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December 15, 2016
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May 11, 2004
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June 27, 1967
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S 8938 Approved For Releaegf85g(fNCRt-ffE803R00300014-6 June 27, 1967 morning stage at Chillicothe was 32.6 feet, about 8 feet above flood stage. CHECKING NEW RISE Col. W. G. Kratz, Missouri district engi- neer for the Army, said his agency was keep- ing a close watch on the new rise and its effect on water-soaked levees along the stream. Under close watch, he said, is the new 16- mile levee protecting Elwood and Wathena, Kans., and the Rosecrans air field, near St. Joseph. He said additional efforts would be made to bolster the levee protecting Sher- man air field at Ft. Leavenworth. The Big Muddy is expected to crest at 25.6 feet at Rubo, Neb., tomorrow afternoon. This would be only .1 of a foot under the record set in the 1952 flood. A stage of 25 feet, 7 feet above flood stage, is forecast at St. Joseph next Sunday morn- ing. Points below the flood crest area are also under close watch, The Army engineers have 47 persons on duty at the mouth of the Gas- conade, where three acres of the corps boat yard already is under water. The annual summer field training exercise of the Kansas, Utah and Wyoming National Guard units at Camp Guernsey, Wyo., was mired down in mud. The operation was changed from a tactical maneuver because of dangerous conditions caused by heavy rains in the canyon areas around the camp. Guard officials said it would be hazardous to transport heavy equipment, including 155-millimeter howit- zers, over the soggy terrain. A temporary ramp built to support a bridge across the North Platte river was washed out by the high water. It has been raining nearly steadily for two days and two nights. Rains last night in these sections ranged up to six inches south of Beaver City, Neb., and three inches at Oberlin and Norton in Kansas and Stamford in Nebraska. TO REACH 1966 LEVEL The bureau said the flooding south of Beaver City will be about the same as that in June, 1966, on Sappa creek. At Oberlin, where flood stage is 11 feet, a crest of 13.5 to 14 feet was expected. The creek flows into the Upper Republican river. The Red Cross set up emergency shelters in Grand Island, Neb., and more than 100 persons spent the night in the high school in the town of Kenesaw, about 30 miles southwest of Grand Island, High.waters on the Big Blue followed another night of heavy rains ranging more than 6 inches in South- western Nebraska. In Montana high water severed the east- west main line of the Northern Pacific rail- road east of Livingston. Bridges were washed out and Interstate 90 was closed between Big Timber and Columbus, Mont. Possible flood- ing in Billings, Mont., was expected as the Yellowstone river was gorged with incoming tributary waters. [From the Kansas City (Mo.) Times, June 17, 1967] MISSOURI LEVEES OUT-SWOLLEN BY REPEATED RAINSTORMS, RIVER CRESTS BREACH MANY BANKS ALONG THE WAY TO ST. LOUIS-ACRES FLOODED-ARMY ENGINEERS REPORT 40 BREAKS ALONG STREAM The Missouri river, swollen by new rains over the last 24 hours, sent new flood crests racing downstream between Miami, Mo., and St. Louis, breaking or overflowing levees and inundating around 50,000 acres of farm- land. The Army Corps of Engineers office at Glasgow reported about 40 levees breached with over 1,000 persons working on sand- bagging and earth moving operations in an effort to stem existing breaches and pre- vent new breaks. GLASGOW CREST TO DROP At Glasgow, the river maintained a crest of 30.7 feet between 6 o'clock and 10 o'clock last night but corps officials expected this to drop by Monday. Predictions of a 29.5-foot crest by Mon- day at Glasgow would still put the river four and a half feet over bankfull with corre- sponding situations downstream. The engineers reported no towns were threatened and no farm houses had been ordered evacuated. The severity was indicated by the size of the break in the David-Noland-Merrill levee south and east of Carrollton. That breach had widened to 70 yards yesterday afternoon. Unofficial sources said the amount of land covered in Carroll County is 10,000 acres. Some 50 families have been evacuated from the lowlands in the county. BOONVILLE BRACING ITSELF River forecaste4% expect further trouble this morning downstream at Boonville where the river is predicted to top at 27.7 feet, al- most seven feet over bankfull. The surge is expected to hit Jefferson City with a 26.5 reading tonight. The heavy line of thunderstorms that moved across Eastern Kansas and Western Missouri yesterday afternoon will not make any appreciable difference to rivers here swollen by recent downpours. A second flood crest is coming down the Missouri river but the weather bureau re- ports it will not be as high as forecast previously. The Missouri here is expected to top off at 21.5 feet at 8 o'clock tomorrow night. Bankful is 22 feet but levees can handle a further 20 feet rise. Today's forecast calls for a 20 per cent chance of rain and a 10 per cent chance tonight. ST. JOSEPH CREST TOMORROW A crest of 21.5 feet is expected at St. Joseph tomorrow afternoon. This is more than 4 feet over flood stage but river forecasters expect no flooding. The swift current in the Missouri has deep- ened the channel there by churning up bot- tom sand which becomes suspended in the water allowing the river to carry the same amount of water at a lower stage. Yesterday's storm, which dumped .36 of an inch of rain on the Kansas City area, brought the 24-hour rain total to .43. Windstorms also did some damage in the area. TRAILER HOME TOPPLED Tha five members of the Ernest Brewster family escaped with only superficial injuries yesterday when high winds blew their trailer home over on its top at Lawrence, Kans. "I had a premonition and was watching the clouds," Brewster said. "The rain had stopped when I saw debris blowing by, and over we went." Mr. and Mrs. Brewster and their three chil- dren-Michele, 41/2, Jonathan, 2, and Lor- raine, 1-were in the kitchen of the trailer. It was demolished, and they crawled out through a hole in one end. Michele had a cut on one foot, and the others had scratches. The trailer was parked on the Old Baldwin road about six miles south of Lawrence near the Vinland community. Th winds destroyed a. shed and blew down several trees at the home of a neighbor, Darryl Salle. BIG RAIN AT EMPORIA Emporia, in East' Central Kansas, recorded 3.11 inches of rain in six hours. Rains Thursday and Friday halted the Kansas wheat harvest from Great Bend west. As the rains moved southeast. Loyal Fort- myer, director of the state harvest labor Con- trol office in Great Bend, said the harvest undoubtedly will be delayed in south-central counties, too. Rains of 1 to 3 inches were reported through much of the area where the wheat is ready, and Fortmyer said he doesnot ex- pect the harvest to be resumed until the first of next week. In Grand Island, Nebr., thousands of resi- dents, Air Force personnel and national guardsman hauled sandbags and moved furn- iture as water from the Wood river swirled northward into-the city of 25.000. NEBRASKA HIT HARD Evacuation centers accommodate several hundred Nebraskans during the night. About 30 per cent of Grand Island was covered by flood water, but there was none in the main business district. In Eastern Nebraska hundreds of acres of farm land were under water and many high- ways were flooded or closed by bridge wash- outs. Ten tornadoes by official, count were sighted in Nebraska Thursday night-the tenth straight day of violent weather in the area. Serious flooding continued in Central Montana, although the Yellowstone river be- gan to subside. The Northern Pacific rail- road's main line was still closed yesterday near Greycliff. Some flooding was reported along the Gallatin river, U.S. 10 between Big Timber and Columbus, Mont., remained closed. STORMS IN CHICAGO AREA The Chicago area was raked by a violent thunderstorm. Midway airport reported hail- stones three-quarters of an inch thick. The official Midway airport reporting station measured 1.40 inches of rain in 15 minutes- an all-time record for a 16-minute rainfall in the Chicago area. Before power failure shut off the wind measuring instrument at Midway airport it had recorded winds at 63 miles an hour. Some hangars were partly unroofed, planes were tossed about and damaged and windows were blown out. A Beechcraft Bonanza, which flipped over o_i its back, was reigstered to Troy Arnold of Richmond, Va. Debris from the roofs of hangars was blown into Cicero avenue anti traffic was tied up for 45 minutes. Winds shattered display windows in Chi- cago Heights. A funnel cloud was sighted west of Mokena, Ill., and visibility in the Kanakee, Ill., area was reduced to zero by heavy rain and strong winds. Earlier funnel clouds were sighted in Madison, Wis., and Milwaukee. Moline, Ill., waspelted by soft hail and gusty winds. THE SITUATION IN THE MIDDLE EAST Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, recent national polls have shown that the over- whelming number of people in the United States who have any opinions on the Arab-Israel conflict believe that the Israelis were right and the Arabs were wrong. not surprising in the least. For 19 years Israel has struggled to maintain its independence to develop its economy, to accept without limit refu- gees from oppression and to foster demo- cratic institutions which advance the dignity of the individual. During this pe- riod the Arab countries have maintained a policy of unrelenting hostility to the very concept of the existence of Israel. They have devoted their scant resources not to the betterment of their illiterate and abjectly impoverished peasants but to the acquisition of billions of dollars of weapons with the avowed purpose of using them to destroy Israel. Their peo- ple remain mired in a feudal society which barely sustains their existence ant Approved For Release 2004/05/25 CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 June 27, 1967 Approve dONGRESSI8NAL /RECORDA-RSDENATE 3698000200300014-6 S 8937 Milford, placed in operation last January near Junction City, has been filling slowly. With rises on the Republican river, it now has jumped up nine feet in the last four days. Perry, northwest of Lawrence, is only 65 percent completed. But the contractor and the Army engineers rigged an emergency power setup and closed the gates on the dam. Now 179,000 acre-feet of Delaware river water is temporarily trapped behind the embank- ment. This action, needless to say, proved highly popular downstream at Lawrence, where the long-planned levee system still is on paper. At Topeka, these storms surely would have put tough old Soldier creek out Inthe streets in the old days. But Soldier creek has a new, manmade bypass channel, a strait jacket of stone and concrete that scooted the high water out of town in a hurry. Again, the pub- lic works budget includes the first money for Chillicothe on down. So far this year, a Vietnam-conscious gress has been reluctant to invest in ritfer projects at the usual rate. When the full ures are available on the floods that didn'~ fi g ,, across old highway 36 south of Chillicothe in happen in.soggy Missouri and Kansas these Bear Lake bottoms. Traffic was heavy on h t i ht h their an e t f t l g ey jus m g c ew ays, as mind hij1tw4 ys 65 and 36 last night as hundreds . of vehic veled the area south and west [From the St. Joseph (Mo.) News Press, June 17, 1967] THE VALUE OF LEVEES Northwest Missouri's current flood tragedy is demonstrating the value-where they exist-of levees and reservoirs. In unprotected areas, flood damage is like- ly to be high. Thousands of acres of farm- land have been inundated, and some per- sons have been forced to flee their homes. There has been flooding along the Grand, Platte, and Little Platte rivers. Reservoirs authorized for the Little Platte and the Grand could have prevented much of this. The value of the reservoirs and the levees has been demonstrated in this area. Reser- voirs on various rivers in Kansas have helped control the water flow there, keeping the Kaw and the lower Missouri at manageable levels. In the St. Joseph area, levees have pre- vented flooding at Rosecrans Field and at El- wood, and have protected much other low land to the south. Water is among man's greatest blessings, but too much of it can be a curse if steps have not been taken to control it. The res- ervoirs are a key to proper water manage- ment. The current floods are another reason why Northwest Missourians should continue to push for water resource projects on the Lit- ized-and on the Platte itself. Such resew rs will in the future help prevent the t of damage which has occurred so often the past and is happening again right no . The success of the levee --even th gh it is only partially completed-is proof f the wisdom of those who planned the atru"etuie at 1 o'clock this afternoon was 32.08 and the high waters, but Beetsma told a Con- holding steady. A crest of 33 feet was expected stitution-Tribune newsman he just couldn't for Chillicothe later today. stand by and watch the water roll over the The present 32.08 reading is the fifth high- levees. "We felt like we had to try to hold eat recorded here, according to records kept it back, but it just kept coming," he said. on the Grand since 1909. The river today is This was the first serious flood since at its highest stage since the record flood of Sept. 22, 1965 when the Grand reached a 1947. crest of 31,7A.-That ,flood caused $1,178,000 The water moved to the southwest edge in,,daaiflrge to crops alofie- in Livingston of Chillicothe overnight causing one family t ounty. ,) to evacuate their home on Keit>si..atr?et at The Grand is higher now, but the loss 3 a.m. Water also was reporjted-16 four rooms might not be so great because planting of of the Bend Motel E4i* "an antique shop crops has been restricted because of ex- just south of the cijp'llmits. cessive rainfall during the last two months. Furniture and" other items were being Thousands of acres of cropland are under moved tot~ a east part of the motel by Ed- water in the Sumner and Brunswick areas. wood Allxtttt this morning. The floodwaters The Grand is expected to crest 10 feet over were At the edge of a trailer court west of bankfull stage at Sumner Friday. A crest of oldAilghway 65, and across from the Bend. 36 feet is expected there at .3 a.m. Friday passenger traffic last night and only large crest of 22.50 by midnight Friday. Flood stage trucks were being permitted to travel north at Brunswick is 12 feet. from here. The highway department told The only levels higher than today's 32.08 The Constitution-Tribune shortly before 2 here were July 7, 1909 (33.60), June 3, 1930 o'clock this afternoon that water was still (32.20), June 7, 1947 (33.82) and June 24, over the highway but all traffic was now 1947 (33.53). using the road. Levees south of Wheeling and near Roach of here to get a the floodwaters. The Grand topped tli#--8Q-4oot level yester- day at 1 p.m. and by 8 o'clock lrest.night had climbed another foot to 31.03. By 7 a:rir today it had risen more than another foot and at 32.05. The Thompson fork of t he Grand at Trenton started failing last night. Hobart Sparks, weather observer, reported the read- ing at Trenton at 6:30 yesterday was 21.72 and this morning it was down to 19.74. Water was reported to be dropping fast there today. Trenton police reported heavy rain there again this morning and the showers moved on north. Depending on how much rain was received north of here, the worst seems to be over. Some families residing in the low areas west and south of here left their homes Mon- day and yesterday. It is not known for sure how many families have moved out of their homes in Livingston County because of the flooding waters. Railroad crews have been on south of the old highway. Harold Beetsma and Joe Ruppel started calling for volunteers yesterday afternoon to sand bag levees in those areas. The men and a large number of high school boys worked through the night loading sand bags and carrying them to several locations along the levees and on old 36 near Utica. Beetsma farms approximately 3,200 acres and Ruppel has about 900 acres. Beetsma [From the Chillicothe (Mo.) Constitution- Tribune, June 14, 1967] GRAND REACHES HIGHEST MARK SINCE RECORD FLOOD OF 1947 STAGE IS 32.08 EARLY THIS ABR'ERNooN HERE BUT IT MAY REACH 33 FEET; SOME FAMILIES FORCED To EVACUATE The Grand River south of Chillicothe missed its predicted crest for the second straight night as floodwaters covered ap- proximately 80,000 acres of land in Living- ston County today.. Heavy rains north of here Monday night and Tuesday caused the river to continue to rise late yesterday and last night after weather bureau officials had predicted a crest of 31 feet at midnight last night. The Grand brtkQn and they were now concentrating "their `efforts near west edge of old 36. The workers rre attempting to protect 400 acres beans and about 80 acres of corn south of;the old high y. The Corps of ineera at Glasgow pro- vided 4,000 sand bag d they arrived here yesterday afternoon. S d was donated by many persons along with cks and boats. The Five-Watt Wizards, a`igcal CB radio club, was also on duty. They provided radio communications and brought "water and coffee to the workers. The Salvation Army also provided coffee. Most of the efforts were washed aside by the floodwaters this afternoon, but one large levee south of Sampsel was reported to have broken at midnight last night. [From Kansas City (Mo.) T:mes, June 16, 1967] NEW FLOOD BLOW NEAR-WITH MORE THAN 15,000 ACRES Or LAND UNDER WATER IN RAY AND CARROLL COUNTIES, THE MISSOURI EL D AND WATHENA, KANs., AND ROSE- CRANS D SAFETY DOUBT The flood Missouri river is giving the state of Miss ri a one-two punch. The second punch is expected to be worse than the first. A crest of 30.5 f t is forecast to reach the Glasgow, Mo., are by this morning. This would be 5 %2 feet bove flood stage. KEEP G CLOSE WATCH On hand i hat area are 52 Army engi- neer per nel and some 600 workmen watchi the rising waters and reinforcing wea ed levees. e second flood, caused by two days of heavy rains in Nebraska and Iowa, is ex- pected to cause heavy rises in the Missouri river from Nebraska City to Jefferson City. "In many cases," the weather bureau said, "the rises will exceed those of the last week." Many highways already are closed by high water. RAIL LINES CLOSED Several railroads have been forced to sus- pend operations in some areas. The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy lost a bridge at Rosen- dale, near St. Joseph. The Rack Island still is closed between Atchison, Kans., and St. Joseph and the Missouri Pacific is closed between Kansas City and Jefferson City. Estimates indicated that more than 15,000 acres of land were under water in Ray and Carroll counties on the north side of Big Muddy. This includes land between the banks and the levees. Sheriff Paul Johnson of Carroll County said a break in the Davis-Merrill-Nolan levee on the north bank of the Missouri just above Waverly is so big it can't be repaired until the water recedes. He said water was pouring through a gap 6 feet deep "and two telephone poles wide." Sixty to 70 families were moving out of their homes. The river fell about a foot during the night in the Waverly area. Still closed was U.S. 65, which is under 2%2 feet of water between Waverly and Carrollton. Tributaries of the Missouri are gradually falling. The Grand was expected to drop within banks at Pattonsburg and Gallatin last night and at Chillicothe by Sunday. The Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 pproved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 June 27, 196 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE S 8939 which gives them little hope for their Ian troops were already in position to against this policy of subsidizing Nasser future. shell Tel Aviv, a bare 15 miles from Jor- for man The smashing military victory of the daian territory. Y Years. However, it was not until Israelis, in which the combined armed What a 1 Egypt that were out massive food shipments to forces of the Arab countries were de- bring a charge of Joke it ession against is for Russia s Is- Egyt conserve his shipments which for- en- stroyed in 60 hours, has been properly rael in the United Nations General As- eign exchange which he used to equip hailed as one of the most successful mili- sembly. Soviet Russia has further stoked his armies. And even then we continued tary campaigns ever waged. The dread of the fires of Arab aggression with massive large-scale aid to the other Arab coun- every military leader is the necessity to military aid and has lent support to the tries. fight on two fronts. Israel, surrounded Arab dream of driving Israel into the Illustrative of some of the difficulties by hostile countries on all sides, had to sea. Russia sought to find in the instabil- that the prospects for peace in the Middle face an enemy on four fronts and to en- ity of the Arab governments and in the East face is the performance of Jordan's gage the enemy actively on three in order desperation of the masses a fertile ground King Hussein. Coming ' to this country to insure its survival. for the intrusion of its power and infiu- to appear before the United Nations, he The results of that conflict are now a ence in that area of the world. It has. had the gall to warn the General As- matter of history, but analysts will seek made the Middle East a pawn in Its cold sembly that if Israel were allowed to for years to come the reasons which en- war tactics against the United States. keep "even 1 square foot" of the land abled-a country of some two and a half The record of arms shipments by Rus- it had taken, the United Nations would million people to defeat countries with sia to Arab countries in the last 10 years never again be able to make a cease-fire a population 50 times greater and oc- makes a mockery of her accusations of stick anywhere. cupying an area 100 times as great. One aggression ct is fact, ,however, is evident. The Arab U ionaccording against to Id to accumu uglatted ited figures in~thegAab fiasco none is armies, poorly trained and poorly led, by the Government of Israel, has sup- more so than King Hussein. The United with no stomach for laying down their plied the Arab countries with 2,000 tanks, States has supported his country lav- lives for governments which had given of which 1,000 have gone to Egypt. The ishly, paying a large share of his budget them no reason for devotion, were no Kremlin has delivered 700 modern fight- and quite mistakenly supplying him with match for the Israelis. The latter knew, er aircraft and bombers. The Israeli arms. These arms were presumably to be down to the last soldier and airman, sweep through the Sinai disclosed that used again Communist aggression. But down to the last worker and farmer re- the Egyptians had received Russian sur- typically, as In many other examples, servist, that the survival of Israel as a face-to-air missiles. Egypt alone had re- these arms were not used for the purpose nation and of the Israelis as a people ceived 540 field guns, 130 medium field for which they were intended but indeed was at stake. guns, 200 120-millimeter mortars, 695 for the opposite purpose, for Russian Radio Cairo had for weeks called for a anti-aircraft guns, 175 rocket launchers, communism was supporting Arab ag- "jiddah," a holy war against Israel Egypt 14 submarines and 46 torpedo boats in- gression. Jordan has little justification had mobilized its armies and had poised eluding missile carrying boats. The as an independent state, and its role, as seven divisions in Sinai at the Israeli Egyptian army and air force has been the U.S. policymakers have Indicated, borders. Nasser had taken over military trained by Soviet military experts. Re- was as a kind of command of the Arab Legion of Jordan, cent reports from American newspaper state which, though Arab, would bbeuffer less had blockaded the Gulf of Aqaba, and reporters indicate that some Syrian hostile and less aggressive in Its purposes had ordered the United Nations Emer- forces raining artillery fire on Israeli and designs against Israel than the other. gency Force to leave, clearing the way territory were under the direction of Before the outbreak of this 4-day war for an assault through the Negev. Syrian Russian military advisers. the Israel Government sent messages to forces, entrenched on the heights above Nor has Russia followed a constructive the king urging him not to attack and the Sea of Galilee and assisted, appar- role in the United Nations in the search saying that if he did not there would be ently by Russian officers, had poured an for peace in the Middle East. Its repeated no counterattack or action by the Israel unrelenting fire down onto Israel vil- use of the veto in the Security Council troops across the Jordanian border. King lages. insured that the Arab countries could Hussein not only rejected this peace these conditions the Israelis continue their aggression against Israel offer but rushed to embrace Nasser, knew that they could not wait to see by mean? of guerrilla attacks without joined him in his attack, started the whether President Johnson would suc- fear of censure, while Israel could take bombing of Israel and brought upon ceed in persuading other maritime na- action to protect itself only at the risk himself the inevitable reprisal, tions to test the Gulf of Aqaba block- of incurring a Security Council censure. He has no case whatever in the record ade, neither could they wait for the Arab I wish I could say that the actions of of history or In the court of public opin- armies to cross their borders. the United States in the Middle East Ion. He is and should be thoroughly dis- Whether the Israelis struck first is in the last 10 years were commendable. credited for his double-dealing for his only of academic interest. When an in- Unfortunately, the United States is aggression, and for the folly deliberately dividual points a loaded gun at you and greatly at fault for what has occured, embarked on, which not only cost many states repeatedly that he is going to kill For years, U.S. policy has been to at- lives of Jordanians but quite a few Israe- you, the law provides and commonsense tempt to maintain a kind of balance in 1Ls who did everything in their power dictates that you do not wait until he that troubled area, to balance the to obviate action on the Israel-Jordan shoots you before taking reasonable phenomenal growth of the Israel econ- front.-Hussein has no legitimate claim measures to resist the aggression. The omy, achieved In large measure through of the kind that he makes. He alone is situation in the Middle East on June 5, its own efforts, by giving massive eco- responsible for the loss of previously 1967, was as simple as that. nomic assistance to the Arab world and Jordanian terrain. The Arab nations for 19 years had been attempting to tie Jordan to the United But now the fat is in the fire and we waging an aggressive guerrilla war States by supporting Its military budget must begin to develop a policy to ex- against Israel, had indeed declared a almost in its entirety. This policy has tinguish the flames of hostility. The perpetual war on that little nation, had giv n plain intention t at t hey were failed prospects are none too bright. The Arab The United States sought to a _ about to launch a formal attack against those nations bent on the destruction of feat,twill not be by their inclined tolenterginto de- Israel. What were the Israelis to do? Israel. much less Wait until the Arab air forces in their The policy of appeasement failed. formally admit ito to the with Israel existence of ce of the State of admit planes had bombed Tel Aviv and It did not secure Haifa? Wait until the Arab armies had In the Middle East. peace World has Stahave denied. The th Soviet for Union e they likewise moved onto Israeli soil? If Israel was to become more unstable, notably Syria, deeply humiliated by the fiasco of its survive, It could not conduct a military Iraq, Algeria, and Yemen. The economic Middle East policy seeks to allay the campaign within the borders of its coun- and military assistance we provided the growing suspicions of the value of its try-a tiny land scarcely larger than Arabs became a means of their acquir- support by resuming military aid to Connecticut and so poorly demarcated ing the strength to launch an aggressive Egypt and by fanning the illusions of the from a military viewpoint that Jordan- attack against Israel. I have Protested Arabs that the situation that existed Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 S 8940 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE June 27, 1967 before June 5, 1967, can somehow be restored. Within a few days after the Arab defeat Russian arms were again on their way to Egypt. Nor can we look to the United Nations to provide the forum out of which mean- ingful proposals for a long-range solution to the problems of the Middle East can be expected to emerge. Indeed, the fail- ure of the United Nations to carry out any of the assurances given to Israel in 1957 has dealt a staggering blow to the hopes we have held that that organiza- tion can be a major force for peace in this troubled world. It must be recalled that in March 1957, after the Israelis had, for the second time, defeated the Arab armies, the General Assembly assured Israel of free passage through the Suez Canal and the Strait of Tiran. A United Nations Emer- gency Force was to separate the armies in Sinai and Gaza and terrorist attacks against Israel were to cease. Israel ac- cepted these assurances and withdrew its forces from Gaza and from the en- trance to the Strait of Tiran and from Sinai. In effect Israel placed its trust and hopes for security in the interna- tional community acting through the United Nations. But these hopes were misplaced. Since 1962 Nasser has been preparing his people for armed attack against Israel and as the tempo of these preparations increased the United Na- tions stood by unwilling or unable to en- force the 1957 agreements. By 1966 It had become evident that the Arab world was determined to destroy Israel. President AI-Atassi of Syria had declared: We raise the slogan of the people's libera- tion war. We want, total war with no limits, a war thht will destroy the Zionist base. Egypt had proclaimed that- The noose around Israel's neck is tighten- ing gradually-Israel is no mightier than the empires which were vanquished in the Arab east and west-the Arab people will take possession of their full rights in their united homeland. In May 1967, Egyptian forces began to move into the Sinai. At the request of Egypt, the United Nations Emergency Force was removed from its positions between Israel and Egyptian forces. A general mobilization of reservists was conducted' by Egypt. And finally the de- cisive step-Egypt announced the block- ade of Israel shipping in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Strait of Tiran. While the United Nations Security Council endlessly debated the situation, and while the United States unsuccess- fully sought to arrange a grouping of maritime nations to test Egypt's block- ade in the Gulf of Aqaba, time was run- ni}'ig out. Finally Israel did what she had to do as an act of elementary self-de- fense and to insure her own survival. The Arab forces of aggression were de- stroyed and Israel occupied such terri- tory in Jordan, Syria, and the Sinai as would assure that such aggression could not occur again. History can record no more brilliant military performance. The Arab countries, having failed in their plans for the destruction of Israel, are now engaged in a massive effort with the support of the Soviet Union, to turn the clock back to May 1967 and to re- establish all of the conditions of instabil- ity and intransigence in the Middle East. But this cannot be done. Israel did not sacrifice its citizen-sol- diers-a loss to that small country com- parable to the death of 50,000 Ameri- cans-to . see Arab armies once again poised on its borders, its shipping, so vital to Its economy, barred from the Suez Canal and from the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Palestine Liberation Army carry- ing out its murderous attacks once more on Israeli villages. Stability and peace can be assured in the Middle East, but not by acceding to the demands that Israel relinquish the territories she now occupies and which the bitter lesson of recent days shows-she must retain at least until adequate and trustworthy arrangements for her se- curity are obtained. No pressure from a United Nations General Assembly, which has shown itself incapable and unwilling to establish peace in the Middle East, should be allowed to negate the conse- quences of defeat for the Arab world. Nasser and his allies have chosen to find an outlet for their implacable hostility to Israel in a test of military strength. The choice was theirs. They are now tasting the bitter fruits of their frus- trated ambitions. Let them gaze out from Cairo and Amman and Damascus on their lands now occupied by Israeli forces and pon- der whether the time has not come to admit the utter futility of their rabid hate. It is being said that the humiliation of defeat is so bitter to the Arabs that they can ever agree to meeting with Israel to work out a solution to the manifold prob- lems of the Middle East. But, the only cure for this state of paranoia, is a con- stant confrontation with reality. Their armies are smashed, their economies are near ruin, and some of what was once their soil Is occupied by a hostile force. The Arab leaders must get over the idea that they cannot even with Russian assistance undo the consequences of their aggression and their defeat. When this is realized the possibility for direct negotiations between the Arab countries and Israel will become real and the first step in achieving a permanent solution in the Middle East will have been taken. For the moment, the United Nations and the great powers need do no more than address themselves to the two most urgent tasks: providing relief for the ref- ugees who have fled before the Israel armies and those who now find them- selves in Israel-occupied territory. There- fore, it is encouraging that the adminis- tration is providing Israel with $30 mil- lion in food shipments-if more Is re- quired to feed the Arab population in the Gaza strip and in West Jordan more should be made available. On the other hand, no purpose is served by continuing food shipments to Algeria, the Sudan, Syria, Irari';nd above all to the United Arab Republic. Over 23,000 tons of food- stuff is now scheduled for delivery to these countries. Economic assistance of any kind should not be given to the Arab countries which have broken diplomatic relations with the United States or which make clear their determination to con- tinue their warfare against Israel. I had sent a telegram to Secretary of State Rusk on this matter some days ago and am encouraged to note that some tech- nical assistance contracts with the UAR have now been terminated. But more can and should be done in halting the flow of aid still in the pipeline and in insuring that no further aid programs are under- taken until a peace settlement is nego- tiated. The solution of the refugee problem, however, will require more than the ship- ment of food and clothing and the estab- lishment of new canips, necessary as these things may be. There are, in my view, two important requirements which must be met if a just and equitable solu- tion to this long-festering problem is to be achieved. The million or more refugees must be integrated into the social and economic structure of the Middle East. The preservation of refugee camps as centers for political. opposition to the ex- istence of the State of Israel can no long- er be tolerated. Plans for the absorption of the refugees should be drawn up by the Arab States and by Israel and Israel should recognize its responsibility for achieving a solution to this problem. This will take some time. However, immediate action can be taken to correct a serious shortcoming in the administration of re- fugee programs by the United Nations. In my October 1963 report on the Middle East, I pointed out that 99 percent of the employees of the United Nations Re- lief and Works Agency are locally re- cruited. Most of them are refugees them- selves. Even if the UNRWA leadership was dedicated to the concept of training Arab refugees and settling them in Arab countries or in other countries as useful, productive citizens, the vast majority of UNRWA employees could not, because of their backgrounds, be dedicated to carry- ing out such a policy. At the time I wrote the report, I ad- vocated the establishment of a United Nations Middle East Peace Corps. This would be formed along the lines of our own Peace Corps, composed of volunteers from countries, other than the countries involved, to work with the refugees in a well-financed program to educate and train the refugees, to help them obtain employment, and to assist in their re- settlement. Funds could be made avail- able from aid grants and from local cur- rencies owned by the United States which resulted from the sale of agricul- tural Commodities under Public Law 480. These recommendations are as valid now as they were when they were made in 1963. I ask unanimous consent to in- clude in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ex- cerpts in the chapter on refugees con- tained In my Middle East report at the conclusion of my remarks. However, the most disturbing aspect of the Middle East situation which has de- veloped since the end of hostilities is the fact that the Soviet Union and perhaps Czechoslovakia are determined to re- equip Egypt with military weapons and aircraft. While such action poses no im- mediate military threat to Israel-recent events have shown that the possession of large numbers of modern military weapons does not transform the Arabs Into effective soldiers it can have the Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 June 27, 1967 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE S 8941 most serious consequences in fostering the Arab delusion that the results of their defeat can be wiped out and the clock turned back to May 1967. The Arabs would, once again, be encouraged to devote their energies to chasing the will-o'-the-wisp of military supremacy over Israel at the expense of economic development and internal reconstruc- tion. Once more, the Middle East would become an area of cold war conflict be- tween the United States and the Soviet Union, with all the dreadful possibilities of a direct military confrontation. Unfortunately, the initial press re- ports on the meeting between President Johnson and Premier Kosygin do( not indicate that any agreement was reached on curbing the incipient resumption of the arms race in the Middle East. None- theless, this remains an area in which American diplomacy can and should operate. First, by sharply curtailing its military equipment deliveries to the Middle East. Data I have obtained from the Department of Defense indicate that substantial aid in the form of grants and sales of military equipment were made to the Middle East countries in 1967. Second, by seeking out opportuni- ties for a meeting of the principal coun- tries supplying arms to the Middle East. The June 17, 1967, issue of the New Republic carried on excellent editorial which made two important points: Is- rael, in defeating Arab aggression, scored a victory for the United States and Europe the magnitude of which can be appreciated if one contemplates the sit- uation if there had been an Israeli de- feat; and, second, the best course for the United States to follow in the Middle East is to let the dust settle and await the emergence of new directions and forces in the Arab world. In my report on the Middle East al- ready referred to, I questioned the wis- dom of continuing U.S. economic aid program to Nasser in view of his an- nounced intention of using such aid for aggression, and of our contributing to the arms race in the Middle East. The Department of State defended these pro- grams as contributing to the lessening of tensions in that area. As events have shown, the Department of State could not have been more wrong. Perhaps it is not too much to hope that we have now learned the lesson that our military and economic assistance will not divert a country bound on a course of aggression. I ask unanimous consent that there be printed in the RECORD at the conclusion of my remarks the editorial from the New Republic of June 17, 1967, entitled "The Israeli Victory," an article by mili- tary writer S.L.A. Marshall entitled "Middle East War: The First Ever Won by Air Power," which appeared in the Anchorage News on June 26, 1967; an article by Nadav Safran and Stanley Hoffmann in the Nation for June 26, 1967, entitled "Guidelines for Policy," and se- lected excerpts from my report on the Middle East submitted on October 1, 1963, to the Senate Committee on Gov- ernment Operations. There being no objection, the items were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Nation, June 26, 19671 THE MIDDLE EAST: GIIIDELIN&4 FOR POLICY (By Nadav Safran and Stanley Hofmann) (NoTn.