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February 7, 1969
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'S 1468 Approved For &I@4MW15 iZF ft1-71 RP3M1 000300050P4y%aiy 7, 1969 sential, we would not object to an extension of up to six months. Sincerely, WILFRED H. ROMMEL, Assistant Director for, Legislative M Reference. SEPTEMBER 6, 1968. Hon. WAYNE N. ASPINALL, Chairman, Committee on Interior and In- sular Affairs, House of Representatives, Longworth House Office Building, Wash- ington, D.C. DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: We understand that during today's Subcommittee hearing on H.R. 17874 there was discussion of the Bureau's report of September 4, 1968, and that the question arose as to our view concerning a brief extension of the period cited in that legislation rather than deferral of legislative action as recommended in our report. We continue to prefer deferral for reasons outlined in the September 4th report. How- ever, If the Committee believes an extension covering the period of further study is es- sential, we would not object to an extension of ,up to six months. Sincerely, ED H. ROMMEL, Assistant Director for Legislative Reference. SEPTEMBER 4, 1968. Hon. WAYNE N. ASPINALL, Chairman, Committee on Interior and In- sular Affairs, House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: Hearings have been scheduled for September 5, on H.R. 17874, a bill which would extend by an additional fifteen years the period during which the State of Alaska may select Federal lands which are already under lease, permit, license or contract under the Mineral Leasing Act: You may recall that the Department of the Interior has sent to your Committee a report favoring a five-year extension. We had pre- viously concurred in a similar Interior report to the Senate Committee on S. 3406, an iden- tical bill. However, a number of develop- ments have, caused us to wish to consider further several aspects of matters dealt with by this legislation. The rapid pace of mineral exploration and the large oil strike on the North Slope of Alaska in particular lend emphasis to the tremendous significance of Federal mineral and land policies. We have been discussing with the Department of the Interior the need for a general appraisal and review of these policies.-The Public Land Law Review Commission study of revenue sharing and the related Department of Interior analysis of mineral leasing act sharing will provide information useful in this review. In the circumstances, we would appreciate opportunity to reconsider our position on H.R. 17874 with the objective of making a specific recommendation on the legislation early in the next session of the Congress. The Department of the Interior concurs in this request. Accordingly, we recommend that the Committee defer action on this legislation until the next session of the Con- gress. Sincerely, PHILLIP S. RUCHES, Deputy Director. Mr. WILLIAMS of Delaware. Mr. President, it will be noted that in Mr. Zwick's reply he states: We understand that the Department of Interior will reply to the technical questions (1 through 3) in your letter. We will not re- ised on repeated occasions that the Sec- retary's reply had been prepared and was awaiting his signature, I regret to report that to date I have not received an answer. I cannot understand why the Secre- tary of the Interior was not more inter- ested in replying to these questions since they now all admit that millions bf pros- pective Government revenue are in- volved in the decision that may be made on this proposal. I ask unanimous consent that my let- ter of October 29 as addressed to the Secretary of the Interior, the Honorable Stewart L. Udall, be printed at this point in the RECORD. His failure to reply should be noted by the Interior Committee should any thought be given to consider- ing this question at this session of Con- gress. There being no objection, the letter was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: OCTOBER 29, 1968. Ilon. STEWART L. UDALL, Secretary of the Interior, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. My DEAR Mn, SECRETARY: In the closing days of the session S. 3406 was left on the Senate Calendar without any action being taken. This is the bill introduced by Senator Bartlett and Senator Gruening, the purpose of which was to extend the time for the filing of applications for the selection of certain lands by the State of Alaska to fifteen years. In the Committee Report the Departments are quoted as having endorsed this proposal; however, I note that the endorsements of the respective agencies appear prior to the re- cent discovery of a major oil field in that area. I am therefore asking for a new re- port from your Department as to how the en- actment of this bill would affect the position or equity of the United States Government. Does the Interior Department still recom- mend its enactment upon the convening of the next Congress? In addition to stating the position of your Department I would appreciate answers to the following questions: 1. The effective date of the charter grant- Ing Alaska statehood, along with both effec- tive and expiration dates of the rights ex- tended to that state for claiming certain acreage. (a) The number of acres allocated to the state under this option. (b) A record of all extensions or modifi- cations of this agreement along with the ex- piration,date of the final agreement. 2. Was there a special agreement on min- eral leases outstanding at the time Alaska was admitted to statehood and how were they affected by these options? (a) How would they be affected by an ex- tension of the dates as proposed in S. 3406? 3. Were the recent major discoveries of oil fields in the Alaskan Region made on gov- ernment-owned or state-claimed lands and were they government or state leases? (a) If government lands or leases from the government, give the dates. 