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April 13, 1965
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April 13, 1,.9 65 Approve( fR& ftl Irving Dilliard, the respected colum- MO nist of Chicago's American, has pointed this out in a recent article. He correctly M argued that equal apportionment, or the on right of each citizen to have his vote yea count equally, is the essence of repre- me sentative government. B I ask unanimous consent that Mr. Dil- crit liard's article, from the Chicago Ameri- fore can of March 28, 1965, be printed in the pro RECORD. tion There being no abjection, the article inte was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, the as follows: ren [From the Chicago American, Mar. 28, 1965] can REMAP SHOULD BE KEY ISSUE for cou (By Irving Dilliard) The headlines that have gone properly to the war in Vietnam, the Selma march, and the American and Russian space shots have tended to obscure a most important struggle in Congress and many of the States. This is the battle over redistricting for seats in the House of Representatives and in both branches of the legislatures. _ Here is something that is the very essence of representative government. For next to the right to vote comes the right of each citizen to have his vote count on a basis approximately equal to the vote of each other citizen. This is the heart of the Supreme Court's series of redistricting decisions which say in effect: "One man, one vote." Greatly to their credit, some dozen States have responded to the Court's decision by reapportioning substantially on a basis of population in both legislative chambers. The dozen include States as widely separated as Michigan and Oklahoma, New Hampshire and Oregon, Virginia and Connecticut, West Vir- ginia, and Colorado. ALL CAN ACT SIMILARLY What approximately a fourth of the States have already done, all the States can and should do promptly. This is the one best way to guarantee that each voter's ballot is close to equal in influence to each other voter's ballot. So far so good. But unfortunately this desirable reconstitution of the legislatures on the fair basis of equitable population districts could go off the track at this point, Senator DIRKSEN, of Illinois, Republican leader, along with several other Senators, is pushing a pro- posal to amend the Constitution to override the Supreme Court's long overdue, beneficial decision. The Dirksen amendment would invite the States to apportion one legislative branch on a basis other than population. While the Dirksen proposal has picked up some additional, uncritical support, its hard- core backing is the same crowd that tried to slip over the "monkey wrench" amendments a couple of years ago. These were the anti- Supreme Court proposals designed to foster disunity at the expense of our historic Fed- eral system. FEW CAN CONTROL THE MAJORITIES The case against all these diehard road- has not kept apace. blocks to fair representative government has Understanding the tactics of the ag- been made with all the chapter-and-verse gressor is the first step in stopping ag- documentation anyone should need by Dem- gression, but we do not fully understand ocratic Senator DOUGLAS, also of Illinois. He showed, for example, that fewer than 45 per- make very little effort to disseminate cent of the population can elect majorities what understanding we do have among In both legislative chambers In some 33 States. A consequence is that urgent urban leaders of non-Communist countries needs are frequently ignored by the dominant majorities from sparsely settled areas. That is, our antagonists have trained The highly esteemed Federal legislation thousands of professional revolutionaries committee of the Association of the Bar of to carry out their nonmilitary aggressive the City of New York says the Dirksen campaigns over the last generation, and amendment could endanger "all constitu- we have looked in awe as a great part tional rights and the independence of the of the world turned unfriendly or blot- judiciary." That ought to set warnings bells anti hostile to us. ringing all over America. y Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000600080003-5 p r. NDT. Mr. President, events (Freedom Academy bills sponsors-see the continent of Africa over the last pages 4059, 4751-4753, 5276-5281, and r and a half constitute strong argu- 6382-6387 of the RECORD, I would like to nt for the Freedom Academy bill. concentrate on the continent of Africa. asic to this bill, perhaps the part most More than a year ago the New York ically needed in conduct of American Times spelled out how the newly in- ign relations, is the proposal that we dependent country of Zanzibar had vide political training to foreign na- fallen to a Communist coup. The subse- als who are not unfriendly to our own quent combination of Zanzibar with rests. All the programs proposed in Tanganyika partially alleviated this loss, bill-intensive research plus concur- but observers expect that Tanganyika t extensive training for first, Ameri- may well follow Zanzibar instead of sav- government personnel who work in ing it. What I want to emphasize, how- eign affairs; second, citizens of foreign ever, is evidence of the tactics used by ntries who need to learn how best to Communists to conquer Africa. resist nonmilitary aggression; and, third, Robert Conley wrote the article. It citizens employed in the private sector appeared in the New York Times for whose work closely involves international January 20, 1964, as follows: relations-all are critically important. I One week after Zanzibar's revolution it is hesitate to select one program as most clear that Communist-trained Africans have important because all are so closely re- seized every bit of real power on the island. unist China, lated, but adequate training for defense They were trained by Communist the Soviet Union, and Cuba. techniques of nonmilitary ag- The leftist revolutionaries control the prin- gression is so sorely needed by-govern- cipal ministries, including Foreign Affairs, ment officials and by leading private citi- Defense, and internal Affairs. zens in scores of countries the world Fewer than 50 subversives trained in over-countries right now targeted for guerilla warfare and political revolution car- subversion and conquest-that this phase ried out the Zanzibar takeover. Cuba of the Freedom Academy proposal stands trained the guerillas. Communist China the Soviet Union trained the political out. and . The bill, S. 1232, sponsored by Messrs. experts. Real power is concentrated in the hands DODD, DOUGLAS, FONG, HICKEN- of the Vice President, Kassim Hanga * * * LOOPER, LAUSCHE, MILLER, PROUTY, PROX- a bitter opponent of the West, who is Soviet MIRE, SCOTT, SMATHERS, MURPHY, and trained. myself, offers, in section 2(a) (7), this Shiek Mohammed is head of the militarist was finding leftist UMMA, or People's Party. Hehad Finally, the cause of freedom has been trained by Chinese Communists and' in Zanzibar of handicapped by the inhibited been the representative press attitude of the United States toward the Hsinhua, the Chinese communist agency. and training of foreign na- tionals. Nowhere, with limited excep- Three other prominent Africa nationalists are in the revolutionary government ,as fur- tions, is education and training provided ther camouflage * * *. Trained subver- for foreign nationals which will acquaint been assigned to them, however. them, in depth, with the spectrum of sives have In the President's office, Mr. Karume's Communist subversion and insurgency chief executive assistant is * * * a Soviet- and the wide range of instruments that trained labor agitator who is publicly com- "Socialist Zanzibar in may be developed and utilized to defeat mitted to setting up a the working people would establish this while seeking to build free, independ- which their dictatorship." ent, and viable societies. Yet, the prin- Mr. Hangs, is in control of internal affairs cipal burden of repelling Communist and security with Cuban-trained guerillas subversion and insurgency must be borne under him. The guerillas retain their auto- by the citizens of the nations involved. matic weapons. We have identified at least six schools In the Ministry of Communications * * within the Communist bloc, or blocs if is * * * a political activist trained by the that is preferable, where foreign na- Soviet Union. tionals are educated in the arts of non- He arranged for young Zanzabaris to go on military warfare. A whole new academic scholarships to the Soviet Union and Eastern discipline has matured in the last gen- Europe. eration-this discipline of nonmilitary warfare involving subversion, psychologi- The Communist revolutions occurring cal warfare, infiltration, guerrilla tactics, all over Africa, Mr. President, are not and all the rest-but the United States coincidental. They are planned and co- ordinated by experts trained in the art of nonmilitary warfare in countries which are antagonistic to our interests. Against this professional training in ag- gression, we offer nothing in training for defense. Mr. Conley continues: Every indication, suggests that the revolu- tion itself had been planned clandestinely before Zanzibar gained independence. Twenty-two Zanzibaris are reported to have 'returned to the island on independence day, after several months of training in Cuba, to make final preparations. These guerrillas became the hard core with- in the untrained ranks of the "liberation army." ~R~IA-11 AIP20446R000600080003-5 7599 Today, in my continuing effort to uti- lize the current news in our American ress to support these contentions of Approved For Rel"&M&6h~iIEQ 00454E6RAOTE 00080003-5 Apil 13, 1965 The purpose of the "liberation army." Conley says, was to give "the impression that the revolution was a `sponstansous upris- ing,"' and "to give African followers a sense of direct participation In an insurrection that was not of their making." Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that the full text of the article "Red- Trained Africans Consolidate Hold After Zanzibar Revolt," from the New York Times of January 20, 1964, appear at this point In my remarks. I There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed In the RECORD. as follows: RED-TRAINED AFSICANS CONSOLIDATE HOLD ArrEa ZANZIBAR REVOLT (By Robert Conley, special to the New York Times) One week after Zanzibar's revolution it is clear that Communist-trained Africans have seized every bit of real power on the island. They were trained by Comunist China, the Soviet Union, and Cuba. The leftist revolutionaries control the principal ministries, Including foreign af- fairs. defense, and internal affairs. Fears have been expressed that neither the rest of Africa nor the West can prevent the revolutionaries from turning Zanzibar Into a Communist state-just. 25 miles off the East African coast. The takeover of Zanzibar gives the Com- munists their greatest victory in Africa. It has been likened to the loss of Cuba by the West to the revolution of Fidel Castro 5 years ago. Fewer than 50 subversives trained In guerrilla warfare and political revolution carried out the Zanzibar takeover. Cuba trained the guerrillas. Communist China and the Soviet Union trained the political experts. REGIME GIVEN AFRICAN IMAGE They made Abeid Karume President of the revolutionary regime to give an African image to the revolution, which overthrew the island's Arab minority government. Mr. Karume is the leader of the Afro-Shirazi Party, the main political movement of the African majority among the island's 310.000 people. But the real power is concentrated In the hands of the Vice President, Kassim Hangs. and the Minister of External Affairs and De- fense, Sheik Abdul Rahman Mohammed. Mr. Hanga, a bitter opponent of the West. is Soviet trained. He studied international law in Moscow and has a Russian wife. Sheek Mohammed is head of the militarist leftist UMMA, or people's party. He was trained by Chinese Communists and had been the representative to Zanzibar of Hslnhua, the Chinese Communist press agency. The two men are believed to be chiefly re- sponsible for changing the course of the revolution. Their takeover appears to have put an end to the role of John Okello, self-styled field marshal of the revolutionary army. His army, a ragtag collection of 600 men, Is being disarmed. The takeover means that the Communists now are a direct threat to the African main- land. By winning Zanzibar they have gained a stepping stone for penetrating the heart of Africa. Zanzibar has been a gateway to Africa for centuries for slave traders, ex- plorers, and colonizers. Three other prominent African nationalists are in the revolutionary government as fur- ther camouflage. They are Othman Sharif, Minister of