdependence among nations such a system is an anachronism, for it discriminates among applicants for admission into the United States on the basis of accident of birth." It is my belief that the bill under discus- sion would make it easier to bring to the United States persons with special skills and attainments that we need and want; it would reunite thousands of our citizens with mem- bers of their families from whom they are now needlessly separated; it would remove from our law a discriminatory system of selecting immigrants that is a standing af- front to millions of our citizens and our friends overseas; and,2 it would provide for the needs of refugees and serve our tradi- tional policy of aiding those made homeless by c itastrophe or oppression. In essence, this tneasure would accomplish all these nec- essary goals without damaging the interests of any person or group, either here or over- seas. It is obvious that if a change were not necessary in our immigration laws, four Pres- lden wbuld never have called attention to this serious liaV7 in our legislation. Scale sections of our immigration laws are part.cularly unjust, such as that which in- Vail Is the Asia-Pacific Triangle where the quotas are not on the basis of one's place of birth but rather on their racial ancestry. As o ur distinguished Secretary of State notf,d: "It represents an overt statutory dis- crimination against more than one-half of the world's population." Of almost equal inequity is the fact that numb of the total quota goes unused each yea. Thus, while England and Ireland are assigned 88,000 persons a year, or about one- hal: the total for all nations, and use only abcut 32,000 persons annually, most of the other countries of the world must suffer under small quotas which are, in the greater malority of cases, heavily oversubscribed. Our great Nation was built by immigrants of iourage and ability who came from many lar ds. We have benefited from the genius of men who came to our country, often seeking religious, political or intellectual freedom?men such as Albert Einstein, Neils Bohr, Enrico Fermi and thousands of others. Or country has prospered not only econom- Luny from the contributions of these people, but also socially and culturally. Cinder the protections provided in this bill, I tin convinced that the proposed law con- tutes no threat to our labor force. Gov- ernmental studies show that the present quality of immigration results in the crea- tion of more jobs than the immigrants them- selves take and, in many cases, the immi- gi ants are highly skilled and can make major contributions to our science and industry. This bin emphasizes needed skills whereas eeisting legislation virtually ignores them. I would submit as a further safeguard, however, that while preferences should be provided to meet particular labor shortages, I do feel that this preference must be pre- cisely defined and properly administered. furthermore, I feel a definite distinction reeds to be made between those jobs which ere permanent and those of purely a seasonal r temporary nature. Another provision which is salutory is the establishment of an Immigration Advisory Board. I feel this Board would be most use- lid in providing in-depth evaluation of the fyperation of the new law. Also, this Board. tvould serve to help remove Some of the in- slistices in the present system by adminis- :aring the pool of unused quotas during the yearly reduction of these quotas. However, in decisions pertaining to the existence of labor shortages in particular fields, I feel the Secretary of Labor should be given a more active and clearly defined role than Is appar- ently envisaged. The Secretary of Labor possesses the necessary information on which to base sound judgments in this area of concern. In essence, then, it is my belief that HR. 2580 will clarify our policy and bring it closer to the desires of the American people. It will demonstrate to the world our dedica- tion to equal and just treatment of immi- grants. I take this opportunity to urge this committee to issue a favorable report on this bill. I join with the President in urging my distinguished colleagues "to return the United States to an immigration policy which both serves the national interest and continues our traditional ideals." Again, Mr. Chairman, I wish to thank you and the members of the committee for al- lowing me to present written testimony on this subject. May 11, 1965., DR. FREDERICK ALBERT COOK (Mr. McCARTHY (at the request of Mr. KREBS) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the Flacon]) and to include extraneous matter.) _Mr. McCARTHY. Mr. Speaker, last March I noted that this was the centen- nial year of the birth of one of the great- est of American polar explorers, Dr. Frederick Albert Cook. At that time I inserted in the RECORD an article in the highly reputable Journal of the Arctic Institute of North America, which called for a reopening of a scientific study of the North Polar expedition of Dr. Cook. The case for Dr. Cook is strong and should be reviewed by fair minded men? The article declared. Accordingly, as the 100th anniversary celebration ap- proaches, I am gratified to know that the New York State Legislature has seen fit to memorialize this outstanding yet largely unrecognized son of the Empire State, whose remains lie in Forest Lawn In Erie County. The legislature has memorialized the Governor to proclaim Thursday, June 10, as Dr. Frederick A. Cock Centennial Day in New York State, urging appropriate ceremonies. The people of Delaware Township in Sullivan County have or- ganized a centennial committee, and the town has authorized a historic marker which will be erected at Dr. Cook's birth- place. A civic celebration will be held June 13. I join with my fellow citizens in honor- ing the memory of this great explorer, who gave two decades of his life to fur- ther our knowledge of the uttermost ends of the earth in both the North and South Polar regions. If there is no objection, I would like to insert the following res- olution of the New York Legislature sponsored by my good friend and able colleague, Mrs. Dorothy A. Rose: lazscaarriors 165 Concurrent resolution of the senate and assembly memorializing His Excellency, Gov. Nelson A, Rockfeller, to proclaim Thursday, June 10, 1965, as Dr. Frederick A. Cook Centennial Day in New York State (By Mrs. Dorothy A. Rose) Whereas Dr. Frederick Albert Cook was born 100 years ago this June 10 in the hamlet of Hortonville, Sullivan County, in the State of _New York; and Whereas Dr. Cook is acknowledged as being a pioneer American polar explorer, a phy- sician and scientist who participated in the . early expeditions in both the Arctic and Antarctic, a writer, author of several books, lecturer and traveler; and Whereas Dr. Cook's accomplishments have been acknowledged by various scientific and geographic societies, including knighthood by Leopold, King of the Belgians, and a gold medal presented by the King of Denmark; and Whereas Dr. Cook was given honor by the giants of polar exploration of his day, includ- ing the discoverer of the South Pole, Roald Amundsen, and his two decades of service toward the expansion of geography and science in both -.polar regions have earned him an important place in polar history; and Whereas the fruits of his 20 years in the farthest reaches of the earth resulted in his reaching, on April 21, 1908, the geo- graphical North Pole, and the subsequent recognition of this feat by the Royal Danish Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 oaf May 11, 1965 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- HOUSE 9861 Geographical Society and the University of Copenhagen, whose honors remain in force; and Whereas such authoritative sources as Steiler's Atlas and the Italian Military Polar Institute have joined with many polar his- torians, explorers, and scientists in recog- nizing Dr. Cook as the discoverer of the North Pole; and Whereas recent studies and explorations of the polar ice cap tend to corroborate the orig- inal observations made by Dr. Cook 56 years ago, and recognized proceedings such as the journal of the Italian Geographical Society and the journal of the Arctic Institute of North America have.called for a serious study of his polar expedition; and Whereas a group of explorers, educators, oceanographers, and students of polar ex- ploration have joined to form the Dr. Fred- erick Albert Cook Society, nonprofit educa- tional organization seeking to gain official recognition for the scientific and geographic accomplishments of Dr. Cook; and Whereas on June 10 next in the commu- nity of Callicoon, county of Delaware, Sulli- van County, the society will be joined by the officials of the township and the Sullivan County Historical Society in celebrating the centennial of Dr. Cook's birth; and Whereas the Legislature of the State of New York also seeks to honor the accomplish- ments of this native son who passed to his reward in his 75th year on August 5, 1940 and who is now buried in Forest Lawn Ceme- tery, Buffalo, Erie County: Now, therefore, be it Resolved (if the senate concur), That Gov. Nelson A. Rockefeller be and is hereby re- spectfully memorialized to issue a proclama- tion designating Thursday, June 10, 1965, as Dr. Frederick A. Cook Centennial Day in New York State and calling upon the people of the State to mark and observe that day with appropriate ceremonies and exercises; and be It further Resolved (if the senate concur), That a copy of this resolution be transmitted to His Excellency, Gov. Nelson A. Rockefeller. By order of the assembly. JOHN T. MCKENNAN, Clerk. SALUTING THE RURAL ELECTRIFI- CATION ADMINISTRATION ON ITS 30TH BIRTHDAY (Mr. JONES of Alabama (at the re- quest of Mr. KREss) was granted per- mission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) Mr. JONES of Alabama. Mr. Speaker, I am happy to join with my colleagues in saluting the Rural Electrification Ad- ministration on its 30th birthday. REA to me has always been one of the most rewarding Federal agencies ever created?a wonderful example of good purpose and great deeds. REA has been an agency of the US. Department of Agriculture for the last 26 years, and I would be remiss today if in my salute to REA I did not include Orville L. Freeman, the Secretary of Agriculture, and Norman M. Clapp, the REA Administrator. REA is once again a vital and driving force in rural America, with a deep sense of purpose. Secretary Freeman and Ad- ministrator Clapp believe that the way to economy in this great program is through strengthening the rural systems by permitting them to develop to their No. 84 18 full potential and thus become less de- pendent on Federal financing. They also believe that the real objec- tive of Congress when it wrote the Rural Electrification Act was to make elec- tricity available to people in the country on a parity with the rates and services enjoyed by people in the cities. I agree with them support them in this endeavor. There is a gap between the price of electricity in the country and the price in the cities and towns. This gap should not be permitted to exist and something is being done about it. Let us look at the record. In my home State of Alabama, the REA-financed distribution systems were able to make only four rate reductions in fiscal years 1961 through 1964, but so far In the first 10 months of this year, six already have made reductions for a total savings of $223,500 to consumers. Alabama has 27 REA electric borrow- ers, including 24 cooperatives. They serve approximately 224,000 consumers over more than 40,000 miles of line. And like rural people everywhere, these con- sumers are using more and more power. In 1953, the monthly consumption per consumer on REA-financed lines in Ala- bama was 221 kilowatt-hours; 10 years later, in 1963, it had climbed to 540 kilo- watt-hours?more than double. The rural people of Alabama are proud of their electric systems. They are local- ly owned and they represent private enterprise at its very best. It was President Johnson, who as a Member of this House in 1948, said: If ever there was an enterprise wholly American in concept and chskracter, it is the program of extending the blessings of elec- tricity td all people who live in the rural areas of our land. In the 30 years of the federally spon- sored rural electrification program we have seen rural America move into its rightful place as an important segment of our society; we have seen the people of rural America come alive, to enjoy many of the privileges and pleasures that had hitherto been only the privileges and pleasures of city people. And why? Because the marvel of electricity moved in over the lines of the REA systems. In Alabama, I watched the REA loan programs, both electric and telephone, play a major part in the preservation and improvement of the family farm. The availability of electric power and telecommunications has enabled the family farmer to become more produc- tive by helping him to make more effi- cient use of his family's time, his capi- tal, and his resources. Electricity, which has many important applications in the mechanization of such farm enterprises as dairying, poul- try and egg production, and hog and cattle feeding, has enabled the family farm unit to increase production with- out the employment of additional human labor. Electricity?working for pennies a day?has proved an efficient and tire- less "hired hand" which can help over- come rising costs and marketing prob- lems. Electricity also has made life on the farm more attractive to young people and has helped discourage migration to urban areas. Today the farm family can enjoy the same standard of living, Including electric kitchen appliances and equipment, laundromats and dryers, air conditioning, television and radio, and electric heating, which is available to the people residing in the? towns and cities. I know firsthand of a number of young people in Alabama who have built their homes on their families' farms, and re- main in the country to carry on opera- tions that their parents might be forced to abandon when they become too old to work. The availability of electricity also has been essential in creating new nonfarm enterprises in the rural areas. The new jobs created by these commercial firms represent important supplementary in- come to many members of farm families and are enabling them to weather the current cost-price squeeze and to con- tinue to maintain their homes in rural areas. But despite the great inroads rural electrification has made in making rural America a better place in which to live, half the poverty of our country is con- centrated among 30 percent of the Amer- ican people who reside in rural America. President Johnson, Secretary Freeman, and Administrator Clapp have called upon the rural electric and telephone systems to assume a leadership in the war on poverty and to help in bringing about the Great Society. The systems were asked to help because our country's leaders are aware that the people who pioneered rural electrification possess the initiative and the know-how to tackle difficult jobs and get results. Under the rural areas development program of the Department of Agricul- ture, and through REA's