Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
December 16, 2016
Document Release Date: 
July 25, 2005
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
September 5, 1968
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6.pdf4.75 MB
Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 .4 Y September 5, 1968 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE washed, or could have imagined. Employee election rights have also been adversely af- fected. The Board has developed a combina- tion of doctrines which de-emphasize sig- nificance of elections, especially when the re- sults of the election do not favor unioni- zation. These are just a few of the substantive areas where the testimony indicates a devia- tion by the Board from the intent of Con- gress as expressed in the Taft-Hartley Act. :1 have not mentioned the Board's curious interpretations of "free speech"; the Im- proper use of its judicial powers; its refusal to give force and effect to the rulemaking handedly when different parties seek i pro- tection;: the political sensitivity of Board as evidenced by the rapid changes its de cisions in response to changing po itical cir- cumstances; the power of the Gen rat Coun- sel to bar or delay recourse to th Board; or the other unfortunate tendenci s of the agency which were disclosed durin the Sub- Obviously more Is involved he than merely mistaken or inadequate admi stra- tion by the NLRB. For example,. Na nal Small Business Association's strong sta - case showing alleged disregard of Congres- sional intent by the Board. If the NLRB or other administrative agencies do display a generous tendency to apply statutory law as they sec fit, then this has serious Implica- tions for our governmental' system. Instead of public policy being established according to the wishes of the people through the ,representatives they elect and send to Con- gress, policy is being made by it small group of government ofictals responsive not to the people but to other forces. It means that labor law Is being devised to serve the interests of unions or management, or the Board itself, but not to serve those of the American working man. If this Is indeed true, then the fault ulti- mately 11es with Congress, It Is Congress's responsibility to take a greater Interest in the work of the NLRB and other agencies, and to impress upon them Congress's deter- mination to see that Its legislative will Is being obeyed. THE NATURE OF THY, HEARINGS The recent hearings on the NLRB are part of a general study by Senator Ervin's Subcommittee into the present-day mean- ing and significance of the constitutional principle of "separation of powers". The Na-F tional Labor Relations Board, like its sister, agencies, the Federal Trade Commission, Se- curities Exchange Commission, and others, represents a deviation from a. strict applica- tion of the separation of powers principle. The Board is, in theory at least, an organ of government combining portions of execu- tive, legislative, and judicial powers. While it is independent of the direct control of the traditional branches, it is a creature of legis- lation and subject to a variety of controls and limitations imposed by the Congress, the courts, and the Executive. Controls imposed by Congress are, potentially at least, the most significant. LOAN' APPLICATION BY VALLEY CENTER MUNICIPAL WATER DIS- TRICT OF VALLEY CENTER, CALIF. The PRESIDING OFFICER laid before the Senate a letter from the Assistant Secretary of the Interior, transmitting, pursuant to law, a copy of an applica- tion by the Valley Center Municipal Water District of Valley Center, Calif., for a loan to assist in financing the con- struction of emergency and operational storage facilities and pipelines to connect the storage facilities to its existing Irriga- tion water distribution system, which, with an accompanying paper, was re- ferred to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. PETITIONS AND MEMORIALS Petitions, etc., were laid before the Senate, or presented, and referred as in- S .10289 Mr. MCINTYRE, Mr. President, from the Committee on Armed Services I re- port favorably the nominations of 32 Army Reserve commissioned 'officers for promotion to the grade of major general and brigadier general. I ask that these names be placed on the Executive Calendar. The PRESIDING. OFFICER. Without objection, it Is so ordered. praying for the enactment of legislation to grant Incentive pay to the airborne units of the Army Reserve; to the Committee On Armed Services. A resolution adopted by the Board of Su- pervisors, county of Los Angeles, Calif., pray- ing for the enactment of legislation to give a chance for homeownership to those who presently cannot achieve it; to the Commit- tee on Banking and Currency. A resolution adopted by the 82d Airborne Division Association, Inc., Mansfield, Ohio, commending the foreign policy of the United States relating to Vietnam; to the Committee on Foreign Relations. to the Comlp Affairs. A resolution adop by the Ninth Quinn Legislature, praying fo he enactment of legislation to establish a S s Commission for the Unincorporated Terri of Guam; to the Committee on interior and-Insular ington, D.C., praying for the enactment of legislation relating to certain immigrants; to the^Committee on the Judiciary. AArution opted by the chamber of Co erce of the ty of Porterville, Calif., Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. A petition, signed by Orlando E. Hartman, and sundry other citizens of the State of Iowa, praying for the. enactment of legisla- tion relating to extension of the National Labor Relations Act to cover farmworkers; to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. EXECUTIVE PAPERS r, MONRONEY, from the Joint Com- mit a on Disposition of Papers in the Execu a Departments, to which were referred fey examination and recom- mendation alit of recorda transmitted to the Senate by the Archivist of the United States, dated August 2, 1968, that appeared to have no permanent value or historical interest, submitted a report thereon, pursuant to law. EXECUTIVE REPORTS OF COMMITTEES As in executive session, The following favorable reports of nominations were submitted: By Mr. SPAIM. MAN, from the Committee on Banking and Currency: Raymond H. Lapin, of California, to be President of the Federal National Mortgage Association, By ,lw-PRESTLSST OFFICER: n the Executive Calendar, are as fol- 5 hetion adopted by the 82d Airborne 10 Brig. yJohn L. Bores, and sundry other U.S. Arm serve officers, for promotion as Reserve commissioned officers of the Army; Brig, Gen. Kenneth W. Brewer, and slmdry other Army National Guard of the United States officers, for promotion as Reserve com- missioned officers of the Army; and Col, Harry W,. Barnes, and Col. Robert F. Wilson, Army National Guard of the United States officers, for appointment as Reserve commissioned officers of the Army. BILLS INTRODUCED Bills were introduced, read the first time, and, by unanimous consent, the second time, and referred as follows: By Mr. FANNIN: S. 2999. A bill for the relief of Vladko Dimitrov I)enev; to the Committee on the Judiciary. By Mr. ERVIN: S. 4000. A bill for the relief of Tsui Yan Wit; to the Committee on the judiciary. By Mr. GRUENING: S, 4001. A bill for the relief of Sangvtan Uoonbangkcng, Wes, Lum Phian, Yau F'o, Shu Wah Ip; to the Committee on the Judi- ciary. By Mr. MILLER: 4002. A bill to authorize the Secretary oft Interior to study the feasibility and desirab ty of establishing an Upper Mis- sissippi Vh~eyNatlonal Recreation Area be- tween Woo River, Ili? and Minneapolis, Minn., and far ther purposes; to the Com- mittee on erib( and Insular Affairs. (see the mar" ~~~(([ of Mr. MILLER when he introduced the abobill, which appear un- der a separate heads g) By Mr. MONDA E: S. 4003. A bill forte relief of Theodore Atsidakos, and his wife elen, and two chil- dren, Mary and Erethili ; to the Committee By Mr. TALMAI/CFE; S. 4004. A bill to aipend the Internal Rev- enue Code of 1954 tb eliminate certain In- equities involved in the taxation of employee stock options; t9-the committee on Finance. By Mr. JACKSON: S 4005. A bill for the relief of certain in- dividuals; to the Committee on the Judiciary. FEASIBILITY OF AN UPPER MISSIS- SIPPI VALLEY NATIONAL RECREA- TION AREA Mr. MILLER. Mr. President, I intro- duce, for appropriate reference, a bill which would authorize and direct the Secretary of the Interior to study, in- vestigate, and formulate recommenda- tions concerning the feasibility and desir- ability of establishing an Upper Missis- sippi. Valley National Recreation Area. This area would cover all or parts of the segment of the Mississippi River and adjacent lands between Wood River, Ill., and Minneapolis, Minn. The area to be studied under the terms of my bill In- eludes portions of my own State of Iowa, and the States of Missouri, Illinois, Wis.- Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 S :10290 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE September 5, 1968 consn, and Minnesota. This area is read- walking. hiking, riding, bicycling, boating, Czechoslovakia after its long totalitarian ily accessible to more than 20 million awhnming. picnicking, camping, forest man- night. people of the Midwest and comprises a agement, fish and wildlife management, The myth of the detente also died with scenic and historic site preservation, hunt- wealth of American culture. leg oohing, and winter sports: it, as well as the false feeling of security Although this area is already widely (b) the potential alternative beneficial which this myth had spawned. used for outdoor recreation purposes, uses of the water and related land resources I have no doubt that, when the present such use is heavily concentrated and involved, taking Into consideration appro- crisis has passed, this myth will burgeon tends to disturb and destroy values prints uses of the land for residential. tom- again, just as it did in the period after which most people wish to use and enjoy. martial. Industrial, agricultural, and trans- the suppression of the Hungarian revo- BecauSe this area has so much to offer portadon purposes. and for public services; lution. But, for the moment at least, the the Nation and millions of people living anI ) the type of Federal, State, and local eyes of the free world have been opened nearby, I feel that a comprehensive program that is feasible and desirable In the to the harsh fact that there is no essen- evaluation of its recreation potential public interest to preserve, develop, and make tial difference between the communism should be concluded as Anon as possible. accessible for public use the values set forth of Brezhnev and Kosygin and the com- Orte reason for such a survey is that In subsection (a), Including alternative munism of Joseph Stalin. advirse activities might endanger the means of achieving these values, together it remains committed to the destruc- prospects of future development of public with a comparison of the costs and effective- tion of freedom for the simple reason of these alternative means. outdoor recreation facilities. ness Sec. s. Pending submission of the report of that that the -ontagion of freedcm con- 'The Corps of Engineers of the Depart- the secretary to the Congress. the heads of stitutes a deadly menace to the total ment of the Army has conducted some Federal agencies having administrative Juris- tyranny of communism. significant studies in this regard. These diction over the Federal lands within the This is something that I have been try- studies should be more helpful in compil- area referred to in section 1 of this Act shall, ing to tell the American people for many ing a meaningful evaluation and report consistent with the purposes for which the years now. Within the past 2 months at the earliest possible time while also lands were acquired or set aside by the alone I have taken the floor of the Sen- holding down the cost of the study called United States and to the extent authorized ate on three occasions to warn against op- for in my bill-such cost being estimated bportuuitlts for the types of recreation i"on use the myth of the detente and against the at less than $100,000. of such lands referred to In section 2(a) of Possibility that the Soviet Union would Mr. President, the House Committee this Act. Intervene by force to put down the free- on Interior and insular Affairs has Sac. 4. There are authorized to be appro- dom movement in Czechoslovakia. favorably reported a bill containing the printed such sums as may be necessary to I did so for the first time on July 15, same provisions as I am Introducing. I carry out the provisions of this Act. not to in Ii roducing a resolution reaffirming urge the Senate Committee on interior exceed 3100.000. our support for Captive Nations Week. and Insular Affairs to consider this bill This resolution, in which I was honored at the earliest opportunity. ADDITIONAL COSPONSOR OF BILL to be joined by 13 other Senators, ex- Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- AND JOINT RESOLUTION pressed the hope that the captive peoples sent that the bill be printed in the SPARKMAN. Mr. President, I ask would "in the years to come be permitted RECORD and also printed and appro- Mr. Sthat, President, its next to determine their own future without priately referred. unanimous .lSPA consent the threat of external intervention." The PRESIDING OFFICER. The bill printing, the name of the Senator from On July 22, in speaking again about will be received and appropriately re- Texas [Mr. YA1i3OROUCH] be added as a the crisis in Czechoslovakia, I submitted ferred; and, without objection, the bill cosponsor of my bill (S. 3777) to establish a resolution calling for the pubiiration of will be printed in the RECORD as re- the U.S. section of the United States- the U.N. report on Hungary as a Sen- quested by the Senator from Iowa. Mexico Commission for Border Develop- ate document. I said that it was my hope The bill (S. 4002) to authorize the meet and Friendship, and for other pur- that the republication of this report Secretary of the Interior to study the pass. PRESIDING OFFICER. Without would serve the dual purpose of remind- feasibility and desirability of establish- Is ordered. ing world opinion about what happened lag an Upper Mississippi Valley National objection, it in Hungary and that, if the Soviet lead- Recreation Area between Wood River, Mr. LAUSCHE. Mr. President, I ask ers eontemp'ated intervention, it would 171., and Minneapolis, Minn., and for unanimous consent that, at its next cause them to pause and reconsider. other purposes, introduced by Mr. printing, my name be aded as a cospon- Regrettably, this resolution was put MinnER, was received, read twice by its sor of the joint resolution (S.J. Res. 179) over by the Rules Committee because of title, referred to the Committee on In- proposing an amendment to the Constitu- the pressure of last-minute business. tenor and Insular Affairs, and ordered tion of the United States relating to the In the same speech I cglied for a more to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: nomination and election of the President vigorous State Department policy, and S. 4oo2 and Vice President of the United States. said that the diplomacy of doing nothing Be it enacted by the Senate and House The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without will accomplish exactly nothing. of Representatives of the United States of Objection, It is so ordered. On this point, now that the deed has America in Congress assembled, That the i secretary of the Interior shall atudy, inveeti- t been done, I wish to read front an edi- gate, and formulate recommendations on the RESOLUTIONS torial assessment which appeared in the feasibility and desirability of establishing as New York Times for September 3: an Upper Mississippi Valley National Recrea- SENATE RESOLUTION 387-RESOLU- As this melancholy political tat.gedy pro- ton Area all or parts of the segment of the TION CALLING FOR EMERGENCY ceedi. Americans would do well to assess Mississippi River and adjacent lands between MEKrING OF GENERAL ASSEMBLY soberly this nation's responsibility for last Wood River, Illinois, and Minneapolis. Min- AND DECLARATION OF DAY OF month's rape of Czechoslovakia. From Mr. sceota, in the States of Missouri, Iowa, Ill[- SOLIDARITY WITH CZECHOSLO- Llub?.ek'a triumph last January until the so- n.ola. Wisconsin, and Minnesota. The Scare- VAK[A vlet Invasion, Washington did almcst nothing Lary shall coeult with other interested Fed- to s-tow serious goodwill toward the liberal oral agencies, and the State and local bodies sex MEANrNG 07 osZCHOSLOVAKIA regime. The excuse offered then was that and officials Involved, and shall coordinate Mr. DODD. Mr. President, before the the State Department feared to provoke Tans study with b and other planBnl g Kremlin staged its treacherous invasion of Moslow action the devastating) blow rSoviet l troops f ac- activities relating to the region. of Czechoslovakia in the midnight hours tually did deliver, a more tenable view is Sec. 2. The Secretary shall submit to the of August 21, there were many in the that. Washington's studied near-in-difference Congress, within two years after the date Western World who believed that the to Prague developments was cor-ectly seen of this Act, a report of his findings and Soviet leaders were reasonable men who In Moscow as assurance the Ere:nltn could recommendations. The report of the Scare- were committed to the existence of the do as it pletsed in bringing Czechoslovakia testy shall contain, but not be limited to, detente and who would therefore take to heel. It is not a pretty chapter of Ameri- findingswttdireapectto- no rash actions in Czechoslovakia. can diplomacy. (a) the scenic, scientific, historic, outdoor recreation, and the natural valises of the Much more died in consequence of the On August 2, the finlcl day before re- water and related land resources Involved. Soviet invasion than the brave new free- tees. I delivered a major speech on the including their use for driving for pleasure, dom which had suddenly emerged In myth of the detente In which I warned Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 September 5, 1968 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE S10291 again that the Red army might invade the Soviets from further aggression. But, process Czechoslovakia of liquidating the hard-won free- . in my opinion, the first of these meas- doms of the Czechoslovak And on August 21, on the heels of the ures is resolute action on the part of stallin a people of rein-and invasion, Iissued a statement calling for the free world to, condemn the Soviet oc- m and threatening g police etpa fort ght,p the Soviet Whereas, ands, Its a satellite armies emergency session of the U.N. Gen- cupation of Czechoslovakia, to bring the dung amaneuvers on ies have been cthe eral Assembly to deal with the matter Kremlin to bar before the United Nations, frontier of Romania and, Yugoslavia, simi- of Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakia. and to mete out punishment in the form liar to the maneuvers which preceded the I still believe such a session should be of economic sanctions. Invasion of Czechoslovakia; and convened, and this is a major purpose That is why I am submitting my res- Whereas the Soviet Government further of the resolution which I am introducing olution. enlarged the crisis by submitting a list of today. My resolution calls upon the adminis- outrageous demands to the Government of Essentially my resolution is an action tration to designate September 30, the West Germany: therefore be it resolution, because, in the situation that anniversary of the infamous Munich Resolved, That it is the sense of the Sen- confronts us today, pious declarations agreement, as a day of solidarity with ate- of sympathy are not enough. the Czechoslovak people. for lan emergency session rofi theshould U.N. Gen 1 A member nation of the United Nations I think that it is altogether fitting that eral Assembly to deal with the Czechoslovak has been invaded without warning and the enslavement of Czechoslovakia by crisis and with the wider crisis this has pro- without cause of any kind by the military the Soviet tyranny be observed in con- duced throughout Central Europe; forces of five other member nations. junction with the anniversary of the (2) that at this session the drain istra although, nominally, the Kremlin pact which paved the way to its enslave- should Iaskt fors imposition other free nations, is permitting the Czechoslovak Govern- ment by the Nazi tyranny, sanctions against the aggressor of countries, u es, Un- ment to continue in office, in practice it On this day let us, by every proper til they abandon theirg ags e- is enforcing a ruthless. dictatorship, means, tell the Czechoslovak aggression and and It has compelled the Czechoslovak that, in their battle to win for tl em- m that, move their despite any from Czechoslovakia; one ny protests that may come Government, against its will, to reintro- selves the right to "life, liberty, and the from the now captive government of Czecho-also duce a rigid censorship over press and pursuit of happiness," they have the fer- for thea,the administratioa special n should U.N. Nsk radio. vent support of the American people. mitt e, similarh oe the fU.N. Committeeo on It has demanded the banning of Czech- Let us demonstrate. , to all information oslovakia's most popular literary and po- Let us protest. and to or repo gatherrt to the General Assembly; litical magazine Literarni Listy. Let the church bells ring out across _ n(3)that, in advance of such action, the It has virtually forbidden Czechoslovak the country, administration should impose an immediate trade with the West. And let us as a nation reinforce our embargo on the shipment of all industrial And according to recent information condemnation by taking those essential and technological equipment to the Soviet received by the American chapter of diplomatic, political, and economic ac- which par ci the Invasion, bloc countries and hPEN, the world association of writers, tions spelled out in the resolution which it should invite the other free nations of Soviet intelligence agents, disguished as I submit today. ambulance drivers, have been apprehend the world join in not action; - Mr. President, I submit a resolution (4) that, , in conjunction ion with the anni- ing and beating up prominent Czech calling for an emergency meeting of the versary of the Munich agreement on Septem- writers and removing them to undis- 'General Assembly and calling for the ad- her 30, the administration should proclaim a closed closed destinations. ministration to declare September 30 as day of solidarity with the people of Czecho- . Slovakia, to be In aggression in Czechoslovakia, a day of solidarity with Czechoslovakia, observances across the f ec untry and that it moreover, has raised the Spector of fur- because that is the date of the Munich should invite the appropriate ther Soviet aggression in Europe. betrayal. participation of the free overn a to this On the heels of their occupation of Mr. President, in submitting by res- day an intereat onalhdayiof so daitygw th Czechoslovakia, the Red Army and its olution I ask unanimous consent to in- the Czechoslovak people in their heroic satellite armies embarked on a series sert into the RECORD a number of articles struggle to retain their freedom; and, finally, of threatening maneuvers on the fron- and be it to the maneuvers which vU ~a preceded the invasion of Czechoslovakia. And these activities are all the more alarming be- cause they have been synchronized with a violent propaganda campaign against the Rumanian and Yugoslav leaders which resembles the propaganda cam- paign against the Czech leaders prior to the invasion. Only yesterday the crisis in Europe was dangerously enlarged when the Soviet Ambassador to Bonn presented to the West German Government a list of ar- rogant demands which bore some of the earmarks of a ultimatum. Among other things, the Kremlin demanded that' the .u wiau the intellectual f suen measures as may be necessary tore- erment ins the Soviet duce the threat of further Soviet aggression Union which made the Soviet leaders so in Europe, fearful of the contagion of freedom. The articles and editoria I also ask unanimous consent to in- Is ordered to sert into the RECORD at the conclusion be printed in the RECORD, are as follows: Of my remarks the full text Of my resolu- 1. THE SOVIET OCCUPATION OF C`LECHOS 968A tion. [From the New York Times, Aug. 31, , 1 19681 The PRESIDING OFFICER. The res- SADNESS AND FEAR ARE DESCENDING ON olution will be received and approprl- PRAGUE-CZECHS SEE THEIR 8 MONTHS OF ately referred; and, without objection, LIBERTY IS NEAR AN END-HELPLESSNESS IS the resolution, articles, and editorials, VOICED will be printed in the RECORD. (By Clyde H. Farnsworth) The resolution (S. Res. 387) was re- PRAGUE, August 30.-A heavy sadness has ferred to the Committee on Foreign Re- descended on this beautiful city, which lations,as follows: the described as "a gem in the crown of A the 1 ' - Bonn government call off its efforts to Whereas the Congress of the United States establish normal cultural and trade rela- is on record as supporting the struggle of tions with the Communist countries of the captive nations to recover their national Eastern Europe ,.1, freedom and their basic human rights; and Against the packground Of Soviet in- Whereas the Soviet Invasion of Czech- tervention in Czechoslovakia no one can oslovakia on August 21, abetted by the armies say for certain just how far the Soviets of four Communist satellite governments, are prepared to go. Against this back- Nations Chara flagrant of the ter and of thetrue of lawiinithe ground, too, it becomes clear that Soviet affairs of nations; and promises and guarantees are utterly Whereas, as President Johnson has pointed worthless. out, "The excuses offered by the Soviet The coming period will be a period of Union are patently contrived. The Czech- testing that will oslo ki i va requ an governmt di re all theid wsomend not request its and all the resolution of which we are allies to intervene in its internal affairs. No capable, external aggression threatened Czechoslo- There are many measures that must YaWhereasthe Soviet secret police, under the be taken to secure the peace and to deter protection of the Red Army, are now in the or You feel thd .e saness when walk- ing on the Charles Bridge across the Vitava with a young blond law student who says re- peatedly, "i am not afraid"-but you know she is. You pass several Russian soldiers munch- ing bread at the entrance of a Soviet-occu- pied building on the Opera Square. She looks at them and then, almost with tears in her eyes, says, "It is terrible what they have done." There is an older Czech talking quietly with an American in a coffee house near Maxim Gorki Square. A third party, unknown to either of them, sits down at their table. The older man suddenly finds an excuse to leave. FEAR IS COMING BACK It is the fear that personal liberties, so much enjoyed over the last eight months, are suddenly being taken away-the fear that the Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 S 10292 Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R0003001, 0054-gg CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE .September 5, .1968 Government can never resist the overwhelm- ing Russian military pressures to end the political reforms. Now, Czechs are again afraid of being in- formed on, afraid of the secret police. The Russians have pulled most of their troops out of the city. But the tanks are not far away and, three miles southeast of the city center In the suburb of Vrsovice, heavy mortars have been emplaced. They could fire their shells into Wenceslaus Square. The informed Czech tells you that the plight is tragic. To prevent bloodshed the Government has to accept Russian demands and curb political freedom. But in doing this it loses the confidence of the people, This reality, the feeling of helplessness be- side the tremendous display of Russian pow- er, explains the poignant sighs and pauses when Czechoslovak leaders address the na- tion. It explains the bitter tone of the under- ground poetry plastered on the storefronts; "Welcome friends- You have come as brothers, And now our blood lies on the ground. "Welcome friends- Thank you for the roses On the graves of our children. "Welcome friends- With salt in our eyes slovak Communist Party. He is best known lug Prague a few minutes after 1 o'clock On In the West for his novel "The Taste of the morning of Wednesday, Aug. 21,, As it Power." a satire on the Communist party landed at Ruzyen International Airport, its leadership that was published here earlier wing companion flew on a direct approach to this year by Frederick A. Praeger. Inc. the airport. The cablegram, signed by David Carver, There was silence for a few minutes, and the international secretary of P.E.N, the then the first Antonov-12 four-c ngined Initials stand for Poets, Essayists and turbo-prop tranr.port pierced the clear night Novelists-Jolted American members of the sky ove' this city, its green and red running association who had hoped conditions in lights blinking Against the darkness on its Czechoslovakia' would ease following the descent to RuzylLe. AN-12 talks in Moscow last weekend, With''.n a minute another heavy "This Is shocking news," said Arthur followed from Vie east. Then, the roar over Miller. the playwright and president of the the capital was unabating as, at 50-second international P.E.N. Club. intervals, transport planes to-ached down at Reached at his home in Connecticut, Mr. Prague Airport, disgorging crimson-bereted Miller said he would begin "right away" to Soviet airborne troopers. gather signatures from American writers and Two hours earlier, a column of Soviet T-55 poets for an appeal to the Soviet Govern- tanks had crossed the Czechoslovak frontier ment and the Union of Soviet Writers on from East Germany at Cinovec, a quiet vil- behalf of their Czechoslovak colleagues. lage, 60 miles northwest of Prague, and now PROTEST SENT TO PODGORNY Its forward elerierlts were nearing the resi- dential suburb of Kobylisy. Young Soviet Mr. Carver's communication arrived short- tankm,sn in black leather headgear peered ly after Mr. Halsband and Mr. Miller had out of their turrets, their hands on their 50- sent a routine protest to President Nikolai V. caliber machine guns. Podgorny appealing for the release of Czecho- The Invasion of Czechoslovakia had begun. slovak writers arrested during the Soviet oc- At 1:50 A.M., the city was told in F. Prague cupation. They said the information about radio broadcast, delivered in quiet tones: the arrests was based on newspaper reports "Last night, Aug. 21, about 11 F.M., the and had not been independently confirmed, armies of the sovlet Union, the Polish Peo- Several hours after receiving the report ple's Republic, the German Democratic Re- of the new arrests, Mr. Halsband and Mr. public, the Hungarian People's Republic and Miller sent two more protests, one to the the Bulgarian People's Republic crossed the --- ,.. .~e a..ofpt Writpr'R Union and nAtinnRl frontiers of Czechoslovakia without t e Underground writers quo words to Napoleon: "You can do everything The message to President Podgorny was public, the National Assembly, the Govern- with bayonets except sit on them." made public by Mr. Halsband early pester- ment, the First Secretary of the Communist The writers also refer to an old Czech say- day afternoon. a few hours before he re- party or any of their bodies." ing: "After three days a guest and a fish ceived Mr. Carver's cable. The message said: Then the radio station went off the air. begin to smell." "P.E.N.'s American Center Joins with In- The airlift was the biggest eve,' carried With most of the tanks removed. Prague ternational P.E.N. in urging release of Czech out by the Union oute;ide its 'rontiers. looks normal again. During the day there is and Slovak writers reported held following Within the first seven hours, 250 airnraft put business as usual and there are traffic Jams occupation of Czechoslovakia. We ask this in down here a full airborne division Complete in the streets. a spirit or deep concern and hopefulness on with 3mail armored vehicle3, fuel and sup- , I tt ors t li [From the New York Times, Aug. 31, 19681 ELEVEN CZECH WRITERS REPORTED SEIZED PEN IS INFORMED DISGUISED SovIET AGENTS ARE BEATING AND ARRESTING AUTHORS (By Henry Raymont) The American chapter of REV.. the world association of writers, said last night it bad received word that Soviet Intelligence agents in Czechoslovakia, disguised as ambulance attendants, were secretly rounding up writ- ers and journalists. The report was received by Robert Hals- band, president of the American center, in a cablegram from the association's inter- national headquarters in London. Mr. Hals- band said the cablegram was based on In- formation given by "a reliable source," a writer who had just arrived from Prague. The cablegram said that at least 11 Czech writers, including Ladislav Mnacko, the and Prof. Adolf Hoffineister, presi- novelist , dent of the Czech center of P.E.N., had been beaten unconscious by Soviet secret "agents disguised as ambulance attendants" before . p y o e es. behalf of the world communi Mr. Halsband, a professor of English liter- Along with the Soviet, East German, Po- ature at Columbia University. acknowledged lash, Hungarian and Bulgarian coliunns en- that the association bad been asked by sev- tering Czechoslovakia through 18 crossing eral Czech writers to delay their protest, con- points from the north, northwest, south and tending that It might further harden the east, this airlift formed the vanguard of Soviet attitude. what in days to come was a massive invading "We waited for almost a week, until we be- army reported to number 650,'')00 men came convinced that the situation was not equipped with the most modern and Sophia- improving," he said, ticated weapons In the Sovicty military cata- APPEAL TO SOVIET WRITSSS logue. The appeal to the Soviet writers said: Prague alone was filled and ringed with "As fellow writers, the American Center lOO,0')0 troops and 2,000 tanks, while, at the of P.E.N. urges you to exert your influence to Kremlin in the evening of Tuesday, Aug. 27, protect writers in Prague from reported ar- Czechoslovak leaders were being forced into signing an agreement giving Moscow total rests. We make this appeal in the name of control over the destiny of this republic of the world community of letters. . . Ia million neDnle, to President Podgorny was based on rumors. ranged from the drama of the elalp street "we now have concrete information just out battles in Prai;ue and other Czechoslovak cit- of Czechoslovakia of a real wave of repres- lea between Soviet tanks and yowls armed Sion." with sticks and Molotov cocktails to the The author, who returned yesterday morn- poignant tragedy of the secret Moscow nego- wConanh as a attended dollee- tiations with the Czechoslovak leaders fresh- inDLln g from Chicago, gate from m Connecticut, said d tta he would 1y released from Soviet captivity. a n v gaff: f. -ew s read v er the RECONSTRUCTION OF 7 DAYS I etition ready over the v new e e- p probably a NOVEL SATIRIZED LEADERS weekend. This article is a reconstruction of the t k da a based on the accounts of the va e e h The cablegram asserted that ambulances were used for the arrests to "divert attention of Czechoslovak citizens and police." The following writers and newspapermen were listed as having been seized: Professor Hoffineister, Mr. Mnacko, Ba- y s v os o Mr. Miller predicted that the Czec crisis would become a central issue at the an- Czechoslovak clandestine radio network nual meeting of P.E.N.'s executive commit- formed after the invasion, the testimony of tee, which opens in Geneva Oct. S. The meet- participants, information supplied by Com- ing is?scheduled to be attended by at least murdst sources and direct observations by a dozen from Eastern Europe. correspondents of The New York Times. humil, Hrabal, Karel Kosk, Alexander Kti- [From the New York Times, Sept. 2, 19881 meat, Vaclav Have, Ludvik Vaculik, Milan SEVEN DAYS or INTERVENTION IN CzzcRO- Uhde, Jiri Kolar, A. J. Liehm and Vladimir sLOVAIITA-ENTRY BY SOVIET-LED ARMIES Blaze lazek. STIRRED RISE Or WIDE RESISTANCE The report was the first indication of Mg. NOTE.