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November 6, 1967
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Approved For Release 2001/1.1/01 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200.290076-0 November 6, 1967 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE lar or unpopular-to preserve and conserve the Nation that. he serves. The public opinion polls, (which should be printed with the weather reports since they show onl which way the wind is blow- ing yesterday, are not the kind of reports on which ii leader can safely base the course of the most imposing ship of state the world has ever known. Other more urgent signs must be read and weighed: The direction the wind is blowing is not nearly so important as where that wind may be taking us. I do Zot intend to speak of the battle for preservation, except to note that President Johnson is pursuing America's best interests with strength and determination. On a bat- tlefield far from our everyday world of home we are winning a war to preserve our very way of life. That the President has also found the re- sources 'to lead a li. storee crusade on behalf of this country's natural beauty and re- sources is almost a miracle, But it is a mira- cle with real substance. His Administrations' record of conserva- tion legislation is more than substantial- it is the greatest list of accomplishments on behalf of the overall environment that has ever been written into the Nation's law books. This is my field and I am particularly proud 0r it. In the realm of Indian affairs, for example, we have seen substantial progress from a base of need and inequity unmatched by any other group of Americans . More than 5,000 units of low-cost housing have been built or are under construction by nearly 100 tribal housing authorities . more than 100 industrial and commercial firms have established plants on or near In- di,an reservations creating jobs for several thousand Indians ... gross income from In- dian national resource production increased more than $20 million in the last fiscal year to a total of $180 million. Mineral leases brought in another $30 million ... more than 2,000 Indian students last year received BIA college scholarships and grants, double the number of just three,years ago . be- yond the statistics Indian people, Indian leadership, are taking an ever more active role in shaping their own future, in making the decisions necessary for increased prog- ress. President Johnson's, conservation program has extended beyond humans (although with an eye to hunters, anglers, and wildlife- watchers) and has taken cognizance of our embattled fish and wildlife. From December enough to supply a city the size of San Fran- cisco or Washington, D.C. and will generate enough power for a city the size of Phila- delphia. Wide-frame thinking has gone into the Johnson Administration's approach to our mineral resources. The approach today is not just to hang onto our known reserves and ,We We them in the wisest way, but to stand and look at the entire minerals pic- ture-including what to do with the mount- ing piles of discarded junk that deadend these resources and mar the countryside. Stepped-up Government efforts to relieve mining areas of underground fires, subsid- ence and blight, protected and improved property valued at nearly $2,5 billion and improved the quality of life for 6.5 million Americans living in these areas. The proj- ects involved, approved by the Appalachian Regional Commission for Federal-State cost sharing, are providing nearly 800 man-years of work in an economically depressed re- gion. It matters not in what direction you turn your eyes here on the home front. The en- vironmental battle is going forward with vigor, with vision, and above all, with an ,interlocking purpose about it. People, re- sources, wildlife, all the elements of the en- vironment we live in and are part of, are receiving due regard in the Federal scheme of things. This is a new departure. This is heads-up, alert, intelligent planning,-a far cry from the finger-in-the-dike approach with which we have made-do in the past. But today, we realize that well-enough then is no longer applicable to today's world. I submit that it takes a man with vision and courage to tackle the wide range of problems that President Johnson has put his hand to. A lesser man would have pulled at least one of his punches. But the world view was taken by the President. He saw that preservation of our way of life against an alien ideology which threat- ened from without, must be given equal at- tention with conservation of our fabric of life against the waste and overcrowding and pollution that threaten from within. The fights for social and political preser- vation of our way of life, and the conserva- tion of the environmental quality of our land, are companion struggles. To win either one and lose the other, would be a national tragedy. I count myself extremely fortunate to be serving under the leadership of such a Pres- 4A- acres were added to the VNationalJ Wildlife O~ ~_ Refuge system, including nearly 105,000 LIF ICULTIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST acres of refuge lands and more than 604,000 Mr. BREWSTER. Mr. President, the acres recently, has areas. Washington Evening Star of November Until il recentlyy, , water has been n our most abused natural resource. The state of the 2, 1967, contains an editorial entitled Nation's waterways was a state of scandal "Commonsense and the