-Mr. Safran and Mr. Hoffmann are both professors of government at Harvard University, the former specializing in Middle Eastern affairs and the latter in interna- tional relations. Their recent publications are as follows: Safran--The 'United States and Israel and Egypt in Search of Political Community (both Harvard University Press); Hoffmann-The State of War (Praeger) and Contemporary Theory in International Rela- tions (Prentice-Hall.) Crises such as the present one in the Mid- dle East are very dangerous monuments for the international community generally and for the United States specifically, but they are also moments of great opportunity if they are wisely treated. After the Cuban mis- sile crisis came the opportunity for the test- ban treaty and a detente in Europe. Posi- tions that have been frozen may melt in the heat of war; assumptions that served as a premises for rigid positions may be con- firmed or denied by the test of reality. Con- sequently, notions which appeared totally unrealistic only a week or two earlier be- come premises fqr sound action. The crucial aim is to allow vision and imagination to catch up with the changed realities. The first notion to be assimilated in the present context is that the recent Israeli- Arab war was not like the war of 1956. This time all the Arab countries were involved, teh leading Arab country had taken the ini- tiative in altering the status quo, and had openly challenged Israel to an armed test. Israel, for its part, acted without the help of outside powers, and at the risk of losing its political existence if its expectations of military success had proved wrong. Conse- quently, what is involved now is no mere violation of the armistice agreements, which could be repaired and sanctioned by the res- toration of the status quo ante as the UN chose to do it in 1956 (under U.S. leadership and despite Israel's objections; Israel's warn- ings about the dangers of such a restora- tion-merely camouflaged by the fragile presence of UNEF-have been vindicated). Whatever international lawyers may say juridically on this question, there is no doubt that the premises of the armistice agree- ments have entirely collapsed. A complete revision of the political relations in the area is required. The most important change wrought by the war is the possibility it opens up, for the first time since 1949, for the conclusion of peace: real, formal, lasting peace treaties. There were two fundamental reasons why the Israel-Arab conflict has been so intractable since the conclusion of the 1949 armistice agreements. One was that the Arab countries, with the exception of Jordan, had very little if anything to gain from peace, while" Israel had very little it could concede to the Arabs to induce them to make peace. The Arab governments sensed they could avoid making peace both because, thanks to the machinery of the armistice agreements established by the UN, the formal continuation of a state of war did not expose the Arab states to the possibility of penalization through the re- sumption of hostilities (this has been throughout history a crucial factor in in- ducing the losers of a war to move on to peace), and because a formal state of war gave them the advantage of denying Israel some of the benefits of peace (such as diplo- matic relations and free passage through the Suez Canal). Arab governments therefore found it convenient to sit back and dream of revenge. The second reason was that Egypt, as the leading Arab country, exerted a heavy pres- sure to discourage other Arab countries from making peace. It is significant in this respect that the other Arab countries did not dare to sign even the armistice agreements until Egypt itself had signed. The present war has affected the first reason fundamentally. Israel has made crucial war gains which it can concede back in ex- change for peace, and the Arab countries have an incentive to give something in order to recover their losses. The United States can make this a key to an enduring settlement if we do not encourage any impression on the part of the Arabs that periodic defeats can be incurred on the battlefield because they will soon thereafter be erased on the diplomatic front. And the present war has also drastically affected the second reason which has kept the Arab countries from accepting peace. Egypt has led its Arab associates into a war in which its own armed forces have been crushed and the other Arab countries have suffered grievous losses; any Egyptian claim to leadership has been shattered and Egypt's capacity to intimidate other Arab countries from reaching a settlement with Israel has been diminished. This is particularly true with regard to Jordan. Of course, President Nasser has shown in the past a capacity to convert military defeat into political vic- tories; but he has succeeded heretofore only with the help of outside powers-like our- selves and the Russians in 1956-and only where the setback suffered was neither as total and unmitigated nor as obviously in- flicted by tiny Israel as is the present one. If, therefore, we make it our conscious pur- pose not to do anything to help restore Nasser's Pan-Arab leadership and, on the contrary, do what we can to convey the facts of his defeat to his people and the other Arab peoples, the second fundamental ob- stacle to peace in the past will have been minimized. Another factor which must be considered in this connection is the attitude of the Russians. Until very recently,-the implicit expectation of Nasser and of the Syrian Gov- ernment that in a showdown with Israel the Russians would come decisively to the rescue, as they did in 1956, has encouraged them to think in terms of an eventual violent and "final solution" of the Israeli problem rather than of some kind of peaceful accommoda- tion. The attitude which the Russians ac- tually took in the recent war-stopping as it did short of action-must be reckoned as encouraging a fundamental settlement. Indeed, the Russian attitude may well fore- cast a basic reorientation of Soviet Middle East policy which, if the United States helps, could be extremely useful in arriving at an enduring solution. In the four or five years following the first Soviet "breakthrough" in the Middle East by means of the 1955 arms deal with Egypt, the Soviets tried at each crisis occasion to achieve recognition as a member of the club of Middle Eastern pow- ers, only to be repeatedly rebuffed by us. Ac- cordingly, they went on to build their posi- tion in the area through intensive coopera- tion with Nasser's Egypt and with other will- ing Arab countries and succeeded so well that when we, early in the present crisis, finally invited them to join the club, they decided to hold back. Apparently they hoped that a tri- umph by Nasser would eliminate the West completely and leave Russia as the one big Middle Eastern power. The collapse of Nas- ser's position after the Russians had invested so much in building it up might lead the USSR back to the idea of asserting its in- fluence on Middle Eastern affairs through the big powers' club rather than on its own. This does not mean that the Russians would abandon their involvement with Nasser, Syria, et al., since those associations would remain useful as a justification for their membership claim. But it does mean that they would be more interested in a stabilized situation. And it is consonant with the pres- ent course and long-term interests of U.S. policy to make the USSR a partner, as long Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 S 8942 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE June 27, 1967 as Soviet behavior contributes to moderat- lug the international system. It should not be lost sight of that that defeat of Nasser (and his allies) not only unfreezes the positions underlying the Israeli-Arab dispute and opens up prospects of a far-reaching reorientation of Russian policy but also makes likely the liquidation of the Yemen conflict and the easing of the problem of Aden and South Arabia. The materialization of these prospects, as of all the other opportunities, would depend de- cisively on our not doing anything that might permit Nasser to regain a position of Arab leadership. Against this background it becomes pos- sible to suggest what we, in the United States, should seek to accomplish by taking advan- tage of the new opportunities for settlement. As often at such moments, there are maxi- mal and minimal objectives. As a maximal objective, we should strive to achieve complete formal peace, including a solution to all the key problems of refugees, boundaries, transit of men and goods through waterways, on land and in the air. The means through which this might be achieved must be left to the professional diplomats; but two crucial observations must be kept in mind: (1) We must avoid at all costs putting the Arab countries together on one side of the table and Israel on the other. This would be a sure formula for the reassertion of Nas- ser's Pan-Arab leadership and for encourag- ing intransigence. The example to follow is that of Ralph Bunche, who presided in 1949 over the conclusion of the armistice agree- ments, and who succeeded only by bringing the Israelis face to face with one Arab coun- try at a time. Reinforcing this experience Is the sad lesson of the Palestine Conciliation Commission which doomed its mission of peace to failure from the moment it got the Arab countries together as one- collective side in the negotiations. (1) We - should not dump the problem of finding a settlement in the lap of the United Nations-General Assembly or Security Coun- oil. This would be a sure formula for disaster. The Israeli-Arab conflict Is one of the most complex international problems. It calls for alert, patient, wise statesmanship, and not for UN resolutions. These are inspired by a motley of extrinsic considerations on the part of the voters (often totally ignorant of the elementary facts of this situation), and they can obtain the number of votes necessary for adoption only at the cost of either extreme vagueness or dangerous political compro- mises. The UN may be made to play an impor- tant role only as a subsidiary and support to the work of quiet and deliberate states- manship. This must be provided by the big powers jointly and separately, in conjunc- tion with the Middle Eastern countries con- cerned. A Lucarno-type agreement might be a useful framework, permitting the formal association of the big powers with a peace settlement in the role of parties and guar- antors. The minimal objective should consist of some package such as the following: (1) Joint and separate big powers formal guarantees of the territorial status quo before the crisis, rectified to reduce the most glar- ing threats to Israel's security, plus specific guarantees regarding free navigation in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Suez Canal. (2) An arms rationing scheme for the Middle East to which would adhere all po- tential suppliers, restricting shipments to weapons needed for minimum Internal se- curity. (3) The placement of all nuclear instal- lations in the area under the control of an international atomic energy agency. (4) A specific formal commitment by Egypt renouncing belligerent rights, with particular reference to the Suez Canal and the Gulf of Aqaba, and similar commitments on the parts of all other Arab countries with specific references to control of borders, inffitration into Israel, etc. (5) The Gaza Strip to be put under Is- raeli military control, wtih an appropriate presence of and role for the United Nations. (6) The big powers, jointly and sep- arately, to launch a major program of eco- nomic and technical assistance to all Middle Eastern countries in order to encourage them to turn their attention to problems of development and welfare. This, together with the diversion of resources which have gone into the arms race since 1955, should open up hitherto undreamed-of prospects of real progress. It would be criminal to al- low a return to a situation whereby Egypt, for example, spent $4 billion over a twelve- year period on defense and armaments, while its people were starving and while its government had to go begging for a measly $60-million loan. The same applies mutatis mutandis to all the other countries of the area. One final note on the tragic problem of the refugees: As part of the maximal plan, one might expect Israel to make a signifi- cant contribution by taking back a certain number of refugees and compensating the remainder. The other Arab countries and the world at large should also make a con- tribution by absorbing additional numbers. For the remainder, a program of rapid de- velopment supported by the United States and the world should provideopportunities to reconstruct their lives. As part of the minimal program, the plac- ing of the Gaza Strip under Israeli con- trol should permit the launching of re- habilitation programs on a massive scale, should facilitate the movement of the ref- ugees to places anywhere in the world where opportunities beckon, and should depoli- ticize and defuse the most embittered and miserable concentraion of refugees. As for the refugees elsewhere, the measures en- visaged In relation to the maximal scheme above would apply to them. In conclusion, American steps In relation to the current crisis in the Middle East should be based on the following considera- tions : IT The basic U.B. Interests and purposes in the area are to keep the peace; to assure secure transportation, communication and trade, and to keep any actual or potential enemy from controlling Its resources. ? The foregoing basic purposes entail these operational objectives: (1) To termi- nate the nineteen-year-old Arab dream of the eventual destruction of Israel. (2) To prevent control of the Middle East by any single political leader or group actually or potential hostile to the United States. (3) To contain Nasser, and oppose any political leaders who may arise of the type of Nas- ser, Ben Bella, Nkrumah, or Sukarno. (4) To prevent growth of Soviet power in the area while seeking to channel Soviet influence through a collective big-power concert. [From the Anchorage News, June 26, 19671 MIDDLE EAST WAR: TuE Fnisr EvEn WON BY Ann PowER (By S. L. A. Marshall) Although I have been closer to Israel's armed forces that any other westerner during the past decade and have written more words in praise of Its professional competence than any other critic, it is a bit embarrassing now to discover that I erred on the side of under- statement, They were better than I knew. This month's conflict made the 100-hour war of 1956 a study in slow motion. Spell- bound, we all witnessed a war that went only 70 hours from the opening gun to the cease- fire, and It was David, not Goliath, who won. More impressive still, the decisive blow was struck is the Bret three hours and the tac- tidal follow-through, though dramatic, was anticlimactic. Any resemblance to the 1956 war was in- cidental. Air operations by the two sides in 1956 were marginal in their effect on the battle as a whole. This time they were de- cisive: The first war. ever to be won primarily by air power, It was a fulfillment of the late Gen. Billy Mitchell's dream, more than 40 years after he said the balance would be that way from then on. The Nazi blitz against Poland in 1939 ,had much the same design, but that one was relatively clumsy and Hitler failed to win a war with it. Israel had to win in the way she did, such was the aggregate superiority in modern heavy weapons and aircraft that the Arab states possessed. In big machine-power, their advantage was approximately 2 to 1. The de- bacle did not prove that Soviet-built heavy weapons- are ini'erior, but only that Russians had entrusted them to inferior hands. Massive shock surprise is the only key to swift, sure success in war. With the Arabs in a frenzy and screaming for war, with armored columns lunging toward Israel's borders, it looked to the vrorld as if her chance for a. smashing surprise was rapidly slipping away. United Nations inertia and big power procras- tination were about to compel Israel to accept a hopeless envelopment. Israel achieved surprise through the sheer unpieeedented violence, superb timing and extreme accuracy of the opening blow. That first strike ranged from Baghdad to Damascus to Cairo, an operating radius of about 750 miles, and the synchronization had to be little short of perfect. Then there was; something else: Israel had accurate, complete intelligence of the enemy air and armor, which fact was proved in the opening round. The credit for that should go to my old friend, Gen. "Rabbit" Yariv, the former attache for Israel In Washington, now 62, of Israel's general staff. As the cur- tain went up, 25 enemy air bases were hit, while on the ground Israel's columns at first sideslipped Egypt's tank concentrations to knock off the Gaza, Strip and get on the high road to Suez, a coup demoralizing to the Egyptians. Note that it was, well after the air battle was fought and won, by which time it be- came possible for the sky fighters to assist the armored spearheads through the worst of the Sinai defiles, that the Egyptian tanks massed around Abu Agueila and strung out along the Kuntilla-Mitla Pass axis could be taken on separately and beaten. These are elementary tactics. All field commanders love them. Few pay the ;sedulous attention to de- tail that wins great prizes at low cost. After the Arab air threat was shattered, mainly on the ground, Israel's armor could take the full gamble, spreading thin, to race West and overrun all of Sinai. The risk was acceptable only because by then Israel's air power ruled the Middle East skies. About Arab Intelligence, it suffices to say that there Is no such thing really. In 19 years of living next door, the Arabs have learned absolutely nothing about how Israel's mili- tary think and fight, and of this came their great fall. The Arab military affliction is a binding pride combined with a stimulated hatred of Israel, and these things themselves exclude a reasoned reckoning of military problems. Maximum use was made of Israel's several military advantages. They are: (1) A com- pact population and highly mobile reserve that enable the call-up and outfitting for combat within 48 hours; (2) interior lines that afford a choice of which enemy to smash first, in this case, Egypt; (3) a superior doctrine on war-making that emphasizes ve- locity, acceptance of extreme risk, the need to keep battle forces moving and the moral quality in leadership. We have beheld no miracle, no master stroke by one genius, but a redoubtable per- Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 June 27, 1967 formance by the many, boldly planned, bravely executed, [From the New Republic, June 17, 1967] THE ISRAELI VICTORY To appreciate the shattering significance of Israel's victory, one must try to imagine the world as it would have been had Israel lost on the battlefield or remained passive only to expire later from slow strangulation. The Middle East would have become an ex- clusive Soviet preserve, The Arab chauvinists who called themselves socialists would have had either to do Russia's bidding or be swept away. All U.S., all Western influence, would have been eliminated in very quick order. And these repercussions would have been felt far beyond the Middle East. Let us not, therefore, forget what we owe the Israelis. The Russians had staked Nasser and every other inflammatory anti-Israel fanatic in the area. A Russian triumph, would have been regarded by the entire world as Moscow's im- pressive revenge for a series of defeats suf- fered in recent years-Soviet rebuffs in Ber- lin, the retreat in Cuba, the failures in the Congo, Ghana, Latin America, Europe. The present defensive posture of the Soviets in Europe would in all probability have changed overnight. Moscow would surely have been greatly tempted to launch immediately a propaganda barrage aimed at bringing West Germany into line, would have reestablised command by discipling such wayward "sat- ellites" as Rumania. Communist parties in non-socialist countries, in France particu- larly (de Gaulle notwithstanding), would have been under heavy pressure to again switch the line from coexistence to revolu- tionary class struggle. All this was in the cards, because the laws governing totalitar- ian movements-whether communist, fascist or Arab socialist-require an offensive along the entire front, once there is a major break- through in one sector. Russia would have re- covered the undisputed leadership of the communist camp and would have presented Washington with one of two choices: divide the world for the time being into spheres of influence, with the U.S. withdrawing Into a "Fortress America"; or face the likelihood of an atomic confrontation. Moreover, this sharp swing In the pendu- lum of power would have come at a time when American morale was sapped by a series of moral and political disasters. An Israel that did not have the courage to strike for its own survival would have been demand- ing that the U.S. fulfill its commitments- commitments which four American Presi- dents gave her, and which Lyndon Johnson solemnly reaffirmed only two weeks ago. But would the President have done it? Would he have run American ships through the Egyp tian blockade of the Gulf of Aqaba? The best hunch Is that he would not, though Wash- ington's pledges were incomparably stronger and incomparably more binding than the loose promise of economic help, under con- ditions which were never met, which Presi- dent Eisenhower gave to the late Diem of Saigon and which are the origin of the pres- ent American open-ended involvement in Vietnam. And what of the American domes- tic scene had Israel been forced to demand that Lyndon Johnson make good his word that the waterway to Ellat must be kept open. As it worked out, the President could talk and do little. And that was most fortunate for the US-and perhaps for Israel, too. How could Mr. Johnson have been expected to do more than he did? Had not most of the Viet- nam hawks in Congress suddenly become the most lenient doves in the Middle East? And the Vietnam doves who became Middle East hawks, what did they propose if not vigorous action? There was no consensus here. In the United Nations, had not U Thant precipi- tously and shamelessly bowed to Nasser's ultimatum to withdraw UN troops? Quite plainly, the UN was not prepared either to protect Israel or to prevent Israel from pro- tecting itself, and the Security Council dis- cussions gave final proof of the world organi- zation's incapacity to act decisively when the Great Powers are not of one mind. Fur- thermore, had not most of the reputed ex- perts on world strategy painted an awesome picture of Soviet capability, indeed of the Soviet willingness to throw large military forces Into any Middle Eastern battle? And think of Lyndon Johnson's predicament had Israel gone down under a combined Arab onslaught, and the problem then would have no longer been political or strategic, but ac- tion simply to prevent genocide? This grim scenario was, happily, never played out, for Moshe Dayan made good his promise that Israel wanted no American or British boys to die for his country. Israeli boys did it alone. Their victory has changed the world balance of power more decisively than anything that has happened since World War II, including the Soviet retreat in Cuba. For the first time in decades, the United States, without firing a shot-while proclaiming its nonbelligerence and even neutrality-has scored an immense victory, one equivalent to the ruin of Soviet prestige in the Middle East and everywhere else. There has been an unprecedented defeat of the most vociferous haters of America. And last but not least, events have proved that de Gaulle, this modern symbol of political sophistication and of cold realism, can be deadly wrong, and that limitless cynicism is not always the best policy. The final score has not been marked up, however, and depends on what the US does in the months, perhaps years, ahead. How can this potential victory be made real? First by remembering that American initiatives in the Middle East in recent years have been a mixture of folly and naivet6. Washington Initiated the Baghdad Pact (then refused to join it at the last moment). That pact, instead of stabilizing the Middle East and guarding it against Russian pene- tration, opened the gate wide to Soviet in- fluence. In 1956, the U.S rescued Nasser, for which it got no credit whatsoever; the credit went entirely to Moscow. What the US did was to help undermine Britain as a world power, feed anti-Americanism in France and jeopardize Israel's security. Hoping against hope, the State Department after Suez poured into Nasser's Egypt, into Algeria, into most of the other Arab states, immense amounts of American foodstuffs, money, and in some cases arms, for which it got little but abuse. Our off-and-on-again flirtation with the enemies of Israel not only made life more precarious for the Israelis but created grave problems for such non-Arab countries as Iran and Ethiopia. Now what? The President and his advisers should make haste very slowly, Let the dust of the fighting settle. Let's see what regimes the Arab states will have in a month or six months hence. None of the governments responsible for the Arab defeat in 1948 sur- vived for long. Many Arab regimes may not survive the current debacle. If one thing has been learned in the past week, it is that the Israelis can take care of themselves and have a pretty realistic sense of what is feasible. They have no intention of keeping all land their soldiers occupy. Ob- viously, however, the Israelis will not return to the status quo which gave rise to the con- flict. They will certainly do whatever they believe necessary to prevent the Arabs from starting a fourth round. Added territory poses immense political, economic, social and moral problems for the Israelis. They will have to establish a new coexistence with a large Arab majority, which cannot and should not be turned out, and which no one in Israel dreams of expelling. The wisest Course for the US will be to help Israel in this undertaking, when and if such help is invited. Later, too, the time will be ripe for a generous S 8943 American offer to the Arab world, which does not breed only more hatred, as have our in- terventions in the past. Outside the Middle East, thanks to the Israelis, the US is in a position she has not been in since the resolution of . the Cuban missile crisis. Temporarily, at least, new op- portunities beckon. The US can today do many things it could not do, or thought it could not do, only two weeks ago. We have often spoken of negotiating from strength. Now, the President can, without fear of any loss of face, offer to de-escalate the war in Vietnam. He can afford a pause in the air raids against North Vietnam, and wait for Hanoi and the Viet Cong to ponder whether the moment for negotiations there has not arrived. [Excerpts from the report of a study of U.S. foreign aid in 10 Middle Eastern and African countries, submitted by Senator ERNEST GRUENING, Oct. 1, 19631 III-J-EGYPT (UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC) II. Current political background Col. Gamal Abd el-Nasser, President of the United Arab Republic (Egypt), has been re- sponsible, more than any other single indi- vidual, for keeping the political caldron boiling furiously in the strife-torn, and Middle East since July 23, 1952. He has also been responsible for the other nations in this area diverting funds from sorely needed eco- nomic developments to arms. He is still, 11 years later, pouring oil on whatever brush fire breaks out there, seeking his own personal and Egypt's national ag- grandizement, in that order. And he is doing so with the assistance of the United States which still continues to prop him up and, whenever he gets in over his head, to bail him out. That is not to say that the dove of peace would have settled in the Middle East dur- ing these past 11 years if there had been no . Colonel Nasser. There is in that troubled area of the world too long a history of polit- ical instability and the existence of such factors as poverty and disease to attribute all the woes of the Middle East to Colonel Nasser alone. But the fact remains that he is the only ruler of any of the nations in that area who avowedly and persistently seeks to export his own brand of economic and political social- ism and urges the violent overthrow of neighboring governments, In this regard, he is on a par with the Communists with whom he is professedly at loggerheads, but whose arms and economic aid he willingly accepts. The parallel between Khrushchev's Russia, Nasser's Egypt, and Hitler's Germany is striking. Both Egypt and Russia are police states where individual freedoms are ruthlessly sup- pressed. So was Nazi Germany. Both Egypt and Russia are states in which the central government owns and operates the total economy. So did Nazi Germany. And, most importantly, both Egypt and Russia want to export their own brands of government, being willing-and speak openly of their willingness-to repress re- sistant peoples by force if necessary. So did Nazi Germany. As one highly qualified writer has stated: "The promotion of a regime like that of Egypt therefore would seem to be dangerous. For while it is entirely possible to stabilize it through subsidies, it cannot, in the pres- ence of the Soviet Union, be Influenced in the direction of a peaceful or liberal development. American assistance has only a very indefinite assurance of Egyptian good will to go on. And even while stabilizing the authoritarian regime it indirectly serves to finance Cairo's ] "The United States and Egypt," Arnold Hottinger, Swiss Review of World Affairs, Oc- tober 1962, p. 17. Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 S 8944 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE subversive campaigns in the neighboring countries. "Many Americans who listen to these criticisms with complete understanding nevertheless ask: 'But what else can we do but help Nasser? Can we look on passively while he slides into the Russian fangs, or is the victim of a putsch in his own country? Who will guarantee that his successor will not be even more dangerous? Should one give the Soviets the opportunity to nestle even more comfortably In the country via their economic policies?' "It seems to us that such questions over- estimate the danger of a pro-Communist overthrow in Egypt today, but fail to envisage clearly enough the possibility of a Communist revolution after 5 or 10 more years of au- thoritarian state socialism. Today, it seems to us, there is still a chance for a return to power at an older generation of Egyptians which grew up with liberal ideals." [Em- phasis added.] This same thought was brought forcefully home to me when I visited Egypt in Febru- ary 1963. It Is definitely a police state, as much so as Communist Russia, which I visited 2 years ago. There, too, Nasser Is "Big Brother" just as Lenin and Stalin were in Russia, and as Khrushchev seeks to be. The economy is controlled by the state just as firmly as It Is in Russia. As I stood in one of the principal squares in Cairo watching preparations for a major speech by Colonel Nasser that evening and saw the multitude of large posters bearing his picture and as later I heard his speech with its slogans and stirring platitudes, I, too, felt that all that it would take to have that government become a Communist bloc na- tion would be to add a few slogans and change a few pictures-or maybe the pictures would not have to be, changed. It must be remembered that it was Colonel Nasser himself, after the Suez Canal fiasco in 1956, who gave the Russians their first foot- hold in the Middle East. It was Colonel Nasser who invited them into Egypt with their arms and their technicians. In that connection, the following testimony before the House Committee on Foreign Af- fairs on April 30, 1963, on H.R. 5490 (Foreign Assistance Act of 1963) at page 437 is most interesting: "Mr. FARasTEaN. According to the book, there were 150 U.S.S.R. personnel in Yemen in 1961, but since the revolution in Septem- ber 1962 the number of U.S.S.R. personnel has risen to about 450. How many do we have there? "Mr. GRANT. [Deputy Assistant Secretary for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Department of State]. Is it under a hun- dred? "Mr. GAUD [Assistant Administrator, Bu- reau for the Near East and South Asia, Agency for International Development]. It is under a hundred Americans. "Mr. GRANT. I might note on that, Mr. Farbstein, that it was the leader of the pres- ent royalist regime that Invited the Rus- sians in, several years ago. So that we have an interesting reversal of positions. "Mr. FARSSTEIN. Except that the facts as I stated them are correct, aren't they? "Mr. GRANT. Yes; there have been increases. One of our real concerns there has been that the Russians would greatly increase the num- ber of technicians that they have in 'icemen. They have been making notable efforts to try to get an enlarged position. "Mr. FARESTEIN. * * * You say you assume they are trying to have more people admitted into Yemen, the suggestion being, therefore, that they couldn't get them in under the old regime. Now, with the new regime, they are trying to get them in, and not only are they trying, but they are succeeding." [Em,- phasis added.] Representative Farbstein's interrogation serves to point up a disturbing aspect of the relationship of Fg ypt, Syria, and Yemen's new regime to the Kremlin. (Iraq can be in- cluded in this trio, but it is not includedin these Comments because It was not among the 10 countries studied.) Egypt has been the most adept at playing the Soviets off against the United States. All three of these Arab States are absolutely dependent upon Soviet arms-so much so that Soviet trans- port jets were standing by to transport Egyp- tian troops to Yemen even before the revolt broke out there and have continued to fur- nish the transportation for the Egyptiap. troops in Yemen and their supplies. All three countries, while blowing hot and cold with respect to local Communists, continue to welcome technicians In sizable numbers from the Soviet bloc countries. And most recently on September 3, 1963, in the Security Coun- cil of the United Nations, the Soviet Union vetoed a resolution sponsored by the United States and the United Kingdom condemning the "wanton murder" of two Israeli farmers by Syrians within Israeli territory 2 weeks before. The resolution was supported by the United States, the United Kingdom; France, Nationalist China, Brazil, * the Philippines, Norway, and Ghana. It was the third time since 1954 that the Kremlin had vetoed a resolution opposed by the Arab- nations. De- spite the military maneuvering of these three countries with the Soviet bloc nations, United States economic assistance continues and most generously. This policy is in sharp contrast to the threatened U.S. crackdown on Pakistan because Pakistan had signed an agreement with Communist China providing for the establishment of flights between Dac- ca and Chinese cities and had signed agree- ments with Communist China with respect to border demarcation and trade. When I spoke to Colonel Nasser he stated that, after the poor showing made by his soldiers against the English, French, and Israelis, his officers had demanded that he accept the Soviet offer of arms. Against this statement must be placed the fact that the three-party invasion was pre- cipitated by his rash action, In a fit of pique, in seizing the Suez Canal-a lifeline for Britain, France, and Israel. Today, militarily, Egype Is completely de- pendent on Soviet bloc countries. Colonel Nasser has maneuvered himself into the posi- tion of being completely dependent on Com- munist Russia for a continued flow of arms and parts. Should that flow be cut off, Egypt is militarily unarmed. Syria and Iraq are in the same position. And those are the very countries in which the Nasserites seem strongest. It is difficult to obtain any reliable figure as to how much military and economic aid has been going to Nasser from the Soviet Union. The best figures are that it Is roughly equivalent to $920 million, althoughnot on as liberal terms as ours. We sell Colonel Nas- ser Public Law 480 food and fiber for Egyp- tian pounds which are used for the develop- ment of Egypt and its people. Soviet Russia sells Egypt weapons in exchange for cotton which is used for the benefit-of Soviet Russia and its people. One cannot help but wonder where our policy vie-a-via Colonel Nasser will ul- timately lead. What have been the reasons advanced for this buildup by the United States of Colonel Nasser as the big man In the Middle East? The State Department justification for its policy of appeasement was ably- set forth by Warren Unna, a staff reporter for the Wash- ington Post in his News Analysis on Janu- ary 11, 1963, before the revolt In Syria and Iraq. Mr. Unna stated: `Moreover, to justify its gamble on Nasser, the administration points to the following 'positive' steps he has taken: "Nasser now In trying to reestablish the United Arab Republic's links with the West, particularly in Europe, and last month pro- June 27, 1967 visionally joined with the General Agree- ment on Tariffs and Trade (GATT'). "He and- his country have done a complete turnabout in the Congo--from being one of the chief supporters of the late Patrice Lu- mumba and his leftist successor, Antoine Glzenga, to joining ranks behind the United Nations In Its current efforts for Congo unity. "Nasser has played down his country's Arab holy war with Israel, proposed to his colleague's a while back that the issue be put in the icebox and, for his pains, has been accused by Syria of "subversion." "Nasser personally kept a strict silence a few months ago when it became known that the United States was going to sell Hawk missiles to Israel to help that country de- fend itself. In former years, this would have been the occasion for a major anti-U.S. campaign. "Nasser proved more forthright than many of his fellow nonalined leaders at the Au- gust 1961 Belgrade conference when he con- demned the Soviets' sudden resumption of nuclear testing. "Nasser, a big booster of Cuban Premier Fidel Castro in the past, Is considered to have been surprisingly moderate when the United States had its showdown with the Soviet Union over Cuban missile bases last fall. "All of these factors are said to convince administration officials that Nasser, despite his penchant for interfering in the internal affairs of his Arab neighbors, still comes out on the plus side, in permitting room for reasonably friendly- relations with the Free World." Mr. Unna's column is set forth in full as exhibit III-J-A. - "ExHisrr III-J-A "[From the Washington Post, Jan. 11, 19631 "AMERICAN AID FOR NAssER FACES Rzvraw "(By Warren Unna, staff reporter) "United Arab Republic President Gamal Abdel Nasser's open participation in the re- volt in Yemen and his hospitality to poten- tial Saudi Arabian and Jordanian rebel leaders are beginning to raise questions over the wisdom of the United States friendly aid program to the United Arab Republic. "The Israelis fear the success of the Nasser- assisted Yemeni military group in pushing out Yemen's antiquated imamate may en- courage Nasser in other foreign adventures in the Middle East. "The London Daily Telegraph this week said the United States, in making Nasser 'Its Instrument in the Middle East * * * is com- mitted to the support of an expansionist rev- olutionary who must, by the very nature of his appeal to Arab sentiment, continually threaten the stability which the United States is hoping to preserve.' - "It was about a year ago that the Ken- nedy administration decided to take a hard look at Nasser as an independent whom the United States could deal with in the same arm's-length respectful way it deals with Yugoslavia's President Tito. - ? "The idea was that Nasser now had de- cided to emphasize domestic needs over Arab and Communist-bloc Involvements. U.S. officials though,; there could be mutual regard, no hope or thought of conversion, but conviction that since Nasser is keeping his own house - in order he and the United Arab Republic would remain within at least a halloo distance of fiche free world. "U.S. economic aid to the United Arab Re- public was stepped up to $146 million a year, most of it in the surplus food stocks Nasser so badly needed to raise the subsis- tence level of his people. "And more recently, preliminary considera- tion has been given: to Nasser's desire for an international consortium, similar to India's and Pakistan's, that; would enable the United Arab Republic to double her national Income Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 June 27, 1967 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD- SENATE of $140 by the end of her second 5-year plan in 1970. .But now comes Yemen, in which the United Arab Republic has invested troops, aircraft, and political direction to turn out one neighboring Arab government it didn't like and keep another In. "And Egyptians have given considerable publicity to the four Saudi Arabian royal princes, all brothers of ailing King Saud, who defected to Cairo and recently pro- claimed the 'Democratic Republic of the Arabian Peninsula.' "Nasser's government also makes no secret of its delight over providing asylum for the Jordanian Air Force chief of staff who, along with several other Jordanian pilots, recently defected to Cairo. And Nasser's annoyance with the regimes in his fellow Arab states of Syria and Iraq has been repeatedly proclaimed. "Nasser also undeniably hat been putting a lot of money in arms and a large army which might otherwise be devoted to eco- nomic improvement. "But the United States still does not think it has misplaced its bets on Nasser. Adminis- tration officials are aware that his meddling in other Arab countries conflicts with U.S. policy to maintain stability and avoid Middle East disputes. But they have no objection to his doctrine of 'Arab socialism' which is aimed at raising the economic level of the Middle East. "And they consider Nasser the one big fig- ure of the Middle East who neither can be ignored or forced, through economic needs, into any further dependency on the Com- munist bloc. "Nasser already gets arms from the Coin- munists, and the Soviet Union is financing the construction of his giant Aswan Dam. But observers report that Nasser has sensed the danger to his own country's independ- ence of too much involvement with the Com- munist well-wishers. "Moreover, to justify its gamble on Nas- ser, the administration points to the follow- ing 'positive' steps he has taken: "Nasser now is trying to reestablish the United Arab Republic's links with the West, particularly in Europe, and last month pro- visionally joined the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). "He and his country have done a com- plete turnabout in the Congo-from being one of the chief supporters of the late Patrice Lumumba and his leftist successor, Antoine Gizenga, to joining ranks behind the United Nations ifi its current efforts for Congo unity. "Nasser has played down his country's Arab holy war with Israel, proposed to his colleagues a while back that the issue be put in the icebox and, for his pains, has been accused by Syria of 'subversion.' "Nasser personally kept a strict silence a few months ago when it became known that the United States was going to sell Hawk missiles to Israel to help that country defend itself. In former years, this would have been the occasion for a major anti-U.S. campaign. "Nasser proved more forthright than many of his fellow nonalined leaders at the August 1861 Belgrade conference when he condemned the Soviets' sudden resumption of nuclear testing. "Nasser, a big booster of Cuban Premier Fidel Castro in the past, is considered to have been surprisingly moderate when the United States had its showdown with the Soviet Union over Cuban missile bases last fall. "All of these factors are said to convince administration officials that Nasser, despite his penchant for interfering in the internal affairs of his Arab neighbors, still comes out on the plus side in permitting room for rea- sonably