own RAD staff, REA electric and telephone borrowers from July 1961 to the end of 1963 helped to launch over 900 industrial and busi- ness enterprises in rural areas. These projects created more than 60,000 direct jobs and over 40,000 indirect jobs in sup- ply, service, and other related industries. A total of $750 million was invested in these enterprises, of which more than 90 percent came from State and local sources, including private capital and commercial lending institutions. About $43 million was provided in Federal funds, including loans from the Area Re- development Administration and Small Business Administration. Less than $2 million came from financing through loans to cooperative systems under sec- tion 5 of the Rural Electrification Act. The assistance given by the REA bor- rowers to these enterprises has generally involved technical aid in developing sound projects and locating financing, rather than participation in the financ- ing. Availability of electric and tele- phone service from the REA borrowers has often been an important factor in the location of these new enterprises. REA borrowers in my State and else- where in the Nation have responded Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 9862 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.? HOUSE magnificently to this call to rid our coun- tryside of poverty. The REA-financed rural electric sys- tems also have the great task of meeting the demands for more power in an ex- panding rural America. Not long ago, President Johnson said that "in the next 25 years, the rural electric cooperatives of the United States will be lighting the lamp of our Nation's progress." The REA borrowers are on the way to mak- ing this prediction come true. And while they are doing it, we must never forget that these rural electric systems are a permanent segment of our society and of the electric industry. They have earned the right to be treated as such. We wish them many happy tomorrows. A BILL TO STRENGTHEN PRESENT FEDERAL DISASTER RELIEF PRO- GRAMS (Mr. BRADEMAS (at the request of Mr. KREBS) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. BRADEMAS. Mr. Speaker, on Palm Sunday, in Indiana and again last week in Minnesota, a devastating series of tornadoes ripped through the Mid- west. One of the hardest hit areas was my own congressional district in In- diana which, according to the Red Cross, sUffered 54 dead, 242 injured, and mil- lions of dollars in property damage. The response of the local, State, and Fed- era) governments and many private or- ganizations and citizens to the emer- gency needs of the stricken areas and communities came quickly and effec- tively?first aid, food, and temporary shelter were provided. We are very grateful to those pub- lic officials and private citizens who gave so unselfishly of their time and energy in the hours and days immediately following the disaster. On April 14, 3 days after the tornadoes struck Indiana, President Johnson, my colleagues, Senators VANCE HARTKE and BnIcH BAvx, Buford Ellington, Director of the Office of Emergency Planning, Gov. Roger Branigin of Indiana and I toured part of the stricken area of my district, particularly the little commu- nity of Dunlap, near Elkhart. The ex- tensive damage, total in some places, and the personal suffering and tragedy stunned and moved us all. Mr. Speaker, under unanimous con- sent, at this point I insert in the RECORD an article from the April 14, 1965, South Bend Tribune describing President Johnson's visit to Dunlap: L.B.J. VIEWS DTJNLAP RUINS, PROMISES FED- ERAL AID FOR STORM VICTIMS?PRESIDENT CALLS SCENE HORRIBLE (By Jack Colwell) President Johnson today walked through rubble south of Elkhart which once was a subdivision and then lie promised Federal assistance for the survivors of the tornado which leveled the area. Again and again the President shook his head in disbelief as he viewed the wreck- age left by the Palm Sunday tornadoes which killed at least 54 persons in Elkhart Coun- ty and at least 86 throughout northern Indiana. As the President stepped abroad his plane at 11:08 a.m. at the St. Joseph County Air- port to fly to other tornado and flood disas- ter areas in the midwest, he was asked if Federal aid could be expected for the devas- tated area he had just seen. "Yes," said the President. Johnson arrived in South Bend for his whirlwind tour at 8:40 a.m. A crowd of about 2,000 greeted him at the airport. TEN THOUSAND IN ELKHART WELCOME Scattered spectators were along his motor- cade route through South Bend to the north- ern Indiana toll road. As he drove through downtown Elkhart enroute to the nearby Dunlap disaster area, Johnson was greeted by 10,000 spectators. "Horrible, just horrible," Johnson said as he viewed and walked through the wreck- age of the Sunnyside subdivision at Dunlap. - He talked with some of the tornado vic- tims who had lost their homes. "I'm sorry," he told them. Several times Johnson was asked if he had ever seen such devastation. He shook his head "no." There was a grim expression on Johnson's face throughout most of the hike through broken boards, shattered glass, and scattered faousehold furnishings. - VIEWS RUBBLE IN SILENCE Much of the time he just stood amid the rubble, saying not a word. He climbed onto what was left of a porch of a damaged house to see what was left inside. For a while he stood atop a pile of debris near where someone had affixed a tattered American flag. After his first stop, to see a crushed house trailer, the President and accompanying offi- 3ials, including U.S. Senators BIRCH E. BATH Ind R. VANCE HARTKE and U.S. Representa- tive Jor-nv BRADEMAS, moved to the heart of the destruction in the Sunnyside area. Then they visited disaster headquarters at the nearby Concord Township fire depart- ment, where Johnson had a cup of coffee said a sweet roll. "I sure thank you," the President told the woman who served the coffee. TALKS WITH YOUNGSTER "Thank you for what you're doing for these )eople," he told her. The coffee counter was set up in the sta- ton by members of the fire department aixiliary to help disaster victims who still were probing the acres of wreckage in search 3f personal belongings. Although the Johnson of today was- far different from the talkative, hand-shaking, ,3xuberant Johnson of campaign days, he took out to talk to a little boy and ask "Are :rou my friend?" The little boy said "Yes." Johnson signed an autograph with a Ilprawled "L.B.J." And he had an "L.B.J." pin for another :/oUngster. For a moment he stopped to talk to Mr. :aid Mrs. Carl Sharkey, residents of the leveled Kingston Heights subdivision adja- lent to Sunnyside. COUPLE DESCRIBES ESCAPE - They told the President how they had es- caped serious injury by finding shelter in the itsement as the tornado struck. "I'm thankful we got out of it, even if it did take our home," Sharkey told Johnson. Sharkey assured the President that Mrs. Echarkey's black eye was the result of the storm and not action on his part. The Presi- Cent and spectators, many of them homeless victims of the tornado, chuckled. "Good luck to you. My thoughts are with 36u." Johnson told the Sharkeys as he left. Johnson spent about a half-hour in the subdivision destruction area. He spent about 10 minutes at the fire station. May 11, 1965 He stopped the Motorcade only once during its path through the downtown and residen- tial sections of South Bend and Elkhart. That was to shake hands with some school- children gathered along Lincoln Way West not far from the airport. . NATION "STUNNED, SHOCKED" In a short speech at the airport immedi- ately after his arrival, the President said all the Nation was "stunned and shocked over the weekend by the tragedies which struck so many families and communities in so many of our States." He noted that he was making the tour of . disaster areas with Buford Ellington, Direc- tor of the Office of Emefgency Planning, in order to find out what the Federal Govern- . ment could do to help. "We: pray that our technology and science will some day enable us to exercise greater measure of control and prevention" over natural disasters, Johnson said. "Until that day comes, I know it is the will of the American people that whenever their neighbors or friends in any community, in any State, suffer such losses at the hands of nature, the Government of this good and generous people should be ready and pre- pared to assist in every useful way," he said. "This is- the reason we are here." He Said the Federal Government at such times "must not be something cold and far away" but instead be a "warm neighbor." The .President said he hoped his visit and the visit of the other officials would "en-. able our Federal assistance to the States and communities to serve more effectively, more promptly and more efficiently in the tasks of reconstruction and rebuilding, that face the citizens of this area." When Johnson left here, he headed by plane for Minnesota, where he- was to view flood d.a:mage along the Mississippi River. He planned to fly over and view tornado damage in Illinois and Iowa while en route. After leaving _Minnesota, the President was to fly to Toledo, ? Ohio, to inspect tornado disaster sites. He was to fly, over and view tornado damage in Michigan on the way. Mr. Speaker, 'what had been suburban homes in neat little subdivisions at Dun- lap had been replaced by dirt-covered, and broken boards, shattered pieces of glass, and scattered debris which had once been furniture. Neat rows of mobile homes were replaced by a field of - useless rubble. Entire families were killed; others lost sons or daughters or wives or husbands. The human loss was the worst of any natural disaster in our history. We. -saw and heard all this and more. 'My district deeply appreciated the time President Johnson had taken to pay a personal visit. His visit- also emphasized to the. people of my district, and I am sure of all the districts he visited, that the entire Nation shared in their suffer- ing and stood ready to assist them. Mr. Sneaker, under unanimous con- sent I enter in the RECORD at this point, three editorials 'written about the Presi- dent's_visit to my district: [From the Goshen (Ind.) News, Apr. 15, 19651 HERE AND GONE The President of the United States has come and gone. It didn't take him long. His visit to Elkhart County on an inspec- tion tour of disaster areas in six Midwestern States was brief but timely. It came at a time when a lift in spirits was welcome. Hundreds of people who voted for him and scores upon scores who didn't turned out to greet him on a motorcade swing through Dunlap, the hardest hit area in Indiana. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 - A2298 Approved For Ri&KtiM1914kiCad9R871_3_0R146Mge0120030-1 May 11, 1965 60 speeches a day. Quite often when some- one was ',listening. Then suddenly, at the peak of his career, he vanished. Oh, how it will bring tears of joy to the eyes of his millions of oldtime fans to learn that he lives. Yes, today the once-famous Hubert Horatio Whatshisname lives quietly in the humble obscurity of the Vice Presi- dency. And while we must respect his wish for privacy, we oldtime fans cannot help but envision how happy he must be humbly put- telling about his humble new duties in his humble new role. Scene: The breakfast nook of a humble cottage at the end of a one-way lane in the backwash district of Washington. It is dawn. Hubert bounces energetically up and down in his seat as his wife prepares his morning meal. Mrs. 1-1: "Now that you've retired from ac- tive life, dear, must we still rise so early? Look, the sun is just coming up." Mr. H (solemnly) : "Yes, precisely as our great President, Lyndon B. Johnson, pledged that it would." Mrs. H (sighing) : "I wish you wouldn't start working on your job before breakfast. Will you have some eggs?" Mr. H: "Yes, please. I would dearly love two clear examples of the wise planning in- herent in our great President's forthright program to increase the productivity of our fine American chicken ranchers. Scram- bled." Mrs. H: "Really, dear, while I love the sim- ple anonymity of your new job, you must miss expressing your opinions." Mr. R: "Nonsense. As our great President said to me, 'Hubert, there's room for a wide range of opinions in my administration. As long as they don't conflict with mine. And you don't get your name in the papers.'" Mrs. H: "Theta nice, dear. Do you like your eggs?" Mr. H (annoyed) : "You know I can't call him up at this hour to ask a silly question like that. Hand me the paper." Mrs. H (blanching) : "Oh, dear, you prom- ised not to read the papers any more. You know What it does to you." Mr. H (stanchly) : "I know, but if I wish to be a success in my new job, I must calmly overcome this foolish reaction. Here you take the Great Society section, while I coolly read the headlines, which say, 'President Sends More Troops to Vietn * ? *" Aggghhh, Ooogggh. Quick, open the door of the broom closet. I feel an attack com- ing on. (As he dashes into the broom closet.) Fellow Liberals, our outrageous policy in Vietn?" Mrs. H (slamming the door behind him and locking it) : "Phew. That was close. It sounds like a long one. I'll set the timer for 2 hours and then peek to see if he's done." Teenagers Carry Fight to the Rivers EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ALEC G. OLSON OF MINNESOTA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 11,1965 Mr. OLSON of Minnesota. Mr. Speaker, we frequently hear criticism of our teenagers. Newspaper articles re- porting misdeeds of a small portion of our young people do much to create a bad image for all. Because teenagers seldom have an opportunity to rate headlines for their good deeds, I was pleased to see the article in the April 23 Washington Post by Alfred D. Stedman citing the generous efforts of Minnesota teenagers who assisted in controlling the recent flood, Mr. Speaker, I request this article be reprinted in the RECORD. I also request that a recent report from the Minnesota State civil defense office be reprinted: [From the Washington Post, Apr. 23, 1965] A TARNISHED IMAGE IS WASHED' AWAY BY FLOOD (By Alfred D. Stedman) ST. PAUL, Muckr.?Came the Mississippi's worst floods in history, and up from the schools and colleges and universities sprang a student army to save the day. Their generation had been headlined as "lost" and "troubled" and "wayward" and "fickle." But on the banks of the raging Mississippi and its rampant tributaries, they pitched in with the margin of nerve and mus- cle that did the job. In fact, the performance of students whose antics have worried parents and puzzled pro- fessors from Yale to Berkeley may turn out to be the biggest bright spot in the whole murky story of the floods. FLOCKED TO FLOOD SCENE Adults managed and directed and did their share of sandbagging and diking. But it was the grit and energies of thousands of boys and girls from campuses and classrooms that, at the crisis, tipped the balance against the floods. Some hailed the youthful feat as a trans- formation for the better from weird student doings and attitudes. Some guessed that per- haps education may be cultivating youthful values and capacities that aren't always visi- ble. Others asserted