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December 29, 1969
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Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 December 29, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? Extensions of Remarks E 11023 ago, and I know how deep are the currents of this war. President Nixon's proposal for timed with- drawal is therefore eminently sound, and his desire to keep such a timetable discre- tionary is profoundly sensible. President Nixon has clearly put us on the path to peace. Since it is far easier to start a war than it is to end one (let us not forget that even victors have difficulty ending wars), this country should give President Nixon, not yet a year in office, sufficient time to work out the conclusion to one of the longest wars In American history. Such support is simply the reasonable action of a reasonable people. To criticize the President's actions not for being proper, but for being slow, is childish and unrealistic. This country has been founded on that delightful cry of the under- dog: "Give a man a chance." I suggest we give President Nixon a chance. This is why it is so important for Repub- licans especfally to band together behind the President?to give him that solid sup- port he needs to wage a war for peace. As the titular head of the Republican Party, President Nixon should not be exposed to embarrassment or to any action by his own Party which would weaken his quest for an end to the Vietnam war. The earnest support of our President is the freest expression we have to show that we join President Nixon in ending?as quickly as rationally pos- sible?the hell of the Vietnam war. In conclusion may I say that we as party members should be slow to reject his ap- pointees or question his policies, not be- cause we should allow ourselves to be stifled, but because Richard Nixon has come to the Presidency at one of the most difficult periods in American history and he is making de- cisions to shape and to mold a better Amer. NO PEACE IN MIDDLE EAST WHILE ARABS EXPECT ISRAEL TO WITH- DRAW HON. JOHN M. MURPHY OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, December 22, 1969 Mr. MURPHY of New York. There can be no peace in the Middle East so long as the Arabs, with the cunning ap- proval of the Russians, expect Israel to withdraw from occupied territories as a precondition to negotiations for peace. It is therefore inconceivable to me that the United States should even remotely suggest withdrawal by Israel. Secretary Rogers, in his December 9th statement, suggests that the intercession of the United States and Russia, and the abanz donment of occupied territories, will hasten peace. Israel does not accept this position. I do not accept this as a sound position. The United States should not accept this position. The lesson of 1957 is clear. Israel was amenable to accommodation with the Arabs after U.S. assurance and the Arabs used the presence of a weak-kneed United Nations force as a cover for build- ing a war machine to smash Israel. When that clash came in 1967; 10 years later, Israel responded heroically to her own survival and secured the homeland. Arab territory was taken. It would be foolish to abandon that territory now in the hope of inducing the Arabs to again participate in negotiations while it is clear that the Arabs are bent on nothing less than the total destruction of Israel and the annihilation of the Jews. Israel must hold the occupied terri- tory and negotiate its return to the Arabs only as part of genuine, substantive talks aimed at bringing a secure and lasting peace to the Middle East. You do not bargain with anyone by throwing in your best cards at the beginning of the game. The United Nations also errs when it attempts to deal with the Russians to have them intercede with the Arabs. Russia is in absolute harmony with the intentions of the Arabs, and Israel is op- posed to bilateral talks with Russia and the four-power talks with Britain and France. We should actually be pushing for face-to-face negotiations between Arabs and Israelis. Nations not directly involved cannot hope to bring peace to the Middle East when one of those nations is the instiga- tor and supporter of Arab aggression and hostility. The security and integrity of the State of Israel cannot be compromised. Israel's best hope for long-range peace is strength. I have therefore recently urged the President to supply an additional 250 Phantom jets to Israel to insure her defensive power in the shadow of in- creasing Russian military assistance to the Arab States. While Israel is strong she will survive. Her strength alone will finally compel the Arabs to recognize the reality of the existence of Israel and sit down to achieve a lasting and durable peace. Vital to Israel's strength is the un- swerving support of her position by the United States. The Secretary of State can do grave injustice to Israel should he attempt to compromise Israel's position in opposition to Israel's wishes. There has been war in the Middle East three times in the last 20 years. Let us learn from that history and not make the same mistakes again. CONGRESSIONAL REFORM HON. DONALD W. RIEGLE, JR. OF MICHIGAN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, December 22, 1969 Mr. RIEGLE. Mr. Speaker, our col- league, the gentleman from Missouri (Mr. Bomaisio) has done our country a great service by continuing to focus national attention on the pressing need for congressional reform. His compelling article from the No- vember issue of Playboy magazine speaks for itself and I would urge all Americans to read it. This article follows: THE HOUSE: "How THE LOWER CHAMBER BE- SET BY REACTIONARY COALITIONS, STALE- MATED BY All ARCHAIC AND CORR17PTIBLE COMMITTEE SYSTEM, FAILS IN FULFILLING THE NATION'S MOST PRESSING LEGISLATIVE NEEDS" (By Representative RICHARD BOLLING) It is my conviction, a heresy in my trade, that the primary failures of political leader- ship at the Federal level are found in the United States Congress. Particularly, these failures are found in the House of Represent- atives, where I serve?the legislative area of civil rights excepted. The House has failed to organize itself in such a way as to exercise effectively and responsibly its share of the political leadership that the American people may fairly expect from their Federal Govern- ment. A drastic change in the House power structure and major reforms of the House as an institution are needed. The House as now constituted is ineffective. It is negative In its approach to national tasks and usually unresponsive except to parochial economic Interests. Its creaky procedures are outmoded. Its organization camouflages anonymous cen- ters of irresponsible power. It often passes legislation that is a travesty of what is really needed. The fundamental reforms I suggest are directed at the way Democrats in the House organize themselves. In the majority during 31 of the past 38 years, the Democrats are largely responsible for the present condition of the House. The inflammations in our cities and the unresponsiveness in our schools and the effluence of our polluted environment would be much less aggravated if the Demo- crats had faithfully put the House in order. If the House were properly organized, such reactionaries as Howard Smith of Virginia, longtime chairman of the House Rules Com- mittee and a Democrat in name only, could not have arbitrarily throttled school aid, housing programs and civil rights legisla- tion in the Forties, Fifties and early Sixties. If the House were properly organized, Repre- sentative Wilbur Mills of Arkansas, chairman of the powerful House Ways and Means Com- mittee, would not have been able to pigeon- hole Medicare for the elderly until 1965. Congress would be a more respected body today if it, rather than the Supreme Court, had outlawed malapportioned Congressional districts and segregated public school dis- tricts. A majority of the Democratic Party in the House has permitted its minority Tories to misuse seniority in order to obstruct, damage and deflate the party's national pro- grams. The House must assume part of the blame for ghetto fires and rioting, Birming- ham bombings and the Little Rock school confrontation. Is the Congress, especially the House, to continue as the least responsible organ of Government, responding, if at all, often 10, 20 or 30 years after social problems arise? Is the essential well-being of the nation de- pendent on an occasional political landslide, such as occurred in 1964 because of the Gold- water Presidential candidacy? Will the na- tion learn to improve itself by means of other institutions and thereby push the Congress to the outskirts of American society? The naysaying 90th Congress of 1967-1968 Is a good illustration of how a legislative body should not work. The House during those years gave one of its worst perform- ances. The Congressional trail was dotted with the sump holes of legislative inepti- tudes and misadventures. The House mangled elementary-secondary school aid, Model Cities, the promising Teacher Corps, rent- supplement and other anti-poverty programs. It amounted to a virtual war against Amer- ica's poor. The first mishap was the handling of that flamboyant Harlem grandee, Adam Clayton Powell. At the time, Powell was in deep trouble of his own making. He had abused his trust as chairman of the Education and Labor Committee. It distressed the country. It distressed many House members. But the Speaker of the House, John W. McCormack of Massachusetts, did not see it that way. He felt that there was no problem. Just news- paper talk, the Speaker said. Yet mail de- manding Powell's head was being delivered by the truckloads to House members from irate constituents. A few of the senior bulls shared McCormack's view. Disturb Powell, they reasoned, and who knows which of us Referral To CONG Not Required Approve cr For Kelease 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 11024 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ?Extensions of Remarks December 29, 1969 committee chairmen may Someday be dis- todged from our seniority shelter? So what happened? Powell was quite prop- erly stripped of his chairmanship of the Education and Labor Comnllttee by a ca :sous of his Democratic colleagnes. This a, ;tion. then snowballed into a sUccessful but un- constitutional move to deprive Powell or the teat to which his Harlem cemstituents had elected him. Incompetent leadership was to blame for not blocking the exclusion effort. As a result, Harlem, festering with dire poverty, was not represented in the Horne for the two-year life of the 901h Congress, The Powell affair was only the first in a Series of bumblings. The Democratic Douse leadership agreed to accept an appor:ion- anent of seats among Republicans and Demo- crats on the key Ways and Means and Appropriations committees that doorra d at the outset the liberal domestic legis salve ii.rogram of the President. While srbail ghettos blazed during the inidsumin :r of 967, the House gutted remedial legislation or urban areas in mindless fashion. It re- used even to discuss a bill to authos ize a at-eradication program for cities?yet A few lays later, it became known that a celer tract ha,d been let to eradicate rats in the office buildings occupied by House membe..e. A bill to renew and extend the anti-poverty program?a real hope for millions of Ameri- bans, both black and white -was so jr corn- Patently scheduled that it barely stir dived debate on the House floor. Finally, in late 1968, the 90th Cor gress ended on perhaps the most outrageous note of all. The core of parliamentary government is the vote. When it is abuiled or besmirched, our democracy is gravely wounded. Ve', last fall, it appeared that House assistant larks were registering as present many members who were not present?indeed, one rale tuber was in California at the time he Was re- corded. This scandalous ghost voting caused no great outcry among Hou -e member s, al- though it was referred for inquiry ti the House Committee on Standards of C. racial Conduct. That eommittee has recomsr, sided a preliminary course of action that car lead to effective reform in this vital area. Amid this bedlam, the conservative and reactionary committee chairmen prosaered. One was Mills, the chairman of Way. and Means. Under the rules of the House leg- islation involving tax reform. Social Sec urity, Medicare, welfare programs and a vast array of other domestic problems are referred to this grand committee. Mills is a legisiscor of considerable ability and strong conservatism. At some time or other, he has voted against Medicare, minimum wage, foreign aid, Vfodel Cities, anti-poverty funds and civil sights. He bottled up the surcharge until he iorced the President into agreement on a calling on domestic spending, a deceptive-son iding objective that disguised Its true pu 'pose; rather than curtailing or stretching out such expenditures as postponable military con- struction, civil public works and highway construction, Mills assured slashes 1.-1 the newer, innovative programs designed tc solve the problems of our cities. As chairman of the Committee on Com- mittees, composed of the 15 Democrats on Ways and Means, Mills also occupies a power- ful Democratic Party position in the House. Until this year, when a small halter was placed on it, this committee had, Without restraint, assigned all other Democrats to seats on the other permanent committees of the House. Southern Democrats?actually, "Republicans with Southern accents"- have, until recently, been a reArbrity on th s key Committee on Committees. Over the years, this custom has enabled Southerners?many of whom are able men of great integrity, but virtually all of whom are Stuck to the segre- gationist flypaper?to rise to head the major legislative committees and key subcommit- tees within these full committees. Even this year, nine of the 21 committees have South- ern Democrats as chairmen and only one of the nine chairmen is what I would call a "national Democrat." How in the devil did this regressive state of affairs develop? And why has it been per- mitted to continua? The story begins in 1910, when insurgent Republicans, joined by Democrats, successfully rebelled against a tyrannical and deeply conservative G.O.P. Speaker, Joseph "Uncle Joe" Cannon of Illinois. The bipartisan rebels forged a voting majority to strip the Speakership of its major powers, among them the unilateral power to appoint a:.1 members, Democrats as well as Republicans, to committees. Subse- quently, House Democrats and Republicans each devised separate machinery to name their respective members to the committees. It soon became the, firm practice to re-elect returning members to the committees on which they had served in the previous Con- gress. The Democratic committee members came to be listed in order of the length of time they had served on a particular com- mite the greatest service airman, if his p was the majority p ty in the House. In a sense, this stom was accep table. After all, it takes ime to learn to be a competent national gislator. But seniority became the over- ing factor in determining appointments to mmittees?a custom no other state or nati 1 assembly in the world follows. Custo became Congressional "common law."' Vi ting sen:tority became as unthink- able as s iting for one's sister. Senior Congressmen, ?f course, enjoy the seniority system. Most o those far less senior toler- ate it, in the ho.e_ they too, someday will enjoy the trappingB9 of chairmanships. The few who recognize. 1 in any attempt to cha The present state of a For a Democrat to become need only live long enough elected often enough on colleagtes. Eventually, he'll Ma though he may have the morais o cape or the mind of a rnoron?or bo who among Democrats is most like achieve the cherished g answer is easy: He is a member from a o party Congressional district, usually in th rural South?, suspicious and racist. His rise on the seniority ladder is aided by the competitive nature of many Northern districts, where Democrats fare less well. Consequently, Southern Democrats generally hostile to the moderately liberal cast of their national party came to dominate the House power Structure. It is as if we named George Wallace to head the United States Civil Rights Cornmission, a Democrat to head the Republican National Committee or someone who believes the world is flat to head the Federal apace agency. (Along their way to power, it should be noted, the South- erners have the assistance of the "dough- faces"?Northern men with political appe- tites rather than-- victions?elected from rotten districts in Ne Chica o other large cities. Both types c the House to feast on the spoils. They don't give a damn about issues.) Occasionally, an aspiring Southern Demo- crat lets slip his masks in this farce. Both Albert Watson of South Carolina and John Bell Williams of Mississippi, for example supported the Republican Presidential can- didate, Barry Goldwater, in 1964. Their ac- tons. were so blatant that a thin, majority of House Democrats, :tn caucus, was able to strip them of their accumulated seniority. Watson then showed his true colors. He resigned his seat in the House returned to South Carolina, ran as a Republice,n for the seat he had just vacated and was elected. He still sits as a Re- publican in the :House. Williams, a much more senior member of the House, would now be the chairman of the House Committee on evils are outgunned matters. s, then, is this: chairman, he nd get re- totance his it, al- Mafia And to cal of -chaiman? Interstate and Foreign Commerce had his seniority on that committee not been taken away. Deprived of this opportunity for great national power, he those to seek the much less important position of governor of Missis- sippi. He succeeded., and now the people of that sad state are the exclusive beneficiaries of his reactionary tendencies. This year, Rep- resentative John Rarick of Louisiana, who had supported George Wallace, was likewise stripped of his seniority ata Democratic cau- cus?an action energetically fought by the House Democratic leadership, including Speaker McCormack. But these are only dents in the iron sys- tem of seniority, a system. with very real re- wards. From his cockpit as committee chair- man, a member may and does thumb his nose at the President, the Speaker and a majority of his own party. A chairman usually decides which bills will be granted hearings. He con- trols the timing of the hearings and the se- lection of witnesses. By absenting himself or refusing to call committee meetings, he often can deny a bill passage through his committee. It's that simple?and that arbitrary. Among the most right-wing chairmen is Mendel Rivers of Charleston, South Carolina, a Scopes who whispered support for Hubert Humphrey in the 1968 Presidential election while winking at the supporters of George Wallace. During a TV interview, he once said, "I don't put myself on a parity with a Gov- ernment employee. The people, in the Consti- tution, put me above them." lie supported his party's national program only 37 percent of the time during 1965-1966, and hasn't changed since. He chairs the Armed Services Committee, which seldom gives searching thought to the major military matters within its jurisdiction but acts, instead, primarily as a committee on military real estate, parceling out military installations to districts of "de- serving members." John South Carolina heads the District of Coluniblernorra- mittee, which has made our nationserbeaf bf Government a national disgrace. William Colmer of Mississippi heads the powerful Rules Committee, through which most legis- lation reported favorably by committees must pass before reaching the House floor for final action. And this is only a partial list. The result has been a grand deception of the American people. For 34 of the past 8 years, as I noted earlier, the Democrats ave been the "majority party" in the House. the present 91st Congress, for example, th e are 243 "Democrats" and 192 "Repub- s" in the House. However, at least 60 of the 43 Democrats are opposed to the Demo- crat National Party platform. These 60 are Sout rners almost without exception. And there e perhaps ten John Lindsay types anions, the 192 Republicans. Therefore, the true nation on major domestic remedial legisla ion is not 243 Democrats to 192 Re- publit. ns. In fact, 243 Democrats to 192 Rep leans. In fact, 193 members are gen- er in favor of progress and 242 are usually osed. Consequently, the Southerners Ill maintain a balance of power in those dozen or so hotly contested domestic legisla- tive rows that erupt during each session of Congress. Their pivotal position is being eroded, but it still often thwarts the national, as opposed to the regional, interest. This ratio is reflected within the key com- mittees as well. Usually, the gutting of bills to aid the poor and mistreated takes place beyond the glare of publicity, behind the closed doors of the committee room. The truncated bill then comes to the floor?where it is very difficult to restore the lost features. The condition of committee appointments has two faces, actually. One aspect is pack- ing a committee, so that humane legis- lation does not get a fair chance to be con- sidered. The second aspect is equally disas- trous to fairness and justice. Certain House committees, as in the Senate, have become Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 December 23, /90PPnwed QcOgAIREE6094:3W/RECOMER-DRI ELECIION OF MEMBER TO COMMITTEE Mr. GERALD R. FORD. Mr. Speaker, I offer a privileged resolution (H. Res. 770) and ask for its immediate consid- eration. The Clerk read the resolution as fol- lows: 11. RES. 770 Resolved, That Philip M. Crane, of Illi- nois, be, and he is hereby, elected a mem- ber of the standing committees of the House on Banking and Currency and House Ad- ministration. The resolution was agreed to. A motion to reconsider was laid on the table. ADMINISTRATION'S MARITIME PROGRAM (Mr. GARMATZ asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. GARMATZ. Mr. Speaker, today I have introduced n bill which is designed to implement President Nixon's proposed 10-year prograni to revitalize the Amer- ican merchant marine. I want to emphasize that this legisla- tion is cosponsored by 35 members of my House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, as well as myself. It is also cosponsored by a number of Congress- men who are not members of my com- mittee but are concerned about the future of the American merchant marine. This includes the majority whip, the gentle- man from Louisiana (Mr. Boccs) , and the minority leader, the gentleman from Michigan (Mr. OERALD R. FORD). The fact that many Democrats and Republicans have joined together to sup- port this legislation is significant: It is indicative?especially of my committee? of the bipartisan, cooperative spirit with which we are attempting to reverse the alarming decline of our maritime indus- try. I hope the same spirit of cooperation will now be displayed by all segments of the industry?including labor and man- agement?so that this program can be made to work. I think the industry re- alizes that?as far as a maritime pro- gram is concerned?it is "now, or never." Everyone is going to have to hitch in his belt a few notches, and be willing to make a few sacrifices. When President Nixon first presented his proposal for a long-range maritime program to our Committee, I said at the time that it was a good program, and that I would support it. The President first presented that pro- gram to Congress October 23, 1969. When the implementing legislation did not soon follow, I became naturally concerned about the time lag. I, therefore, an- nounced on December 11, that my com- mittee would begin a series of com- prehensive hearings in January 1970 on a total maritime program. In that hearing schedule, I included a number of sub- jects which are not considered in the President's program. Among these are the Jones Act, passenger ships, induce- ment for ship construction in the do- mestic trades, an independent maritime (111033364R000300120003-9 1112971 all of this is leading to the Americani- zation of the negotiations in the Middle East, and I warn you, Mr. Speaker, it will lead to another Americanized con- flict. As the political settlement of 1957 led to another war, so will this settlement as proposed lead to a conflict of im- mense proportions. There is only one way to serve the interest of all and that is to bring the parties to the conflict in 1967 and the conflicts before that to the negotiating table. Israel ran its war?it can run its diplomacy. I spoke above of a calculation. That calculation is simply this. By concessions to the Soviet Union, it is expected that we shall appease them, and perhaps neutralize the Arabs in the Middle East. I am not unaware of the extent to which Russia has armed the Arab nations fol- lowing their disastrous defeat in 1967. I am net unaware cf their rising power in the Middle East, but I submit to you, Mr. Speaker. and to this House that the interest of the Soviet Union in the Mid- dle East trans:ends their present in- volvement with the Arabs and even su- persedes their hostility to the State of Israel. The Soviets are working on a global scheme. If they can subvert the Arab na- tions and subdue and destroy Israel, they will have reached the Indian Ocean and the control of everything that touches it. One arm of the pincers movement will be secure. The other arm at this moment is strengthening rather successfully, it appears to me, through the Southeast of Asia and the heart of South Vietnam. If we pursue the policy in the Middle East that seems to be developing, we will have played into the hands of the Soviets. Forget if you will, Mr. Speaker, the strong sentiments of sympathy, of soli- darity, of confidence and of faith that many of us have for Israel. Forget its ca- pacity to be born, its strength to live, its strength to dream, its struggle to teach its children the traditions, the aspira- tions, and the realities of an ancient faith. Forget if you will the thrust which resulted in Israel's birth. Israel came about after World War II largely because an ancient people were nearly destroyed in Europe. They were disappointed when other people who might have helped turned and looked the other way. The Jews were lonely during those years because of the faults of other men. For Heaven's sake, do not make the Jews of Israel lonely again. The very basis of our policy should be to keep this one democratic state in the Middle East alive. If we cannot keep it alive out of compassion and friendship, let us keep it alive because of our own selfish self-in- terest. No matter what we forget, let us not forget that Israel is the bastion, on a far away shore, of Western values, Western culture, and free men. If this Nation forgets that, it will have aban- doned a primary of its own existence. Therefore, Mr. Speaker, the policy as INT understand it needs immediate re- agency bill, nuclear potential, and so forth. These matters are important and, I think should be included in a compre- hensive maritime program. The schedule of hearings already an- nounced were based on the assumption that we would have in hand by the time the hearings commenced the legislative recommendations of the administration to implement the President's long-range maritime program. Accordingly, I do not think it will be necessary to reprogram our hearings to take account of the administration's legislative recommen- dations. I am confident that with the co- operation of spokesmen for the Govern- ment agencies, industry, and labor we can complete the hearings in all the sub- ject areas I have proposed within the time frame I suggested. I want to congratulate President Nixon; Maurice H. Stans, Secretary of Com- merce; and Andrew E. Gibson, Maritime Administrator. They have kept their word and presented America with a new hope for its ailing maritime industry. I hope Congress will give it the support it deserves. MIDDLE EAST CONFLICT (Mr. McKNEALLY asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. McKNEALLY. Mr. Speaker, I rise seriously to question a policy being pur- sued by the State Department and the administration. It is incredible that the long, drawn out period leading to ne- gotiations following the 6-day war in 1967 between the Arabs and the State of Israel should be culminating in the way they are. It is understood that the Soviet Union and the other two parties were informed by our country that Israel should withdraw to the Egyptian border of 1967. Now we are informed that Israel is to withdraw to the Jordanian border with minimal changes. It occurs to me that this policy is based upon a calcula- tion which works to the detriment of our friends and will lead, if it has not already done so, to a further unsettling of the situation bedeviling the Middle East. Israel won the 1967 war. It threw its own soldiers into the fight. In a period of 6 heroic days, they redeemed again their right to exist as a nation. The issue was simple enough?whether Israel was to remain a sovereign state or was to be obliterated. In 1948, within 11 hours of the Declaration of Independence of the State of Israel, the United States recognized Israel's sovereignty. From that day on, it has been understood by all people that the policy of the United States would be in pursuance of its original show of friendship and support. Over the years the American people of all faiths and nationalities have visited Israel and acclaimed the strength of its spirit and its stability. Time after time that spirit has been tested by the Arabs and time after time that spirit has not vamping. Any policy concerning the once been broken. It can, however, be Middle East must be based upon the cen- broken by such behavior as we are wit- tral fact of upholding the State of Israel nessing in the present attempts at nego- as the only bastion of freedom in that tiations. area and the only light in a darkening I might say to you, in addition, that world. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 H 1 2,2 Approved For Rellealc@IMMeilkAlikR38k199-gitoRiP3??12??43 _e_ember 23, 1969 talf PEACE IN mciatAEL (Mr. XING asked and was given per- mission to extend his remarks at this point in the Rvcoao.) Mr. KING. Mr. Speaker, I wish to as- sociate myself with the remarks of the gentleman from New York (Mr. Mc- KNEALLY) . I, too, am greatly disturbed by the attitude of the Secretary of State, Mr. Rogers, in attempting to dictate peace terms to the sovereign state of Israel. The result of his latest press re- leases has been to send a shiver of fear down the backs of all Of us who have long supported Israel. We must not yield to Soviet influence. We must not become intrapped by Soviet schemes. Russia is not our friend; Israel is. Earlier this session, I introduced House Resolution 234, which calls upon arid urges the President antong other things to bring about direct negotiations be- tween Israel and the Amb States. This must be done. Israel won the war, it can and must be allowed to negotiate its own Peace. House Resolution 234 reads as follows: H. RES. 2E4 Whereas an internal 11B4dle East conflict Inherently endangers the peace and well- the legislation: being of the world community of nations; Juinelneadeseac Whereas an open door in the Middle East .! The National Musemn of History and is vital to the protection et NATO's sciuthern Technology (NMHT) is the center of historic flank and to the flow of world commerce; . research and education at the -Smithsonian.. Whereas by 'United Nations declaration k It is fitting, therefore, that theInstitutiores Israel legally deserves the status and rights \ observance of the Nation's Bicentennial in of a sovereign nation and. ..the territorial in- 4976 should be focused principally upon this tegrity which such status entails; Museum. Whereas many thousands lost their lives in 'Yet this Museum, which has far surpassed the recent Middle East conflict; and e ations in its popularity and in de- Whereas it is essential to avoid repeating mands up its resources, is already made- the mistakes of 1956 which led to the resump- quate to accOlhinviate the increased num- tion of hostilities in 1967: Now, therefore, be bers of visitors aneto display to best advan- it tags its historical resoUrees. Unless action is Resolved, That it is the acme of the House taken immediately to fit Museum for its of Representatives that permanent pace in role in- the Bicentennial, the Museum may the Middle East can be achieved only if? prove unable to make the corktribution the (1) the existence and sovereignty of Israel occasion demands, p3 acknowledged by the Arab ne,tionS; mcamsee vcarroas, LIMITED SPACE (2) freedom of passage in the Suez Canal nd the Gulf of Aquaba is guaranteed not The number of visitors to =IT is in- Only to Israel but to all nations; creasing steadily, oven without the Bicen- (3) final settlement of the boundaries of tennial. In 1967, for example, the number of the State of Israel is made end such boun- visitors to NMHT WBB nearly six million. The etaries are acknowledged by the Arab nations; year 1976 will bring much larger numbers to (4) effective restrictions _axe imposed upon the Mall and to the Museum. the flow of arms into the Middle East from Exhibit space in NMHT is already scarce. other members of the worui community; The historical collections are growing and (5) all nations address themselves to a special acquisitions of historical artifacts roblem in the Middle East; and be it Blether P nal and equitable solutien of the refugee will be a part of the Museum's Bicentennial reparations. If the Museum is to fulfill its Resolved, That the House of Repreeenta- education role, to make a coherent and com- 'Oyes, in order that lasting peace May be prehensive statement about the growth of established in the Middle East, urges the the United States it must now construct ap- President of the 'United States - propriate exhibit space. (1) to use all diplomatic resources at his To accommodate new permanept exhibits oommand, Including our membership in the and to handle an unprecedented influx of -United Nations, to work for the accomplish- Bicentennial visitors, the Sraithdonian Insti- rnent of the five aforementioned objeetives, tution proposes that two Bicentennial pa- vilions be added to the Museum of History (2) to oppose, as a precondition the and Technology. discussion and negotiation of the aforemen- THE BICENTENNIAL PAVILIONS toned five objectives, the relinquishment by The Bicentennial Pvilions will become the Ierael of territories possessed at the time the focus of a great effoxf of research to interpret eease-flre was effectuated, and the first 200 years of the United States Lon U(3) to oppose an imposed settlement either after 1976, they, will be the seen of porg- pon Israel or the Arab States, and tent educational presentations revealing the (4) to use every available means to bring epecialissternational nature of America's his- a out, through direct negotiations between toey..--- rael and the Arab States, the consuinma- As proposed, the two Pavilions will, with t on of permanent peace treaties, the present museum, provide a three-part complex in the National Museum of History AMERICAN POLICY IN THE and Technology. MIDDLE EAST THE FIR ST PAVILION The s pavilion, A Nation From the ] Na- (Mr. LOWENSTEIN asked and was tions," will present the people who have given permission to address the House settled America: their contributions, their for 1 Minute and to revise and extend his remarks.) LOW,ENETEIN. NIL_ Speaker, I wish to associate myself with the remarks of the distinguished gentleman from New York (Mr. MCKNEALLY) this morning. ____......, Is/rust-LA/ OP HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY (Mr. BOW asked and was given per- mission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous material.) Mr. BOW. Mr. Speaker, the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution voted sit its meeting on November 5, 1969, to request that the Congressional Regents introduce legislation toauthor- ize the construction of pavilions as addi- tions to the Nati mal Museum of History and Technology for the Smithsonian Institution, including the preparation of plans an spell Mations and all other es], work 1 dental thereto. , A?, member of the Board of Regents, I cOnaplying with that request today. 'The Board of Regents has prepared the /following statement of justificadtion for trials, and their charactex. The tteme arquld be the distinctive immigrant exp'erience of each period of American history and of each part of the country. Topical exhibits would illuminate the rise of American civilization, emphasizing the contributions of all the different ethnic groups: pOlitical Institutions and law in- fluenced by other nations; technology, from English factory organizations to Dutch dia- mond cutting; thescientific, agricultural and mathematical contributions of the Germans, Danish, Swiss and Italians, and the many contributions of various peoples to American religion, art, architecture, education, science. sports and other fields. THE SECOND PAVILION The present Museum will continue to show the achievements of America: what the American people have accomplished together, from folk art to physics to human rights. The second pavilion will provide the final phase of the Musetim's Bicentennial presen- tation: "A Nation to the Nations." Its goal: to trace the influence of America on the world: the shaping' power of our thought, industry and politics upon the world. A-final segment of this pavilion, entitled "Toward World Community," will show how Americans and their ideas of cooperation have helped shape and cement a world com- munity. A SCHOLARLY EFFORT It should be noted that the Bicentennial Pavilions promise not only an effort in bricks and mortar, but a focal point for new and important scholarly activity, As Secretary Ripley has said: "We have failed to give the true historical picture, to describe the whole panorama of our. cultures. Young people representing Negroes, Indians, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese and other subcultures are not given the evi- dence that they are part of the stream of history of the United States with a noble past, a vital present, and an unlimited fu- ture. If our Institution is to play a valid role in the Bicentennial of the American Revolu- tion in 1976, we should be prepared to correct what is in effect a series of oversights in his- tory, the history of our country and of the multiplicity of our people." To this end, the Pavilion project will call upon many of the nationl greatest scholars as consultants. The Smithsonian hopes that such eminent social historians as Oscar Handlin, Samuel Eliot Morison, John Hope Franklin, Oscar Lewis, Richard Hofstadter, and others, will contribute to the Eiscenten- nial Pavilion effort. The paucity of scholarship both in immi- gration-history and in the history of Ameri- can influence abroad gives us the opportunity to promote a deeper and wider discovery and understanding of our role in the world. At a time when our nation is preoccupied with its internal divisions, when we are tempted to identify "minority" status with poverty and inequality, the Pavilions will channel our concern into a broad humanistic pride. They will remind ali Americans that our "minorities" are the symbol of our pecu- liar strength and of our ties to all mankind. COST Each pavilion will provide approximately 25,000 square feet of additional floor space. Design, construction, site improvements and completion of interior furnishings are esti- mated to cost $6,000,000. The text of the bill is as follows: H.R. 15420 A bill to authorize the construction of pa- vilions as additions to the National Mu- seum of History and Technology for the Smithsonian Institution, including the preparation of plans and specifications and all other work incidental thereto Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled That the Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 ?receinber 23, 1 App ro v e d FociNEW AMMO 41.E061119P71-WPA4R000300120003-9 Regents of the Smithsonian Institution are hereby authorized and directed to have pre- pared drawings and specifications for and to construct suitable pavilions as additions to the National Museum of History and Tech- nology Building at 14th Street and Constitu- tion Avenue, NW, Wasbington, D.C. (with requisite equipment) for the use of the Smithsonian Institution, to be used for spe- cial exhibits in support of the Bicentennial of the American Revolution and thereafter for the use of the Smithsonian Institution, at a cost not to exceed $6,000,000. Sac. 2. That the preparation of said draw- ings and specifications, the design and erec- tion of the building, and all work incidental thereto may be placed under the supervision of the Administrator of the General Services Administration in the discretion of the Board of Regents. SEC. 3. That there are hereby authorized to be appropriated to the Smithsonian In- stitution such sums, not to exceed $6,000,000 :f.'s may be necessary to carry out the provi- sions of this Act: Provided, That appropria- tions for this purpose, except such part as may be necessary for the incidental ex- penses of the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution in connection with this project, may be transferred to the General Services Administration for the performance of the work: Provided further, when so specified in the pertinent appropriation act, that amounts appropriated under this authori- zation are available without fiscal year limi- tation. 'VETERANS' ADMINISTRATION'S MEDICAL PROGRAM FOR VET- MANS - (Mr. TEAGUE of California asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and ex- tend his remarks.) Mr. TEAGUE of California. Mr. Speaker, although the President in mak- lug strenuous efforts to reduce expendi- tures in all Government departments and agencies, 11E. has shown his concern for the medical care of our sick and dis- abled veterans by recently authorizing 1,500 additional full-time employees for the Veterans' Administration, Moreover, 83 percent of these employees were spe- cifically earmarked for the hospital and medical program. Despite this action by the President, and other significant developments, per- tam news items that have appeared in recent days in newspapers, and, which have been highlighted in national. news programs fail to present all orthe facts regarding the Veterans' Adminis- tration's medical care program for veterans. I am concerned that the general pub- lic, and, more importantly, our young Vietnam veterans may come to the belief that the Veterans' Administration is neither capable nor much concerned about providing proper hospital care for these younger veterans. Such a conclu- sion would be entirely erroneous. This Congress, the Veterans' Administration and the President of the United States are equally determined to provide?and are not providing?outstanding medical dare which the Nation's veterans have most assuredly earned and deserve. I am Informed by high officials of the Veterans' Administration that these are the facts. Some reports infer that "an ava- lanche" of Vietnam veterans are seeking Veterans' Administration hospital treat- ment, but that Veterans' Administration facilities cannot provide the necessary beds. Nothing could be further from the truth. These reports overstate the de- mand, and underestimate the Veterans' Administration's capacity for meeting the demand that actually exists. Vietnam veterans have full and equal eligibility for Veterans' Administration hospital care with Veterans of all other wars. An accurate measure of the present demand is demonstrated by the fact that of some 86,000 patients in the Veterans' Administration's 166 hospitals at this very moment, fewer than 6,000 are Viet- nam era veterans. In the past fiscal year, of the more than 800,000 Veterans' Ad- ministration patients treated, only 44,- 000?or -slightly more than 5 percent? were Vietnam veterans who required hos- pitalization. Based on experience to date, the total of Vietnam veterans requiring treatment probably will reach about 60,000 in this fiscal year, and the Veterans' Adminis- tration has the capacity to meet the gradually increasing hospitalization needs of our younger veterans. Thanks in large part to farsighted legislation initi- ated by our House Committee on Veter- ans' Affairs, plus constantly improving treatment methods, the Veterans' Ad- ministration is treating more than 150,- 000 additional patients than it could accommodate a decade ago. The Veterans' Administration appro- priations bill recently signed by the Pres- ident includes $1.5 billion for medical care?the highest sum devoted to this purpose in the history of the Veterans' Administration. The amount is about $68 million over last year's appropria- tions, and more than $180 million in ex- cess of amounts available in the 1968 fiscal year. Although much has been said about the inadequacy of Veterans' Administra- tion hospital staffs, the staffing ratio between medical employees and patients is constantly improving. The ratio for all types of Veterans' Administration hos- pitals in this fiscal year is about 127 em- ployees for each 100 patients. The ratio was 121 to 100 last year; 117 to 100 the year before, and only 104 to 100 in fiscal year 1966. It has been alleged that physicians are leaving the Veterans' Administration pro- gram in disproportionate numbers. This Is not borne out by the latest statistics. As of September 30, 1969, the Veterans' Administration had 4,954 full-time phy- sicians?including 799 hard-to-get Psy- chiatrists. This is 190 more doctors than VA had just 6 months earlier, including 26 more psychiatrists. Many of the critics who mistakenly claim that physicians are not attracted to the Veterans' Administration medical program, infer that this has occurred principally because of a major reduction in medical research and medical educa- tion and training funds. The truth is that the Veterans' Administration now has a medical research budget of $57.6 million, which is 20 percent higher than last year, and 26 percent higher than the year before?and is currently funding the medical education and training pro- 1112973 grams at an all-time high level of $87 million, a sum $11.4 million higher than the year before. It has been claimed that the Veterans' Administration was loading its psychi- atric patients with chemicals and, thus was dooming young Vietnam veterans to perpetual stays in mental hospitals. The psychotropic drugs now used throughout the medical world, have nearly doubled the turnover of mental patients in all mental hospitals. The Vet- erans' Administration, through its co- operative studies, has scientifically estab- lished the proper use of these drugs. As a result, the Veterans' Administration monthly turnover of psychiatric patients in the past fiscal year was 18.4 percent. The turnover was 15.4 percent the year before, and was 12.7 percent and 10.6 percent in the 2 years before that. In fiscal year 1950?before the Veterans' Administration's pioneering work with these drugs?the turnover rate was only 5.3 percent. I want to assure our Vietnam veterans and the American people that the Na- tion's veterans now have, and will con- tinue to have the finest medical care possible in our Veterans' Administration hospitals. I also know that no one is more determined that this should be so than Presic.1>t Nixon and his administration. AMERICAN POLICY IN THE MIDDLE EAST FAILS TO SERVE PEACE (Mr. PUCINSKI asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. PUCINSKI. Mr. Speaker, I believe that Secretary of State Rogers is play- ing a very dangerous game in the policy he has assumed in the Middle East, par- ticularly the policy he has proposed for the solution of the Arab-Israeli problem. I believe the Secretary is totally un- mindful of the fact that there is a whole new problem in the Middle East since the Soviet Union has come into the Middle East and has moved in on that situation. I believe the policy of parity in arms in the Middle East which this country has followed for many years is no longer realistic when we consider that the Soviet Union has given Egypt 960 jet fighters and has given the Syrians 460 jet fighters and has rearmed completely the Arab armies and is now stirring up aggression in the Middle East. In my judgment it is folly for our State Department to fail to see that, unless we give Israel the kind of arms she needs to defend herself and to have a balance of power in the Middle East, we are actually inviting a major disaster in that part of the world. I was astounded to hear the Secretary now is suggesting an imposition of terms on Israel which neither Israel nor the Arab States have had anything to say about. We remember well the result of Yalta and we remember well the result of the other international agreements where the major powers have tried to determine the destinies of small coun- tries, and we know what happens. I suggest Mr. Rogers seriously recon- sider his policy and that Mr. Rogers Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 111 12974 Approved For Rtemtritmi3RKi chfigkv Bowgeonooinxtmaber 23, I 9-0 ? i deed move in the diredion of for ing tie Arabs and the 'smelts to sit down ad work this problem ror thernsel yes. There are these whOlircay. the Lsia ells are the aggressors I thhia. we. hav( to derstanel what the sitinaion is e . * nation of 2.5 ' million -"'"" . I-1 1 c is nd heroically and valiantly gal'4"137 y trying. to s em the tide of 100 million leaders ave publicly stated th 0 will not rest ntil" Israel is driven Mb the sea. So rael cannot under ant circumstances , ? rmit any kind Of buil op of streagth nywhere Along her many borders. The orrient she lets two or three pocket!, of trength build up, she is through. So the raelis have had to tale a calculated sk because they are lit hting against rea,t odds. 4 I think it is high time That we Atreri- ans recognize the surinval of a free rael is not a sentimental journey for e Jewish people alonenut it is in the ighest interest of the United Stats. What happens in the Middle East may ery well control and delermine the fu- ure of this world. Ther&la an old saving at he vehb controls Mika controls the orld. The rich natural ftourees of that rican Continent have ttways been the eat ambition of the Soviet Union. little srael alone stands todair in the way of he complete domination by the Soviet nion of the Middle East. So I say, Mr. Speake, it is a-4MM ? hey Mr. Rogers is follbwing today. I ? elieve the United States ought to nub- iely declare that the sirvival of Iarael s in the highest interests of the Utated tates and of all free nations, arid act ccordingly. If Israel needs 200 Phantom ets, give her 260 Phantnin jets to in am- am n peace. The only Way we will ''iave ? eace in the Middle Eaff" is to let I ;reel ?e strong enotigh to da'end herself. If e forget this nation 'Ye will see the oviet Union dominathig the Maidle ast, dominating Southeast Asia, and ? orninating Europe. There is no quealon hat this is coming uttriss we at de- isively. aL That is why I say there is reaaen to ? elieve that the State department on collision course in the Middle East. Two ?bjectivee are the nnotivition which may ead to a point of no &turn: first the desire to appease the Solffet Union in the t ope that by such appelisement the So- let Union will reciproaite by attempt- ing to gain concessions fht us from la anoi and second, the desire -by the United States to regain the lost amity once en- joyed in her rela,tionsh with the arab nations. Both attempts are pregnant with danger for the United States. The le ;sons of Yalta should have giught our ratate Department that the apptasement' el the Soviet Union can only Wing tragedy in its wake. Because of its prelent involVement with Conimunist China-tile Soviet Union - may give the impressiorilhat she is will- ing to abandon her Conimunist expan- sionism in exchange fni friendly rela- tions with the ITnitecrStates. This is sheer hypocrisy. There fee better way for the Soviet Union to ziemonstrate her peaceful intentions: Bylillowing the peo- ples of Eastern and antral Europe to , hold free elections. I Eat sure that the United States would apPland such laction and offer many concrete acts of friend- ship once that is done. But not until such time ought we to rely on Soviet promises. The desire to regain friendly relations with the Arab States is commendable. The United States should attempt to achieve friendly relations with all na- tions. But at what cost? How is one to measure friendly relations? And with whom do we seek friendly relations? with the people of the Arab States or with their dictators? Are we attempt- ing to appease Nasser.? If we are, then I hold that the American people ought to be appraised of that fact. In my opin- ion, appeasement is a mistaken policy. A man who sees war as the only solution to the problems in the Middle East is not my idea of a man in whom the American people should have trust and confidence. By contrast, how does the Prime Minis- ter of Israel state her case? Mrs. Golda Melt. declared: We have decided, that as far as it lies within our power. Emil to the extent that it depends on us this is going to be the last war that will be fought between the Arab States and us. We don't ask them for a love declara- tion but that they must acquiesce to our existence in the area. They will be there for- ever. We ask them to live with us in peace? f or our part, in cooperation. Any concessions made to Nasser will not be interpreted by anyone as a vic- tory for us. It will, in deed and in fact, be a defeat for the United States and a victory for the Soviet Union. The prdblems of the Middle East can be solved only when the principals them- selves are made to sit down at the con- ference table. I am sure the Israelis would not object, no matter what the shape of, the table may be. Instead of pressuring the Israelis, as is now being done, the United States would do well to take a more positive stand on the side of Israel, not on the side of 'the Soviet Union. GI EDUCATIONAL BENEFITS The SPEAKER,. Under a previous or- der of the House the gentleman from New York (Mr. HALPERN) is recognized for 5 minutes. Mr. HALPERN. Mr. Speaker, I deplore the fact that Congress has failed to take final action on a broader veterans' edu- cation benefit bit. this year. It is my fer- vent hope that action on an increased GI education bill, will be the first order of business whe:a the Congress recon- venes in January. It is nly belief that the increases being proposed are inadequate, because they fall far short of today's realities. The House passed a 30-percent hike, raising benefits from $130 to $170 monthly. However, the Senate passed the Yar- borough-Cranston bill, similar to my own proposal, providing for a 50-percent boost to $190 monthly. The difference must now be reconciled by a Senate- House conference, which I hope will swiftly be convened when Congress re- turns. Another major difference in the bills passed by both houses, was that the Senate passed an amendment sponsored by Senator Camearon, which I sponsored in the House, setting up a PREP pro- gram, a remedial education incentive effort to encourage more Vietnam GI's to use their educational benefits. The House failed to act on this amendment. Indecision on this matter of GI bene- fits vitally affects the Nation's future. GI education costs should be considered a part of the cost of waging war. I do not hear anyone asking that we skimp in the coat of weapons to help our men defend themselves. In June of 1944 this Nation under- took a bold new commitment in the area of veterans' benefits with the pas- sage of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944. Among other provisions, this act, popularly known as the GI bill, established a program to help returning war veterans obtain an education. The response to this program was im- mediate and immense. More than half of the 15 million veterans returning from service in World War II took advantage of it to further their education. Under a similar program enacted for veterans of the Korean war period, another 2.4 million ex-servicemen received educa- tional assistance, and the number of veterans who have participated in the current program for those serving in the post-Korean period has already passed the million mark. It is not possible, of course, to meas- ure precisely the long-range effects of these programs of educational assistance for veterans, but we can, in general terms, be confident that every dollar spent for such purposes is a dollar wisely invested. Education is after all. as Abraham Lincoln once said, "the most important subject which we as a people can be engaged in." We do, moreover, know that on the average the more education an individual receives, the higher his life- time earnings will be. In a very real sense, then, we may look forward to repayment with interest of whatever we spend on veterans' educational allow- ances in the form of the taxes to be paid on incomes which might otherwise never be earned. For this reason, failure to maintain these educational allow- ances at a level which will encourage our veterans to go back to school and enable them to stay in school would be false economy of the very worst kind. CHANGING POLICY TOWARD MIDDLE EAST SOLUTION (Mr. BROWN of California asked and was given permission to extend his re- marks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. BROWN of _California. Mr. Speaker, the Middle East is a powder keg fused with big power politics and lit with deep emotional issues of sovereignty and survival. How this problem?this crisis? can be resolved has troubled me for some time. Every person concerned with world peace must think about the Middle East and the possible strains, conflicts, and destruction it can create throughout the world. Until now, my position had been in the formative stage. My first appraisal of the conflict led me to the belief that the United Nations must play a crucial role along with the big powers to resolve the Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 ?December 23, iMproved Focaspmpsnatia2fORECIAMIDP7IBMSI4R000300120003-9 H12975 problem. In this regard, I did not cospon- sor the many resolutions which advoacted direct talks between the hostile nations. I still firmly believe that through the efforts of the U.N. and major powers of the world a true peace can be obtained. It is through these bodies that I am looking for economic aid, refugee assistance, and a world leadership and guidance in ob- taining a lasting peace. However, I have reevaluated the situation and now be- lieve and would like to be associated with those who advocate that an immediate end to the continuous undeclared war can be found in direct talks between the hostile nations. The reasons for my new position are multifold. I have watched the United Nations debate the merits of the 1967 war while one nation became the victor. This demonstrated to me the importance of a preventive role of the U.N. and the likelihood of its direct intervention in another all-out war. The problems in Vietnam and the in- effectiveness of the present negotiations in Paris provide a good lesson. If we are to avoid another Vietnam, and more de- pendent relationships, we must permit hostile nations to independently negoti- ate their own peace?if they are to con- trol and operate their own governments. I am greatly distressed by the recent pro-Arab foreign policy statement by our Secretary of State. If the United States is to become a viable agent in the search for peace in the Middle East, we must demonstrate no bias in our views and vested interests. This was not shown by, the Secretary's recent declaration. The huge arsenal buildup by the Soviet Un- ion in the Arab world coupled with the neglect by the United States, Britain, and France in the survival of the only democratic nation in the Middle East produces great concern for the real pros- pects of an immediate peace and the role of the United States in the search for that peace. The answer to Middle East crisis must be found not in military terms, but in solutions which emphasize peaceful co- existence, recognition of the Sovereign- ties of the area, and their right to peace- ful existence, recognition of refugee prob- lems and their right to live, and recogni- tion of nonmilitary expressions of hos- tility. CONGRESSMEN CALL ON PRESI- DENT TO NEGOTIATE WITH IN- DIAN PEOPLE ABOUT ALCATRAZ ISLAND (Mr. BROWN of California asked and was given permission to extend his re- marks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. BROWN of California. Mr. Speaker, Alcatraz Island long stands out as a poignant symbol of our civilization. For years it was "the Rock," an im- pregnable prison fortress?its image one of solitude, repression. Today, though, Alcatraz begins to assume a new, more positive, role. To American Indian people a saga now taking place on Alcatraz is a milestone. It represents a real break- out to them, an escape by the Indian people from a series of private and public binds imposed by our society. Since early November?and in the face of persistent official harassment?Indian people have "occupied" Alcatraz Island, not as a conquest, but instead as a means of pointing out the tragic place of the Indian people in this society. The occu- pation of Alcatraz by the Indians has been a harmless, yet effective, method of bringing to the attention of the American people the fact that we have neglected the cultural needs of today's Indians. To date, government Indian policies have been patronizing, treating them like children, and further alienating the In- dian people and destroying their rich culture. One has only to read recent books by young Indians such as Vine Deloria and Scott Momday, and by the Indians who wrote the moving study "Our Brothers' Keeper" under auspices of the Citizen's Advocacy Center, to un- derstand the impact of the Government's futile attempts to assimilate Indian peo- ple into the "mainstream of American life." Assimilation, termination, the entire list of Indian policies have failed misera- bly. There are more Indians in America today than ever before, we are spending more than ever on various Indian pro- grams; yet, the Indian people consistenly rank as the poorest, most illiterate, short- lived and distant members of our society. Therefore, Alcatraz is critically impor- tant: It is a move by the Indian people themselves. Unfortunately?and tragic- ally?the Government has failed them. Now, Indians have decided to peacefully take destiny into their own hands. I view the Alcatraz experience as no "renegade" act. The island is barren, crumbling, isolated, seemingly unwanted by the Government which owns the prop- erty. While various proposals for the is- land have been made since the prison was abandoned, virtually all have been rejected as unfeasible for one reason or another. I assume that had not the Indians moved onto the island, it would have gone unused, unnoticed for years. Over that period, it would be a continual cost for the Government; but, while it may be a debit for Government, for the Indian people it poses many immediate benefits. On Alcatraz the Indians are doing something positive. They have created a living community on the island. And their future plans are both feasible and viable. Instead of a casino or a gold rush days exposition, two possible alternative suggestions bantered about at one time or another for Alcatraz, the Indian peo- ple envision using the facilities on the island to set up a cultural center and educational complex. Along with a surprisingly large num- ber of my colleagues, I support the In- dian people in their plans and their vision. Three weeks ago I met with some of the Indians from Alcatraz?the group is known as the Alcatraz relief fund? at the American Indian Center in San Francisco, and I indicated that I would do all I could to help the Indian people in their efforts to gain title to the island. Last week, a meeting was held in my Washington office. The relief fund was represented by Mr. Browning Pipestem of the Arnold & Porter law firm, the fund's Washington counsel. Mr. Pipe- stem had just returned from San Fran- cisco, and we discussed the current situ- ation on Alcatraz. As a result of that meeting, Represent- ative OGDEN REID and I decided to in- troduce legislation to assist the Indian people in their plans to obtain title to Alcatraz. The language contained in the joint resolution we are introducing today was approved at a meeting this past weekend by the Indians on the island. Now, Representative REID and I have been joined by nine of our colleagues to sponsor a House joint resolution. This resolution directs the President to initiate immediate negotiations with delegated representatives of the Alcatraz relief fund and any other appropriate representatives of the American Indian community with the objective of trans- ferring unencumbered title in fee of Alcatraz Island to the relief fund or any other designated organization of the American Indian community. Joining with Mr. REID and I in this measure are: JONATHAN B. BINGHAM, SHIRLEY CHISHOLM, DONALD M. FRASER, ALLARD K. LOWENSTEIN, ABNER J. MIKVA, OGDEN R. REID, BENJAMIN S. ROSENTHAL, EDWARD R. ROYBAL, WILLIAM F. RYAN, and Louis STOKES. In addition, Repre- sentative Tom REES expressed his wish to be associated with this resolution. This resolution is but a first step. Next session I plan to sponsor a broad legis- lative proposal aiming to establish Gov- ernment-funded, but Indian-run, cul- tural centers and educational systems geared to the needs and objectives of the Indian people. For too long, the relationship between our Government and the Indian people has been distressingly dismal. Alcatraz can be a significant turning point in that relationship, and I pray that President Nixon will begin these important nego- tiations as soon as possible. (Mr. BROWN of California asked and was given permission to extend his re- marks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) [Mr. BROWN of California's remarks will appear hereafter in the Extensions of Remarks.] (Mr. BROWN of California asked and was given permission to extend his re- marks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) [Mr. BROWN of California's remarks will appear hereafter in the Extensions of Remarks.] (Mr. BROWN of California asked and was given permission to extend his re- marks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) [Mr. BROWN of California's remarks will appear hereafter in the Extensions of Remarks.] Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 H 12976 Approved For RelegoNZAWAgfar.RARKTIR1i3g13W9R30012000A-9_ Liecember 23, 19619' LABOR DEPARTMENT SHOLLD INVESTIGATE (Mr. HECHLER of West Virginia asked and was given permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. HECHLER of West Virginia. Mr. Speaker, on December 9, 1969, members of the United Mine Workers of America voted for their international officers. In an unprecedented move, the challenger for UMWA president, Joseph A. Yablon- ski, had posted about 2,000 volunteer election observers at many of the polls throughout the country. Thus, he was able to document many new violations of the UMWA constitutio and the Labor- and Disclosure A requirements, ked the union's in- December 18, 1969, the UMWA inierna- the union's three top le, George J. Titler, challenging the De- d setting out In de- his challenge. All of binitted to the De- e of it he",(1 al- ItEcorta---July 15, H5955; July 29, H6509 and December 3, H11682. The rest of theNiformation, in- cluding election day violations, I am in- cluding in today's RECORD.t.14.111?1441-.Y.--.?--sh of Labor has authority under sect c u601 of LMRDA to make an investigation in connection with the December 9 ele.tion. As the following documented informa- tion reveals, the Secretary of Labor should investigate these matters. I am cognizant that there are those who would prefer to forgive and forget any election, once it is over. I subrni that law and order should not be suspended, either during or after an election cam- paign. We have an obligation to insure that the law of the land is fully enforced. There follow the documents to wl- ich I have referred: Management Repor Act. Pursuant to Mr. Yablonski in ternal remedies when he wrote t tional tellers an officers, W. A. B and John Owens, cember 9 election tail the grounds fo this material was s partment of Labor. ready appeared in th Board the mattees covered by the enclosed letter to the International Tellers and ap- pendices. Fraternally yours, JOSEPH A. YABLONSK/. DecEssexa 18, 1969. International TeLers WILLIAM CALPIN, CLYDE ,.W. RUNIONS, and Elowtuan A. LAZUR, United Min? Workers of America, Washington, D.C. GENTLEMEN: For the following reasons I hereby challenge the December 9, 1969 elec- tion for International Officers: I. All of the conduct, unlawful under the UMWA Constitution and the Labor-Manage- ment Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959 forth in Mr. Joseph L. Rauh, - Jr.'s July 9, 1.0* :.etter to Secretary of Labor George P. Shultz, attached hereto as Ap- pendix A. 2. All of the conduct, unlawful under the UMWA Constitutien and LMRDA, set forth in Mr. Rauh's July 18, 1969 letter to Secretary Shultz, attached hereto as Appendix B. 3. All of the conduct, unlawful under the UMWA Constitution and LMRDA, set forth in Mr. Rauh's July 25, 1969 letter to Secre- tary Shultz, attached hereto as Appendix C. 4. All of the conduct, unlawful under the UMWA Constitution and LMRDA, set forth in Mr. Rauh's July 30, 1969 letter to Secre- tary Shultz, attached hereto as Appendix D. 5. All of the co:aduct, unlawful under the UMWA Constitution and LMRDA, set forth in Mr. Rauh's August 13, 1969 letter to sec- retary Shultz, attached hereto as Appendix E. Et All of the conduct, unlawful under the UMWA Constitution and LMRDA, set forth in Mr. Rauh's December 1, 1969 letter to secretary ereto as Appen- dix F. DECEMBER 18, 1169. Messrs. W. A. BOYLE, president; GEOF.GE J. Timm, vice president; and JOHN Owzias, secretary-treasurer, United Mine Workers of Ante ica, Washington, D.C. DEAR MESSRS. BOYLE, TITLER, AND OWENS: Section 402 of the Labor-Management Re- porting and Disclosure Act of 1959 requires that I Invoke the remedies available ander the UMWA constitution prior to fling a complaint with the Secretary of Lator to Invalidate the election of December 9. The UMWA Constitution is not clear on what remedies are open. to me inside the Union. I submit this letter and the er,:losed letter to the International Tellers and ap- pendices thereto and request that they be treated as my effort to exhaust any ad all available remedies within the UMWA to in- validate the December 9 election as vio_ative of the UMWA Constitution and LMRDA, all as described in massive detail in the en( losed letter and appendices. I desire to present this matter to the In- ternational Executive Board at its next meet- ing. Secretary Owens has informed me that the Board would be called to consider my letter concerning your financial peculations. Either at that meeting or at one specially called to consider your eleotion violations. I will present to the International Executive 7. All of the conduct, unlawful un he UMWA constituton and. LMRDA and breach of Secretary-Treasurer Owens' Letter of Instructions sent to UMWA local unions pursuant to representations made on behalf of 1.71VIWA to Judge George Hart in Civil Ac- tion No. 3061-69, set forth in the affidavit of Joseph A. ("Chip") Yablonski, who coordi- nated my campaign effort in the field, at- tached hereto as Appendix G. 8. All of the conduct, unlawful under the UMWA Constitution and LMRDA, set forth In the affidavit of Clarice R. Feldman, at- tached hereto as Appendix H. There is no need to repeat here what is set forth in those eiget appendices. What they Show, in a word, is that Tony Boyle stole the election through massive violations of the UMWA Constitution and. LMRDA unprece- dented in the history of the American trade union movement. his campaign can best be described as a great treasury raid in which he converted the dues of hones-t mine work- ers and elderly pensioners to his personal campaign and used the personnel of the UMWA as though they were his private servants, These eight appendices demonstrate that the election must be set aside because of the maealve violations up to election day, includ- ing already judicially-adjudicated violations of Title IV of LMRDA; that it_must be set aside because of the massive violations on election day; and that it must be set aside because of the massive violations of the UMWA Constitution in counting the votes cast in unconstitutional bogey locals. The election must be sat aside for each of these reasons separately. Taken together they make an overwhelming case binding on the mind and conscience of all honest men. Tellers, stand up before It's too late. I, too, once submitted to the discipline of Tony Boyle. But I shall die an honest man because I finally rejected that discipline. I realized at long last that there are values so great in this world that the time had come to stand up and be counted for decency in our union and a better life for the miners we repre- sent. Your conscience will have to be your guide. Fraternally yours, JOSEPH A. YASLONSKI. LAW OFFICES RAUH AND SILARD, Washington, D.C., July 18, 1969. Hon. GEORGE P. SHULTZ, Secretary of Labor, Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. SECRETARY: On July 9, 1969, Joseph A. Yablonski, candidate for President of the United Mine Workers of America, and H. Elmer Brown, candidate for Vice President thereof, requested an immediate and con- tinuing investigation of the illegal activ- ities of the incumbent UMWA officers who are seeking to prevent the nomination of Mr. Yablonski and Mr. Brown for those offices. I am writing on behalf of Mr. Yablon- ski and Mr. Brown once again to Bet forth additional pieces of information supporting our earlier request for an investigation. It can truthfully be said that there has never been the equal in massive violations of fed- eral law to what the officers of the UMWA are now doing. Initially, it should be pointed out that a copy of the July 9th letter was served the same day upon W. A. ("Tony") Boyle, Pres- ident, George J. Titter, Vice President, and John Owens, Secretary-Treasurer, with a re- quest that the Union or its governing Board or officers bring suit to remedy the breaches of trust by the incumbent UMWA officers and those working with them as enumerated in the July 9th letter to you. That request was, In effect, rejected in a letter from Mr. Edward Carey, General Counsel of the UMWA, dated July 14, 1969, a copy of which was sent to you. But the significant thing about Mr. Carey's letter was not his rejection of our request; rather it was his calculated failure deny practically every assertion in our let- to you, a denial which would have carried th enalties of 18 U.S.C. 1001. I identally, in the two instances where Mr. rey did make statements of fact, they are thout foundation. The suggestion in Mr. C y's letter that Mr. Yablonski was somehcv involved in the change of the UMWA onstitution in 1964 to require 50 nomina ons from local unions rather than 5 has no upport in any record of the UMWA and is Ijicorrect. The statement of fact? Mr. Caret's denial that "an attorney for the UIVIWA cliberately sought to sabotage the mailing" falls in the face of the actual facts. After JlJdge Corcoran issued his prelimi- nary in. nction on June 20, 1969, directing the U A to send out Mr. Yablonski's cam- paign terature, lawyers for the UMWA and Mr. lablonski worked out an arrangement und,er which a non-profit bulk mailing per- nn.itt was obtained by the UMWA from the Silver Spring, Maryland, Post Office (Permit No. 542). It was understood that this per- mit was acquired f Or the purpose of distrib- uting Mr. Yablonski's campaign literature pursuant to Judge Corcoran's Order. While Mr. Yablonski's literature, under the label "Miners for Yablonski," was on the printing press and after the postal authorities had approved use of said permit by Mr. Yablon- ski, Mr. Willard Owens, a lawyer for the UMWA and son of Secretary-Treasurer John Owens, called Mr. Harold E. McKnight, the relevant official of the Post Office Depart- ment, and informed him that an organiza- tion of private individuals, i.e., "Miners for Yablonski," was attempting to use the UMWA non-profit bulk mailing permit. Mr. Owens further told Mr. McKnight that "Miners for Yablonski" was not the same entity as UMWA and that therefore he thought they should not be allowed to use the UMWA bulk mailing permit. He did not mention the fact that the EIVIWA were under Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 - H 13098 Approved For Rigertgalin :16AVIR37-114905194e0003001MgrAer 23, 1969 President's plan for ending the Vietnam war and a resolution which I also co- sponsored concerning the humane treat- ment of American prisoners of war in North Vietnam. Both passed the House by large margins. I was equally pleased by the work of the Veterans' Foreign Affairs Committee on which I am now the third ranking Republican. Legislation increasing the monthly education allowances for GI's was reported out and approved by the House. The Senate has passed a similar but not identical bill, and both Houses are now meeting in conference to iron out the differences. Other veterans legis- lation which was favorably acted on includes the elimination of the require- ment for filing an annual income ques- tionnaire, a raise in dependency and indemnity compensation, and liberaliza- tion of mailing privileges for servicemen. The committee has also begun action to prevent veteran's pensions from termi- nating as a result of the recent increase in social security benefits. H.R. 13374, funding of Federal Water Pollution Control Act; H.R. 13463, creation of mass transit trust fund; H.R. 13776, establishment of orderly procedures to consider renewal of broad- cast license's; H.R. 13875, broaden active duty al- lowed for GI education benefits; H.R. 13983, revenue sharing with the states; H.R. 14130, increase in home loan fi- nancing for veterans; H.R. 14214, railroad passenger service standards; House Resolution 614, "peace with jus- tic,e in Vietnam" resolution; House Concurrent Resolution 441, prisoner of war declaration; H.R. 14893, giving Secretary of State authority to impose restrictions of travel to countries when such travel under- cuts American foreign policy; and House Resolution 758, establishment of congressional Committee on Improv- ing the Quality of Our Environment. LEGISLATION INTRODUCED Following is a list of some of the bills I have introduced which I feel are vitally important to our country and to the Fourth District: House Joint Resolution 304, FCC study of violence on TV; House Joint Resolution 305, constitu- tional amendment allowing prayer In public schools; House Joint Resolution 357, constitu- tional amendment for electorar reform; H.R. 3045, definition of ;dad supple- ments for the Federal Facia, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; - H.R. 3855, establishment of a Com- mission to Improve dovernment Man- agement; HR. 4782, exempt ammunition from Federal regulation; H.R. 4783, limit questions in census taking; H.R. 4784, increase outside earnings without deductions from social security benefits; H.R. 5168, pieventive detention of criminals; H.R. 5171 and 11.R. 14202, prohibit mailing of obscene Material; H.R. 7427, cost-of-living increases in social security payments; - H.R. 7428, cost-of-living increases for railroad retirement; H.R. 8769, permit joint operation of newspapers for economy reasons; House Concurrent Resolution 169, Bi- af ran relief; H.R. 9156, deduction of increased liv- ing expenses from taxes due to the de- struction of ones home; H.R. 9355, Supreme Sacrifice Medal for wives and parents of servicemen killed in Vietnam; H.R. 11118, liberalize eligibility of blind persons for social security benefits; H.R. 12744, authorization of Eisen- hower silver dollar; HR. 12425; addition of kidney disease to Public Health Act; House Resolution 301, creation of Na- tional Gerontology Center to study ways to help the aged; H.R. 13053, benefits for firemen and policemen killed in line of duty; would fall short of an actual, peace treaty. The notion is spreading that olir government is willing to use its great influence on Israel to accept a withdrawal arrangement similar to the 1957 roll back. You are aware, sir, of how the 1957 withdrawal from the .Sinal Peninsula contained international assurances that were so lacking in substance that we are now faced with the present tragedy which is daily taking a toll of Israeli lives. I am certain you recall your erudite and well-received address of September 8, 1968, before the B'nal B'rith convention in Wash- ington, D.C. You asserted that "it is not realistic to expect Israel to surrender vital bargaining counters in the absence of a genuine peace and effective guarantees." Have you now changed your mind? You stated in that same speech that "we support Israel because it is threatened by Soviet imperialism". Yet Secretary Rogers failed to remark on that fact in his recent remarks. Nor did he find a single word in his lengthy address to denounce the growing menace of Soviet support of Arab guerrillas and terrorists and the deadly pipeline of Russian munitions supplying the unrelent- ing Arab war against Israel. In your own speech, sir, you stated that "we must impress upon the Soviets the full extent of our determination". But Secretary Rogers gives the impression that we might be vulnerable to appeasement at Israel's ex- pense. He said nothing about the vitriolic anti-Israel and anti-Jewish policies of the Soviet Union. Are you still mindful, Mr. President, of this sinister aspect of the Kremlin's policies? You told the B'nai B'rith that "we can hardly ignore the fact that during the past five years of active Soviet penetration, the United States Government has at times seemed to hide its head in the sands of the Middle East. The (previous) Administration has failed to come to diplomatic grips with the scope and seriousness of the Soviet threat". Sir, is your own Administration similarly failing? Mr. President, you told the B'nal B'rith in 1968 that "as long as the threat of Arab attack remains direct and imminent . . the (power) balance must be tipped in Israel's favor". You pointed out that "if maintaining that margin of superiority should require that the United States should supply Israel with supersonic Phanton F-4 jets, we should supply those jets so that they can maintain that superiority". Secretary Rogers did not even state that we were still concerned about a balance to deter aggression. Are you still in favor of maintaining an Israeli margin? When may we expect a reply to the promise you made to Israeli Premier Golda Meir when she visited the White House last September? Mrs. Meir got the very definite impression, it would seem, that you were following the Soviet military build-up of the Arabs and were considering authorizing the sale of ad- ditional jets, in addition to financial ar- rangements to enable Israel to cope with the developing military situation. As an original sponsor of the Congressional resolu- tions favoring the provision of Phantom jets to Israel, I would naturally like to know what is happening involving the supply of such aircraft beyond the number originally sold. I also am extremely eager to know whether we will agree to financial arrange- ments that would permit Israel to deter the mounting Soviet-backed and Soviet-armed vendetta of the radical Arab states against Israel. Secretary Rogers has created more ques- tions than he answered. I feel that the crisis CONCERN FOR THE SECURITY OF ISRAEL (yr. PODELL asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 'minute, to revise and extend his remarks and include extraneous material.) Mr. PODELL. Mr. Speaker, I am deeply concerned about the security of Israel in the conflict that now rages in the Middle East. The erosion of Israel- American relations threatens that secu- rity still further. Many of the points in the December 9 speech delivered by Secretary of State William P. Rogers contradict some of the earlier administration's declarations concerning Israel. On December 19, I wrote to President Nixon asking him to clarify the U.S. position on this matter. I think it important that the contents of this letter be repeated. DECEMBER 19, 1969. The PRESIDENT, The White House, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: I have carefully ex- amined Secretary of State William P. ROgeIS address of December 9, 1969, stating the Ad- ministration's policy objectives in the Middle East. Secretary Rogers enunciated a stand that appears to differ in important aspects from your own thinking on the issues of peace and security in that region. It would appear to me, Mr. President, that the Congress has a right to know whether to regard Secretary Rogers' expres- sions or your own words as the official guide- line to our Middle East policy. You have often stated that it is important for our enemies not to miscalculate on our inten- tions. A situation now exists, however, that finds Members of our own Congress confused BS to whether the Administration is still backing Israel's insistence oil a real peace as the essential precondition for any rolling back of Israeli forces from the present firing lines. I would be appreciative, Mr. President, if you would clarify the actual position of the 'United States Government on the question of Israeli withdrawal from occupied tem- in the Middle East requires that we say what tory. Secretary Rogers has opened a Pandora's we mean-and that we mean what we say. box of confusion by giving the Communist Since I, as a Member of the Congress, do not bloc and the Arabs the impression that the know what is going on with reference to our United States might press Israel to withdraw Middle East policy, there is a considerable In exchange for some flimsy accord that likelihood that the Russians and their Arab Approved For Release 2003/12/02': CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 ecember 23, 7vu9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE tin have been reasonable and should o ce again result in a budgetary surplus. T e past fiscal year was the first time in 10 years that a national administration cli sed its fiscal books in black ink In- st ad of red ink.' wo main areas that I felt required r actions in spending were the space pr ram and foreign aid. The annual a horization for NASA this year was $3 9 billion which is less than previous Ye rs and represents a recognition that w need to solve many of our problems on earth such as air and water pollution w le we carry on our space exploration. ving attended the launch of Apollo 11 ani having spoken with the astronauts, I ally realize the importance of the sp e program, but feel .that we must be patient and only allocate what we can afford to the program. 