Arabs." and disgrace. Today, the pollution brakes It deals with one of the most troubling are on, control measures are -gathering situations we face in the world today- strength and speed, and it is now possible to the continuing difficulties in the Middle predict an end to mounting pollution and a East. gradual rollback to ever-cleaner, purer water. The editorial states accurately and Research in weather modification is under concisely what is at the root of the un- way, with Government scier)tists seeking to induce precipitation from clouds, to increase easiness in the Middle East. I ask unani- the runoff, which- then could be stored in mous consent that it be printed in the reservoirs already built and released during RECORD. dry periods. ,Research appropriations for There being no objection, the editorial weather modification in Fiscal 1965 and 1966 was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, totaled nearly $7 million-double that of all az follows: previous years. An expanded and extended program of. COMMONSENSE AND THE ARABS research ail develppmentin desalting ocean It is difficult to see what the Arab states and brackish water,was approved in 1965, hope to gain by their continuing refusal to authorizing five years of work with $200 recognize Israel and negotiate a definitive million ceiling. Out of this, in part, will peace treaty with it. The longer they adhere grow by the early 1970's a 150-million-gallon- to such negativism, the harder they will find per-day nuclear-powered operation for the the bargaining when they at last agree-as Metropolitan Water District of Southern they eventually must-to engage in talks S 15803 Levi Eshkol in his latest address to the Israeli Parliament. The situation that existed before the six-day war in June "shall never be re- stored." As long as the Arabs decline to talk, Israel will consolidate its position in all the occupied areas-the Golan Heights of Syria, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Desert, the west bank of the Jordan River, and regions affect- ing freedom of passage in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Suez Canal. As for Jerusalem, the Israelis apparently intend to hold on to the whole of it, permanently-a decision that runs defiantly counter to world opinion as expressed in a 99-to-0 vote by the United Nations General Assembly. Aside from Jerusalem, however, and cer- tain other places deemed vital to security, Israel, according to Eshkol, "is prepared to conduct direct negotiations with all the neighborhing Arab countries or with any one of them separately," to resolve boundary questions. Presumably assuming good faith on both sides, the negotiations could result in a return to the Arabs of most of the oc- cupied regions. The Israelis themselves have reason to favor such a return. After all, the areas that fell to them in June are inhabited by more than 1 million Arabs with a very high birthrate, and Israel can hardly relish the ideaof trying to annex and govern so many potentially hostile people-a force that might be used by the more reckless Arab leaders to create an underground ter- rorist army. At the moment, with the Israelis stiffening their bargaining terms with each passing day, and with the Arabs still calling for the an- nihilation of their Jewish neighbor, the out- look for any progress toward direct negotia- tions-with or without the help of a United Nations intermediary-seems almost hopeless. Yet Eshkol and his government are not en- tirely pessimistic: "We believe that there are positive internal forces here and in the area which are working toward peace in the Middle East. In this peace lies the starting point for a solution of the area's problems, including the problem of the Arab refugees." Israel is ready to begin negotiating at once, but the other side adamantly rejects the idea. So the situation hardens, ceasefire viola- tions escalate, and the threat of a renewal of full-scale war grows rather than lessens. It is hard to believe that this is the direc- tion in which responsible Arab leaders really want events to drift. ARE THEY BUGGING YOU? Mr. LONG of Missouri. Mr. President, the Philadelphia Inquirer of September 24, 1967, contains an interesting article entitled "Proliferating Miniature Tech- nology: Are They Bugging You?-The High Art of Modern Eavesdropping." Since this is an interesting survey of the "art of modern eavesdropping," I ask unanimous consent that it be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: PROLIFERATING MINIATURE TECHNOLOGY: ARE THEY BUGGING You?-THE HIGH ART OF MODERN EAVESDROPPING (NOTE.-The article which follows was written for "West" magazine of the Los An- geles Times and obtained through the serv- ices of that newspaper.) (By Keith Monroe) If this hasn't happened to you yet, it may: You are dickering with a car salesman. He excuses himself. Your family presses you to buy on his terms-and somehow he knows it wh n h t H e e re urns. e makes no better offer. California-the world's biggest desalting for an enduring settlement. You end up settling for a worse deal than plant by far. It will provide fresh water This has been made quite clear by Premier was likely. Approved For Release 2001/11/01: CIA-RDP69B00369R00020029007670 S 15804 Approved For Release 2001/11/01 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200290076-0 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE November 6, 1967 In an angry moment in your office, you pop off about someone to your