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August 31, 1967
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Approved For Release 2001/11/01 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200290060-7 August 31, 1967 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -HOUSE 1111579 lars of additional revenue immediately after they became law. Loophole closing does not meet either requirement. BITTERLY CONTROVERSIAL What the Congressional liberals know well and blandly are choosing to ignore is that tax reforms are bitterly controversial, enor- mously complex proposals that can be pushed through Congress only after months of lengthy hearings, intensive Committee work and acrimonious floor debate. What they know equally well is that some of their most cherished reforms are likely to be rejected by substantial majorities in both Houses, as indeed they were only a few years ago during Congressional action on the historic Kennedy-Johnson omnibus tax re- duction bill. Some of these same proposals and an as- sortment of other reforms will be included in a_ loophole-closing message that the Presi- dent repeatedly has promised both publicly and privately to send Congress later this year. The clamoring liberals are fully aware of Mr. Johnson's intentions and they have received the same firm assurances from Treasury Secretary Henry H. Fowler and Budget Director Charles L. Schultze. PROPOSAL MISSES Apart from their unrealistic insistence that Congress could be persuaded to act quickly on loophole closing, the liberals' reform pro- posal misses badly on another count: Even if they finally managed to wrestle a compli- cated reform bill through Congress this year, it would not give the Government the money that it must have to reduce its big deficit and to curb the threat of an inflationary boom. The great advantage of prompt passage of the President's clean-cut, 10 per cent sur- --ch.$rge plan is that the levy almost im- mediately would start to bring in needed money from individual income tax withhold- ing and from both individual and corporate estimated tax payments. But the revenue from tax reforms would come in slowly and it would come in too nounces that the buses run on time, re- minding those of our generation of the same braggadocio from Mussolini about Italian trains under Fascist rule. It is rather obvious that Patakos does not have a sophisticated public relations ex- pert from his recent announcement that 250 Greek women have chosen to remain led es to re- i h g gn p an s in jail rather t port of the crown, religion, nationalism, and re from political activities after their distaste for the old political parties. rellea ease. Since the Greeks are no more saintly than How such announcements can improve other people, It may be many years before his public image is hard to fathom. But the Junta considers them ready for self- we cannot afford to laugh at such bumb- government. ling, Mr. Speaker. These are the ludi- In the meantime, the regime is continuing crous statements that only highlight the to retire forcibly, Greek military officers who depth of the real tragedy. were not in the coup. It apparently wishes I am sure that our Department of State to insure that they do not rally around the and our President, who will be meeting King, who opposed the coup, in a counter move, with the King of Greece a few days from No one Junta member has emerged as a now, are as appalled as we are by the single power holder. The leaders still are Col. ruthlessness of the dictatorship. The George Papadopoulos, 48, who runs the Pre- question for our Government i., what we mier's office; Brig. Gen. Stylianos Patakos, 53, should" do to assist the return of con- whose tanks backed the coup and who is now Col N' olas Marare- d Ic are not without fault in the creation of a climate which made the coup possible. Our most serious guilt lies in fostering the opinion that the United States con- sidered the Papandreous, and especially Andreas, as dangerous radicals. By al- lowing such an attitude to be accepted as the position of the United States, we encouraged a military seizure of power. The measure of blame which can be properly laid at our door is yet to be properly assessed. I fear it is not negli- gible. The "colonels" also could rely on our concern for the NATO bases and our own military position in the Mediterranean. Since the coup, our only action has been to withhold a small, amount of military hardware. I am afraid that the hopes of an orderly return to constitutional gov- U.S. POLICY TOWARDS*REECE (Mr. EDWARDS of California (at the request of Mr. PRYOR) was granted per- mission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD andyto include ex- traneous matter.) Mr. EDWARDS of California. Mr. Speaker, it is now over 4 months since a military takeover in Greece ended democratic constitutional government, apparently surprising the Palace since the rumored coup was supposed to come from a different echelon of the military. Since the "coup of the colonels," it has become clearer every day that they do not intend to gracefully relinquish pow- er. They have been purging the officer corps on a wholesale scale, removing local officials and effectively destroying