the student generation has been all right all along, being merely exposed by a small minority to public misun- derstanding and a bad press. But as to the facts, there's complete una- nimity. ,It was no bunch of hopeless beat- niks or social rebels who flocked to the flood scene from nearby high schools and by bus- loads and carloads from fraternities and sororities and college dorms. It was instead an ablebodied volunteer force of determined young people, in quick grasp of the emer- gency and ready to take orders for action to Meet it. Up and down the Mississippi and its feeder rivers, the story was clear and undisputed. At Mankato, the teenagers fought the floods around the clock on both banks of the Min- nesota River. "They were magnificent," said Mayor Rex Hill. "The stamina of the girls was especially amazing." At Stillwater, they teamed with adults, including 50 State prison convicts, in erect- ing what was christened the "condike" to contain the St. Croix River overflow and save the city. Generally in the Upper Mississippi Valley, the role of the student flood fighters In reducing or averting destruction was judged "highly significant" by Col. Leslie P. Harding, U.S. Army District Engineer at St. Paul. Sitdowns? Sex? Unwillingness to take orders? Varidalism? Disrespect of author- ity? Not a sign of any of such objects of complaints about campus conduct was ob- served day or night by Colonel Harding, his assistants or others in charge of flood work. Nothing of the kind, reported the Washing- ton County sheriff, Reuben F. Granquist of Stillwater. CONTRAST STUDIED The contrast with the image of a rebellious student generation is not at all surprising once the basic motivations of students in the contrasting roles are understood, com- mented several who work closely with them. "They want to be useful," said School Superintendent Thomas D. Campbell of Stillwater. "When they see an outlet for service, they leap for it." Agreeing completely, the University of Minnesota's director of student activities, Donald R. Zander, expressed confidence that, in the same kind of emergency the student response would have been just as heartening on other campuses, including Berkeley. In a swiftly changing world, the students are in- sistent on freedom to explore ideas, but that motive, said Dr. Zander, is wholly consistent with their urge for useful service. At least, in the light of the flood story, a fresh look at the character of the student generation can make wokried parents feel much better than they did. [From the Office of the Minnesota State Civil Defense] Of the 6,000 unpaid, unsung volunteers that slogged in the mud at the dikes in Mankato, literally thousands had not yet seen their 20th birthdays; many not their 15th. Those young people worked to the point of exhaustion in the muck and rain; catch- ing a few hours sleep only to join the battle with renewed vigor that only comes with youth. While the younger ones filled the sandbags with blistering hands, the older or more sturdy types struggled with the weight of them to the top of the dike?girls as well as boys. This was not going on only in Mankato. A coastguardsman was quoted as saying that if it wasn't for the kids in Minnesota, there wouldn't have been a volunteer dike raised in the State. The teenagers in every affected city and town carried the fight to the rivers. It was seen in Rockford, in Hen- derson, in Wabasha, and East Grand Forks. Our kids filled the breach left open by the lack of adequate control measures. Dominican Responsibility Should Be Taken by OAS E 1 Tik1S)ON OF REMARKS OF ON. JOHN E. MOSS Or CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, April 22, 1965 Mr. MOSS. Mr. Speaker, I commend to the attention of our distinguished col- leagues the following editorial which ap- peared in the Sacramento Bee, on May 4, 1965, regarding the U.S. involvement in the Dominican Republic and the OAS. The text of the editorial follows: DOMINICAN RESPONSIBILITY SHOULD BE TAKEN BY OAS President Lyndon B. Johnson acted swiftly and decisively to meet the threat of a pos- sible Communist seizure of the long-troubled Dominican Republic. The sending of American troops into that country has ended any immediate threat another Castro-type regime will be estab- lished in the hemisphere. But large-scale intervention also has imposed on the United States a great responsibility. The government which eventually will take over power must be one representing the will of the people of the Dominican Re- public and meeting the approval of the br- ganization of American States. The President has enunciated a firm Amer- ican policy to prevent the establishment of another Cuban-type regime in Latin Amer- ica. It also should be American policy to prevent the return of an oppressive, reac- tionary regime such as existed under Gen- eralissimo Rafael L. Trujillo, under the guise of anticommunism. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 May 11, 1965A2297Approvtgp6pErsim2E3ityalifilA-IyijppeRne6R000500120030-1 Chairmaft Evins and the committee are concerned. They are concerned when they hear that our export8 of machine tools have declined steadily since 1957 with the exception of two categories?metalworking and power gener- ... ? . . ? ating. They are concerned when they hear that with two minor aceptions our share of the Imports of Machine tools has dropped in all regional world markets. They are concerned when they hear that our share rf the world production of ma- chine tools has dropped from more than 24 percent to fess than 20 percent. They are concerned when they hear that our machine tools generally are older than those of acme other nations. They are concerned that machine tool and die manufs cturers in other nations can un- dersell our mdustry by 30 percent. They are concerned that we seem to be lagging in research and development of in- formation 21. the machine tool a,nd die in- dustry. We have got to get this modernization un- derway?az d underway on a massive scale. Chairman Evins in his speech prepared for delivery he 'e stated?and I quote?"The tool and die inc_ustry is the heartbeat of our free enterprise i.ystem. "It must move ahead with the times. "We canaot fiddle while the competition from fore4n toolmakers burns hotter and hotter." And so the House Small Business Commit- tee will cm iduct fact-finding studies to help you find tle best possible course for mod- ernization. The committee will study all alternatives of financing. It will document the need for moderniza- t i o n t. I will pnpoint problems and recommend steps to colinter them. Chairmaa Ewe's and the committee are sympathete to you and your problems. The committee exists to serve small busi- ness It exists to explore the problems of small business WA to help it down the paths to solutions. That is what we intend to do in your case. Thank you for allowing me to appear be- fore you I &day. We shall look forward to seeing sons of you at the hearings during this term cf Congress. Thank yOu. You have the liberalized depreciation guidelines on new equipment. You have the 7 percent investment credit. You have the overall income tax reduc- tion?ranging to 27 percent for small corpo- rations. You get a double dividend there. You get the immediate dividend from immediate reductions in your taxes and comparable increase in earnings. And you get the feed- back from a strong rate of economic growth. And you are getting that now. The Department of Commerce predicts that capital expenditures will rise this year to a new peak of $50.2 billion?an Increase of 12 percent over last year's record of $44 billion. " New domestic orders for cutting tools totaled more than $78 million in February which was 29 percent more than the total for February of last year. And so the policies of the President and the Congress have strengthened the small business sector across the board. President Johnson has taken a personal interest in small business programs. He personally inaugurated a small loan program in 1964 that brought a quick re- sponse from smaller businessmen. The SBA under the direction of its very able Adminis- trator, Gene Foley, set new records in loans made last year and will set new records this year. Our current economic expansion has broken all peacetime records. We are now in the 50th month of healthy and sustained growth. And economists who a few months ago were predicting a slackening in 1985 are now predicting that this rate of growth will con- tinue throughout this year. President Johnson and the Congress are determined that this growth rate will be sus- tained and are prepared to introduce added stimulus when it is needed. We know that your industry has done a tre- mendous job in tooling up the Nation?with- out which our country Would not be great. We know you are dedicated energetic busi- nessmen. But we know you have some problems which are often beyond your control. We know that many of you feel that equitable financing for new machinery is not available to you. We know that many of you feel that the rates charged by some elements of the pri- vate sector are too high. We know that some of you are utilizing Small Business Administration programs but that many of you hope for a specialized SBA program tailored to your industry. I know that you are disappointed that an element of the private sector declined to go along with one carefully prepared proposal. Some of you have found the answer in ex- isting SBA programs, I wonder if an of you understand the opportunities and the details of these programs, I understand, however, that a small business forum to be conducted by SBA is on your agenda for tomorrow and I am sure you "will receive a thorough and complete briefing on that agency's programs. Certainly there are many instances wherein members of your industry have prospered and progressed with the assistance of the SBA. Certainly there Is presently Government assistance for your industry. But it is still felt that a complete program is lacking. Chairman EVINS and the committee think we iieed to determine what your industry needs and then find some way to fulfill those needs. And so for that reason, Chairman Evnrs is announcing today, and has authorized me to announce it first to you here now, that the House Small Business Committee is going to hold hearings on your problems during the 89th Congress and is going to come up with recommendations for their solution. . Hoppe's Columns EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. J. ARTHUR YOUNGER OF CALIFORNIA IN THE li101-3SE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 11, 1965 Mr. YOUNGER Mr. Speaker, Mr. Arthur eppe, the columnist from San Franciscc, has prepared two very good and amusing columns on affairs in Wash- ington, ne first one published on the 26th of April in the San Francisco Chron- icle and the second one on the 29th. I am sure that many of the readers of the RECeaDI Will enjoy these two articles, which fol low : [From the San Francisco (Calif.) Chronicle, Apr. 26, 1985] M. Joan GOES TO WASHINGTON By Arthur Hoppe) "How'd it go, Jud?" Mrs. Jud Joad asked anxiously as her husband sank down on the bench in ,he little park across from Poverty Corps headquarters. "Was they glad to see you?" "To tell the truth, Maude," said Mr. Joad, "I don't rightly know whether it was worth the long trek up here from Appalachia Cor- ners. Oh, they was mighty glad to see me, I walks right in and tells this pert young lady who I am and what I want. "'I seen by the papers,' I says, 'that you are recruiting poverty fighters for the war on poverty,' I says. 'At $20,000 a year on up. am an old man,* I says, 'but I am not too old to fight." "Oh Jud, that took grit," said Mrs. Joad, squeezing his arm. "Well," said Mr. Joad, "pretty soon this smart-looking ycung fellow In shirtsleeves comes out. Ile looks at me and says, 'My Clawd.' Then pretty soon there's a whole passel of these young fellows standing around, staring. 'It's a genuine victim,' says one, kinda awed like. You could tell they never seen the likes before. I was mighty proud. " 'Let's take him in to see Serge,' says one. 'It might be worth a couple of columns in the dailies.' So's they take me in to see their sergeant, who's right nice. `What can I do for you?' he says. "Well, I tells him all about my fighting poverty from the Texas dust bowl to the piney woods of Georgia, man and boy for nigh on 70 years, 'So,' I says, 'figuring my country needed my vast experience. I come to fight for you. And I'll settle for half pay.' "'You are a patriotic American,' says he. 'But we got 12 different programs going at the moment. Now, drawing on ycur vast ex- perience, which would you say was the best way to fight poverty?' I give this a couple seconds' thought and then I tell him. 'With money,' I says. " 'By Gawd, says he, 'you and I ;hink That's just what I been telling them up on Capitol Hill. You got the right outlook to be a member of our team.' "'I ain't much at sports,' says I. 'No,' he says, 'I mean fighting poverty. Just you look over this here list of jobs and see which one suits you best.' So's I do, but none make much sense. Like 'community services planner' and 'public relations coordinator.' But finally I seen one: 'pilot program di- rector?$22,500.' 'That one,' says I. 'Never been up in no aeroplane, but I ain't too old to lam.' " says he, 'we'll give you the usual taste and interviews and see hew you do.' So's they give me all these tests and * * * "Jud,' said Mrs. Joad impatiently, "stop frittering and tel me, did you get the job fighting poverty or no?" Mr. Joad shook his head sadly. "Nope," he said. "I ain't qualified." "Well, don't take it too hard, Jud," said Mrs. Joad, patting his shoulder. "I don't," he said. "The sergeant bucked me up. He says I should go home and fight at the com- munity level. On a volunteer basis. And while he didn't exactly promise, I figure he may land me one of them Jobs yet. Soon as I get a little more experience." ? [Prom the San Francisco (Calif.) Chronicle, , Apr. 29, 1965] LET'S NOT FORGET THE FOEGOTTEN (By Arthur Hoppe) It is time for another chapter of "Where Are They Now?"