confidential secretary. Unaccountably it gets to the wrong ears. You lose the promotion you expected. Your innocent telephone banter with an old friend is mysteriously overheard and mis- interpreted. It becomes common gossip, em- barrassing you and your friend. Your opponents in a lawsuit seem magi- cally forewarned of your attorney's plans. They outmaneuver you and win the case. A neighbor becomes aware that an eccen- tricity of his is a household joke within your family. Your friendship with him is perma- nently frostbitten. You confide a secret of your past to your doctor or clergyman. Soon you are black- mailed by a, stranger who somehow knows your secret. Such misfortunes would once/have been attributed to clairvoyance. Today its a mat- ter of electronics. For fun or profit, someone planted a "bug" nearby and overheard your private conversation. Electronic eavesdropping is not new. But the advent of micro-miniaturization in the last four years has made snooping devices smaller, cheaper, more reliable-and more Common. The general public has lately been buying them eagerly. Today anyone inter- ested, or idly curious, can invisibly invade your privacy at will. No earphone or special receivers are needed. Popular electronics magazines publish mall-order advertisements with headings like "How to Spy," proferring such con- veniences as a "Supersensitive directional microphone (which) picks up faint sounds at 300 feet." Another offers a stethescope mike that "detects sound through' ordinary walls. Easily built for $7. No. electronics ex- perience necessary." A Hollywood mail-order merchant coaxes readers in a bold ad to "eavesdrop with a pack of cigarettes. Min- iaturized FM radio transmitter. Complete diagrams and instruction, $2." AMATEUR COME-ONS For those who can't read plans'ar aren't handy with a soldering iron, snooping is made easier. Lowbrow magazines advertise tape recorders that "can be concealed in a pocket" and a "bumper beeper-instantly at- tachable to a car so you can trail it without seeing it." Bargain-hunting amateur spies can send for a "bugging devices informa- tion guide. Lists wholesale and retail sources. Save half on some items." The guide de- scribes a whole arsenal of tiny instruments. One factory sells a tiny microscope hidden in a quarter-inch rubber mat for slipping. under doors; it can transmit to a hidden re- corder so sensitive that the sound of voices- turns it on and off. Another co,p2pany purveys "an integrated business surveillance system" concealed In a briefcase so that "it may be 'accidentally left behind,' still recording." In 1966, the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Administrative Practice and Procedure called in the chief engineers or general managers of five obscure electronics firms in the Los A 1 area Since then all but one of those e es a pany recently bought 800 desk-pen sets with Bureau to Aid Spanish Democracy, dentists, hidden mikes built in. Another ordered 300 brokers, engineers, a police station." "harmonica bugs," sophisticated devices that In such cases, attorney Edward Bennett can be quickly slipped into any telephone Williams points out, "scores of persons who to convert it to an open microphone pick- were suspected of no crime were subjected ing up whispers anywhere in a large room. to this kind of surveillance. What they be- BEDECKED WITH NERVE lieved to be'private conversations were in- li I tI ' t e n ma e Thoughful eavesdroppers can find many ways to get into a home or office with their devices. At a 1959 Senate hearing, former Philadelphia District Attorney Samuel Dash testified : "Your private specialist who taps ... does it right in front of your eyes. He usually bedecks himself with screwdriversand pliers and has wire hanging all over him. He will ring the doorbell and say: 'Madam, I'm from the telephone company; your line has been reported, trouble on the line' . . . Take the lawyers' offices, professional people's offices-they have maintenance men who go in an out. I have been able to observe the telephone multiple box of a large office open and a man working on it and no one ques- tioning whether he was a maintenance man and had a right to be there." A current book on invasions of privacy shows a photo of hidden investigators firing a shotgun toward a distant house. The cap- tion says, "Special shotgun has just released 'spike mike' that, once embedded in the frame of a window or door, transmits private conversations to the eavesdropper." The dart was built experimentally by an engineer, who found that on impact at only 35 feet, its microphone shattered. Nevertheless, the U.S. Army was sufficiently fascinated by the idea to try to make one. A high-powered airgun with a half-inch barrel was procured from Abercrombie and Fitch, and the engineer was commissioned to fabricate six spike mikes to fit the darts it would shoot. All broke on impact. Then there is the story of a factory em- ploye who sold mimeographed scandal about fellow workers until a plant detective caught her listening in on a private telephone conversation. A San Francisco restaurant has been caught with mikes under each table. A rabbi and a Baptist minister are known to have been bugged. A Catholic priest is said by members of his parish to have discovered a listening device in his confessional. In' 1957, a committee of the California Legislature uncovered hidden microphones in the sales offices of used-car dealers. Pro- spectivebuyers were left alone there to talk over possible