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t' EL-C- H C5, k t Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 "THE COMMUNISTS ALSO HAVE THEIR PRQSLEi" ADDRESS BY ALLEN WELSH DMLES* DIRECTOR OF CWRAL INTELLIGENCE ICE TIE ADVER71StN4 COUNCIL, INC., 19 September 195? 31. FRA1*I3 HOTEL, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA It is a privilege to have this opportunity to recognize publicly the generosity of the Advertising Council in devoting so great a share of its time and resources in the general welfare. You have freer supported those great causes which promote domestically and inter- nationally the ideals of our people. You have been in the forefront of campaigns to alert the people of this country to the dangers of alien and destructive movements such as international communism. As one in Government who has had the opportunity of judging of the effectiveness of this work, I wish to express gratitude. it may seem a bit paradoxical that the Director of Central Intelligence should be addressing the Advertising Council. You present the trend -- which seems quite irresistible -- that it pays to advertise." I arm the head of the silent service and cannot advertise ny wares. Sometimes, I adr t, this is a bit irksome. Often we know a bit tie about what is going on in the world than we are credited with, and we realize a little advertisement might improve our public relations. For for reasons of policy, however, public relations met be sacrificed to the security of our operations. Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06113 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 fir, have ouch in common. We h the tact of ideas an hum n behaviour. In e out one of the Central Intelligence Agency 4a important tasks -- that of estimating future developments in they foreign field -- the ability to analyze public reactions is essential in our job. We, to judge whether ideas have a transitory value or will have an enduring eat upon the behaviours of people. In particular, it is a study to follow the develop- Ott of the ideas behind certain of the great rwvo1utionary movements Son* such r religious fervor,, some by brute military force, max by a combination of might and assertions of right. These a re nts have had their day -- long or short. Some have had broad geographic appeal -- s test to a particular of some has never really been deciphered* our civilisation, despite the dark ages, has ben tough enough to survive the =oat vigorous and long-lived revolutionary assaults on u ind and Tonight I propose to give you the results of an analysis of nt happenings within the Soviet Cost world and I shall be bold enough to draw certain conclusions which support xV conviction that radical changes are taking place and awe are in the asking. 1 ideological fervor,, I believe, is seeping out of vOlutionary COm ar at atovemnt, particularly in Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 mt . xie* was aot designed for the atoesio age of the ritury. Effective as Cemsaeuniem has been in establishing ontrol of two powerful nations and imposing its will on a nu ber of Satellite countries, it is begi ng to encounter difficulties in ling with the coap2eac indUstrta2 and technological problems of today. Yurti er, while some of the industrial and military achievements of both d to devise a political system capable of commanding stirred the pride of its citiaezis, the loyalties of governed peoples without resort to the cruel barbariti. s of mass terror. It has satisfied neither the ideals, the aspirations, needs of the people subject to its domination. AccordLx g1 , the leaders of international cazsmouzzim are being forced to review their situation and to consider major changes-changes strike at the very heart of the system, The theories of .lac and Lenin proved useful window-4 ressing behind which the C*wnwists established their monopoly of p itictal power--the so-called dictator- ship of the proletariat. These ideas are of little aid in guiding the Com amist dictatorship in meeting the challenge of the world today. History tells us that at wave point the fervor and drive seem revolutions, The founders the off. Their followers for a ims mouth selected precepts convenient to their aims and forget the Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Be it is with the Soviet brand of Coswaniss. What prophet is there left in Soviet Russia? Nam and Lenin are given lip service, but their advice and counsel have little applicability today, Stalin bras been discredited - though his embarrassing ri-" are still on view in the Rr.mlin. shch v is un ksly to blossom out as a creator of now C+emniat doctrine though his inetuosity and unpredictability remain a matter of grave concern in an international as. tons* as that of today. NiLo retaiess his male as a prophet in China, but has, too, is hawing his troubles. Stalin disappeared from the scene a little less than five years ago, he left a clouded heritage. His later years of dictator- .at Unjon close to war and disastero Yen.. tunes in Greece, at Berlin, and finally in Korea had opened the eyes siren of the credulous abroad. Do eetically, harsh measures of forced Industrialization and military buildup, successful as they were technoiogioally, had left little place for meeting the needs of the X100 the systematic cruelties of the secret police had created popular unrest, suspicion and despair. Khrushehev told us story of how terror-ridden Soviet life had beams in his now in secret speech at the 20th Party Congress aver a year ago- speech still unpublished in the Casmeamist world. It was medicine for popular consumption, although bits and pieces of it were al3rad to look out. Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 s successors dictatorship but yet m 4ntainLng complete authority, a of secret police repression and yet keeping lne, of aining in a tight rein but lion, and giving some of the substance, of a now Meaaurs of freedom, found it hard, to fit into this picture. He did not want his personal aolttrol of the secret lies through which he hoped to gain the tear position. His plot was discovered and he was liquidated. Since thorn the mdlita iy seem to have become the decisive element whore two or the threat of force was rewired tical decision. crisis vs were told that the dictatorship of the prolet+sriat had beoe + a collective leadership-am PMPer2y a collective dictatorship. True enough, the crisis of rea ustment to the era brought together in uneasy .harmer the arriving mgrs of the governing bo4 known as of the Party. )WW here at boars and abroad wrozig1y eeti ring form of . Actually biter personal rivalries and basic differences of philosophies and south remain uareaencilsd. ity to make orsola1 decisions lust rest fir ay awn where and that "somewhere" is unlikely for long to be Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 in a oollaotive, ljority rule is appropriate for legislative and judicial bodies, but it doss not function satisfactorily in the For a tine decisiveness of action is essential.. Stalin's disappearance from the scene, 1 .1.i*ov tried to lead the collective team, se ngiy which promised a better break for the people than they had eve had In 1955 he was forced to confess his incapacity and Khrueh- committing himself, like his predecessor, to the olleotive rule formula. Theo, last June, the inevitable irreconcilable conflict of opinions emerged, the collective broke down and, with the approval of the military, in particular Zhukav, Khrushchev eliminated his rivals-4b1otov and Kaganovish, who really felt that the old Stalin- ist and foreign polisiee were preferable, and Ienkonr, who due to his relative youth, political experience, and apparent popularity, was a dangerous potential rival. At the moment, Khrushobov is busi3,v engaged in implicating 2 1ankov in the crrizee8 of Stalin's later days, classing him as "shadow and tool" of Beria. Since Beria was shot for treason, the threat to Hrlenkov is raked enough for all to see, So the history of Soviet governmental changes repeats itself, although in a slightly different pattern from that of the two previous dsoades. Those recently purged have not yet been liquidated Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 hike Beria or eliminated by crack trials such as those of the late 1930's. With a touch of al mint sardonic humor, the miscreants have been assigned to the oblivion of Siberia or the darkness of Outer Mongolia, It was the hand- irked Central Caeesaeittee of the Catuamiet Party, with the backing of the Army, which piged the decisive role in last summer's changes high comeaand, This suggests that the Presidium on its own can to longer deal with recalcitrant at least in a situation where the issues and where those to be eliminated are not in a hopeless minority. The claim that the purpose of these chews was to got back to the puce Leninist Ceaems 4 of the past is camouflage, No differing theories of Ccmunist and Idarncist dogma played decisive role in this struggle. It was a question of power tics in a situation where hard decisions had to be sade in both the domestic and foreign fields. There we very deep and f ~sneiesmsntal divergences of views among the members of the Presidium and the collective tailed to function becas?se the differ.. enoes were not susceptible of oomp1'U ise, Three main issues divided the Soviet leaders, The first concerned the decentralisatit of industry. After yews of extolling the virtues of a centrally planned of the Soviet leaders have r.oen y begun to stress Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 the need of local initiative to improve efficiency at the punt of local tesourass, it was hoped to ease the burden t sport facilities, mintaiss daepliee-tion of effort and atimaz- ative. Acting on these theories, Thruahcherv recently foroed through a program to daessntsali so air merry elsaaraute of control of the great Soviet industrial ma chime, in the most swssping reorganization of the soaawde management machinery aims the first live Year Plan was adopted Sams 27 apeaialised oconraaic ministries in Moscow coons abolished and replaned by 1#5 regional econoni c councils. Z,ast , several of Nkm,, v' a collsagusa tried to reverse all this. The reason for the retaa nissation is readily undsrstandabl~e a to conceive of the bureaucratic mess which we would have if we attempted to man* frog the Capital all the details of a growing iz