?that nostalgic, heart-tug- ging series which tells of the unforgettable greats of yesteryear now tragically forgotten by a fickle public. And who will e'er forget the fighting liberal, that crusader for the oppressed, that independent-minded Senator who wore no man's yoke?the unforgettable Hubert _ Horatio Whatshisname. Oh, who can help but feel a warm inner glow on remembering this human dynamo in his heyday?battling the militarists and the trusts, standing up for the cause he be- lieved in without fear or favor, making 50 to Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 1.ccy 11, 1965 It would be tragic, and in the long run, disastrous, if American intervention proved to be the instrument of returning the des- tiny of the Dominican Republic to the hands of a military oligarchy opposed to social progress and democracy. Juan Bosch was elected President by an overwhelming majority of the Dominican people in 1962 during the first really free election in the history of the nation. He has called on the rebels fighting for his re- turn to power to lay down their arms and not to fight our soldiers. This could open the door to a peaceful solution which would serve the interests of the Dominican people and at the same time eliminate the threat of a Communist-domi- nated government. As rapidly as possible the United States should turn over to the Organization of American States control of the peacekeeping activities now being carried out by U.S. soldiers. The OAS also should assume full respon- sibility for determining the proper, legiti- mate government of the Dominican Republic. The intervention of America, based on con- cern for a Communist seizure, must not be the prop to support a reactionary, repressive regime. However, the intervention will have been in a good cause if U.S. troops assist the OAS in bringing peace and an honest government responsive to the needs of the people. Approveggayggni9piCgbiffiA-RRFfgeili6R000500120030-1 A2299 Excise Tax on Entertainment Equipment EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JAMES A. BURKE OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 11, 1965 Mr. BURKE. Mr. Speaker, on Feb- ruary 8, 1965, I introduced H.R. 4471 to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 relating to the manufacturers excise tax on entertainment equipment to al- leviate the economic burden on consum- ers. I believe my colleagues would appreci- ate being informed of the reasoning for the introduction of this legislation: TEN REASONS WHY CONGRESS SHOULD REPEAL THE 10-PERCENT PEDERAL EXCISE TAX ON TELEVISION, RADIOS, PHONOGRAPHS Most excise taxes were levied on the Amer- ican people by Congress during World War II and the Korean conflict as fundraising meas- ures for the Nation's defense effort. They were described as wartime and temporary taxes. The following reasons explain why the 10- percent manufacturers excise tax imposed on radios, phonographs, television sets and their components should be repealed to remove the burden imposed on the consumer, encourage the growth of ultra high frequency (UHF) television broadcasting, promote the eco- nomic well being of the industry and stimu- late the national economy. 1. Tax repeal is the logical second step after the all-channel TV law. This industry became "double taxed" when Congress passed a law effective May 1, 1964, requiring a separate UHF tuner on all TV sets, raising the price as much as $30 per receiver even though 80 percent of purchasers cannot now, and many may never use this added equipment. Leaders of Congress and Government agencies concerned have advo- cated excise tax repeal to offset this added burden on the consumer. 2. Excise tax cuts will be passed along to the consumer. The reduction in the average price of black-and-white television sets from $270 in 1950 to $140 in 1965 demonstrates the inten- sity of competition and efficiency in this Industry. Compared to the Department of Labor wholesale price index of 100 for the base years 1957-59, the December 1964 wholesale price index was 87.2 on radios, phonographs, and television, whereas all other comrnod- ities averaged 100.8. Portable radios, for example, had a price index of 60.1. In fact, radios, phonographs and television had one of the lowest price indexes of all consumer Items in the Nation. The administration, the Congress and the consumer can be assured by this industry's pledge and past performance that the bene- fits of excise tax repeal will be passed on to the consumer through lower prices, thereby bringing the hoped-for result?a boost in the national economy. 3. Excise taxes on radios, phonographs, and TV fall on those who are least able to pay. The history of tax philosophy has been to alleviate the burden of the taxpayer least able to pay?the family?particularly, the lower income family for which these media are often the sole means of entertainment and enlightenment. To these families a radio, phonograph or television purchase rep- resents a much more substantial expendi- ture than it does for the higher income groups. 4. The householder pays a discriminatory tax on his radio, phonograph, or TV set. In 1954 Congress reduced the manufac- turers excise tax rate on practically all house- hold items subject to the tax, but the 10 per- cent on radios, phonographs and TV sets re- main. These products account for 43 percent of total sales. Yet they are the source of 59 percent of the revenue from all household items. 5. TV, radios, and phonographs are no longer luxuries, but necessities. Radio and television as the major sources of information and entertainment today are essential to everyday life. Radios or phono- graphs are in 94 percent of U.S. homes and TV in 93 percent. Average TV families watch some 61/2 hours daily; 70 percent of all men, 78 percent of all women and 99 percent of all children watch TV daily. 6. Radio and TV are "must" media in time of crisis. They provide an unmatched communica- tions system to the entire population in times of local or national emergency, for civil de- fense instruction, and for hurricane, tornado, and flood warnings. They were the first media to inform the people of such events of national importance as President Ken- nedy's assassination and the succeeding dramatic events; Presidential speeches on the Cuban and Vietnam crises, and vital mes- sages to Congress and the Nation. More peo- ple are likely to hear of a major news event from radio than through any other medium of communication. 7. Radio and TV are optimum means for enlightenment, education, and cultural progress. The most important key to national and international understanding is communica- tion. Because of their intimacy and imme- diacy, radio and television stand supreme among all media of communications. Educa- tional television (ETV) supplements and en- hances classroom instruction and brings in- formation and culture into the home. ETV, largely dependent on UHF broadcasting, is hampered by the higher cost of all-channel sets. Tax repeal would offset this deterrent to UHF development. 8. Radio and TV are major, mature media for news and special events. A surveyl reveals that TV is looked to for 1 Elmo Roper & Associates Survey, 1964. news more than any other medium, and that radio and TV are the most believable news sources. More than a third of the time spent by people viewing TV or listening to radio, even on the lowest educational level, was de- voted to news and public affairs programs. Live coverage of the political conventions, the elections, the space launchings, the civil rights movement?all illustrate the vital role radio and TV play in keeping the American people informed. A tax on television and radio is as con- trary to wise public policy as a tax on news- papers and magazines would be. 9. Radio and TV are tie most valued sources of entertainment. Radios, phonographs and television are the principal means of entertainment for the entire family and particularly among the lower income families who are least able to pay the higher prices made necessary by the 10-percent excise tax. The American public, In a recent survey,' chose television ahead of radio, newspapers and magazines as the item they would least want to give up. 10. Revenue loss to the U.S. Treasury will be largely offset by business growth. The combined radio and television manu- facturing and broadcast industries employ over a million people. Increased sales brought about by excise tax repeal on radios, phonographs and television will increase em- ployment and plant expanion in manufac- turing and distribution and will open new areas of opportunity to broadcasting. Color television is on the threshold of be- coming a billion-dollar industry and the all- channel law is encouraging UHF broadcast- ing. The effect of excise tax repeal in these areas and in general on the electronics in- dustry, the Nation's fifth largest, can have no other result than to stimulate the flow of the economy, thereby offsetting to a large extent any tax revenues lost to the Treasury. Elmo Roper & Associates Survey, 1964, Rutgers Degrees: 41,410 in 20 Years EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. HENRY HELSTOSKI OF NEW JERSEY IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 11, 1965 Mr. HELSTOSKI. Mr. Speaker, Rut- gers University, one of the Nation's old- est educational institutions and one rich In tradition and accomplishments, is now marking the 20th anniversary of its de- signation as the State University of New Jersey. I wish to bring to my colleagues' attention the outstanding work this great university has been doing on behalf of the community, State, and Nation. Rutgers, nearly 200 years old, has de- veloped numerous leaders in government, business, agriculture, journalism, and many other fields. Rutgers graduates can be found at the head or in the top echelons of many business enterprises. They have served their State and their country well. Since becoming our State university, Rutgers, through enthusiastic public support, has grown and prospered in order to serve many more of our young people. Much more work is to be done, but we have gone far at Rutgers. ? The Newark Evening News pointed out this week that Rutgers, the State univer- sity, has awarded advanced and under- Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 A2300 Approved For ReLlem:iptOsV8/41iCift8Sigp_MVEM0120030-1 graduate degrees to 41,410 persons in the 'past 20 years, more than it had granted In all the previous 180 years in its his- tory. So that many more observers can be made aware of,the great forward strides Rutgers University has made, I would like to insert in the RECORD this article published by the Newark Evening News: UNIVERSITY'S EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES HAVE MUSHROOMED SINCE 1945: 41,410 RUTGERS DEGREES IN 20 YEARS Ncw Barmswicx.?Since passage of the State university act 20 years ago, Rutgers University has granted undergraduate and advanced degrees to 41,410 persons--more than were granted in all the previous 180 years of its history. The act, approved March 26, 1945, ex- tended the designation of State university to all units of Rutgers. It started the uni- versity expanding in the areas of enrollment programs, faculty and physical facilities which included acquisition of urban cam- puses in Newark and Camden. The tangible results of this expansion are a quintupling of college credit students, con- struction of millions of dollars worth of new buildings, and enlarged opportunities for graduate and professional study. "But beyond all this," according to Dr. Richard Schlatter, acting university presi- dent, "I believe there has been a growing realization of what a State university means to the educational, cultural, social and eco- nomic life of a State; that the investment in a university pays off in a richer and more productive community." Commenting on the enlargement of the State university's educational offerings, Dr. &Wafter said Rutgers has organized a major educational, research or service unit al- most annually since 1945. DEGREE-GRANTING SCHOOLS The university has established degree- granting schools in library service, social work, nursing and medicine. It recently has authorized establishment of a new coedu- cational undergraduate college at the for- mer site of Camp Kilmer in neighboring Pis- cataway Township. Also Drganized during this period have been units in management and labor rela- tions, microbiology, practical politics, radi- ation science, information processing, animal behavior, statistics, urban affairs, alcohol studies, conservation and environmental science and community affairs. Dr. Schlatter said that Rutgers scholarship and research have kept pace with its expari- sion in education and service units. Rut- gers investment in sponsored research rose from $763,000 in 1945 to $8,505,000 in 1963. _ "All of this would have been impossible Without an outstanding faculty, Including some scientists and scholars of national and even international reputation," he remarked. Hutgers physical plant has grown tremen- dously in the last two decades. The univer- sity today has about 585 buildings located on 4,500 acres in New Brunswick, Newark, and Camden besides its research locations. NEW CONSTRUCTION A substantial part of this is new construc- tion. Since 1958, $118 million In new facili- ties have been built or planned throughout the State. A $16.5 million medical school building and a $16.3 million start for the new college in Piscataway are among proj- ects on the drawing boards. Dr. Schlatter said that two voter-endorsed bond Issues for $29.8 million in 1959 and for $19 million last year plus $19 million in State appropriations has provided the bulk of the financing for new construction at Rutgers. "But despite all this expansion, the num- ber of applicants we had to turn away this year has been larger than ever before," Dr. Schlatter said. - The State University Act of 1945 resulted from the study of the New Jersey Commis- sion on State Administrative Reorganization. it was a high point of a State-Rutgers rela- tionship which started before the Revolu- tionary War when the royal governor of the ?,arovince was an ex officio member of the uni- versity's board of trustees. _ Another high point in that relationship 'cccurred 9 years ago when legislation was adopted creating a board of governors at the university. The board consists of 11 - regular members and 2 ex officio members. - Six of the voting members are named by the Governor with the advice and consent of the State senate. Five are named by the -.Rutgers board of trustees which retain fl- -duciary and advisory functions. The uni- versity president and State education com- =missioners are the ex officio members. Supplemental Appropriation for Military Functions of Department of Defense, Fiscal Year 1965 SPEECH OF HON. EDITH GREEN OF OREGON IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, May 5, 1965 The House in Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union had under - consideration the joint resolution (H.J. Res. 417) making a supplemental appropriation ?for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1965, for military functions of the Department of De- , fense, and for other purposes. Mrs. GREEN of Oregon. Mr. Chair- - man, cloaked in the disguise of a mili- tary appropriation hill, this House was asked to approve, and did approve, this ; Government's policy of escalating the war in southeast Asia. Six of my col- leagues and I dissented. Since it is conceded by everyone, in- - eluding the President, that the $700 mil- ? lion was not the issue at hand, then at a minimum, surely, in this body which the = Speaker refers to as the greatest de- liberative body in the world, there should - be full discussion of what this resolution does mean while there is still time, hope- - fully, to resolve these tragic affairs be- fore we bring down upon our heads the wrath of the world and shatter the frail edifice of world peace. To my colleagues and my constituents want to say that for many, many months now I have searched for every _ possible excuse to support my Govern- ment in the policies it is pursuing in - Vietnam?and I have supported it. In 7 spite of the shaky logic of the "domino" theory, have done by very best to be- lieve in it; in spite of the fact that the - people of South Vietnam have been sub- jected