4. Would the enactment of this legisla- tion extending the filing date permit the state to claim any of these newly discovered oil fields as state lands which otherwise they would not be able to do without the legisla- tion? (a) Do you have any estimate as to the amount of revenue involved? If it is the position of.your Department that the enactment of this legislation is favorable to the interests of the United States Govern- ment, please explain, or if your Department recommends against the enactment, explain how it would adversely affect the Govern- ment's interests. At the same time I would appreciate' receiving any additional informa- tion which you feel should be considered in making a decision on this legislative pro- posal. Yours sincerely, _.i JOHN J. WILLIAMS. CASTRO'S CUBA AFTER 10 YEARS Mr. YOUNG ~of Ohio. Mr. President, more than 10 years ago; in fact, in late December 1958 Fidel Castro and his small guerrilla force of fighting. men came out of the Sierra Maestra Moun- tains, which had been their base for some years, in their hit-and-run fighting against the dictatorial regime of Ful- genclo' Batista. On January 1, 1959, Fidel Castro and his small force of fight- ing men entered Havana and paraded down the main thoroughfare. The tumul- tuous welcome of more than a million men, women, and children crowding throughout the broad avenues of Havana shouting and weeping for joy was so tremendous, enthusiastic, and expressed so much happiness and relief as to be almost beyond belief. For years preceding this time a former sergeant of the Cuban Army, Fulgencio Batista, had been in power, not be, elec- tion, but by force and violence. For years preceding this New Year's Day dictator Batista had ruled Cuba with its 7 million population as his own fiefdom. His had been a cruel, corrupt dictatorial regime.- New York racketeers had ar- ranged with him to operate the gambling houses and casinos of Havana, and that beautiful city had become the vacation center of the Western Hemisphere and the gambling mecca bringing in ship- loads of pleasure-seeking vacationers along with gangsters and racketeers from New York who controlled the gam- bling syndicate. All the time Sergeant Batista, dictator of this beautiful island in the Caribbean, was depositing in his secret Swiss bank accounts the millions he took in during his years in power by crushing his own people into further oppression with taxes and corruption that was rampant throughout all Cuba and from huge sums he skimmed from the gambling tables. Then, on that New Year's Day he sud- denly and secretly left for Europe to join his Swiss bank account. Throughout the nears since that time he has been enjoy- ing the good life and sun on the French Riviera and at his luxurious villa in Spain.. At the time of the triumph of Fidel Castro it was said that administration leaders and our Central Intelligence Agency were overw a me wl one tie sudden turn of events. To me that always seemed neculiar. It hap- ?' 6 "?'~ """"' "'?`"" "??' "'" tine enncvsnenTi vi iegibintivu nAvul-ts ,,m ter as addressed to Secretary Udall was filing date react either favorably or adversely the latter half of December having dis- also dated October t res ~ teemed *ell known that date and Janfty", ' ~% . ~ !{~Beaoh, and Palm Approved For Release 2003/03/25 : CIA-RDP71 B00364R000300050004-6 February 7, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE Beach among those with whom I talked that the guerrillas had won the war in Cuba and that Batista would, either be executed or exiled within a few days. County and State officials in Florida with whom I talked and also many In private life knew the facts. Finally the CLL and officials of the Eisenhower administra- tion learned what had been common knowledge in Florida. During the intervening 10 years our relationship with dictator Castro and members of his regime has been most unsatisfactory. In fact, sometimes stormy and grim. President Eisenhower in January 1961 severed our diplomatic relations with the Cuban Government. Our Embassy in Ha- vana was closed. Our Ambassador and members of his staff returned immedi- ately to the United States. Unfortunately for this Nation, and in my judgment to our prejudice, we have been since that time compelled to deal with Cuban officials through members of the staff of the Swiss Embassy. We there- by lost our own listening post and open window to all that has gone on in Cuba during the past 10 years. Of course, what has gone on in this little island close'to Key West, Fla., has generally speaking become known to us. Unfortunately, there have been delays in acquiring precise knowledge. This was made clearly evident to all Americans in October of 1962 and at some other periods. Immediately following the time our Government severed all diplomatic rela- tions with Cuba and placed reliance upon the Swiss Embassy to look after our in- terests, Fidel Castro's Cuban Govern- ment confiscated the property of Amer- ican corporations and individuals and there was considerable financial loss in- volved. Whether such procedure would have been followed by the Cuban Gov- ernment had we not severed diplomatic relations is a matter for argument. Then there was the missile crisis of 1962 and our blockade of Cuba and an eyeball to eyeball confrontation between President Kennedy and Premier Khrush- chev. Khrushchev blinked. The missiles were withdrawn. War was averted. Also, there was the horrendous blunder of our Q ;A. training Cubans and some Americans in Guatemala for an invasion of Cuba and liberation of its people from the Castro rule. The abortive Bay of Pigs invasion took place. Some Americans were killed, hundreds of Cubans killed and taken prisoner. The poorly planned invasion was crushed. Then our Govern- paid a huge ransom in medical sup- ment plies to secure the release from imprison- ment of some hundreds taken prisoner in that invasion. Even today, thousands of Cuban refugees are being maintained at the expense of our Government while We might as well face the fact that ap- parently the present Cuban regime is firmly entrenched. To our knowledge no rebellion nor guerrilla warfare is being waged against Fidel Castro and his gov- ernment. It appears that of all the 7 to 6 