-The following reconstruction of Mnacko's fate following the invasion Aug. (21. The stocky, 49-year-old former journa- events in the first seven days of the occu- list fled Czechoslovakia last year to a pro- pation of Czechoslovakia was prepared by New Farnsworth H d . , e test against Prague's pro-Arab policies, but Tad Szulc and Cly They were the 11 full members of the rul- he returned some months ago to participate York Times correspondents in Prague.) ealdlum of the Central a in the liberaation of Alex- PsAGux, nder Dubcek, First Secreotary of the Czecho- Jet fighter screeched ? over the roofs of asleep- the Czechoslovak Communist par`.y~, Its three Ass the Soviet columns rolled through Prague's darkened streets at dawn on Aug. 21 and as dozens of cars careened throughout the city with honking horns to summon the ettissens to a protest meeting at the Old Town Square, 20 men were gathered in a. four-story denied and marble-pillared building on the right bank of the Vltava River, which flows Approved Fbr Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 September . 5, 1968 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE S 10293 alternates and the party secretaries, and they trict of Prague, which was to be the command grabbed Mr. Dubcek, Mr. Kriegel and Mr. had been meeting continuously since 2 post for the invasion. Smrkovsky and led them to one of the o'clock in the afternoon to try to deal with The first Aeroflot plane, as Mr. Cernik and armored cars. Mr. Clear was taken out sepa- the situation. his friends discovered later, was a mobile air- rately. Somehow Mr. Slavik escaped deten- The meeting had been called by Alexander. traffic control post brought to Ruzyne' to tion. Dubcek, the First Secretary of the party, the direct the airlift. The armored car with Mr. Cisar went to man who personified Czechoslovakia's de- PRESIDIUM GETS NEWS central police headquarters at Bartolomejeka mocratizaticn effort begun last January and returned to the meeting Street in midtown and he was placed in a defiance of Moscow's orthodoxy. When Mr. Cernik cell. The vehicle carrying Mr. Dubcek, Mr. at 11:40 P.M. having spoken again with De- Smrko?vsky and Mr. Kriegel drove to the DECEPTIVE MILDNESS fense Minister Dzur, he was pale. He whis- airport. Premier Cernik was already there Mr. Dubcek, a deceptively mild-looking pered a few words to Mr. Dubcek. Visibly under guard. but tough man of 47, had called the session shaken, Mr. Dubcek rose and announced to The four men were led to a Soviet transport to debate a letter he had received the day the group: plane, pushed with rifle butts. The plane before from Leonid I. Brezhnev, the General "The armies of five countries have crossed took off immediately, and one hour later it Secretary of the Soviet Communist party the frontiers of our republic and are occupy- landed at Try Duby military airport in Slo- berating him for allegedly failing to honor ing us." vakia. The four men were driven to a barn agreements made at the confrontations in commotion broke out in the room, and Mr. outside the nearby spa of Sliac and kept early August between the Czechoslovaks and Dubcek tried to restore order, there under guard. They were treated harsh- their Soviet-led critics at Cierna and "It is a tragedy," he said, his voice crack- ly and insulted. As Premier Cernik was to Bratislava. ing. "I did not expect this to happen. I had tell the Cabinet later, "I feared for my life These confrontations left the public im- no suspicion, not even the slightest hint and that of my comrades." pression that the Warsaw Pact nations had that such a step could be taken against us." As the news of the. invasion spread in grudgingly accepted Czechoslovakia's democ- The men were excited, talking, shouting, Prague by the clanking of the tanks, the ratization with some minimal restraints. gesticulating. Some of them left the room to roar of the troop transports and telephone At the Presidium meeting, held in a small make telephone calls, then returned. calls from neighbors and friends, young conference room with modern decor and Tears were streaming down Mr. Dubcek's workers and students rushed to the Prague heavy armchairs, the Dubcek liberals clashed face. He said: "I have devoted my entire life radio building on Vinohradska Street to erect with the pro-Moscow conservative members. to cooperation with the Soviet Union, a~nd barricades. The principal battle was over a 13-page they have done this to me. It is my pertonal Se-long as the radio continued broadcast- report on the internal situation in Czecho- tragedy." ing, the young people felt, the world would slovakia, prepared by Drahomir Kolder, a CONSERVATIVES NOT UPSET know what was happening. It was a race Presidium member, and Alois Indra, a party An official who attended the meeting said against 'time. The Russians had already secretary. These two conservatives sought later that the conservatives--Mr. Indra, Mr. achieved their first objectives by neutralizing approval for their report, which in effect con- Kolder, Mr. Bilak and Oldrich Svestka, a the centers of the government. Later in the stituted acceptance of Soviet demands for presidium member and editor of the party morning, they would surround Hradcany eradication of the democratizing experiment. newspaper Rude Pravo-"did not seem terri- Castle and place the President under virtual Mr. Kolder and Mr. Indra suggested, in bly upset or even surprised." They soon left house arrest. fact, that the Presidium lay aside the Bra- the building. Buses, trucks and the street oars were tislava agreement and reconsider instead Mr. Dubcek telephoned President Ludvik commandeered by the youths to try to block the so-called Warsaw Letter Sent by the Svoboda at Hradcany Castle, and the two men the progress of the tanks from the nearby Soviet Union and its four allies in mid-July discussed the situation. Then Mr. Dubcek National Museum toward the radio building. and -calling for a virtual political surrender, and Premier Cernik drafted a proclamation As dawn broke, thousands of youngsters EVENLY DIVIDED to the nation that the Prague radio began poured into Wenceslas Square just below the The Czechoslovak party leadership was to broadcast at 1:50 A.M. National Museum and moved toward Vino- fairly evenly split between liberals and con- After having stated that the invasion had hradska to man the barricades. They hurled servatives, but the moderates complicated taken place without the knowledge of the rocks at the tanks and waved the Czechoslo- the situation by their uncertainty. At one Czechoslovak authorities, the proclamation vak flag while screaming defiance at the point, for example, Frantisek Barbirek, a Slo- urged Czechoslovaks to remain calm and not Russians, who were nervously manning their vak member of the Presidium, deliberately to resist. The armed forces were given the machine guns. absented himself for a prolonged period to same order. SHOOTING BREAKS OUT avoid participating in several inconclusive The first elements of the Soviet airborne Most of the Russians were puzzled by the votes, division had already secured the airport and reaction. They had been told that they had Premier Oldrieh Cernik, one of Mr. Dub- were moving into the city. been invited to help crush a counterrevolu- cek's closest associates, called the Kolder- Premier Cernik left for the one-story tion and they expected to be welcomed. Indra proposal- a "betrayal" of the Batislava building housing the Straca Military Acad- Tanks slipped through the barricades and accords. Frantisek Kriegel, another liberal emy across the Vltava River from the Central fires ranged in the twisted wreckage of over- member of the Presidium, said the pro- Committee to preside over an emergency ses- turned buses and trams. By 7:25 A.M. the posal should be withdrawn because it lion of his Cabinet. Mr. Duboek and his radio building was surrounded by infantry "negates Cierna and Bratislava." liberal colleagues remained in the Central soldiers, and tanks were rampaging trying Vasil Bilak, then the Slovak party leader Committee building to await developments, to scatter the crowds. and a member of the national Presidium, LEADERS ARE SEIZED The first blood was spilled shortly after took the side of Mr. Kolder and Mr. Indra. These developments came quickly. At 3 7 A.M., when a tense Bulgarian tankman Antonin Kopek, an alternate Presidium mom- A.M., as the capital was wide awake and fired his machine-gun, first, above and, then, ber and head of the large C.K.D. machinery stunned, Soviet armored personnel carriers directly into people on the sidewalks. Two plant in Prague, also lined up with the and armored scout cars drew up at the Mili- unarmed Czechoslovak soldiers and a woman conservatives. tary Academy. Airborne troopers, their sub- were killed. The atmosphere in the room was reaching machine guns at the ready, surrounded the The radio station went off the air at 7:21 an explosive point when Premier Cernik went building. A.M. after a woman had announced in an out to an adjoining office to make one of his A detachment burst into the academy and emotion-choked voice: "This is the end." periodic phone calls to Col. Gen. Martin Dzur, arrested Mr. Cernik and the ministers with There were a few bars of Smetana's "Vltava the Defense Minister. him. Soldiers tore up the, telephone switch- Suite," and then the Czechoslovak national SOVIET AIRLINERS LAND board. At gunpoint, one witness said, they anthem, and finally silence. But an hour Reports had been reaching the Presidium forced some of the ministers to give up their later, the radio came surprisingly back On the all day of Soviet troop movements along wristwatches. Mr. Cernik was led to an air, demanding the departure of the invaders Czechoslovak frontiers. A Moscow report in armored car and driven away. and calling for a national protest strike and mid-afternoon spoke of an urgent session of Shortly after 4 A.M., airborne units and for blood donors for the wounded- the Soviet party's Central Committee. Mr. some of the tanks that had advanced from "DO YOU WORK HERE?" Cernik knew that at 10 P.M. an unscheduled the East German border surrounded the The Soviet forces seemed to lack instruc- Soviet Aeroflot airliner had landed at Central Committee building. A few minutes tions on how to proceed. Ruzyne Airport. later, three armored cars led by a black So- At the television station on Maxim Gorky This was the first thing to alarm him. The viet made Volga automobile arrived. Square, a Russian army captain named Orlov plane, he had been told, did not unload pas- Mr. Dubcek, Mr. Kriegel, Josef Smrkov- jumped down from his armored squad car sengers but simply sat in the darkness on a sky, the President of the National Assem- and pounded on the door. After several min- taxiway. At 11 P.M., Mr. Cernik was informed bly; Cestmir Cisar, it party secretary, and utes the. nightwatchman appeared. Captain that another unscheduled Aeroflot flight had Vaclav Slavik, a member of the secretariat, Orlo,v told him: arrived from Lvov in the Soviet Ukraine. were around a table discussing their next "Step out of the way, we are going to oc- A group of unidentified civilians left the moves. They were the hard core of the party cupy the television station." airport and rushed to the city. Later it de- liberals. "Do you work here?" asked the elderly veloped that they had gone to the Soviet A squad of Soviet soldiers and several watchman. Embassy, in the tree-shaded Bubenec dis- civilians rushed into the meeting. They "No," the stunned captain replied. Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 S 10294 Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE September 5, 1968 "Then you can't come in," said the watch- man, slamming the door In the captain's face. The nonplused captain had to radio 'his com- mand headquarters for further Instructions. The troops outside the radio building also did not seem quite sure what their mission was. Tanks raced up and down the streets like charging bulls, while young men rushed out from the sidewalks with flaming gasoline- soaked rags trying to ignite the tanks' fuel stores. Five were set afire and one had to be abandoned. While the attacks went on, other tanks stood idle on the streets, their engines off, with crews quietly watching the show. At 11 A.M. the troops surrounding the radio building finally got their orders to move inside and stop the broadcasting. The station went off the air, only to be replaced within a half hour by the first underground transmit- ter of the clandestine network. The network, coordinating 15 stations around the country, not only provided news about the occupation, but became the chief rallying point for the developing passive re- sistance. ADVANCE PLANNING The planning behind it was the work of Jlrt Pelikan, the articulate, bushy-haired, 42-year-old director of the state televisttm. Weeks earlier he and his associates had de- vised a contingency plan. This advance plan- ning and the services of professionals who went underground accounted for the high standards of the clandestine network. The Russians tried to locate the stations but were slow in getting direction-finding gear to Prague. The radio itsekf was Instru- mental in delaying a train carrying the needed detection equipment. At Ceska Prevova, a rail junction 80 miles east of the captial, Czechoslovak railroad workers re- fused to man a train after having been alerted by the radio. For hours the train was left to sit in the yard. FACTOR IN PROPAGANDA WAR The clandestine network was a major ele- ment of the psychological warfare that was developing between the resistance leaders and the occupiers. Unable to stop the trans- missions, the Russians began to seize port- able radios from listeners In public places. One of the memorable posters pasted up after the invasion portrayed Russian tank men as Arab merchants with displays of transistors on carpets laid out In the streets. The Russians, in attempt to make them- selves heard by the population, set up their own station, Radio Vltava, but hardly any- one listened to its announcements, delivered with a foreign accent. The clandestine radio urged citizens to engage the Russian soldiers in discussion to try to convince them that there was no counterrevolution in the country. Hundreds of people sought out the tank crews, in- fantrymen and paratroopers and asked the basic question: "Why have you come here?" Most Czechoslovaks speak Russian, which has been a compulsory foreign language in school since the Communist take-over in 1948. Most of the discussions were friendly enough. However, the Czechs found that many of the young Russian soldiers knew little about the outside world. The reply to the basic question was usually "we follow orders." Some of the Russians held up what they said were unfired weapons to show that they had not been among those who had taken blood or scarred buildings. One sensitive noncommissioned officer said he wished he could doff his uniform and merge with the crowd. On the second day of the occupation, the radio advised the people to ignore the Rus- sians. Though discussions continued, the groups were smaller. But on Friday a general strike emptiedthe streets, leaving Soviet troops isolated, sur- rounded by almost total silence, for an hour, Not knowing what to expect, many fired Indiscriminately Into the air. ROAD SIGNS OBSCURED The clandestine radio also promoted what was perhaps the cleverest of the passive re- sistence measures-the obscuring of street signs and house numbers to confuse the occupying troops, People put lip spurious detour signs to delay additional tank columns coming from Poland. In the streets of Prague, signs went up showing Soviet troops the shortest way home, "Moscow-i.500 kilometers." The radio campaign was supplemented by underground newspapers, printed on flatbed presses in secret basement plants and dis- tributed by factory workers. The papers bore the names of many of the newspapers closed by the occupying troops. Young men in cars and trucks drove swiftly through the city center, dropping off bundles of newspapers and leaflets. Crowds surged on the sidewalks to gather them up. The Russians countered by dropping some of their own leaflets from helicopters and having the troops distribute the Moscow newspaper Pravda- A Czechoslovak who ac- cepted these publications often found them snatched from his hands and was accused of collaborating. Like the clandestine radio network, the equestrian monument to St. Wenceslas in Wencaslas Square-became a symbol of resist- ance. Youths gathered there to make speeches denouncing the occupation. Despite a curfew, youths manned the monument 24 hours a day and defined Russians who tried to dis- perse them by shooting over their heads. POLITICAL MOVZ THWARTED On Thursday, Aug. 23, as the defiance mounted In the streets and gunfire echoed through the city, the Soviet Union turned to the political aspects of the occupation. Moscow had evidently expected to form a government under President Svoboda-to assure constitutional continuity-and to re- organize party leadership with trusted men, Two steps were promptly taken by am- bassador Stepan V. Chervonenko, the politcal chief of the invasion, and by Gen. Ivan Cl. Pavlovsky, a Soviet Defense Minister and commander of the invasion forces. After reported consultations with the Rus- sians, Jan Puler, a conservative Presidium member, called on President Svoboda at Hradcany Castle to present him with a list of a "worker and peasant" government with the request that he remain as chief of state, President Svoboda, an army general, a con- vinced Communist and a Hero of the Soviet Union, refused, He said he would discuss nothing until the Czechoslovak leaders had been released. A message from Ambassador Chervonenko also failed to budge the Presi- dent. TROIKA Is SHORT-I.rVED Overnight Wednesday the Czechoslovak conservatives had met with Mr. Chervonenko and other Soviet officials at the Praha Hotel, which Is used by the Central Committee. The Soviet group was disappointed by the small turnout and by the reluctance of the Czecho- slovaks to join the leadership that the Rus- sians proposed to establish, After hours of deliberation it developed that only Mr. Bilak, Mr. Koldar and Mr. Indra were prepared to go on the new Presidium. To complicate matters, these three party officials apparently were unable to agree among themselves as to who would serve as First Secretary, The decision was made for the three to serve jointly as party leaders. The announcement of the troika was greeted with public derision, and It vanished from sight almost as soon as It had been in- vented. The Soviet political maneuver had failed. THE sEcucr CONGRESS In a countermove by the Czechoslovak liberals, hundreds of delegates began steam- ing secretly during the night to the huge C.S.D. plant in Prague to hold the extraor- dinary 14th congress of the party. The congress had been originally sched- uled for Sept. 9, and the delegates were elected during the summer. Most of them were pre-Dubcek and It was taken for granted that the new Central Committee and Presidium to be elected by the congress would be overwhelmingly liberal. The delegates were informed by the clan- destine radio that the congress would be held Thursday morning at the C%.D. plant. The organizer.; assumed correctly that inasmuch as the radio was publicly announcing that the plant would be the site of the congress, the Russans would conclude it was being held elsewhere. This tactic worked. The delegates were introduced into the plant disguised as workers. The plant's armed people's militia, traditionally supporters of the conservatives, stood guard. The underground congress elected a liberal 160-man Central Committee, which in turn chose its 27-man Presidium. Mr. Dubcel was reelected First Secretary, but in his absence Venek Stlhan, an economics professor, was chosen to act in Us place. At this stage. Mr. Dubcek end his col- leagues were being moved from iliac to Lvov, In the Soviet Ukraine, with a stop at Trans- Carpathian town of Mukachevo. They had not been permitted to' change clothes; they were Inadequately fed, and wer: exposed to insults and maltreatment. :TVOBODA I'UES TO MOSCOW On Friday, Aug. 23, President Svcboda suddenly flew to Moscow follow-ng a 7 A.M. meeting In Hradcany Castle with Ambassador Cherveneriko. Mr. Svoboda said in a brief statement that he was going to the Kremlin to seek a resolution of the crit:is and that he would return the same evening. Flying on the same plane were Mr. Indra and Mr. B lak. but Czechoslovak Gfovernmeut spokesmen made it clear that they were not members of the Svoboda delegation. Among these actually accompanying the President were Deputy Premier Gustav Hueak, a Slovak and a friend of Mr. Dubcek, and Defense Minister Daur. Presidert Svoboda was received in Moscow with honors usually accorded a chief of state, but his Soviet hosts soon realized that he was in no mood for compromise. He mate it clear from the outset that he would not un- dertake tc? negotiate until Mr. Dubcek and his colleagues were freed and muted to par- ticipate In the talks. On Saturday Mr. Dubcek and the three other Imprisoned liberal leaders were Lown from Lvov to Moscow and driven to the Kremlin. INTERNED AMES HAGGARD They were a haggard, mentally and physically exhausted group, but It was a victory for the Czechoslovaks to have won their freedom. President Svoboda sent a message to the nation that, In view of the arrival of the four men, he was remaining at least another dr.y for additional talks. In Prague, this news evoked the first moment or optimism since the invasion. But the Russians countered by sending addi- tional forces to the capital. Soviet strength there rose from 35,000 men on Wednesday to 50,000 on Friday and 90,000 on Sunday as the talks dragged on. Mr. Smrkovsky, the President of the Na- tional Asst-mbly, wt,e not exaggerating when he said later that the Czechoslovaks had negotiated "In the shadow of tanks and planes" Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 ? Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338ROO0300190054-6 September 5, 1968 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE The pressure was so immense that on Mon-clay, Aug. 26, Mr. Svoboda, Mr. Dubcek and the others agreed to sign the agreement. A communique gave no real indications of the substance of the accord. CZECH LEADERS RETURN At 5:20 A.M. Tuesday, President Svoboda and the others landed at Ruzyne Airport. By that time many of the tanks had disap- peared from large parts of the city center and were assembled in parks and side streets. Trolleys and buses were running on normal schedules. People seemed to be breathing a little easier and everyone seemed to be returning to work. At Hradcany castle, a Czechoslovak honor guard once again took up its post and the presidential flag flew from the castle staff. Under the Moscow accord, the Russians agreed to a gradual troop withdrawal in re- turn for a renewal of press censorship, the disbanding of non-Communist political groups, the gradual removal of liberals from office and increasing Soviet control over ad- ministration. In addition, two Soviet divisions are to be permanently stationed along the border with West Germany. It was a high price to pay to get the tanks out of Prague but the Czechoslovaks had evidently little choice but to pay it. Mr. Svoboda, Mr. Dubcek, Mr. Smrkovsky and the others made this clear in radio speeches last week. The invasion, said Mr. Smrkovsky, was "a tragedy of small nations placed in the center of our continent." BERLINERS DEMONSTRATE DURING "DAY OF GERMANS" BERLIN, September 1.-Rightists and left- ists demonstrated- today at the annual "Day of the Germans" sponsored by refugee groups in West Berlin. The police kept the opposing groups apart and there were no serious in- cidents. About 30 rightist youths showed up to cheer the appearance or representatives of the right-wing National Democratic party who attended under a general invitation to all West German state legislatures. The presence of the controversial rightists, plus rain, kept attendance to about 5,000 in an outdoor stadium seating 25,000. Speakers emphasized German solidarity with the beleagured Czechoslovak people. Mayor Klaus Schutz attacked East Germany, which joined the Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia, saying the East Germans had forfeited every right to talk about the rights of peoples. PRAVDA CRITICIZES A CZECH WEEKLY-ASKS FOR CLOSING OF LIBERAL WRITERS' PUBLICATION (By Henry Kamm) Moscow, September 1. Pravda, the news- paper of the Communist party, complained today that the Czechoslovak press was slow to adapt itself to renewed censorship. Pravda centered its attack on one of the most liberal of Czechoslovak publications, Literarni Listy, the weekly of the writers' union. Literarni Listy has been published clandestinely since the occupation and has not lost the sarcastic sting that made it a favorite of the intellectuals and youth. The Soviet party organ characterized the underground weekly as a "wasps' nest" that "continues to exist somewhere in a backyard and continues to play its abject role as one of the main ideological centers of counter- revolution." "Every sensible person understands, how- ever, that such a game cannot continue," Pravda declared, "The counterrevolutionary forces must be and will be bridled." EDITOR IS CRITICIZED Jan Prochazka, a member of the weekly's editorial board, was singled out in Pravda for having "concocted an article containing re- volting and mean slander of the Soviet Union and the international Communist movement" in last Wednesday's issue. Literarni Listy has a history of suppres- sion. Its current editors were responsible for the former weekly of the writers' union, Lit- erarni Noviny, which was banned last sum- mer by the regime of Antonin Novotny. Some of its editors, including A. J. Liehm and Lud- vik Vaculik, were punished by or suspended from the party and not restored until after the start of the liberalization earlier this year. Literarni Listy rose to a circulation of 300,000 in a country of 14.5 million and be- came a forum of liberal ideas. It maintained its political position in ironic language and savage cartoons. Its success was so great that before the invasion there were plans for Eng- lish and German-language editions. POLES ASSAIL WRITERS (By Jonathan Randal) WARSAW, September 1.-The state-control- led Polish television stepped up a resurgent "anti-Zionist" campaign today, charging "Zionists" with responsibility for the "coun- terrevolution." Czechoslovakia. Branding some of the Czechoslovak liberal writers as Zionists, the Prague correspondent of Polish television linked them with Czecho- slovak criticism this spring of what has been .officially admitted was an anti-Semitic witch- hunt in Poland. The television man denounced Eduard Goldstuecker, the president of the Czecho- slovak writers union; Ladislav Mnacko and Pavel Kohout, novelists, and Arnold Lustig and Jan Prochazka of the weekly literary Linty. [Mr. Lustig arrived in Israel on Sunday as an immigrant, the Associated Press re- ported from Haifa.] "The Zionist forces were the most active of those who attacked Poland in March and allowed themselves in an atmosphere of in- tolerance and anti-Communism to designate the future Communist leaders of Czecho- slovakia," the Polish correspondent Czeslaw Berenda said. He said that many of these writers "do not share these difficult days with the citizens of Prague" and had fled to the West. Defense Minister Wojciech Jaruzelski praised Polish occupation troops, believed to number 45,000 men, for fulfilling their "patri- otic and internationalist duties" Polish correspondents accused "counter- revolutionaries" of seeking to pit one occup- ing army against another by praising Polish troops as "cultured and chivalrous" and de- picting the Soviet troops as "brutal and hostile." Zygmunt Broniarek, writing in the party newspaper, Trybuna Ludu, said a Czecho- slovak Army officer had denied that his coun- try was heading toward counterrevolution or was about to leave the Warsaw Pact. These were amonk avowed reasons for the Soviet-led intervention. Another correspondent denied rumors that Polish troops were going hungry and that an epidemic was raging in their ranks. [From the New York Times, Sept. 3, 1968] PRAVDA CAUTIONS CZECHS ON TRADE-ASSERTS ONLY "IGNORAMUSES". SEEK TIES WITH WEST (By Raymond H. Anderson) Moscow, September 2.-Pravda declared today that only a "pitiful handful of politi- cal Ignoramuses" in Prague were interested in reorienting Czechoslovakia's trade toward the West and soliciting hard-currency credits. A long article in the Soviet Communist party paper stressed that it was advanta- geous for Czechoslovakia to trade primarily with the Soviet Union and other Communist countries. Shortly after Prague's reform program was undertaken last winter, leading economic S 10295 officials began to speak of the urgency of obtaining up to $500-million in credits to modernize the Czechoslovak industry. The possibility of the Soviet Government's supplying the hard-currency credit was raised during visits here by Czechoslovak leaders, but Moscow held back, apparently hoping to use the prospect of a loan to in- fluence the Czechoslovaks to restrain their reforms. - Damage to Czechoslovakia's economy from the turmoil in the wake of invasion by troops of the Soviet Union and four Communist allies seems to have made foreign credit more urgent than ever. The Czechoslovaks have said that they expect to discuss the question of reparations with the Soviet Union. OBLIGATION IS SEEN Pravda emphasized that all Communist, countries had an obligation to strengthen their bonds of political and economic co- operation "for the sake of the victory of our common goal." The paper complained that some Czecho- slovaks had joined a critical chorus against Comecon, the Soviet bloc's economy com- munity, and it rejected protests that trade within the group was "one-sided, to the ad- vantage of the Soviet Union." Raw-material imports by Czechoslovakia from the Soviet Union, Pravda declared, have been at prices favorable to Czechoslovaks. The Soviet Union, the paper continued, supplies 99.5 per cent of Czechoslovakia's needs in crude oil at a price of 273 crowns (about $40) a ton delivered to refineries. It quoted Rude Pravo, the Czechoslovak party paper, as having estimated that oil imported from Iran, for example, would cost the Czechoslovaks 408 crowns ($60) a ton. OTHER IMPORTS LISTED The paper said that the Soviet Union sup- plied the bulk of Czechoslovakia's other raw- material imports, including 83.6 per cent of the iron ore and 63.3 per cent of other metals, 53.8 per cent of the cotton imports and most of the country's wheat imports. Many of the Soviet Union's exports to Czechoslovakia, the article declared pointed- ly, are scarce materials that Moscow could sell in hard-currency markets. In the other direction, the paper con- tinued, Czechoslovakia's industry benefits greatly from the large market afforded by the Soviet Union for industrial products. "True patriots" in Czechoslovakia under- stand the importance of maintaining and expanding economic ties with the Soviet Union, Pravda emphasized. It added: "Only a pitiful handful of political ignora- muses dream about 'broadening the scope' for flirtation with imperialist monopolies, which seduce simpletons with their big moneybags, 'fat' credits, 'advantageous deals,' and similar lavish promises that lead di- rectly to the yoke of dependence on foreign capital." - CZECHS' FALL CONFIRMS RED DOMINO FEARS (By Joseph Alsop) WASHINGTON.