to one unpopular and unstable dictatorship after another, I have done my best to believe we are defending their ',freedom; in spite of the fact that we have violated the Geneva accords, I have done my best to believe this was justified because the North Vietnamese did also, even though I know that two wrongs do not make a right; in spite of one humili- ating military defeat after another, I " have done by best to believe all the opti- mistic reports about our really winning May .11, 19;i14. the war over there; in spite of all the evi- dence of internal discord and revolt against the governments we maintain in power, I have done my best to believe this is what the Vietnamese people really want us to do?but, my fellow Amer- icans, there is a point beyond which cre- dibility simply will not stretch?and it is that somehow by waging a wider war we pursue a policy of peace. This vote represented, in my opinion, a vote for that delusion. It could not have been a vote for $700 million, for the President himself said this was available in any case. It could not have been a vote to show our united determination to halt Communist aggression, for if more than a decade of effort, more than 400 American lives, more than $3 billion expended does not show this, then how can 5700 million demonstrate it? One of the things the vote could mean, though, is what in fact everyone knows it will be interpreted to mean, and that is Congressional approval for the con- tinued bombings of North Vietnam and commitment of thousands and thousands of American troops to a war the justice and wisdom of which has been questioned inside and outside this Nation by citizens and friends of unimpeachable loyalty. I think it also clearly means the relin- quishment by Congress of its constitu- tional authority to declare war, for if the ;President can direct bombing raids on North Vietnam by simple executive fiat, why can he not direct similar ac- tion against any other nation at an3 other time? Why bother to ask? One( the bomb is dropped, it can always la4 pointed out that tightly or wrongly-- legally or illegally--we are in a war ant that American lives are at stake and tha It would be disloyal to not approve fund for the war. I cannot in good conscience lend my self to that -kind of usurpation of con gressional power, and for the purpose o continuing a course of action which I be lieve will only reap at best, decades o hostility, enemity, and distrust of m: countrymen by the peoples of Asia or, a worst, utter catastrophe for my Natioi and the world. Yet but an hour and a half debate war allotted for discussion of a measuh which profoundly affects the future o. our country and the world, and less that 15 minutes of that time was given tc those who might have reservations, wht might have questions, who might dis- agree. I find it impossible to under- stand why an admittedly unnecessar3 appropriation request need be mantled ir a cloak of urgency and secret meaning with full, free, and frank discussion of its merits denied. The high point of these whole im- plausible proceedings was the speech of one of my colleagues who, in one breath, demanded withdrawal of Government funds to an educational project, because some of the participants criticized ad- ministration policy in Vietnam and then, in the next breath, he admiringly quotes Senator Vandenberg's statement that: Every foreign policy must be totally de- bated, and the loyal opposition is under special obligation to see that this occurs. And this in the context of demanding for himself and others of the minority Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 May 11, 1965 Approved 4:6/1;ZIRicssA(00,0ilithieifil_D_PEpRIM000500120030-1 A2301 party a voice in foreign policy decisions. His exact quote is: These teach-ins are a protest against the national policy of our country. It seems to me that when we have individuals conduct- ing these teach-ins and acting as leaders in these groups, that it is not in the best in- terests of the national security of our coun- try for our Government to subsidize this kind of operation by financing projects in which these same people play a prominent role. I can see we are all going to have an absorbing year if we follow the advice of the gentlethan from Wisconsin, mak- ing certain we do not subsidize free in- quiry, but only subsidize thought control. And yet, I wonder if any policy, do- mestic or foreign, which its supporters here in this House are unwilling to risk to the judgment of free and inquiring minds can prove anything except on the part of its advocates, an abysmal lack of confidence in its strength. Surely a pol- icy in which one believes deeply can stand examination and discussion. Canada NO EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. MARTHA W. GRIFFITHS OF MICHIGAN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 11, 1965 Mrs. GRIFFITHS. Mr. Speaker, our national neighbor, Canada, is one of our best friends and our best customer, ranking first in purchases of U.S. goods. Yet, in general, we are too uninformed about our neighbor. As a nation, we should have more knowledge about Can- ada. Mark Ethridge, Jr., the distin- guished son of a distinguished father, writing for the Detroit Free Press of which paper he is an associate editor, has in a series of four articles attempted to increase our knowledge. The first article follows: RIVALRY HURTS AS CANADA SEEKS IDENTITY? HERITAGE AND U.S. WEALTH RULE A DIVIDED NATION (NOTE.?Geographically and culturally di- vided, rich in resources yet economically dominated by her giant neighbor to the south, Canada is struggling for a national identity. Free Press associate editor Mark Ethridge Jr., M a four-part series beginning today, puts a new perspective on the per- sonalities and problems, the advances and the setbacks, and the directions the struggle is likely to take.) (By Mark Ethridge, Jr.) One hundred years ago, Canadians began a search for independence that culminated in the British North America Act of 1867. Today they are beginning a search for identity, and where it will lead no one yet can tell for sure. The only certainty is that even after 100 years of freedom from British control, Canadians still don't have it. "Given a chance to adopt French culture, British government and American tech- nology," a Toronto editor said recently, "Canadians settled for French government, American culture, and British technology." Accurate or not, the three most dominant influences on the life of Canada are the two nations of its heritage and big daddy to the south?the United States. To each there are ties of blood and money as well as strains of resentment. So strong are each of these that Canadians have not yet created a society, an economy or a culture which could be classified as native Canadian. With the adoption of a flag this year as the most evident symbol this is precisely what Canadians are trying to do. Whether they will succeed is still to be determined. By an odd paradox Canada's three greatest assets?land wealth, a Ligh standard of liv- ing and indomitable courage?are also its three greatest handicaps. Canada's land mass is the second largest in the world, only after Russia, and it covers more than 31/2 million square miles. Con- sidering that the population of Canada is less than 20 million, this gives it one of the highest land-to-population ratios in the world, a standard economic index of wealth and potential. But the land is not divided right for the most efficient development along Canadian lines. Its mountains, as in the United States, run mostly north and south. Except for the St. Lawrence Seaway, which separates the United States and Canada from Duluth almost to Montreal?and then divides Can- ada itself?its river also run the wrong way. The ones that don't flow into Hudson Bay or the Arctic flow south into the United States. Thus the natural geographic ties are not east and west, but north and south. The plains of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Al- berta have more in common with the Da- kotas and Montana than they have with the maritime provinces. The Maritimes, in turn, are linked closely with New England, and British Columbia, on the west, considers Washington and Oregon its natural allies. Only the heartland, Ontario, is central enough and highly developed enough to con- centrate on being Canadian. And indus- trialized Ontario is economically tied to the United States. We are Canada's best cus- tomer, just as Canada is our best customer. This is paradox No. 2. Canada's high standard of living is a product of U.S. invest- ment in Canada, but it also means that Canadian industry does not have an identity of its own. Canada is dependent on the United States, while at the same time com- peting with us. This kind of relationship, said a highly re- spected editor of a Canadian financial news- paper, "is like the rich man playing poker with his chauffeur?after he's beggared the poor man he has to bail him out." "The best we can hope for is that this match, too, will be fixed." And the third paradox is Canadian cour- age, one not delineated by national origin. It is what enables a Canadian to tolerate the rigors of a northern winter or to stand up to the United States. But the same quality that makes Cana- dians fearless also makes them stubborn. Like Americans of -100 years ago, most put the province ahead of the nation. Rather than cede a point to another section, they seem willing to risk the dissolution of their country into its five natural, geographic, and cultural entities?British Columbia, the prairies, Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritimes. At the emotional center of this divisive quarrel is Quebec, where proud and provin- cial French Canadians never have forgotten that France lost her power in North America because of a British victory there in 1759. Quebec does not really care to be Canadian. It wants to be French. If it is possible to be both French and Canadian, Quebecois are willing, though. Since Quebec's 5 million people make up 28 percent of Canada's population they con- stitute a minority which cannot foe ignored. To keepthem happy, the Federal Government has had to make concessions which intensify rather than temper the dividing process. Prime Minister Lester Pearson, operating in Ottawa with a government made up of less than a majority, has been pressured to back down on centralization of government and to grant provincial premiers such inde- pendent authority over their affairs as would scare a U.S. governor witless. While these provincial powers have per- mitted each part of the nation to strengthen itself in its own way, they have not served as a unifying force. Unlike the United States, Canada is not a melting pot. It is a collection of ethnic, economic, and religious islands separated by vast stretches of unde- veloped land. Because Canada is divided into five sepa- rate and distinct areas, and because each has more independence than any comparable U.S. area, the Canadian economy also is frac- tionated. In general, in terms of gross na- tional product and the export market, it is booming. But It is uneven, more so than the assorted economies of the 50 United States. Ontario and Quebec are enjoying the great- est prosperity in their history. Ontario, long the industrial leader of Canada is seeing new plants spring up every day. Canada, Can- ada's second largest city, is nearly the size of Detroit. Montreal, the first city of Canada and the world's largest French city after Paris, is almost exploding with prosperity. In the center, across the street from the sprawling Queen Elizabeth Hotel, is the Place Ville de Marie, a remarkable underground Interna- tional Villate where a visitor can find im- ports from almost everywhere and dine at restaurants recapturing a Paris bistro or a backyard barbecue in Albuquerque. Dorval, Montreal's new airport is not so large as Kennedy International, but its architecture is more imaginative and the service is better than anything in the United States. And its planes are on time. Montreal currently is, engaged in great plans for Expo 67, an international exposition to mark the 100th birthday of Canadian in- dependence. Canada itself plans to spend $21 million on its national pavilion and exhibit, and to- tal $167 million. More than 50 nations, in- cluding the United States and Russia, have promised to participate. "We will move heaven and earth to insure that no visitor, participating nation or pri- vate exhibitor is gouged," says Robert F. Shaw, deputy commissioner of the exposition. "We want to build up enduring relations, both with the countries participating and with the guests who will visit us in 1967, and the way to do that is to make sure that they get good value for their money." To the east and south of Quebec, the Maritime Provinces?Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Newfound- land-rare the Appalachia of Canada, cramped, economically depressed, losing population, hindered by lack of ready ac- cess to the outside world. The prairie Provinces, like our Great Plains, still are tied to a farm economy with its resultant boom and bust cycles. Last year was a boom time, but next year?or any year?could be a disaster. The prairies are trying desperately and in competition with each other, to diversify by developing their ore deposits. British Columbia has the same problem of economic development that plagues Wash- ington and Oregon?the farMliar footnote in the ad which says, "Slightly higher west of the Rockies." Transportation is, expen- sive, especialy in a land whose population is spread out in a strip more than 3,000 miles long but only 200 miles deep. Brit- ish Columbia is the end of the liRe. Inflamed by the irritant of Quebec, in- spired by dreams of new authority, provin- cial rivalry has become so intense that many Canadians would rather buy abroad than from another Province. According to U.S. News & World Report, economic studies show Approved ror Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/15: CIA-RDP671300446R000500120030-1 A2302 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD --- APPENDIX May 11, 1965 that Canadians will spend up to 15 percent more to support local industries rather than "imports" from other Provinces. The executive of a Canadian firm is quoted is saying, "We find it more difficult to sell our products today in some of the Provinces of our own country than in Algeria and Venezuela." He might not be typical of the majority of Canadian industrialists, but there can be little question that the essence of his lament is real. Canadians, doing better than ever before, don't feel they need each other as they once did. There can be even less question that the sburce of this feeling, the irritant which keeps Canada from finding a national iden- tity IGO years after the search began, is Quebec. The Role of the OAS XTENSION OF REMARKS OF ON. ELIGIO DE LA GARZA OF TEXAS IN THE HOIISE OF RElittSENTATIVES Tuesday' May II, 1965 Mr. DE LA GARZA. Mr. Speaker, the strife, turmoil, and bloodshed in the Do- minican Republic in the last few days points up once again the continuous Communist subversion dictated from Moscow and Peiping and implemented from Havana. Every American should be