any potential political opposition. Thou- sands of prisoners are still being held on the island of Youra and elsewhere after brutal midnight arrests. Newspapers may print only what the dictatorship permits. Gatherings of more than five people even in a private home are illegal and a form- er conservative member of Parliament was recently sentenced to 5 years in prison for a violation. Mr. Speaker, recent visitors to Greece report that even their own relatives are afraid to talk to them. There is an omi- nous silence on the streets and in the taverns. Meanwhile, Patakos proudly an- ernment, once the new constitution is written, is a mirage. There was nothing wrong with the old constitution. Rewrit- ing the constitution is merely a dodge to gain time for a solidification of the power of the junta. Mr. Speaker, I most earnestly hope that our policy will not rest on such a chimera. I include in the RECORD an article from the Washington Daily News of August 7, 1967: BASIC AIM-TO RETAIN POWER UNTIL NATION IS REMADE: GREEK JUNTA SET FOR LONG STAY (By B. J. Cutler) ATHENS, August 7.-The army Junta which took over Greece in a bloodless coup April 21 has settled in for a long stay in power. Its basic aim is to consolidate its hold, not to restore the democracy that Greeks had-and abused. Nudged by young King Constantine, the U.B. and World opinion, the Junta has named a committee of jurists to draft a new Constitution by Dec. 1. But the military regime itself will put the final touches on the constitution and will decide when to have it approved by the peo- ple in a referendum. Privately, Junta members foresee elections in which no real political opposition will be allowed. This is to lead to a rubberstamp parliament, which will permit the military inner circle to rule as it does now. Altho they say they seized power to pre- vent a communist insurrection, Junta mem- bers show no taste for returning to their barracks now that the communist appa- ratus has been decapitated. Instead, they insist they must retain power until the Greek nation is remade to their moralistic specifications. This means no mini-skirts, beatle haircuts, or coffee houses for youths, but plenty of church-going and compulsory schools. For grown-ups their goals are discipline, order, hard work, sup- Interior Minister, an zos, 47, who stays in the background and di- rects the economy. King Constantine, at 26, seems to be gain- ing prestige as the nation realizes he is cau- tiously pressing the Junta for a return of democratic government. On a recent tour of the provinces, he was more warmly received than before. He is looked on as one stable factor that may lead the people back from dictatorship. Under such a regime one doesn't take pub- lic opinion polls and people do not speak freely. Nevertheless the man in the street is viewed as neither for nor against the regime. He accepts it but is worried about how long it will last. BETTER In several ways the ordinary man is better off than under the elastic and corrupt gov- ernment of the past few years. He is not harassed by almost daily strikes and politi- cally-activated mobs sturging in the streets. His bus comes on time and the fare is lower. Jostling to get aboard is forbidden- Greeks now stand in queues. Prices have been frozen and' some, including that of bread, rolled back. At squares in poor neighbor- hoods free movies are shown. Tickets are not given for traffic violations and the driving has improved from terrifying to hair-raising. Employers who had the quaint habit of pocketing their workers' so- cial security payments are now repaying mil- lions to the state. The press, which was buyable and lively, is now censored and dull. Books, plays, and "communist music" are banned. A few people are arrested for criticizing the regime, but some 2500 communists and suspects are still broiling in the sun on a prison island in the Aegean. Today many Greeks agree that they were brawling, stumbling, and perhaps failing on the road to democracy. Now they are being taken on a journey thru stability and mild dictatorship. What they disagree on is: "was this trip necessary?" VITAL REQUIP. IMENT FOR AIR TRANSPORT (Mr. FLOOD (at the request of Mr. PRYOR) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the REC- ORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. FLOOD. Mr. Speaker, I introduce, for appropriate referral, a bill which is intended to define a truly vital require- ment in the area of air transport, includ- ing a proposal to promote a method for Approved For Release 2001/11/01 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200290060-7 Approved For Release 2001/11/01: CIA-RDP69B00369R000200290060-7 H 11580 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE August 31, 1967 transporting outsize objects such as mis- (4) to provide, by contract or otherwise, ships for the same purposes as outlined sile and rocket boosters and sustainers; for the operation of a rigid airship developed In my bill. In fact, I considered it en- for use in the U.S. aerospace program as under this Act and for the utilization of tirely possible that the Russians would a? recovery vehicle in lieu of the present the experience and knowledge of persons in- display a