Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
December 15, 2016
Document Release Date: 
April 7, 2004
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
February 9, 1967
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP69B00369R000200020083-1.pdf1.32 MB
February 4ppfQg d For Relee8 OREESSIONAL RECORD 00 SENATE 00020083-1 S 1855 The important fact is that by this this legislation stands on its own, and stances of the late sixties, not those of treaty we would be giving the Soviet should not have any 'effect upon the the past. They must respond to the Union nothing that it does not already sovereign authority of the United States ideas which move men in the emerging have. At the present time it is free to or Canada. The United States and Can- nations today. They must draw upon staff its missions in the United States ada, respectively, have the sovereign right the lessons of experience. They must and its Embassy in Washington just as to consider any standard each deems take account of the growing wealth of we freely select our own staff members proper, and permitted by law-including other advanced countries. of our Embassy in the Soviet Union. the grant of reciprocal privileges by other The proposals in this message reflect Undoubtedly, some of these so-called nations-as an element of its national the experience of our aid activities over diplomats are Russian intelligence policy in chartering new banks, and reg- two decades. They emphasize the six agents, or to state the matter bluntly, ulating existing banks. My bill would guiding principles on which our programs spies. I would be shocked to learn that allow a Federal regulator i y presence n we did not have a number of intelligence such activities. agents among our diplomatic representa- The bill accordingly should be taken tives in the Soviet Union. Unfortu- on its merits for it is intended to improve, nately, this is a fact of life in the cold and assist international banking activi- war and we can play the game as well ties in the United States as a matter of as they. Of course, we do have CIA purely domestic concern-not to impede agents on our Embassy staffs throughout these operations or to affect the consid- the world. The danger of a few more eration by any sovereign government as Russian agents posing as diplomats is to what should be its policy in this infinitesimal be gainea by the ratification of this treaty. 1 ==+wr alone a smau Out significant ad- cated to the Senate vance toward easing those tensions No his secretarie .. s doubt this war has greatly slowed down The PRESIDING 0 the quest forld wor peace. Nevertheless, in the chair). The there are small steps which can be taken the Senate a message -Latuication of the limited nuclear test ban treaty. I shall vote for ratification of the Consular Treaty. I feel in doing so I shall be on the side of those who hope for and strive for coexistence with nations behind the Iron Curtain, instead of coannihilation, UNITED STATES-CANADIAN RELA- the Ptesi- communi- ones, one of will be printed in eing read; and ap- through their own efforts. our pro- grams can only be supplements, not sub- stitutes. This is the overriding principle. 2. Multilateralism-every advanced nation has a duty to contribute its share of the cost. 3. Regionalism-the future of many countries depends upon sound develop- ment of resources shared with their neighbors. 4. Agriculture, health, and educa- tion-these key sectors are the critical elements of advancement everywhere in the underdeveloped world. 5. Balance of payments-we cannot help others grow unless the American dollar is strong and stable. 6. Efficient administration-every American citizen is entitled to know that his tax dollar is spent wisely. The message was referred to th .Lo carry out these principles, Ipro- mittee o n Foreign Relations, as a lows pose: A new Foreign Assistance Act, stating To the Congress of the United States: in clear language our objectives, our Twenty years ago, President Truman standards, and our program techniques, set forth the basic proposition underlying A statutory National Advisory Com- the foreign aid program when he told mittee on Self-Help, to advise the Con- the Congress: grass, the President, the Secretary- of I believe that we must assist free peoples State, and the AID Administrator on how to work out their own destinies in their own effectively recipient nations are mobiliz- way. I believe that our help should be pri- ing their own resources unde th lf r e se - marily through economic and financial aid help criteria of the act. hi h w c is essential to economic stability and A statutory objective that at least 85 Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, I wish to orderly political processes. make a brief statement upon the great percent of our development loan funds deal of newspaper speculation that has This judgment was shared by Presi- be spent in a regional or multilateral been inherent in a measure which I am dents Eisenhower and Kennedy and by framework. preparing for introduction, a revision of every Congress since the 79th in 1946. More than $1 billion in programs to a proposgl which I introduced last year, It is my judgment today. I believe it is improve agriculture, education, and and which involves our brothers end the judgment of most Americans. health, a 25-percent increase over last friends i Canada. Our commitment to assist the eco- year. Last yintroduced legislation to nomic growth and security of developing A shift in emphasis in our aid policy in pr o year ar introduced for foreign pro in of the postwar world. We know that ingly on regional and multinational the Urged Stoa res. I doing intend to introduce want is the enemy of peace and hopeless- projects. this month a similar proposal. I have, ness the mother of violence. Sympathetic consideration of a U.S. however, decided la make certain rave We know that: contribution to a new special fund of the si in bill to ow e the decided ora e erta n the In the long run, the wealthy nations African Development Bank. proper balance between the proposed cannot survive as islands of abundance A $200 million U.S. contribution to new pr per control, and the ecognized proposed in a world of hunger, sickness, and special funds of the Asian Development regulatory de l o trot, and to rc fielded ie a AState lso, despair. Bank, in accord with the readed da- whatever form my proposal does take at The threat to our security posed by tions of the Black mission, headed by by Mr. Eugene the time of introduction, it will, of