mil- lion men, women, and children living in Cuba, an overwhelming majority are bet- ter off physically and financially than they were 10 years ago, and from all the knowledge we Americans are able to ac- quire an overwhelming majority of these Cuban people do. support and uphold the present administration. I express re- gret over the fact that Fidel Castro does have the support of a huge majority of his people, but we should not be blind to the facts. The Castro regime is totalitarian. It is Communist. The regime of Fulgencio Batista was totalitarian. it was fascist. Communist dictators and fascist dicta- tors govern by decree. The voice of the people of countries so misgoverned are not heard nor are their votes tolerated. Surely the regime of Fidel Castro and its operations are abhorrent to freedom- loving men and women of our country. Very definitely, to speak for a moment regarding Western Hemisphere nations, the fascist militarist regimes of Brazil, the Argentine Republic, and now Peru, are abhorrent to freedom-loving citizens everywhere. Yet, at the time in the Argentine Republic, so-called, the gen- erals overthrew the duly elected Presi- dent and sent him into exile, we did not break diplomatic relations with Argen- tina. When the generals of the Brazilian Army by a midnight coup overthrew the President of that great nation, our Government did not sever diplomatic relations with that regime. Now, in re- cent weeks, the militarists of Peru have ousted the duly elected President. He is exiled from his own country. These fascist generals by decree have expropri- ated property of American corporations to the extent of many millions of dollars. In our newspapers we read advertise- ments of the Standard Oil Co., denounc- ing the fact that the fascist rulers of Peru have seized their property, giving no compensation whatever. Yet we con- tinue to permit American businessmen to sell the products of American factories to all these fascist governments and their nationals, but the products, even medi- cines, produced in America may not be sold to the Cuban Government nor to Cubans. Americans are barred. from visiting Cuba. The Communists, who also govern by decree, have taken over Cuba, Hence diplomatic relations were broken. American businessmen and farmers may not profit with any trade with that coun- try. In those other republics, so-called, of South America-Brazil, Argentina, Para- they are no doubt plotting further in- guay, and, most recently Peru-where vasions. Almost daily we read of hijacking in- cidents. Unfortunately we have no em- ha_acv nor stair in Havana but are de- fascist rulers govern by decree, our em- bassies have not been closed. Trade be- tween Americans and the nationals of those countries has not been barred. S 1469 ?ment continued uninterruptedly to rec- ognize this Fascist regime in Greece. We have recognized for many years the ruthless and bloodstained tyrant Fran- cois Duvalier whose. dictatorship has im- poverished the people of Haiti. Haiti is one of the most beautiful islands in the Western Hemisphere. Along the coastal area and inland as one climbs into the beautiful terrain of the Temperate Zone the land is fertile; the jungles are lush. Yet, the ironhanded rule of Duvalier has so impoverished the inhabitants of Haiti that it is the slum of the Western Hemisphere, with the lowest per capita income anywhere in our hemisphere. That iron hand of Duvalier is also a bloodstained hand. Citizens suspected to be hostile to his regime are executed without trial. Still, we recognize this tyrant and have diplomatic relations with his government. The United States recognizes and sup- ports the Fascist regime of dictator Franco in Spain. In fact, liberty loving Spaniards, now being further oppressed by new censorship and more restrictions recently applied by Franco, claim that except for the support of the United States his regime would have been over- thrown years ago. Our country maintains diplomatic re- lations with every Fascist regime in the entire world. Our Government maintains diplomatic relations with every Commu- nist government in Europe, with the ex- ception of little Albania. The United States maintains diplomatic relations, in fact, with all governments governing by decree and by single party rule except for Albania and Cuba. It has been said that early In 1959 President Eisenhower's Secretary of State, John Poster Dulles, was at the time advised by our CIA that the Fidel Castro government would topple in a matter of weeks, so he advised President Eisenhower to follow a hard line policy toward the Castro regime-a policy which eventually led to a complete break in diplomatic relations and possibly to many of the crises and difficulties that ensued through the years. Whether that Washington gossip is historically 'true or not, I do not know. I do know that depending upon the Swiss Embassy in Havana as our listen- ing post has proven through almost 10 years to be unsatisfactory and inade- quate. Let us hope that President Nixon and Secretary of State Rogers will re- assess all facets of our relationship with the regime governing Cuba. Very likely for all I know they have already com- menced reappraising our policies relating to President Dorticos, of Cuba, and. all other officials supporting Fidel Castro. No doubt the contrast as to what we have been doing in dealing with Peru and what we have done in dealing with Cuba has become a matter of concern. We Americans despise communism. Yet we have no right to direct the people of Cuba as to what sort of government they must maintain any more than we have to the Cuban Government. This is illus- democracy. Yet when Fascist colonels that they must, not have a Communist trative of the. fact that we have been overthrew the constitutional govern-. regime. prejudiced through these years because ment in a midnight coup, our Govern- The evidence is overwhelming that we lack means of direct communication ment did not close our Embassy nor, Cuba has a viable government, This is a with the OovernmentApp aced For R iseti2D0 3tO5tioMIP 4rBOOSO4 