-Freedom has died in Czech- oslovakia, not drowned in brave and youthful blood as it was in Hungary, but brutally strangled with cold, inhuman power and calculation, only a few weeks after the wretched Czechs began rejoicing over their new birth of freedom. The best evidence now is that this shock- ing deed began to be planned from the mo- ment the members of the Soviet Presidium discovered, at the Cierna meeting, that they could not break the will and unity of their Czech colleagues. If that Is true, the soothing Cierna communique was mere dust thrown in the eyes of the Czechs and the rest of the world, to give the Soviet leaders time to decide on their next move. - Certainly, the Soviet armies never ceased to be concentrated along theCzech frontiers, Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 S 10296 Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE September 5, 1968 but were instead augmented and also went through exercises obviously preparatory to Invasion. Perhaps the men In the Kremlin hoped, for a while, that Dubeek and the others would draw the correct inference and would move preventively to destroy their country's new-won freedom with their own hands. At any rate, the thing has happened. A civilized and ancient country, in the very center of Europe, is now to be held down by a foreign occupying army and to be ruled by open hirelings of its foreign masters. What, one wonders, will be the reaction of those men of the left whose indignation waxes so hot when it is a question of Western or even American "imperialism"? What difference will these people find, between the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Adolf Hitler and the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Leonid Brezhnev and his jolly crew? One can already hear the self-deluding ex- planations, that the Soviets have made a "great mistake" (such a splendid silver lining for the Czechs!) because of "the effect on world opinion" of this piece of calculated ruthlessness. The same damn fools said the same things about Hungary. But by their own grim standards, the Soviets have made no mistake at all. They do not parrot twaddle about the "discredited domino theory" (which always makes one wonder just who discredited It). They knew that sooner or later the dominoes would begin tumbling in Eastern Europe if free- dom was permitted to be reborn there. And they therefore moved against the Czechs as they had moved against the Hungarians. Such are the cruel realities. The prime question is whether the smallest notice will be taken of these cruel realities in the left- wing academic and intellectual circles In this country. The left-wing academics and intel- lectuals have more and more wallowed in self-deception throughout the last seven years; and by their Wailowings they have managed to deceive millions of other rather more sensible people. Seven years Is the time-frame, because that Is the period that has elapsed since the Cuban missile crisis. President John Kennedy did not refer scornfully to the "discredited domino theory." He believed in it, as he once publicly testified; and for that very reason he risked a thermonuclear confrontation to get the Soviet missiles out of Cuba This great achievement led directly to the liquidation of the second Berlin crisis-that domino theory at work again I And these events produced what can only be called a widespread Dr. Pangloss-fIusion. All was now supposed to be "for the best In this best of all possible worlds," as the good doctor kept telling poor Candide. More specifically, the remorseless fangs of history were supposed to have been drawn. The cold war was supposed to be over. The Soviet Union was supposed to be rapidly evolving into the kind of peaceable, unmili- tary, genially free society in which the left- wing academics and their chums, the liberal editorial writers, could give their egos runs in the yard with perfect impunity. Well, who can believe this now? Brezhnev has demonstrated once again what everyone should have known all along-that the Sovi- ets never hesitate to use military force if they think they do so with Impunity: that they care not a snap of their fingers for "International morality" or "world opinion": and that they will do anything they believe it is safe to do to serve their own hard inter- ests. What can doubt, then, that they may one day support Arab genocide in Israel, which will give them the riches of the Middle Eaat, If they begin to suspect that no one will in- terfere? And what can more rapidly nourish such Soviet suspicions than the kind of col- lapse of American resolve that senators Eugene McCarthy, Ted Kennedy and others are now seeking to promote? Sovlrr UNION'S Coup DzsPELs Lmxaar. MYTH (By David Lawrence) WASHINGTON.-The "Communist myth," so often brushed aside by "liberals" as imagi- nary. has all of a sudden become a reality. The argument of the "doves" that the Soviet Union and most of the Communist-bloc states In Eastern Europe constitute no threat to world peace and that they should be given trade benefits and other Lsoncessions by the United States has evaporated overnight. The world Is back again to where it was more than a decade ago when the Soviet armies crushed an uprising of the people of Hungary. Then, after having connived to weaken the NATO alliance In Europe, the Soviets proceeded to build up North Viet- nam and finally to provoke Hanoi's aggres- sion against South Vietnam as a means of diverting American attention from Europe. In virtually all tree nations today a unani- mous condemnation is being expressed against the Soviet Union for Its Invasion of Czechoslovakia and Its attempts to suppress the few freedoms that have been allowed the people there. The hopes of the Czechs for a degree of independence from Soviet domination were abruptly shattered as the Soviet armies, aided by military forces of East Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria and Po- land-puppets of Moscow-crossed the Czech border. In the capital at Prague the leaders who had dared to institute reforms In the Communist system have been imprisoned. President Johnson stated the case clearly when he said that "a defenseless country" has been Invaded In order to "stamp out a resurgence of ordinary human freedom." He added: "Tile excuses offered by the Soviet Union are patently contrived. The Czechoslovakian government did not request Its allies to in- tervene In Its internal affairs. No external aggression threatened Czechoslovakia. The action of the Warsaw Pact allies is in flat vio- iation of the United Nations Charter." There are, of course. in the United States a few politically minded critics who immedi- ately cried out that Russia is merely doing what the United States did in Vietnam. No parallel, however, exists because the South Vietnamese government formally requested the help of the United States after trying in vain to repel by itself the Infiltration by the Communists from North Vietnam. The Moscow government makes no secret of the fact that within the last three years it has provided billions of dollars worth of mu- nitions and supplies to the North Vietnamese to carry on the aggression against South Vietnam. The case for American assistance to South Vietnam now will be strengthened before world opinion. It is clear that the Soviet gov- ernment does not extend military or eco- nomic aid and then let go of its control over the smaller countries. but insists instead on dominating their governments and denying them a right to rule themselves. The United States has explicitly stated that its objec- tive In South Vietnam is to assure the people there the right of self-determination and that, once this is accomplished, our troops will be withdrawn. Since the Soviet Union has a veto in the Security Council of the United Nations, this leaves the question to be handled by the General Assembly of the U.N., which can adopt a reso utloa as it did in 1956 condemn- Ing the-SovietUnion for "depriving Hungary of its liberty and independence" But it is doubtful that such a resolution will make any more impression today on Moscow than It did 12 years ago. Meanwhile, the world has been awakened to the amber Pact that military power ex- erted by the Soviets In defiance of the pro- visionsof the United Nations Charter can at any moment break the peace on every conti- nent. A stronger alliance of nations than the U.N. will have to be formed in order to be able to mobilize a military force of such strength as to command the respect of would- be aggressors. The Soviet Union has not only made a big error in Czechoslovakia, but It has assumed that the United States is powerless to draw together the other nations of the world to thwart any further extension of Soviet im- perialism. 'World opinion, however, can quick- ly be mobilized. For it now is evidant that the policies of the present Moscow regime are no different from those which prevailed under Khrushchev or Stalin. Me Communist drive for world domination still threatens the peace of mankind and makes a "detente" with the present leaders in the Kremlin a dangerous policy of acquiescence in Communist im- perialism. 2. THx THREAT TO RUMANIA AND YUGOSLAVIA (From the New York Times, Aug. 25, 19681 HUNGARY Accuses RUMANIA or Foes,ewrNG THE IMPERTAT rsT r' LrNE ON CZECHOSLO- VAKIA-TWO NEWSPAPERS SCORE L'EAUSES:U- BucHAaisr Crowns OBsaavE NATIONAL IIoL- IDAY WE:iKEND IN A CAREFREE MOOD (By Israel Shenker) BuDAPEST, August 24.-The Hungarian press sharply assailed President Nicola Ceausescu of Rumania today f .3r his stand In the Czech- oslovak crisis. Having withheld attack yesterday in def- erence to the Ruriania National Day, the . controlled press here accused Mr. Ceausescu of parroting the imperialist line on Czich- oslovakla. Magyar Memzet found it "very strange" that on the part of high-ranking leaders of Rumania, "incomprehension in the highest degree and even wilful misinterpretation can be experienced." The newspaper added: "There is a strrenge similarity between the tone and the con- tent of Ceausescu's speech and the phrase-3 re- posted a hundred times a day by Western radio stations." On Wednesday, Mr. Ceausescu called the Soviet-led Intervention In Czechoslovakia "a big mistake and a severe danger for peace in Europe and socialism In the world." He said that ,here was no justification for the occupation of Cze-,boslovakia and warned that "Intervention Into the internal afr.irs" of other Communist parties must end, reDEPENDENT SPmrT SHOWN For several years Rumania hag shown. an Increasing desire for Independence from So- viet direction. but Mr. Ceausescu' views this week were unprecedentedly plainspoken. There was considerable speculation about how the Soviet Union would react to the Rumanian leader's utterances. By degrees, Rumfnla has in fact managed a partial withdrawal from the hegemony of her powerful neighbor. The clearest and latest evidence was the failure of Bucharest to participate in the Invasion of Czecho- Slovakia. Until now, the Hungarian Communist party-along with fraternal parties elsewhere in Eastern Europe--has refrained from at- tacking Rumania. With the wraps now off, the Budapest newspaper Esti Hirlap, organ of ti e Budapest Communist Party Committee, joined the fray. It, too, attacked Mr. Ceausescu by name-and said Rumania should remember that the S~vlet Union liberated it from the Germans in World War II. SOVIET DENOUNCES CEAUSESCU Moscow, August 24.-The Soviet Govern- ment newspaper Izvestia denounced Presi- dent Ceausescu today for aiding the Czecho- slovak "counter-revolution" through his speeches. As an example of Mr. Ceausescu's alleged help to counter-revolutionaries, Izvestia cited his statement that "no one can act as an ad- visor or mentor on how and In what way socialism should be built," Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 Approved For Release 2005/08/03 :. CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 S10297 September 5, 1968 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE f between Rumania s Izvestia, in an article by Vladimir Kudryavtsev, said that the thesis that each country chooses its own path to socialism was correct, but was being. abused. "Certain people so ignore the principles that are common to all socialist countries that they contribute to the Czechoslovak counter-revolution in its desire to break Czechoslovakia away from the socialist com- monwealth, Izvestia said. RUMANIANS ENJOY HOLIDAY (By John M. Lee) BUCHAREST, August 24.-Despite continu- ing anxiety over Czechoslovakia and possible repercussions for Rumania, Bucharest settled back today to enjoy a warm, sunny holiday weekend. Seemingly carefree crowds in sports clothes swarmed through the lush Cismigiu Gar- dens in the downtown area, packed the side- walk cafes and outdoor restaurants and strolled down the broad tree-lined Margheru Boulevard, the Champs-Elysees of Bucharest. There were long lines for Italian movies and for a Tarzan picture so old that it starred Johnny Weismuller. The only uni- forms in evidence were on traffic policemen and guards at Government buildings. Yet, transistor radios brought, newscasts to restaurant tables, and small crowds gathered to heir the latest bulletins. Al- most every other person seemed to have a morning newspaper, turned to Czechoslovak developments. PEOPLE TALK READILY Rumanians talked readily to visitors and condemned the Soviet invasion of Czecho- slovakia. "It is an impossible situation," said a young woman student. "How do the Rus- sians think they can do this?" How did she think Rumania had escaped a similar repression? "Perhaps we are better diplomats," she smiled. on, Un the A , , [From the New xorK Auu-, ug. ' , tamed nominal membership in the Warsaw TITO SEES AIDES AS CONCERN OVER' ..?...,SOVIET Pact. However, Rumania has not partici- finery for Rumania-which again snubbed GROWS-BELGRADE BELIEVED FEARFUL OF A Russia on the deal. pated in maneuvers under the treaty since VISITING THE UNITED STATES SURGE IN NEO-STALINISM-BUT APPREHEN- 1962, and is generally inactive in Warsaw SION O[JER PERIL OF INVASION SEEMS EASED Pact affairs. Talks with trade officials here clearly indi- (By Paul Hofmann) The-new line of "continuing counterrevo- cate that Rumania would like even closer BELGRADE, YUGOSLAVIA, August 28-Presi- lution" Is apparently designed to justify a economic relations ndra the Birladeanu U.S. Recently dent Tito reviewed the Czechoslovak situa- lengthy stay of the Warsaw Pact occupa- Deputy Premier Alexa tion with aides today amid apparently deep- lion troops to "protect socialism" in several weeks in the U.S. investigating ways ening concern within the Yugoslav regime Czechoslovakia. But for the young party Rumania might acquire more technical over what it fears is a surge of Neo-Stalinism member it only caused confusion, equipment for developing industries. in the Soviet Union. There is also an emotional aspect to Ru- Rumania with likes the Sovie An official announcement said today that [From. the Wall Street Journal, Aug. 29, mania's `Nobrent in dispute Marshal Tito had conferred with Trpe 19681 Union. N student Rut at Bucharethe st ue- Javoklevski, the Yugoslav Ambassador in RUMANIAN LEADERS BAR CZECH-TYPE LIRER- sians," says a s that after Russian was Prague, on the northern Adriatic Island of ALISM BUT Vow INDEPENDENCE-CITIZENS dversity ry e. say ae a compulsory second language Brioni. The announcement conveyed to the SAY THEY WOULD FIGHT RUSSIANS; NATION pp public the information that the President IS SEEKING CLOSE ECONOMIC TIES To WEST a few years ago, "nobody would take it- was back in his summer residence after five (By Ray Vicker) English and French are the languages we days in and near Belgrade, and that he was study." BUCHAREST,-Unlike Czechoslovakia, Ru- To be sure, a -visitor from the West is still concerned about Czechoslovakia. mania poses few threats to the Soviet Union quickly reminded that this Communist Many Yugoslavs saw Marshal Tito's return on purely ideological grounds. country still maintains tight central con- to Brioni as a sign that a crisis that they Indeed, the leaders in this East European trols and all the trappings of a police state. felt had menaced their country as well as capital are about as eager to stray from or- When a foreigner began snapping photo- Czechoslovakia had passed. thodox Communist doctrine by eliminating graphs not long ago of a barefoot woman The President came to Belgrade from press censorship and police powers as are in a marketplace in the city of Cralova, a Brioni last week and warned in a speech Fri- the men in the Kremlin. policeman briefly placed him under arrest. day that Yugoslavia would fight against any yet Rumania exercises it own brand of Later, when he dropped in on friends in threat no her at Soviet po. The clear im- national independence, free of Soviet domi- Tirgu Jiu, a police car pulled up at, the plicatio was t present such threat. nation. It was this strain of independence- door within minutes to investigate. pressure might pr such a t. with_ the determination to maintain it- The press "is not free in a Western or REGIME SILENT ON ACCORD that led President Nicolae Ceausescu to sup- even Czechoslovakian sense. But during the Though many Yugoslav Army specialists port the Czech regime so vigorously that current crisis the Ceausescu government has who were recalled to active service over the he placed Rumania's army on alert "to de- permitted newspapers the exceptional free- weekend are still with their units, the feel- fend our Socialist homeland" against a sim- dom of reporting all Czech developments. ing today was that if there ever had been a ilar invasion. . Radio Bucharest similarly has transmitted Soviet threat to attack Yugoslavia it had re- Last week thousands of students, workers, all available statements by Czech leaders ceded. soldiers. and farmers marched in patriotic and all cladestine radio broadcasts. Government spokesmen would not com- parades and staged political rallies in a show Unlike the Czechs, the Rumanians have' ment on the agreement reached in Moscow of unity behind President Ceausescu's gov= almost no concept of democracy and practi- to settle the dispute between Czechoslovakia ernment. Their fervor can't be misinterpret- tally none of the thirst for personal liberty and the Soviet Union. "There isn't even a ed.. "If the Russians come," says a mechanic that was demonstrated in Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovak reaction yet,"' one official said. "we should fight them-everywhere." Rumania has never experienced a Western- Newspapers were cautious and skeptical on That a clash arm whether the Moscow agreement would work, and Russia will yet take place seems less Borba, a Belgrade newspaper close to the likely than it did a few days ago. The up- Communist party apparatus, said that "time roar that greeted the Soviet-led invasion- and practice" alone would tell the value of and its limited success in de-liberalizing the the accord. Czech regime-makes this an increasingly Vecernie Novosti, the afternoon edition of unpopular form of political persuasion. Borba, said that socialism had in the past Moreover, in recent days, Rumanian lead- paid much too high a price to agree to re- ers have considerably. played down their turn Into Stalin's "pen of obedient sheep." criticism of the Soviets, possibly in response Anxiety here over a possible resurgence of to Russian countercharges that any Ru- Sta?linism in the Soviet Communist party is manian fears of invasion are completely un- caused by concern that Moscow may again warranted. tend to regard Yugoslavia as a part of the AN END TO INTERFERENCE Soviet sphere of influence. This is a concept But the more moderate Rumanian tone Marshal lead to the break between Stalin and doesn't reflect any basic change in the senti- The gos in 1948. ments of the government or the 19 million The Yugoslav Communist party engaged citizens. "An end must be put for good and in a nationwide campaign to remind the its all to interference in the affairs of other members and the d people ple at largem tht t tos states and of other parties," declares Mr. Yuget-bloc C Co syste ommmisunissmm, , not fro only in that Its Ceausescu, who is Communist Party leader Soviet-bl rejection of the Czechoslovak invasion but as well architect, Rumani Theodor a's preside dza, simpy asks: at also home. its social and economic institutions "Who can trust the Russians after the inva- me. In the hundreds of local meetings that sion Not that Russians iwere winning popularity days, Communist party y is organizing these expressions of sympathy for Czecho- contests here even before their misadventure Slovakia are coupled with the praise for Yu- in Czechoslovakia. Rumania's independent goslavia's own "road toward socialism." position began taking shape in 1961, in fact, Self-management-the participation of as a reaction to a Soviet master plan calling Yugoslav workers in the managerial deck- on her to concentrate on agricultural and raw - - materials production for trade with other i ses sions affecting their plant or enterpr is being hailed as the cornerstone of the Communist bloc countries. Instead, Rumania Yugoslav system and as an example that adopted its own economic program, empha- the Czechoslovak reformers intend to follow. sizing industry and closer trade relations with the West. RUMANIANS HEAR OF DEMAND By 1967, Rumania had asserted itself to the (Special. to the New York Times) point that only 47% of its trade was with BUCHAREST, August 28.-Rumors circulated Socialist' countries. The first of six British- in Bucharest today that the Soviet Union made jets have been delievered to Rumania's had commanded Rumania to allow Warsaw airline-with Yugoslavia the only other East Pact military maneuvers on Rumanian ter- European nation to utilize Western aircraft. Rather than purchase oil from Russia, ri. had But Finatio Office officials midandthey Rumania recently concluded a substantial had no information on such a demand. contract to buy from Iran. And an American Despite Rumania's strained relations with concern, Universal Oil Products Co. of Des S.._.,.... the Government has main- Plaines has built a $22 million oil re- i Ill. Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 S 10298 style democracy, and there are few demands for political change. [From the Now York Times, Aug. 30, 19881 .RUMANIANS FIRM; WARN RUasIANS-AGAIN URGIE TROOPS PULL OUT-TELL Or BLOC "TENSION" (By John M. Lee) BUCHAREST, August 29 -Rumanian Com- munist leaders declared today that they at- tached the "utmost importance" to the com- plete withdrawal of Warsaw Pact forces from Czechoslovakia "in the shortest time." The officials also appeared to warn the Soviet Union against further Incursions that might. exacerbate relations between Com- munist countries. They asserted: "It is imperative that absolutely nothing should be undertaken that might worsen these relations or deepen the divergencies and breed fresh sources of tension." The firm declarations were contained in a statement by the Executive Commltee of the party's Central Committee, published in the party newspaper. Scintela and other papers. It wasp the first Rumanian comment on the Soviet-Czechoslovak agreement reached in Moscow on Tuesday. The agreement called for the gradual with- drawal) of forces as soon as conditions In Czechoslovakia are "normalized." Two dtvi- siona are to remain behind to help guard the West German border, TONE TERMED RESOLUTE Western diplomats were impressed by the resolute tone of the Rumanian comment. In their view, Rumania is continuing to insist that each national Communist party should be able to determine its own development, as the Rumanian party has done, free from out- side. Interference, The statement did nothing to yield to criti- cism by the Soviet Union, Hungary and Po- land of Rumania's breakaway stance. "The Executive Committee expresses to the Communists of Czechoslovakia, to the Czech and Slovak people, its feelings of warm sym- pathy? of support and full internationalist solidarity," the statement said. It recalled that Rumania had expressed "anxiety and disapproval" over the invasion of Czechoslovakia Aug. 20, and it noted that the return to office of Czechoslovak leaders and the resumption of activity by party and government bodies "create conditions for undertaking the complex tanks facing them," ..At the same time," the statement went on, "the Executive Committee considers of utmost importance the carrying into effect of the complete withdrawal, In the shortest time, of the armed forces of the five socialist countries from Czechoslovakia." POLAND ASSAILS RUMANIA (By Jonathan Randal) WARSAW, August 29.-Poland assailed Ru- mania today for having placed "sovereignty and Independence" Above allegiance to So- vlet-led Communism. The criticism came in an article observers Interpreted as a possible prelude to further pressures on the Bucha- rest regime by the Orthodox Communist nations. An unsigned 2,600-word article In the party newspaper, Trybuna Ludu, reflecting the views of the Polish leadership, castigated Rumania for having denounced the Invasion of Czechoslovakia in disregard of the "su- preme dictate of the moment.' In language that recalled the strong words employed in the state-controlled Polish press against Czechoslovakia in past months, the article, also attacked President Nicolas Ceausescu of Rumania by name for the first time mince the invasion last week. Observers said that this was A practice normally reserved for the most serious Inter- party polemics. CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE September 5, 1968 Also for the first time since the invasion, Wladyslaw Oomulka, the Polish party leader, consulted with members of the ruling 12- man Politburo. The omclal Polish press agency limited Its report to noting that he bad discussed "present problems of the In- ternational situation." Also present were five other Politburo members, regional party lenders, Central Committee department directors and others who were described as certain ministers. Trybuna Lubu also criticized Rumania for having established diplomatic relations with West Germany last year and for having failed to break diplomatic ties with Israel after the war in the. Middle East in June 1987. Rumania is the only Eastern European country that has established relations with Bonn and the only one that did not follow Moscow's lead in breaking with Israel last year. The newspaper said that Rumanian sup- port for Czechoslovakia "Indicates that the objective was not 'defense of democracy and sovereignty' but disintegration of the so.. cialist commonwealth." [From the Baltimore Sun, Aug. 31, 19681 BLOC TROOPS SAID TO MOVE ON ROMANIA- CzEcH R.An[o REPORTS NINE RUSSIAN Divl- SIONS NEAR BORDER (]By Stuart S. Smith) PRAGUE, August 30.-A Czechoslovak radio station transmitting from somewhere in Bo- hemia said today that the Warsaw powers are massing troops along their borders with Romania. According to the broadcast, the Soviet Union has moved nine military .divisions into Bucovina alone. Bulgaria, it said, has trans- ferred two divisions of troops to its frontier with Romania and Hungary has deployed three divisions along Its eastern boundary. COOPERATION CALL In London, Joseph Luna, the Dutch For- eign Minister, said the situation in the Balkans is a serious cause for concern and called for improved Atlantic alliance co- operation. In New York, Cornellu Manescu, the Ito- martian Foreign Minister and current United Nations General Assembly president, held talks with United Nations officlala to sound out their attitude toward a possible Invasion of his country. Mr. Manescu also spoke with George W. Ball. the United States Ambas- sador to the United Nations. TROOP wrrHDRAWAL Bucovina and Moldavia are former Ro- manian provinces which the Soviet Union took from Romania at the close of World War H. Two weeks ego, President Nicolas Ceau- sescu indicated that the Romanian military forces had been withdrawn from the War- saw Pact command and simultaneously or- dered the immediate arming of the country's Workers' Militia. TANK PULLOUT TERMS ARE SET nos PaAcux (BY a Sun staff correspondent) PRAGUt. August 30.-The Soviet military commander here warned today that Russia will keep its tanks In the Czechoslovak capi- tal until the citizens remove the anti-Soviet slogans from the city's wall. - The Czechoslovak National Front Organl- zation later appealed to the people to remove the offending placards. Radio Prague quoted the commander, Gen. Ivan Vellebkp, as saying all posters, signs and banners would have to be taken down or painted over before be would transfer his forces. DU scale POSITION The announcement conflicts with Alex- ander Dubeek'n speech Tuesday which said the invading military units were to be re- moved forthwith. Shortly after ]its return from his Moscow negotiations with the Kremlin'a top officlals, Mr. Dubcek, the Czechoslovak Communist party leader, said "we agreed" that the oc- cupation forces 'in the towns and villages will immediately depart to dsI;ignated areas. This is naturally connected with the extent to which our own Czechoslovak authorities will themselves be capable in individual towns of Insuring order and norma.? life." Except for the first few days Immediately following the Wrrsaw powers' attack, there has been no public disorder in Czechoslo- vakia, and some major cities, Pilsen Ior ex- ample. have had no sizable occupat1 r- units since the middle of last week. 'ran HUNDRED TANKS REMAIN Prague, however, is still jammed with Soviet military equipment, including at least 200 battle tanks, more than that many ar- mored cars, numerous howitzers, one or more heavy molar batteries, machine gun em- placements and other heavy arms. Although the soldiers and their weapons are no longer occupying the Government and party headquarters. they still hold mist of the capital's newspaper offices, radio and tele- vision stations, printing plants and other key communications points, Including the Prague airport. Many large flelds within easy firing range of the city's heart are full of Soviet troops, helicopters, military communications equip- ment and other paraphernalia. REBUKE ON INVASION The Czechoslovak National Front's central committee also rebuked the Warsaw powers, declaring that their invasion violated the "xasic nolens of International law." The committee a_so called upon the occupa- tion authorlttea to release the political pris- oners they have arrested during the last ten days and to refrain from interfering any longer in the nation's affairs. Soviet officials have demanded that what they call the "illegal" newspapers here stop publishing and that the free Czechoslovak radio stations be silenced. 3. CZECHO3LOVAKIA BEFORE THE OCCUPATION [Freon the New York Times, Sept. 20, :.0671 A CZECH WaITEle DESCRIBES IDS INNER STRuooLE (By Richard Eder) PRAGUE, September l9-"The social revolu- tion has tfiumphecl in our country, but the problem of power Is still with us. We have taken the bull by the horns and we are holding on, and yet something keeps butting us in the seat of the pants." With these words Ludvik Vaculik, a 41- year-old Prague writer, began a speech, de- livered two and a half months ago, whose re- percuasiona are still agitating party and in- tellectual circles in. Czechoslovakia. Spoken at the writers' congress at the end of June, the words of Mr. Vaculik and four or five other writers transformed what had been expected to be a stormy session into Some- thing ver?f eg on a revolution. For the lost three years or so, Czecho- slovak cultural activity has been the freest and most Inventive in Eastern Europe, In striking contrast to the conservative attitude of most party leaders. Films, plays, novels and literary essays have, with varying de- grees of directness, voiced demands for per- sonal freedom and the supremacy of private values. DIRECT CHALLENGE TO REGIME At the writers' congress those themes were distilled in.* a far more direct ohallengo to the regime.. In essence Mr. Vaculik and others insisted that freedom as a ooncese;ion was not enough, and that the regime must Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 September 5, A ~r ved For ft W igg, NAL R CORD70B ENATE 00300190054-6 S S 10299 recognize freedom as a right, surrendering After the writers' Congress there was an [From the Baltimore Sun, July 11, 1968]. part of its power through such a recognition. Immediate effort by the panty to condemn RED TROOPS MOVING IN, CZECHS HEAR-RADIO Mr. Vaculik's speech, as well as the other Mr, Vaculik and three other speakers, Pavel speeches at the congress, have not been pub- Kohout, Ivan Kline and A. J. Liehm all PRAGUE QUOTES NEWS REPORTS FROM WEST lished in Czechoslovakia, but word of them were replaced as candidates for the Central GERMANY has spread. Reports of the speech have ap- Committee of the Writers Union. (By Stuart S. Smith) peared in West German and Swiss papers. The literary magazines and the newspapers BONN, July 10.