course, internal subversion and insurgency can- on Asian my Special Representative have to face the careful consideration of not be countered by withdrawal, isolation on Aeon Development. of Agency committee hearings. or indifference. oA rtionar Development, anethe to belt for Iry This announcement also gives me the Men-acting together-have the power on the wto to pr carry opportunity to deal with a spate of to shape their destiny. Around the private w en war on hunger and to promote regarding this bill insofar as our world, from Mexico to Greece to Taiwan, pterpriseit and l the growlo of good neighbor Canada is concerned. I we have seen the energy and deterniina- private enterprise in the less-developed lti~isp, to matte it clear that this legisla- tion of the emerging peoples transform world. on is domestic legislation, and will not, our aid into the seeds of prosperity. the My proposals for programs t infiscal and does not propose to influence the Abroad, as at home, the true national 19g8 will Foreign Assistance appropriations Act inns of consideration by an interest of the American people goes 19 slightly require any government; of some over $3.1 total billion. O Of f this, pp so some any law, or regulation regarding foreign hand in hand with their sense of free- $2.5 billion will be devoted to economic banking branches or foreign ownership dom, justice, and compassion. . $600 million be for of banks, Canadian or otherwise. Precisely because foreign assistance militaryAlmost assistance. Funds fort the re- The proposed revision of the bill gives programs are so vital to our national in- gional development banks would be au- 4e the opportunity to make clear that terest, they must, reflect the ciroum- thorized by separate legislation. Approved For Release 2004/05/05 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200020083-1 Approved For Release 2004/05/05 : CIA-RDP69B00369R00021 S 1X56 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE r~JE FOREIGN ASSISTANCE ACT OF .1967 years, as advanced nations have increas- These are the firs oal~?of ll societies._ must s ot our aid. the fi F "Weign aid now rests on a legislative eingly latedawithttheir growingswealth. aThe T:[ propo ebth t 1 act s ablish agri- ft sn enacted in s1961. erved This Nation h ing statute has served the Natcombined value of our economic and food ctitture, health, and educa con as our'pri- flnd th- well But the experience we have of our national income, only slightly more t}rese are sebes uban( s fitraatly expanded .in erey.'be over the past several years should than the average for all advanced coun- I propose th t eui'mvestment in agri- novV be codified in a new law. to culture $668 millio in 68 leducationyrise devote I Propose the Foreign Assistance Act eign assistance than asuch countries for- $166 milli) n o!12~8kn lion; health of 1 67. ~. om But these figures do not tell the whole rase from $192 ill sfr td! 2O2 "--Million. ' act will contain a clear statement France and Belgium. sophy p Ore ph 'and the which underlies our story. orld must find ia to be f thi dmin s r tion 1 rTo provide the he teed thoOse of aefense ll other free nat o sacom- hunger. Toge her a h wage war on continuity needed for sound manage- bined and serve their common interest. ways to bring f i lI du3rtion anti popu- it will contain authorizations cov- This burden too must be counted in the l:r,tion growth into ' bal4mce? My pro- erih posals make clear our determination to prii' rCv 2 ide a years. Most framework for importanteach, it of the will the balance. Thus, we must redouble our efforts to help expand f sapplig%. We must be _ ,a ., licy get other donors to enlarge their tom- equallly}read oil 9, 1 st t dountries popuia- ?j~lr-neip is Lne iue.uJuU v+ ----- Resources know no na,1u11A1 uvu==u development. No sustained progress is aries. Rivers flow through many coup Our foreign assittancis programs rest su po ' d1ible without it, Aid provided as a tries, transportation and communication on the basic ren;th of the dollar and $titute is aid wasted. networks serve different peoples, sources our balance of ayioents,~ This adminis- aste is a luxury none of us can afford. of electric power must be shared by t,ration will c tinjje to gee -that- our aid Feast ble adverse The only obligation tied to our aid is the neighbors. Economic advance in every programs have the -si re~~pient's obligation to itself-to mo- part of the world has required joint en- t.:Nect on our ala ;pe of"ayixrents W .*e its own resources a s efficiently as terprises to develop shared sources of Almos': 90 p rce t Of c0ir eeonornic as- po;lsible. I will not ask any American wealth. nstance and over jp percent of our mill- assistant is rtfjw sp-iii ie U r ll d to ek- y ars o cit igen to contribute his tax These facts underlie the growing move ;a su;> ort any country which does not ment toward regional cooperation: states . Thes p 3,$rars Servezi to mi t this test. The Alliance for Progress has trans- rand U.S. tra a a 3f`o'ad " They' help d6- Accordingly, the act will make it clear formed the inter-American system of in- velop new tra ling! ypatteens 6 ble and d l ment job -- li ,,., _--?-- -_ a eve op -- -- - - stituLianS into I$ re LI1 L he thh,,a responsibility of the developing coun- engine of change. The Agency for zlterratonall5evelop a so d dell nrr instrument o will the d the t i t s e ran tr! es themselves. In no case Asian initiatives have crea Ul,4ted states undertake to do for any framework for cooperation of all kinds. Public policy. Eut, like all arms of gov- co try what it should do for itself. Nor rp ?oved. it can ~ Such institutions as the Asian and Pacific ernment, Al cbr~ ?be itF ii w~ we assist in any venture which we Council and the Asian Development Bank add further to i i ,S etcn6rfty record--a b eve has received less than full sup- are clear evidence of the new will to press record which ncl fides $33 million in cost pCrt from the recipient country. The forward. reduction lac Ye - ad---- - nd a 20-per- U lied States will insist on the general I propose that the act state that the cent cut in pe son iel mart from south trice seif-help standards. The results political realities in each region. An Office of tneiwar ern x?u1;gc, w t v== ai evident in the fact that, on the aver- I propose three steps to carry out this :;olidate all PDracti'itfes relating to popu atioei pro'51ems, and nutri- :hunger ajor aid- h , e m each citizen in t policy: rsceiving countries is saving i of every First, in most African countries, we will