Education and Information; Hasnu Makame, Minister of Finance and De- velopment; and Abound. Jumbe, Minister of Health. Trained subversives have been assigned to them, however. In the President's office, Mr. Karume's chief executive assistant is Abdul Aziz Twala, a Soviet-trained labor agitator who Is publicly committed to setting up a "Socialist Zanzibar in which the working people would establish their dictatorship." Mr. Hangs Is In control of internal affairs and security with Cuban-trained guerrillas under him. The guerrillas retain their auto- Inatic weapons. In the Ministry of Communications the chief executive assistant is Hassan Nassor Moyo, a political activist trained by the So- viet Union. He arranged for young Zanzibarls to go on scholarships to the Soviet Union and eastern Europe. He founded Zanzibar's Young Workers League In 1962 to "unite all young workers and enable them to receive trade union and political educations." Mr. Mohammed Babu, a former editor, was released from prison last year after serv- ing a 15-month sentence for sedition. He had run the pro-Communist news sheet Zanews supported by his Chinese Communist patrons. Mr. Hanga was one of two members who walked out of the Island's national assembly last November when the legislative body ex- pressed its condolences over the assassina- tion of President Kennedy. THREAOLD PURPOSE EVIDENT Every Indication suggests that the revolu- tion Itself had been planned clandestinely before Zanzibar and its northern Island of Pemba gained their independence from Brit- ain December 10. Twenty-two Zanzibarls are reported to have returned to the Island on independence day, after several months of training In Cuba, to make final preparations, These guerrillas became the hard core within the untrained ranks of the "libera- tion army." Field Marshall Okello, a 27- year-old Ugandan, had been a branch secre- tary of the Afro-Shirezl Party In Pemba. He and his army, it Is now evident, had a threefold purpose. First. they gave the impression to the out- side world that the revolution was a "spon- taneous uprising." The Idea was to ob- scure for a time the fact that the revolution was a Communist coup. Second. the rebel army was a means to give African followers a sense of direct par- ticipation in an Insurrection that was not of their making. They were allowed to run through the streets of the town of Zanzibar, the island's capital. shooting and looting at will. Third. Field Marshall Okello had little ap- parent knowledge of weapons or strategy. For his uniform he wore a black visored cap, a black shirt with one epaulet-on the left shoulder--and black trousers. The image of an eagle and a ball were on the epaulet. The epaulet was supposed to rep- resent him and the ball represented the world. He said he had been a "brigadier" of the Mau Mau terrorists in Kenya. Former Mau Mau leaders here say they never heard of him. His followers went wild with racial hatred against their former Arab rulers. There is no evidence to suggest that the guerrillas were supplied with arms from outside Zanzibar. They seized their weapons and ammunition by first raiding a police armory and the security forces' arsenal before dawn last Sunday. Mr. MUNDT. Editors of the Times must have found that article Interesting, for 3 days later an unsigned background story appeared. Preparations for last week's pro-Commu- nist revolution in Zanzibar began quietly in Cuba late in 1981, when a Zanzibari political office was established in Havana. They reached their peak with the arrival 8 weeks ago of a Cuban charged'affaires In Dar es Salaam, Tanganyika. Several hundred African "students" are being trained in Cuba. The training is said to include guerrilla warfare tactics. These students are divided Into four main groups. One is from east Africa, the second group from South Africa. Students from Ghana, Malt, the Congo, and Nigeria are said to form the third group. The fourth group is made up of students from Spanish Guinea. But most interesting about this article is the summary of State Department attitude toward the whole development: The fact that Cuba had been steadily in- creasing her Interest In Africa has been known to officials here for a long time. But it caused no particular concern until the events in Zanzibar and Tanganyika. The assumption was that Cuba was mainly concerned with commercial and cul- tural ties. Facts that once seemed insignificant, such as the establishment in 1961 of the Havana office of the Zanzibar National Party, were being pulled out of the files and studied. I submit, Mr. President, that had the Freedom Academy been established in 1960 when the Senate first passed the bill, we would have had numerous offi- cers in the State Department and re- lated agencies who would have recog- nized the significance of these events when they occurred, not years there- after when country after country in the non-Communist sections of the world seem inexplicably propelled toward the Communist bloc. I ask unanimous consent that the article "Cuba Began Role in Zanzibar in 1961" from the New York Times of January 23, 1964, be printed at this point in my remarks. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: CUBA BEGAN ROLE IN ZANZIBAR IN 1961; WASH- INGTON GETS DETAILS OF HAVANA'S INVOLVE- MENT IN UPSISING IN AFRICA WASHINGTON, January 22.-Preparations for last week's pro-Communist revolution in Zanzibar began quietly in Cuba late in 1961, when a Zanzibari political office was estab- lished in Havana. They reached their peak with the arrival weeks ago of a Cuban charge d'afaires In Dar es Salaam, Tangan- yika. The detailed story of Cuba's Involvement In the Zanzibar revolt and Cuban activities in connection with the training of East African and South African guerrillas and other African groups has been pieced to- gether from reliable reports that became available today. In addition to tracing the Cuban strategy in preparing for- the revolution in Zanzibar, which lies off Tanganyika. The information, which comes from many quarters, indicates that several hundred African "students" are being trained in Cuba. The training Is said to include guerrilla warfare tactics. These students are divided Into four main groups- One is from East Africa. Special emphasis is placed on the second group, trainees from South Africa, who were said to form the largest single unit. Those from Kenya, Tan- ganyika and Zanzibar also received special emphasis. This is believed to indicate that Cuba, working with the Soviet Union and possibly Communist China, is centering her attention and activities on South Africa and the east coast of Africa, where the successful revolt in Zanzibar took place January 12 and an army uprising broke out in Tanganyika on Monday. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000600080003-5 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000600080003-5 April 1.3, X965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE Studentis from Ghana, Mali, the Congo and Nigeria are said to form the third group. The fourth group is made up of students from Spanish Guinea, on Africa's northwest- ern coast, where there have been pro-inde- pendence movements. The fact that Cuba had been steadily in- creasing her interest in Africa has been known to officials here for a long time. But it caused no particular concern until the events in Zanzibar and Tanganyika. The assumption was that Cuba, which maintains diplomatic relations with nine African countries, and trades with six, was mainly concerned with commercial and cul- tural ties. But the east African violence this month and information coming to light is rapidly changing this evaluation. AIDES TAKE NEW LOOK Officials who were reluctant to believe that Cuba would become deeply involved in Afri- can revolutionary movements are taking a new look at the situation. They had assumed that she was concentrating on internal prob- lems and Latin American affairs. Facts that once seemed insignificant, such as the establishment in 1961 of the Havana office of the Zanzibar National Party, were being pulled out of files and studied. For example, the man who ran the Zan- zibari political office in Havana has emerged as a top aide of John Okello, the self-styled field marshal of the Zanzibari revolution. His name was not available here tonight, but dispatches from Zanzibar last Wednesday quoted an aide of Mr. Okello as having said that he had been trained in Cuba along with other Zanzibarls. As far as is known, the Zanzibari office was the only African organization of its kind operating in Havana, though African students had been going to Cuba for a long time. How much power Mr. Okello has at this point is not known here, but the available Information suggests that Cuban "grad- uates" still play an Important role;n the Zanzibari situation. LINK TO SOUTH AFRICA SEEN Informed sources here also saw a relation- ship between Cuban operations and the activities of a nine-man South African Liber- ation Committee based in Tanganyika. It was suspected that Dar es Salaam might have become a centerfor revolutionary activ- ities- for east and South Africa and that the Cuban Embassy there, which began func- tioning suddenly last month, might be one of the key elements in this effort. Also under study here was a report that the Algerian vessel Khaladoun arrived in Dar es Salaam on January 2 with a cargo of arms, supplies, and uniforms. Some specialists here were checking the possibility that these may have been some of the arms sent by Cuba to Algeria last October during Algeria's brief border conflict with -Morocco, The Cubans sent two shiploads of weapons, including tanks, to Algeria, and, according to intelligence sources, they have not been returned to Cuba. Cuban military personnel accompanied the arms and they, too, are believed to have remained in Algeria. There was interest here whether the Cuban military men might have traveled with the shipment that arrived in Tanganyika 10 days before the Zanzibar revolution. Mr. MUNDT. Now I should like to skip to the more current press, first the New York Times and then the Washing- ton Post. Just north of Tanganyika, between Tanganyika and the Sudan, lies Kenya, which, according to recent press dis- patches, is also experiencing the early stages of nonmilitary warfare. - Mr. Lawrence Fellows outlined an ar- ticle- which appeared in the Times on April 3, 1965. The role of - Communist China in Kenya was discussed in Parliament today during a debate on arms smuggling. [The] Health and Housing Minister said the activities of Communist China in the country posed a special problem for Ken- yans. - - If they 'came like the British, with guns, it would not be so bad, the minister said. But if the Chinese work underground and supply arms to overthrow the popular gov- ernment, there is a very real danger to the country. - - Obviously there has been some smuggling, the [Defense] minister said, for someone has furnished weapons to the bandits the Government is fighting * * * In the north The Information Minister declared: "Kenya is trying to fight a foe she cannot see or touch." I ask unanimous consent that the text of the article "Hand of Red China Arouses Kenyans" from the New York Times of April 3, 1965, appear at this point in my remarks. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the New York Times, Apr. 3, 19651 HAND OF RED CHINA AROUSES KENYANS; MINISTERS CHARGE SMUGGLING OF ARMS AIMS AT REVOLT - - (By Lawrence Fellows) NAIROBI, KENYA, April 2.