-Quoting West German Mr. Vaculik, who has been denounced by came out with editorials attacking the news reports, Radio Prague said tonight that President Antonin Novotny and other high speakers, following the lead of President more foreign Warsaw Pact troops are march- party officials, and who faces party discipli- Novotny and of'the party's cultural overseer, ing into Czechoslovakia. nary action, told the congress that the Jiri Hendrych. We can only hope there is no reason to party monopoly of power made Its Iiberaliz- Nevertheless, it was noted that the edi- worry," Radio Prague commented. Ing gestures suspect. torials were not so strong as they might Earlier this evening the Czechoslovak De FIRM GUARANTEES DEMANDED have been. There is, in fact, a tendency fense Ministry admitted the Soviet Union is "I can see a continual attempt, with all among a number of more conservative. writ- balking over the withdrawal of its soldiers. the dangers it implies, to bring back the bad ers who have good party connections to Soviet, Polish and Hungarian units entered times," he said, "What use is it that we have defend the right of Mr. Vaculik and the Czechoslovakia in May and June for the War- been given the literary fund, the publishing others to speak as they did while disagreeing saw Pact "staff exercises." houses, the journals Behind all this is the with what they said. NEW SITUATION threat that they will take it back if we are - The party Central Committee is expected "A new situation has arisen," a ministry unruly." to announce its verdict at ti,- -' "We are told that the old abuses are not being committed," he continued. "Am I sup- posed to feel grateful? I don't, I see no real guarantees. "Why can't we live where we want? Why can't tailors spend three years in Vienna, and painters 30 years in Paris, and come back to live here without ,being regarded as crimi- nals?" He went on to speak of the effect that the party monopoly of power had on the country. "Power is a specific human condition," he said. "It overwhelms the rulers and the ruled and threatens the health of both." He suggested that the instability of a democracy was preferable to the rigidity of the present system. CITIZEN IS RENEWED "There the government falls, but the citi- zen is renewed," he said. "On the contrary, where the government remains continually in power, the citizen falls. "He does not fall at the execution post. That happens perhaps to a few dozen or a few hundred only, but this is enough. For this is followed by the whole nation's falling into fear, into political apathy, into trivial concgrns and into a growing dependence on smaller and smaller masters," Speaking "as a citizen of a state that I will not renounce, but in which I cannot live happily," he assailed the mediocrity to which life had been reduced. "I believe that the citizen is extinct in our country," he said. "We are joined by the most despicable of ties: a common frustra- tion." He said the system elevated "the most pedestrian types" and submerged "the com- plex personalities, individuals with personal attractiveness, and most of all those whose character and deeds had become an un- spoken standard of decency." Mr. Vaculik, who played an active role in the party when younger, said that the party did not hesitate to use threats of torture or blackmail as well as temptation to hold its followers. It appeals to the ambitious and the greedy, as well as to "the selfless but poorly informed enthusiasts of whom I am one." ANSWER: "I DON'T KNOW" He told the Congress that he was criti- cizing not Socialism but power, even though the organs of power tried to confuse the two. As to whether they could be disentangled at this late date, in order, as he put it, to "translate the dream into reality," he said the only answer he could give was, "I don't know." Though his views are widely echoed, Czech writers and intellectuals have disavowed as a fraud a purported protest manifesto attrib sited to more than 400 Intellectuals and printed in the West. The document accused the party of a "witch hunt." month, both on the individual writers and oyvncaruu expiamea curing an interview on the broader with Radio Prague. "The whole matter is question of whether there is being negotiated anew," he said. to be a formal curtailing of intellectual free- On July 2 Major General Josef Cepicky, dom. Despite the anger of the party leaders, the Czechoslovak spokesman for last month's there are widespread reports that the efforts Warsaw Pact maneuvers, said during a tele- of the more influential members of the intel- vision program "all foreign armies will be lectual community to prevent a crackdown out of our territory within three days." will succeed, at least partly, and that the Asked about this statement during to- party decision will be some form of com- night's broadcast, the Defense Ministry promise. official commented: "Since it [the Soviet PREPARED FOR WHAT COMES withdrawal] has not yet achieved, it means Mr. Vaculik, a pale, casually dressed man a new situation has arisen. The whole matter who speaks modestly of his work-he has is being discussed anew. I cannot makea published two novels, the most recent of comment at this time. Perhaps tomorrow. which won wide praise--says he is prepared SOME 27,000 SOVIET TROOPS for whatever comes. Sitting in the writers' club over ja lemonade, and pausing to talk there Prague were sou27,000 rces Soviet as In l Oze oslot with fellow writers who came up to greet vaki but added that troops In troops, par- him affectionately, he spoke briefly of him- ticualarly from ticularly fro ed that additional trly March- self. titum Hungary, are currently march- The son of a carpenter in a Moravian vii- ing into the country. lage, he worked as an apprentice in a shoe Reliable Communist officials said Monday factory and, when World War II ended, came that Czechoslovak leaders had capitulated to to Prague to study. Kremlin demands that foreign Warsaw Pact "I joined the party in 1946-back when troops remain is Czechoslovak territory sin there were a number of choices," he said. til ovet she. "I thought it had the most courageous Warsaw Soviet Maa Alliance nce Ivan I. Yakmander,, has program, the most logical one. As time went military commander,, s by and things didn't work, I thought it was reportedly refused the roan his that men from because certain figures were no good. Czechoslovakia on the grounds that Antonin "Later I began to suspect that the system Novotny, the discredited former president Itself was * * * and party chief, agreed that the maneuvers "I would start over again from the begin- could continue through August. ning," he said with a smile, "from where I BEGAN JUNE 20 was in 1946. I would try to work, to write, The maneuvers began June 20: On June 30 to see what I could do, I would be free." the Polish, Czechoslovak and Soviet news Expulsion from the party would jeopardize agencies announced that the maneuvers had his job. on the editorial board of Literarni ended. Soon thereafter, however, Tass, the Noviny, the principal literary magazine. 'official . Soviet agency, withdrew the story, Other members of the board, including the even though it had already been printed in editor, Dusan Hamsik, said, however, that Pravda, the Soviet party newspaper, and they saw no reason why he should be re- stated the maneuvers would continue. Czech- moved. oslovak officials immediately said the maneu- Asked why, in view of his opinion of the vers were over, all reports to the contrary party structure, he did not resign, Mr. Vacu- notwithstanding. lik answered: Yesterday Col. Gen. Martin Dzur, the "If the people who think as I do, and Czechoslovak Defense Minister, said that 35. there are very many, would stay in the party per cent of the foreign troops had left the and work, perhaps we could make the party country and that discussions with the War- what it ought to be. saw Pact command were taking place about He said this tentatively, as if not espe- sending the rest home. dally convinced, and added: "But I wouldn't advise young people to join it. Three years WRrrERS' UNION OBJECTS ago, perhaps I would have. Now I think it is Today, though, Prague officials close to the too difficult." Czechoslovak Communist party leadership, What should young people do if the do said the fo i y re gn troops will remain and will not join the party? be reinforced. General Dzur, It was added, has "I have no answer," he said. "Perhaps that threatened to resign, is why they are so apathetic, so selfish, be- The Czechoslovak Writers' Union has sent cause they have no answer either. They do a letter to the Soviet Embassy in Prague not have the illusion about the party that warning that the continued presence of Rus- we did, and they don't believe in anything sian soldiers in the country might cause "in- else." dignation" among the Czechoslovak citizens. He paused, and then said with the mix- This, however, may well be what the Kremlin ture of puzzlement and regret that Czecho. is waiting for as an excuse to stamp out the slovaks of his generation use when they democratization movement, speak of the people in their twenties: "They This morning Prague newspapers de- are so poor. And so free." manded that their Government announce a Approved For. Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R00030 90054-6 5, 1968 S 10300 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE Tlipteber definite date for the departure of the last Meanwhile, Soviet, East German, Polish, REMOVE YORFIGN SOLDIERS foreign soldiers. There have been no foreign Bulgarian and Hungarian Communist party "We want to build Socialism. but on the garrisons in Czechoslovakia since the end of and Government leaders met in WarsaW to- basis of the high"St freedom for mar and World War U. The limited number of Soviet day to discuss once again the Czechoslovak on humanist values. We demand that every- officers who advised the Czechoslovak Army liberalization movement. one take our liberalization process for what left the country some years ago and there is Czechoslovak officials boycotted the meet- it Is. Leave us our Sovereignty and remove no plan to ask them to return, Czechoslovak ing. Romania was apparently not even In- all foreign soldiers from our territory." officials say. vited. A Pratt: reporter talked with some :soviet Several offices have been flooded with let- LETTERS WERE SENT Army officers yesterday, reporting that they ters. Their telephone switchboards have been Radio Prague noted that the five countries had packed and expected to be gone within swamped with calls asking when the foreign hgd earlier sent letters to the Czechoslovak two days. "This 13 your affair and we wish soldiers are to leave. party Presidium expressing fears about the you much luck." the Prace reporter said the "If everything is all right what is pre- fate of Czechoslovak socialism. Soviet otlcer told him. venting the officials of our Army from giving "Negoilattona were to be held on the sub- ANTI-aONN POSITION the choslo ak Youth unio Mla Fr"Un- ject of these fears," a Radio Prague political Trybur..a Luda said It was e.:pecially con- only y ihne - commentator said, adding, "We have not ac- cerned by the efforts of certain Czechoslovak ear a Czechoslovak Youth Information Daily. cleas and contradictory iforma the ted this invitation." officials to revise the Warsaw Pact's common hands those the uncho spyread and alarrning plays into reports." s." Today's meeting in Warsaw was the fourth stand against the Federal Republic of West ha nga from GermanShortly after Romania recognized West Polish, , Hungarian, Bul Communist summit conference since, The he East t German, who spread, garian and Soviet Communist parties have andes? Dubcek ousted Antonin Novotny from r Eastern European alli- written notes to the Czechoslovak Commis- his position as Czechoslovak party secretary Ge Germ armanny, es the met an other Eastern. a secret agee- differ he January 5, ROSTER OF HIGH REDS ment that none of them would exchange l za expressing their about llbt party tone. . The Ulbricht The Ul movement. The letters dinin ambassadors with Bonn unless the Federal toregime's is said to be the Among those attending the Warsaw talks Republic: toughest, allegedly accusing the Czechoslovak were Leonid I. Brezhnev, Soviet party chief; 1. Formally recognized the East German leadership of being revisionists. Nikolai V. Podgorny, Soviet President; Alexel Government. SUMMIT REJECTED N. Kosygin, Soviet Premier; Walter t lbricht. 2. Recognized the Oder-Neisse line as Late Monday the Czechoslovak party Cen- East German party boss; Willi $tciph, East Germany's zed the frontier with Poland. tral Committee Presidium reportedly rejected German Premier; Janos Kadar. Hungarian a. Renounced all access to nuclear weapons. demands to attend a Communist summit con- party leader, Todor Zhivkov, Bulgarian party 4. Declared the 1938 Munich treaty in- ference this week. chief and Premier; Wladisiaw Gomulka, Pol- valid from Its inception. The Prague newspaper Zemedelske Noviny ash party leader, and numerous other top wncept ATTACK commented: It o to hardly f any use DfficiaThels. presence of so many high-ranking In Warsaw this morning an unsigned but RSAW twe role were of to .. heretics." the ereticsc.o" conference e The table newspaper r persons Indicates the seriousness with plainly official article in Trybuna Luta, the the Polish Communist party newspaper, sharply said Czechoslovakia is ready to have bilateral which some at Czechcelovakla'a Warsaw Pact talks with any interested party provided the allies take Mr. Dubcek's demands that the attacked Czechoslovakia, warning that no Communist movement permit his country to country can be permitted to break out of the country's sovereignty is res Lit pected. common front. In Moscow this and lice newspaper, without outside Interference, democratic socialism "If in a Socialist country the forces of Gazeta, a political and literary reaction threaten the basis of socialism it charged that t counter-revolutionary ry forces forces NEVER BEEN SO UNITED Is at the same time an assault on the inter- have developed in. Czechoslovakia. The term This morning Peace, the Czechoslovak trade ests of the other Socialist countries," Try- is reserved only for the Kremlin's worst union newspaper, carried a report from the buns Luda asserted. enemies. It was applied once to describe the polish capital reporting, "In Warsaw they The paper clearly showed that the five Hungarian uprising which the U.S.S.R. will negotiate about us without us." orthodox Communist nations are deeply con- crushed with its tanks in 1966. An accompanying editorial asserted that cerned about the very existence of the War- MANIFESTO ASSAILED "our nation has never before in its history saw Pact. commenting: "Its strength and Literaturlaya Gazeta asserted that the re- been so united and of the same opinion as it ability toe tat a ea pe ember the bi ernal cent -Czechoslovak "Two Thousand Words" is today." manifesto signed by the country's leading The nation, Prace declared, stands firmly TseassrENS SECURITY intellectuals and sportsmen was a quota behind Mr. Dubeek, Premier Oldrleh Cernik; "He who would break the backbone of "Provocative, inflammatory, anti-Commis- Josef Snlrkovsky, the National Assembly the Socialist States threatens the basis of nist, counter-revolutionary action program." president, "and the progressive represents- our alliance, our unity and the security of The manifesto has found wide support Lives of the Communist party and Govern- our fraternal counties," the newspaper de- among the Czechoslovak citizens even though went" clared, adding: the party Presidium said It went too far. It These forward-looking leaders, the paper "'It Is NOT so much the fact that the anti- called for strikes in the event the new leader- said, quite clearly showed our friends, as well Communist reaction is rising against social- ship is unable to purge the Czechoslovak as those who criticized our liberalization ism, for this it does all the time everywhere, party of the Footdraging conservatives. process, that they represent a sovereign but above all that its activity and its appeals Thus far, however, Prague has been excep- people and a sovereign state. are tolerated "in Czechoslovakia" within the tionally quiet. The citizens there are well prate and other newspapers were again full framework of `democratization' and are not aware aware of what is at stake and are not going of resolutions from the public declaring that met w th determined resistance." to be groat m into appeSoviet the conserva- Czechoslovakia will go its Way come what Trybuna Luau complained that the anti- - Communist reaction to finding a "favorable tiver s. deliberately Wh might happen If the Soelahnn in- may, cide cadent as a an n excuse excuse for staged bringing t a The Czechoslovak Academy of Science, for tribune" In the "columns of the Czechoslovak wrote the Soviet t , on y Acade the and troops into the city is another question. Science. one of whose members rec ntlry Sc- asp Q in thethrankse of theeparttele y itself. ' well [From the Baltimore Sun, July 15. 1988] cused Czechoslovakia of betraying the Com- BLOC TROOPS REMAIN ON CZECH Sorr SOVIET, munist cause. "The friendship with your (Froir. the Washington Evening Star, July 18, country," the Czechoslovak scientists pointed 19681 POLISH DELAY PULLOUT; REDS MEET out, "is still the basis" of the policy. How- IN WARSAW CzL'cros AGAIN DEFY SOVIrr BLOC. STICK TO ever, the letter added "we insist that you . LIBERAL POLICY (By Stuart S. Smith) try to better understand wiiAt is going on of Pres- and July 14.-The withdrawal of Soviet in our country." PRAevE.-Bolstered by the suppor'- and Polish troops from Czechoslovakia has The Czechoslovak academicians invited ident Tito and Western Europe's two biggest been postponed because of heavy weekend their Soviet colleagues to send a delegation Communist parties, Czecho3lOVaki?'s liberal traffic, CTK, the Czechoslovak news agency,' "to visit us" so that the Soviet scientists Communist leadership defied the gremlin announced tonight, would "not only get the information about and 'ts orthodox allies in Eastern Europe Prague television said the Warsaw Pact our country that is being greatly distorted again today. The Czechoslovak party's presidium re- "until the military command evening and ardent the ours. put off In your press." lied to the tough demands: from the Soviet single soldier nd night horsv Note A letter from the Pall the concern- staff ead plied and four other Red govera'nents for territory foreign soldleft Czechoslovak state in part: leading eject all the slander conreversal of Prague's liberal course by declar- errtoday," the station reported. log our leadrepresentatives. The letter mg there is nothing "counter-revolutionary" TUESDAY TIME SET rebuked the Soviet for accusing Czechoslovak about it. Yesterday Vecerni Praha, a Prague eve- officials of revisionism and counter-revolu- "We don't see any realistic reasons permit- would newspaper, said the last foreign units tioniam, asserting, "we are also a cultured to be coun would cross the Czechoslovak frontier at 9 nation with a tradition of many centuries Wi=g our present situati n pamy presidium said A.M. Tuesday. and with a high average intelligence." Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 September 5, 1968 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE S 10301 in a statement published by the Czechoslo- vak news agency CTK. FEAR SPREAD OF DRIVE The statement replied to a letter from the Warsaw conference Sunday and Monday of Communist leaders from the Soviet Union, East Germany, Poland, Hungary and Bul- garia, The Russians, Germans and Poles par- ticularly fear the liberal ferment in Czech- oslovaki?a will spread to their own poten- tially restive people. The Czechoslovak reformist regime of Alexander Dubcek already had pledged to continue liberalization, saying it had full support of the people. The Warsaw letter and a further declara- tion by the Soviet Communist party's cen- tral commitee were published in the Soviet press today. They amounted to the strongest and most extraordinary public demands made on a Soviet ally in recent years. CLAIMS REJECTED The Czechoslovak presidium called the party central committee to meet tomorrow to approve the reply to the Warsaw letter. The reply rejected claims by the fearful orthodox that the Communist system in Czechoslovakia was in danger, that the coun- try was preparing to change its foreign policy and "that there is concrete danger of sep- arating our country from the Socialist society." It expressed surprise at the criticism and said the Czechoslovak Communists consist- ently base their actions on the principles of Socialist internationalism, the Warsaw Pact alliance and the development of friendly relations with the Soviet Union and other Socialist states. PURGE DEMANDED The demands by the Soviet Union and hard-line allies called for Dubcek to restore dictatorial party control, reimpose press cen- sorship and purge liberals from the party. The Warsaw letter accused the Czechoslovak leaders of failing to correct an "absolutely unacceptable" situation. It also vowed support for the remaining conservatives whom the liberals hoped to oust from the party central committee at a party congress in September. Neither the letter nor the resolution of the Soviet party, urging "a decisive strug- gle," said what action would be taken if the Dubcek regime did not give in to the demands. Meanwhile, the Italian Communist party reaffirmed its solidarity with the Czecho- slovak liberalization drive today and called for independence for every Communist party in the world. BACK CZECH COURSE The Italian Communist leadership said it "Is convinced that the understanding and fraternal and faithful support by the other Communist parties can make a valid con- tribution to the Czechoslovak Communist party to fight the dangers present in this process of renewal." An Italian delegation and French Com- munist party chief Waldeck Rochet were in Moscow earlier this week to urge that the Czechoslovaks be left alone to develop their own policies. The Prague government announced that Rochet will arrive tomorrow. Sources in Belgrade disclosed plans to visit Prague by both Tito, who has taken his country 'along an independent course since he broke with Stalin in 1948,. and Romanian Communist leader Nicolae Ceau- sescu, who has been increasily defiant of Kremlin control. A public opinion poll published in Prague yesterday showed the people are overwhelm- ingly behind Dubcek;, and 91 percent of those queried asked that Russian troops withdraw as soon as possible. The Czechoslovak army said Soviet troops who stayed after the end of Warsaw Pact maneuvers last month were moving out "ac- cording to schedule." It said "all Soviet troops" would leave the country but gave no date. [From the Washington Evening Star, July 30, 1968] THREAT TO CZECHS MUTES LIBERALS (By David Lawrence) Paradoxes are numerous these days, but none is more conspicuous than the absolute silence about Czechoslovakia which is being maintanied by virtually all the groups, or- ganizations, college professors, liberals and others in America who zealously expound the doctrine that people have a right to deter- mine their own form of government. No such silence prevailed when Rhodesia, for example, tried to solve its internal prob- lems with respect to racial relations. In fact, the United States has joined with other members of the United Nations In imposing almost total sanctions on trade with Rhodesia. But here is Czechoslovakia threatened by military intervention by the Soviet govern- ment if something in Me with Moscow-style communism is not adopted. Yet no voices are raised anywhere in Europe or in this coun- try even to express sympathy with the demo- cratic elements in Czechoslovakia which are trying to modify their form of government. Meanwhile, the Soviets are making military threats and have actually mobilized troops on the border of Czechoslovakia to coerce the latter into acceptance of Moscow's dictatorial policies. The Czech leaders are not trying to abolish communism, but seeking to modify it so that it will be more democratic. They already are permitting considerable freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom of the press. The Soviet government, however, ap- parently feels it has the right to dictate to the leaders in Prague what they may or may not do in domestic policies. Members of the 11-man Communist body ruling Czechoslovakia are conferring with top Soviet leaders who have come from Mos- cow to a meeting on Czech territory near the Soviet border. Upon thq outcome of this con- ference depends whether the Soviet Union will intervene militarily to force the present government to come to terms or will establish a new regime that will adhere to the kind of communism which the Soviets apply throughout the areas they control'. Moscow is being supoprted by Poland, East Germany and Bulgaria-over which it maintains an iron hand-and to a lesser extent by Hun- gary, which Is still occupied by Soviet troops. The Kremlin leaders are demanding of Czech officials that they turn back toward the Soviet kind of communism-including a resumption of press censorship and the sup- pression of all non-Communist political ac- tivities. Even more, the Czechs are being coerced into maintaining their alliance with the Communist-bloc nations and are being warned about getting too friendly with West Germany or other non-Communist countries. The threat of Soviet military intervention is constant. The crisis is bound to affect the future of the satellite states in Eastern Europe. Yugo- slavia under Tito long ago broke away from Soviet domination, but does have friendly relations with Moscow. Rumania, too, has in recent years asserted more and more in- dependence. It is understandable that the American government would, for diplomatic reasons, choose to be silent. Washington has kept a hands-off policy in the Czechoslovak con- troversy because of a belief that nothing should be done that would give Moscow a chance to blame Western governments for what is happening in Czechoslovakia. When the United States goes to the as- sistance of a country which is trying to de- termine its own form of government-such as South Vietnam-"liberals" denounce this as "aggression." Yet they remain silent as the Soviets seek to deny even to "liberal" Com- munists the right to set up their own system of government within Czechoslovakia. The mobilization of Soviet military forces is plainly a threat of aggression against Czecho- slovakia, but none of the Communist par- ties-in France, Italy or this country-is willing to recognize it. Certainly there is nothing to prevent pri- vate organizations and some of the articulate professors and scholars in America and West- ern Europe from condemning publicly In most vehement terms the Soviet intervention in the internal affairs of Czechoslovakia. But silence seems to be the rule. [From the New Leader, Aug. 26, 19681 WHY MOSCOW FEARS THE CZECHS (By Victor A. Velen) The New Course in Czechoslovakia is one of the most important political and social phenomena of the postwar period. Should it be repressed by Soviet intimidation or armed intervention, the repercussions could cause a serious regression in international relations, Should it succeed, this union of democracy and socialism could become a po- litical model for other countries to follow, in the West as well as in the East. In the effort to explain their position to the Russians, the present Czech leaders have portrayed the New Course as a revival rather than a betrayal of socialism-a revolution aimed at transforming an authoritarian, pseudo-socialist society into a humanitarian "socialist democracy." That the Russians have been incapable of grasping its real nature is understandable, since recent events in Czechoslovakia represent the antithesis of the evolution of Soviet society. Their fear is also understandable, since these events call into question the very viability of the So- viet political system. For they offer proof once again that freedom is a basic motive in his- tory, that the more a society advances, the more imperative the need for freedom be- comes. Throughout their 20-year history, a chronic ailment of the so-called "peoples' democra- cies" has been a steadily diminishing national consensus. Immediately after World War II, power in these countries was held by a rel- atively large number of disciplined, idealistic Communists backed by the mass of the work- ing class and the intellectuals. The period of Stalinist terror, and the years of uninspiring collective rule, narrowed down this base of power to an ossified governmental bureauc- racy and a sterile Party apparatus. The aver- age citizen became alienated from public life, concerned only with his personal economic ,and political survival. In the past decade, however, a new po- litical consciousness has been awakening among the younger generations, who have begun to reject the system that raised and indoctrinated them. They have come to rec- ognize that "man does not live by bread alone": A comparatively secure job and an advanced social security system has not been able to replace their yearning for certain fundamental political ideals. The revolutionary rumbling in Hungary and Poland following Stalin's death were efforts to broaden the bases of these regimes by eliminating Stalinist methods and prac- tices. But in both cases the primary motivat- ing factor was nationalist sentiment in de- fiance of Russian domination. The common denominator of the Hungarian Freedom Fighters and the Polish reformists was that they were anti-Russian, and to the extent that they identified the Russians with so- cialism, also anti-socialist. Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 S 10302 Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE September 5, 1968 The historical and social premises of the Czech revolution are entirely different, as have been its results. Except for Fast Ger- many, Czechoslovakia Is the only country in Eastern Europe with an old artisan and Industrial-as opposed to a rural-tradition. It shared in the general Western European Enlightenment, and has had experience in the formation of democratic Ideas and Insti- tutions. That Is why, incidentally, Czecho- slovakia was one of the few countries in Eastern Europe to have a prewar Commu- nist party-the third strongest in the coun- try-represented in Parliament. Thus the search for a new social pattern has not sprung from national aspirations or hatred of the Russians, but from a desire to com- bine socialism with the older Czechoslovak humanitarian, democratic heritage. This combination is basically nothing more than a return to pre-Marxian socialism, usu- ally regarded by Communists as petit bour- geois and utopian. It is predicated on the be- lief that modern socialism can move forward only on the basis of the freedoms (the bour- geois freedoms, as Marx called them) wrung from the ruling classes in the course of cen- turies of struggle-out of which emerged the great principles of modern democracy that invest sovereignty in the people. These principles have surfaced spontane- ously in Czechoslovakia since last January, but naturally they will not suffice in them- selves. They must be anchored in Institutions so that no change in line can sweep them away administratively, as has happened In Poland, for example. The road traveled from the "Polish October" of 1956, with its af- firmation of free speech, to the anti-Semitic, fascistic campaign waged by the Polish re- gime in repressing the students during the Warsaw riots of 1968, is ample proof that to survive principles must be transformed Into legislation. The Czechs fully recognize this. That is why their first concern, after they eliminated the most powerful Stalinist elements in the highest echelons, was to establish the free- doms of speech and assembly as law. In place of Lenin's simplistic equation, "socialism plus electrification equals communism." the Czechs have devised a more advanced and at the same time more ancient equation, which could be rendered: "Human rights guaranteed In a democratic state, plus sci- entific progress, plus socialism might at some future date become communism" The Czechs are probably the first modern society to transform a totalitarian state Into one where the citizens actively and effectively participate in the res publics. Translated into terms of East European politics, totalt- tarianlam has meant the uncontested rule of an oligarchy-neither elected nor revoca- ble-which claims not only to rule in the name of the proletariat but also to be Its supreme expression. In fact, this oligarchy has no connection with the proletariat and maintains its power monopoly for the sake of power alone. The elevation of Marxist theory into a state religion-an empty con- glomerate of hollow phrases and formulae has precluded the objective analysts of real problems and consequently any attempt to solve them. Czech philosophers have worked for the past eight years to break through this totali- tarian vise, and the Prague spring owes much to their conclusions. Writing In the Italian Communist weekly Rinascita last June, Karel Kosik went to the heart of the matter: "The Czechoslovak events do not constitute one of the usual political crises, one of the usual economic crises, but rather a crisis In the , underlying premises of contemporary ideas lam had been established. He also envisaged on reality as a system of general manipula- restrictions on freedom of the press as tempo- tion, Humanistic socialism, for whose exist- rary. Both of Lenin's views are now major ence or non-existence the struggle is taking heresies in Soviet thinking. The distance place now In Czechoslovakia, is a revolution- that separates the first government dquipc ary and liberating alternative. . . If the of the Soviet Union, composed of such bril- Czechoslovak experiment should succeed- ilant Intellectuals as Bukharin, Zinoviev and Lunacharski from the Brezhnev-Kcsygln team is a measure of the extent to which the Sovie, ruling class has been transformed Into a mediocre and self-perpetuating bureaucracy, imp:isoned In its own rigid Ideological armor. Despite the short period of reform and thaw under Khrushchev, the present Rr.ssian leadership not only identifies increasingly with the Stalinist past but is also reverting to Stalinist practices. The repression of dis- sent, started with the sentencing of writers. Andrei Sinyavaky and Yuli Daniel, has con- tinued in a succession of other trials and condemnations designed to bring recalcitrant intellectuals into line. In contrast to Czecho- slovakia, the protests of a few intellectuals and students have been lost among the be- lieving mass. The sociological, conditions needed to foster a widespread demani for democratization of the Soviet system are not as yet present. Formalized, primitive Marxism continues to be accepted unquestioningly, as well as credited with the great technological ad- vances made by the