08000 '8 M4t6which Ameri- S1470 Approved For&IRsq_,;%qNPR5 1~CkW7A1@?WA4fP000300050004,,ei(i,r?J i, Jb/ cans generally despise. It is a govern- BLAMING S'IDEL may open only three nights a week, all other ment, however, that appears firmly in A visitor, however, finds some signs of die- bars are shuttered and Castro recently power and has been for a period of 10 content directed at Premier Castro, and U.S. cracked down on Havana's hippies by round- intelligence sources report isolated acts of re- tog up several hundred of them in a sudden yeWs. bellion. "Fidel gets more personal blame for downtown street raid. Those that couldn't Whether or not the tyranny of the problems, and there's been more mud splat- prove useful employment wound up in work present government of Cuba is as bad or tered on him in the past several years," says camps in eastern Camaguey Province. as worse than the tyranny and corrup- one analyst. But most agree that the unrest But the sensual Cuba of former times can't tion of the Batista government that pre- isn't a serious threat-at least for now-to be suppressed entirely. The girls of Havana ceded it, is not a matter to be considered. the Castro government. and the countryside prefer short miniskirts We do know however that the people But if the 41-year-old Fidel is firmly in, and somehow-even when wearing fatigues of Cuba, those who work in the sugar the saddle, it is equally apparent that Cuba on militia guard duty-look as if they have cane fields and the people crowded in is susceptible to change. The hallmark of the just come from a beauty parlor. The love of the slums of Havana, Santiago, and other revolution has been experimentation, and it music in this land of palm trees (especially cities, are from all reports better off in continues. Nowhere else in the Communist American rock and roll) is such that the world has Marxism been applied with more government in December was forced to re- every way and enjoy greater content- free-wheeling exuberance. The result is a scind an early 1968 .order for a total close- ment and a better life than they had dur- Cub of many faces, some of them oontradic- down of all night clubs and adopt the pres- ing the Batista- regime. tory and all fascinating. ent three-day-a-week schedule. Mr. President, on February 4, 1969, Havana and the countryside wear a well- And amid all this is a Cuba still full of there appeared in the Christian Science scrubbed look. Litter barrels are everywhere sights and sounds reminiscent of Its earlier Monitor, one of our Nation's great news- and the capital remains the airy city Of sun strong ties to the U.S. A high.official of the and sea, skyscrapers, broad avenues and trop- government -film industry, driving a group of papers, a very informative article by ical flowers that once made it a tourist Americans in his Russian-made Volga sta- James Nelson Goodsell, the Monitor's mecca. Still visible, too, are the slums, but tion wagon, suddenly begins singing "I'm in Latin American correspondent, entitled they seem less crowded and far neater than the Mood for Love." And Cubans Still make a "Now We Begin the Second 10 Years." In the tenements of Mexico City or New York. soft drink they call Coca-Cola that tastes his article, Mr. Goodsell points out that The mood of the country is subdued. One much like the U.S. product, even though while there is discontent in Cuba, while recent Mexican visitor who knew Cuba under Coke syrup is no longer available from the there are shortages, and while many have the Batista dictatorship compares the two U.S. not reconciled themselves to the Com- eras: "There are no beggars on the streets Havana, where nearly one-fourth of all and there used to be a great many, But the Cubans live, reflects all the contradictions of munist government, for the most part people aren't as friendly now; they used to. the revolution. Fidel loves ice cream, formerly Castro enjoys the allegiance of the great stop you on the street and ask how -you liked a luxury in Cuba, and has decreed that the majority of Cubans. He reports that the Cuba." people should have it in abundance. The re- poor and underprivileged who form the TOURISTS ARE GONE suit is ice cream everywhere, including at ,,great mass of the population are some- Most tourists are gone now, unless one the Coppelia, a two-story cantilevered ice what better off than they were 10 years counts the Russian technicians who swarm cream parlor in downtown Havana that seats ago. In the Wall Street Journal of Feb- around the swimming pool at Havana's Hotel 6,000 and where the customer can choose ruary 5, 1969, there appeared a front- National or the bearded Americans of the from 52 flavors, including guava. Five scoops page article entitled, "Fidel's EXperi- New Left who flock to Cuba despite State with syrup costs $1.50, and it's worth it. Department strictures against such travel. There are always long lines, despite the fact ment, Most Cubans Appear Content With Hotels and other buildings are aging as the Coppelia is open all day and most of the Castro's 10-Year-Old Regime," which gracefully as they can in the face of a severe night. confirms Mr. Goodsell's observations and shortage of paint and nearly everything else. WAITING IN LINE conclusions regarding conditions in Cuba Few cars are seen on the streets, though t for today and the stability of the Castro gov- there are plenty of British Leyland buses, Meanwchildrenhile hale, no the milk aged. is And available though Cub for ernment. trucks and military vehicles. and One face of Cuba is that of austerity. it is.a appear to have adequate supplies of staples I ask unanimous consent that these nation where rationing now is more severe like rice and beans, many other foods are articles be printed in the RECORD at this than in war-time England and where, even almost as scarce as milk. At grocery stores point. when ration stamps are available, stores are and restaurants, there are always long lines. There being no objection, the articles likely to be empty of appliances, most "Someone from each family is constantly