strial a * z more disputed go*graphical2y than that of the United Stat> -a and thing One-half of its sues. be eventual economic benefits from the deccen- Shruabsv's plan t as many problem as it solves. A loft period of transitional confusion is istrative command and coordination vela ass out. for the Soviet, Union that a Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 kind of eeononic; provincialism will develop to threaten the domin*nce of the central gavertte ant. The reason for the bitter fight against this reorganization of Khrushchev+s oolleagaes is clear. The decentralization will remove some of the power from the central government in Moscow and transfer it to the province. Here only two members of the Presidium are in a position to exercise real influence, Khrushchev, h his control of the party machinery throughout the Soviet on, grid the military, presently represented by Marshal Zhukov. econd issue dividing the Soviet leaders in June last was the agricultural probl+srn, often called the Achilles het*l of the Soviet system. Kbrushchev has been pressing for ever-increasing areas of State-controlled farm ;awls, on the pattern of the Mtge development he had started in the so-called "virgin lands" east of an, in order to make geed the shortcomings of Cum's greatest fiasco -- the collectivized farm systett. This involves some 80 - 100 million acresl larger than the entire wheat acreage of the United States, For many years Soviet emphasis on heavy industry and military ngth drained manpower and capital imrestaments away from the making agriculture the stepchild of the Stalinist econc. In contrast with the rapid growth rate of other parts of the Soviet econmW, for the pant twenty years Soviet production Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 oossaodities has failed to rase as fast as the population of the WSR. Aftw all, soil conditions, rainfall and temperature do not favor the Soviet Union despite its vast area. Less than 10% of is likely to produce reasonable agricultural yields in normal years. . areover, the combination of bureaucratic ml.amanagement, and Communist neglect of the motivating force of nel incentives had reedited in an inefficiency of farm labor so groat that it takes about one farm worker to food and sly every four persona in the USPRa whereas the ratio in the united States is about one for every sixteen persona. flame, 45% of Soviet labor is on the farms as compared with 10% of American xtors. ~hoherv Is responsibility for the policy of investing heavily in the semi-arid, air icull trolly marginal "virgin* Undo is very great. So far he has been lucky, with one excellent crop and one fair one. This year (1957) promises to be only fair and there is no doubt that mewy Soviet leaders fear a major crop f+a,i1ur a as the moisture is used up in the new lands. Even Mikoyan, who has stuck with Tahsv so far and now is probably the number two an in the regime, is said to bane been dubious about the "virgin's lands program. The final suoaess or fdlure of the program is still to be determined and Khrn.hev e s personal reputation is deeply involved. 10 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 butter by 1958 and in scat by 1961. This latter promised. his people *quality per capita with Americans old involve an increase of 3 1/2 time in Soviet mgt production the least, is an ambitious program, even taking noted fertility of the rabbit, which is included in the Soviet calculations as wall as their clmimsd e a larger number of twin lambs, finally, a third point at issue between Shruahchev and his oppments lay in the related fields of foreign policy and policy toward the Axropean Satellites. Here Bhruahohev vas attacked by Molotov and his followers for having weakened the tion by his policy of reoc ciliation with Yugoslavia and by his Austrian settlement. Brae, in fact, valneraIgm to the charge rine of "differing roads to 8octdiam,w a heresy that opened the flood gates to revolt by ati~ acing support is now threatening the monolithic structure of the $cmiet during the l ungKrism Rwo3.ution, the ranks in leadership had closed and Shrus chev personally as well s meet bear the responsibility for the rutb ass on in November 1956. The scam of dissent remain.d, how in the Indictment of tov by the Central Cvadttee, his Yugoslav and Austrian polietes are the subject of particular criticism. Hungary goes unmentioned. Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Moscow's future policy toward the European Satellites remains unresolved. Though Molotov was vigorously attacked for his mistaken attitude,, rushchev, since the Polish and Hungarian revolts, has feared the contagious influence of granting freedom awe Certainly none of the Soviet leaders carea to remember the precepts of Lenin, who had this to say in 19171 *If Finland, if Poland, if the Ukraine beak away from Russia there is nothing bad about that.... No nation can be free if it oppresses other nations." These were the major issues on which Xhrushchev fought for, and by an eyelash won, the leadership of the Soviet Union. There are many other burning problems facing the now group First of all,, they have the problem of Eastslest Contacts,, which for propaganda purposes