Russians. Lenins' mummy is still the most revered ikon of the Russian cathedral. And the fumes of self adulation have not begun to clear' the altars. Polemicizing against the Czech phi- losopher Vaclav Hencl, who affirmed that socialism can be divided Into authoritarian and democratic models, Pravda stated flatly: "There can be only one kind of socialism and that Is Soviet; socialism, which is the supreme form of democracy." So long as the present Soviet leadership Is in power. Russian opposition to the New Course In Czechoslovakia Is not likely to soften. Ncr is there much chance of a simi- lar evolution taking place In the Soviet Union In the near future, for it would be contrary to the almost exclusively autocratic Russian 'aistorical tradition. Nevertheless, while the Czechoslovak experiment may not guarantee the jobs of the party bosses, if allowed to survive, It may well guarantee the future of rocialism. ExcEaPTs FROM A SPECIAL EDITION OF THE CzECHOELovAK NEwsPAPER, TaiBUNA CYTEV- RENOSTI "What is happening here is not a move- ment whore aim is the restoration of the old order, but a movement which is mear.t to carry the socialist revolution to a higher, more perfect stage of development, closer to its aims... " EDUARD Gol.nsvj?cxxs, President of the Writers Unicm. "One of the basic Interests, and hence one of the necessities of a country he%ing the cul- tural and industrial level of Czechoslovakia should be to open its borders to the entire world. I believe that to enclose oneself within a Chinese wall Is an expression of weak- ness...:" JIRI HAN7ELKA, Engine.:r. "Today the matter of democratization is no longer only an affair of the [myth call seven courageous raen. I would say that It is a concern of all of us, of the hundreds of thousands. I would even say, millions of peo- ple in our country.... I would like to ex- press my conviction that either we will live in this country In freedom, or we will not live at all.... In a revolution of the type which we ere now experiencing-tea revolution of the word, a revolution of Ideas and not of barbaric, violent acts--the solution cannot be simply that the old caste system give way to new prtvilges, In order solely that new groups take over the power positions and others again appropriate the monopoly of Ideas, the implementation of justice, and the education of our children. The solution Is that today and tomorrow the entire nation should partake in taese duties and respcnsl- bilit tes... , Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 and its success depends on whether It will be realized without compromise and half-solu- tions-we shall be confronted with practical proof that the system of general manipula- tion may be overcome in Its own main con- temporary forms: bureaucratic Stalinism and capitalist democracy...." From January 1968 on, the Czechoslovak public has become aware of the beginnings of "participatory democracy'". Political and special interest groups have mushroomed, the organizational and ideological activities of the Communist party have Included a greater percentage of its membership. At no time since the Russian Revolution (with the ex- ception of the resistance movements In World War II) . has a European Communist party known such an abrupt increase in popular support. According to a public opinion survey published In Rude Pravo on July 13, in Janu- ary only 17 percent of the population had confidence in the ability of the Party to lead the state; by July this figure had Increased to 51 percent. with 89 percent supporting the policies of the government. If widespread participation and support continues, the Czechoslovak experiment may provide a solution to crises that have plagued the social systems of both East and West. Since World War I, for example, It has be- come Increasingly evident that Western parliamentry rule is an Inadequate instru- ment of modern government. Indeed, the more a society relies on scientific solutions. the more "partitocracy" (to use the Italian expression for party rule) comes to resemble authoritarian rule, though still retaining its democratic Image In the minds of the people. Conceivably, the replacement of parties by autonomous political and economic inter- est groups, intellectual clubs, youth circles, trade unions, agricultural cooperatives, etc., would constitute a permanent forum for national policy and planning much more responsive to the will of the people than the congresses and parliaments of the west. The kind of political stagnation that took place In Prance under the party rule of the Fourth Republic might no longer be possible. This remodeling of the political organs of, state, based on the direct participation of all strata of the population, is a modernized version of the principles set forth by the early humani- tarian socialists and anarchists: Saint- Simon. Fourier, Proudhon and Kropotkin. All speculation is idle, of course, so long as Czechoslovakia remains In an almost im- possible political situation. It Is virtually surrounded by hostile governments which, in the name of socialism, fear any form of revitalization based on popular expression and assent. The Soviet Union is far less con- cerned about the Independent course taken by Rumania, for Instance, because the au- thoritarian, bureaucratic structure of the state has so far not been challenged there. The possibility of direct Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakia now appears to depend largely on Russia's judgment of its feasi- bility. Every likely protest for intervention- including clumsy and obvious attempts at provocation-has certainly been sought. As the war of nerves continues, the world is witnessing new and unequivocal proof of the fundamental differences between liber- tarian socialism and the authoritarianism of the Soviet stamp. Although Lenin can in no sense be con- sidered a democrat (when Spanish Socialist leader Urrutia de lce Rios asked him about freedom In the Soviet state, he answered, "La Iiberte? Pour quoi faire?"), he conceived of the dictatorship of the proletariat Be a tem- porary Institution lasting only until social- Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 September 5, 1968 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE "S"ocialism, if it wants to succeed, if it wants to be an attraction center for the world, cannot be built on hatred, suspicion, lies and violence, but, on the contrary, should offer man more freedom than any other sys- tem, because otherwise its creation would have been useless... "They are asking us whom we side with In this world. We are with those who, as we, have not renounced the struggle, have not given up the hope that our life could be bet- ter. We are on the side of the enslaved, ofthe suffering, of the unhappy. We are with those who reject the curse of racism, the humili- ation of anti-Semitism, persecution and chauvinism, and the conceit of narrow na- tionalism. We are with those who, gathered around the declaration of human rights, want our time to be friendlier than Hell." Author. 4. INTELLECTUAL FERMENT IN THE SOVIET UNION [From the New York Times Magazine] THE NEW TRIALS IN RUSSIA STIR MEM- ORIES OF STALIN'S DAYS: THIS IS THE WINTER 'OF Moscow's DISSENT (By Patricia Blake) Moscow has just experienced an unusually fierce winter, many smaller towns were snow- bound, and grave concern is being expressed In the press about air pollution-all of which is very convenient for Russian intellectuals, who commonly characterize their conditions in meteorological images. For example, Vladimir Bukovsky, who .was sentenced last September to three years in prison for having organized a demonstration protesting the arrest of writers, has offered a comment on the miasma of intellectual life. In a sketch called "A Stupid Question," which appeared before his arrest in the underground magazine Phoenix, Bukovsky complained to a physician: "I just can't stand It any longer. I tried at first to ignore it but I couldn't.. . I can't, you see, take a really deep breath. . The doctors can't help me. . But I do so want to take a deep breath sometimes,. you know, with all my lungs-especially in the spring.... There seems to be some obstruction to breathing. Qr isn't there enough air?" Recently, Yevgeni Yevtushenko complained of the same trouble. In "Smog," a poem datelined Moscow-New York, published in the Soviet magazine Znamya in January of this year, he writes that he is gasping for air. The locale is purportedly New York, but the weather conditions are Russian and clearly recognizable as such by the Soviet reader. Notices have been posted in bars, the poet says, which read: "You can breathe easily only through vodka." Yevtushenko uses the device of putting words in the mouths of American writers. Allen Ginsberg is made to say: "Darkness is descending,/ darkness!/ This is the smell of outer hell./ There is no excuse for those/ who can breathe in this stench! In a world of moral vacuum,/, in a world of fog and chaos/ the only halfway decent person/ is he who suffocates." In the same poem, Arthur Miller (who has publicly spoken out against the trials of writers in Russia) Is described as "stern in his terrible prophecy." Miller supposedly says: "There will be still more burnings at the stake/ by Inquisitions./ Smog/ is the smoke of these stakes to come." The atmosphere Is indeed heavy with men- ace. Not since 1963, when Khrushchev car- ried on a ferocious campaign against the liberal intelligentsia, has creative life in Rus- sia seemed in such jeopardy. The two recent trials of writers in Moscow represent only the most visible surface of what is actually tak- ing place. The arrests of hundreds of intel- lectuals, for offenses ranging from the dis- tribution of anti-Soviet propaganda to armed conspiracy, and other sinister signals sug- gest that a policy decision has been made, at the highest level, to reintroduce terroristic methods to stifle dissent. These attempts at coercion have produced, not submission, but defiance more open and more widespread than at any time in the Soviet Union's entire history of persecution of intellectuals. The Communist leadership in Russia, and in parts of Eastern Europe as well, is being confronted with such spec- tacles as street demonstrations in Moscow, student riots in Warsaw and, in Prague, a resistance among intellectuals so massive that, in Czechoslovakia's newly favorable political climate, it appears to have suc- ceeded in obtaining a reversal of cultural policy. The pattern of repression, as it has evolved under Brezhnev and Kosygin, is not so easily charted as It was under Khrushchev. For one thing, the style of new leadership in dealing with the unruly intelligentsia is more subdued. No longer Is the chief of state heard denouncing abstract painters as homo- sexuals who (in Khrushchev's words) use hu- man excrement instead of paint. There are no more mass meetings with writers and artists In the Kremlin, no more vast cam- paigns in the press against internationally known literary figures like Voznesensky and Yevtushenko. Aims and methods have changed as well. Khrushchev believed for a time that he could turn the aspirations of the liberal in- tellectuals to his own political purposes; he attempted to gain their support by offering them a measure of freedom, but when they responded, not with gratitude but with ever greater demands, he turned on them with the full range of his celebrated invective. These repeated attempts to woo, then subdue, the intelligentsia produced the seasonal "thaws" and "freezes" that characterized cultural life under Khrushchev. In contrast, the new leaders have always shown a determination not to allow the in- telligentsia to play any sort of political role. Plagued with other problems inherited from Khrushchev, they at first seemed merely to be trying (with little success) to contain the most vociferous libertarians among the in- tellectuals. Now, however, they have been compelled to take notice of three problems that have strikingly intensified in the post- Khrushchev era: (1) the spread of dissent; (2) the breakdown of controls over the in- telligentsia; (3) the publication abroad of suppressed works by Russian writers, much of which is damaging to the prestige of the Soviet leadership, the system and the ide- ology. Thus, while Khrushchev relied largely, on bombast and threats against dissidents (which he was unwilling or unable to carry out) the present leaders have introduced the technique of staging political trials of in- tellectuals, while at the same time giving the K.G.B. (Committee for State Security- the secret police) far greater powers in deal- ing with the intelligentsia than at any time since Stalin's death. The fact that this policy of selective terror was applied with increasing intensity in 1967, the year of the 50th anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution, is a measure of the leadership's alarm over large-scale and un- restrained expressions of dissent. The crack- down hat, in fact, come as a surprise to Western observers, and to many people in Russian literary circles who believed that the Soviet leadership would make no move to repress the intellectuals until after the anniversary celebrations last November. The existence of dissent would be played down, they said; an appearance of national unity had to be maintained, as well as a semblance of solidarity mong the foreign Communist parties still more or less loyal to Moscow. The trial of the 'writers Andrei Sinyavsky and Yuli Daniel in 1966 had provoked such vehement opposition among foreign Com- S 10303 munist leaders that it seemed unlikely the Soviet authorities would invite further em- barrassment along these lines. A number of officially inspired attempts were made before the anniversary to still the continued reverberations of that trial. Many newsmen in Moscow, and visitors from abroad, were systematically informed that Sinyavsky and Daniel would be released on the occasion of the general amnesty in No- vember, provided the Western press would stop reporting the- plight of the two writers and left-wing intellectuals would stop agi- tating about the case. "Dr. Zhivago," The recent writings of Alexander Solzhenitsyn and other suppressed works would soon be published, they were told. It was even sug- gested that censorship was about to be abol- ished, the only impediment to complete cultural freedom in the Soviet Union being the meddlesomeness of foreigners. Nothing of the sort, of course, took place. Instead, the dawn of the anniversary year 1967 was marked by the arrest of a large group of intellectuals in Leningrad whose number has been estimated at from. 150 to 300 persons. Precautions were taken by the authorities to prevent this action from caus- ing an international sensation. The arrests were made among obscure persons, in a city where foreign journalists are not stationed. No mention of the arrests was made in the Soviet press. It is only recently, therefore, that some details of the Leningrad case have become known. The roundup took place in late February or early March, 1967. Among those arrested were a number of Leningrad University pro- fessors, law and philosophy students at the university, poets, literary critics and maga- zine editors. At least one closed trial of four persons is known to have been held, and another is said to be in preparation now. Among those already tried, one is a Professor Ogurtsov, a specialist on Tibet at the uni- versity, who was condemned to 15 years at hard labor-the maximum sentence, short of death. A second, Yevgeni Vagin, an editor of a multivolume edition of Dostoyevsky, was sentenced to 13 years. Those arrested were charged with conspir- acy to armed rebellion. It was alleged that they were members of a terrorist- network, with contacts abroad, which operated under the guise of various philosophical societies, including a "Berdyayev Circle," named after Nikolai Berdyayev, the Christian philosopher who was an opponent of the Soviet regime because of its suppression of freedom. Mem- bers of similar groups, said to be linked with the Leningrad organizations, have reportedly been arrested in Sverdlovsk and in several towns in the Ukraine. The Leningrad arrests are clearly the most menacing of the coercive actions against in- tellectuals that have been undertaken in the post-Khruschev period. This is the first time in Soviet history that intellectuals are known to have been arrested and tried for posses- sion of arms for the purpose of rebellion against the state. The charge is indeed so grave that it irresistibly raises the question of whether the arms case was not fabricated by the K.G.B, The purpose of such a provo- cation would be to smear the whole liberal intelligentsia, which, it might now be al- leged, is so disaffected as to be capable of armed rebellion-thus opening the way to arrests on a much larger scale. The attempt 'by the K.G.B. to connect the Leningrad or- ganizations with groups in other parts of the country suggests that something along these lines Is in progress. Moreover, the pos- session of small arms, of which the Lenin- grad intellectuals are accused (in Sverdlovsk, they allegedly acquired machine guns)-, ap- pears preposterous. Under peacetime condi- tions it would be extremely difficult to smug- gle arms into the Soviet Union, and the rigid system of arms control in the police and Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 S1,0298 style democracy, and there for political change. [From the New York Times, Aug. 30, 10081 . RusANIANa F18M; WARN Rusarans-AGArN URGE TROOPS POLL OUT-TILL of BLOC "TENSION" (By John M. Lee) BUCHAREST, August 29-Rumanian Com- munist leaders declared today that they at- tached the "utmost importance" to the com- plete withdrawal of Warsaw Pact forces from Czechoslovakia "in the shortest time." The officials also appeared to warn the Soviet Union against further Incursions that might: exacerbate relations between Com- munlat countries. They asserted: "It is Imperative that absolutely nothing should be undertaken that might worsen those relations or deepen the divergencies and breed fresh sources of tension." The firm declarations were contained In a statement by the Executive Commitee of the party's Central Committee, published in the party newspaper. Scintela and other papers. It was the first Rumanian comment on the Soviet-Czechoslovak agreement reached In Moscow on Tuesday. The agreement called for the gradual with- drawal of forces as soon as conditions In Czechoslovakia are "normalized." Two dtvi- slone are to remain behind to help guard the West Berman border. TONE TERMED RESOLUTE Western diplomats were impressed by the resolute tone of the Rumanian comment. In their view, Rumania Is continuing to insist that each national Communist party should be able. to determine its own development, as the Rumanian party has done, free from out- side interference. The statement did nothing to yield to criti- ciam by the Soviet Union, Hungary and Po- land of Rumania's breakaway stance. Che Executive Committee expresses to the Communists of Czechoslovakia, to the Czech and Slovak people, its feelings of warm sym- pathy, of support and full Internationalist solidarity," the statement said. It recalled that Rumania had expressed "anxiety and disapproval" over the Invasion of Czechoslovakia Aug. 20. and It noted that the return to office of Czechoslovak lenders and the resumption of activity by party and government bodies "create conditions for undertaking the complex tasks facing them." "At the same time," the statement went on, "the Executive Committee considers of utmost importance the carrying Into effect of the complete withdrawal, in the shortest time, of the armed forces of the Ave socialist countries from Czechoslovakia." POLAND ASSAILS RUMANIA (By Jonathan Randal) WARSAW, August 20.-Poland assailed Ru- mania -today for having placed "sovereignty and independence" above allegiance to So- viet-led Communism. The criticism came in an article observers interpreted Be a possible prelude to further pressures on the Bucha- rest regime by the orthodox Communist nations, An unsigned 2,500-word article in the party newspaper, Trybuna Ludu, reflecting the views of the Polish leadership, castigated Rumania for having denounced the invasion of Czechoslovakia in disregard of the "su- preme dictate of the moment." In language that recalled the strong words employed in the state-controlled Polish press against Czechoslovakia in past months, the article, also attacked President Nicolas Ceausescu of Rumania by name for the first time since the invasion last week. Observers said that this was a practice normally reserved for the most serious inter- party polemics. CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE September 5, Also for the first time since the invasion, Wladyslaw t3omuika, the Polish party leader, consulted With members of the ruling 12- man Politburo. The official polish press agency limited its report to noting that Ike had discussed "present problems of the In- ternational situation." Also present were Ave other Politburo members, regional party lenders, Central Committee department directors and others who were described as certain ministers. Trybuna Lubu also criticized Rumania for having established diplomatic relations with West Germany last year and for having failed to break diplomatic ties with Israel after the war in the Middle East in June 1687. Rumania Is the only Eastern European country that has established relations with Bonn and the only one that did not follow Moscow's lead in breaking with Israel last year. The newspaper said that Rumanian sup- port for Czechoslovakia "indicates that the objective was not 'defense of democracy and sovereignty' but disintegration of the so-. clallat commonwealth." [From the Baltimore Sun, Aug. 31. 1068) BLOC TROOPS SAm To MOVC ON ROMANIA- CzecH RADIO REPORTS NINE RUSSIAN Devi- SIONS NEAR BOEOla (By Stuart S. Smith) PRAGUE. August 30.-A Czoehoelovak radio station transmitting from soma where in Bo- hemia said today that the Warsaw powers are massing troops along their borders with Romania. According to the broadcast, the Soviet Union has moved nine military divisions into Bucovina alone. Bulgaria, It said, has trans- ferred two divisions of troops-to Its frontier with Romania and Hungary has deployed three division along Its eastern boundary. COOPERATION CALL In London, Joseph Luns, the Dutch For- eign Minister, said the situation In the Balkans 15 a serious cause for concern and called for Improved Atlantic alliance co- operation. In New 'York, Cornellu Manencu, the Ro- manian Foreign Minister and current United Nations General Assembly president, held talks with United Nations officials to sound out their attitude toward a possible Invasion of his country. Mr. Manescu also spoke with George W. Ball, the United States Ambas- sador to the United Nations. TROOP WITHDRAWAL BUCOVIna and Moldavia are former Ito- manlen provinces which the Soviet Union took from Romania at the close of World War II. Two weeks ago, President Nicolas Ceau- sescu Indicated that the Romanian military forces had been Withdrawn from the War- saw Fact command and simultaneously or- dered the Immediate arming of the country's Workers' Militia. TANK PULLOUT TERMS A AR SET roR PRAGUE (By a Sun staff correspondent) Pancrre. August 30.-The Soviet military commander here warned today that Russia will keep Its tanks in the Czechoslovak capi- tal until the citizens remove the ant(-Soviet slogans from the city's wall. The Czechoslovak National Front Organi- zation later appealed to the people to remove the offending p]Rcards. Radio Prague quoted the commander, Gen. Ivan Vellcbkp. as saying all posters, signs and banners would have to be taken down or painted over before he would transfer his forces, UUBCEK FOBITION The announcement conflicts with Alex- ander Dubeek's speech Tuesday which said 1968 the invading military units were to be re- moved forthwith. Shorty after his return from his Moscow negotiations with the Kremlin's top otlctals, Mr. Dubeek, the Czechoslovak communist party leader, said "we agreed" that the oc- cupation forces 'in the towns and villages will Immediately depart to designated areas. This is naturally connected with the extent to which our own Czechoslovak authorities will themselves be capable in individual towns of Insuring order and norma, life." Except for the first few days Immediately following the Wrrsaw powers' attack, there has been no public disorder in Czeclioslo- vakia, and some major cities, Pilsen for ex- ample, have had no sizable occupatlor units since the middle of last week. 'raa'O HUNDRED TANKS aRMAIN Prague, however, is still jammed with Soviet military equipment, including at least 200 battle tanks, more than that many ar- mored cars, numerous howitzers, one or more heavy molar batteries, machine gun em- placements and other heavy arms. Although the soldiers and their weapons are no longer occupying the Government and party headquarters. they still hold mist of the capitol's newspaper offices, radio and tele- vision stations, printing plants and Oth3r key communications points, Including the Prague airport. Many large fields within easy firing range of the city's heart are full of Soviet troops, helicopters, military communications equip- ment and other paraphernllia. REBUKE ON INVASION The Czochoslovak National Front's central commlttes also rebuked the Warsaw powers, declaring that their invasion violated the "xasic no-,ma of International law." The conunittee S SO called upon the occupa- tion authorities to release the political pris- oners they have arrested during the last ten days and to refrain from Interfering any longer in ':he nation's affairs. Soviet officials have demanded that what they call the "illegal" newspapers here stop pubilshing and that the free Czechoslovak radio stations be silenced. 3. CZECHO3LOVAKTA BEFORE THE OCCUPATION [Prom the New York Times, Sept. 20, -0871 A CZECH Warm: DESCRIBES HIS INNER STRUGGLE (By Richard Eder) PaACux, September 10.-"The social revolu- tion has t:lumphed In out country, but, the problem of power is still with its. We have taken the bull by the horns and we are holding on, and yet something keeps butting us in the scat of the pants." With theme words Ludvik Vaculik, a 41- year-03d Prague writer, began a speech, de- livered two and a half months ago, whose re- percussion:, are still agitating party and In- tellectual circles In Czechoslovakia. Spoken at the writers' congress at the end of June, the words of Mr. 'Tacullk and four or live other writers transdcrmed what had been expected to be a stormy session into some- thing verging on a revolution. For the last three years or no, Czecho- slovak cultural activity has been the freest and most Inventive in Eastern Europe, in striking contrast to the conservative attitude of most party leaders. Films, plays, novels and literary essays have, with varying de- grees of directness, Voiced demands for per- sonal freedom and the supremacy of prirate values, UraYCr CHALI ENOE TO REGIME At the writers' oongress those themes were distilled In-,o a far more direct olrallengo to the regime, in essence Mr. Vacullk and others insisted that freedom as a oancess:ion was not enough, and that the regime must Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B0 3 8R000300190054-6 September 5, 1968 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE S10305 other people of conscience and vested author- ity. It served to mobilize the intelligentsia already united by the onslaughts of 1963, into expressing its indignation almost with a single voice. It made many older intellec- tuals, silent until then with their fearful memories of Stalinism, openly commit them- selves to the liberal camp. And it raised the issue, in the most compelling public fashion, of the contradiction between "Socialist jus- tice" and brutal reality. The significant fact about the trial is that the two writers, charged with circulating "anti-Soviet" writings, readily admitted that they were the pseudonymous authors of the works in question, but denied that they were guilty of a crime. Their testimony and final pleas constitute a defense less of themselves than of literature itself, and a condemna- tion, in overwhelmingly eloquent terms, of the grossly simplistic and Philistine criteria applied to literature by the Soviet authorities for the past 30 years. Had they pleaded guilty, as the court evidently expected, they would have got off with lighter sentences. (Sinyav- sky was condemned to seven years of hard labor and Daniel to five.) It was clear that they wished to make ex- amples of themselves, so that others might carry on after them. This hope was com- pletely realized. The trial utterly failed in its purpose of terrorizing intellectuals. On the contrary, the behavior of the defendants in- fused the liberal intellectuals community with a new sense of pride and honor. Sinyav- sky and Daniel had established a standard of conduct which henceforth others would strive to meet. In sum, the moral quality of intellectual life in Russia was immeasurably raised by their action. Not one prominent writer in Russia, ex- cept Mikhail Sholokhov, could be found to endorse the trial, while protests signed by hundreds of famous writers, scholars and scientists poured into Government agencies and newspapers. Opposition to the trial by European Communists became so strident that foreign Communist newspapers were banned for a time from Soviet newsstands. But, substituting for a free press, the for- eign short-wave radio stations, the Voice of America, Radio Liberty, the B.B.C. and Deutsche Welle repeatedly beamed the trial transcript (which had been smuggled abroad) and the text of all the protests to their millions of listeners in Russia. Thus the Sinyavsky-Daniel trial boomer- anged by causing a national and interna- tional scandal, as well as by stiffening the in- telligentsia's resistance. In May, the Congress of the Stalinist-dominated Soviet Writers Union was boycotted by leading liberals, and Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Russia's finest living prose writer, addressed his now-famous letter to the congress demanding the abolition of censorship. He charged that the K.G.B. had confiscated his manuscripts and that the leadership of the Writers Union, far from de- fending authors from such outrages, had a long history of being "always first among the persecutors" of writers who were slandered, exiled, imprisoned and executed. The reaction of the authorities was simply to hit harder- in Moscow, at the heart of resistance. The first of the Moscow trials, in Septem- ber, 1967, involved three young men charged with organizing a demonstration on Pushkin Square against the arrest of some literary fig- ures a few days earlier. In the second trial, at the beginning of January, 1968, four young people, including two underground writers, Alexander Ginzburg and Yuri Galanskov, were accused of circulating an underground magazine, Phoenix '66. Galanskov was said to have privately drafted a new constitution for the Soviet Union and distributed it among his friends. Ginzburg was also charged with editing and circulating a "White Book" on the Sinyavsky- Daniel case, consisting of the trial transcript, protests by Soviet intellectuals and a letter of his own to Kosygin in which he said: "I love my country and I do not- wish to see its reputation damaged by the latest uncon- trolled activities of the K.G.B. I love Russian literature and I do not wish to see two more of its representatives sent off to fell trees under police guard." Ginzburg was sentenced to five years and Galanskov to seven. The third defendant, who turned state's evidence, was let off with two years, while the fourth, who was ac- cused merely of typing manuscripts for the others, received a one-year suspended sen- tence. In these trials, the authorities made de- termined efforts to seal off the proceed- ings so that any resistance on the part of the defendants would not become public. Except for a handful of relatives of the ac- cused, the courtrooms were packed with pre- selected persons; who, according to one wit- ness, read magazines or dozed during the trials, rousing themselves from time to time to utter "animal-like hoots and cries for severe penalties." The September trial re- ceived a brief mention in a Moscow- newspa- per, which stated that the accused had con- fessed their crime. Thereupon, a 30-year-old physicist, Pavel Litvinov, the.. grandson of the late Foreign Minister Maxim Litvinov, saw to it that the actual testimony of one defendant was com- municated to the foreign press. It showed that the defendant, the 25- year-old writer Vladimir Bukovsky, not only had pleaded not guilty but had defended his right to demonstrate publicly under the, Soviet Constitution. He protested that the investigation of his case had been conducted, not by the prosecutor's office, but by the K.G.B., in violation of the law. Bukovsky, who was sentenced to three years, ended his plea as follows: "I absolutely do not repent for organizing the demonstration. I find that it accomplished what it had to accomplish, and when I am free again, I shall again or- ganize demonstrations-of course, in com- plete observance of the law, as before." Litvinov further made public the record of his interrogation by a K,G.B. officer in which he defied a threat to arrest him if he circulated the Bukovsky transcript. After it was sent abroad; Litvinov told an American newsman that he had not been bothered since by the K.G.B. "When the K.G.B. sees that a man is not afraid of them, they do not call him in any more for more conversa- tion. When they call him again, it's for good." Litvinov was immediately fired from his teaching job. Ginzburg and Galanskov pleaded not guilty at the five-day trial in January. Said Ginz- burg of the contents of his White Book. "Any patriot is obliged to give up his life for his country but not to lie for it." News of- the defendants' resistance quickly leaked out to the crowd of some 200 sympa- thizers who gathered