tion. 8 dollars he earns. These savings gradually shift to cooperative projects An Office Frlvate l,Lesoure es- to con- blipome investments. For every dollar which involve more than one donor or centrate on ar thalin, private Invest- menu and th ex3'ansizin of private sec o- t . i United States and other donors pr more than one recipien tk v' i e, these local sources invest $10. Second, we will seek an appropriate tors in the less-deveoped world-the Still, there is an urgent need for a means of responding to the recent re- best long-tern route t rapid growth. p iznanent, nonpartisan, public body to quest of the African Development Bank Both of tliese step6 are consolida et iitb ao n2w"apps er luate self-help performance.. for U.S. participation in a special fund tions-they will riations or rs niieh They will focus jects which are be- th I' p y pro hus, the act I propose will authorize to finance wor h ~ establish a National yond the means of the Bank's ordinary the attention and eneiVy of-the Agency t e Presi docommittee it es directly upon two priority areas. They o Coilimmmitt ee will consist onsisstt on of f members This from Third, cawe will respond favorably to the are significant steps foirward. xorJac Asiils'sAxcE 17gth parties, from the business com- request for special funds for the Asian Ec thpnity, from labor, from universities Development Bank. Preliminary explo- ! Lire' Ar,IiitlcA- a Cad from other walks of life. It will re- rations suggest a U.S. share of $200 mil- For Latin Asn rlca, ~I i?ecomniOnd an view and evaluate our aid programs in as lion, to be contributed over a number of economic aid prc~ Mtfl Sf $624 million. ars with matching arrangements and This amo nt i .'clea1ly justified by our x- ill ye e rrrany countries as it sees fit. It w ailine our program to see whether the balance-of-payments safeguards. own interes s a d this recent perform- ing from a philoso- once of ou Ia'n Airi partners. t l s spr s These proposa ii$eipients are extending their best effor d whether yve are making the best phy of pragmatic regionalism. They re- The progra I repose is lean and con- ssible use of our aid. Its findings will fleet the facts of economic life. centrated. eialy 70 1percent of it will cornmitt d i i ;foul countries-Brazil, r b d i no e re available to the Congress. political unity is neither requ MULTILATERALISM AND BURDEN SHARING expected. But the resources available Colombia, eruI t Ac . ,~. -the dh scatter casP._ we 11 rialto .. ntrie s ??-----must gle country has all of the resources among many cou clear rrired. Equity demands that no single promise lies in joint f th benefittseof co- help ci tors t acgls e strict se I propose that the act set as an oolec- g.n=~~~?~?.~, -- ??-___, .___ 1 e that 85 percent of our development The fundamentals of a decent life are Brazil sh w freatE econbhiio dYna- 1 Ins be undertaken in a regional or sufficient food, freedom from disease, and mism 'than t a + time in her recent his 1 s~txitilateral framework. an opportunity to absorb fi c Hermit knowl- from the 1464 i gh -l 141 petiont-down to 40 Approved Foy--Release-24004/45/05-:- FA-F DP6960r 3fi-9R000-21 February 9, 967 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE percent-still far too high, but an enor- mous improvement.- Her balance-of- payment situation is well under control. Agricultural production has been in- creased. Per capita income is up. In general, the economic situation is more hopeful than the most favorable predic- tions of 3 years ago. Peru continues its steady economic climb. Per capita income last year was $378, compared $325 5 years before. The critical job now is to bring more people into the economic mainstream, while further stimulating the developed coastal areas. U.S. contributions will be heavy in the. areas of agriculture and education, In Chile, the favorable copper market will make possible a reduction in our aid. We will concentrate our help in the cru- cial rural area to increase agricultural production and exports. In Colombia, economic trends are also encouraging. Our contributions will be made through a group of donors led by the World Bank. We will concentrate on agriculture and education. Our program for Central America- Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Honduras-Is tailored to support the Central American Com- mon Market. This market is one of the most promising innovations in the devel- oping world. The spirit it reflects has already increased trade within the Cen- tral American region by 400 percent over the past 5 years. We will make modest contributions to the Central American Integration Fund to continue and accel- erate this pace. The balance of my request is largely for the Dominican Republic and Pan- ama. It is essential that we maintain strong programs in these countries, al- though they will cost slightly less than in the past. The vision and hard work of 450 mil- lion people in this hemisphere have, made the Alliance for Progress into one of the great tools for human betterment. Its success is by no means assured, There will be disappointments as well as achievements along the way. But it is a vehicle for the hopes and energies of a continent. The program I propose will carry it forward. Meetings among the governments of the Western Hemisphere during the year may produce further proposals, such as replenishment of the resources of the Inter-American Development Bank. Where these proposals merit our consid- eration and support and require action by the Congress, I will submit my rec- ommendations to you at the appropriate time. NEAR EAST-SOUTH ASIA For the Near East-south Asia, I rec- ommend a program of $758 million. This region provides the harshest test of free institutions: Nowhere else in the free world are there so,many people; as many as the combined populations of North and South America and Western Europe. Nowhere else do so many people live in such dire poverty; per capita income for nine out of every 10 persons is under $100 per year. Nowhere else are di*ive forces so poised to take advantage of any misstep. Several advanced nations have banded together, under the leadership of the World Bank, to form an aid consortia for India and Pakistan. A similar group has been formed for Turkey, chaired by the Organization for Economic Coopera- tion 'and Development. These groups determine the share each member will contribute and provide a forum for con- tinuing discussions with recipient coun- tries. They have served the interests of all parties. In my message on food for India, I