in were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, clothes, many food items and all luxury line," complains one young man who lives in as follows: goods. Havana. [From the Wall Street Journal, Feb. 5, 1969] But there is also a Cuba of the millenium, A visit to Fin de Sigo, a big department a place where no one will pay rent beginning store in the old quarter of Havana, is depress- FIDEL'S EXPERIMENT: MOST CUBANS APPEAR next year and whore most medical care is ing. Long lines of glass merchandise cases are CONTENT WITH CASTRO'S 10-YEAR-OLD RE- free and far more abundant than in the past. completely empty; the men's department is LIME-JAILS HOLD 10,000 DISSENTERS, BUT Public phones, baseball games, wedding ban- blocked off, the racks devoid of any clothing. IMPROVED EDUCATION, HEALTH, WAGES WIN quets, education and even funerals are on A few bored clerks stand around watching FAVOR-FREE CALLS ON PUBLIC PHONES the government. Despite the monotony of the the equally scarce shoppers. The only crowd (By Herbert G. Lawson) diet, no one is starving, and most people, in is in the lingerie department where women SAN ANDRES, CUBA.-Antonio Toledo, a fact, appear well fed and reasonably well ,line up to buy stockings. Not a single appli- barefoot, nearly toothless tobacco farmers, dressed. ance is in sight, nor are there any toys or warmly greets an American visitor to his POLITICAL PRISONERS children's clothing except for cotton school dirt-floor home in this remote western Another face is autocratic, This is a thor- uniforms ($3.23 for a cheap skirt). mountain valley. A photo of Fidel Castro oughly totalitarian state where 2.6 million Such shortages-caused by the lackluster hangs on one wall, but the family's most people-nearly one in three-are members of performance of Cuba's economy and the di- cherished possession is a wall rack full of vigilante groups on nearly every block called version of capital into agricultural industry- china plates and coffee cups. Committees for the Defense of the Revolu- inevitably cause some unrest. At a party in a "We never had those before the revolu- tion. No opposition press is tolerated and private home in Havana, a 20-year-old teach- tion," say Mr. Toledo. "We have more money the jails contain 10,000 or more political pris- er confides that he would like to flee the now." Though he has refused to yield to oners, including former high-level Commu- country. "I don't believe our government's pressure to give up his land to the state, he's nists who challenged Castro's leadership. The propaganda," he says. But he can't leave glad to Sell his output to the government premier recently gave public support to Rua- legally under the refugee program while he is and notes that it gives him free fertilizer ' Sian suppression of the liberal Czech govern- of military age. Part of his family already has that has quadrupled his crop. His grandchild ment. , gone to Miami, and he eagerly watches Miami will go to a free, modern boarding school in But there is also a more tolerant Cuba television (Bewitched is a favorite show). the valley. He and his family now have two where the Catholic Church still functions de- There are other hints of disenchantment. doctors nearby; before the revolution, medi- spite some government restrictions, where A university student says her brother re- cal help for the 8,000 people in the valley was students and intellectuals feel some freedom cently saw two militiamen shot to death in 35 miles away-over a mountain without to express anti-Castro views at social gather- Oriente Province, the eastern mountain re- roads, ings, where artists have Czech-style freedom gion where there have been persistent re- Mr. Toledo's enthusiasm for Cuba's 10- of expression and where racial integration of ports of antigovernment activity. Other year-old Communist regime isn't shared by the 27% black and mulatto population is observers report incidents of farm workers everyone on this tropical island of eight mil- genuine. The regime, with a large core of deliberately breaking cane seedlings before lion people. But Castro's enemies appear far enthusiastic supporters, tries to avoid a po- planting them and of chains being thrown outnumbered by th o ferv or a- lice-state atmosphere and prefers the carrot across power lines to short them. "But it's aively accept the A6i1~(t~Cr1d~IFn ea*0l1'Ofl~/?03/25 ? CIA-RDP71 B00364#~0j3s too .~5Pays one. "The sccu- what happens, capitalism is dead here," as- Then there Is Puritan Cuba. Lotteries and rity here goo or there to be any per- sorts one pro-Western diplomat in Havana. prostitution have been outlawed, night clubs tentage in it." Approved For Releas p03/2 - R P 64R000300050004-6 S 1471 February 7, 1969 CONGRESSe i O - Even those Negroes with relatively humble Nevertheless A LESSON VIA SLAPSTICK FLFEING cA g On this particular evening, the citrus , Castro o was s concerned enough jobs say they like the new Cuba. A yowl to lash out at saboteurs in a major address ? woman at the cigar counter of a Havana hotel growers are treated to a documentary of last September, citing 51 major acts of Sabo- says she left the island to live in New York Fidel's Aug. 23, 1968, speech in defense of tage, including arson in schools and sugar for 12 years but returned when the revolution the "bitter necessity" for Russia to invade began. "I'm very happy," she says. "Now the Czechoslovakia. The peasants are impassive warehouses. country belongs to us and no one can take it during the documentary but break into But analyses of Cuban affairs m agree st that prolonged laughter at the feature film, a Bureau- Castro has dealt effectively with most dan- away GAINS IN MEDICAL CARE Cuban-made farce called Death of a Bureau- s citizens by jmling them or, more ,often, by y giving them a chance to' leave. Cubans are especially proud of their new crat. It copies a slapstick scene from an old More than 600,000 Cuban refugees now live health system. Dr. Albert Sabin, developer of Laurel and Hardy movie while neatly putting around the world, including 400,000 in the