at least they strongly claim to favor Can the leaders really permit the people of the USSR to the facts of life? Do they dare open tip to the press, to radio, to television? Except for certain supervised and guided tours, the answer to this no far seems to be "no." We can guess how frightened they it panicky warnings to Soviet about being deceived by the words of the American boys and girls who went to Moscow Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 ly for the big Soviet Youth Festival. Sianilarly, they do not dare publish such dosrusnts as the Khrushchev secret speech, the U.t}. report on Hungary, nor the basic attack on Cotanuntst doctrine by the tugoslsv, D3ila*, recently published book, 'OTh. Now Class." Instead of dealing with such criticisms opsniy, Soviet leaders try to sweep there under the rug and keep their own people in the dark. Tbrre Was recently publish*d in Moscow a highly realistic novel, with the eloquent title Not 33y tread Alone. It evoked great popular interest in the USSR because it showed 80=8 of the seamier Bide of life and bur+aaucracy In the Soviet Union today. All the big g' of the Soviet regime began to fire at the author, Dudintssev, v himself recently lambasted the book as misguided angerous. It is signtfio$i t that they have not yet banned it* probably they were too late in realising its subtle attack On the foundations of the Co=nu iat system. By and large the bulk of the Russian people still live in a orld about everything outside the USSi, and the most tragic part about this is the distorted facts and fancies the Soviet leaders r own people abo it the allegedly hostile attitudes of d them. The exchange of a few controlled travelling delegations is not enough. The barriers to information and know am down. Approved For Release 2000/06/13 :~G1A RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 The Soviet leaders also have to deal with the problems created own educational system and by the development of an indus- trial and technical elite. Under the lash of its pelf-moll industrialisation program, the ASR in the past decade has Usly speeded up the education of the Russian people, partic- scientific and technical field. As a result, the USSR is. turning out hundreds of thousands of graduates of schools responding to our high schools and colleges. It is true that in their educational system they emphasise scientific and technical fields much more than social sciences and the humanities. But knowledge is not an inert substance. It has a w a y of s e e p i n g across lines a . into adjacent compartments of learning. The Soviet leaders, I firmly believe, cannot illuminate their scientific lecture halls and laboratories without also letting the light of truth into their history and economics classrooms. Students cannot be conditioned to turning off their analytical processes when the instructor chenges a topic, Stadent and intellectual unrest is a troublesome challenge to a dictatorship. The Chinese Commum.ets experimented briefly with placating critics by libera sing their thought-control system enunciating the doctrine known as *let a h dyed flowers bloom, let a hundred schools of thought contend." In the face of the aching criticisers promptly voiced by Chinese intellectuals, Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 regime quickly reversed itself and has only a few weeks ago reauaed they practice of publicly executing students who dared to suggest that Chinas s ills result in part from flaws in the Communist system itself. The education which Soviet and Chicoa leaders give their people is a dangerous commodity for a dictatorship. Ken and women who have their critical faculties sharpened are beginning to question the Russian people cannot be freed from rigid Coast Party and Police-state dieciplite:, given a greater economic share of the fruit of their labors, and alloyed to participate -- at least by an effective expression of consent -- in their own governing. in the past the Soviets counted particularly upon their ability to appeal with success to the youth and the students, In 1905 Lenin wrote, TWO are the party of the future but the f tore belongs to the yob. We are the party of innovation, and it is to the innovators that youth always gladly gives its allegiance. We are y of self-sacrificing s niggle against the ancient rot, and the young are always readiest for sacrificial combat -- and we shall always be the party of the youth of the advanced class." That proud boast could not be made today. The Hungarian students were ready for combat, but Maine the Soviets, not for them. The deep disillusionment of the Polish youth with the Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Soviet4nposed version of Co ism can be read in their brilliantly edited publications, and in spite of Soviet censorship there in evidence that they are read eagerly by those who can obtain them in the Russian verities* government can ,still, organise mar aive propaganda circuses like the recent Moscow Youth Festival. They can train an r of young scientists and o icians. They can bribe the ambitious with the rewards of power and special privi- the swollen bureaucracy. But they are finding it increasingly Lenin once so counted on and who are the real motive power of successful revolutionary movements, The Soviet leaders also have the growing problem of the tech- nical and managerial elite which has been created to run Soviet industry -- now being decentra-lized. It will not be easy to restrain this class of people from using its critical skills to question the cumbersome governmental and Consuni,st Party bureaucracy and what it is doing -- or not doing ?