'though the Nixon administration has eff ted improvements in the foreign aid program, there is still too Much evidence of wasted taxpayer's dollaas. Thus, I votd against both the foreign aid au- th rization bill and the foreign aid ap- prcpriatlon bill. I offered amendments boti in the Foreign Affairs Committee and on the floor of the House which re- dulled the requested authorization sub- sta tially Further attempts to curb expenses in- clu ed my vote against the addition of anqther staff member for congressional aft es at the taxpayer's eiwnse, oppoi- tIo4 to the construction of a new wing to he Capitol Building, and support for the provision in the Agricultural Appro- pri tons Act limiting Fedef al subsidy Pay ents to farmers to a ceiling of $20 000 per year. DRAFT REFORM I strongly favored the draft reforni legi414tion initiated by the Nixon ad- mi ration as it should cure many of the inequities in the present system. It will minimize the disruption in the in- divi ual lives of our young people 1:n! red icing the period of prime vulner- bilitW to the draft from up to 7 years to 12 Months. Moreover, selection of those clasSifled as available on a complet4y ran;om basis will give all an equal cha ce. ELECTORAL REFORM Daring the last Presidential election it becarne apparent that a situation was dev loping whereby the contest could have been thrown into the House Of Representatives. Fortunately, this did not happen, but it was evident that reforni was in order. While I favored the distriet plan and introduced a bill proposing such, I voted for the direct election plan on final passage in order that the Nation would not have to face the possibility f anot er Presidential election under the Pres t system. The Senate still has to act oi the constitutional amendment and it must be ratified by three-fourths Of the States. CRIME LEGISLATION As crime continued to rise across America, the democratically controlled Congress continued to delay considers- tion of anticrirne bills, some of which Presi ent Nixon asked for as long ago as Jan ry 31. The President proposed a wide-ranging attack on criminal activity at all levels, including a stepped-up drive against organized crime, illicit drug traffic, and illegal gambling; legislative changes in witness immunity laws, bail reform laws, and grand jury procedures; and Federal aid to State and local en- forcement agencies. The only proposal acted on by the Congress was an amend- ment to the Bail Bond Act, which I co- sponsored, to permit "preventive deten- tion" until a trial is held of defendants likely to commit fusther crimes. Among the few ariticrime bills to come before the House, all of which 7. supported, were the following: establishment of a Select Committee to Study Crime; the Correc- tional Rehabilitation Act; and the Drug Abuse Education Art which authorizes educational programs concerning the adverse effects from the use of drugs. CONSERVATION AND POLLUTION CON TROL The House was especially acti ? this area, as we all realize the ent need to improve the quality of r environ- ment. The House passed t Water Pols ludon Control Act which mended and strengthened water polluti control lag- islation and proposed an thorization of $348 million for a 3-year od. Fur- thermore, the Public Works A opria- tions bill called for $600 million for ter pollution control grants to the Sta . This is considerably more than h been appropriated in the past. I also sup- ported the Clean Ali Act which author- ized funds for research into air pollution problems involving fuels and metor vehi- cles, the major contributors to air pol- lution. In addition, legislation was passed to establish a Council on Environmental Quality. Permanent machinery to study and recommend solu ;ions for this Press- ing problem has long been needed. EDUCATION Several constructive developments oc- curred here. I suppoited the Republican proposal for a 2-year extension of the Elementary and Seeondary Education Act approved by the House instead of a 4-year extension. A shorter author- ization is needed a; Congress should change the fund distribution formula after the 1970 census results and the program should not be frozen beyond the current 4-year presidential term. This bill aso pombined four Federal grant programs into a single block grant to the States which is much more efficient and allows better planning by the States and local communities. Since I strongly support vocational education programs as they make productive citizens out of many who would otherwise be on our welfare roles, I voted for an amendment to the HEW appropriations bill which raised the total for :EIEW programs to $17,500,000 as the increase was primarily in the area of vocational education. The House also passed the student loan emergency bill which increased the Federal subsidy on stfident loans by 3 percent. This was imperative as college tuition in Indiana went up markedly this year and at the same time interest rates on loans increased. Finally, I favored a House-adopted amendment to a supple- mental appropriations bill which denies Federal interest subsidies on college con- struction loans to colleges which fail to certify that they are complying with a H1097' law directing colleges to Cut off Federal aid to students or employees convicted of crime of force against the college or who engage in disruptive activities detrimen- tal to the college. I voted for this amend- ment as I felt the Congress had to do something to assure those students who are in college primarily for an education that they will obtain the education for which they paid. socrss SECURITY The Congress passed an immediate across-the-board increase in social secu- rity benefits of 15 percent for the 25 million elderly people, disabled people and their dependents, and widows and orphans who now get monthly benefits Because of the recent inflationary trend It arleipasste-'6'bVi7tritsstcTe that there was a sing and urgent' eed for an across- the-board increase in the social security payments of people now on the benefit roles. DEFENSE SPENDING Although I feel that some budgetary Restraints are needed by the Pentagon In its operation of our Defense establish- ment, I voted for the military procure- ment authorization bill which included funds for the ABM as it is needed to protect U.S. missile bases against a Soviet first strike and would aid rather than harm our nuclear disarmament talks 'th the Soviet Union. By deciding not to ut ABM's around our cities, the Presi- den as effectively removed them from the li of high priority targets, but at the sam ime has made certain that we will have t power to react if an enemy strikes first. s is the best way, I feel. to deter such attack and save millions of lives if it sho id ever take place. COM IViETEE WORE As the senior Republican member of the Foreign Affairs 'Committee. I have spent a great . port* of this session working on legislation 'affecting our for- eign affairs and also consulting regularly with President Nixon and Secretary of State Rogers on foreig4 policy matters The bulk of the co ittee work con- cerned foreign aid. As mentioned previ- ously, I led the succe ul effort to reduce the amount autho ed and encouraged more emphasis technical aid rather than on gra nd loans. A new feature of the- gn Aid Act is the Overseas Private Investment Corporation which will facilitate private U.S. investment abroad, and, thereby, reduce the need for U.S. tax dollars to be spent on foreign assistance. Both in the committee and on the floor of the House, I supported the annual authorization bill for the Peace Corps During the hearings on the bill, we heard a good deal of refreshing commonsense testimony from the new Director, Joe Blatchford. He proposed that we utilize the services of older persons whose fam- ilies are grown and who have the skills so needed by the developing countries. Moreover, because of Blatchford's reduc- tion of administrative personnel, the Peace Corps was able to reduce its re- quest for funds by $8,700,000. The Foreign Affairs Committee spent most of its remaining time on the con- sideration of a resolution which I, along with others introduced supporting the Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP711300364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 DeCeirtler 23, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD? HOUSE 11 13099 friends may grievously miscalculate on American intentions. I would deeply appreciate a reply that would help clarify the seeming incon- sistencies. With assurances of the highest, personal respect. BERTRAM L. PODELL, Member of Congress. IS DAVID ROCKEFELLER PROMOT- ING ANTI-ISRAEL POLICIES? (Mr. KOCH asked and was given per- mission to address the House for 1 min- ute, and to devise and extend his remarks and include extraneous material.) Mr. KOCH. Mr. Speaker, an article which appeared in the New York Times today indicated an apparent anti-Israel position by David Rockefeller, president of the Chase Manhattan Bank and sev- eral other oil company executives who are advising the President. The implica- tions of that article distressed me and I am sure other Members of this House. To ascertain whether the columnist correctly stated Mr. Rockefeller's posi- tion, I have written to him today. A copy of my letter follows: HODSE Or REPRESENTATIVES, Washington, D.C., December 22, 1969. Mr. Davin Roatzrestre, New York, N.Y. DEAR MR. Roc Jim: I was very dis- tressed to read this morning in the New York Times an article by Tad Szulc which clearly indicated that you, as president of the Chase Manhattan Bank, John J. MeCloy, former president of the Chase Manhattan, and Robert B. Anderson, former Secretary of the Treasury and director of Dresser In- dustries Company, which has oil interests in Kuwait and Libya?as well as others? met with the President on December 9th and advised him against continuing the present policy of allegedly supporting Israel in its confrontation with the Arab coun- tries. /t appears that you basically argued that the oil industry and perhaps the Chase Manhattan Bank are suffering because our policies toward Israel have received an ad- verse economic and political reaction from the Arab states?and that "the-United States must act immediately to improve its rela- tions with oil producing and other Arab states." In my own judgement, the United States has not sufficiently supported Israel and has failed to provide it with arms and planes necessary to offset the arms and planes furnished by the Soviet Union to the Arab states, and indeed now Secretary Rogers is attempting to impose a settlement in the Middle East which would be . adverse to Israel. I, for one, believe it is in our national Interest to support the State of Israel ads the one democratic government in that area which from its inception has identified with the United States and for which reason it has gained the enmity of the Soviet Union. In addition, and of equal importance, are the moral reasons for supporting the people of Israel in their fight to survive. However, if you are not already convinced of the validity of both or either of these two rea- sons, this letter will not persuade you and I will not attempt to elaborate on them. The reason for this letter is to inquire whether the thrust of Mr. Szulc's article was correct. And to do so I would appreciate hav- ing the opportunity of meeting with you as soon as possible. While you and the Chase Manhattan Bank have an absolute "right to take any position you deem correct in support of your eco- nomic interests and while I have no quarrel with your having financial agreements with any of the Arab states, I want you to know that when you attempt to influence the for- eign policy of the United States so as to sup- port your economic interest, you run the risk of having those who disagree with you undertake a campaign designed to render effects which would be economically adverse for the Chase Manhattan Bank. The survival of Israel is an important issue to me and Ymy constituents?Jews and Christians alike. If after our discussion, it is clear that the article fairly sets forth your position, further acts with respect to your bank would be in order. And in that eventuality, your patrons may be heard from. Sincerely, EDWARD I. KOCH. (Mr. BURTON of California asked and was given permission to address the Home for 1 minute, and to revise and extend his remarks and include extrane- ous material.) [Mr. BURTON of California addressed the House. His remarks will appear here- after in the Extensions of Remarks.] PLAN TO RESTRUCTURE NEW YORK PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION (Mr. LOWENSTEIN asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. LOWENSTEIN. Mr. Speaker, Mon- day's papers headlined a story on Gov- ernor Rockefeller's plans to restructure the New York Public Service Commis- sion. The commission's predilection for servicing the utilities it is supposed to regulate, rather than protecting the pub- lic, has been documented many times. Many of us in Nassau County are liv- ing and working literally on top of ex- plosive evidence of the commission's dereliction of duty. I am referring of course, to the high pressure pipeline in- stalled with the cursory approval of the State Public Service Commission by the Long Island Lighting Co. The route for this pipeline?capable of generating pressure of up to 350 pounds per square inch?runs directly through heavily pop- ulated and traveled routes in Rockville Centre, East Rockaway, Long Beach, Island Park, Lynbrook, Hempstead, Mal- verne, and Oceanside. In many instances. the route passes within 50 feet of resi- dences and within 12 feet of a high school. The Public Service Commission took the incredible position that the choice of route fo rthis potentially lethal installation was largely within the dis- cretion of the LILCO and did not really subject it to scrutiny. In fact, the commission held abso- lutely no hearings on the entire issue un- til the construction of the pipeline was virtually completed and $9 million had been spent. After 4 days of so-called hearings in which no cross-examination was permitted, the commission predict- ably issued a finding that permitted the completion of the pipeline. Subsequent lawsuits by aroused citizens groups and affected villages were unsuccessful largely on technical grounds. However, in these cases one senses an underlying feel- ing by the court that the existence of the Public Service Commission as a guardian of the public interest, was per- suasive in denying these petitions. Resi- dents of the areas through which the pipeline traverses are not so deluded. They are living over a powder keg of incalculable destructive potential. At least once in a week gas leaks and ex- plosions are reported in various parts of the country. Yet, not one of these dis- asters approaches what could be the magnitude of a similar incident in Nas- sau. Potential for explosion or leaks is always present and becomes greater as time goes on. The pipeline is constructed a few inches under heavily traveled high- ways, and is located closer to homes, schools, and other underground utility lines than the distance specified by law. This variance was made possible by further odd behavior on the part of the Public Service Commission?again act- ing without hearings?without even con- sulting the people most directly affected. If this pipeline did not represent such a continuing potential for catastrophe for so many human beings, we could file its existence as a case history of the way in which the Public Service Com- mission and the utilities it is entrusted with regulating operate in partnership, cynically disregarding the need and rights of the public. But it does represent such a potential, and residents of the community cannot file as history what remains a clear and present danger. They have sought re- dress from the Commission, from the courts, and from Congress. Their cause is the cause of all Americans whose rights and interests have been sub- ordinated to the financial conveniences of powerful companies and the unrelent- ing pressure of a technology that may yet destroy its creators. All of us who have been in this fight welcome the new voices that have joined our protest against the failures of the Public Serv- ice Commission to fulfill its functions. We hope they will add their energies as well as their words to the tough battle to bring some regulation to the regu- lators. And we hope they will remember that among the continuing victims of the Public Service Commission's past der- elications are the people who must live every day literally on top of the LILCO pipeline. We will not be quiet while this totally inexcusable invitation to disaster perils the health and safety of our community. COAL MINE SAFETY BILL (Mr. MOLLOHAN asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. MOLLOHAN. Mr. Speaker, it is unfortunate that the administration has taken its present stance as Congress moves to clear its agenda for this session. The threat of a veto is, of course, a legitimate weapon in the President's po- litical arsenal; but in the past, most ad- ministrations have exercised this threat only at times when legislative and execu- tive branches have reached an impasse. It is unfortunate that an administra- tion should use this most potent of weap- ons to shape legislation when other Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 H 13100 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE means, and more cnstructive means, have been and are avetilable, For instance, the administratien used the veto threat agailest the cost mine 1 safety bill last week, lecause of the ex- pense of th,e compediation pnoesions, i even though the Secrelary of the interior I ignored until last week a requeet of 6 months ago to comment on those very 1 provisions, and their expense. The con- ferees had completed_ their, work a full month before the Secretary arawered. Thus, the threat to veto the legislation came at a time when neither Hoese was 1 in a position to reopen its consideration of that 13111. In this itatice, the threat of veto hampered raWe than centrib- uted to the legislative?process. Now we are faced with the tin at of veto for the suppleniental appi opria- tions for Labor and 11EW utile Is the ' President's civil rights plan, the Ph ladel- phia plan, is left intact The Ooneptroller General has flatly stated that the plan 1 is in direct violation ?of the 196e civil rights law. In view of the administra- ' tion's efforts to curb _Federal construc- tion and the general decline 'le the , construction industry cd,this time, irnple- menting the Philadelphia plan \meld be profoundly divisive at a time when this Nation should seek unity rather than , further division. Capitalizing on the *ire of the Con- gress to adjourn, the administrator' is 'using this threat of veto to shape legis- 1 1, lation on taxes and apPropriations alike. I The Senate was bluntly informed dur- ing its consideration Of both tie: re- form and the appropriations for the ,Departments of Labor and Health, Edu- cation, and Welfare, that their lei isla- tion was unacceptable and would be Ivetoed. The warning was based upo i the Cost of the two measure& and both were represented to the public as being lughle inflationary. The adminletration dee tined to note that even with the higher expense bf the tax bill and the tlays for Labor 4nd HEW, the budget would not be dis- turbed because of the nearly $51/2 billion put in the Defense budget. This use of executive powers is a :arm Of legislative overkill, add it is lam ent- ble that the admiaistrateon has chosen uch a blunt and inflexible approace to hape the Nation's legislation. It is viola rovocative than productive, and th( re- ponse of the Hill is more likely to be re- ctive than reasoned. In, the final anal- sis,this attempt to legislate through eth is likely- to be more damaging to the Country than helpful. ' PRICE OF CHRISTMAS TUR.KEYS AFFECTED BY ECONOMY (Mr. McCARTHY asked and was gi Jen p rmission to address the House or 1 inute, to revise and extend his remarks.) 1Mr. McCARTHY. Mr?, Speaker, as Americans shop for their Christmas tur- keys the high prices of the restive birds mind them that we are_auffering from tije worst inflation in 18 yeara Last month the wholesale price of tur- keys skyrocketed 61/2 permit. And indi- cations are that the average turkey price of 52.2 cents a pound will go even higher in the future. Since President Nixon took office in- flation has pushed prices up 51/2 per- cent?the highest rise since 1951. An- other increase' this month equal to last month's will make 1969 the most infla- tionary year since 1947. In the meantime, the average weekly paychecks of some 45 million U.S. workers have actually dropped. They fell 62 percent last month because of shorter work weeks in the slowing U.S. economy. When asked about price increases 7 days after taking office, President Nixon answered that the Government would not intervene in price and wage deci- sions, that the fight against inflation would rest on fiscal and monetary Policy and he ' would not eallortelsnetness and e - labor. That blew/U.1E lid off prices right there. . Thesident has supported a severe moneta e policy. He demanded contin- uation/of the tax surcharge. But un- like P esident Johnson, he has made no effort/ to use the moral power of the presidency to persuade business and labo to modify their price of wage de- m ds. The Johnson administration not on used moral suasion but put the pr ssure on rising prices by sales out of s u piles and by altering Government b ing policies, especially at the Pe tagon. ile Members of Congress, including mys f, have sought to reduce defense spene g, not only to shift priorities but to figh flation, the President has sup- ported oat all of the new major weapons s teme. Clearly, in this vital area, the P 'dent has fumbled the eco- nomic ball an t off a cycle of runaway inflation. And th ect has been deva- stating especially on ose with fixed in- comes, those living on s ial security and pensions. In the case o working men and women, price increas ave far out- distanced gains in wages. I believe the time is long at due for President Nixon re start us g the pow- ers of his office to do some rig mean- ingful to halt this cycle runaway inflation. (Mr. FULTON of Penns vania asked and was given permission address the House for 1 minite a to revise and extend his remarks.) [Mr. FULTOj. .1 Pennsylvania ad- dressed t.1Io11se. His remarks will ap- pear -11 reafter in the Extensions of Remarks.] (Mr. DON H. CLAUSEN asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his remarks.) [Mr. DON H. CLAUSEN addressed the House. His remarks will appear here- after in the Extensions of Remarks.] (Mr. WYMAN asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his remarks.) [Mr. WYMAN addressed the House. His remarks will appear hereafter in the Extensions of Remarks.] December 13: 199 (Mr. CORMAN asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend his remarks and include extraneous matter.) [Mr. CORMAN addressed the House. His remarks will appear hereafter in the Extensions of Remarks.] The SPEAKER. Under a previous order of the House, the gentleman from Texas (Mr. PATMAN) is recognized for 30 minutes, [Mr. PATMAN addressed the House. His remarks will appear hereafter in the Extensions of Remarks. I PESTICIDE CONTAMINATION AND POISONING?TIME FOR ACTION The SPEAKER. Under a previous or- der of the House, the gentleman from Connecticut (Mr. MoNecee) is recog- nized for 30 minutes. Mr. MONAGAN. Mr. Speaker, the fail- ure of the Department of Agriculture to protect the public from the effects of cer- tain pesticides has resulted in a mini- mum of 100,000 unnecessary human Poisonings in the past 10 years. The De- partment has failed to enforce provisions of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act?FIFRA?intended to protect the public from hazardous pesti- cide products being marketed in violation of the act. Moreover, unless constructive action is taken by the Department of Agriculture to ? enforce provisions of FIFRA?much of our food will be ille- gally adulterated with pesticide residues. At present, millions of pounds of cheese and fish are impounded for this reason and will have to be destroyed. Unless consteuctive action is taken, much of the food supply will contain large amounts of cancer-producing pesticide com- pounds. Unless constructive action is taken to reduce environmental contami- nation, a very large percentage of the world's remaining animal life faces ex- tinction during the next twenty years and human life may be endangered. Much of this wanton destruction has been attributed to pesticide contamina- tion and misuse. The President and members of the Cabinet acting as the Environmental Quality Council should not be forced to oversee, review, and order the cancella- tion in part or whole of every pesticide registration allowed by the Pesticide Reg- ulation Division of the Department of Agriculture that may be a potential or imminent health hazard. If the Depart- ment of Agriculture had carried out its Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Ro- denticide Act responsibilities by follow- ing a prudent course in matters concern- ing hazards to human, other forms of life and our ecology, much of our prob- lems and fears would not exist. It is chilling to realize that certain food additives and pesticide residues which we ingest may kill, cause cancer, create fetal deformities in animal? mammalian?life and also be hazardous to humans. Pesticide fogs, sprays, and vapors in a constant fallout in concen- trations sufficient to kill animal life may fall on man. Certain pesticides stored Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 December 20, Mzevt(bWRAS1/41WCP3inailtfilA:liVellgig93?111:Masi 20003-9 ennese police to clear his way through the mobs. The testimonial dinner was as reward- ing as the joys that he has brought to so many with his remarkable voice and warm personality. Therefore, Mr. Speaker, I would like to take this opportunity to again ex- press the gratitude of so many along with best wishes to Mr. Tucker and his wife, Sarah, for a future which continues to be as exciting and worthwhile as he has known in the past. And I would also like to mention the names of some of the other persons who helped to make this dinner such an out- standing event. They are: Cochairmen: Harold Donnitch, Mrs. Selma Kon and Bernard Martin; program cochairman: Al Liederman and Shelley Goren; and Rabbi Bernard Jacobson. e GREECE TODAY AND THE LIMITS OF COMPROMISE HON. ABNER J. M1KVA OF ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, December 18, 1969 Mr. MIKVA. Mr. Speaker, the recent resignation of Greece from the Council of Europe underscores the need for close scrutiny of relations between the United States and Greece. Charges of political suppression and dictatorial rule are ap- parently not without foundation. More- over, the prospect of continued violence in Greece at a level unseen since the 1946- 49 civil war, should alert both Greeks and Americans to the need of restoring democraitc rule in Greece. One expert who has thoughtfully ana- lyzed the situation in Greece and appro- priate American action is Prof. George Anastoplo. In a briefing at the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations, Professor Anastoplo presented a paper which I commend to my colleagues. The paper follows: GREECE TODAY AND THE LIMITS OF COMPROMISE (By George Anastaplo**) "It is not fit that you should sit here any longer! ... You shall now give place to better men."?Oliver Cromwell. The American scholar who has been per- haps the most respectable advisor to the ** The author, who lives in Chicago, Is Chairman of the Political Science Depart- ment at Rosary College, as well as Lecturer in the Liberal Arts at the University of Chi- cago and Professor of Politics and Literature at the University of Dallas. Other discussions by him of Greece today may be found in the current volume of the Congressional Rec- ord at pages E1875 (March 11, 1969) , E2631 (April 2), E2632 (April 2), E5156 (June 23), E5978 (July 15) and E6294 (July 28). , See, also, Saville R. Davis, "Blow to NATO: Greek Armed Forces Disintegrating?" Chris- tian Science Monitor, August 29, 1969, p. 1; Christopher Wren, "Greece: Government by Torture," Look, May 27, 1969. This discussion has been prepared for use in a briefing to be given by Dr. Anastaplo at the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations, September 15, 1969. tyranny in Athens has recently returned to Washington from a visit to Greece. He offers us his current advice about Greek affairs in an article, "A Role for the U.S. in Greek Solution," published in the Washington Post of August 3, 1969. The truly significant feature of this article, however, is not its advice but rather its ad- mission that even Greeks who had been "dis- heartened by the pre-coup quarrels and po- litical instability and therefore intially ac- cepted the [present] regime with a sigh of relief" are now "cool if not downright hos- tile" toward it. The mood of this article is in marked contrast to its author's published defenses of the regime ever since its seizure of power, defenses which have been so gen- erous as to be thought worthy of distribution In this country by the Greek government. (See, e.g., Notes on World Events, Chicago Council on Foreign Relations, May, 1969, p. 5.) There is, moreover, no discussion in the Washington Post article of why anyone should now be cool toward the regime in Athens. But the article does manage to con- demn as "intransigent" the Greek opponents of the regime who have been cool and even hostile toward it from the very beginning. They are "intransigent," it seems, because they prefer to continue their determined op- position to this tyrannical regime rather than to accept the advice of those who have col- laborated with it. Advice which has evidently been spurned in Athens, at least by opponents of the re- gime there, is now offered to Americans and to their government in Washington. Let us see what the advice in this article amounts to and whether American critics of the Greek regime should be as "intransigent" as the Greeks who have already rejected it. Ix We are told in this article that there are two opinions in Athens about what is likely to happen in Greece if things continue as they are now: "Opponents of the regime are firmly convinced that in spite of his pro- testations, Premier Papadopoulos has no in- tention of allowing the return of free politi- cal life. On the other hand, government spokesmen assert that the regime is only tem- porary and that elections will be held as soon as 'the aims of the revolution are a,ccom- plished.' " "Whatever the truth," the article goes on to advise us, a "compromise" must be found between the opponents and the de- fenders of the current regime in Greece. But until one is prepared to decide which of these two opinions about what is likely to happen in Greece is correct, one is neither entitled nor equipped to offer responsible advice either to Americans or to Greeks on this vital matter. Who is right here, the opponents of the regime or the government spokesmen? There is, of course, a sense in which both opinions are correct: there is a sense that is, in which both opinions come down to virtually the same thing. Elections will be held in Greece, if only for the sake of propaganda, as soon as the aims of the revolution are accom- plished: that will be when the transforma- tion (or, at least, the immobilization) of Greek institutions and of Greek public opin- ion has reached the point where purportedly free elections (but with the press still con- trolled, of course) can be held without jeopardizing the tight grip upon the coun- try of its present rulers. After all, what do "the aims of the revolution" amount to now, if not primarily the personal advancement and welfare of the handful of junior officers (predominantly colonels) who betrayed in April 1967 their military oaths, their king, their comrades and their fellow-citizens with the deliberate intention of holding on to power long after the immediate political crisis which permitted them to seize power had passed? E10873 The suggestion in the Washington Post article of a "compromise" rests upon the con- dition that things should be so arranged that "the constitutional reforms" that have already been achieved may be preserved. Pre- cisely what reforms can the author be re- ferring to? The Constitution of 1968 is hard- ly an improvement upon its predecessors, de- signed as it is to legitimate the colonels who imposed it upon their country. Indeed, the only permanent result of the 1968 Consti- tution may be to discredit the occasional worthwhile innovation included in it which will hereafter be identified with an oppres- sive regime. One must consider, in order to assess prop- erly "constitutional reforms," not only the Constitution itself but also how it has been imposed and what maintains it. We are deal- ing, after all, with a regime that is ruthless and, even worse, shameless in what it will do and say to perpetuate itself. It is a tyran- ny which has revealed itself as remarkably incompetent in everything but the tricks of conspiracy and of counter-conspiracy. No conscientious student of Greek affairs can Ignore the evidence, available since the first year of the regime and now overwhelming, which displays the present regime as having easy recourse to extensive arrests and torture, to the most flagrant deceptions, to open con- tempt for constitutions and laws (including Its Own), to the harsh suppression of all independent opinion, and to an extravagant (and eventually ruinous) expenditure of funds on public works. Who can doubt that all this is done by the colonels not in the interest of Greece but primarily in order to perpetuate them- selves in power? It is no wonder that Greeks who know what is going on in their country are "cool if not downright hostile" toward this regime and its apologists. The wonder is that any responsible man can remain sin- cerely sympathetic to the regime once its character becomes apparent to him. Some responsible men did express sympathy for the regime at its beginning in the hope that they might thereby help induce the colonels to surrender power willingly?but it should have been evident by the end of the col- onels' first year, if not before, that this approach would be of no use. What informed man can continue to be- lieve that there remain any serious "aims of the revolution" worth preserving, any coherent and defensible set of principles guiding the program of the Greek dicta- tors? The serious problem is not how to preserve the legacy of the "revolution," but rather how long it will take to eliminate from Greek life the depredations of the present tyranny, and at what price. The corrupting influence of the colonels in Greece will remain long after they are gone, even if they should go tomorrow: they have done much that will be difficult to undo justly and harmoniously. Is not that usually the legacy of an army of occupation? The more astute among the colonels must realize that if they go, their constitution and "reforms" will go with them, no matter what promises or deals or "compromises" should be made in advance of their depar- ture. The concern of the colonels at that time is not going to be whether their "re- forms" will survive their regime but wheth- er they themselves will. The only com- promise the colonels will ever take seriously will be one which seems to permit them to save their necks, not their "aims of the revolution," in the event they find them- selves about to fall. Both the colonels and their opponents are correct in recognizing each other as irre- concilable enemies. What each realistically seeks from the other is not compromise but surrender. The advocacy of compromise be- tween the government and its opponents in 1969 (as distinguished from 1965, 1966 or 1967) is not only naive, it is also harmful Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 E10874 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 ? CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORb? Extensions of Remarks December 20, 1969 to -the revival of genuine constituti nal government in Greece. The only prac cal effect of a serious attempt at compror4iise at this time would be to demorslize, radi at- ize and divide the serious opposition to th: present regime and thereby to gain for th colonels even more time. l'ime is working against the interesta of both Greece and her allies: the colonels' u precedented purging and reshaping of th4 officer corps, of the civil service (inclnel- in the courts), of the school system, of lOcal co ncils (both public and private) and of th Church cannot but help them cling te potrer if they remain united. Once their eX- tensive reorganization is complete?and it should be, except perhaps for the Church, the Navy and Air Force, and she 'Universi- tiee, virtually complete by the summer of 19t0?Greece is likely to have to endure for a generation both the colonels' self-riglt- eosts tyranny and the sporadic armed re- sistance it will generate. There is atrea ly more violence in Greece today than thcre ha e been at any time since the 1946-1919 Civil War. m Massive propaganda, reinforced by gels, r- ou subsidies, will continue to be used at hone and abroad by the present Greek gt v- erximent to magnify the vires of the col- on ls and the vices of the politicians. We, on the other hand, are not Obliged, in ore er to expose the colonels to be aabad for Greece as they are, to make the politicians of 19e1- 19 7 better than they were. Out the longer th se colonels stay, the better those politi- ci$ns look. In fact, it Is difficult to name a sirjgle prominent Greek politician who would no be better for Greece and her allies teday thn the colonels now in power. Indeed, the m t serious indictment one might make of Greek politicians before April 1967 is that sueh people as these colonels were permitted to remain in the Army, that they were given an opportunity to attempt to seize power, an that they could suceed in such an at- te pt. It is to be hoped that the legitimate po i f, tical and military leaders of Greece, as w 1 as her allies abroad, have learned the appropriate lessons from this disastrous ex- periment. One important lesson is that detent Greeks of all parties and allegiances hake much more in CODITOCCH than any of them has in common with tile kind of man who is apt to be tempted to seize power for hintsell if decent men are not moderate in their political differences. It is to the credit of Greek politicians of all parties, as well as of Greek intellectuals, that almost all of them have stood firm since April 1967 against the threats the sophistries anti the enticements of the present Greek goyernment and of its apologists abroad. The satne tribute should be recorXed on behalf of thKing of Greece and most of the senior i as well as many of the junior officers of the armed forces of that countrt These Greeks, in itheir respect for the best in Greece, have been more perceptive and more principled alout what has been happening to their co ntry than have been certain American stiidents of Greek affairs (in and out of the AMerican government). The Washington Post artfele suggests as the appropriate role for the United States today that we encourage the "compromise" it advocates. But if, as I haveargued, any at- tellipt at such compromise in these circum- stances will help the colonels consolidate their power, then any American effort along that line can only weaken the legitimate in- fluence of America in Greece. For the longer the colonels stay, the more independent they are likely to become of American influence and, indeed, of the influence Of any moderate men at home or abroad. (One need only re- cal Shakespeare's Richard In) We Amen- ca could have discreetly helped the eon- stitutional leaders of this NATO ally get rid of their usurpers any time between April and Dember 1967, a period during which, the colonels were relying mostly on bluff and maneuver to stay in power. Instead, we were duped by talk of "constitutional reforms" and "law and order" and hence did, or failed to do, various things in 1967, as well as in 1968, which permitted and even helped the colonels to dig in. Measures are still available to us which can be used to help our true friends in Greece dislodge the colonels and restore their coun- try to control by its reople, measures which would be far more effective than Are likely to be the timid ones our government now employs to indicate its tardy approval of so destructive a tyranny. Every serious student of Greek affairs knows what more can and should be done by the United States in the present circumstances. There is no need for me to spell out again on this occasion the measures available to us, measures which would emphasize the publicized withdrawal of vital American support rather than any explicit American interference in Greek domestic affairs. I need only add that I con- tinue to believe, along with many in Greece, that Constantine Karamanlis is the best, though not the only, name around which effective opposition to the colonels can rally. I also continue to believe that it would be prudent for Mr. Karamanlis to offer to in- clude in a coalition government, legitimated by the King and recognized by the United States, figures such as Andreas Papandreou. This is where genuine comprornise would be good for Greece. iv The colonels, by the end of their third year in power (in April 1970), will probably have immobilized, if rot transformed, all in- stitutions in Greece which might stand in their way: repression and propaganda and the lavish use of public monies will have done their work. When that happens, whether by 1970 or by 1971, responsible ele- ments in Greece and abroad (including in the United States) will no longer have any significant influence in that country. If the colonels are dislodged thereafter, it will probably be (unless a serious international crisis erupts) only - teeause of the use of armed force against them in Greece. If vio- lent opposition should somehow be success- ful, the liberators of Greece?whoever they may be?are not likely to forget first our negligence and thereafter our impotence in the time of their des:serate need. And then what will our long-tenn influence be in that allied country which we insist is of great "strategic importance" to us? Whether there will be in Greece a gen- eration of violent tyranny or an immediate return to constitutional government and the rule of law depends, in large part, on what the United States does In the months imme- diately ahead. We Americans had better use our power while some of it remains, rather than allow ourselves to be duped again (this time by talk of "cornrromise") into promot- ing a policy unworthy both of us and of the Greeks. The peace and the prosperity, as well as the liberty and honor, of Greece require that the colonels go and with them everything they have come to represent. This is what Informed and conscientious Greeks are cer- tain of. This, it is to be hoped, is what the sadly misinformed American government is belatedly beginning to realize. LEST WE FORGET HON. BILL CHAPPELL, JR. OF FLORIDA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, December 18, 1969 Mr. CHAPPELL. Mr. Speaker, the Christmas season is approaching and families throughout America are gather- ing together for worship and gift giving and rejoicing in family reunions. Today I ask all Americans to join with me as we celebrate this holiday, to re- member those men who are missing in action and prisoners of war-- Lest we forget our own gladness in be- ing free; Lest we forget our own joy in being with our loved ones; Lest we forget that over 1,300 families will be without a loved one?again this year; Lest we forget that the reason these men are so cruelly held in. prison is be- cause they were fighting for us; Lest we forget that it Is. our responsi- bility to bring these men home again; Lest we forget the brotherhood of man and our reasons for celebrating Christ- mas. Mr. Speaker, this is a time for each of us to take the families of these:tor men especially to our hearts. Let 114.1711 renew our efforts for freedom so that these absences can be soon turned into rewarding reunions for all the Christ- mases to come. NEW U.S. LINE ON WITHDRAWAL A SEVERE BLOW TO ISRAEL HON. HUGH SCOTT OF PENNSYLVADILA IN THE SENATE OF' THE UNITED STATES Thursday, December 18, 1969 Mr. SCOTT. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the Extensions of Remarks an article entitled "New U.S. 'Line' on Withdrawal Deals Severe Blow to Israel," written by Wil- liam S. White, and published in the Philadelphia Inquirer of December 16, 1969. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: NEW U.S. "Linn" mt. WITHDRAWAL DEALS SEVFRP BLOW TO ISRAEL (By William S. White) WassuNctoss?The old year is drawing to its close on a somber note for Israel, whose whole position in her fight for survival has worsened markedly in these recent days, The newly enunciated American policy line call- ing for Israeli withdrawal frim frontier se- curity positions seized from the Arabs in the 1967 war, in return for Arab promises for peaceful coexistence, has hit the Israelis a cruel if unintentional blow. For this well-meant effort to take up a purely even-handed attitude from Washing- ton is in truth a revolutionary departure from the traditional American posture of candid friendliness to the Israeli side in the chronic crisis of the Middle East. The difficulty is that-the doctrine of osten- sible even-handedness actually assists those extremist Arab states which are pro-Com- munist and publicly bent both upon Israel's literal destruction and the spread of Soviet power in the Middle East. It ignores the immense reality that this is not a case where two adversaries are equally good or equally bad. One cannot equate ag- gressors patently embarked upon a Vietnam type of "war of liberation," urged on by the Soviet Union, with defenders motivated sim- ply by the desire to stay alive?and defenders moreover who form a pro-Western outpost in the worldwide struggle that is the Cold War. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 imoved Forc-16ftittg.fflim2AR4S-RBETARA6E4R000300120003-9 S 17405 - December 20, close it by reminding my friends, the leaders and the assistant leader on the side, of another reference in our liter- ature to the effect that a rose by any other name would still smell the same. DEATH OF FORMER SENATOR JAMES H. DUFF, OF PENNSYL- VANIA Mr. SCOTT. Mr. President, It is with extreme sorrow that I report to the Senate that a former Senator from Pennsylvania and former Governor of our Commonwealth, the Honorable James H. Duff, died today. A spokesman for George Washington Hospital an- nounced that Senator Duff, aged 86, col- lapsed at National Airport, was taken to the hospital, and pronounced dead at 9:43 a.m. We have no further details, so I shall say nothing further now except that I was a longtime friend, associate, and admirer of Big Jim Duff. We will miss him greatly. We shall have more to say in the form of a memorial tribute at a later date. Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, will the Senator yield? Mr. SCOTT. I yield. Mr. JAVITS. I should like to join the distinguished Republican leader in ex- pressing my sadness at the death of Jim Duff, an old friend of mine. He lived a very rich life and died at a ripe old age. We shall miss him. Mr. SCOTT. He died as he always wished to?with his boots on. Mr. JAVITS. I extend my condolences to the members of his family. Mr. SCOTT. And so do I. Ail 0" GREEK-TURKISH ECONOMIC COOPERATION Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, on sev- eral occasions, I have brought to the at- tention of the Senate the work which was initiated by the NATO Parliamen- tarians Conference, now the North At- lantic Assembly, looking toward Greek- Turkish economic cooperation. Reports on this matter were presented to the Senate on June 3, 1965, October 20, 1965, January 19, 196'7, December 15, 1967, January 28, 1969, and some remarks on the subject were included in my report on a trip abroad which was presented to the Senate on July 2, 1969. A number of important developments have taken place during calendar 1969, which I should like to lay before the Senate. At the outset, to put the work which has been done on this project in its proper context, requires some brief com- ment on the political situation in the area, and of the relationship of this project to that situation. The project for Greek-Turkish eco- nomic cooperation, although launched by an inter-parliamentary body, was conceived of as essentially a private ef- fort. Through its good offices, working with the private sector, but with govern- mental support and approval, possi- bilities in economic development yield- ing mutual benefits to Greece and Tur- key could be expanded. The effort was designed to function in the economic and not in the political sphere. Thus, the major thrust of the project has been to bring together participants from Greece and Turkey, where pos- sible mainly from the private sector, to work together in such areas as tourism, the cooperative exploitation of such nat- ural resources as fish, the increase of agricultural exports to Western Europe, and the common development of the border region between the two countries along the shores of the Meric-Evros Rivers. It is, I think, fair to say that al- though the emphasis of this effort was thus in the noncontroversial area of eco- nomic benefit to both sides, the parlia- mentarians had in mind, when the proj- ect was initiated, not only the fact that Greeks and Turks were among the less- developed members of the NATO al- liance, but also the fact that work on mutually beneficial development proj- ects would tend to increase contacts be- tween the peoples of Greece and Tur- key, and hopefully to ameliorate the tensions which at the time existed as a consequence of the Cyprus dispute. In these objectives, it is fair to say that the project Initiated in 1965 by my- self and by my Greek and Turkish par- liamentary colleagues, Messrs. Kasim Gillek and Alexander Spanorrigas has been eminently successful. Despite much Initial skepticism it has, in fact, proved possible to bring Greeks and Turks to- gether and to produce useful and coop- erative work. And that has been done even at a time when tensions in the area were extremely high. The result, I believe, has been a substantial contribu- tion to U.S. foreign policy objectives and, I may note, the U.S. Government has consistently supported this effort. So also has there been a contribution to the security which is the aim of NATO Itself. In this latter belief, I am, inciden- tally, reinforced by the comments on several occasions of the Secretary General of NATO, Manlio Brosio. The recent course of political develop- ments in Greece cannot pass unnoticed? as I am, also, chairman of the Political Committee of the North Atlantic Assem- bly?a committee which had occasion to consider a deeply troubled report on this situation as recently as October last. It has been my hope, as it must be the hope of all friends of human liberty and of the Greek ideal of moderation and tolerance which forms so large a basis of our own political system, that swift progress would be made in Greece, to- ward restoration of a representative par- liamentary system, and that present re- strictions on essential liberties would quickly be removed. It remains my con- viction that this must come, and that it would greatly contribute to the secu- rity, stability, and welfare of the Greek state, and of the Greek people. In this context a continued and in- creased measure of cooperation on proj- ects leading to the economic and so- cial betterment of the peoples of Greece and Turkey, and to peace in the south- eastern area of NATO continues to be vital. As the project for Greek Turkish Economic Cooperation is such a project, It benefits all. For this reason, I continue the support which I have given in the past to the objectives of the project which are designed to bring together, the peoples of that often-troubled area of the world, to ameliorate the relation- ships between them, to increase their co- operation on mutually beneficial works, and to set up institutions which can serve as channels of communication between the Greek and Turkish peoples. With this introduction, Mr. President, I should like to deal with some of the attainments of the project during 1969, and with some of the prospects for its future work. First. The project has been adminis- tered over the course of the past several years by the Eastern Mediterranean De- velopment Institute, a nonprofit unincor- porated association. The board of direc- tors consists of nationals of the NATO countries, with a large majority being nationals of Greece and Turkey. In the course of the past year, in- digenous sister organizations have been set up in Greece and in Turkey them- selves, and funds have been raised in local currency to meet their necessary expenses. Work has been going forward on various projects of the sort men- tioned above. In several of these areas, there has been substantial progress. In the held of tourism, a notable suc- cess was achieved when, in March 1969, the Greek National Tourist Organiza- tion and the Turkish Ministry of Infor- mation and Tourism held a meeting in Istanbul, at which were present as ob- servers the deputy chairman of the EMDI, the Honorable Kasim Gillek, and Its executive director, the Honorable Sey- mour J. Rubin. At the March meeting, the two sides approved, subject to ratifi- cation, the first intergovernmental docu- ment signed between Greece and Turkey since the eruption of the difficulties over Cyprus. This was a proces-verbal which Is intended to lead to a formal agree- ment on cooperation in the field of tour- ism. The agreement which is contem- plated would call for the establishment of a permanent consultative committee before which can be laid various pro- posals of mutual benefit in touristic endeavors. Subsequent to the meeting of officials In March, further meetings of a less formal sort have been held. The most re- cent of these was held in Athens on De- cember 5, 1969. At these meetings, the private sector of both countries has strongly expressed its support for coop- eration on tourism, and has agreed that the lifting of visa restrictions for tourists of Greek and Turkish origin would be of mutual benefit to the two countries. Were this to be done, it would largely restore the freedom of transit between the two countries which had existed after the farsighted arrangements which were made in the mid-1920's by the two great statesmen of the area, Venizelos and Ataturk. Additionally, others outside the region have expressed strong interest in par- ticipating in touristic developments. A meeting thus was held tinder the spon- Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 S 17406 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE December 20, 1969 of the Deutschebank in Frank- furt on October 13, at which various Ger- Man and Italian interests, together with * representative of the International Finance Corporation, diseussed the pos- Sible organization of research and -fi- nancing entities which might help to promote tourism in the region. Tourism in this region is of great im- portance. It Is already a major source of income so far as Greece is concerned; it promises to be an equally useful Source et foreign exchange on the Turkish side. Moreover, the touristic area of the Aegean is so interlaced between the Turkish mainland and the Greek ialands as to make regional development not Only attractive to tour operators and to developers of touristic areas, but practi- eally at least in the long run, inevitable. The administrative arrangements Which are contemplated under the proces-verbal of March 1969, aheuld Make a continuing contribution tO this development and should help to develop Oontinuing working relationshipS be- Omen the two sides. A major endeavor of the project for Greek Turkish Economic Cooperation and the Eastern Mediterranean Derlop- Ment Institute has been that inv lying the Meric/Evros River. In previons re- Ports, I have noted that this work has Moved forward extraordinarily well with a heavily documented prefeasibility or reconnaissance study having emerged in late 1967 from the joint work of a large group of Turkish, Greek, and German experts. This report was revised and in its final form approved, subject to right Modification, at a large interna ional Meeting held in Frankfurt in September 1967. It was then put in the hanida of 'various international financing lodies iuch as the World Bank and the uro- eau Investment Bank, and has been xtensively discussed with the tnited Nations Development Programme hich, with the IBRD, had been kept au conrant at all stages of the research and Study ork. After a considerable amouit of reparatory discussion, both the ?eek land the Turkish Governments hav ofti- kially notified the UNDP of their esire move forward with farther deVelop- ental work on the Mer1c/Evros,1 with e help of the UNDP. As of earltv De- ember 1969, a senior representat 0 of the UNDP has visited both Greece and Turkey for discussions with expert and governmental officials there. Thes dis- cussions are expected to lead to an orilcial proposal to be laid before the next gov- erning board of the UNDP in the spring Of 1970. Hopefully, this work will lead to full icale feasibility study financed b the D P and the Greek and Tirkish overnments, with certain small pilot projects included, in areas of land - *gement, irrigation, and small er tojects in this sensitive area, the der ween Greece and Turkey in 'I'hrace. Should full scale implementation of this feasibility study be undertaken, the final eeale of expenditure is estimated in the neighborhood of $100 to $150 nxllion. This is obviously a matter of great im- portance both to the economies of eece and Turkey, and to the population of this politically sensitive border area. It is important to note, as I have men- tioned in previous reports, that the Meric/Evros River rises in Bulgaria, where it is called the Maritsa, and that the Bulgarian Government has in several ways expressed interest in the develop- mental work which I have just men- tioned. This interest was expressed, for example, in a visit to me of the Bulgarian Ambassador in Washington. Prior to its recent contacts with the Greek and Turkish Governments, the UNDP con- sulted with Bulgarian authorities in Sofia. It would be :premature to make any predictions as to whether the Meric/ Evros project may evolve not merely into a binational and regional development project, but into one which would form a link based on mutually useful devel- opment work between West and West. That prospect in any case remains open, and is partially encouraged by a recent amelioration of relationships between Turkey and Bulgaria and between Greece and Bulgaria. Finally, in this respect, it should be mentioned that one of the objectives of EMDI has been from the outset to stim- ulate the activities of others on develop- mental projects in the Greco-Turkish area. This attempt to achieve a multi- plier effect with toe efforts of EMDI has had more than a reasonable amount of success. Thus, not only have tourism projects evolved and have physical and business connections with the two sides devel- oped, but a new project has been set in motion in the field of agricultural re- search in the Meric/Evros region. This is a project funded by the Thys- sen Foundation of Germany, and led by a group of German agronomists to in- vestigate the conservation of soils which on both the Turkish and the Greek side of the river have been eroded over the course of many years by excessive graz- ing and by improper methods of land Management. Thls project, which is a direct outgrowth of the work done by the German, Turkish, and Greek team on its Meric/Evros study, is at present under way. Hopefully, other aspects of the basic Merle/ Evros study will lead to further exploratory and scientific work of this same general sort. The pros- pect of this happening seems to be quite good, since the basic material upon which further research proposals can be based is already contained in the Meric/Evros report, and since that report itself dem- onstrates the feasibility of a joint and cooperative research effort. On other projects of EMDI, it is not necessary at this stage and in this form to say much in detail. Work is proceed- ing on projects having to do with the export of agricultural produce to West- ern Europe and on investigation of the ecological conditions affecting fish re- sources in the eastern Mediterranean. The recent meeting of the beard of di- rectors of EMDI received a new sugges- tion that EMDI could perhasp contribute to the training of Greek and Turkish guest workers in Western Europe, and to the evaluation of methods by which the skills of these workers could be put more effectively to work when they returned to their own countries. A proposed meeting of industrialists of the two countries is to take place shortly in Istanbul and its program has been expanded to include the develop- ment bankers of both countries. In short, there are ample opportuni- ties for cooperative work, opportunities which can be seized if conditions permit. Second. I turn now to a new and po- tentially extremely important aspect of the work which has, until now, been done on the project for Greek-Turkish economic cooperation under the aus- pices of the EMDI. This arises out of the recommendations contained in the re- port of the rapporteur of the Political Committee of the North Atlantic Assem- bly, the Honorable Erik Blumenfeld, of Germany. This report, which was con- sidered by the Political Committee of the North Atlantic Assembly at its meet- ings in Brussels in October 1969, under my chairmanship, suggested the desir- ability of expanding the objectives of EMDI and of establishing a Mediterra- nean development organization. The rec- ommendation was carefully considered by the Political Committee. It was, there- fore, considered also by the Economic Committee of the Assembly, under the chairmanship of Mr. Bishop, of the United Kingdom. During the discussion, it was suggested that, after preliminary work, a governmental conference should be convened with the aim of establishing a Mediterranean development organiza- tion "with the ultimate aim that respon- sibility for furthering the project should be entrusted to the Eastern "teira- nean Development Institute." I ei7d a copy of the resolution which emerged from the deliberations of both the Polit- ical and Economic Committees of the North Atlantic Ateembly to this state- ment. There are many problems as well as many opportunities presented by this recommendation, which was endorsed at the plenary session of the North Atlan- tic Assembly. Yet any new type of orga- nization in the field of economic devel- opment enters an already crowded arena. It is clear, moreover, that cooperation between donors in any such organization is difficult, and a recommendation which contemplates, as this one does, some type of organizational unity between "donors" and "recipients" makes the task even more complicated. Nonetheless, there is at present no specific organiza- tion which deals with the developmental problems of the Mediterranean base, nor is there one which expresses those NATO responsibilities which lie in the field of development. It was for these reasons that both the Political and Economic Committees at the plenary session en- dorsed the recommendation annexed hereto. Since the adoption of this recommen- dation, a number of steps have been taken to move forward with this project. I have consulted with Mr. Blumenfeld and with Mr. Rubin, the Executive Di- rector of EMDI, here in Washington. Subsequently, the matter has been dis- Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 rove FarrReleasea003/12/0a XIMe-RfIPZ-IncRAIMAA December 20, lARYd S 17407 cussed by Mr. Rubin with Greek and Turkish board members of EMDI and, immediately thereafter, with the chair- man of the Economic Committee of the North Atlantic Assembly, with Mr. Blum- enfeld, and with M. Phillippe Deshormes, the Secretary-General of the North At- lantic Assembly. Based upon an analysis prepared by Mr. Rubin, further work is going for- ward to explore both the problems and the possibilities with a view toward a meeting at the International Secretar- iat of the North Atlantic Assembly in March next, which will consider the es- tablishment of a working group, as called for in the recommendation and which will attempt to establish a program of work for that working group. The time- table set up at the Paris meeting of December 9,1969, suggests that it should be possible to lay a specific proposal be- fore the fall 1970 meeting of the North Atlantic Assembly. Many difficulties will have to be over- come before one may reasonably say that progress has been made toward the ob- jectives of the recommendation annexed hereto. But work has been started on this project in a good spirit, with a desirable objective in mind and with the first prerequisite of success; that is, knowl- edge of the difficulties. In these circumstances, I think it is justifiable to hope that the experience with the project which was begun by the NATO parliamentarians in 1964-65 and which has yielded highly useful re- sults is only the beginning of an en- larged and even more useful experiment in international cooperation for eco- nomic and social development. CONVEYANCE OF CERTAIN MATE- RIALS TO EMOGENE TILMON, LOGAN COUNTY, ARK.; ENOCH A. LOWDER, LOGAN COUNTY, ARK.; J. B. SMITH AND SULA E. SMITH, MAGAZINE, ARK.; AND WAYNE TILMON AND EMOGENE TILMON, LOCAL COUNTY, ARK. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Chair lay before the Senate messages on S. 65, S. 80, S. 81, and S. 82, in that order, and that the Senate agree to the House amendment in the case of each measure. These bills are relatively minor items, all dealing with a related subject. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore laid before the Senate the amend- ment of the House of Representatives to the bill (S. 65) to direct the Secretary of Agriculture to convey sand, gravel, stone, clay, and similar materials in certain lands to Emogene Tilmon of Logan County, Ark., which was, on page 2, line 2, strike out ": And provided further, That such sand, gravel, stone, clay, and similar materials shall only be used on said tract." The amendment was agreed to. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore laid before the Senate the amend- ment of the House of Representatives to the bill (S. 80) to direct the Secretary of Agriculture to convey sand, gravel, stone, clay, and similar materials in cer- tain lands to Enoch A. Lowder of Logan County, Ark, which was, on page 2, line 2, strike out ": And provided further, That such sand, gravel, stone, clay, and similar materials shall only be used on said tract". The amendment was agreed to. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tern- Pore laid before the Senate the amend- ment of the House of Representatives to the bill (S. 81) to direct the Secretary of Agriculture to convey sand, gravel, stone, clay, and similar materials in cer- tain lands to J. B. Smith and Sula E. Smith, of Magazine, Ark., which was, on page 2, line 3, strike out": And provided further, That such sand, gravel, stone, clay, and similar materials shall only be used on said tract." The amendment was agreed to. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore laid before the Senate the amend- ment of the House of Representatives to the bill (S. 82) to direct the Secretary of Agriculture to convey sand, gravel, stone, clay, and similar materials in certain lands to Wayne Tilmon and Emogene Tilmon of Logan County, Ark., which was, on page 2, line 2, strike out": And provided further, That such sand, gravel, stone, clay, and similar materials shall only be used on said tract." The amendment was agreed to. ADDITIONAL POSITIONS IN GRADES GS-16, GS-17, AND GS-18 Mr. McGEE. Mr. President, I ask the Chair to lay before the Senate a message from the House of Representatives on S. 2325. The PRESIDING OFFICER laid before the Senate the amendment of the House of Representatives to the bill (S. 2325) to amend title 5, United States Code, to provide for additional positions In grades GS-16, GS-17, and GS-18 which was to strike out all after the enacting clause, and insert: That (a) section 5108(a) of title 5, Unit- ed States Code, is amended by striking out "2,577" and inserting In lieu thereof "2.727". (b) Section 5108(b) (2) of such title is amended by striking out "28" and inserting in lieu thereof "44". (c) Section 5108(c) (1) of such title is amended by striking out "64" and inserting in lieu thereof "90". (d) Section 5208(c) (2) of such title is amended by striking out "110" and insert- ing in lieu thereof "140". SEC. 2. Section 4 of the Act entitled "An Act to provide certain administrative author- ities for the National Security Agency, and for other purposes", approved May 29, 1959, as amended (50 U.S.C. 402, note) , is amended to read as follows: "SEC. 4. The Secretary of Defense (or his designee for the purpose) is authorized to? "(1) establish in the National Security Agency (A) professional engineering posi- tions primarily concerned with research and development and (B) professional positions In the physical and natural sciences, medi- cine, and cryptology; and "(2) fix the respective rates of pay of such positions at rates equal to rates of basic pay contained in grades 16, 17, and 18 of the General Schedule set forth in section 5332 of title 5, United States Code. Officers and employees appointed to positions established under this section shall be in addition to the number of officers and em- ployees appointed to positions under section 2 of this Act who may be paid at rates equal to rates of basic pay contained in grades 16, 17, and 18 of the General Schedule.". Mr. MeGEE. Mr. President, the meas- ure with the adjustment has been cleared with both sides. I move that the Senate concur in the House amendment to the Senate bill which was to strike out a provision for 45 additional supergrades and a provision for eight supergrades specifically allocated to the Smithsonian Institution. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The ques- tion is on agreeing to the motion of the Senator from Wyoming. The motion was agreed to. COMMUNICATIONS FROM EXECU- TIVE DEPARTMENTS, ETC. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tern- pore laid before the Senate the following letters, which were referred as indicated: WESTERN HEMISPHERE AFFAIRS A letter from the Secretary of State, trans- miting a draft of proposed legislation to re- organize and strengthen the United States Government structure for dealing with West- ern Hemisphere affairs (with accompanying papers); to the Committee on Foreign Re- lations. REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ON REAL END PERSONAL PROPERTY A letter from the Deputy Secretary of De- fense, transmitting, pursuant to law, a report on the fixed property, installations, and major equipment items, and stored supplies of the military departments maintained on both a quantitative and monetary basis (with an accompanying report); to the Committee on Armed Services. REPORTS OF COMMITTEES The following reports of committees were submitted: By Mr. BAGLETON, from the Committee on the District of Columba, with amend- ments: S. 2694. A bill to amend the District of Columbia Police and Firemen's Salary Act of 1958 to increase salaries, and for other purposes, with amendments (Rept. No. 91- 629) . By Mr. MAGNUSON, from the Committee on Commerce, with amendments: S. 2289. A bill to amend the Interstate Commerce Act, as amended, in order to make unlawful, as unreasonable and unjust dis- crimination against and an undue burden upon interstate commerce, certain property tax assessments of common and contract carrier property, and for other purposes (Rept. No. 91-630). NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF SELECT COMMITTEE ON SMALL BUSINESS?INDIVIDUAL VIEWS (S. REPT. NO. 91-627) Mr. BIBLE. Mr. President, I submit the 19th annual report of the Select Com- mittee on Small Business. I ask unanimous consent that the re- port be printed, together with individual views of Senators JAMS, SCOTT, and HAT- FIELD. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The re- port will be received; and, without ob- jection, the report will be printed, as requested by the Senator from Nevada. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 .? CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 S 17408 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE December 20, 1967 REPORT ENTITLED "THE EFFECTS By Mr. moNToYA (for himself, Mr. percent in the first 2 years to 10 percent OF CORFORATIO11 FARMING ON CANNON SUd. Mr, RANDOLPH): in the 8th year, and in poverty areas SMALL BUSINESS"?REPORT OF A S. 3281. A bill to amend section 139 of title from 90 percent in the first 2 years to COMMIrrelh',--INDtVID_,, UAL VIEWS 23, United States Code, relating to additions to the Interstate System; to the Committee 10 percent in the 10th year. (S. REPT. NO. 91-628) on Public Works. Other major features of the bill pro- Mr. BIBLE. Mr. President, from the (The remarks of Mr. MONTOYA when he in- vide that operational support would con- Select Committee on Small Business, I troduced the bill appear later in the RECORD tinue to be provided to recipients who submit a report entitled "Impact of Cor- under the appropriate heading.) have already received commitments for poration Farming on Small Business." I By Mr. YARBOROUGH: future support under the existing law; ask unanimous consent that the report S. 3282. A bill for the relief of Jean Rawls Federal funds for all types of mental Fairbank; to the Committee on the Judi- be printed, together with individual views ciary. retardation projects in a State would not be less than the amounts allotted of the Senator from Colorado (Mr. Doan- S. 3283. A bill for the relief of John L. NICE). to the State in fiscal year 1970 for con- Clark; to the Corr mittee on Armed Services. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The re- By Mr. KENNEDY: struction of community mental retarda- port will be received; and, without objec- S. 3284. A bill to authorize the acquisition tion facilities; joint funding arrange- tion, the report will be printed, as re- and maintenance of the Goddard Rocket merits with other Federal programs quested by the Senator from Nevad t. launching site in Iccordance with the act of could be entered into; and before grants August 25, 1916, as amended and supple- are made, States must be given an op- mented, and for other purposes; to the Com- portunity to review and make rec,om- EXECUTIVE REPORTS OF A mittee on Interior and Insular Affairs. mendations on projects in their juris- (The remarks of Mr. KENNEDY when he COMMITTEE dictions. introduced the bill appear later in the RECORD In order to meet the problemto which under the appropr: ate heading.) By Mr. YAK3OR0UGH: the President called attention in his S 3285. A bill for the relief a Mrs. Louise message of April 30, I969, to the Con- Sheridan; to the Cnnmittee on the Judiciary. gress on improving the administration By Mr. MAoNcsobt (for himself, Mr. of Federal programs, the Department of GrinhaN, Mr. PEARSON, Mr. PROUTY, Health, Education, and Welfare has pro- and Mr. Soon.) (by request) : vided in the bill for consolidating the S 3286. A bill to assist consumers in eval- present separate categories of grants for uating products by promoting development construction of mental retardation fa- of adequate and reliable methods for testing characteristics of consumer products; to the cilities, for construction of university Committee on Commerce. affiliated facilities, andlor initial staffing (The remarks oi! Mr. MAGNUSON when he of community mental retardation f a- introduced the bill appear later in the EEC- cilities into a single, flexible program of ORD under a separate heading.) grants to public or nonprofit agencies covering facilities and services for the mentally retarded. S. 3278?INTRODUCTION OF THE Appropriations authorizations are re- MENTAL RETARDATION SERVICES quested for 3 years. AMENDMENT OF 1969 . The PRESIDING OlerICER. The bill Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, I intro- will be received and appropriately re- BILLS INTRODUCED duce, for the administration, the Mental f erred. Retardation Services Amendments of The bill (S. 3277) to amend the Mental Bills were introduced, read the first 1969. The bill assures the continuing Retardation Construction Act to extend time and, by unanirnons consent the support of the Federal Government in and improve the provisions thereof, and second time, and referred as folloW ;: providing services and expanded facil- for other purposes, introduced by Mr. By Mr. JAVITS: ities for the mentally retarded, including JAVITS, was received, read twice by its S. 3277. A bill to amend the Menta I Re- special incentives to encourage these title and referred to the Committee on tardation Construction Act to extene and activities in areas having the most Labor and Public Welfare. improve the provisions thereof, and for other critical need. purposes; to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. i Included among the activities for S. 3279?INTRODUCTION OF A BILL (The remarks of Mr. Jimrs when he intro- nder the appropriate heading.) which grants could be made under the bill are the provision of services for the TOIYAB NATIONAL FOREST mentally retarded?operation grants? TO EXTEND BOUNDARIES OF THE uced the bill appear later in the RXORD E , By Mr. BRVIN (for himself, Mr. construction of mental retardation facil- Mr. BIBLE. Mr. President, I introduce, ALLEN, Mr. EitarLAND, and Mr. Hex,- Latto): ities ; development and demonstration of for appropriate reference, a bill to ex- S. 3278. A bill to amend? the Civil Bights new or improved techniques for provision tend the boundaries of the Toiya,be Na- Act of 1964 by adding a new title, vrialc b. re- of services for the mentally retarded; tional Forest in Nevada. ieh By Mr. BIBLE: share of the costs of new projects, in- forest. The bill would extend the na- eluding construction projects, shall be tional forest boundary to include 12,920 adtraminiiiing of personnel to work on the The purpose of the bill, is to aid in the tarded; and State and local planning, maintenance of the watershed, wildlife, bill provides: various problems of the mentally re- protection, improvement, and proper First, the maximum on the Federal within the boundaries of this national I am pleased net the administration ues of the lands in the Lake Tahoe Ba- istration, and technical assistance, recreation, and natural environment val- sin, much of which is already embraced res to local sehool boards their oorattitu- ons1 power to administer the public schools mmitted to their charge, confers op par- ts the right to choose the public 4011001c eir children attend, secures to child/nil the Ba- t to attend the public school chosen by ir parents, and makes effective the rightpublic school administrators and tee:hers serve in the schools in vitich they cTact serve; to the Committee on the Judiciary. 75 percent except in poverty areas where acres of largely undeveloped, privately S. 3279. A bill to extend itte houndari .6. of 90 percent would be permitted; (The remarks of Mr. HIET.P when he in- projects providing mental retardation Lake Tahoe is a unique body of water Second, the duration of support for othwenel adkel a. nds along the Nevada side of e Toiyabe National For in Nevada, and r other purposes; to the Committee 01_ In- rior and Insular Affairs. - services is to be extended from the pres- set in a basin which, despite encroach- ..II By Mr. TALIVIADGE: ent 51 months to 3 years except for pov- ment by urban development, still retains der the appropriate heading.) erty areas where support could be much of its natural environmental educed the bill appear later In the Mame granted for 10 years; and beauty. It is one of the Nation's out- s. 3280. A bill for the relief of Sergio I. Third, the Federal share of support standing natural assets. =izamon; to the Committee on the Judi- for projects providing services would de- The stability of the natural conditions . cline gradually, from a maximum of 75 contributing to the clarity of the lake Mr. 1VIAGNITSON. Mr. President, from the Committee on Commerce, I report favorably sundry nominations in the Coast Guard which have previously ap- peared in the CONGRESSIONAL RECOR3 and I ask unanimous consent, in order to save the expense of printing them on the executive calendar, that they lie on the Secretary's desk for the informal m of any Senator. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. The nominations, ordered to lie on the desk, are as follows: David W. Hiller, and sundry other ? ricers, for promotion in the Cnairt Guard; ate:, Paul L. Milligan, and sundry othe ^ Re- serve officers, for appointment to the Coast Guard. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71,1300364R000300120003-9 December 19, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? Extensions of Remarks however, a great service to the American public. It is a critical stage in the delivery of pharmaceuticals to the consumer, and in my view, our accounts should be organized so that the role of this essential service can be better measured. Next among the basic commitments is edu- cation. We have an extensive education sys- tem. It begins with the detail man, but it is in our literature, in the distribution of re- prints from the technical journals, our sym- posia, our hospital meetings, our films?a tre- mendous educational network directed to- wards every physician, pharmacist and hos- pital. And in every analysis of this system that I can recall even by our critics, one thing we get back clearly from the doctor is that certainly to a significant extent, our activities in relation to them, are truly edu- cational and a true service to the medical profession and, therefore, to the patient. Now finally, there is promotion?sheer, straight building of the market and share of the market. Our industry is different from others in degree but not in kind. 