radically new type of airship highly expensive System of deploying volved in the operation of similar aircraft. fleets of vessels and aircraft for that Im- (b) In carrying out the provisions of this at the Paris airshow in May and June Act, the Secretary shall consult with inter- of this year. This could well be another portant mission; for the purpose Of ested Federal agencies includin b t t g u no , transporting fabricated building sec- limited to the Department of Defense, t tions-HUD-preassembled bridge and Civil Aeronautics Board, and the Nati al tower sections, earthmoving machinery, Asronautics and Space Administration,,,and Industrial generators and transformers, with representatives of the aviation rtanu- storage tanks, radomes, field hospitals, facturing industry and the air transport in- airborne command-control comm::rlca- dustry. bons centers, and, finally, for use in Section 4 (a) The Secretary is authorized to appoint and fix the compensation of such oceanographic research and exploration, personnel as he may deem necessary to car- lumbering, and petroleum prospecting. ry out the provisions of this Act. /rhe Secre- The bill and other material follow: tary is authorized to use, with their consent, H.R. 12744 the available services, equipment, personnel, A bill to provide for a temporary program of and facilities of other civilian" or military Federal assistance for research and level- agencies and instrumentalities W the Fed- opment relating to a certain rigid airship, crab Gn mrryng on a he prorfsionbasis. and for other purposes (b) In carryin out the rarys author- Be it enacted by the Senate and House o ze 3 of this Act, the Sec is rt y of ized to enter into contracts with th or without Representatives of the United States of advertising or competitive biding, upon de- America in Congress assembled, That, as used termination that the price is for and reason- in this Act- able, and with or without p rformance or (1) The term "rigid airship" means an air- other bonds. The Secretary r4ay make ad- craft comprised of a fully rigid airframe con- vance, progress, and other payments under tamed in an envelope filled with helium gas, contracts entered into under this section and shall include engines, airframes, pro- without regard to Section 368 of the Re- pellers, rotors, instruments, accessories, and vised Statutes of the Unitekt States (31 other ancillary equipment. U.S.C, 529). 1 (2) The term "testing" means the opera- SEC. 5. The Secretary shall submit to the tion of a rigid airship incident to the pro- Congress, on or before June 15 pf each year, curement of a type certificate for such an a detailed report of his activitle$ and expen- aircraft and the operation of a rigid airship, ditures under this Act, together with such whether or not it has a type certificate, under recommendations, including re4ommenda- pose olf dor simulated eterminine the oneran for the pur- bons with respect to additional fggislation, (3) The term "modification"+ means any adjustment or change necessary for and in- cident to carrying out the development and testing of rigid airships under this Act. SEC. 2. The Congress hereby declares that it is in the national interest to promote safety, economy, and efficiency in, the national transportation system and to that end, it is the purpose of this Act to assist in the de- velopment of a rigid airship designed to, transport' outsized objects free from the usual constraints and hazards encountered In their transportation by land or water by providing for a temporary program of Fed- eral assistance in the development, testing, and modification of such an airship. SEC. 3. (a) In carrying out the provisions of this Act, the Secretary of Transportation (hereafter in this Act referred to as the "`Secretary") is authorlged- (1) To prepare operating and general util- ity characteristics and specifications for a type of rigid airship which he determines represents a potential advance over existing modes of air and surface transportation; (2) to provide for the development of a rigid airship for use by the Department of Defense and National Aeronautics and Space Administration as a means of transporting rocket boosters and sustainers and other out- Size objects and for possible use in the 17nited States space program as a recovery vehicle in lieu of the present costly system of deployment of vessels and aircraft; (3) to determine thepotentials of a rigid airship for use by other departments and agencies of the Federal Government and by private industry for the transportation of outsized objects, including but not limited to fabricated building sections, preassem- bled bridge and tower sections, earth-moving machinery, industrial generators and trans- formers, storage tanks, radomes, field hos- pitals, airborne command-control communi- cations centers, and the possible uses of such an airstrip In oceanographic research and exploration, lumbering, and petroleum pro- specting; SEC. 8. This Act shall terminate n the expiration of the five-year period be nning prlatiea such sums as may be necessary carry out the purposes of this Act. STATISTICS ON AEREON Length: 340'. Span : 255'. Height: 80'. Power: 4 Rolls-Royce "Tyne" turbo-prop engines @ 5500 