purchases. Then the eavesdrop- ping salesman would reappear to close a deal at the highest possible price within the pur- chasers' range. Jessica Mitford found mor- ticians using the same systems in selling caskets to bereaved families. Certain realtors are also known to have bought bugging equipment. The Legislature's committee concluded that professional eavesdropping in California was a lively, active, lucrative private business." BUGGING THE CHAIR ng individuals have separated from the firms, The Wall Street Journal recently reported exist that a land development company lost sev- l n ger o and the firms themselves no under the same names, although successor eral hundred thousand-dollars in potential suspected bookie three times to place and companies seem to be thriving at the same profits when on five occasions someone replace a bug in different parts of the hall locations. There is nothing furtive about bought land the company needed. It brought and bedroom. After months of monitoring, the attitude of these companies toward the in a detective, who located a bug in an via a wire through a hole they had bored in press. A reporter who recently visited some office chair. the roof, the sleuths got enough evidence to of them was welcomed, shown their arrays There is little doubt that law enforcement convict the suspect. His lawyers, discovering of bugs and told how to install them, and officers also bug widely and, while, eaves- the wire and bug, fought the case to the U.S. even allowed to browse through order files dropping, police can scarcely avoid hearing Supreme Court. The Court's decision an- on the understanding that names would many other private talks. In the Columbia cluded a stinging attack on the police depart- stay off the record. Law Journal, Professor Alan F. Westin re- ment: Most names in these files are "Smith" and ported: "In the course of tapping a single "That officers of the law would break and "Jones," usually with no addresses. How- telephone, a police agent recorded conver- enter a home, secrete such a device, and ever, two very well-known columnists ap- sations involving ... the Jullfard School listen to the conversation of the occupants pear to be steady customers under their own of Music, Consolidated Radio Artists, West- would be almost incredible if it were not ad- names. The files also show orders from some ern Union, a bank, a drugstore, a real estate mitted," wrote Justice Robert H. Jackson of Southern California's prominent corpora-' company, many lawyers, a dry cleaner, num- (who as Attorney General 13 years earlier tions, particularly in the oil, real estate, su- erous bars, a garage, the Prudential Insur- had authorized FBI wiretapping in kidnap permarket and fashion businesses. One com- ante Company, a health club, the Medical Ing and espionage cases). He pointed out that - vaded by the ears of .m, po ce. tails of the lives of these people became a matter of record in the files of the Police Department." POLITICAL CARE People wonder whether private detectives every try to bug the conferences of political parsonages. In 1953, a Secret Service agent picked up FM broadcasts of Sen. Wayne Morse's private conversations in his home and office, but neither Morse nor the Service ever found the hidden microphones. During the recent California campaign for Gov- ernor, Ronald Reagan carried in his breast pocket a small device sold for $149.50 by a Van Nuys manufacturer. Called an anti-bug, it was advertised as a "highly sophisticated electronic instrument which effectively jams all commonly used electronic eavesdropping transmitters." More and more jamming devices are coming on the market. So are electronic "sweepers" that squeal when pointed at a bug. But they have limitations. Most sweep- ers are mute unless held within 3 feet of a bug. Sweepers and jammers are useless against listening devices that transmit by wire in- stead of radio. The only means of blocking such bugs is to find the hidden wires, which now can be made almost invisible, or can even be built into walls. Former Attorney General Nicholas deB. Katzenbach has called the Federal anti-wire- tap bill "totally unsatisfactory." There are no Federal statutes on electronic eaves- dropping, although a new FCC regulation prohibits the use of radio devices for snoop- ing. So, more or less by default, for the past two decades bugging has been taking root among American folkways. The U.S. Govern- ment itself, through its General Services Administration, nurtured the process. In 1958, a sharp-eyed critic noticed that the GSA price list of "office supplies" available to all Federal agencies included handy Minifon bugging equipment that could be quickly concealed around the office. The GSA admitted it had bought $141,136 worth of bugs for bureaucrats in the previous three years. It halted this service forthwith, due to uproar in Congress, but nobody was naive enough to think that public servants had therefore stopped bugging each other and the public. A 1962 report by the House Committee on Government Operations noted that "more than 5000 gadgets to permit tele- phone eavesdropping still are attached to Government telephones in the Washington area alone." STINGING CENSURE In the comparatively primitive 1950's, when the hidden mike had to be connected with a wire to the Listening Post, Long Beach, Calif., police surreptitiously entered the house of a Approved For Release 2001/11/01 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200290076-0