'Attention must be attracted to the products available, especially new products. This history of mar- keting proves that people do not beat a path to your door to buy that better mousetrap. The market must be made. We must take greater care, but we must still build the market. This is a typical free enterprise type of operation which is expensive and necessary and without it the other services would not be possible. So there they are, these six commitments of the pharmaceutical industry. The most significant thing about this briefly told story is that it brings home that the pharmaceutical industry is not just a manufacturing industry, but a service in- dustry as well. We are a service and a prod- uct industry with six commitments of pro- found social value, This is basic to an under- standing of what we are. At the beginning of this talk, I touched so lightly as hardly to have done it on some of the accomplishments of this industry. But, In the future, even more should be expected of this industry because knowledge builds on knowledge in geometric progression. And the evidence is all there, that there will be a speaker like me 30 or 35 years from now, making the kind of comparison I did at the outset of my remarks and probably likening us, too, to some equivalent of the kindly old general practitioner who had hardly any- thing in his black bag. But some members of this industry do not assume all of these commitments. Some, hardly any of them. And I think this con- trast helps bring the significance of these commitments into clear perspective. I remember many years ago encountering one of these people in this category of little or no commitments, and out of sheer curi- osity, I said to him, "How do you operate? I know you don't do any research. I doubt if you do any development. I've never seen any advertising, and you. don't have any detail men do you?" And he got a big laugh out of this. And he said, "It's simple enough. First of all, I'm not a full-line house, I pick and choose the fast-moving items that are al- ready developed, like the best-selling prod- ucts in the Pfizer penicillin line." This was many years ago, as I said. But he said, "I can make these products and, in fact, I can make them cheaper than you can?you're too fancy. And I can send a postcard to the drug- gist. Not all across the nation, not even throughout all of my state. But I can send a postcard to the druggist and say I've got penicillin available at the lowest price on the market. They won't all come to me, but I'll get my share." He said, "I'm going down to Palm Beach this winter. What are you do- ing?" I don't deny that man his right to operate in that fashion as long as his products meet proper quality standards. I don't even criti- cize. But I ask this question: What is the relative social value of this entrepreneur. I don't mean the value of his enterprise to himself. I mean the value to society. This is what is in issue these days. This is what the debate is really all about, or should be about. To some, the lower prices of the drugs he supplies will seem an important social con- tribution. But just what is the net value to society of that price differential, when it is achieved by largely or completely avoiding those vital service commitments to research, development, quality control, distribution, education, and marketing that has earned world leadership for the American pharma- ceutical industry, and on which the progress of therapeutics very substantially depends? What is the real price of that low price drug? And who pays it? So this is the point of beginning for our industry?to know ourselves through serious study, to welcome the beginning of the pos- sible new atmosphere as the shrill cries seem to moderate, or at least as some moderate voices begin to be heard. Before us now is the difficult problem of the future of health care in this country. Our hope and our re- sponsibility is to participate with our new partners?government, the medical profes- sion, and academia, in building for the future, The old way of hostile hearings and regulatory battles has little to do with this future?indeed can only hinder and impede it. In a word, if we are to build the future it will be by cooperation. In that necessary cooperative effort, the pharmaceutical indus- try is ready to do its part. AMENDING TITLE 28, UNITED STATES CODE, TO EXTEND THE TIME FOR FILING TORT ACTIONS BY CERTAIN PERSONS SPEECH OF HON. JACOB H. GILBERT OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, December 15, 1969 ' Mr. GILBERT. Mr. Speaker, I sup- port H.R. 10124, offered by the gentle- man from Massachusetts (Mr. Doxo- Bus) , to extend the time for filing tort actions by persons under the age of 21, or insane or mentally ill, or imprisoned on a criminal charge. I have sponsored a similar bill in past Congresses and in this Congress?H.R. 4155, 91st Congress. The bill will modify existing law by providing that the 2- year statue of limitations applicable to tort actions against the Government will not run against persons under legal dis- ability at the time the action accrues, and that, such individuals may present the claim within 2 years after the dis- ability ceases. We should recognize the fact that persons suffering from legal disabilities and particularly those who are under age are actually being deprived of their rights because of the presently overstrict limitation provision in subsec- tion (b) of section 2401, title 28 of the United States Code. There is a demonstrated need for this legislation. I support H.R. 10124 and I commend my distinguished colleague (Mr. DONOHUE) for the action of his sub- committee in bringing this bill to the House floor. E10831 PLAYING WITH FIRE IN THE MIDDLE EAST HON. RICHARD L. OTTINGER OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, December 17, 1969 Mr. OTTINGER. Mr. Speaker, I am deeply disturbed about the apparent erosion by the Nixon administration of our position of support for a fair and permanent resolution of the conflict be- tween Israel and her Arab neighbors in the Middle East. The basis of our policy has been to promote a settlement by direct nego- tiations between the parties of their dis- putes over borders, recognition, refugees, and access to international waterways and, until such a settlement can be reached, to assure Israel's invulnerability to Arab attack. The first disturbing indication that the Nixon administration was backing away from this policy occurred at its inception when Gov. William Scranton announced, after a Presidential fact-finding tour of the area, that the new administration was going to pursue a more "even- handed" policy. Next came a period of equivocation over delivery of Phantom jets to Israel in pursuance with prior commitments. While the jets have now been promised, they still have not been delivered. These events led to sincere fears that "even-handedness" meant abandoning Israel in favor of Republican oil interests in the Arab States. These fears were heightened when the United States supported the United Na- tions resolution condemning Israel for her attacks on Lebanon in response to actions of Arab terrorists in blowing up an El Al airliner at Beirut airport with- out any condemnation for the Arab at- tacks which provoked the incident. This hardly seemed even-handed. Nor did our abstention from subsequent one-sided U.N. Middle East resolutions or our silence in the U.N. during the public hangings by Iraq of Jews. These fears were again aroused when the U.S.-proposed four-power talks to promote a Middle East settlement with France and Russia committed to side with the Arabs. They were barely as- suaged by our assurances that the four powers would concern themselves solely with broad guidelines for peace and not the specifics of a settlement which we stated would be left to direct negotiations. The State Department's latest pro- nouncement inviting resumption of offi- cial recognition of the Arab States that have sworn to annihilate Israel and are daily sending terrorists across her bor- ders to kill her citizens can but confrm these fears. Worse yet, Secretary Rogers' recent speech putting forward specific border settlement proposals, undermines Is- rael's chief bargaining position requiring direct negotiations of the details of a set- tlement. Indeed, since only direct nego- tiations can produce a permanent and lasting settlement, the State Depart- ment's position seriously jeopardizes the Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 E 10832 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? Extensions of Remarks December 19, 1969 prospects for peace in that troubled area. It seems clear that President Nasser and his 'radical Arab Iglsociates will in- terpret Secretary Rogers' latest over- tures as a signal that they are fi ee to pursue, with Soviet Assistance, their policy of military adventurism against Israel and her people. This encourage- ment could well prove to be explosive. Indeed, it is significant that no sooner had Secretary Rogers spoken than the Soviet Union's prime minister promised increased military aid for Egypt and re- affirmed his nation's support for the ter- rorist Arab guerrilla movement. I think it is clear that the Soviet-Arab strategy is to create an atmosphere of such intense crisis that the United States would force major concessions upcn Is- rael as the price for a temporary respite. And temporary it clearly would be, for no arrangement worked out in the absence of direct negotiations between Israel and the Arabs can hope to have any permanence. We cannot, we must not let oun,elves be coerced into such a position, for to do so would jeopardize the political inde- pendence and territorial integrity of Is- rael without achieving a meaningful peace in the Middle East. To undermine Israel at this time would merely whet the radical Arab appetite for full-scale as- sault on Israel and increase the risk of a wider war. It is appropriate to remind our: elves of the statements made by John Foster Dulles when he was Secretary of State under President Eisenhower: The preservation of the State of Israel is one of the essential goals of United States foreign policy. Israel is the one bastion of freed( no in the Middle Esst. By encouraging the Arabs, we are playing with fire in an explosive situation. If the Arabs zikount a major attack on Israel, we can hardly avoid becoming involved. It is eminently in our interests to prevent such a con- flict from breaking out and to return to the sound principles for a sound settle- ment that this country ha; pursued until the present. BIG TRUCK BILL HON. FRED SCHWENGEL OF IOWA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRI`SENTATIA ES Wednesday, December 17, 196,c- Mr. SCHWENGEL. Mr. Speaker my editorial for today is from the Arizona Republic. The editorial _kilOWS : CONGRESS LEFT To DECIDE Ss ET Y QUI.A /ION OF HEAVIER TRUCKS WASHINGTON.?The Nixon administration left it up to Congress yesterday to decade whether heayier and bigger bailer truck.; and buses are safe enough to be permitted to travel on Interstate highways. Federal Highway Adadin erator F. C Turner told a House public works subcom- rnittee his agency did not hate "sufficient re- liable evidence" to determine whether the increased sizes of trucks and buses prbposed in controversial legislation wraild mean addi- Menai safety hazards to motorists. I If Congress decides moterist s safety 'is not affected "measurably," Turner said, the ad- ministration would urge that implementa- tion be delayed until July 1, '1972, rather than on the date of passage. The govern- ment needs the three years to set perform- ance standards Sir the bigger trucks, he said. Turner's long-awaited disclosure of the ad- ministration position on the bill, while not an endorsement, brought smiles to the faces of subcommittee members who support the legislation. As opponent, Re. Fred Schwengel, R-Iowa, said it was "incredible" that the Transporta- tion Department did not recommend delay In action on the bill until it could collect adequate safety data. The bill, supported by the trucking in- dustry and opposed by the American Auto- mobile Association, would increase from 8 feet to 81/2 feet the maximum allowable width of trucks and buses using the inter- state highway system. The limit on weight would be raised from 79,280 pounds to 188,500 pounds. The length, which is not limited now, would be set at 70 feet. Turner recommended a maximum length of 65 feet. ..,??=1//10 CHRISTIAN HIGHER EDUCATION AND THE SEVENTIES HON. BILL NICHOLS Or ALABAMA IN 1HE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, December .17, 1969 Mr. NICHOLS, Mr. Speaker, on No- vember 18, 1969, Dr. Harry Phiipott, pres- ident of Auburn University, addressed the Alabama Baptis.; State Convention in Birmingham. Dr. Philpott is an ordained Baptist minister although he has never held a pastorate, his entire career has been in the field of education. In his ad- dress, Dr. Philpoi;t outlined the continu- ing need for Christian higher education In the years ahead. I would like to share his thoughts on this important subject with my colleagues by inserting his re- marks in the RES'Oee at this point: cuRrsTrAN H/GHER EDUCATION AND THE SEVENTIES Our emphasis on Christian higher educa- tion continues a glorious phase of Baptist his- tory. It is well to remind ourselves of the fundamental importance of education in the development of Baptist churches. Our pres- ent-day heritage has many roots but none is more important than the leadership of Luther Rice in the 19th Century. One com- mentator has described his return from Burma to solicit support for Judson's pio- neering missionary enterprise as the single most important event in Baptist history during the 19th Century. He arrived with a great zeal for missions but discovered the support necessary for these could not be obtained because of the fragmented charac- ter and separatism of the Baptist churches and because of the appalling lack of educa- tion within the ministry and the leadership Of the churches. If the missionary endeavor was to move forward, it was necessary to bring the churches together in associations and conventions and to overcome the lack of education and understanding. With unequaled devotion, Rice traveled throughout the eassern and southern United States drawing Baptists together, presenting the missionary challenge and sparking the organization of Baptist colleges and schools. The difficulty of hie task can be seen in the fact that an early division in the ranks of the Baptists separated those who believed in education and Missions from those who opposed such endeavors by the churches. Our forebearers proudly proclaimed them- selves Missionary Baptists and equally em- phasized their great concern for education. Church-related educational programs, acad- emies, colleges, universities and seminaries characterized the educational enterprises of our churches and continue to be a basic em- phasis of our Christian mission today. De- spite the problems which face us-education- ally and the changes in American educa- tion which have had their effect on our pro- grams, we Would be disloyal to our Baptist heritage and, more importantly, unworthy of the future if we did not continue to give major importance to these endeavors. I stand before you today as a concerned individual with a troubled soul. I have al- ways held, and still do, a firm belief in the dual system of higher education as we have known it in the United States. Problems which face both the private sector and the public sector of higher education are as dif- ficult, if not more difficult, than at any time in our history. During this century we have witnessed undreamed of expansion in public education, 'while the private and church-related institutions have been forced by a variety of circumstances to simply hold their own, as a rule. In Alabama for ex- ample, in the last ten years we have seen a 115 per cent enrollment increase in our institutions of higher learning, with only a small proportion of this coming in the pri- vate and church-related sector. Our best estimates indicate that a 70 per cent increase in higher education enrollment will take place in the next decade, again with the overwhelming percentage being in the public institutions. Changing circumstances have dictated new patterns for our Baptist programs in higher education. While continuing, as we absolutely must, support for our own institutions, we have been challenged to develop Baptist Student Programs in our public institutions. The developing Junior College system in Alabama has opened a new opportunity for student work in many of our churches and for the State Convention. Christian higher education today requires that we meet stu- dent needs whatever type of institution they attend. It should not be supposed that the public institutions are immune from the same prob- lems private institutions face in attempting to fulfill their responsibilities. We are wit- nessing at the present time, and I can only predict that this trend will accelerate in the next ten years, an obliteration of the line which distinguished private and public insti- tutions of higher learning in the past. Tax dollars now provide as much as 45 per cent of the annual operating budgets for some private and denominational institutions while public institutions must avidly seek private gift support to supplement govern- mental appropriations. We have only to remind ourselves that in every State Convention of Southern Baptists this year the issue of tax support for our institutions, or government aid in a variety of forms, will be a major consideration. I have no simple answer to resolve this issue but from a survey of recent history can only offer the prediction that in the decade ahead some form of support from the governments will be required for the continued existence of our institutions. Our task will be to devise programs which will safeguard, so far as possible, the administration of our schools in private hands and which will draw a clear line of distinction between activities which are religious' in character and those which are common to the educational experience of all students. In this connection, I am pleased with the growing understanding being shown by my fellow Baptists in placing the day by day Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 December 19, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD? HOUSE 1112801 Mr. WHITE. Mr. Speaker, the State of Texas has lost one of its great civic leaders, a widely known and highly re- spected lawyer, a forceful and eloquent Ig-ure on the political scene, a courtly :espected gentleman. Mr. Thornton Hardie came to El Paso os a young graduate of the University of Texas Law School in 1913. He has prac- ticed law in El Paso for more than 56 years; certainly he was one of the senior members and former presidents of the El Paso Bar, a distinguished legal scholar, and the senior member of the highly re- spected firm of Hardie, Grambling, Sims & Galatzan. Excellence in legal training and prac- tice, in civic life, and especially in the field of education, were basic themes of his life. For 6 years, he served our State with great distinction as a member of the board of regents of the University of Texas system, as chairman of the board for 2 years, 1961 to 1963. He also served as a member of the Texas Council for Higher Education, and was a member of the Philosophical Society of Texas. In politics, Mr. Hardie was an eloquent defender of those principles of consti- tutional government which he believed essential to our Nation's well-being. Op- ponents and allies alike respected his great ability and admired his unfailing courtesy and courtly bearing. In our community of El Paso, he was honored in the field of business, having served as vice president and director of the El Paso National Bank, director of the Southern Union Gas Co., and the Rio Grande, El Paso & Santa Fe Rail- road Co. His imprint upon the city of El Paso and the State of Texas has been great beyond measure. His memory will re- main bright among his four children, all of whom are outstanding civic leaders, 18 grandchildren and eight great-grand- children, his brothers and sisters, and his many friends. Other Members of this body, who had the good fortune to know Mr. Thornton Hardie, I am sure will join in the senti- ments that here was a citizen whose ca- reer of service deserves our admiration and respect. ParsorieZaolk,T.- RESOLUTION AMENDMENT (Mr. FINDLEY asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. FINDLEY. Mr. Speaker, daily the fighting in the Middle East increases, daily the tension multiplies, daily the toll of Arabs and Israelis killed mounts? and each day the likelihood grows that open warfare will erupt between nations in that part of the world. If that fateful, violent day comes again as it did in 1957 and 1967, the position of the United States may well determine the future of mankind. The military and political sup- port which our Government gives to one side or the other will drastically affect the outcome of any war in the Middle East, whether it spreads beyond the im- mediate bounds of the conflict, whether it involves a confrontation with the So- viet Union, and whether once again American boys are called upon to put their lives on the line to support their Government's foreign policy. Does the United States have a commit- ment that might draw us into a conflict in the Middle East? If it exists, how does it compare with the commitment our Na- tion undertook in Vietnam? Who would make the decision as to whether our in- terest justifies military action? What is the possibility of the United States be- coming embroiled, through a Vietnam- like process of gradualism, in another undeclared war?this time perhaps pos- ing an even greater risk of escalation to a nuclear confrontation? These are questions the Congress and the American people are entitled to ask, particularly at this moment of mounting crisis in a region with which our country has so many cultural, religious, ethnic, and economic ties. The answers will come as a surprise? indeed, a shock?to most Americans, in- cluding, I daresay, most of the Members of Congress. Still in full force on the statute books is a resolution enacted by Congress in 1957 which states a broad area of na- tional commitment to the preservation of the integrity of nations in the Middle East. It is far more specific than the for- mal obligations cited as justification for our entry into the conflict in Vietnam. In fact, the all but forgotten Middle East Resolution makes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution pale by comparison. It places in the hands of the President the exclu- sive authority to make the determina- tion that military action is required and to order into action military forces with- out limit. It relieves the President even of the necessity of consulting with the Congress, as well as the necessity of se- curing advance congressional approval. It leaves open the possibility of an- other Vietnam-like experience, another undeclared war?this time bringing into basic confrontation the vital interests of the world's two super-powers. What President?and especially one now dealing with the agony of disen- gagement from the Vietnam tragedy? would wish to use this awesome power without first consulting thoroughly with the Congress and gaining from the Con- gress specific approval. Surely, President Nixon would be the last person inten- tionally to permit the military doctrine of gradualism to draw the Nation into another large-scale undeclared war. Indeed, President Nixon's statement this week that he approves of the Sen- ate appropriation bill amendment forbid- ding ground combat troops from being introduced into Thailand and Laos sug- gests that the President would likewise welcome congressional restraint on simi- lar authority in the Middle East. This estimate of Presidential intention, while reassuring, does not relieve the Congress of its own responsibility to the American people. Under the Constitu- tion, the power of the sword is vested in the Congress. This power it unwisely sur- rendered in 1957, and this power it must regain. To argue that the resolution is dormant and would never be cited is scant comfort. In the fall of 1964, President Johnson would have scoffed at a forecast that he would use the Gulf of Tonkin resolution and the SEATO treaty as justification for sending a half-million men into war. Such a possibility has not been ruled completely out in the Middle East. Dur- ing the 10-day battle in November be- tween the Lebanese Army and Arab guer- rilla forces, Secretary of the Navy John H. Chaffee told a London news confer- ence, "I think certainly the United States is not anxious to become involved in land deployment in the Mediterranean." But if circumstances became serious and re- quired it, he said, "I think we could do it." He added that, "I think the United States would need very strong reasons for landing troops from the 6th Fleet." No one can forecast with accuracy the passions and pressures which may be generated by future events and brough;, to bear on institutions of our Govern- ment. If experience has taught us anything, it has shown how fragile peace really is, and how difficult it is to draw the fine line between U.S. involvement as a provider of noncombat military support and U.S. involvement in combat itself. Difficult though it may be, the Con- gress must assume responsibility for that line drawing. The chore cannot wisely be left to the President, even one as ex- perienced and chastened as Mr. Nixon. The power of the sword?one of the two great powers reserved by the Con- stitution to the legislative branch?is clearly and exclusively established as a congressional prerogative by this man- date of article I, section 8 of the Con- stitution, "The Congress shall have power to declare war." There are some, myself among them, who believe that Congress has not ade- quately fulfilled its responsibility in this regard in the past. Irrespective of differ- ing views on points of history, each of us surely wants to guard the legislative prerogative of power over the sword in any future conflict which might entail the use of U.S. troops. If war should break out in the Middle East?and there is every indication that this is a real possibility?the Congress should formally and officially participate In any decision fixing the role the United States would take in such a conflict. The Constitution says we must, and the peo- ple who elected us have the right to ex- pect us to exercise our judgment in just such a circumstance. Yet, in the event of war in the Middle East, would the Congress be called upon to exercise its constitutional authority before our military forces are used? Under existing law, as interpreted when it was enacted, it is clear that the decision could be made to send Amer- ican combat troops in almost unlimited numbers into the Middle East to fight on any side or as a buffer between sides without specific approval by the House or the Senate. The Middle East resolution, passed in the early months of 1957 when the men- acing military posture of the Soviet Un- ion seemed to threaten the stability of the countries of the Middle East, states: The United States regards as vital to the national interest and world peace the pres- ervation of the independence and integrity of the nations of the Middle East. To this Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 1112802 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE end, if the President determinos the ne- cessity thereof, the United States s prepared to use armed forces to assist any such na- tion or group of such nations requesting assistance against armed aggre-ion from any country controlled by International com- munism: Provided, That such employment shall be consonant with the treaty obliga- tions of the United States and with the Con- stitution of the United States, Pub. L. 85-7. This act has never been repealed. It has no specified date of expiration. It is permanent law. Let there be no mistake. This resolu- tion, passed under circumstances in the Middle East which have 'adically changed in the intervening 13 years, re- quires neither consultation with Con- gress nor congressional approval before the President can send America/ men to fight in a war. When Secretary of State John Foster Dulles testified on the resolution before the Joint Senate Armed Sereices and Foreign Relations Committees Ile made that point abundantly clear in response to this question put to him by Senator Kefauver. Senator KEFAIIVEFL But can you give as that as an assurance, that before the Armed Forces of this Nation will be used tinier cir- cumstances which might bring aboval a sub- stantial conflict, that the President wc ask for a declaration that a state of war xlsted? Secretary DULLES. Not prior to tin ir use; no sir. And in response to Senator Fut- BRIGHT'S query, "Who determines wheth- er or not a country is Communist dom- inated?" the Secretary of State replied, "That determination would be nide by the President." This broad delegation of congreFnional power is far greater than the grant of I authority in the SEATO treaty ? chich , President Johnson often cited as au thor- ity for American military actions ender ethe Gulf of Tonkin resolution. 'Under I article IV of the SEATO treaty, each party to the treaty pledged, in accord- ance with its "constitutional proce:ses." to "act to meet the common danger- re- sulting from "aggression by meats of larmed attack in the treaty area age inst any of the parties." I The hearings on the SEATO tree y in 1954 made it perfectly clear that ,1 ome form of congressional action won't' be required to authorize military action Under article IV. Senator Wiley, the hairman of the Senate Foreign ee '1a- ons Committee unmistakably clan fled t le meaning of the phrase "constitutional rocesses" when he asked Secretor of tate Dulles the following question: Senator WILEY. So whether it were the threat mentioned in Section 2 [of article WI or the common danger resulting from 0 ii. attack, action could be taken only a' ter cOnsultation with Congress? \ To this, the Secretary of State i n- cpealifiedly answered "yes." IAgain, later in the hearings, the Sore- retary of State affirmed that the Presi- dent "would act through the Congress if it were in session, and if not in sessim [le would] call Congress." here was no similar pledge by Suet- ta y Dulles in the hearings on the Mid- dl East resolution. To the contrary, as in icated to Senator Kefauver above, the Secretary specifically stated that the President rued not consult first with the Congress, nor seek any kind of congres- sional authority or supportive action, prior to committing U.S. Armed Forces to fight in the Middle East. Secretary Dulles did say that the President might, under certain circumstances, call Congress into session after he had committed troops and the war had already begun. This comment demonstrated clearly the de- gree to which the resolution relieved the Congress of its war-making power. The only military action taken under authority of the Middle East resolution unquestionably supports this interpreta- tion. When President Eisenhower sent U.S. Marines into Lebanon without prior con- gressional approval on July 14, 1957, he cited the Middle East resolution?passed 16 months earlier?in support of his ac- tion, although the aggression was being carried out exclusively by Arab na- tionals using Soviet weapons. As further justification, he listed the pattern of con- quest by the Communists in Greece in 1947, Czechoslovakia in 1948, China in 1949, Korea and Indochina in 1950, and stated: We now see in the Middle East . . . the same pattern of ionquest with which we be- came familiar during the period of 1915 to 1950. This involves taking over a nation by means of indirect aggression; that is, under the cover of a fomented civil strife the pur- pose is to put into domestic control those whose real loyalty is to the aggressor. Referring to the Korean war, Presi- dent Eisenhower went on to say, "All the world knew that the North Koreans were armed, equipped and directed from without for the purpose of aggression." Times have changed since the Congress passed the Middle East Resolution over a decade ago. The nature of the conflict has changed. Although Soviet power remains and in some respect is much greater, who can say with precision that any country in the Middle East is, in the words of the resolution, ''controlled by interna- tional communism"? The fierce in- dependence and nationalism of Arabs is only partly nurtured by Soviet ambi- tion and aid. To the deep wounds of many years are added the scars of the 7-day war. Tension and conflict are seen more In nationalistic teems today than in terms of confrontation between the free world and international communism. At the same time the Soviet threat has taken on a more menacing, although changed, character. The Soviet Union is now a superpower whose nuclear weapons are acknowledged eo be in the same class as those of the United States. It is also a first-rate naval power, operating ex- tensively for the first time throughout the Mediterranean. If a confrontation should occur be- tween the United States and the Soviet Union over the Middle East, our country would no longer hold the decisive ad- vantages of yesterday, even though the danger of intimidation of these states by massed displays of Soviet ground forces no longer seems so great. These changes meke all the graver the risks entailed by a confrontation with "international communism" in that re- gion. Such a confrontation may come. December 19, 1969 The time may also-come when the United States will find it clearly in its interest to go to war. But the stakes are now so mountainous as to make absolutely' vital formal congressional approval be- fore any such decision is effected. The Congress can deal expeditiousl, with a challenge in whatever manner e- appropriate. Let no one doubt the ca- pability or the capacity of the Congress to act with dispatch if the occasion merits it. The comment of Senator Lyndon B. Johnson, later to be President, at the hearings on the Middle East resolution are as instructive as they are ironic. Re- ferring to the request in the resolution for $200 million to support U.S. economic and military aid, theSenator told Secre- tary Dulles: I think that you can trust the Congress to act with reasonable care on matters vitally affecting this Nation and not to drag their feet. I know of no disposition to do so. It seems to me if the Secretary of State and the President feel the need for further informa- tion before they reach a conclusion, that they will give the Congress the same privilege they reserve for themselves. The attitude of the American people has also changed quite markedly over the last decade. We have learned from bitter experience the limitations of limited wars. We have learned that a war effort which has been denied the unifying force of formal congressional support and ap- proval is gravely shortchanged. We have found that a limited military response ordered on his own by the President can lead the Nation into a paralyzing and seemingly bottomless quagmire, From this experience, I believe the Congress has become convinced that the American people well not support U.S. involvement in a foreign war unless and until such in- volvement has been given formal ap- proval by the Congress. Because of these two changed factors, plus the constitutional responsibility mentioned earlier, I am today introduc- ing an amendment to the Middle East resolution. It would clearly spell out the role of Congress in any decision to com- mit U.S. forces to the Middle East under the authority of that resolution. Retaining all the basic language of the resolution, the amendment would add three significant wordeteekareff the Con- gress," to the operative clause permitting the commitment of armed forces. It would cause section 2 of the resolution to read, in pertinent part: Furthermore, the United States regards as vital to the national interest and world peace the preservation of the independence and Integrity of the nations of the Middle East. To this end, if the President and the Con- gress determine the necessity thereof, the United States is prepared to use armed forces to assist any nation or group of such nations requesting assistance against armed aggres- sion from any country controlled by interna- tional communism: Provided, That such em- ployment shall be consonant with the treaty obligations of the 'United States and with the Constitution of the United States. This amendment does not in any way lessen our commitment to peace, justice, and national security in the Middle East. Nor does the amendment in any way les- sen our commitment to stand fast against Communist encroachment in that part Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 20,Q3/12/02 ..C.,.LURDF/75M364R000300120003-9 1112803 December 19, 1969 CONGREssIuiN AL litCUICIJ ? of the world. Outright repeal of the Mid- dle East resolution might very well have that effect. Acceptance by the Congress of the amendment I propose would have the undeniable effect of reaffirming congres- sional support for and commitment to a stable, peaceful, independent Middle East. At this point in our history when the shadow of Vietnam seems to dull many of our commitments around the world, it would be wise for the United States to renew its commitment to stand fast against Communist penetration in this part of the world. My amendment restores Congress to its proper decisionmaking role, recognizing that before the United States can con- stitutionally commit armed forces to Pre- serve "the independence and integrity of the nations of the Middle East," ap- proval by the Congress, as well as the President is required. This amendment would not infringe upon the legitimate right?in fact the duty?of a President to commit troops in the Middle East or elsewhere under cer- tain limited circumstances without prior specific approval by the Congress. As Commander in Chief, the President has the implied power to repel attack and to protect the lives and property of U.S. citizens. However, these exceptions to the gen- eral rule of prior congressional approval cannot properly be interpreted loosely. Thus, a President cannot cite as authori- zation the need to protect American lives or property when in fact there is no clear and substantial showing of danger to such at the time of the intervention. Similarly, the power to repel attack is not an unlimited one. The right of self- defense is undeniable, but this authority permits only a limited response to a spe- cific situation, and it terminates when the need for self-defense terminates. Beyond this, any intervention by Ameri- can forces must be preceded by specific congressional approval. The need for action on this amend- ment is urgent. If the volcano of war does erupt in the Middle East, the United States may well decide to send troops to help restore peace and stability to that part of the world. But let the decision to do so result from the constitutional proc- esses which form the strength and secu- rity of our Nation and in which the role of Congress is fixed by the Constitution and not by the pleasure of the Presi- dent. Let the decision to send troops, or not to do so, result from a synthesizing debate and vote?actions which will help forge a unified public will behind na- tional policy. Such a unified will can best be forged on the one great anvil of de- the Congress of the United fense are conducting in-depth investiga- tions. Yesterday I received a letter from Mr. Raymond J. Kappel, secretary of the Fairview Park, Ohio, Jaycees, detailing a meeting in July 1968, at which Ronald Haeberle showed his now-famous color photographs taken at Mylai. Mr. Kappel, who did not attend that meeting, wrote the letter in his capacity as secretary of the group, at the request of fellow Jaycees who were present when the pictures were shown. I have discussed Mr. Kappel's letter with a member who was there, and he states that the facts are accurately represented. I know that my colleagues are tre- mendously concerned with the alleged events at Mylai and, accordingly, I am making this letter part of the RECORD and am striding copies of it to the ap- propriate Department of Defense of- ficials: THE FAIRVIEW PARK JAYCEES, INC., Fairview Park, Ohio, December 11, 1969. Hon. WILLIAM E. MID/SHALL, Rayburn Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. MINSHALL: The Fairveiw Park Jaycees have been deeply disturbed by the alleged massacre at My Lai on Mazola 16, 1968. We also are concerned about tato sen- sationalism of the publicity concerning My Lai. On July 10, 1968, Mr. Rorilld Haeberle presented a slide show on Vietnam at our monthly meeting. The main theme of his presentation was Vietnafn countryside until the final few slides, which showed Viet- namese people, whom Mr. Haeberle said were killed as a result ofa military search- and- destroy mission.l he slides were the same as photographs that are now getting sensational publicity by the news media. We were sick- ened by theAntographs. We questioned Mr. Haeberle to how these deaths, occurred. He stated that his unit was on a search-and- destroy ntssion and that the village was a V. d. stionghold; that the villagers were warned_ two days in advance by dropped leaflets, and voice communication that the village was going to be destroyed, and that they jhould leave, and that anyone remain- ing uld be considered a V. C. The manner in which he made his presentation generally left he group with the impression that this act ts justifiable. queation the use of these pictures by vari- ous to what occurred in My Lal, we now 'publications and news media, 11/2 years afteeithey were taken. We feel that the Government should thorbtighly investigate the alleged massacre, and that the truth should be determined. cerely yours, RAY KAPPEL, Secretary. Politicians often think people are fooled by the press, but this is not true. This letter from young Mr. Greg Mur- phy, of Keene, N.H., sums up very well the feeling expressed in the overwhelm- ing majority of the mail received by our committee on the Mylai investigation. The main thrust of concern among those who write to us is that the news media have tried and convicted the American soldiers in Vietnam before the case has been proved and that our com- mittee should investigate the whole mat- ter indepth and not prejudge the case. I think Mr. Murphy has summed up very neatly the reaction many of us here have had to the reporting of this story in his reference to the fact that the papers did not even bother to use the word "alleged." Our mail would indi- cate that a simliar reaction has been ex- perienced by people throughout the country cur committee has received over 325 letkrs, and new batches of mail are de- livered daily. There is a great interest ph the part of the American people. The mail comes from all parts of the coun- try and from people in all walks of life. Of course, we have received letters criti- cal of our procedures and critical of statements I may have made in public interviews. But a staff review indicated that the mail is running approximately 20 to 1 in favor of our manner of pro- cedure. Those who write to us seem to be prin- cipally concerned that we get all of the facts before jumping to conclusions and that we assure that the rights of the American soldiers involved are protected. The people are greatly concerned that these matters will reflect unfairly on all of the GI's who have served in Vietnam. The most frequent comment in our correspondence is concerned that the press and TV reports have assumed the guilt of the men accused before any in- vestigation or any court-martial is completed. Again, I want to say to Members of the House that the subcommittee I ap- pointed under the chairmanship of the distinguished gentleman from Louisiana (Mr. HEBERT) will press forward with a thorough investigation and will not rest until all of the facts are in. That sub- committee will determine if there has been a massacre, if there was who was guilty, and the extent to which the Army's system is at fault. That subcom- mittee will be diligent to protect the rights of individuals. We shall not be swayed from our con- stitutional responsibilities by the glare of the TV lights or the slant of the edi- torialists. Mr. CLEVELAND. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. RIVERS. I am delighted to yield to the gentleman from New Hampshire. Mr. CLEVELAND. Mr. Speaker, I would like to compliment the distinguished chairman of the Committee on Armed Services on his fine statement and, be- cause he has used a letter of one of my constituents, I would like to thank him for having selected that particular letter. I think it is fairly typical of letters I have received from other constituents. The THE MAIL ON MYLAI (Mr. RIVERS asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his States. remarks.) Mr. RIVERS. Mr. Speaker, I would like to read the House a sentence from a letter recently received from a man in Keene, N.H.: I am an interstate bus driver (28 years old), and if a thug accosted me and robbed me, you can bet the news in reporting the incident would say "alleged assault," but here (the massacre) they almost never bother to say "alleged." And here is another sentence from the same letter: MYLAI INVESTIGATION (Mr. MINSHALL asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend his re- marks and include extraneous matter.) Mr. MINSHALL. Mr. Speaker, on No- vember 20 I took the floor to ask for a complete investigation of the alleged atrocities at Mylai. I am glad to see that the Congress and the Department of De- Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 H 12804 Approved For Releas_e 2003/12/02 CIA-RDP711300364R000300120003-9 cONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE motto of the State of New Hampshire has been and it still is, "Live free or die." There are many tough-rninded, thought- ful people in the Granite State. Mr. RIVERS. I want to thank the gen- tleman. PRESS COVERAGE OF THE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE INVESTI- GATION OF THE MYLAI INCI- DENT (Mr. NICHOLS asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend his remarks and include a newspaper article) Mr. NWHOLS. Mr. Speaker, I read with great interest the comments of our colleague, Congressman BOB SIKES, of Florida, concerning the press coverage of the Armed Services Committee in- vestigation of the Mylai incident. I agree with him 100 percent, and I want to add my endorsement to his statements about Chairman MENDEL Ravaas and the clAair- man of the special stabcommittee) lOok- ing into the Mylai incident, Congrets- man F. EDWARD HEBERT, of LouLaana. Vt,? is an honor and a privilege to serve with these gentlemen, and I know that they have ony the good of America at heart in this or any other Matter which comes before our committee. If there is any man in the Congress who would do a better job of investigat- ing these charges than Congressman Mama, I do not know who he i. As a career newspaperman for some 20 years before coming to the Congress, he knows that there is no use to try to whitewash or cover anything as important as this. Chairman RIVERS and Congressman litaaar want only to see that justice is done in this case. While the press is "quick to publicize incidents such as that which allege,lly oc- curred at Mylai, they seldom niake an effort to bring to the public's attention both sides of the situation. For tru tance, the Columbus, Ga., Ledger, on Tuesday, December 16, ran a picture which was taken some 2 weeks before the incident showing Vietcong women and Voting boys carrying arms in Mylai. Such a pic- ture would not, of course, be of interest to certain newspapers because it would not help their case in prosecuting those Army officers who have been accused of participating in this incident. I believe any man going into ar area where he knew women and childrei. were Part of the Vietcong force would be par- ticularly wary of anyOrie. I ask unani- mous consent that this article fro :a the Columbus Ledger be inserted in the REC- ORD at this point. ARMY PHOTO SHOWS VC UNIT STATIOI ED /N MYLAI AREA A photograph of a Viet Gong unit lased in the My Lai (4) area Was made available Monday by a man who had served wii h the 11th Infantry Brigade at the time ( f the incident of March 16, 1968, whiel has brought charges that G.I.'s committed mur- der against Vietnamese civilians, He said the photograph came from a roll of film captured in a Viet Gong bastcamp in the Song My village area (My Lai was one of the hamlets of this village) two weeks be- fore the My Lai raid. An officer who had Served with the 11th r Brigade during its organimtion and as both a field commander and staff officer, he said the phOtograTh was developed by the brigade public information office photog- raphy laboratory, some copies retained by that office, others given to inteligence sources. Identification of some of the individuals in the group of 38 armed Vietnamese, in- cluding three young women and several very young boys, was made by 11th Brigade in- telligence offices, he said. Kneeling in -,he center of the group one arm akimbo, wth a holstered piStol, is the military leader of the unit, he said. Standing at the far left, without a weapon, In peasant garb of black pajamas, and obvi- ously older than the armed guerrillas, is the unit's political officer, he said. Third from right, with a U.S. M-1 riffle, posed on one tam, is a "combat hero" and squad leader in the unit, the officer said. mo ,rMir,-carbines, and M-1 of U.S. man- Men .....falie-71YOtog have a 89 mm. ttfacture and Mat 49 submaineguns of French manufacture?typical Viet Gong armament as opposed to North Vietnamese regulars who carry Chinese-Communist manufactured weapons of Russian style. One man, standing on the right of the one identified as the political officer, wears a North Vietnamese regular's field uniform, as does the squad leader in the front row. (The n by the political officer was believed to be h body guard, the officer said.) PFC. C114.RLES F. TYSON III, LOVED HIS N"PaTION AND HIS HOME, MARTIN NUNTY, FLA. (Mr. ROGEI of Florida asked and was given per= on to address the House for 1 minute, ? revise and extend his remarks and i lude extraneous matter.) Mr. ROGERS of Flori$ - Mr. Speaker, on Monday, November 10, ? 69, a special Veteran's Day memorial ser ce was held at Martin County High Sch. $1, Martin County, Fla., to honor Pfc. k arles F. "Chuck" Tyson, an alumnus ,of that school, who gave his life in Vietnam. Charles Tyson graduated from' artin County High School in June 19.8. His favorite pastimes were surfing and wirn- ming, both very popular in bea tiful and scenic country located on the : n- tic Ocean, just north of West alm Beach. On September 17, 1968, Charles son enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corp. He completed his basic training with ring colors and was vary proud to be a rine. In March 1969, he arrived in etnam and on March 2c.[ observed his 2$ birth- day as a member of 3d Plato?. ompany M, 3d Battalion, 5th Ma $i Regiment. Private first class n was assigned as a niflernanjj e 1st Squad of the 3d Platoon ti?M Company and on the afternoon of June 21, 1969, Company M was engaged in a search-and-clear oper- ation approximately 4 miles east of the Marine base at An Hoa, Quang Nam Province, Repuladc of Vietnam. The en- emy was encountered and during the ensuing battle, Pfc. Charles Tyson was struck by small-arms fire and was killed. He was buried on July 8, 1969, at Fern Hill Cemetery, Stuart, Fla., in Martin County with military honors. His commanding officer as well as his ellow marines had a deep affection and aspect for Charles Tyson for they knew he was a sincere and dedicated marine December 19, 1969 who loved his country, and particularly Martin County. His thoughts were of Martin County High School, Stuart, Fla., when he wrote to his parents in January of this year, prior to his departure for Vietnam. I would like to enclose that letter at this point in the RECORD for the benefit of my colleagues: JANUARY 29, 1969. To MY LOVING MOM AND DAD: Even though I don't like to mention such things, it is a necessary step that must be taken. If by some odd stroke of fate I should not return from my coming tour In Vietnam, there are a few things I would like done. 1. First to be buried at Stuart, Florida. 2 To take the flag from my funeral and give it to Martin County High School. In addition I want $500 to be used to erect a monument to all those students past, pres- ent, and future who have given their lives in defense of their God and country. With an inscription by Nathan Hale, "I regret that I have but one life to give for my country." 3. $2,000.00 from my insurance policy to be used in 2 $1,000.00 scholarships for the most deserving male aud fenaale students of Mar- tin County High School, 4. The rest is to be used by the two of you as you see fit. Inc. CHARLES F. TYSON III. The wishes of Pfc. Charles F. "Chuck" Tyson were carried out at the Martin County High School on November 10. The flag from his casket was presented to the Martin county High School by Charles' parents, Mr. and Mrs. Leonard R. Tyson, who now live in South Bay, Fla., a short distance from Stuart, where Mr. Tyson is now acting chief of police. That flag now flies over Martin County High School and has a very special meaning to the students there. The monument for which Charles be- queathed $500 will be designed by the students of Martin County High School and will be constructed in the court- yard. Charles' parents will give a savings bond to the student who contributes the most toward the design of the monu- ment. A scholarship is being established at the school to provide $1,000 each to the most deserving male and female student at Martin County High School as Charles requested. Mr. Speaker, words are most inade- quate to express one's respect and ad- miration for this young man. Yet, I do not believe Pfc. Charles F. Tyson III would want us to linger in sorrow, but would rather have us heed the words of Nathan Hale in these troubled times: I regret that I have but one life to give for my country. Mr. Speaker, r think this Nation will continue to be strong as long as we have young men of this caliber. THE NORTH AND SOUTH MUST HAVE EQUAL TREATMENT IN DESEGREGATION (Mr. THOMPSON of Georgia asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend his remarks and include extraneous matter.) Mr. THOMPSON of Georgia. Mr. Speaker, it is my understanding that the southern strategy of the Nixon admin- Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 S-1. 7290 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP711300364R000300120003-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE December 19, 1969 nese Program once again. Details of the re- vision are, of course, classified and the Com- mittee has not yet had an opportunity to thoroughly examine and evaluate the full impact of the budgetary reductions. As I indicated earlier, I have invited the Secretary of Defense, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission to appear before the Committee and testify on the possible technological and political impacts of this decision. For that reason this report, as it pertains to Safeguard 3, must be considered tentative pending the completion of the hearing, which I hope to have some time during the early part of the next session. SAFEGUARD 4?IMPROVEMENTS OF OUR CAPA- BILITY TO MONITOR AND DETECT VIOLATIONS Safeguard 4 requires the improvement of our capability within feasible and practical limits to monitor the terms of the treaty, to detect violations, and to maintain our knowledge of foreign nuclear activity, capa- bilities and achievements. The VELA pro- gram is a joint AEC/DOD program supervised by the DOD's Advanced Research Projects Agency. It is a research and development effort being jointly conducted to improve the U.S. capabilities for detecting, locating, and identifying nuclear detonations. The VELA program has three subprograms: VELA Uniform?detection of underground nuclear explosions, VELA Satellite?detec- tion by satellites of nuclear explosions in space or in the atmosphere; and VELA Sur- face Based?detection of nuclear explosions in space by ground based equipments. All of these subprograms are discussed and managed under Safeguard 4, but it should be noted that one of these subprograms, VELA Uniform, while it produces important information and gives us a capability to de- tect, locate and identify underground nu- clear explosions and to research technical methods that could be used by other nations to evade detection or identification of under- ground nuclear explosions, does not contrib- ute directly to the safeguards program of the Limited Test Ban Treaty, This capability might become much more significant in the event that the talks that started in Helsinki result in some agreement or that the United States and the Soviet Union should enter into treaties contemplating more comprehen- sive test prohibitions. VELA uniform?Detecticnt of underground. nuclear explosions The seismic location capability is being Improved by application of knowledge gained from a systematic study of all factors affect- ing laypocenter determinations based on tele- seismic data. Analysis of data available from recent studies indicates that if source bias can be effectively removed, then large events can be located within areas of only a few kilometers at high confidence. Investigation of source bias is being conducted through comprehensive evaluation of Long Shot as well as Nevada Test Site data. A working three dimensional earth model computer program has been developed for evaluating the travel time effects of differing crustal and upper-mandle structures on location accu- racy. Preliminary analyses have been initi- ated to test new earth models which may lead to prediction of travel time anomalies (source bias) in uncalibrated regions. The objective of the large array program Is to develop and demonstrate the utility of larger rays and associated .automated data processing techniques for detection and identification of small seismic events. To achieve this, three large arrays have been or are in process of being constructed and a seismic array analysis' center has been es- tablished in Washington, D.C. The Montana array is complete. Construction on the large aperture Norwegian seismic array began in July 1966 and is expected to be completed by the end of this year. The Alaskan long period array was begun in April 1969. Another area of effort is to evaluate tech- nical methods that might be used by other nations to evade seismic detection or iden- tification of underground nuclear explosions. As with most of the other VELA Uniform Program, this effort is only incidentally as- sociated with the safeguards to the Limited Test Ban Treaty but might take on increased importance in a more comprehensive test ban situation. The research program includes theoretical studies, laboratory research, and chemical and nuclear experiments. VELA satellite program The VELA Satellite subprogram, with its five successful launches in five attempts and long-lived payloads, is recognized in the field of space technology as a highly suc- cessful endeavor. All spacecraft except those from Launches I and II continue to function about as planned. Launch I spacecraft have been retired from active service in view of several factors: (1) their more limited capa- bility when compared to subsequent launches; (2) the cumulated effect of mal- functions which have decreased their capa- bility; and (3) the undue burden placed on facilities. The Launch H spacecraft, while functioning reasonably well, are not now the spacecraft tracking and data handling being utilized on a routine basis because of the improved capabilities of Launches III, IV, and V. CONCLUSION To summarize the status of implementa- tion of the Safeguards program we can say, that over the past year DOD and AEC have? made satisfactory progress in protecting the national interest under the terms of the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. The under- ground test program continues to provide important information far beyond what was originally expected. The laboratories are vig- orous and productive and, as a result, they are able to insure their vitality by retention and, recruitment of high calibre technical and scientific staff. Safeguard No. 4 was adequately supported during the past year. It is only in the area of Safeguard No. 3? Readiness to Resume Testing in the Pro- hibited Environments?that budget con- straints are being imposed which will result in degradation of the Safeguards program. Whether this is the beginning of a change in emphasis or a justifiable adjustment of pri- orities which will still retain an acceptable level of readiness is a question into which the coming year will provide additional in- sights and on which the subcommitee in- tends to take additional testimony. BILL OF RIGHTS DAY, HUMAN RIGHTS DAY?THE PRESIDENT AND THE BILL OF RIGHTS Mr. KENNEDY. Mr. President, some of us have worried and wondered whether there is beginning a serious erosion of the rights and freedoms guaranteed to all Americans by our Con- stitution. Because reassurance from the executive branch on this score has been limited, or given only in the context of actions or statements which seem to contradict the assurances, it is especially gratifying to note that President Nixon last week expressed his?and the Na- tion's?continuing /dedication to consti- tutional liberties and especially to the Bill of Rights. In proclaiming December 15 as Bill of Rights Day. The President pointed out that "the founders of our Republic had fought for individual lib- erty and for representative and respon- sible government," and that "In the first 10 amendments to the Constitution they sought to insure that the power of the Government would not abridge the rights of citizens." He stressed that "the Bill of Rights is the law of the land" and ex- pressed the hope "that we may rededi- cate ourselves as a united people to the task of assuring to every person?regard- less of his race, sex, creed, color, o, place of national origin?the full en joyment of his basic human rights." This is an important message for day, especially since it comes from President of the United States. So ti all Members of Congress, as well as those who carry out the President's pc cies, may appreciate his commitment constitutional liberties and hun rights, I ask that the proclamation p, claiming Bill of Rights Day and RUM( Rights Day be included in the R,Ecor There being no objection, the proc mation was ordered to be printed in RECORD, as follows: BILL OF RIGHTS DAY AND HUMAN RIGHTS (By the President of the United Stet( AITIGT/Ca) A PROCLAMATION One hundred seventy-eight years ago, Bill of Rights was ratified and incorpora as part of the United States Constitutia The founders of our Republic had fought fa. individual liberty and for representative an responsible government. In the first te. amendments to the Constitution they sough. to ensure that the power of the government would not abridge the rights of citizens. More than twenty years ago, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Uni- versal Declaration of Human rights. The founders of the United Nations had en- dured a world war brought on by those who denied the rights of men to equality and justice and who abrogated the rights of na- tions to exist in peace. The two documents?the Bill of Rights and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?are close in spirit although widely separated in time. The Bill of Rights is the law of the land. The Universal Declaration is a statement of principles, of common standards of achievement for all peoples and all nations. We in the United States are en- gaged in unremitting efforts to give real meaning to these standards for every Amer- ican, to assure to every person the full enjoy- ment of his basic rights. Now, therefore, I, Richard Nixon, Presi- dent of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim December 10, 1969, as Hu- man Rights Day and December 15, 1969, as Bill of Rights Day, and call upon the people of the United States of America to observe the week of December 10-17, 1969, as Human Rights Week, to the end that we may rede- dicate ourselves as a united people to the task of assuring to every person?regardless of his race, sex, creed, color, or place of na- tional origin?the full enjoyment of his basic human rights. Let us act so as to provide an example that will point the way in the strug- gle to promote respect for human rights throughout the world. In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand this ninth day of December, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred sixty- nine, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred ninety- fourth. RICHARD NIXON, tt) CONCERN ABOUT REMARKS OF SECRETARY OF STATE ROGERS ON MIDDLE EAST Mr. CRANSTON. Mr. President, I am deeply concerned by Secretary of State Rogers' recent remarks on the Middle East situation. By calling for a balanced approach to this critical area of the Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Dqcember 19, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD? SENATE ' ii without adversely affecting the na- out in the response time is acceptable. Car- ta' y, if economies can be made in the pro- gra tional security, I, for one, would applaud the actiten. A careful and critical _review of the ,ontinuing need for each element in the afe uard program is a healthy and coin- ietidable function of the DOD_ and AEC. In aition to the Administration' examine- however, I consider that it is incumbent ale Safeguards Subcommittee to inquire iv into a decision which will have a inirt pact on the safeguards program. I 'he original assurances that the safe-- rifts would be maintained were given hy aitient Kennedy in August of 1963. 'They e reaffirmed by President Johnson in 11 1964. but the present Administration s riot formally stated Its policy in this (a7. - lan to arrange for the Secretary Of e se, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs t , the Chairman of the Atomic EnergY , nhlission, the Director of the Defense ,ijc Support Agency, and the Directora two AEC laboratories, Livermore an./ tunas to appear before the Subco to testify on the possible tech 'al and political impacts of the; decisi on the policy of this Adrainistratio trdlng the continued implementation o (fegnard 3 as well as the other eafeguard4 Mich are our responsibility to oversee. i As las been my practice in the past, E amid like to discuss now the record of, he At4.mic Energy Commission and the De- martin nt of Defense in implementing each, of the safeguards over the past ,year. Con- siderabie detail will be included in order to providS as broad a dissemination of this in- formatiOn as is possible without compro- mising our Nation's security. SAFEGUARD I?UNDERGROUND TEST PROGRAM This Safeguard requires the aggressive con- duct of a continuing comprehensive under- ground nuclear test program designed to add to our knowledge and improve ow weapon systema in all areas of significance to Our military, posture. The underground test pro- gram ia providing substantially more in- formation than was expected when the safe- guards 'were formulated in 1963. Through the acq isition of more sophisticated tech- nologies from the continuing underground test pr ram and the researoh activities conductd by the laboratories (Los Alamos Scientift Laboratory at Los Alamos. New Mexico, he Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at Liver ore, California, and the Sandia Laboratories) which support the test pro- gram. there has been continued development in our c pability to conduct a variety of full-scales underground nuclear tests. Many of the t hniques used were not envadorted as possib e when the underground teat pro- grams fi t began. The continuing ander- ground t t program is of paramount im- portance in the continued growth of the United States capabilities in both the de- fensive arid offensive categories. During FY 1969 the BOWLINE test aeries continued the underground test program at Nevada Test Site at about the same level as CROSS 'TIE, the FY 1969 test series. Two tests in the FY 1969 BOWLINE series were Plowshare experiments (peaceful uses) and three were bOD effects tests which were logis- tically and technically supported by the AEC. The remainder of the BOWLINE tests were ASO vvreapons development tests. The AECI program to conduct h er yield testing on ahute Mesa at the Nev Test Site has pr ceeded in an expeditious faller. Since my last report two more high yield tests have leen conducted there, the largest of which hd a yield of about one megaton. The two supplement test areas have now reached an Operational status, one in Central Nevada and one in Amchitka Island in the Aleutian Islands chain off Alaska. The site calibration test MILROW at Amchitka was conducted on October 2, 1969, with a yield in the one megaton range with no untoward effects generated. For FY 1970 the planned weapons development program is directed toward the primary objectives of weapon- ization, weapon feasibility, advanced tech- nology and site calibration. Because of a reduction in the amculat of funding for AEC weapons development which will be available in FY 1970, tha level of activity will be somewhat reduced from the 1969 level. SAFEGUARD 2?MAINTENANCLOP Wr..67-DErtN LABORATORIES AND,PfOGRAMS - The second safeguaid requires the main- tenance of modern laboratory facilities and programs in theoretical and exploratory mi- clear technelogy which will attract, retain, and insure the continued application of hu- man scientific resources to those programs on which progress on nualear technology de- pends. The laboratory program is conducted aby both the Atomic Energy Commission and the Department of Detente. The three weapons laboratories contractor operated for the AEC, hale since the last re- port continued to operate as progressive re- search organizations in the nuclear, as well as in non-nuclear fields. The nuclear research d development programs are conducted b'-Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the LawrgatekRadiation Laboratory at Livermore. The non-?tear engineering and develop- ment activiti re conducted by Sandia Laboratories. In e of tie laboratories the work performed can lffa classified into three primary areas of interest?".,. (a) The fundamental r1 arch of general interest to a broad range , o eveloprnent oeeds; (b) Advanced development of sp fic con- eepts; and (c) The weaponization of these cm-islets into stockpile weapons or weapon systenN Of primary importance to the long-rank vitality of the nuclear weapons development. program is the emphasis which is placed on , activities devoted to developing in advance the new design concepts so important to realizing the new state-of-the-art weapons necessary for assuring the capability of meet- ing future defense requirements. Emphasis .on pre-weaponization development effort 'must be maintained in order to insure ad- vancement of technology to meet the poten- tial threat of the future and readiness to meet future weaportization requirements as pay rise. The Atomic Energy Commission re- ports that the combination of the challeng- ing research program in both nuclear and non-nuclear weapons technologies, the con- Vetting, progressive, highly complex nuclear testing program, and the maintenance and improvements in required laboratory facil- hie,s have continued the laboratories' ability to retain or recruit the necessary technical and scientific( staff. A major factor in the maintenance of proa *save laboratories is the constant need na up-date both facilities and equipment, both whicho providing or a 7, e spectrum of forward looking seientifie re- search and development programs. A mesa- mire of the magnitude of the requirement ia found in the total of about $385 mllllott witch has been authorized or obligated for new or up-dated laboratory facilities and equipment at Sandia, Los Alamos, Livermore and the Nevada Test Site during the 6-year period of Fy 1964 through FY 1969. The FY 19/0 budget allocates about $6 million for construction and $51 million f ar equipment. in carrying out its part of the responsi- bility for implementation of Safeguard 2, the Defense Department has expanded research in n aclear technology in government labor- atones and contractor facilities. These DOD S 17289 ????41,... programs help insure a continuing source of top scientific personnel. Some of the accomplishments of the DOD in implementing the second safeguard dur- ing this reporting period are as follows: Significant progress has been made in ob- taining better calculations of radiation en- vironments in the atmosphere and within various structures. Calculations of radiation transport at low altitudes, including air/ground interface were completed for use In studying missile silo radiation hardness. Vulnerability and hardening research was expanded for design, test, and evaluation of strategic re-entry vehicles and related sys- tems components. Improvements were made in calculations of the magnitude of shock waves induced in materials by x-ray depositions and the en- suing propagation and attenuation of the shock. A 20-ton high explosive surface burst test were used to check theoretical calculations of structural damage due to air blast induced ground shock from a nuclear explosion. Models continue to be developed for high altitude nuclear phenomenology for anti-bal- listic missile radars and communications. A first generation computer code for radar de- gradation and a 8-volume coramunication handbook describing nuclear effects on radio propagation was published in late 1968. Land and naval system vulnerability! hardening, medical effects of nuclear radia- tion and general development of laboratory simulation of nuclear effects has continued. The overall program has been active and re- sponsive to Service requirements. In summary, our evaluation Of both the AEC and DOD program for implementation of Safeguard 2 is that the laboratories con- tinue to be vigorous, their facilitiets and-tech- nical and scientific talent are being main- tained in a high state of competence, and their programs are supporting the second safeguard effectively: SAFEGUARD 3?READINESS-TO-TEST PROGRAM The third safeguard requires the main- tenance of facilities and resources necessary ti institute promptly nuclear tests in the p hibited environments (atmosphere, un- de ater and space) should they be deemed ess&atlal to our National security. The cap- abil ty to conduct such a nuclear test series on lort notice was first attained by the AEC nd DOD on January 1, 1965. Since then, the Ifational Nuclear Test Readiness Program has een reviewed twice at the Presidential staff/ level. It was revised in October 1968 and.: the revised program was approved by the /White House in March 1969. e revised National Nuclear Test Readi- s Program required some additional prep- tion to achieve readiness to carry out the revised program. In the meanwhile, the DOD -and AEC maintained their readineas to re- sume testing in the prohibited environments with a significant program. As indi- cated in my report of last year, the; reivsed readiness program included: I. Full proof of the survivability Of hard- ened re-entry vehicles when they are sub- jected to a realistic nuclear- environment while in their operational modes; 2, Evaluation of the effects of ABM radar operation from detonations at high altitude; 3. Obtaining realistic data on the electro- magnetic fields created by nuclear detona- tions at low and high altitudes; 4. Cratering, ground shock and debris ef- fects on hardened systems and installations; 5. Air burst and underwater shock effects related to problems of anti-submarine war- fare and modern ship structure 11 As budgetary constraints grew tighter and tighter during this past year, the AEC and the Department of Defense felt compelled to revise the National Nuclear Test Readi- Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Decexab 1Approved FcceigleoltELSWIIMUtt@MP-12-71E1Q9k3f4R000300120003-9 world, he strongly implied that our past policies were unbalanced. That is not true. The simple fact of the matter is that the United States of all the major pow- ers has been the only one with a bal- anced Middle East policy. Time after time we have urged the Arabs to recog- nize the reality of the State of Israel, to sit down with Israeli representatives to negotiate a true peace, and to allow for both sides freely to share and exchange in the wealth, resources, and progress of modern life. The Secretary's remarks are being in- terpreted in diplomatic circles as being primarily directed toward moves Israel should make, especially returning terri- tory overrun during the 1967 war. His speech was an ill-advised attempt to move Arab leaders closer toward peace. It has had precisely the opposite effect? it has hardened Arab resistance to a peaceful settlement. When the one ma- jor power with a sensible position on the Middle East crisis makes statements which seem to unhinge its heretofor firm policies, it is not at all surprising that the side being favored?the Arab side? becomes even more intransigent. Where is the balance in this kind of a policy? What sense does it make to urge Israel to withdraw from Arab territories?ter- ritories only occupied by Israel in self- defense?when there is absolutely no reason to believe the Arabs are prepared to accept the existence of Israel, to make peace with her, and to end Israel's con- cern for her own security? As my colleagues know so well, there will never be peace in the Middle East until the parties to the conflict there are willing to become the parties to the peace. There must be a binding contractual agreement between Israel and her Arab neighbors, an agreement arrived at di- rectly by the parties themselves?not im- posed by outside powers. I believe that in foreign policy as in domestic policy, actions speak louder than words. The actions of the Soviet Union in the Middle East speak for them- selves. Ahnost $10 billion worth of Rus- sian arms have been shipped into Arab countries in the last 12 years. Arab armies have been completely resupplied with modern jets, tanks, artillery, and missiles in the last 2 years. Soviet mili- tary instructors have swarmed into the area. And now, for the first time, Russian weapons are being shipped directly to various terrorist organizations. Also there has of late been an increase in in- temperate attacks on United States and Israeli policies in the Middle East in the Russian press. The Soviet policy is simple: to radical- ize the Arab world with arms and with rhetoric. The ostensible target is Israel; the real target is moderate Arab leaders and moderate Arab governments throughout the area. The Soviets have done nothing to demonstrate that they want peace in the Middle East. Appar- ently, they just want to keep the pot Faced with this situation, the United States must react with patience and with firmness. We must counter Soviet arms shipments to the Arab world with mili- tary and economic assistance to Israel to enable her to maintain parity in arms and to sustain the continuing economic burden of continual military prepared- ness. We must also continue to point out to our Arab friends that this dispute is no more in their interests than it is in the interests of Israel. Russian arms and military equipment cannot alleviate the population explosion in the United Arab Republic nor can they relieve the misery of the Palestinian refugees. Arab social- ism and Arab unity will never be ad- vanced by a holy war against Israel, nor will they be advanced by falling under the domination of Russia. America will see to it that Israel will always have the tools to defend herself. And each defeat will drive the Arab world deeper and deeper into the embrace of the Russian bear. When the leaders of the Arab World realize that a permanent peace with Is- rael is in their interests and in the inter- ests of their people, there will be a just settlement. Foreign Minister Eban has repeatedly said that all things are Pos- sible in a condition of peace. Until a permanent peace comes we must not let our sensible long-term pol- icies in the Middle East be nibbled away at by those who shortsightedly seek short-term tactical advantages there. RETIREMENT OF DR. JOHN SLOAN DICKEY, PRESIDENT OF DART- MOUTH COLLEGE Mr. McINTYRE. Mr. President, last week my alma mater, Dartmouth Col- lege, honored its president, John Sloan Dickey, who has announced his retire- ment. Dr. Dickey has served as president for 25 years. During his tenure, this small men's liberal arts college in Hanover, N.H., has emerged as one of the leading academic institutions in the Nation. Dartmouth's stature today as one of the top colleges in the country is in no small part due to John Sloan Dickey's leader- ship, his dedication, and his imagination. At a tiine when university officials throughout the land are being subjected to criticism from all sides, I offer a well deserved tribute to this fine educator. I ask unanimous consent that an edi- torial entitled "The Dickey Years at Dartmouth," published in the Lebanon, N.H., Valley News, December 13, 1969, be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: (From the Lebanon (NM.) Valley News, Dec. 13, 1969] THE D/CKEY YEARS AT DARTMOUTH Whenever institutional cement has been allowed to set around curricula and admin- istrators, campus dissent has taken explo- sive forms. And where internal rigidity has been combined with outside urban pres- sures, as at Harvard and Columbia, violence has verged on catastrophe This may be one instance when Dart- mouths upstate location has been helpful. But geography does not confer immunity from disorder, (as the Parkhurst affair proved), and it is to John Sloan Dickey, hon- ored today after 25 years at the helm of Dartmouth, that one must look for keeping S 17291 this institution relatively loose and respon- sive to changing needs. Scholastically, Dartmouth under Dickey came from behind in the Ivy League. From the first, Dickey recognized that there must be scholars as well as outstanding jocks on scholarship, and that the Big-Green-party- boy image must be replaced. So he sat out, in his own words, to "compete with the best for the best". By raising faculty compensation and in- stituting such benefits as faculty fellow- ships, Dickey directed the recruitmen of a new team to replace one that was superan- nuated. Funds were also found to broaden opportunity for deserving but needy stu- dents. For twenty years the campus was visited by persons of distinction from every area of endeavor who spoke of the great issues of our times for the benefit of seniors. Dart- mouth's Public Affairs Center, with its em- phasis on participation in public life, from Senatorial offices to those of local town man- agers, was an outgrowth of this 1947 Dickey innovation. In 1954 Dickey persuaded the trustees to study what the college should accomplish in the fifteen years remaining before its bi- centennial. Doctoral programs under the faculty of Arts and Sciences were re-insti- tuted, and deliberately kept small so that Dartmouth would have, in the president's words, "an undergraduate educational op- eration worthy of celebration as she moved from her second to her third century". In turn, the fourth oldest medical school in the nation was reconstituted to take greater advantage of its proximity to the regional medical facilities of the Mary Hitch- cock Memorial Hospital and, most recently, to provide more physicians and better medi- cine through a shortened and sharpened MD degree program. Two other professional schools, Thayer and Tuck, received essential encouragement. The most dramatic innovations, the Hop- kins Center and the time-sharing concept of computer usage, underlined Dartmouth's transition from a provincial institution to one with concern for the whole man and woman, outside as well as inside the aca- demic community. And perhaps the most "relevant" programs on and off campus are those developed under the Tucker Founda- tion, inspired by President Dickey, and named after William Jewett Tucker, the last of Dartmouth's minister leaders. The idea be- hind ABC, A Better Chance, came to the pres- ident following discussion in 1964 with pre- paratory school headmasters over the needs of disadvantaged youngsters in the secondary school level. Most recently Dickey insisted that the merits of the black demands for an Afro- American program on campus be examined. "No white man," (said JSD), "no matter how hard he tries, can understand the burdens black Americans carry from 100 years of dis- crimination on top of 200 years of slavery". As John Sloan Dickey prepares to retire in the countryside he loves, he leaves with the satisfaction that Dartmouth is no longer a small parochial voice in the wilderness. Thanks to his quarter century of responsive leadership, the numbers of those who love her are now legion. And as his door was always open to anyone who sought his counsel, so the doors of a grateful community will always be open to him. SUPPORT FOR FUNDS TO IMPLE- MENT COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT GIVEN BY CHAIRMAN CARL PERKINS OF HOUSE LABOR COMMITTEE Mr. RANDOLPH. Mr. President, last night, during the consideration of the supplemental appropriations bill, 1970, Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 ? CIA-RDP71BQQM00300120.003-9 S 17292 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD? SE December-49-, 4 9 6 9 I offered for myself and te junior Sen- ator from New York (Mr. JAvrrs) , who pictures the Lapeer County Courthouse, ator from Pennsylvania (Mr. SenwEikEe) likewise devoted an inordinate amount of the oldest courthouse still in use in amendments to add to that measure $25 time and energy with acumen to the Michigan. million for expenses necessary to improve development of the landmark health and The Journal has an interesting article health and safety in the Nation's coal safety legislation. The untiring and in- about the history of the Courthouse and mines?en million for the Department of telligent performances by the members the efforts of the Lapeer County Press in Health, Education, and Welfare and $15 of staffs of the Labor Committee and preserving it. for the Department of the In- Senate members of the committee de- I ask unanimous consent that the arti- terier. We are grateful that the amend- serve special recognition and I corn- die be printed in the RECORD. ments were agreed to and that the Sen- mend them. There being no objection, the article ate followed this action by Agreeing also Mr. President, ask unanimous con- was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, to the conference report on idle new Fed- sent to have printed in the RECORD the as folio ws: eral Coal Mine Health and Safety Act, December 18, 1969 letter from Chairman MiouicAX's OLDEST filn which now needs only aeative action PERKINS of the House Committee on Ed- Mark Twain's remark that the report of by the President of the 'grated States to ucation and Labor to Chairman RICHARD his death was an exaggeration may be become law. law. B. RUSSELL of the Senate Cortimittee on plied to the courthouse on our cover this I desire at this time to Officially reeog- Appropriations, concerning appropria- month?the Lapeer County Courthouse. For nize that, through inadvertence, we filed tions to implement actions under the through the years it has been considered a in our discussion of the rieed for the ap- Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety wreck, or a disgrace or fist plain falling propriations addition to bring to atten_ Act of 1969. down, and it has been threatened with ex- tion and place in the legislative record There being no objection, the letter tinction, destruction or replacement. Yet it stans today, perhaps in better condition a communication by the distingUished was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, thand it has ever been, on Napessing Street in chairman of the House Committee on as follows: Lapeer, Michigan, a thriving little city in Education and Labor, the HonOreble u.s. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, southeastern Michigan, proudly bearing the CARL D. PERKINS of Kentucky, relating COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND mantle of the oldest courthouse in Michi- LABOR, to the funding essential to provide for Deceinber 18, 1969. gan still in use. payments incident to black lung diisease, Hon. RICHARD B. RUSSELL, The courthouse, constructed in 1839, was for health research andemedical Omani- chairman, Commiteethe product of a feud that proved profitablei on Appropriations, . nations, for coal mine safety research, U.S. Senate, Wa for the residents of Lapeer The first settler shington, D.C. N. and for coal mine health and safety DEAR MR, CHAIRMAN : AB you know, last of Lapeer, A. Hart, got into a fuss with the second settler, J. R. White, who arrived enforcement. night the House of Representatives passed a few days later?a fuss that a later Lapeer the landmark conference report on the Fed- Chairman PERKINS' letter to the dis- County history described as "more or less eral Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969. tinguished chairman of our Appropria-bitter". By 1839 Hart and White, both of I, and I am sure you, too, are quite anxious tions Committee, Mr. RUSSELL, with to see that there is no delay in implementing whom were lawyers, each had built a court- copies to the Senators from West Vir- this important legislation to protect our Na- house and offered it to the public. Hart won ginia, is of vital importeinee to the leg- tion's miners and .5o provide needed benefit what was called the "courthouse war" when islative history ry in support of the atnend- payments to those minens afflicted with pneu- the board of supervisors bought his building 000, although it had him sio,000 t meats agreedto. The able i eepresentative moconiosis, commonly called, "Black Lung,, for $3, ospeszctAicts;dWem:r htea's coluartarthotzcost town's aTehtighhe from Kentucky was chairman Of the disease, and their widows. I have consulted with the two Depart- L House-Senate conference and submittedmeats concerned in administering this Act, school. Everyone was happy about the war. conference report No. 91-761 to aceomn- namely Interior and Health, Education, and Time and Wear and tear took their toll, for pony S. 2917, the bill_ to improve the Welfare, and I find that the following by 1879 a committee of the board of super health and safety conditions of persons amounts are needed for the remainder of visors sadly noted that the "courthouse is working in the coal mining industry of this fiscal year to get this program off the fast going to decay on account of the xi crumb- ling of the walls and poor condition of the the United States. Chairman Pee _eles ground ling provided outstanding leadership, along To Health, Educ W underpinning The, conunittee also observed Won and Welfare underpinning The yard around the courthouse is in (a) Black Lung Payments?$7 million to with his subcommittee chairman Rep- develop standards by April 1, 1970 and to pay a dirty and filthy condition by reason of resentative JOHN DENT ,Df Penrisy vtama, initial claims filed between that date and cattle being allowed to run therein." The on the legislation in the ether 009Y, and July 1, 1970. cows were chased away and the building he presided with disPateb and ,fairness (b) Health Research and medical examine- moved to a new foundation. over the remarkable ac.hievement of the tions?$3.5 million (a portion of this sum will In 1887 a supervisor from Imlay City, a conference in agreeing to report the corn- be reimbursed). town that aspired to the status of Lapeer plex measure following- a single day of To Interior: County seat, charged that the county build meeting and working diligently and ,ami- (a) Safety Research?$8 million Ings were a "shame-and a-disgrace" and said (b) Health ant. Safety Enforcement?$7 Imlay City was prepare& to spend $50,000 cably in that conference. million, for a new courthouse, if, of course, it were Again, I highly commend the services I note that your committee approved the located In Imlay City. But this move was performed for the Nation, and esPecially fiscal supplemental appropriations bill for defeated. for the coal miners, by those leadepre and this fiscal year for floor action today. I By the 1960s the building had fallen into their colleagues from the House. And strongly urge you to amend this bill to in disrepair again. It had not been painted our colleagues in this WY, led by Chair- elude the atovetiluInsds0 We can getimmh 1 eidi- since before World War II, and the paint was man RALPH YARBOROUGH or our Oernmit- t9 tiBieeirerartrisesn Is asns eepynoug peeling. It was stained from rusted pipes; it re minenrs and ; tee on Labor and Public Welfare, and that, once includei in the Senate, / will work had dirty windows the yard was weedy;the heating system WaS erratic. The move 1 Chairman HARRISON WILLIAMS Off New actively in the Hcuse to gain at ceptance. for rejuvenation and restoration was led by 'Jersey, chairman of the Subcomittee on I appreciate your kind consideration of this the Lapeer County Press, which offered money Labor, are deserving of praise fer per- matter which is of critical importance to for an architectural survey of the building. severing on this measUre to a fruitful many people in Kentucky, West Virginia, Vir- This showed that the building Was struc- conclusion. In my 25 years of service in ginia, Pennsylvan a, and other coal produc- turally sound, and a restoration fund was es- the Congress, rarely have I absented and ing states. tablished. The Pregs sponsored what was de worked at the side of a colleagne who With warmest regards. scribed as the "biggest dance ever held in Sincerely, the county", the paper paying all the ex- devoted as much time and expended as CARL D. PERKINS, penses and half the proceeds going to the much effort with diligence, patience, and Chairman. fund. The board of supervisors allocated intelligence as did Senator WILL1Aers of funds, but unfortunately the restoration was New Jersey in presiding over hearings not completed. and subcommittee sessions and in Senate THE LAPEER COUNTY A brand new building to house the county management of the Coal Mine Health COURTHOUSE offices has been built behind the old court- and Safety Act of 1969. He is deserving Mr. HART. Mr. President, the Amen- house, now 130 years old. But many of the citizens of a special tribute, as is the ranking can Bar Association has for some time of Lapeer County now realize they have a jewel in their midst, and they are minority member of our Labor Fenbcome featured courthouses of unusual archi- determined to protect and cherish it. If they mittee and its parent CommiSee on teetural interests on the cover of its have their way, the Lapeer County Court- Labor and Public Welfare, the senior Sen- monthly Journal. The November cover house will last another hundred years. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For mmiggaixy :ramt-45)71wiktitypoo3ooi -7 S17236 -rimade3friber 19, 1969 Mr. PELL. Would the Senator from Kansas have any reaction to the thought of having wage and price controls as being a means of moving from talk and from various ideas into something that would really stop inflation, which is, as has been pointed out, the cruelest tax that faces our American people? Mr. DOLE. I think that is something to consider. It is a little alien to those on this side of the aisle. We do not like Fed- eral controls, but I say, in all sincerity, it may come to that. Iwor HENRY J. TASCA Mr. DOLE. Mr. President, I ask for the yeas and nays on the confirmation of the nomination. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The yeas and nays have been requested on the confirmation of the nomination of Henry J. Tasca to be Ambassador to Greece. Mr. PELL. Mr. President, I suggest the absence of a quorum. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there a sufficient second? There is a sufficient second. The yeas and nays were ordered. The clerk will call the roll. Mr. CRANSTON. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the order f6r the quorum call be rescinded, so that I may proceed. Mr. PELL. I withdraw my request. The PRESIDING OrraCER. Without objection, it is so ordered. H.R. 11959, VETERANS EDUCATIONAL NEEDS Mr. CRANSTON. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that I may proceed for more than 10 minutes. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there objection? Without objection, it is so ordered. ' Mr. CRANSTON. Mr. President, I would like to speak on a matter directly analogous to the matter that we have just heard discussed on the Senate floor, the threatened cuts in the HEW budget. We face a similar slash in education and health benefits for the men who have fought for our country in Vietnam and elsewhere and are not now being given the level of education and health care that they desperately need. To deprive them of this for the same reason?be- cause we have to make sacrifices to com- bat inflation?and specifically to ask men who have fought in Vietnam to now make another sacrifice at home in the war against inflation I believe to be heart- less, unjust, and unacceptable. I would like to speak briefly on the exact situation that our country and these veterans are presently facing. Specifically, I am reporting to my col- leagues in relation to H.R. 11959, the House bill covering veterans' education needs, which was passed by the Senate on October 23 with an extensive sub- stitute amendment. After the passage of the substitute by the Senate 7 weeks ago, the House yester- day repassed the bill, substituting pro- visions of House-passed bills for the Sen- ate substitute. It rejected virtually all significant parts of the Senate's special educational package for high school dropout veterans and only slightly in- creased its 27 percent GI bill rate in- crease up to 30 percent. The House also failed to retain Senate retroactivity of rate increases. The House was offered no alternative to those this? watered-down package. The chairman of the Senate Commit- tee on Labor and Public Welfare, the distinguished Senator from Texas (Mr. YARBOROUGH) , and I yesterday asked the Senate to disagree to the House amend- ment and appoint conferees. This was done. Then, at once, I went off the floor and called the chairman of the House commrttee, requesting a conference on Friday or Saturday. The Senate con- ferees were ready to meet day and night, if necessary, to reach agreement on this vital legislation before our Christmas recess. But, to my regret, the chairman of the House Veterans' Committee said that the House Members could not meet in a conference now; that we would have to wait until after Congress reconvened on January 19. Unfortunately, this delay will affect hundreds of thousands of deserving Viet- nam veterans, war orphans, and wid- ows trying to pursue GI bill education and training with a grossly outmoded rate structure. The Senate does not want to accept for them, and I am convinced that they themselves do not want to accept, a poor substitute package which fails to restore comparability to Korean GI bill rates which were available to veterans of that war, and which fails to provide retythc- tive increases back to the first. of the school year, and which fails to propose any substantive programs to attract and assist dropout veterans?almost 25 per- cent of all separatees?tb take advan- tage of GI benefits. #' It is basically the --President of the United States, not the House of Repre- sentatives or the members of its Veter- ans' Committee, ,that is responsible for this delay. I categorically reject the President's expressed view that the Senate rate in- crease should be denied because of the war on inflation. The hint of a veto, if we passed a measure restoring aid to the Korean ler, like the direct threat of a veto of th analogous HEW appropria- tion bill maple by the President last night, apparently Influenced the House's action. I understand the concern of House Mem- bers. A veto%would mean another, even longer delay, A11 giving to Vietnam veter- ans the aid tkey need to get back to school. Howevft, the President's ap- proach, in effect, sks for double sacri- fices from men vfh, have fought our battles abroad. First they made the sa'rlfJ,Qe of fight- ing in Vietnam. Now that they come back home, they are asked to make an- other sacrifice to help stem inflation that comes directly out of that war itself. I do not believe Congress wants these men sacrificed on the altar of the ad- ministration's policies to combat infla- tion caused directly by the war these men were fighting. That makes sense to none of us. Finally, let me make abundantly clear that GI bill education costs, like Veter- ans' Administration hospital and medical care costs, must be counted completely as a cost of waging war. I do not hear anyone say, "Deny our servicemen the bullets and mortars and armaments they need to wage the war." Yet the administration is willing to pur- sue policies which discriminate against Vietnam veterans and deprive them of our paying the cost of the war that re- lates to their educational needs. Why should we do less? I ask the Sen- ate, why should we do less for Vietnam veterans than we did for Korean vet- erans? Are we discriminating, for some reason? Because this is an undeclared war? What reason has been advanced? I have heard none. The 46-percent in- crease the Senate bill provides in GI benefits would mean only that we would provide for Vietnam veterans the exact level of educational aid that we gave to Korean veterans. Hearings which the Veterans' Affairs Subcommittee is presently holding indi- cate tliat not only Vietnam veterans, but all veterans?veterans of World War I, World War II, and the Korean war?are being shortchanged at present on first- rate medidal and hospital care in vet- erans hospitals. This is totally intoler- able. It cannot be countenanced. Chairman TEAGUE in the House of Represen.tatives has waged a superb bat- tle in an effort to close this medical care gap. He has established how great the gap is in many respects. ,In our hearings we are now finding some new evidence of incredibly bad situations developing in terms of the medical care we are not providing to men who were badly wounded in Viet- nam, or men who were wounded in any of the wars our Nation has fought. We join with Chairman TEAGUE in this effort. We pledge ourselves to see to it that the Senate is fully informed early next session of exactly what our com- mittee has found, and exactly what VA medical and hospital needs are, after we have established those needs. Finally, to refer back to the situation relating to GI educational benefits, we conferees on the Senate side are gravely disappointed that our attempts to secure a conference have failed. We look for- ward to a conference at the earliest pos- sible date selected by the House conferees in charge, and we will then report back to the Senate what can be done to meet the great education and training needs of our Vietnam veterans. Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, I ask unan- imous consent to proceed for 10 minutes. .0* M AMBASSADOR Mr. FLTLBRIGHT. Mr. President, I was going to speak on the Tasca nomina- tion. Did the Senator from New York intend to address himself to that subject? I understood we were ready to vote on the matter, and I was going to say a few words. I understand the yeas and nays are ordered. Mr. JAVITS. May I say to the Senator from Arkansas that my problem is that I have another executive meeting at 2. But I will sit down and wait until he finishes. Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, I dis- like to inconvenience the Senator, but I was told this was the proper order. Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that upon the com- Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 1)ecember 19, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD? SENATE S 17235 I Said what I thought should be done by the Chief Executive in response to the nator's question. say again that if the President makes th choice to go against the old people wlio need that 15-percent increase in so- cial security, against the workingman who needs that increase in the personal exemption because of increased inflation, to go against the Congress in the way it has reordered priorities by reducing mil- itary expenditures by more than $5 bil- lion and increasing expenditures in such vital areas as health, education, antipol- lution, and so forth, by $1 billion and a half, but still leaving a budget with a net decrease of more than $5 million below what the President asked?if he decides to make that choice, that is his choice and the issue is joined. Mr. TYDINGS. Mr. President, will the Senator from Oklahoma yield? / Mr. HARRIS. I yield. Mr. TYDINGS. Would the/senator not agree that the President and the Vice President made great use of the coramtmications media, pa ularly tele- vision, for the purpose of d4nonstrat4n.g th ir faith and interest in t.e so-called sil nt majority. They have Utilized the fin st techniques of Madison rue to ge their so-called message ac s, that they are interested in the typical aineri- ca family. ask the Senator from Oklah4na whether, when the issue comes to the+, do ars and cents of tax reform and tax re ef to the average American family as op osed to the special interests, when it cornes to the issue of some small increase in domestic spending which affects the average American family, whether the President and the Vice President are not talking, on the one hand, out of one side of their mouths to incur favor, yet, Out of the other side, when we get down to tax reform and tax relief and the acttial fight against inflation, they are pulling the rug out from under the average Anierican family and turning their baOks on them. l'hey come up and defend on the floor of the Senate the so-called tax reform proposal which elicits 25 percent of a dol ar tax relief to those with $20,000 In- cone and above, and then they turn aroind and fight on the floor of the Sen- ate an increase in the exemption from $60P to $800 which would help every ndd- dle-income family in the United States. They say on the one hand that they will veto a $1 billion-plus -increase ,in the HEW budget because it Is infiatiop- ary, and yet they give no credit whatso- ever to the Senate which has reduced $5 billion from the President's request in defense appropriations. I lask the Senator from Oklahoma hOw can they justify to the American people such completely opposite statements bon one side and an action on the other. i Ir. HARRIS. I do not think it can be jus died. I think the Senator has stated that rather well. I do not believe there wo4ld be any major tax reform, nor womfld there be the kind of overdue tax reduction which has overburdened the lower and middle income taxpayers, eX- cent that Democrats stood together and denianded there not be an extension of the surtax unless there was also tax re- form and tax reduction. I believe that those are issues which are critical issues for the people of this coun- try, as are the issues of increased social security, the human environment, health, and education, for example. Mr. TYDINGS. I ask the Senator from Oklahoma, would not the Senator agree with me that so far as coming to grips with the problem of inflation in this country is concerted, we have really nothing but lipsenwee-frorn thtee,:_dmin- istration, a/arsgil as the failu of the administration to exercise leadership either with big business or with big labor in a manner which his three predeces- sors, Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson did, the sole reliance being the raising of high interest rates with Fed. Would the Senator not agree that this puts all the burden, or nearly a ma- jority of the burden of trying to curb inflation on the homebuilding industry in the United States and, really, rather than curbing inflation is increasing in- flation, and the longer the administra- tion fails to take leadership in this area, the worse the inflation is going to be- come. Mr. HARRIS. The Senator is quite right. "Credit crunch" and "tight money" have become words as familiar to the U.S. public as the name of the Vice President. Economists as disparate as Walter Heller and Milton Friedman have warned that the extremely restrictive m etary policies of the Federal Reserve Boa which have reduced the growth of the m ey supply to zero, should be eased. Friedm , a leading Nixon economic adviser, is esp?lly pessimistic: We are headin or a recession at least as sharp as that in 1 3i. There is more than a 90% chance of tha\ l'here is a 40% chance of a really severe receSkion, such as occurred In 1957-58, when unernpVment reached 8%. The potential home \buyer feels the credit crunch when he tiles to finance a loan, with mortgage Interest rates run- ning about 15 percent high this year? a high interest rate which the average homeowner will carry until l completes his payments 20 or 30 year from now. And the U.S. Government no finds itself as much a victim of tight r4oney as the buyer of a $25,000 home. Ts year Con- gress set a legal allowanc of $2 billion for uncontrollable, built- increases in expenses. Increased bate st cost on the public debt alone has ounted by $1.5 billion?using up 75 p cent of the limit Congress set. These creased costs will ultimately be bo of course, by the average U.S. xpayer. Further, the Pres1dent.,Mself has pointed out that ernment faces additional costs because of "a potential shortfall in the sale of Government :inancial assets, due to the persistence of high interest rates." Despite the administration's stringent monetary control, big banks have found ways to circumvent the restrictions to meet the demands of large corporations which were willing to pay exorbitant in- terest rates and priced the small borrow- er, the small businessman, local, State, and even the Federal Government, out of the marketplace. I wholeheartedly support the action of the House of Representatives in passing interest and credit controls devised by Chairman WRIGHT PATRIAN and his Bank- ing and Currency Committee. These Democratic initiatives will help lower in- terest rates, fight InflatiOn, assist the housing industry and small business, and help provide more Jobs. The conference report on the bill will give the President power to authorize controls over exten- sions of consumer and business credit during times of inflation?controls nec- essary to relieve the current cruel-Inter- est rates. The President has not yetitised the full influence of his office in moderat- ing price and wage spirals and has, curi- ously enough, opposed this bill which will give him greater power to deal with high interest rates. I hope that he will decide to use these legal measures when they are passed by the full Congress. Mr. DOLE. Mr. President, will the Sen- ator yield? Mr. HARRIS. I yield. Mr. DOLE. In these discussions we tend to forget the item of the Vietnam war, which was left on the doorstep of the present President of the United States on January 20,1969. That has had some impact and it too Is a household word. This. I might add, is another way President Nixon is exercising his "veto." He is trying to end the war in Vietnam. Under his leadership, we may get that done. When it is done, there may be additional money for the projects the Senator has mentioned and perhaps there will not be further discussion about who Is responsible for inflation. We can select what is favored by one Senator, or one issue, but let us take a look at the No. 1 issue, which is the war In Vietnam. Senators on both sides of the aisle will agree that, by and large, President Nixon has dealt with it very successfully?not always with the co- operation of Senators on both sides of the aisle, I might add?but he has dealt with it successfully thus far. If we were all to use the same zeal and cooperation, with the support of the American people, on the war on inflation as we have on the war in Vietnam, we might bring it to an end. It is disturbing and discouraging to this Senator that some conveniently for- get the war in Vietnam when talking about inflation and costs. So do not for- get the war in Vietnam President Nixon Inherited on January 20, 1969. Mr. HARRIS. Mr. President, I note that the Senator has apparently given up trying to argue about Inflation and interest rates and has decided instead to talk about some other subject. Mr. PELL. I wonder if the Senator would give any thought to really moving from talk to wage and price controls, which none of us want to see, but which may be necessary for the protection of the victims of inflation and might seem to be the solution. The PRESIDING OPVICER. Does the Senator from Rhode Island wish to seek the floor? Mr. FELL. I beg the Chair's pardon. Mr. President-- The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Sen- ator from Rhode Island. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 73ecember 19, 1 ?roved Fc 20003-9 S17237 ? pletion of the remarks of the Senator from Arkansas, I may proceed for 10 minutes. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. The Senator from Arkansas is recognized. Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, the pending business, as I understand it, is the nomination of Mr. Henry Tasca as Ambassador to Greece. The PRESIDING OFFICER. That is correct. Mr. FULBRIGHT. I should like to say a word or two by way of background. Mr. Tasca has been a distinguished rep- resentative of the Foreign Service. His nomination was held up in the commit- tee for some time, and I was responsible for holding it up. There were at least two distinct reasons for that. One was that I thoroughly disapprove of the cruelty and ruthlessness of the military regime in Greece. I think that the treatment the Greek regime gives to so many of the enlightened citizens of that country is intolerable. I did not wish to be a party to an action which might seem to approve of such a regime by quickly and readily approving this ap- pointment. That was only part of the reason. The other side of the coin was that, at the same time the administration had nominated an ambassador, and a distinguished man, to Greece, it had re- fused, according to the newspapers, or declined?I do not know exactly what the correct word would be?to name an ambassador to Sweden. The press reports indicated that this was because of ad- ministration disapproval of Swedish policy, particularly with respect to its attitude toward our policy in Vietnam. Furthermore, and as a related matter, not too long ago the Cranston resolution was considered and agreed to by the Senate. I supported it. That Senate resolution stated a very wise rule; namely, that approval or disapproval of a regime is not indicated by recognition. Thes resolution was in general terms and certainly was not directed at Greece alone and, in any case, the question of recognition is not technically involved in the appointment of ambassadors either to Greece or Sweden. I make this state- ment however, because someone has said that holding up the nomination of Mr. Tama for these few weeks is a violation of the spirit, at least, of the Cranston resolution. I do not think it was. It was not a question, there, of recognition. Also, the delay involved a combination of our Government's refusal to name an Ambassador to Sweden and the rather rapid way in which the administration had designated a new ambassador to Greece. In any case, after some time, admin- istration spokesmen assured me that they would proceed to nominate and name an ambassador ot Sweden, I said with that assurance, I was perfectly willing to proceed. This was never a matter of personality or any criticism of Mr. Tasca himself; it involved our overall policy? and I have no objection to approving the nomination of Mr. Tasca. But I want to reiterate that I do not approve of the Greek regime. It is not just because of my sympathy and con- cern for the Greek people, although that is an important reason. I think it is a great tragedy for that country, which in a sense is the birthplace and originator of the whole concept of democracy. We owe more, I expect, to Greece than to any other single country for the basic ideas under which our country has been developed, and particularly our political institutions. In addition, the Greeks are a small and very brave people, and I have great sympathy when I see the tragedy of their being mistreated by their own Government. In addition, I am very much concerned about an attitude that seems to be grow- ing in this country. Even though it is the Americans, my own constituents, and my own Government, that concern me more than anyone else or anyone else's government, nevertheless it makes me very uncomfortable and unhappy to see how callous our Government seems to have become about military dictator- ships which mistreat their own people, and destroy even the basic human qual- ities of respect for the individual and respect for the dignity of the individual human being. When they engage in tor- ture, as has been reported so often and so freely to be the case in Greece, and especially torture of the leading intel- lectual people of their country?their great musicians and their great writers are picked out and especially subjected to the most degrading kind of treat- ment?I hate to see our country become so callous that, for some ulterior politi- cal purpose?in this case, it is said, be- cause Greece is an anchor to NATO? we overlook all these things and give them special treatment and active as- sistance. I do not advocate that we go in and try to change their regime. That is up to the Greek people. We have had enough of physical intervention, as demon- strated in Vietnam and the Dominican Republic. But we should not give active support, such as we are giving to the Greek colonels. This I object to. It shows, In my view, a lack of appreciation for simple basic human rights and human dignity; and it is disgraceful, in my view, for this country, which professes all this concern for individuals and for human dignity, to engage in it. This type of thing, it seems to me, cannot help but lead to increasing cyn- icism on the part of our young people, as well as those of our older people who are at all interested in humanity, because we profess one thing and do another. It is the type of hypocrisy which I think Is very damaging to our reputation in the minds of thinking people. So I regret that our country seems to be put in such a position. I think we should not give this assistance, and very substantial military assistance, to a re- gime which mistreats its own citizens. I think it is a reflection on our own sense of discrimination and our own princi- ples with regard to human dignity. Therefore, although I strongly deplore what we are doing in supporting Greece with military aid, I shall now support the nomination because I do not regard sending an ambassador, and do not be- lieve it should be regarded, as approval in the least of the regime, and because it is in accord with what I think was the sentiment of the Cranston resolution, which this body approved, not quite unanimously but overwhelmingly. The political representation of this country is not to be taken as a sign of approval of the policies of the military regime. The sending of an ambassador is simply an essential instrument of inter- national relations?essential to the con- duct of our international relations. It should not be interpreted as supporting the regime. I do not approve of the regime and hope that it will change. Only recently it found itself compelled to resign from the Council of Europe because it was about to be excluded because its policies were rejected by other members of the Council of Europe. I believe that the Europeans have as much, if not more, interest in NATO than we do. Why sometimes we value the im- portance of matter to NATO more than they do in Europe is beyond my compre- hension. Mr. President, with these remarks I am ready to vote for the confirmation of the nomination. I want to make it clear that I do not approve of this regime. I also want to make it clear that we ought to send an ambassador to Sweden, a coun- try which is one of the most humane and civilized countries in the world. I have no criticism of Sweden and its actions with regard to this or any other matter. Sweden is a very advanced coun- try. But they disagree with our policy in Vietnam. And we have therefore failed to name an ambassador to Sweden. I hope that our Government will promptly name an ambassador to Swed- en. Mr. AIKEN. Mr. President, I feel that the United States has been severely handicapped by not having an ambas- sador in Athens. With the loss of our naval bases in North Africa, there are only a few rather tenuous harbors left for our fleet in the Mediterranean. The Russian naval strength in the Mediterranean is now said to be about equal to our own. One of the places where our Navy is still welcomed, entertained, or able to find a harbor is Greece. I do not believe that confirming the nomination of an ambassador to Greece will in any way obligate us to approve or disapprove the kind of government the Greeks have there. I feel there are those who do not feel kindly toward approving an ambassador to Greece who would feel very much worse if our fleet were to leave the Medi- terranean. An exchange of ambassadors with an- other country does not mean that we approve of their form of government. I call attention to Senate Resolution 205 which was enacted by the Senate not long ago. The resolution was introduced by the junior Senator from California (Mr. CRANSTON) . I cosponsored the reso- lution with him. The resolution reads: It is the sense of the Senate that when the United States recognizes a foreign gov- Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 S 17238 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE December 19, 1969 ernment and exchanges diplomatic repre- sentatives with it, this does not of itself i_nply that the United States approves of the form of ideology or policy of that foreign gm ern- ment. If the Senate takes the position that it should confirm the nomination of Mr. Tasca to be Ambassador to Greece, it 'Would not mean that we approve of the present form of the Greek Government. I have no excuse for our failure to send an ambassador to Sweden. There should be one there, and I am advised a selection has already been made. So I hope we confirm Mr. Tasca's nomi- nation. There is no question of his abil- ity. That point has not been raiseil at any time during our discussions. ' The question was whether we would, in effect, be approving the Greek Govern- Ment by appointing an ambassador to that country. We are the ones who are paying the price by not having an ambassador there. Mr. DODD. Mr. President, I support the nomination of the Honorable Henry J. Tasca as Ambassador of the United States to Greece. Ambassador Tasca is a career Forsign Service officer with more than two de- cades of experience in Europe, North Africa, and the Far East. He is also an economist of note, rho has at different times served as Treasury representative in Rome, as al- ternate U.S. Executive Director of /itene- tary Fund, as Deputy Director of she Marshall plan, and as AID Directo ? in He also ranks as one of our top experts On NATO affairs, having served as deputy to Ambassador Harriman on the NATO Council from 1958 to 1961. In his most recent aSSigiltnent, as U.S. Ambassador to Morocco, he conducted himself, according to all reports, with exceptional distinction. , If there is opposition 'to Ambassador Tasca, it cannot possibly be on the grounds of qualifications, because the Senate has rarely been called upon to approve a nominee more qualified in terms of both general background and specific exprience in the area to which lie is being assigned. The oppositiOn is based, rather, on the belief that no American Amba isa- dor should be accredited to Athens so lbng as Greece does not enjoy constitu- tional government. It is for this reason that the Am sri- can ambassadorship in Athens has re- mained vacant for more than a year now. And it is for this reason that the Senate Foreign Relations Commi btee took 4 months to act on the nomina don of Ambassador Tasca. Mr. President, I believe that we lave been playing a dangerous and strange game with the American ambassador- ship to Greece. ' Although most of those who oppose the nomination are among the first to protest against any suggestion of hater- vention in the affairs of other nations, the fact is that our failure to appolint a riew American Ambassador to Greeee for almost 1 year now does constitute al kind of intervention in the internal affairs of Greece. I do not say this by way of approving the present military government in Greece. I remind the Senate that only last Friday, when we were discussing military aid to Greece, I introduced a resolution which was unanimously ap- proved, saying that it was the sense of the Senate that the United States should use Its influence to bring about the earl- iest possible retur:a to constitutional rule in Greece. When we deliberately abstain from ap- pointing an ambassador, however, we are not merely intervening in the affairs of Greece, but to compound the damage, we are depriving ourselves of those normal diplomatic contacts which could and should be used to convey our thoughts and suggestions to our Greek allies. And to make matters worse, we are undercutting the NATO alliance, because without access to Greek harbors and air- fields and anchorages, the position of NATO in the eastern Mediterranean would be critical indeed. I consider our failure to dispatch an ambassador to Greece strange because it. seems to involve a double standard which is applied to the prejudice of our allies and to the advantage of our enemies. When Moscow invaded Czechoslovakia, with the support of several of its Warsaw Pact quislings, in August of last year, I know of no one among those who today oppose the appointment of an American ambassador to Athens who demanded that we refuse to accredit an American ambassador to Moscow until the Red army vacated Czechoslovakia and re- stored the Dubcek government, Mr. President, I earnestly hope that the Senate of the United States will put an end to this dangerous and hypocriti- cal and self-defeating game. In the present critical situation in the affairs of Greece and of NATO and of the Mideast, it is imperative that America be represented in Athens by an ambassador of qualified background. Ambassador Tasca has this back- ground. His nomination should be approved. The PRESIDING OrisiCER. The ques- tion is, Will the Senate advise and con- sent to the nomination of Mr. Henry J. Tasca to be Ambassador and Plenipo- tentiary to Greece. On this question the yeas and nays have been ordered, and the clerk will call the roll. The assistant legislative clerk called the roll. Mr. KENNEDY I announce that the Senator from New Mexico (Mr. ANDER- SON) , the Senato r from Missouri (Mr. EAGLETON) , the Senator from Mississippi (Mr. EASTLAND) , the Senator from South Carolina (Mr. HOLLINGS) , the Senator from Hawaii (Mr. Isiouys), the Senator from New Hampshire (Mr. McIN-Tvits) , the Senator from Georgia (Mr. RUSSELL) , the Senator from Missouri (Mr. SYm- INGTON) , and the Senator from Maryland (Mr. TYDINGS) , are necessarily absent. Mr. GRIFFIN. I announce that the Senator from New Jersey (Mr. Cass), the Senators from Illinois (Mr. PERCY and Mr. SMITE), and the Senator from Texas (Mr. TOWER are necessarily absent. The Senator from Kentucky (Mr. COOPER) IS absent because of illness in his family. The Senator from South Dakota (Mr. MUNDT) is absent because of illness. The Senator from Tennessee (Mr. RAKER) and the Senator from Nebraska (Mr. HausicA) are detained on official business. If present and voting, the Senator from Nebraska (Mr. Harsiss), the Sena- tors from Illinois (Mr. PERCY) , and (Mr. SMITH), and the Senator from Texas (Mr. TOWER) would each vote "yea." The result was announced?yeas 79, nays 4, as follows: [No. 266 Ex.] YEAS-76 Aiken Allen Allott Bayh Bellmon Bennett Bible Boggs Brooke Burdick Byrd, Va. Byrd, W. Va. Cannon Church Cook Cotton Cranston Curtis Dodd Dole Dominick Ellender Ervin Fannin Fong Fulbright Goldwater Goodell Gore Gravel Griffin Gurney Hansen Harris Hart Hartite Hatfield Holland Hughes Jackson Javits Jordan, N.C. Jordan, Idaho Kennedy Long Magnuson Mansfield Mathias McClellan McGee McGovern Metcalf Miller Mondale NAYS-4 Montoya Murphy Muskie Packwood Pastore Pearson Pell Prouty Proxmire Randolph Ribicoff Saxbe Schweiker Scott Smith, Maine Sparkman Spong Stennis Stevens Talmadge Thurmond Williams, N.J. Williams, Del. Yarborough Young, N. flak. McCarthy Nelson Young, Ohio Moss Anderson Baker Case Cooper Eagleton Eastland NOT VOTING-17 Hollings ' Hruska Inouye McIntyre Mundt Percy Russell Smith, ni. Symington Tower Tydings So the nomination was confirmed. Mr. BYRD of West Virginia. Mr. Presi- dent, I ask unanimous consent that the President be immediately notified of the confirmation of the nomination. The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. Cools in the chair) . Without objection, it is so ordered. Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, on the occasion of the Senate's confirmation of Mr. Henry J. Tasca as U.S. Ambassa- dor to Greece, I want to express my deep concern about the continuing deteriora- tion of the political situation in Greece. It is a situation which, if it continues to worsen, could well lead to a new Viet- nam?this time in Europe. I want also to express my dismay at the fact that the present administration is following the same set of policies es- tablished by the previous administration that must inevitably lead to disaster, not only for Greece but for long-range Amer- ican interests in that vital part of the world. The net result of these policies has been that the majority of the Greek and European peoples generally believe that the United States is responsible for bring- ing the military junta to power in the first place and maintaining it in power since April 21,1967. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71B004i4R000300120003-9 -- December 19, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD? As early as August 10, 1966, 8 months before the coloLels destroyed Greek de- mocracy in its own ancient birthplace, I had occasion to refer to the impending disaster in an interview with the political editor of the Athens Daily Post, Mr. Elias P. Demetracopoulos. "If we want," I said, "to avoid more Vietnam and Dominican Republic interventions in other crucial parts of the world, both the White House and Capitol Hill should thoroughly in- vestigate these grave charges voiced in Greece against the United States." The following year it was my unhappy distinction to be the first Member of this body to visit Athens after the colonels came to power. I had lengthy talks then with their leaders. The impression I gained from those conversations has only been reinforced by events in the interim. And that is why last Friday I voted against granting U.S. military assistance to the present regime. How tragic it is that a majority of the Senate determined otherwise on the very day that member nations of the Council of Europe took the unprecedented action of forcing Greece to resign from the council be- cause of the regime's violation of the human rights of the Greek people and its torturing of political opponents. I might add that the Council took this step In the face of intense lobbying by Amer- ican spokesmen arguing against it. Thus the Greek issue has now become a European issue. The action of our allies last week constitutes a sharp diplomatic slap against our policies in that area. We had better heed the warning before it is too late. The Truman Doctrine of 1947 saved Greece from becoming a satellite of the Soviet Union. The Greek people have been deeply grateful to us for this, but their gratitude is turning now to resent- ment and worse because of our support of the dictatorship. If we fail to join ottr European allies in their efforts to restOre democracy to Greece, we may soon be faced with developments too terrible to contemplate. And we may end up by hav- ing to bury, with our own hands, that Truman doctrine which is so proud a milestone in our postwar resistance to tyranny. Mr. President, these pressing issues have been dealt with in characteristically cogent fashion by Mr. Clayton Fritchey In an article appearing in today's Wash- ington Evening Star. I ask unanimous consent that the article be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: WHY DOES U.S. BACK GREEK REGIME? on the generals, for the junta can afford a European boycott as long as it can count on the support of the American government. Instead of joining in the isolation of the junta, however, the Nixon administration is about to resume full military aid for the re- gime, and it is also about to send a new U.S. ambassador to Athens as further recognition of the dictatorship. The Senate Foreign Relations Committee has been doing what it can to delay both actions to indicate its disapproval of the Athens government, but that strategy is about exhausted. Sen. Claiborne Pell, D-R.I., got the committee to amend the foreign aid bill to forbid all arms for Greece, but, with administration blessing, the amendment was defeated a few days ago by the full Senate. The committee has also been holding up the confirmation of Henry Tasca as the new am- bassador to Athens, but he will soon be on his way nevertheless. All this, of course, is going to be dismaying to the democratic exiles. Also, it explains why our European allies are so skeptical about our objectives in Vietnam, especially the Nixon- Johnson protestations that the United States has to fight in Vietnam because it is dedi- cated to upholding the principle of self- determination. Even that leading hawk and veteran anti- Communist, Sen. Karl Mundt, R-S.D., finds this line too much to swallow. After hearing Defense Secretary Melvin Laird and Secretary of State William Rogers (in secret session) emphasize "self-determination" as the No. 1 U.S. objective in the war, Mundt felt com- pelled to say, "I do not think there is self- determination in Greece . . . I do not -Wink they have self-determination in Portu- gal . . ." Mundt could have cited 50 Other countries where, unlike South Vietnam, the United States has been unmoved by the suppression of self-determination and democracy. In fact, In many instances, such as Taiwan and Thai- land, the United States is actively helping the, very governments which abolished self- determination. Mundt thought the administration would be on better ground if it substituted resist- ance to aggressive communism as its prime objective. But that, too, is subject to glaring inconsistencies. Why, for example, could the United States tolerate a Communist take- over in North Vietnam, but not in South Vietnam? Why is communism acceptable only 90 miles away in Cuba, but not accept- able 10,000 miles away in one small corner of Asia? The conclusion that our European friends draw from this is that neither our dedication to self-determination nor Communist con- tainment is absolute. When it suits our in- terest to back democracy or fight communism we sometimes do so. Otherwise, we look the other way, as in Czechoslovakia and Hungary, or Brazil and Argentina. In -the case of Greece, however, the Euro- peans think we could do much to restore self-determination at no cost and little or no risk. The administration's answer is that It must help the junta because the Greek arm is supposed to be the southern anchor of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Our allies point out that NATO is designed to protect Europe, and if the Europeans are not worried about the alleged southern an- chor why should the United States be so fearfull? After all, the United States has been ex- clusively equipping the Greek army for over 20 years, and so far it has used the arms only to subdue the Greek people. If the se- curity of Western Europe depends on this Fascist force, Europe is in a bad way. (By Clayton Fritchey) After the military dictatorship that runs Greece hurriedly quit the Council of Europe to avoid being kicked out for violating dem- ocratic freedoms, the country's former finance minister, Constantine Mitsotakis, now an opposition leader, said, "The next step is up to the United States." It is indeed but when that step is taken it is not going to please Mitsotakis and his fellow exiles. While the hopes of the democratic exiles have been raised by the council's indictment of the military junta, these oppositionists know that it is not enough in itself to topple the regime or even generate serious reforms, unless the United States also applies pressure LEGISLATIVE SESSION Mr. BYRD of West Virginia. Mr. Pres- ident, I ask unanimous consent that the Senate proceed legislative business. There being no objection, resumed the consideration of business. S 17239 to the consideration of the Senate legislative MESSAGES FROM THE PRESIDENT? APPROVAL OF BILLS AND JOINT RESOLUTION Messages in writing from the Pres- ident of the United States were com- municated to the Senate by Mr. Leonard, one of his secretaries, and he announced that the President has approved and signed the following acts and joint res- olution: On December 15, 1969: S. 564. An Act for the relief of Mrs. Irene G. Queja; and S. 2019. An Act for the relief of Dug Foo Wong. On December 16, 1969: S.J. Res. 143. Joint Resolution extending the duration of copyright protection in cer- tain cases. On December 18, 1969: S. 118. An Act to grant the consent of the Congress to the Tahoe regional planning compact, to authorize the Secretary of the Interior and others to cooperate with the planning agency thereby created, and for other purposes. MESSAGE FROM THE HOUSE A message from the House of Repre- sentatives, by Mr. Hackney, one of its reading clerks, announced that the House had passed the bill (H.R. 14944) to au- thorize an adequate force for the pro- tection of the Executive Mansion and foreign embassies, and for other pur- poses, in which it requested the concur- rence of the Senate. ENROLLED JOINT RESOLUTION SIGNED The message also announced that the Speaker had affixed his signature to the enrolled joint resolution (S.J. Res. 54) consenting to an extension and renewal of the interstate compact to conserve oil and gas, and it was signed by the Acting President pro tempore. HOUSE BILL REFERRED The bill (H.R. 14944) to authorize an adequate force for the protection of the Executive Mansion and foreign em- bassies, and for other purposes, was read twice by its title and referred to the Committee on Public Works. PERIOD FOR THE TRANSACTION OF ROUTINE MORNING BUSINESS Mr. BYRD of West Virginia. Mr. Pres- ident, notwithstanding the fact that the morning hour has expired, I ask unani- mous consent that there now be a period for the transaction of routine morning business, with statements limited to 3 minutes, making an exception in the case of the Seantor from New York. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. Under the previous order, the Senator from New York is recognized. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 S 17240 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD?SENATE December 19, 1969 FIGHTING INFLATION: RECESSION OR STABILIT Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, I rise to 'voice my serious concern over what ap- pears to be a basic change in the admin- istration's policy for fighting inflation, a Change that is relevant to the current de- bate over whether we are already in?or the 50-50 chance that we will soon be serious recession. ' The basic change in policy to which I refer is the abandonment by our mone- tary authorities of the strategy of orderly Monetary restraint which was considered So important by the administration last spring. This strategy was intact last spring, but during the summer and fall we have seen it give way ta a system of Monetary repression. It is now bringing about a state of affairs causing alarm among prominent economists and Which, if allowed to persist, would accelerate the danger of serious reces Aon without bringing a halt to the steep rise in prices. Since the administration is responsible for this change, it can also be responsible for not allowing it to persist and for reverting again to ordei ly monetary restraint. . I would also like at this time to outline the steps I think Congress should take to Mitigate the suffering which this change Will necessarily bring about 1 The present administration was brought to power, at least in part, as a result of widespread clissatisf action among Americans over the "guns and butter" approach Of the Johnson admin- istration, a course which involved us heavily in an unpopular-war in South- east Asia and brought on crippling in- flation at home. What was obviously needed on the economic front was strong leadership to bring the budget back into balance and to coordinate this fiscal Plicy with a system of orderly monetary r straint. f) As far back as July 1988. presidential candidate Nixon had charged that the inflation has resulted "primarily from an eXpanding money supply," which in turn had been fed by the monetization of budget deficits. To correct-tins condition, Mr. Nixon said, required reversing the irresponsible fiscal policies which pro- diced these deficits. The President's message to the Con- gress, in March of this year, on combat- ing inflation, correctly pointed out that "Only a combined policy of a strong badget surplus and monetsay restint can now be effective in cooling inflation," This diagnosis echoed public stateatents of administration economic policy- Makers, all of whom emphasised the 4ieed to get monetary and fiscal policies pack on to the proper course of restraint What was meant by "re Araint" was spelled out by the Chairman of the Coun- ci of Economic Advisers last spring. Fiscal policy, he said, would be dfrecied ttward achieving a strong budget surplus in 1970. With regard to monetary policy, Di. McCracken added: There is one element here MAL is ver yl On- pqrtant?that monetary and credit policY re- main on a course of relatively Sl,av expanSion. These words were said in March of this year. On May 20, in testimony before the House Banking and Currency Committee, Dr. McCracken repeated this view when he characterized existing monetary policy as, "moving along a course permit- ting only a slow and cautious expansion of the money supply." Looking back over the past 10 months, I believe that the administration has made commendable progress in bringing fiscal policy back on the right track, as- suming the Congress does not jeopardize this progress by an improvident tax re- form bill. With regard to monetary policy, how- ever, I fail to see the slow expansion of money and credit which Dr. McCracken thought was so very nt. The growth of the m supply has been at an absolute steg dstill since late spring, causing alarnass'among prominent econ- omists as to'the effects of continuing this state pf affairs any longer, and the total sui1y of commercial bank credit has re ined virtually unchanged since last ril. Is this the relatively slow expansion of money and credit which we =Were told in March was very imrtant? fact, Mr. President, what we have at i the moment is not monetary re- st amt?it is monetary repression?and I ubmit that the responsibility for this not only with the Fed, which formu- la s monetary policy, but also with the istration, which is on record as sup g it. Some a anatdon for this funda- mental chan 1 policy can be found by examining pol, tatements of ad- ministration economic ers over the course of the past several m s. What emerges is the distinct impress that the makers of monetary policy have n- icked, and have abandoned their pre ous approach of firm restraint. Tha approach was originally designed to slow down the economy?to head it back onto a noninflationary path. The policy of firm restraint?in the words of Secretary Kennedy last Feb- ruary?was to last "until there are un- mistakable signs" that we are headed back on this path. But the same Secre- tary Kennedy in October has been look- ing for different signs. According to Sec- retary Kennedy, the administration still wants the signs to be unmistakably clear, but this time he says the signs must also show "that the balance of risk has shifted from inflation to recession." In other words, the administration and the Fed plan to slam on the brake and not to let off until there are mistakable signs that the brakes ? y lock. While the administration d not formulate monetary policy on a y-to- day basis, it does closely coor ate its long-range objectives with e of the Federal Reserve Board an n the final analysis, bears primary ? onsibility for the state -actla y. I urge the i'ilnistration and the Fed- eral Reserve Board at this time to heed the growing concern of economists and legislator's including the Joint Economic Committee itself, and bring monetary policy on to the track of a slow but stable increase in the money supply. At the same time, so that the admin- istration can realize significant budget surpluses for the near future, I urge that Congress in the House-Senate conference on the tax reform bill reexamine the tax rate reductions in the reform bill now before us, including the very worrisome action which the Senate took in raising the personal exemption *to $800. I do not put the self-financed social security in- crease in the same class; we should not expect the Social Security Trust Fund to finance the Government debt as it is presently doing. Failure to act in both these policy areas and on both these levels of Government could quickly bring this country into the grim situation of continued price infla- tion coupled with a mild or not so mild recession. In some sectors of the economy we have pretty grim conditions right now. If the housing industry, for example, reflected the state of the economy as a whole, we could say we were in the middle of a full- blown recession. Also, Federal, State, and local govern- ment financing has been hard hit by soaring interest rates. Prices of stocks are at a 3-year low. We have viewed with alarm the omin- ous weakening of the employment mar- ket this year and November culminated a 4-month slide in industrial production this year. I believe that two of the most impor- tant areas determining the Nation's economy areliousing and unemployment. 1-1.517SING For two decades the stated objective of Federal housing policy has been to pro- vide every American with "a decent home and a suitable living environment." Only last year this objective was translated into a specific national housing goal of 26-million units in 10 years?or 2.6 mil- 'on annually. n the basis of present housing starts w will not even approach that goal. At th eginning of this year, housing pro- duc on was at 1.9-million units. It now sta s at 1.3 million, and by the end of this ear it Is said that we will be build- ing 'ouses at a rate of only 1 million um a year?well under half the pro- du on needed to meet the national goal. obably the single most important r son for this failure has been the pat- of rapidly escalating costs in the ilding industry, in excess of increases n the cost of living. Increases in the cost of money have been most dramatic. In- terest rates have gone up so high that the housing industry is today on the verge of a major recession. The tragic irony of the situation is to be found in the contradictions of Fed- eral policy. In 1 year we enact bold new housing porgrams and establish national housing goals. Yet, in the next year, the administration supports changes in both tax legislation and monetary policy which could make it impossible to implement the national housing policy which has been authorized. It would appear that periodic crises in housing are built into our economic sys- tem and the present structure of our financial institutions, and that housing will always bear the major burden of tight money. But this need not be so. I believe that Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 United States of America Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDFS'Itly 193.PAIMPA9S99959n Record of December 18, 1969 follow on page S 17327 Congressional Record PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 91St CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION M116 Vol. 115 WASHINGTON, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 19, 1969 No. 212 The Senate met at 11 o'clock a.m. and was called to order by Hon. JAMES B. ALLEN, a Senator from the State of Ala- bama. The Chaplain, the Reverend Edward L. R. Elson, D.D., offered the following prayer: Eternal Father, as we gaze once more upon the manger scene, may the child- heart of simple faith and trust be born In us again. Lead us to the truth which is understood not by logic but by poetry and music and a soul in tune with the Infinite and eternal. In the long hours of toil keep us from being pushed or pinched by the day's program, but pre- serve in us an area of serenity and quiet strength. May we come to that reality of Thy sustaining and abiding presence we have never known before. And may we serve in the spirit of Him who came to be the servant of all. Amen. DESIGNATION OF ACTING PRESI- DENT PRO TEMPORE The PRESIDING OFFICER. The clerk will read a communication to the Senate. The assistant legislative clerk read the following letter: U.S. SENATE, PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE, Washington, D.C., December 19, 1969. To the Senate: Being temporarily absent from the Senate, I appoint Hon. JAMES B. ALLEN, a Senator from the State of Alabama, to perform the duties of the Chair during my absence. RICHARD B. RUSSELL, President pro ternpore. Mr. ALLEN thereupon took the chair as Acting President pro tempore. THE JOURNAL Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the reading of the Journal of the proceedings of Thurs- day, December 18, 1969, be dispensed with. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. Without objection, it is so ordered. COMMITTEE MEETINGS DURING SENATE SESSION Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare and the Senate Committee on Armed Services be au- thorized to meet during the session of the Senate today. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tern- pore. Without objection, it is so ordered. EXECUTIVE SESSION Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Senate go into executive session to consider a nomination on the Executive Calendar. There being no objection, the Senate proceeded to the consideration of execu- tive business. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. The nomination on the Executive Calendar will be stated. AMBASSADOR The assistant legislative clerk read the nomination of Henry J. Tasca to be U.S. Ambassador to Greece. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. The question is, Will the Senate advise and consent to the nomination? Mr. GOODELL. Mr. President, on Tuesday, December 9, I requested Sen- ate Majority Leader MANSFIELD to place a temporary hold upon the considera- tion of the nomination of Henry J. Tasca to be U.S. Ambassador to Greece. I did not take this action because I believed the United States should indef- initely postpone sending an ambassador to Greece. On September 25, the Senate adopted a resolution (S. Res. 205) declaring that when the United States recognizes a for- eign government, that action does not in itself imply that we endorse its pol- icies. I agree with the principle set forth In this resolution, and I voted for it. In general, the establishment and mainte- nance of diplomatic contacts with other nations should reflect the realities of in- ternational politics, not our preferences. Greece now is ruled by a brutal dic- tatorship that does not hesitate to make systematic use of terror and torture. The repressive nature of the Greek regime does not, however, justify a per- manent refusal to dispatch an ambassa- dor to Athens?any more than Soviet police state methods would justify with- drawing our Ambassador in Moscow. Nor was my action based on any res- ervations concerning Mr. Tasca's quali- fications. He is, as I have stated pre- viously, a most able diplomat who is fully qualified for this sensitive post. I requested a temporary hold on con- sideration of the nomination because I was convinced it was not the propitious moment to approve an ambassador?as the Council of Europe was about to con- sider the expulsion or suspension of Greece from the Council for violation of the basic human rights of Greek citizens. I was fearful that the confirmation of a U.S. ambassador a few days before the Council's meeting would be misconstrued in Europe as a gesture of support for the junta and as an attempt to intrude our- selves into a decision that should have been made by Europeans themselves. The Council's meeting has now taken place. The Greek dictatorship was forced to resign from membership in this body of democratic nations. The strong stand of the members of the Council is most gratifying. It will be a clear signal to the forces behind the junta that the patience of the European democracies with the Greek junta's cruel and dictatorial methods has run out. Now that the Council of Europe has met, the dispatch of an ambassador to Athens could no longer be interpreted as a sign that the Senate of the United States opposes strong disciplinary ac- tion by the Council against Greece. Accordingly, I have decided to release the hold I requested on the consideration of Mr. Tasca's nomination. I am hope- ful he can be confirmed soon, and I will vote for his confirmation. While I will not oppose this nomina- tion further, I would like to register my concern over the failure of the United States to make effective use of its dip- lomatic influence to press for more hu- mane and democratic policies in Greece. Reform in Greece is needed in the in- terest of simple humanity and justice. The victims of the Greek dictatorship are human beings. They must not be harassed, terrorized, and tortured. If we show no interest in preventing this sort of suffering, our claims of representing democratic and humanitarian ideals be- come no more than a mockery. S 17227 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Relmag12/02..: CIAREPZ1B00364R000300120003-9 S 17228 Approved For MUNAL RE ORD ? SENATE December 19, 19119 Reform in. Greece is needed to pre- serve our credibility. We simply cannot afford to profess a double standard of morality?one for Communist nations and one for rightwing dictatorships with which we happen to be allied. No one will believe our protests against repres- sion in Czechoslovakia or Russia if we turn a blind eye to tyranny in Greece. Finally, reform in Greece is needed to Protect our security. Continued repres- sion only increases the-chances of a civil war?one which the Greek Communists could exploit to reestablish the influ- ence they lost in. the late 1940's. The men supporting the junta are real- ists. Faced de- mands for reform from the United States and its European allies. these men may well be induced by self-interest to Press for more humane policies. Faced with an ineffectual U.S. response, they will have little incentive for change. Regrettably, the official reaction of the State Department to the junta's police state practices has been-most ineffectual. Despite indications that the forces in Greece undergirding the junta might press for reforms in response to a strong U.S. stand, the State "Departmerit has evinced little more than mild disapproval for the regime's harsh asolicies. The De- partment has succeeded in conveying the impression that it is far more con- cerned about what hypothetically might happen to our military bases in Greece than with what is actually happening to the basic human rights of the Greek people. A glaring example of this sort of com- placency was the Department's star d on the ouster of Greece from the Council of Europe. The Council is restricted by its charter to those countries that "accept the orin- doles of rule of law" and the enjoyment by all citizens of "Inman rights and fundamental freedoms." The Greek dic- tatorship patently fails to meet either of these requirements. Before the Council mel. last Friday, the official position of the State Department was "neutrality" on the aide of the junta. Persistent reports came "from Pails that the State Department was lobbying with European foreign ministries for reten- tion of Greece in the Council. The basis of the Dejaai tment's pro- junta stance was the familiar one of fear of loss of the NATO bases in Greece. The Department was 'naive enouga to believe threats by semiofficial Greek sources that if Greece shis ousted from the Council of Europe it might "recon- Sider" its membership ihITATO. It chose to overlook the fact that the Council is a purely advisory body of parliamentary representatives that has never ineluded the authoritarian goveihnient that has been associated with NATO and Portugal. It also chose to overlook the fact that the junta has strong security and eco- nomic interests in the maintenance of the bases which would make its depar- ture from NATO extremely unlikely. As events turned out, the Department miscalculated entirely. Its lobbying effort failed, and Greece was forced out of the council. Not surprisingly, Greece decided to continue its NATO association. Unfortunately, this was not an isolated incident. It reflects the basic attitude of the State Department at the working level. Department officials profess a de- sire for reforms by the junta, but they fall to convey any urgency or real deter- mination. They seem more concerned with explaining away the junta's actions than with inducing constructive changes. I am hopeful that Mr. Tasca's depar- ture for Greece will signal a change of policy. I hope that he will be sent with new instructions for a tough stand to- ward the Gree e regime's police state methods. I hope our State Department will become an effective advocate of re- form in Greece. A crucial test of U.S. intentions will be its decision on resuming regular military aid to Greece. It was most unfortunate that the Senate chose last week to over- ride the ban proposed by the Senate For- eign Relations Committee on military as- sistance to the junta. The resumption of full military aid at this time would be a clear sign of support for the present regime's policies. Regular arms aid should be withheld until meaningful steps to- ward democratization are taken. Our foreign policy must reflect some- thing more than a mere chess game of power politics. It should embody our underlying commitment to humanitarian and democratic ideals. The fundamental principles upon which our Nation was launched, if they mean anything at all, should be no less funda- mental in shaping the relationship of our Government toward othe eoples. Where a great democracy has fi as in Greece, we must avoid policies that can be construed as support for those who strangled it Morality should not grind to a halt at our borders. We should not park our consciences when we pick up our diplo- matic passports. Mr. President, having said all this, I believe the withholding of approval by the Senate of the nomination of an am- bassador to Greece 3 days before the Council of Europe met did avoid involv- ing this country directly in that decision in the Council of Europe. I understand this was read with some meaning by members of the Council of Europe that at least the U.S. Senate was refus- ing at that time to take action that could be interpreted as support of the Greek junta. I believe at this point it is in our in- terest to have an ambassador dealing at the highest level in Greece to present our views forcefully to the Greek junta and other elements or establishments of Greece that we want the Greek Govern- ment o move back toward democracy; that we do not attempt to dictate their form of government or attempt to tell them what change should be made, but we do say we will not support a govern- ment which engages in widespread viola- tion of basic human rights of people. These violations of basic human rights in Greece by the junta are well docu- mented. Mr. President. under all these circum- stances I withdraw my opposition to the nomination of Henry J. Tasca to be U.S. Ambassador to Greece. Mr. MOSS. Mr. President, I congratu- late the Senator from New York on his statement regarding the nomination of Henry J. Tasca to serve as our Ambas- sador to Greece. I differ with him some- what on his conclusion as to the timing on this matter but I agree heartily with what he said about this matter. I am one of those Senators who had a "hold" against the nomination for the very reasons discussed by the Senator from New York, but I thought the time of the pending action of the Council of Europe would have been most inoppor- tune for the United States to confirm an ambassador to the junta in Greece. This morning, therefore, I wish to an- nounce I still object to the confirmation of Henry J. Tana, as U.S. Ambassador to Greece at this time because it is still so closely associated with the action that happened in the Council. I do not oppose Henry J. Tasca because of his lack of qualification for the posi- tion. He has already distinguished him- self as Ambassador to Morocco and through a fruitful career in the American Foreign Service. I think he is eminently qualified. I want to underline this point: that I do not question his qualification, or his worthiness in any respect. I oppose the confirmation now, because I feel that for the Senate to act at this time to send an American of ambassadorial rank to Greece would be a blunder in timing. There are a number of reasons why. I shall mention several. Earlier this month, the Council of Europe expelled Greece from that or- ganization. I know that the colonels in Greece say they withdrew. But the fact is that the Council voted to expel Greece at the end of this year on the charge that the Greek Government had failed to re- store democratic freedoms, and the colo- nels withdrew rather than face the hu- miliation of being kicked out. The Council of Europe is not an eco- nomic alliance. It is an association of democratic governments designed ex- pressly to advance democracy and hu- man rights. Their moral disapproval of the regime in Greece shows quite clearly how the people on the other side of the Atlantic feel about the military junta which holds that country in its tyran- nical grasp. The Council abhors the pres- ent Greek Government. And furthermore, many of them feel that it is only Amer- ca's apparent friendship for the re- gime?only our apparent support of the colonels?which keeps them in power. For the U.S. Senate to confirm an am- bassador to Greece hard on the heels of strongly expressed European disapproval of the regime would be little less than a slap in the face to many of our allies. Second, according to no less an au- thority than former Greek Minister Con- stantine Mitsotakis, with whom I con- ferred recently, the next few months? possibly the next 3 months?offer the last opportunity for a restoration of the Greek democracy without a blood bath. This opinion is also shared by my good friend Elias Demetracopoulos, a distin- guished European editor and a leader of the resistance movement against the Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 lijcemar 19 19 6P3Pri3ved&VMSICNPA1 it9096-13-13117-4R Opp64R000300120003-9 S 17229 junta in America, who accompanied Mr. Mitsotakis to my office. The history and temperament of the Greek people practically assure us there will be an effort sometime in the future to force out the colonel's government? even if it drenches the country in blood. No other people, on the face of the earth, understand more fully the desire of the Greek people for freedom, than do the people of the United States. Greece may have been the cradle of dem- ocracy, but we have made democracy work?and work reasonably well, for al- most 200 years. The Greeks feel deeply their bond with us. They are relying on us now in their time of great travail. Why give them cause to doubt our support?why douse their spirits and quench their thirst for freedom?by ac- crediting a man with the rank of Am- bassador to the junta government. It would be an affront to the Greek pa- triots. Third, since the Nixon administration has not yet come up with a policy on Greece, why do we need a man of Am- bassadorial rank there? America's affairs can well be handled by the competent career men already in our Embassy there. Must we f111 the rank of ambassador right now? Mr. President, in the 21/2 long years since the military junta took over Greece, there has not been even one small step toward the restoration of a parliamen- tary government. We hear stories every day about peo- ple being brutalized in courts, and in prisons. Civil liberties are dead. Nor- mality and freedom and liberty and order and security are only words which the colonels use from time to time?they have no real meaning to the people. I realize that sending an American ambassador to Greece does not neces- sarily mean that this country approves of the present government. But most cer- tainly if we do not send an ambassador? if the United States would postpone ac- tion on confirmation of Ambassador Tasca for some of the reasons I have outlined, it would certainly be construed as an expression of our disapproval of the junta regime. I suggest confirmation be delayed. It is time to stop showing cordiality and friendship for the colonels, to stop ex- changing visits and honors with them, and to start openly showing some sym- pathy for the people who are striving to restore the democratic freedoms that we hold so dear in our own country. The U.S. Senate should not at this juncture in history be in the process of confirming a U.S. ambassador to Greece. Mr. GOODELL. Mr. President, will the Senator from Utah yield? Mr. MOSS. I am happy to yield to the Senator from New York. Mr. GOODELL. I want to express my gratification for the very fine statement the Senator has made. We are in essential agreement. I think the only area where we may differ is on the question of sending an ambassador. I agree with the Senator's comment that the next 3 months will be critical in Greece, that unless steps are taken to ease the repression there and move toward democracy, Greece may well enter into a bloodbath and revolution, one that will be difficult to control, be- cause revolutions never can be controlled. I think it is imperative, under those circumstances, that we have an ambas- sador there at the highest level putting the pressure on the Greek junta, talking to the top leaders in Greece, expressing our concern. I would emphasize that although the Council of Europe has expelled Greece, as the Senator has indicated, the Euro- pean nations who are members of the Council of Europe have ambassadors to Greece in Athens and they are there, as I hope our Ambassador will be there, to express the deep concern of the peoples they represent over what is happening in Greece. The record should be made clear, al- though the Senator and I differ on the timing of this approval, that I certainly, and I think the Senate, in approving the nomination?if that does occur?are not In any way indicating to the Greek junta our approval of their policies. As a matter of fact, it is precisely the opposite. I think that our Ambassador should now go there to indicate our disapproval at the highest levels. The Senator, who has just spoken so eloquently, thinks that we should not send an ambassador because that would be a means to indicate our disapproval. Thus, our only difference is in the way we express our disapproval of the Greek junta. I thank the Senator from Utah for yielding to me. Mr. MOSS. I thank the Senator from New York. He and I are in agreement that U.S. disapproval of the junta should be demonstrated. Our only difference is whether the signal has been adequately given by a rather temporary delay or whether it should be delayed further, I am perfectly willing to acknowledge that such a signal has been given so that the people of Europe, and the Greek peo- ple themselves, understand that there is no degree of approval but, as a matter of fact, high disapproval of the regime of the junta over there, and that now we are sending our representative there to have a spokesman on hand to deal di- rectly with the junta. As I say, this may possibly be so, but I have felt that it is so close, still, to the action taken by the Council of Europe, that perhaps our disapproval should be underlined even more clearly. One thing that disturbed me a bit in talking with Mr. Mitsotakis, and with others, is that there is a feeling among some of the Greeks that the United States has some sympathy for the junta; that, in fact, it has been said?rumors spread so easily?that the junta would not stay in power at all were not the Pentagon in league with it. We know that that is not true, but I am wondering whether we should not send the signal in more clearly than we have, that it is not true that we support the junta in any way. But in either event, I think having this colloquy on the floor and this expression made in the U.S. Senate is helpful in- deed to try to get word to the Greek people that we have great affection and sympathy for the Greek people; we would like to see them have control of their own destiny and have democracy reestablished in their country; and we are hopeful that in some way we can help them back to controlling their own des- tiny democratically, without having a terrible blood bath, which may be immi- nent. Mr. GOODELL. Mr. President, will the Senator yield further? Mr. MOSS. I yield. Mr. GOODELL. I think the Senator will agree with me that, in any event, Mr. Tasca should understand that the U.S. Senate wants him to go to Greece as an ambassador?if his nomination is approved?to express, in the strongest terms, our disapproval of the suppres- sion and brutality occurring in Greece under the junta. I think we can agree that whether the decision to send an ambassador to Greece was wise or not will be judged by the action taken by Mr. Tasca as Ambassador in Athens. If he goes over there and makes our voice stronger and clearer to the junta, then it will have been a valu- able contribution in sending the U.S. Ambassador to Greece now. I think the Senator and I would agree that, assuming the Ambassador goes, that is what we want him to do, and we hope the State Department and the President give him that kind of instruction. Mr. MOSS. I heartily concur with the Senator and thank him for that expres- sion. I rather expect that the confirmation of Mr. Tasca will be confirmed. I hope there is not the least shadow of reflection of his ability or integrity coming from my remarks, because I think he is a fine, able man; but I concur with the Senator that, if he goes there, he should go there with a message, as strongly expressed as can be expressed, that we do not sympa- thize with the actions of the Greek junta; we sympathize with the Greek people and we want freedom and civil rights reestablished in Greece at the earliest possible time and without a blood bath. Mr. GOODELL. If the Senator will yield, that point, I think, was made un- mistakably clear the day the U.S. Senate reversed the decision on military aid to Greece; we immediately thereafter, and unanimously, passed a provision that de- cried what was going on in Greece and urged the Greek Government to move back to democracy. That was a unani- mous action. Mr. MOSS. Mr. President, I yield the floor. Mr. BAYH. Mr. President, I listened with a great deal of interest to the col- leagues from Utah and New York, and I find myself in complete agreement with their general thoughts. I see, once again, however, that it is possible for reason- able men to pursue the same goal by different means. I find, on weighing all of the facts, that my colleague from Utah, has made an equally persuasive case. At this time, I, personally, am op- posed to Senate consideration of the nomination of Henry J. Tasca as U.S. Ambassador to Greece. But I am inclined Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 S 17230 Approved For ReleeWeflig2/02_: CIAJT500031000_030012000379 KE ATE December [9, 1919 to lay aside my personal inclinations in the interest of Senate procedure. I do not question the qualifications of Ambassador Tasca. It has been pointed out that he has served with distinction as Ambassador to Morocco and has proved his abilities as a diplomat dur- ing a long foreign service career. I op- pose consideration of his nomination at this time for the same reasons I op- posed the amendment of my distin- guished colleague, the Senator from Con- necticut (Mr. Dorm) , striking section 508A from the foreign aid authorization bill, as a demonstration to the Greek Government, the Greek people, and the world, that the Congress of the United States does not approve of the prac- tices of the current military regime in the cradle of democracy. This regime's policy of torture and denial of constitutional rights ha S been a matter of deep concern to me, not only as a 17.S. Senator, but as a citizen of the United States. In a country where we take for granted those rights, it is difficult for us to imagine a normal political life without them. Yet the Greek people are now suffering from the delib- erate denial of basic haulm and i3olitical rights. I would remind the Senate once again, of the action taken November 18 by the European Commission of Human Itights, when it delivered a scathing report to the Council of Europe detailing its findings that the regime in Greece has allowed torture to be used against its political op- ponents "as an administrative practice" and that the regime has failed to prove its claim that the suspension of civil lib- erties had been justified by an Internal emergency. As has also been pointed out, on De- cember 12 Greece withdrew from the Council of Europe but only wheT. :it be- came clear that she would be su pended until democracy and human rights were restored to the Greek people. As I pointed out a moment or tWo ago, the only means available to the Senate to express its disapproval is to lay this nomination over for a short period of time. Then when we come back early in January, we could quickly confirm the nomination of this man, who is fully capable of pursuing the course the Sena- tor from New York has suggeSted he should pursue and that, hopehiliy, he will. If he was not so inclined, t think, after reading the debate and be4ng in- formed, he certainly will be. I appreciate, however, the unusual nature of this pro- cedure and so I shall not press the mat- ter. Mr. President, would it be in oder to address a parliamentary inquiry at this time? The PRESIDING OFFICER. tt is in order. Mr. BAYH. As part of the advice and consent authority that is set forth in the Constitution, is it possible, in confirming the nomination of an ambassador, for the Senate to fix a time certain orl Which the confirmation of the norhination would take place? The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Chair would be of the opinion that that would not be within the province of the Senate. The Senate has the duty at this time of passing on the confirmation, yes or no. Mr. BAYH. May I address a further parliamentary inquiry? The PRESIDING OFFICER. A parlia- mentary inquiry is in order. Mr. BAYH. Is it possible for the Senate to fix any condition, such as a time at which the Ambassador would present his credentials? In other words, would it be possible for us to advise and consent with the stipulation that the credentials would not be presented before January 15, for example, as a display of our displeasure with the Greek regime? The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Chair is advised that that would not be in or- der. The-Senate has the rigIat to confirm or reject. If it wishes to postpone con- sideration, it has that authority; but as long as it acts on a confirmation affirma- tively, then it is within the province of the State Department to give the nomi- nee his assignment. Mr. BAYH. appreciate the Chair's clarifying this point. I realize that it would be possible for the Senate to move to defer considera- tion. After listening to the discussion be- tween the Senator from New York and the Senator from Utah, though, the Sen- ator from Indiana is inclined to follow the course of action expressed by the Senator from New York. I do not want it to appear that the Senate is refusing to cooperate with President Nixon in the formulation of his traditional foreign policy prerogatives. I wish it were pos- sible for us to cooperate with the Presi- dent and still indicate our displeasure with the Greek regime. It is not possible according to the Chair's ruling. Mr. PFlrj, Mr. President, it is tragic that on the same day that Greece was forced out of the Council of Europe for its repressive policies and its practice of torture, the Senate voted to continue the authorization of military assistance to that unhappy country. It was argued here on the Senate floor that we should not interfere in the domestic affairs of a friendly nation? and the definit on of not interfering is that we should continue the authorizing of many millions of dollars of military support and weapons for that country. My definition of not interfering is "doing nothing." But, I guess what we have now is the new Alice in Wonder- land look?not to interfere means to have a massive aid program?to inter- fere is not to have such a massive aid program. Be that as it may, the net re- sult of the actions of the Council of Eu- rope and of our Senate is that the Greek people now realize that the Greek re- gime is abhorrent to the Western Eu- ropean democracies, but the object of ac- ceptance and sit:31)0ft by our own Nation. From reactions I have already re- ceived, I understand that the United States is now, more than ever, identified by the Greek people as a supporter and an advocate of the junta. One immediate result of this action is the statement by Col. George Papadopoulos, the present Greek chief of government, to the effect that no elections will be held in the fore- seeable future. What a slap in the face to the United States is this announcement coming as it does, immediately after our action in the Senate that specifically authorized the continuation of military assistance, by knocking out my provision specifically denying continuation of such assistance in the committee bill. Now let it not be thought that we are turning the other cheek when, in a very few moments, we confirm the nomination of Henry Tasca as our Ambassador to Greece. I am confident he will make a fine am- bassador, but he certainly will have a difficult mission. The Pentagon approves of the Greek Government as an efficient government and one which provides agreeable ports of call for our military forces. The execu- tive branch of our Government has never vigorously expressed itself; as a whole it really has a "no policy" policy. Our Sen- ate is divided as shown by the 45-to-38 vote last week. And our people as a whole have a justified revulsion to the Greek regime. In voting for the nomination of Henry Tasca, I wish him luck in an exceedingly difficult position. May he have success in relaying the abhorrence of the American people for the practices of the recalci- trant Greek regime and in nudging it back onto the path of civilization, democ- racy, and freedom. And may he particu- larly succeed in reducing or?and this would be truly wonderful?in eliminat- ing the use of torture by the junta as a matter of administrative practice. Finally, in voting for the confirma- tion of Henry Tasca's nomination, I am following what I have always believed is the correct policy when it comes to hav- ing diplomatic relations with a foreign government: The more a.bhorent the re- gime, the more we dislike the regime, the more we disapprove of the regime, the more important it is to have tela level representation at that regime's capital. If we want to tangibly express our dis- approval, let us not do so just in word, but let us off our aid, because by doing that, we hurt that regime; but by not having top level representation, we are simply cutting Off our nose to spite our face, and I do not think this serves our national interest. I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD the news story from Athens, headlined, "Greece's Pre- mier Bars Early Vote: Defies Euro- peans," written by Alvin Shuster and published in the New York Times of December 16, 1969. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the New York Times, Dec. 16, 19691 GREECE'S PREMIER BARS EARLY VOTE; DEFIES EUROPEANS; HE Banana's ASIDE COUNCIL'S CONCERN? SAYS R,EGIME WILL RULE IN- DEFINITELY (By Alvin Shuster) ATHENS, December 15.?Premier George Papadopoulos tonight ruled out any possi- bility of early elections in Greece and insisted that the aims of the army-backed Govern- ment must be met first. In an unyielding speech, which made no mention of any new liberalizing measures, the 51-year-old Premier said that the Govern- Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 - December 19, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE S 17231 ment would continue indefinitely to exercise all executive and legislative powers of the country. He said this was because "the people will it, because it is in their interest and because it is history's command." Brushing aside the concern in the Council of Europe about the failure to announce an election date, Mr. Papadopoulos said: "This is a matter that concerns only us because it concerns our life and the life of our nation." IIE WARNS ALL/ES He warned Greece's Western allies to be- ware of the threat of democracy in their own nations. He said that Greece with drew from the Council of Europe last Friday rather than be suspended because she could not take orders on how to run her affairs, Greece has become accustomed to bitterness from her allies, he added. Mr. Papadopoulos, who led the army coup d'etat on April 21, 1967, spoke to the nation on radio and television from the chamber once used by Greece's Parliament. It was an emotional address, delivered in high-pitched tones before an audience of about 500, in- cluding Aristotle S. Onassis, the multimil- lionaire shipowner. The Premier insisted that Greece now had a form of government that "in substance in- sures total freedom to the individual, except those working against public order and se- curity." The people gave a mandate to the Government by their approval in September, 1968, of a new Constitution he said. PREMIER LISTS GOALS Most of the provisions of the Constitution dealing with civil and personal liberties re- main suspended under existing martial law. The Government is now preparing a series of special laws aimed at eventual implementa- tion of the constitutional provisions. In discussing national elections, Mr. Pa- padopoulos said the Government would give one year's notice before elections were held to enable new political parties to be formed. He said that national elections would follow local elections, but he offered no timetable for local elections either. As necessary requirements for elections, the Premier listed a series of goals. Among them was the reorganization of Government machinery, the "cleansing of social institu- tions" and improvements in the economic, social and political areas. "Unless these are achieved and the country becomes healthy and capable of accepting the constitutional reforms, we shall not proceed to elections," Mr. Papadopoulos said. HE TERMS REGIME A SAVIOR Throughout the speech, Mr. Papadopoulos likened Greece to a ship whose "crew had become cowardly in a storm" and had turned to the armed forces for help. His Govern- ment merely wants to lead Greece to a safe harbor, he said. "Yet some of our friends are treating us like pirates rather than saviors of a ship, either because they want to impose their will or out of solidarity with the old deposed crew," he said. "But the Greek people have always shouted 'hands off us' whenever for- eign powers try to impose their will." The Premier urged Greeks to buy fewer foreign goods In favor of more Greek prod- ucts "as a sign of faith in your country." He also said that businessmen should be con- tent to hold their prices. "Public order and security," he said, "shall be preserved at the present level." Mr. CHURCH. Mr. President, I com- mend the distinguished Senator from Rhode Island for his remarks. He has ex- pressed my views so much better than I could express them that I simply asso- ciate myself with the address he has just made. Mr. McGOVERN. Mr. President, what is the pending business? The PRESIDING OFFICER. The pending question, in executive session, is whether the Senate shall advise and consent to the nomination of Henry J. Tasca as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the United States to Greece. Mr. McGOVERN. Mr, President, I quite agree with the statement of the Senator from Rhode Island (Mr. FELL) with ref- erence to the .qualifications of the nomi- nee, Mr. Tasca. I am sure that he is a man who will bring good qualifications to the appointment. But I should like the Senate to know that I was one of the Senators who joined with the Senator from Utah (Mr. Moss), the Senator from North Dakota (Mr. BURDICK) and others In asking the leadership to hold up on this nomination for a period of time, not because I was interested in blocking the nomination, but simply to signify to the people of Greece and, indeed, to world public opinion, the concern that many of us have about the Greek military dic- tatorship that has, at least temporarily, destroyed democracy in Greece. I think it is a great loss to the cause of freedom around the world that Greece, which has symbolized throughout his- tory so much of the spirit of freedom and human dignity, has fallen under the control of the group of military dictators who brutally seized power some time ago. I regret very much what I regard as a serious mistake by the Senate, a few days ago, in approving the amendment offered by the senior Senator from Connecticut (Mr. Dorm) which in effect lends Ameri- can approval to this undemocratic mili- tary regime in Athens, by extending American military aid. I do not know of anything that we could have done that would have been more unwise than using American military power and the moral endorsement behind that resolution to signify to the world that, somehow, we are interested in preserving this regime that is now in control in Athens. I very frankly hope that regime will be swiftly replaced, that it will be a short- lived experience for the people of Greece, and that a more democratic system can be restored in that part of the world. It is the sheerest kind of hypocrisy for this great country of ours to talk about ad- vancing the cause of freedom, and then use the tax funds of the people of this country to maintain in power the kind of undemocratic, unfree, and unrepre- sentative regime that now holds the peo- ple of Greece in its grip. I very earnestly hope that this Ambas- sador whose nomination we are about to confirm will use whatever influence he has to keep our Government fully in- formed on the realities of what is taking place in Greek politics today, so that we will not make the kind of tragic errors in the future that we made on this floor a few days ago when we called for the extension of American military support to that kind of a government. What we did is a defeat for freedom; and I vote for this ambassadorial nomination only on the grounds that I hope that by main- taining diplomatic relations we will come to a better understanding of the tragic forces that are now in play in what was once a free nation. Mr. PELL. Mr. President, will the Sen- ator yield for a question? Mr. McGOVERN. I yield. Mr. FELL. Was the Senator as struck as I was, in the course of that short de- bate, by the weird argument I have just cited, wherein one of our colleagues said we ought to be very reluctant to appear to be dictating to or meddling in the inter- nal affairs of other governments of the world? Apparently his definition of not interfering or meddling is that we should continue this huge military assistance program to Greece. However, if we stop this military as- sistance, then we are meddling and inter- fering. What can we do to let the Ameri- can people know that we are interfering by sending military assistance? This is the point that the press and the country has lost sight of, that we have a new Alice in Wonderland definition of interfere. And under this new definition, to interfere is not to send massive sup- port but to let a nation alone, and not to interfere is to send massive support. Mr. McGOVERN. Mr. President, I could not agree with the Senator more. It is an indication of how far we have come in assuming that military aid to right-wing governments represents an investment in freedom. It does not repre- sent an investment in freedom. It repre- sents a setback for it. It does not represent an investment in the cause of self-determination. The same logic that the Senator has brought out here so well is one of the things that has concerned me for many years about our involvement in South- east Asia. We talk about our interference there as advancing the cause of self-determi- nation. The truth of the matter is that the presence of American military might in such overwhelming force in Vietnam is the very factor that is preventing the process of self-determination from as- serting itself. It is preventing the local indigenous political force from assert- ing itself in South Vietnam. And that is true with reference to the point the Senator makes in Greece. I commend him for making what seems to me to be a valuable contribution to our understanding. Mr. CHURCH. Mr. President, will the Senator yield? Mr. McGOVERN. I yield. Mr. CHURCH. Mr. President, does not the Senator feel that our policy toward Greece is a rather frightening example of how close we are coming to the use of "doublethink" as described in Orwell's "1984." The language we use to label our policies is the very opposite of their reality. This is true of Greece and, as the Senator points out, the same tendency is to be found in our semantic treat- ment of our massive intervention in Vietnam. More and more, we use words that are, In fact, the opposite of reality. And this was the very phenomenon forecast by Orwell in projecting the kind of totali- tarian state he anticipated would over- take us by 1984. Sometimes I think we are halfway Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 S 17232 there, and moving ever nore rapidly in that direction. Mr. McGOVERN. I think the Senator's point is well taken with reference to dou- ble think. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE December 1- 9, 1 94b9 We have seen the sante kind of phe- nomena with reference to our domestic situation here in terms of nationol pri- orities. The Senator from Rhode Island and the Senator from Idaho know that we have just come from a discussion as to what should be the proper response to 1 the President's statement that he is 1 going to veto the appropriation bill on health, education, and welfare on the ground that it is inflationary. Congress, as I understand it, has in- creased by $1.5 billion the amount of ap- propriations for these re? !ous programs ithat relate to the health, education, and lwelfare of the American people. And that I is said to be inflationary. Yet, when we come to the military sector of the lnidget, the Congress of the United Stat ee has reduced the amount ref:vested by the President by more than $5 billion. Presumably, that is an anti-inflation- ary effort on the part of Congreas. We have reduced and taken out of citeula- tion some $5 billion that would other- wise have been spent for military Our- poses. Yet, we are accused of adding to the inflationary pressures in the coun- try because we have added a modest 4mount to the programs 4 signed to im- prove the health, educatiou, and welfare Of the American people. This relates directly again to the point that the Senator from Rhode Island and the Senator from Idaho haee been Mak- ing, that we have come to the viewPoint where we think a military investment of any kind, if it is an :iivestment in a military dictatorship that suppresses the freedom of its own people, represents an investment in the cause of freedond and that money spent to improve the quality of our own people is dangerous and in- flationary. That is double thinking.1 1 1 Mr. CHURCH. I concur wholeheart- , eally. 1 Mr. PELL. Mr. President, is It not the responsibility of a free pre ,3 to express clearly what the thought is? And When we use "Alice in Wonderls.nd" looking glass talk, it seems to me that there is an obligation to tell the taxpayers ex- aptly what is meant so that when scene- one says, "We shall not interfere or meddle in the affairs of another natiOn," the story should say, "By not interfering is ' meant sending massive iailitary i as- sistance to that nation." I think the people as a whole, if they knew the Alice in Wonderland chatter that we sometimes engage in wOuld laugh at us. And that would bring us back to using the words we should nse. iVIr. McGOVERN. Mr. President, that world show that foreign aid is getling "c riouser and curiouser every day.' iir. PELL. Mr. President, I would make that point that we in pulahe office are opinion formers and that those who in- terpret our words have a responsibilitY to clarify some of the doubletalk. THREATENED VETO OF AN APPROPRIATION BILL Mr. HARRIS, Mr. President, as in leg- islative session, I would like to say a few words about the President's threat to veto the HEW appropriation bill and also to veto the tax reform bill. Mr. DOT P. Mr. President, a parlia- mentary inquiry. Mr. HARRIS. Mr. President, I believe I have the floor. I did not yield it for that purpose. If the Senator wants me to yield for a question, I will be glad to do so. The PRESIDING OrrICER. Does the Senator from Oklahoma yield to the Sen- ator from Kansas for the purpose of making a parliamentary inquiry? Mr. DOLE. Mr. President, a parliamen- tary inquiry. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Sen- ator will state it. Mr. DOLE. MI. President, do I under- stand that we are in executive session? The PRESIDING OFFICER. We are in executive session A Senator can speak as in legislative session on request. Mr. DOLE. Mr. President, may I in- quire as to the pending business? The PRESIDING OrriCER. The pending business is the confirmation of the nomination of Mr. Henry J. Tasca to be Ambassador Extraordinary and Pleni- potentiary to Greece. Mr. HARRIS. Mr. President, the con- sumer price index for November was just announced. It showed the steepest jump in consumer prices since last June. The actual increase was 0.5 percent. The .seasonally adjusted annual rate for November was 7.2 percent. Mr. President, the steepest increase was in food. The food increase was 0.7 percent, with particularly high increases in the consumer price index for vege- tables, eggs, clothing, home ownership costs, and services. Also, the wholesale price index has just been announced. And it shows that in the wholesale price index we have just seen the biggest jump in 6 months. It includes a 3-percent increase in food costs. Eggs, for example, went up 23 per- cent. Turkeys, just in time for Christ- mas, went up 6.1 percent. Vegetables went up 34 percent on the wholesale price index. There is no question that inflation is a tremendous worry for this country. It is one thing which should concern every one of us. However, I do not think that the President of the United States has properly placed the issue before the peo- ple of the United States. The Congress of she United States has been fiscally resporsible. It has lowered the total appropriations on all appro- priation bills which have been sent to it by more than $5 billion less than the President's budget. More importantly, this Congress has decided to begin to get the priorities of this country straight by reducing by more than $5 billion the amount of money the President asked for military appropriations, and it de- cided that it wanted to do more for the people of this country in health and edu- cation by raising that appropriation by approximately $1.5 billion. I say that if the President of the United States wants to veto that bill, then Congress ought to override his veto, either now or when we return after the first of the year. I am proud that the conference com- mittee on the tax bill, according to this morning's report, has that bill about in balance in revenue raised and revenue spent with the bill which came to us from the House of Representatives and to the Senate floor from the Finance Committee, of which I am a member. I am proud, too, that the conference committee on the tax bill has decided to raise the personal exemption and has decided to raise social security by 15 percent. In his recent press conference, the President said that if those two items were in the bill, he would veto it. I say it should be sent to him. If he does veto it, that veto should be overriden by Congress. Mr. President, I hope the President will use the influence of his office, as he has not done up to this moment, in wage and price decisions. I hope he will at long last use the influence of his of- fice to bring down these scandalously high interest rates. We will have a conference report be- fore us today, handled by the distin- guished Senator from Wisconsin (Mr. PROXMIRE ) , which will provide the Pres- ident additional power to hold down in- terest rates?powers similar to those which were given to the President dur- ing the Korean war. The President of the United States, unfortunately, has op- posed those additional powers for him- self. I hope that once we give him those powers, as I think we will do today, he will use them to bring interest rates down?interest rates which have risen to the highest level in 100 years and which themselves are the greatest fuel for the fires of inflation that presently exist. Mr. DOLE. Mr. President, will the Senator yield? Mr. HARRIS. I yield. Mr. DOLE. First, I commend the Sen- ator for recognizing that we do have in- flation. We have had it, as the Sen- ator knows, for several years. Mr. HARRIS. May I say that I have spoken on this issue practically every day, and I am glad that the Senator from Kansas also is concerned about inflation. I do not recall how he voted on every amendment when the tax bill was be- fore the Senate. Most of his colleagues rather overwhelmingly voted against ad- ditional tax reforms which would have Increased the revenue raised by that bill and for most of the measures which lost revenue and were adopted. But I am glad to say that it seems from this morning's press reports that the con- ference has gotten that bill back in about the same kind of revenue spent-revenue lost balance that existed when it came from the Finance Committee. Mr. DOLE. Let me pursue my question. I recognize that the Senator from Okla- homa may be speaking now as a Senator and also as the chairman of the National Democratic Party. I conclude, therefore, Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 M0648 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? Extensions of Remarks December 12, 1969 with a number of different management phi- losophies. Even today, there are some twenty-eight individual railroads which provide some type of inter-city service. While this is a dra- matically fewer number of railroads than ex- isted previously, it still represents the re- gional characteristic of our railroads. Each railroad, as you can see from these examples, has :ts own parameters of track. The whole network is a total of its components?in this case not something efficient by itself. A through-train run by more than one railroad is subject to the individual vaguaries of each management. So basic a process as check- through baggage, for instance, may be chal- lenged by a carrier more interested in com- muter service. Furthermore, equipment pro- curement loses economics of scale when each road purchases a small lot with widely vary- ing specifications. Even two or three discon- tinuance proceedings involved in individual sections of one train reflect the highly re- gionalized nature of the inter-city system. Historically the highmark in rail passenger service came just after World War II, with the decline beginning in the 1950's. It was during that period that the competitive ef- fects from other modes began to be reflected in fewer number of passengers and lower rev- enues. As losses attributable to inter-city trains increased, the common reaction was to reduce those losses by reducing costs. This was accomplished by the singularly narrow method of eliminating one train at a time. Each whole train discontinued under Section 13-A was a reduction in total costs equal to the cost of that train. Of course, the ancillary result was a rapid decline in the number of trains and level of service. It also precipitated a more than pro- portionate decline in the volume of equip- ment ordered and delivered, and provided the impetus for a trend to the repair of equip- ment aimed at preserving safety often to the abandonment of comfort. A continually deteriorating financial situation simply in- hibited continued investment in passenger equipment. The twenty year decline in inter-city serv- ice developed in lieu of a national transpor- tation policy. Each competing mode. devel- oped in response to many demands, especially in relation to public activity in its behalf. The highway trust fund bolstered the Inter- state Highway System and the Federal Gov- ernment has the responsibility for building and operating commercial airports. Rail pas- senger service, throughout, remain independ- ent of the changing factors which affected its position. The decline in intercity equipment has more than proportionately reflected the decline in the service itself. The fleet is old and generally tends to be deteriorating at least from the viewpoint of comfort. The last significant orders were delivered in 1956? fourteen years ago. This creates the situation where, even if there is a surplus of equip- ment for current operations, its age and con- dition is questionable. Obviously, a public investment program would require a census of equipment using a standard classification schedule. Our basic objective was to create a desir- able level of service, while correcting exist- ing mistakes. We then determined the mini- mal number of cars which would be needed for this basic system. For the purpose of de- termining the costs of a program for re- habilitating and replacing the inter-city fleet, we super-imposed existing equipment on the equipment which would be necessary for a basic, desirable level of service. Because It would take up to ten years to completely replace the existing fleet, we assumed a phased five-year program in which to begin rejuvenating inter-city service. The difficulty in measuring inter-city pas- sengers is carried through in attempting to determine which equipment is used for inter- city travel. Our research, for example, showed a 5% to 15% difference in the num- ber of inter-city cars derived from two relia- able sources?AAR Statistics and the Official Rail Equipment Register. Regardless of the overlapping in counting, it was determined that a sufficient volume of equipment exists to begin a rehabilitation/replacement pro- gram. We assumed that the present level of service, including existing equipment, would be the beginning of a comprehensive upgrad- ing program over an extended period of time. On this basis we established two distinct types of service, depending on the unique demand for each. Conceptually, short-haul service is based on a deviation from existing inter-city serv- ice. The key factor was to avoid extended transporation services connecting a series of cities over long distances. It is based on the concept that rail transportation is more com- petitive in providing frequ6ht service between two discrete points. Such intensive short- haul services involves creation of city-pair links or routes. It creates a shuttle-type effect, with at least one daily-pair of trains between each city pair. In order to determine economic demand for the high level of Investment. required, we assumed a short-haul network based on population concentrations, or Standard Met- ropolitan Statistical Areas with populations in excess of 500,000. Axiomatically, a large proportion of the demand for inter-city travel will come from these areas. Of approximately fifty-five population centers, excluding intra-Northeast Corridors, there are some 75 pairs of cities generally 300 miles or less from each other which form the basic passenger network which can be expected to generate competitive demand for train service. This short-haul intensive service will re- quire at least one daily pair of trains be- tween each city grouping. Since this is the beginning of a rejuvenated network, it may be anticipated that other city-pairs will gen- erate demand for additional daily trains. The long-haul network is primarily de- signed for those routes for which there is a unique demand. The New York to Florida route, for instance, can operate daily at a profit. Some of the Western routes, which are operated at higher capacity during the summer "months, may require only three- times-a-week service during the winter. The sinallest number of cars required for the basic_ intensive service networks is '700 coaches, 100 lounges, 300 foodservice and 100 sleepers; totaling 1,200. (Throughout, we were concerned with main line coaches, diners, lounges, and sleepers. It was assumed there were enough locomotives available and declining mail and baggage uses obviates the need for more headend cars. We also excluded the North- east corridor because of the existing level of investment.) Regardless of the source of information, it is obvious there are sufficient numbers of cars in existence?between 4,500 and 5,000 coaches, diners, lounges, and sleepers. Their usable condition, however, is one of the most speculative questions to be asked. We arbitrarily determined that to be serv- iceable, some would require light rehabilita- tion and the majority medium to heavy re- habilitation. Absolute cost data for inter-city equip- ment is extremely ambiguous. Existing equipment is anywhere from 15 to 60 years old. Even the newest equipment would likely require $10,000 to $70,000 each to re- habilitate. While these costs are low relative to new car costs, after rebuilding it would still be aging equipment. An accelerated ap- plied research program may provide signifi- cant improvements in design and facilities for new equipment. Further, it is widely assumed that most equipment physically lasts less than the 25-30 years depreciation allowed for accounting purposes. With the 1,200 cars needed, and cost of light rehabilitation and medium to heavy rehabilitation, it would require $50.2 million to rehabilitate only 1,200 cars in the existing fleet. However, if there is an alternative invest- ment possibility, and there was only total replacement required, assuming 1,200 cars to begin rehabilitating the network, it would take $345 million to build the new equip- ment, and we have estimated somewhere ap- proximately $4 million for a one-year research program. New equipment costs can only be esti- mated on the basis of the few coaches built in the last ten years and by comparison with commuter cars now being built. While new cars would be expensive, they would be new and incorporate new configurations de- veloped during the applied research program. In addition, it may be assumed that new equipment would reduce maintenance costs. We should like to emphasize the perspec- tive both of these cost charts are to be put in. In the first case, they are to form the nucleus of a rejuvenated system and do not represent the total of all passenger equip- ment which will be ncessary over a long- range program. They are designed for a five year period and are constructed to be alternative, as either individually or in an evolving program where some cars are rehabilitated while new cars are ordered and delivered. This will give the government the option of phasing pro- grams as events develop. Because short-haul Intensive service is a dparture from exist- ing concepts, we assume the need for de- parture from complementary components of inter-city service. Short trains incorporating new technologies will probably reduce man- power demands per individual train. New technologies will also be required if the system is to be rejuvenated. The most current events point to a change in railroad research and development methods. The pre- ponderance of thought in this country has been towards such exotic developments as the tracked air cushion vehicle. A consortium of three North American companies, con- versely, recently acquired the rights to a British process which would permit speeds up to 150 m.p.h. on existing track. The im- portant aspect is that it allows high speeds with existing basic configurations. For these same reasons we suggest an in- tense one year, $4 million applied research program. TEN CONGRESSMEN JOIN IN STATEMENT ON GREECE HON. DON EDWARDS OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Friday, December 12, 1969 Mr. EDWARDS of California. Mr. Speaker, the military dictatorship of Greece stands convicted today before the world by its own action in withdrawing from the Council of Europe. The leaders of that dictatorship, minutes before it faced a verdict by 17 European nations on its acts of torture and oppression, pleaded guilty to those charges by fleeing the scene and the council. Let there be no mistake, the dictatorship recognized it could not afford a verdict from honest men and honest nations. It is becoming increasingly obvious that the days of this dictatorship are numbered. The earlier worldwide con- demnation of its oppressive rule by the European Commission on Human Rights, as well as by the resolution of the NATO Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Dcember 12, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? Extensions basic mistake to attempt to solve the trans- portation passenger problems of this coun- try by any single mode. Dr. Nelson, formerly of 00T, has said, "There cannot be effective coordination of transportation at the Fed- eral level so long as the Bureau of Public Roads countt up benefits and coats of high- way systems only, and allocates funds for highway construction on that basis; so lo g as the Federal Aviation Administration re* ons benefits and cotts of air systems on y, and grants funds for airport construe- tioi on that basis; so long as the Federal Ra lroad Administration considers rail sys- teis only and acts on that basis, and to lo g as the Corps of Engineers totes up bene- fits and costs of waterway systems only, and expends waterway construction funds on th t bassi's. . ." obviously, development of a national policy is a long range requirement for pas- senger problems that face us today. Condi- tions encouraging air and highway travel over the past 20 years have changed cpei- siderably in the recent past. Expanding're- qui ements for individual travel have catised a s turation of many of our larger airperts an4 clogged highway access to larger Gillet du ng critical periods. Highway accidents an4 aircraft near misses have caused con- cer across the country. Real estate in andf aro d our expanding larger cities is eithe ast nomically expensive or not available + meet requirements for future air and hig way travel. In the meantime, rail passex1gr capacity hat been drastically curtailed, the the past 2 years. n objective look at all modes of passel\ ger transportation is required as soon as pos- sib e so that this nation can meet its require- me its for transporting people by establish- ing a total system which includes all insides and in which each mode complements eaCh other mode without duplication effort. Siieh a system would provide for meeting all pee- seneer requirements at least cost to the goes eminent. It would require an objectice real- locetion of governmental transportation funds to support the capacity required of each mode. Without the long range objec- tivOs of a national policy, problems are han- dled only on a piecemeal basis and on the basis of solving the problems of each Mode separately. This is not to say that all action should be suspended by the government pending an ideal solution to the problem. Some constructive emergency treatment is needed now. Passenger movement problems are net static. At a point in time wherehighways and air terminals are facing sateration with projections of increased passenger traffic in the years ahead, we stand at a threshold where rail passenger service is about to be phased out as a future capability if bet supported by the government. We should not wait for the ultimate solution of the long range studies which must be made if we 'are to have any rail passenger service left Virginia Mae Brown, chairman of the ICC, stated in a letter to Senator MagnuSon on 16 July 1969, "The past year has only subetantiated our opinion that significant seginents of the remaining intercity passen- ger service, except for service in high den- sityi population corridors such ae the noreli- easii corridor will not survive the next eew years without a major change in Federal Or carrier policies." The causes of deterioration of rail passen- ger service have been many: 1 Government support of airports and highways with very little to the railroads en- couraged movement by air and highway.; 2 Declining revenues caused many rail- roads to lose interest in carrying passengers and resulted in a deterioration of service. 3 The high cost of acquisition of neW equipment and the cost of improvement of roadbeds resulted in declining expenditures for Capital improvements. 4. Lack of planning by many railroads and lack of a national transportation policy for the movement of people caused deteriora- tion in rail service and diversions to other modes. 5. Approval of disco ntinuances in isolation without an assessment of the impact of each discontinuance on other rail schedules on a national basis resulted in poor service. As a result of our three month study, we believe it is the consensus of knowledgeable people in and out of the railroad business that if rail passenger traffic in this country is to continue at all with a level of service ac- ceptable to the public;, some kind of public support is required now. An excellent study made by the ICC "investigation of costs of intercity rail passenger service" published on 16 July 1969 indicates the seriousness of cur- rent passenger losses ts the railr aelindustry. Of eight railroads , carrying 40 per- cent of the enger load, the average less was fourt and three-quarter million dol- lars in 68. The highest loss for a single railro was almost 22 million dollars. As a es , railroads cannot be expected to make e capital investments in passenger oper- ations at this time. Unless our Government embarks on a real- istic and immediate selution to the current intercity passenger movement problem, the movement of people will soon become the bottleneck of our expanding economy. Air and road traffic will be super-saturated; rail traffic will be non-existent. Realistically, the rail mode appears to pro- vide the most promising immediate solution to intercity passenger movement. The rail- ?roads do not need more real estate. Their ' hts of way already provide access to the ers of most cities. Improvement to road- rovide freight as well as passenger es. They can move masses of people. pollutior. is minimal. The Met- rohners alre dyy have shown that the public will patronize tins with decent cars and service rather tlian be subject to the in- creasingly frequent 'delays of air traffic on short runs. If intercity rail passengeretraffic is to sur- vive at all, action by this Go ress is highly desireable. The rail passenger stem needs an immediate transfusion of sup rt if com- plete collapse is to be circumve ed. It is essential that Congress reverse th current trend of discontinuanees by provid ig guid- ance to the Interstate Commerce Commis- sion, Department of Transportati and the railroads this year ane by setti up within the DOT initial funds and mplementing organization which can earey out the desires of the Congress now and in the future. To that end and to provide a yardstick for your decisions, our study proposes for the first time we believe a basic intercity net- work which can be used for development of equipment costs now and for an expanded system as needs arise. Historically, each rail- road is an island and operates accordingly. We recommend considering all rail passenger traffic as part of a balanced national system. To that end, we hope that our suggestions will provide the Congress with a basis for concrete action this year which will be well within the parameters which long range studies may develop for future action. Any atcion by you would be a first step in rescu- ing this important national asset from fur- ther deterioration. A national asset for which I am certain there will be increasing demands in the future. -- TESTIMONY OF EDWARD D. UNGER, PRESIDENT, FEDERATED CONSULTANTS, INC., WASHING- TON, D.C. We would like to summarize the results of the study we recently performed for the RAIL Foundation of Washington, D.C.?A Prelimi- nary Plan for Up-grading the U.S. Inter-City Rail Passenger Fleet. The study generally ce beds advent Resulting of Remarks E 10647 concerned with the current and future status of inter-city rail passenger service in the United States. Specifically, we directed our attention to determining the amount of money that would be required to begIn re- habilitating and/or replacing the existing fleet, as the basis of a longer-range program of up-grading the entire fleet. In view of the many bills before this Con- gress dealing with inter-city rail passenger service, we would like to direet pertinent parts of our findings to the possibility that there may be public Investment in the in- dustry. Such public investment should be approached with the fullest knowledge avail- able and in consideration of all alternatives. To this objective we directed our efforts at examining the major historical mistakes which helped create the present situation, how, if those mistakes are rectified it would set the stage for rejuvenating competitive inter-city service, and the number and cost Of equipment for an alternative five-year pro- grain tie begin up-grading the passenger car fleet. The declinG of inter-city seevice has taken some twenty years to reach its present low level. Virtually all of the data reflecting this period indicates declines in inter-city serv- ice. There are, though, a number of identifi- able reasons for the decline; some were in- duced internally within the industry and some were created externally; it all took place, however, in lieu of a national trans- portation policy. The basic cause for the current situation Is that inter-city passenger service was not responsive to a shift in demand for it. For some seventy-five years trains were the dom- inant force of public transportation in this country. Its function varied from trans-con- tinental runs to shorter-haul inter-city runs. Regardless of distance Most trains de- veloped as extended, continueus path trans- port modes, beginning at one point and con- tinuing through a number of other points until it arrived at the end of its journey. Each train was a journey by itself, a process that worked well in the absence of competi- tion. Over-all, the growth of air and highway travel caused a change in the demand for rail travel. Geographical factors in the West and population in the East combined with competing technologies to precipitate the change. At a time when piston planes then jets were providing trans-continental trans- portation in hours, trains were still operatine every day over six routes to the West Coast. Rigid adherence to daily service in face of declining demand resulted in polarized rider- ship patterns. Transcontinental routes to the West Coast, for instance, now are most heav- ily travelled in the summer months, showing 75% capacity utilizatinn for three or four months and 30-40% _capacity for the re- maining months. Inter-city service in the more densely pop- ulated eastern part of the country declined for more complex reasons. Population became concentrated into metropolitan groupings in all regional subsections of the eastern half of the country. Not only did air and high- way travel between these metropolitan areas provide competitively substitutable modes in speed and technology but most important- ly did they compete in concept and function. Daily trains still left one city, stopped at numerous others and terminated at another city hundreds of miles_ away, In the mean- time demographic activity was generating a demand for transportation between large metropolitan areas. An increasingvolume of travel developed back and forth between the population centers. At the same time the nation was criss- crossed with standard-gauge tracks, The to- tal number of railroade operating over these tracks, however, was substantial. Railroad passengers, while physically being able to travel virtually anywhere by rail, were faced Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 December 12, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ?Extensions of Remarks E 10649 Assembly, had isolated the Greek dicta- torship. Within Greece, political leaders of all tendencies have defied the dicta- torship's threats of prison and exile to demand the restoration of free elections, democratic rights, and the rule of law. Even that small part of the population which once supported the junta has been alienated by its cruelties and its pervasive corruption, which surfaced so blatantly in the maneuvers surrounding the Onas- sis-Niarchos competition for an oil re- finery. At the same time the incompe- tence of the dictatorship has undermined the foundations of the Greek economy. Commerce and industry have stagnated, while the country has gone deeper and deeper into debt. The balance-of-pay- ments deficit for the first 7 months of 1969 exceeds that for any previous full year. The claims of the dictatorship that anarchy and a Communist takeover led it to overthrow the legal government of Greece has been disproven before the nations of the world. But now, through the actions, corruption, oppression, and torture of that dictatorship, anarchy does threaten. The question today is not whether the dictatorship will fall, but when and how, and what will happen after its departure. For if the fall of the present dictatorship Is significantly delayed, and if the dic- tatorship, by bribes and promises, should still retain enough support in the armed forces to conduct a last ditch resistance, the results could be tragic. Despite the best efforts of Greek democratic leaders to assure the reestablishment of full legal guarantees for all, the pent-up anger of the Greek people at the dictator- ship's atrocities might overflow the chan- nels of legality. At the same time, mili- tary resistance by the dictatorship would produce large-scale bloodshed as well as horrible destruction to Greece. To assure a swift and bloodless restora- tion of democracy and legality, construc- tive U.S. action at this point is necessary. Above all, it is essential that the United States take steps that will leave no doubt in the minds either of the Greek people or the dictatorship of where this country stands. In order to convince even those mili- tary elements who still back the dictator- ship because of the favors they have re- ceived and expect from it, the United States should stop immediately the ship- ment of all military aid, and join with other countries to bar the dictatorship's acquisition of weapons through com- mercial channels. The United States should recognize the stand of the Council of Europe and should support efforts to suspend Greek membership in NATO until Greece restores the democratic rites which NATO was founded to defend. The suspension of arms deliveries and rapid action by the United States also are necessary because of Papadopoulos' threat to apply for admission to the War- saw Pact. The friendship of the Greek people for the United States has been traditional. Today the United States should act be- cause of its friendship and kinship to the Greek people, act by denying the op- pressors of Greece arms and and support. In addition to making it clear in these ways that we are the allies of the Greek people and not of their oppressors, the United States could help to effect a peace- ful transition from dictatorship to de- mocracy by offering to arrange for the removal to exile of members of the pres- ent dictatorship. Such an offer would make it possible for the dictatorship to leave without widespread bloodshed and without facing the penalties it deserves for its crimes. Such an offer should re- main open only for a short period of time, for if the transition is to be peaceful it must also be swift. A continuation of the dictatorship can only lead to further bloodshed. The safe removal of the lead- ers of the dictatorship should be ar- ranged only if it is to avoid bloodshed. The nightmare in Greece may be com- ing to an end. The decision on whether it is going to end lies both in Greece and In the United States. Firm action by the United States can help now. Joining me in this statement are GEORGE BROWN, JR., PHILLIP BURTON, JOHN CONYERS, JR., BOB ECKHARDT, DON- ALD M. FftASER, ROBERT W. KASTENMEIER, ABNER J. MIKVA, BENJAMIN S. ROSEN- THAL, and WILLIAM F. RYAN. EFFECTS OF WATERSHED PROJECTS ON WILDLIFE HON. BENJAMIN B. BLACKBURN OF GEORGIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Friday, December 12, 1969 Mr. BLACKBURN. Mr. Speaker, a few days ago all Members of the House re- ceived a letter from me concerning the channelization of the Alcovy River in the State of Georgia. At that time, I pre- sented the Members of this House with an article which I wrote for Field & Stream magazine showing the adverse effects that channelization has upon wildlife. Since that time a number of Members have requested additional information concerning the adverse effects of water- shed projects upon wildlife. For the in- formation of my colleagues, I am hereby (Presented before the Association of Ameri- inserting several articles which have can Geographers at Cleveland, March 31, come to my attention which I believe 1953, by Walter M. Kollmorgen, chairman will answer any questions on this sub- of the Department of Geography, Univer- ject: sity of Kansas) STATEMENT ON SMALL WATERSHED PROJECTS In the Kansas River Basin, as well as in BEFORE TETE GEORGIA GAME AND FISH COM- many other river basins, there is an urgent MISSION, ATLANTA, GA., MARCH 20, 1969 need for alternative plans dealing with flood problems. Such plans should be submitted (By C. Edward Carlsen, regional director, Bu- to the public for acceptance or rejection, and reau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, At- they should be submitted with revealing lanta. Ga.) price tags. Under present procedure, the pub- Gentlemen, I am honored to sit with you lic is confronted with a one-or-nothing pro- today to discuss a matter of mutual con- gram and the proposed program is likely to cern, the continuing despoilation of fish be extravagant in financial cost as well as in and wildlife habitat. This is but one example land cost, i.e., land destroyed by permanent of environmental degradation which is going flooding. Geographers and other technicians on at an ever-accelerating pace all around could be very helpful to engineers with a us. Air pollution, water pollution, estuarine dam-building complex by exploring alterna- destruction, urban sprawl are the prices we tive arrangements to reduce flood losses and pay for the cultural developments accom- translating these various arrangements into panying our burgeoning human population. plans for public consideration. Some are inclined to condone all our abuses of the planet as the cost of Progress. I dis- FLOODPLAIN CANNIBALISM agree with that philosophy and so does Present programs for bringing some meas- everyone who has taken time to analyze the tire of flood protection to the Kansas River situation. An awakening public is beginning Basin?and also certain other basins?by the to appreciate that a check-rein on racehorse construction of a multiplicity of dams repre- exploitation and growth is both a good and a necessary thing, for we have come to real- ize that conservative management of our environment is essential to the survival of the human race. Conservation of the fish and wildlife re- source is a significant element of the whole. Fish and wildlife are part of the web of life. They are indicators of a healthy environ- ment which grows a healthy people. That, gentlemen, pinpoints our role and responsi- bility in the scheme of things. I remember with fondness the waterfowl and squirrel hunting the Alcovy supplied 10 and more years ago, but in the year and a half I have been back in Georgia I have not had the opportunity to become re- acquainted with the area. Therefore, I am not going to talk about the Alcovy project per se. I am not adequately familiar with it. I do, however, wish to support Director Bagby's statement concerning the time schedule as it relates to the project. My record shows that we received the watershed data sheets on July 12, 1968. And I do desire to apprise the honorable Representative Sorrels that streambottom hardwoods are indeed choice waterfowl habitat. There are two broad groups of ducks, diving ducks and puddle ducks. The diving ducks are the ones he was referring to which require a "runway" for take-off. The puddle ducks take off like quail and I am sure you are familiar with them. I wish to spend the few available minutes in talking about stream manipulation proj- ects, and in particular channelization and drainage features which destroy or set the stage for the destruction of fish and wild- life habitat. Stream modification projects have destroyed between three and four million acres of bot- tomland hardwoods of significance to water- fowl in the last 20 years in the Southeast alone. In contrast, gentlemen, we have ac- quired only 158,751 acres of wintering ground habitat for waterfowl from 1948 to 1968 in Region 4 and it has cost $12,043,325 from our Duck Stamp Funds in the process. Let me say immediately that not all of these losses have been caused by P.L. 566 projects. Public Works activities authorized by the Congress have also been involved. In some cases these and P.L. 566 projects have been intermeshed on the same stream, one complementing the other. However, the net result has been the same, alteration of fish and wildlife habitat. [From Economic Geography, Vol. 29, No. 3, July 1953] SETTLEMENT CONTROL BEATS FLOOD CONTROL Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP711300364R000300120003-9 E 10650 - CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? Extensions o sent an interesting form of floodplain c anti- fits concept. By magnifying one or several balism. This cannibalism results in part from real or imagined benefits, almost any kind of the common misconception that flood con- engineering monuments can now be just- trol means control of floods. Since no scheme fled. This is particularly true of non-reim- Yet devised will control floods in the Mid- bursable benefits because beneficiaries make west, the tantalizing mirage of "flood con- no special payments for projects developed trol" must lead to a multiplication of dam and so no account can go into the red. If Structures until major portions of our prized beneficiaries would be required to reimburse alluvial valleys lie buried under a stair-step the federal Treasury for many of or most of aeries of lakes, the benefits listed on water-control pro- Equally interesting is the fact that irre- grams, the entire program would shrink to placeable farm land is being cannibalized by size and sense overnight. replaceable sites for urban developments. From the standpoint of landforms and During the 1951 flood, according to the Corea soils, floods have a constructive as well as Of Engineers, about 90 per cent ($479,000,000) a destructive side. This should be, but is Of the damages experienced along the main not, reflected in flaod-loss estimates. Con- Stem of the Kansas River occurred in urban sider, for example, the major and unusual areas. It is this large urban lees which is now flood in the Kansas River Basin in 1951. cited to justify the greatly expanded dam- Some alluvium deposits improved terrain building program in the Kansas River Basin, and drainage; other deposits made for an To bring agreater measure of protection to improved soil stracture after shallow or these urban areas it is proposed to flood per- deep plowing. Still other deposits of proper inanently from 150,000 to 200,000 acres tof the texture will prove of value in that they in- best agricultural lands in eastern Kansas or crease the inventory of certain plant foods. in lowlands adjacent to the Kansas River. Let us briefly conceder some ofathese con- Flooding these large tracts of lowlands will structive processes. .a also blight the economy of many males of Prior to the flood, some floodplain farm- adjacent uplands which are or should be in land was uneven in elevatlpn, possibly with pockets of water, wet spot or seepage spots. Drainage problems may aye made for some waste land or lane^arginal for farming. The fill or depos24 left by the flood oblit- erated some of the uneven terrain and greatly improv this are not mine remark valued his la grass. These lowlands supply large ainounts of concentrated feeds to supplement the for- age of the uplands. It follows that the pres- ent plan of controlling floods is nothing less than a Rube Goldberg dream and one With a frightful price tag. Let us try to gauge the nature cff' the appetite of the carnivore many propOse to liberate in our flOodplains. In 1944 the Pick Plan recommended an expenditure of aosne- what less than one billion dollars to bring a reasonable measure of flood protectibu to to the entire Missouri Basin (House )ecu- ment No. 475). Since then and partictdarly t nded and elaborated that in extent, with s4 ns nce 1951 the flood control plain for the arises River Basin alone have been so ex- the result that much of the hill land and slope land has a thin veneer of soil The Flint Hills of Kansas extending north-aouth of Topeka and Manhattan are an extreme eXample of this kind of land Here lie thou- sands of acres of land with only a few inches of soil and soil material on a very shallow bedrock. Much of the remaining land hs.s a hardpan within a foot of the surface and bedrock at a depth of two to three feet. This land already presents a serious problein in Management because of the tendendy to otrerplow and overgraze. Flooding a third of the floodplain lying in this area will cre- ate an almost insoluble problem in soil con- servation. Many hundreds of upland grazing units within the area will lose a dependable sUpply of concentrated feeds. In combina- tion, these changes mean more overgraz- ing, more overplowing, more small, un- economic farming units, and, most of all, more devastating erosion. These geographic changes seem to be completely ignored by the their productivity. It other words, increased Army Engineers and also big city preasure yields from many deep-plowed fields in one groups, who seem to be totally ignorant of year paid for this special operation and where their food comes from and what kives there are those who believe that deep plow- them employment. It is urgent and eyed im- tag may become a standard practice in the perative that in the problem we face, struc- floodplain to increase soil productivity. Here tural engineering become the handmaiden of is another benefit that was not listed to geographic engineering if we are to go ror- partly offset the flood losses. ward rather than backward in a resource It is not necessary here to dwell on the conservation effort. The tragedy of the Pick- value of new alluvium of proper texture. For Sloan Plan is that it destroys more w alth several thousands of years these new deposits than it creates, and it achieves thi by made a garden spot of the Nile Valley. Now t sqnandering Several billions of dollars ofpub- that dams are regulating more and more lid money. , the flow of that stream and the silt remains COFT-BENEFIT CLARIFICATION AND RECT/FICATION behind the dams, Egypt is rapidly approach- it is submitted that geographers and ether ing productivity and fertilizer problems. Cot- t teehnicans can make a basic contribution ton also yields a shorter staple and a more to ;all water-centre' and water-management brittle fiber. Closer to home we have the ex- r. pretgrams by scrutinizing and rectifying a ample of the Missouri River floodplain be- weird structure of fairyland economics gen- tween St. Joseph, Mo., and Sioux City, Iowa. I eraaly referred to as cost-benefits ratios. This In 1952 farmers in that floodplain boasted t stricture has become particularly compli- some of the best corn and soybean yields i eated with the advent of the multiple bene- they ever experienced?early in the year , the drainage. Examples of iflicult to find. A friend of d that before the flood he d at $200 per acre, but after the flood he !valued it at $400 per acre be- cause fill of ropertextured material had solved all dr nage problems and removed ere Is an example of where d losses should also in- flood gain. as not uncom- terial of all waste land, an inventory of elude an inventory Another flood gain t mon was the deposit of san limited depth over fine-textured land. Gumbo land presents problems itaa management, drainage, and crop produc- tion. Several inches of sand deposits can readily be plowed into a gumbo soil, and In combination this mixture greatly im- proves the working qualities and produc- tivity of the soil. Even deposits of sandy material from 12 to about 24 inehes deep were mixed with formerly exposed soil ma- terial by deep plowing, that is, plowing three to four feet deep, l?lowing at a depth of about three feet cost about $30 per acre. This expense was associated with the flood loss and was therefore largely paid for by the government. Now it develops that these deep-plowed fields a.elded about 20 bushels more corn per acre than the shallow-plowed fields which had little or on fill or ,deposits. The result is that plans are now derway to deep-plow other aelds with little no deposits to rejuvenate them OS to incr f Remarks December 12, 1969 their lands were flooded and new alluvium was deposited. The flood losses were given wide publicity; the high yields that followed have hardly been noted. Here again, only the losses are stressed and magnified, partly to justify big engineering works. That too much stress has been given to land destruction is well indicated in news releases by agricultural specialists at Kansas State College, Manhattan. Under the date of Sept. 11, 1951, Manhattan, Kansas, comes this news item: "Flood a Soil Aid?K-State Scientist Says Most of the Kaw Valley Will Produce Better as a Result?Can Build Up the Sand? Only Loamy Earth Is Damaged by Deposits? Some Drainage Problems Erased. "A Kansas State College soil scientist says a large part of the land flooded by the Kan- sas river in July will produce better crops in the future because of the flood. "Describing the popular conception of soil damage as 'grossly exaggerated,' Harry C. Atkinson, associate professor of soils, said the sandy soil many persons think is ruined will be the best sweet potato and watermelon land in the valley within a short time. "Atkinson and W. A. Badgley, USDA soil scientist, have been surveying the north side of the Kansas river from Wamego to Law- rence since April. They have run a spot sur- vey of the north valley from Wamego to Lawrence, but will not complete their de- tailed survey until 1962. "Atkinson said it is too early to give fig- ures, but he estimated that only 10 to 20 per cent of the severely flooded land on which all crops were lost has been damaged by the flood. "The other 80 to 90 per cent, he said, even- tually will yield better crops. "Pictures the college has of sand deposits after the 1903 flood show they now are part of land that is selling for $400 to $600 an acre, Atkinson said. "Once the sandy soil is built up with or- ganic material it will produce alfalfa, sweet Isetatoes, corn and other crops?the same as the el_903 sandbars have been doing consist- ently,Iie said. "Sandaeleposits loam soil are detri- mental, he continued, but sand on sand makes no clilogge in the ability of the soil to produce. San ?en clay is beneficial so far as workability of the land is concerned. "'We've h othing but bad news from the flood,' he sai ? 'Besides enriching a large part of the rive valley land, it filled in some low spots th t were formerly drainage problems. Now thy will drain off.' "Where raging ter scoured and out away top soil, it deflnit y lowered the productivity and the value the soil, he said, but those washed awe ots are not completely sterile and will ? ? ? uce lighter crops. "At, . on 's survey shows much of the ..?-?ed land is richer with elements needed for crop production than it was before the flood. There is little or no need for fertilizers except on land with heavy sand deposits, he said, and they need nitrogen added," (Kansas City Times, Sept. 12, 1951.) The foregoing estimate, it should be noted, comes from a soil scientist who was in the process of studying the flooded lands. Present methods of figuring cast benefits also do not make allowances for the dis- turbed hydrological conditions which follow he impounding of large bodies of water in floodplains. Suppose a dam about 100 feet high is thrown across a floodplain and im- pounds a lake with a depth somewhat less han 100 feet. Ground-water conditions will be disturbed for many miles above the upper art of the lake and deterioration of land will follow. Moreover, the stream debauch- ng into the lake will have its gradient dis- urbed, will drop part of its sediment before t reaches the lake, and will experience a rapid process of aggradation. Before long it Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 December 11, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE T.T.S. HOUSE 01' REPRESENTATIVES, COMMITTEE ON POST OFFICE AND CIVIL 'SERVICE, ? Washington, D.C., December 8, 1969. Hon. ARNOLD OLSEN, House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. DEAR CONGRESSMAN: I am enclosing a report from Mr. Dulski which I complied at his in- structions and which deals with your voting record on the matter of postal rates from the time you began service on the Post Office and Civil Service Committee. Chairman Dulski has reviewed this report and approved it in its entirety. Sincerely yours, CHARLES E. JOHNSON, Chief Counsel and Stall Director. U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, COMMITTEE ON POST OFFICE AND CIVIL SERVICE, Washington, D.C., December 8, 1969. MEMORANDUM To: Chairman Thaddeus J. Dulski. From: Charles E. Johnson, Chief Counsel and Staff Director. Subject: Record of Representative Arnold Olsen on Postal Rates Applicable to Third-Class (Advertising) Mail. The official records of the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service disclose that Representative Olsen, throughout his tenure in the Congress, has voted consistently in support of legislation to increase postage charges for the mailing of bulk third-class (advertising) mail matter. The official reCords of the House of Repre- sentatives, as contained in the Congressional Record, disclose similar support by Mr. Olsen in votes in the House of Representatives. THE 1961 POSTAL RATE INCREASE BILL During the Committee executive sessions on the official recommendation of former Postmaster General J. Edward Day for gen- eral postal rate adjustments in August and September of 1961, the Committee had before it for official consideration H.R. '7927, in ac- cordance with unanimous agreement shown in the minutes of Executive Session No. 13, August 17, 1961. H.R. 7927 included, among other matters, an increase from 21/2 cents to 3 cents in the minimum charge per piece for regular bulk third-class (advertising) mailings. In Executive Session No. 17, on September 6, 1961, Mr. Lesinski offered, as a general amendment to H.R. 7927, the provisions of H.R. 9052. H.11. 9052 included, among other matters, provision for continuing the then- existing minimum charge per piece of 21/2 cents for regular bulk third-class mailings, with only two exceptions. The minimum charge was to be 3 cents for any bulk third- class mail on which "time value" (pref- erential) service was requested by the mailer and on any such mail that was not addressed to a specific individual address. ? The effect of this provision in HR. 9052, therefore, was to provide no minimum per piece increase in a very large proportion of third-class bulk mailings. The official Committee minutes of Execu- tive Session No. 18, on September 7, 1961, dis- close that, on the record vote on adoption of the Lesinski Amendment (including the softened bulk third-class minimum charge per piece), Representative Olsen voted No. A no vote, of course, was in support of the original provision of H.R. 7927, to fix the minimum charge per piece for all regular bulk third-class mailings at 3 cents, as rec- ommended by former Chairman Tom Murray. H.R. 7927, as amended, was reported by the Committee to the House of Representatives. H.R. 7927 IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES The Congressional Record discloses the following with respect to consideration of the Rule (H. Res. 464)-which, had it been adopted, would have provided for House con- sideration of H.R. 7927 as reported from the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. On September 15, 1961, a Member of the House Committee on Rules, by direction of that Committee, called up House Resolution 464 and asked for its imrhediate considera- tion. House Resolution 464 provided for the con- sideration of HR. 7927 under a closed rule, waiving points of order, with two hours of general debate. The effect of the proposed closed rule was that H.R. 7927, as reported from the Commit- tee on Post Office and Civil Service, would be subject to no amendments and, therefore, would have to be voted up or down. At the conclusion of debate on H. Res. 464, the previous question was ordered and, on a record vote, Representative Olsen voted No. The effect of a no vote in that case was to kill the proposed "closed rule," and open the way for presentation of an "open rule," under which H.R. 7927 would be open for amend- ments. Immediately thereafter, a Member of the Committee on Rules offered an amendment to House Resolution 464 to provide for con- sideration of HR. 7927 under an "open rule." The open rule was agreed to on a voice vote. On January 23, 1962, H.R. 7927 was called up in the House of Representatives and Chairman Tom Murray offered a substitute to restore all major provisions of the bill as originally introduced. During the debate on the Murray substi- tute, Representative Olsen said: "Now, I think that * * * the bill now be- fore us [the Murray substitute] does not in- crease second or third class as much as per- haps it ought to." (Congressional Record January 23, 1962, Page H646) The Murray substitute proposed raising the 21,6 cent bulk third-class minimum per piece charge from 21/2 cents to 3 cents, It was amended by the House to raise the rate to VA cents (Congressional Record Janu- ary 23, 1962, Page 11664). This amendment was adopted on a voice vote. It was not op- posed by Mr. Olsen under the five minute rule. THE /967 POSTAL RATE INCREASE BILL Representative Olsen was elected Chair- man of the standing Subcommittee on Postal Rates for the 90th Congress. The former Postmaster General on April 5, 1967, submitted Executive Communication No. 610, a general postal rate increase pro- posal. Chairman Dulski on the same date intro- duced HR. 7977, to carry out the Postmaster General's proposal. Subcommittee Chairman Olsen held pub- lic hearings on 21 separate hearing dates, during the period May 9 to June 28, 1967, and heard more than 100 witnesses. The Olsen Subcommittee then held 7 ex- ecutive sessions during the period July 12 to July 27, and voted to report H.R. 7977 with a number of major improvements made by the Olsen substitute, offered in the first executive session. The general effect of the Olsen substi- tute was to provide substantially greater revenues than would have resulted from the Postmaster General's official recommenda- tion. The Olsen substitute specifically in- cluded increases in all third-class mailing rates as recommended by the Postmaster General. At the conclusion of the Subcommittee executive sessions, the Subcommittee unani- mously approved a formal motion by the Ranking Minority Member commending Chairman Olsen on his extremely able and fair handling of this legislation in the public interest. The full Post Office and Civil Service Com- mittee took up the Olsen Subcommittee gen- eral rate increase bill, HR. 7977, and com- pleted action on it after 17 executive sessions, 12205 extending over the period from August 9 to September 21, 1967. The first official action in the first such executive session was a motion by Mr. Olsen that the full Committee report H.R. '7977, as reported by his Subcommittee-including all third-class rate adjustments requested by the Postmaster General. At one sesssion (August 16) Mr. Olsen suc- cessfully opposed an amendment that would have struck out of his Subcommittee bill a requirement that ''bills and statements of account produced by electronic data proc- essing equipment" must pay first-class post- age. Mr. Olsen offered a substitute to that amendment, specifying that all bills and statements of account must pay first-class postage when mailed, regardless of how they are produced. The Olsen substitute carried on a close record vote. H.R. 7977, after being perfected by the Olsen subcommittee and the full Committee, provided for gross annual postal revenue in- creases totaling $884.1 million-$59.2 million more than the $824.9 million requested by the Postmaster General. H.R. 7977 was called up in the House of Representatives October 10, 1967. Mr. Olsen strongly. supported the bill, including the en- tire third-class mail recommendations of the Postmaster General, during the debate (Con- gressional Record October 10, 1967, Pages 1113131-H13133). An amendment was offered by Mr. Hechler (Page 1113153) to increase the regular bulk third-class minimum charge per piece from 3.8 cents, as provided in the Committee bill, to 4.5 cents. During the debate under the ? five minute rule, Mr. Hechler asked unani- mous consent to proceed for an additional five minutes. He was supported in this re- quest by Mr. Olsen (Page H13217, Congres- sional Record October 11, 1967) . A substitute amendment by Mr. Anderson of Illinois (Page H13219) to provide a three- phase increase in the minimum charge per piece-3.2 cents, 3.6 cents, and 3.8 cents in three successive years-was opposed by Mr. Olsen (Pages H13220-H13221) and he strongly supported the Committee bill. The Anderson substitute was defeated, 69 to 145, on a teller vote (Page 1113230). The amendment by Mr. Hechler was defeated, 61 to 147, on a division (Page /113230). 1 CHARLES E. JOHNSON, Chief Counsel and Staff Director. The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under a previous order of the House, the gentle- man from Ohio (Mr. MILLER) is rec- ognized for 5 minutes. (Mr. MILLER of Ohio asked and was given permission to revise and extend his remarks.) [Mr. MILLER of Ohio addressed the House. His remarks will appear hereafter in the Extensions of Remarks.] REPORT ON TRIP TO GREECE The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under a previous order of the House, the gen- tleman from Pennsylvania (Mr. WIL- LIAMS) is recognized for 10 minutes. Mr. WILLIAMS. Mr. Speaker, during the August 1969 recess of the House, my wife, and I, in company with other Con- gressmen and their wives, attended the annual convention of the Pan-Arcadian Federation of America in Athens, Greece. Our visit to Athens also gave us the op- portunity of visiting other parts of Greece. Prior to our departure for Greece we were familiar with the takeover of the Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 H12206 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE December 11, 1969 Greek Government by the military junta. We had read about alleged atrocities and torture of the Greek people by the pre- sent Government under the military 1 junta, and we had rein about bombings in some-public places in Greece. We were generally under the impression that the country of Greece wag_ in a rather vise- , like grip of a military4overnmeria. 1 We flew directly to Athens from John 1 F. Kennedy Airport la New York and landed in Athens at approximately 2 p.m. in the afternoon, Athens' time. "5.7e were I expedited through custeems at the beauti- ful new Athens Airport and we were di- rected to the restaurant area for a re- ception in our honor. Assistant Prime Minister Constantine Vovolinis was our 1 host at the reception and the reception 1 was adequately covered by the v arious news media. 1 Subsequent to the reception we pro- ceeded to the Grand Thatagne Hotel on Constitution Square. We stayed at this hotel during our entire time in Greece and we found the accommodationl to be excellent and this hotel had a mest gra- cious atmosphere with excellent service. During our stay in Greece we visited all of the historical spas in and around Athens. We found the Acropolis to be most interesting and informative We were surprised to learn for the firs: time that the Parthenon had survived in ex- cellent condition until -the latter part of , the 18th century when, at a time when ' Greece was occupied by the Turk the Turks used the Parthenon as a storage place for gun powder= The Venetians I were attacking the Turks and a Venetian artillery shell went through the roof of the Parthenon and ezploded the gun powder. Thus, more damage was caused to the Parthenon in a few seconds than had occurred down through the cen- turies. We found the Greek people to ba ex- tremely friendly, industrious, and cour- teous, and we made Many friends in Greece. Mr. Christ Mitchell, preside=nt of the Pan-Arcadian Federation of Amer- ica, made certain that our visit to 0 eece was most enjoyable. We all had complete Zfeedom of move- Inent in Greece and no members or units of the military were in evidence, other than a few servicemen on leave. This Was, of course, exactly The contras y to What we had been led to believe. Also, there is no section of ilgthens in Which people cannot move with complete Safety t any hour of the day or night. We spent 1 day on the island of Crete and visited Khania and a NATO.,haseAn the immediate vicinity of Khania. We also visited Iraklion atilt the Minoan archeological site immediately south of Iraklion. It is at the Minoan archeobgi- cal site that the palace-, of the Mmos kings has been excavated and partially restored. This palace dates back to ap- proximately 1400 B.C. and is reputed to be the birthplace of modern civilization. We also spent some time visiting the various Greek islands, such as Idra and Spetse, and we traveled by hydrofoil boat and cruise ship. We found the islands to be beautiful and picturesque. The Greek people use these islands as resort and vacation areas. During our stay in Greece we had an opportunity to talk to hundreds of Greek people. Many of these people spoke Eng- lish and we were even able to converse with Greeks who did not speak English as two of the Congressmen who accom- panied us spoke Greek and we always had some Pan-Arcadian Federation members with us who also spoke Greek. We found the overwhelming opinion to be that the present Greek Government is doing an excellent job for the people of that coun- try. The lot of the people of Greece is steadily improving and the present Greek Government has instituted some long- needed reforms. The progress in Greece is readily apparent through the large amount of construction that is taking place in every section of Greece that we visited. Also, during cur stay in Greece we had an opportunity to talk to George Pops- dopoulos, Prime Minister; Stylianos Pat- takos, First Deputy Prime Minister; and Nickolas Makarezos, Minister of Econom- ic Coordination. These men are the form- er Greek Army colonels who formed the military junta which took over the Greek Government in 1967. We spent approximately 11/2 hours dis- cussing conditions in Greece with Prime Minister Popadopoulos. From our frank discussion with him we learned of the steps that the Greek Government is tak- ing to strengthen Greece and to main- tain it as a free nation. The reforms which the Greek Government is effect- ing ttre as follows: First, a complete reorganization of the administration with training courses to improve the ability of all civil servants; Second, an acceleration of the eco- nomic and industrial growth in Greece and s better economic return to the farmers; Third, a more fair distribution of the tax burden with high income families and companies paying, for the first time, their fair share of taxes; Fourth. Social services such as social insurance, welfare, and medical care are now being provided to all Greek citizens with the same retirement benefits for everyone. Prior to this reform, some Greek citizens were drawing an annual pension of 100,000 drachmas after only contributing one-half of 1 percent of their salaries. While other Greek work- ers had to pay 18 percent of their wages in order to get an annual pension of 2,000 drachmas. Also, hospital units and health stations are being established throughout Greece. Formerly, the hos- pitals and health stations were concen- trated in the Athens area. Fifth. The entire Greek educational system has been vastly improved. Sixth. The debts owed to the Govern- ment by all farmers have been forgiven. During our discussion with Prime Min- ister Popadopoulos he expressed his de- termination to have free elections in Greece at the earliest practical date. He stressed that the difficulties in Greece which his government is attempting to overcome developed over many years and had greatly weakened Greece. In order to see that Greece is maintained as a strong country the reforms which are being put into effect must be producing results be- fore free elections can be held. Therefore, the Prime Minister stressed that he could not tell us exactly when free elections would be held in Greece. When questioned about the reports of the torture of some Greek political pris- oners, the Prime Minister vigorously de- nied them. I later learned that Congress- man ROMAN Puciarsici had visited the Island of Yaros where the prisoners were supposed to have been tortured and actu- ally talked to the political prisoners through the Greek speaking U.S. consul. I checked with Congressman PTICINSKI Upon my return to Washington and learned that he had found no evidence of any torture of prisoners, even though he had talked to the prisoners himself. Con- gressman PUCINSKI also informed me that the political prisoners had not even been subjected to any mistreatment at all. While we were in Athens the U.S. 6th Fleet put into the harbor and we saw many American sailors enjoying the sights of Athens. It is interesting to note that Athens is the only port available to the U.S. 6th Fleet in the Western Medi- terranean as the Turks will not permit our fleet to use the Turkish ports. This points up the fact that Greece is a most important NATO ally of this country and one of the few countries that we could rely on in that section of the world in case of any difficulty. It is generally recognized that Greece is the cradle of democracy. However, the Greek Government that was overthrown in 1967 was anything but a democracy. Rather, it was a strong monarchy form of government. King Constantine remained in Greece under the administration of the military junta with full pay and all other forms of remunerations for the entire royal family. Just before the referendum on the new Greek Constitution, King Con- stantine attempted a countercoup in an effort to overthrow the military junta When the countercoup failed, King Con- stantine and his family fled to Rome where they are now living in self- imposed exile. The present Greek Gov- ernment continues to pay the royal fam- ily, and King Constantine and his family have a standing invitation to return to Athens, in complete safety, at any time. Under the old Greek Constitution the King was designated as "supreme head of the state." He was commander of the Armed Forces and had the power to de- clare war. Also, he was authorized to en- ter into most types of treaties without the consent of Parliament. Under the old Constitution the King could appoint and dismiss his ministers as he saw fit, and the Ring could veto any law passed by the Parliament. The King's failure to publish any such law within 2 months from the end of a par- liamentary session caused the law to be- come null and voia. The new Greek Constitution approved by referendum on September 29, 1968, provides that the Council of Ministers must propose a declaration of war and that the King's treatyrnaking power can be limited by law. The new Constitu- tion provides that the King's veto of any law passed by the Parliament may be Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 DejenTher 11, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE 1112207 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP711300364R000300120003-9 overridden by a vote of the majority of eluding toll-free transit of the Panama fourteen, which Treaty, in the English and Parliament and the King can only dis- Canal for Colombian "troops, materials Spanish languages, and as amended by the miss his government if it does not enjoy of war, and ships of war," and the use of Senate of the United States, is word for word as follows: the confidence of Parliament. the Panama Railroad in the event of in- Treaty between the United States of Amer- This new Constitution also contains terruption of ship transit. Ica and the Republic of Colombia for the many other desirable provisions and can In the negotiations between the United settlement of their differences arising out of be the vehicle through which Greece will States and Panama following the 1964 the events which took place on the Isthmus achieve a truly democratic form of gov- Panamanian mob attacks on the Canal of Panama in November 1903. emment. Various sections of the new Zone for three recently proposed new public of Colombia, being desirous to remove The United States of America and the Re- Constitution have already been placed canal treaties, which were never signed, all the misunderstandings growing out of the into effect and the present Greek Gov- the negotiators completely ignored the political events in Panama in November 1903; ernment is constantly placing more sec- treaty rights of Colombia and that coun- to restore the cordial friendship that former- Mons of the new Constitution in effect, try has protested that it would defend ly characterized the relations between the Prior to the takeover of the Greek its rights. Also the treaty interests of two countries, and also to define and regu- Government by the present regime, the Great Britain under the Hay-Pauncefote late their rights and interests in respect of strength of communism was steadily in- Treaty were similarly disregarded. These the interoceanic canal which the Govern- creasing in Greece. The reforms which are among the factors that led more meat of the United States has constructed across the Isthmus of Panama, have resolved the present government is placing in than 100 Members of this body in the for this purpose to conclude a Treaty and effect are strengthening Greece to a present session to introduce identical have accordingly appointed as their Pleni- point where the people of Greece will be resolutions opposing any surrender by potentiaries: able to adequately govern themselves and the United States of its sovereign rightS His Excellency the President of the United have the ability to resist outside in- over the Panama Canal to any other ha- States of America, Thaddeus Austin Thom- fluences such as communism. tion or to any international organiza- son, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleat- From my observations in Greece, I am tion?House Resolution 592, 593, 594, and potentiary of the United States of America ct confident that these conditions will be so forth. t the Government of the Republic of Co- lonibia; and established in the near future and that In connection with the ignoring of His Excellency the President of the Re- the Government of Greece will become U.S. treaty obligations, it is important public of Colombia, Francisco Josa Urrutia, Minister for Foreign Affairs; Marco Fidel Sua- rez, First Designate to exercise the Executive Power; Nicolas Esguerra, Ex-Minister of State; Jos?aria Gonzalez Valencia, Senator; Ra- fael Uribe Uribe, Senator; and Antonio Jos? Uribe, President of the House of Representa- tives; Who, after communicating to each other their respective full powers, which were found to be in due and proper form, have agreed upon the following: Article I The Republic of Colombia shall enjoy the following rights in respect to the interoceanic Canal and the Panama Railway, the title to which is now vested entirely and absolute- ly in the United States of America, without any incumbrances or indemnities whatever. 