oral polio vaccine, said after a recent visit over the regime's campaign against red tape. U .S. About 1,000 weekly arrive by air in Ml- that health services "arervP jyto well organized The the children to create i wh taChe of all Cuban the country's have made their hazardous exit by swim- ming into the U.S. naval base at Guanta- naxno or jumping its fence. The most spec- tacular mass flight occurred last month when 87 refugees dashed into the base. An unde- termined number of others were killed by Cuban soldiers in the escape attempt. Would-be refugees who want to follow the normal route face still another of Cuba's long lines, this one at the Swiss embassy in Havana. As soon as they announce their in- tention to leave by applying at the em- bassy, they become "gusanos,"' or worms, in the view of the state. Many lose their jobs and go to farm labor camps while waiting the several years before space is available on a flight out; one embassy source reports 70,000 now are on the waiting list. All who leave Cuba forfeit most of their possessions when they go. Those who stay behind to build the revolu- tion are resourceful. Mechanics are geniuses in patching up rusty 1950-vintage U.S. cars. Women sew their own clothes from the year- ly ration of slightly more than 21 square yards. "No two women in Cubti dress alike," I etie description, a Socialist man freed from the "alienation" of modern life. Fidel has de- scribed him as the man of the future who will not need or use money or work for any personal gain In "a society free of selfish- ness." In practice, many Cubans seem to display sincere zeal in working for their country's goals. But many also seem to submerge their own identity in the process. Octavio Cortaza is a handsome young intellectual who is making his mark as a film director after studying Czech film techniques. When asked how Cubans reacted to the Russian invasion of Czechoslovakia, he answers: "There was some confusion (in Cuba) at first until' we learned what our position would be." [From the Christian Science Monitor, Feb. 4, 19691 Now WE BEGIN THE SECOND 10 YEARS (NOTE.-Ten years have passed since Fidel Castro gained power. No one can say they have been peaceful years. In one way or an- other the Western world has been particu- larly conscious of Cuba's presence. As to the , e WAGE CEILING next 10 years, Cuba watchers wonder whether America, has also dropped sharply to a level The minimum wage here is generally $85 a well below most other Latin lands. Dr. Castro will be able to maintain his re- month, The sum seems small, but most fam- FIGHTING ILLITERACY markable staying power.) Hies include two or more breadwinners be- More controversial than medicine but (By James Nelson Goodsell) cause f child the earnn . A apidly maximum taking over hs job ?ually impressive in the view of some ?b- RIO DE JANEIRO.--Ten years ago Fidel Cas- rs is the burgeoning school system tro and a small legion of supporters came out rve of a month is set by the government, but few se earns it. Pensions are guaranteed to all at Cuba. Castro has declared war on illiteracy of Cuba's Sierra Maestra mountains and took whatever age they become unable to work. and promised his people a free education to control of the island nation. Neither Cuba The pension is $60 a month, plus free food, the limit of Individual ability. The first nor the Americas have been the same since. lodging and medical care. Almost everyone building to go up'in the many new com- The victory of Dr, Castro in his long works for the state because all businesses munities dotting the countryside is a school- struggle against the dictatorship of Fulgen- are nationalized; however, some 20% to 27% house. Teachers eager to instill a revolution- cio Batista signaled the end of an era, but it of land remains in the hands of farmers with ary concept of history as well as to turn out was unlike many another government small acreages. "The tendency is to eliminate trained workers are special heroes of Cuba's changeover In which a simple change of this last ownership, but no definite date is revolution. power took place, set," says a foreign ministry spokesman. Here at integrated School No. 1 in San Though it was not clearly seen at the time, The greatest beneficiaries of the revolution Andres, 280 primary and secondary students Cuba's new leaders determined basically to appear to be the rural poor and the young. live and study on a modern campus of red- alter the island's political, economic, and Youth is worshipped In Castro's Cuba, The brick buildings. Classroom bells have been social structure. And in the 10 years since head of the information office of the ,foreign replaced by recordings of popular Cuban their coming to power, that has been done. ministry is 26. The schoolmaster at'a 300-stu- songs played over a loudspeaker. ("Three - The intervening years have been stormy utiful Cuban Girls" announces the end of for Cuba and for the Western Hemisphere- B ea dent boarding school here in San Andres is 20. Teachers are often teen-agers. class.) The children go home only one Sun- especially for the United States, Cuba's Olga Chamero is a pretty, blond diplomat day every two weeks. At school, they spend northern neighbor 90 miles across the Florida who, at age 16, went to her first foreign as- six hours in class work two hours cultivating Straits. signment in Colombia, Now 24, she's served in rice in fields nearby and devote evenings to' EVENTS RECOUNTED Peking and soon may leave her job as an study, sports or other planned activities. The Events of those years are well known, such analyst of U.S. affairs to join Cuba's UN mis- classrooms are as modern as most in the U.S., as: the gradual worsening of U.S.