on the street, in freez- ing weather, outside the courtroom. What took place was tantamount to a five-day press conference by friends of the accused with foreign journalists. K.G.B. men continuously mingled in the crowd, taking pictures of the protesters. Shouted a former major general, Pyotr Grlgoreniro: "You can't intimidate me. I bled for this country!" As the defense law- yers filed out 9f the courtroom, they were given red carnations. by persons in the crowd. Among those who kept a vigil outside the courtroom were Alexander Yesenin-Volpin, the son of the famous poet Sergei Yesenin, who committed suicide in - 1926 and Pyotr Yakir, the son of Maj. Gen. Sooa Yakir, who was executed during the purges of the Red Army in 1937, then "posthumously rehabili- tated" after Stalin's death. Yakir distrib- uted an appeal saying that the trial "has gone beyond all bounds in suppressing human rights. Even Andrei Vyshinsky would have envied the organization of this trial " Shortly before the court sentenced the de fendants, Pavel Litvinov and Mrs. Yuli Dan- iel issued a statement to foreign journalists, asking that it be published and broadcast as soon as possible. "We are not sending this request to Soviet newspapers because that is hopeless," they said. They called the trial "a wild mockery of justice . . . no better than the celebrated trials of the nineteen-thirties, which involved us in so much blood that we still have not recovered from them." The judge, they said, allowed only evidence "which fits in the program already prepared by the K.G.B." Following this, 12 intellectuals, including Litvinov, Yesenin-Volpin, Yakir and Grigo- renko addressed a similar statement about the trial to the Presidium of the conference of 66 Communist parties that opened at the end of February in Budapest for the purpose of strengthening their unity. One can imagine the reaction of the Soviet authorities on learning that the first news to reach the world of this parley consisted in front-page stories in The New York Times and other Western papers of an appeal by 12, Russian intellectuals to the conference's partici- pants "to consider fully the -perils caused by the trampling of man in our country." One consequence of the Moscow trials was that the convicted writers gathered support from persons completely outside Moscow lit- erary and intellectual circles, and for entirely extra-literary reasons. For example, among the signers of the appeal to the Budapest Conference were a former major general, the son of a general and the son of a Foreign Minister, a. leader of the Crimean Tartar minority and a Russian Orthodox priest. From as far away as Latvia came a letter to Mikhail Suslov, the Politburo member and party ideologist, from the - chairman of a model collective farm who, in 1964, had been highly praised in the Soviet press. This let- ter, which was published, not in Russia but in The New York Times, called on the party to reach an understanding with the young rebels, rather than put them on trial. "Such dissenters will," the writer predicted, "in- evitably create a new party. Ideas cannot be murdered with bullets, prison or exile." After describing the remoteness of the countryside where he lives, he said, addressing- the Cen- tral Committee of the party, "If information has reached us on the broadest scale, you can well imagine what kind of seeds you have sown throughout the country. Have the cour- age to correct the mistakes that you have made, before the workers and peasants take a hand in this affair." Protest against the trial also brought to- gether two formerly distinct and antithetical groups within the intelligentsia itself. Until now, only one group ?the "loyal opposition"- well-known published writers and respected scholars and scientists-had publicly ex- pressed resistance, in relatively moderate terms, against attempts at coercion by the authorities. Now another group, "the under- ground"-dissidents who despair of effecting change through established channels-was making itself heard with unprecedented boldness in response to the persecution of Ginzburg and others among their members. These two groups were first seen to join forces when 31 leading writers, scholars and scientists (including three members of the Academy - of Sciences) addressed a protest against the Ginzburg trial to the Moscow City Court. - Later appeals by loyal opposi- tionists included one signed by 80 more prominent intellectuals, and another signed by 220 top scientists and artists, from Mos- cow, Leningrad, Kharkov, Magadan and Dubna, the Soviet atomic center. In mid- Marah, 99 mathematicians, including seven Lenin Prize winners, rallied around Yese- nin-Volpin (who is- both an underground poet and a mathematician) in, a protest aginst his forcible confinement in a lunatic asylum after he had participated in the Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 S 10306 Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE September 5, 1968 demonstration outside the courtroom at the Ginzburg trial. The central issue raised by all thew pro- tests (none of which was even mentioned in the Soviet press) was perhaps most elo- quently defined by Pyotr Yakir In an appeal which is now being widely circulated in Mos- cow. "The Inhuman punishment of mem- bers of the Intelligentsia is a logical exten- sion of the atmosphere of public life In re- cent year," he wrote. "The process of the res- toration of Stalinism Is going on-slowly but remorselessly." "The naive hopes" encour- aged by de-Stalinization In 1958 and 1961 have not been realized. On the contrary, "the name of Stalin is being pronounced from the highest platforms In an entirely positive context." Yakir, who spent 17 years in a Stalinist camp, deplores the fact that 10th-rate books praising Stalin are being published, while those that describe his crimes are being sup- pressed. His statement ends with an appeal to creative people in Russia to "raise your voices against the impending danger of new Stalin and Yezhovs. . We remind you that people who dared to think are now lan- guishing in harsh forcer-labor camps. Every time you are silent, another stepping-stone is added, leading to new trial of a Daniel or a Ginzburg. Little by little, with your ac- quiescence, a new 1937 may tome upon us." Does the future hold a return to terror on the scale of the great purges of 1937-38? Clearly, the Soviet leadership finds itself in an impossible dilemma. On the one hand, it must now be clear that much larger doses of terror must be administered if the tntelll- gentala Is to be silenced, and its influence on public opinion curbed. One sinister omen was contained in an article In Pravda last March 3. in which the recent Moscow trials were said to be as justified as the purge trials of the thirties-trials that have scarcely been mentioned favorably in the Soviet press since Khrushchev's de-Stalinization speech in 1958. On the other hand, the cost of a return to mass police terror would be incalculably high. It would reverse the effect of all Soviet poli- cies designed to bring Russia Into competi- tion with the modern world, including those that offer individual incentives for Industrial production and technological and scientific creativity. Moreover, the internal dynamic of the Stalinist police state, once provided by the myth of Stalin and by ideology, could not be restored in a society now rent by skep- ticism and dissent. Finally, a powerful secret police apparatus on the Stalinist model might well devour the political leaders who had revived It. How Brezhnev and Kosygin will deal with this critical situation is still unclear. On the surface it would seem that a brutal showdown Is at hand. Yet the Soviet leaders may be borne by the force of Inertia and indecision that has determined their handling of other crises, both domestic and foreign. If so, we may be certain that the aspirations of the liberal intelligentsia, rising now for more than a decade, will continue to confront the leadership In irreversible and Irremediable conflict. [From the New York Times, July 22, 1968] TExT OF ESSAY BY RUSSIAN NUCLEAR PHYSICIST URGING Sovrx'r-AMERICAN COOPSaATiON (NoTE.-Following Is the text of an essay. titled "Thoughts on Progress, Peaceful Co- existence and Intellectual Freedom," by Academician Andrei D. Sakharov, Soviet physicist, as translated by The New York Times from the Russian manuscript.) The views of the author were formed in the milieu of the scientific and scientific- technological Intelligentsia, which manifests much anxiety over the principles and specific aspects of foreign and domestic policy and over the future of mankind. This anxiety is nourished, In particular, by a realization that the scientific method of directing pol- icy, the economy, arts, education and military affairs still has not become a reality. We regard as "scientific" a method based on deep analysis of facts, theories and views, presupposing unprejudiced, unfearing open discussion and conclusions. The complexity and diversity of all the phenomena of mod- ern life, the great possibilities and dangers linked with the scientific-technical revolu- tion and with a number of social tendencies demand precisely such an approach, as has been acknowledged in a number of official statements. In this pamphlet, advanced for discussion by its readers, the author has set himself the goal to present, with the greatest conviction and frankness, two theses that are supported by many people in the world. The theses are: III The division of mankind threatens it with destruction. Civilization Is imperiled by: a universal thermonuclear war, catastrophic hunger for most of mankind, stupefaction from the narcotic of "mass culture" and bu- reaucratized dogmatism, a spreading of mass myths that put entire peoples and continents under the power of cruel and treacherous demagogues, and destruction or degeneration from the unforeseeable consequences of swift changes in the conditions of life on our planet. In the face of these perils, any action in- creasing the division of mankind, any preaching of the incompatibility of world Ideologies and nations Is madness and a crime. Only universal cooperation under con- ditions of Intellectual freedom and the lofty moral Ideals of socialism and labor, accom- panied by the elimination of dogmatism and pressures of the concealed interests of ruling classes, will preserve civilization. The reader will understand that ideologi- cal collaboration cannot apply to those fa- natical, sectarian and extremist Ideologies that reject all possibility of rapprochement, discussion and compromise, for example, the Ideologies of Fascist, racist, militaristic and Maoist demagogy. Millions of people throughout the world are striving to put an end to poverty. They de- spise oppression, dogmatism and demagogy (and their more extreme manifestations- racism, Fascism. Stalinism and Maoism). They believe in progress based on the use, under conditions of social justice and Intel- lectual freedom, of all the positive experience accumulated by mankind. The second basic thesis is that Intellec- tual freedom is essential to human society- freedom to obtain and distribute Informa- tion, freedom for open-minded and unfearing debate and freedom from pressure by ofH- claldoni and prejudices. Such a trinIty of freedom of thought is the only guarantee against an infection of people by mass myths, which, in the hands of treacherous hypo- crites and demagogues, can be transformed Into bloody dictatorship. Freedom of thought is the only guarantee of the feasibility of a scientific democratic approach to politics, economy and culture. But freedom of thought is under a triple threat in modern society-from the opium of mass culture, from cowardly, egotistic and narrow-minded Ideologies and from the ossi- fied dogmatism of a bureaucratic oligarchy and its favorite weapon, ideological censor- ship. Therefore, freedom of thought requires the defense of all thinking and honest people. This is a mission not only for the intelllgen- tale, but for all strata of society, particularly its most active and organized stratum, the working class. The worldwide dangers of war, famine, cults of personality and bureau- cracy-these are perils for all of mankind. Recognition by the -working class and the Intelligentsia of their common Interests has been a striking phenomenon of the present day. The most progressive, Internationalist and dedicated element of the intelligentsia is, In essence, part of the working class, and the most, advanced, educated, International- ist, and broad-minded part of the working class is part of the Intelligentsia. This position cf the intelligentsia in so- ciety renders senseless any loud demands that the intelligentsia subordinate its striv- ings to the will and interests of the working class (in the Soviet Union, Polandand other socialist countries). What these demands really mean is subordination to the will of the party or, even more specifically, to the party's central apparatus and its officials. Who will guarantee that thes-, officials al- ways express the genuine - interests of the working rlass as a whole and the genuine in- terests of progress rather than their own caste Interests? We will divide this pamphlet into two parts. Tie first we will title "Dangers," and the second, "The Basis of Hope." DANGERS The threat of nuclear mar Three technical aspects of thermonuclear weapons have made thermonuclear war a peril to the very existence of humanity. These aspects are: the enormous destructive power of a thermonuclear explosion, the rela- tive cheapness of rocket-thermonuclear weapons and the practical impossibility of an effective defense against a massive rocket- nuclear attack. [11 - Today one can consider a three-megaton nuclear Warhead as "typical" (this is some- where between the warhead of a Minureman and of a Titan II). The area of fires from the explosion of such a warhead Is 150 times greater than from the Hiroshiua bomb and the area of destruction is 30 times greater. The detonation of such a warhead over a city would create a 100-square-kilometer [40 square-mile] area of total destruction and fire. Tens of millions of square meters of living space would be destroyed. No fewer than a million people would perish under the ruins of buildings, from fire and radiation, suffo- cate in the dust and smoke or ale in shelters buried under debris. In the event of a ground- level explosion, tho fallout of radioactive dust would create a danger of fatal exposure in an area of ;ens of thousands of square kilo- meters. [21 A few words about the cost and the possible number of explosion. After the stage of research and develop- ment has been pissed, mass production of thermonuclear weapons and carrier rockets Is no more complex and expensive than, for example, the production of military aircraft, which were produced by the tens of thou- sands during the war. The annual production of plutonium In the world now is in the tens of thousands of ton. If one assumes that half this output goes for military purposes-and that an aver- age of serveal kilograms of plutonium goes into One warhead, then enough warheads have already been accumulated to destroy mankind many times over. [3I The third aspect of thermonuclear peril (along with the power and cheapness of warheads) is what we term the practical im- possibllitr of preventing a massive rocket attack. This situation Is well known tc. spe- cialists. In the popular scientific literature, for example, one inn read this In an article by Richard L. Garwin and Hans A. Bathe in the Scientific American of March, 1968. The technology and tactics of attack have now far surpassed the technology of defense despite the development of highly maneu- verable and powerful antimisslles with nu- clear warheads and despite other technical ideas, such as the use of laser rays and so forth. Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CSI P7g9P 8000300190054-6 S 10307 September 5, 1968 CONGRESSIONAL. RE Improvements in the resistance of war- Every rational creature, finding itself on the a Way that its immediate and long-range heads to shock waves and to the radiation - brink of a disaster, first tries to get away effects will in no way sharpen international effects of neutron and x-ray exposure, the from the brink and only then does it think tensions and will not create difficulties for possibility of mass use of relatively light and about the satisfaction of its other needs. If either side that would strengthen the forces inexpensive decoys that are virtually indis- mankind is to get away from the brink, it of reaction, militarism, nationalism, Fascism tinguishable from warheads and exhaust the must overcome its divisions. and revanchism. capabilities of an antimissile defense system, A vital step would be a review of the tra- International affairs must be completely a perfection of tactics of massed and con- ditional method of international affairs, permeated with scientific methodology and centrated attacks, in time and space, that which may be termed "empirical-competi- a democratic spirit, with a fearless weighing overstrain the defense detection centers, the tive." In the simplest definition, this is a of all facts, views and theories, with maxi- use of orbital and fractional-orbital attacks, method aiming at maximum improvement of mum publicity of ultimate and intermediate the use of active and -passive jamming and one's position everywhere possible and, si- goals and with a consistency of principles. other methods not disclosed in the press- multaneously, a method of causing maxi- New Principles Proposed all this has created technical and economic mum unpleasantness to opposing forces The international policies of the world's obstacles to an effective missile defense that, without consideration of con mon welfare two leading superpowers policies (es United States at the present time, are virtually insur- and common interests. two the Soviet Union) must be based on a mountable. If politics were a game of two gamblers, universal, acceptance unified and de on ral The experience of past wars shows that then this would be the only possible method. principles, which we initially would for- ch a method lead in the d oes su mutate as follows: the first use of a new technical or tactical But where method of attack is usually highly effective present unprecedented situation? Ill even if a simple antidote can soon be de- The War in Vietnam All peoples have the right to decide their veloped. But in a thermonuclear war the first In Vietnam, the forces of reaction lacking own fate with a free expression of will. This null and void years of work and billions their favor, are using the force of military over observance by all governments of the spent on creation of an antimissile, system. pressure. They,, are violating all -legal and "Declaration of the Rights of Man." Inter- An exception to this would be the case moral norms and are carrying out flagrant national control presupposes the use of eco- of a great technical and economic difference crimes against humanity. An entire people nomic sanctions as well as the use of military in the potentials of two enemies. In such a is being sacrificed to the proclaimed goal of forces of the United Nations in defense of case, the stronger side, creating an anti- stopping the "communist tide." "the rights of man." missile defense system with a multiple re- They strive to conceal from the American (2] serve, would face the temptation of ending people considerations of personal and party All military and military-economic forms the dangerous and unstable balance once prestige, the cynicism and cruelty, the and for all by embarking on a pre-emptive hopelessness and ineffectiveness of the anti- of export of revolution and counterrevolu- adventure, expending part of its attack po- tion are illegal and are tantamount to ag Communist tasks of American policy in Viet- gression. tential on destruction of most of the enemy's nam, as well as the harm this war is doing I31 launching bases and counting on impunity to the true goals of the American people, for the last stage of escalation, i.e., the- de- which coincide with the universal tasks of All countries strive toward mutual help struction of the cities and industry of the bolstering peaceful coexistence. in economic, cultural and general organiza- enemy.- - To end the war in Vietnam would first of tional problems with the aim of eliminating Fortunately for the stability of the world, all save the people perishing there. But it painlessly all domestic and international the difference between the technical-eco- also is a matter of saving peace in all the difficulties and preventing a sharpening of nomic potentials of the Soviet Union and the world. Nothing undermines the possibilities international tensions and a strengthening United States is not so great that one of the of peaceful coexistence more than a contin- of the forces of reaction. sides could undertake a "preventive aggres- uation of the war in Vietnam. [4] - sion" without an alihost inevitable risk of a destructive retaliatory blow. This situation The Middle East International policy does not aim at ex- conditions to widen would not be changed by a broadening of Another tragic example is the Middle East. plotting zones of local, , specific polific and create conditions aim iden the arms - race through the development of If direct responsibility on Vietnam rests with another Influence The goal create inteunaes for l antimissile defenses. the United States, in the.Middle East direct ano ano h -to insure universal fulfillment al In the opinion of many people, an opinion responsibility rests not with the United policy is the "Declaration Insure the Rights " and f Man Man d shared by the author, a diplomatic formula- States but with the Soviet Union (and with to prevent Decl sharpening of international tion of this mutually comprehended situa- Britain in 1948 and 1956). ton rand a a str ning ol tion for example, in the form of a mora- On one hand, there was an irresponsible and nationalist ten. torium on the construction of antimisile encouragement of so-called Arab unity of a would in no way systems, would be a useful demonstration (which in no way had a socialist character- Such a set t of principles ouldry aa- of a desire of the Soviet Union and the look at Jordan-but was purely nationalist be be a h a betrayal of revolutionary States to preserve the status quo and anti-Israel). It was said that the struggle tional liberation struggle, , the struggle and d na- United t counterrevolution. and not to widen the arms race for sense- of the Arabs had an essentially anti-imperial- reaction ntminvolut of On all doubtful the coa cbnlessly expensive antimissile systems. It would 1st character. On the other hand, there was trary, y, with and be a demonstration of a desire to cooperate an equally irresponsible encouragement of cases, It would be easier to take decisive not to fight. Israeli extremists. action in those extreme cases of reaction, Two Doctrines Decried We cannot here analyze the entire con- racism and militarism that allow no course tradictory and tragic history of the events other than armed struggle. A strengthening A thermonuclear war cannot be considered of the last 20 years, in the course of which of peaceful coexistence would create an op- a continua of politics (according ttothe formula by C ausewit ). the Arabs and Israel, along with historically phrte nit G avert such tragic events as It,would be a means of universal suicide. justified actions, carried out reprehensible deeds, often brought about by the actions of Such a set of principles would present the Two kther onuc attempts ar ware a being made to external forces. - Soviet armed forces with a precisely defined s an politic l act i the eyes war ordinon defensive mission, a mission of defending Os ne isa the ct conthe f o". public opinion. Thus in 1195, Lsel waged a defensive our country and our allies from aggression. One the of the "paper r tiger," the war. But in 1956, the actions of Israel ap- As history has shown, our people and their concept of the irresponsible Maoist adven- geared reprehensible. The preventive six-day armed forces are unconquerable when they turists. The other is the strategic doctrine war in the face of threats of destruction by are defending their homeland and its great of escalation, worked out by scientific and merciless, numerically vastly superior forces social and cultural achievements. militarist circles in the United States. With- of the Arab coalition could have been justi- out minimizing the seriousness of the chal- fiable. But the cruelty to refugees and pris- Hunger and overpopulation lenge inherent in that doctrine, we will just oners of war and the striving to settle terri- Specialists are paying attention to a grow- note that the political strategy of peaceful torial questions by military means must be ing threat of hunger in the poorer half of the coexistence is an effective counterweight to condemned. Despite this condemnation, the world. Although the b0 per cent increase of the doctrine. breaking of relations with Israel appears a the- world's population in the last 30 years A complete destruction of cities, industry, mistake, complicating a peaceful settlement has been accompanied by a 70 per cent in- transport and systems of education,' a poi- in this region and complicating a necessary crease in food production, the balance in soning of fields, water and air by radioac diplomatic recognition of Israel by the Arab the poorer half of the world has been un- tivity, a physical destruction of the large part governments. favorable. The situation in India, Indonesia, of mankind, poverty, barbarism, a return to In our opinion, certain changes must be in a number of countries of Latin America savagery and a genetic degeneracy of the made in the conduct of international affairs, and in a large number of other underde- survivors under the impact of radiation, a systematically subordinating all concrete veloped countries-the absence of technical- destruction of the material and information aims and local tasks to the basic task of economic reserves, competent officials and basis of civilization-this is a measure of actively preventing an aggravation of the cultural skills, social backwardness, a high the peril that threatens the world as a re- international situation, of actively pursuing birth rate-all this systematically worsens sult of the estrangement of the world's two and expanding peaceful coexistence to the the food balance and without doubt will superpowers. level of cooperation, of making policy in such, continue to worsen It in the coming years. Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 S 10308 Approved For p 5 $/03RECORRD -. SENATE September 5, 1968 The answer would be a wide application of fertilizers, an improvement of irrigation systems, better farm technology, wider use of the resources of the oceans and a gradual perfection of the production, already techni- cally feasible, of synthetic foods, primarily amino acids. However, this is all fine for the rich nations. In the more backward coun- tries, it is apparent from an analysis of the situation and existing trends that an Im- provement cannot be achieved in the near future, before the expected date of tragedy, 1945-80. What Is Involved is a prognosticated de- terioration of the average food balance in which localized food crises merge into a sea of hunger, Intolerable suffering and despera- tion, the grief and fury of millions of people. This is a tragic threat to all mankind. A catastrophe of such dimensions cannot but have profound consequences for the entire world and for every human being. It will pro- voke a wave of wars and hatred, a decline of standards of living throughout the world and will leave a tragic, cynical and anti- Communist mark on the life of future generations. The first reaction of a Philistine in hear- ing about the problem is that "they" are responsible for their plight because "they" reproduce so rapidly. Unquestionably, con- trol of the birth rate is important and the people, In India for example, are taking steps In this direction. But these steps re- main largely ineffective under social and economic backwardness, surviving traditions of large families, an absence of old-age bene- fits, a high Infant mortality rate until, quite recently, and a continuing threat of death from starvation. It is apparently futile only to insist that the more backward countries restrict their birth rates. What is needed most of all in economic and technical assistance to these countries. This assistance must be of such scale and generosity that it Is absolutely Impossible before the estrangement in the world and the egotistical, narrow-minded approach to relations between nations and races is eliminated. It is impossible as long as the United States and the Soviet Union, the world's two great superpowers, look upon each other as rivals and opponents. Social factors play an Important role in the tragic present situation and the still more tragic future of the poor regions. It must be clearly understood that if a threat of hunger Is, along with a striving toward national Independence, the main cause of "agrarian" revolution, the "agrarian" revo- lution in itself will not eliminate the threat of hunger, at least not in the Immediate future. The threat of hunger cannot be eli- minated without the assistance of the de- veloped countries, and this requires signifi- cant changes in their foreign and domestic policies. Inequality of American Negroes At this time, the white citizens of the 'United States are unwilling to accept even minimum sacrifices to eliminate the un- equal economic and cultural position of the country's black citizens, who make up 10 per cent of the population, It is necessary to change the psychology of the American citizens so that they will voluntarily and generously support their government and worldwide efforts to change the economy, technology and level of living of billions of people. This, of course, would entail a serious decline in the United States rate of economic growth, The Americans should be willing to do this solely for the sake of lofty and distant goals, for the sake of preserving civilization and mankind on our planet. Similar changes In the psychology of peo- ple and practical activities of governments must be achieved in the Soviet Union and other developed countries. In the opinion of the author, a 15-year tax equal to 20 per cent of national incomes must be imposed on developed nations. The imposition of such a tax would automati- cally lead to a significant reduction In ex- penciltures for weapons. Such common as- sistance would have an Important effect of stabilizing and improving the situation In the most under-developed countries, re- stricting the Influence of extremists of all types. Changes in the economic situation of un- derdeveloped countries would solve the prob- lem of high birth rates with relative ease, as has been shown by the experience of devel- oped countries, without the barbaric method of sterilization. Certuln changes in the policies, viewpoints and trsuittions on this delicate question are inescapable In the advanced countries as well. Mankind can develop smoothly only if it looks upon itself in a demographic sense as a unit, a single family without divisions into nations other than in matters of history and traditions. Therefore, government policy, legislation on the family and marriage and propaganda should not encourage an increase in the birth rates of advanced countries while de- manding that it be curtailed In under- developed countries that are receiving as- sistance. Such a two-faced game would pro- duce, nothing but bitterness and national- Ism. In conclusion on that point. I want to em- phasize that the question of regulating birth rates Is highly complex and that any standardized, dogmatic solution "for all time and all peoples" would be wrong. All the fore- go'ng, Incidentally, should be accepted with the reservation that It is somewhat of a simplification. - Pollution of Environment We live in a swiftly changing world. In- dustrial and water-engineering projects, cut- ting of forests, plowing up of virgin lands, the use of poisonous chemicals-all this is changing the face of the earth, our "habitat." Scientific study of all the interrelation- ships in nature and the consequences of our interference clearly lag behind the changes. Large amounts of harmful wastes of Industry and transport are being dumped Into the air and water, including cancer-inducing sub- stances. Will the safe limit be passed every- where, as has already happened in a number of places? Carbon dioxide from the burning of coal is altering the heat-reflecting qualities of the atmosphere. Sooner or later, this will reach a dangerous level. But we do not know when. Poisonous chemicals used in agricul- ture are penetrating Into the body of man and animals directly and In more dangerous modified compounds, causing serious damage to the brain, the nervous system, blood- forming organs, the liver and other organs. Here, too, the sate limit can be easily crossed, but the question has not been fully studied and it is difficult to control all these processes. The use of antibiotics in poultry raising has led to the development of new disease- causing microbes that are resistant to anti- biotics. I could also mention the problems of dumping detergents and radioactive wastes, erosion and salinization of soils, the flooding (f meadows, the cutting of forests on moun- tain slopes and in watersheds, the destruc- tion of birds and other useful wildlife like toads and frogs and many other examples of aerseless despoliation caused by local, tem- porary, bureaucratic and egotistical interest and sometimes simply by questions of bureaucratic prestige, as In the sad fate of Lake Baikal. The problem of geohyglene (earth hygiene) Is highly complex and closely tied to economic and social problems. This problem can there- fore not be soled on a national and espe- cially