-The role of Com- munist China in Kenya was discussed in Par- liament today during a debate on arms smug- gling. Joseph Otiende, health and housing minister, said the activities of Communist China in the country posed a special problem for Kenyans. "If they came like the British with guns, it would not be so bad," the minister said. "But if the Chinese work underground and supply arms to overthrow the popular gov- ernment, there is a very real danger to the country." He was speaking in a heated debate on a motion urging the government to put a stop to the smuggling of arms into the country lest it be drawn into revolution or an un- wanted external war. A-THREAT TO INDEPENDENCE: Ronald Neala, who was the leader of the now -defunct opposition party in Kenya, said: "I feel very strongly on the matter. The country has just finished fighting for inde- pendence and I do not want to see a new form of imperialism--communism--coming." President Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya, Presi- dent Julius K. Nyerere of Tanzania and Prime Minister Milton Obote of Uganda would all be overthrown by revolution in East Africa, according to a document pro- duced by Mr. Ngala. - The document, which was attributed to communism, sources said the three East Af- rican leaders had been condemned for hav- ing "tried to eat out of both sides of their months," he reported. ARMS SMUGGLERS WARNED Defense Minister Nj-oroge Mungai said the government had no knowledge of arms smuggling on large scale. He cautioned any- one who might be contemplating such smug- gling to beware not only of the army and the police but of the wrath of the whole peo- ple. Obviously there has been some smuggling, the minister said, for -someone has fur- nished weapons to the bandits the Govern- ment is fighting in desolate areas in the north. But the government is tightening its control, he added. Achieng Oneko, the information minister, declared: "Kenya is trying to fight a foe she cannot see or touch. - "I lost my own youth in the fight for in= dependence and I do not want to see brother fighting brother because some people from outside the, country have found a clever way of getting in." Mr. MUNDT. -Then on April 7 we see evidence again supplied by fellows of Kenyan students undergoing political training in the Soviet Union. From their ranks, - of course, will come the future subverters of independent Kenya. "It was more of an indoctrination camp than a university," one student said. "Most of our studies were taken up with brain- washing and learning the Communist doctrine." "It was hell," another exclaimed. These students had been among Afri- can strikers for better living conditions. Eighty-four students had begun the strike; only 29 returned to Kenya. We are not told the total number of Kenyan students are enrolled in such Commu- nist indoctrination camps. I ask unanimous consent that the article "Kenyans Charge Soviet Brutal- ity," by Lawrence Fellows, from the New York Times of April 7, 1965, appear at this point in my remarks. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed In the RECORD, as follows: KENYANS CHARGE SOVIET BRUTALITY; STUDENTS FLY HOME AND TELL OF RACIAL DISCRIMINA- TION 1 (By Lawrence Fellows) NAIROBI, KENYA, April 6-Twenty-nine Kenyan students told today after their re- turn from the Soviet Union of misery, hos- tility and beatings they suffered while at a university in Baku. - "It was more of an indoctrination camp than a university," one student said, "Most of our studies were taken up with brain- washing and learning the Communist doc- trine." "It was hell," another exclaimed. "May God let us all forget that place." - "All the -people hated us," one student said. "They just didn't like black people. If we went into -restaurants, they refused to serve us. They don't allow you to dance with white women and if we tried to dance with a Russian girl in a club we were beaten up? He pulled- up the sleeve of his Jacket to show a scar he said was inflicted during an attack on him by a group of Russian youths. Cut off from the world and unwilling to stay in Baku unless they were given better protection, they said, the students staged a 2-week strike at the university. When that failed to get results, the stu- dents moved in a body to the Baku railway station and. camped on wooden benches there for 8 days. Finally, Soviet author- ities put the students, hungry and cold, aboard an Aeroflot plane for home. Two of them were women. None of the African students at Baku were pleased with their lot, those who returned said, and the strike had been. kept from growing larger because the African groups at the university were kept from communi- cating with one ano;:Ier. - The strike had begun with 84 students and was pared down by sickness to 77 stu- dents by the time they moved to the railway station.' - - Approved For Release 2005/07/13 CIA-RDP67B00446R000600080003-5 7602 Approved For Rele R7%1d CIA--RRDDPP67BOO4 SENATE 6ROO06 0080003-5 Apnl 13, 1965 There, in freezing weather and with only their recommended interim successor A VIABLE CORPSE enough money to buy it few soft drinks and cakes at the station, many of the students government. They proposed to.-accord- Throughout the Abboud regime, the Com- fell in and returned to the university. Ing to the article: munist Party had been outlawed, along with Others were bribed away with money or I. Create an apolitical government with every other party in the Sudan. But where promises of women, they said. a neutral Premier; the other groups either faded into obscurity By Sunday, when authorities gave them an 2. Limit the parties to one council member or became dormant, the Communist Party's ultimatum to return to the university or each; apparatus remained intact and moved into suffer the conse uenc h - - q es t e 29 remainin ,g students stood firm and were given 50 min- utes to prepare for the flight borne, The Kenyan Government, which had been notified of the expected arrival of the stu- dently only after they were underway, had some officials on hand at the airport to meet the students and to rush them off to a dormi- tory at the Kenya School of Admintstratton at Kabete, onthe edge of Nairobi. This morning, John Ole Konchellah, assistant minister of education, met with students in a closed session for about 4 hours. Afterward, Mr. Konchellah said: "The problem arose at Baku when the students wanted a transfer to any other university In the Soviet Union. There were allegations that they were beaten up, that the popula- tion was savage, hostile, would attack any- body among the students." represent Independent professional groups Significantly, Abboucl's half-hearted efforts such as lawyers, doctors, and workers. to suppress the party provided Its main The Communists, though, controlled dentifiedeasethe onlyresistance to the mike beforehand these "independent profes- terry government, and they made important atonal groups." gains In the labor movement and in the 100, Fortunately for us who are not Com- 000-member tenant organization in Sudan's munists, an independent politician re- vast Gezira agricultural project. They were malned who commanded tribal loyalties. also known t country's have tightened but Influential their gri-on the He eventually mustered 23,000 men lectual community. small but ineY armed with spears, sticks, and blunder- But the extent of the party's penetration busses, who camped quietly in the city Was not appreciated until after the revolu- for the tense week of renewed govern- tion. It soon became evident that the Com- ment negotiations. munists had won either control of, or a This article needs no interpretation. commanding position In the executive or- it describes plainly the near loss of the gans of all the leading professional organt- Sudan, the recovery, although perhaps This turned s h ra of doctors. ououtto b to bee and thei r r ace in ace in. only temporary, T the y porary, and the tenuous pose- hole d i ur ng the tense mi aneuverng to form Mr. MUNDT. Finally, I should like Lion which the non-Communist govern- a provisional government in the aftermath of to discuss 'a remarkable article from the ment now occupies. I ask unanimous the revolution. Outlook section of the Washington Post Consent that It appear at this point in my PRESSED FOR TIME of April 4, 1965. Written by Donald H. remarks. For 4 days and nights, the leaders of the Louchheim, It presents another varia- There being no objection, the article professional, student and labor groups that tion on the same old theme-citizens and was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, participated in the demonstrations met with government officials of a n411hostile as follows: representatives of the former political parties country who do not recognize nonrnill- IT ALMOST HAPPENED IN THE SUDAN-A Cosa- to formulate a government. tart' aggression against them and, worse, mumisT TAKEOVER or AralsA's LARCNEST According to leaders of the Umma and who have no place the world to turn CouNTar KO AvzRPED ATPER ToucH-AHD- National Union Parties, the two major anti- for enlightenment about this modern risk Go TUSSLE Communist groupings, which are credited with Donald H. Louchhetm with the support of about 60 percent of the In statescraft: ) population, their representatives were clev- A sm811 number of well-[acipilned Com_ KHARmUM.-Perhaps it oan't happen here, any duped by the Communists. m smallfnum than 2 ell-dcame red Coil- but It almost did. A small number of well- They explain that time was running out. 000 close is winning control of Africa's largest disciplined Communists-fewer than 2,000-_- They were haunted by memories of the im- nation close . came startlingly close to winning control of potence of the political parties during the All agree that the recent events in the Africa's largest nation, parliamentary period between 1956 and the Sudan add up to a eextcen eve s an ate Some observers here believe that the Com- Abboud coup In 1958. They wanted to reach emaed Communist takeover. munists could never have succeeded. Others a temporary consensus that would embrace are not so sure, and they suggest that the all elements of the population. And they These words are similar to those filed threat is still very real. But all agree that felt that unless they could produce a govern- a few weeks ago concerning the Commu- the recent events In the Sudan add up to ment quickly, they would lose the confidence nisi overthrow of the legitimate overn- a textbook case of an attempted Communist of the country. meat in - a the Congo a legit is to the Bean- takover. The Communists played on all these ap- zaville government. Here it is called a American no accident that on the de of one prensions official in Khartoum the emits a copy was on their during and th it proposal ap- textbook case; there it was a classic Com- of Harry and Bonaro Overstreet's "What. We peared to be a fair one: munist-style takeover-page 4752 of the Must Know About Communism" or that pa- 1. Create an apolitical government with a RECORD. perback editions of the book were made avail- neutral premier. We should be teaching these people able to Influential Sudanese. 2. Limit the parties to one council member and our own people what constitutes a A RMIME CAVES IN each. textbook case. The drama began with an unexpected 3. Let the other nine members, a majority, The article continues: revolution last October and culminated in such a represent as nt ]awyere. Independent doctors, and w and woorkersrkers groups The drama began with an unexpected revo- a quiet anti-Communist coup in mid-Feb- . lution last October and culminated in a quiet ruary RIPE FOR TRANSITION anti-Communist coup in mid-February. Talks with diplomatic observers, Sudanese On October 28 newsmen, leaders of political parties, and par- (there was a) "glorious revo- ticipants in the hectic 4-month struggle re- lution." a genuinely popular movement veal this story: joined by all segments of the population. On October 26. the 8-year-old military re- No one here believes that the Communists game of Gen. Ibrahim Abboud collapsed. triggered the revolution. But as It unex- Five days of demonstrations in this sun- pectedly began to succeed, they did move to baked city at the confluence of the two Niles the forefront. And when the collapse came, had succeeded. But, to the surprise of every- they were the only organization capable of one, the regime was not overthrown. It caved picking up the pieces. In The extent of the party's penetration was The glorious revolution, as It Is now called, not appreciated until after the revolution. wets a genuinely popular movement joined It soon became evident that the Communists by all segments of the population. The had won either control of, or a commanding demonstrations climaxed 6 years of stagna- position in, the executive organs of all the tion and gentle but firm suppression. They leading professional organizations of doe- were born of frustration and a desire to tors, lawyers, and engineers. start afresh on the political and economic This turned out to be their ace In the bole problems that had plagued the country since during the tense maneuvering to form a independence in 1956. provisional government In the aftermath of No one here believes that the Communists the revolution, triggered the revolution. But as it unexpect- The Communists were in edly began to succeed, they did move to the good post- forefront. And when the collapse came, they tion, as the only cohesive political force were the only organization capable of pick- in the country, to secure acceptance of ing up the pieces. On October 30, a new Council of Ministers was announced. From the 15 members, the Communists could muster 10 votes. Sources say that the number of card-carrying party members may have numbered only four but that the other members of the group, prin- cipally drawn from hidden sympathizers in the professional organizations, could be counted on for their consistent support. On November 4, the party held its first aboveground plenum in 6 years. It was de- cided that the revolution had been a na- tional democratic revolution, that the neces- sary first stage had been completed and that the time was ripe for the transition to so- cialism. Party members and their supporters were given the green light. From subsequent developments, it appears that the Central Committee determined that the army was the most serious potential threat to the hoped-for translion. On November 9, a bold stroke was carried out In an effort to build support for a mas- sive army shakeup. A party member walked into the state radio station and broadcast a false report that the army was trying to Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000600080003-5 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000600080003-5 April 13, 1,965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE carry our a reactionary coup. He appealed supporter, unilaterally took the air in the for immediate demonstrations to counter name of the government. He claimed that the threat and urged the replacement of the the revolution was 'being threatened and counterrevolutionaries with more reliable called for demonstrations of support. Ob- subordinates. servers say that the now familiar demonstra- A JOLTING BOOMERANG tion squad turned out but with limited ""??