-Cuban re- sion. She wears chic clothes and dines oc- and the library is well-stocked, including lations and the eventual break in diplomatic casionally at the several elegant restaurants seven volumes of Karl Marx, ties; Cuba's confiscation of U.S. property; the in Havana largely reserved for diplomats. She Castro's claim-and it is credible when one abortive Bay of Pigs Invasion; U.S,-Soviet also carries a carbine on guard duty and is sees the masses of uniformed school children missile confrontation; Cuba's support for an ardent revolutionary. "Cubans are free throughout the island-is that nearly every guerrilla activities throughout Latin Amer- to talk against the revolution but not to act," educational statistic has doubled under com- ica; and a? host of other incidents which she says. "We have the right to defend the munism. The number of primary and sec- have repeatedly focused attention on the revolution and we will." ondary students is now 1,617,000, or more island nation in the' Caribbean. Negroes also are finding a new role in than twice the 781,000 a decade ago; he told In the process, Premier Castro embraced Cuba, Alfonso Herrera, another foreign min- an audience at Cangre a few weeks ago. Marxism and turned his nation's economy Istry analyst, recalls that he was the coun- Cuba's infant film industry Is an arm of into what it has become largely a Communist try's first Negro consul, serving in Jamaica the educational movement. On a balmy night, system. in the early 1960s. He was a master builder 60 citrus growers in a community 30 miles As such Cuba's long years of economic before the revolution. Although few black west of Havana gather in a new meeting hall ties with the U.S, and its capitalistic system Cubans have risen to top government or to watch a film brought by a mobile govern- have been broken, een t the natural a party posts, they are highly visible in many ment unit with a portable generator. Such rt of has b et o to the Sot r nin Union and is v ever remote corner ep technical u s Airline Q rma t~ob9r or In. R Qi~ss rd 18 5 GYIA-RDP71 B00C464 (9 5e ?r economic as- cluding ding Cubaans b extraordinarily well..' izospisais .moo ~.~~?_ ??? every major city, and hospital beds have hombre." This new man is ill-defined, but ever one talks about him. He is, in Che's Po- bulk of new facilities are in rural areas that had little or no medical care before. Here in San Andres, where no medical care existed before the revolution, Dr. Antonio Lara and another physician man a tiny "pub- lic health post." There is an examination room, a two-bed labor room and a delivery room. Dr. Lars lives at the post and Is on call 24 hours daily with six days off each month. His more serious cases go by ambulance to Pinar del Rio, the provincial capital 35 miles away. There a local party official whips out statistics on medical services in the prov- ince: 310 doctors now compared with 226 be- fore the revolution; eight hospitals now against one before ("and it was very bad"); 700 nurses, up from 66 before 1959. A good measure of overall health care is infant mortality, doctors agree. In Cuba, ac- cording to World Health Organization figures, annual infant deaths per 1,000 births are 39.7. This compares with 108.2 in Chile, 91.5 in Guatemala and 62.9 in Mexico. The U.S. rate a major cause of death in Latin nteritis Approv%NorU, e f(5 3/W:( l eb- uary 7, 1969 &5 k(aA_R XERQ364R000300050004-6 S 1473 ` Furthermore, it seems clear that the ABM arguments grew more and more hours during which our own Minutemen a ICBMs could strike Chinese launching f ormer .,- leaders of the Soviet Union seek to dis- cogent- and persuasive, the engage themselves from their expensive retary of Defense, Mr. McNamara, in pads in only 30 minutes, and even less relationship with Castro's Cuba. This has clear violation of his own best judg- time required for a Polaris strike. In been costing the U.S.S.R. more than $1 ment, last year advocated that we take short, any remotely probable Chinese million a' day. To indicate his ingrati- the first large steps toward commitment ICBM capability developed during the tude, Castro has supported the Chinese to just such a program. And a majority 1970's can be effectively deterred or de- Communists in their bitter and intense of the Congress voted to go along. stroyed prior to launch by existing Amer- ideological" battle with the Russians. That decision urgently requires re- ican weaponry. Castro continues to support effol-ts to consideration and reversal. There is still another consideration in overthrow Latin American governments. If on no other grounds, the near- regard to this not-very-ominous nuclear It is apparently a fact that the Cuban unanimous testimony of the scientific threat from China. Every responsible ob- ld be enough to con- server agrees that the Soviet Union has h it y s ou Government aided and abetted guerrillas . commun seeking to overthrow the Government of vince us that the proposed Sentinel ABM been effectively deterred by our massive Bolivia and establish a Communist gov- system must not be allowed to go for- nuclear capability; Soviet leaders are ernment there. This attempt resulted in ward. Men of such distinguished and fully aware that any attack on the t Dr Hans Bethe Dr United States or our principal allies d gmen as ? disaster for the Cuban leadership. As a proven ju condition for recognition and resump- Richard Garwin, Dr. George Kistiakow- would be countered my immediate and tion of normal relations between the sky, Dr. Jerome Wiesner, Dr. Herbert total devastation of their land and peo- United States and Cuba, we should de- York, and indeed, the man who is now ple. But now we ,are asked to believe that rnand that the Cuban Government cease President Nixon's chief scientific adviser, the Chinese, with their far less sophisti- any further attempts to subvert the gov- Dr. Lee DuBridge-all have expressed the cated and extensive weapons capability, ernment of any Latin American country. single most compelling argument against cannot be deterred in the same fashion. Obviously, were we to have a minister our building an ABM system: It will not What we are asked to believe, in other aticth2, for, leaders are or an ambassador in Cuba with the usual work; it will not and cannot do the job words, that Psi- staff we would know almost immediately its proponents claim for it. of any violations of such an agreement. The reason is perfectly