rot on a local basis. The salvation of our environment requires that we overcome our divisions and the pressure of temporary, local Interests. Otherwise, the Soviet Union will poison the United States with it-. wastes and vice versa. At present, this is a hyper- bole. But with a 10 per cent annual Increase of wastes, the increase over 100 years will be 20,000 times. Police dictatorships An extreme reflection of the dangers con- fronting modern social development is the growth of racism, nationalism and milita- rism and, in particular, the rise of demagogic, hypocritical and monstrously cruel dictato- rial poEce regimes. Foremost are the regimes of Stalin. Hitler and Mao Tee-tong, and a number of extremely reactionary regimes in smaller countries, Spain, Portugal, South Africa, Greece, A=bania. Haiti and other Latin American countries. These tragic developments have always de- rived from the struggle of egotistical and group interests, the struggle for unlimited power, Suppression of intellectual freedom, a spread of intellectually simplified, rarrow- minded mass m_rtbs (the myth of race, of land and blood, the myth about the Jewish danger, anti-intellectualism, the concept of lebensraum In Germany, the myth about the sharpening of the class struggle and proletarian Infallibility bolstered by Vie cult of Stalin and by exaggeration of the contra- dictions with capitalism in the Soviet Union, the myth about Mao Tse-tung, extreme Chi- nese nationalism and the resurrection of the lebensraum concept, of anti-intellectualism, extreme antihumanism and certain preju- dices of ;peasant socialism In China). The usual practice is the use of demagogy, storm troopers and Red Guards In the first stage and terrorl&t bureaucracy with reliable cadres cf the type of Eichmenn, Himmler, Yezhov and Berta at the summit of the deification of unlimited power. The Rule of Hitler The world will never forget the burning of books In the squares of German cities, the hysterical cannibalistic speeches of the Fas- cist "fuebrers" and their even more canni- balistic plans for the destruction of entire peoples, Including the Russians. Fascism be- gan a partial realization of these plans dur- ing the war it unleashed, annihilating pris- oners of war and hostages, burning villages, carrying out a criminal policy of genocide (during the war, the main blow of genocide was aimed at the Jews, a policy that appar- ently was also meant to be provocative espe- cially in the Ukraine and Poland). We shall never forget the kilometer-long trenches filled wlbh bodies, the gas cham- bers, the SS dogs, the fanatical doctors, the piles of women's hair, suitcases with gold teeth and fertilizer from the factories of death. Analyz,ng the causes of Hitler's coming to power, we will never forget the role of Ger- man and international monopolist capital. We also will not forget the criminally see- tartan and dogmatically narrow policies of Stalin and his associates, setting Socialists and Communists against one another (this has been well related in the famous let- ter to Ilya Ehrenturg by Ernst Henri). The Stalinist Period Fascism lasted 12 years in Germany. Stal- inism lasted twice as long in the Solve. Un- ion. There are many common features but also certain differences. Stalinism exhibited a much more subtle kind of hypocrisy and demagogy, with reliance not on an ooenly cannibalistic program like Hitler's but on a progressive, scientific and popular socialist ideology. This served as a convenient screen for de- ceiving the working class, for weakening the vigilance of the Intellectuals and other rivals in the straggle for power, with the treacher- Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 September 5, 1968 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE S 10309 ous and sudden use of the machinery of views. Well, there is nothing like contro- this article, which focuses on another aspect torture, execution and Informants, intimi- versy! Actually the views of the present au- of the problem. dating and making fools of millions of peo- thor are profoundly socialist and he hopes It is imperative that we restrict in every ple, the majority of whom were neither that the attentive reader will understand possible way the Influence of neo-Stalinists cowards nor fools. As a consequence of this this, in our political life. Here we are compolled "specific feature" of Stalinism, it was the So- The author is quite aware of the son. to mention a specific person. One of the viet people, its most active, talented and strous relations in human and international most influential representatives of neo- honest representatives, who suffered the affairs brought forth by the egotistical prin- Stalinism at the present time is the director most terrible blow. ciple of capital when it is not under pros- of the Science Department of the Commu- At least 10 to 16 million people perished sure from socialist and progressive forces. He nist party's Central Committee, Sergei P. in the torture chambers of the N.K.V.D. also thinks however, that progressives in the Trapeznikov. The leadership of our country [secret police] from torture and execution, West understand this better than lie does and our people should know that the views in camps for exiled kulaks [rich peasants] and are waging a struggle against these of this unquestionably intelligent, shrewd and so-called seml-kulaks and members of manifestations. The author is concentrating and highly consistent man are basically their families and in camps "without the his attention on what is before his eyes and Stalinist (from our point of view, they re- right of correspondence" (which were In on what is obstructing, from his point of flect the interests of the bureaucratic elite). fact the prototypes of the Fascist death view, a worldwide overcoming of estrange- His views differ fundamentally from the camps where, for example, thousands of ment, obstructing the struggle for demos- dreams and aspirations of the majority and prisoners were machine-gunned because of racy, social progress and intellectual freedom, most active section of the intelligentsia, overcrowding" or as a result of "special Our country path in our opinion, reflect the true in- orders"), has started on the ath of Peo le cleansing away the forted foulness of Stalinism. terests of all our people and progressive p perished. in the mines of Norilsk "We are squeezing the slave out of ourselves mankind. The lea]ership of our country and Vorkuta from freezing, starvation and drop by drop" p should understand that as long exhausting labor, at countless construction ho v). (an oxce to Anton Chen- man (If I correctly understand the nature projects,. In timber cutting, building of ca- ions, ? th are e taking the taking th to express our oases of his views) exercises influence, it is 1m- nals or simply during transportation in d without , without lead from the bosses prison trains, in the overcrowded holds of an fearing for our lives. possible party's g soscientific a of the An hope "death ships" in the Sea of Okhotsk and dur- Khrushchov Is Credited intts tu to intellectuals. position Indication among tnn this and was artistic last wgiven lug the resettlement of entire peoples, the The beginning of this arduous and far at the he last elections In fn the Academy of Sci- Crimean Tatars, the Volga Germans, the from straight path evidently dates from the ences when S.P. Trapeznikov was rejected Kalmyks and other Caucasus peoples, Read- report of Nikita S. Khrushchov to the 20th by a substantial majority of votes, but this .ors of the literary journal Novy Mir recently congress of the Soviet Communist party. This hint was not "understood" by the leader- could read for themselves a description of bold speech, which came as a surprise to ship. the "road of death" between Norilsk and Stalin's accomplices in crime, and a number The Issue does not involve the professional Igarka [in northern Siberia], of associated measures-the release of him- or personal qualities of Trapeznikov, about Molotov,Yezhov, sZhclnov, Malenkov Berra), their rehabilitation, steps political toward prisoners a revival of po itical views. I have based Issue the foregoing on but the antipeoplc's regime of Stalin re- the principles of peaceful coexistence and word-of-mouth evidence, Therefore, r can- main equally cruel and at the same time toward a, revival of democracy-oblige us to not in principle exclude the possibility (al- dogmatically narrow and blind in its cruelty, value highly the historic role of Khrushchov though It is unlikely) that In reality every- The killing of military and engineering offl- despite his rogrotable mistakes of a volun- thing is quite the opposite. In that pleasant dais before the war, the blind faith in the tarist character in subsequent years and de- event, I would beg forgiveness and retract "reasonableness" of the colleague In crime, spite the fact that Khrushchov, while Stalin what I have written. Hitler, and the other reasons for the na- was alive, was one of his collaborators In tiemal tragedy of 1941 have been Well de- crime, occupying a number of influential CULT OF scribed in trio book by Nekrich, in the notes posts. In recent t years, demagogy, violence, of Maj. Gen. Grigorenko and other publi- The exposure of Stalirilenl In our countr cruelty and vileness have seized a, great cations-these are far from the only exam- still has a long way to y socialist that had embarked on the path to plea of the combination of crime, narrow- g y o, It u imperative, socialist development. I refer, of course, to of course, that we publish all athantin ""_ mindedness and sh t i or -s ghtedness, Stalinist dogmatism and isolation from real life was demonstrated particularly in the countryside, In the policy of unlimited exploitation and the predatory forced de- liveries at "symbolic" prices, In the almost serf-like enslavement of the peasantry, the depriving of peasants of the most simple means of mechanization and the appoint- ment of collective-farm chairmen on the basis of their cunning and obsequiousness. The results are evident. pr,,.r..und and uments, including the archives of the -11- - Le IuLpusszoie witnout horror and pain N.K,V,D., and conduct nationwide invests a- to read about the Mass contagion of antillumanism g being spread ss spread by "the t "he great tions. It would be highly useful for the in- helmsman" aand his s accomplices, about the ternational authority of the Soviet Cominu- Red Guards who, according to the Chinese nest party and the ideals of socialism if, -as radio, "jumped with joy" during public ex- was planned in 1964 but never carried out, ecutions of "Ideological enemies" of Chair- the party were to announce the "symbolic" man Mao, expulsion of Stalin, murderer of millions of The idiocy of the cult of personality has party members, and at the same time the assumed In China monstrous, grotesquely political rehabilitation of the victims of tragicomic forms, carrying to the point of Stalinism, absurdit .--.._ r.._?_.____ of th man y e y m party members, half of the total member- effective in making fools of tens of millions and. way of life in the countryside, which, ship, were arrested. Only 50,000 regained free- of people and. in destroying and humiliating by the law of interconnected vessels, dam- dom; the others were tortured during inter- millions of more honest and more intelli- aged industry as well. rogation or were shot (600,000) or died in gent people. The inhuman character of Stalinism was carrLps Only in isolated cases were the re- demonstrated by the repressions of prisoners habilitated allowed to assume responsible is The full picture any the tragedy in China of War who survived Fascist camps and then posts; even fewer permitted to But in say case, it it the internal Impossile were thrown into Stalinist camps, the anti- the investigation were to take part o look c it in isolation of oC from tthe col- worker "decrees," the criminal exile of en- had been witnesses of crimes of which they economic difficulties or China after the col- tire potpies condemned to slow death, the had or victims. lapse of the adventure of "the great leap unenlightened zoological kind of anti-sem- We are often told lately not to "rub salt forward," In isolation from the struggle by itism that was characteristic of Stalinist bu- into wounds," This is usually being said by various groups for power, or in isolation from reaucracy and the N.K.V.D. (and Stalin per- people who suffered no wounds. Actually only the foreign political situation-the war in tonally), the the Ukrainophobia, characteristic the most meticulous analysis of the past and Vietnam, the estrangement in the world and of Stalin and the draconian laws for the pro- of Its consequences will now enable us to the inadequate' and lagging struggle against section of socialist property (five years' im- wash off the blood and dirt that befouled our Stalinism in the Soviet Union, prisoninent for stealing some grain from the banner. The greatest damage from Maoism is often fields and so .forth) that served mainly as It is sometimes suggested in the liters- seen in the split of the world Communist a means of fulfilling the demands of the turo that the political manifestations of movement. That is, of course, not so. The "slave market." Stalinism represented a sort of superstruc- split is the result of a disease and to some An Unpublished History Lture eninist over the economic basis of an anti- extent represents the way to treat that dis- A?profound analys% is of the origin and de- formation In the Soviet Union of e, distinct unity lw uld have beenf a the disease, a dangerous, unprmin- velopment of Stalinism is contained in the class-a bureaucratic elite from which all ofpled compromise that would have led the 1,000-pa.go monograph of R. Medvedev. This key positions are filled and which is rewarded world Communist movement, into a blind was written from a socialist, Marxist point for its work through open and concealed alley once and for all. of view and is a successful work, but un- privileges. I cannot deny that there is some Actually the crimes of the Maoists against fortunately it has not yet been published. (but not the whole) truth In such aninter- human rights have gone much too far, and The present author is not likely to receive pretation, which would help explain the the Chinese people are now in much greater such a compliment from Comrade Medvedev, vitality of neo-Stalinism, but a full analysis need of help from the world's demoratio who finds elements of "Westernism" in his of this Issue would go beyond the scope of forces to defend their rights than in need Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 S 10310 Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE September 5, 1968 of the unity of the world's Communist forces, in the Maoist sense, for the purpose of com- batting the so-called imperialist peril some- where in Africa or in Latin America. or In the Middle East. The threat to intellectual freedom This is a threat to the independence and worth of the human personality, a threat to the meaning of human life. Nothing threatens freedom of the personal- ity and the meaning of life like war, poverty, terror. But there are also Indirect and only slightly more remote dangers. One of these is the stupefaction of man (the "gray mass", to use the cynical term of bourgeois prognosticators) by mass cul- ture with its intentional or commercially motivated lowering of Intellectual level and content, with Its stress on entertainment or utilitarianism, and with Its carefully protec- tive centorship. Another example is related to the question of education. A system of education under government control, separation of school and church, universal free education--all these are great achievements of social prog- ress. But everything has a reverse side. In this case it Is excessive standardization, ex- tending to the teaching process itself, to the curriculum, especially In literature, history, civics, geography, and to the system of examinations. One cannot but see a danger in excessive reference to authority and in the limitation of discussion and Intellectual boldness at an age when personal convictions are beginning to be formed. In the old China, the system of examinations for official positions led to mental stagnation and to the canonizing of the reactionary aspects of Confucianism. It is highly undesirable to have anything like that In a modern society. Modern technology and mass psychology constantly suggest new possibilities of man- aging the norms of behavior, the strivings and convictions of masses of people. This involves not only management through in- formation based on the theory of advertising and mass psychology, but also more technical methods that are widely discussed in the press abroad. Examples are biochemical con- trol of the birth rate, biochemical control of psychic processes and electronic control of such processes. Warns on Experiments It seems to me that we cannot completely ignore these new methods or prohibit the progress of science and technology, but we must be clearly aware of the awesome dangers to basic human values and to the meaning of life that may be concealed in the misuse of technical and biochemical methods and the methods of mass psychology. Man must not be turned into a chicken or a rat as in the well known experiments In which elation is induced electrically through electrodes inserted Into the brain. Related to this is the question of the ever Increasing use of tranquillizers and antidepressants, legal and illegal narcotics, and so forth. We also must not forget the very real dan- ger mentioned by Norbert Wiener In his book "Cybernetics," namely the absence In cybernetic machines of stable human norms of behavior. The tempting, unprecedented power that mankind, or, even worse, a par- ticular group in a divided mankind, may derive from the wise counsels of its future intellectual aides, the artificial "thinking" automata, may be, as Wiener warned, become a fatal trap; the counsels may turn out to be incredibly insidious and, instead of pursuing Let us now return to the dangers of today, to the need for Intellectual freedom, which will enable the public at large and the in- telligentsia to control and asses all acts, designs and decisions of the ruling group. Marx and Lenin Quoted Marx once wrote that the Illusion that the "bosses know everything best" and "only the higher circles familiar with the official nature of things can pass judgment" was held by officials who equate the public weal with governmental authority. Both Marx and Lenin always stressed the viciousness of a bureaucratic system as the opposite of a democratic system. Lenin used to say that every cook should learn how to govern. Now the diversity and complexity of social phenomena and the dangers facing mankind have become Immeasurably greater; and It is therefore all the more important that mankind be protected against the dan- ger of dogmatic and voluntaristic errors, which are inevitable when decisions are reached In a closed circle of secret advisers or shadow cabinets. it is no wonder that the problem of cen- sorship (in the broadest sense of the word) has been one of the central issues in the ideological struggle of the last few years. Here is what a progressive American sociolo- gist, Lewis A. Coser, has to say on this point: "It would be absurd to attribute the alien- ation of many avant-garde authors solely to the battle with the censors, yet one may well maintain that those battles contributed In no mean measure to such alienation. To these authors. the censor came to be the very sym- bol of the Pblilistinism, hypocrisy and mean- ness of bourgeois society. "Many an author who was Initially apo- litical was drawn to the political left in the United States because the left was in the forefront of the battle against censorship. The close alliance of avant-garde art with avant-garde political and social radicalism can be accounted for, at least In part, by the fact that they came to be merged in the mind of many as a single battle for freedom against all repression" (I quote from an article by Igor Son, published In Novy Mir In January, 1968). We are all familiar with the passionate and closely argued appeal against censorship by the outstanding Soviet writer A. Solz- henitsyn. He as well as G. Vladimov, G. Svtr- sky and other writers who have spoken out on the subject have clearly shown how in- competent censorship destroys the living soul of Soviet literature; but the same ap- plies. of course, to all other manifestations of social thought, causing stagnation and dullness and preventing fresh and deep ideas. Such Ideas, after all, can arise only In discussion, In the face of objections, only If there Is a potential possibility of expressing not only true, but also dubious ideas. This was clear to the philosophers of anclen: Greece and hardly anyone nowadays would have any doubts on that score. But after 50 years of complete domination over the minds of an entire nation, our leaders seem to fear even allusions to such a discussion. At this point we must touch on some dis- graceful tendencies that have become evi- dent In the last few years. We will cite only a few Isolated examples without trying to create a whole picture. The crippling censor- ship of Soviet artistic and political literature has again been Intensified. Dozens of bril- liant writings cannot see the light of day. They include some of the best of Solzhenit- syn's works, executed with great artistic and objectives, may human y pursue completely moral force and containing profound artistic abstract problems that had been transformed and philosophical generalizations. Is this not in an unforeseen manner in the artificial a disgrace? brain. Wide indignation has been aroused by the Such a. danger will become quite real In a recent decree adopted by the Supreme Soviet few decades if human values, particularly of the Russian Republic, amending the Crim- freedom of thought, will not be strengthened, final Code In direct contravention of the civil if alienation will not be eliminated. rights proclaimed by our Constitution. [The decree included literary protests among acts punishable under Article 190. which deals with fai'ure to report crimes.] Literary 'T'rials Assailed The Daniel-Sinyavsky trial; which has been condemned by the progressive public in the Soviet Union and abroad (from Louis Aragon to Graham Greene) and has com- promised the Communist system, has still not been reviewed. The two writers languish in a camp with a i tract regime and are being subjected (especially Daniel) to harsh humi- liations and ordeals. Most political prisoners are now kepi In a group o' camps in the Mordvinian Republic, where the total number of prisoners, includ- ing criminals, is about 50,000. According to available information, the regime has become increasingly severe In these camps, with per- sonnel left over from Stalinist times playing an increasing _role. It should be said in all fairness that' a certain Improvement has been noted very recently; it is to be hoped that this turn of events will continue. The restoration of Leninist principles of public control over places of Imprisonment would undoubtedly be a healthy develop- ment. Equally important would be a com- plete amnesty of political prisoners, and not just the recent limited amnesty, which was proclaimed on the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution as a result of a tempo- rary victory of rightist tendencies In our leadership. There should also be a review of all political trial; that are still raising doubts among the progressive public. Was it not disgraceful to allow the arrest. 12-month detention without trial ar.d then the conviction and sentencing to terms of five to seven years of Ginzburg, Galanskov and others for activities that actually amounted to a defense of civil liberties and (partly as an example) of Daniel and Sinyav- sky personally. 7'he author of these lines sent an appeal to the party's Central Committee on Feb 11, 1967, asking that the Ginzburg- Galanskov case be closed. He received no reply and no explanations on the substance of the case. It was only later that he heard that there had been an attempt (apparently Inspired by Semichastny, the former chair- man of the K.G.B.) to slander the present writer and several other persons on the basis of inspired false testimony by one of the accused In the' Galanskov-Ginzburg case. Subsequently the testimony of that person- Dobrovolsky-was used at the trial as evi- dence to show that Ginsburg and Galanskov had ties with a foreign anti-Soviet organiza- tion, which one cannot help but doubt. [The reference here Is to evidence given by Dobrovolsky In the pretrial investigation of the case of Vlad,mir Bukovsky, Vadin. Delone and Yevgeny Kushev in early 1967. Dobrovol- sky said there allegedly existed "a single anti-D)rnmunlst front ranging from Acade- mician; Sakharov and Leontovich to SMOG," an iile[;al group of young writers and artists.] Persecution Is Charged Was it not disgraceful to permit the con- viction and sentencing (to three years in camps) of Kha-istov and Bukovsky for par- ticipation in a meeting in defense of their comrac_es? Was it not disgraceful to allow persecution, In the best witchhunt tradition, of dozens of members of the Soviet Intelli- gentsia who spoke out against the arbitrari- ness of judicial and psychiatric agencies, to attempt to form honorable people to sign false. bypoeriti:al "retractions," to dismiss and blacklist people, to deprive young writers, editors and other members of the intelligentsia of all means of existence? Here Is a typical example of this kind of activity. Comrade B., a woman editor of books on motion pictures, was summoned to the party's district committee. The Srxt ques- tion was, Who gave you the letter in defense of Ginzburg to sign? Allow me not to reply to the, question, she answered. All right, you Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 Comtoav,.haM .5_ i Approved For Co Rg~ Rg?Sq ~V f MP7~gR~ 000300190054-6 can go, we want to talk this over, she was The basis for hope told. The decision was to expel the woman The prospects of socialism now depend on from the party and to recommend that she whether socialism can be made attractive, be dismissed from her job and barred from whether the moral attractiveness of the ideas working anywhere else in the field of culture. of socialism and the glorification of labor, With such methods of persuasion and in- compared with the egotistical ideas of pri- doctrination the party can hardly expect to vate ownership and the glorification of capi- claim the role of spiritual leaders of man. tal, will be the decisive factors that people kind. Was it not disgraceful to have the speech at the Moscow party conference by the pres- ident of the Academy of Sciences (Mstislav V. Keldysh), who is evidently either too in- timidated or too dogmatic in his views? Is it not disgraceful to allow another backsliding into anti-Semitism in our appointments policy (incidentally, in the highest bureau- cratic elite of our government, the spirit of anti-Semitism was never fully dispelled after the nineteen thirties). Was it not disgraceful to continue to re- strict the civil rights of the Crimean Tatars, who lost about 46 per cent of their numbers (mainly children and old people) in the Stalinist repressions? Nationality problems will continue to be a reason for unrest and dissatisfaction unless all departures from Leninist principles are acknowledged and analyzed and firm steps are taken to correct mistakes. Is it not highly disgraceful and dangerous to make increasingly frequent attempts, either directly or indirectly (through silence), to publicly rehabilitate Stalin, his associates and his policy, his pseudosocialism of terroristic bureaucracy, a socialism of hy- procrisy and ostentatious growth that was at best a quantitative and one-sided growth in- volving the loss of many qualitative features? (This is a reference to the 1l`asic tendencies and consequences of Stalin's policy, or Stalinism, rather than a comprehensive as- sessment of the entire diversified situation in a huge country with 200 million people.) Although all these disgraceful phenomena are still far from the monstrous scale of the crimes of Stalinism and rather resemble in scope the sadly famous McCarthyism of the cold war era, the Soviet public cannot-but be highly disturbed and indignant and display vigilance even in the face of insignificant manifestations of neo-Stalinism in our country. EFFECT ON OTHER PARTIES We are convinced that the world's Com- munists will also view negatively any attempts to revive Stalinism in our country, which would, after all, be an awful blow to the attractive force of Communist ideas throughout the world. Today the key to a progressive restructur- ing of the system of government in the in- terests of mankind lies in intellectual free- dom. This has been understood, in particular, by the Czechaslovaks and there can be no doubt that we should support their bold initiative, which is so valuable for the future of socialism and all mankind. That support should be political and, in the early stages, include increased economic aid. The situation involving censorship (Glavlit) in our country is such that it can Hardly be corrected for any length of time simply by "liberalized" directives. Major or- ganizational and legislative measures are re- quired, for example, adoption of a special law on press and information that would clearly and convincingly define what can and what cannot be printed and would place the re- sponsibility on competent people who would be under public control. It is essential that the exchange of information on an interna- tional scale (press, tourism and so forth) be expanded in every way, that we get to know ourselves better, that we not try to save on sociological, political and economic research and surveys, which should be conducted not only according to government-controlled pro- grams (otherwise we might be tempted to avoid "unpleasant" subjects and questions). will bear in mind when comparing socialism and capitalism, or whether people will re- member mainly the limitations of intellectu- al freedom under socialism or, even worse, the fascistic regime of the cult [of. person- ality.] I am placing the accent on the moral as- pect because, when it comes to achieving a high- productivity of social labor or devel- oping all productive forces or insuring a high standard of living for most of the popula- tion, capitalism and socialism seem to have "played to a tie." Let us examine this ques- tion in detail. The United States-Soviet Ski Race Imagine two skiers racing through deep snow. At the start of the race, one of them, in striped jacket, was many kilometers ahead, but now the skier in the red jacket is catch- ing up to the leader. What can we say about their relative strength? Not very much, since each skier is racing under different condi- tions. The striped one broke the snow, and the red one did not have to. (The reader will understand that this ski race symbolizes the burden of research and development costs that the country leading in technology has to bear.) All one can say about the race is that there is not much difference in strength between the two skiers. The parable does not, of course, reflect the whole complexity of comparing economic and technological progress in the United States and the Soviet Union, the relative vitality of RRS and AME (Russian Revolutionary Sweep and American Efficiency.) We cannot forget that during much of the period in question the Soviet Union waged a hard war and then healed its wounds; we cannot forget that some absurdities in our development were not an inherent aspect of the socialist course of development, but a tragic accident, a serious, though not in- evitable, disease. On the other hand, any comparison must take account of the fact that we are now catching up with the United States only in some of the old, traditional industries, which are no longer as important as they used to be for the United States (for example, coal and steel). In some of the newer fields, for ex- ample, automation, computers, petrochemi- cals and especially in industrial research and development, we are not only lagging behind but are also growing more slowly, so that a complete victory of our economy in the next few decades is unlikely. It must also be borne in mind that our nation' is endowed with vast natural re- sources, from fertile black earth to coal and forest, from oil to manganese and diamonds. rin the e- d th t d i i g p n a u n m It must be borne riod under review our people worked to the country and thus activate extreme leftist and limit of its capacity, which resulted in a cer- especially extreme rightist parties. It seems tain depletion of resources. to me that we in the socialist camp should be We must also bear in mind the ski-track interested in letting the ruling group in the effect, in which the Soviet Union adopted United States settle the Negro problem with- principles of industrial organization and out aggravating the situation in the country. technological and development previously At the other extreme, the presence of mil- tested in the United States. Examples are the lionaires in the United States is not a seri- method of calculating the national fuel ous economic burden in view of their small budget, assembly-line techniques, anti- number. The total consumption of the rich biotics, nuclear power, oxygen converters in is less than 20 percent, that is, less than the steelmaking, hybrid tarn, self-propelled har- total rise of national consumption over a vester combines, strip mining of coal, rotary five-year period. From this point of view, a excavators, semiconductors in electronics, revolution, which would be likely to halt the shift from steam to diesel locomotives, economic'progress for more than five years, and much more. does not appear to be an economically ad- There is only one justifiable conclusion vantageous move for the working people. And and it can be formulated cautiously as I am not even talking of the blood-letting follows: that is inevitable in a revolution. And I am 1. We have demonstrated the vitality of not talking of the danger of the `Irony of S 10311 the socialist course, which has done a great deal for the people materially, culturally and socially and, like no other system, has glori- fied the moral significance of labor. 