e.s.h.p. Cruising Speed: 150 mph, Takeoff run: 3,000 ft. at max. load. Payload (Max.) 300,000 lbs. Range (Max.) 7,000 mi. Operating Cost (Total) 1 %? per ton-mile { (7 1,750 mi. range). Estimated Cost: $8,400,000, PAYLOAD Six (6) 40 ft. containers (300,000 lbs.) range: 1,750 mi, q total operating cost of 1Y20 per ton-mile. Four (4) 40 ft. containers (200,000 lbs.) range: -4,000 mi. C? total operating cost of 2f per ton-mile. The above bill is introduced with my absolute conviction that such a mode of transportation is vitally important to our economy and to the image of the United States as a presumed leader in the sphere of world transportation. I have long actively advocated a rigid air- ship and current revolutionary advances in its design and potential, to the De- partment of Defense and its military de- partments, and to the National Aero- nautics and Space Administration. I have received polite answers indicating generally that consideration will be ac- corded my proposals. In the meantime, the Soviet Union is moving apace in this field and, by Its own admission, is se- riously researching the use, of rigid air- and I do not doubt their capability for a moment. Why has the United States failed to fill an obviously glaring gap In our over- all transportation system? I sincerely urge that you give this bill serious consideration, I have readily available much conclusive information in this matter which can be presented before any committee to which it may be referred. VEGA CLUB OF BROCKTON, MASS., OBSERVES 75TH ANNIVERSARY (Mr. BURKE of Massachusetts (at the request of Mr. PRYOR) was granted per- mission to extend his remarks at this point In the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) Mr. BURKE of Massachusetts. Mr. Speaker, the Vega Club of Brockton, Mass., is about ,to observe its 75th anniversary, and will mark the oc- casion with a diamond jubilee celebra- tion on September 9. I know that all of my colleagues here will want to join me in saluting this fine organization which numbers among its membership some of the most public-spirited and devoted citizens of that city. I have long been aware of their generous activities in the community, and hope that the efforts of the Vega members and their womens' auxiliary, the Valkyrian Club will receive ,,the encouragement they deserve to con- tynue for a long time to come. ''Among the many activities which have given areawide prominence to the club, are *,its Vega Male Chorus, the Vega of fathe ber 11, the club promote Decembe chase of 6, 1904, 2 years after the pur- he site on which- the present stands. This handsome build- ompleted and dedicated De- l 1917. In addition, the club .ing was cember 1 acquired $ fishing camp on a pond in Plymouth;: in 1953, and also owns the Vega Grove in West Bridgewater, the gift of P41ip Pearson of that town. The September 9 celebration will begin with a social hour from 6:30 until 7:30 p.m. followed by dinner and dancing with a brief anniversary program. Hon- ored guests will be widows of past mem- bers, and special guestInvitations have been extended to Gov. John A. Volpe, former Senator Leverett P. Saltonstall, Mayor Sims, of Brockton, former Mayor Hjalmar Peterson, and Miss Anne Mar- gos, as well as to myself. Clarence Christenson will be the offi- cial host, and Fred V. Hinrichs will intro- duce the program as master of cere- Approved For Release 2001/11/01 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200290060-7 Approved For Release 2001/11/01 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200290060-7 August 31, 1967 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE monies, A special exhibit, the Historic Room, will` offer guests a display of his- toric pictures, the club's history, and dis- plays of memorabilia. Ronald E. Hermanson is chairman of the anniversary committee, and serving with him are historians Arnold W. Ahl- borg, Anders A. Lyman, Olof W. Olson, and Ivar E. Lyman. The souvenir pro- gram is being handled by Leslie E. Pear- son, Everett B. Hedin, and catering by Warren R. Carlson and Edward W. Beale. Other members who have devoted time and energy to the assured success of the occasion are: George H. Burgenson, Jean Kyhn, Gerald P. Johnson, W. Emery Samuelson, Mrs. John A. Johnson, Mrs. Bert Akesson, Mrs. Ronald E. Herman- son, Mrs. Donald E. Johnson, Mrs. Allen O'Brien, Mrs. Hilding Olson, Alton P. Nelson, Sr., Fred V. Hinrichs, Richard E. Youngberg, Donald E. Johnson, Robert L. Wessa, and club officers Donald E. Johnson, president, Barry Rogerson, vice president, Anders A. Lyman, secretary, Jean Kyhn, financial secretary, Robert Swanson, treasurer, Everett B. Hedin, marshall, ion Ortendahl, club news editor, and directors George H. Burgen- son, Richard E. Younger, Leslie E. Pear- son, and Ronald E. Hermanson._ Again, I express my very best wishes to every member,of the Vega club, and congratulations on this notable milestone in its history. May the club continue to preserve the standards of community responsibility and citizenship which have earned it the esteem and high regard of all who know of its reputation. (Mr. BURKE of Massachusetts (at the request of Mr. PRYOR) was granted per- mission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) [Mr. BURKE