proposed that food and related aid be added to the agenda of the consortium for India ,as an additional area of assist- ance in which all donors should join. We will exert the full extent of our influ- ence to insure that this consortium be- comes the primary vehicle for all as- pects of development aid to. India- from grants of funds to evaluation of performance. Despite the shadow of famine and the ever-present danger of renewed frictions, the situation in the three countries-In- dia, Pakistan, and Turkey-which will receive 91 percent of our aid to the Near East-south Asia gives reason for hope: India is trying to regain the lead in the race between her expanding population and her food supply. She plans to dou- ble her outlays for agriculture in the next 5 years and to quadruple her voluntary population program. India has in- creased fertilizer purchases by 85 percent and has started crash programs in farm- land development. She has begun cam- paigns to increase supplies of better seeds and pesticides. But Indian per- formance is not confined to agriculture. In early 1966 she liberalized her system of import controls and- devalued her cur- rency. All advanced nations must come to her aid if these hard-won oppor- tunities are to be realized. Pakistan has an outstanding economic record. Her future is brighter still. From 1960 to 1965, her gross national product grew at an average annual rate of 5.8 percent compared to 2.5 percent previously; agricultural production grew at an average annual rate of 3.5 percent compared to 1.6 percent previously; local private inyestment grew by 54 percent; and total private investment was 63 per- cent over planned targets. Turkey also has a remarkable record. We and other Western nations are deter- mined to help Turkey meet its goal of self-sustaining economic growth by 1973. She is already well on her way. In 1966, her gross national product grew by 8.3 percent, industry by 9.5 percent, agricul- tural production by 11 percent, and the use of fertilizer by 40 percent. The per- centage of children of school age en- rolled in primary schools increased to almost 80 percent. If it cannot be demonstrated that hard work, coupled with relatively modest amounts of our aid, will produce better lives for the countless millions of this region, our cause will surely fail. , The programs I propose will enable us to con- tinue meeting this challenge. AFRICA For Africa, I recommend a program of $195 million. Africa, is undergoing the historic grow- ying pains of attaining stable independ- 'S1857 ence. Thirty-five of her thirty-nine na- tions have gained, their freedom since World War II, many in the past 5 years. The inevitable strains are evident in the headlines of the world's news- papers. The most hopeful sign of growing Af- rican maturity is the increased support for cooperative economic enterprises. With 14 countries of less than 5 million people each, this attitude is essential for progress. Our AID policy toward Africa will en- courage the African activities of the World Bank and its affiliates, direct a greater part of our resources into proj- ects and programs which involve more than one African country; seek new breakthroughs in private investment in Africa, particularly the current efforts by private American banks and other fi- nancial institutions. EAST ASIA For east Asia, I recommend a program of $812 million. Nearly 85 percent of our assistance to this region is directly or indirectly re- lated to our effort to block Communist aggression. My recent visit to Asia confirmed my deep conviction that foreign assistance funds for Vietnam and surrounding countries are just as important as mili- tary appropriations. They are vital to a successful war effort. They permit us to build for the future. Most of these funds-about $650 mil- lion-will be used in Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand. The $550 million planned for Vietnam is indispensable to military suc- cess, economic stability, and continued political progress. It will stimulate and support measures to bind the people and Government of South Vietnam together in a common cause. It will help to begin the task of reconstruction and develop- ment. It will relieve wartime suffering for millions of Vietnamese. In Laos and Thailand, these funds will finance economic development and se- curity which will assure that armed con- flict will not engulf all of southeast Asia. Our assistance to Thailand will be channeled through a new consultative group of 13 donors, chaired by the World Bank. In Laos, five other countries will join the United States with significant contributions. Elsewhere in free Asia, the tide of his- tory clearly favors progress: In Korea, the economy is now growing at the rapid annual rate of 8 percent. Industrial production is rising at a 14- percent rate annually, agricultural pro- duction at a 6-percent rate. In the few short years since the Korean war, the Republic of South Korea has become strong enough not only to maintain its internal advance, but to help in the de- fense of freedom in Vietnam. In Indonesia, the new Government has committed itself to a program of eco- nomic rehabilitation and recovery. We are joining with other European and Asian nations to provide urgently needed help to the stricken Indonesian economy. We are also participating in arrange- ments with other nations to reschedule Indonesian debts. The road ahead in east Asia is long and dangerous. But these accomplish- Approved For Release 2004/05/05 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200020083-1 S ,V8 Approved For Release 20041,05/05 PIA-RDP69BOp369ROO02 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE meats' are hopeful signs. We will en- coijrage the vital and progressive spirit the t has stimulated them. MILITARY ASSISTANCE I'or military assistance, I recommend appropriations of $596 million. I This is the smallest request since the program began in 1950. In part, this fact reflects transfer of appropriations foil ;military assistance for Laos, Thai- la 0, NATO infrastructure, and interna- tiol ial military headquarters to the buSlget of the Department of Defense. hthi requestl represt a sub- i ts asoensstacitial reduction. Military assistance ouiAde southeast Asia is now only 45 percent of what it was in 1960. 1 or the Near East-South Asia, I rec- omthend $234 million, down 50 percent frdtn 1963. Virtually all this will be used In Greece, Turkey, and Iran, three coun- tril s which have shared the burden of mu tual security for 20 years. 