` "??? -7 a "-' ' " The next .day, Sadiq Elmahdi, leader of broadcast was a serious tagtieal error from the Umrna Party and a political chieftian of the Communist point of view. It was re- the powerful and disciplined Moslem Ansar vealed as a hoax before the Communists brotherhood, summoned 23,000 of his fol- could implement their plan. More impor- lowers to Khartoum "to prevent any monkey tant, it served its a jolting eye opener to the business." Armed with spears, sticks, and - non Communist parties and it marked the beginning of their campaign to regain con- trol. It was to be a tough, 2-month battle. The Communists still had a healthy majority in the Council of Ministers, and they began a systematic campaign to tighten the noose. They already had succeeded in getting a pledge of support for all "liberation move- ments" written into the provisional national charter. Capitalizing on genuine popular sympathy for the Congolese rebels they now opened up the Sudan as an arms pipeline into the northeastern Congo. In addition, the Government began to provide support to Eritrean dissidents. seeking to detach that coastal province from Ethiopia. Domestically, the Communists pushed even harder, possibly too hard. A purge commit- tee was established and it attempted a sys- tematic cleanup of anti-Communists in key sectors of the country, including the army and the judiciary. The British-trained civil service, which had kept the country operaiting during the first 8 uncertain years of In- dependence, was one early target. A dozen key administrators were forced out and the Communists cleverly whetted the appetites of junior officials eager for advancement. The press was another major target. Sev- eral papers were closed outright. In two other cases,, anti-Communist editors were pushed into retirement and low-echelon Communist sympathizers rose to power. By January, the anti-Communist press com- prised only the Umma and National Union Party newspapers, both house organs with limited circulations. Many of the purge casualties were victims -of a stroke of a pen and it is conceded that in some cases the retribution was just. Others, however, were subjected to black- mail. Dossiers citing instances of possible collab- oration with the Abboud regime were pro- duced with warnings of what could happen if the individuals failed to play ball. Busi- nessmen, landowners, and other influential persons outside of direct government can- trol were put under pressure. The Communists rode the crest of the wave through mid-January. By then, the reaction to the heavy-handed purge efforts began to increase. It coincided with a rally- ing of strength by the leadership of the Um- ma and National Union Parties. ' The turn of the tide was reflected in the second Communist Party plenum, held January 14; The party secretary general, Ab- delkhalig Mahgoub, admitted that the assess- ment of the first postrevolutionary gather- bhinderbusses, they camped quietly in the city for the tense week of renewed govern- ment negotiations. Prime Minister Serrel-Khatim KhalIfa who throughout the post-revolutionary period had been little more than a tail wagged by the top dog in the Council of Ministers, re- signed on Feb. 18 The negotiations to form a second transitional government began, but this time the Umma and National Union representatives found themselves armed with most of the cards. Their trump was the presence of the 23,000 Ansari. In the reshuffle, the Communist, Party and its ally, the People's Democratic Party, were allotted only four of the 16 Council posts and the anti-Communist parties held a ma- jority. The Communist refused' to partici- pate in the new alignment; they demanded two additional seats for "workers and ten- ants' representatives" but the other parties refused to budge. This second transitional government ended officially last Thursday under a mandate limiting it to March 31 unless it could guar- antee elections by April 21. It could give no such assurance, but a last-minute flurry of political jockeying will keep It in power for a few more weeks and possibly longer. Most observers here think that the danger of an Outright Communist takeover has passed, at least for the immediate future, but they are aware that the Communists retain a strong influence that could soar if the traditional parties fail to come up with a constructive and progressive government. At the moment, the. Communist Party is somewhat divided Into Moscow and Peiping factions, but it. is,.still the best organized and best financed group in the Sudan. It has been receiving large donations of Sudan ese pounds bought by the Russians In Beirut' and by the Chinese in Dar Es Salaam. - The Party publishes five newspapers and a mimeographed monthly circulates within the army. It has also established a busy network of workers' clubs throughout the country's major cities. Although most of its supporters have been exposed, it is still campaigning hard with both carrot and stick. Mr. MUNDT.. What is important to comment on here is that Communist ex- perts in nonmilitary aggression will study their failure in the Sudan and will subsequently apply what they learn in new essays in aggression. Louchheim, on the other hand, tells something of our patchwork efforts at resistance during these weeks in the Sudan: ing in November had been premature. . It is no accident that on the desk of one "We made some mistakes," he said. "There American 'official in Khartoum there is a were certain weaknesses which prevented the copy of Harry and Bonaro Overstreet's "What national democratic forces from realizing We Must -Know About Communism" or that complete success." paperback editions of the book were made He conceded that the party had overe'sti- available to influential Sudanese. mated its support and coordination and It is good that we are consulting this urged a more gradual "transition to perspicuous book. But it is time that swe provide thorough familarity with the The eswi switch came anti late. A month a nonmilitary aggression for those persons launched plenum their the countercoup. anti-Communist . It It was st parties t signaled ies in non-Communist countries upon by an event similar to the false Communist whom our own defenses rest. broadcast directed against the Army Nov. 9. Enactment of the Freedom Academy 7603 NEW MEXICANS MAKE STRONG CASE FOR BAYARD VETERANS' ADMINISTRATION HOSPITAL PRESERVATION Mr. MONTOYA. - Mr. President, Pres- ident Johnson's decision to review the Veterans' Administration order closing a number of VA hospitals has been very encouraging to us who feel the closing would be a serious disservice to the vet- erans of this country. Just before establishing a committee to review the closing order, the President instructed the Administrator for the Veterans' Administration? Mr. William J. Driver, to visit each of the endangered hospitals. Unfortunately, Mr. Driver was not treated with proper courtesy at some of the institutions, but I am happy to say that the citizens of Silver City and Grant County in New Mexico were not among this group. Mr. Driver's reception when he visited Fort Bayard Veterans' Hos- pital on April 3 so Impressed him that he sent a letter of thanks to the chamber of commerce. I believe the comments of Mr. Jim Elliott, of the Silver City Daily Press, following Mr. Driver's visit may be of interest to my colleagues, and I ask unanimous consent that the comments be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the com- merits were ordered to be printed in the Rzooxn, as follows: The Silver. City-Grant County Chamber of Commerce has received a letter from Wil- liam J. Driver, Veterans' Affairs Adminis- trator, complimenting Grant Countians on their presentation of the case for retention of the VA hospital at Fort Bayard, as being orderly, degnifled, and without dramatics. Driver, who was at the Fort Bayard facility on direct orders of the President, was met by hospital Administrators,, leaders of the Tri-State Veterans Steering Committee Thomas P. Foy, Ernie Parra, Dr. George Cor- nali, and others; news representatives, and Senator JOSEPH M. MONTOYA, representing the New Mexico congressional delegation. Also on hand were a number of veterans organization members, including ranking State officers of the DAV. In addressing the local people, Driver stated In the briefest terms that his mission was to make a personal inspection, that other VA Officials with him were even then tour- ing the Fort Bayard complex, and that he would submit his evaluation of the facility's worth and importance directly to President Johnson, Many of the assembled veterans shook hands with the Administrator, said they Were certain his on-site inspection would be re- flected in a favorable report, and left any for- mal statements to Senator MONTOYA, Senator MorrroYA said he speak, not of economic importance of the facility, but of the hardship its closing would work on veterans of this area, especially the great distance to he traveled by ailing veterans to the nearest VA hospital. In less than 10 minutes the conference. was over, and Driver began his own tour, of the plant. Driver's treatment InGrant County was in sharp contrast to that he received in some supposedly more sophisticated communities, where groups of exservicemen, wearing little caps jangling with hardware, dogged his steps as he toured facilities, wore placards de- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000600080003-5 7604 Approved For Rel a lRT fflAf 1R COR67~BOOS ~R~O~OO6OOO8OOO3-5 7 i { nc c ? ~ti ~..e every re:nars anc and weedlCides. The same is true Miss Carson, not only should the pr;sent ac- railed at him. Grant Co throughout the Nation, tvity be taken as a well-deserved and well- personal attack on ck ons the didn't VA 't chief have to to make make their a Every merited result of her efforts to shock the Precaution should be taken for point, The point was well made by the human safety, to be sure. But let there American people into a realization of the sparkling appearance and obviously smooth not be Ill-advised, hasty action which change have aase which man's efforts the face improveof hie operation of the hospital itself. will be based on emotion or hysteria but earth; but I am further convinced that with It shouldn't be hard to guess which is which will result in heavy and irrepa- Miss Carson no longer here there is a real dirties left the more favorable impressions rable damages to those whose safety is need to bring these matters into focus, that on the inspection tram. being sought. we map keep a sense of balance with re- A Member of the Congress who has gard to man's essential weapons In his nev- REPRESENTATIVE WIiTTN N CAIT S studied the pesticide matter carefully and erending contest with insects and diseases, thoroughly is Representative JAn~IE L. with pests and pestilence. FOR UNDERSTANDING ABOUT f s Mississippi. Repress chairman JA of the In connection with this effort on my part PESTICIDE.' House Appropriations Subcommittee on a t place by a"lent ousped p public in d the oper focus resultin Mr. HRUSKA. Mr. President, from Agriculture. He is one of the country's we must realize that the substitutes which time to time, various of our colleagues foremost agricultural authorities. Ail were offered not only in "Silent Spring" have seen fit to discuss In this Chamber who have dealt with him have confidence but by those who took its public warning as the several aspects of pesticides, insects- In his integrity, ability, and knowledge. the last word