simple: no dent, politely decline to share so sim- Why should we continue to officially conceivable ABM system can successfully plistic, indeed, paranoid, a view of the ignore the Castro regime while Canada, intercept a missile attack which has been nature of our adversaries. our progressive neighbor to the north, planned with the knowledge that ABM's But the implications of our move to- profits from commercial relations with are deployed. Through the use of decoys, ward construction of an ABM system are Cuba? The United Kingdom, France, and. chaff, radar jamming, and other such wider and more serious than these con- many other nations have recognized the devices readily accessible to any nation siderations alone would indicate. For the Government of Cuba now in existence for that has an ICBM capability anyway, in- Soviet Union is not, and cannot afford to almost 10 years and have been prosper- coming missiles can penetrate an ABM be, an indifferent observer to any major ing by their trade with Cuba. We should shield in sufficient numbers to utterly escalation in our military-strategic ca- resume diplomatic relations with Cuba devastate our industrial and population pability. Just as we should be forced to and obtain the same economic benefits centers. Our only recourse then would respond to any large strategic change in through trade and commerce as our be massive thermonuclear retaliation their military posture, they must surely allies and our neighbors to the north against the attacking country. But this is respond to any such change in ours. It and south. Furthermore, we are at a con- precisely the recourse that we now have, is all very well for leaders in this country tinuing disadvantage in dealing with without an ABM system. What then will to proclaim that our building of an ABM we have gained by building one? system is motivated solely out of concern Embassay. . through Cuba a wit rd thhout a d d paat,oubt the wouldSwiss' We are told that the so-called thin about China. But if such statements t carry so little conviction to so many of become a good customer of the United ABM system now planned is to protect us carry s the reasons I have Just ouf States. Cubans need American products against a Chinese, not a Soviet, attack. us--for ned-hoh much less convincing 'mus- including medicines, drugs, clothing, This was Secretary McNamara's pain- ? sound to the perennially suspicious beef, and many other nonstrategic prod-' fully reluctant rationale last year in ask- they and distrustful t men r the K suspi ucts of American farms and factories, Ing us for a $5 billion authorization. We and dis tfut ul le in the with a new We Americans, in turn, would no doubt need only glance at the character of the Secretary es ery of Defense who only a few import Cuban products such as sugar, alleged Chinese threat to see how yeas ago was Defense that we only ought not rum, and fruits produced in the tropics, specious that rationale was and is. year ate to launch insisting a nuclear first strike simply to mention a few. Trade makes First of all, the hard fact is that the against the Soviet Union if we first s thoqght it for good neighbors. Good neighbors make Chinese have not yet even tested a in our interest to do so-today, especial- for peace. booster rocket powerful enough to use as ly, Soviet leaders cannot help but assume Let us hope that our President and the a;r ICBM. But after they have done so, that the deployment of an ADM system Secretary of State will propose a diplo- it will still require at least 4 years before on our part constitutes a direct threat to matic exchange and take the blinders they can deploy an operational ICBM. themselves, And they will surely respond from our eyes which should have been Our best available estimates now are that accordingly. removed years ago. In fact, should never if the Chinese have a successful test dur- That response can only be an escala- have been placed there in January 1961 ing the current year, by the middle or tion in the arms race of such proportions by President Eisenhower less than a end of the next decade they may have be- as to make previous military spending by month before the end of his term of tween 25 and 75 ICBMs. These, however, either country seem an innocent trifle by office. will be similar to our own early Atlas comparison. For in addition to what our and Titan missiles-that is, liquid-fueled, distinguished majority leader has esti- nonhardened launching sites, and requir- mated must be a $100-billion expendi- THE ABM: A NATIONAL DISASTER ing hours to prepare for firing. And even ture on a fully operational ABM system IN THE MAKING so modest a capability as this is now alone, the two superpowers will then have Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, over the, seriously threatened by the disorder and to pour additional numberless billions past several years I have followed the confusion caused by the so-called cul- Into devising means of piercing the ABM debate over whether this Nation should tural revolution and by factional clashes shield that each will then have. Escala- build an anti-ballistic-missile system within their defense industry. tion breeds counterescalation: that is with a deepening sense of unease. I have We are left, then, Mr. President, with one of the tragic lessons of Vietnam. It listened while the voices of our most out- a situation in which, 6 to 10 years from is also a lesson that has been borne home standing scientists and distinguished now, the Chinese ICBM capability will be to us throughout the entire post-World leaders in the Congress have spoken out extremely limited in size and technolog- War II era. To ignore it now is to invite against such a system as being not only ically obsolescent. It will be of a character nothing less than an economic and social exorbitantly expensive o* it JUJM Qata s ~Q~ R ~Q beloved country- n ti tOO~nnafr e BYbY~cdu ~ m`s'c~` `g ire iota of in yro 1 d h d t a , ex reme y g oo tional security. But even while the anti- be '- '?hed against U.S. targets-12 creased military security.