11or east Asia, I recommend $282 mil- lioii, almost entirely for Korea and Tai- waa. We will use these funds to str:ngthen these outposts against further Co a lmunist expansion in Asia. Por Latin America, I recommend $45.5 mi.lion, largely for internal security and tra lining. ir"pr Africa, I recommend $31 million, heftily concentrated in countries where wea have major interests and where there arl ;problems of internal security. It is not the policy of the United States to provide sophisticated arms to coun- tril as which could better use their re- sources for more productive purposes. i`fj is the policy of the United States to hei p- where we are asked, where the threat of invasion or subversion is real, wlitre the proposal is militarily and eco- no.aellcally sound, where it is consistent wi1,h our interests and our limited means. (his will continue to be our policy. THE CHALLENGE AHEAD The programs I propose represent the mi:ximum contribution to mutual se- cu -sty and international development which we can safely make. ' ['here are some who say that even this rec nest should be forgone in view of nei ads at home and the costs of the strug- g1c in Vietnam. I thing could be more shortsighted an]l self-defeating. This country-the wo althiest in human history-can well afford to devote less than seven-tenths of :t percent of its national income to re- du,e the chances of future Vietnams. Dome would have us renege on our col dmitments to the developing countries on the ground that "charity begins at ho fie." I o them, let me emphasize that I have re(ommended no charity, nor have I sug- ge;ted that we stray from home. The inescapable lesson of our century, in- scblbed in blood on a hundred beaches from Normandy to Vietnam, is that our ho fie is this planet and our neighbors 3 141lion strong. still others have grown weary of the long, hard struggle to bring the majority of ;he world's population out of the shad- owsof poverty and ignorance. Co them, let me say that we are dealing in 'decades with the residue of centuries. There is no shortcut. There is no easy waV around. The only effective tools are to succeed. All of us sometimes find Ourselves sym- pathizing with these complaints. All of us 'are subject to the frustrations,disap- pointments, and shattered hopes which accompany a supporting which must fundamentally role in a be performed task orme ed by others. But, in the cold light of rea- son, our responsibility to ourselves and our children reasserts itself and we re- turn to the task with renewed vigor. I am confident that the American peo- ple have not lost the will and the dedica- tion which have made them the most powerful and responsible nation on earth. I am confident that they will go for- i ward into the new era of world progress for which their past efforts have prepared the way. I am confident that their vision will, transcend the narrow horizons of those who yearn for a simpler age. The proposals I offer today are the practical requirements of that vision. To do less would endanger all we have accomplished in the past two decades. I know that this test shall not findus wanting. LYNDON 13. JOHNSON. THE WHITE HOUSE, February 9, 1967. NEW INITIATIVES IN FOREIGN AID Mr. McGEE. Mr. President, the Pres- ident's special message on foreign aid which was transmitted tq the Congress today points out a number of signifi-; cant changes which have been forged in the foreign aid program since it was ini- tiated nearly 20 years ago. It calls, for instance, for a global war on mankind's ancient enemies-hunger and disease and ignorance . and directs the Agency for International Develop- ment to give top priority to projects in the fields of agriculture, health, and edu-, cation. These are closely linked. They are directly translatable into basic human needs. Education provides the skilled man- power which, in turn, produces more and better food, resulting in healthier peo- ple. Thus, the attainment of our ob- jectives in agriculture, health, and edu- cation is a touchstone of the effectiveness of our foreign aid policy, The new emphasis on agricultural as- sistance is a direct response to the chal- lenge represented by the' growing food crisis in the less-developed world. That crisis is shown by the g>iim statistics: The less-developed countries are running every year about 16 million tons behind in food production. Unless food output is rapidly increased, the deficit will rise to 88 million tons by 1985. That means famine on a world scale-a disaster that must not be allowed to happen. To help forestall that disaster, AID is spending about a half billion dollars this year on programs to speed agricultural growth in countries which for a variety of reasons are unable to raise enough food for their people. This money is being spent on programs to expand ir- rigation and water resources, financing of farrrl credit systems, the improvement of agricultural transport and warehouse facilities, and the equipment of farm- related industries such as plants to man- ufacture pesticides and farm machinery. 00'y FIB Zr t4r 9, 1967' ~. large part o that half billion dollars i:; being spent n flirtillzer_bothon ex torts from th IJ iited States and for the expansion f ftiliqc production in the less-clevelo ed y unties themselves. Of Particular j, ~(porteance, AID Is fi- r ancing assign ens ove seas for Ameri- can technician w hose silare,primar- i y responsible for;-tfflas polity ry's_ over- rlcuural,#en3CJTIS are L th n%ssions I less= tr:iel, helj;g to improve tens on :acid reware en-.. rcie~ Mott of thesetech- rac with to export In add;'ition ID'tras, p eovided funds To bring about 500 fore3$n" agricutural technicians to thiscolln ~ythis year for further advan ed txspe;Iial raining io. American c 11egPs and u iversit.iei .In striving indT sdrood Supplies inLL the poorer nat ons!iID has made funds Enid technical e1 navailable for the de- tveaopment of m lcial;fisheries so t at t pother value les~?l a )f protein might be exploited. Lua: , Fiikistan, Korea, load Nigeria a e juitt tries which are I anaewin.g o tie croun- their fish tantcli with A ID's h,j,p tiv. assisted. ex rt tension servic ar also ,slowing farmers in Laos, Thai and VICtgami, and other countries how hchvest fish from village tends. As to health ma or pra's in Odious damag to 5t?uiig, es and sinew, AID is financ nE: irngic e supplements for thediets of pr Achooi childieli_in the less-developed) co titrle,46 By 1971 AID plans to reach abo at l~anilan.chlldl aria pith frog anv'.t In foift ified supple-LL _ mental diets In sc lipol f ro