are, themselves, dangerous to Bides, and aeedicfdes: their place and Recently Representative WRITTEN the extreme. value in agriculture; their proper use; gave a speech to the Council of Cali- Spring" was Recommended as bacteria, suu a stituIt is te it "finest their effect upon agricultural produc- fornia Growers. It is entitled "Our Pes- much suffering , thou a the cause tion, availability of foodstuffs as well as ticide Problem-Public Understanding AAlso suggested d as a substitute for chemicals quality; and proposed legislative Our Greatest Need." Because of its were viruses. As we know, viruses are not measures relating to their manufacture, timely and factual information. I ask only the known cause of many diseases of distribution and use. unanimous consent to have the speech man and animals, but to you and me they This Senator has also engaged in such printed in the RECORD. are the cause to which is attributed just discussions in this Chamber previously. I hope every Member of the Congress about everything for which the doctors can find In common with others who have done will take the time to read It. It puts this the boono , ks are answer. replete Not wit t Snih is this atio of so, I too have counseled that before act- entire viruses; though o of pesticide situation in its proper the mutations o of viruses; thus, our ing by way of legislation, we should have context. Sooner or later, the Congress scientists may be able to determine a means all the necessary facts firmly in mind. will, in my opinion, be called upon to of control for a particular virus, in succeed- As we all know, the book, "Silent legislate In this field. The speech will Ing generations, changes may occur so that Spring," by Miss Rachel Carson, forcibly prove invaluable to those who wish to It becomes something entirely different and centered attention on this subject. wholesomely inform themselves in ad- not subject to any known control, a virus In spite of her high dedication to the vance. running wild. Another Item recommended by Miss Car- cause of public well-being, however, the There being no objection, the speech son as a substitute was gamma rays, which ich book regrettably caused many fears, fe- was ordered to be printed in the REc- according to the Atomic Energy Commission verish inquiries and concerns. This was ORD, as follows: - requires the greatest care and attention. A regrettable because with more complete OI'a PSSTTCTDE PROSLLM-PUBLIC UNDERSTAND- real help In the treatment of cancer, there information and consideration, such iNG Ova GRzATasT NEaD are those who begin to suspect that radia- apprehensions have for the most part (Speech of co lion may be the cause of leukemia. been classed as unfounded; better chairman, Appropriations a JAMrs L. ommit tee All of which means that if a Daphne du for Agriculture, ppropr iat ions Subcommittee Maurier or Ernest Hemingway were to write balance has been achieved. to the Council of Cali- a book to the effect that Americans, with It is gratifying to note that with the fornla Growers) government a passage of time and further studies, Co the bulletin board at the university of deliberately releasing Into our environment much of that original furor has sub- -California at Davis appears the following: viruses, bacteria, or gamma rays, they, too, sided and has assumed more realistic One controversial book has bolted us into could scare the public to death with their reevaluating man's entire relationship within power with words, in describing use of these nature and degree. But this did not occur before a good deal of harm had his environment." substitutes for chemicals suggested by Miss This is a holdover from the food confer- Gerson. been done to farmers, growers, and con- ence held at this institution in 1960, entitled The problem she points up is that some sumers, as well as the chemical Industry. "Food for Man in the Future." chemicals do not break down readily and This illustrates the need for exercise of Truly, the book, "Silent Spring," written that some residue is stored. One way of caution in acting or speaking in the by Miss Rachel Carson, has created perhaps looking at it is that the substitutes recom- name of public safety when the hazard as much furor and activity as any book in mended would be far more dangerous, since, warned against is not sufficiently dem- this generation. It has actually resulted in as with theuse of viruses, the mutation pro- onstrated or does not exist in the harm- tremendous expansion, if not the creation of cess could produce dangerous new viruses ed, or not where the harm- a as laboratory at the university. It as an offshoot of one which at the outset is fur degree or does has resulted in the enlargement of the re- perfectly harmless and, perhaps in some in- mental effects of such acting or speaking search activities of the Department of stances, actually beneficial. far outweigh the criticisms or charges Health. Education, and Welfare; the Depart- In a television program several years ago, leveled. ment of Agriculture; and the Fish and Wild- Miss Carson raised this significant question: Recent inquiries, investigations, and life Service, as well as the creation of the "Can anyone believe it is possible to lay down studies have brought out salient and President's Committee on Science. and five such a barrage of poison (chemical pesti- vital facts in this his or six new laws. cides) on the surface of the earth without Modern agriculture field. adequate size Not only this, but it has created greatly making it unsafe for all life?" hout pesti- expanded work in the field of ecology, a To which I would reply that, with all the and quality is impuro o1 w ad branch of science concerned with the inter- known benefits and, In some cases absolute rides. relationship of organisms and their environ- dependence upon chemicals, can anyone be- Pesticides are one of the greatest bul- menta, and in renewed tests of man and lieve it should be mandatory to prohibit their warks against disease. animals. The conferences resulting are with- use simply because some place, somewhere, The greatest beneficiary of the Use of out number, and the tests made and being sometime, something bad just barely might pesticides is the American consumer. made go on ad Infinitum. Like the work of happen? Truly, we must find a medium for The consumer, because of pesticides, the ecologist, this will continue forever. reaching a median. derives and enjoys better quality , greater In many areas the public clamor follow- "Silent Spring" pleads eloquently for the derive, and wider variety his food at Ing "Silent Spring" has almost reached the balance of nature. When there were only plower price than anyplace on earth. point of hysteria. Reassessments have been 800,000 Indians on this continent, the num- made as to effects of chemicals on fish and her at the time of the discovery of America No case of injury to human beings from fowl, man and animals, all of which if taken by Columbus, nature did a fair job for them. the proper use of pesticides has been In proper balance might be good. Certainly. Today, if we had to depend on nature, we documented, the sum total will be Increased knowledge, would probably die of disease at a fairly This Senator knows that the farmer much of which will doubtless prove benefi- early age, if we did not starve to death first. ctal and all of which will prove of interest The facts show that the proper use of of the Midwest places high store and to those who by training are scientists. chemical pesticides, as well as other weapons great necessity on pesticides, Insecticides, With the untimely passing of the late of our American agriculture, Is necessary Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67BOO446ROO0600080003-5 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000600080003-5 April 13, 1-965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE both to 11"uman health and to the produc- tion of a nutritious and abundant supply of food, for farm labor is simply not available; and if people from our cities were forced into farm work, they would be little if any help, judging by other nations where dire neces- sity has brought this about. In recent years it has become more and more difficult to convince the public and Members of Congress of the importance of chemical pesticides and herbicides to a pro- ductive agriculture, and to the consumer as well. Public health and a constantly increasing life expectancy are threatened today by such attacks. Already there is legislation which has led to requirement by the Government of zero tolerance for pesticide residues for some foods, meaning there must be no detectable pesticide residue. From the standpoint of practical application, there can be no such thing as zero tolerance, for constantly im- proved techniques of testing show traces so small as to be of interest only to a sci- entist. Some years ago, a few cranberry producers violated instructions for the use of pesticides on cranberries, and residues resulted. The problem was solved. Subsequently, around Thanksgiving, sensational and unnecessary statements were made to the press which scared the buying public and destroyed the market for good, wholesome cranberries. The damage was felt for a long time. At the direction of President Eisenhower, approxi- mately $10 million was paid the cranberry producers for the unnecessary injury inflicted as a result of this uncalled for and damaging publicity. Other industries have been hurt by such irresponsible publicity, including the dairy industry. Yet, as I have stated, there has been no evidence that human health has been injured nor endangered where pesti- eides and other chemicals have been properly handled. On the contrary, it is plain that human health 1s dependent upon chemicals and chemical pesticides in many ways. If It were possible to do without chemicals, I believe all would be for such a course, for chemical pesticides are costly. They require frequent use, and- care must be used in their application. However, only by their use do we provide our high standard of living; only by their use can we continue the good life we now take for granted; and only by their use do we protect our health. In 1062 we had an estimated 60 million television sets; the rest of the world had around 69 million. We have approximately 2.6 million miles of paved and surfaced high- ways; the rest of the world has 1.4 million miles, exclusive of the U.S.S.R. We had ap- proximately 78 million automobiles and com- mercial vehicles in use in 1962; the rest of world had only an estimated 62 million. We spent approximately 18 percent of our an- nual income for food; the average for some other countries is as follows: Italy, 46 per- cent; Japan, 51 percent; Ceylon, 57 percent; Nigeria, 71 percent. All of this is made possible because the 8 percent of our people on the farm provide food and raw materials for the other 92 per- cent. To do so, they must rely upon: (1) intricate and expensive machinery; (2) chemicals, including chemical pesticides- both of which take the place of farm labor which is no longer available; (3) greatly in- creased investment and risk; and (4) con- stant research. Each of these four is abso- lutely essential if 8 percent of our people are to free the other 92 percent from the farm, so they may maintain national defense, keep for us our standard of living, and protect the public health. Yet today we find some of these essentials under serious attack from an aroused public opinion, which we must calm. For, like the foundation of a building, if one of these four essentials is taken. away not only will it bring down American agriculture, but it will se- riously weaken our defense, greatly reduce our standard of living, and endanger our welfare, Unless public thinking is brought back into balance, insects and disease could run rampant. The distribution of our popula- tion could well reach a balance-50 percent in the towns and cities and 50 percent forced back to the farm. Our standard of living would likely fall to the low level of Russia. This may sound extreme, but I am confident that a study of the facts will bear me out. Recently I visited several of our airfields and missile bases. There I saw the awesome power of manmade fuels, saw demonstrated the terrible destructiveness of our bombs, the unbelievable speed of our fighter planes, loaded with enough destructive force to de- stroy many cities at one strike. I visited Cape Kennedy where I saw all the equipment demonstrated, manpower multi- plied to the nth degree by machines, was provided a complete briefing and stood at the exact spot where the next space capsule will soon be bolted to the missile. As I stood there, I thought of Miss Car- son's melancholy sense of foreboding, which she