of Massachusetts' re- marks will "appear hereafter in the Ap- pendix.] of neighboring countries, which then feel the need to protect themselves with sim- ilar buildups-either-for reasons of mili- tary defense or of simple prestige. Fur- ther, the presence of arms, and the mis- trust of one's neighbor, leads to a greater expectation of violence, and then a greater acceptance of violence. The. mechanics of preparing a country for war, even a defensive war, are such that they are hard to reverse. I would like to join the more than 20 of my distinguished colleagues who have introduced a concurrent resolution stat- ing the sense of Congress that the Presi- dent, acting through the U.S. delegation to the United Nations should first, seek, in the appropriate forums of the United Nations, agreements among the princi- pal arms suppliers to insure that sales and gifts of arms are restricted to mini- mum levels; and, second, seek to estab- lish in and through the United Nations a procedure for full public registration of all transactions of this character. I urge the Foreign Affairs Committee to move forward on this resolution. This resolution seems to me a logical parallel to the nuclear 'nonproliferation H 11581 who has quite properly cut miutary aiu to Greece, appeared on the verge of re- suming it, as articles in the July 7 issues of the New York Times and Baltimore Sun indicated. Precisely at this moment, when events were moving in their favor, the junta pulled a major public relations blunder. They revoked the citizenship of the world-renowned Greek actress, Melina Mercouri, because of critical statements she had been making. American public opinion was again aroused, making resumption of U.S. aid untenable. Now the indications are that the United States will not resume mili- tary aid at least until the new Greek Constitution is completed in November -1967. But let us be clear about what this new constitution is all about, It is a device, a mechanism encouraged by the United States as a test of the junta's intentions and perhaps as a vessel for The strong men of the junta, Papa- dopoulos and Pattakos, are by reliable accounts politically naive and provin- cial. But they are sincere. They gen- uinely believe their own words when they say that the coup was staged to save Greece from communism and to "purify" the nation. They are puzzled, therefore, when western democracies show some disapproval of their actions, for they believe their actions were not inconsistent with our interests. The coup itself was not a surprise; the organizers of the coup were. For months prior to the coup, there had been wide- spread talk in Athens that senior Army officers and the palace, two elements which had long enjoyed U.S. backing, would move to prevent the expected elec- toral victory of George Papandreou's non-Communist, liberal Center Union Party. Five weeks before the scheduled election, with the Center Union appar- ently heading for a record majority, the sudden coup killed democracy in Greece. The colonels had swiped the plan of the palace and the generals and executed it themselves. After the first flurry of disapproving treaty recently proposed by the United editorials in the press of Western Eu- States and the Soviet Union. I believe rope and the United States, and some that this would mark an important ad- critical statements in Congress, concern vance in our efforts toward world peace. ~ for the fate of Greek democracy grad- THE GREEK POLITICAI% CRISIS (Mr. KASTENMEIER (at the request of Mr. PRYOR) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. KASTENMEIER. Mr. Speaker, 18 weeks have passed since the April 21 mili- tary coup in Greece. In view of the deteriorating situation there and in view of King Constantine's visit to Washington next week, I believe we should today take another look at the Greek political crisis. I would like to share with you some of my thoughts in this regard. The "colonels' junta" has arrested EXPORT OF ARMS thousands of people and held them with- (Mr. COHELAN (at the request of Mr. out formal charge, dissolved the political PRYOR) was granted permission to ex- parties, forbade strikes, imposed a censor- tend his remarks at this point in the ship of the press and the arts, voided the RECORD and to include extraneous constitution, and abandoned any sem- ? matter.) blance of due process of law. Mr. COHELAN. Mr. Speaker, there are They rule by force of arms-and the many countries today which are desper- arms were supplied by the United States. on us old constitution. It would be an i ately 'in need of resources for the devel- Who are these people? power opment of their country, but which are The inner group of the junta appar- to to believe they that had a the junta passion for seized d power devoting much of their capital and re- ently numbers no more than two dozen sources to large amounts of expensive colonels. They had served together as tional reform. military equipment. In many cases the junior officers within the Army over a Even if the constitution is completed need for military equipment is more period of many years, through both con- as scheduled by the 20 experts who were imaginary than'real, but the