Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 16, 2016
Document Release Date: 
April 24, 2000
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
September 7, 1964
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP70-00058R000300030034-8.pdf127.86 KB
Approved, For Release 20,00/05/23 : CIA-R SEPTEMBER 7, 1964 had been canvassing nationwide supportimmediately. With Freedom pickets al for seating a full delegation from the ready plodding the Boardwalk outside' predominantly Negro Freedom Demo- Convention Hall, their sympathizers on' cratic Party. To disregard. the Negroes". the 108-man Credentials Committee. demands would be to repudiate the made clear that the "back-of-the-bus" :-moral drive of the Negro revolution; to plan was unacceptable. :And while the satisfy them would mean a, floor fight committee was polishing up its Alabama almost certain to trigger a Southerners' ultimatum, state committeeman "Bull" Battle of Credentials walkout. Connor, who$e police dogs once terror- On Sunday, convention eve, the Presi- ized Birnihigham Negroes, casually Beneath the Barnum & Bailey wh rl en was ready. As his chief agent, he strolled into a Convention Hall office and f At1 _tic Cit L ndon Johnson a d :` had 38-year-old - Washington , lawyer ' picked up Alabama's credentials from a wit #nca cu a e imp ca vember: could the quixotic force of t e Adla Stevenson and John F. Kennedy, turning to his ocean-front hotel and turn-' Southern Ne o revolt be stitched i o and ad already handled one delicate ing a deaf ear to National. Chairman y, y o } the Democratic Party faced a questi in':' nam Tom Finney, a lean, unflappable an unbriefed clerk. "Never been treated :1, ' 1 1 ill 1. tions for ' ` former CIA man who had worked with as. nice in my life," twanged Bull, re- the Democratic family patchwork wit missi n for Mr. Johnson-accompanying ' John Bailey's frantic telephone pleas to out sacrificing the loyalist remnants f.'. - Allen Dulles to Mississippi after the dis- , return the badges and tickets. the white South to Barry Goldwater? appe ranee of the three,. civil-rights . Bedside Manner: The next day To millions of televiewers, the Dew:)- won rs.. In Mississippi, Finney had Humphrey and Finney went to work on crats' painful struggle to find the ans r ' conic to . know the firebrands of the the Mississippi riddle at the White looked like a tragi-comedy. of errorsfad . Free om Party, and understood their House command post,: the 'garish new absurd game of musical folding chs turb lent and 'unpredictable approach Pageant Motel across from Convention on the teeming convention floor - to politics. The President had also as- Hall. Plopping down on a bed in his tween unreconstructed Southerners, sign 1 Hubert Humphrey to the ' prob shirt sleeves, Humphrey begged the. transigent Negro demonstrators lem.. As. a veteran of Americans for' Rev. Martin Luther King and FDP lead- 'harried sergeants-at-arms. But bebi d De cratic Action, the senator was ` ers to accept the LBJ plan. They the scenes, the drama was far m (re close to the white liberals spearheading'., wouldn't. "Negroes want Negroes to rep- subtle, a heady blend of principle aid , the reedom Democrats' cause. , ..resent them," Mississippi vote worker pragmatism unfolding in smoke-fill d' The Plan: And Mr. Johnson had a Bob Moses told Humphrey. "Wait, Bob," rooms, corridor conferences, and unt Id plan He had sweated out agreement Humphrey cried, "I thought we were telephone calls. Before the week s with key Southern leaders on .a formula interested in ending discrimination." out, it involved a constellation of pa y. to a ert a disastrous floor fight and, he With matters at an impasse, a spe-, leaders-all the way up to LBJ. hop 1, pacify the Freedom -Democrats:. cial credentials subcommittee was put in' In a year of unprecedented Ne o the ily-white regular Mississippi dele-' charge of the Mississippi question as ferment and ominous talk of white ba k . gati , many of them! Goldwater- the convention opened. A weeklong lash, the Democrats knew they were in min ed, would. be seated if they signed : stall appealed to some. "Hell," said one for trouble over the pesky problem of a ld party loyalty oath; the party ?, 'big-city boss, "let's lock 'em 'up with a 'credentials long before they arrived at would pledge to open its Dixie conven- .. bottle of whisky and leave them there." Atlantic City. The party loyalty of tion process to Negroes; and some ges- But Finney, for one, recognized the the 36-vote delegation from Alabam - ture perhaps ""honored guest" status, folly of the easy out. "Coldwater,". he where Gov. George Wallace had le 's- buto vote-would be offered the Free- ~ , argued, "would tell the country a hand- lated a slate of unpledged. Democr ic dom Party, which did not legally qualify ful of illegally appointed Negroes had electors-was sure to be challeng d.: for eating. The Alabamans would be brought this party to its knees." That The Mississippi situation was even m re req ed to sign a stricter oath. night Connor and his' Alabama band- explosive. For weeks, Northern libe B t t. the glue came unstuck' almost ? ;their loyalty oaths unsigned-bulled. their.