expressed in these words: "Now I truly believe that we, in this generation, must come to terms with nature, and I think we are challenged as mankind has never been challenged before to prove our maturity and our mastery, not of nature, but of ourselves." Necessary though all of this defense effort appears to - be, it occurred to me that it is here Miss Carson's admonition should make its deepest imprint; it is here that nature or natural laws are being turned, not toward a better food supply, a higher standard of liv- ing, but toward the destruction of mankind. Yet as I viewed these machines of destruc- tion, while standing on top of the missile which will hurl our next astronaut into space, I felt I had some understanding of the thoughts which must have crossed Miss Car- son's mind as she dedicated "Silent Spring": "To Albert Schweitzer who said, 'Man has lost the capacity to foresee and to forestall. He will end by destroying the earth.' "To Keats, who said in the 1820's, 'the sedge is wither'd from the lake and no birds sing.' - "And to E. B. White, who said, 'I am pes- simistic about the human race because it is too ingenious for its own good. Our ap- proach to nature is to beat it into submis- sion. We would stand a better chance of survival if we accommodated ourselves to this planet and viewed it apprecfately in- stead of skeptically and dictatorily;' " But back to the problem of insects, Miss Carson says, in "Silent Springs": "All this is not to say there is no insect problem and no need for control. I am saying, rather, that control must be geared to realities, not to mythical situations, and that the meth- ods employed must be such that they do not destroy us along with the insects." To me, this is a call for a public balance of opinion. Had she foreseen clearly the way in which the public received her story as the last word, as scientific fact, she might well have said the same with a slight varia- tion, as follows: "While my warnings are timely, for there is a problem of care and caution in the use of chemicals, let care and caution be geared to realities, not to mythi- cal situations, and the methods employed must be such that they, the public, do not destroy themselves (by going) along with the insects." Today we have 2,683,078 people in the mil- itary service of the United States and 1,173,- 542 civilians working for the Defense De- partment; 2,975,000 people are 'engaged in the manufacture of weapons and materials for military use and uncounted millions in related support. - We have 32,417 people engaged in the space program and an estimated 300,000 people in our plants and factories in this program, with 20,000 people providing general support and supplies. The fiscal year 1965 appropriations include an annual expenditure for the national de- fense and related programs, including space, of some $58 billion, approximately 60 percent of our total annual governmental budget. To support this defense activity, the De- fense Department has an estimated invest- ment of $36.5 billion in plants and land (original cost valuation) - and 26.8 million acres of land for defense use. - The heavy burden of national defense can be readily appreciated when It is realized that a B-52 military bomber costs about $8 million to produce, a conventional aircraft carrier costs around $830 million, and a nu- clear carrier runs in the neighborhood of $400 million. - No nation in the history of the world has ever spent such a large share of its govern- mental income on defense and other items over a long period of time without a crackup of its economy; yet in the United States of America we have the highest standard of living of any nation in the world. It was my privilege during the period of November 15-22, 1964, to participate in a traveling symposium of the National Acad- emy of Sciences. We spent a full day at the U.S, Laboratory at Beltsville, Md.; the-Ameri- can Cyanimid Laboratory at Princeton, N.J.;- the Taft Engineering Laboratory at Cincin- nati, Ohio; the Wildlife Laboratory at Den- ver, Colo.; and the University of California Laboratory at Davis, ending with a presenta- tion by the U.S. Health Service at San Fran- cisco, flying between these points at night in order to save time. At each place, detailed presentations were made by leading scientists of the United States, some from the institutions which we visited, invited there to be on the program. Each session was concluded by a question- and-answer period. This symposium did much to convince me that our scientists can work together cooper- atively and that it is primarily in the field of public opinion that we need to seek a balance. In these hearings many things became clear. First, without today's chemical pesti- cides our timberwould become depleted and our lands eroded, our watersheds would be- come funnels for floodwaters rushing down upon our cities. I am well aware that real research progress has been made. At Beltsville numerous ex- amples of damages - to crops and timber stands by various insects which have re- sponded to these modern persistent chemi- cals, and only to them on any significant basis, are available. There it was demon- strated that the sex attractant approach to- ward elimination of insects, on which the Department of Agriculture has worked for many years, is very effective. We were shown that male roaches literally would be driven wild by the scent from the female of the species. Detailed statements were presented, describing many of the so-called modern means of contrglling insects and pests, though rather than modern they are actually a mere expansion of the various programs which have gone on in the Department for many years. Study of this subject further shows the absolute dependence which modern-day man has upon all his weapons, the old and the new. Yet in the care and caution involved are many years of research which go on prior to the acceptance or approval of any new in- -secticide or pesticide, the average being 5 to 6 years and the investment averaging some $21/2 to $31/2 million for each new prod- uct. These products, paid for by private companies, are made possible only because of the urgent need on the part of the buying public and only after tremendous amounts of energy and effort to make sure they are safe for human use when properly handled. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000600080003-5 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000600080003-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE ApTil 19, 1965 We have rend of numerous instances of fish kill; yet a study shows this has occurred throughout history. In the recent Missis- sippi River fish kill it was contended that the chemical, endrin, was the cause; and yet ,Dr. Arnold, head of our laboratory in Florida, stated to our panel that once a fish is dead there is no known way to be certain what the cause might be. Dr. Arnold further Stated that periodically the "red tide" would strike salt water fish at sea, resulting in death to large numbers of fish; why it causes their death, we do not know. A friend and participant In the symposiurn repeated the oft-told tale about the ancient Indian tribe which spent Its summers in the mountains of the West but, on occasion. would travel to the shore for ehelfish and other seafood. At times the Indians would be deathly sick after eating the shellfish. Scientists have since determined that the pink plankton became diseased, affecting the fish and resulting in the illness of the tribe. A tribal order was issued by the chief that members of the tribe were not to eat the oysters or other shellfish when the water was red (with plankton), However, It wasn't long until one of the braves, having taken unto himself too much of a beverage which brought about intoxication, determined to have the fish and when he started toward the ocean the chief struck him down with a club. This, it is said, is the - first time the con- trolling Government ever interfered with the food supply. Even the scientists who did the research work in an effort to determine the cause of the fish kill In the Mississippi River acknowl- edged that in an Inland lake, Oxbow, in Sun- flower County, Miss., where for many years the persistent chemicals used on the crops have run into streams which feed the lake. the fish are fat, healthy and sassy; and yet, these fish contained more than 40 times as much chemical residue from persistent chemicals as did the fish involved in the Mississippi River kill. Demonstrated to us also was the tremen- dous pollution of our streams from other causes- To stand in one of our national laboratories and see in glass containers the junk which had been taken from 250,000 gal- lons of water from each of several rivers In the general area, to remove the cover of the container and smell the revolting odor, cer- tainly made us realize that in this generation we must give some consideration to the pro- tection of essential water and other things in our environment. It was demonstrated that lethal doses of the chemicals would kill fish and, as ex- plained, would kill people-a fact all of us know; deadly amounts of anything will kill. We have even had cases described where drinking pure water has killed, when some unbalanced individuals on a gamble or dare took on too much. It was further shown that everything has chemical content in varying degrees and that minerals are nature's chemicals. One of the scientists advised us that while tests and research are excellent and neces- sary, for they add to the sum total of human knowledge. It will doubtless prove of some benefit in most cases but in all Instances would prove of interest to the research scien- tists. With all of this, the public scare about measurable residues seems to have no basis in fact, since tests show levels are far be- low the point at which anyone contends pub- lic health would be endangered. We were told that tests clearly show resi- dues seem to have reached the maximum level when built up to a level of 10 or 12 parts per million; and beyond that point residues are thrown off by our bodies as rap- idly as they are taken aboard. An example was given of one man who worked with one of the persistent chemicals--where tests showed he had 648 parts of residue per mil- lion-and he felt good, looked good, and said he was completely healthy. Our finite new testing methodsshow that in rain on top of Mount Everest there is a slight degree of residue from various pesti- cides, while the average for Americans is some four or five parts per billion. Here it was dis- closed that the zero tolerance now required on residues for milk Is an Impossibility, for today we have come up with methods of tests whereby It Is possible to separate three parts of chemical residues from the persistent chemical from a trillion (three out of 1 tril- lion). No doubt to the average reader, as to myself, this is Impossible to comprehend; but It was explained that by such test we could Identify one dime out of the annual Federal budget of $100 billion (10 cents out of $100 billion) or, as expressed another way, 1 sec- ond could be separated from the time in 32,000 years. Thus, It is no wonder that at the University of California. at Davis, the scientists referred to "working level zero" In our discussions of pesticide research. In our hearings at Denver, Colo., at the Fish and Wildlife Research Laboratory, much time was given to discussion of predator animals, birds and rodents which destroy young timber and In the absence of per- sistent pesticides would prevent us from re- storing the forests and refuges, for as the young seedlings were set out these rodents and other predators would destroy them. Pictures were presented of the vast hordes of blackbirds which steal from the feed lots In the cattle areas of this country and from the rice and grain fields of the southeastern region. These hordes of birds continue to increase; and In one spot in Arkansas 40 mil- lion were counted in one roost. Pictures were also shown of the starlings which Infest much of the United States and on which $10,000 was spent in the last Presidential Inauguration, just to prevent the embarrass- ment which might have resulted to the peo- ple attending the Inauguration parade. With regard to the title of the book, "Silent Spring," the spring is anything but allent, for the birds do sing. In reality, ac- cording to personal observation and the best figures available, those of the Audubon So- ciety, there are more birds today than ever before and certain kinds of birds constitute a real economic threat. We were presented with facts as to the serious and sincere effort by the Fish and Wildlife Service to handle predator birds and animals and to rid the Nation of the tremendous costs and damages brought about by the