burden on servative and liberal administrations. ordered to serve on the drafting panel these struggling countries is real. They appear to be nonestablishment there is no guarantee that it will be put The burden of the military effort in types, coming primarily from impover- into effect. Patakos has publicly stated this, the richest country in the world, ished rural families. Contrary to some that the junta reserves the right to alter Is felt in every' sector of our society. We accounts, they do not appear to be either or reject it. Furthermore, the junta will have found it necessary to cut many vital thugs or bloodthirsty tyrants. They do, choose the time for a referendum on the programs at home to maintain our effort however, show a contempt for politics constitution and then may not accept in Vietnam. Consider the effect of even and politicians-and the workings of the result of the referendum or delay a fraction of the U.S. expenditure on the democracy. There are few signs that they its effect. economy- of a country whose needs are possess the talent of government over the What is likely to happen? What can relatively much greater and whose long haul. They rule by decree and by the United States do? Where there short- means are relatively much less than ours. the gun. And their public pronounce- comings in our Greek policy prior to The. shipment of arms to such coon- ments indicate they have no intention of the coup? These are legitimate ques- tries surely creates fears In the minds stepping down. tions for Congress to ask, Approved For Release 2001/11/01 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200290060-4 some return to partial democracy. There was nothing significantly wrong with the ll i Approved For Release 2001/11/01 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200290060-7 H 11582 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE August 31, 1967 What is likely to happen? These are the apparent possibilities: First. The junta will solidify itself in power and run the country indefinitely; Second. There will be a countercoup; Third. Disorders, terrorist attacks, and guerrilla warfare will break out, with the leadership taken by the Communists; Fourth. The junta will honor its orig- inal pledge, and, having "purified" the nation and restored "true democracy," will return to the barracks. On the first possibility, the junta is working hard to counter threats to it. It has no popular base, but it has the arms. Not only has the apparatus of the far left been dismantled, but over 800 military officers also have been retired. The junta is trying to defuse the power of the potentially proestablishment of- ficers. In the face of these developments, one might conclude that the logic of the situation points to the second possibil- ity, a countercoup. This movement could be expected to represent the palace, some Army officers, the Navy and Air Force, and conservative interests. Presumably out of a successful countrcoup would come some sort of a guided, rightwing "democracy." This-analysis is based on an evaluation of what the United States seemed to favor in the 2 years of crisis which led to the April 21 coup. If a countercoup of what may be termed the "respectable right" does not take place, or is defeated, the initiative of opposition is likely to pass to the far left. While the Communists received only 10 percent of the vote in the last election and while much of their appa- ratus was destroyed in the first hours of the coup, it nevertheless has the only underground organization. The Center Union is democratic-and powerless. All it had was a majority of the people. It lacks the financial and military might of the palace and the right and it lacks the conspiratorial character and foreign support of the Communists. The fourth possibility is the most re- mote of all. What can we do? We must continue to press for the re- lease of the several thousand political prisoners. This especially includes the former U.S. economist, Andreas Papan- dreou, the man who had emerged as the strongest long-run figure of the Center Union and against whose "new politics" the coup was largely directed. We should continue to withhold mil- itary aid, or at least limit it so severely that we show that we disapprove of dic- tatorship in the cradle of democracy. Ad- mittedly, there is a delicate balance beyond which we lose our leverage. But the junta will likely bend ,quite a way before risking a total break. Third, we must look back and review our precoup policies, painful as this may be for some. Ourpolicy in Greece was cautious, con- servative, King-centered, and contrary to the majority of the people. Our undis- guised hostility to the Center Union, and to Andreas Papandreou particularly, can only have contributed to the atmosphere which encouraged a coup. In the Greece of the 1960's, two strong, fairly responsible non-Communist par- ties had emerged, the conservative E.R.E. and the liberal Center Union. Both seemed capable of governing. Indeed, George Papandreou had seemed to prove that progressive liberalism is the best antidote to communism. Whereas in 1961 the Communist-front E.D.A. had re- ceived 24 percent of the vote in an elec- tion rigged against them, in 