rams AID is also elp g the developing na lions to cond ct their town alth pro- 1,rams by pro idint funs axed technical assistance fo th t trafii g of z r health manpower -d to g nut s sai`litarians, hospital admi is,r4tors, 11aM7W rmedics., Approved For Release `2004/05/05 eIA-RDP69B00369R0002000 Approved For Release 2004/05/05 :. CIA-RDP69B00369R000200020083-1 February 9, 1967 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE Finally, AID has mobilized the vast in- tellectual resources of American colleges and universities to attack the problem of the shortage of educated manpower which is one of the biggest obstacles to progress in the developing world. Teams from 71 American universities are at work overseas on AID-financed technical assistance missions in 38 countries ; many other of our colleges and universities play host to foreign scholars and technicians whose visits to this country for advanced and specialized training have been financed by AID. More than 210,000 stu- dents are enrolled in normal schools and teachers colleges established with AID's help in 37 Asian, African, and Latin American countries. Almost as serious as the shortage of teachers is the shortage of textbooks in many countries. AID funds have pro- vided more than 8 million textbooks for the schoolchildren of Central America and 2 million textbooks for elementary school pupils in Ecuador. The statistics are impressive but the needs are staggering. We must continue to lend our support to the task of meet- ing these fundamental -needs. MESSAGE FROM THE HOUSE A message from the House of Repre- sentatives, by Mr. Hackney, one of its reading clerks, announced that the House had passed a bill (H.R. 4573) to provide, for the period ending on June 30, L967, a temporary increase in the public debt limit set forth in section 21 of the Second Liberty Bond .Act, in which it requested the concurrence of the Senate. HOUSE BILL REFERRED The bill (H.R. 4573) to provide, for the period ending on June 30, 1967, a temporary increase in the public debt limit set forth in section 21 of the Second Liberty Bond Act, was read twice by its title and referred to the Committee on Finance. Mr. CANNON. Mr. {'resident, a report of progress is in order at this time for a unique program and for a distinguished gentleman who is well known and highly, esteemed by a majority of my colleagues. I refer to the annual Armed Forces Chess Championship Tournament and to the Honorable George E. Reedy who presided at the Chess Awards Dinner in the Sheraton-Carlton Hotel, Washington, D.C., November 18, 1966. This annual opportunity for chess players in the services is a project spon- sored by the American Chess Foundation of which Gen. David M. Shoup, retired Commandant of the Marine Corps, is honorary president. The foundation has the cooperation of the U.S.O., U.S. Chess Federation,, and the American Legion, the endorsement of the Secretary of De- fense and the military and naval services. I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD the text of Mr. Reedy's speech as given at that occasion. There being no objection, the speech was ordered to be. printed in the RECORD, as follows; SPEECH BY MR. REEDY It is with a feeling of mild surprise-per- haps even bafflement-that I find myself pre- siding over the awards dinner of the Armed Forces Chess Championship Tournament. A word or two is probably necessary to explain this remark. As a boy, and later as a college student, I became an addict. But the great period of chess in my life came within a few weeks of VJ Day-which found me on Guam as a very junior Air Force officer. I believe that there are many people at the head table and in the audience tonight who will recall the predicament in which the Air Force found itself in the Pacific during the period of readjustment that followed the ceremonies aboard the battleship Missouri. The demobilization program had been worked out with the infantry and with conventional Air Force organizations in mind. I presume that for such TOs the System worked quite well-at least I hope someone got some ben- efit out of it. But the B29 Wings of the 20th Air Force were not organized conventionally and instead of a gradual diminution of strength, we very quickly found ourselves totally unable to put air craft into the air. The demobilization process was a "selec- tive" process and, with what appeared to be diabolical ingenuity, the process selected out and sent home virtually all of the key main- tenance men leaving behind air crews with unfiyable planes. This meant several thousand men sitting around a quite modern Air base hacked out of the jungle of Northwest Guam with time-and nothing but time-on our hands. As red-blooded American boys, we set out to fill that time. And since the boy-girl coeffi- cient on Guam was somewhat lop-sided (and art galleries were few and far between) we turned to contests of skill and chance. We started out with the highly touted game of poker-theoretically the supreme source of bliss for the American male. We grad- uated from straight stud to deuces wild; then to seven-card, low hole card wild and ultima- tely to an incredible version called "night baseball." (On this one, you bet the cards and then dealt them.) The stakes became higher and the hours at the gaming tables became longer. Gradually, the heretical thought crept into our consciousness that the game was a crashing bore. We switched to bridge. We played every form of bridge that was conceivable. We devised new systems of bidding. We orga- nized duplicate tournaments. At one point, we reverted to whist in our frenzied search for an analgesic to boredom. Finally, bridge ran out and we found ourselves playing grand slams, no trump, doubled and redoubled with all the enthusiasm of Tom Sawyer at a dancing class. It might surprise you to learn that the next step in our progression was the fine old game of checkers. We rediscovered the de- lights of what most of us had considered just a small-town sport played by "old timers" next to a cracker barrel in the gen- eral store. To this day I am grateful to the game and refuse to allow it to be dero- gated in my presence. Eventually even checkers failed. And then was launched the most intensive period of chess in my life. The Officers' Club, which we had built ourselves after the cessation of hostilities, became the scene of virtually con- tinuous chess games. The Ruy Lopez evoked more avid discussion than the charms of Rita Hayworth. The Scotch gambit was debated with greater heat than the quality of the Suntory