blackbirds and starlings. Ibis year the Department of the interior will spend some $600,000 trying to get rid of birds which due to tremendous numbers and hearty ap- petites. have become pests. The Federal Aviation Agency will join in spending hun- dreds of thousands of dollars in an attempt to remove the hazard to air travel by etrik- Ing birds. Testimony was given to show the buildup of residues in birds, as formerly had been shown with regard to fish. Yet with the di- rectives and appropriations by the Congress. I learned of no instance where dieldrin. endrin, DDT. or other chemicals were used in the efforts to get rid of these damaging birds. As one scientist told me, facetiously. I'm sure, failure to use these chemicals Is due to the fact that it would take over 100 years to eliminate the birds by that means, and by that time these chemicals might be- come a necessary seasoning for their food. Subsequently this whole problem was brought into focus to a great degree. At the University of California, at Davis, it was readily agreed that we need to know more about chemicals and chemical pesticides. We need tcflearn to stop drift, so that when we use airplanes for distribution of the pesti- cide, as is essential In dealing with this matter on a large scale, we need to see the chemical doesn't blow across the fields to plants for which it was not intended. It was clearly developed that we need to know more of the effects on land. as some vegeta- s bles have a tendency to absorb the soil- and more of the chemicals used in preceding years than others, though all of this, too, becomes important because of government- fixed tolerances rather than of proven dan- gers to health. It was learned that 20 percent of all the chemical pesticides used in this country are used. In California. The following statement was made: "Without these chemicals and chemical pesticides it would be impossible for California to continue Its present production, with the resulting effect upon the availabil- ity of vegetables and agricultural products upon the markets of the central and eastern part of the United States." We found that the challenge has been ac- cepted, that man is doing everything pos- sible to stay one step ahead in this constant battle with Insects and disease. Repeated was the fact that tolerance builds up in man as it does in animals and insects. Since this is true with regard to insects, it calls for continued efforts by man to find new chem- icals, new methods and ways to overcome the tolerance which does build up in animals and in insects. We must see to it that tol- erances are based upon safety and set by a standard test. OUR ROAD AHEAD "It takes so few of us to provide food. clothing and shelter for the rest of us, the rest of us can provide the highest standard of living for all of us ever known by man." I have made the foregoing statement in quite a few speeches. To me, It sums up the secret of our great success, but also expresses a most serious threat to our welfare, With so few people on the farm, the voice of agri- culture Is weak In the legislativeballs of a majority of the States and of the Nation. No longer does agriculture figure promi- nently in the planning of those who look to the majority. This leaves a major task of keeping the consumers Informed, the 92 per- cent off the farm who must depend on agri- culture for their supply of food and fiber. Unless our urban population understands agriculture, future generations could go hungry and our Nation could go down to ruin as did the city-states of the past. After all, the eventual loser in the declining voice of agriculture in our legislative bodies could be the consumers that agriculture serves. A few years ago I spoke to the annual con- vention of the National Agricultural Chem- icals Association at Del Coronado, Calif., with some 1,500 to 2,000 delegates In attend- ance from all over the United States. I spoke as chairman of the Appropriations Subcommittee for Agriculture. When the San Diego newspapers reported I was to speak at Del Coronado, just outside San Diego, I received a wire from the mayor of San Diego offering me the keys to the city. We have a big naval base at that city and then, as now. I was a member of the Ap- propriations Subcommittee for Defense, which handles the appropriations for the ac- tivities of the base. Representatives of the local newspapers came to the hotel to interview me. We had about a 45-minute talk about the speech I was to present. As they were leaving, one of the reporters remarked, "Congressman, I note you are also on the Defense Subcom- mittee. I see in the press today that we had another failure at Cape Canaveral." I replied: "That Is typical of the United States, to tell about every one of our failures while Russia tells only of her successes." Now, these reporters had spent 45 min- utes with me discussing my speech about agriculture. However, the newspapers car- ried my picture with a writeup under the heading, "Congressman Says United States Advertises Its Failures." There followed a story built around my offhand comment. The Interview on my farm speech was ignored, except for a brief statement at the end that I was there to speak to an agri- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000600080003-5 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 CIA-RDP67B00446R000600080003-5 April 13, .P965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE ,ultural "group, the National Agricultural chemicals Association, The, next day I referred to the brushoff riven my farm remarks to illustrate how lifficult it is to reach our urban dwellers. Following my speech, a reporter for the aft- ,rnoon paper called me aside. He said he wanted to see that his newspaper gave my ;peech better treatment. We discussed the Lddress at considerable length. The next lay, believe me, the newspaper not only did zot mention my talk, but carried an editorial raying San Diego County was a large agricul- tural county and, in effect, was not getting its share of Federal financial assistance. My complaint is not about the treatment accorded me. If I bad worn my defense ap- propriations hat, what I said would have been reported at length. The real tragedy is that the editors of those newspapers knew their readers, living in towns and cities, took agriculture for granted and preferred to read about Cape Canaveral (now Cape Kennedy) and guided missiles. This experience certainly points up the problem we now have in reaching the Amer- ican consumers who are not on the farms. The consumers must be told that the good health of agriculture is vital to their own good health and welfare. I wish to emphasize that we must see that the 8 percent on the farm has the means which will enable it to supply the 92 percent in the cities with wholesome, nutritious, abundant and, comparatively speaking, cheap, food. The 8 percent must have the means of production-efficient pesticides, fertilizers, modern machinery and Other techniques of modern agriculture. The 8 percent also must get a fair price for what it raises. As the Communist experience shows, one way to wreck agriculture is to kill the incentive of the farmers, and without reasonable profits, there is no incentive. We must continue research, including pes- ticide research, in many fields so that we can keep our farm plant efficient and ready to meet the demands which will be put upon it, both here and abrqad. As I have tried to make plain, our agriculture is an asset In many respects. Its scope embraces both national security and national health. We must not permit anyone or any group to saddle our sources of food and fiber with the burden of the unknown. We must abol- ish once and for all time this effort to force the home gardener, the homemaker, the flor- ist, and those engaged in agriculture to prove that their tools and working materials do not cause that for which even our best researchers, physicians, and scientists do not know the cause. So far as chemicals are concerned, we must provide for, and establish, reasonable tolerances for residues, tolerances which pro- vide ample protection for the public health. We must see that tolerances are determined by standard procedures and that they re- main fixed so long as there is no evidence of danger to the public. We must not allow compensation for damages resulting from misuse, but also we must prevent damages by government, local or other, where the in- structions providing for health protection have been carried out. The regulations must abide by the rules of commonsense as well as by scientific rules. We must be ready with new weapons and new methods; but in the meantime we must not give up those we have. If we do not fol- low this policy, we can get ready to tell our farewell to our high level of living. Both sides of the story must be told. The overwhelming number of Americans living in the towns and cities, including sportsmen, must become aware of the fact that they are heavily dependent on the latest and best chemical pesticides. The ability of animals and insects, as well as man, to propagate is such that any one species except for the problems of his com- petitors and his environment would reach such numbers as to fill the earth. From the beginning, many has changed his environ- ment for the purpose of improving his own lot, of better handling his competitive sit- uation with other forms of life around him. With man's ingenuity, in time the final and best method of testing developed would not limit us to locating a dime in a budget of a hundred billion dollars, or a second in the time Of 32,000 years, but in all likeli- hood man's ingenuity is such that every change in our environment from the be- ginning of time could be identified, all to add to the sum total of man's knowledge- though perhaps not In large degree to his benefit. Doubtless, the results of such tests will be of help in bringing to the people of our Nation and the world a sense of bal- ance, causing public attention, properly aroused, to be given to care and caution, to learning for the future. In no case must we allow the hysteria which might result in man depriving himself of the very means by which he controls at least a part of the en- vironment In which he lives. Public opinion running wild can be like the mob which de- stroys itself. We should lend our effort to acknowledging Miss Carson's great contribu- tion and join others in tribute to that great lady, underwriting the statement appearing on the walls of the auditorium of the Uni- versity of California, at Davis: "One con- troversial book has bolted us into reevaluat- ing man's relationship with his environ- ment." But let us pledge to ourselves that we will not allow that spirit or feeling to get out of hand; that we will make every effort to see that man continues to prosper, continues to lengthen the years of his life. PUBLIC RELATIONS FOR PUBLIC DISASTER RELIEF Mr. MAGNUSON. Mr. President, we do not ordinarily find an industry or its public relations representatives re- ceiving wide acclaim for exceptional ac- complishment in time of area-wide dis- aster. - That is why, In my opinion, the work of the American Plywood Association, its public relations manager, George C. Cheek, of Tacoma, Wash., and of its publicity manager, Tom McCarthy dur- ing winter floods in the Pacific North- west and northern California, is excep- tionally noteworthy. Public Relations News, published in New York, related the fine work of the association, and of Mr. Cheek and Mr. McCarthy, in a recent issue under the appropriate heading "How an Industry Used PR To Help Overcome the Effects of a Disaster." The seriousness of this flood disaster has been attested also in a special visual report on the flood, carried over the Na- tional Broadcasting Company's televi- sion network. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that the article referred to above published in Public Relations News and the script of the NBC-TV special report on these floods be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: - - 7607 HOW AN INDUSTRY USED PR TO HELP OVER- COME THE EFFECTS OF A DISASTER The foresighted public relations practi- tioner Is prepared with written plans for handling the kinds of disasters which might affect his organization. But unexpected crises must be handled, too, and such a one occurred when sudden floods hit the Pacific Northwest just before last Christmas. An unprecedented 13 inches of rain within a few hours developed raging torrents which brought death and tremendous destruction. Forty-three plywood mills were out of pro- duction. Some 5,000 homes were demol- ished and another 8,000 damaged. Almost every survivor in the area was affected job- wise or businesswise because its economy is so heavily dependent upon such mills. Vast quantities of logs and finished goods were swept downstream, carried out to sea, and redeposited as far away as 100 miles along the coast. Many major highways and bridges were washed out and vital logging and secondary roads simply disappeared. One key railroad was put out of business for an estimated half year and another lost some of its lines for more than a month. (Plywood is shipped chiefly by rail and about 10 percent of the Nation's plywood-produc- ing capacity was involved.) It quickly became obvious to the Ameri- can Plywood Association (APA), Tacoma, Wash., the largest association in the forest products field, that its help would be needed. Many mills were closed down for the Christ- mas-New Year's holidays, with -staffs on va- cation. Disruption of communications and - transportation would make it difficult for individual mills to solve their problems alone. What's more, the loss of shipping facilities and supplies threatened disruption of the plywood market. APA's PR manager, George C. Cheek, quickly launched a "flood mop-up" program. He dispatched Publicity Manager Tom Mc- Carthy, a former newspaper reporter and competent photographer, to the hardest-hit region to gather as much information as possible. Based upon, preliminary facts, a summary of the situation and an explana- tion for the need for quick action were tele- graphed to APA members and Governors of the affected States. An offer to extend APA technical assistance to nonmembers as well as members was announced. Senators and Representatives from the area were asked to introduce legislation which would restore the depleted disaster relief fund of the Small Business Administration. When the damage to transportation had been appraised, APA moved to obtain water transportation from areas out off from the railroads. It telephoned all shipping lines operating on the west coast and alerted Senator WARREN G. MAGNUSON, Democrat, of Washington, to the possible need for request- ing the Interstate Commerce Commission and the Maritime Administration for a tem- porary exemption from the prohibition, un- der the Jones Act, of shipments in foreign bottoms between American ports. (The first boat carried away a load of plywood by mid-January.) APA offered help toward provision of emer- gency housing. The prime need, however, turned out to be for facilities to replace schools which had been destroyed. - Calling upon the Industry's know-how for turning out sound structures with great speed, APA hired, on January 2, a contractor and three foremen experienced in school construction. Six days later a "school factory" was in op- eration, Lumber and plywood were contrib- uted by all the major producers in the area- Georgia-Pacific, Arcata Redwood, Pacific Lumber, Simpson Timber, U.S. Plywood, Weyerhaeuser-and many smaller ones. With all bridges to the operation destroyed, Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000600080003-5 7608 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000600080003-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE April 13, 1965 these materials were flown in by cargo planes loaned by the U.S, Government. Nine class- rooms, equipped with salvaged desks and blackboards and meeting State requirements "in every respect." were in operation on Jan- uary 18; all were completed within the next week. With McCarthy's Information and photos in hand on December 31, a special report (4- page, tabloid-sized, and about 75 percent pic- tures) went to the printer on January 3. Dated January 5, It carried the name of Western Wood Products Association (WWPA) as copublisber and was mailed to members of that organization as well as of APA. Fed- eral legislators, and other potentially Inter- ested persons. Adding pictures from other sources (U.S. Forest Service and local papers) the report dramatically told the story of the damage wrought by the floods, summarized what was being done, and carried a joint message from Executive Vice Presidents James R. Turnbull and Wendell-B. Barnes of, respectively, APA and WWPA. Prompt restoration of production was essential for such important reasons as pro- viding jobs and reassuring consumers that shortages would be temporary. Such steps as these were taken: (1) on request, Con- gress appropriated funds to enable the Forest Service to restore access roads to pub- licly owned timber lands; (2) timber from such lands was made available, on an emer- gency basis, to mills cut off from their normal supplies; (3) heavy logging equipment was loaned to State and county authorities for use In road restoration; and (4) the bigger companies built temporary bridges strong enough to carry logging trucks and. In select- ing locations, favored the smaller companies lacking resources for such a type of con- struction. From the time the disaster began, APA has taken palm to assemble and disseminate Information which demonstrates the good citizenship and public spirit of its members. The contributions to school rebuilding and efforts of APA members to provide jobs are examples of such attitudes and Cheek has made sure they are known to the media. A 15-minute film about the flood, one which points out the industry's efforts to assist affected families, is now in preparation, While, to quote Cheek's quip that "APA members aren't out of the woods-or, rather. in them yet," a special report on the NBC- TV network, last week, Indicated that much progress has been made in both rehabilita- tion and in winning public understanding for the plywood industry. Mr. MAGNUSON. Mr. President, we do not normally expect to find our na- tional heroes among the members of the public relations profession, although, of course, these practitioners serve an im- portant function in our economy. Yet, the work of the American Plywood As- sociation and, in particular, the good works of its public relations manager, George C. Cheek, of Tacoma, during the Christmas floods which hit the Pacific Northwest, can justly be called heroic. A case study of the actions of the Ply- wood Association during the floods, pub- lished in the Public Relations News tells of - the "Flood Mop Up" program launched by APA. APA's action ranged from the gathering and dissemination of up-to-date information on the flood, to spearheading a massive school rebuilding program. The State of Washington, indeed, the whole Pacific Northwest, can take great pride in the effective and public spirited efforts of George Cheek and the Ameri- can Plywood Association. I ask unanimous consent that the case study, "How an Industry Used Public Re- lations to Overcome the Effects of a Dis- aster," from the February 15 issue of Public Relations News, be printed in the RECORD, together with the script of a special report on the flood, carried by the NBC-TV network. There being no objection, the ma- terial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: NORTHERN CALIFORNIA LUMBER INDUSTRY Millions of dollars worth of logs line the beaches of northern California. They had been swept into the ocean by flooding rivers and driven ashore by Pacific Ocean tides and currents. it is expensive to burn the debris, retrieve the logs, and truck them back to the mills. But this process is essential to recovery of the California lumber industry which sup- plies a good portion of the Nation's lumber needs. Some redwood loge were carried more than 10o miles to the beaches near Crescent City from California's hardest-hit mill at Scotia- Inland on the Eel River. The river Is tranquil now. But it did between $5 and $10 million damage to one milt. Pacific Lumber Co. was the world's largest redwood mill. In December, the river stole $3 million worth of logs and lumber from this now- empty storage yard. Pacific lost its entire winter supply of loge--the basis for months of production. Gradually, the logs are being returned. But production of lumber is only a frac- tion of normal. Most of the mill machinery still is being cleaned of silt and grit. The entire spring inventory of finished, high-grade redwood---42 million worth-was hit by 12 feet of water and mud. Now it must all be re-sorted, regraded, re- washed. It will be months before it will get to market. Pacific lumber figures it can absorb the mnitimillton dollar toss. The men who work in the mills are Mt harder by smaller losses. A skilled mill- worker who normally makes $3 an hour takes a 70-cent pay cut to work as a cleanup man. If he can get that. Some mills have laid off half their workers. One of them is John MiJler, 24, father of two. He usually makes $75 a week. Now he will draw $50 a week In unemployment bene- fits-The total payroll in Humboldt County, Calif. is down by half-a-million dollars a week- The Impact on the business life of little lumber towns is painfully apparent. And even more men will be walking the street with nothing to do, unless the transporta- tion system is straightened out. The Northwestern Pacific Railroad, main line for carrying nothern California lumber to market, literally is out of business for from 4 to 8 months. This means costly reshipment by truck to more distant rallheads. And road damage is immense. In the forests, access to new timber is un- certain. No one knows for sure, even now, how badly the wood Industry has been hurt. With all this wood, seemingly all over the place, it seems Ironic, yet understandable that there may be a lumber shortage this spring. Tom Pettit. NBC News, near Crescent City, Calif. DIAMOND JUBILEE OF THE BEL- LINGHAM, WASH., HERALD Mr. MAGNUSON. Mr. President, I should like to speak briefly on behalf of myself and my colleague from Washing. ton [Mr. JACNsox3. The readers, advertisers, and em. ployeas of the Herald, published in Bel, lingham, Wash., toasted a diamond of March 26. Certainly newspaper carriers who de livered the 110-page diamond anniver sary edition will not soon forget the da., the Bellingham Herald became 75 year of age. Nor will the rest of us. Every page bulged with history wel told. Two editorials recounted the enormity of the task of summarizing 75 years of history, growth, and accomplishment Having known the Bellingham Herald management and writing team person- ally over the years, I ask unanimous con- sent to enter those editorials in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD at this point. There being no objection, the editorials were ordered to be printed in the REC- ORD, as follows: [From Bellingham Herald. Mar. 26, 1985] A LONG LOOS BACK OVER THE HERALD YEARS Some months ago, it occurred to some of us that 1890 subtracted from 1965 leaves a remainder of 75. We decided we had to do something about It. Today's look back over "the Herald Years" is the result. It is a long look back, by local standards, considering that Henry Roeder, who in 1852 had become, along with Russell Peabody, the first settler, was still alive in 1890. So were Edward Eldridge and his wife Teresa, the first couple to make their home on Bell- ingham Bay. The link with the origins of the towns around the bay was direct and per- sonal when the Herald published its first edition in the town that Dirty Dan Harris had recently sold to the Fairhaven Land Co. It also is something of a wistful look back. Somehow, in retrospect, covering the news in a bygone era seems today to have been more exciting-at least as recalled by the oldtimers-than during this more staid and complex time. The city and the county do have a mag- nificent past, of course, with a- full measure of local lore and legend based on fact. And when 75 years are telescoped into 40 pages, it is possible to gain a panoramic view of lo- cal history that lands drama and color, as well as appreciation of our heritage in north- west Washington. Through it all, the Herald has fulfilled its role as daily historian; recorder of the hu- morously trivial as well as the significant acts and decisions that have affected the lives of all of us. This newspaper-any gpod newspaper-also has done its best, on the editorial page, to interpret, criticize, en- courage, oppose, and advocate important matters of public concern. To acknowledge that its judgments have not always been perfect is to acknowledge that it is a human institution, vulnerable to human errors and limited by human short- comings. But it has, as best its personnel have known how, lived up to its promises and Ideals. We expect it to continue to do so for another 75 years. FASCINATING TODAY, A VALUABLE KEEPSAKE IN THE FUTURE Combining the 64 tabloid pages of two special 1965 progress edition sections with the 58 full-size pages in the main news and "Herald Years" anniversary sections, makes today's paper the largest weekday edition ever published here. The Evergreen Century edition-142 full pages. Including comics-was larger, but it Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000600080003-5