- to give the ambers of that elite a better life ? Probably it is out of respect for the growing perceptiveness of the people of Russia, and at least out of recognition of popular awning for peace# that Soviet ).eaders have been forced to gF service to disarmament, another grave problem before the Moscow 16- Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 leaders. Now that the isms of conceding some fa m of inspection and control in the USSR is squarely presented, they are hesitating. propseect goes against every tradition and instinct of the These are some of the practical issues wbieth Kh ruahchev now .faces. There is no easy solution. After all, dictatorships, of the Stalin or of the hitter type, can for a time exact great sacrifices from their peoples and achieve great materialistic accomplishments. In fact, for a limited period, it may be easier for a dictatorship to make steel than broad and boater -- easier to build a mighty war machine than to satisfy the moral, a and material needs of a groat and diverse people. This is certainly with the Co mmusii.st dictatorship in the USSR. Today communism is more valuable as an article of export than it is as a solution for the problems of a country like the Soviet Union, which is making great strides in fields of material progress, but which has still found no war of creating a government which can meet the needs and aspirations of its people. Undoubtedly in many areas of the world, particularly those recently freed from Colonial rvge, the image of Comm em still has an appeal. It seems to combine the advantages of strict die- aipline at the top with the prooMdse of quick in atrialisation. -17- Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 These factors appeal to new nations struggling with the task of making a goverment work among peoples who have had little experi- ence with it and who at the aaamrs time, have the desire to become quickly an Industrial force in their own right. The politically unsophisticated peoples of the underdeveloped nations have yet to learn what the peoples of the Communist world are slowly coming to understand about Marxism and industrial growth D3ilaa, the Yugoslav Cormnist heretic, put it wells "Modern Commadsaa began as an idea with the inception of modern industry. It is dying out or being eliminated in those countries where industrial development has achieved its basic purposes, It flourishes in those countries where this has not yet happened." In fast, I would add to thi that the force of ideological they have had no practical experience with Comm niaam seems weakest in those countries like the USSR, where it has been the largest in control. It has its strongest appeal to the minds of these peoples in the underdeveloped areas of the world where Viewed in broad perspective, Coim uaei.sm is only Ong of the MAY great revolutionary movements that have swept into world Such movements seemed to combine an ideology or a faith expressed as a program of action; and a discipline through a 18 r Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 political or military machine capable of organizing the energies of the people in order to carry out the ideas that have captured their imaginations and loyalties. at historical analogies are notoriously treacherous. But there may be food for t in comparing the evolution of Soviet Communism with the classical periods of revolutionary mare-- Possibly the closest parallel in history is with the French Revolution. The pattern seems to be this the intellectuals desert their political institutions and adopt what they calla "Reform Program." ".Chen, revolutionary elements take over from the intellectuals and seize power, generally beginning with the moderates of the Denton type, and passing through the extremists like Robespierre, with a reign of i.nhssman seal and terror. Successive groups of leaders are destroyed with each change in the tempo of the revolution. As Yergniaud said in the cowree of the French Revolution, "The Revolution, like Saturn, devours its own children," Eventually, human nature rebels and demands a more normal life. Then the practical political and military leaders depose the extremists. in the case of the French Revolution, there was the temptation, to which they quickly yielded, to indulge in foreign military adventure,, and ..