Scotch whiskey which we had found stashed away in caves. The Giuoco piano was the basis for wilder argu- ments than the fairness of a point system which had awarded a bronze star for sani- tary engineering to a corporal who had dis- tinguished himself during the war by spray- ing latrines with a flit gun. ,It was about that ,time.,that someone in S 1859 Wing Headquarters going through the 201 files discovered a carefully kept secret-that in civilian life I was a newspaper man. Be- fore I knew what was afoot, Captain Reedy of a bomb group became Captain Reedy the Public Relations Officer of a bomb wing. I had an office, a corporal as an assistant and a geographical separation between myself and my chess-playing friends. There was no more to do and I cast about desperately for some form of activity. One day, I made a find-a book called the "Golden Treasury of Chess" which had been donated by some thoughtful citizen to the Armed Forces and had made its way clear across the Pacific to a library on Guam which contained little else except some well-thumbed detective novels and unbelievable quantities of the National Geographic. I set up a chess board in the Public Rela- tions Headquarters of the Wing and started to play through'every game in the book, be- ginning with a 16th century classic of Ruy Lopez. I played as ostentatiously as I could, hoping and praying that a General-or at least a Colonel-would walk through Wing Headquarters some day and ask me what I was doing. I intended to tell him. Unfortunately, no one with any greater rank that a Major came my way and he ex- pressed only the most perfunctory interest. It was quite obvious that the Stars and the Eagles were sharing the predicament of the man with the two silver bars. Inspections of Wing Headquarters were few and far be- tween, and nobody really cared. My demobilization number came up about the time that I had reached a game between Lasker and Capablanca in 1921 and I went home. The book did not help to speed up my departure from the Marianas. But it did help to preserve my sanity-I hope. I left the chess board on the 28th move where Lasker had just executed a brilliant "check" (which involved a wisely rejected offer to sacrifice his queen) and I am not sure even now as to the outcome. Some day I will return to Guam and pro- ceed to Northwest Field which, I understand, has been given back to the jungle) and, if the board is still in place, which it probably is, play out the rest of that game. I do not believe that this experience would qualify me as a chess master. However, it did teach me something about the funda- mental quality of chess itself. It is always a matter of great amusement to me to hear the game described as sed- entary. So many of my friends have re- marked, "How can you possibly have the patience? How can you sit for so many hours without making a move?" The truth is that chess is far from a sed- entary game except to the observer. Further- more, it is far from a gentle game. It is, in fact, the most savage form of contest that has ever been devised by mankind and I suspect that it is this quality which has made it so popular throughout the centuries. The objective of the game is to kill a mon- arch (some philologists trace the phrase "check mate" to a Persian expression mean- ing "the King is dead".) The slaying is ac- complished by mounting a coordinated at- tack which involves an array of extremely deadly people beginning with a murderous Queen and ranging down through most mili- tant Eccelesiastical authorities; viperous Knights; Juggernaut castles; and relentless foot soldiers. It is a mental savagery, of course, and involves bloodshed only on the rare occa- sions where a loser becomes so outraged at the discovery of the duplicity in the Scholar's Mate that he draws a derringer from his hip pocket and shoots his oppo- nent on the spot. Incidentally, I would ad- vise all of you who undertake to teach the game to a tyro to frisk him carefully be- fore the match. No one likes to be fooled under any circumstances. But to be fooled at chess involves an extra degree of ex- cruciating agony and outrage. You will no- Approved For Release 2004/05/05 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200020083-1 S1a36Q Approved For Release 2004/05/05 -C1A-RDP69BOO369ROOa2 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE: tice Slat I myself guarded against the pos sibiilty of reopening old wounds by referring to tit combination as a "Scholar's Mate" rathlr than by the more descriptive title of "The Fool's Mate." TbH fact that the savagery is entirely upon an iiliellectual level most of the time accen- tuatl4 rather than diminishes the effect upon the players. It means that the pent-up ange^1Which is aroused by a successful gambit canilgt find the release which comes from the physical exuberance of football, lacrosse or the Ine old Gaelic sport of hurling. It is quitir possible at the conclusion of such milc1'' games as these for sweating, blood- stair, ed youths to shake hands amicably and wall4 away in the firm realization that their wounds can be healed with bandages and oil ~..t wintergreen. But when your losing oppC vent shakes hands with you at the con- clusion of a chess match, it is well to keep a ce eful eye on his left hand to be certain that f.t does not reach for a concealed stiletto. You must remember that he has none of the alibi Inherent in contact sports to salve his wou, dled pride. He cannot claim that the sun'*as in his eyes, that the grounder took a tin ?ky hop, or that the wind was against him He must frankly face the fact that his ling has been killed and it was his own faul t, There Is no conceivable compensation for I is ego other than retaliation and revenge at s~ane future date. It is rather appropriate that I appear here tonight surrounded by some of the Generals whd would have been so welcome at the Heaiiquarters on Guam in the fall of 1945. I he that we can get together after this so I can give them my long deferred explifation of what a chess board was doing on that table at Northwest Field. I also hop1p that they will agree with me that this ganif which we are honoring tonight is one that should be continued and pressed with all 1iossible dispatch. F~ Ankly, I feel that the great value of Chess to humanity is its savagery. I still consent to insert in the RECORD following should be urged Iby the Ci!l1 Aeronautics my remarks an editorial published In to- Bcard and by th P4isident of tree-United day's Washington Post, captioned "Dulles States to give Bette service- to