friendly relations with the Free World." Mr. Alfred Friendly, Managing Editor of the Washington Post, 3 months later on March 27, 1962, under a Cairo dateline, had a slightly different analysis. He said: "To what purpose does the United States support President Gamal Abdel Nasser's United Arabic Republic? Why, already in this fiscal year, had it poured some $200 million worth of aid (mostly wheat) Into a nation that Is a political dictatorship, a po- lice state, and a roaring advocate of economic socialism? "Americans here * * * have several an- swers, not the least of which is. the argument that no better alternative can be seen. Were Nasser toppled, he would be succeeded by one of his own clique, not so able, or by the Communists. Remnants of the old regime scarcely exist, which may be just as well, since it was a remarkably conscienceless pack of boodiers. In any event, they could never command the people's support. "A variation of the same argument points out that cutting off American aid simply means presenting the United Arab Republic as a gift to the Soviet Union. Egypt must have huge wheat imports to survive, and will get them from Russia if it cannot obtain them from the United States. It would be in no position to bargain; Moscow could call the tune down to the last note." Of late a new argument has been advanced in support of our Nasser buildup. That argu- ment Is that Hasser has matured since the Suez crisis and is no longer the impetous "young officer" he was then. Thus Arnold Belchman writing for the Washington Post on July 20, 1962, from Cairo stated: "American policy in the Middle East, and particularly since President Kennedy took office, has been to seek the disengagement of the Nasser regime from any close Soviet rela- tionship. That policy has succeeded because of: "Soviet Ineptitude. "U.S. firmness vis-a-vis Nasser military ad- venturism whether against other Arab coun- tries or Israel. "Tremendous Internal economic problems in Egypt itself, whose solution depends on foreign aid. "Development of a close personal under- standing between President Kennedy and Nasser chiefly through a continuing exchange of letters. None of these letters has been published and their contents are not known. "What is described hopefully is the com- ing of some mature, statesmanlike wisdom to the 45-year-old President Nasser." [Emphasis added. All these arguments in support of our foreign policy toward Egypt have been ad- vanced repeatedly by our State Department and by many columnists whose columns re- flect the State Department indoctrination. But many of these arguments do not be- come tenable no matter how often they are repeated. Consider, for example, the argument of "U.S. firmness vis-a-vis Nasser military ad- venturism whether against other Arab coun- ties or Israel." The fact is that Nasser has since September 1962 been carrying on a war of destruction against the people of Yemen in which 28,000 of his troops are engaged and in which he is aided by Soviet fighter planes. The fact also is that his powerful radio transmitters constantly beam messages of hate and destruction against Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Israel. Until he succeeded in bringing about the revolutions In Syria and Iraq, his radio urged the violent over- throw of the government of those countries. Now he is engaged in a hate campaign against the Baathists in Syria because they have not seen fit to go out of existence in favor of Nasser's own followers in Syria. The current official suggestion is to dis- regard Nasser's radio hate campaign because that is the way things are done in the Middle East and that both sides are doing It. A careful study of foreign radio broadcasts in that area will show that this statement is S 8945 not in accord with the facts. Nasser's radio beamed for outside consumption Is the only radio preaching the violent overthrow of other governments. It is indeed ironic that Nasser's proficiency In radio propaganda-and everyone admits that he is proficient-should have been achieved-or aided-through the use of AID funds. Thus, AID project 263-G-22-AA, for which over $1 million has been obligated through fiscal year 1963 is "to assist the United Arab Republic to establish and oper- ate within 5 years a 'Telecommunications Research and Training Institute' * * *. The U.S. Government set out in fiscal year 1961 to assist the United Arab Republic staff In operating this institute so that, in time, It will be well organized and efficiently oper- ating. * * *" I was in the Middle East when the United States recognized the revolutionary Govern- ment in Yeman and can attest that our ac- tion was greeted by our friends in Lebanon, Jordan, Syria (former government), Israel, and Greece, as anything but showing "firm- ness vis-a-vis Nasser military adventurism." It should be remembered that when Nasser embarked upon his costly expedition to Yemen, his prestige was at low ebb, H. B. Sharabi of Georgetown University has de- scribed the situation accurately in his article on "The Egyptian Revolution" in April 1962 Issue of Current History: "The setback to Nasser's leadership in the Arab world came suddenly and soon, long be- fore Syria's revolt in September 1961. In it- self, the Syrian-Egyptian union was only a first step, which, if not carried farther, was meaningless In terms of pan-Arab unity; in order to exist the United Arab Republic had to grow, and the natural direction of growth was in the Fertile Crescent-in Lebanon, Jor- dan, and Iraq. The crucial decision in these countries was made in the summer of 1958. Jordan was rocked by a series of attempts to bring down the Hashimite monarchy; Leb- anon was plunged into civil war; and Iraq ex- perienced a military 'coup d'etat' which toppled the pro-Western regime of Muri al- Sa'id. But the outcome of these events was unfavorable to the United Arab Republic. King Hussein's position, which for a while seemed desperate, was strengthened; In Leb- anon a compromise between the pro-Nasser Muslim faction and the separatist Christian groups led to the consolidation of Lebanese independence; and in Iraq, the most im- portant country in this configuration, the new revolutionary regime, after a short pe- riod of friendship with Nasser, broke with the United Arab Republic. The Cairo-Baghdad rivalry was resumed with new fury. "With their hopes frustrated, the Egyptians now resorted to desperate methods to bolster Nasser's declining prestige. Tactics included diatribes on the Voice of the Arabs, open sup- port of Shawwaf's anti-Kassim uprising in Iraq (March 1959), and ringleadership throughout the area in incidents of subver- sion and violence such as the dynamiting in Amman of the Prime Minister's office which cost many lives including that of the Jor- danian Premier (August 1960). Meanwhile, as the drive toward Arab unity began to meet with reverses, relations between Syrians and Egyptians also started to deteriorate. The United Arab Republic was beginning to crack at the seams." There are also those who believe that the United States is out on a limb because it has sought to save Nasser by recognizing Yemen. Thus Patrick Seale in the New Republic for January 26, 1963, wrote: "By the turn of the year, then, most neu- tral observers of the fighting were agreed (a) that Salial's Republic would not survive an Egyptian withdrawal; (b) that the Egyp- tians themselves were in embarrassing straits, committed to a grim war with little prospects of victory; (c) that the royalists had scored considerable successes but did not Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 , S 8946 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE seem to have the weapons or the organization for a really decisive push. This was the situ- ation in which the United States recognized Marshal Sallal's regime. * * * The Yemen is the latest area In which Nasser has needed and has secured U.S. help. What are the ar- guments behind the U.S. decision to recog- nize Marshal Sallal? "One view expressed by some American officials in the Middle East is that the initia- tive came from keen young New Frontiers- men in Washington, determined at all costs to disassociate America from the old, sham- ing, 'feudal' regimes of Saudi Arabia and Jor- dan and throw their weight on the side of progress and the forces of history. Another view is that support for Sallal was, in a roundabout way, a pro-Saudi move, intended to 'scare' the Saudi Princes into reforming themselves. "A third, more convincing explanation, de- rived from more authoritative sources, is that the initiative for the American recognition came from U.S. Ambassador Badeau's Em- bassy in,Cairo and that it was intended as a rescue operation for President Nasser. The calculation was as follows: American recog- nition would be followed by Britain's; the Saudis and Jordanians would falter in their support of the Imam: Sallal would breathe freely for awhile and, In the lull, Nasser could withdraw his troops with honor, claim- ing that even the 'imperialists' had con- ceded that Sallal's Yemen Republic was firmly established. The operation was pre- sented to the world as an American-Egyp- tian agreement whereby Nasser undertook to withdraw his forces In return for Ameri- can recognition. (Actually, Nasser's agree- ment to disengage was conditional on cessa- tion of Saudi and Jordanian aid to the royalists.) "But something went wrong with the pre- dictions: there has been no lull; Britain has not recognized Sallal; the Imam is deter- mined to press home his advantage and Nas- ser is faced with the painful dilemma of withdrawing ignominiously or doubling his stakes by throwing in more troops. In the meantime, American diplomacy is out on a limb having secured no quid pro quo for its overt support for Sallal's precarious regime." A careful analysis of many other explana- tions advanced for our policy toward Nasser will show that we are interpreting Nasser's words as indicating his intentions rather than his actions. True, he did not rant and rave when it was announced that the United States would sell Israel the Hawk missiles. True, he is ac- cepting economic aid which he vitally needs. True, as a supporter of Fidel Castro, he was "surprisingly moderate" at the time of the crisis over Cuban missile bases-but so was Khrushchev. But these are words. What of the deeds? While he was talking softly, he was con- structing missiles so that he could proudly parade them in Cairo on July 23, 1963- missiles constructed through the know-how of former German Nazis. Jay Walz reported that parade from Cairo in the New York Times for July 24, 1963, as follows: "The United Arab Republic paraded two new rockets today and announced that it has developed 'the first Arab submarine, which will be tested at sea within 15 days.' One of the new rockets was a Soviet-made SA-2 ground-to-air weapon recently demon- strated in the desert near Cairo. The second was the first two-stage missile developed in the United Arab Republic. * * * This mis- sile, called Pioneer, is of ground-to-ground type. * * * A jet fighter that thunderously broke the sound barrier over the Nile was identified as the first faster-than-sound fighter built in the United Arab Republic. * * * The Palestine Army, recruited among refugees at Gaza, participated. This army is being trained to participate in the 'libera- tion of occupied Palestine (Israel)' that President Nasser has promised. * * *" Two points must be stressed in connection with this arms buildup by Nasser: I. He is doing it with U.B. AID dollars just as surely as though the AID dollars were going directly to Russia for the pur- chase of jet fighters or directly into the pockets of the German Nazis master-minding the design and construction of these weapons. There are some with blinders who would say that this is a misstatement-that AID dollars go for Public Law 480 food and fiber and for worthwhile development proj- ects. To the extent that we relieve Nasser's normal budget of the cost of food, fiber, and development projects we permit Nasser to have his cake and eat it too. He can divert that much into his arms budget foran arms buildup and let the United States pick up the check for the food, fiber, and develop- ment projects. There may also be some who would say that if the United States did not sell Nasser the food and fiber the Russians would be glad to do so. This does not jibe with the facts. The Russians are not giving anything to Nasser. They are bartering arms for cot- ton. They are loaning him money to build the Aswan Dam. And, finally, Russia's agri- cultural economy is not good enough to take on the added burden of feeding 22 million Egyptians. Russia has trouble doing that for Castro and herself. 2. Nasser's diversion of AID dollars to an arms buildup requires his neighbors to fol- low suit--at the expense of their own sorely needed economic development and, In the case of Jordan, and formerly Israel, at the expense of the U.S. taxpayer. (The New York Herald Tribune for Jan. 2, 1963, reported Israel's defense spending up 17 percent for this year.) Here again there will be those with blinders who will say that we have given no military assistance to Israel and comparatively little to Jordan. Here, too, those who make such statement will have missed the point. To the extent that Jordan or Israel have had to divert badly needed, funds from their own economic development, because they felt it necessary to be prepared to defend themselves against Nasser's open threats, to that extent has the United States been forced to give both Israel and Jordan economic assistance which in the case of Jordan has amounted to $325.3 million and in the case of Israel to $878.9 million. Many have been sharply critical of our policy toward Nasser. Thus Vincent Sheean in the New York Standard for February 12, 1963, in an article entitled "Garnal Nasser: Tricky Riverboat Gambler of the Nile," wrote: "The Government in Washington recog- nized the puppet republic of the Yemen on December 19, 1962, as Gamal's wish, just in time to save him again from a terrible die- aster-this time, no doubt, the final disaster. He had supported the revolt in that dismal wasteland (if he did not, In fact, create it) In the obvious hope of striking at Saudi Arabia from there. * * * Gamal seems to know exactly how far he can travel with his Amer- ican guarantee. He let Syria go without a whimper, for instance; the Americans would not have liked to see Egyptian troops in Da- mascus (where, in sober fact, no Egyptian troops would survive long). And yet our present Government, then new to Its tasks, purred and looked the other way when he sent troops to the Yemen. His patrons in Peiping and Moscow must have laughed heartily. They do not trust him any more than we do (perhaps even less) but they work him for all they can get out of him, which is quite a lot under the present con- ditions. * * *" Thus Carl Leiden writing in the National Review for July 3, 1962: "Nonetheless, it would be inaccurate to suggest that Egypt Is moving In any other direction than the extreme left and it Is wishful thinking on the part of those who suggest otherwise. Still there are many who June 27, 1967 do think in this fashion, Including no doubt a goodly percentage of those who officially represent the United States in Egypt." Thus Arnold Hettinger in the article previ- ously referred to: "Returning to the question of American aid, * * * one suddenly realizes that virtually every argument of the proponents of this aid is of a tactical nature. Tactically, they believe Nasser may be used-for the moment at least-as a Pan-Arab nationalist Egyptian barrier against communism. They even hope to stabilize for a .short time the chronically unsettled region by the predominance of 'Nasserism,' although the last 4 years have, shown that 'Nasserism' Is not so easy to sell outside of Egypt. "To this argument one may well reply that if the strategic aim. Is to promote liberal in- stitutions and to preserve and strengthen existing liberal sys5ems or beginnings, then the measures which help consolidate the au- thoritarian Egyptian regime or extend its influence are clearly harmful.- Stability pur- chased at the price of freedom may be a tac- tical necessity in certain cases; at the same time however it is a loss In terms of the overall strategic aim." No discussion of the currentpolitical scene in Egypt would be complete without a dis- cussion of Nasser's use of former German Nazis to work on his missile program. Even before going to Egypt I was intrigued by a book by Sedar and Greenberg entitled "Behind the Egyptian Sphinx," which de- tailed charges that former German Nazis were being extensively used as a,regular part of Nasser's government to train his troops, to organize the Egyptian youth along Hitler's line, and to work on missile projects. - The book was so replete with names, dates, and places that I was surprised that even though it had been published recently it had created so little stir. For example: "Colonel Nasser's chief military and geo- political adviser, intimate foreign collabora- tor, and confidant, is none other than the full-blooded Nazi, SS Col. Otto Skorzeny, who was dispatched to Cairo in 1953 upon the advice of his father-in-law, Dr. Hjalmar Schacht, Hitler's former financial wizard, now president of a Dusseldorf bank, special- izing in the promotion of German-Arab trade. * * * As a double insurance against another defeat by the Israeli Army, the Nas- ser regime has formed an Arab Foreign Legion to fight against the Jewish State. Its nucleus consists of 400 former Nazis and Gestapo veterans, who were recruited by Arab League agents in Germany. The entire project came to light when in September 1959 the authorities a'. Hamburg arrested Herr Wilhelm Adami, one of the principal German recruiting agents, * * * [Adami] was a Gestapo Storm Trooper and served in Poland with the Dirlewanger Extermination Brigade. * * * Nasser's State Security Cadre * * * under the direction of Lieu- tenant Colonel Al-Nasher, whose real iden- tity is Leopold Gleim, chief of Hitler's per- sonal guard and Gestapo Security Chief of German-occupied Poland, who was sen- tenced to death for war atrocities. * * * In the fields of political and psychological war- fare, vicious anti-Western and anti-Israeli propaganda is unremittingly carried on by the Nasser regime under the direction of Johann von Leers, one of the former high- ranking Nazi propagandists in the Berlin Foreign Ministry. * * * von Leers * * * has assumed the Arabized name of Man Amin von Leers. * * *" The book contained the following specific charge: "Only the French, with the Cartesian sense of realism, thought that the presence of so many Germans in the Nile Valley was an ominous sign and could not be taken lightly nor easily be explained. Devoid of illusion, they rightly concluded that the Germans were in Egypt for the express purpose of re- establishing their power and. influence in the Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 June 27, 1967 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE Middle East at the expense of the United States, Britain, and France. * * * Skor- zeny's ultimate aim is to create, in conjunc- tion with Nasser, the Grand Mufti of Jeru- salem, and the Arab League, a German- Egyptian dominated third-power bloc and empire stretching from Berlin to Capetown, and from Bonn to New Delhi. The time is not yet ripe, however, to unmask themselves and operate in the open." In another book, "The Boss," by Robert St. John, published in the same year, 1960, was found a repetition of these charges: "There were hints of other activities that disturbed many people, inside and outside Egypt. Naguib had quietly appointed one of Adolph Hitler's economic experts, Dr. Wil- helm Voss, head of the Egyptian Central Planning Board and chief adviser to the War Ministry. Dr. Johann von Leers, who had been one of Goebbels' most trusted *anti- Semitic rabble-rousers, was named political adviser to the Information Depart- ment. * * * Voss and von Leers were only two. Every day additional names were whis- pered. Other foreigners might be trying to get out of Egypt, but the ex-Nazis were pouring in. There were hundreds of them, who saw in post-revolutionary Egypt a place they could fish in troubled waters. They changed their names so as not to embarrass their hosts. ^ ? ^ Many of these men had been brought in by Farouk, but they were not unpopular with Free Officers like Anwar el Sadat, who had seen nothing wrong with Hitler except that he lost." When in Cairo in the latter part of Feb- ruary 1963 I questioned the Ambassador and his top political advisers concerning these charges. They stated they had not read "Be- hind the Egyptian Sphinx" and that they were unaware of the infiltration of the Nas- ser Government by former Nazis. Our mili- tary attaches, however, were well aware of this and called my attention to it. On April 30, 1963, I stated on the floor of the Senate: "I visited the Middle East last fall and this winter as a member of the Committee on Government Operations, to look into the operations of our foreign aid program. I found that throughout the Middle East there was great apprehension about the growing power of Nasser and a resentment over the manifestly lavish aid which the United States was giving to him, which he uses to achieve his objectives-the objectives of con- quest and domination of that entire area, the extermination of the free State of Israel and driving its people into the sea. "We found these objectives voiced by offi- cials in Turkey, in Iran, in Syria before the latest revolt, in Lebanon, in Jordan, and in Greece. Their expressions varied, but there was wonderment as to why we neglected our friends and built up our potentials enemies, and their enemies. "President Nasser has made no secret whatever of his purposes and intentions. His broadcasts, both through the official radio station, radio Cairo, and through the secret radio station which he entirely controls, clearly show his Intentions. Opinion and expression in Egypt and the United Arab Re- public are 100 percent controlled, with no freedom of the _ press whatsoever. In fact, there {s greater control-more nearly abso- lute control-than is found almost anywhere else. Not only are the newspapers forbidden to print anything that President Nasser does not want, but also they are Instructed pre- cisely what to print, what not to print, what to conceal, and how to slant and color the news. Thus the people become pawns in Nasser's ambitious programs and cannon fodder In the wars of his making and plan- ning. "Through the years President Nasser has preached openly the assassination of the rul- ers and other officials of the countries which he wishes to subvert. "It has been alleged by some defenders of our policy in this area that Nasser is soften- ing his tone, that he is not as rambunctious or violent in his declarations as he has been in the past. That is not the case. He contin- ues to preach assassination. He continues to preach violence. He continues to incite sub- version in neighboring countries. He con- tinues-to preach warfare. He makes no secret whatsoever of his determination to destroy the little country of Jordan, which is one of the democratic hopes in the Middle East, and little Israel. "I very much fear unless the U.S. policy of building up Nasser by pouring in money to enable him to carry on his military and sub- versive ventures is reversed, that there will be a bloody war in the Middle East, for which we shall bear a considerable responsibility, and into which we shall perhaps be inevit- ably drawn. "As recently as March 19 of this year there was a broadcast of the voice of the Arab Nation from Cairo. I could cite and quote from many other such broadcasts, but this is a clear illustration of what is going on to- day; not 5 years ago, not 2 years ago, and not 1 year ago although it went on then. This type of propaganda-this type of incendiary preachment of assassination of rulers and officials of friendly countries-has been going on all through this period of time. "The Voice of Cairo on March 19 broadcast as follows: 'Free officers, soldiers, students, and Arab brothers in Saudi Arabia and Jordan, how long are you going to tolerate Saud and Hussein?' Saud and Hussein are the respective monarchs of those two countries. "'The time has come for the army and the people to purge the Arab land of the imperi- alist vestiges-the lackeys who have sold their honor and dignity and who cooperate with the archenemies of the Arabs-the English, the Americans, and the Jews.' [Em- phasis added.] "These are the words of the Voice of Cairo in a country which we have subsidized and are continuing to subsidize to the extent of millions of dollars, and in greater amounts now than ever previously. These words list us among, indeed call us-Americans-the 'archenemies of the Arabs.' This is but one more example, among. many, of 'biting the hand that feeds you.' "The broadcast goes on: "'Free Arab soldiers and officers, the people call on you to shoulder your full responsibili- ties in the forthcoming battle for the libera- tion of Palestine. You will not be able to do so as long as the traitorous renegade clique Is controlling the fate of the country.' "Those words are addressed to the people of Saudi Arabia and of Jordon. "'Even the Arab people in other parts of the Arab homeland will meet great difficulties in the battle for the liberation of Palestine as long as there are people like Hussein in Jordan and people like Saud and Feisal in the Arabian Peninsula. "'Imperialism was able to establish the State of Israel in 1948 after deceiving the Arab people with the lackey Arab rulers to whom it entrusted leadership. "'Free men in Jordan and Saudi Arabia, the situation is serious. Our Arab people are irrevocably determined to wipe away the dis- grace of Israel and to purge the Holy Land of the remnants of Zionism, which is hostile to the Arabs and humanity. "'Our Arab people call upon the free Arabs, both military and civilian, to unite their efforts to purge Jordan and the Arabian Peninsula of the traitors. All the Arab people stand at the side of the Arab liberation revo- lutions in any part of the Arab homeland, because the Arab liberation battles and the aims as regards the fate of the Arab nation are indivisible units. "'Free officers, come forward and fix the zero hour; surge like flames to the palaces S 8947 in Riyadh and Amman'-the respective capi- tals of Saudi Arabia and of Jordan-'and destroy the hireling traitors-enemies of God and of the people. "'We will then march together on our dear usurped land-Jerusalem, Jaffa and Haifa-and the crime of Israel will no longer exist. "'We call the army and- the people in the Arabian Peninsula and Jordan to quick action and to bloody revolution. Death to the enemies of God and of the people.' "This comes as the official voice of the ruler whom the Western World and the United States in particular have repeatedly saved from extinction. The United States saved him at the time of the Suez crisis. Since that time we have poured in hundreds of millions of dollars to help him, presumably to rehabilitate Egypt's economy, but in ef- fect, finance his wars. He went into the Yemen some 9 months ago, sending in first 18,000 men, and then 20,000, and now, I am reliably informed, 28,000 troops by daily air- lifts in Russian-supplied planes. That war is costing Nasser, at the very least, $500,000 a day. It has continued for 9 months. It has cost him more than $100 million to date. While we are pouring in money on the one hand to aid him in domestic rehabilitation he is pouring It out in warfare on the other. "What kind of policy is that for people of the United States who - are dedicated to promoting peace in the world? "At the same time Nasser is receiving mili- tary aid from Soviet Russia, he has a great many ex-Nazis working to provide the mod- ern weapons of destruction for his purpose to parry on the war against Jordan and Israel. In a recent book entitled "Behind the Egyptian Sphinx," which was called to our attention by our American military in Egypt, are listed a number of ex-Nazis who are wanted In Germany for their manifest crimes, who are not merely safely ensconced in the United Arab Republic but are em- ployed to help Nasser in his sinister pur pose to destroy his peaceful neighbors. "I read the names of 'a few: "SS Col. Otto Skorzeny, son-in-law of Dr. Hjalmar Schacht, who is recruiting former Nazis, and is an importer-arranges for arms shipments into Egypt. "SS General Dirlewanger, known as the 'Butcher of Warsaw,' a Nasser military ad- viser on guerrilla warfare. "SS Sturmfiihrer Baumann, alias All ben Khader, who is with the Algerian rebel gov- ernment in Cairo, and was involved In Warsaw massacre. "Willi Berner, alias Ben Kashir, who is with the Algerian rebel government in Cairo, and was an SA fiihrer and guard at Mau- thausen Concentration Camp. "Karl Luder, alias Abdel Kader, who is with the Algerian rebel government in Cairo, and was a Hitler youth leader in Danzig. Dr. Erich Alten, alias All Bella, who is with the Algerian rebel government in Cairo, who played a major role in the assassination of Prof. Theodor Leasing at Carlsbad in 1934, and who was gestapo 'Commissar for Jews' In Galicia. "Leopold Gleim, alias Lieutenant Colonel Al-Nasher, who is in charge of Nasser's state security cadre, modeled after Hitler's SS corps, and was a chief of Hitler's personal guard, and a gestapo security chief in Poland. "Joachim Daemling, who is an adviser on special activities--concentration camps In Egypt-a former chief of the gestapo in Dusseldorf. "Dr. Hans Eisele, who is a cochief of medi- cal program at concentration camps; who is a former chief physician at Buchenwald. "SS Haupstarzt Heinrich Willermann, alias Lt. Col. Nairn Fahum, who is a cochief of medical program at concentration camps and the former medical director at Dachau. Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 S8948 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE June 27, 1967 "SS Fi1hrer Bernhardt Bender, alias Col. Ben Salem, who is in charge of Nasser's security police which runs the prisons, and was chief of intelligence service of Wehr- macht security division in Ukraine. "SS Gruppenfiihrer Moser, alias Col. Has- san Suleiman, who is in charge of youth training. "SS Gruppenftihrer Buble, alias Lieuten- ant Colonel Amman, who is assistant to Moser. "Johann von Leers, alias Oman Amin von Leers, who is in charge of propaganda work for Nasser, and was formerly in the Berlin Foreign Ministry. "Louis Heiden, alias Louis al-Hadsch, former chief of Deutsche Press Agenter; works with Leers-distributes Arabic trans- lation of `Mein Kampf.' "Daniel Perrit-Gentil, former SS filhrer, worked for Wehrmacht Intelligence Service in France during war-sentenced to death by France but expelled. Now is French pro- gram director of Radio Cairo. "Georges Dieudonne, alias Georges Oltra- mare, former leader of Swiss Nazi Party. Works on anti-Semitic and anti-Israelprop- aganda with von Leers. And so forth. "What possible justification can there be for the United States to be pouring in its dollars, not only to support, but to encourage, a regime of this kind, which has drawn to itself all the elements which are antithetic to the professed purposes of the United States, in order to carry on a warfare which Nasser has never ceased to preach and for his objective to conquer and destroy. "Unless the United States reverses its pro- gram promptly, and does more than merely study, review, and view with alarm, unless we act definitely, there is going to be a de- structive war to the death in the Middle East in which thousands of people will be killed and in which we will inevitably be involved. "I may have more to say on this subject at a future time, but I think I should again pay tribute to and commend the fine state- ment of the Senator from New York and say that in my view he is absolutely correct. We have been led down a false trail in the Middle East. "It is about time that we supported and prevented the destruction of the one free nation in that area, the one that has worked for the rehabilitation of its own and other people, the one that has manifested only peaceful intentions, that is trying merely to exist and do its work to advance civilization at home and abroad. "If the United Arab States, under Nasser would, instead of planning to go to war, emulate Israel, work to educate their people, to sanitate their countries, irrigate their deserts, and make a contribution to peace, we would have peace in the Middle East and all its countries would progress and prosper. "it is a notable fact that of the many nations in the Middle East which have re- ceived our foreign aid,, none was more con- spicuous in the effective utilization of for- eign aid than was Israel. None showed more public appreciation of this aid. It is - some- what depressing to note in many countries which we have helped to lift up from dire destitution, to see how little they have shown their appreciation. That has not been the case with Israel. Not only did we see signs on highways proclaiming that the roads were built as a result of joint efforts by the United States and Israel, but Israel has, at its own expense, issued a very beautiful doc- umentary film in color, going into detail giv- ing an historic account of what U.S. aid has done to help the people of Israel rehabili- tate themselves. "I think it is time that we realized that this is one country that honestly is for peace and civilization, that is firm in its democratic faith, whose people enjoy all the freedoms, a little country which has no aggressive de- signs, that merely wants to live and let live, but which is actually also doing something for backward countries by sending its own scientists there, and that we ought to affirm the policy which we should long ago have stood for; namely, that we will not coun- tenance invasion and destruction of Israel. We will not permit our funds to be used to finance an aggressive war in the Middle East, which, unless we adopt such a policy, is bound to come." Previously, however, concerned about the worsening situation, I addressed the follow- ing two letters to the President: APRIL. 10, 1963. Mr DEAL MR. PRESIDENT: I recently re- turned from the Middle East on an official trip for the Senate Committee on Govern- ment Operations. What I saw there disturbed me greatly and, after talking to Mike Feldman, I thought I would pass onto youmy observations even ahead of my official report, which will, in the main, deal with our AID program in the countries visited. I visited Turkey, Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Jor- dan, Israel, Greece, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt. It is my firm conviction that U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East is set on a disaster course just as surely as it was when we thought we could appease Hitler. I fervently hope that no future historian will be able to write a book concerning this period of U.S. activity in the Middle East en- titled "While America Slept." We propped Nasser up at the time of the Suez crisis--in fact saved him from extinc- tion--and have been his mainstay since. Nasser's prestige in the Middle East declined with the Syria breakaway and continued to slide downward until, when his armies were bogged down in Yemen, we came to his res- cue again and recognized the revolutionWy government in Yemen. I have no doubt that the revolution in Yemen was Nasser-inspired and Nasser-instigated. The speed and the manner In which Egyptian troops were rushed to Yemen on Russian planes demonstrate that we are dealing with a new Egyptian mili- tary force and confirm the reports that it has been completely revamped with the aid of Russian technicians and former German Nazis. What is hurting U.S. prestigein the other nations in the Middle East and what is hurt- ing the administration's posture here at home with a-sizable segment of our popula- tion is that Nasser is carrying on this war in Yemen for personal aggrandizement with U.S. money. It is conservatively estimated that the Yemen adventure is costing Nasser $500,000 per day. At that rate, since the Yemen revo- lution on September 26, 1962, Nasser has spent over $100 million in waging his war in Yemen. Thus, in six months he has spent the equivalent of our economic aid to Egypt for a whole year. Of course, a portion of this is in Public Law 480 grains-but without those grains he would sooner realize the futility of his present predicament and might listen to reason. On the other hand, part of our eco- nomic aid is In the form of U.S. dollars for the purchase of goods here in the United States which Nasser needs. The implications of our early recognition of Yemen--that it was a boost for Nasser and Nasserism--w.ere forcibly called to our atten- tion by officials In many of the countries visited. Officials in Turkey, Jordan, Iran, Syria (former regime) and Lebanon were-es- pecially vehement. I do not believe that the precipitate manner in which we recognized Yemen (especially before such a recognition by the United Kingdom) has helped our prestige in this area or served to strengthen the Jordanian or Iranian Governments. Had I written to you earlier, I would have added the Syrian Government to this list, but events have overtaken my report. One important point concerning the effec- tiveness of our Foreign Service that strikes one in this area is the fact that very few of our representatives abroad (or, for that mat- ter, working on the Near East Desks in Wash- ington in the Department of State) have ever been to Israel. Such a situation is com- pletely unintelligible to me. Our so-called Near East hands are thus representing the interests of the United States In this area without adequate appraisal of the facts. Is it any wonder that after all these years we are no nearer a peaceful solution of the problems of this area? And finally, Mr. President, Israel itself should hold a special place in U.S. efforts in the Middle East. As the only true democracy in that area, as the one nation which has made determined and successful efforts to raise Its economic level, as the one nation in the area that freely and publicly acknowl- edges that it has received and benefitted from U.S. aid, we cannot afford-from the stand- point of our own security-to continue a policy whichbuilds up a Frankenstein mon- ster in that area that, openly, frankly and persistently announces the order of its next victims-Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Israel- and whose official radio voices continue to preach assassination of the officials of these countries. - The oft repeated excuses that the Nasser line on this point is "softer" than it was a year ago are not borne out by the facts. In this connection I Must point out that when Hitler published widely his plans in "Mein Kampf" people likewise refused to heed. We are doing the same thing with Nasser. Will we again wait too long-until grown strong with our he] p and independent of that help, he turns and swallows up country after country, including Israel? One thing which will, I believe, relieve the pressures In this area is for the United States promptly to guarantee the borders of Israel in the same manner in which the borders of Saudi Arabia were guaranteed. We have backed and filled so often In the past with Nasser that we must give him no chance at misunderstanding our purpose- and intent. A public guarantee of the borders of Israel by the United States would do much to as- suage- the- fears of Israel-which today, with Nasser's increased ,rained military force, has much more to fear than ever before-and might also serve Nasser with an excuse to desist from his threats. I would be glad to come up to talk to you at any time convenient to you. With all best wishes, I am, Sincerely yours, ERNEST GRUENING, U.S. Senator. APRIL, 12, 1963. MY DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: This 1S to supple- ment my letter to you of April 10, 1963, after my conversation with Mike Feldman, con- cerning U.S. policy in the Middle East. In that letter I did not underscore strongly enough the thought that we are supporting an arms race in the Middle East just as surely as though American dollars were used di- rectly to pay for the arms purchased. Under Public Law 480 we are supplying a vital part of the food needs of the Egyptian people. As a consequence, Nasser is left free to exchange his cotton for Russia's missiles. Because Nasser has missiles, Israelmust pur- chase theHawk from us, at an expense up- ward of $25 million and an increase in the size of her standing army trained to use these modern, sophisticated weapons. This $25 million could be spent to a much better purpose on the economic development of Israel just as the $100 million spent so far by Egypt on Nasser's war in Yemen could have been better spent on theeconomic de- velopment of Egypt. Similar comparisons could be made w:lth respect to the other countries aided by us in the Middle East Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B 9R000200300014-6 June 27, 1967 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SEN S 8949 such as Jordan and Iran which feel com- other courses of action, but also that it sup- countries in the Near East which has con- pelled to step up their own defense budgets. ports the I make these comments to you with a full neighbors. security of both Israel and her st bilietdy. During the period f their growth 1949a iscal years awareness of the historical and political As the President pointed out, the balance 62, for example, we provided Israel and Jor- background of the tensions in the Middle of military power in the area has not been dan with over $400 and $190 per capita re- East. But the time has surely come for the changed by recent developments. This does spectively, while providing $26 per capita United States to take a firm stand and de- not, however, mean, lack of concern with the to the United Arab Republic. clare that it will no longer permit its aid Near East arms race and the dangers it car- With reference to your concern that of- dollars to be used for an arms race or for rtes for the future. The United States is un- ficers dealing with Near Eastern affairs ei- aggressive adventures beyond a Nation's own alterably opposed to the introduction of nu- ther at our posts in the area or in Wash- borders. We cannot continue to aid-directly, clear weapons of any kind into the area and ington may not have visited Israel, the De- or indirectly-in maintaining or increasing considers the acquisition of sophisticated partment wishes to assure you that many the tensions in the Middle East. As Nasser offensive weapons to be a luxury which of our Foreign Service officers in the Near subverts one country after another, his high- neither side can afford. The United States East have visited Israel and are encouraged powered radigs-also indirectly-supported by does not condone the diversion of the scarce to do so. Most of the Department's Near the United Stataes-blare across the Middle resources of the area to the arms race or to Eastern specialists have visited Israel, some East preaching violence against Jordan, such tragic events as the Yemen strife. It has of them a number of times. Saudi Arabia, and Israel and actual assassi- avoided contributing to the arms race and In closing, the Department would like to nation of their rulers. About 3 weeks ago continues to work to reduce the tensions assure you that it is not and cannot be in- Nasser's radio was predicting: "But the day which foster it. In the case of Yemen, as you different to the dangers of the Near East- will come when those who sought shelter know, the United States has exerted efforts em situation. The Department has taken with Husayn [Hussein, King of Jordan] will to arrange a disengagement of the United and is taking steps designed to reduce or lament their fate, when they watch the peo- Arab Republic and Saudi Arabia. eliminate the tensions underlying the Arab- ple dragging Husayn in the streets." The Department appreciates the concern Israel dispute and to keep to a minimum I earnestly believe that at least one way to expressed in your letters that U.S. assistance the flow of arms to the area. The Depart- lessen the tension in the Middle East would might make it possible for the United Arab ment seeks to conduct these policies and ac- be through a U.S. declaration that we will Republic to acquire arms thus presenting an tions so that they will not of themselves guarantee the borders of Israel and Jordan increasing threat to Israel and other coun- precipitate an adverse chain of events which just as we have made similar declarations tries, to engage In radio propaganda, and to would be difficult if not impossible to con- recently with respect to Saudi Arabia's bor- become involved In the internal affairs of tain and be welcome only to the Soviet Union. ders. We should of course not continue to other Arab countries such as Yemen. It has it has been amply demonstrated in the subsidize Nasser's costly military adventures accordingly kept the program under strin- Near East that the use of an assistance pro- beyond his borders. gent review to assure against such possibility. gram in this area as a bludgeon to force But it is essential that our intent to safe- Again it is worth noting what the situation solutions will not work where deepseated be- guard the borders of Israel, Jordan, and was in 1957 and 1958 when there was no liefs and longstanding grievances are held. Saudi Arabia is made crystal clear, publicly, U.S. program of assistance to the United Experience also has shown that the Ameri- not only to Nasser but to the entire world. Arab Republic. During those years, Arab- can interest in denying the Communists a With all best wishes, I am, Israeli hostility was most intense, Syria and position dangerous to us in the Near East Cordially yours, Egypt merged to form the United Arab Re- and our interest in easing the tensions of ERNEST GRUENING, public, Yemen and Egypt affiliated them- the area to permit increasing stability is U.S. Senator. selves, the pro-Western Government of Iraq best served by maintaining and multiplying I have now received the following letter was overthrown, the United Arab Republic ties with the countries of the Near East. from Assistant Secretary of State Fred carried out the greatest expansion of its If I can be of further assistance, please do Dutton: armed forces and, as noted above, Communist not hesitate to call on me. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, influence soared. Sincerely yours, Washington, D.C., July 25, 1963. In determining Its policy toward the FREDERIcx G. DUTTON, DEAR SENATOR GRUENING: The President United Arab Republic, the United States has Assistant-Secretary, has asked the Department of State to com- done so only after thorough consideration of * * ^ * ment further on matters raised in your let- all factors in the light of its national in- IX. The refugee problem The regarding policy the Near East. terests. asp noted above, conti ueess Arab toRbe Six years ago, the able and distinguished The Department Is pleased with to have this - public, portunity to review w with you t yosome of the ele- designed as carefully as possible to assure its senior Senator from Minnesota, Mr. Hum- merits of this policy. use for internal development purposes. Over phrey, in his report on "The Middle East and The Department believes that the princi- three-fourths of U.S. assistance to the United Southern Europe" had this to say about the pal questions which you have raised con- Arab Republic has been in the form of sur- refugee problem: cerning our policies in the Near East do not plus agricultural commodities mainly sold Since the responsibility for creating the arise from any failure of our policies with re- for local currency, part of which is used to Arab refugee problem derives from the Pales- spect to the Free World confrontation with meet V.S. expenses and the balance of which tine war and the U.N.. partition resolution, Communism in that atea. It should be re- is used for economic development purposes. the world community must share the blame membered that Free World Interests in the As in the case of many countries seeking to for letting the problem go unsolved for 10 Near East were at their greatest peril in the meet national security requirements, military long years. In the United Nations we have mid and late fifties, when we had no aid pro- programs of countries in the Near East in- salved our consciences by contributing to the gram to the United Arab Republic, and that evitably absorb resources which might other- support of these wretched people without our policies of recent years have been paral- wise contribute to development. But U.S. coming to grips with the real problem of leled by a material but gradual reversal of interests, the Department believes, will not helping them to find a new and decent way that dangerous situation. Today Soviet pres- be served by ignoring or rejecting legitimate of life. It is high time that the United States ence, prestige, and influence in the Near East requests for assistance to facilitate economic took the initiative in and out of the United have diminished to the lowest point in many progress or, for that matter, for food itself. Nations to bring about a generous and effec- years. At the same time, the capacity of the It would only increase the tensions without tive solution of the problem. United States to exert a constructive influ- curbing priorities which are given to military Excerpts from Senator Humphrey's report ence on a wide variety of issues important to preparedness. The absence of the oft-alleged are reprinted as exhibit IX-A. the Free World, while still limited, is far correlation between U.S. economic assistance "ExxsBIT IX-A greater now than at any time in the past, and United Arab Republic arms acquisition ?ExOERPT QOM T73E MIDDLE EAST AND SovxH- and the United States is listened to with re- is well illustrated by the fact that the United ERN EUROPE REPORT OF SENATOR HUBERT H. spect in every capital in the area. Arab Republic's most intensive procurement HUMPHREY ON A STUDY MISSION The Department agrees, of course, that of arms occurred while the United States , , . the United Sor the tension and danger are inherent in many of suspended aid In the post-Suez period. This Nor can further States with the the specific points you list. The Department procurement was financed then, as now, pri- West to furthe on a bare is very much aware of this situation and is manly through surplus United Arab Republic problem st afford oUn ed camps main- not that these tensions and dangers cotton not disposable in Western markets at subsistence to refugees. er wretchin- the drab level re United Nations, , rootless, these hob- not be excited by a V.S. posture governed by reasonable prices. On the other hand, the sa by of impatience and hastiness rather than plan- United Arab Republic's more than threefold less, disillusioned, and and embittered, 900,0he are a ring and perseverance. increase in its economic development budget less people, now numbering The President's statement of May 8, in has occurred after U.S. economic assistance challenge to the conscience of humanity. which he reiterated this Government's oppo- was resumed. The $700 million increase in "The refugee camps have become hotbeds sition to the use or threat of force in the the 'United Arab Republic's annual develop- of political intrigues deliberately fomented Near East, relates directly to the principal ment accounts is some four times larger than by Communist and anti-Western Arab agita- recommendation of both your letters. The the amount of U.S. aid. tors. They are breeding grounds of hatred for President emphasized not only that the Of course, our program of assistance to the United States and sources of political United States would support appropriate the United Arab Republic has been paral- instability for the countries that harbor measures in the United Nations and adopt leled by development assistance to other them. Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 Approved For R-1- ase 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 S8950 14GRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE June 27, 1967 "Half of the refugees are now under -15 upon exercising rights of belligerencyagainst belief that any resettlement Into the com- years old, a fact of tremendous significance in her, it would be suicidal for Israel to admit-a munity will delay the day of their return terms of an ultimate solution of this problem It means that, group of immigrants whose whole in- to what they have been taught is their , despite the clamor of pro- doottination for the peat 10 years has been homeland, even though they have never fessional refugee leaders for a return, to Pales- one of hatred for the Jewish state. To do so been there. Such teachings cannot but con- tine and the Insistence of the Arab Govern- would be to establish a fifth column Inside tinue to engender bate, unrest, and idleness. ments on repatriation to their former homes, the country. A new approach must be found so that half of the refugees have in fact no roots In "Moreover, from the viewpoint of the ref- these Arab refugees will no longer be a Palestine at all. They were either less than 5 ugees themselves, repatriation to Israel would thorn in the flesh of the world but will lead years old when they left that country, or were result in bitter disillusionment. They would useful, productive lives. born in the refugee camps in Arab States. To necessarily have to live in a society foreign return them now to an alien society they to their own background and culture, and It is therefore recommended have been taught to despise would be as self- assume all the obligations of citizenship in a The United States should exercise Im- defeating and unsatisfactory as abandoning state which they have been taught to despise. mediate leadership :in and out of the United them to mature in the appalling atmosphere "Nevertheless, Prime Minister David Ben- Nations, offering, ii necessary, to pay the of hopelessness which now pervades the ref- Gurion told me that the Government of total cost, but making every effort to have ugee camps. The destiny of these young Arabs Israel would be prepared to admit a limited the cost shared, in proposing the following clearly lies In an opportunity for a produc- number of refugees who would pledge to program: tive and self-reliant life in an Arab environ- become constructive and productive Israeli (a) The establishment of a United Nations ment and culture. citizens and not subversives. I am convinced Middle East Peace Corps, along the line "Since the responsibility for creating the that Israel would be willing to recognize the of our own Peace Corps, composed of volun- Arab refugee problem derives from the Pales- principle of repatriation, provided that that teers from countries other than the countries tine war and the U.N. partition resolution, principle is implemented only by token num- Involved, to work with the refugees in a the world community must share the blame bers of refugees, perhaps admissible on a well-financed program to educate and train for letting the problem go unsolved for 10 quota basis. the refugees, to help them obtain employ- long years. In the United Nations we have "All of these things should be easefully ex- ment in the Arab countries or elsewhere, to salved our consciences by contributing to the plored by a new United Nations Good Offices assist financially in their resettlement in support of these wretched people without Commission. It should be the duty of such their places of employment, including re- coming grips with the real problem of a commission to press resolutely and unre- settlement grants and the granting of Cooley helping them find a new and decent way of wittingly for a breakthrough on this critical loans and loans and grants from Public Law life. It is high time that the United States refugee problem, exploiting every opportunity 480 proceeds; took the initiative in and out of the United for initiating diplomatic conversation with (b) Present local-hire employees of Nations to bring about a generous and effec- and among the governments concerned." UNRWA should be replaced by Peace Corps tive solution of the problem. Six years-and over $118 million U.S. del- employees-who should be international "The facts of the situation themselves lars-later Senator Humphrey's remarks are public servants-as soon as these local-hired point to the only possible solution-the pro- still direct and to the point. In the inter- employees of UNRWA can be retained and vision for the vast majority of permanent vening years the United States has not ex- placed in jobs elsewhere, being given train- homes-and tolerable livelihoods in the Arab ercised the leadership in and out of the lug and resettlement grants, financial States, and a commitment by Israel to accept United Nations so vital to any meaningful assistance in resettling their families, Pur- a limited number of token repatriates. effort to prevent the continued use of these chasing homes etc. "Iraq is desperately short of people. Rich refugees as a political football in the tense In resources of oil, land, and water, Iraq Middle East. needs additional population to exploit its We seem to have lost sight of the fact TRIBUTE TO ERNEST G. WARREN potential productive capacity. Experts esti- that we are dealing with men, women, and OF THE PRESS GALLERY mate that the country could absorb at least children who should not be sacrificed for a Mr. PELL. Mr. President, I should like - 8 million, perhaps 5 million, additional pee- cause, but who can, if they wish, have a ple. Iraq, moreover, has shown a disposition life of economic usefulness. to pay tribute a very distinguished mem- to accept Immigrants from the refugee popu- Each year we have gone through vitriolic, ber of the Press Gallery, Mr. Ernest G. lation. Five thousand have already been recriminatory debate in the United Nations Warren, the Associated Press New Eng- taken in without any appeal for U.N. assist- about renewing the mandate for the United land correspondent, who recently retired ance by the Government of Iraq. With help Nations Relief and Works Agency and each from an illustrious Journalistic career from the international community to defray year we have ended the debate with a re- that spanned 40 years. costs of resettlement, the entire refugee newal of its mandate in the same plodding, All of us who have worked with Ernie population could readily be absorbed in that pedestrian old way. country alone, with benefit to the indigenous Warren will always value his sense of population. FINDING IS AND RECOMMENDATIONS fair play which is the highest tradition "Syria, while less richly endowed with Findings y of American journalism. He is truly a natural resources, Is also underpopulated. Forty percent of the Arab refugees were gentleman and he always brought quali- st misnumbep of refugees assimilate a sub- not born In what is now Israef Fifty percent ties of good, humor, sensitivity, and ogees with benefit- to of the total 1.1 million refugees are under warmth to his associations with Senators itself. As many as 200,000 refugees could be the age of 18. Of the total of $38.5 million and staff members who were his news settled In the Jordan Valley if the Johnston received by the United Nations Relief and plan of the United States for developing the Works Agency from governments in calendar sources. Jordan River Valley were accepted by the year 1962, the United States contributed $24.7 I, for one, shall miss his friendly pres- Arab States, million or over 70-percent. These are the ba- ence in the Senate Press Gallery a great "The fact is that the Arab States have for sic three positive factors working in favor deal. But I wish him long years of good 10 years used the Palestinian refugees as of a practical solution of the Arab refugee health and happy retirement, which he political hostages in their struggle with problem and of making them productive, has so well deserved. Israel. While Arab delegates in the United useful citizens. Nations have condemned the plight of their There are two negative factors working brothers in the refugee camps, nothing has against such a solution. The first is the fact RULES VERSUS POLICIES IN EDUCA- been done to assist them in a practices, way, that many Arab leaders want to continue to lest political leverage over Israel be lost. use the Arab refugees as pawns in their con- TION, THE VIEWS OF HOWARD A. "This is not to say that Israel has no tinuing fight against the existence of Israel. MATTHEWS responsibility for an ultimate solution of the The second factor mitigating against a prac- Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, the problem. The Government of Israel has al- tical solution of the problem is that of the Director of the Division of Manpower ready disclosed its willingness to compensate total of 11,651 personnel employed by Development and Training in the U.S. the refugees for property left in former Pal- UNRWA, 11,469-over 99 percent-are locally estine; the United States has offered to lend recruited persons most of whom are them- Office of Education is Dr. Howard A. Israel the money. All that is necessary is to selves Arab refugees. Therefore, even if Matthews, former Alaskan official in the set up the machinery and establish the pro- during all these years of its operation field of education and a constituent of oedures under which compensation would be UNRWA had been in its top leadership mine. Dr. Matthews has been a student paid. dedicated to 'the concept of training the of administrative law for man "On the other hand, repatriation of all, or Arab refugees and settling them in Arab h May 1967 issue the y year Americc. even a-large number of refugees, by Israel countries or other countries as useful, pro- School Board Journal contains an is no longer possible. In the first place, Israel ductive citizens, the vast majority of its em- School Board an ar- has accepted and settled some 900,000 immi- ployees were not and could not because of title by Dr. Matthews Cthews entitled "Differen- grants, many of whom were in fact refugees their backgrounds be dedicated to carrying tiate Between 'Rules' and 'Policies,' " from Arab States where repressive measures out such a policy. These refugees have been based on a doctoral, study he made at had made their lives intolerable. Further- placed In charge of teaching the young and George Washington University in June more, surrounded by nations which insist therefore havebeen inculcating in them the 1964 of the practices and procedures of Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R0002003'00014-6 H-8098 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE June 27, 1967 regulations, rather than continuing the pur- the operation is pivotal in achieving wide- been and will not become content with suit of self improvement. Our legislative com- spread use, In achieving efficient and dis- mediocrity. mittee headed by Roy Edwards, Jr., of Kansas criminating use, in integrating proper seed There is much more that could be said. City, is so busy they scarcely have time to types with the other equipment available, But we invited you here this morning to get operate their own businesses. and finally in bringing the all-important better acquainted-not to listen to a tale We readily admit that control officials are equation of seed costs and its per-acre utility of woe because in our Industry we are blessed here to stay and generally speaking, they're into focus." I like to quote Bryan, because with a membership of good natured, long- very nice people-if-only some of them didn't he's one of our brighter boysl suffering men who are dedicated to what have such vivid imaginations! If a firm is Now I don't mean to imply that regula- they consider a necessary industry. After all, shipping seed into many states today, the tions are a new thing. One hundred fifty it's first, the seed. Food has always played an amount of printing required on the package years ago in Switzerland, they had a law important part in determining the degree can be so extensive the planting season passes which required that at least two men in a of tranquility in the world, so ours is a con- before the buyer has read all the precautions county where seed was sold, were to serve tinuing challenge. We are aware of the po- and mastered the statistics, as inspectors of quality. And then if you tential in a grain of mustard seed and alive This is probably not news to many of you, want to go back to some even earlier regu- to the value of proven quality in seeds of but to emphasize the Importance of seed, lations, this is recorded in Leviticus, "thou every description. We haven't a thing to sell I'd like to mention the National Seed Storage shalt not sow thy field with mingled seeds." you this morning-and I don't know that we Laboratory. Here, the United States Depart- And in Deuteronomy we read, "Thou shalt need your support in any particular area- ment of Agriculture staff is affiliated with not sow thy vinyard with diverse seeds." So but if we should, please keep your doors ajar. Colorado State University's Department of it would seem that none of you seedsmen And don't overlook the fact that the seeds- Agronomy, Botany, Plant Pathology and Hor- could have legally sold a lawn mixture to men's l;an~ the one that's feeding you. ticulture. Under ideal temperature and hu- M e eed mples - -- that trends come about F_ stored and their germinations ntl Y gradually and that the only hope for justice WITHDRAWING FROM TERRITORY maintained by replacement when necessary. comes when we atop to evaluate where we CAPTURED THROUGH AGGRES- This facility came into being in 1958. The have been and where we are going. I remem- SION purpose is to safeguard the valuable germ ber when a firm's reputation depended upon plasm so that no desirable kind of seed is what it did to build it-instead of what (Mr. SNYDER asked and was given allowed to pass out of existence. Much of in- some authority said it could not do. The permission to address the House for 1 terest has been written on this subject and time Is here when the seed industry needs minute and to revise and extend his I merely mention It to show that the Fed- protection more than regulation protection, eral Government, state authorities and seeds- even from the public. Let me cite a couple remarks.) men are engaged in an activity which is of examples. Mr. SNYDER. N. Mr. Speaker, cently vital concern to all people in this nation and A few years ago, we received a letter from Premier ei N. Kosygin recently around the world. In case of a national dis- a New Jersey lawyer to the effect that one spent 40 minutes at the United Nations ester, this seed source would insure a fresh of our chemicals used by a client of his, berating Israel for aggression against start for seed supplies of proven perform- had caused her td lose all of her hair. Well, the Arab nations. During his discussion, ance. This is an exciting undertaking. Our in an era where hair seems so important, we Kosygin belabored the fact that the first industry hru its own n has bandnomnmg Re spent a bad night. But none of our own peo- requirement necessary for a lasting isearch Foundati its puboc has been Search. g this story ple who handled the product daily, had sud- peace in the Middle East is Israel's with- Chairman u our Seed Research Founds- denly become bald, so we did some investi- drawal from captured Arab territory to tion is Dr. W. H. Bragonier, Dean of the thein t discovered that the lady, if that's the lines that existed before the shooting Graduate School at Colorado State Univer- the right term, had never had hair f g birth, but that she had lived all her adult began. sity, and President of the organization is life on complaints to cosmetic firms and This new attitude on the part of the J. R. Huey, another ASTA past president, of finally got over into our bailiwick. Needless Kremlin opens interesting possibilities Granville, Illinois. Basic Research is still to say, she paid her own attorney. for permanent world peace-provided in the picture because our industry A few weeks ago, another woman sent in n e sincere believes there are still many unknowns in $800.00 worth of sales slips and requested the wKremlin hat they nd have t Mr. say. If are sincere the world of seeds. a In What thehave to say. If one is going If I have another assignment, it is to con- refund on seed which failed to grow. The to discuss world peace in terms of cessa- vince you not only that the seed business very thought was downright insulting. An tion of aggression, then surely he must Y investigation in this case showed that the donear mat but also that our industry has woman had a lot about 20 feet square, but consider those nations victimized by magnificent job of policing itself. that she had appropriated a salesperson's Communist aggression since World War The late Robert White, a seedsman from order book and written sales slips to her II. I wonder if Soviet desires for peace Salem, Oregon, and a member of the Oregon heart's content. I ask you, shouldn't the have suddenly State Senate, once made these comments in President put in his cabinet, a Betty Fur- bng to lift otent that r- an an address: "In defense of our industry, if ness to protect industry? y Kosygin is willing to lfthe Iron Cur- were no laws today regulating the sale Speaking of packaging and who doesn't, landlain, that Hungary, Ukraine, Ukr raine, the p Bulgulgari a, , Li th- and distribution of seed, the various state here is one for Betty. At a recent women's - and regional associations, and most certainly club meeting, someone estimated that eighty uania, Czechoslovakia, Rumania, Latvia, the American Seed Trade Association, would percent of those present wore rouge, thirty- Estonia, East Germany, ,and Mongolia. recognize the necessity for establishing such five percent tinted their hair, eighty percent If we are to engage in diatribe about regulations. There is no longer any doubt had permanent waves, ninety percent wore Israeli aggression, let us recall how just but that the buyer's interest demands pro- nail polish, twenty percent wore eye-shadow, 10 short years ago, the people of the tection, The seedsman is therefore not ob- one hundred percent used lipstick, seventy- once free state of Hungary were slaugh- jecting to the existence of laws and regula- five percent plucked their eyebrows and ten tered in the streets by Soviet Inhumanity tions, but merely to their multiplicity and percent wore false eye lashes-the subject to their needless complexities." for discussion that day, was "Deceptive while the world stood idly by and Dr. A. Bryan Clark, a recent president of Packaging!" watched. And then there is that colossal this association, put it this way: "It is well According to the former chaplain of the monument to Communist lack of ag- to remember that the function of marketing Senate, Dr. Frederick Brown Harris, "One of gressiveness, the Berlin Wall. When the is primary and fundamental to the functions the dangers of democracy is the worship of time comes that Mr. Kosygin and his of seed breeding and seed growing, In the the average. The doctrine that all men are hoards of regimented assassins are will- sequence of time, marketing comes last. And created equal is too often interpreted to mean ing to pull down that wall and all the it is our observation that certain govern- that anyone who forges ahead in any realm others they have constructed in a world ments and certain factions within nearly all is a traitor to the common mass from which governments seem to regard the function of he sprang. In a democracy there seems to that longs to be truly free, then he can marketing as having little or no importance be an innate horror of any kind of aristoc- legitimately advise the Government of at all. On the contrary, however, if our ap- racy, but there always has been an aristoc- Israel about her actions. praisal is right, marketing is the piper that racy of brains and energy. The time has come that the world and calls the tune. "While all things fair spring from the we of the United States in "The end objective is increased food pro- common soil, it is from the tall hills of particular begin duction. The partial means to this end is achievement that 'humanity's salvation that it demanding oa the Soviet Union the widest possible use of improved strains comes. A handicap of democracy is con- practice social what it domination of T- and varieties of seed; integrated, of course, formity to the lowest common denominator." political and Sdomiai0ri Of na- th h h ug ere Is an aristocracy a puppet govern- such as, fertilizers, weed and pest controls of brains, energy and imagination, deter- ment, is still enslavement of free men* and more sophisticated farm implements. mined to give the public the best in quality Similarly the acquisition of this PO_ The point is that the marketing phase of that It is possible to produce. We have never litical control, whether by subversion or Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 June 27, 1967 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE 1118097 with the present system under which all of their 84th annual convention. I was commodities pay the same toll on a cubic honored to read to the assembled seeds- foot basis. men and my many colleagues in the The witnesses analyzed the various House and Senate a message from the commodities and came to the conclusion First Lady to Mr. Joseph Harris, my dis- that many commodities would accept tinguished constituent, president of the only a relatively small toll increase and Joseph Harris Seed Co., Rochester, N.Y., beyond that point other means of trans- and retiring president of the American portation or other routes would be hiSeed m and a all our Association, Nat Nation's seedsmen for found. However, it was pointed out that our their fine contributions to the national main agricultural commodities-cotton, beautification program. corn, and wheat-were not in a position Mr. Harris has not only ably led the to find either other routes or other Seed Trade Association as president, he means of transportation and, thus, is a leading citizen of his community as would be particularly vulnerable to any well. substantial toll increase without means The American Seed Trade Association of avoidance. Thus, in the ordinary is one of our Nation's oldest and best course of events, if such a toll system known trade associations. The-seedsmen was imposed, the greatest increases over have proven their willingness and ability the present structure would be directed to aid agriculture both domestically and towards those commodities least able to internationally whenever the need arises. find an alternative to the use of the Their assobition represents an industry canal. Basically, they would be our agri- noted for its ,realistic approach to the cultural commodities and thus, again, problems of this,Nation. We in Congress our costs of doing business would be sub- can contribute mliuTi to solving our coun- stantially increased. try's agricultural problems by building a This is not a figment of my imagina- strong and responsi4'1iartnership with tion. The Panamanians have been press- American seedsmen. We`*ed their wise ing for substantial toll increases during counsel, and they need our help, because the negotiations of this treaty. this vital part of our econom -s under- I repeat again-this proposed treaty going severe stresses in this changing does not seem to be in the best interests rid. ,? of either country. It will only furt a The` A'trieriean Seed Trade AssoQia- ambitions of a few politicians o have tion's message "66-m. yts_terday morning used the canal for all these frears as was humorously yet strongly"-voiced by their main campaign issue as. a, smoke- M. Charles B. Mills, chairman of the screen to obscure the real prob eems of Board of O. M. Scott & Son in Maryville, their country and their peopleople,. This Ohio, a company responsible for beauti- treaty is being offered as a solution to ful lawns throughout the country. h n ' , ur t s differences-o both of our country e As former president of ASIA and pres- contrary, I predict that it will give rise ably pointed up the importance: of good seeds to greater and more serious problems.' ent member of its board of directors, he when he stated "the greatest service which Mr. FLOOD. Mr. Speaker, will the took justifiable pride in the progress the can be rendered to any country is to add a gentlewoman yield? seed industry has made and of its vital useful plant to its culture." This quotation Mrs. SULLIVAN. I yield to the gentle- importance in the world today. will sound familiar to our past ASTA presi- man. For my colleagues who were unable to dent, Bill Herron, since he used It in one of . Mr. FLOOD. I would like to say, Mr. attend yesterday's fellowship breakfast, his The world's future will be dark unless Speaker, I would only hope that the I commend Mr. Mills' wise words to you: more great strides are made in food produc- male Members of this distinguished body Keep your doors ajar to the seedsmen of tion. By the end of this century, the popula- had the intestinal fortitude in dealing our Nation and remember that It's the seeds- tion of the underdeveloped regions of the with this problem that the gentlewoman man's hand that feeds you. globe is expected to more than double. To from Missouri whoIs now addressing us ADDRESS BY CHARLES B. MILLS, AMERICAN SEED feed these masses and .Improve their diet AssoCIATION CONGRESSIONAL BREAKFAST, modestly over the present s,~a.ndards, food from the well ent s,An11 years. Honored guests and fellow workers in the .-supplies Easat, 207% in the Mid East, 238% in The gentlewoman from Missouri is Nmost vital industry: In case you Latin?tmerica and 159% in Africa. By con- chairman of the subcommittee on Mer- Nation's atio people would trast, fd'bc production in these areas as a Marine and Fisheries having juris- didn't know, without us, whole mse my 54% during the past 25 chant breathe nothing but dust, the of hunger and diction over the Panama Canal. If I had have no flowers on their graves. I defy you Years. But I mu0n't bore you with these de- r half dozen men as good as she is, we to find another Industry which can make pressing figures. We want you to go away could take care of this Panama Canal sugfi- Y refreshed from your breakfast and not fam- situation. "Eight years ago`dt mt -row, we, had come ished from my remarks. You've probably Mrs. SULLIVAN. I thank the gentle- together on a similar occasion. Many of you wondered already why I was invited to speak man from Pennsylvania. were here then-some weren't reelected! I'm here. It was for either of two reasons-first, hick was in- I ould or second the committee r s w t CONGRESSMAN HORTON CITES TIMELY REMARKS OF CHARLES B. MILLS AT AMERICAN SEED TRADE ASSOCIATION CONGRES- SIONAL BEEAKFAST (Mr. HORTON asked and was given permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous material.) Mr. HORTON. Mr. Speaker, this morning, I had the pleasure and privi- lege to act as master of ceremonies at the congressional breakfastgiven by the American Seed Trade Association as part o y no one a e going to tell the same s flitted on you at that meeting. If you remem- wanted ignorance represented'.. They figured her it, another little laugh won't hurt you. you people from the hill would feel sorry The husband of a certain lady in northern for us when I got through. New York State, took the hard way out by My major objective is to impress you with jumping in the Niagara River and going over the importance of the seed business, so I the falls. A next door neighbor, known for want to say with due modesty, that we're on saying the wrong thing at all times, was first base. Ours was one of the earliest trade urged by her husband to let the grieving associations, organized in 1883. The purpose widow suffer quietly. "You'll just make mat- was an attempt to solve certain postal prob- ters worse," he told her. "Let her suffer lems with vegetable seeds and to find better quietly!" But after six months passed, she means of improving seed quality. This ob- felt that in the Interest of good neighborll jectives was bearing good fruit long before ness something must be said. So when the any such effort on the part of Government widow responded to her knock, she said; came to light. It would be refreshing if im- "Well Mary, since I saw you last, a lot of proving quality might still be our chief con- water has gone over the dam!" cern. But our energies .now must often be And so it has with us. Since we met here devoted to defending ourselves against over- Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 last, many things have happened, some tragic, some revolting and some merely rou- tine. The Nation has become involved in a ,costly and perplexing conflict, lost a presi- dent by assassination, developed a few hun- dred new inventions, produced better and cheaper seed, made many explorations in outer space, adopted m:edicaxe, given one Congressman an extended vacation, intro- duced hundreds of new songs, livelier dance steps and a whole raft of deodorants. In spite of all this, you're looking surprisingly well, prosperous and happy. This is no small achievement. Of course I wrote this before I saw you, but I won't take it back. All the changes in those eight years have not been progress, but I can truthfully say to our guests that in the seed industry steady and creditable progress has been made. You probably get a stomach full of statistics, so I won't bore you with many. American Agriculture has advanced more - In the past 50 years than in all the prior years of our history. Agriculture employs six million more workers than - the combined employment in transportation, public util- ities, steel and the automobile industry- agriculture assets total 230 billion-a kind of figure which doesn't startle our guests, but astounds their hosts. - When the early settlers of our country cleared the forests and prepared the land for cultivated crops, they were in. urgent need of forage plants for livestock feed. They had depended on wild rye and broomstraw, both natural grasses, but these were poor produc- ers and grazing and droughts hindered nat- ural seeding and wrought great damage to pastures. In due time, supplies of hay were inadequate to provide the winter needs of the colonists' livestock, so attention was turned to "artificial meadows" through the cultivation of improved grasses. Increases in livestock feed developed rapidly supporting ever larger numbers of the livestock which is the foundation of an agrarian economy. Thomas Jefferson, so third President O Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE H 8099 d I June 27, 1967 military force, can be called by no other question is the American Farm Bureau plat eaker, in the ea s togcome, and name than aggression. Federation. others -in the Israeli Foreign minister ob- over the years the Farm SIONA RECORD I hope thaththe se facts been representing itself to conBureau gress, has served the other day: The time has come when we must point Nation, and the American farmer as a convince all Americans-especially our the finger of accusation and truth at the farm organization deeply and exclu- farmers-that the American Farm Soviet Union and say, "You are the only ag- sively devoted to promoting the vast in- Bureau Federation would be more honest gressor in the world today." terests of the American farmer. in its relations with Congress and the There cannot be a double standard of I have made the shocking discovery public if it changed its name to the conduct if nations are to cooperate that the Farm Bureau has not been rep- American Farm Insurance Co. peaceably in this world. If the "super- resenting the American farmer; it has In addition, I plan to look into possible powers" are going to assume leadership been using him. It has been using him to violations of the Lobbying Act resulting for achieving world peace, they must be build one of the largest insurance and from the revelation of these previously prepared to abide by their pronounce- financial empires in the United States. unpublished activities of the Farm ments. Instead, the Soviet Union as- An empire which is bringing great profit Bureau and its officials. to a select handful of men. sumes the attitude "Do as I say, not as Last week the Farm Bureau testified I do: 44, Subcommittee on Rural De- One wanders what direction Kosygin's before the De- Hue Committee on o s f ANDREWS AIR FORCE BASE HOUS- ING ORDER e oratory would have taken If the Arabs velopment o had been victorious and were now in con- Agriculture, of which I am chairman. (Mr. RYAN asked and was given per- trol of Jewish territory. In view of past Since then I have spent a lot of time mission to extend his remarks at this performances, Mr. Kosygin's formula for looking into that organization. My in- point in the RECORD and to include ex- peace in the Middle East appears to be vestigation has revealed the shocking traneous matter.) one of Russian expediency and nothing fact that the American Farm Bureau Mr. RYAN. Mr. Speaker, on June 22, else. Federation is a gigantic, interlocking, 1967, Secretary of Defense McNamara The names have changed; yesterday it nationwide combine of insurance com- announced an order declaring that off- was Berlin, today Israel-and tomorrow panies with total assets of almost $1 bil- base apartments in the Andrews Air who knows? But trite Communist dia- lion. I have evidence that the granting Force Base area, which discriminate, log remains inevitably unvaried. Let Mr. Of membership in the Farm Bureau is would be off limits to servicemen. Kosygin learn that old American cliche, purely and simply a device for selling I have been concerned with this dis- "Actions speak louder than words"-and insurance and other services. graceful situation for some time. No then the world can begin to take his pro- While we have not yet uncovered all American should be denied decent hous- nouncements seriously. Let the Soviet of its assets, companies, and business ing because of his race. It is doubly gall- Union pull down its walls of insincerity connections, or even all of its insurance ing when taxpayers' money-through and falsehood, of enslavement and ter- companies, we do already know that in Federal spending-indirectly maintains ror. Then-and only then-can the addition to its insurance businesses, the discriminatory practices, as in the An- world be truly free. Farm Bureau also operates it multi- drews case. There are other military in- million-dollar mutual fund dealing in stallations throughout the country where - THE LOBBYING ACT (Mr. RESNICK asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. RESNICK. Mr. Speaker, a number of years ago Congress realized that indi- viduals and organizations appearing be- fore it might be tempted to influence legislation for their own private gain rather than for the good of the Nation. With that in mind, Congress Passed the Lobbying Act so that everyone would know the nature of individuals and orga- nizations attempting to influence pend- ing legislation. This law requires every lobbying orga- nization to file an affidavit with the clerks of the House and Senate, review- ing the sources of its income, its expendi- tures, its purposes, and its chief person- nel. The intent of the law is clear: to let the public know who is influencing what legislation, and for what purpose. Thus, for example, when the AFL-CIO comes down to Washington to influence legis- lation by testifying before the various committees of this distinguished House, we know who they are, whose interests they serve, and what their purpose is. When an organization .1nisrepresents it- self or its purposes, or fails to properly reveal its true interests or the sources of its funds, the law must deal with it. It is my duty today, Mr. Speaker, to disclose to the Nation that one of the largest and best-known organizations in American life has for many years been masquerading as one kind of organiza- tion when in reality it has been some- stocks, bonds, and other securities. similar conditions exist. Similar meas taken to end such discrim- t b e Let us look at that typical American ures mus farmer, Mr. Charles Shuman, president ination. This is made more urgent by of the American Farm Bureau Federa- the failure of the Congress to pass a fair tion. Not long ago, Mr. Shuman was fea- housing measure. tured in one of our national, picture On May 9, 1967, I wrote the Secretary magazines, dressed in overalls and wav- of Defense urging that housing in which ing an ear of corn. Mr. Shuman must discrimination is practiced be declared certainly rank as the king of all gentle- off limits, and one June 9, 1967, wrote to men farmers. His home is in Chicago. No Brig. Gen. Douglas C. Polhamus, the base doubt he occasionally visits his picture- commander, urging prompt action. I am book midwestern farm. But in addition pleased that the order has been issued. to heading the American Farm Bureau The Department of Defense has a re- Federation, he also happens to be presi- sponsibility to American servicemen to dent of the Farm Bureau Mutual Fund insure that equal opportunities in every and the American Agricultural Mutual area are available to them wherever they Insurance Co. may be serving. I can assure you that Mr. Shuman is I should also like to commend not unique. Virtually every officer and ACCESS, an organization which has director of the American Farm Bureau worked diligently for the promulgation Federation is an officer or director of of this kind of order. one or more insurance companies. Their The civilian agencies of the Federal life insurance companies alone-not in- Government also have a responsibility eluding their many casualty and fire in- to insure that no discrimination occurs surance companies-have over $3.5 bil- within their purview. Recently, I was lion of insurance in force. shocked to learn that the Federal Com- Our farmers have been taken in, lock, munications Commission does not have stock, and silo. No one can tell me that regulations prohibiting discrimination the interests of the overworked and by its licensees. I have urged the Chair- underpaid American farmer are the same man of the Federal Communications as billion-dollar insurance companies. In Commission to use his power to eliminate fact, I would say these interests are usu- discrimination in employment. ally in head-on conflict. What I cannot Mr. Speaker, I include at this point in understand is why an organization like the RECORD my correspondence with Sec- the Farm Bureau has been able to pull retary of Defense McNamara and Gen- the wool over our farmers' eyes for so eral Polhamus, the base commander of many years, and why it has been allowed Andrews Air Force Base: to appear before countless congressional MAY 9, 1967. committees over the years misrepresent- Ron. ROBERT S. MCNAMARA, ing itself as a farm organization. Who Secretary, Department of Defense, Washing- can even begin to estimate the damage ton, D.C. this subterfuge has done to the cause of Chairman DEAR . an ETARY: Mr.. called Charles American farmers? Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 thing quite different. The organization in H 5100 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE June 27, 1967 has brought to my attention a problem which I consider to-be-very important. JvNE 9, 1967. guarantee that the individual's voice will rig. According to Mr. Jones, there are several Anddrews Air Force gaseoLxAMUS, be heard. places in the United States where racial dis- Camp Springs, Md. Mr. Speaker, today as in the past, we crimination is practiced in reference to DEAR GENERAL POLRAMI7S: I am writing to have patriotic dissension and, unfortu- available housing for serviceman. I know that call your attention to the problem of racial nately, we also have those self-expressive the Department has conducted a survey and discrimination in off-base housing in the detractors of all that good in our is aware of this problem. Mr. Jones suggests area surrounding Andrews Air Force Base. American form of 9;oPernisment, that the most effective way of dealing with I have received a number of letters from air- Generations of American men and this problem is to declare any housing de- men and their families expressing outrage women have fought and died to preserve velopments, apartment houses, and mobile that this deplorable situation should exist. home courts whose owners discriminate I share their indignation. the liberty, freedom, and form of govern- against Negroes as "off-limits" for service I have recently received a reply to my ment that our wise and farsighted fore- personnel. Naturally, such an order would inquiry from the Deputy Assistant Secretary fathers gave to us. not affect those who are already housed in of Defense for Civil Rights and Industrial The history of American citizens, one such residencies. Relations, Mr. Moskowitz, in which he notes and all; the history of national will to For the future, however, it would seem that Deputy Secretary Vance's memorandum of responsible self-government; and the the threat of putting a home or apartment April 11, 1967, entitled "Equal Opportunity history of our Nation based on unity with house under the sanction of "off-limits" in Off-Base Rental Housing," which makes would force owners to open their housing to the responsibility of Base Commanders clear, diversity clearly are embodied in the all. This is particularly true as it applies to According to Mr. Moskowitz's letter to me, symbol of the Stars and Stripes. those landlords who have purposely situated a copy of which is ybase com- The timelessness and the timeliness their buildings near military installations to manders hav athg u 9yt'"request the of our flag shall never be lost on the true provide housing for servicemen. approv Sf the Secretaries of Military De- patriot, whether he agrees or dissents I would appreciate hearing your opinion p_Amnen for imposition in the off-limits with passing policy - or passing public of this proposal and whatever other proposals anotion in cases of discrimination against opinion. Only the detractors of all that you may have to eliminate once and fora personnel." this illegal discrimination. i know that you will share my concern America stands for would defile or dese- With best wishes , about discrimination against those who are crate the American flag. Sincerely, serving our country, and I will appreciate WILLIAM F RYAN our r t . y p omp attention to this matter. Member of Congress. With kindest regards, (Mr. TAFT (at the request of Mr. ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE, rv av 51 YLi wca permission to Washington. D.C. Mav 19. 1097 WILLIAM F. RYAN, extend his remarks at this point in the Hon. WILLIAM F. RYAN, W a.vnyress. MECVRD and to include extraneous House Of ReDrR.VPntfl.fb11-V matter.) Washington, D.C. THE'lti'LAG: SYMBOL OF OUR [Mr. TAFT'S remarks will appear DEAR MR. RYAN: Secretary McNamara has HISTORY hereafter in the Appendix.] asked that I reply to your letter concerning the suggestion of Mr. J. Charles Jones that (Mrs. HECKLER of Massachusetts . --~? the "off-limits" sanction be employed (at the request df Mr. REINECxE) was (Mr, KUPFERMAN (at the request of against owners of housing who discriminate granted pernlission"i extend his re- Mr. REINECKE) was granted permission against Negro servicemen. marks at this oi t 1 p n rr EcoRD and to extend his remarks at this point in Numerous communications have been re- to include extraneous matter. the RECORD and to include extraneous ceived requesting that all housing that is Mrs. HECKLER of Massachu,et . r. matter.) not available to servicemen because of their - At supported H.R. 10480, which outlaws the ` iwrx. hereafter um N'S remarks will ap- thoriity tnotre est the approval have the See- intentional desecration of our American ar hereafter in the Appendix.] Y q pprov al of the Sec- retaries of the Military Departments for im- flag. This legislation was passed to pro-,.-' - - position of the off-limits sanction in cases tact the dignity of our flag and the spirit CONWAY, MASS. IS 200 YEARS OLD of discrimination against personnel. for which it stands. (Mr. CONTE (at the request of Mr. It is considered that the mandatory, na- Mr. was granted permission to ex- tionwide application of the off-limits sane- . Speaker, this is a symbol of our tion-with a view toward eliminating racial heritage. All Americans share a certain tend his remarks at this point in the discrimination in housing available ton,,,,_ nobility which fLpds fts beginnings in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- tary personnel-would be of quest a e -N r,rth AtIantic winter, which men ter.) effectiveness and would raise signifies: legal endured to first reach Plymouth Rock. Mr. CONTE. Mr. Speaker, it is with issues, both as to procedures and enforce= The shot fired at Concord was heard great pleasure that I bring to the atten- ability. To invoke such an action, without around the world and this heritage grew, tion of my colleagues the bicentennial careful analysis of the specific needs and There were bloody footprints left in the celebration of the beautiful New England ch area coul pondit ons inethe resident aldstatus of thou- snow at Valley Forge, and this heritage village of Conway, Mass. This lovely and sands of Defense families. Particularly rele- grew. John Hancock, John Adams, and. tranquil hamlet, nestled in the hills of vent from a legal viewpoint are require- the other leaders of our revolution gave Franklin County, portrays the courage, ments of due process in evaluating each fac- meaning to this heritage, T bey roused character, and fortitude of our pioneer tual situation. Furthermore, such action the hopes of those who wouZ"4se ?# ancestors, and mirrors the progress of would downgrade, rather than enhance, the throughout the world. ^. our country as it moves into today's responsibility of each base commando,' +? achieve our objectives. Only full commit- Can we today say that our flag stands II ern age or puniness and technology. went at every level of command to the prop- for naught and that patriotism is old Iwo like to share with my colleagues Os on of equal treatment will bring the fashioned? I hardly think so. As a Con- alights nd friends a brief review of the high- type of progress which is being sought. gresswoman, I represent American men a of the and ath people who .Enclosed for your information.isa recent and women who have sacrificed their hail it as Conway ay and the people who announcement of a program designed to time and energy to continue the strength hail it as home. s bring about equal opportunity and treat. and freedom of America. Pensively and Conway's origins. In from pr en eel ment in housing. Under this program, instal- purposefully they know, and act patriot- Court utrt of War days. In 1e the General lation commanders will determine the ex- C Massachusetts enlarged Deer- tent to which facilities are available to all ically, to continue the best form of gov- field's territory 'T miles westward into military personnel and their dependents ernment and society yet devised by man. the western woods," an area which is without discrimination on the basis of race, These citizens feel proud of the con- now Conway. The first man, however, to color, creed, or national origin and attempt temporary and historical evidence of our brave the wilds of these woods was Cyrus to reduce and eliminate such discrimination living Constitution. For them the flag Rice, in 1762. With his farm he started whenever it is found. symbolizes past and present achieve- I appreciate this opportunity to inform merits which often have resulted from the the Bathe for o or Conway veand open set- you of our actions and of our plans for the momentous decisions in the face of great pooh o l whey brave and hardy ohn future. tiers to follow. As the Reverend John Sincerely, controversy. Emerson, the first settled minister de- JACK MOSKOWrrz, The truth of freedom, the right of sc-ibed these early pioneers: Deputy Assistant Secretary (Civil equality before the -law, and the safe- These were men, who planted themselves Rights and Industrial Relations). guards of our check-and-balance system on new and unimproved plots of land, and Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 S 8970 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE June 27, 1967 dependent and has to look for a job or go on to college. In some cases, he gets married and takes on the added responsibility of raising a family. In other words, he gains what no high school diploma can give him, a sense of,judgment and responsibility. In summation, I contend that lowering the voting age at this time would be a drastic mistake not only in Wyoming but all over the country. I have no doubt and a firm hope that in another ten years the voting age will be lowered if only because of the bet- ter educational "rounding" a student will obtain then but also because by then a young person will have more say in our gov- ernment and will know how to say it. Per- haps in another ten years there will be more socially mature persons at an earlier age, but the fact remains that today no interest is taken in giving a student a strong founda- tion in Judgment and civics. Unless this is improved there is little chance that a person of eighteen will be able to vote and vote in the right way. THE TENSE MIDDLE EAST Mr. McGEE. Mr. President, the time or basic steps to alleviate the always tense Middle East situation is right now. As columnist Howard K. Smith wrote in the Washington Star: The stunning Israeli victory has made things fluid. But they are already beginning to congeal again. Mr. Smith's basic suggestion is a point well made and well worth repeating. He suggests that Israel, as a result of its overwhelming victory, is in the best posi- tion to exercise generosity and move to- ward solution of the Palestinian refugee problem. The Arabs, then, should recog- nize Israel's national existence, and the great powers should move in concert to damp down the local conflicts of the re- gion. In this way, as President Johnson has suggested, each party can make con- cessions in nonessentials in order to se- cure what is essential-and that, of course, is an end to conflict. If this is not done, the Middle East will more than likely flare up again. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that Mr. Smith's column, entitled "Basic Suggestions for a Mideast Settle- ment," be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: BASIC SUGGESTIONS FOR A MIDEAST SETTLEMENT The Arab-Israeli conflict is complicated, but there is one simple thing that can be said about it-and that happens to be the basic thing: The first elemental requirement for a suc- cessful policy anywhere is that it meet the basic test of plain, practical workability. Yet in this dispute, both sides base their policies on assumptions as unreal as the expectation that water will run uphill. The Arabs expect Israel to accept national extermination, though Israel is strong enough to prevent it. Mr. Kosygin's proposal to the United Nations amounts simply to having Israel, though victorious, behave as though she had been defeated-and, though she is much the strongest nation in the region, his resolution would have her act as though she Is the weakest. And the Israelis expect the fiercely proud and hypersensitive Arabs to shrug their shoulders and live with defeat and humilia- tion-though 99 percent of Arab territory and 99 percent of their people remain intact, and they have friends and neighbors willing to stake them to another, and another, and another, try at wiping out the shame. Nations simply do not behave the way each side expects the other to behave, and they are not about to begin behaving that way now. So, the latest Israeli victory, however com- plete it seems, is likely to intensify the con- flict rather than lead to a settlement. More- over, since the Israelis have provided a text- book example of how to win-i.e., get in the first paralyzing smack before your opponent can even get his planes off the ground-the situation is more volatile and prone to ex- plosion now than it was before. The Arabs can be expected to begin re- training armies in remote areas of the vast territory available to them, far from Israel, and to bring their forces within effective striking distance only when ready for the next showdown. And do not count on the Arabs remaining militarily inept; history amply demonstrates that defeat Is a more effective teacher than victory. And the Israelis, knowing all this, will be readier to strike the first blow before the Arabs are ready, In his speech last week, President John- son stated the only possible terms on which settlement can be approached: Negotiations in which each partner to the quarrel, nudged heavily by the great powers, makes substan- tial concessions in non-essentials in order to secure what It regards as essential. The space occupied by the Israeli nation is not essential to the Arabs. They must be Induced to recognize its national existence and to end their permanent state of war with Israel. (Incidentally, their insistence that they were already at war with Israel makes hash of their charge that Israel committed aggression this month; if war already existed, Israel was just getting in the first blow in a new battle, the way the Russians got In the first blow in their Stalingrad offensive.) And the Israelis have to assuage Arab pride and make amends ("America will play her part," the President said) to the wretchedly treated Arab refugees who once owned 94 percent of the area that is now Israel. That will call for an act of humility by the Israelis, but it is a small price to pay for acknowl- edged nationhood. The first step should be taken by Israel. Overwhelming victory, is the best basis for copious generosity. The immediate next step should be taken by the two great powers. The rapid progress of Red China towards becoming a thermo- nuclear power should prod them to begin immediately taking steps to damp down local conflicts which China has always exploited and will soon be able to exploit fatally. The stunning Israeli victory has made things fluid. But they are already beginning to congeal again, If there Is going to be con- structive action, no more time can be allowed to pass. JOHN KENNETH GALBRAITH'S "THE NEW INDUSTRIAL STATE" RE- VIEWED Mr. McGEE. Mr. President, former Ambassador John Kenneth Galbraith, who needs no introduction to the Sen- ate, has written an immensely important new book entitled "The Industrial State." On Sunday, Carroll Quigley, writing in the Washington Star, provided us with a solid, well defined review, opening with the advice that the hook be read, ana- lyzed, and discussed by citizens. Mr. Galbraith's book is a warning, per- haps, accompanied by suggestions for re- form, and constitutes a major commen- tary upon our American way of life. I ask unanimous consent that Mr. Quig- ley's review be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the reviev was ordered to be printed in the RECORD as follows: - GALBRAITH'S NEW BOOK ON INDUSTRIAL STATI HAS STARTLING IMPACT (By Carroll Quigley) This Is an immensely important book. I should be read, analyzed, and unemotionalll discussed, not by economists, but by citizens The economists, like most academicians, a hampered by their specialist training iron seeing their subject in its full social context and will be particularly offended by thb volume, whose lessons, if generally accepted would destroy economics as a separate Intel. lectual discipline, or, at least, would reduce it back to political economy from which I emerged in the eighteenth century. But thn warnings of this book should be considerec by citizens who must pay the price In free. dom, comfort, safety, and blood, if the de scription of our economy and of "the Ameri can Way of Life" presented here is true h only a major part. According to Galbraith, the American econ omy consists of two quite different economi systems: "the entrepreneuria economy" o over eleven million enterprises, largely con trolled by owners and working in a competi Live system to "maximize profits" which wil go to these owners; and a mega-econom; (which he calls "the industrial economy") o a few hundred super-corporations, whit] dominate the whole economy and all aspect of our lives and are making the future ii which the whole world must live. The tw, economic systems are totally different, th competitive one almost helpless in the mar ket which it cannot control, and threatene by government, labor, competitors, and th whims of consumers, while the mega-econ omy, controlled by a bureaucratic mana gerial group (Galbraith calls it "the tech nostructure"), which seeks power, not profit: and has been so successful in creating a: antonomous area of such power that it cat plan its own prices, production, and expan Sion, and has either neutralized or aliie with the government, the owners, its com petitors, and outside financiers, so that I can pass the costs of higher taxes, wage; costs, or even dividends onto the public b simply raising prices. It seeks profits only t the degree necessary to satisfy the stock holders, pay these needed expenditures, an, retains the rest to finance the corporation' unremitting drive to expand its operation so that all forces capable of threatening it autonomy and freedom of action may b controlled or eliminated. The two elements of the super-corpora tion's economic environment which it can not control are (1) aggregate demand, tha is the total purchasing power in the com munity available to buy Its products; an {2) possible shifts in consumers' tastes whit] might leave its products unwanted. The firs has been reduced by an alliance betweei the mega-economic technostructure and th government, under which the latter sees i, it that its fiscal policies and its own pur chases provide a market for the goods th mega-economy produces. The second is con trolled by the mega-economy's expenditur of billions of dollars for the mental condt tioning of consumers to the point where , well-financed advertising campaign can cre ate needs, even urgent needs, which were never conceived of before in human history To this end we are systematically brain washed, and our whole way of life is being re-shaped, distorted, and corrupted to pro vide markets for the mega-structure. Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 Zane 27, 1967 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE ,..s a part of the contest each student is required to complete an essay on should the Voting Age in the United States Be Lowered to 18?" and each year itm impressed with the depth of under- -t:tnding and the dedication to our dem- D(ratic principles displayed by these oung people In their essays. This topic _s one of vital interest to this age group, a~ad their essays reflect sound reasoning which should be of interest to us all. Of course, it would be impossible for everyone to read all these essays, but I think some of the most outstanding ones selected by an impartial panel. of three judges should receive wider circulation, Emd I ask unanimous consent that two of these essays, written by Cozette Ann Johnson, of Basin, Wyo., and Daryl :3onicelli, of Kemmerer, Wyo., which re- ~lelved honorable mention in the MCGEE Senate internship contest, be printed in enough to earn money, does that mean they are mature enough to vote? Other arguments presented were that a person old enough to be judged by a court's harsh laws, should be old enough to vote. Another was that the 18-year-old today Is much better Informed and more highly edu- cated than the 21-year-old living at the time when the Constitution was written. The youths that are civic-minded will staq_..xlit way; those who are interested andormed will not change. These youths will probably become even more so in the fears between The poll I took In oi. school among stu- dents between 15 avid 18 showed 54% sup- porting the lowerjsi'g of the voting age, while 46% were ag tist it. Although more ap- proved it, t e opposed have, it seems to me, sirs r, more convincing arguments than doAhe others. Th9y" believe that they should continue their` education so that when they reach 21, the RECORD. f cisions. Also, at 18 most people are still There being no objection, the essa ( accepting their parents political views as were ordered to be printed in the REco, D, their own. aSfoUoWS' At 2i,every1person wants to bean individ SHOULD THE VOTING AGE IN THE I/NITED STATES BE LOWERED TO 18? l (By Cozette Ann Johnson, Basin,}4yo.) The question of lowering the votj'ng age to 18 is one which has been debatedifor many years. I, myself, am opposed to tat enaot- ment by the state legislatures. This is, of course, a matter each state must i determine To make mandatory uniform for Itself . voting age would require a cons motional Another youth wrote that before 21, most amendment. `. people act on impulse without realizing the with the crowd. They prefer to follow the group rather than to make a decision for themselves contrary to the group. They also felt that the person voting should have a "civic conscience" and that all the young people don't have it. Only a person who has been independent or who is responsible for a family's living realizes of my age are influenced--how passionately, n+~Cr cations but about how good looking or "cool" but temporarily, we attach ourselves to a The Gallup Poll taken in 1965 revealed "they.. are. When the selfsame student gets "cause" and how difficult it Is for us to dis- tinguish the true from the false, we can readily understand why the demagogue, the dictator, and the hypnotic orator have been able, throughout history, to influence the youth of the land, as they did during the times when Hitler and Mussolini were in power. It is not mere accident that at the present time the Communists are concentrat- ing upon our youth in order to acquire power and influence. For sound psychological rea- sons, the age 21 has long been considered the beginning of maturity. There have been a number of non-sequi- turs used in arguments favoring the estab- lishment of the 18-year-old voting age. A poll taken in our school revealed several of these as quite common. "If he's old enough to fight and to the for our country, he's old enough to vote." The qualities that are required for a good soldier we hardly applicable to a good voter. Instant obedience, quick action upon command, the unquestioning attitude at all times, quick reflexes, and physical fitness are requisites of our military men. Mature scrutiny, on the other band, - as well as critical appraisal of all recommendations, an unbiased point of view, and a philosophy that considers the good of the majority are essential for effec- tive voting. So, to say that a youth Is old enough to vote because he is old enough to fight, hardly follows the principles of logic. "If he's old enough to marry and to pay taxes, he's old enough to vote." In some states the age of consent to marry Is as low -as 18 years. Statistics show that the divorce rate among such marriages is higher than it is among marriages of more mature people. The fact of emotional and psychological ma- turity, therefore, does not follow the low age of consent. Many a girl and boy have earned enough each year to pay the required taxes. Many girls could earn money by baby-sit- ting; many boys could earn money by con- struction work. Just because these young people are old enough to marry or old that a majority of Americas adults believe out of soupol and tries to apply these philos- that the voting age should be lowered-5T% ophies in a'31*.pclection, he is going to get the registering their support, 39% in disagree- shook of his 1i!e. and will wonder which way ment, and 4% having no opinion; this has to turn. Part of`ahis "error lax judgment" remained constant for 11 years. Though this comes from the lac of social education and is the representative opinion of many adults, experience of the stu ent. I say this because those that have the power to change the vot- I feel that schools sh uld offer a student a ing age don't-because they feel that it strong course in fat education and would not be a benefitto our country. Many emphasize more strongly the civic part of state legislatures have rejected the proposal life instead of always tbje academic and sci- of granting suffrage to 18-year-olds. At pres- entific part. If this were; the case today, per- ent only two states, Georgia and Kentucky, haps an eighteen year bld person would be permit voting at 18, one state, Alaska, at 19, qualified to vote; unf6rtunakely it is not. and one state, Hawaii, at 20. It is equally Considering how muci stress is put on prac- interesting to note that nearly every rep- tical things in high Vehool, I think that more resentative democracy has a minimum vot- attention should paid to rounding out a ing age of at least 21. This is no accident, student's educa n by teaching him how to for the history of representative govern- be a well inf ed and responsible citizen. nient-based on the concept of consent by Another estion to be considered is when the governed-has proven the need for po- or at v~kMt age are we socially mature? It litical and social maturity, and a greater Is ha to pick a specific year or period when emotional stability than is possessed by the t happens. Some people never mature, 18-year-old. By the time they are 21, most me mature early and some late, but it is will have matured and become civic,/ hard to draw even a feasible date at which minded-then they will be ready to we all, on the average, mature or grow up By waiting, the vote, a great privile and socially. Someone might say that this is ir- responsibility, has not been risked those relevant to the issue at hand, but I might incapable of preserving it. Don't ou agree ask them why they picked a year like eight- that this wait would be wort it? een-for military conscription. Because it is an even figure? Or because- it seemed like S 8969 old person to vote conscientiously, but I do believe that the average person develops a sense of judgment and responsibility' etween the ages of eighteen and twenty-one. This is the time when most of us go out on our own, develop our ideas of life, and begin our sepa?xate'GOCation Someone who is for lowering the voting "iige to eighteen might point out that at this age one is eligible for the draft and active duty in Vietnam. This is very true, but if they were to say that it takes judgment and common sense to pull E6 trigger, I would have to disagree with them. Anyone who is physi- cally fit and reasonably intelligent can fight in a battle, but it takes real honest and wise judgment to choose the leaders of your gov- ernment with the thought that they may end this conflict In Vietnam and maybe larger conflicts to come. This is not to say that the men in Vietnam are not qualified to vote, but if someone were to say that fighting is a prerequisite for voting, I would disagree with them heartily. It takes a per- be a critical judge of human character to be a good citizen and an able voter. The person who can do both of these things well Is well qualified to be a voter. In my opinion, this sense of judgment is developed after leaving high school and not during high school since a person meets more people with whom he can try out thisnew sense when he has left school and has been exposed to the world. Also In high school, a boy or girl is not judged on ability and talent but more on popularity. This fact alone gives an average high school student a twisted idea of what an election is all about. It is more of a popu- larity contest than an election. When voting for a class president or secretary, a student will not normally think about their qualifi- (By Daryl Boniceili /Kemmerer, Wyo.) to estimate when we will be socially mature. In my opinion, th voting age should not The best psychologist In the world could not be lowered to eighteen years of age. I do tell us exactly and at what precise instant not feel this way ecause a person who is we are going to come to social maturity, and eighteen is menta y incapable of voting com- I challenge anyone else for that matter to pared to a pers who is twenty-one years even give an approximate average year when of age. On the contrary, in some cases an a normal person is ready to vote. This brings eighteen year o d person is more Intelligent up the other side of the question as to why than a twenty-pne year old person, but there a person must be twenty-one years old to are such things as worldly experience, re- vote. Someone might say that setting the sponsibility, dnd good judgment which in minimum voting age at twenty-one is hardly most cases cannot be taught in a classroom any different than setting it at eighteen. and are not ,wholly inbred into a person's There Is only a three year difference between character when he is eighteen. I am not say- these two ages, but a lot of things happen ing that it is Impossible for an eighteen year to a person during this time. He becomes in- Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 June 27, 1967 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE might write the following words about the United States in the year 1967: "It was a time of crisis and challenge for the United States. While seeking to improve its own standards and redefine its own rights at home, that nation was tested as never be- fore, in its pronouncements that policies to help extend human rights to other areas of the world." And then, in conclusion, we would hope that the historian would set down this para- graph: "America met the test." There are those who say history cannot be made; it must be accepted. But we Americans have never looked upon human history with fatalism or a sense of despair. We have never written off the fu- ture to the winds of chance and the whims of nature, It is good to know history. It is even better to make it. But before the act must come the vision. What are the rights-and what are the corresponding responsibilities-which man may envision in the century ahead, and which he may work toward today? Man's past rights, as previously defined, have most largely protected him against co- ercion by his government. But in a world where destruction is only a half-hour away, as the intercontinental missile flies, we all know that man's rights are affected. by forces far beyond those pos- sessed by his own immediate government. None of us needs to be reminded of that fact this week. We know that every major event-or trend-taking place on this earth sends ripples outward to all other places. All this is a way of saying that this truly is one world, and will become even more so. It is thus clear that, if we wish man's rights to be nourished and not to wither, we must move beyond the goal of merely helping him resist the incursions of his im- mediate government. We must, too, move beyond the business of the protection of rights to a more positive doctrine-toward their assertion. In short, we must help man become not just protected, but liberated, Does this seem to be new and revolution- ary doctrine? It is revolutionary. But it is hardly new. It is, in fact, the doctrine of Thomas Jefferson--doctrine that proclaims "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" as the inalienable rights of all men. Life that is more than mere existence. Liberty that is not only proclaimed, but practiced. Happiness that Is found in only the full and rich ilfe of men who are both secure and free. We know through our own experience that the rights of man are never real unless they are constantly reasserted. We have seen what happens to them when they are left to fend for themselves. We know in our hearts that the rights of man are a never-ending unfinished busi- ness, just as America is a nation never- finished, a destination never quite reached. The quest for the rights of man can never end at our own doorway. Nor can it be pursued in any narrow, protective sense. Therefore, I hope you will not consider me presumptuous if I say that, here and now, we as Americans must dedicate ourselves to a new Bill of Rights and Responsibilities for the 21st Century-rights and reasponsibili- ties which fit new times and circumstances. Let us raise our sights beyond the past and present. Let us declare ourselves for the future rights which one day all men share: The right to peace-so that man may live and hope free from the threat of those who would march to power. The right to justice-so that man may stand before his peers and his society on truly just and equal basis with his neighbor. The right to free expression-so that man may speak and be heard, despite the deci- sions and beliefs of any temporary compact majority. The right to the search for knowledge-so that no man may remain another's slave through the denial of skill or education. The right to public accountability-so that man may remain the master of the state, rather than the state become the master of man. The right to a meaningful role in society- so that man may follow his own cadence and live with self-respect and dignity among his fellow citizens. The right to full opportunity-so that man may lift himself to the limit of his ability, no matter what the color of his skin, the tenets of his religion, or his so-called social class. The right to public compassion-so , that man may live with the knowledge that his health, his well-being, his old-age and lone- liness are the concern of his society. The right to movement and free associa- tion-so that man may freely move and choose his friends without coercive restraints. The right to privacy-so that man may be free of the heavy hand of the watchers and listeners. The right to rest and recreation-so that the necessity of labor not be permitted to cripple human development. These are the rights we seek-and must continue to seek-to make alive and real in our own nation. These are the rights, I be- lieve, which we can do no less than seek for our brothers in mankind. These rights will not be achieved at home, or in the world, without the exercise of con- sonant responsibility by men who would possess them. Then what are the responsibilities of mod- ern man? The responsibility to participate-lest critical initiatives and decisions be left to those who would bend them to their own use. The responsibility to speak out-lest silence in the face of injustice be interpreted as its acceptance. The responsibility of public service-lest service be to self rather than fellow man. The responsibility to support the rule of law-lest the law of the jungle become the law of human behavior. The responsibility to protect ideals in the face of force-lest ideals be lost and violence be spread. The responsibility to respect and defend the rights of others-lest freedom become license, and opportunity become coercion. And these latter responsibilities, I might add, are nowhere more clearly spelled out than in two remarkable documents for the future: The Charter of the United Nations and the recent Encyclical of his Holiness, Pope Paul VI. Both of these documents point the way to the future responsibilities in this world of the United States and other free nations. They point the way to the creative, con- structive work that will be necessary if peace with freedom is ever to be achieved-the work of nation-building, of peace-keeping, of self-sacrifice in the cause of fellow man. I know there are certain "realists" who be- lieve both the United Nations Charter and the Pope's Encyclical to be the documents of dreamers. That they may be. But they are also realistic. For I believe it Is most unrealistic to ex- pect man to survive through the years ahead if these documents are not heeded, and in the specific. It is clear: The rights of each man must by necessity be limited by the rights of others and by the just-demands of the general wel- fare. Yet, within those limits, the possibili- ties of making men truly free are today but barely touched. The first step is to have a vision of the S 8973 rights we seek. The second step is to re- sourcefully find the means to their attain- ment. The third step is to have the courage to use those means to their attainment. The third step is to have the courage to use those means until the vision Is achieved. I have faith that America has within it- self vision ... and resourcefulness ... and courage. I give you the Words of Woodrow Wilson: "This is not America because it is rich. This is not America because it has set up for a great population great opportunities for material prosperity. America is a name which sounds in the ears of men everywhere as a synonym with individual opportunity because it is a synonym of individual liberty." I have faith that we shall not be diverted, at home or in the world, by the temporary crises and distractions which tempt men to infringe on the rights of others or to aban- don their responsibilities. And I have faith that the year 2000 will dawn on a world not of emptiness and dev- astation ... not of oppression and confor- mity ... not of self-indulgence and mate- rialise; . . . but a world in which each man stands free and equal in his search for the happier, better life than can be his. That is the promise of the 21st century. And th,,at Is the promise of America. MILWAUKEE JOURNAL PRAISES PRESIDENT'S MIDEAST POSTURE Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, once again the Milwaukee Journal has hit the nail on the head in highlighting the essence and extolling the wisdom of President Johnson's position on the Mid- east crisis, As an editorial in the June 20 issue of the- Journal points out, the President has taken a realistic, hard- headed approach to the situation, rec- ognizing that "the Israelis will always toe the brink of war if they insist on hanging on to all the Arab lands they won" while at the same time asserting that Israel should not give back any land until certain guarantees are granted. These guarantees includes free passage through the Gulf of Aqaba, limits on the arms race, and political independence and territorial integrity for all. I ask unanimous consent that the Jour- nal editorial be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: REALISM ON MIDDLE EAST President Johnson's fine statement Mon- day on the middle east crisis establishes a constructive, realistic foundation for United States policy there. Instead of reiterating the bland proclama- tion that this country respects the territorial integrity of all parties to the dispute, the president clearly charted a course the United States hopes to pursue in trying to restore stability and peace to the area. That course rests on at least two key reali- ties: That the Israelis have convincingly clobbered their Arab enemies and hold a powerful hand for future bargaining; that the Israelis will always toe the brink of all- out war if they Insist on hanging on to all the Arab lands they won last week. So most of the lands must be given back. But not, as the president stated, before cer- tain guarantees are granted: Free passage through the Gulf of Aqaba; recognition of the "rights of national life" for the Jewish state; greater justice for the million or so Arab refugees; limits on the arms race; polit- ical independence and territorial integrity for all. Any settlement that ignores even one of these crucial conditions is almost cer- tainly bound to fail, Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 S 8974 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE June 27, 1967 Compared with the president's sensible and restrained remarks, the United Nations address of Soviet Premier Kosygin was a cloud of, guff. The events of recent days un- doubtedly helped dictate these respective postures. The Russians' clients lost; ours won. The one glimmer of hope that emerged from Kosygin's diplomatic theatrics was his acknowledgment that Israel has a right to live. That raises possibilities for negotiation. If Kosygin can only impress his conviction on his Arab friends, the dark middle east tunnel may yet produce a flicker of light. CONCLUSION OF MORNING BUSINESS The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. SPONG in the chair). Is there further morning business? If not, morning busi- ness is closed. PUBLIC DEBT LIMIT Mr. SMATHERS. Mr. President, I move that the Senate proceed to con- sideration of Calendar No. 344, House bill 10867. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The bill will be stated by title for the informa- tion of the Senate. The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. A bill (H.R. 10867) to increase the public debt limit set forth in section 21 of the Second Liberty Bond Act, and for other pur- poses. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The ques- tion is on agreeing to the motion of the Senator from Florida. The motion was agreed to, and the Senate proceeded to consider the bill. Mr. SMATHERS. Mr. President, this bill, H.R. 10867, provides a permanent debt ceiling of $358 billion to take effect on July 1. This bill is urgently needed because the current debt limitation will expire this Friday, June 30. Unless this bill is enacted by then, the Secretary of the Treasury will have to stop issuing Federal securities at the end of this week and the Treasury soon will be unable to pay the Government's bills. In view of the very little time that re- mains before the present debt limit ex- pires, your committee has approved the bill passed by the House and done so without change. It has refrained from amending it in any way. As I noted, the bill provides a new debt limitation of $358 billion. This limit will api$ly throughout the entire fiscal year 1968. Beginning In fiscal year 1969, the debt will be permitted to increase to as much as $365 billion during the course of a fiscal year, but must fall back to $358 billion at the close of each fiscal year. Apart from the specific figures which I have referred to, the bill contains three other features which deserve descrip- tion. First, the bill provides that the $358 billion debt limitation I have just de- scribed is to be a permanent limitation and not a temporary limitation. The members will recall this last February, when we last considered the debt limi- tation, that the Senate wanted the $336 billion provided in that bill to be a per- manent limitation. We preferred this to retaining the permanent limitation of $285 billion with a temporary limitation of $336 billion. The Senate saw no rea- son for this demarcation between tem- porary and permanent, particularly when it was so obvious that the $285 bil- lion limitation could not be restored in any practical sense at least for years to come. A second special feature of this bill provides that participation certificates issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association during the fiscal year 1968 are to be included in the debt subject to limitation. As I will describe to you in somewhat greater length subsequently, the need for this action arises from the uncertainty as to whether participation certificates will be issued in the coming year or whether, In their place, addi- tional debt will be acquired. This removes any difference insofar as the debt limi- tation is concerned, no matter which of these two courses is followed. Finally, the bill extends the maximum period to maturity of Treasury notes from 5 to 7 years. Previously, indebted- ness of between 5 and 7 years was classi- fied as a bond. Bonds are subject to the 41/4-percent interest rate ceiling while Treasury notes are not. As I will explore with you in greater depth in just a short while, the purpose of this is to enable the Treasury to spread the maturity of in- debtedness somewhat, while still not having any appreciable effect on interest rates. THE NEED FOR PROMPT ACTION It is important that we approve this bill promptly so that it can be enacted into law before this coming Saturday. On that day the debt ceiling is currently scheduled to fall from $336 billion to $285 billion. Since the debt outstanding will be around $327 billion, the Secretary of the Treasury will be in grave difficulty if we do not provide this new limit. I regret that the Senate has been given so little time to debate this bill. It is not the fault of the administration, how- ever, for they sent up the request very early in May. The legislation became de- layed in the House. The House initially considered a debt limit proposal on June 7, but on that date the House rejected it. Following this action the House was unable to act on a limit to which it could reach agreement until this last Wednes- day, June 21. I do not like to see the Senate faced with the necessity of acting in haste on an important piece of legislation. I do not like it when the committee Is forced to approve a bill without amendment In order to make sure that the Govern- ment's credit will be preserved. But I say to the Senate that I do not believe this situation will arise again. I say this because this bill follows the action taken by the Senate in February and makes the debt limitation perma- nent. The limitation in this bill does not expire on any given date. There will not be the prospect in the future of a precipi- tous fall in the limit from $358 billion to $285 billion as has been the case in the past. In the future, therefore, if and when the debt ceiling has to be increased, there will be more time for the Senate to debate the question. There will not be this sharp fall overnight in the limit. There will be no fixed date on which the debt ceiling will fall to some unrealistic level. Therefore, while I do not like the fact that we must approve this bill promptly and without amendment, I can assure the Senate that this situation will not arise to harass us in the future. THE SIZE OF THE DEBT There is no question that the debt limit increase set forth in H.R. 10867 is a large one-an increase of $22 billion over the present limit. It is not, however, unprec- edented. From 1941 to 1.945, annual in- creases in the debt limit ranged from $40 billion to $85 billion. Although our economy is not on the full wartime foot- ing that existed during World War II, the types of increases which occur in defense spending between the current period and that period presents certain parallels. The fact is, however, that during the postwar period the economy has ex- panded more rapidly than has the size of the Federal debt. The debt has fallen steadily in relation to the ability of our citizens to carry that debt. In 1940, the public 'debt at the end of the fiscal year was $48.5 billion. This was equal to 51 percent of the Nation's gross national product. The debt rose during the Second World War to a peak of 134 percent of the gross national product. Today, while the debt has risen to $327 billion, it Is equal to only 43 percent of the gross national product. It has fallen and will continue to fall steadily as a percentage of gross national product. Before I conclude on this point, I want to make one further comment about the size of our national debt and its relation- ship to our economy. Not only has our debt gone down as a percentage of our gross national product, but the debt of the Federal Government has gone down when compared to the entire debt of our economy. In 1944 the national debt made up 58 percent of the total debt of our economy, while as of 1966 it represented only 22 percent of the total debt. . HOW THE $358 BILLION LIMIT FOR 1988 WAS ARRIVED AT . I want to be sure that each of the Sen- ators knows exactly how the committee reached its conclusion that a limitation of $358 billion was required for the fiscal year 1968. I want you to appreciate, as fully as the committee does, that this is a realistic, but nevertheless tight, limita- tion for the coming fiscal year. Anything less than this for the fiscal year 1968 will almost surely mean that we would have to revisit this problem of the debt limita- tion in the fiscal year 1968. The administration presented the com- mittee with a table showing exactly what the debt can be expected to be on the first and fifteenth of each month In the fiscal year 1968, assuming a $4 billion cash bal- ance and assuming that the deficit for the fiscal year 1968 Is $11 billion-which is the deficit now projected on the basis of the administration's best current esti- mates. This table, which appears in the committee report as table No. 6, indicates on this basis the debt next March 15 is likely to be $345.2 billion. I want to em- phasize to you again, however, that this computation makes no allowance for con- tingencies, not even the normal $3 billion contingency allowance that has been pro- vided for in most of the debt limitations we have passed since early in the 1950's. Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R00"0200300014-6 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 H 8120 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD HOUSE June 27, 1967 "liberated" countries. To insure the election Mr. OTTINGER. Mr. Speaker, I am 3. Final settlement of the boundaries of today introducing a resolution which the State of Israel is made and such bound- of the Communist candidates, tens of thou- aries are acknowledged by the Arab nations; sands of people were arrested on the eve of expresses the sense of the Congress that 4. Effective restrictions are imposed upon the elections as a threat to those who pro- the President should encourage a per- the flow of arms into the Middle East from test by refusal to vote. The decisions of the "elected manent resolution of Middle East ten- other members of the world community; of representatives" poration o of the hhret lions and work toward the creation of an 5. All nations address themselves to a final three Baltic eee "request" into o the the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics were atmosphere which will be conducive to a and in the equitable solution t; and be iefugee rp rob- prepared in Moscow and carried out by the lasting peace in that area. I particularly Resolved, That the East; and be a Rurteeenta- , l order that the House occupying Red Army. commend my distinguished colleague Reso ace may be es-ting on their zeal to impose their alien system from Ohio [Mr. WHALEN] for taking the ttinewees, ind the that lase ngsp cees the be es-in , an the Baltic States, the Soviets deported or lead in proposing this measure. ident of the United States: liquidated 700,000 men, women and children This resolution sets forth certain basic 1. To use all diplomatic resources at his from and March, eLithuania Not a lane,wieo between Junethis , inc 1941 principles upon which a permanent command, including our membership in the and human oppression, the peoples s of t of the e Baltic peace in the Middle East can and should United Nations, to work for the accomplish- ednt of the five aforementioned objectives, Nations persevere in their aspirations toward be achieved, foremost of which is that an 1956 personal freedom and national independ- the President should encourage the State ence. of Israel and the Arab nations to conduct 2wh. T To led o avoid resumption repeating g the m misstaktake e of eleven 95While addressing the General Assembly, direct negotiations to resolve the under- years later, by opposing, as a precondition Mr. o f in 50 unequivocally stated, " In the lying problems which led to the recent to the discussion and negotiation of the relin- courssee of its t year history, the Soviet Union armed conflict. aforementioned five objectives, the relin- respect; e ect; a edvery all pe ople ople eenjoys the e right small, to es with In addition, this resolution refutes the quishment by Israel of territories possessed respect; an independent t national e state of its specious position of the Arab nations at the time the cease fire was effectuated. own. This constitutes one of the fundamen- and the Soviet Union by urging the and a To encourage, tall diplomatic the underlying dip p diplomatic tal principles of the policy of the Soviet President to oppose, as any precondition means, a resolution urcee through Union. While upholding the rights of pee- of Middle East negotiations, the require- mras which led to armed conflict yang p ob- ples to self-determination, the Soviet Union ment that Israel relinquish the terr nations which the Middle East, through g the just as resoutely condemns the attempts by tories she held at the time of the cease- negotiations between Israel and the Arab any state to conduct an aggressive policy fire. states. t toward other countries--a policy of conques Although this resolution urges the of foreign lands and the subjugation of the President to have Israel and her Arab peoples living there." neighbors work out their own problems, Why has the Soviet Union continued to violate the sovereignty of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia? When will the Soviet Union apply the principles of the United Nations Charter to the Baltic States? When will the Soviet military and admin- istrative apparatus be withdrawn from the territory of the Baitics? When will the Soviet Union desist from nomic prosperity more than senseless its policy of Russiflcation and Sovietization death and destruction. Therefore, I call of the Baltic peoples? upon not only Israel and the Arab na- victims of When will the Baltic return t t mass de- tions, but the United States, the Soviet lands?gortration be allowed to return to their home- Union, Great Britain, and France, as When will the Soviet Union cease interfer- well, to convene, as soon as practicable, ing in the political, social, and religious life a disarmament conference with a view of the Balitc States? toward ending, once and for all, the ship- ------`- -r _.v.... R. n .-A "oAvicarc" glows freedoms, traditions and political as- pirations. Will you enact measures to correct the gross injustices imposed by Stalin on .;id- the Baltic Nations and restore indepe enc--or are your noble words addressed to the General Assembly mere hypocrisy? COMMITTEE To RESTORE LrrHuANIA'S INDEPENDENCE NEW YORK, N.Y. (Executive Coordinators: Algirdas Bu- dreckis, Romas Kezys, Anthony B. Mazeika, Joseph Miklovas, Anthony V.' Snieckus.) The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under previous order of the House, the gentle- man from New York CMr. FARBSTEIN] is recognized for 15 minutes. [Mr. FARBSTEIN addressed the House His remarks will appear here- after in the Appendix.] TOWARD PERMANENT PEACE IN THE MIDDLE EAST Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to extend Iris remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) I strongly believe that the world's major powers must bear heavy responsibility for the recent conflict. Israel and the Arab nations would benefit greatly if all agree to let their neighbors live in peace and diverted the vast sums spent on arms to economic development. Mr. Speaker, the Middle East needs water, not war; it needs tractors more w tine sviluuic their place, the knowledge and financial support needed for the economic growth of the area. I believe this resolution should be of interest to all of our colleagues and I include the text herewith, for insertion into the RECORD: Expressing the sense of Congress with respect to the establishment of permanent peace in the Middle East Whereas, an Internal Middle East conflict inherently endangers the peace and well- being of the world community of nations; and are delayed- - disgruntled patrons occa- Whereas, an open door in the Middle East is vital to the flow of world commerce; and sionally try to take out their frustrations Whereas, by United Nations Declaration by assaulting the letter carrier who, of Israel legally deserves the status and rights course, is not responsible for the tardi- of a sovereign nation and the territorial in- ness in the first place. This happens tegrity which such status entails; and more often than most of us would expect. Whereas, many thousands lost their lives Under present day conditions, the Na- tion's the recent Middle East conflict: Now, tion's mailmen carry trillions of dollars therefore, be it in reasonably negotiable paper in their Resolved, That it is the sense of the House sacks each year. This makes the letter of Representatives that permanent peace in carrier an attractive target for a smash the Middle East can be achieved only if: 1. The existence and sovereignty of Israel and grab raid. Ironically the grabbing is is acknowledged by the Arab nations; a Federal offense, but the smashing is 2. Freedom of passage in the Suez Canal not. It is a crime to interfere with the and the Gulf of Aqaba is guaranteed not mails, but not a Federal crime to inter- only to Israel but to all nations; fete with the mailman. PROTECTION FOR THE NATION'S LETTER CARRIERS (Mr. RODINO (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. RODINO. Mr. Speaker, I have today introduced legislation which will make it a Federal offense to assault or kill a letter carrier in the performance of his duties. The need for such legislation is so obvious, that I wonder why it has not been enacted before. We have made such provision in the past for post office in- spectors, for employees of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, for employees of the Secret Service, employees engaged in animal disease control work, and so forth. It seems manifest to me that the letter carrier is even more deserving of our protection, and that his lack of cover- age under our statutes is an inadvertent omission. As he walks the street with the mail on his back, the mailman is readily iden- tifiable by the uniform he wears as a representative of the Federal Govern- ment. This makes him an easy target for any person who harbors a grudge against the Government. When the mail is slow-when welfare Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69BOO369ROO0200300014-6 June 27, 1967 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE H 8119 we had a responsibility to three billion peo- understand the burdens that our Marines are So about all the strength that we have pie in the world because of our strength and carrying there tonight, who are dying for and the strength of our system, the strength obligations as great powers; that responsi- their country, or the burdens that their com- of our courageous young men who are ready bility was peace and trying not only to se- manders are carrying, who wish they were to die for that system, and the strength that cure it for ourselves but- to secure it for all V home asleep in bed, or even carrying a comes from your confidence and. the comfort human beings. /blacard of some kind But night upon the wisdom, judgm ti ent, + a what- " e ` n t be and still retain our na- man and woman in the room tonight, onal honor. They can't be and still preserve ever color, whatever religion, whatever par- of these two very great our freedom. They can't be and still protect ty-there are not all Democrats here. Some States-the United States of America end our system. When they can be-with honor- Republicans want to help the President, too- the Soviet Union. they will be-at the earliest possible moment. I want to-say this: You will never know how There are deep and very serious differen s Sometimes i think of my friends who don't much the confidence that you have given me in our two societies, but one thing we, d understand all of the cables I read from all tonight means to me and how much strength have in common, as Chairman Kosygin m- of the 122 countries. They don't hear all the it will give me in the days ahead when I will self said when he addressed the United Na- ices of despair and of all thechaotic con- need it most. tions, is a grave responsibility for world dit s that come to us through the day. Thank you. Good night. peace in a nuclear age. Every crisis in the last Somet s I think of that Biblical injunc- 20 years has necessarily invoked that common tion, whe see them advising their fellow responsibility and repeatedly we have seen citizens to n late and saying we want OPEN LETTER TO PREMIER the dangerous consequences of incomplete peace and all of th things. understanding K OSYGIN . I try to look with un ndlng and char- have also repeatedly seen that when ity upon them, and in the ords of that The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under others are irresponsible in word or in deed Biblical admonition, "God, forg We em for previous order of the House, the gentle- s very special burden for care seems to al- th they know not really what they do.' ways fall upon America. So I was glad to I can just say this to you: There no man from New York [Mr. ADDABSO] is meet with Chairman Kosygin this morning. human being in this world who want to recognized for 15 minutes. We talked throughout the day quietly and avoid Mr ADDABBO M . . war more than I do. There is no hu n r. Speaker, on June straightforwardly. being in this world who wants peace in et- 22 there appeared an ad in the New York I am glad to say to you that I found he nom or in the Middle East more th I do. Times paid for by the Committee To Re- came to our meeting in the same spirit. He When they tell me to nego?Lta'Ee, I say, store Lithuania's Independence, one of had some seniority on me. He had been a "Amen." I have been readyy~~tteo~ negotiate and whose directors is Mr. Anthony B. Ma- grandfather for over 18 years and I had been sit down at a conferee' able every hour of zeika, my constituent, and a director of a grandfather for only 18 hours, but he every day that I ve been President of this and I agreed that we both very much wanted coll tr the Lithuanian World Review. I believe a world of peace for our grandchildren. Y Y, just cannot negotiate with it to be a proper question to Premier m sei - We talked about the problems of the Mid- d these protestors haven't been able to Kosygin, especially when Premier Kosy- dle East in detail. We shall continue to tai deliver Ho Chi Minh any place yet. gin now calls on the great free nation about them. We talked aboutthe probl s I was not elected your President to liq- of Israel to simply give up territory Val- of Southeastern Asia. We talked abou the uidate our agreements in Southeast Asia. i iantly wonagainst the aggressor nations arms race and about the need for new gree- was not elected your President to run out on of the United Arab Republic. Soviet Rus- ments there. We talked about the n ad for our commitments in the Middle East. If that sia refused to even permit the question common action on constructive ini iatives is what you want, you will have to get of the for peace. We reached no new agreem nts h h ti - anot er President. cap reach the U.N. ve nations to almost, but not quite. New agreemen are But I am going--as I have said so many Assembly for discussion-nations taken not always reached in a single conve a- times-any time, any place, anywhere, if, by an aggressor. Lion. So, we are going to eat lunch and ape in my judgment, it can possibly, conceivably Mr. Speaker, I believe the aforemen- Sunday together again at Hollybush. serve the ca f use o peace. That is why I went tioned ad clearly sets forth the facts and I don't want to overstate the case. I don't ghat little farmhouse way up on the New I herewith submit the copy of said ad: 'want to get your hopes too high. I do think, Jars .dike today to spend the day, and that ;hough, that we understand each other is why 3 oing to get over to see my PREMIER THE BALTIC PREMIER KO OPEN LETTER TO QUESTION: SYGIN '.)etter. I do think that I was able to make grandson by da t jn the morning. It very clear, indeed, that the strength and I have been up since ~f-30-1:30 this time. On June 19, 1967, the the Soviet Premier, the determination of our country and the I have been about 24 hours ?bn_ the go. Then Aleksei Kosygin, in addressing the United government are fully matched by our per- ? we - will fly back to New Jersey'6unday for Nations General Assembly, accused Israel of aistent eagerness to talk and to work, to another go at Hollyb?_t continuing aggression by occupying the ter- But all of you must remember that one of your as Vl ?rvsfor, 01 your ramny, nd Mr. Kosygin defined continuing aggression your associates for making my bu an ggression meeting does not make a peace. I don't think light b as attem co i h t y m ng p a to interfere in the internal af- ere and cleaning E"', his I here is anyone in the world who ever wanted debt, wiping the slate clean, and makhe fairs of independent countries ar, d peoples, peace more than the leaders in the world of Democratic Party fiscally sound an nt to impose on them, from the outside, politi- countries who are not at peace. You must all where we don't h., t ts ......... ...... Ca conce ve o p 1:198 before and they have not ended our N, number one. The Soviet Premier is adept g xlher. two--give me your confidence and at defining troubles nor have they ended our dagger: your prayers, because, God knows, I need continuous aggression, for his state has a There Is not a nation in the world we would them. long record of conspiracy against the sover- trade places with tonight. I looked at all my communications the eignty and territorial integrity of ndep nd- These meetings just have not ended our other day, my phone calls, and my visitors ent nations. While vituperating against the troubles and our dangers and I cannot pro- and I finally observed to one of my assistants, State of Israel, Mr. Kosygin would oo well to miss you that that will not happen again. "Why does nearly everybody say something consider his own government's continuing the world remains a very smell and very ugly to the President?" - aggression. The most conspicuous victims of dangerous one. All nations, even-,the greatest He said, "Mr. President, I have worked joint Soviet-Russian and Nazi German ag-gressio dangerous them have hardand painful c ices ahead here for 29 years. I was here with Mr. Roose- Latvian are the Baltic States of Lithuania -a! -o:' them. What I can tell you to lght-and velt, Mr. Truman, Mr. Eisenhower, and Mr. Latvian Estonia. r have no doubt about It at all-ins that It Kennedy." And, he said, "Somehow or other The annntion of the Baltic States by the - by ryes help a lot to sit down and look at a man the people just don't seem to like Presidents" Soviet annexation was pre pact of h f Augus ; d 23, 1the 3n te - the eye all day long and try to reason That may be true at times, but when I The heagreement stated: t y pact o event -with son -with him, particularly if he is trying to rea- read about my decline and my defeat, I look agreement ' In the on with you. That is why we went to Holly- back over the problems that other Presidents vas b and political l rea~ states e ( in ter- the ritorial e h bash this morning and reasoning together have had and I don't seem toremem many. arLatvia, eas belonging to- the B info states (Estonia, today was the spirit of Hollybush. of them that the American turned ern boundary of dart' of Lithuania and Finlan the resent I think you know me well enough to recog- their backs on in a time of crisis orl in a ime the boundary boue spheres shall of influence uence of n: ze that that is my way of doing things- of war. Germany and hf c of 'Come now," as Isaiah said, "and let us rea- Whatever the prophets and the attention U.S.S.R." son together." What I think is even more ever may may write-back c and what- While the the Blitzkrieg of the world was niportant-that is the way I think we must in the columnists sts may t Is all th t time I focused n the Blitzkrieg in the (Nest, n- 3tlally achieve peace. coin's time, at least-that is all the ti me I Soviet Union imposed its "sphere of in-ave Those who do not smell the powder or hear these co lumto rearch, since I reading ." On ns ono President shas ever been of fluencethe Red Arm 15, u1940, re troops and tanks d ;he blast of cannon, who enjoy the luxury turned upon when he was engaged in trying States. Moscow hastily u into the Beln- ar..d freedom of free speech and the right to to Y p puppet , han- protect his country and its interests rick. A single list of rapresrntosives hanhe -xercise it most freely at times really do not against a foreign ice. picked by Moscow, was proposed to the .Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69BOO369ROO0200300014-6 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 H 8121 June 27, 19 6 7 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -HOUSE The postal inspection service informs But the limited number of hearings, Committee, Room G-133, New Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. 20510. me that during a recent 6-month period and the fact that these papers are in- Sincerely yours, there were approximately 40 robberies of vited, may work against our intention of opinion _ t9 ~l .[- ll .,r . their duties. This hazard is growing and on W aue po it is time that we provide an effective therefore to invite interested parties to THE PRESIDENT'S WISE WORDS deterrent through -Federal prosecution. present their views on U.S. trade policy FOR THE FUTURE OF THE MID- if a letter carrier is assaulted on the in writing to the subcommittee. DLE EAST job today he must bring action in the Since the subject of the subcommit- (Mr. NIX (at the request of Mr. PAT- local courts himself. Local courts are too tee's study is the long view of our trade TEN) was granted permission to extend often not deeply concerned with protect- policy, our questions are about what is his remarks at, edis point in the RECOR ing the persons of these valuable Fed- to be negotiated and how it is to be done, his to arks include extraneous matter.) eral employees. what issues are becoming less important, Mr. NIX. Mr. Speaker, President We must make it perfectly clear to po- and what more important. It is intended Johnson has offered a reasonable and tential wrongdoers that the entire pro- that we should broadly assess the na- flexible policy for bringing peace to the tection and support of the Federal Gov- tional interest. It is not that we should Middle East. And ri so doing, he has gratitude and support of all ernment is behind the letter carrier as ignore or minimize the special or sectoral Middle he walks the streets of America, and interests, but that our attention should earned the the American people. that those who dare to interfere with be focused on issues of policy for the next glad to rthat the Philadel- phis Breport e an editorial, warmly curring physically do so at the risk of in- 5 or 10 years. I am curring stiff reprisals from the Govern- Within these broad limits, the subcom- the President's in An editorial, of warmly ment he represents. mittee proposes to publish the statements praised phia Bulletin, Monday. The paper finds that speech of last Mr. The legislation I have introduced to- of interested persons and groups. Since n's discussion of the s that' East, n- the invitation is extended generally, the so "in day will do that. contrast to that by Premier Kosygin, f rain subcommittee from reserves publishing the staatemtemeents or statements r or was well reasoned and carefully re- (Mr. (Mr. RODINO (at the request of Mr. parts of statements that are either too strained." PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- long or not germane to the issue of the The Johnson Bulletin his continues- tend ini-Mr. tend his remarks at this point in the future of U.S. trade policy. In outlining this displayed commendable position in . I request that interested parties send advance` of Premier this cou Kosygins address .. . RECORD and to include extraneous mat- dative ter.) their statement before July 31, 1967, to The President, in urging all to avoid the [Mr. RODINO'S remarks will appear Congressman HALE BoGCS, Subcommittee early adoption of rigid positions, left open a hereafter in the Appendix.] on Foreign Economic Policy, Joint Eco- way to negotiations from the posture of flex- l Committee Room G-133 New ibility that is so vital to effective diplomacy. U.S. FOREIGN TRADE. POLICY (Mr. BOGGS (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. BOGGS. Mr. Speaker, the Sub- committee on Foreign Economic Policy of the Joint Economic Committee is scheduling an initial set of hearings in mid-July on the future of U.S. trade policy. As chairman of that subcommit- tee, I have recently announced some of our plans. The lead witness at the first hearing, on July 11, will be Ambassador William H. Roth, the President's Special Rep- resentative for Trade Negotiations. Tes- timony of congressional delegates to the Kennedy round negotiations will be heard Wednesday, July 12. On Thursday, July 13, distinguished foreign observers have been invited to give their views on the position of the United States in the trading world of the future; the Honor- able Kenneth Younger, Director of the Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, and Dr. Aurelio Peccei, execu- tive manager of Olivetti General Elec- tric, Milan, will testify then. At a final hearing, on Thursday, July 20,.there will be a summing up; on that occasion the witnesses will be David Rockefeller, president of the Chase Manhattan Bank, and George Ball, formerly Under Secre- tary of State. The intention of the subcommittee is to look forward as well as backward, and nom Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. We can only hope that responsible 20510. voices At the United Nations and else- And I ask unanimous consent that the where, who are involved in the future of substance of a form letter, addressed by the Middle East, will heed the wisdom of a member of the Joint Economic Com- the President's words. mittee staff to a few who have already i ask unanimous consent to insert into inquired, be placed in the RECORD. the RECORD the excellent editorial from CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES, the Philadelphia Bulletin. JOINT ECONOMIC COMMITTEE, From the Philadelphia Bulletin, June 20, June 27, 1967. 1967] DEAR Mr. : Congressman Hale THE PRESIDENT'S PRESCRIPTION Boggs, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Foreign Economic Policy, has asked that I President Johnson's discussion of the respond to your inquiry concerning the Sub- Middle East, in contrast to that by Premier committee. As you know, the Subcommittee Kosygin, was well reasoned and carefully has scheduled an initial set of hearings, in mid-July, which is the first stage in a Con- gressional appraisal of future U.S. policy. The intention of the Subcommittee is to canvass a wide range of opinion on the sub- ject, and the limited number of hearings may work against this purpose in the short run. It has been decided therefore to invite in- terested parties, including yourself, both by letter and through the Congressional Record, to present in writing their views on U.S. Trade Policy. You will understand that the Joint Eco- nomic Committee is not a legislative com- mittee and that the subject of the study is the long view of our trade policy. Our ques- tions are about what is to be negotiated and how it is to be done, what issues are becom- ing less important, and what more impor- tant. It is intended that we should broadly assess the national interest. It is not that we should ignore or minimize the special or sectoral interests, but that our attention should be focused on issues of policy for the next five or ten years. > Within the broad limits described in the preceding paragraph, the Subcommittee pro- poses to publish the statements. Since the invitation is extended generally to interested parties, the Subcommittee reserves the option to refrain from publishing statements or parts of statements that are either too long or not germane to the issue of The Future of U.S. Trade Policy. If you wish to.submit a statement, please send it, before July 31, 1967, to Congressman Hale Boggs, Subcommittee on Foreign Economic Policy, Joint Economic Mr. Johnson very properly stressed Israel's right to live. This right, which Israel's Arab neighbors refuse to grant, has been the root cause of the Middle East's troubles for the past 20 years. Properly, too, Mr. Johnson made very clear this country's position that the Soviet supported effort to force Israel back immediately to its pre-war lines would bring nothing but new hostilities. As a very practical matter Israel's sole bargaining power in the negotiations that must come with the Arab nations will be the territory she gained-and continues to hold, The President declared that a real and lasting peace in the Middle East will come about only as the result of agreements reached among those who live and must continue to live there. With this declara- tion went an admonition to Israel against permitting her very considerable military gains to make her insensitive to the rights of her admittedly militant neighbors. Mr. Johnson displayed commendable initiative in outlining this country's posi- tion in advance of Premier Kosygin's ad- dress before the United Nation's General Assembly. The President, in urging all to avoid the early adoption of rigid positions, left open a way to negotiations from the posture of flexibility so vital, to effective diplomacy. With this went Mr. Johnson's pledge that the United States will help the nations directly involved to reason together and live together. He offered help specifically in solv- to try to anticipate the problems of the future. In so doing, we expect to achieve a worthwhile congressional appraisal of U.S. trade policy. A number of study papers, written on invitation, are in preparation to assist members of the subcommittee. These papers will be published later. Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 JI 8122 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE June 27, 1967 ing the refugee problem which has afflicted tentatively concluded that our Project Head the area as a cancer. Start application should be refused. It is, as Mr. Johnson said, a time for Mr. McGhee's letter makes a number of patience rather than propaganda and for statements that I believe need some atten- magnanimity rather than malice. For, as- tion: Mr. Johnson pointed out, the peace of the (1) "The proposed program, as reflected whole world is-at stake. by center locations, staff recruitment and The President's temperate approach will, assignment and recruitment of eligible en- hopefully, set a favorable diplomatic cli- rollees, appears to be designed to aubstan- mate for a critical week-a week in which tially serve only eligible Negro children and some detente must be reached. their families and to serve them on a segre- PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES USED BY SOME OEO OFFICIALS (Mr. NICHOLS (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. NICHOLS. Mr. Speaker, before long, this House will be called upon to act on the request by the Office of Eco- nomic Opportunity for funds for contin- uing the so-called war on poverty. In the last few months, I have become very familiar with the working of the poverty program, and would like to enlighten my colleagues as to the practices and pro- cedures used by some OEO officials. Last summer the Dallas County and Selma City Board of Education operated a joint Headstart project. This project was a success, and local officials there had every reason to believe that their Headstart would again be funded this year. Here is a telegram received by my of- fice and by local officials in Dallas County on June 6: After final review by our staff today, we expect to approve your summer Head Start program. We need one more piece of infor- mation to complete our processing, and a representative of our` regional staff is there in Selma today gathering this data. If we have all these details in hand tomorrow, we would hope that we can complete and approve your summer Head Start program at that time. FRANK SLOAN, Regional Director, OEO, Atlanta. One the basis of this telegram from the regional director, the school offi- cials began making their final plans for Headstart. You do not take a program of this magnitude and begin it overnight. OEO officials drug their feet as long as possible, in fact too long, to allow our people time to effectively and efficiently plan a Headstart program. Four days later, Dallas and Selma officials received a letter from Mr. Sloan saying that he had tentatively concluded that the application should be refused. The reason it was refused, according to Mr. Sloan, was that it was designed to serve only Negro children on a segre- gated basis and to tokenly serve only white children on a racially segregated basis. Mr. Joseph Pickard, superintendent of city schools in Selma, answered Mr. Sloan's charges in a letter dated June 12. Mr. Speaker, I would like to enter a copy of his letter in the RECORD at this point: JUNE 12, 1967. Mr. FRANK K. SLOAN, Director, Southeast Region, Office of Economic Opportunity, Atlanta, Ga. DEAR MR. SLOAN: Today, June 12, 1967, 1 received a copy of a letter from Mr. Alfonso McGhee of your office stating that you had gated basis and to totally serve the eligible white children and their families on a racially segregated basis" As I understand the Head Start Program, it is designed to help the severely disad- vantaged youngsters who will be entering school in September to have a two-months' program that will offer them experiences that they need before they begin regular first grade work. The vast majority of eligible children in Selma are Negro. Therefore, it follows that if the eligible children are to be served most centers will be predominantly Negro and some may be entirely Negro. After two very successful Head Start Pro- grams In 1965 and 1966 which were taken advantage of by Negro children only, this year our plan included a fifth center which would take care of white and Negro children on a desegregated basis. A majority of the chil- dren at this center are white, but Negro children are included also. (2) Quoting from Mr. McGhee's letter again: "The historically white school which would be used as a center reflects a design to serve eligible white children and their families on a token and segregated basis." The above statement Is categorically un- true in that Negro children were definitely enrolled at the center mentioned. Also, at- tention is again called to the fact that the vast majority of eligible children are Negro. Few white children can qualify for Head Start because of low income requirements. (3) Quoting again from Mr. McGhee's let- ter: "It would probably follow that a program staff at the all-Negro centers would be com- prised of all-Negro personnel and the pro- gram staff at the historically white school would be comprised of all white personnel." The above statement is not only untrue, but it was made despite the fact that an investigator named Sampson was told the exact numbers of personnel of each race to be used at each center. Asa matter of fact, the personnel to be employed were twelve (12) Negro teachers and four (4) white teachers, and eleven (11) Negro aides and five (5) white aides. All white aides were scheduled to work at the four centers that have been historically Negro centers. TWO (2) Negro aides were assigned to previously white center. Two (2) of the white teachers were assigned to historically Negro centers. Another quotation from Mr. McGhee's let- ter: "In violation of OEO guidelines (that each center serve the eligible children who reside in a separate, compact, geographic area whose boundaries are drawn without regard to race) the proposed program would allow enrollees to choose to attend any center on a freedom of choice basis. This is probably intended as a signal to both Negro and white enrollees that they would be expected to attend the center in schools which has historically been designated for their respective races." This statement is basically untrue. Chil- dren were recruited to attend the center closest to their homes according to bound- aries set up for the program. In perhaps two or three instances white children, eligible by income standards, had moved from one area to another but requested to attend the center that was definitely expected to be de- segregated. We would have been glad to tell these children that they must attend the center closest to their new residence if this were requested by OEO officials. However, I know of no such request from the Investi- gators, Sampson and Webster. Also, I should like to point out that during the four days (June 7-10) that the inves- tigators, Sampson and Webster, were in Selma, at no time did either of the gentle- men do me the courtesy of calling on me to discuss the entire matter. I was told on Wednesday, June 7, that they would see me on Thursday, but at no time on Thursday, Friday or Saturday did they request a con- ference. These investigators did call a meeting of four (4) of our Negro principals without any authorization from this office. I question this procedure and other techniques used by the investigators. Finally, I should like to mention your tele- gram- of June 6, which gave us every reason to believe that the project would be approved. As a matter of fact, I received Mr. McGhee's letter a half hour after the program was scheduled to begin. I-should be delighted to discuss this matter with you if I can give you other informa- tion. Sincerely yours, Jo EPN A. PICKARD, Superintendent. Selma and Dallas County officials felt it would be useless to ask for a hearing, but somehow five officials showed up in Selma last week. What happened is best expressed in this artilcle from the Selma Times-Journal : Actually, no one reaaly expected anything to be solved at the heaving in the first place. Nobody wanted it except the Office of Eco- nomic Opportunity and they probably regret it a day too late, And, well they should. James H. Heller, Assistant General Counsel for OEO, contributed poorly toward enhanc- ing the sharply dimin;.shed image of OEO. He was arrogant, conceited, and ridiculous. He could have done as well by charging ,into town brandishing an old union saber and riding a camel. Indeed, the man obviously grasped the op- portunity and the excuse for the hearing for use as a forum to spout- the usual bureau- cratic mouthings for which he undoubtedly will receive a few brownie points in Wash- ington at the next gathering of the faithful. Gnats! And so much for Heller, too. Unable to convince the sociologists in OEO that the facts are the facts, and than even the idealists in the poverty program cannot change them, the local Dallas County and Selma officials could have very easily sent some 700 deserving youngsters into the streets for the sum- mer. But, they did not do this. Instead, they are carrying out a program without the help of the $150,000 in Federal OEO funds. These 700 students are being given the - benefit of an outstanding program this summer, utilizing the same staff that had been lined up for Headstart. Volun- teers have offered to act as teaching aids and health aids. Local, people have do- nated educational toys and books. Par- ent and teacher organizations in the area are furnishing each child with a toothbrush and toothpaste. The county health department is planning to send immunizations and other medical sup- plies to each center 1 day a week. These children will not get some bene- fits that they would have under an OEO- sponsored Headstart program. They will not, for instance, get measles vaccine or dental work such as fillings and teeth cleaning. Under OEO they would have had a breakfast, midmorning snack, and lunch. The local program dill be able to Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 June 27, 1967 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE H 8139 deception, subversion and the strategy of terror are not outworn myths but the pre- ferred instruments of the Communist Party. "In our revolutionary world it is vital that understanding of social justice, individ- ual responsibilities. and threats to world order keep pace with rapid scientific dis- covery. Young Americans are idealists, look- ing for meaning in their own lives and for good causes to serve. The freedom and well- being of people all over the world for years to come may depend In no small measure on the wisdom and competence of ascending generations in this nation," The ABA program, it was explained, fea- tures academic experts, journalists and con- sultants to government on such subjects as: (1) The Principles and Potential of Modern Democracy; (2) Permanent Factors in Soviet Foreign and Defense Policy; (3) Soviet and Chinese Youth Today; (4) Com- munist Propaganda Techniques; (5) Schisms in the Empire of Marx; and (6) Modern Cap- italism and the Economic Dogma of Marx. Each lecturer or panelist is cross-examined by a team of outstanding teachers who relate problems in the classroom to the expertise of. the scholar. Participants in the course are furnished copies of a teacher's syllabus entitled, Democ- racy Confronts Communism in World Af- fairs. This 297-page syllabus of 34 chapters was prepared under the auspices of the ABA Committee. Also attending the meeting were the follow- ing members of the ABA's co-sponsoring committee: Morris I. Leibman, chairman, a member of President Johnson's Advisory Panel on International Problems; Charles Maddock, chairman-elect, the General Coun- sel of Hercules, Inc.; and Louis B. Nichols of New York City, executive vice president of Schenley Industries, Inc. Representing the Archdiocese School Sys- tem at the meeting were Rt. Rev. Mon- signor Raymond P. Rigney, superintendent of schools; Rt. Rev. Monsignor Edward M. Connors, associate superintendent of schools; Rt. Rev. Monsignor Joseph T. O'Keefe, di- rector of communications center; and Brother Augustine, director of secondary curriculum. The lecture series will include the follow- ing: 1. Modern Democracy: Principles, Para- dox and Potential. 2. Twentieth Century Totalitarianism: Common Characteristics, 3. God, Man and Society: The Premises of Communism, 4. Humanism, Individualism and the Moral Premises of Western Civilization. 5. Origins of the Cold War. 6. Permanent Factors in Soviet Foreign and Defense Policy. 7. Controversial Issues in the Court of World Opinion: Peace, Poverty, Race and Class (Myth vs. Reality) 8. Rich Nations and Poor Nations. 9. Propaganda: Magnitude, Methods and Major Themes. 10. Schisms in the Empire of Marx: Tito, Mao, The new Soviet Intellectuals, the Eu- ropean Satellites. 11. Soviet and Chinese Youth today. 12'. Modern Capitalism and the Economic Dogma of Marx-a panel discussion. 13. The law, The Citizen and The State: Contrasts between U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. 14. The Russian Proletariat in contrast to American Labor, Aims, Methods and Achieve- ments. 15. Religion under the Commissars. (Mr. HATHAWAY (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. HATHAWAY. Mr. Speaker, I have known Congressman JAMES ScrrEuER, of the 21st District in New York, for some time, and have an enormous respect for his ability. Recently he has sponsored H.R. 9840, the Bilingual Education Act, which is of particular interest to me. I would like to insert an editorial from El Tiempo, a Spanish American paper in New York, that pays the Congressman appropriate tribute for his work on this bill : JAMES H. SCHEUEe Few Districts in Congress are represented as thoroughly and conscientiously as the 21st, where young, dynamic James H. Scheuer makes it a full-time job--despite all his business interests in Puerto Rico and his intense civic activity. From his. District office at 159 East 165th Street in the Bronx, and from the House of Representatives Mr. Scheuer has initiated a great deal of constructive legislation. We are thinking particularly of HR 9840, the Bilingual Educational Act which he in- troduced in May. This bill seeks to correct the many inequities that now exist for 2,000,000 non-English-speaking children who live in the United States, of which nearly 70,000 are in New York City elementary schools. As Congressman Scheuer points out, "these children suffer from grossly inadequate edu- cational opportunities available to them and their consequent inability to compete effec- tively for jobs when they leave school. "There is an invisible but real barrier of verbs and nouns, idiom and nuance which has cut these children off from effective par- ticipation in the mainstream of American Life," Mr. Scheuer adds. The Bilingual Education Act would pro- vide assistance to local educational boards and establish bilingual education programs. New York would be provided with federal funds to help provide high quality education for children from non-English-speaking homes. This could include free training pro- grams for teachers in bilingual areas. Mr. Scheuer's bill also proposes to upgrade the quality of the entire program of schools where large proportions of the children come from non-English-speaking and low income homes, including intensive early childhood programs for the pre-school and the kinder- garten age children. We hope the bill is approved, and congratu- late Mr. Scheuer on his thinking. PRESIDENTIAL LEADERSHIP: LYN- DON JOHNSON AND THE MIDEAST CRISIS (Mr. WHITE (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. WHITE. Mr. Speaker, editorial opinion around the country is only now beginning to recognize the solid leader- ship of President Johnson in the current Mideast crisis. The President kept his head. He worked through the United Nations in an effort to prevent war, and then to achieve a ceasefire after the shooting had actually begun. And finally, a few days ago, he laid down his five principles of peace to re- store order to that troubled area. All reasonable men who believe in liberty and territorial integrity can support those principles in good conscience. In brief, in complete contrast to most other world leaders, President Johnson has given us a display of diplomacy and statesmanship of rare quality. President Johnson has shown the world that there is a middle ground between appeasement and unilateral intervention. It is a middle ground which all Ameri- cans can support. I support it, and I trust the Congress supports it. Under unanimous consent I Insert in the RECORD a fine editorial from the El Paso Times, supporting President John- son's policies in the Middle East: STERLING LEADERSHIP President Lyndon B. Johnson has come in for some criticism of his conduct of the affairs in Vietnam, but it is becoming in- creasingly clear that he handled the up- heaval in the Middle East in a masterful manner. President Johnson kept his head when some senators, including Wayne Morse of Oregon, a dove in the Vietnam war, demand- ed that our country test the Egyptian blockade of the Gulf of Aqaba. Although President Johnson stated, "The United States considers the gulf to be an international waterway and feels that a blockade of Israeli shipping is illegal and potentially dangerous," United States offi- cialdom generally was cool to the idea of testing the issue by sending a U.S. ship into the Gulf of Aqaba. How rigbt_President Johnson was has been proved by subsequent events. Had we taken the bull by the horns and sent a U.S. vessel into the blockaded area the whole world by now might be involved in war. It seems certain that the excited Nasser would have feed on the U.S. ship. That would have brought quick reprisals. It is deeply regrettable that the Arab World turned on us as a result of a malicious lie fabricated by Nasser that U.S. and British planes helped the Israelis. We like the idea of relief in the Middle East being extended on a regional basis. There was talk that the Johnson adminis- tration was working on possible war relief and reconstruction aid to Israel and Arab countries in the wake of last week's fighting. We think the United States should extend any economic aid possible to both sides. We insist, however, that any aid extended by the United States to the Arab countries should not be used for rearming and getting ready for another "holy war" with Israel. Nasser has been talking about regrouping and challenging Israel again. We want no more of that, at least not with assistance furnished by us. Up to this point, President Johnson has done extremely well in handling the Middle Eastern crisis. We are among those who wish to congrat- ulate him for his level-headed leadership during that ordeal.. (Mr. HANNA (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) - [Mr. HANNA'S remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] - (Mr. CONYERS (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ters.) [Mr. CONYERS' remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] (Mr. CONYERS (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 H 8140 tend his remarks at this point in the ,RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) [Mr. CONYERS' remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] (Mrs. MINK (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend her remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mrs. MINK. Mr. Speaker, I wish to commend to the attention of my col- leagues a most outstanding essay by Miss Cheryle Kimoto, of Kohala, Hawaii, re- garding the impact of East-West Center grantees on the local population. I am inserting the full text of Miss Kimoto's essay here, not only for its revelation of a seldom-mentioned advantage of hav- ing the foreign students in our midst in Hawaii, but also for the insight of the comments and the thoughtfulness of her conclusion. - Miss Kimoto won the Statewide Pacific and Asian Affairs Council 1966-67 con- test in Hawaii with this essay which I herein make available for the wider read- ing it deserves: A NEW DIMENSION OF REALIZATION THROUGH THE EAST WEST CENTER GRANTEES (By Cheryle Kimoto) - The visits from the East West Center Grantees are most effective in PAAC activi- ties. Through our research and discussions rt conferences, we share our knowledge of the world and its dilemmas in the effort to fulfill the purposes of the PAAC. However, it is easier to perceive "first-hand" Informa- tion, than It is to understand Information which is read from a book. Because the grantees are natives of their respective coun- tries, the information which they relay to us seems to have genuine meaning, and this has enabled me to realize, and to understand the world with a better perspective. Speaking with the grantees has impelled me to think about the importance of lan- guage in communicating; of how the ability to speak different languages breaks one bar- rier of world perplexities. I have also become aware of the fact that many children of for- eign countries have the opportunity to learn various languages through schools and com- munity groups. All the efforts these foreign students put into learning English, and other languages as well, are very significant in overcoming one hurdle of world under- standing through language communication. It's amazing how direct and true state- ments from a grantee can make a person re- alize what he might never have even thought of before. The visitor from Vietnam has said that in her country, teen-age girls use make- up sparingly (unlike many American girls) and that they spend more of their time studying instead. They have also told us of the strict discipline which is present In the homes and schools. It makes me wonder If many American teen-agers are too commer- cialized, and if they take studying as a mere pasttime. It is these little things which seem unimportant now, but it may affect the type of government America will have in the years to come, for it has been said that "the youth of today will be the leaders of tomorrow." And it Is the type of youngsters we have which will affect the role our country will play in the future international scene. The grantees bring out their native cul- tures also. During the recent East-West Center visit, the club planned a party where we could get acquainted and at the same time, learn frcm the grantees. This was an evening of enjoyment, teen-type music, dance, and most of all, learning. Something which really Impressed me, however, was a contrast to all that went on in the pavilion. The sun had faded and only the moon and the stars made their way through the sky, while the ocean waves rhythmically rushed to shore and gently receded back again. In this beautiful and serene scene, I heard the singing of an Indian (dressed in his native costume), praying to his god beneath a tree as the moon cast the shadows upon the rocks. I've never experienced anything more impressive than this scene of nature, soli- tude and prayer. It may seem trivial to write of this expe- rience but through this, I really began to think about the world and its people. It made me realize that there are basic cul- tures in all countries, such as religion, and the love of nature. It is so easy to read the statements, ".. . All men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain un- alienable Rights . ," but to realize that these statements are true through actual experience, carries more meaning. Through the grantees, I have been able to realize that people are people, no matter how each per- son differs from another in his physical features, beliefs in gods, and ways of life. This awareness leads me to strongly feel that discrimination of a country or race has no basis, and that there is a legitimate hope for world-wide peace to take a firm start from this idea of human equality. After meeting and conversing with the grantees, all the countries of the world seem to be "closer;" to each other. And when the visit has ended, one not only has gained a better insight of the world and its people and problems, but also, he has gained new friendships. DR. DAVID Z. ROBINSON APPOINT- MENT AS VICE PRESIDENT OF NEW YORK UNIVERSITY (Mr. SCHEUER was granted permis- sion to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. SCHEUER. Mr. Speaker, I would like to inform the House of the appoint- ment of Dr. David Z. Robinson, member of President Johnson's Office of Science and Technology, as vice president for academic affairs at New York Univer- sity. His appointment, effective July 1, was announced by Dr. James M. Hester, president of New York University, who said of him: Dr. Robinson has played an important role in shaping national policy for science and education. He can make a major contribu- tion in shaping the future of New York University. In 1961 Dr. Robinson joined the White House staff as a technical assistant to the special assistant to the President for science and technology. He has also been a staff member on panels of the Presi- dent's-Science Advisory Committeedeal- ing with basic research, high energy physics, computers in higher education, and Project Westford, He has worked with the Bureau of the Budget on prob- lems of the administration of Govern- ment research grants, and has been a member of the advisory committee of the science and technology task force of the President's Crime Commission. In addition, he has been an observer of the Federal Council for Science and Tech- June 27, 1967 nology panels of high energy physics, materials research, and atmospheric sci- ences. Dr. Robinson is a fellow of the Optical Society of America and was national lec- turer of the society in -1960-61. He is a member of Sigma Xi and Phi Beta Kappa. Dr. Robinson will take on much of the responsibility for planning and adminis- tering New York University's instruc- tional, research, and public service pro- grams. In the increasingly complex rela- tions between urban universities and the city, this young scientist should be able to take a leading and innovative role in bringing the two into greater harmony. His keen knowledge of government and technology will enable him to take a leading role in the updating of New York University's educational processes. COMMENCEMENT REMARKS BY MR. LEO S. TONKIN (Mr. GRAY (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. GRAY. Mr. Speaker, at the recent 10th commencement exercises of the growing and excellent St. Thomas Aqui- nas College in Sparkil:l, N.Y., a stirring charge to the graduates was given Mr. Leo S. Tonkin, The commencement re- marks of Mr. Tonkin were noteworthy for their simple, yet most profound thoughts. I certainly commend the reading of this speech to my colleagues in the Con- gress, as well as to all those interested in the tomorrows of our young and es- teemed graduates of 1967. I take especial pleasure in calling Mr. Tonkin's remarks to your attention, for this young man is known to many of us as having served with distinction in a number of congressional staff positions over the past years. He is now the president of his own fed- eral relations educational firm, Leo S. .Tonkin Associates, Inc. In this position, Mr. Tonkin is now enjoying a reputable career working directly with educational institutions, and encouraging them to be creative and dedicated in their plan- ing and development. Following Mr. Tonkin's commence- ment remarks, St. Thomas Aquinas Col- lege saw fit to bestow on him their 1967 Cardinal Spellman Award and medal. At this time, I insert Mr. Tonkin's com- mencement address in the RECORD: Your Excellency, Archbishop Maguire, Rev- erend Monsignori, Reverend Mother, Evan- gelist Marie, Reverend Dean, Sister Marie Enda, Members of the Board of Trustees & Faculty, Reverend Fathers and Sisters, Ladies and Gentlemen, and, Indeed, most splen- didly, graduates of the Class of 1967. I feel most happy and indeed honored to be with you today, this wonderful milestone In your lives. When Mother Evangelist Marie asked me to-deliver today's commencement address, I readily accepted with pleasure and anticipation. It is always good for some- one working in Washington to have an op- portunity to leave that Babylon on the Po- tomac for a few days, and just retire some- where alone or sometimes to talk with many of the fine people around the country who Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 A 3300 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX June 27, 1967 Its Time To Be Stiffly Correct For many years Americans tried to make as a willing lackey of the United States. Al themselves loved in the Near East. The Amer- backed the United Arab Republic and thi EXTENSION OF REMARKS ican University In Beirut has educated gen- other Arab states in their struggle against OF - u?br?ght scholarships. We poured tremen- There was, however, a certain difference dour aid funds into Arab nations, including between the line taken by the Communise HON. EDWARD J. DERWINSKI those whose oil-rich sheiks bought Cadillacs parties of the West and others. In general Of ILLINOIS by the shipload and rented whole hotels In the stand taken, not only by the Chinese IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Switzerland. Communists and their allies, but also by the But because America has promoted Israel Soviets and their East European satellites Tuesday, June 27, 1967 we were hated. And when Gamal Abdel Nas- was extremely harsh, with not a word con- Mr. DERWINSKI. Mr. Swith ser, in the bleak early hours of June 6, tried cerning Israel's right to exist. The Western the recent performance at Speaker, a the in and k Unith to alibi the collapse of his air force by claim- communists, however (aside from the Pe- Nations, in which diplomats of many shott it down,ethe whole Near East bought it ma. They were o ves) were caught in- Nations, a dal on o lands pounded the propaganda drums, immediately. Mobs converged on the Ameri- with the Communist)li elibut they awere using the United States as a whipping can embassies. The American libraries went faced with the fact that the vast majority of boy in far too many instances, it is well up in flames. citizens in the free countries were solidly to evaluate the attitude that we ought Maybe we ought to relax. Maybe we should behind Israel and looked in horror at anyone to maintain in dealing with foreign lands. quit trying to be loved. Maybe we should as- who tried to seriously suggest that the A very penetrating and imaginative ds sume that we will be spit on. America is a Jewish state was an aggressor. In addition, ar- complacent dragon, a fine beast on which they realized that their Jewish members ticle by Jenkin Lloyd Jones in the Wash- to beat with wooden swords and have one's would be disturbed, if not worse, at any such ington Star on Saturday, June 24, is picture taken standing on its back. Hatred of action. They, therefore, swallowed the line- worth pondering and, therefore, I place It is a huge convenience for a government en- with some hedging. Let us analyze this in it in the RECORD at this point: tangled in its own stupidity. specific terms. IT'S TIME To BE STIFFLY CORRECT So be it. If we expect to be hated we will be freer to do intelligent things. We won't CHINESE AND SATELLITES (By Jenkin Lloyd Jones) have to keep shoring up corrupt regimes in The Chinese, of course, dedicated to a The time may have arrived when the the hope that they will become reliable policy of extermination of Israel, spoke out American people should quit trying to be so friends. We can spend our foreign aid more early in the crisis on behalf of the Arabs. In- puppy-dog friendly to the world and assume wisely. We can seal off some famous rat holes. deed, some days before Nasser began the a more dignified posture of "correctness." We can say, "Look, your excellency. Your sabre-rattling that led to the war, Peking Americans are, perhaps, the friendliest peo- mob burnt our free library, which happens to had celebrated "Palestine Day" in pomp. The ple on earth. Part of it comes from our big- be the biggest and best in your country. If "holiday" which is celebrated every May 15, ness and isolation. At home we see few for- you want it back, jail the leaders and build us led the official Chinese organ Renmin Ribao eigners. An alien accent intrigues us. In any a building. We'll just replace the books," to exclaim: "As long as the Palestine people erudite cocktail party the crowd is generally Or, "See here, your highness. We figure and the other people persist in the struggle thickest around the foreign visitor. you'll gut us the first time it's convenient, they will finally defeat ... U.S. imperialism We have, for a long time, suffered from a but in the meantime we'd like to help your and its tool for aggression, Israel, and the missionary guilt complex. It's an interesting people. If you've got a sound plan and a way aspiration of the Palestine people to return combination of smugness and concern. We to keep your gang from cracking the safe to their homeland will surely be realized." are proud of the "American way." We feel we may bankroll it." By. May 25, as Nasser's troops were mobi- sure that our outlooks and, techniques are This kind of talk will make more sense to lized along the borders of Israel, a Reuters suprior to those of most other countries. We more people than our past habit of turning report from Peking stated that Kuo Mo-jo would like to share our wisdom. Hence, the the other cheek with a sickly grin. Every- president of the Academy of Sciences, said at .missionary. On the other hand, we are eas- body's pal-hell; It just didn't work. Let's be a rally of 100,000 that "China stood with the ily guilt-ridden because of our relative opu- stiffly correct for a change, and maybe they'll Arab countries against what he called United lence. So we give, often lavishly. conclude we're,not so crazy after all. States and Israeli aggression." He also blasted Our British cousins In their great days those who were "struggling the just struggle were somewhat like us, but not much. They of the Palestinian people." With the out- were eloquently and sometimes arrogantly break of hostilities and the swift advance proud of the empire. They wept a little for How the Ex ems Left Reacted to the of the Jews, rallies were held, daily, in Peking the heathen. They had their heroic mis- to support the Arabs and a government sionaries and teachers who went forth into Middle East Crisis statement declared: "The 700 million Chi- the pools of ignorance and fever to discour- nese people absolutely will not allow United age infanticide, stop cannibalism and out- EXTENSION OF REMARKS States imperialists and their collaborators to law suttee. But hard on their heels came ride roughshod and commit aggression the flag and the traders. of everywhere." As the Basuto chief bitterly told one of The Chinese allies, North Vietnam and the my old anthropology professors, "When the HON. ABRAHAM J. MULTER Vietcong, added their complete backing of white man came here he had the Bible and OF NEW YORK the Arabs. President Ho Chi Minh, of North we had the land. Now we've got the Bible IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Vietnam on June 6, condemned the attack and he's got the land." on the Arabs (it might be noted that the Among the more recent colonial powers - Tuesday, June 27, 1967 following day, South Vietnamese Premier you might classify, in descending order of Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, almost Nguyen Kao Cao Ky, declared: "I'm for Is- humanity, the French, the Dutch, the Bel- real.") The Vietcong Liberation Radio,' on glans, the Germans and the Japanese. The everyone is now aware of the false ac- June 8, broadcasting from its secret jungle Russians were never well enough organized cusations which the Communist world base in South Vietnam, promised to "step up in the 18th and 19th centuries to seize dis- has repeatedly lodged against Israel and the war against the Americans" as a way of tant lands from primitive peoples. But In the United States, backing the Arabs in their struggle "against their conquest and treatment of the Euro- In a recent article, Meir Kahane, of imperialism." pean satellites they would go to the bottom the Jewish Press, analyzed the reaction In the United States, the pro-Peking of the list. of the extreme left throughout the world Marxists echoed the Chinese line. Thus the Only the Americans were haunted by their and the Nation, to the Middle East crisis. fanatical Youth Against War And Fascism strength and nervous about their prosperity, outfit, through a spokesman, Deirdre Gris- Only the Americans set forth wistfully to I commend to the attention of our col- word, declared that "Israel, in fact, is acting make the world love them. leagues the following article which ap- as a pawn of Western interests. Our people, Funny thing. The Israelis bombed, a U.N. peared in the June 23, 1967, edition of with their sympathies, are for the Arab rev- force In the Gaza strip and nine Indian and the Jewish Press. olution ... Israel is artificial." (Let it be two Brazilian soldiers were killed. The diplo- The article follows: noted here that many of this group's mem- mats in the U.N. Security Council all tried tiers are Jewish and-as they back Commu- to top each other in expressions of regret and How THE EXTREME AL ST REACTED To THE nist policy in the Middle East-so do they grief. But 54,000 Americans died in what was MIDDLE EAST CRISIS in Vietnam). billed as an official U.N. action in Korea,.How (By Meir Kahane) much weeping did the United Nations do for The international Marxist network was an The Stuents for a Inc easingly radical Dg oupa which )has our boys? unanimous in its condemnation of Israel as taken stands that parallel more and more There is the human inclination to make an "aggressor" and as a "tool of Imperialism." the Chinese line, said, through its Jewish the friend of your enemy your enemy. All None, not one, saw any justification for president: "Our people do not believe that our largesse to India was forgotten the mo- Israel's actions. All saw the war as an out- the U.S. should be the policeman in the ment we gave arms to Pakistan. And the growth of American "imperialism" and an Mideast or the Far East." Naturally, the Pakistanis damned us for our aid to India. "oil lobby plot" with the Israeli government Arabs answered with a loud Amen. Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 une 27, 1967 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX A3299 T'rivate Harman, a graduate of Poly who ?ed at 319 Audrey avenue in Brooklyn was lled about 3 P.M. last Saturday by small 3Tts fire while guarding an outpost some- _iere in Vietnam, his father, Curtis C. Har- a:1, said last night. ENLISTED IN ARMY Eis son had enlisted in the Army in June ?66, after finishing his second year at Loyola :Ilege, Mr. Harman said. Although he was in the ROTC, he "couldn't aft and enlisted. He volunteered for Viet- a .In . said he wanted to get in it before was all over." Mr. Harman said his son "read constantly, 1 about the military," had majored in polit- er:: and military science while at Loyola to "wanted to make the military a career." In addition to his parents, Private Harman e urvived by a sister, Mrs. Joyce Filipia OF MINNESOTA THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES esday, June 27, EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JOSHUA EILBERG OF PENNSYLVANIA :N THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, June 27, 1967 Certification: This is a true and correct richer nations are failing to fulfill our obliga- copy of the original Resolution adopted by tions to the two billion children of God the Council of - the City of Philadelphia on who are poor, our brothers and sisters who the eighteenth day of May, 1967. bear His image and are beloved of Him one of us We are failing n h y as a PAUL D ORTONA, as muc President of City Council. morally, and we are failing politically. The policies of the United States government NATHAN WOLFMAN, reflect this failure. As the costs of interna- Chief Clerk of the Council, tional development have mounted, the h C ress has on t Resolution on Foreign Aid EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF =. HON. DONALD M. FRASER asallu V1A sVAC16a, ant. --~-?---- Today the United States is the wealth- ripening, the fruits of scientific tituuy are test nation in the world, yet since 1949 becoming genuinely significant, and the op- the percentage of our gross national portunities for acceleration in development are rising. It is patricularly unfortunate that id devote to foreign a product Considering the shrinking of American vision and support has steadily y been we decreasing. comes at a time when bitterness and despair the phenomenal increase in the number are growing in the poorer nations. of nations requiring economic assistance The General Board notes with gratitude 'Mr. EILBERG. Mr. Speaker, it was my -rivilege along with many other Mem- -ers of the House recently to introduce ngislation to update and strengthen our .olial security laws to provide among -tier things a 20-percent increase in .ayments to those of our older Ameri- -ans who are eligible, and indeed to en- a:rge the percentage of our population el .gible to take part in our social security Dlogram. The Council of the City of Philadel- Dhia, one-fifth of which I represent, re- n-ently saw fit to adopt a resolution me- aioralizing this House to support that 20- DE:rcent increase. I present the text of RESOLUTIODt,. ON FOREIGN AID ADOPTED BY THE matters. In particular the General Boara GENERAL 10ARD OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL expresses its gratitude at the prospect of OF CHURCHE?~, JUNE 1, 1987 collaboration with Roman Catholic brethren The General 13pard of the NCCCUSA af- and pledges its own efforts toward this end. firms its support'-9f governmental foreign The General Board recognizes that devel- aid, especially development loans and techni- opment in the complex world of the 1960's cal assistance. involves economic, political, cultaral, and The General Board, hoVever, does not con- psychological matters that go far beyond sider that the present govnmental expendi- governmental financial aid and technical tures adequately discharge the responsibility assistance. Therefore, it is of the most im- of the USA for economic aid,.,and technical mediate urgency that present governmental ll d d elopme he f ially i a ow- od s? the fo assistance, and therefore recor tancef be cal an RESOLUTION No. 315 ing convictions. d assi Resolution memoralizing the members and The moment has come for a renewal of and increased. Any aid program should be chairman of the Ways and Means Commit- American commitment to international de- correlated with a trade policy helpful to tee of the House of Representatives of the velopment. Public indifference and govern- developing countries, lest the USA contri- United States to support the proposed in- mentalretreat must be overcome. Newat- bution in these areas diminish to the van- crease of twenty per cent in Social Security titudes, new policies, and new actions arg fishing point. Funds for increased aid in payments required. The poverty of two-thirds of the`,,, agriculture, family planning and education WHEREAS, The Senior Citizens of our a- Tom family is the starkest economic fact ? are of particular importance. Lin include a great majority of elderly men of our time.-It, ore than a material con- We stress the necessity of greatly increased and women who rely solely upon the Social dition: it is a Mora age. The sufferings phasis upon multilateral provision and security payments they receive for their sub- and the degradation of th. W_r have been Sdminfstra~ti~on tof aid ies anrthnther International , WHEREAS, Living coats under present vv- the nations together now li-m- rli.tions make it difficult for these elder cit- nological capacity to lift the burden of viding of aid from rich to poor is difficult. 