2. There are no grounds for asserting, as is often done in the dogmatic vein, that the capitalist mode of production leads the econ- omy into a blind alley or that it is obviously inferior to the socialist mode in labor pro- ductivity, and there are certainly no grounds for. asserting that capitalism always leads to absolute impoverishment of the working class. Progress by Capitalism The continuing economic progress being achieved under capitalism should be a fact of great theoretical significance for any non- dogmatic Marxist. It is precisely this fact that lies at the basis of peaceful coexistence and it suggests, in principle, that if capital- ism ever runs into an economic blind alley it- will not necessarily have to leap into a desperate military adventure. Both capital- ism and socialism are capable of long-term development, borrowing positive elements from each other and actually coming closer to each other in a number of essential aspects. I can just hear the outcries about revision- ism and blunting of the class approach to this issue; I can just see the smirks about political naivete and immaturity. But the facts suggest that there is real economic progress in the United States and other capi- talist countries, that the capitalists are ac- tually using the social principles of socialism, and that there has been real improvement of the position of the working people. More important, the facts suggest that on any other course except ever-increasing coexist- ence and collaboration between the two sys- tems and the two superpowers, with a smoothing of contradictions and with mu- tual assistance, on any other course annihila- tion awaits mankind. There is no other way out. Two Systems Compared We will now compare the distribution of personal income and consumption for vari- ous social groups in the United States and the Soviet Union. Our propaganda materials usually assert that there is crying inequality in the United States, while the Soviet Union has something entirely just, entirely in the interests of the working people. Actually both statements contain halftruths and a fair amount of hypocritical evasion. I have no intention of minimizing the tragic aspects of the poverty, lack of rights and humiliation of the 22 million American Negroes. But we must clearly understand that this problem is not primarily a class problem, but a racial problem, involving the racism and egotism of white workers, and that the ruling group in the United States is interested in solving this problem. To be sure the government has not been as active as it should be; this may be related to fears of an electoral character and to fears of Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 S 10312 Approved Fort X/p3kR8MP7( (Ri ff0003001g9,Oep5e4 fiber 5, 1968 history," about which Friedrich Engels wrote so well in his famous letter to V. Zasulich, the "irony" that took the form of Stalinism in our country. There are, of course, situations where rev- olution is the only way out. This applies especially to national uprisings. But that is not the case in the United States and other developed capitalist countries, as suggested, incidentally, in the programs of the Com- munist parties of these countries. As far as our country is concerned, here, too, we should avoid painting an idyllic pic- ture. There Is still great inequality in prop- erty between the city and the countryside, especially in rural areas that lack a trans- port outlet to the private market or do not produce any goods In demand In private trade. There are great differences between cities with some of the new, privileged In- dustries and those with older, antiquated In- dustries. As a result 40 percent of the Soviet population is in difficult economic circum- stances. In the United States about 25 per- cent of the population is on the verge of poverty. On the other hand the 5 percent of the Soviet population that belong to the managerial group Is as privileged as its coun- terpart in the United States. The Managerial Group The development of modern society in both the Soviet Union and the United States is now following the same course of increasing complexity of structure and of industrial management, giving rise In both countries to managerial groups that are similar in social character. We must therefore acknowledge that there is no qualitative difference in the structure of society of the two countries in terms of distribution of consumption. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of the managerial group in the Soviet Union (and, to a lesser extent, in the United States) is measured not only in purely economic or productive terms. This group also performs a concealed protective function that is rewarded in the sphere of consumption by concealed privileges. Few people are aware of the practice under Stalin of paying salaries in sealed envelopes, of the constantly recurring concealed distri- bution of scarce foods and goods for various services, privileges in vacation resorts, and so forth. I want to emphasize that I am not opposed to the socialist principle of payment based on the amount and quality of labor. Rela- tively higher wages for better administrators, for highly skilled workers, teachers and phy- sicians, for workers in dangerous or harmful occupations, for workers in science, culture and the arts, all of whom account for a relatively small part of the total wage bill, do not threaten society if they are not ac- companied by concealed privileges. more- over, higher wages benefit society if they are deserved. The point is that every wasted minute of a leading administrator represents a major material loss for the economy and every wasted minute of a leading figure in the arts means a loss in the emotional, philosophical and artistic wealth of society. But when something is done in secret, the suspicion inevitably arises that things are not clean, that loyal servants of the-existing system are being bribed. It seems to me that the rational way of solving this touchy problem would be not the setting of income ceilings for party mem- ber sor some such measure, but simply the prohibition of all privileges and the estab- lishment of unified wage rates based on the social value of labor and an economic market approach to the wage problem. I consider that further advances in our economic reform and a greater role for eco- nomic and market factors accompanied by increased public control over the managerial group (which, incidentally, is also essential in capitalist countries) will help eliminate all the roughness in our present distribution pattern. An even more important aspect of the economic reform for the regulation and stim- ulation of production Is the establish- ment of a correct system of market prices. proper allocation and rapid utilization of investment funds and proper use of natural and human resources based on appropriate rents In the Interest of our society. A number of socialist countries, Including the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia and Czecho- slovakia are now experimenting with basic economic problems of the role of planning and of the market, government and coopera- tive ownership, and so forth. These experi- ments are of great significance. Rapprochement Advocated Summing up we now come to our basic conclusion about the moral and ethical char- acter of the advantages of the socialist course of development of human society. In our view. this does not in any way minimize the significance of socialism. Without socialism bourgeois practiclsm and the egotistical prin- ciple of private ownership gave rise to the "people of the abyss" described by Jack Lon- don and earlier by Engels. Only the competition with socialism and the pressure of the working class made pos- sible the social progress of the 20th century and, all the-more, will insure the now inevita- bls process of rapproachement of the two sys- tems. It took socialism to raise the meaning of labor to the heights of a moral feat. Before the advent of socialism, national egotism gave rise to colonial oppression, nationalism and racism. By now it has become clear that victory Is on the side of the humanistic, in- ternational approach, The capitalist world could not help giving birth to the socialist, but now the socialist world should not seek to destroy by force the ground from which It grew. Under the pres- ent conditions this would be tantamount to suicide of mankind. Socialism should ennoble that ground by Its example and other indi- rect forms of pressure and than merge With it. The rapproachement with the capitalist world should not be an unprincipled anti- popular plot between ruling groups, as hap- pened in the extreme case of the Soviet-Nazi rapprochement] of 1988-40. Such a rap- prochement must rest not only on a social- ist, but on a popular democratic foundation, under the control of public opinion, as ex- pressed through publicity, elections and so forth. Such a rapprochement implies not only wide social reforms in the capitalist coun- tries, but also substantial changes In the structure of ownership, with a greater role played by government and cooperative own- ership, and the preservation of the basic pres- ent features of ownership of the means of production in the socialist countries. Our allies along this road are not only the working class and the progressive inteliigen- sia, which are Interested in peaceful coexist- ence and social progres and in a democratic peaceful transition to socialism (as reflected In the programs of the Communist parties of the developed countries), but also the re- formist part of the bourgeoisie, which sup- ports such a program of "convergence." AI- though I am using this term, taken from the Western literature, it Is clear from the fore- going that I have given It a socialist and democratic meaning. Typical representatives of the reformist bourgeoisie are Cyrus Eaton. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and, especially, Presi- dent John F. Kennedy. Without wishing to cast a stone in the direction of Comrade N. S. Khrushchev (our high esteem of his services was expressed earlier), I cannot help recalling one of We statements, which may have been more typical of his entourage than of him personally. On Jvly 10, 1931, in speaking at a reception of specialists about his meeting with Ken- nedy In Vienne., Comrade Khrushchev re- called Kennedy's request that the Soviet Union, in conducting policy and making de- mands, consider the actual possibilities and the diffculties o the new Kennedy Adminis- tration and refrain from demanding more than It could grant without courting the danger of being defeated in elections and being replaced by rightist forces. At that time, Khrushchev did not give Kennedy's unprecedented request the proper attention, to put It mildly, and began to rail. And now, after the shots in Dallas. who can se.y what auspicious oppcrtunities in world history have been. If no-; destroyed, but, at any rate, set back because of a lack of understanding. Bertrand Russell once told a pea-:e con- gress in Moscow that "the world will to saved from thermonuclear annihilation if the lead- ers of each of the two systems prefer com- plete victory of the other system to a ther- monuclear war I am quoting from memory." It seems to me that such a solution would be acceptable to the majority of people in any country, WLether capitalist or socialist. I consider that the leaders of the capitalist and -socialist systems by the very nature of things will gradually be forced to adopt the point of view of the majority of mankind. Intellectual freedom of society will facili- tate and smooth the way for this trend toward patience, flexibility and a security from dogmatism, fear and adventuri3m. All mankind, Inducing its beat organized and active forces, the working class and the Intel- ligentsLs, is interested in freedom and security. Four-stage plan for cooperation Having examined in the first part of this essay the development of mankind according to the worse alternative, leading to annihila- tion, we must now attempt, even schemati- cally, to suggest the better alternative. (The author concedes the primitiveness of his attempts at prognostication, which requires the joint efforts of many specialists, and here, even more than elsewhere, invites posi- tive crticism.) (i) In the first stage, a growing ideological struggle In the socialist countries between Stalinist and Maoist forces, on the one hand, and the realistic forces of leftist Leninist Communists (and leftist Westerners), on the other, will lead to a deep ideological split on an International, national and intraparty scale. In the Soviet Union and other socialist countries, this process Will load first to a multiparty system (here and there) and to acute ideological struggle and discussions, and then to the ideological victory of the realists, affirming the policy of increasing peaceful existence, strengthening democ- racy and expanding economic reforms (1960- 80). The dates -efleet the most optimistic unrolling of events. The author, incidentally, is not one of those who consider the multiparty system to be an essential stage in the development of the socialist system or, even less, a panacea for all his, but he assumes that in some cases a multiparty system may be an Inevitable consequence of the course of events when a ruling Communist party refuses for one reason or another to rule by the scientific democratic method required by history. In the second stage, persistent demands for socis4i progress and peaceful coex'stence In the United States and other capitalist countries, and pressure exerted by the ex- ample of the socialist countries and by internal progressive forces (the working class ar.d the intelligentsia) will lm vi to the victory of the leftist reformist wing of the tourgeoisie, which will begin to im- plement a progrem of rapprochement (con- vergence) with socialism, i.e.. social prog- Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 September 5, Appg ved For 98"M ~OL3 k 70gWRA A00300190054-6 ress, peaceful coexistence and collaboration with socialism on a world scale and changes in the structure of ownership. This phase includes an expanded role for the intelli- gentsia and an attack on the forces of racism and militarism (1972-85). (The various stages overlaps.) In the third stage, the Soviet Union and the United States, having overcome their alienation, solve the problem of saving the poorer half of/ the world. The above-men- tioned 20 per cent tax on the national income of developed countries is applied. Gigantic fertilizer factories and irrigations systems using atomic power will be built [in the developing countries], the resources of the sea will be used to a vastly greater extent, indigenous personnel will be trained, and industrialization will be carried out. Gigantic factories will produce synthetic amino acids, and synthesize proteins, fats and carbohydrates. At the same time dis- armament will proceed (1972-90). In the fourth stage, the socialist conver- gence will reduce differences in social structure, promote intellectual freedom, science and economic progress and lead to creation of a world government and the smoothing of national contradictions (1980- 2000). During this period decisive progress can be expected in the field of nuclear power, both on the basis of uranium and thorium and, probably, deuterium and lithium. Some authors consider it likely that ex- plosive breeding (the reproduction of active materials such as plutonium, uranium 233 and tritium) may be used in subterranean or other enclosed explosions. During this period the expansion of space exploration will require thousands of people to work and live continuously on other planets and on the moon, on artificial satel- lites and on asteroids whose orbits will have been changed by nuclear explosions. The synthesis of materials that are super- conductors at room temperature may com- pletely revolutionize electrical technology, cybernetics, transportation and communica- tions. Progress in biology (in this and subse- quent periods) will make possible effective control and direction of all life processes at the levels of the cell, organism, ecology and society, from fertility and aging to psychic processes and heredity. If such an all-encompassing scientific and technological revolution, promising un- counted benefits for mankind, is to be possi- ble and safe, it will require the greatest pos- sible scientific foresight and care and con- cern for human values of a moral, ethical and personal character. (I touched briefly on the danger of a thoughtless bureaucratic use of the scientific and technological revolution in a divided world in the section on "Dan- gers," but could add a great deal more.) Such a revolution will be possible and safe only under highly intelligent worldwide guidance. The foregoing program presumes: (a) worldwide interest in overcoming the present divisions; (b) the expectation that modifications in both the socialist and capitalist countries will tend to reduce contradictions and dif- ferences; (c) worldwide interest of the intelligentsia, the working class and other progressive forces in a scientific democratic approach to poli- tics, economics and culture; (d) the absence of unsurmountable obsta- cles to economic development in both world economic systems that might otherwise lead inevitably into a blind alley, despair and adventurism. Every honorable and thinking person who has not been poisoned by narrow-minded in- difference will seek to insure that future development will be along the lines of the better alternative. However only broad, open discussion, without the pressure of fear and prejudice, will help the majority to adopt the correct: and best course of action. Proposals summarized In conclusion, I will sum up some of the concrete proposals of varying degrees of im- portance that have been- discussed in the text. These proposals, addressed to the lead- ership of the country, do not exhaust the content of the article. - '[1] - The strategy of peaceful coexistence and collaboration must be deepened in every way. Scientific methods and principles of inter- national policy will have to be worked out, based on scientific prediction of the imme- diate and more distant consequences. [2] The initiative must be seized in working out a broad program of struggle against hunger. [3] A law on press and information must be drafted, widely discussed and adopted, with the aim not only of ending irresponsible and irrational censorship, but of encourag- ing self-study in our society, fearless discus- sion and the search for truth. The law must provide for the material resources of freedom of thought. [4] All anticonstitutional laws and decrees vio- lating human rights must be abrogated. [51 Political prisoners must be amnestied and some of the recent political trials must be reviewed (for example, the Daniel-Sinyav- sky and Galanskov-Ginzburg cases) . The camp regime of political prisoners must be promptly relaxed. [6] The exposure of Stalin must be carried through to the end, to the complete truth, and not just to the carefully weighted half- truth dictated by case considerations. The in- fluence of neo-Stalinists in our political life must be restricted in every way (the text mentioned, as an example, the case of S. Trapeznikow, who enjoys too much influ- ence). [7] The economic reform must be deepened in every way and the area of experimenta- tion expanded, with conclusions based on the results. [8] A law on geohygiene must be adopted after broad discussion, and ultimately become part of world efforts in this area. With this article the author addresses the leadership of our country and all its citi- zens as well as all people of goodwill through- but the world. The author is aware of the controversial character of many of his state- ments. His purpose is open, frank discussion under conditions of publicity. In conclusion a textological comment. In the process of discussion of previous drafts of this article, some incomplete and in some respects one-sided texts have been circulated. Some- of them contained certain passages that were inept in form and tact and were included through oversight. The author asks readers to bear this in, mind. The author is deeply grateful to readers of preliminary drafts who communicated their friendly comments and thus helped improve the ar- ticle and refine a number of basic state- ments.-A. Sakharov - PEOPLE MENTIONED IN SAKHAROV MANUSCRIPT Aragon, Louis (born 1895) : French Com- munist writer, who protested Soviet literary trials. Beria, Lavrentl P. (1899-1953) : Stalin's chief of secret police; executed by Stalin's successors. Bukovsky, Vladimir: young Soviet writer; sentenced in September, 19?7 to three years' imprisonment for participation in an un- authorized demonstration. S 10313 Clausewitz, Karl Von (1780-1831) : -Prus- sian general and military writer. Crimean Tatars: Soviet ethnic minority, exiled in World War II for alleged collabora- tion with the Germans; fully cleared of ac- cusation in July, 1967. Daniel, Yuli M.: Soviet writer, sentenced in February, 1966, to five years' imprisonment on charges of having slandered the -Soviet Union in books published abroad under the pen name Nikolai Arzhak. - Delone, Vadim: young Soviet poet; sen- tenced with Bukovsky to one year's imprisonment. Dobrovolsky, Aleksei: contributor to So- viet underground magazine Phoenix 1966; arrested January, 1967 with Ginzburg and Galanskov; turned state's evidence; sen- tenced in January, 1968, to two years. Ehrenburg, Ilya: the Soviet novelist who died last August at the age of 76. - Eichmann, Adolf: SS colonel who headed Gestapo's Jewish section; arrested by Israel in May, 1960; tried and executed in May, 1962. Galanskov, Yuri: editor of Soviet under- ground magazine Phoenix 1966; sentenced in January, 1968 to seven years' imprison- ment for anti-Soviet activity. Ginzburg, Aleksandr: author of a book on the Sinyavsky-Daniel case that was pub- lished abroad; sentenced in January, 1968, to five years' imprisonment for anti-Soviet activity. Glavlit: the Soviet censorship agency. Greene, Graham: the British novelist, who protested Soviet literary trials. Grigorenko, Pyotr G.: former major gen- eral in World War II; cashiered in 1964 on charges of anti-Soviet activity. Henri, Ernst: pseudonym for a Soviet com- mentator; Semyon Rostovsky, who contrib- utes frequently to the weekly Literaturnaya Gazeta. Himmler, Heinrich: Hitler's secret police chief; suicide in 1945. - Khaustov, Viktor: sentenced in February, 1967, to three years' imprisonment for orga- nizing demonstration on behalf of arrested writers. Kushev, Yevgeny: young Soviet poet; sen- tenced in September, 1967, to one year's im- prisonment for participation of protest dem- onstration. Leontovich, Mikhail A. (born 1903): Soviet nuclear physicist; an associate of Andrei D. Sakharov. - Malenkov, Georgi M. (born 1902) : a close associate of Stalin; expelled from the Soviet leadership by Nikita S. Khrushchev in 1957. Molotov, Vyaoheslav M. (born 1890) :,a close associate of Stalin; expelled from the Soviet leadership by Nikita S. Khrushchev in 1957. Nekrich, Aleksandr M.: Soviet historian, author of book on the German attack on the Soviet Union in 1941; reported criticized and ousted from Communist party in 1967. Semichastny, Vladimir Y.: chairman of the K.G.B., Soviet secret police from 1961 until relieved of his post in May, 1967. Sinyavsky, Andrei D.: Soviet writer, sen- tenced in February, 1968, to seven years' im- prisonment on charges of having slandered the Soviet Union in books published abroad under the pen name of Abram Tertza. Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I.: Soviet writer; author of "One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich"; in official disfavor and unpub- lished in recent years, Wiener, Norbert (1894-1964) : American mathematician; founder of the science of cybernetics, which laid the basis for computer technology. Yagoda, Genrikh G.: Stalin's chief of secret police from 1934 to 1936; supervised early phase of great purges; was himself purged and executed in 1938. Yezhov, Nikolai I.: Stalin's chief of secret police from 1936 to 1938; supervised the main phase of great purges; disappeared in 1939. Zasulich, Vera I. (1851-1919): early Rus- sian Marxist who had correspondence with Marx and Engels; she opposed terrorism as Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 S 10314 -.Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE September 5, 1968 a revolutionary tactic and joined Menshevik rac.tion against Lenin. Zhdanov, Andrei A. (1896-1949) : a dose associate of Stalin, in charge of artistic and scientific policies at height of his career from 1945 to 1948. (OUTSPOKEN SOVIET SCIENTIST: ANDREI DeuTRIYEvICH SAKHAROV In the fall of 1968, the Soviet Communist party newspaper, Pravda, opened its authori- tative pages to the views of two prominent nuclear physicists In a nationwide debate on educational reform. - Academician Andrei D. Sakhnrov, then 37 years old, and a fellow academician, Yakov B. Zeldovich, urged separate schools for spe- cially gifted children to train the future gen- eration or scientists at an early age. The authors contended that it was india- putable that mathematicians and physicists, at least, were most productive In the early stages of their careers and that many of'tbe great discoveries In those fields had been made by scientists aged 22 to 26. Dr. Sakharov, for one, was reasoning from personal experience, He earned his doctorate in physics at the age of 28, joined In making it major physical discovery at the age of 29 and, at 32, was elected a member of the Acad- emy of Sciences, the most prestigious posi- tion for a Soviet scientist, having skipped the usual intermediate Stage of corresponding member. III recent years Dr. Sakharov (pronounced SAH-khah-roff) has continued to voice his views on public affairs. But instead of being ommclally sanctioned by publication in Prav- da. his opinions, often critical of domestic apd :roreign policy, were circulating In menu- script among friends and associates. His latest essay, written last month and now available here, outlines a plan for So- viet-.American cooperation and ultimate rap- prochement that he views as the only way to save mankind from thermonuclear war, overpopulation and famine, and pollution of the environment. MEMBER OP THE F.LrTE As a member of the scientific and techno- logical elite of Soviet society, and as a man with broad intellectual horizons and range of Interests, Dr. Sakharov has not been afraid to speak out, even If his views are in conflict with omcinl policy. In the spring of 1968, as the new Soviet leadership was preparing to convoke the 23d congress of the Communist party, the coun- try was abuzz with rumors that Mr. Khru- sh4hev's successors were planning to rectify his unqualified 1968 condemnation of Sta- lin's rule. Academician Sakharov then joined fellow nuclear physicists and other Intellectuals in a petition sent to Leonid I. Brezhnev, the new party chief, opposing any planned restoration of Stalin's status. The petitioners said the Soviet people "will never understand or ac- cept" a rehabilitation of Stalin and they warned of a now split In Communist ranks, between the Soviet party and the Commu- nist parties of the West, if such a step were taken. It is unclear whether the high prestige of the signers and their argument proved per- suasive, but no dramatic steps to change Stalin's status were taken at the congress in 1068. Later that year, Dr. Sakharov again joined a group of petitioners, this time to object to a newly adopted decree that made unau- thorized protest demonstrations a crime. Entirely the product of the Soviet period, Andrei Dmitriyevich Sakharov was born May 21, 1021, and was graduated from Moscow University during the war year of 1942. Scams published biographical data contain no In- formation about his personal life or family background. He joined the Lebedev Institute of Physics In Moscow, where he earned his doctorate in 1947 while working with Dr. Igor Y. Tatum, a specialist in quantum mechanics who, in 1968, became one of three Russians to share the Nobel Prize In Physics. Research by Dr. Tatum and his students led In 1830 to a proposal that provided the theo- retical basis for controlled thermonuclear fusion-the harnessing of the power of the hydrogen bomb for the generation of elec- tricity for peaceful purposes. The principle, Involving the use or an electrical discharge in plasma (ionized gas) and heat containment by a magnetic field, furnished the basis for much subsequent con- trolled-fusion research. In which a break- through to commercial application is yet to be achieved. For their work, both Dr. Sakharov and his teacher were elected full members of the Soviet Academy of Sciences In 1963. While Dr. Tamm had held the- probationary cor- responding membership for 20 years, his young associate moved directly Into the high- est level of the Soviet scientific elite. Since 1969, Dr. Sakharov has been associ- ated with Academician Mikhail A. Leontovich in research on the theoretical aspects of con- trolled fusion. Dr. Sakharov', work has been publicized In the popular literature. A book for the gen- eral reader by V. P. Kartsev, entitled "Stories About Physics." scheduled for publicatl in Moscow later this year, describes his d Ign for an "explosive-magnetic generator," a device that would produce electricity from an explosion contained by a magnetic field. Dr. Sakharov was probably Influenced In his outlook by Dr. Tamm, himself it candi- date and courageous scholar who has at- tended some of the Pugwaeh conferences on science and International affairs. The meet- ings, which brought together eciontlets of East and West" were named for l'ugwash, N.S_ a Canadian village where the first con- ference was sponsored by Cyrus S. Eaton, the Cleveland Industrialist. SENATE RESOLUTION 388-RESOLU- TION RELATIVE TO DEATH OF REPRESENTATIVE ELMER J. HOL- LAND OF PENNSYLVANIA Mr. BYRD of West Virginia (for Mr. CLARK and Mr.. ScoTT) submitted a re- solution (B. Res. 388) relative to the death of Representative Elmer J. Holland of Pennsylvania, which was considered and agreed to. (See the above resolution printed in full when submitted by Mr. BYRD of West Virginia, which appears under a separate heading.) DEPARTMENTS OF LABOR, AND HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WEL- FARE APPROPRIATION BILL, 1969- AMENDMENT AMENDWZNT NO. 939 Mr. PASTORE (for himself and Mr. JAViTS) submitted an amendment, In- tended to be proposed by them, jointly, to the bill (H.R. 18037) making appropria- tions for the Departments of Labor, and Health, Education, and Welfare, and related agencies, for the fiscal year end- ing June 30, 1969, and for other purposes, which was ordered to He on the table and to be printed. (See reference to the above amend- ment when submitted by Mr. PAsTosa, which appears under a separate head- ing.) a AMENDMENT NO. 941 Mr. MUNDT (for himself, Mr. MURPHY, and Mr. Yomia of North Dakotii) pro- posed an amendment to House bill 18037, supra, which was ordered to be printed. AMENDMENT OF INTERNAL REV- ENUE CODE OF 1954, RELATING TO CERTAIN DEDUCTION BY FARM- ERS-AMENDMENT AMENDMENT NO. 940 Mr. MILLER. Mr. President, I submit an amendment to H.R. 2767, to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to allow a farms;- an amortized deduction from gross Income for assessments for depreciable property levied by soil or water conservation or drainage districts, a bill which is pending on the Senate calendar. My amendment is designed to remove a present Inequity in our Federal ?ncome tax law with respect to the tax treatment of insurance p_oeeeds received by farm- ers resulting from the destruction and damage of crotre by hail. Mr. President, the technical problem arises when a farmer produces crops and, quite often, does not sell those crops until the following year. When those crops are destroyed in the same year In which he sells the previous year's crop, under the present tax law, he is required to repcrt and pay tax on the insurance proceeds, which are a substitute for the income from Vie crops, and the income from the prea.ent year's crops to the same year. If the farmer had not been subject to the vicissitudes of hail, his crops would have been raised and he would have sold them In the following year. There would then have been no doubling up of in- come. All my amendment does Is to give the farmer the opportunity, where lie has consistently followed the practice of sell- ing crops produced in one year in the fol- lowing year, of avoiding this doubling up hardship. I trust that the Members of the Sen- ate will recognize this Inequity and see fit to agree to my amendment. I propose to call it up at the appropriate time. The PRESIDING OF1TClR. The amendment will be received and printed, and will lie on the table. NOTICE OF HEARINGS Mr. EASTLAND. Mr. President, on be- half of the Committee on the Judiciary, I desire to give notice that public hear- ings have been scheduled for Thursday, September 12, 1968, at 10:30 a.m., in room 2228, New Senate Office Building on the following nominations: William J. Holloway, Jr., of Oklahoma, to be U B. circuit judge, 10th circuit, vice a new position created under Public Law 90-347 approved June 18, 1968. Lawrence Gubow, of Michigan, to be U.S. district judge, eastern district of Michigan, vice Wade H. McCree. Jr., elevated. David G. Bress, of the District of Columbia, to be' U.B. district judge, Dis- trict of Columbia, vice Josegh C. McGarraghy. Approved For Release 2005/08/03 : CIA-RDP70B00338R000300190054-6