proud of the swift action of President Johnson in taking those measures necessary to in- sure that communism shall not spread to another freedom-loving people in our own hemisphere. The issues in the Dominican Repub- lic crisis are clear. Shall a small band of foreign-trained subversives defy the will of the people, their constituted rep- resentatives and their national neigh- bors, or shall the comiained moral and political forces of the republics of the Western Hemisphere be brought to bear? The United States has a clear answer. President Johnson gave that answer in his address to the Nation when he said: The United States is ready to support with every resource at its command the inter- American system. I am proud of the determination which the President displayed to the world. I am proud too of the strong support which the American press has given to our foreign policy decisions. The edi- tors of our Nation have done an excel- lent service in clarifying the issues and printing informative explanations of the nature of the U.S. commitment to fight communism anywhere in the world. The May 5 editorial from the Washington Evening Star is a sample of that sup- port. This editorial follows: THE R OLE or THE OAS When the crisis in the Dominican Repub- lic reached the point at which the governing junta advised our officials that it could not guarantee the safety of U.S. citizens and those of other countries, President Johnson acted promptly and firmly. When informa- tion came through which persuaded him that the revolt against the junta was being taken under Communist control, he again acted promptly and firmly. Additional thousands of marines and paratroopers were rushed to the Caribbean country. And this wit the right thing to do. As a result our nationals and the others have adequate pro- teotion, large quantities of much-needed foxi and medical supplies are getting through, and theIighting for practical pur- pcaes is over. All of this adds up to a good day's work for Lyndon -Baines Johnson, and wc, applaud his willingness to act decisively when delay might have been fatal._ Once a decision has been made to intervene in a sii nation like this, it is vital that the in- te wention be effective. Still, the American people should not de- ce Tye themselves.. There is much that re- m ram to be done, and the doing of it may be more difficult than sending in the ma- rines and the paratroopers. Those who worry at out our image say that the United States s suffered because of this exercise In gun- boat diplomacy. To the extent that this m iy be true, and we do not believe there is mach truth in it, the fact remains that, un- der the circumstances, damage to our image wat greatly to be preferred to the slaughter of American citizens or a Communist take- ov er in the Dominican Republic. On this pc int it is significant that the complain- ants, whether in the Senate, the United Na- tions, or Latin America, have failed to come ujtWith a plan for a better course of action, or, in fact, with any proposal at all for an agernative. The truth is that the President hal no alternative, except to do nothing and accept what promised to be frightful con- sequences. The stage has now been reached, however, at which all parties should join in the search for a political solution. In this connection t1 e best hope lies with the Organization of tlerican States, which has had a peace-seek- ing commission in Santo Domingo for sev- eral days. It seems to us the OAS will do well to edn- centrate its efforts on securing a cease-fire is Santo Domingo followed by establishment crean interim provisional government there. If it prcives possible meanwhile to replace our troops with an inter-American force, so much the better. But there is less value in Jr stifying the steps already taken to restore o] der in the island than there is in searching oltt a solution to the problem of the polit- lora future. After negotiations with both factions in Santo Domingo, an OAS spokesman is re- ported as saying that a great deal of progress tc ward a solution of the crisis has been made. 5: nee no details were forthcoming, this slaauld be put down as a generality, but a htoeful one. On the other side of the ledger, U.S. authorities are reported to have said they al :e determined to make sure that all meas- Wes will be taken to eliminate any danger of a Communist takeover before American troops leave the island. Again, what we have here is a generality, hat one which is in line with the President's n.awly proclaimed doctrine that no new Com- namist regime will be tolerated in the Amer- ices. All of this, it seems to us-, suggests that the rale of the peacemakers will not be an easy are. Our troops may be in the Dominican Republic for quite a while. In the end, how- erer, there must come an acceptable settle- ment, and it is most likely to be achieved through the good offices of the OAS. Rumanian Independence Day SPEECH OF HON. CLEMENT J. ZABLOCKI OF WISCONSIN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES - Monday, May 10, 1965 Mr. ZABLOCKI. Mr. Speaker, I am pleased to join with my colleagues in commemorating Rumanian Independ- ence Day. Twenty years ago?a generation?So- viet military might thrust a crown of thorns on the brow of Rumania. Since that time the people of Rumania have suffered under the domination of a Com- munist totalitarian regime. In recent years there have, happily, been signs that the oppression slowly is being lifted. No longer does the Soviet Union maintain its military garrisons on Rumanian soil. Recently too, the Rumanian Govern- ment has demonstrated some independ- ence from Moscow, and has expressed a desire for better relations with the West. These efforts at breaking the grip of Soviet communism over a people are to be applauded. Let us hope that they presage even further advances toward restoring freedoms to the Rumanian people:' While no concession should be made any regime in Eastern Europe which would endanger our national security or solidify the position of Communist rulers, the United States should continue to work for the betterment of the Ruma- nian people. In this effort, it May be possible to explore increased trade, cultural and trade relations between people of the United States and the people of Ru- mania. In this way it eventually may be possible to assist the reentry of Ru- mania into the .family of European na- tions. It is that glorious time we look toward today as we commemorate Rumanian Independence Day. REA in Minnesota EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ALEC G. OLSON OF MINN.ESOTA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 11, 1965 Mr. OLSON of Minnesota. Mr. Speak- er, perhaps no congressional district in the Nation can testify more directly and convincingly of benefits derived from the Rural Electrification Administration than the Sixth Congressional District of Min:nesota. Since the beginning of the rural electrification program in 1935, REA has helped to light the homes and ease the labors of farm people in rural areas of the 19 counties in this district. In this great agricultural area, REA has been a boon to farm and village resi- dents and to the city dwellers who have cottages near our fine lakes or in our wooded sections. Today, there are 13 rural electric cooperatives which main- tain their headquarters facilities within the Sixth Congressional District, and 6 others which serve sections of counties in the Sixth District. In addition, there are eight REA telephone borrowers which have headquarters within this congres- sional district. The 13 rural electric borrowers are operating a total of 19,664 miles of elec- tric powerlines and they serve 53,044 rural consumers. One of these borrow- Approved For Release 2003/10/15: CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 May_11, 1965 Approve5f4riesmeRfillabRit?NWEIRISIVR000500120030-1 A2313 consideration the bill (H.R. 7657) to author- ize appropriations during fiscal year 1966 for procurement of aircraft, missiles, and naval vessels, and research, development, test, and evaluation for the Armed Forces and for other purposes. Mr. MACHEN. Mr. Chairman, as one of the newest members of the House Committee on the Armed Services, I would like to take this opportunity to expfess my sentiments about the excel- lent manner in which my chairman pre- sented the $15 billion military procure- ment bill in the House. It was another demonstration of the effective leadership he has exhibited since assuming the chair of the commit- tee upon the retirement of the Hcmorable Carl Vinson, who served as chairman so long and well. We who are freshmen on the Armed Services Committee will look to L. MEN.DELL RIVERS for continued lead- ership of the same high caliber. President's Order on the Dominican Republic EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ELMER J. HOLLAND OF PENNSYLVANIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 11, 1965 Mr. HOLLAND. Mr. Speaker, because of the numerous statements being issued daily on the President's order dispatch- ing our military personnel to the Domini- can Republic, I should like to insert in the RECORD a recent editorial from the Pittsburgh Press, April 29, 1965, on this subject. As the Press has so ably stated, the President is working and acting in be- half of our citizens. Were he to ignore their plight, there is a possibility that not only the Americans in the Dominican Republic would suffer. Other Amer- icans?within our own borders?could feel the effects of our Nation's disregard of rebellions, even small ones, so close to our shores. The President's action was well taken, I believe?and future events will so prove It. The editorial follows: . SENDING THE MARINES President Johnson's timely action in send- ing U.S. Marines to protect 'U.S. citizens in a friendly neighboring country torn by armed strife is well taken?as is his urgent new plea for warring factions within the Domini- can Republic to cease fire. The President ordered the Marines into the island Republic? only after new fighting had broken out and Dominican military au- thorities advised that U.S. military aid was needed to guarantee the safety of American citizens. The political situation within the Domin- ican Republic remains unclear. The Domin- ican Ambassador to the Organization of American States contends efforts to over- throw the Government were the "finaliza- tion of Communist plans to make the Dominican Republic a second Cuba." Our troops are officially in the Caribbean nation to guard U.S. citizens and foreign nationals who ask our protection. But high officials in Washington feel that we had an- other purpose in landing marines?to check- mate an attempt by Cuba's Communist dic- tator, Castro, to extend his sway. If that is true, it is welcome evidence that the United States is willing to take a firmer stand than it has in the past in blocking subversive activity that threatens the peace and good order of friendly nations in Latin America. Law Day in the United States EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. DONALD M. FRASER OF MINNESOTA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATPVES Thursday, May 6, 1965 Mr. FRASER. Mr. Speaker, one of our very able jurists in Minnesota, the Honorable Donald Barbeau, judge of the district court of Hennepin County, was the principal speaker in Law Day cere- monies held in the city council chambers in the city of Minneapolis on April 29, 1965. His message is brief but eloquent. Law Day is every day for the conscientious jurist who must exercise constant vigi- lance to see that the rights of all those who come before him are protected. Because this message speaks so clearly of this continuing role of those adminis- tering justice, under unanimous consent, I insert it in the RECORD at this point: LAW DAY U.S.A.?EVERY DAY U.S.A. (An address delivered by the Honorable Donald T. Barbeau, judge of the district court, at Law Day ceremonies in the city council `chambers, at 9:30 a.m., Apr. 29, 1965) While I greatly admire the setting aside of a particular day each year as Law Day to reaffirm the Arnerthan belief in law and peace as opposed to the totalitarian belief in armed might, I must point out that those of us closely connected with the law must and do practice Law Day every clay of the year. The people who appear in our courts come from all levels of society, rich and poor, edu- cated and uneducated, man, woman, and child, of all races and creeds, the poverty stricken and the affluent, the alcoholic, the mental misfit, all reaching out for an Ameri- can way of justice administered in an equitable manner. We jurists think of Law Day every day when we ascend the bench and see before us the poor and downtrodden and persons by the thousands burdened with almost insur- mountable problems of existence. We see Law Day every clay when the American system of justice is able to extend itself and apprise each of these persons of his rights, protect his constitutional privi- leges and give each and every one an oppor- tunity to express himself. Above all, we see it when the American system of justice is able to furnish help and succor to many of these citizens who are enmeshed in prob- lems beyond their control. We think of Law Day every day when we see the great legal advocate rise to defend these same impoverished people, regardless of how unpopular or impossible the cause may be, and when he carries such cause to the highest court in the land, not always with success, but always with sincerity. What bulwark would freedom or the in- nocent unjustly accused of crime have if none had the courage to defend? We think of Law Day every. day when we consider the judge who, to quote Socrates, "hears courteously, answers wisely, considers soberly, and decides impartially." We think daily of the courts as being the guardians of liberty and the sentinels who watch for the capricious, the corrupt, the arbitrary, and the automatic. We see it every day in the conduct of the trial judge who feels it is his duty to do justice, to love mercy, and to walk humbly with his God. The citizen, the advocate, and the judge, all working together daily, must convince the entire world that we have the finest form of justice. This can be done by the daily guarding of our precious heritage and a daily reaffirmation of our belief in the dignity of man because freedom itself demands con- stant vigilance. We must all daily dedicate ourselves to fighting for freedom for "the man next door." So to us who sit as judges "the rule of right, not might" is a living, vibrant thought that must be present day in and day out. The American system of justice, though not perfect, is the marvel of the modern world. Under it we have grown and progressed and become the richest and most powerful Nation in the world. But more important than that, today in- our country the lowliest person under our flag enjoys a broader opportunity to possess happiness, more equal justice, more protec- tion of life, liberty and property, and a great- er personal freedom than has ever been pro- vided for the common man by any other legal system in recorded history. Under present world conditions, with all of us so concerned lest nations and peoples, forgetting law and morality, turn to mutual destruction, we need all the more every day, as well as Law Day, to work for a day when law may govern nations as it does men with- in nations. Thoughtful persons do not need to be told that our Government cannot long exist once respect for the law is destroyed. Any apathy or indifference to the great rights of Ameri- can justice may deprive us of many of them. It is most proper, therefore, that on Law. Day U.S.A. and every other day we rededicate ourselves to the idea of the preservation of a free society with equality and justice for all. His Victory Our Loss EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. RICHARD D. McCARTHY OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 11, 1965 Mr. McCARTHY. Mr. Speaker, it is with mixed emotions that I heard last week of the official election as interna- tional vice president of the United Steel- workers of America of my dear friend, Joseph P. Molony of Buffalo. For while I and countless of my fellow citizens in Erie County are gratified and proud that our neighbor, Joe Molony, has been ele- vated by his brother steelworkers to the second highest post in the Nation's third largest trade union, we stand to lose a wonderful member of our civic commu- nity. Much has been written in recent years about the development of the so-called "union bureaucrat," Mr. Speaker, and there have been those both within and without the house of labor who have spoken sharply about the leadership of the American trade union movement. Some have suggested that their former Ideals and aspirations have been shelved in favor of personal gain and power. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 A2314 Approved For REJ8ReiflggiNof, cikwiti57s_toRtlfwilito0120030-1 There is no question but that this has been the case hi many unions, but it is indeed refreshing to know that three decades in the labor movement, through both good and bad days, have not changed the principals and standards of Joe Molony, who has earned the respect arid the admiration of leading indus- trialists, statesmen and civic leaden. Our neighbor and friend, Joe Molony, has been saluted in the Wall Street Journal for his determination and reso- lution to seek the fruits of the American way of life for the some 1 million mem- bers of the United Steelworkers. He is indeed in the tradition of Phillip Mur- ray, the beloved founder of his union, and of the other great figures of the American trade union movement. Mr. Speaker, if there is no objection, I would like to insert the following edi- torial tribute which appeared in the Buffalo Evening News on May 4, 1965: HIS VICTORY OUR Loss Now that the election of the Abel-Molony ticket of the United Steel Workers is official even though the result is not conceded by incumbent President David .1. McDonald, we congratulate the winners. But especially so to "Joe" Molony, who is known in Buffalo not only as a forthright and courageous and intelligent labor man but as a civic leader. As such he has been enlisted on the side of good government in Btiffalo and Erie County. Ed Kelly, our respected labor reporter, ad- vises that Mr. lvfolony's election as vice pres- ident of United Steel Workers doubtless means he will have to move himself and his headquarters to Pittsburgh, the center of activity for the million-member Steel Work- ers Union. This will be a gain for the steel workers, we believe, but it will be a serious loss in the political areas in which Mr. Molony has been active and has made his voice heard and Judgment felt in this com- munity. There are those who will be glad to see him go. We are not among them. Laotian National Day, May 11 EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. ADAM C. POWELL OF NEW YORK - IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, Oril 27, 1965 Mr. POWELL. Mr. Speaker, on May 11, 1947, Laos promulgated its first con- stttution. This constitution was to be- coine a kind of modern statute for the kingdom, which received its independ- ence from France 2 Years later. In Laos, May 11 has been designated National Day and today is the 18th anniversary of that important and historic occasion. I wish to take this opportunity to con- gratulate His Majesty King Sri Savang Vatthana, His Royal Highness Prime Minister Souvanna Phouina, and His Royal Highness, the Laotian Ambassador ' to the United States, Prince Tiao Kham- pan. It is an appropriate time to turn our - attention to the Kingdom of Laos. There Is a tendency for our eyes to focus on the developments in South Vietnam and to ignore what is happening in Laos. Yet Laos, as much as its neighbor to the south, is deeply engaged in a grim strug- Ole for survival. Both countries are Waging a war against Communist subver- sion and penetration. The front pages of newspapers are filled with reports from South Vietnam- -about the most recent air strike against a 'Vietcong stronghold or the arrival of a new contingent of marines. On rare -occasions a column or two on Laos may appear in an inside page. In Laos there Is none of the tempo or drama of the con- flict in South Vietnam. Perhaps, for :this reason, it is often called "the quiet war." We should not forget, however, that the struggles in Laos and South Vietnam are indivisible. The leaders in Hanoi are masterminding both offensives and their goal in each case is the same. Their aim is clear and unmistakable? to bring the people of both countries un- der Communist domination. A year ago the Communist Pathet Lao were rapidly gaining ground and the Royal Lao government, as represented by its neutralist and right wings, was falling 'apart. Indeed, it seemed that Laos was almost lost. The last 12 months, how- ever, have seen some remarkable changes. -.Prime Minister Souvanna Phouma has -consolidated his power and is for the moment confident and prepared to battle with the Communist guerrillas. It would be unwise to exaggerate the 'importance of these gains. On the 18th 'anniversary of its "national day" the kingdom of Laos faces a difficult and dangerous future. In the year to come each day will be a test of the people's .strength and will to survive. We in the :United States honor these democratic and freedom-loving people. Their cour- age in these days of crisis assures them of the continued close support of the American people. The President's Agonizing Choice EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ABRAHAM J. MU,LTER OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 11, 1965 Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, I com- mend to the attention of our colleagues the following column by Max Lerner which was reprinted in the New York " Herald Tribune of May 10, 1965 by the International Latex Corp. Mr. Lerner has put his finger directly on one of the tremendous problems fac- ing our President. The article follows: PRESIDENT JOHNSON'S AGONIZING CHOICE (NOTE.?The following article from the pen of a renowned political liberal, a distin- guished scholar and widely read columnist, - sheds light where so much heat is now being generated. Reason and fact are used here to counter the confusions born of passion and noise. - (We are convinced that Mr. Max Lerner's article should be read by Americans and Latin Americans alike; and by those who find strange comfort in criticizing President Johnson for his courageous decisions in the Dominican Republic disaster. Mag 11, .1965 (A. N.'Spanel, founder chairman, Interna- tional Latex Corp.) A friend of mine, who knows Latin Ameri- ca- better- than I do, says it will be a long, hot summer in the Caribbean. Certainly What has happened in Santo Domingo, turn- ing a lovely city Into a charnel house, sug- gests that there are volcanic political pas- sions in the area. The bloodshed wears the aspect not only of a rebellion but of a civil war, with longstanding hatreds coming into play and old accounts being settled. - In this jungle of passions, anti-American hatreds emerged very early in the rebellion. President Johnson had to act swiftly to get American civilians out. But most political decisions have plural, not single, motives. Having entered the Dominican Republic to save lives, the American troops have stayed to prevent anarchy, seal off the chances of a :Communist takeover, and await the beginnings of a new frame of political order. One's first impulse is to say that this was a monstrous blunder, awakening -long muted memories of marine landings and gunboat diplomacy, and :Ceeding the Castro image of American imperialism.. Yet one cannot stop there, without raising a haunting question: What was the alternative for President Johnson? Was it to appeal to the OAS? There would be days and days before any practical action; and if the revolt did in- deed 'contain, as a second-stage effect, the design for a Co:mmunist takeover, the OAS - action would have come far too late. Or was the alternative simply to stay out, or to get out again immediately after the first evacuation of Americans, and let events take their course? It isn't enough to point out in a holier- than-they way what must have been _obvious enough to Johnson, Rusk, Bundy, and Toni Mann--that the decision was a dangerous one. ? But was there any alternative that would have been any less dangerous? Run- ning a country isn't a question of making choices between the beautiful decisions and the damned ones. It is often an impossible choice between a blind alley and a somewhat less blind one, and -a President is lucky, even as he enters a dark tunnel, that he can see a thin shaft of light at the far end. The whole decision in the Dominican oper- ation', a% it transpired in the minds of the President and his advisers, was made in the shadow of Cuba. It is easy to say that the shadow shouldn't have been there-but it was. Too much blood has been spilt in Cuba, too many lives have been blasted there, toe much heartbreak arid frustration and re- morse have been felt in Washington to leave the slate blank. The pro-Bosch -leaders now say that the Communist elements in the revolt are not man.5i.', and that the irresponsible ones got out of control. Maybe so. Certainly Bosch himself is a decent committed democrat with a small d, even if he is an ineffectual political leader. But after the Castro experience should one have expected President Johnson to take a course of action?or nonaction-,- that .might well have led to a second .Cuba off American shores? For him to have done so would not only have been out of character an out of philosophy; it would also have run Counter to the kind of President most of the American people think he is, and the kind -of belief they have in him. Well, then, once the American troops came in, why has President Johnson piled up more and more thousands of them? Isn't ea:b,h detachment he sends a further slap_ at the Latin American self-image? Here again one must go back to Cuban-American history, this time to the Bay of Pigs. The shadow of the .Bay of Pigs fiasco hangs even more heavily over Washington than the shadow of Castro's persistence in power. If the Bay of Pigs invasion was . a mistake then?as everyone now agrees--the failure to carry it through in full force compounded the mis- take many times over. That was in Ken- Approved For Release 2003/10/15: CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 fficty 1, 1965 Approved FQ-KNOREggctiAlA911?Eayid3D_P_6Apppg6R00500120030-1 nedy's mind when he had to make a decision on The Russian missiles in Cuba.. It will be in the mind of every President for some years to oome. If history is lights and shadows, it is mostly shadows. Of course there has been an outcry from the Latin neighbors and partners of the United States, If I were a Brazilian, a Mexi- can, a Chilean, I should probably be joining in the outcry. Yet if I asked myself what alternative there was, I should have no answer. I suspect strongly that, however great the outcry has been, it would have been dim and pale alongside the withering contempt of the Latin American leaders if the United States had done nothing, if its citizens had been killed, and if the revolt had led to another Castro regime?or a Cas- tro-oriented one?in Santo Domingo. The satisfying fact is that the OAS politi- cal presence has been enabled to establish it- self alongside the U.S. military presence. There are dead,to be buried, wounds to be bound up, food to be distributed, the rou- tines of life to be restored. A new leadership will in time be found, and with heavy eco- nomic aid it will be able to make a new beginning of order. Whatever may be said against the Americans, they will not stay any longer than the minimal need for them. They will get out. That would not have been true _of the Castroites, if they had been given a clia.noe to turn the rebellion into a class dictatorship. A Tribute to Congreasman Frank Annunzio EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. ROMAN C. PUCINSK1 OF ILI,INOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, April 28, 1965 Mr. PUCINSKI. Mr. Speaker, last week our colleague from Chicago, Con- gressman FsAxx Aisimunzio, was honored by the Filippoo Mazzei Post No. 1, Lllinois, of the Italian-American War Veterans of the United States, for his outstanding contribution in behalf of veterans legislation. I should like to call my colleagues' at- tention to the fine tribute given Mr. Awisluxzio and also to include his own remarks delivered in Chicago on Loyalty Day, May 1, 1965. We can all find great inspiration in Mr. Axisruivzio's eloquent words regarding Loyalty Day. Mr. Speaker, the two documents fol- low: A TRIBUTE TO CONGRESSMAN FRANK Aisminsizao (By Dr. James F. Greco, commander, Italian American War Veterans of the United States, Inc.) We are pleased to have with us this eve- ning the distinguished Congressman from the Seventh Congressional District of the State of Illinois, HOU. FRANK ANNUNZIO. We welcome him as a friend; but his presence here tonight is of even greater sig- nificance?he is a champion of veterans everywhere. From his earliest beginnings, Congressman Ailisrowzio's interest in civic affairs has prompted him to work for and with the peo- ple?recognizing their needs and their deeds?filling those needs and praising their deeds. A look at the long, impressive list of his accomplishments makes one wonder how one man could have done so much. His driving vitality earned him a bachelor of arts de- gree and a master's degree from DePaul Uni- versity. He entered the teaching profession and guided students in many of our Chicago schools. As a fighter for human rights, he was in the trenches many years ago. After he was named director of labor in 1949, he issued a bulletin which drastically eliminated, dis- crimination in employment services. He con- tinually worked for the educational and leg- islative betterment of the labor community. For his service to the Catholic Youth Or- ganization, FRANK received the CYO Bishop Sheil Medal?Club of Champions. His fos- tering of good relations between Italy and the United States impelled the Italian Gov- ernment to award him the Medal of Solidarity during the crucial period of World War II. Even in private business FRANK found time to be part and parcel of a multitude of civic and charitable organizations. And just to prove this man is human, he