- eventually the access to power of the military man on horseback, Bonaparte. There is, naturally, +19- Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 considerable speculation these days as to whether this last phase of the French Revolution will be repeated in the case of Soviet Camminisn. I have no crystal ball answer, but certainly military dictatorship is one of the possible lines of evolution in the Soviet Union. From this analysis of dsvelopss nts in the Soviet U fair to conclude that I believer that the old Cyst dialectic of an Stalin does not answer the problems of the Soviet Union today -- either these of its industrial growth or of its lasting control aver the great peoples living within the Soviet Union. It would flow from this that Khrushchev and whoever he may associate with himself in the leadership, assuming he keeps his control Cass a time,, will have to determine how they are going to accomplish this dotal task. Will they met it by further relaxation, thereby asing the moral and industrial potential of the Soviet union itself, and the prospects of peace, but risking the loss Satellite countries? Will they attempt a reversion to something like Stalinism under another name as some of the tough, uncompromising language and actions from Moscow of recent days would suggest? Or will they be tempted to risk foreign venture with a view to uniting their people and their energies to abet alleged enemies they claim are encircling Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 the issues. I would not wish to suggest that what I have referred to as the decline of the Marxist Coax am ha left the Soviet Union materially weak in facing them. The Soviet be ideologically lours menacing, technologically its power is stil], increasing. he entire revolution, once the Co=st regi established in Russia, the emphasis was placed on heavy induetrj, and on building up the war machine. This has been a con- stant policy and has been one phase of Soviet life that has been affected by changing leaders or interpretations of Cc-air st ideology. After all, the in who are at the helm in the Soviet Union are not the original revolutionary heroes. Khrushchev and .koyan and r heerchmsn belong to the ever-present class of ists who see in revolutionary movement the path to power and privilege. id not make the revolution, like Lenin. It made thus, and they want above all else to preserve their positions, melee Marxism at one time or anther has inva'eed most rents of Soviet life, including the any with its political commissar and indoctrination agents; those who have planned the Soviet asi.i- tary buildup have been little hanpered by it. In their concentra- a n on the fields of nuclear energy, aircraft design and construction and the dsvelopae:nt of guided missiles,, they experienced little ideo- logical interference except during, brief periods of Stalin's last hectic days. Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : 61A-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Tako# for ea pla, the case of guided missies never ceased work from the days of 1945 when they took over the German missile installation at Peenemuende with its ro?ket$ of a range between 150 to 200 miles. modern missiles of meter times the they have dieveloped and efficiency of the The Soviet Union which we face tom presents a series of aontradiotions. Its 3aader has practic. .oh control as tee, backed by a formidable war meahins--a leader committed by his express policies to impawe the lot of his people, and pre- sumably committed also to relax the harsh controls of Stalin which he has described so vividly himself and which he prports to abhor. At the same time, this leader, iShruehchev, faces the emma that any subsetaati relaxation at horse or abroad, given the nature of the Comuniet dictatorship as it has evolved, my spell his own downfall. For he faces, and be knows it, a people who are questioning the basic tenets of 1 rxiet Comen - nism, and in particular a student body that is bung and more vocal in dermndixtg the truth and myr not be satisfied with half mews. The Co niat leaders are also facing a growing body of highly educated, technologically competent men and woven in the '-22- Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 Approved For Release 2000/06/13 : CIA-RDP70-00058R000100250026-5 field of industrial manager nt and production. It my prove impo w Bible for them to stop the growing wave of inte7ctual unrest in the Soviet Union. iushchev cannot turn back education or stop technolc ical development and keep the USSR a great power. Yet Khrushobev seems to be in a burry to solve a whole aeries of such probe as I have described and gain the personal success necessary to maintain his own position. to all tbis, hi has deeply cowd.tted himself in n foreign adventures, particularly in the Middle East it may be assumed, to distract attention from problems at home and in the Satellites. All this rightfully makes is cautious in our judgments and does not suggest that there are any quick or easy ways out in our relations with the USSR, over the longer ranges we can rest assured that revolu Cc munt8t tyranny cannot provide a final am or a satisfactory answer to the needs of a civilized coaamznity. No power on earth he zsgrth that Coisam Is the wave of the .future after 20 million Hungarians, after a decade of experience with it, and at the risk of their lives, gave it such a resounding vote of no confidence. people of Russia, if given the time to continue their evolution to freedom out of the narrow bounds of Consnuntst dicta- torship, will themselves help find a peaceful answer. Approved For Release 2000/06/13: lA RDP70-00058R000100250026-5