the Na- Airport." ti[ai's Capital tl There being no objection, the editorial Practically al DULLEs AIRPORT It is to be hoped that Tuesday's great storm may have brought to the attention of the aviation industry a phenomena of which it evidently has not been aware previously: that there is a great international airport outside of Washington which has a fine op- erating record. Dulles Airport continued to receive and dispatch flights during hours when both Kennedy International Airport in New York and Washington National Air- port were closed. Sooner or later this great facility-with good claim to being the best airport in the world-will be used to its capacity. That it is currently used chiefly as a standby facility for airports less fortunately located is no re- flection on the airport. But it is a reflection on an industry that seems unable or unwill- ing to make good use of the, best facilities on the Eastern Seaboard-beet in terms of safety, convenience for passengers and effi- ciency for aviation. Mr. RANDOLPH, Mr. President, will the Senator yield? Mr. BYRD of Virginia. I yield. Mr. RANDOLPH. Mr.' President, I wish to associate myself with the com- ments just made by the Senator from Virginia in reference to the use of Dulles International Airport. I feel that his observations are timely. He set forth the splendid services at that airport among the three airports in the so-called metropolitan area, which includes Friendship Airport, given to scheduled airline operations during the recent storms in the East, those storms closing airports in several areas, including New York City. Dulles International Airport is truly an airport of the future. It was built for the future, but we want it to be used now, because it is also an airport of the. present. I hope that the request which was made from the floor by the Senator from Virginia, will in greater sense, be heeded by the trunk lines of this country and those carriers which engage in over- seas operations. Dulles International Airport is truly international in character, It was con- structed originally on a sound base, be- cause the Congress, frankly, brought it into being. It is not an airport in any sense regional, State, or city; it is an in- ternational airport. E ertheoretical savagery to the other kind It may well be that the day will come r}.disputes between nations will be set- tled bloodlessly at the chess table which, I asst Ye any non-chess players who happen to be in the audience, is intellectually as gory as ,iry battlefield but physically less dam- agi4 to the participants and observers. Dt'tLES INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT I1 fr. BYRD of Virginia. Mr. President, I rl. se to invite the attention of the Sen- ate and in particular the attention of the commercial airlines inthe aviation industry, to the desirability-of Dulles Air- poi t. 1, tan prompted to speak on this subject as is; result of the phenomenon which oc- cuired this past Tuesday during the het, y snowstorm which hit the eastern sea ard. While Kennedy International Airport In N-ew York was closed, and Washing- ton National Airport was also closed, all Mr. MONRONEY. Mr. 'resident, will dui ng that time flights were being dis- Senator yield briefly? paIohed from Dulles Airport and aircraft the e S S THURMOND. I am glad to yield we; being received and landed there. Mr. ma Okl f h . o a rom to the Senator ", s is_one_of the_great airports of the and I predict that as the years go Mr. MONROIVEY. I compliment the wand , by, twill become one of the most used distinguished Senator from Virginia., airports of our Nation. This airport, as has been said, is the I Ffeel that the progress that has been finest airport in the world. I think it is mode in developing Dulles International a disgrace to the Nation's Capital, how- Ailport has been slow, although roughly ever, that so few international flights a million passengers utilized that facility originate or use this great airport, which the past year. I think the aviation in- is international in nature. du;try needs to direct greater attention It would seem to me that as the var- to the great possibilities that exist at ious domestic and foreign airlines ex- D4es International Airport. tending service beyond the borders of ]A that connection, I ask unanimous this country apply for new rights, they fl ig ,ts a e oriented to- Ci II seems `to me Diitles Internationa y,Air .brt should be utilized as a cote illau,l or extension of the New York ter pinal, so that people v4trting the United S tep ttotrld not have to transfer, in' Ne mot Styr as so many have to Ida C laY to reach Washington, D We must use li great tv estment that we have establis ed,' ith lie great safety it offers, g:reate th I the of any other airport in the oil 1. I hink those of ui. who are con ern~Yabclat:,airports are very anxious to seeWasl; ngton become t1:e Nation's ai Nation's Capita Mr. BYRD thank the dis Ok:lahoms, and from West Vir terest in the d ternational Air have made will to the approprii International _m appreciation to, ca] ital s well as the o:[ Wal v rflYnOnt. ` ingl>jle ,-ator~, from velopmen of`ISUlles ra bota.-of them LT. ROBER J. IBB , OFIOWA -Mr. MILLED Mr. President, in his lftters and co ers tions`2d Lt. I.obert' J. Hibbs of Cedar gij%, ,own,-felt Dia-f- As his lathe W tex_. r bs Irut "E[e thought t w to atj g u neces- Last March , I tendit Z ihbs sacri flced his life f Or wji T7revii to be On January 226 of this ear, his father stood at atte tron;, in t eTorh Area C4wmnasium at Forj Mye s cCep e ration's highe t as c corriibat valor, tie Medal of o:nd[r, wlilc1ieutenant I[ibbs was post ul nusly, awarded for his heroic actions in I _ It was the ninth such medal vgar ed durlnz thee' Vietnam War 4note filt1 ail Iowan.ffi Lieutenant ibb aril. fought in, tae best tradit ons tzf th6sgreat Nation.. He did not di in'yafn If or his actions will live an as tes~ lxion .l_to those who V721 follow hi ins ietr m and in the military servic - In his deat L0Tdten ant Hibbs pave vMr. President aVery" heart warming and moving store~ii i~7ut Lleutenanty Hibbs was wrl ten by Nck-XotZ of the Des Moines R gis'S { afllxlgtori bu tcau on January air I ask unani- raous consent that+ls *jrtcie be placed There being no ,objet Jon the article IIIODEST IOWA ''A112 $ p~~ DAL HON pa F $1 Ds (By XkZ o~z). WASHINGTON ( _A da ~riana er"rom Cedar Falls, Ia stcb ! at al e l olli hTIreaa Approved for Release 2004105/051 (;IA-RDP69B00369R0002 I congratulate the Senator from Vir- ginia. I join fully in the sentiments he