is married and the father of three lovely girls. To his four grandsons, he is simply and Rif &atonally "Grandpa." FRANK typifies the expression, "Service be- fore self," and he is not a man who is satis- fied to go on past performance. His projected plans for the future include the procurement of a congressional charter for the national organization, the establishment of a nation- al shrine for Italian-American Wax Veterans. He has been instrumental in securing a 40- bed hospital on the West Side of Chicago which will be built in 1966. On March 12 of this year, we were honored to have FRANK represent the Filippo Mazzei post at the ceremonies at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and at the wreath-laying ceremony at the Itennedy gravesite in Arling- ton Cemetery. And so this evening we feel it particularly fitting that we present Hon. FRANK AN- NUNZIO with the flag of the country he is serving so well. May it long stanpl in his of- fice in Washington as a reminder of the high esteem in which he is held by his friends of the Filippo Mazzei Post. LOYALTY DAY (By Congressman FRANK ANNUNZIO) I am very happy to be here with you to- night and very honored to be invited to share your observance of Loyalty Day. In March 1961 the late Senator Wiley, of Wisconsin, predicted that our country during the 1960's will face "threats to our security and sur- vival greater than ever before in our history." In this spring of 1965, the truth of his words is becoming appallingly apparent. Never has our country had greater need of our loyalty, and never has there been a time, more ur- gent in its demand, for all Americans to step forward and give expression to their loyalty. I did two things when I first began to think of speaking to you tonight. I looked up the dictionary's definition of loyalty, and I looked back over the history of Loyalty Day in order to review it briefly with you. From time to time, our office has been asked what is Loyalty Day, how it does differ from Law Day, and why are they both celebrated on the same day. Loyalty, according to Mr. Webster, is the state, quality, or instance of being loyal, and one of the definitions of loyalty is "being faithful to the lawful government." In 1961, the chairman of Loyalty Day of the Veterans of Foreign Wars, Thomas B. Dean, published an article entitled "Loyalty Day? Americanism in Action." It appeared in the VFW magazine, and in it he reviewed the be- ginnings of Loyalty Day. He wrote: "When the Communists in the United States flaunted their anti-American beliefs with the visual aid of annual May 1 parade in the heart of New York City, the VFW par- ried this strategy with the sponsorship of another parade?this one dedicated to the spirit of Americanism. Subsequently the May 1 parade by Communists in New York became a memory." Loyalty Day then was the idea of a veter- an's organization, whose members had fought on land and sea. It was the brainchild of men who knew the horrors of war and who were determined that all people of this coun- try should understand the sacrifices of war and rededicate themselves to a love of coun- try which these fighting men had demon- strated in the past. The idea was enthusiastically received. The American Legion and. numerous other groups joined in celebrating Loyalty Day in State after State, city after city. Then Gov- ernor after Governor in all the States joined t)ie list of those proclaiming May 1 as Loyalty Day. In 1955, Congress by a special proclamation designated May 1, 1955, as Loyalty Day, and 3 years later the Congress officially designated May 1 of each year as Loyalty Day. The resolution was introduced in Congress by Mr. Van Zandt in the House, who said he did it at the request of the Veterans of Foreign Wars. He offered an explanation of why May 1 was chosen, when he said: "The idea of a patriotic celebration is an excellent means of countering communism. May Day demonstrations was conceived * * * about 30 years ago. It was agreed that emphasis should be placed on and attention focused on loyal Americans rather than sub- versive elements * * * (and that the day should be) dedicated to openly expressing loyalty to our?Nation and its cherished ideals of liberty and freedom. In short, the vir- tues of true Americanism were given the public spotlight as a fitting and conclusive rebuttal to the vaunted claims of the Com- munists." The joint resolution requested the Presi- dent to order the flag to be displayed on Government buildings and to invite the peo- ple to observe Loyalty Day with appropriate ceremonies. In the same year that Congress designated May 1 as Loyalty Day, President Eisenhower proclaimed May 1 as Law Day, and 3 years later Congress by joint resolution officially designated May 1 of each year as Law Day. The result is that we celebrate both 'Law Day and Loyalty Day on May 1, but no one has ever suggested that the two observances on the same day conflict in any manner. If you recall with me the definition of loyal as "being faithful to the lawful gov- ernment," you will see why no question was ever asked. However, the newspaper, The Stars and Stripes, on May 1, 1958, carried an editorial an "Law and Loyalty," which summarized the affinity of the 2 days as fol- lows: "Fortunately the icleas do not conflict. Dedication to the principles of government under law and loyalty to our country go hand in hand. Proper observance of the law brings of itself loyalty to the country and loyalty to the country must result in recognition of law which governs the peo- ple." A good citizen obeys the law and is loyal to his country. A loyal man is faithful to the lawful government. America today is being challenged by a ruthless world and by countries without principles who are dedi- cated only to the will to conquer and to ac- complish world domination. I thank you for this opportunity to join with you in this Loyalty Day observance to demonstrate to the world that we in America are free and friendly and dedicated to the proposition that all men should be free and friendly' and in addition, we are united as one people living loyally under law. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1 ApprovedF A2316 trCR61111521Q9NArlAt~tE/2610152441113R4005001 2003May 11- 1965 Reds Learn L.B.J.'s Tough EXTENSION OP REMARKS OF HON. J. J. PICKLt OF TAS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 11, 1965 Mr. PICKLE, Mr. Speaker, all Amer- icans can point with pride to the dy- namic leadership of President Johnson in the field of foreign affairs. We in "America?and especially we Members of Congress?have long ad- mired the President for his ingenious insight into the domestic problems that confront our people. We have seen him cope with these complex problems with an amazing ability and outstanding ef- fectiveness. But only in recent weeks has the world learned of the leadership greatness of Lyndon B. Johnson. This Nation's re- cent actions in Vietnam and in Central America have focused the world spotlight on our courageous Commander in Chief, Who has charted his course of leadership in the free world community and pre - claimed his position to the people of all nations. There were skeptics, of course. There were those who doubted the wisdom of the President's policies. However, more and more leaders of liberty-loving na- tions everywhere are supporting these Policies and joining with our President in standing firmly united against our common Communist foe. Now, perhaps more than ever before in recent history, the free world stands strongly in unison against the aggres- sive acts of our enemy. This united front is due greatly to the determined ac- tion and firm know-how leadership of President Johnson. Surely all Americans, and indeed the entire free world, owe President Lyndon 13. Johnson a debt of gratitude. Our Nation's editors, who have fol- lowed closely the turn of events in for- eign affairs, appreciate and understand the international importance of Presi- dent Johnson's courageous actions. In this connection, I would like at this time to insert in the RECORD an editorial by Mr. Robert Cl. Spivack as it appeared in the May 5, 1965, issue of the New York Journal-American. This article clearly demonstrates that the American people are strongly in sup- port of our great President: Trom the New York Journal-American, May 5, 1965] WATCH ON THE POTOMAC: tEDS LEARN L.B.J.'s TOUGH ? (13y Robert G. Spivak) WAsunmro.--Presiderit Johnson is prey- ing as Much of a professional in his handling of international crises as in domestic affairs. In every open confrontation with the Corn- ' rnunists during his 17 Months as President ? they have more than met their match. Where the Communists have tried to capitalize on anabignity, chaos, and confusion, as in the pOrninican Republic, the President has not been found wanting either. ' It has taken the Communists, torn by dis- ? sension andnrider heavy Chinese pressure, a little time t6 realize what they were up against. The new President was, to them and R:;? many Americans, an unknown quan- tity. But they may be catching on. The best Measure of how badly they have been hurt 25 how loudly they have howled since the lornbing of North Vietnamese military lusts nations. NC -_Tone expects them to let up in their ef- t ortE to probe for L.B.J.'s weak spots, or give up taunting here and testing there, looking for lhatever openings they can find. But, unli re some Of L.I3.J.'s fuzzy-minded critics at 115Me, they are completely realistic. If _there is no advantage to be gained in Salve Domingo, they will retreat, since res- toration of constitutional government under the liberal Juan Bosch was never their real objective. In Vietnam there are new indi- catimas that they would like a temporary cess1tion to hostilities, because of the pun- ishment they have been taking and might yet take. His the President's policy succeded in Nor5h Vietnam? Perhaps it is too early to tell. ' But one European expert on Far East- ern affairs who briefed the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in executive session for cast nearly a month ago that Red,China wot.ld react cautiously to the American action. Now, obscured by the headlines from the Dorainican Republic, comes news that the Vie ;bong guerrillas say they do not want "volunteers" from China or the Soviet Un: on, that they want to win the war them- selves. It's a good propaganda line, espe- cia:ly since their allies have not seemed over- eager to have a military confrontation with tilt United States. 17hat of the President's intervention in the Dominican revolt? At this stage thete are several mysteries about that unhappy affair, especially its timing. Perhaps Bosch- will exp lain why at this particular moment an e,ff(gt. was made to overthrow the civilian junta. Bosch is no Caatroite; he is a close friend' of former Gov. Mulioz-Marin of PUirto Rico, who is a good friend of the yr ited States. :int he is also something of a political in- no:tent. The whole affair looks very ama- teurish, not simply because Castroites and ot:ier Communists could be expected to move in quickly and try to take control, but be- ca1se the rebels did not understand how L.:3.J. would respond. rhe President is aware that the Domini- ca military are no friends of democracy, that many are ex-Trujilloites. But he could rut risk a sec-ond front being opened against Hi@ United States while we were engaged in Vietnam. Better than others he knows the inside story of the halfway measures taken at the Bay of Pigs; he was determined there would be nothing like that again. Johnson does not expect the presence of U S. Marines to solve the Dominican prob- lems. They were a temporary, but neces- sery, expedient. But to know when to take such measures and to act decisively is what stingutshes the pro from the amateur. Rumanian Independence Day SPEECH OF HON. JOHN C. KLUCZYNSKI OF =rams IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, May 10, 1965 Mr. KLUCZYNSKI. Mr. Speaker, 20 1'ears ago Soviet communism crushed the iteedorn and independence of many civ- ilized European nations, among them 1he sovereign, constitutional, and so- cially Progressive Kingdom of Rumania, established on the 10th of May 1881. Transformed into a so-called peoples re- public, Rumania today is in fact a Soviet colony, ruled by the naked force and incredible terror of totalitarian tyranny. To stifle the national feeling of the peo- ple, even the celebration of the 10th of May?the traditional national holiday? has been forbidden. Today only the ref- ugees scattered over the free world, many of them in our own country, are able to perpetuate the sacred tradition and in so doing, to draw our attention to the present tragedy and the just as- pirations of their oppressed people. As a nation conceived in freedom and committed to its defense everywhere, we Americans feel deeply saddened by the plight of the Rumanians and appreciate highly their valiant resistance to tyranny as a valuable contribution to the general struggle against the Communist menace. Let .us therefore take advantage of the anniversary of the 10th of May to con- vey to Rumanians everywhere the sin- cere sympathy and the very best wishes of the American people. Let us assure them anew of our determination to pur- sue, with prudence of course, but with firmness, our national commitment as defenders of freedom. We consider the right of all peoples to freelY choose their governments as sacred and inalienable and in the common interest of peace. Thus we cannot and will not acquiesce in their enslavement or accept the status quo as permanent. On the contrary, we are dutybound to support their striv- ings for freedom by all peaceful means, and express our conviction in the ulti- mate victory of our common efforts. Recent developments in the Commu- nist world add considerable substance to our hopes, especially concerning the Ru- manians. A great deal has been written recently about a seemingly radical change of mind and policy by Rumania's Communist rulers, who are alleged to have become politically?but not mili- tarily and economicaliy?"almost inde- pendent" of Moscow, eager to put na- tional interests above Communist alle- giance and to intensify contacts with the West. Consequently the West, and our administration particularly, has decided to encourage by all means, mainly eco- nomic, the Bucharest regime in its new orientation. We certainly welcome any change for the better in Rumania, provided it be genuine, and we wholeheartedly approve any American help, provided it improves the lot of the people more than it strengthens the Communist regime. Well knowing that it was the stubborn Will for freedom of the Rumanians which compelled their rulers to make certain "concessions" to the national sentiment and national interests, we must Make it clear that We do not intend to recog- nize the Communist regime as-legitimate, or to bail it out from its self-created eco- nomic chaos simply for its own sake. Our intention is to alleviate the lot of the people and thus make them more able to assert more forcefully their will to freedom. Any confusion or misrepre- sentation concerning this fundamental position might tend to dishearten the Approved For Release 2003/10/15: CIA-RDP67600446R000500120030-1