1964 Papan- dreou's Center Union triumph reduced the E.D.A. vote to 10 percent. Had the May 1967 election been held, E.D.A.'s vote probably would have shrunk further. The normal swing of public feeling in a democracy would have probably led to a conservative victory in a year or two. But the King's action In ousting George Papandreou in June 1963-against U.S. advice, it must be said-helped make the 78-year-old political spellbinder the most popular man in modern Greek political history. Subsequently we lent our encour- agement to all sorts of patched-up coali- tions and stalling actions to thwart an election-and a predicted Center Union victory. Ironically, the King may recoup his fortunes as he seems to be the most likely vehicle for a return to some kind of democracy. Political polarization is taking place in Greece and U.S. policymakers con- tributed to it. Once again, "playing it safe" with "solid," anti-Communist con- servatives, meant playing It dangerously in the-long run. Our options at the moment are nar- row, but only if we realize the mistakes of the past will we be able to seize the oppor- tunities of the future-when whatever action we take or do not take will influ- ence and affect the character of Greece's return to democracy. (Mr. VANIK (at the request of Mr. PRYOR) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) - [Mr. VANIK'S remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] ADMINISTRATION FARM POLICY (Mr. ALBERT (at the request of Mr. PRYOR) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. ALBERT. Mr. Speaker, some of our colleagues on the other side of the aisle are reviving-again-the tired, tortured logicand the twisted facts regarding ad- ministration farm policy, statements that have been laid to rest-again and again- by the simple truth. I can only surmise that these Repub- licans hope to wear out the defenders of the American farmer by sheer verbiage, and in that way to accomplish the "policy" of no policy that they seem to want. Hanging its threadbare case on the tenuous hook of a meeting of the Na- tional Farmers Organization called to discuss bargaining for prices the re- search sector of the minority party has issued a list of what it chooses to call "harsh economic blows" that it says have been dealt the farmer by this adminis- tration. Before once again knocking down these long-since familiar strawmen, I would like to note with great interest that the statement by the opposition's task force chairman makes no mention at all of the collective bargaining plans of the NFO at its Des Moines meeting. This is not surprising, Mr. Speaker. The minority party has never been a champion of col- lective bargaining, whether for industrial workers or for farmers. In fact, Mr. Speaker, it is impossible to tell from the gentleman's statement whether the Republican Party is a cham- pion of anything. There is not one con- structive proposal in the entire state- ment. Rather, it consists of a series of hysterical negatives. Mr. Speaker, the Democratic adminis- tration, led by President Johnson, real- izes full well that the farmer is not getting his just share of the national wealth; it realizes that he is entitled to it, and that without farm programs he will not get it because, as a seller, he is, in effect, a prisoner of his buyer. This administration is looking for better ways in which to help him. One of these possibilities is collective bargaining for farmers, a principle that has been endorsed both by President Johnson and by Secretary of Agriculture Freeman as worthy of serious study. There has been a beginning of interest In exploring this approach among several farm groups. A study of this approach would seem to me to be a more construc- tive assignment for the staff of the task force on agriculture of the Republican planning and research committee than using up reams of paper and wearing out mimeograph machines reprinting old ad- jectives, about old events and applying the old illogic. Perhaps, Mr. Speaker, in the interests of accuracy, it is time they dropped the "G" from the GOP. If you are old, and if you are weary, and if the application of hard intellect to hard problems is a chore, the easiest path is to lay the burden on someone else, and then head for the hills. For the task force chairman to blame this administration for the current slump in commodity prices is like blaming the home team's manager when the ball game is rained out. Mr. Speaker, it is a fact that because of farm programs fought for and won by this administration, often in bitter struggles, the burdensome surpluses of the fifties are gone, the market is freer of Government now than it has been for 30 years, and nearer supply-demand bal- ance than it has been for half a century. Most of our farm programs are now voluntary. Net farm income in all probability will be down this year, but it will be down because of factors outside administration control, such as world and domestic pro- duction and weather, and the marketing practices of farmers themselves. Do not forget that it will be down from an all- time record gross last year. And do not forget, either, that it still will exceed the Approved For Release 2001111/01: CIA-RDP69B00369R000200290060-7