92ens to meet their financial needs without a poverty from the backs of every people. Multilateral international channels reduce realistic increase in Social Security pay- Everywhere poverty has become a seedbed these hazards by providing a framework in .r.ents; and of social and political revolution. which unilateral pressures are reduced, and WHEREAS, President Johnson's proposal Those who know God in Jesus Christ the dignity and freedom of both receiving that Social Security payments be increased discern afresh that His love seeks justice in and giving nations are enhanced. In this to not less than twenty per cent is unani- the very midst of the revolutions of the dis- connection, furthermore, It is important to piously endorsed by the members of the Sen- inherited. As the gap between the rich na- make increased provisions for aid. funds to fur Citizens' Central Association of Philadel- tions and the poor nations tragioally ex- be less dependent upon their being spent Tftia; therefore pands, the Imperatives of our faith cry for within the U.S. economy. Resolved, By the Council of the City of justice and for compassion. These impera- The General Board directs that this reso- -Philadelphia, That we hereby memorialize tives require not merely inner attitudes. They lution be communicated at once to the ap- rt:ae chairman and members of the Ways and call for action. They confront the United propriate members of Congress, and requests -Means Committee of the House of Repre- States with special force because it is of the member- churches take immediate steps s?ntatives of the United States to favor and all nations the richest and most powerful. to register similar convictions on their own support the proposed increase of twenty per This nation has done much to develop the part, and on the part of their individual cent in Social Security payments. science and technology which provide the members, to the members of Congress. Resolved, That certified copies of this Res- promise of triumph over world poverty and The General Board requests early com- otution be forwarded to Chairman Wilbur which have persuaded us to launch a war pletion, for its consideration and action, of Mills and the members of the House Ways on poverty at home. But our very affluence the study of international justice and devel- and Means Committee as evidence of the tends to muffle the cries of human need and opment now under way in the Department sincere sentiments of this legislative body. to stifle our response to them. We in the of International Affairs. e, e Executive has proposed and voted successive decreases in the American (dollars) commitment. In 1949, during the Marshall Plan, the United States provided 2.78 per cent (approximately $7.5 bi:Llion) of its gross national product as economic aid primarily for European reconstruction. By contrast, the US in 1967 provided only 0.57 per cent (approximately $3.8) of the G.N.P. for economic aid throughout the world. It is true that aid to Europe and economic and technical assistance to the developing na- tions have called forth unprecedented funds 67 from the United States government and ao tr ut it is time man welfare. Yet it is also true that United _. . .. li ., is in retreat at the. o c Approved For Release 2004/05/25 ; CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 June .2 7, 1967 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX ?rnus, the Chinese and their allies, as far as the Soviets are concerned, they and their Bulgarian running dog, clearly showed the media of television, radio and the press, their fanatic hostility toward Israel. The other East European Communists colonies joined the Russians in bitter condemnation of Is- rael and in thinly veiled threats against the Jewish state. None of them had a word to say against the violent Arab threats to de- stroy Israel; none of them declared that Is- rael had a right to exist. On the other hand, the Western Commu- nist parties were forced to twist and turn to satisfy both their masters in Moscow and the liberals they were trying to attract. This led to attacks on the Israeli Government cricles (rather than on Israel itself) and a description of the Israelis as tools of Wash- ington who, nevertheless, had a right to exist if only they would abide by the Communist book. All this, however, could not disguise the fact that the Western Communists agreed fully with the general Marxist assess- ment;of Israel: THE AGGRESSOR This, for example, is how the Worker, the Communist Party's newspaper, re-wrote his- tory in its description to its readers of the background of the Mideast crisis even before h ostilities began: "The present Middle East crisis had its beginnings last November, when the Israeli government, using the excuse of raids by Palestine Arab refugees, invaded Jordan and destroyed three villages ... Most of the Arab states immediately began to develop mutual military relationships in preparation for fur- ther attacks by Israeli military forces. "This uneasy situation prevailed until May 12 of this year when Premier Eshkol, impatient at the lack of reaction, threatened strong military action against Syria . It was three days after this Israeli threat that UAR President Nasser put his country's troops on the alert to warn Israel against What he considered to be an impending in- vasion of Syria. At the same time, he request- ed the UnitedNations to withdraw its troops from the Gaza Strip and the entrance to the Gulf of Aqaba both UAR territory. When the Israeli regime. continued its bel- ligerent attitude toward the Arab states, Nasser ordered a blockade to the entrance of the Gulf which is the Strait of Tiran. "It is this blockade, which is being used as the excuse for the Johnson Administra- tion for its threat of military intervention. (Ed. Note: The reader should note that dur- ing this same period UAR forces had been mobilized and sent to the border, a Jordan- UAR military pact had been signed, Syria had pledged to attack Israel and the Worker ignored all these things and attempted to show that the sole problem was Aqaba which they immediately proceeded to downgrade and over which they backed Nasser complete- ly. We continue the Worker's distortion:) "The Strait of Tiran is at no point more than 5 miles wide. It is entirely UAR terri- tory. The Gulf of Aqaba in its entire 125- mile length, is bordered by the UAR and Saudi Arabia. The only Israeli territory on the gulf is the small port of Elath at the extreme northern end. "Despite all this Washington claims that the Straits of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba are international waters and must be free to ships of Israel. The only basis for this is a unilateral statement by (U.S. Secretary of State John Foster) Dulles to Israel.. . "But neither the UAR nor Saudi Arabia ever agreed to the declaration. As a matter of. fact the UAR has, contended that it has e b en in a state of war With Israel since 1948 and can therefore exercise belligerent rights. world trade, Elath is -a small port with a population of 13,000. Shipments from that port can be directed to the Mediterranean. "Fewer threats to the Gulf of Aqaba would undoubtedly reduce tension." - Thus, the American Communist's Party in- terpretation of the events that led to the hostilities. It amounts to a complete back- ing of Nasser's stand. It amounts to a com- plete sellout of Israel. It coincides fully with International communism's declaration of war against- the Jewish State. In only one way, did the American Com- munists differ-publicly-from their Mos- cow masters. Of necessity, because of ten- Sion among some of their Jewish members and the fear of alienating the liberal com- munity, the long harangue just published above is followed by ONE short paragraph which reads: "At the same time belligerent statements by Arab governments calling for Israel's de- struction aggravate the tension and play into the hands of Wall Street imperialism." Finis. That is the extent of Gus Hall's com- promise with liberals. He protests against Extermination of Israel since this is too crude for sensitive liberal stomachs. Dis- memberment of the country by a return to the impossible 1947 borders Is flue, the to- tal return of more than a million Arabs ded- icated to wiping out of Israel is demanded; the ending of Jewish immigration is ad- vocated; only Extermination should be elim- inated-because it plays Into Wall Street's hands. The fact that Nasser was in no mood to listen to the Worker's advice and would surely have exterminated Israel had force not been used against him hardly bothered the Worker. The only real purpose of the traitors on West 23rd Street is to follow the Party Line totally and the little, cynical bone thrown to their more sensitive Jewish mem- bers- and the liberal community is a small price to pay in the battle against imperialist freedom. Danish Petition To Stop the Bombing EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. DON EDWARDS OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, June 27, 1967 Mr. EDWARDS of California. Mr. Speaker, Yesterday's New York Times carried a full-page advertisement an- nouncing the petition of 227,000 Danish citizens to the President of the United States to stop the bombing of North Viet- nam and topursue the three-point peace program outlined by Secretary General U Thant of the United Nations. These 227,000 persons whose names were vol- untarily gathered, represent only a por- tion of Danes who, according to public opinion polls in Denmark, are opposed to the war in Vietnam. This petition reveals the concern of the population of a nation traditionally friendly to America and makes a sincere and fervent appeal to our country to take that first and essen- tial step which could break the existing stalemate for negotiations. This is especially significant as the movement begins within our own Nation to make a similar anneal +hr.,u i ila g s m r issue . , to the limit, continuing to threat- tional efortVto collectsignatures is now en war if the. UAR does not capitulate. Yet underway and in every major city in the the Gulf of Aqaba is not essential to Israel's United States, offices are being set up to A 3301 coordinate the drive. Sponsors of nego- tiations now share the conviction that there is no hope for a negotiated settle- ment as long as bombing of the north continues. I include the content of this advertisement from the New York Times in the Appendix of the RECORD: MESSAGE FROM 227,000 DANES TO PRESIDENT LYNDON B. JOHNSON: STOP THE BOMBING Over a two-month period, from the 7th of February to the 7th of April, 227,000 Danes including some 10,000 high school students signed this petition to the President of the United States to stop the bombing of North Vietnam. They took their lead from UN Secretary-general U Thant's first three-point peace program stressing the fact that an end to the bombing is the first step to negotia- tions. It was emphasized that this was not an anti-American move. On the contrary: the signers consider their appeal also as a greet- Ing to those Americans, including people from all walks of life, in and out of govern- ment, working for an immediate end to the war In Vietnam. They were moved by their grave concern about the development of the war in Vietnam. TO MR. KRAG 2 Representatives for the signers went to ristiansborg Castle on the 27th of April and delivered the signatures to the Prime Minister of Denmark, Mr. Jens Otto Krag, asking him to make the lists available to all members of the Danish Parliament. And then to have Parliament make it quite clear to the Government of the United States that an influential section of the Danish people want the bombing stopped unconditionally as a first step towards negotiations and peace. PEAR Public opinion polls conducted in Den- mark have shown about 50 percent of the population against the war in Vietnam with only about 15 percent for it. The rest don't know. The men and women collecting the signatures by pressing doorbells found only about one third of the people contacted dared to sign. The rest expressed either fear, or doubt about the effectiveness of this kind of action. THE ROYAL THEATRE Besides pressing doorbells, some of the 4,000 Danes active in collecting the signa- tures circulated lists at offices, factories, the- atres, etc. At Copenhagen's Royal Theatre 287 members of the staff, the actors and the Royal Ballet signed the petition. TEN MILLION AMERICANS Taking the size of the two countries con- cerned Into consideration, the number of signatures collected in Denmark would by comparison correspond to 10,000,000 Amer- ican signatures. So it has been quite some work to get the 227,000 signatures together and of course only part of the country has been covered. People are not equally active in matters of foreign -policy everywhere. Naturally enough most of the signatures come from the capital, Copenhagen, and Den- mark's second largest town, Aarhus on the mainland. WHO PAID FOR THIS AND 60 OTHER ADVERTISEMENTS During the two months in which the sig- natures were collected, many different groups of Danes inserted advertisements in more than 40 daily newspapers and more than 20 periodicals. And they also paid for this ad- vertisement. -Split up according to profes- sions the ad sponsors include: 488 profes- sors, university teachers, doctors and other profession, 264 teacher, 4 bishop, 51 deans and other clergymen, 210 trade union spokes- men, 112 workers, 340 architects, 92 business- men, 321- public servants and office workers, 79 students, 387 actors and artists 121 house- wives, 53 members of Parliament and Town Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R0002003000"14-6 - A 3302 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX Councils. Thus several thousand contribu- tions are paying for this ad. It was decided from the beginning that it was very important to have many small con- tributions, to make clear that this is not an action sponsored by any specific political party or group. Nobody has been paid as much as a dime for his work in collecting signatures. The work has been done entirely by volunteers. The extreme right in Danish politics, voted out of Parliament by the last election, has tried to make the signers appear to be Com- munists and Communist sympathisers. There are in fact Liberals, Conservatives, Social Democrats, Peoples Socialists, Communists and members of Venstre, the farmer's party, among the 227,000. As the paying group covers all professions, the signers represent nearly the whole spectrum of political life in Denmark. The appeal to the President of the United States is in other words the appeal from one democratic people to another. And the mak- ing of such an appeal is a compliment to the United States and its form of government. Because if the 227,000 Danes had seen the United States as an isolated and completely single-minded society without any regard for its allies and their opinion, they would have taken neither the trouble nor the expense. (On behalf of the signers.) POUL NIELSON. KIRKEDAMMEN 13. ARnus C. CARL SCEsARNBERG. VRAA. HENRIK SIDENIUS. NAESBY, FYN. (The text signed by more than 227,000 Danes: Stop the Bombing (We, the signers, agree to this demand on the United States government. (We want the Danish government and par- liament to repeat It again and again. (The appeal carried a picture of U Thant and mentioned his grave concern at the es- calation in Vietnam. First step to negotia- tions must include an end to the bombing of North Vietnam.) EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. WILLIAM G. BRAY OF INDIANA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, June 27, 1967 Mr. BRAY. Mr. Speaker, as a general rule, there can be no accurate evaluation of men who hold high public office until some time after their tenure of office has ended. One of this country's greatest Secretaries of State, the late John Fos- ter Dulles, was also one of the most con- troversial figures of his time, and the effects of his policies are still being debated. History must frequently depend on character sketches, vignettes, anecdotes, and personal observations that come from those who were professionally and personally close to such men. Louis Jef- ferson spent 5 years with Mr. Dulles as his personal security aid, and had an op- portunity to know him that was granted to very few. The following article by Mr. Jefferson, from the June 27, 1967, issue of National Review, is an interesting footnote to his- tory. Mr. Jefferson's account of a private conversation with Mr. Dulles, held in February 1957, plainly shows that Mr. Dulles was fully aware of the grave prob- lems still to be faced In Southeast Asia. Secretary Dulles knew the Red Chinese would continue to press into the area, and he knew they must be stopped. He also knew that unless our enemies un- derstand our intentions, and believe in our will to act, they will move against us at every opportunity. That is exactly what has happened, and we are- now pay- ing the price for not following Secretary Dulles' advice. - CONVERSATION WITH DULLES (By Louis Jefferson) I spent nearly five years on assignment to the late Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, as his Personal Security Aide. Dur- ing his last three years in office I was rarely away from him. We logged something over 300,000 miles together and I got to know him well. In the words of his widow: "Lou, you knew him better than most." During those years with Dulles, I not only witnessed his participation in many of the events and decisions which have shaped our times, but had the opportunity to talk with him, often in unguarded moments, about his private views and deepest feelings. One of the most unusual of those conversations occurred one night over a drink in a small hotel room in Georgia. - History has been described as a series of long, dull intervals between great dramatic moments, but by February of 1957 the reverse was becoming more and more true. The scene of most immediate crisis then was around Suez. President Eisenhower, still not fully recovered from his first heart attack, was resting at Treasury Secretary George Humph- rey's plantation and shooting preserve near Thomasville, Georgia. One winter-gripped Washington evening, when the need for Pres- idential counsel and decision on Suez was urgent, I flew down to Thomasville with Dulles to see the President. Our then Ambas- sador to the UN, Henry Cabot Lodge, accom- panied him. There was a chill in the air, even as far south as Thomasville, but we were whisked out A o Humphrey's plantation In a well- warmed limousine. Eisenhower was reportedly playing bridge when we arrived, but quickly closeted himself with his Secretary of State and Ambassador to the United Nations. After the talk with the President, we went Into Thomasville to spend the night at a place improbably called the Three Toms Inn. I had a bottle of Dulles' favorite whiskey- Old Overholt rye-in my brief case (along with Top Secret--"Eyes Onlyfor the Secre- tary"-papers, ammunition, drafting pads, assorted pills, a blackjack, phone directories, and the Secretary's favorite detective stories). Knowing that he was not just tired, but tense and troubled over Suez, I suggested a night- cap. Sitting on the edge of a squeaking old bed In the plain, but sanitized and quite functional, room which had been assigned to him in the Three Toms, coatless and tie- less, sipping Pennsylvania rye on the rocks, trying to break the hard combination of tension and fatigue, the patrician Foster Dulles peered at me that night- through his heavy spectacles, and expounded pent-up feelings about the constant application re- quired to keep peace. Dulles had an aura of power about him. For most of his adult life he had been a man of great affairs and a participant in great events, living in the rarefied atmos- phere of those whose everyday work has its effect on large numbers of people. It was a world of richly paneled partners' rooms, of elegant private clubs with the hallmark June 27, -1967 of enormously expensive simplicity, of town houses and country homes, a world of cer- tainty, confidence- and continuity. But the aura took on a different hue- that night in Georgia. - - - THOUGH FATALISM SUSTAINED DULLES I was startled. With his white hair and sagging gothic features. Dulles looked like some ancient patriarch in modern shirt- sleeves. His conversation was filled with both the tough fatalism which so often sustained him, and his deep conviction that the struggle for peace was just that, a struggle. His voice was gravelly, with a touch of the pulpit in it, as the words came slowly out. There was a noticeable twitch in his eyes, but they were bright. I recall wondering in one of those odd mental flashes if John Calvin drank rye whiskey. Just a little more than two months after his own first cancer operation, Dulles was far more preoccupied that night with the - President's health than his own. He talked about how the President needed rest-how press secretary Jim Hagerty and everyone around the President told him this. He said that that made it tougher for him because he had to be very careful about taking to the President only matters which had to have the President's attention, or a Presi- dential decision, but that he welcomed it in a way. He mentioned Vice President Nixon's role during the period of the President's first heart attack, and said that he thought that Nixon had "handled himself very well." He rambled a bit, mentioning how hard it was to "go against old allies and dear friends" over Suez, and then went back to President Eisenhower's health. He said that Walter Lippmann "raises the President's blood pres- sure" but that, his eyes lighting up mo- mentaritly, he had told the President to "let the Secretary of State do the reading of Walter Lippmann." He kept going back to the President's need for rest. His feeling for Mr. Eisenhower was deep, and very genuine. I mentioned that thePresident was rest- ing at Secretary Humphrey's plantation, and that the Secretary of State needed some rest too. Dulles shrugged this off as a statement of no consequence. He crouched forward and began stirring his nearly empty glass with his forefinger. He was silent for a while. Then he said that many people did not understand his position on Suez, but that this had been true in other areas, that he had not become Secretary of State to seek public acclaim, and that we just could. not "condemn ag- gression in one area and condone it in an- other." This led him into the difficulties of "waging peace" and how sometimes you had to "take chance to get peace." After another moment or two of silence, he handed me his glass, asking me for a light one. I poured another drink and, referring to his remark about taking chances to get peace, asked him if we had really been at what had been termed the brink of war over Indochina (Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia) in 1954. He thought for a moment, and then sort of reared back on the funny old bed and said: "Well, the important thing was that we kept the pressure on the Communists- they were never altogether sure just what we might do, or how far we might go. They leaned, I think, to the view that we were bound to do more than we were probably prepared to do. I guess you might call that a `brink.' But if they had thought we would do less than we were prepared to do, they might have pushed for more, or all of Viet- nam. That would have really been dangerous. It could have meant war for us, war of un- predictable proportions." - I pointed out that we had not Intervened at the crucial battle between the French and Ho Chi Minh at Dienbienphu, and that the war had resulted in the Communists' taking over part of Vietnam. "Yes," Dulles replied!, "they [the Commu- nists] were all out for victory at Dienbien- Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 Approv /CONG elea se 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 June 27, 1967 RESSIONAL RECORD APPENDIX A 3311 Federenko and the Fa 8 Fact 4: On May 18, 1987, Egyptian Presi- mind can charge that a defensive item such dent Gamal Abdel Nasser reimposed the as a gas mask can be u' ed to destroy tank blockade of the Gulf of Aqaba. Israel declared columns. It is common knowledge that the EXTENSION OF REMARKS that this was an Act of War against her. gas masks were for use by Israel to protect of For nearly 3 weeks, Israel exercised restraint, herself from the hideous use by Nasser of . ABRAHAM J. MUI:TER while the U.N. talkathon continued, Mean- chemical warfare, as he did against Yemen. while, Nasser and his fellow Arab leaders These are facts which Mr. Federenko HON OF NEW YORK called upon their people to wage a "Holy blatantly and unashamedly ignores. But, Mr. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES War" against Israel, until "Israel no longer Federenko has never really cared for facts. exists." Instead of mouthing similar war- He enjoys his fiction better. Tuesday, June 27, 1967 cries, Israel Premier Levi Eshkol called for restraint, and extended the olive branch of Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, anyone peace to his Arab neighbors. who has been following the recent U.N. Federenko attacked the United States for Fascist Threat to United States proceedings, can easily detect the obvious helping Israel prepare for war against the stream of lies and deceits which have Arabs: ben continually uttered by the Soviet "Surely everyone knows that it is precisely EXTENSION OF REMARKS delegation. Washington which, by its dollar generosity of Sheldon David Engelmayer, in a recent and assistance, has been supporting the Israeli aggressor and which, over a number of HON. JOHN R. RARICK article, has listed eight erenko remarks made years, has been pursuing a notorious policy OF LOUISIANA Soviet Ambassador Federenko which are re of acting from a position of strength against IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES in complete disagreement with the facts. other States ... This is all a chain of a I commend to the attention of our col- single imperialist plot against the peace- Tuesday, June 27, 1967. leagues the following article which ap- loving peoples who have risen to the sacred Mr. RARICK. Mr. Speaker, "you can peared in the June 23, 1967, edition of call of the struggle against the colonial op- the Jewish Press. pressors in the great cause of national fooollell of the peopeopleple alsometof tt he time, so of of ime but The article follows: freedom." Fact 5: Mr. Federenko apparently forgot you can't fool all of the people all of the FEDERENKO AND THE FACTS the heroic citizens of Hungary who rose in time." (By Sheldon David Engelmayer) October of 1956, to shake off the yoke of the words and phrases may camou- flage Cl aims and Obd phrases but eventual If there is one thing lacking in the United Communists and restore parliamentary de- Clever Nations speeches of Soviet Ambassador mocracy to that land. And, perhaps, he also ly the mask and Socialism, under Nikolai T. Federenko, it is truth. Not one forgot that Soviet troops and tank divisions word that he has uttered over the last few rolled through the streets of Hungary, killing any subterfuge just cannot be kept weeks had any semblance of truth to it. He innocent and unarmed citizens by the secret when it starts hurting the people. has used the Security Council as a forum for thousands, and maiming countless others in I include "Analysis-America's Fas- his own bitter deceit and invective, and now order to restore dictatorial rule to that cist Threat," by Hans F. Sennholz, from he has turned the General Assembly into the hapless land. the June 28 Review of the News fol- newest arena for his dangerous game in the In his speeches to the Council, Mr. Feder- lowing my remarks. current Mid East crisis;i he has even added enko pleads for justice and mercy, while he who appeal and work to Soviet Premier Kosygin to his list of players. condemns the "hypocricy" of Israel and the perhaps subvert the those people under eibety-denying It is time for us to clear the air of Mr. Western Powers. Federenko's lies and deceits. The best method Fact 6: If any nation has no right to talk laws in the name of peace, progress, and of ridding ourselves of this verbal air pollu- about justice and mercy, it is the hypo- prosperity are in the true sense not lib- tion is to equate the Soviet ambassador's critical Soviet Union. The bloodsoaked pages erals, but are furthering the police state remarks with the facts. of Soviet history ably demonstrate the Rus- controls, recognized by many as national Fact 1: The United Nations Security Coun- sian idea of "justice and mercy." Between socialism or fascism. cil was called into emergency session by 1936 and 1938, the Soviet Union conducted FASCIST THREAT Canada and Denmark on May 24, 1967, to a series of trials in which prominent revolu- AMERIBCA'S Hans FAASCIST THREAT discuss the military build-up in the Middle tionaries were sentenced to death for treason. most conservatives East. The United States delegate, Arthur Among the victims of the Soviet justice were At have another been m called Fascists, Goldberg, declared that the situation was former Premier A. I. Rykov, two former Presi- and one time their libertarians or principles of society, govern- tion and called for an immediate resolu- dents of the Communist International, the although y tion urging restraint on all sides. Only the former dreaded head of the Secret Police, ment, tand he ectenets onomy axe are dime ric llt iopa Soviet Union stood in the way of this reso- and numerous cabinet officials. Marshal M. But lution. Meanwhile, Nasser and his band of N. Tukhachevsky, one of Russia's most gifted curious fact, ascertainable by every objective Arab cutthroats were able to mobilize fully military leaders during the Revolution, and observer, that American liberalism evidences for their "Holy War" to destroy Israel seven of the Red Army's top generals were numerous similarities to the manifestations Fact 2: After the outbreak of hostilities on killed in June of 1937, after an alleged secret of Fascism. In particular, the economic poli- June 5, 1967, it took two days for the Secu- trial. This, too, was an example of Soviet ties of Fascist dictators are surprisingly sim- rity Council to vote a simple cease-fire ieso- "justice" and "mercy." Throughout this ilar to the economic programs of our liberal lution. The Soviet Union wanted to see how period many secret executions took place, administrations. President Johnson's "Great the war was going. When it became painfully and the subsequent purge caused many to Society," for instance, evidences character- obvious to Federenko that Israel had totally be placed in forced labor camps. This, too, istics which in other places were called defeated her attackers, he swiftly agreed to was "Justice" and "mercy." And Russia's Fascist. an unconditional cease-fire. ruthless intervention in the Hungarian Revo- In his Autobiography (Hutchinson & Com- Now, Federenko, his Bulgarian stooge Tara- lution was also just and merciful, at least pany, Limited, atPlymouth, England) I 4, The banov and India's Parthasarathi, took on a in Mr. Federenko's eyes. Mayflower new plan of attack. They had to brand Israel Mr. Federenko has continuously referred dictator Benito Mussolini explained what the aggressor, and demand that she withdraw to the Arab States as "peace-loving" and Fascism is all about: "I think that Italy is her troops to positions held prior to the out- "friendly." He charges the United States with advanced beyond all the European nations: break of the war on June 5th. flaming the fires of the Middle East by mili- in fact, it has ratified the laws for the eight- hour day, for obligatory insurance, for regu- Fact Israel. Fact The Soviet Union began accus- tarily ing Israel of having planned its "aggression, Fact 7: The Soviet Union has practiced lotion of the work of women and children, benefit of June 5th "for years." Mr. eir troops anti-Semitism constantly to destroy versa assisandtancadule end edu ation, and finally for o ed that the Arabs mobilized d their troops They Y attempted only after Israeli forces had begun n taking up Judaism by cultural strangulation and anni- obligatory insurance against tuberculosis. positions on the Syrian border. Federenko hilation. On numerous occasions, official All this shows how, in every detail in the made this charge despite the fact that U.N. Soviet publications have printed cartoons world of Labour, I stand by Italian working observers reported to Secretary-General U and stories with definite anti-Semitic over- classes. All that was possiblef oowithout Thant that no such Israeli build-up had tones. The Soviet Union has consistently held doing an injury the principle taken place. to a policy of anti-Semitism. Their actions in our economy I have set out to do, from the wage Mr. Federenko told the United Nations the United Nations are a direct extension minmf om the insurance to con ti uity ofaccideny- Security Council that "the United Arab Re- of this anti-Semitic policy. public, Syria Bind other Arab States had no The Soviet ambassador has even gone so to the indemnity against illness; from in-pro aggressive were designs or desires. whatsoever, that far agas to accuse West gressive nature of Israel" by supplying her military sev ice. , to Th eeis little which social they were not preparing ng t to o attack and nd that it with welfare studies have appraised as practical on rishly the Arab went -wit Fact gas 8: Gas as. masks aheedd p with precisely its pir Ipiralatical attack which feverishly as weapons of aggression. ssion. have yet Only to a be used warped happiness which has not already been A pproved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6 A3312 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX June 27, 1967 vanced by me. I want to give to every man and woman so generous an opportunity that work will be done, not as a pain, but as a joy of life.... But beyond the State's la- bours, is Fascism, harmonizer and domi- nator of the Italian life, standing as the inspiration." (pp. 254-255) The Fascist Italian Dictator spared no ef- fort or expense to promote Italian educa- tion and culture. Also recreation and sports were developed at government expense. A de- cree of May 1, 1925 established recreation as a government project, the expressed aim being "the healthy and profitable occupa- tion of the worker's leisure hours, through institutions for developing the worker's physical, intellectual, and moral capacity," This project (Dopolavoro) provided inexpen- sive vacations and excursions; courses in adult education and public library facilities; lectures and theatrical performances. In the words of the Dictator: "One of the reforms which I have promoted, following It closely in all its successive developments, is the reorganization of schools... -The gray ity and Importance of school problems ca - not escape the attention of any ma rn statesman mindful of the destiny of his 4eo- ple. The school must be considered in all its complete expression, Public School, Interme- diate Schools, University Institutions, all ex- ercise a profound influence on the trend, moral and economic, of the life of any nation. From the beginning this has always been on my mind. Perhaps my early experience as a schoolteacher added to an inescapable inter- est in youth and its development." (Page 259.) Mussolini was also proud of his many Fascist achievements in the field of public works. "The policy of public works In Italy," he asserted, "had always had an electoral character; works to be done were decided here and there, not according to an organic plan and to any plain group of voters. I stopped this legalized favouritism. I insti- tuted Bureaus of Public Works, entrusting them to persons in whom I have complete confidence, who obey only the central powers of the State, and are Immune from pressure by local interests. In this way I was able to better sensibly the conditions of the roads of the south; I mapped out a programme for aqueducts, railroads and ports. All that is just, finds In the Italian bureaucracy an im- mediate comprehension. All the offices of gov- ernmental character have received a new im- pulse and new prestige. The great Public Utilities of the State, railroads, mail, tele- graph, telephone, the monopolies, function again." (Page 268.) - "Today the State is not an abstract and agnostic entity; the Government is present everywhere, every day. Who lives in the ambit of the State, or outside the State, lives and feels in every way the majesty of law. It is not a thing of small account that all Public Utilities are conducted with an efficiency which I might call American, and that the Italian Bureaucracy, proverbially slow, has become eager and agile." (Page 269.) Compare these Fascist programs of aid to education, labor legislation, social security, public works, and roads and ports with the economic programs of the Great Society. And, if you please, compare Mussolini's - remarks with President Johnson's Economic Report: "Education will not cure all the problems of society, but without it no cure for any prob- lem is possible. It is high among my own concerns, central to the purposes of this Ad- ministration, and at the core of our hopes for a Great Society," (Page 94.) President John- son's Great Society legislation also provided for job training and work experience for young and inexperienced workers. It created out-of-school programs such as the Neigh- borhood Youth Corps, the Job Corps, a Work Experience Program, an Adult Basic Educa- tion program, a Manpowei Development and Training program, andmany others. In matters of public health President Johnson points at his achievements as proudly as Mussolini-and they are again the same achievements. In the words of his 1966 Economic Report: "Among the most impor- tant actions of the 89th Congress was the provision of health insurance for the aged under Social Security. Medicare will protect families against the economic risk of major medical expenses in old age. Benefits for 17 million Social Security beneficiaries, plus benefits from general revenues for almost 2 million additional elderly persons not wav- ered by Social Security, will amount to about $3.5 billion in 1967 and 100Pef-3t' ast 40 per cent of the to edical costs of Iiie The Preside also says he Is proud of the Economic portunity Act of 1964 which Is /more comparable to those in the resjt of society." (Page 111.) Regarding hosing, roads, and harbors the Housing and rban Development Act of 1965 and other 4gisla- tion "constitute a major Federal effo ft", the President said. His numerous a r pro- grams deal with transportation, ag culture, research and technology, natural esources, Generalissimo Francisco Franca s Spain is now marching in the Great Sociej'y footsteps. to set a new cal socialism- disciple of Presidents In fact, the economic liberals call "Fascist barked upon a planned economy fashioned after the Greatisociety of Lyndon Johnson. As its central oijective, Spain's plan for eco- ditions of econ ands of living, 1 development sets out to ly as possible and in eon- social integration, which is the progressiv' leveling of individual incomes; social mobil ortunities and social it throu h e ual o g q pp y advancement; and access to higher levels of training and education, as well as ownership and social and economic leadership. The plan defines very broadly the policies to be followed: It acknowledges that finan- cial stability is vital to success and that offi- reports to the government on the current distribution of incomes, =and prepare meas- ures to implement a more equitable dis- tribution. -- Government enterprises are also to be pro- moted in Spain through rationalization of accounting procedures and official subsidies and credits. However, the plan does not touch upon the many privileges of state en- terprises and does not propose to limit their highly privileged position. In fact, the gov- ernment offers its "public sector" new privi- leges, called incentives, in an attempt to stimulate more economical operation. And, in an attempt to remove the sectorial and geo- graphic differences that exist in Spain, the government is even organizing "growth cen- ters" to aid the underdeveloped regions and spur local industrial development. In 1965 Spanish costs of living rose 9.4 per cent, and more than 4 per cent In 1966 despite "corrective measures-including massive food imports. The Impact of these imports was reflected in the balance of trade: imports rose by 34 per cent and exports by 10 per cent in 1965. The 1965 trade deficit of 2 billion dollars was not fully absorbed by revenue sources, and the over-all balance of payments showed a negative result, which reduced Spain's gold and foreign exchange holdings precariously. Most of Spain's Inflationary problems sprang from chronic budgetary deficits. In 1965 the Gross National Product was calcu- Iated-to have risen 7.8 per- cent in real terms, and a similar rate was achieved in 1966. The per capita income rose rapidly in 1965 reaching 35,600 - pesetas or $600. The daily minimum wage for unskilled worker was raised by 40 per cent to 84 pesetas of $L40 a day. And finally, to restrain the level of de- mand created by inflation and credit expan- sion, the government- resorted to austerity measures which included restricted bank loans, cuts in allocations to official institu- tions, and a guideline for wage increases. This short description of the Spanish economy and Spain's economic policies could be taken directly from an official report on the American economy. In both countries the planners are proud of their 4-year national developments that are to bring greater abun- dance and opportunity to their subjects. Rising standards of living for the poor are promised in both countries. The three funda- mental objectives of the Franco regime- social Integration, social mobility, and high- er levels of training and education-are also, we are told, the most important objectives for the Johnson regime. While both leaders talk a-great deal about financial and mone- tary stability, both employ monetary depre- ciation and economic instability. Both prom- ise over-all equilibrium of the economy, and both deliver instability and insecurity. in their fiscal policies both promise- balanced budgets and subsequently suffer huge deficits. Both endeavor to raise wages through minimum wage legislation and seek a more equitable social integration. While both occasionally talk about individual en- terprise, both are promoting government enterprises through public subsidies and credits. And in an attempt to remove the the sectorial and geographic differences that exist in both countries, both governments are building "growth centers" or "model cities" that are to aid the underdeveloped regions of their countries. Both promise more. This is not to imply that the political regimes of Francisco Franco and Lyndon B. total public expenditure is to be covered by Johnson are identical in form and substance; ordinary revenue; (b) external equilibrium { merely that the economic policies are similar is to be achieved through higher earnings i and that the inevitable effects are identical. from invisibles, capital inflows, and the ex- pansion of exports; (c) appropriate short- term policies are to be pursued-to prevent an over-extension of demand; and (d) an in- comes policy is to be elaborated. An In- comes Commission will submit semiannual Certainly the government of Premier Franco has taken a far more realistic attitude to- ward the dangers of International Commu- nism-an area in which he is much to be admired. We realize that the Spanish form of government constitutes military rule, and Approved For Release 2004/05/25 : CIA-RDP69B00369R000200300014-6