1.?The Republic of Colombia shall be at liberty at all times to transport through the interoceanic Canal its troops, materials of war and ships of war, without paying any charges to the United States. 2.?The products of the soil and Industry of Colombia passing through the Canal, as well as the Colombian mails, shall be exempt from any charge or duty other than those to which the products and mails of the United States may be subject. The products of the soil and industry of Colombia, such as cattle, salt and provisions, shall be admitted to entry In the Canal Zone, and likewise in the island and mainland occupied or which may be occupied by the United States as auxiliary and accessory thereto, without paying other duties or charges than those payable by sim- ilar products of the United States. 3.?Colombian citizens crossing the Canal Zone shall, upon production of proper proof of their nationality, be exempt from every toll, tax or duty to which citizens of the United States are not subject. 4.?Whenever traffic by the Canal is inter- rupted or whenever it shall be necessary for any other reason to use the railway, the troops, materials of war, products and mails of the Republic of Colombia, as above men- tioned, shall, be transported on the Railway between Ancon and Cristobal or on any other Railway substituted therefor, paying only the same charges and duties as are imposed upon the troops, materials of war, products and mails of the United States. The officers, agents and employees of the Government of Co- lombia shall, upon production of proper proof of their official character or their employ- ment, also be entitled to passage on the said Railway on the same terms as officers, agents and emloyees of the Government of the United States. a true democracy. In the meantime it is my considered opinion that we must be patient with the present Greek Government and make every effort to assist it in the ac- complishment of its objectives. The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under a previous order of the House, the gentle- man from Ohio (Mr. LUKENS) is rec- ognized for 5 minutes. [Mr. LUKENS addressed the House. His remarks will appear hereafter in the E,..tensions of Remarks.] The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under a previous order of the House, the gentle- man from Texas (Mr. GONZALE%) is rec- ognized for 10 minutes. [Mr. GONZALEZ addressed the House. His remarks will appear hereafter in the Extensions of Remarks.] COLOMBIA COLLECTING MATERIAL TO DEFEND ITS INTERESTS IN PANAMA CANAL The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under a previous order of the House, the gentle- man from Pennsylvania (Mr. FLOOD) is recognized for 15 minutes. Mr. FLOOD. Mr. Speaker, information of unquestionable reliability has been re- ceived that the Colombian Government has been, and still is, collecting authori- tative books and documents relating to the Panama Canal, including statements in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD. Diplomats from other Latin American countries consider that this development is highly significant. In the Thomson-Urrutia Treaty of 1914-22 Colombia, the sovereign of the isthmus before the Panama Revolution of 1903, recognized that the title of the Panama Canal and Railroad, is vested "entirely and absolutely" in the United States of America without any encum- brances or indemnities whatsoever. The United States, in return, granted in this treaty important rights to Colombia, in- to know that the Panama Canal Reor- ganization Act of 1950?Public Law 841, 81st Congress?included in section 12, subparagraph 412(d) _the following: The levy of tolls is subject to the provi- sions Of Section 1 of Article III of the treaty between the United States of America and Great Britain concluded on November 18, 1901, of Articles XVIII and XIX of the con- vention between the United States of Amer- ica and the Republic of Panama concluded on November 18, 1903, and of Article I of the Treaty between the United States of America and the Republic of Colombia proclaimed on March 30, 1922. In view of the facts previously enu- merated, it is clear that Colombia is pre- paring to defend its vital interests in the Panama Canal that were ignored in the recent treaty negotiations with Panama and, at the appropriate time, to enter the controversy. The facts also emphasize the impor- tance for the United States, in all its actions concerning the Panama Canal, to be legally correct and not to ignore or disregard the vital treaty rights of other nations or of interoceanic com- merce. Anyone who thinks that Colom- bia will surrender its treaty rights as regards the Panama Canal and Railroad is a "babe in treaty land." Because the terms of the Thomson- Urrutia Treaty between the United States and Colombia and the obligations of our country thereunder are not as well known as the provisions of the other two canal treaties, I quote the full text of the treaty with Colombia, together with the notice of its publication and proto- col of exchange, as follows: [Treaty series, No. 6611 TREATY BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND CO-. LOMBIA : SETTLEMENT OF DIFFERENCES BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE TIN/TED STATES OF AlVIERICA?A PROCLAMATION Whereas a Treaty between the United States of America and the Republic of Co- lombia, for the settlement of their differences arising out of the events which took place on the Isthmus of Panama in November, 1903, was concluded by their respective Plenipoten- tiaries at Bogota on the sixth day of April in the year one thousand nine hundred and Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 1 1 1 1 12208 ApOoved For Relemit4M/staiMAC$JARIR@MBC10.314010M3001200 5. Coal. netroletim'ancl sea salt, being the ',satinets of Colombia for Colombian con- s;iroption passing frOm?, the Atlantic coast of Colombia to any ColeEbian port on the Pa- cific coast, and vicena, shalt whenever traffic by the canal la-interrupted, be trans- ported over the afore td Railway,Ifee of any cbarge except the actad cost of handling and transportation, which'illail not iri any case eaceed one half of llhe ordinary freight charges levied upon%Oar products of the United states passing ,1 ,er the Railway and lo transit from one Ir L to anotilier of the United States. Article IT . The Government o ao Unite States Of America agrees to pa t the City of Wash- ington to the Republinf Colombia the sum of twenty-live million.--aollars, gate., United States money, as folIclik: The stint of five million dollars shall -t.e paid Within six months after the exc.-Mtge of ratifications of the present treaty:1mi reckoning from tJie. date of that paSot, the temainin twenty million dollars till be paid in io annual installments arilve million doll s each. Article III '1'he Republic of Colorn?bia recognizes n- ama as an independentttion andatiking a basis the Colombian w of June ,9, 185 , agrees that the bound all be the; follow- ing: From Cape Tibur Lu the headwaters 1 of the Rio de la M1e1 and folloWing the , mountain chain by the ge of Gad t to the , Sierra de Chugargun a that of Mali going 1 down by the ridges of _Witte to the heights of Aspave and from thee to a point on the Pacific half way betwelp. Coealito, and La Ardita. To consideration of recogniden? the Government of the Un _ States Will, im- mediately after the exe bge of the,ratifica- 1 nous of the present Triala, take the :neces- airy steps in order to osr'in from. title l Gov- ernment of Panama the espatch c duly I accredited agent to neg ate and aonclude it 1 l e with the Government Crealombla a Treaty , of Peace and Friendship, th a view ? to bring about both the establishMen i; of reg lax dip- lomatic relations betwali Colorn la and 1 Panama and the adjustratil, of all q estions 1 of pecuniary liability arbetween ir two countries, in accordandr with reqognized principles of law and p adents, 1 , Article I The present Treaty sh be approved and ratified by the High Co acting Pa ties in , conformity with their ective la a, and . the ratifications thereof It be exebnged in the city of Bogota, soon as May be ,possible. ; In faith, whereof, the?,saici Plenipoten- tiaries have signed the teacnt Tr Or in duplicate nad have her afflxeq their respective seals Done at the city of Boa, the si4h day of April in the year of our f?ord n4iteen hundred and fourteen. THADDEUS AIIRTIN THOM+N, KRANCTSCO Joel URRTJTIA, M ARCO FIDEL gt.TA ft CZ. NICOLAS ESGUERR JOsE M. Gorstir VALEriaA. URnIE taaarotao Jost 1:TR,I HE. And whereas the advice &I' consent of the Senate of the United Statqs to the r tion of the said Treaty wa,_given als4 With the "understanding, to beatnade a pst of such treaty and ratificati - that th Pro- Visions of section 1. of Art I of the- treat granting to the Republic Colombi4 free passage through the Panatha Canal fk Us troops, materials of war ships o war, shall not apply in case of liar betwee ,the Republic of Colombia and y other ecoun- tiy"; I ' And whereas the said Triata as amended br the Senate and the above recited under- ! standfrig of the Senate made a part of such Treaty have been duly ratified on both parts, and the ratifications of the two Governments were exchanged at Bogota on the first day of March, one thousand nine hundred and twenty-two; Now, therefore, be it known that I, Warren G. Harding, President of the Tnited States of America, have cause ty, as amended, and the ' understanding, ade a part thereof, to made public, to the d that the same d every article and claus thereotamay c observed and fulfilled with good fEdth the United States and tins cit- izens .1. In om whereof, I have hereunto set my and caused the seal of the United Sta ix be affixed. at the city of Washington, this thir- li of March, in the year of our Lord e thQURAN, d nine hundred and twenty-two, nd of the independence of the United States of America the one hundred. and forty-sixth. WARREN G. HARDING. ti S. ? By the President: Caraarrs E. Buenas, Secretary of state. PROTOCOL OF EXCHANGE The uUdersigned Plenipotentiaries having met for the purpose of exchanging the ratifi- ations of the 't'reaty signed at Bogota, on 1 6, 1914, between the United States of Ante and Colombia, providing for the settleme 'grenees arising out of the events Which Ihre--ea. tarIsthmus of Panama in November, 1903, andfre,ratifica- tions of the Treaty aforesaid having "en carefully compared and found exactly cob. formafkaate-eaanaother, the exchange took place this day it, the usual form. With reference to this exchange the fol- lowing atateinent is incorporated in the pres- ent Protocol in accordance with instructions received: 1. In conformity with the final Resolution of the Senate of the United States in giving its conseikt to the ratification of the Treaty In queastiga. the stipulation contained in the first c1au4D of Article one by which there is ceded to athe Republic of Colombia free pas- sage of it; troops, materials of war and ships of war through the Panama Canal, shall not be applicable in case of a state of war between the Republic of Colornbia and any other country. 2. The said fins: Resolution of the Senate of the Un_it, ed States signifies, as the Secre- tary of State in effect stated in the no which he addressed to the Colombian tion in_Washington on the 3rd day arbeto- - ber, MI, that the Republic of Colombia will not have the right of passage, free of tolls, for its troops, materials of war and ships of war, in case of war between Colombia and some other, catuntry, and consequently, the Republic of Colombia will be placed, when at war with another country, on the same foot- ing as any other nation under similar condi- tions, as provided in the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty concluded in 1901; and that, there- fore, the Republic of Colombia will not by operation of the declaration of the Senate of the United States above mentioned, be placed under any disadvantage as compared with the other belligerent or belligerents, in the Panama Canal,. in case of war between Co- lombia and., some other nation or nations. With this understanding the said Resolu- tion has been accepted by the Colombian Congress in accordance with the dispositions contained in Article two of Law fifty-six of 1921, "by which is modified Law number fourteen of 3,614" approving the Treaty. In witness. whereof, they have signed the present Protocol of Exchange and have af- fixed their seals thereto. Done at Bogota, the first day of March, one thousand nine hundred and twenty-two. HOFFMAN PHILP, ANTONIO Jost BRIBE. 4ember 11' 1969 INVALIDATE INCREASE IN AIR PARES (Mr. MOSS asked and was given per- mission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) Mr. MOSS. Mr. Speaker, today 31 of my colleagues and I asked a Federal Court of Appeals to invalidate the in- crease in air fares that the Civil Aero- nautics Board recently permitted all do- mestic airlineato putt into effect. In a petition and, legal memorandum filed with the Pederal Court of Appeals in the Districtsif Columbia, we said that the Civil Aeronautics Board had acted tinPrePerlY and, illegally in approving the fare increases. We had earlier unsuccess- fully petitioned the CAB not to grant the fare increases, but instead to hold an adequate hearing to determine what were the actual needs of the airline industry. Our Motion today Asked that immedi- ate raierbe granted by the court to pre- vent irreparable injury to the traveling public by continuation of the higher fares. Specifically, we asked the court to enter a preliminary order to prctect the public while the court decides the appeal which we are taking from the CAB ac- tion. The preliminary order requested that: The court order the CAB to reinstate the airline fares that had prevailed prior o the recent increase; Iternatively, the court enter a pro- te ive order requiring the airlines to ma ?prompt refunds to passengers rr all o charges, should the court subs( - quent I ? d that the present fares are Or, as ?xs nal alternative, the court de- cide the ? allenge to the CAB's order on au exped d schedule. The et tion flied with the court today was a mpanied by a 100-page memo- rand , prepared by our counsel, detail- ing e legal arguments in support of t requests. We asked that the court ar oral argument on the motion on an expedited basis. My colleagues who filed this motion are Hon. GLENN M. ANDERSON, THOMAS L. ASHLEY, WALTER S. BARING, GEORGE E. BROWN, JR, PHILLIP BURTON, DANIEL E. BUTTON, JEFFERY COHELAN, JAMES C. COR- MAN, JOHN D. DINGELL, DON EDWARDS, RICHARD T. HANNA, AUGUSTUS F. HAwRINS, CHET HOLIFIELD, HAROLD T. JOHNSON, ROBERT L. LEGGETT, JOSEPH M. MCDADE, JOHN MCFALL, SPARK M. MATSIJNAGA, GEO,ESE,,,P. _MILLER, JOSEPH G. MINNISH, PAT,SY T. MINK, JERRY L. PETTIS, THOMAS M. RES, PETER W. RODINO, JR., EDWARD R. ROYBAL,. BERNIE SISK, CHARLES M. TEAGVE, JOHN TENNEY, L/ONEL VAN Dreni nt? JEROIVIE R. WALDIE, CHARLES H. Wn.sorf, and. myself. The motion and supporting material which we filed follow: [In the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit] Joiur E. MOSS, ET AL., PETITIONERS, II. CIVIL AERONAUTICS BOARD, RESPONDEN r?No, 23,627 Memorandum_ and support of petitioners' ..mation_for interlocutory relief --- TABLE OtCONTNTS I. Issues presented. A. The /ssues. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 S 16476 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD? SENATE December 11, 1969 also to build and man 21st century space and outer planetary stations and underseas col- onies on the ocean floor? THE REAL LAG Faster than automation eliminates some Jobs, the development of science and tech- nology creates new ones. The employment 'lag" is in trained people, not available jobs. As all this becomes more and more evi- dent, there is a change even in the New York City educational attitude. On May 29, 1969, the New York Times headlined "Dispute Over Vocational Schools Here Revived," pointed out that city vocational schools "have been largely free of the student unrest that has troubled many academic schools," and went on to say that many youths in the vocational schools "are quick to express their satisfac- tion," This student satisfaction In all vocational and technical schools is being expressed in most graduates' sincere desire to go on to higher education in their chosen fields of work. It is very difficult to stifle the eagerness to learn of a young person studying a sub- ject of genuine interest well suited to his or her individual abilities. Very often, along with students' progress in manual or artistic skills there is born a keen desire for more academic achievement. Since 99 per cent of young Americans be- tween the ages of six and seventeen are in elementary and secondary schools, It is there that they should be able to find opportunities rescuing them from the variables and early vicissitudes of home environment. Children are not of one mold and they must not be cast into a school system of one mold. The Founding Fathers who drat ted our Educational Bill of Rights in the raid-19th century and created the land-grant colleges were aware of this truth when they revolu- tionized higher education In America. Now in 1969, we must have Founding Fathers with courage and foresight enough to revolution- ize the elementary and secondary eduoation, adapting it to the ohildren's real needs and freeing it from the fetters of academic intel- lectual snobbery and the dictates of an aca- demic hierarchy and bureaucracy. WE NEED NEW "IMMORTAL ACT" In 1962, Allan Nevins, historian for the Civil War Centennial Commission, wrote a paper on "The Origins of the Land-Grant Colleges and State Universities, a Brief Ac- count of the Morrill Act of 1862 and Its Re- sults." Nevins began thus: "It was an immortal moment in the his- tory of higher education in America and the World when, on July 2, 1862, Abraham Lin- coln lifted his pen and signed the College Land-Grant Act, of which Justin S. Morrill of Vermont was the principal author." In 1862, when Morrill was asked why he had led the fight for the Act that bears his name, he replied, "Being myself the son of a hardfisted blacksmith . . . who felt his own deprivation of schools (never having spent but six weeks inside of a schoolhouse), I could not overlook mechanics in any measure intended to aid the industrial classes in the procurement of an education that might exalt their usefulness," Now in our century, which is so full of good hope even while it manifests so many human disappointments and fears, can we deny a majority of our youth the opportunity to procure an education exalting their useful- ness to themselves and to the society in which they live? Webster's Dictionary defines the verb "to exalt" as "to raise high; elevate, raise in rank, power, or character; to elevate by praise or in estimation." In 1862, Abraham Lincoln exalted Ameri- can higher education by making it wider And better suited to the individual talents and needs of the people, Let us hope that by 1972, another American President will have lifted his pen to exalt our elementary and sec- ondary education by making It wider, by granting to vocational/technical schools both status and funds equal to those of aoademic schools, by according to vocational and tech- nical education teachers with practical know-how the same degree of prestige en- joyed by academic teachers, and thus creat- ing a 20th oentury education Bill of Rights for all of American's children. CRITICISM A TWO-WAY STREET Mr. CURTIS. Mr. President, I would not want to live in a country where officeholders could not be criticized. It Is a two-way street, however. Unless officeholders can criticize the press, the public is deprived of a full discussion on the issues. I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD an editorial en- titled "Fair Exchange," published in the Norfolk (Nebr.) Daily News of Novem- ber 22, 1969. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: FAIR EXCHANGE Even before Vice President Spiro Agnew provided some "equal time" criticism for newspapers after dealing with the TV net- works, a prominent editor rose to claim that the Nixon administration was trying to muzzle the media. But when Spiro says that's not true, and Herb Klein and other administration spokesmen chime in, we do not allow our traditionally skeptical newspaper nature to disbelieve them. Many in private and public life would like to influence the news, to change it, to make it more responsive to a particular point of view, but there are few Americans with a dangerous disregard for the value of a free press. Norman Isaacs, the executive editor of the Louisville Courier-Journal and Times, and also president of the American Society of Newspaper Editors, accused the adminis- tration of undertaking a campaign for "some sort of covert control" of both news- papers and broadcast stations. It is an un- fortunate reaction when critics of the media arise. They are put in the position of attacking a free press, rather than criticizing what the free press does occasionally that one thinks is wrong. Mr. Agnew has made it clear he believes in no censorship, no control; but he wants to criticize the press just as it criticizes politicians. That ought to be fair enough. ANNIVERSARY OF THE ADOPTION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS CONVEN- TION ON GENOCIDE Mr. PROX/VIIRE. Mr. President, on December 11, 1948, the General _Assem- bly of the United Nations adopted the Human Rights Convention on Genocide during its Paris session. The text of the convention confirms that genocide is a crime under interna- tional law, whether committed in time of peace or war. Of even greater impor- tance, the convention states that all per- sons committing genocide shall be pun- ished, be they constitutionally responsi- ble officials, or private individuals. Though genocidal crimes are not to be confused with political crimes, those guilty will be subject to the rulings of their competent national court, or, if possible, an international penal tri- bunal. Over 70 nations have ratified the Genocide Convention since 1948. The United States has not. On June 16, 1949, the convention out- lawing genocide was submitted to the Senate by President Truman. Public hearings on the convention were held by the Foreign Relations Committee in Jan- uary and February of 1950. Although the subcommittee reported favorably on the convention, it became stalled in full com- mittee and remained on the table at the time the 81st Congress adjourned. On this day, the anniversary of the adoption of the Genocide Convention by the General Assembly of the United Na- tions, I once again ask this Chamber to recognize the importance of this matter. How can it be that this Nation, which is founded on the principle of life and liberty for all, not think It scandalous that we have not affirmed this principle for all peoples throughout the world9 I urge the Senate to immediately consider and move toward ratification of this convention. THE DICTATORIAL JUNTA IN GREECE Mr. MOSS. Mr. President, our tragic involvement in Vietnam and such ex- plosive events as those taking place in the Middle East overshadow develop- ments of great significance in other parts of the world. One such area is Greece, where a dictatorial junta continues to rule that brave and freedom-loving people. A few days ago, I was visited by the former Greek Minister, Mr. Constantine Mitsotakis, one of the best-known per- sonalities in the postwar history of Greece. Today he is engaged in the strug- gle to restore parliamentary democracy in his native land. A resistance fighter against the Germans in World War II, Constantine Mitsotakis was first elected M.P. for Chanta at the age of 28. From then on he was continuously elected for the Centre Party. He has served in the Papandreou government as Economic Minister in 1965 and 1966. After the colonels' coup, he was arrested and im- prisoned, but succeeded in escaping in 1968 and is living outside Greece. In our discussion, Mr. Mitsotakis em- phasized several points which he con- siders of particular significance concern- ing the situation in Greece today?points which I feel it is important for the Sen- ate to understand. First. Perhaps of major concern, Con- stantine Mitsotakis believes that the next few months?possibly 3?present the last opportunity for a restoration of a demo- cratic government in Greece without a bloodbath. Moreover, he is certain that, given the history and character of the Greek people, a future attempt will be made to force out the colonels' govern- ment even if that means a bloody revolu- tion. Second. Also, he considers the present attitude of the United States to be one of the most powerful factors in main- taining the junta In office. Even the Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 December 11 SENATE ,Alyn ONGRESSIONAL RECORDved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 forts to keep students in school 25 per cent REASON FOR DROPOUTS are high school drop outs Ftherniore, ap- When Chauncey M. Depew, celebrated his proximately two-thirds do not go on to eol- 93rd birthday in 1927, he said, "When I grad- lege, yet their education is yeeted at Cot- tutted from college, it was either the law, the lege entrance, ministry or medicine for the graduate. To- Worse, of the third who det.go to a four- day there are 3,000 ocaupations upon to the year college, only half remainAltere and ea...a college graduate." a degree. The other half dr tip out, mainIF Now in 1969 there are many more than In the first and second yea, And so the 3,000 occupations open to trained young peo- follbwing comparison can beTinade. In 1861, American higher education was geared to the real needs of only: two per cent of Youth; in 1969, American elementary and seasOndary education is geared to the needs of about 15 per cent of American youth. 1 FULFILLMENT MAKES FOSt CLAIM It is interesting to note that by far the biggest number of college dropouts is in the liberal arts and social sciencea, not the pro- fessional schools. Also, the ac%e social un- rest in colleges occurs mainly_ .iinong stu- dents in the arts and social sanences, not in the professions. In cities, almost all social urireat has been among students in academic bigh school's and colleges. The vocational and technieal schools have been virtually free of It. On October 18, 1968, the London Sundag Times reported in an article 'nettled "Tho Detonators" that all recent student rebellions In England had occurred in the academic co/ - leges1; none In the technical and vocational institutions. Everywhere, students are cry- ing Out for "relevance" in edatae Lion. Is , the calm in vocational and technical schoOls due to students' inferior intelligence: or Is it due to their receivint the kind education that fulfills their indiVidual n enables them to display their individual titudes, and furnishes them with deft practical goal? FULFILLMENT MAKES FOR ACH3LvEMENT Many theories are being advanced about the relative intelligence of ObIldren, and about the influnece of envittnment and heredity on their intelligence. 'Ilaeso theories are mainly guesswork; most of the same HO. tions were advanced during the 1850's in the fight against the Land-Grant Colleges Act. Then, it was thought that only upper class "gentlemen" were mentallf and moral- ly fit for a higher education. It also was thout that only the "higher subjects" of classi4-1 studies were fit for anbolarly de- grees. Agricuture, mechanics, science and industry were considered to be lower sub- jects of study fit only for lesser :intellects. Few Americans today are awar. e that the great Massachusetts Institute of-Technology, for example, is a land-grant colge. In 1931, when eminent American scholars assembled at the 45th Annual :Convention of the Association of Land-Grant Colleges and Universities in Chicago, Dr,- W. J. Kerr said: "Progress today Is based on science. The s ience first taught in the land-grant colleg s was of the most objective and prac- tical k d. These early beginnings led to larg- er and more intensified appliaaations of science, producing cumulative reaults, which in turn gave fresh momentum tithe move- ment.' . But 88 per cent of them are untrained in elementary and Secondary schools for any occupation except pursuit of an academic education which two-thirds do not pursue because they do not wish to, or cannot afford to, or are not mentally able to. Obviously, our elemantary and secondary public education systera is out-of-kilter with most young people's callings, needs and de- sires. Obviously, that is why at least 25 per cent drop out of high school. That is a very high rate, one that our nation cannot af- ford. After all, if any business in America lest 25 per cent of its customers it Would go broke. Nevertheless, today, as we move into the 1970's, all classe - of our citizenry, as in outran; ting to an education ely entrenched in both public upport thi the 1850's. ar system "s and priv as no relation to the re urces of the country and the objec- tives/Of the great mass of the people." SPUTNIK SCARE 1.? Our misfit public school system wee snob- bish and undemocratic enough in the early 1950's to guarantee a future social upheaval in our nation; but in 1957 it was made in- finitely worse when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik into space. Hysterical over what was supposed to be Soviet superiority in science and education, many of our na- nal leaders embarked. on what might be cal the Sputnikization of Americanpub- fl , Immediately, there arose the cry boy and girl should go to t our nation could meet lay,sicists and other ad- MEANWHILE, ON ARTH lic esiu demand tha college in order a need for nuclear Winced scientists. This Sputnikization took ? e at a time when masses of Our agriculture orkers left newly automated farms in the uth, and flocked North to the cities to fin employ- ment. A large percentage of these fa work- ers were Negroes who spoke a dial , had little basic education, and suffered om all ' the handicaps of new emigres plus t prob- lems of ethnic differences and polit 1 dis- advantages. At the same time, in maurban c communities, there was an influx of panish- speaking emigres from Puerto ico and Mexico. What-the new :ainorit groups in cities most needrenewasa. fling to be- t come economically self-sustaining. What d they received in public school was imprac- o college-oriented academic training. J And the law forced them to remain itapris- f ened in the academic schools until the age of t 6 In 37 states, 17 and 18 in the others. gr As captives, the chiliren of the new n emigres became saddest victims of a misfit c school system. The dropout rate soared; so d juvenile delinquency and crime rates. ri Simultaneously, there occurred a wave of o ntellectual and emotional sentimentality G at affirmed civil rights by pretending all " ildren are alike except for differences in se nvironment. Though no Iwo blades of grass petals on a rose are alike, it was preached nd propagandized that all children could be th tight in school, willy-nilly, to pass college te trance exams and go on to a higher sea- to mic education. Because elementary and, secondary public ce ucation in our big cities is largely irrele- o ant to the needs of at least 85 per cent of rueban youth, there has arisen a social situa in - tion that threatens to bring the nation down. Our cities are rife with violence most- ly brought on by the frustrations of rootless, goal-less, untrained young people easily mis- led by agitators. The social, economic and intellectual pres- sures being exerted on masses of young people In overcrowded urban schools to acquire a college education are cruel and undemo- cratic in the extreme. Literally, they cannot take it. Dr. T. Campbell Goodwin, pediatri- cian and Assistant Commissioner for Chil- dren's Services in the New York State De- partment of Mental Hygiene, says that today state mental in.stitutions are crowded with children falsely labeled as "retarded" or "problem oases." On August 9, 196'7, Te Christian Science Monitor said in an editorial: "What's wrong with a good vocational edu- cation and a technical high school diploma? Why should it be considered, as it so often is, inferior to a college preparatory course? "A survey made by an Ohio educator in his state found '75 per cent of parents and students desiring vocational education in the schools "Throughout the United States, and in some other industrialized countries, voca- tional education has long been a stepchild. Only the academic curriculum has had pres- tige. The boy (or girl) who turns away from college to train for a job too often loses status in the eyes of his teachers and com- panions. The high school which boasts of the high proportion of its graduates going to college is disappointed in him. "The time has come to wipe out these snobberies. One way to do this is to provide much better vocational education than is now offered." Yet, on December 5, 1967, the New York Post reported, "The Board of Education to- day imposed the death sentence on most of the city's [New York City's] vocational schools. The action, part of a change-over to four-year comprehensive (academic plus vocational) high schools ends two years of bitter debate within the school system. . [ Schools superintendent] Donovan last spring urged the board to drop plans for a single system of comprehensive schools on grounds that they posed 'major difficulties' in terms of facilities, programs, equipment arid personnel. The board, overruling Donovares arguments and earlier threats of rebellion rom principals' associations, said today that Is 24 'multi-trade' vocational schools, hous- ng 33,000 students, would be phased out or onverted . . . within the next eight years." EDUCATION FOR THE Ful..URE It is the opinion of the Christian Science Monitor that, "The era of upgraded vooa- lanai education for all who want it is over- ue." That was the opinion of the Frontiers f Science Conference in Oklahoma City, estuary 1969, at which inventors and mann- acturers of our space and oceanographyechnology, of the "picture-phone" and other eat new scientific endeavors stressed the ational need for trained technicians, me- hanics and service personnel. In July 1967, Lloyd's Bank Review car- ed an article by Gerard Colley, Senior Econ- mist at the Battele Memorial Institute, eneva, Switzerland, who pointed out. Tourism is today one of the fastest-growing ctors in the world economy." Does anyone deny that with the advent of ass national and international air travel ere is necessary a huge number of trained chnical, mechanical and service personnel fill jobs in airporthahotels, eating places, useums, parks, cultural and entertainment nters, banks, shops and markets? Does any- 'e doubt that service and technical person- 1 will be needed not only to foster tourism the developed and developing nations, but di The 'practical science" in agrioniture, pur- sued first at our land-grant collean,s, is what i led to the abundance 01 our present day agri- toculture, which enables us to andel famine ch and feed half the world. MoreOrer, it was e academic freedom at land-grant q9licg,es that or enabled individual scientists to make great a discoveries and put them to good-uae under ta our free enterprise system. And So we see that our nation was blessed de with thousands upon thousands of gifted young people who pursued higher education ed at "poen* boy" or "cow" colleges., They en- , v riched not only America but the entire world. 1 sir Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 __Apeiroved Folgians2063M2iMe.7 WRI,W000300120003-9 Decentberilt Greek military, he believes, does not favor the junta, but rather tolerates it from belief that it enjoys the support of the Pentagon. Third. Mr. Mitsotakis believes that the initiative taken at the end of September by the former conservative Greek Prime Minister, Constantine Karamanlis, of- fering his personal cooperation for the restoration of normality and the safe- guard of order and security, creates an opportunity for restoration of parli- mentary rule. Mr. Mitsotakis was a liberal opponent of the conservative E.R.E. gov- ernment?under Mr. Karamanlis?while free debate prevailed. But from the first moment of his escape from Greece, Mr. Mitsotakis placed his services at the dis- posal of Mr. Karamanlis and declared publicly the need for the political world to rally around Mr. Karamanlis and sup- port his leadership. Mr. Mitsotakis told me he believes that such a movement can succeed only if the junta is denounced by the United States and other nations of the free world. We can sympathize, lam sure, with the plight of the citizens of Greece, who en- dured so much during and after World War H to establish self-government. Tribulations of the more distant past re- sulted in the immigration of thousands of Greeks to the United States. Many went to my State of Utah?principally young men?to work on railroad ? con- struction gangs and in the mines. Sub- stantial sums of money earned through this hard labor were sent back to the homeland to assist needy relatives. Homes, families, and business enterprises were begun. Today, the descendants of these immigrants are among our most respected families and are most active citizens of Utah. It is now 21/2 years since the colonels' regime crushed self-government in Greece. During that time, their govern- ment has apparently failed to gain even a minority of supporters. Repeated state- ments that the regime would be regular- ized by elections have not been redeemed and restoration of parliamentary rule in any form appears to be far off. It must be remembered that America, applying the Truman doctrine, allotted some $3 billion to Greece to counteract a Communist threat. Thus we succeeded, without the loss of a single soldier, in preventing Communist expansion . in Europe. In this struggle, all Greeks were united and the bloody war was success- fully prosecuted without even tempo- rarily suspending parliamentary govern- ment. As Senators may recall, December 12 will see a meeting of the Foreign Min- isters of 18 nations of the Council of Europe. It appears that the Council will expel Greece, based upon a report of the European Commission for Human Rights, written after more than 2 years of in- vestigation. If the Council takes such action or if strong support for expulsion is at the meeting, the United States should surely reassess its position toward the Greek dictatorship. And such a review should take place soon?before the opportuni- ties which appear to be present for the restoration of a popularly based parlia- mentary regime have passed. Mr. President, a number of editorials and news reports have been published in the press recently concerning the Greek situation. I ask unanimous consent that they be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the items were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as folows: [From the Washington (D.C.) Post, Nov. 26, 1969] GREEKS EXTEND EXILE FOR 5 Aruzkrs.?Five former members of parlia- ment considered security threats by the army-backed Greek government were com- mitted to an additional year in exile under a government decision today, informed sources said here. The five men have been in exile in re- mote villages and islands for more than two years. They were deported after the army seized power in Greece in April, 1967. The sources named the five former mem- bers of the Center Union Party?a powerful party before the army takeover?as Ioannis Charalambopoulos, Ioannis Papaspyrou, Panayotis Katsikopoulos, Constantine Ko- niotakis and Ioannis Alevars. [From the New York Times, Nov. 30, 1969] ATHENS HERALDS POLITICAL REFORM?LAW IS DRAFTED ALLOWING FORMATION OF PARTIES ArnErqs.?The army-backed Greek Gov- ernment announced today that It had drafted a law establishing rules for the for- mation of political parties, which are now banned under martial law. The draft would be one of 18 "institutional laws" that are to take effect only when full constitutional rule, suspended since April, 1967, is restored. The Government has pledged to have the 18 draft laws ready by the end of this year, but refuses to commit itself to a timetable for the restoration of the suspended articles of the Constitution and the lifting of martial law. Today's announcement, which concerns one legal step in a lenghthy procedure for the final ratification of the "institutional laws," was seen in part as an effort to placate Greece's critics abroad. Criticism of the Greek authorities for their failure to restore democracy, more than two and one-half years after seizing power, is expected to reach a climax in the next two weeks when Western foreign ministers meet in Brussels for the North Atlantic Treaty Or- ganization winter session and later in Paris for the meeting of the 18-nation Council of Europe. PuETHER GESTURES EXPECTED Diplomats here expected the Athens au- thorities to make further gestures to demon- strate their good faith, including the release of some of their 2,000 political prisoners. These gestures were expected particularly before the Council of Europe meeting on Dec. 12, which is to vote on a motion for the suspension of Greece's membership. The Athens leaders are eager to demon- strate their goodwill in view of the impres- sion that will be created by the report of the European Commission on Human Rights which, after a two-year study, is said to have reached the conclusion that Greece had tol- erated the torturing of political prisoners and that the danger of an imminent Com- munist take-over invoked by the military to seize power in April, 1967, did not really exist. The report is still secret and the Council of Europe is bound by its statutes not to dis- cuss it or take any action on it before a three-month cooling-off period has elapsed. S 16477 INQUIRY ON GREECE REPORTS TORTURES? EUROPE COUNCIL REPORT ALSO FINDS THE MILITARY REGIME BARS MANY BASIC RIGHTS (By Alvin Shuster) LomoN.?The European Commissifin for Human Rights has concluded that Greece's military-backed Government allowed torture of political prisoners and denied many fun- damental human rights. Its 1,200-page report, the result of more than two years of investigation, found that torture and ill-treatment were "an adminis- trative practice" that was "officially toler- ated." It charged that Greek authorities had takeri no effective steps lo stop the practices. The commission, an agency of the 18-na- tion Council of Europe, also found that, contrary to contentions of the Greek regime, there was no danger of a Communist take- over at the time the army colonels seized power on April 21, 1967, and imposed martial law. It is still in effect. 'There is evidence indicating that it [a Communist takeover] was neither planned at that time nor seriously anticipated by either the military or police authorities," the com- mission said. Its still-confidential report, in four vol- umes, is likely to bolster the case of govern- ments that will push for the expulsion of Greepe when the ministers of the Council of Europe meet in Paris on Dec. 12. The coun- cil has postponed action awaiting the com- mission's findings, which have now been sub- mitted to the member nations. Apart from the blow to Athens' prestige, expulsion from the Council would also mean removal of Greece from the Parliament of Europe, which sits in Strasbourg and pre- pares social and economic programs for its members. BRITAIN TO BACK EXPULSION Britain has decided to vote against the regime at the meeting and is trying to in- fluence others to do so. The United States, although not a member of the council, has indicated concern about Greece's expulsion, fearing, in part, that it might lead to pres- sure to expel her from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as well. Some United States officials also worry that such council action might lead the colonels, out of pique, to withdraw from participation in NATO. Greek leaders have sought to give the im- pression of movement toward democracy. They are expected to defend themselves at next month's meeting by citing steps they have taken, including recent talk of a still- vague timetable for the restoration of rep- resentative government. But the regime will be presenting its ar- gument against the background of the most detailed and official condemnation of its ac- tions yet. The report represents the efforts of lawyers who took hundreds of hours of testimony and even traveled to Greece for on- the-scene investigation. Some have called their work the weightiest international legal inquiry since the Nuremberg trial of war criminals after World War II. Technically, the council cannot take any steps on the basis of the report until three months after its submission. BLit such coun- tries as Britain, Norway, Sweden and Den- mark believe there are sufficient grounds for action now anyway. CHARTER VIOLATION CHARGED The conclusions?that the use of torture had been established "beyond doubt," that human freedoms are violated and that no Communist threat existed at the time of the coup?go to the heart of the case. The report concludes that the Greek regime has thus violated the conditions of membership, in particular Article 3. 'That article in the charter of the council, founded 20 years ago, states that members Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 S6478 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE Deceubt1,441, 1969 "Must accept the principles raf the rule of la* and of the enjoyment by all persons within its jurisdiction of human rights and fundamental freedoms." Such rights may be suspended under the charter in "time of peril of other public enter- gency threatening the life of the nation,"ibut the commission fonnd that fiie,e conditions did not exist at the time of the coup. The report said that while there was a period of "political instability and tension" in Greece, this did not constitute a "mlialie enaergency." While there were demonatra- thins in the streets, it said, the situation did "riot differ markedly from that in many other countries in Europe." at also rejected the Greet Government's argument that Continued suspension of rigthts was necessary because of bomb in- cidents and the growth of "illegal organiza- tions." "The commission does not find, on the evidence before it," it said, "that either fac- tor is beyond the control of the public an- t orates using normal measures, or that they a on a scale threatening the life of the Greek nation." CONFRONTED GREEK AUTIWRITIES The report said that competent creek authorities, "confronted with numerous and sabstantial complaints and allegations of torture and ill-treatment," failed to take any effective steps to investigate them or to insure remedies for "any such complaints or allege- tams found to be true." Moreover, the report said that Greeks Were being denied such fundamental rights as freedom of expression, association, Ei4 fair trial, and free elections at regular inte vals. Stich rights, it noted, are required under the cOuncil's charter. The report, prepared by a subcommission of the Human Rights Commission, was adopt- ed by the parent group earlier this merith. rtl was submitted to the member countries nine days ago. The council, primarily an advisory Orga- nization, was organized to further political, secial and economic unity of Europe. Its other members are Austria, Belgium, Cyrus, France, West Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Siaitzerland and Turkey. [From the Washington (DC.) Post Nev. 30, 19691 AMBASSADOR TO ATHENS?CONTENIPTUOU0 RE- MARKS ABOUT U.S. KEEPING AMERICAN EN- VOY'S CHAIR VACANT IN ATHENS (By Rowland Evans and Robert Novak) Contemptuous remarks about the U.S. by a high Greek official are producing two *holly unexpected side effects: Keeping the American ambassador's chair in Athens Va- cant a bit longer and wonsening relations between the State Department and the Sen- ate Foreign Relations Cominittee. Moreover, the indiscretion of Panaarlotis Pipinellis, Foreign Minister of the Greek Military dictatorship, might just tip the bal- ance against full resumption of U.S. mili- tary aid to Greece. At issue is a top-secret briefing by Pipinel- 11, for Greek ambassadors in Western Eu- r pe, delivered at Bad Schniznach, Svatzer- land, on Aug. 26. Two weeks ago, we reported ftom a verbatim account of that briefing that Pipinellis referred to the 11.6. as a "so- called democracy" not to he trusted. At that point, the Senate Foreign Rela- tions Committee was ready to recommend Confirmation of Foreign Service officer Henry Tasca, nominated on Sept. 9 by Preeident Nixon for the long vacant Athens post. But When Sen. J. W. laulbright of Arkansas heard of the Pipinellis document he informed the State Department that his committee *Mild Lot act on Tasca until it had a charice to study the Pipinellis document The State Department went into a classic diplomatic stall. In response to three sepa- rate telephone calls from Fulbright aides, it curiously pleaded inability to locate a copy of the briefing?curious because a copy was actually in the State Department's hands before we obtained ours. Vexed with the State Department, Fulbright finally ob- tained a copy through private channels. That means Tasca may not get confirmed before the new year. More important, the effort of Sen. Claiborne Pell of Rhode Island to put a rider on the foreign aid bill bar- ring military assistance to Greece is strength- ened. In addition to Pipinellis' assault on U.S. style democracy, he belittled Mr. Nixon's Vietnam and defense policies. "We all thought that, after the Repub- lican victory, there would be greater stress on rearmament and on strengthening the world's defenses," Pipinellis said. "But the real situation has proved quite different. Mr. Nixon went to the Fan East without, as it seems, having decided any other concrete program than a declaration to all Asians that America is returning to a policy of falling back to home." News of U.S. troop *pullouts "has been heard with disbelief," Pipinellis said, sarcas- tically referring to a $6 billion U.S. defense cutback as "good fleas." NEW CAMPAIGN CHIEF The easy victory of conservative Republi- can Crane in last Tuesday's special congres- sional election from Chicago's northern sub- urbs will give I. Lee Potter a graceful exit as staff director of the Republican Congres- sional Campaign Conunittcc a move pri- vately insisted upon by the White House. Potter, Republican National Committee- man from Virginia, has been under criticism ever since the disappointing Republican showing in the 1968 congressional elections. That. criticism swelled this year when the Republicans lost three seats and gained none in special congressio:aal elections earlier this year. Party pros grumbled that Potter spent too much time on business interests in northern Virginia and not enc ugh on candidate selec- tion. Over the past two years, the commit- tee's once impressive Staff has disintegrated. These complaints strongly disputed by Rep. Bob Wilson of California, the campaign committee chairman, found fertile soil in the White House (which hasn't forgotten Pot- ter's preconvention coolness 'toward candi- date Nixon in 1966). Accordingly, White House political aide Harry Dent has relayed the President's desire that a change be made. James Allison, the sharp young Texas po- litical pro now deputy chairman at the Re- publican National Committee, could have the job but won't take it. In the running are Gus Owens, a fie:.d man for the campaign committee; Tom Lies, who left the commit- tee to work under Dent at the White House; and Robert Bradford, executive director of the Illinois Republican Party. [From the Washington (D.C.) Post, Nov. 29, 1969] KEEPING THE Hzay ON THE ATHENS JUNTA The foreign ministers of 18 nations in the prestigious Council of Europe are to meet Dec. 12 to decide a hether to throw Greece out. They should. The ruling junta in Athens has, as charged, violated human rights and blocked parliamentary rule. An organization of the council's idealistic purposes which countenanced the junta would forfeit public respect. As long as there seemed a chance that the colonels might pick their way back toward democracy, the council could reason- ably suspend judgment But the officers have made it plain they do not intend to relin- quish power voluntarily. They are sapping the Greek economy and, by their clumsiness and terror, turning the public's earlier apathy into opposition. Their isolation by the Council of Europe could add an important increment of pressure on their position at home. After the April, 1967, coup, and especially after the King's abortive countercoup that December, Greek politicians were in disarray and many observers feared there was no real and acceptable alternative to military rule. This autumn, however, Constantine Car- amanlis, a widely respected former premier who had gone into exile, managed to or- ganize the responsible political elements into a standby coalition; he offered himself as head of a provisional government of national unity. Mr. Caramanlie called on the junta to step down; otherwise, he said, other offi- cers should "appreciate their duty"?that is, oust them. For now, the colonels remain in power. But those who oppose them can work with confidence that constitutionalism, not chaos, lies beyond. Though the -United States has taken pains to stay at arm's length from the colonels, the 20-year record of deep American involvement in Athens has given wide currency in Greece to a curious Myth. This myth holds that Washington sustains the junta and that, if It chose, Washington could bring it down. Bringing down the colonels is not Washing- ton's duty? or right. But denying them cru- cial support is: military aid is one kind of crucial support. Two administrations have withheld ma- jor military aid since the coup, except for a brief period last year when jitters about the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia tool pre- cedence over distaste for the Athens regime. By Senator Pell's calculation, as much as $263 million in aid hat backed up. In remarks not fully appreciated by the junta's Amer- ican critics, the Nixon administration states that Greece has "scrupulously fulfilled" its NATO obligations?but without the military aid. The critics have been alarmed by a Pen- tagon chart listing Greece as having bought $33 million worth of arms in 1969, as against $24 million in the preceding sir years. In- quiry reveals, however, that the $33 Million figure includes $27 million for deals that fell through. The colonels are furious. The Unit- ed States should do nothing to bring them- joy. JOBS NOW, INC.?LOTTISVLLLE, KY. Mr. COOK. Mr. President, I invite the attention of Senators to the outstanding community relations work being done in my hometown of Louisville by a corpora- tion called Action Now, Inc., under the able direction of George T. Underhill, Jr. Action Now, Inc., represents the in- volvement of the private sector in the problems of the underprivileged. It does not in any way compete with Federal, State or local agencies. Rather it at- tempts to complement and aid them. Its primary purpose is to tap one of the city's largest resources?successful man- agement. The directors of Action Now, Inc., are drawn from the Louisville busi- ness community, black and white. They have much to offer that cannot be dupli- cated in a Government agency: Their time is unstructured, they are familiar with their city's problems, they have a vested interest in those problems. Action Now is a privately financed, nonprofit organization designed to func- tion as its name implies?to stimulate jobs, housing, and business experience for the disadvantaged. Its three compa- nies function in the areas of job Procure- ment, Jobs Now; adequate housing. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 ? CIA-ROPTUMWRO00300120003-9 December 11, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENA S 16521 bill. In a heartening demonstration of firm- ness, President Thieu has asked to have it amended to its original strong version. Under Vietnamese law, the upper houSe amend- ments, if any, will prevail unless overridden by two-thirds of the total membership of the lower house. Even then President Thieu can amend and will prevail, unless his amend- ments are overridden by a majority of the joint membership of the two houses. Thus, for the moment, with President Thieu's con- tinued exhibition of firmness, land reform is "up" again after its lower house drubbing. But whether the upper house amends and-if not-whether President Thieu amends and is not overridden, now depend crucially on the credibility of the compensa- tion to the landlords. As this was written, pressures appeared to be building for a United States declaration of financial support for the program-con- sistent with President Richard Nixon's strong general statement of support for the program in the Midway communiqu?f June, 1969. Whether such a statement is made may well be decisive in determining whether, as this is being read, the mass of South Vietnamese peasants are finally becomng owner-farmers, or whether the chance to achieve an impact during the 1969 main Delta harvest period (December to February) has been missed. If, finally, land reform goes "down" again, it may w..7.;4 be for the final count. l?a 14+ THE U.S. AMBASSADOR TO GREECE Mr. GOODELL. Mr. President, I have requested Senate Majority Leader MANS- FIELD to place a hold on the consideration of the nomination of Henry J. Tasca to be U.S. Ambassador to Greece. My reason is that I believe this is not the propitious moment for the United States to send an ambassador to Greece-not that I have any reservations concerning Mr. Tasca's qualifications. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that a statement I issued yesterday explaining the reasons for my action be printed in the RECORD, as well as an edi- torial on this subject which appeared in today's New York Times. There being no objection, the state- ment and editorial were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: GOODELL REQUESTS SENATE To DEFER NOMINA- TION OF AMBASSADOR DESIGNATE TO GREEK MILITARY DICTATORSHIP I have requested Senate Majority Leader Mansfield to hold up consideration of the nomination of Henry J. Tasca to be our Am- bassador to Greece. My reason is not that I have any reserva- tions concerning Mr. Tasca's qualifications. He is, by all accounts, an able diplomat who is fully qualified to hold ambassadorial rank. I have taken this action because I think it is not advisable at the present moment for the United States to send an ambassador to the Greek dictatorship. I recognize that it is often desirable to have full representation in countries with whose policies we fundamentally disagree. Diplo- matic communication is important between countries having different political systems. This, however, is a delicate moment. The Council of Europe is about to consider a motion to suspend or expel the Greek re- gime from membership because of its viola- tions of the basic human rights of Greek citizens. The Administration has been ? urging the Greek regime to adopt more democratic policies. The Senirte Foreign Relations Committee, I am pleaded to note, has decided against authorizing any military aid to Greece. There are signs that the forces behind the Greek junta might respond to these and other pressures for reform. I am hopeful that the temporary withhold- ing of an ambassador would be an additional signal of our displeasure with the dictator- ship's present practices and might encourage responsible elements in Greece to press for more democratic and humane policies. I am fearful that the dispatch of an am- bassador at this time-two days before the Council of Europe meets to consider the suspension or expulsion of Greece-would be particularly ill-timed. It could be miscon- strued in Europe as a.gesture of support for the junta and its present course; and intrude ourselves gratuitously in a decision that should be made by the Europeans themselves. I note also, that we have not even nomi- nated an ambassador to Sweden. Many in that country apparently believe that we have not done so because we are displeased with the Swedish government's position on Viet- nam. I do not know if this is the case. What- ever happens, we must certainly avoid giv- ing the impression that we are more con- cerned over Swedish aiews on Vietnam than we are over totalitarian practices in Greece. In summary, I am proposing a temporary hold on the nomination because I believe this is the wrong moment to send an ambassador; and also to emphasize our disapproval of the Greek junta's present policies and encourage responsible forces for change in Greece. A police state now reigns in Greece, the birthplace of democracy. Government by ter- ror and by torture rules in the land which first conceived of government by consent of the governed. The Human Rights Commission of the Council of Europe, after extensive investi- gation, has found that torture and ill-treat- ment of political prisoners amounted to an "administrative practice" that has been "of- ficially tolerated" by Greek government au- thorities. The Commission specifically re- ported 213 cases in which it had found evi- dence of torture-including a number of cases in which evidence of torture was found to be conclusive. In addition to torture, the Commission found the Greek junta guilty of widespread abuses of civil and personal rights. The Commission also exploded the fiction propagated by the junta that its seizure of power and subsequent rule was justified b' the threat of a Communist takeover. After reviewing the evidence, it found there was no substance to the junta's claims that a Communist coup was imminent in 1967. At this critical moment, It is imperative that we do nothing that can be misinter- preted by the Greek dictatorship and other nations as an endorsement of the junta's present policies. [From the New York Times, Dec. 11, 19691 THE GREEK JUNTA ON TRIAL Membership in the Council of Europe is re- stricted by its statute to countries that "ac- cept the principles of the rule of law" and enjoyment by all citizens of "human rights and fundamental freedoms." Foreign minis- ters of the eighteen members vote in Paris tomorrow on a resolution adopted by a huge majority of the Council's Consultative As- sembly demanding the ouster of Greece "for serious violations of the conditions of mem- bership." The ministers will have before them a 1,200- page report by the European Commission on Human Rights that details many cases of tor- ture of political prisoners by the Greek junta. They will also doubtless consider the un- covering by a respected British reporter of what appears to be a top-secret document, signed by the Director-General of the Greek Foreign Ministry, involving Premier Papa- dopoUlos himself in a right-wing plot to stage a military coup in Italy. In these circumstances, Senator Goodell has acted responsibly in asking Majority Leader Mansfield to delay a vote on the con- firmation of Henry J. Tasca as United States Ambassador to Athens. As Mr. Goodell makes clear, this is no reflection on Mr. Tasca; nor is it an effort to keep the ambassadorship in Athens vacant indefinitely because of disap- proval of the junta. It is simply that for the Senate to confirm Mr. Tosco on the eve of the Council's vote would be interpreted as an attempt by Wash- ington to pressure undecided Governments to keep Greece in the fold. The United States is already being accused of trying to influ- ence the Council's decision in favor of the junta. A brief delay will not damage Mr. Tasca's standing with the colonels; indeed, it may enhance his influence if the delay helps persuade them that the United States is genuinely concerned at their failure to to move Greece back toward freedom and democracy. THE CALENDAR Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Senate pro- ceed to the consideration of Calendar Nos. 581, 594, 595, 596, 597, 598, and 599. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. PUBLIC HEALTH TRAINING The Senate proceeded to consider the bill (S. 2809), to amend the Health Serv- ice Act so as to extend for an additional period the authority to make formula grants to schools of public health, which had been reported from the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare with amendments, on page 2, after line 5, in- sert a new section, as follows: SEC. 2. Section 309(a) of the Public Health Service Act is amended by striking out "and $12,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1971" and inserting in lieu thereof: "$15,000,- 000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1971, $18,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1972, $21,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973, $24,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1974, and $27,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1975". And, after line 13, insert a new section, as follows: SEC. 3. Section 306(a) of the Public Health Service Act is amended by striking out "and $14,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1971" and inserting in lieu thereof: "$14,000- 000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1971, $18,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1972, $22,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973, $26,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1974, and $30,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1975". So as to make the bill read: S. 2809 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That section 309(c) of the Public Health Service Act is amended by striking out "$5,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1968, $6,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1969, and $7,- 000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1970" and inserting in lieu thereof: "$7,000,- 000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1970, $9,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1971, $12,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1972, $15,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973, $18,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1974, and $20,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1975". SEC. 2. Section 309(a) of the Public Health Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71B00.364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP711300364R000300120003-9 16522 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD- SENATE December 11, 1969 Service Act is amended by striking out `: an These three programs are not new. The the training of public health personnel. The $12,000,000 for the fiscal ye aX ending Jute- $0, traineeships were authorized in 1957, the other two are section 306 of the Public 171" and inserting in lieu ttiereof : ON "$16,C GO,- ., formula grants in 1958 and the project Health Service Act that authorizes appro- for the fiscal year ending June 30, larrsa 08,000,000 for the fiscal year ending Juxte grants in 1960. priations for traineeships for professional public health personnel and section 309(a) S. 2809, as reported, would authorize 30, 1972, $21,000,000 for the *cal year eliding JUne 30, 1973, $24,000,000 ror the fiscal year the following appropriations: of the Public Health Service Act that au- thorizes appropriations for project grants for ending June 30, 1974, and $87,000,000 for the For traineeships, $18 million for 1972; graduate training in public health. Both of nscal year ending June 30, 5875". $22 million for 1973; $26 million for 1974; the latter two authorizations expire June 30, , SEC. 3. Seotion 306(a) of tie Public Health and $30 million for 1975, 1971. Stervice Act is amended by striking out -and For project grants, $15 million for The common objective or these formula $14,000,000 for the fiscal year ending 'June 1971; $18 million for 1972; $21 million grants, project grants, and traineeships is to 33, 1971" and inserting in lieu thereof: '4314,- 000,000 for the fiscal year ending Julie 30, for 1973; $24 mill..on for 1974; and $2 i a increase the supply of well-trained public health personnel. These sources of linen- 1971, $18,000,000 for the fiscal year ending million for 1975, cial support are closely related. Jane 30, 1972, $22,000,000 kr the fiscal: year For formula grants, $9 million for i recommended, therefore, that the for- ending June 30, 16373, $26,000,3000 for the fiscal 1971; $12 million for 1972; $15 million for mule grants, project grants, and trainee- It s yilar ending June 30, 1974, and sao,000,000 for 1973; $18 million,/ or t e fiscal year ending June 30, 1975". , lion for 1975. - ? nd $20 mil- ships be given a common expiration date of June 30, 1975. Mr. YARBOROUGH. Mr. President, Mr. Prpardent, the 16 schools b&public THE PROBLEM today a high rate of infant mortality is healt --).e of 'which are in StateNm- Advancing urbanization and acceptance the major reason why the United States vers es, have the responsibility for pro- of public responsibility for new health serv- lags behind other major countries in vi g graduates capable of duty in the ices to the populatien have expanded the lOngevity. Prenatal and infant care and lth services of all the 50 States, the need for personnel trained in protecting the public health. For many years agencies con- nutrition education needed to reduce tories, and the Federal Government, o con- cerned with community health programs infant mortality rate are essentially las well as for international activities, have been faced by shortages of professional P bile health problems. So are the lmg- :, They are analagous to national service personnel with public health training-in- t rm chronic illnesses of age becoming al academies in that they must prepare stu- eluding physicians, nurses, and sanitarians. n w domain for public health inquiry dents for public sen?vice anywhere in the In recent years the shortages have become and control. country. Ninety percent of their gradu- more severe than ever before as new concepts I Increased urbanization and acceptg:i. ates enter public service and hold key of the role of public health have evolved. New of public responsibility Mr new heal posts in local, city, State, National, and responsibilities have been given State and local health departments. Some years ago services to the population liave expanded international agencies, and the charac- the control of infectious diseases represented the need for personnel trained in WO- ter of professional leadership in the the major role of health departments. Today tecting the public health. For many years teaching of public health in the United immunization programs are a relatively htncies concerned with commmity ates has been reflected in the frequency small but none the less important aspect alth problems have been faced ti3r which faculty members are called of the activities of health departments and shOrtages of professional personnel with on consultation abroad, these activities require highly specialized ptiblic health training, including 013E1- Mr. resident, because this bill is and trained public health personnel. Among cions, nurses, and sanitarians. vitally i ortant to the training and bet- the new responsibilities are comprehensive health planning, health and medical care Approximately 5,400 positions in State ter prepa tion of public health person- administration; environmental management arid local health departments are Cur- nel, I reco end that this bill pass the in the areas of air, water, and land; popula- Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP711300364R000300120003-9 Decemsber 5, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? Extensions Circumstances could change. Adopting the projections of Consolidated Gold Fields, a few years of rising demand and dwindling supply could restore the markets and the bullion dealers to their former glory. That might equally well be achieved, though more drastically, if declining prices caused a shake-out of dispirited hoarders and re- turned gold to its floor. Life has been full of surprises for the bullion dealers. It is little wonder that in celebrating, this year, the fiftieth anniversary of the daily London "fixing," they have been anything but de- sponde t. i?it THE GREEK TRAGEDY HON. DONALD M. FRASER OF MINNESOTA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, December 4, 1969 Mr. FRASER. Mr. Speaker, on No- vember 18 I placed hi the RECORD two articles detailing the attempts of the ruling colonels to stifle the Greek press. Another aspect of the colonels' cam- paign was reported on November 26, 1969, in the New York Times. The article follows: GREEK PROVINCIAL POLICE BAN SOME ATHENS PAPERS ATHENS, November 25?Most of the daily newspapers of Athens were prevented today from circulating In north and central Greece. The ban was apparently imposed by local security police Greece's military-backed gov- ernment, which recently issued a new law attesting to "freedom of the press," had no official comment. For the last six weeks, newspaper publish- ers and distributors have reported police ob- struction in the provincial sales of Athens newspapers not actively friendly toward the Government. It began with ban on the sale of specific issues of national newspapers. On an ap- parently haphazard basis, newspaper distri- butors in some provincial towns were ordered ttip ration the sales of Athens newspapers that did not support the regime. This was later changed to a system of quotas some- times representing 20 percent of the news- papers' normal sales. Today's measures were enforced differently and more drastically. Technically no news- papers were seized and no quotas were set. The police visited news vendors in the Thes- saly area of central Greece and ordered that the bundles of all but three Athens dailies were to be returned unopened to the pub- lishers. The sale of newspapers friendly to the regime, Eleftheros Kosmos, Nea Politeia and Vradyni, was permitted. The battle between the Government and the press started soon after Premier George Papadopoulos abolished preventive censor- ship on newspapers on Oct. 3. The press reacted cautiously but with wit. There were cartoons ridiculing the Portu- guese elections or of Spain that were easily translated by readers into comment on Greece. Headlines were often calculated to irri- tate the Government, and two Athens dailies published series on the attempt of exiled King Constantine to topple the military-im- posed regime. Athens publishers were called in by Gov- ernment officials and told to mend their ways. But officially the Government denied any attempt to harass the press. Deputy Premier Stylianos Patakos said early this month: "What has happened is that readers are so disgusted with What' newspapers print that they naturally refuse to buy them." Under the new press law, which goes into effect Jan. 1, any interference with news- paper distribution not authorized by judicial authorities is punishable by a minimum three-month prison term. Nothing has been more characteristic of the junta than their attempt to end the free press in Greece unless it is the colonels' periodic announcements of re- form timetables. The latest was reported by the Times on November 24. The fol- lowing day an excellent editorial put the latest "reform" in its proper perspective: GREECE REPORTS TIMETABLE FOR REFORM ATHENS, November 23.?Greece's military- backed Government said today that it had set a firm timetable for the restoration of representative government, which was abol- ished in a coup d'etat 31 months ago. This assurance was given by Foreign Min- ister Panayotis Pipinelis in an article pub- lished today in the Athens newspaper Acro- polis. In the article, which did not disclose any dates, Mr. Pipinelis said: "I can assure the Greek people that the actual Government under its present leader- ship is in a position to carry out unfailingly the program for a phased application of the whole Constitution within a predetermined time limit. Then the Greeks will be called upon to express their opinion on its ac- complishments, in order to consolidate them or even smash them if so they wish." The Foreign Minister's statement marked a step forward from earlier vague declara- tions that full constitutional rule would be restored "only when the revolution's goals have been accomplished." One of these goals is the civic re-education of the Greeks, which could last a generation. ALLIES PRESSING GREECE Most GIVR and political liberties of the Greeks have been in abeyance since the army coup in April, 1967. Greece's Western allies have been pressing the leaders to commit themselves to a time- table for evolution toward democracy. The United States even "selectively suspended" military aid to Greece as leverage for politi- cal changes, The Greek leaders have so far resisted this pressure on the ground that they alone "shall determine when the time is ripe for demo- cratic evolution, bearing in mind the in- terests of the Greek people." Mr. Pipinelis's statement that a timetable does exist comes at a time when most of Greece's allies and friends are reviewing their attitudes toward the Greek Government in view of the slow progress toward a return to democratic government. A crucial decision is expected in Paris Dec. 12 when the 18 foreign minister of the Council of Europe meet to consider the mo- tion to oust Greece for suspending demo- cratic freedoms and parliamentary rule. Earlier efforts to avert an ouster, by in- ducing Athens to pledge itself to an irrevo- cable timetable for democratization, failed last September when the three-phase pro- gram submitted by the Greek Government, covering the period to the end of 1970, fell short of promising either the lifting of mar- tial law or the holdings of free elections. CHANGE IN ATTITUDE IMPLIED Mr. Plpinelis's statement implied a change of attitude. If a guaranteed timetable lead- ing to elections were announced. Greece's explusion from the Council of Europe might be averted. The Scandinavian countries, Belgium and the Netherlands which have led the move- ment to expel Greece, were joined this week by Britain. Britain made it clear that unless definite proof of good faith were produced of Remarks E 10357 by Athens at once Britain would support the ouster movement. GREEK'S PREDICTABLE JUNTA One thing can be said about the Greek junta: Its international political maneuvers are entirely predictable. It Invariably begins to make noises about restoring freedoms or returning Greece to representative rule when it is facing the threat of international censure or condemnation. Thus, almost on the eve of the meeting of Atlantic Alliance ministers in Washington last April, Colonel Papadopoulos proclaimed "restoration" of three articles of the 1968 Constitution relating to civil liberties. With this meaningless gesture he was trying to head off a threat of NATO action against Greece. And thus, with a move to expel Greece from the Council of Europe coming up at the meeting of foreign ministers next month, Foreign Minister Pipinelis discloses that the junta has a definite timetable for elections and a return to representative government. Mr. Pipinelis gives no dates?just assurances that the regime will apply the Constitution in phases "within a predetermined time limit," and that the Greeks will then be given the opportunity 'to express their opinion on its accomplishments." They can vote to consolidate those accomplishments "or even smash them if they so wish." Mr. Pipinelis at seventy is a pathetic figure: the only political leader of any prominence to serve the colonels since King Constantine's abortive countercoup of 1967; the only politi- cal name the junta has been able to flaunt abroad in the vain attempt to garner re- spectability. Mr. Pipinelis is the foreign minister in name only, as he certainly discovered long ago; and not even he can really believe that Papadopoulos, Patakos and Company have a timetable for legitimate elections or any in- tention of submitting themselves to a free judgment of the Greek people. Finally, the European Commission for Human Rights has concluded its study of the Greek regime. They reportedly have found that torture and ill-treatment are "an administrative practice" that is "of- ficially tolerated." Those who defend the colonels' government should carefully consider this report and the effort which will be made later this month to expel Greece from the Council of Europe. At this point I include in the RECORD news reports of these developments: INQUIRY ON GREECE REPORTS TORTURES: EUROPE COUNCIL STUDY ALSO FINDS MANY FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS ARE BEING DENIED (By Alvin Shuster) LoNrioN, November 28.?The European Commission for Human Rights has con- cluded that Greece's military-backed Gov- ernment allowed torture of political prisoners and denied many fundamental human rights. Its 1,200-page report, the result of more than two years of investigation, found that torture and ill-treatment were "an adminie- tractive practice" that was "officially toler- ated." It charged that Greek authorities had taken no effective steps to stop the practices. The commission, an agency of the 18- nation Council of Europe, also found that, contrary to contentions of the Greek regime, there was no danger of a Communist take- over at the time the army colonels seized power on April 21, 1967, and imposed martial law, still in effect. "There is evidence indicating that it (a Communist takeoveri was neither planned at that time nor seriously anticipated by either the military or police authorities," the commission said. Its still-confidential report, in four vol- umes, is likely to bolster the case of govern- Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 E 10358 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? Extensions of Remarks menta that will push for the eforpulsion of Greece wheia the ministers of the Council of Europe meet in Paris on Dec. 12. The council has postponed action awaiting the commis- sion's finding& which have now been sub- mitted to the member-nations. Apart from the blow to Athens prestige, expulsion from the Council would also mean removal of Greece from the Parliament of Europe, which sits in Strasbourg and pre- pares social and econclinic programs for its members. BRITAIN TO BACK EXPULSION Britain has decided to vote against the regime at the meeting and is trying to influ- ence others to do so. The United States, al- though not a member of the council, has indicated concern about Greece's ,expuision, fearing, in part, that it might lead to pres- sure to expel her from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as well. Some United States officials also tvorry that such council action might lead the colonels, out of pique, to withdrati, from participation in NATO. Greek leaders have sought to give the im- pression of movement toward democracy. They are expected to defend themselves at next month's meeting by citing steps they have taken, including recent talk or a still- vague timetable for the restoration of repre- sentative government. But the regime will be presenting its argu- ments against the background of the most detailed and official condemnation of its actions yet. The report represents the efforts of lawyers who took hundreds of hours of testimony and even traveled to Greece for on-the-scene investigatiou Some have called I their work the weightiest international legal I inquiry since the Nuremberg trial of war criminals after World War II. Technically, the counell cannot take any steps on the basis of the report until three months after its submission. But such coun- tries as Britain, Norway, Sweden and Den- mark believe there are sufficient grounds for , action now anyway. CHARTER VIOLATION CHARGED The conclusions?that the use of torture had been established "betond doubt." that human freedoms are violated and that no Communist threat existed at the time of the coup?go to the heart of the case. The report concludes that the Greek regime has thus violated the conditions of membership, in particular Article 3. That article in the charter of the council, I founded 20 years ago, abates that members I "must accept the principles of the rule of law and of the enjoyment by all persons within its jurisdiction of human rights and fundamental freedoms." Such rights may be suspended under the charter in "time of peril or other public emergency threatening the life of the na- tion," but the commission found that these conditions did not exist at the time of the ooup. The report said that while there was a period of "political instability and *Delon" in Greece, this did not constitute a '"public emergency." While there were demonstra- tions in the streets, it said, the situation did "not differ markedly from that in many other countries in Europe." It also rejected the Greek Government's I argument that continued suspenssan of Irights was necessary because of bomb inci- dents and the growth of "illegal tions." orratilza,- "Te commission does not find, On the evidence before it," it said, "that either fac- tor is beyond the control of the public au- thorities using normal Measures, or that they are on a scale threatening the 'life of the Greek nation." CONFRONTED GREEK NW HORITIES The report said that competent Greek au- thorities, "confronted with numerous and substantial complaints and allegations of torture and ill-treatment," failed to take any effective steps to investigate them or to insure rernediEs for "any such complaints or allegations found to be true." Moreover, the report said that Greeks were being denied such fundamental rights as freedom of expression, association, a fair trial, and free elections at regular intervals, such rights, it noted, are required under the council's charter. The report, prepared by a subcommission of the Human Rights Commission, was adopted by the parent group earlier this month. It was submitted to the member countries nine days ago. The council, primarily an advisory orga- nization, was organized to further political, social and economic unity of Europe. Its other members are Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, France, West Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Turkey. GREECE: TROUB:IS AHEAD FOR THE COLONELS Loanioar.?The regime of the colonels in Greece will shortly face one its more difficult diplomatic tests since the 1967 coup that brought it to power. The Council of Europe, meeting in Paris a week from this Friday, will consider suspending Greece from mem- bership because of her undemocratic mili- tary government. The expectation here is that the council will vote for the suspension. The move against Greece has more than the usual potential of mere name-calling motions in international organization. This action might have a real political effect in Greece. And it is also noteworthy because it has aroused a rare difference of diplomatic opinion between Britain and the United States. Britain is going to vote against the col- onels, and the Foreign Office is playing a leading part in trying to persuade others among the 18 council members to do so. The United States, which is not a member of the Council of Europe, has indicated to its European allies its uneasiness over the British move, The American concern is with Greece's position in the North Atlantic Treaty Or- ganization. The growing number of Soviet ships in the Mediterranean, the coup in Libya and the unending Abra-Israeli tension have all intensified the view in Washington that Greece is vital as a military ally. U.S. MILITARY AID American military assistance, which was cut off after the colonels' revolution in 1967, Was resumed in part after the Soviet inn-- sion of Czechoskvakia last year. Some air- craft, minesweepers and other items espe- cially useful for _NATO support are now going to Greece. And the United States again has an ambassador in Athens. What worries American officials is that the colonels, in pique at a slap from the Council of Europe, might suspend Greek participa- tion in NATO's operations on the southern flank of Europe. Diplomats here report that various Greek scurces have been voicing threats of that kind in an effort to prevent an adverse council vote. British officials are skeptical at the notion of Greece's withdrawing from NATO in pique. They argue that the Athens regime needs NATO more than the alliance needs it?especially because the colonels depend for their power or support from the army, Which greatly values the NATO role. European sentiment against the colonels will doubtless be farther stirred by a report of the European Human Rights Commis- sion A massive study of repression under the military regime, in four volumes, it be- gan leaking out here over this weekend. The study concludes that the regime has made a practice of- using torture and has denied most of the fundamental rights of man--of expression, association, fair trial and free elections. December 5, 1969 The charter -Of the Council of Europe, an advisory body created in 1949, says that members "muait accept the principles of the rule of law and of the enjoyment of human rights arid fundamental freedoms." It is be- cause the council his that political basis that Michael Stewart, the British Foreign Secretary, has insisted on dealing with Greece. At the last meeting of the Committee of Ministers, in gay, Greece was in effect put on probation. A resolution warned that she would be suspended unless the Government took steps to restore democracy and the rule of law. British officials see no sign that the col- onels have rule since then. No date has been set for an elections. The press is still gagged. The colonels dismissed the Presi- dent of their Council of State last summer when he found that they had gone beyond their powers in acting against some judges; for good measure the colonels exiled the lawyers who had handled the case. American diplomats say the United States has persistently urged the colonels to get the country back to representative democ- racy. But the tfnited States is plainly re- luctant to apply direct pressure. One American worry is that successful action against Greece in the Council of Europe would lead to demands for her ex- pulsion from NATO. The British argue that NATO's purpose is altogether different. They also say that failure to do anything in the Council of Europe might bring pressure in three NATO countries?Norway, Den- mark and the Netherlands?for a move against Greece in NATO. The members of the Council of Europe are Austria, Belgium, Britain, Cyprus, Den- mark, France, West Germany, Greece, Ice- land, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzer- land and Turkey. At least 10 of the 18 must vote for expulsion for the motion to prevail. The council's purpose is to further the political, economic and social unity of Eur- ope. It has sponsored a large number of treaties on legal, social and practical com- munications questions, One of the treaties is the European uman Rights Convention, which is accepted by many European states and has a court to enforce its provisions. Exclusion fromi the ceuncil would bother the Greek regime primarily as a symbol? a blow to the prestige that the colonels have carefully tried to foster. Loss of council membership would also deprive Greece of her seats in the Parliament of Europe, which sits in Strasbourg and Acts as an advisory legislative body far Europe. DR. WILLIAM HMASON, OF TRUES- DALE HOSPITAL HON. MARGARET M. HECKLER OF NIASSACHTISETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Friday, December 5, 1969 Mrs. HECKLER of Massachusetts. Mr. Speaker, few human relationships are nobler and more endearing than that of the physician and the families he serves. In this day of the medical specialist, however, the traditional family physi- cian has become a vanishing breed. It is fitting, therefore, to pay high tribute to a man like Dr. William Ma- son, of Truesdale Hospital, in Fall Riv- er, Mass. He typifies the traditional fam- ily physician. I think for many of us this article, which I am inserting in the RECORD, will bring back "memories that bless and burn" of our own family doc- tors. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 December 4, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD? SENATE S 15643 ration of the Colonies from the motherland, but that sentiment in the Declaration of Independence which gave liberty not alone to the people of this country, but I hope to the world, for all future time." The man we are honoring this week is Walter Knott, former tenant farmer and founder of the famed Knott's Berry Farm, and the motivating spirit behind the crea- tion of a second Independence Hall and Heri- tage House on the Knott grounds at Buena Park, California. If you have been a listener to these weekly discourses on what has been happening to the American Dream, and how we may keep It from perishing, you will understand the thrill I experienced last month when I spent a day with Walter Knott, and learned how this tenant farmer who lived in a log cabin with a dirt floor, and without subsidies or security guarantees, built one of the great enterprises of the nation. I learned that Mrs. Knott, now 80 and still supervising the serving of up to 6,000 chicken dinners on Sundays, had eight customers the first day she opened her house to paid guests. I learned why Walter Knott would want to build America's second Independ- ence Hall?down to the thumb and linger prints on 140-thousand specially made bricks, to the chipping of the huge block and crack of the Liberty Bell, and on up to the gold plated weather vane 168-feet above the street. After admiring the craftsmanship that re- created the great bell, Mrs. Wimmer and I were ushered into a little theatre where we witnessed a cineramic presentation of great* paintings that vividly portrayed the cen- turies of man's struggle for freedom and in- dependence, which prepared us for the next event that was to take place in an Assembly Room, the exact duplicate in every detail of the Assembly Room in Independence Hall, Philadelphia, where the debate on the Dec- laration was held. We took our seats on the same kind of backless benches on which spectators and the press of olden days viewed the debates of the Colonies, and after a brief lecture, the lights were turned off, and from each of the thirteen tables candles began to burn and voices rose from each table as arguments over the Declaration began. From the sound track there rose also the noise of the storm outside, and the sound of rain beating upon the roof could be heard, and above it all the protests, challenges, compromises and fears that marked one of the most memorable days in the history of man. Some of the voices were heated. There was pleading: Soft, Passionate, Convincing, Chal- lenging, and as a delegate walked across the Hall, making his point, the sound of foot- steps and the voice moved with him. These men were reminded that they were sealing their death warrant if the Declara- tion were adopted; if the Revolutionary War was lost, or if they were captured, but as one of the delegates said: "We are also deciding the fate of the Thirteen Colonies, and maybe the fate of generations untold." In the end, they signed the Declaration, pledging their lives, fortunes, and sacred honor; knowing, as someone remarked, they "would have to hang together or hang sep- arately." As we emerged from the Assembly Room, Mrs. Wimmer remarked in a hushed voice, "we were there when it happened," and I understood for the first time what must have burned in the heart of Walter Knott, and in the hearts of those whose inspired help created such a colossal enterprise. Of special interest, I think, was the need of putting the voices of the Signers on one strip of tape, which technicians had declared was impossible. A new machine and a new process had to be invented, and it was. The cracking of the Bell presented another prob- lem, and it is a story unto Itself. The inde- pendent Lund Paint Company produced a paint formula the same as that used on the original Hall. Craftsmen at the Berry Farm performed the cabinet work and made the gorgeous chandeliers and the famed Rising Sun Chair used by the Speaker. Two 60-foot flag poles were donated by the Atlantic- Richfield Company before the company was taken over by the British. The four great clocks, with their ten-foot faces, were made by the skilled men of The American Sign & Indicator Corporation, and independent Don Koll Construction Company, builder of the great Hall, raised them to their lofty po- sitions. Yes, it was "We The People"?as Walter Knott would say it, who dug the raw mate- rials from the earth; who molded them into bricks, copper and steel, and who fitted the work of hand and machine into place. Listening to this?unparalleled story of our rise as a free enterprise nation, and thinking back to those hours of indecision that must have haunted the Pilgrims, I recalled the words of William Bradford, the great Pilgrim Governor of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, that "great and honorable actions are ac- companied by great difficulties, and must be both ent,erprised and overcome with answer- able courage." According to histotical accounts, the crew and captain of' the Speedwell, sister ship of the Mayflower, must have gotten faint heart because they managed to create delays that ended in a final count Of 102 strong hearts being put aboard the Mayflower, to begin a voyage as immortal as life itself. What fears they must have suffered. The sickness and death. The storms and fog. The unknown dangers that awaited them if they ever reached land, yet all we hear today, it seems, is "give the people this and give them that;" welfare, welfare, welfare, and what welfare is there to life if man is to lose the enterprise to overcome? If he stands in his ghetto and blames everyone but himself for his plight? If he shall run his own farm or business and look not to the threats against his country or his family until trouble is on his own doorstep? Lowell wrote that the American Republic will endure only so long as the ideas of the men who founded it remain dominant, but has any generation ever drifted so far afield from the ideas, the dreams of the American Revolution, as the present generation? I say to everyone, everywhere in America, that Jefferson was either right or wrong when he warned "it is not to the advantage of a Republic that a few should control the many, when nature has scattered so much talent through the conditions of men;" and that James Madison was either right or wrong when he warned: "Hold fast to programs, both rational and moral, that have as their central goal a constant diffusion of power." Both these men feared too much power in too few hands. Both spoke constantly of moral values being basic to social, economic and political values, and they knew if safe- guards were not erected that every step of the people would be away from a free Republic and toward great concentrations of power now seen in holding companies, conglomer- ates, giant labor unions, powerful chain store systems, and all-embracing govern- ment. All trends today?everywhere?are away from the self-determination, self-reliance, in- dependent enterprise, local control over lo- cal affairs in government that is basic to the philosophy upon which our nation was founded, but despite a clamor of voices raised against this -change in our society, voices such as our own National Federation of Independent Business now reaching mil- lions of people weekly, the task of turning the tide is shirked or ignored by so many who have so much to lose. I believe there are people in this audience from all walks of life who see the America of yesterday as a kind of Messiah among the nations of the world, and our youth today are asking that she fulfill this role. They know little of how to fill their part of the role or what it really is. They ask only for a cause?not knowing that the TIMES are their cause, and it is so with older Americans, in all walks of life. And so I say to all of you in radio land, the debate that took place in Independence Hall must begin all over again, for only on the battlefields of the minds of men will such great ideas as those which founded our nation be relived. We need to say My Coun- try 'Tis of Thee, Sweet Land of Liberty in the way it ran through the minds of the poor, uneducated immigrants who knelt on the decks of ships that emerged from the fog and into sight of the Statute of Liberty, weeping when they saw the great Torch of Freedom held high in the heavens over New York harbor. No other people in the world were ever so blessed with so many opportunities to serve their nation and the world, for what hopes would there be for people anywhere who love liberty, if America should lose her hold on the traditions and wealth with which she is now possessed? George Washington wrote: "The fate of the Republic is in the hands of God," but he called upon all Americans, both then and now, to "raise a standard to which the good and wise can repair;" saying in effect that if God gives all things to man, if he neglects, forgets or misuses his freedom, all things will someday be taken from him. Let us set our course with the zeal, courage and dreams which motivated those who took to pathless seas, to find a land where they could sow their seeds and reap their harvests, free from the tyrannies of the old world. Their dreams came true, and later gener- ations called it The American Dream . . a dream that took Walter Knott from a humble tenant farm to the builder of a seoond Hall of American Independence, to help make the first one live. From an address by Abraham Lincoln (Cincinnati, 1856): "Let us appeal to the sense and patriotism of the people, not to their prejudices; let us spread the floods of enthusiasm here aroused all over these vast prairies so suggestive of freedom. There is both a power and a magic in popular opin- ion. To that let us now appeal." TORTURE OF POLITICAL PRISON- ERS BY THE GREFic GOVERN- MENT Mr. PELL. Mr. President, the Euro- pean Commission on Human Rights has been working for almost 2 years on a report accusing the Greek Government of torturing political prisoners as a mat- ter of policy. While this report must remain con- fidential until it has been fully consid- ered by the Council, the London Sunday Times has secured a copy of it, an ab- stract of which appeared in the Wash- ington Post of today. I ask unanimous consent that this ab- stract be inserted in the RECORD follow- ing my remarks. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. (See exhibit 1.) Mr. FELL. If this report of the Euro- pean Commission on Human Rights does result in the expulsion or suspension of Greece from the Council of Europe I be- lieve this would be a very good thing in that it might be the dash of cold water needed to jolt the Colonels' junta in putting its foot down on the use of tor- ture and might even push them along on the road toward elections. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 S 15644 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD? SENATE December 4,1969 EXHIBIT 1 [From the Washington (D.C.) Post, Dec. 4., 19691 Chen= REGIME SAID To TORII:FA JAIL OPPONEWrs Lormore?A secret report prepar by the European Commission. on Human eaglets ac- cuses the Greek government of tort uring po- litical prisoners as a matter of pole y. Almost certainly the raidings of I he report Will lead to Greece being expelled from the Council of Europe this month. The Sunday Times has examined a copy of the report, which lists 213 cases in which there is prima fade evidence of torture. And the report produces evidence suggesOng that five men, all named, have died as a result of the policy of torture. The chief method employed Wee beating on the soles of the feet, which is extremely painful but leaves little or no trace The report alleges that a member of the ruling junta, Ioannis Lades, person dig tor- tured one prisoner. But perhaps more important than the de- tails of brutality is the fact that the com- mission deal in detail with the defense which the Greek government has given for its admitted suspension of civil liberties. The Greeks have always claimed that there was a Communist, or "Leftist" plan to seize power averted only by the colonels' own , coup in 1967. The 15 international lawyers of the Com- mission reject the Greek evidence that there was any such plot, and accuse thm j mai of producing forged evidence. In September 1967, Sweden, Denmark. Nor- way and the Netherlands charged the Greek regime, fellow-member with themselves of , the Council of Europe, with having violated certain fundamental rights of the Greek peo- ple. Six months later, the four pemesting 1 governments extended their indictment. They accused the Greek government of ' torture?not merely random cases of arbi- trary police brutality, but of a state of af- fairs where "high officials within the hier- archy of state authorities or with their per- mission or knowledge . . . permit or even systematically make use of torture' A nation cannot remain a member of the Council unless it is a parliamentary democ- racy. So the charge made against Greece im- plied at once the sanction of expulskee 1 The task of examining the case Was given Ito the Commission on Rumlin Rights, based Ilike the council itself in Strasbourg, Right Iinternational lawyers have :Tent the inter- vening two years on the investigation, in- terrogating eighty-seven witnesses, includ- ,ing officials of the Greek junta, political pris- eners still in jail in Greece, politicians in exile, journalists, doctors, workers for Am- nesty International, and even at one stage et waiter in Liverpool. Another seven lawyers joined in the evalu- ation of the evidence. The result is that the Greek junta has been found guilty precisely as charged. Almost inevitably, this means that Greece will be expelled from the Coon- ell of Europe this month. 1 The 1,200-page report of the commisasion remains a secret document. There is no present official intention to publish it. How- ever, The Sunday Times has been able to obtain a copy, and extracts are publishes/ on tile grounds that It presents perhaps the nearest possible approach to a definitiee ac- tount of the condition of liberty in Greece. , The commission mentions e13 eases In which there is prima fade evidence or tor- tine?some can be more thoetughly elocu- mented than others. And it producesi evi- dence to suggest that at least five people May have deed as a result of torture inflibted. These are named as Costes Paleegos, nnis Chalkidis, George Tsarouchas, Phen- yl tis Ellis and Nikiforos Mandilares. I orture is only one aspect of the suspen- et n of civil liberties laid to the junta* ac- count. In deeense, the Greek government claimed before the Commission that the suspension of civil liberties was justified by the existence Df a danger to the State. The oammissicei devotes about half its report to the matter of this defense; this is, perhaps, the most detailed examination of the well- known allegation that leftwing groups were planning violent revolution before the coup which brought the junta to power in 1987. The commission finds that there is con- siderable evidence that no such plans existed for the overthrow of the state. The junta also produced a letter which purported to show that the late George Papandreou, the leader of the Center Party, had been negotiating with Me Communists. The comenissior found that one of the junta's own witnesses, a Dr. Keessaskia, had proved this document to be a forgery tire years previously. In the 430-page section on torture, the Commission lista and analyses the evidence it heard from 38 witnesses in Athens and Strasbourg. Sixreen of these claimed to be victims -Of -torture; 25 were accused police officers and others in official positions under the regime. Then the commission gives its conclu- SiOns?reached by majorities of 10 to 13. "The commission has found it established beyond doubt that torture or ill-treatment . ? has been inflicted in a number of cases." This has been a sustained policy: "There has since April, :1987, been a practice of tor- ture and ill-treatment by the Athens Se- curity Police, in Bouboulinas Street, or per- sons arrested for political offenses. This tor- ture and ill-treaenent has most often con- sisted of the application of lalangee or severe -beatings to all parts of the body. Its purpose has been the extraction of informa- tion including confessions concerning the political activities and associations of the victims and other persons considered to be subversive." Moreover, the junta has condoned this to the point at which torture has become "ad- ministrative practice." "The competent Greek authorities, confronted with numerous and substantial complaints and allegations of torture and ill-treatment, have failed to take any effective steps to investigate them or to ensure remedies for such complaints or allegations found to be true." The Commission devotes one entire volume of its report simply to listing 213 people who are alleged to have been tortured, and the evidence available in each case. This, the comminsion agrees, does not pro- vide proof. But the report points out: "The commission ca.nno; ignore the sheer num- ber of complaints ... It is not able to reject the whole as a conspiracy by Communist and antigovernment groups to discredit the gov- ernment and the police . . . It cannot but regard the actual number of complaints brought before it as strong indication that acts of torture or ill-treatment are not iso- lated or exceptional, nor limited to one place." Faced with this mass of cases to examine the commission decided to take a sort of random sample and focus on selected cases throughout Greece, "The . . . commission has investigated 30 cases to a substantial de- gree and expressed some conclusion with regard to 28 of them. With regard to these cases the Commission finds it established that: torture or ill-treatment has been in- flicted in 1i individual cases (it then lists the cases) . . the evidence before the commis- sion of torture or ill -treatment having heed inflicted on 17 other individuals demands further investigation . . the commission was in effect prevented directly or indirectly by the respondent government (Greece) from completing its investigation of these cases . . ." The junta refused to allow the commission to see 21 witnesses. Among those 21 were the alleged victims most reliably reported to bear still the physical marks of their experi- ences. In most cases, however, a method of tor- ture, falanga, had been chosen which does not leave marks. The report describes it: "Falange or bastinado has been a method of torture known for centuries. It is the beat- ing of the feet with a- wooden or metal stick or bar which, if skillfully done, breaks no bones, Makes no skin lesions, and leaves no permanent anti recognizable Marks, but muses intense pain and Swelling of the feet . . ." Lacking simple medical evidence, the Com- mission spent months cross-checking wit- nesses' stories. The 30 vises the Commission examined in this detail are a recital of horror. On one page are details of the beating which Ioannis Lades, then Secretary-Gen- eral of the Ministry of Public Order, per- sonally gave to a journalist Of whom he die- approved?"He struck me with his flat. . . and started pouring out insults . . " 'You are a party, a Bulger. You shall die. I shall kill you with my bare hands On other pages is the tragedy of Anastasia Tsirka?Police came to her Meese on the night of September 23, 1967 and found three leaflets of a banned organization. Tsirka was tortured to discover we had given them to her. The beatings of the Seourity police in Boubulinas Street killed her unborn child_ The doctors think she is now probably sterile. - The junta maintained it had conducted an Inquiry into Mrs. Tsirka's allegations and disproved them. The commission found that the inquiry had omitted even to question doctors at the hospital to which she was taken after her miscarriage. RANDOM DRAFT SELECTION-- QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Mr. STENNIS. Mr. President, a great number of inquiries have come from Members of the Senate, as well as from the people of the Nation, about the draw- ing under the new Selective Service Act. Selective Service has prepared a ntnnber of questions and answers that are most commonly asked about this subject, and I ask unanimous consent that, for the information of the membership and the public, the questions and answers which have been prepared be inserted in the RECORD at this point. There being no objection, the ques- tions and answers were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: RANDOM SELECTION QuESITONS AND ANSWERS Question. Explain the drawing under the recently emended Selective Service Act. Answer. On December 1, there was a draw- ing in Washington of 366 closed capsules in each of which was a slip a paper on which was written a month anaL day of the year, for example, May 2, June 1; etc. The order in which these capsules were drawn determines the relative position in the national random sequence of registrants born on all the dates of the year including February 29. As Sep- tember 14 was drawn first,-ail men born on September le are No, 1 in the national ran- dom sequence. As June 8 was drawn last, all men with that birthday are No. 366 in the national random sequence. Question. How will this sequence be used by local boards? Answer. Each local board will assign num- bers to its registrants who are in I-A or who become I-A in eceord with the national sequence. Some local boards may not have at any one time men with birthdays on every day. In such a case the kcal board Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 AppgpVed For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 S15006 11'1' CONGRESSIONAL RECORD? SENATE November 25, 1969 THE NIXON-SATO COMMUNIQUE Mr. BYRD of Virginia. Mr. President, during the weekend, I had an opportu- nity to study the communique issued Friday by the President of the United States and the Prime Minister of Japan. It was cordial in tone, as it should have been. It is important, I feel, that there be a close and friendly relation- ship between Japan and the United States, Prime Minister Sato's visit to the United States, as President Nixon made clear, should help achieve a better un- derstanding between the two countries. The text of the communique is three columns of newspaper type. It is divided into 15 brief sections. The key section is number 6. This is the section which deals spe- cifically with Okinawa. In this section, the Prime Minister emphasized his view that the time had come to respond to the strong desire of the people of Japan to return Okinawa to Japanese control. President Nixon expressed appreciation of the Prime Minister's view: Now we come to the key sentences: They (President Nixon and Prime Minis- ter Sato) therefore agreed that the two gov- ernments would immediately enter into consultations regarding specific arrange- ments for accomplishing the early reversion of Okinawa without detriment to the secu- rity of the Far East, including Japan. They further agreed to expedite the con- sultations with a view to accomplishing the reversion during 1972, subject to the con- clusion of these specific arrangements with the necessary legislative support. Now, let us analyze the above lan- guage. Just what agreement was reached by Mr. Nixon and Mr. Sato. First. They agreed that the two gov- ernments would immediately enter into consultations regarding specific arrange- ments for accomplishing the early rever- sion of Okinawa, and, Second. Such consultations would be subject to the conclusion of these spe- cific arrangements with the necessary legislative support. So, it seems clear that the only agree- ment made by President Nixon is one of principle; namely, an early reversion of Okinawa. ? But no details have been agreed to. No specific arrangements have been agreed to. The agreement, to cite the text of the communique, is to "enter into consulta- tions regarding specific arrangements." As one who feels that the United States must have the unrestricted use of Okinawa, our greatest military com- plex in the far Pacific, if we are to con- tinue our widespread commitments in Asia, I frankly am relieved since reading the text of the communique. The text does not bear out the news- paper headlines concerning the com- munique. The only agreement President Nixon made was to "immediately enter into consultations regarding specific arrange- ments." And then that was followed by the two leaders of government specifying that any specific arrangements would be sub- ject to legislative support which, insofar as the United States is concerned, means approval by the Senate. I am glad to state to the Senate that I support this communique. It should help Prime Minister Sato in Japan with- out forfeiture by the United States of any control over Okinawa other than agree- ing to enter "into consultations regard- ing specific arrangements." I am especially pleased that the Sen- ate's role in any final arrangements af- fecting Okinawa is specifically recog- nized in the text of the communique. The fact that this is so clearly spelled out in the communique results, I feel, from the action taken by the Senate of the United States on November 5, 1969. On that date, the Senate, by a re- corded vote of 63 to 14, specified that any change in the Treaty of Peace with Japan must come to the Senate for ap- proval or disapproval. In the Nixon/Sato communique 16 days later, both leaders recognized that any "specific arrangements" affecting Okinawa would be subject to Senate ap- proval. In my judgment, this establishes a his- toric precedent and one which is of vital importance both to the Senate and to the Nation. President Johnson, last year, unilater- ally returned to Japan the Bonin Islands, which included Iwo Jima, without sub- mitting his action to the Senate for rati- fication. The Senate was not aware of President Johnson's action until the deed had been accomplished. But the Senate on November 5 of this year served notice that any changes in treaties previously ratified by the Sen- ate must be submitted to the Senate for approval. This action of the Senate on Novem- ber 5, followed by the Nixon/Sato com- munique of November 21, makes clear that both the Senate and President Nixon are aware that no change may be made In the present status of Okinawa without Senate approval. It is difficult to predict what the Senate will do in regard to Okinawa?and I do not intend to try. The leadership of the Senate favors an early return of Okinawa to Japan, but I have talked with a great many Senators who do not agree with that viewpoint. I have the feeling that the United States will be retaining the free and un- restricted use of Okinawa until such time as we reduce our commitments to defend so many Asian nations. It is my hope that we will soon begin to reduce our Asian commitments. I ask unanimous consent, Mr. Presi- dent, that the text of the Nixon-Sato communique be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the com- munique was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: THE NIXON-SATO COMMUNIQUE WASHINGTON, November 21.?Following is the text of the joint communiqu?ssued to- day by President Nixon and Premier Eisaku Sato of Japan: Eli President Nixon and Prime Minister Sato met in Washington on Nov. 19, 20 and 21, 1969, to exchange views on the present inter- national situation and on other matters of mutual interest to the United States and Japan. [al The President and the Prime Minister rec- ognized that both the United States and Japan have greatly benefited from their close association in a variety of fields, and they declared that guided by their common prin- ciples of democracy and liberty, the two countries would maintain and strengthen their fruitful cooperation in the continuing search for world peace and prosperity and in particular for the relaxation of international tensions. The President expressed his and his Government's deep interest in Asia and stated his belief that the United States and Japan should cooperate in contributing to the peace and prosperity of the region. The Prime Minister stated that Japan would make fur- ther active contributions to the peace and prosperity of Asia. I31 The President and the Prime Minister exchanged frank views on the current in- ternational situation, with particular atten- tion to developments In the Far East, The President, while emphasizing that the coun- tries in the area were expected to make their own efforts for the stability of the area, gave assurance that the United States would con- tinue to contribute to the maintenance of International peace and security in the Far East by honoring its defense treaty obliga- tions in the area. The Prime Minister, ap- preciating the determination of the United States, stressed that it was important for the peace and security of the Far East that the Unied States should be in a position to carry out fully Its obligations referred to by the President. He further expressed his rec- ognition that, in the light of the present situation, the presence of United States forces in the Far East constituted a mainstay ft the stability of the area. 141 The President and the Prime Minister spe- cifically noted the continuing tension over the Korean peninsula. The Prime Minister deeply appreciated the peace-keeping efforts of the United Nations in the area and stated that the security of the Republic of Korea was essential to Japan's own security. The President and the Prime Minister shared the hope that Communist China would adopt a more cooperative and constructive attitude in its external relations. The President referred to the treaty obligations of his country to the Republic of China which the United States would uphold. The Prime Minister said that the maintenance of peace and security in the Taiwan area was also a most important factor for the security of Japan. The Presi- dent described the earnest efforts made by the United States for a peaceful and just settlement of the Vietnam problem. The President and the Prime Minister expressed the strong hope that the war in Vietnam would be concluded before return of the ad- ministrative rights over Okinawa to Japan. In this connection, they agreed that, should peace in Vietnam not have been realized the time reversion of Okinawa is scheduled to take place, the two Governments would fully consult with each other in the light of the situation at that time so that reversion would be accomplished without affecting the United States efforts to assure the South Vietnamese people the opportunity to deter- mine their own political future without out- side interference. The Prime Minister stated that Japan was exploring what role she could play in bringing about stability In the Indo- china area. Eel In light of the current situation and the prospects in the Fax East, the President and the Prime Minister agreed that they highly valued the role played by the Treaty of Mu- Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 iVovember 25, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE OHIO STATE TOTAL-Continued B SERIES-SYSTEMS WITH AT LEAST 1 SCHOOL WITH MINORITY GROUP ENROLLMENT OVER 80 PERCENT--Continued DISTRICT. AKRON. NUMBER OF SCHOOLS: 71, REPRESENTING: 71. CITY: AKRON. COUNTY: 77 SUMMIT-Continued S 15005 Studefils- Teachers- Weight: American :manish- Minority 1.0----- American Spanish- Minority Indians Negro Oriental American total Other Total grades Indians Negro Oriental American total Other Total 011111110000000 Highland Park (43)____ 0 03 1 5 737 7420 2 0 26 28 01111111000200) Smith (67) 0 0 2 0 3 519 522 (O. 6) 0 0 0 0 .0 15 15 011111110000000 Windemere (70) 0 0 3 0 3 565 563 (0. 5) 0 0 0 0 0 18 18 011111110000000 1(158 (49) 0 3 0 0 3 660 661 (0, 5) 0 1 0 0 1 21 22 , 000000000001110 Fireatone (6) 0 3 0 I 4 1, 340 1,344 (0. 3) 0 2 0 0 2 50 52 011111110000000 HattOn (40) 0 2 0 0 2 981 982 (0. 2) 0 2 0 0 2 28 30 000000000001110 Ellet (4) 0 2 0 0 2 1,132 1,134 (11.2) 0 1 0 0 1- 45 46 011111110000000 Ritzntan (63) 0 0 1 0 I 797 798 (0. 1) 0 2 0 0 2 24 26 011111110000000 Fairlawn (31) 0 0 I 0 1 834 835 (0.1) 0 1. 0 0 1 24 25 000000001110000 Byre (14) 0 I 0 0 I 1,369 1,370(0.1)0 1 0 0 1 49 50 011111110000 Betty Jane (24) 0 0 0 0 0 1,111 1,111(0.0)0 2 0 0 2 37 39 01100000000 Hillwolod (45) 0 9 0 0 0 101 1010 0 0 0 0 2 2 01111111002000) FiresiOne Park (33)- 0 0 0 0 0 1,057 1,057(0.0)0 2 0 0 2 29 31 01111000000 Guinther (38) 0 0 0 0 0 289 2890 0 0 0 0 8 8 011111110002084 Voris (69) 0 0 0 0 0 596 59601111111000 ) 0 0 0 0 0 27 27 22 Thomaitown (68) 0 0 0 0 0 298 298 (0.0) 0 0 0 0 0 10 10 011111110000000 Lawndale (51)__.- .-- 0 0 0 0 0 421 421 (0. 0) 0 1 0 0 1 _ 13 14 DISTRICT: WARREN CITY. NUMBER OF SCHOOLS: 24. REPRESENTING: 24. CITY: WARREN. COUNTY: 78 TRUMBULL ASSURANCE: 441 Number 0 3,206 111 11 3, 227 11,083 14,310 0 26 0 1 27 536 563 Percent,... 0 22.4 .1 .1 22. 6 77. 4 100 0 4.8 a .2 4.8 95.2 190 First Street (10)____.._. 0 493 0 Washington (22) 0 242 0 .1eGerson (12) o 412 Tod Avenue Elemen- tary (2) o 102 0 Willard (24) 0 305 1 Market (21) 0 159 0 Roosevelt (18) 0 117 0 West (23)., 0 165 1 Last (7) 1 0 156 0 Turner (21) 0 121 1 Warren W tern Re- serve (3 0 358 3 Mann (15) 0 125 0 Harding (1), 0 294 1 Alden (4) 'I 0 56 1 Elm Road (8) 0 32 1 Laird Avenue (13) 0 40 0 Dickey Avenue (6) 0 12 0 McKinley (17) o a o Emerson (9),, 0 6 0 Garfield (11): 0 2 0 McGuffey (16) 0 1 0 Lincoln (14). ''t 0 o o Secrest (l9)_ i 0 0 o , Devon (5) 1.. 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 101111110000001 493 15 508 (97.0) 0 6 0 0 6 16 22 101111110000001 242 33 2750 2 0 0 2 11 13 .1111111008M) 413 116 529 (78.1) 0 2 0 0 2 19 21 011111110000001 102 52 154 (66.2) 0 0 0 0 0 8 s (11111110000000 307 158 465 (66.0) 0 1 a 0 1 19 20 030000000111110 159 96 2550 5 0 0 5 II 16 01111111000%P 118 367 485 (24.3) 0 0 0 0 0 16 16 000000001100000 166 547 713 (23.3) a o o 0 0 32 32 010000001100000 156 556 712 (21.9) 0 1 0 0 1 .31 32 000000001100000 122 517 639 (19.1) 0 0 0 0 0 24 24 000000000011110 362 1,577 1,9390 3 0 0 3 82 85 01 111110082071) 125 580 705 (17.7) 0 0 0 0 0 22 22 00E000000011110 300 1,646 1,9460 3 0 1 4 tat 88 0111111100822) 57 383 4400 0 0 0 0 15 15 0111111100822) 33 320 ' 3530 2 0 0 2 11 13 1111111100020g) 40 427 4670 1 0 0 1 14 15 011:11110002P 14 413 4270 0 0 0 0 15 15 0111111100024) 8 498 5060 0 0 0 0 16 16 01111111000802) 6 672 6780 0 0 0 0 22 22 0111111100020 3 452 4550 0 0 0 0 15 15 0111111100080100) 1 554 5550 0 0 0 0 19 19 0111_11100020g) 0 168 1680 0 6 0 0 7 7 0111181100000 88? 0 516 5160 0 0 0 0 14 14 0111111100000 88? 0 4211 420 (0) 0 0 a o o 1.3 13 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 NOvember 25, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE tual Cooperation and Security in maintain- ing the peace and security of the Far East including Japan, and they affirmed the in- tention of the two Governments flunly to maintain the treaty on the basis of mutual trust and common evaluation of the inter- national situation. They further agreed that the two Governments should maintain close contact with each other on matters affect- ing the peace and security of the Far En-St, including Japan, and on the implemen- tation of the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security. [61 The Prime Minister emphasized his view that the time had come to respond to the strong desire of the people of Japan, of both the mainland and Okinawa, to have the administrative rights over Okinawa re- turned to Japan on the basis of the friendly relations between the United States and Japan and thereby to restore Okinawa to its normal status. The President expressed appreciation of the Prime Minister's view. The President and the Prime Minister also recognized the vital role played by United States forces in Okinawa in the present sit- uation in the Far East. As a result of their discussion it was agreed that the mutual security interests of the United States and Japan could be accommodated within ar- rangements for the return of the adminis- trative rights over Okinawa to Japan. They therefore agreed that the two Governments would immediately enter into consultations regarding specific arrangements for accom- plishing the early reversion of Okinawa with- out detriment to the security of the Far East including Japan. They further agreed to expedite the consultations with a view to accomplishing the reversion during 1972, subject to the conclusion of these specific arrangements with the necessary legislative support. In this connection, the Prime Min- ister made clear the intention of his Govern- ment, following reversion, to assume grad- ually the responsibility for the immediate defense of Okinawa as part of Japan's de- fense efforts for her own territories. The President and the Prime Minister agreed also that the United States would retain, under the terms of the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security, such military fa- cilities and areas in Okinawa as required in the mutual security of both countries. 7] The President and the Prime Minister agreed that, upon return of the administra- tive rights, the Treaty of Mutual Coopera- tion and Security and its related arrange- ments would apply to Okinawa without mod- ification thereof. In this connection, the Prime Minister affirmed the recognition of his Government that the security of Japan could not be adequately maintained with- out international peace and security in the Far East and, therefore, the security of countries in the Far East was a matter of serious concern for Japan. The Prime Min- ister was of the view that, in the light of such recognition on the part of the Japanese Government, the return of the administra- tive rights over Okinawa in the manner agreed above should not hinder the effective discharge of the international obligations assumed by the United States for the defense of countries in the Far East, including Japan. The President replied that he shared the Prime Minister's view. [8] The Prime Minister described in detail the particular sentiment of the Japanese people against nuclear weapons and the policy of the Japanese Government reflect- ing such sentiment. The President expressed his deep understanding and assured the Prime Minister that, without prejudice to the position of the United States Govern- ment with respect to the prior consultation system under the Treaty of Mutual Coopera- tion and Security, the reversion of Okinawa would be carried out in a manner consistent with the policy of the Japanese Government as described by the Prime Minister. [9] The President and the Prime Minister took note of the fact that there would be a num- ber of financial and economic problems, in- cluding those concerning United States busi- ness interests in Okinawa, to be solved be- tween the two countries in connection with the transfer of the administrative rights over Okinawa to Japan and agreed that de- tailed discussions relative to their solution would be initiated promptly. [10] The President and the Prime Minister, recognizing the complexity Of the problems involved in the reversion of Okinawa, agreed that the two Governments should consult closely and cooperate on the measures neces- sary to assure a smooth transfer of adminis- trative rights to the Japanese Government, in accordance with reversion arrangements to be agreed to by both Governments. They agreed that the United States-Japan Con- sultative Committee in Tokyo should under- take over-all responsibility for this prepara- tory work. The President and the Prime Minister decided to establish in Okinawa a preparation commission in place of the exist- ing advisory committee to the High Commis- sioner of the Ryukyu Islands for the purpose of consulting and coordinating locally on measures relating to preparation for the transfer of administrative rights, including necessary assistance to the government of the Ryukyu Islands. The preparatory commission will be composed of a representative of the Japanese Government with ambassadorial rank and the High Commissioner of the Ryu- kyu Islands, with the chief executive of the government of the Ryukyu Islands acting as adviser to the commission. The commission will report and make recommendations to the two Governments through the United States-Japan Consulative Committee. [ if] The President and the Prime Minister ex- pressed their conviction that a mutually sat- isfactory solution of the question of the re- turn of the administrative rights over Oki- nawa to Japan, which is the last of the major issues between the two countries arising from World War II, would further strengthen United States-Japan relations, which are based on friendship and mutual trust and would make a major contribution to the peace and security of the Far East. [12] In their discussion of economic matters, the president and the Prime Minister noted the marked growth in economic relations be- tween the two countries. They also acknowl- edged that the leading positions which their countries occupy in the world economy im- pose important responsibilities on each for the maintenance and strengthening of the International trade and monetary system, especially in the light of the current large imbalances in trade and payments. In this regard, the President stressed his determina- tion to bring inflation in the United States under control. He also reaffirmed the com- mitment of the United States to the princi- ple of promoting freer trade. The Prime Min- ister indicated the intention of the Japanese Government to accelerate rapidly the reduc- tion of Japan's trade and capital restrictions. Specifically, he stated the intention of the Japanese Government to remove Japan's residual import quota restrictions over a broad range of products by the end of 1971 and to make maximum efforts to accelerate the liberalization of the remaining items. He added that the Japanese Government in- tends to make periodic reviews of its liberali- zation program with a view to implementing S 15007 trade liberalization at a more acceler- ated pace than hitherto. The President and the Prime Minister agreed that their re- spective actions would further ?solidify the foundation of over-all 'U.S.-Japan relations. [13] The President and the Prime Minister agreed that attention to the economic needs of the developing countries was essential to the development of international peace and stability. The Prime Minister stated the in- tention of the Japanese Government to ex- pand and improve its aid programs in Asia, commensurate with the economic growth of Japan.. The President welcomed this state- ment and confirmed that the United States would continue to contribute to the eco- nomic development of Asia. The President and Prime Minister recognized that there would be major requirements for the post- war rehabilitation of Vietnam and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. The Prime Minister stated the intention of the Japanese Government to make a substantial contribution to this end. [141 The Prime Minister congratulated the President on the successful moon landing of Apollo 12, and expressed the hope for a safe journey back to earth for the astronauts. The President and the Prime Minister agreed that the exploration of space offers great oppor- tunities for expanding cooperation in peace- ful scientific projects arriong all nations. In this connection, the Prime Minister noted with pleasure that the United States and Japan last summer had concluded an agree- ment on space cooperation. The President and the Prime Minister agreed that imple- mentation of this unique program is of im- portance to both countries. [ is] The President and the Prime Minister dis- cussed prospects for the promotion of arms control and the slowing down of the arms race. The President outlined his Govern- ment's efforts to initiate the strategic arms limitations talks with the Soviet Union that have recently started in Helsinki. The Prime Minister expressed his Government's strong hopes for the success of these talks. The Prime Minister pointed out his country's strong and traditional interest in effective disarmament measures with a view to achievement of general and complete dis- armament under strict and effective interna- tional control. Mr. HOLLINGS. Mr. President, I com- mend our distinguished colleague from Virginia for emphasizing the importance of the Okinawa question to the security of the free world, and its disposition to the interest and participation of the U.S. Senate, as concerns the so-called agreement or communique between President Nixon and Prime Minister Sato. I do not necessarily enjoy the same comfort as the Senator, but I hope he is right. I do not necessarily enjoy the same assurance that this communique is crys- tal clear. Having just gone through a 3-month ordeal of headline and sub- stance, and having had the headline pre- vail after having read the substance over and over again, and lost, and there being no education in the second kick of a mule, I would like to read some of the headlines and show what I believe Prime Minister Sato had in mind as to this particular communique. The headline in the Japan Times on Tuesday, November 11, was as follows: "Sato Tells Opposition U.S. Will O.K. Reversion Under 1972 Formula." That is the headline. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 S 15008 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD? SENATE November 25, 13(19 It so happened that the Interpai lia- inentary Union group 'from the 7.S. enate was in Japan oil ' that day, and isiting in the home of the Prime Minis- ter. It was at practically that same ,ime that the sense of the Senate resolu tic a of the distinguished Senator from Virg info was under consideration here. I w mid liave joined in Support of what the :ien- ator from Virginia presented in that resolution. But Mr. Safe) received that resolution in the context that it hat no bearing whatsoever, and he said so very Clearly. He said if he had inisunders ood t, he did not believe he would have ')een invited to the United States to corit inue with discussions. He cited the matter that uncle. no Circumstance, for example, would the textile talks be confused with the Oki= nawa question. Now, Mr. President, this s the one section of the article with which I agree. I believe our international Security and our commitments in the Par East transcend a singular econ )mic problem like textile jobs, and certainly no one has been more attentive to that particular problem than'. Some have said that we are gem g to Swap Okinawa for textiles with Japan, and I do not agree with that approach in any way whatsoever. I do not t hink they should be confused, because this is far, far more important to world peace than fulfilling our comnaltinents ix the Far East. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The time of the Senator has expired. Mr. BYRD of Virginia. Mr. Presi lent, I ask consent that I be permitted to con- tinue for an additional 5 minutes. The PRESIDING OFFICER. wi bout objection, it is so ordered. Mr. HOLLINGS. Mx. Preside] it, I thought the Senator from Virginie has yielded the floor. I will be glad to as the Senator a question. I do not necessarily wish to jein the Senator from Virginia with my pertic- ular thoughts. However, I will coin inue, if the Senator will permit me. I think there has been some confusion. First, certainly we should not confuse textiles with Okinawa.,Second, I de plore the confusion of the Mutual Security Pact of 1964 with the rights of 010 lawa. I am fully aware of the statenient of former Secretary of State Foster Dulles and of the ultimate sovereignty. We do not want countries. We did not wai t the Philippines. We did not want Cub:, We did not want Vietnam. We do not want territorial gain. Everyone knows th at. We do not want the reeponsibilit that has been thrust upon us, but havin ; had it thrust upon us, we should not con- fuse the mutual security pact wita the internal affairs of Japan. Okinawa is so fundamental in lc arry- ing out?at this particular time ia: any other time?our commitment in the Far East. It is only, in my judgment, as I see it from listening to Japan itself, the do- mestic political concern with the reelec- tion of the Prime Minister in January that brings about this confusion. They want to have him reelected. That :s fine with me. However, if It comes to filling the commitment or getthig him reelected, I think we should bring it clearly to the attention of the people of Japan that they should assume some of the respon- sibilities. I do not think that we should confuse this with legislating the demonstrators when we tell it like it is. And there has been activity engaged in concerning our responsibility or role as Senators. And I am not sure that is appreciated yet by the executive. I hope that the Senator is correct. I believe that ultimately Okinawa should go back. I think that if we could make an agreement to continue our responsibility and operations in Japan with the un- questioned right of launching combat op- erations, to use the expression employed in Japan?not just nuclear, but also com- bat operations?without having to -Check with the Japaneie Government, that is all we would need. Under the 1972 formula, we have to check with them. This is what Mr. Sato understands. If we could only buy a subscription to tae Japanese Times for the Members of the Senate between now and the election in January, we would understand better what has been and is being published in the headlines in- stead of what is in the actual agreement. I think this is an important agreement. The Senator feom Virginia interprets the Senate's clear language as conveyed in the Byrd resolution as reaffirming the obligation and right of the Senate with respect to treaty obligation. I would wish that if the executive disagrees with the Senator's version, he would so state. I think that the Senator from Virginia has brought about a very important un- derstanding and brought it to the light of truth. Getting behind the headlines and to the substance of the matter, I can see where the substance of the Senator's interpretation is founded. However, un- fortunately, that has not been my experience. Mr. BYRD of Virginia. Mr. President, I thank the distinguished and able Sen- ator from South Carolina. I associate myself with his statements for the most part. In regard to what Mr. Sato may feel about what should happen to Okinawa, that is his own personal view. However, I am taking the language of the com- munique signed by the President of the United States and by the Prime Minister of Japan at face value. I am assuming that they are being fair with the American people and with the Japanese people and with the Senate of the United States, and that the execu- tive branch of the Government will do what the communique says it will do, and that is, submit any proposal affecting Okinawa to the Senate of the United States. The PRESIDING One/UM. The time of the Senator has expired. Mr. BYRD of Virginia. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that I be rec- ognized for an additional 3 minutes. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is se ordered. Mr. BYRD of Virginia. Mr. President, if that is done, I am convinced that there are enough Senators who feel that Okinawa is vital to the United States If our country is to continue to guaran- tee the freedom of so many Asian na- tions. I have no doubt that Prime Minister Sato will endeavor to use his discussions with the President to his political ad- vantage in Japan. And like the Senator from South Carolina, I See no particular objection to that. He is entitled to put whatever interpretations he wishes on it. However, what we in the Senate have a right to rely upon is the statement of the President of the United States which is inserted as a major part of the com- munique?that any action must receive legislative support. I think, as does the Senator from South Carolina, that this is a vitally im- portant matter. This Nation is deeply committed all over the world. We have mutual defense agreements with 44 different nations. We have committed ourselves to de- fend Japan, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, and many other places, the names of which do not come to mind at the mo- ment. If we are going to adhere to all of these commitments, I submit that we had best keep our greatest military com- plex in the far Pacific, which is Okinawa. And I think the action the Senate took on November 5 of this year in the sense- of-the-Senate resolution will be ex- tremely important in protecting the Okinawa bases for the United States and will also be extremely important in re- asserting the Senate's role in foreign policy. Mr. HOLLINGS. Mr. President, I, too, agree with the Senator from Virginia that now is not the time to return Old- nawa Under our present commitments and under the present circumstances with world peace being in jeopardy in the Far East. I am not ready to withdraw from the Far East. I, too, as does the Senator from Virginia, take the communique at its face value. I read the same words: They further agree to expedite the con- sultations with a view to accomplishing the reversion during 1972 subject to the conclu- sion of these specific arrangements with the necessary legislative support. It does not guarantee the accomplish- ment of it. And the word "support" does not necessarily mean advice and con- sent. I believe the President wanted to put It clearly in light of the sense of the Senate resolution which advised that we felt that the advice and consent to con- firm the treaty ratification was necessary and that the actual exclusion of the word "ratification" is significant in itself. And their use of the word "support," rather than "ratification," is what is disturb- ing to me. I hope the Senator is correct. We have the same sentiment, I believe, with re- spect to our commitments and the vital nature of Okinawa at this time to the fulfillment of the obligations of the Unit- ed States in the Far East and in the maintenance of world peace. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 November 18, fliW?"EtKithAIRAT3iiimitsiA,Ngwq93,914Foppepsi 20003-9 E 9787; Norris remarked that on Tuesday, Novem- ber 11, the Student Senate would hold a joint meeting with the Faculty Senate, open to the student body, in the small ballroom 'at Squires Student Center. The purpose of the meeting is to discuss the name change. Mt? RULING COLONELS STIFLE GREEK NEWSPAPERS HON. DONALD M. FRASER OF MINNESOTA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, November 18, 1969 Mr. FRASER. Mr. Speaker, ham- handed efforts by the Greek colonels to stifle the Greek press continue. The junta's most recent moves are clearly described in two recent New York Times dispatches from Athens. In its last two paragraphs, the second of these reports, which appears in this morning's Times, characterizes the new press code: It is widely believed here that the Gov- ernment will soon announce the reactivation of Article 14 of the Constitution, safeguard- ing press freedom, to prove its intention to restore constitutional rule. But the enactment of the press code heavily qualifies that freedom down to such minute detail that Greek journalists feel that in effect, they will be forced to consult their lawyers whenever they plan to write the latest sports roundup. Mr. Speaker, I introduce these articles into the RECORD at this point. The colonels advocate severity as the mother of justice and freedom. The recent Greek experience proves otherwise. The arti- cles follow: [From the New York Times, Nov. 16, 1969] GREECE ABOLISHES PRESS PRIVILEGES?DUTY- FREE IMPORTS OF PAPER SCALED DOWN?TAX RAISED ATHENS, November 15.?The military- backed government of Greece today abolished major financial concessions enjoyed for dec- ades by Greek newspapers. The move was described as a measure to "cleanse and discipline" the press. A new press law ended some duty exemp- tions for imported newsprint. The privilege, granted in 1938, was designed to facilitate freedom of the press. John Agathanghelou, Alternate Minister to the Premier's office said at a news confer- ence that the new press law sought "to pro- tect society and the state from an abuse of press freedom," an abuse that, he said, was "the main cause for the decline of democracy in Greece" before the military coup of April, 1967. The Minister refused to disclose the full contents of the news laws, which also specify penalties for press offenses. He also refused to answer all questions about the law; and said technical reasons made it necessary for the texts to be distributed Monday. FINANCIAL RESTRICTIONS IMPOSED The press law also imposed strict controls on the finances of all Greek newspapers, he said, to insure "they cannot be bribed, bought off, or engage in illicit transactions that are not in the interests of the Greek people." Mr. Agathangehelou refused to clarify, in view of the suspension of coristitutional guarantees for press, whether press offenses would still be tried by special military tribu- nals under the current martial law. He said that the duty-free newsprint privi- lege would now be scaled in this way: News- papers with circulations up tb 25,000 daily will still enjoy the privilege; dailies with circulations up to 50,000 will pay 50 per cent of the import duty for newsprint, which amounts to 70 per cent of its cost?the duty on a ton of newsprint costing $166 would be $116. The exemption rate will drop to 25 per cent for circulations to 75,000 and to 5 per cent for daily circulations of 100,000 or more. The rates are to be applicable to all the news- print used by each paper. THREE LARGE DAILIES AFFEPTED Three of the nine Athens dailies have a circulation of over 100,000?the morning Acropolis and its afternoon edition Apogev- matini, and the evening Ta Nea. All three were accused by the Government recently of abusing the qualified press free- dom granted on Oct. 3 after the abolition of censorship. Their publishers were warned action would be taken against them if they did not quit printing "provocative" headlines and car- toons implying hostility to the Government. All three, particularly "Acropolis," have since suffered severe financial losses in the countryside, where local authorities forbid local distribution agents to sell the usual number. "Acropolis" estimates that its cir- culation outside Athens has been cut down by one-third, or by about 20,000 copies. PROTEST IS UNAVAILING When its publisher protested to the Gov- ernment, he was told that no restrictive orders had been issued, but that the readers "disgusted by the contents" of his paper had decided overnight to stop buying it. At today's news conference, Mr. Agathan- ghelou also disclosed in order to offset news- paper losses from the abolition of the duty exemption, increases in the newsstand price of newspapers?now frozen at 5 cents?would be allowed. Larger sizes will also be allowed. in order to make more space available for advertising. A second new law requires press enter- prises to pay taxes on profits, as do other Greek businesses, although newspapers with circulations under 15,000 will retain their tax exemption. Two of the three Athens dailies that sup- port the Government circulate 12,000 to 15,- 000 copies a day, meaning they will retain their privilege of importing newsprint duty- free and will pay no taxes. Mr. Agathanghelou, in explaining the new tax system, said that one newspaper with a circulation of 50,000 had been taxed $9,670 last year on profits of $140,000, for example. - Under the new law it would pay $64,000 on the same income. He said the steps were to aid freedom of the press "by equalizing the opportunity for competition between large and small news- papers." [From the New York Times, Nov. 18, 1969] GREEK PRESS CODE LISTS NEW PENALTIES ATHENS, November 17.?Prison terms and fines for press offenses were decreed today by the Greek Government in a law that goes into effect Jan. 1. The 101-article press code, officials said, was designed to "cleanse and discipline" the Greek press. They charged that the press had been "responsible for the decadence of Greek democracy" before the military take- over 30 months ago. Deputy Premier Stylianos Patakos, asked why the new law was so severe, said tonight: "Severity is the mother of justice and free- dom." The military-backed Government has promised since the April, 1967, coup to re- store genuine democracy after reforming in- stitutions, but has been faced by the delicate problem of allowing freedom of the press without incurring the risks that a totally free press might pose. After 30 months of strict censorship, the Government said on Oct. 3 that it was lifting restrictions, in an apparent attempt to dem- onstrate its good faith. However, editors were given a two-page list of banned topics. The code issued today is considered to be another move in the Government's search for a method of dealing with the press. SUSPENSION POSSIBLE Under the code, courts must suspend the publication of a newspaper if, within five years, it twice commits certain offenses. These include any articles that are deemed to insult the king, or the state religion, to dis- close military secrets, to incite sedition, to propagate the views of outlawed parties or to commit libel. Publishers, editors and reporters will be collectively responsible for the accuracy of their publications and will be jointly indicted in case of an offense. Under the new code, incitement to sedi- tion may involve prison terms ranging from five years to life. The publication of an article considered likely to shake the public trust in the economy can bring imprison- ment for at least six months and a fine of at least $3,330. Articles or cartoons judged to have re- kindled political passions can result in a jail term of at least a month and a fine of at least $330. Sentences of press offenses cannot be sus- pended. POINTS MADE IN HEADLINES The new law also provides punishment for misleading headlines, which have been used recently to show hostility to the military- backed Government and to the suspension of 10 constitutional guarantees since the coup in April, 1967. Late last month, for example, an Athens daily had a 3-inch-high headline saying "More Democracy." In smaller letters, it added: "?Brandt Promises." The press code says: "The use of headlines, pictures or drawings that do not reflect ac- curately the relevant text or deliberately mis- lead the public is punishable by a minimum jail term of six months, a $3,330 fine and suspension of the right to cut-rate duty newsprint." Also made punishable, press offenses under the new rules were distortion or misinter- pretation of parliamentary reports, defama- tion, out-of-context reference to documents or statements, descriptions of criminal acts or suicides and references to trial cases be- fore an irrevocable verdict. Libel regulations were also tightened. Pen- alties for insult, defamation and libel were increased to a minimum of three months in jail plus a minimum $660 fine. Provisions of the new code announced last Saturday abolished major financial conces- sions that Greek newspapers had enjoyed for decades. Among other actions,' the code ended some duty exemptions for imported news- print and required some newspapers for the first time to pay taxes on profits, as do other businesses. The new law establishes a commission of senior judges and governmental officials who are authorized to control the finances of all newspapers to prevent bribery, blackmail and foreign financing. Publishers must be Greek citizens. All press offenses will be tried by the civil courts after Jan. 1. Until then, the press regulations issued under martial law, after the abolition of preventive censorship in October, remain in force and violations come under the jurisdiction of special military courts. After the abolition, publishers discovered that an anti-Government attitude increased their sales. They devised a method of han- dling headlines and cartoons that clearly im- plied hostility to the military without vio- lating the regulations. To discourage this attitude, an erratic pat- tern of obstruction of unfriendly newspapers was established. The Government denied that it had given any orders, but said that Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 9784 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ?Extensions of Remarks November 18, 1969 readers had become "disgusted" by opposi- tion newspapers and no longer bought them. This resulted in severe trtancial losses for (some leading Athens dailies, and they quickly ended their critical practices. The new law Will make these practices punishable by prison terms and fines. While the new code tries to discourage ir- responsibility of the press, which had been rampant before the coup, the penalties it imposes on a broad range of topics is likely to inhibit journalists. It is widely believed here that the ClOvein- inent will soon announce the reactivation of Article 14 of the Constitution, safeguarding Press freedom, to prove its intention to re- Store constitutional rule. But the enactment of the press code heavily qualifies that freedom down to such minute detail that Greek journalists feel that in effect, they will be forced to consult their latvyers whenever they plan to write the latest sports roundup. PESTICIDES ARE KILLING OPR, HONEY INDUSTRY HON. OLIN E. TEAGUE OF TEXAS IN THE HOTJSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, November 18, 1969 1 Mr. TEAGUE of Texas. Mr. Speaker, recently Secretary Finch publicly an- nounced an HEW directive to terrninate the use and sale of DDT over the next 2 years. In light of this decision and the reasons given for such action, I feel it is ime for the House to take a carefql look t H.R. 10749, legislation introduded by he gentlewoman from liVa.liington (Mrs. Ay) to indemnify our Nation's beekeep- ers for losses sustained from the Use of pesticides on adjacent faimlands. In a etter to Secretary Hardin outlining the problems now facing the honey industry, Mr. Roy Weaver, of Navasota, Tex., tated 500,000 of our 5 million bee colo- es were destroyed or heavily damaged y pesticides in 1967. It is important for the membership to read and understand the significance of Mr. Weaver's letter, which follows: NAVASOTA, TEL September 18, 1989. SECRETARY OF AGR/CITLTURE, D.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D .0 . DEAR MR. SECRETARY: I am Roy S. raver, Jr., a commercial beekeeper in Texa oper- ating about 5500 colonies of honey bees in partnership with my father and one brother. am chairman of the Legislative Conioilttee Of The American Beekeeping Federations, and chairman Of the Government ttelationS Corn- inittee of the Honey Industry Council of America. Duriny my beekeeping career I have served as president of the American Bee- keeping Federation, president of the Ameri- can Bee Breeders Association, and president bf the Texas Beekeepers Association. The honeybee is of great value to agricul- ture as a pollinator, and is the only known ollinator which can be moved into an area in great numbers when desired. Howeger, the eekeeping industry in the United States is ?n poor condition. For the last 22 year% the umber of colonies of honeybees in the U.S. as declined steadily at the rate of l`g per year. Many operators are finding it an un- profitable enterprise and are going out of business. If the abundant agricultural pro- duction of the United States is to continue, Ways must be found to reverse the, decline in the number of colonies of honeybees. There are two obvious sources for Increased income to beekeepers. The first is through the sale of the traditional cash, crop, honey, at profitable prices. The second is through the rental of honeybee colonies for the pol- lination of agricultural crops. Briefly, I recorrniend that the United States Department of Agriculture aid the beekeepers in selling their honey at a profit, and aid beekeepers and farmers to a better understanding as to the value of honeybees as pollinators with the thought that eventu- ally fees for pollination services will be on the main sources of income for beekeepers. About 90 crops grown in the United States, valued at more than a billion dollars, are considered to be dependent upon insect pol- lination. In addition, other crops valued at about 4 billion dol tars are benejtted by in- sect pollination. The honeybee is the only insect which can be moved into the vicinity of these crops in large numbers to perform the pollination sergice at the time it is re- quired. The primary purpose of the beekeeper has generally been the production of honey as his cash crop. Little has been understood by bee- keepers or farmers as to the value of honey- bees as pollinators. Much of the pollination is done incidentally while the beekeeper is trying to produce a crop of honey. Communi- cations between beekeepers and farmers has been poor. As a result most pollination fees are "starvation wages" for beekeepers. It is imperative for agriculture that honey become a stronger competitor with other food commodities. Although there are about 200,000 beekeepers :n the United States, only about 1,200 are full-time commercial opera- tors with 400 or more colonies. However, they produce about one-third of the honey crop and provide most of the colonies used in commercial pollination. There are about 12,000 part-time beekeepers who own 25 to 400 colonies each and produce another third of the honey. The r amaining 187,000 are hob- byists who own less than 25 colonies each. These beekeepers encounter Many prob- lems. Some of these are: low prices of honey and low pollination fees in relation to the hien cost of operation; decreasing bee pas- ture due to changing agricultural practices and urbanization; losses caused by bee dis- eases; and losses due to pesticides. While the cost of operating a beekeeping enterprise has been spiralling upward the price of honey has. remained almost static. Honey is not holding its own in the market- place. Even though it is our only natural un- refined sweet, the per-capita consumption is slowly declining. The price support program on honey has operated quite well in that it has prevented disastrously low prices and at the same time has provided hones for school lunches at a very low cost to ihe government. However, the support price has not been high enough to prevent a decline in the number of col- onies of bees. I recommend thatighe support program be continued, and that the support rate be gradually raised until it approaches parity. For a long time to come beekeepers will continue to produce honey as their cash crop. As a permanent solution to the problem of low honey prices we need to increase the per-capita consumption of honey. In order to do this the beekeepers of the United States have devised a self-help promotion and re- search program on honey which requires en- abling legislation. This proposed legisla- tion is now before the 91st Congress in H.R. 955, S 1851, and similar bills. I request that the USDA strongly recommend passage of this act and assist the beekeeping industry in implementing it as rapidly as possible. If the price of honey rises due to increased supports or increased demand it is possible that low priced foreign honey will come into the country in large quantities. The import tariff on honey is only 1 cent per pound. H.R. 374 and similes bills before the 91st Congress would increase the tariff to 3 cents per pound and require the USDA_ to set quotas on honey to he imported. I am work- ing for the passage of this bill. If neither increased support Prices or in- creased demand for honey caused by the promotion of this delicious and healthful sweet serve to reverse the decline in the num- bers of honeybees available for pollination of our crops then direct subsidy payments to beekeepers may be become necessary. Our country must have -enough honeybees to fill their vital role in our abundant agricultural production. In 1967, an estimated 560.000 colonies of honeybees out of the 5 million in existence in this country were destroyed or heavily damaged by pesticides. Thousands more were damaged or destroyed by diseases. The total damage to the beekeeping industry by pesticides and disease is estimated to be $7.5 million annually, while the income from the production of honey arid beeswax is less than $40 million. Changing agricultural prac- tices and urbanization are destroying many wild plants which honeybees depend on for pollen and nectar for building strong colonies. Operating a beekeeping enterprise requires much expensive hand labor and complex management decisions. The solutions to these and other problems can be found only through research, both on the scientific level and on the practical level by beekeepers and others who have the in- centive to try to progress. The USDA can be of great help in this. I recommend a thorough study and implementation of "A National Program of Research for Hess and other Pollinating Insects and Insects Affecting Man" prepared by a Joint task force of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the State Universities and Land Grant Colleges. This is a good outline of some of the research that is sorely needed. Respectfully submitted. ROY S. WEAVER, Jr. LAWS RELATIVE TO THE PRINTING OF' DOCUMENTS Either House may order the printing of a document not already provided for by law, but only when the same shall be accompa- nied by an estimate from the Public Printer as to the probable cost thereof. Any execu- tive department, bureau, board or independ- ent office of the Government submitting re- ports or documents in response to inquiries from Congress shall submit therewith an estimate of the probable cost of printing the usual number. Nothing in this section re- lating to estimates shall apply to reports or documents not exceeding 50 pages (U.S. Code, title 44, sec. 716, 82 Stat. 1250) . Resolutions for printing extra copies, when presented to either House, shalt be referred immediately to the Committee on House Administration of the House of Representa- tives or the Committee on Rules and Admin- istration of the Senate, who, in making their report, shall give the probable cost of the proposed printing upon the estimate of the Public Printer, and no extra copies shall be printed before such committee has reported (U.S. Code, title 44, sec. 703, 82 Stat. 1247) . RECORD OFFICE AT THE CAPITOL An office for the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, with Mr. Raymond P. Noyes in charge, is lo- cated in room 11-112, House wing, where or- ders will be received for subscriptions to the RECORD at 21.50 per month or for single copies at 1 cent for eight pages (minimum charge of 3 cents). Also, Orders from Mem- bers of Congress to purchase reprints from the Egoosn should be processed through this office. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 -4"11"..."1111936 Approved For ReLetwaug1 AC1eERIIMB0OMFgh30300120044eember 17, 1969 Demonstrations such as we have wit- nessed for too long now, contribute to the breakdown of this system. I bitterly op- pose those who would turn democracy into a street fight with the strongest de- ciding what is right and what is wrong. We saw this happen in Germany before the war, and those who are in the streets, abusing the name of democracy, should give careful thought to the implications of their actions. Revolution, hiding under the cloak of democracy will not be tolerated by those who have learned its true meaning by shedding their blood in its defense. GENERAL LEAVE TO EXTEND Mr. MONTGOMERY. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that all Members may have 5 legislative days in which to extend their remarks on the subject of my special order. The SPEAKER pro tempore. Is there injection to the request of the gentleman from Mississippi? Ther was no objection. fl4 ISRAEL IS DANGEROUSLY CLOSE TO BECOMING ANOTHER VIET- NAM The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under a previous order of the House, the gen- tleman from Illinois (Mr. Puciwsxi) is recognized for 60 minutes. Mr. PUCINSKI. Mr. Speaker, the sit- uation in the Middle East is deteriorat- ing very rapidly and unless the United States makes a bold move toward sup- plying Israel with at least 200 Phantom jet fighters immediately, this gallant and brave nation may find herself in great peril of her very survival. I have recently returned from a per- sonal visit to Israel and there is no ques- tion in my mind about the determination and profound ability of the Israelis to defend their nation. The will and the spirit of the Israel soldiers make up for whatever deficiency this gallant nation may have in armor. But spirit alone is not enough when a nation like Israel is now confronted on all of her borders with the full force and fury of Arab terrorism and Arab aggres- sion made possible by the Soviet Union's total rearming of the Arab States. The United States and the free world can no longer ignore the fact that the Soviet Union has given Egypt 960 jet fighters since the 6-day war of 1967. The Soviet Union has given Syria an- other 430 jet fighters. The Soviet Union has given countless trucks, tanks, field artillery pieces, and every other military weapon that the Arab states need to wage aggression against Israel. Mr. Speaker, the situation in the Mid- dle East is more serious today than ever before and the great tragedy of our times is that Israel does not want anything from her friends?and in particular, the nor is she seeking any assistance from and could immediately respond to the the U.S. 6th Fleet now in the Mediter- help of the Israel if an all-out Arab as- ranean. sault is waged against that country. We The Israelis firmly believe they are are now trying to extricate ourselves fully capable of defending themselves if from our tragic involvement in Vietnam they can have, above all, the necessary and I believe it is safe to predict that aircraft for in that part of the world it there are few Americans, if any, who is the effectiveness of the air force that want to see our Nation involved in yet spells the difference between survival another conflict. But I submit, Mr. and defeat. Speaker, that the United States is not It is inconceivable, in my judgment, limited to one of only two alternatives? f or the free world to idly sit by and either helping Israel militarily or watch- watch the Soviet Union totally rearm all ing her go down to tragic defeat. of the Arab States and train Arab armies I submit there is a third alternative for meaningful aggression against Israel. and one that we ought to adopt. This is an avoid in- the a of giving Israel whatever volvement in the Middle East and I am I believe that America c e a she needs to provide an effective deter- encouraged by the fact that the Israelis rent to Arab aggression. do not seek our involvement. But I believe the United States could take a lesson from the Soviet Union and adopt a new policy of providing our friends with maximum military hard- ware and minimum U.S. troops. There is no Soviet soldier dying in Vietnam, in the Middle East, or in Korea. Yet, every enemy soldier who has been f these three theaters captured in either er o of operation is heavily armed with So- viet-made equipment. Every one of these prisoners has So- viet-made rifles, uniforms, messkits, bul- lets, binoculars, shoes, and whatever other military needs he may have. In Lebanon where the terrorist groups recently negotiated an agreement for new raids into Israel, they openly used Soviet trucks to move their forces and equipment to the Israel border. If we really want to avoid a major war in the Middle East, we must help Israel become strong enough to defend herself against Nasser's public pronouncement that he and his Arab allies will drive Israel into the sea. Mr. Speaker, five American Presidents have assured Israel that she will not be driven into the sea. I say to you that the United States need not be involved mili- tarily in any Middle East conflict if we will have the presence of mind and the courage to help Israel set up a sufficient deterrent to Arab aggression. Why is it that the Soviet Union has no qualm or compunction about openly re- arming all of the Arab States? Why is it that the Soviet Union does not fear world reaction or a loss of any of her interests by openly training Arab forces for ag- gression in the Middle East? What is it about the American State Department and the Defense Depart- ment which puts us into this facetious role of some sort of "parity" in arms in the Middle East? This policy of parity?giving the Arabs New York as the work of cranks or sick the same degree of help that we give the minds. Israelis?might have been valid prior to Mr. Speaker, it is not my intention the Soviet Union's entry into the Middle to either exaggerate or deal in hysteria. East. But surely such a policy at this time The people of Israel are calm and reso- is not only tragic, but totally ignores the lute and life goes on in the big cities fact that while the Arab States have un- fully mindful of the dangers that lie in limited access to arms and ammunition the borders. from Russia, we continue to keep Israel We have every reason to believe that United States?except the military hard- totally constrained in her ability to de- Israel is fully capable of protecting her- ware with which to protect herself, fend herself. self and her nation but she needs mill- Israel does not want American sol- I respectfully submit, Mr. Speaker, that tary aid. diens. She does not want American a continuation of this folly is the surest We must realize as Americans that mechanics to service whatever airplanes way to war in the Middle East. there never again will be a ticker-tape we give her. She does not want any offl- It is of no comfort to me to know that parade down Wall Street marking the cial intervention by the United States, the 6th Fleet is in the Mediterranean end of a huge conflict. There is no question in my mind that once the Arab States realize that any attacks on Israel will prove futile and once the Arabs realize that they are not going to drive this gallant nation into the sea, perhaps then the Arabs and Is- raelis can get together and work out a lasting peace in the Middle East. I think that the height of indignity is for the United States to insist that Israel shall only receive the kind of military aid from the United States that she can afford to pay for when the Arab States have a blank check from the Soviet Union to draw on for whatever possible conceivable military aid they need. We cannot ignore the fact that Russia has given Egypt 960 jet fighters and Syria another 430. The pilots of these fighters are now being trained by Soviet military experts and I say to you, Mr. Speaker, that it is only a matter of time before the full fury of this Soviet military aid to the Arab States is unleashed on the people of Israel. Nor can we ignore the fact that the same terror tactics which have been so thoroughly tested by the Vietcong against innocent people in South Vietnam are now being used by Arab terrorists against the Israeli in Israel. The world cannot remain oblivious to this growing use of terrorism as an in- strument of aggression. The mayor of Tel Aviv told me of the great difficulties his administration is experiencing in dealing with these terrorists because most of the manpower of Tel Aviv is en- gaged in border guard duty with the Israeli Army. This whole technique of terrorism is something that the free world must learn to live with. We are now beginning to wit- ness it in our own country. Do not dis- miss the bombings of office buildings in Approved For Release 2003/12/02: CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 No Apoboved ForM1003/12/021 CIA-RDP711300364R000300120003-9 pember 17, iyu moNAL RECORD ? HOUSE weekend?the morale was very good in spite of the many times they have to com out to the Armory and prepare the elves to meet a situation such as last veekend. I might say that most ef these guardsmen are Government em- ployees and college students, your offi- cers and NCO's and some of your enlisted men work for the Government but 30 to 4 percent of your guardsmen in the Dist 'et of Columbia are made op of col- lege tudents who go to different collegeis in th District of Columbia area. Some commanders in the Waahington National Guard have told me that in some cases the departments of Govern- ment are less cooperative in letting a guar sman off to come to drill than som empl yers in private enterprike. In o word,some of the department liegas in Goverment give the comma ders and the nen in the National Gu a harder time than a man who runsA service staa tion and who has only e...attendant. Oftentimes a private usinessman b more willing to let his e loyee go than some of these Governmex department heads. I say that this is wro and that When a situation like this com '' p, these _t,m depa ent heads should coopeia In he callup for this weekend, 9 cent f the District of Columbia guar men reported for duty which is certainly comniondable. The 5 percent that did not show up were too far away to come back over the weekend or were sick or some of them were not able to be eon-1 taeted. But 95 percent out of a ixesible 100 percent is a very good average. It le about 5 percent over what was expected to sheOw up this last weekend. Nosy speaking of the antiwar demon- strators, I would like to give my estimate of the crowd. I would say that the num- ber of people in Washington between Friday and early Sunday morning was,' betw n 250,000 and 300,000 people. It was crtalniy not as high as 800,000, as, I hay heard. , I n4ght comment that I noticed some, of these groups walking around and Il talkeci to some of them. They came in, pairs?a boy and a girl. They came' mainly from colleges in this part of the countey. For some reason, a large group of them were strangely dressed. Their dress was different from what we usually see. They almost had on costumes. Some of thee young people, the ones I talked I to, reelly do not know completely what' the cause was?they heard a bus was corning and they had a friend and they I paid their roundtrip and so they came to ? We have talked about these groups and the damage done. I certainly do not agree with any of the philosophy of what the demonstra, tion celled for. I really think it was un- necessary. As I said, many of the young; people did not know exactly what they were t ere for. Several I talked to said,1 "Yes, support President Nixon's pro- ' gram" which was entirely off course, from hat the moratorium was about. Wh3 they surrounded the Justice De- partm4nt and why some of the demon-1 strato , 5,000 of them, went down there, I do not know. The Federal Government, through the Attorney General's Office or President Nixon's, has not taken a really active part in the cases or the court suits that are noW going on in Chicago. I heard some of the cries in the crowd, "Free Bobby Seale." I did not really fol- low this. Speaking of things shouted out, I heard some of these young people shout, "Ho, Ho, Ho, Ho Chi Minh. We have the Vietcong flag." And it just did not hit me right. It rubbed me and a lot of other Americans the wrong way. The White House was protected by a large number of buses; that were placed bumper to bumper and surrounded about two-thirds of the White House, They were use _as-a-harrier in case there was trcjibiflTn trying to demonstrate near the larhite House. The weather was a factor. The weather was a key factor. It was cold and miser- able Friday night when, you might say, the ones who were the troublemakers ar- rived. They did not get much sleep. Sat- urday they were cold and tired, and it was cold Saturday, and after the demon- stration at the Justice Department, a few of them came toward the White House. By 8 o'clock most of them were looking for warm places. Most of the young peo- ple had gone back to their buses from which they originally had come. The cost was, in my estimation, to state conservative estimate, between $800,000 $1 million to the Federal Govern- men I am sure this demonstration slowed ness in Washington. Several of the str were blacked off all day Saturday. Therefore, I ow private enterprise was hurt by this emonstration. We are very for ate that no one was seriously hurt, an that there was a minimum amount o property de- stroyed. I would say that will not happen to us again. Pcssibl if we-have -this large a number of people ho would come back into Washington, might not be as fortunate as we were t week- end, and possibly there could be rious violence. So I certainly hope that ese demonstrations will not continue. In closing I would like to say at this was quite an experience for me meet, to drill, and to be with the Distri of Columbia National Guard and als to see how the police worked. I have to commend the police, and th National Guard for the fine job that w done. Mr. MAYNE. Mr. Speaker, will gentleman yield?. Mr. MONTGOIVIERY. I yl el. the -gentleman from Iowa. Mr. MAYNE. Mr. S commend the er, I certainly man for his very graplilc,,ewryies account of the events in ashington over the weekend as seen from the vantage point of a National Guardsman. I was particularly shocked at the gen- tleman's account that the Vietnam flag was being flown at the base of the Wash- ington Monument. This is certainly an affront to every American who wears the uniform of the United States proudly, or Who has made the supreme sacrifices de- fending the American flag Certainly all of the patriotic Americans can have nothing but condemnalon for anyone who would desecrate the base of the H Nvoa Washington Monument by flying the flag of our enemies who are doing their utmost to kill brave Americans in Viet- nam. Mr. MONTGOMERY. Mr. Speaker, I thank the gentleman from Iowa. I would like to mention to the gentle- man this was not a particularly mean crowd. There was a small _group that Would cause the problems and others would follow. I saw some of the young people crying. They did not know exactly what they were getting into, and they would get into something that was shameful and I think they were sorry themselves that they did it. rjust cannot believe they will ever be able to rally that large a group to come back to Washing- ton. Certainly I hope they cannot. Mr. NICHOLS. Mr. Speaker, I am very pleased that my good friend and dis- tinguished colleague from the State of Mississippi has asked me to join him in this special order to discuss, the tragic situation which we witnessed in Wash- ington over this past 'weekend. Over a quarter of a million young people de- scended on this city to march in the streets to protest the war in Vietnain. This occurred with total disregard for our President's plea for support for his peace efforts. Most of these young people left their studies and cut classes to come to Wash- ington. Many of them have parents who are making substantial sacrifices and in all cases are putting out a great deal of money so that their children can get an education and hopefully require some wisdom. There was very little wisdom demon- strated during the last 3 days. Despite all the promises given to city and national officials, large numbers of the demon- strators broke their pledge to nonvio- lence and rioted, not only against the police, but against the law-abiding citizens of their country and against the members of their own ranks who kept their word. Honor, integrity, and justice seem to have very little meaning for these pro- testors who use them so frequently and loosely. Apparently they only apply to other people, not to themselves. They seem to believe that they have a corner on truth and therefore are above the law. Perhaps most important of all is the disregard and disdain they show for the democratic process. All of those who marched during the 3-day protest ig- nored the fact that this is a country built on law, an impartial and just law which protects them even as they break it. In many cases, the law has gone much farther than it should to protect then rights while it ignores the rights of the great majority of the people of the coun- try to be protected from their irres- ponsible and reprehensible activities. We have a democratic system which allows dissent and protest by lawful and time-honored means. We have a free sys- tem of elections which allows all Ameri- cans to register their complaints and exercise free choice in electing new lead- ers. The only way that this system can continue to operate to protect the rights of all is for the minority to respect the choice of the majority and abide by their decisions. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 N oi ber 17 1 Approved FicriasTaltiliS2DDNAMOREOURIVI3P-711TgliM . We must realize that there never again will be a battleship Missouri steaming Into Tokyo harbor as it did in 1945 to accept total surrender. These new con- flicts that face the world today have no formal beginning and no formal ending. This is why America's new policy must place heaviest emphasis on sending mili- tary arms to our allies to help make them strong enough to help themselves before the conflict begins. We must use our military d,rms as a deterrent. A few months ago we had a big debate here in this Congress on the anti- ballistic-missile system and the propo- nents argued that perfection of this sys- tem will provea deterrent to conflict. I submit that that same logic prevails and applies to sending 200 Phantom jet fighters to Israel forthwith, not next year, not 3 years from now, but right now. Nothing will bring peace to the Middle East faster and more assuredly and con- vince the Arabs that Israel is more than capable of protecting herself. This is a policy that requires no American personnel; no American sol- diers, but one that offers our allies mean- ingful help. I know of no mandate for American troops to police the entire troubled world in these days of mounting conflict. It is for this reason that I do not urge the sending of one American soldier but we can no longer ignore the fact that the Soviet Union uses her military might in a much more effective way. It is the height of folly to think that Russia wants peace when she continues to rearm nation after nation to wage aggression. We must realize this new technique of warfare and respond ac- cordingly. It is of no comfort to us that our rep- resentatives and Soviet representatives meet in Helsinki to being talks on nu- clear disarmament. Of course, the Soviet Union will agree to placing limitations on strategic mis- siles when all over this world the Soviet Union is sending to aggressor nations the day-to-day sinews for terror, sub- version, and conventional aggression. We can have all the controls in the world on strategic missiles between the United States and Russia and yet see most of mankind fall captive to the Communist conspiracy. When are the statemen of this country going to realize that the Soviet Union plays a series of options at one time? She is talking peace in Helsinki and waging war in the Gaza Strip. Our Nation has to learn to use its options the very same way that the So- viets have used their options over the past 22 years. During the past two decades the So- viets have kept us off balance and we respond to, instead of, anticipating their actions. It is high time that the United States took the initiative and I submit, Mr. Speaker, that the place to start is to send to Israel 200 jet fighters immediately. The 50 fighters that she is buying from America ought to be included in this package. One final word. In my judgment, it is the height of folly for anyone to suggest that the Israelis would use these fighters to wage new aggression against the Arabs. The 6-day war was necessitated by 20 years of constant aggression and harass- ment by the Arab States. Ten days ago I stood on the mountains of the Golan Heights and I personally examined the Syrian embankments there. I saw the moment in which the Syrians were able to harass the Israelis from these excellent strategic vantage points. I examined a kibbutz near the Jordan River which had been bombarded by the Syrians every night to the extent that a whole generation grew up spending every evening and nighttime in a bomb shelter. The 6-day war was a necessity to give Israel a chance to breathe but I submit to you, Mr. Speaker and my colleagues, that to suggest to me that the Israelis want to keep all of the liberated terri- tories or that they seek more is to ignore the realities of life and to fail to under- stand the nature of the Israelis them- selves. I submit that the Jewish people did not struggle for 2,000 years to get their own homeland only to become a minority In their own country. There is no question in my mind that if and when the Arabs give Israel un- equivocal guarantees of Israel's soverign- ty and full and free access to all the waterways, the Israelis will be more than anxious to discuss with the Arabs the return of these territories. Obviously, the Israelis will retain some of the territory for reasons that are beyond contradic- tion, but I believe it would be foolish to suggest that somehow or other the Is- raelis want to keep all the territories they won in the 6-day war. To do so would give them control over such vast expanses of land and population that they would become a minority in their own country. THE WASTE-TREATMENT CON- STRUCTION GRANT PROGRAM: HOW MUCH TO INVEST THEREIN THIS YEAR? The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under a previous order of the House, the gentle- man from New York (Mr. RosisoN) is recognized for 30 minutes. Mr. ROBISON. Mr. Speaker, now that the other body has completed its con- sideration of the 1970 Public Works ap- propriation bill, the question of how much to invest?during what remains of this fiscal year?in the Department of Interior's waste-treatment construction grant program again becomes a matter of some concern to this House. As my colleagues will well remember, when this issue was before us on October 8 the House decided, after considerable debate, to appropriate $600 million in new obligational authority for the pur- poses of this important program which sum, together with available unobligated balances of $64.9 million carried over at the end of the last fiscal year, would have provided a total grant program of about $665 million for the construction of waste-treatment works, as authorized by the Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966 4R000300120003-9 H 10937 to abate our national water-pollution problem. The vote on this in the Committee of the Whole, as all will recall, was a close one?coining in the face of a concerted drive on the part of some of our col- leagues for the "full funding" of this pro- gram at the $1 billion authorized figure. I thought then?and still think?that we made a responsible and wholly de- fensible decision, tripling as we did the prior year's appropriation for this item in a year when the demand for budgetary restraint was so clearly obvious; and in light, too, of what we could determine as the probable top figure that the Depart- ment of Interior, in its most objective moments, would tell us that it could put to use in what remains of this fiscal year. However, it will soon be necessary for us to again go over much of the same ground for the other body, in its sep- arate wisdom?a phrase I prefer to use though there evidently is a bit of "one- upmanship" in all this?has now decided to fund this program at the full authori- zation figure of $1 billion; to "fully fund" it, that is, in the sense that phrase was urged upon us in those weeks leading up to October 8. Now, Mr. Speaker, considering the great political appeal this program has, and considering the undeniable need for faster progress to be made thereunder? which means an increased level of Fed- eral support?it is tempting for all of us to now say "So be it," tdthe action taken by the other body, thus bowing in ad- vance to the new wave of lobbying pres- sure for "full funding" that will soon again engulf us. That pressure will undoubtedly reach its peak when, as this bill gets ready to move to conference, a motion will be made to instruct the House conferees to accept the other body's $1 billion bid for popular approval, as further evidence. of our support for this program. I do not happen to believe?generally speaking?in the practice of so instruct- ing any conferees. I think many of my colleagues share that viewpoint, but it is clear, in advance, that it will be diffi- cult for anyone, politically speaking, to vote against such a motion in this in- stance. These remarks, then, have been pre- pared with that thought in mind?it being my purpose, if I can, to encourage in advance of that vote some objective consideration of that question of "full funding" of this program, with especial reference to what "full funding" can or cannot accomplish. If my colleagues, Mr. Speaker, will think back to the debate we had last month on this same question, most of them will recall that it was brought out in the course thereof that there is some- thing badly wrong with the allocation formula under which funds for this pro- gram are made available to the inter- ested municipalities in the several States. As we discovered, 17 States?along with Guam, Puerto Rico, arid the Virgin Is- lands?were more than fully funded under that formula even at the original $214 million budgetary request, this be- ing on the basis of their reported need for Federal assistance under this pro- gram as totaled up from applications Approved For Release 2003/12/02: CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 H 10938 Approved For RelegtiNVIWNWRATim:Toolppom iv ov ember 1 2..6 9 300120003,-9 they, too, could be said to be "fully funded." This, then, would still leave seven States?Florida, Indiana, Maine, Mary- land, New Jersey, Nesv York, and Ore- gon?on paper considerably less than "fully funded" on the basis we have been talking about, please note, even at the other body's $1 billion figure. My own State of New York, Mr. Speaker, is the best example of this problem since its Pending, filed, applications total up to $202,279,540, against Which?even at the $1 billion level?it would receive only $89,223,166. And, Mr. Speaker, there is nothing we can do about this situation unless and until we change that allocation formula. Now, of course, it is true?and let me be the first to admit it?that, at the other body's $1 billion figure, New York will become entitled to receive under that allocation formula for the purposes of this program that $89,223,166, or a bit short of $37 million more than it would become entitled to under the House's $600 million figure. Why, then, do I not grab for that with- out any questions? Well, precisely because, Mr. Speaker, I have not yet been able to determine what New York's true "action backlog" really is. I have already mentioned the Proba- bility of some administrative "slippages" in connection with Tennessee, Michigan, and Nevada; but such "slippages"?that relate to administrative capacities to more than triple the pace of progress under this program at both State and local level, as well as the Federal, levels? will apply in all States pending at regional IsWISCA offices or at State agencies, and from applications in some stage of progress at the local level but not yet formalized At the $600 mil- lion House figure these same 17 States?. and territories?already fully funded and, in fact, enjoying under the alloca- tion formula an actial surplus over their reported need a t the $214-million figure, would see that surplus escalated from $37.9 million to over $101 million. Clearly, there is an urgent need for Con- gress to review and revise that allocation formula. But, to move on, eight additional States would become fully funded?on the same basis of total reported need? under the $660 million House fig re and would also, for reason relating lick to the workings of the Present al cation formula, receive at least a teMporary surplus over their totaFreported need for funds under this program of $41.2 mil- lion. Thus, to sum up so far, at the House figure of $600 million for the purposes of this program, 25 States would be fully funded?indeed, overfunded?under any definition of that phrase. At this point, it needs to be stated, I suppose, that the figures I am using are those as supplied me by the Federal Water Pollution Control Comnaission, and were current as of-August 31 of this year. . Now, Mr. Speaker, it would seem to become necessary to consider a bit more fully what we mean by "fully ftitided." Do we mean, thereby, simply the ap- propriation of the full authorization of $1 billion for this fiscal year? Or do we mean to appropriate what- ever we can decide is actually Wing to be required under this program by the States in the balance of this fiscal year? It seems to me, Mr. Speaker, that if the appropriation process is going to con- tinue to mean anything we ought to try to fund any program before us only at that level which we can determine?and agree upon?Gould reasonably be obli- gated during the fiscal year in question. Though there has been some backing and filling on this point, Interior con- tinues to say?as best I know?th t this would be $600 million, at the niot. And It is important to remember, in a, con- nection, that we are talking about obli- gations?not expenditures?for, since the Federal grants, as I understal do ot go out until a project is 25 tiCent expenditure level for this prograta will o mplete, it is safe to assume that the hot rise very much during the ba.Ianee of this fiscal year no matter how mqch we eventually decide to appropriate f r it. I don't know, Mr. Speaker, if many of my olleagues are still very interested in this o, pect of our budgetary decisions even ugh we have previously seen fit im- pose a spending-ceiling of sorts the resident; but if any are so concerned, they may take some comfort from what have just said. - In any event, what now of timae re- -naining 25 States who do not seem, at first glance, to be fully funded?in the 1.ciuse figure of $600 million? oadest sense of that phrase---: the Well, seven of those States? Connecticut, Hawaii, Massach tts, Minnesota, Rhode Island, and Vermont, along with the District of Columbia, would really be fully funded for all prac- tical Intents and purposes, though now In a narrower sense of that phrase, at the $600-millio:a level since the alloca- tions they would then receive would more than cover the respective dollar totals of all the grant applications they have pend- ing at regional FWPCA or State pure- water offices. Besides which, they col- lectively would become entitled at that level to an additional $28 million, or thereabouts, to apply eventually to their reported backlog of local used, as rep- resented by applications for grant moneys that are now in some stage of preparation back at the municipal level, but which will orobably not actually be filed for months?in some cases, perhaps, years?yet to come. This, then, leaves 18 "problem" States for us to consider?the problem in con- nection therewith being one that, because of that allocation formula, we cannot really resolve w:aether we decide to stay at the House figure of $600 million, or adopt the other body's $1 billion figure, or opt?as seems a likely result of the forthcoming conference?for some "split- ting of the difference" between the two. I would ask my colleagues to take note, Mr. Speaker, of the fact that, to come closer to "full funding" as we have here on the House side, we have already had to vote to overfund 32 States?under that obsolete allocation formula?to the tune of nearly $210 million just on the basis of their "action backlog" of applications pending at those regional FWPCA or State offices. If we were now to decide to force the House conferees, in advance, to accept the other body's $1 billion figure?there- by improving the lot of those remaining 18 States but still, please note, without coming close to meeting the apparent needs of at least seven of them?the over- funding that would then be produced in- sofar as pending applications were con- cerned would rise to nearly $437 million. Mr. Speaker, I strikes me that this is simply not a very efficient way for us to be trying to advance the purposes of this program?and that what we ought to be concentrating on, instead, is ways and means to review and revise that obsolete allocation formula, and how to nail down the matter of reimbursing those States who have been going ahead on their own?in advance of Federal assistance? in meeting ther pollution-abatement goals, on which subject more in a moment. Now It is, of course, true that, at the $1 billion level, we can "fully fund"? again on that basis of dollar totals of Pending applications--eight of those re- maining States, these being California, Illinois, Missouri, New Hampshire, Ohio, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin. And I should think Tennessee should also be added to this list since its application backlog totals $21,278,986 against which it would receive?at the $1 billion level? $21,083,396, or close enough to cover, one would think, the actual need. As a matter of fact, both Michigan and Nevada?assuming some administrative "slippage"?woulcl also be so close to be- ing covered at the $1 billion level that, for all practical intents and purposes, In addition to which, since the FWPCA does not, as I understand, require a municipality on filing an application for grant moneys to certify as to its financial readiness to proceed with construction of its project, once Federal assistance is forthcoming, we now have no way really of knowing how many local municipal entities?even in a State with such a large paper backlog of need as New York?are really ready to go ahead with their project if the level of Federal assist- ance is pushed on up to the other body's $1 billion figure. This is a problem, I might mention, that has been made even more difficult of estimation by virtue of the fact that this Congress, in its zeal for tax-reform, has unintentionally brought some added uncertainties of performance to the Municipal bond markets. And then, finally, Mr. Speaker, one also has to consider the capacity of de- sign engineers, as well as the construc- tion and equipment industries, to handle, all at once, a vastly expanded workload of progress under this important pro- gram. What I am, therefore, saying is that, while it is of course politically tempting to accept in advance the other body's "one-upmanship" to the full $1 billion funding for this program, it is still ob- vious that nowhere that amount could possibly be obligated during the balance of this fiscal year for this program's pur- Poses?a program, need I say, that I sup- port just as strongly as anyone in this body?and that, therefore, the House Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 November 7, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE It is my view that the amounts au- thorized can provide for reasonable prog- ress in all significant aeronautical and space programs. I am, therefore, hopeful that when the corresponding appropria- tions bill reaches the floor of the Senate, it, too, will be passed in an amount suffi- cient to fund the authorizations con- tained in this bill. Mr. HOLLAND. Mr. President, as a conferee on HR. 11271, I want to con- gratulate our distinguished chairman and the ranking minority member, the senior Senator from Maine, for their ad- mirable work in the conference. The quality of their leadership is clearly in- dicated by the results of the conference which in most instances upheld the Sen- ate's position. I also compliment the chairman and members of the House committee who participated so capably in the conference. I believe the conference resulted in a bill that will provide a bal- anced NASA program, a program already endorsed by the Senate bill. There is, however, one program on which I would like to say a few words, The House-passed bill provided an addi- tional $3 million for the chemical pro- pulsion program to be used only for the 260-inch large solid motor project. The Senate deleted this amount because no role has been assigned these large solid rocket motors for the near future and because the necessary funds to accom- plish the few additional tasks remaining to establish the large rocket motor tech- nology are included in the budget request under supporting research and tech- nology. While no role has been assigned as yet to the 260-inch large solid rocket motor, I think the record should show that NASA continues to regard the large solid as an alternative for future space pro- grams. On October 31, 1969, the chairman of the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences wrote to Dr. Paine requesting his views on the role of the 260-inch solid rocket motor. Dr. Paine replied in a letter to the chairman dated November 3. Mr. President, with the consent of Sen- ator ANDERSON, I ask unanimous consent that the two letters be included in the RECORD at the conclusion of my remarks. The VICE PRESIDENT. Without ob- jection, it is so ordered. (See exhibits 1 and 2.) Mr. HOLLAND. Mr. President, in his letter, Dr. Paine makes it clear that NASA continues to regard the large solid rocket motor as one of the attractive, technically feasible alternatives for fu- ture space programs and reiterates the fact that the fiscal year 1970 budget does provide for continuing work in research and technology related to this project. Moreover, Dr. Paine points out that while the possibilities of a fully reusable space shuttle vehicle point in a direction of favoring reusable liquid propulsion sys- tems, he does not at this time believe NASA can or should rule out entirely the possibilities of a space shuttle using the 260-inch solid rocket motor in the booster stage. I should add that I had a personal telephone discussion with Dr. Paine prior to our Senate-House conference and prior to my knowledge of the letter which Senator ANDERSON had written to Dr. Paine. In the course of that discussion Dr. Paine made it very clear to me that he expected to continue the research and technology work on the large 260-inch solid fuel rocket out of the authorization proVided for in this year's budget and which are now contained in the confer- ence bill. I send forward the two letters I have asked to be printed in the RECORD. Exnuirr 1 OCTOBER 31, 1969. Hon. THOMAS 0. PAINE, Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. DEAR Tom: During fiscal year 1967, NASA completed the test firing of its third half- length 260-inch large solid rocket motor. Fol- lowing this, some efforts have been devoted to completing the technology for this booster. In the FY 1970 budget presentation, no pro- vision in either the original or the revised submission was made for any further demon- stration firings of 260-inch large solid motor cases. In view of the space shuttle studies and other activities currently underway and in view of the President's Space Task Group recommendations eniphasizing commonality, reusability, and economy in space transpor- tation systems. I would like your current views as to just where you would envision a booster with the projected capability of the 260-inch large solid rocket motor would fit into the nation's requirements for large space boosters. / believe also it is very important that the Committee have an expression of your views on this inasmuch as both the House and the Senate have already approved NASA's recommendations for continued pro- duction, and therefore availability, of the Saturn V system for supporting our very heavy space booster requirements. I would appreciate your thoughts on the projected role of the 260-inch large solid rocket motor at your very earliest conven- ience. Sincerely yours. CLINTON P. ANDERSON, Chairman. EXHIBIT 2 NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION, Washington, D.C., November 3, 1969. Hon. CLINTON P. ANDERSON, Chairman, CoMmittee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, U.S. Senate, Washing- ton, D.C. DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: This is in reply to your letter of October 31 asking for my cur- rent thoughts on the projected role of the 260-inch solid rocket motor. We continue to regard the large solid rocket motor as one of the attractive tech- nically feasible alternatives for future space systems. For this reason, as you know, we have provided in our FY 1970 budget for continuing work in research and technology related to the 260-inch solid rocket motor. This work relates, for example, to thrust vector control and propellant casting and processing. We do not plan to proceed with further construction and firing of full scale rocket motors until such time as a decision is made to proceed with actual development. Our studies to date of the possibilities of a fully reusable space shuttle point in the direction of favoring reusable liquid propul- sion systems. However, I do not at this time believe we can or should rule out entirely the possibility of a space shuttle using a 260- inch solid rocket motor in a booster stage. Depending on a number of factors, it could turn out that we would decide to use the S13919 large solid rocket booster as an alternative to the fully re usable liquid propulsion sys- tem. With respect to Saturn V, the require- ments we have presented to the Committee are not affected by the possibility of a deci- sion to develop the 260-inch solid rocket motor. If we should decide to develop the 260-inch solid for the space shuttle, we would, of course, consider utilizing it for any payloads for which it is suitable, in- cluding those which otherwise would require the Saturn V OT a derivative vehicle consist- ing, for example, of the first and second stages of the Saturn V. However, we would not develop the 260-inch rocket motor solely for the purposes of providing a substitute for the Saturn V or its derivatives. If I can provide any additional informa- tion, please let me know. Sincerely yours, T. 0, PAINE, Administrator. Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President, as a member of the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Science, I wish to concur in everything that has been stated here in regard to the conference report. I feel that the distinguished senior Senator from New Mexico (Mr. ANDERSON) , chairman of the Space Com- mittee of the Senate, is to be congratu- lated upon his fine leadership in the con- sideration of the conference report. I ask that the Senate now vote on it. The VICE PRESIDENT. The question is on agreeing to the conference report. The report was agreed to. Mr. BYRD of West Virginia. Mr. Pres- ident, I move to reconsider the vote by which the conference report was agreed to. Mr. HOLLAND. Mr. President, I move to lay that motion on the table. The motion to lay on the table was agreed PRESIDENT NASSER'S SPEECH Mr. BYR,D of Virginia. Mr, President, President Nasser's speech last night is highly disturbing. The President of the United Arab Re- public, speaking to the Egyptian Gen- eral Assembly, called for a path of "fire and blood" in the Middle East. The Arab's friend, he said, is the Soviet Union. He listed the United States as an enemy. While President Nasser is known for bombast and inflammatory talk, his ad- dress last night, coupled with his actions, seems to me to be a cause for some alarm. I have long felt that the Middle East is potentially the most explosive area in the world. I formed this view first as a newspaper editor, obligated to take a keen interest in international problems. My view has been reinforced since be- coming a member of the U.S. Senate. Eighteen months ago, on an official Senate visit to the Middle East, I had a long and frank talk with Egyptian Foreign Minister Mahmoud Riad, He indicated some reasonableness?which, incidentally, subsequent events have not borne out. I expressed the view to the Egyptian Foreign Minister that, to an outsider, there appears to be two fundamental Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 S 13920 , Oeps which must be takea before per- Manent peace can be achieved. i One, the Arab nations must recognize that Israel is here to stay and cannot be e iminated as the Arabs sought to do in Ji me of 1967. [ And second, the leaders of the United Arab Republic must engage in direct ae- gatiations with the leaders of Israee While the four major powers, namely e United States, the _Soviet Union, e. eat Britain, and France, might be able collectively be helpful in arriving at a s lution, the solution to be permanent arid realistic peace must result $rom direct negotiations between the inter- ested parties; namely, the Israelis arid their neighbors. . ',In my judgment, the Soviet Union was the motivating force behind Nasser's provocative actions against Israel in 1967. Last night's speech by President Nasser indicates to me that he and the viet Union are adding flames under a pot which is already boiling. , ? WE MUST CUT OUR ARMED FORCES IN EUROPE AND BRING 200,000 MEN AND THEIR DEPENDENTS HOME Mr. YOUNG a Ohio. Mr. President, the number of men in our Armed Forces now totals more than 31/2 million?larger than the regular armed fortes of either the Soviet Union or China. ' Gne of every 11 American young Men between the ages of 18 and 45 is in uni- form full time as a member of our Arnied Forces, Another 1,200,000 civilians are emPloyed by the Defense Department. Of this total number, 170,187 American ei- vilians, men and women, work for dur Anted Forces overseas as civilian eine' plo ees. In addition, millions of Arrieri- can work in industries sustained, amidst ent' ely, by Defense Department con- tracts. It is fair to state that one lin every seven wage earners in this country is d pendent on the Pentagon for his Or her paycheck. This includes much of the Nation's most outstanding managerial and technological talent. mis President, in view of these facts, it so times seems futile to try to diminiSh and Somewhat limit the power and infhli.- encel of the military-industrial compleX. AlmOst 9 years have elapsed since PreS- ident Dwight Eisenhower warned of the groWing menace of the power of the mill- tarySindustrial complex in his farewell statement to the American people in January 1961. T e power of the military-industrial com le t x has continued to grow and e* nand. Our military and naval establish- men seems to be expanding constantly. It es uch larger and more costly than was When General Eisenhower left the White House. 1 We now have 343 major military base* in 2 countries and seven U.S. posses sions In addition, we have 2,687 minor milit ry installations spread throughout the w rld. More than 1,200,000 Amezicari servi emen are stationed in foreign countrles. + Th United States does not have a mandate from the Almighty to police the entire world. It is high time that the ad= 1 , Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE November 7, 1969 ministration and ,the Congress review our treaty commitments and obligations. The President in his recent speech an- nounced that in 1,he future the United States will assist nations willing and able to defend themselves with their own forces. We should be determined never ligain to go througSi the tragedy and na- tional insanity of another involvement in a civil war in some other Asiatic country?Laos, for example. President Johnson's intervention in a civil war in South Vietnam with American combat troops was the worst mistake any Amer- ican President ever made. In view of these facts, it is clear that there is no need to continue to support the present level of our Armed Forces. It is time that the administration take drastic steps and cut the number of Americans in uniform by at least a million. There are now more than half a mil- lion Americans of our Armed Forces sta- tioned in South Vietnam and Thailand. Forty percent of our tremendous air power and 35 percent of our naval forces are committed to combat duty in Viet- nam, Thailand, and off the coast of Viet- nam. The President has stated that he has a secret plan to end our fighting in Viet- nam. His plan is still his secret. How- ever, let us hope he will end our involve- ment in a land war in Southeast Asia and bring the boys home within the next 6 months. The one place where we can and should make immediate reduetions of our Armed Forces is to return forthwith most of the more than 310,000 men of our Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines now stationed in Western Europe with their 240,000 dependents. They have been maintained there over the years, since the end of tVorld War II, at great expense to American taxpayers. A quarter of a century has elapsed since World War U. Our massive mili- tary presence in Western Europe has be- come merely foreign aid, in the sum of many billions of dollars, to the West German Republic, Holland, Belgium, Spain, and other European countries. The United States is the only NATO member that has met its commitment 100 percent. The only other NATO na- tion that has come up to even 80 percent of its commitment has been West Germany. We have 220,000 servicemen stationed in West Germany, with 160,000 depend- ents. Based on its gross national prod- uct, the West German Republic is the third-wealthiest country in the entire world. The West German mark is one of the world's strongest currencies. In Swiss banks the mark of the West Ger- man Republic is considered more sound than the U.S. dollar. The recent reval- uation of the German mark, increasing its value, will automatically cost Amer- ican taxpayers at least an additional $100 million a year fox the maintenance of our forces stationed there. Also, Amer- icans buying Volkswagens and other German-built automobiles will as a re- sult pay a higher price for each auto- mobile purchased, thereby increasing the outflow of money from our country. Sure- ly, it is outrageous and unthinkable that nearly a quarter of a century following the end of World War II, the United States continues to maintain more than 220,000 officers and men of our Armed Forces in West Germany. While we Americans conscript our young men for 2 years and send many of them to West Germany, the West Ger- man Government conscripts their young men for only 18 months, Furthermore, our other allies in Western Europe either have no draft laws whatever or conscript their youngsters for a much shorter pe- riod of time than we. Denmark conscripts for 12 to 14 months, France and Norway for 12 to 15 months, Italy for 15 months, Spain for 16 to 24 months, Belgium for but 12 months. and Great Britain not at all. The nations of Western Europe can certainly provide the necessary troops to defend themselves. There is no reason for them to depend on us. Since the death of Stalin, the Soviet Union is no longer an aggressive threat to our NATO allies. The leaders of the Kremlin during the past 10 years have been intent on increas- ing the standard of living of their own people. The Soviet Union, now a "have" nation, is veering toward capitalism. Let the West German youth be conscripted and drafted into their own armed forces. Why should the lives and aspirations of our teenage young men be disrupted to form the first line of defense for the Germans and French and their Euro- pean neighbor countries? It is generally regarded we do have a national interest in defending Western Europe. It does not follow that to serve this interest we must maintain more than 310,000 troops and more than 240,- 000 dependents in Europe. The time is long past due for us to withdraw at least 200,000 of these men, and all dependents, from Western Europe. The U.S. Air Force has a proven capa- bility of flying to Europe an entire divi- sion, a fully armed and equipped com- bat division, and field them ready for combat within less than 36 hours. Furthermore, whatever men of our Armed Farces are sent to Western Eu- rope for a tour of duty in the future should be sent for a period of not more than 13 months, and with no depend- ents. If there is a need for our troops in Europe, then we should have a lean, trim. combat-ready force stationed there, not hundreds of thousands of men of our Armed Forces living like "squawmen" with their wives and children. At the present time, all of our officers from car - tain through field grade up to general grade assigned to Western Europe are living high on the hog with their families and servants, and enjoying trips to Euro- pean resorts in their Mercedes and other European automobiles, which some sell at handsome profits when returning to the United States. They and their fam- ilies never had it so good. The PRESIDING OreaCER (Mr. BYRD of Virginia in the chair). The Sen- ator's time has expired. Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. I ask unani- mous consent to proceed for 3 additional minutes. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 November 5, 1969 ApprovetewaltINEBUDINAB/INWIMFREPHBTA364R000300120003-9S 13821 South, the school bus has come to repre- try, most of them in urban centers and out- "We will not tolerate arbitrary busing," sent for thousands of people the stupid, stub- side the South. Mr. Nixon said then. born, clumsy, inept attempt by a heavy- The promise common to all of those plans Gov. Lester G. Maddox of Georgia has handed bureaucracy to force school Integra- is basically simple and emerged as an answer described busing frequently in vitriolic terms, tion, a problem they believe only time can to a question school administrators have once calling it "a Communist ruse." solve, been pondering since the 1954 decision: Gov. Albert P. Brewer of Alabama. has Moreover, with last week's insistence of How can any school be racially balanced expressed similar sentiments in less vivid the Supreme Court on immediate, Complete when the neighborhood it was designed terms, as have his counterparts in Louisiana compliance with its 1954 school integration originally to serve has become or always was and Mississippi. mandate, the furor over the school bus is racially unbalanced? The public officials' distaste for busing is likely to increase both in scope and intensity One answer, as first devised in the Berke- also frequently expressed in Northern States In the urban South in coming weeks as ley school system five years ago, is the die- and cities. busing is chosen as a tool for quick desegre- solution of the time-honored concept of And not long ago, George C. Wallace, the gation. the neighborhood school and the physical Presidential choice of nearly 10-million "My kids ain't riding no buses all over movement of students from the residential Americans, twirled a cheap cigar in his the country just to make the damned Su- neighborhood to a school in another neigh- fingers and offered his own contribution to preme Court happy," vowed a disgruntled borhoocl, thereby achieving substantial class- the continuing argument. Georgia parent last week, a sentiment voiced room integration. TRIFLING WITH OUR KIDS over and over again by Mississippians whose DEVASTATING IMPACT "I'll tell you this," Mr. Wallace growled. schools will feel the initial impact of the The impact of that solution is, however, "It don't make any difference how many Court's sweeping decision. for many parents and students, devastating. judges they appoint from the South or what "What goes against my grain is my little children riding buses, sometimes in sub-zero There are long rides in the morning and their philosophies are, and it don't make any , afternoon to and from their new school, difference how they try to court the South? weather, to places I've never even seen," complained the Rev. Alan Walbridge, a white There is a loss of identification" with the if they keep on busing our kids from one end Episcopal priest in Pittsburgh who has orga- school itself, since it no longer is the neigh- of the town to the other, then there's going nized a private school to avoid the city's borhood school." "to be trouble because, I'll tell you this, par- "I suspect, also, that many of the angry ents are not going to put up with it. They're busing program. ones are simply saying, whether they are Ne- just trifling with our kids when they bus "They might get lost or never come home groes or whites, that they do not want their them around like that." " h added hild n in a school with children who aren't And so the debate continues, as steadily All across the country, there is consider- their own color," a school administrator in , able antagonism. Evansville, Ind., said recently. In Denver, two school board candidates ran An official of the United States Department successful campaigns this year on antibusing of Health, Education and Welfare agrees. platforms. Paul Rilling, chief of the department's Civil TWO SOCIAL ILLS Rights Office here in the South, ventured In Grand Rapids, many white and Negro that, in his own region, at least, it is not parents have objected strenuously to the busing that "heats up" the parents, but city's busing program, and one group boasts rather, integrated education. that its efforts helped elect three new school In fact, records in Mr. Rilling's office and board members. at the United States Department of Justice In California, according to a newspaper here indicate that busing has not been a sig- survey, parents of school-age children are nificant factor in or a substantial part of "most concerned" about drug abuse among the south's struggles with classroom desegre- youngsters and the busing of their chil- gation. dren to schools out of their residential neigh- PROBLEM FOR NEGROES borhoods?two facts of life the parents de- ?I think it is fair to say that if it has been scribe as "social ills." a problem at all, it has been a problem for In Birmingham, Ala., an organization of Negroes rather than whites," Mr. Rilling said. white parents is raising money to use in a In most desegregation plans in the South, court fight against their city's integration there is substantial "one-way desegregation," plans, which include the use of busing. a plan that moves Negroes from their schools In Dayton, Ohio, boycotts, school strikes to previously all-white schools and in most and occasional violence have marked that cases simply closes the schools that formerly city's efforts to achieve racial balance in its were Negro. Mr. Ruling's agency is prohibited schools by using buses. from either suggesting or ordering that bus- Here in Atlanta, Negro parents staged ing programs be initiated in any Southern vehement protests against a school closing school syste1 . to achieve racial parity in and the busing of their children to a new, schools under its aegis. integratedMr Rilling also finds support from other and Fla noisily RS old yellow and black ve- thicle that rolls along the country's streets and highways, alternately swallowing and then disgorging children and making as remarkable a contribution to the nation's bent for controversy as the internal com- bustion engine's role in the improvement of transportation. THE TORTURE IN GREECE Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, re- cently, Look magazine published an article entitled "Greece: The Torture Goes On," written by Mr. Christopher S. Wren. In view of our support of the re- gime in Greece, I think it is appropriate that the article be drawn to the atten- tion of the Senate, which will be called upon to vote for continued military as- sistance to the present regime. I ask unanimous consent that the article be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the Article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: GREECE: THE TORTURE GOES ON school. SOME ACCEPTANCE, TOO(By Christopher S. Wren) that, even with the Supreme Court order Last June 7, George Papadopoulos, the Southern officials and educators for his view There are examples of acceptance as well, last week, the "busing syndrome" will not In Berkeley, Calif., where the idea of busing become an important factor here in .the Greek colonel who runs Western Europe's to achieve racial balance originated, it is South. only new dictatorship since World War IL working and working well and there is little , "It is really an urban problem," he argued. mused before an Athens news conference If any conflict, local officials say. "In the South, where the bulk of the stu- that he might agree with the view that the In Rochester, N.Y., and Verona, N.J., the dent population is enrolled in smaller sys- press was a "whore." The self-appointed story is the same. And even in Boston, where tems, most of them rural, there is absolutely Prime Minister was referring to Look maga- Louise Day Hicks received thousands of nothing new about riding a bus a long cis- zine's disclosure of political torture in Greece votes after her anti-busing mayoral cam- tance for a long tie to school." (May 27, 1969) . paign in 1967, the busing program has met OFFICIAL SUPPORTHis indignant response was delivered once with wide acceptance and will probably be the offending article, Greece: Government by Regardless of the size or the intensity of Torture, was safely off the newstands (in expanded. the South's reaction to busing plans, the is- Athens, cops were bought up by the junta: ONE HUNDRED BUSING PLANS sue is sturdy enough and substantial enough "How could we consider ourselves part of a Advocates of busing, such as Neil V. Sul- to remain alive across the country. Parents civilized society when we accept the most liven, the Massachusetts Commissioner of of every description and officials with a van- imaginary and malignant accusations pro- Education insist that it can work and is, in sty of powers and authority will probably duced by a mentally deranged person ... and fact, the best, fastest, safest and most eco- continue to oppose both the idea and the how could we reproduce those accusations for nomical way to get children to school. fact of the busing, the use of tens of millions of readers through- "If you can provide a good education, peo- They have support from high places. out the world?" Under the subhead "Feeble pie don't mind busing," he said, referring to In Williamsburg, Va., for instance, Vice Author," the censored Athens News picked the success of the plan now in force in Bos- President Agnew, in an attempt to mollify up the cue: "Papadopoulos said this article ton. "Transportation does not become the the heated interests of several Southern goy- was written by a mentally deranged person." problem. All they [the parents] want at the ernors, recently stated his blunt opposition It was later quietly explained the Prime end of the bus ride is quality education." to busing. And in many corners of the coun- Minister really meant not this writer, dnly Although exact statistics are hard to come try, editorial writers and public officials are his sources. by, officials in the United States Office of constantly referring to a campaign remark Papadopoulos thereupon invited Look to Education believe there are more than 100 by President Nixon in Charlotte. N.C. last send to Greece "a duly authorized represents- separate busing plans in effect in the coun- year. tive with the purpose of investigating the Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 S13822 Approved For Releage truth. He could be accompanied by the per- son who supplied the writer with the false accusations. . .." The Prime Minister promised that if he were shown torture did take place, he would hang the culprits in Constitution Square. The last such public executions in central Athens, Greeks recall, were carried out by the Nazis during the Occupation. The Prime Minister never bothered to send his invita- tion to Look. It appeared the next week among the routine Greek Embassy press re- leases handed out to She Washington press corps. Still, Look accepted. Since the details had come from torture victims within and outside Greece, Look had no single "person who supplied the writer with the false accusations.- It propased send- ing James Becket, an American lawyer who has investigated torture chargeS within Greece for Amnesty International, the world- wide organization coneerned with political prisoners. Becket had given some of his documentation to Look. Congressinan Don Edwards of California was suggested as an observer. Rep. Edwards, chairman of the U.S. Committee for Democracy in Greece, offered skill as a former Pm agent and cur- rent member of the House of Representatives Judiciary Committee. Following the Prime Minister's invitation, further evidence and offers of assistance came in to Look from Europe. Thirteen prisoners in Averoff prison, Athens, smuggled out a signed statement that they wanted to talk about their torture. A Scandinavian diplo- mat wrote: "I could furnish yott with a number of names of people who have been tortured much worse than those yon,mention in your article." A month later, the Greek Prime Minister finally authorized the consul general in New York to inform Loots that Representative Edwards and Becket, as "participants of movements inspired by Snejudice and anti- Greek hysteria" were not welcome in Greece. The article's author was 'absolutely unac- ceptable." As for the Prime Minister's promise to summarily execute anyone guilty Of bru- tality, this, the consul general explained, was merely a "Greek metaphor" used "by the Prime Minister to emphasize the depth of his cenvietions. . ." Yet as long ago as ApriT, 1968, the Greek junta was given prima faeie evidence that, political prisoners had ben abused. Anthony Marreco, a British lawyer for Amnesty Inter- national, was allowed into three Greek pris- ons. Afterward, he gave Minister of Interior Stylianos Pattakos the histories of ten pris- oners whom he had interviewed and believed were tortured. Pattakos dismissed them as Communists and Marreco's andings SA Com- munist propaganda. Pattakos closed the mat- ter: "The Greek Goverritnent has to protect its people against its Communist enemies." Amnesty International is DOW banned from Greece as "Communist," test as it has been banned from the Soviet Union ail controlled." The Greek dictatorship insists that torture claims have been refuted by Use International Red Cross and the so-called British Pasha- 7entarians Committee. It was in fast the subsidiary International Committee of the Red Cross that visited Greece. Its initial re- port dealt with prison-camp conditicins, not storture. A second report concluded that the ,ICRC did not wish to declare whether or not Iprisoners were tortured. Because the ICRC cannot release its findings without the per- mission of the host government,n4 Other reports have been published, The Ittac in July, 1968, and again in February, 1969, privately protested to the junta its inisrep- resentation of the reports. The Rea Cross has secured from the junta some improvement in prison conditions. But i Its business is mercy, not politics. ReStricted to diplomatic channels, it can see only what the government decides to show. In World NagatogiUNRAllefed1WPDStURRHP?120003-9.. November 5, 1969 War LI, for instance, a Danish Red Cross team finally allowed Into the Therresienstadt con- centration cam? in June, 1944, found new flowerbeds and freshly painted barracks. To tidy up, the Nazis had shipped 2,780 Jews to Auschwitz. The British Parliamentarians Committee turns out to be five British Members of Parliament who were junketed with wives to Greece for the 1968 Easter holidays by Maurice Fraser Associates. Fraser, a former gambling-easinc promoter, had persuaded the junta to pay his new firm $253,000 a year to handle its public relations in Britain. Two of the MP's did visit the prison camp on the island of Leros, where torture did not occur. The spokesman, Gordon Bagier, MP, scoffed: "Quite frankly, I am getting a bit fed up with the sensationalist reporting to come out of Greece. We found that reported torture had always 'hapsened to someone else.'" After a long court fight the following fall, the London Sunday Times won the right to publish a secret memorandum from Mau- rice Fraser to the junta that he had a Brit- ish MP in his employ. Confronted with it, Gordon Bagier confessed that Fraser was paying him 2500 ($1,200) a year. The junta has grown desperate for good publicity. It reprints in government pam- phlets?The Foreign Press About Greece? favorable letters to the editor under the masthead of the foreign newspaper that has carried them. The casual reader will take the unlabeled private letter for an offi- cial editorial endorsement. The government recently extended round-trip New York- Athens air fare and 24 days of full hospitality to a California radio-TV team of four, in the hopes of some friendly spot reports. But when Christopher Janus, Jr., a 25- year-old vacationing Peace Corps teacher, visited Greece or. August 2, he was detained overnight and deported without explanation to Nairobi. His father, Christopher Janus, a Chicago stockbroker of Greek descent, had written two articles for the Chicago Sun- Times after visiting Greece in 1967 and 1968. Janus, who was decorated by an earlier Greek Government for his work in Greece during the civil war, had simply repeated what a lieutena:at colonel in Athens told him last year: "A little torture is necessary to preserve civilization." The Look art:ele has been translated, mimeographed and circulated inside Greece along with the novels and poetry banned by the . But ahalf-dozen new escapees from Greece separately insist that the beat- Ingalls the police stations have been stepped up in an- attempt to stem the bombings and other stiffening resistance among the Greek people. Six weeks after the article appeared, Athens radio felt free to boast: "The U.S. Govern- ment recently decided to include Greece among the four countries to which 90 per- cent of U.S. military aid for 1970 will be distributed." When 50 American congressmen petitioned the Secretary of State in a July 30 letter for "a clearer sign oi' U.S. moral and political disapproval of the dictatorship," an Assistant Secretary of State, William B. Macomber, conceded that "WE' see an autocratic govern- ment denying basic civil liberties to the citi- zens of Greece," but insisted that the junta was meeting Greece's NATO treaty obliga- tions. Calling the NATO argument an excuse for U.S. inaction, Rep. Don Edwards took issue: ". . . the present dictatorship violates the very principles of NATO, the very reason for NATO, the protection of free people through the preservation of governments chosen by the people." American taxpayers' money still Rows to a government that relies on torture to sur- vive. Among the now allegations of brutality S a letter from a woman who wrote Look that her aunt, a middle-aged dressmaker, was arrested and, the niece heard, tortured the week after Papadopoulos issued his angry denial. "She was releated after having been kept for 40 days under strict confinement [and] continuous interrogation. Before her release, she signed a declaration saying that she was treated 'very politely and kept under very human conditions of imprisonment.' She had been warned, of course, that in ease she is going to say anything to anyone related to her interrogation, she will be rearrested and 'properly' treated." Her name, like dozens of others, has been sent to the Human Rights Commission of the Council of Europe, which has been examining such cases and will an- nounce its conclusions later this fall. If, in the meantime the Prime Minister is anxious to examine the validity of the pyramiding charges of torture, he has only to honor his pledge of June 7, to let Look Into Greece to "investigate the truth" he says he so desperately wants. THE PESTICIDE PERIL?LXXIV Mr. NELSON. Mr. President, this week Canada joined the growing list of coun- tries who have placed substantial con- trols on th pesticide DDT. According to reports in the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal, the Canadian Government will reduce the use of DDT beginning January 1, 1970, by 90 percent. Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau said that the regulations are being imposed?even though the long- term effects on human life are un- known?because definite and alarming evidence has confirmed the injury and destruction to fish and wildlife from Pesticides. Sweden, Denmark, and Czechoslovakia have already banned this persistent pes- ticides from use in their countries. In the United States, Arizona and Michi- gan have banned DDT, and many other States are presently considering similar measures in their legislatures. I ask unanimous consent that the ar- ticles be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the articles were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the New York Times, Nov. 4, 19i39l OTTAWA WILL REDUCE ITSE OP DDT BY 90 PERCENT NEXT YEAR Orraws, November 3.?Canada announced measures today to reduce the use of the pes- ticide DDT by 90 per cent next year. The number of cultivated food plants on Which it may be used will be reduced from 62 to 12 beginning Jan. 1. Also, the tolerance levels in various foodstuffs are to be sub- stantially reduced. Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau, making the announcement in the House of Commons, said the Government was acting on the baais of studies showing effects of DDT on birds and fish. Long-term effects of the pesticide on human life are still un- known, he said. He emphasized that the Gov- ernment had no evidence of injury to human beings. The Prime Minister noted that the Ca- nadian diet contained an an average only one-fifth the maximum daily intake of DDT (0.7 milligrams) accepted as unsafe by the World Health Organization. In recent months several Canadian prov- inces have curbed the use of the pesticide, whose effectis have been found harmful in a number of studies in the United States. Ontario announced a general ban on DDT six weeks ago. Mr. Trudeau today commended the provin- cial governments for the initiatives they had taken to control the use of DDT, but he said more comprehensive action was needed. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 S 13558 Approved For RititiNtitIMBRiCitilv-89013_0gyMN20300120003,9 uctober 30, 1969 dent, it requires both time and money to implement any kind of school order. Are Federal courts prepared to levy taxes by injunction? Are they prepared to compel State legislatures to levy taxes and ap- propriate funds to implement Federal court decrees? Mr. President, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and the Federal courts have closed over $15 mil- lion worth of school buildings in the State of Alabama. We resent that. Money comes hard down in Alabama. These buildings have to be built with taxpay- ers' funds and for HEW and the Federal courts to come in and tell us that we have to close our?in many cases? brandnew and expensive school build- ings in order to help implement these integration programs, we do not like it. We are upset about it. People are greatly concerned about this issue. We are interested in matters of tax reform in Alabama; in stopping inflation; in the Vietnam war and seeing to it that it is brought to an end on an honorable basis, after we have kept our commitments and as we support the President of the United States in his plans to bring peace in Vietnam. All of these things concern the people of Alabama but I believe that the one Issue which concerns them most is that of maintaining our public school system In Alabama and keeping it from being taken over, lock, stock, and children, by the Federal Government. That is the No. 1 issue in the State of Alabama, keeping local control of our local institutions. Just the other day, I received informa- tion from the Department of Defense that there have been almost 1,000 Ala- bama boys who have lost their lives in Vietnam. I have paid tribute on the Senate floor to these brave young men. Yes, Alabamians loyally support the Government of the United States. We obey the court decrees. We want fair and equal treatment. We do not want one law applied in the North and another law applied in the South. The protection of our public school system and the protection of our local institutions in Alabama, are the primary considerations of the people of Alabama. We want to see every boy and girl in Alabama receive a quality education. We want to see them get the same educa- tional advantages, the same cultural ad- vantages, and the same economic advan- tages which are enjoyed by boys and girls In other States. I stated that this type of policy is de- signed to appeal to certain people. That is what is at the root of the whole thing?how many people this type of policy will appeal to. It is a matter of politics. That is the reason why we have unequal enforcement of the law in the South. It is a matter of politics. Just a few weeks ago I received a call from some of by black friends in Ala- bama who are complaining about the closing of their high school. It was a school with a student body of around 400, a fine school, with a fine auditorium, a fine cafeteria and lunchroom, used by the citizens for social gatherings and community meetings. They had a fine football team, a good band, and they liked their school. They had school pride. The court came along, on the recom- mendation of HEW, and closed that school. The patrons did not like it. They asked me to do something about it. About all I can do is protest to HEW and tell the Members of the Senate who might possibly chance by about the clos- ing of this school in Alabama. These questions are not academic, for we have the precedent of Federal district courts issuing injunctions against con- stitutional officers of State governments to compel State legislatures to gerry- mander representative districts to meet a collectivist political concept of equality. Is it to be imagined that the people of the South will continue to support with their taxes a public school system di- vorced from education considerations and one in which the welfare of children Is totally subordinated to the absurd dic- tates of the National Government? So the Supreme Court decision in the Mississippi case has settled actually lit- tle. It merely opens a new era of litiga- tion during which the Federal executive and the Federal judiciary will continue to apply every coercive weapon at their command to compel the assignment of pupils and teachers to achieve racial balance in the public schools. Mr. President, we hope that the pub- lic schools of Alabama and the South may yet be saved from th sociological ewes that are be1nd on us. CHARGES OF TOR RE OF POLIT- ICAL PRISONERS IN GREECE Mr. FELL. Mr. President, last month, on September 29, I commented here in the Senate on the failure of the Greek Government to honor the invitation it had extended to Look magazine to send a reporter to Greece to determine the truth of charges of torture of political prisoners in that country. To refresh the memory of my col- leagues, the Greek Government extended the invitation in a press release in re- sponse to an excellent article written by Mr. Christopher S. Wren and published in the May 27, 1969, issue of Look maga- zine. Look magazine promptly accepted the invitation and proposed to send to Greece a three-man team composed of Mr. Wren, Mr. James Becket, an Amer- ican attorney who had investigated the torture charges for Amnesty Interna- tional, and Representative Doll EDWARDS of California, a former FBI agent and member of the House Judiciary Com- mittee. After a delay of a month, the Greek Government informed Loox magazine that the three-man team was not ac- ceptable to the Greek Government and would not be welcome in Greece. I recently received from the Consul General of Greece in New York, George D. Vranopoulos, a copy of the formal re- sponse of the Greek Government to the Look magazine proposal. To fill in the public record of the exchange between Look magazine and the Greek Govern- ment, I ask unanimous consent that the letters from Consul General Vranopoulos to myself and to Mr. William D. Arthur, editor of Look magazine, dated July 12, be printed in the RECORD. To further complete the RECORD, I have obtained from Look magazine the reply by Mr. Arthur, dated July 29, to the Consul General, and ask that both let- ters be printed in the RECORD at this point as well as a letter from Mr. Becket printed in the International Herald Trib- une on October 24. The being no objection, the letters were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: ROYAL CONSULATE GENERAL OF GREECE, New York, N.Y., October 8, 1969. Senator CLAIBORN PELL, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR: I have read with interest your comments concerning Greece in the September 29 Congressional Record. It is always encouraging to see members of the United States Senate exerting unself- ish efforts to keep pace with dvelopments that concern America's allies. Your September 29 comments dealt with the unfortunate and unfounded allegations of Look magazine that the Greek Govern- ment employs torture to suppress or punish political opposition. These allegations are not true. To update your files on the exchanges be- tween Look editors and Greek officials, I offer this copy of a letter sent to the magazine on July 12, 1969. You are free to reproduce this letter if you wish to complete the picture. Sincerely, GEORGE D. VRANOPOULOS, Consul General of Greece. ROYAL CONSULATE GENERAL OF GREECE, New York, N.Y., July 12, 1969. Mr. WILLIAM B. ARTHUR, Editor, Look Magazine, New York, N.Y. DEAR MR. ARTHUR: With reference to your letter of June 16, 1969 addressed to the for- mer Counsellor of the Greek Embassy in Washington, I have been authorized to state the following: 1. The Prime Minister of Greece, during a press conference in Athens with representa- tives of the Greek and Foreign Press, on June 7, 1969, did, indeed, invite the manage- ment of Look to send to our country an au- thorized staff reporter to evaluate the facts relating to the material published in your magazine, through a purely journalistic in- vestigation. 2. The Prime Minister, however, has ob- served with disagreeable surprise that his invitation, although explicitly specifying a clearly journalistic investigation, was mis- interpreted from beginning to end, in view of your declared intention to have Messrs. James Becket and Don Edwards accompany your representative. These two gentlemen are not only lacking any journalistic quail- Rations but they are also participating in activities openly hostile to the prevailing situation in Greece. The Prime Minister would gladly grant an interview to an unbiased journalist repre- senting Look, but not to the participants of movements inspired by prejudice and anti- Greek hysteria, even in the event that such individuals were to present themselves in a journalistic capacity. 3. Beyond this overall misinterpretation of the meaning of the Prime Minister's in- vitation, it must be pointed out that not even the journalist in the proposed group Is an appropriate designee. Mr. Christopher Wren is a person absolutely unacceptable to the Greek Government, Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 19&proved FottlNefisfs2s9eXillaoi likiimP71KpAlreF0003001200039- October 30, S 13557 done by HEW in the North. They are prote ted under the language of the HEV appropriation bill, and HEW is prey nted from taking these steps. Wh re, however, racial segregation ofi stude ts in a school system has been caused, in w ole or in part, by the official action of l the tate, these statutory provisions pro- vide ao barrier to any steps necessary to deseg egate the schools and are not steps to overceme racial imbalance prohibited by those laws. In thin to do that ther words, HEW is free to do these in the South but are not permitted them in the North, the reason being t one time in the South we did have a du 1 system of schOols. That seems unfair to the junior Sen- ator from Alabama?that we should have one rule for the use of Federal funds in the North and a different rule in the South. Mr, President, we in Alabama are thiS year celebrating our sesquicentennial. We ave been in the Union of StateS this ear for 150 years, and we are proud of th t fact. We are proud that Alabama is th 22d State of the Union. I int out that the people of the Sout ?the people of Alabania and the Sout ?are as loyal or more loyal to our coun ry than the people of any other secti of the country. Military procure- ment bills receive the support of the Sen- ators and Representatives from the Sout . Ju the other day, I received a letter from a radio station in Alabama that had r n an editorial in opposition to the Vietn m moratorium on Oct,ober 15. Th y had invited their listeners to call in an?tell them whether they approved of th editorial which was critical of the demo strators. Hundreds of replies came in aslI 98.3 percent of those replies were in fa or of supporting the President, sup. portixg the foreign policy of the Presi. dent, and of the United States. Mr President, I point out these things to shw that the people of Alabama are loyal 4merican citizens. We olkey the law, We r spect the law. We are proud to be a part of the Union. We are proud that our tate is now celebrating the 150t1 anntvlersary of its admission to the Unioi. Mr President, we want to be treated aS citize s in Alabama. We do not want td be tr ated as a conquered province. We want to see the laws enforced equally We speak of equal protection of the laws, ut why is not this HEW appropria- tion imltation granted equally in the South as it is in the North? It has been made clear on the floor of the Senate lcat the distinguished Senator from Missis- sippi ' and other Senators, and it is a matt r of common knowledge, that there are li erally hundreds of public schools In th country, in the big cities of thl Nort , that are 100 percent segregated. do not believe that news of the 1954 decal sion of the Supreme Court in Browfl again reach North a tten Ye prem there t the Board of Education ha d many of our big cities in th . If it has, they have not paid a ion to it. we see the spectacle of the Sus Court stepping into a ease where was already an order for the sub-I mission of a plan by December 1, and they come in and say, "Integrate now," 1 month from the deadline that had al- ready been established. We do not want to lose the public school system in Alahama and in the South. It would hit the very people that these decisions supposedly are designed to help. Far from being helpful to them, if we lose the public school system in Alabama, it would be a great detriment to them. The low- and middle-income citizens of Alabama and the South are not able to send their children to private schools. We have to rely on the public school system and we want to preserve that public school system. Mr. President, I have introduced in the Senate an amendmeni, to the HEW ap- propriation bill. I do not know how much good it would do if the amendment were agreed to because they apply one rule, as I say, in the North and still another rule In the South, However, I have introduced this amendment and I will call it up when the HEW appropriation bill comes before the Senate for consideration. The amendment reads as follows: It is hereby declared to be the sense of Congress that the freedom of choice of par- ents to choose the public primary and sec- ondary schools to which they shall send their children (subject to age, academic and residence requirements) is an inviolate right, the protection and maintenance of Which is part of the public policy of the United States. I wish that were the public policy of the United States. What in the World would be wrong with allowing a?child anywhere in the country to choose the school he wants to attend? We are will- ing to follow that system. We are willing to give bona fide support to a system of that sort. We have had freedom of choice in Ala- bama, until we came uu der court decrees; and the courts have called the HEW to come in and suggest school plans and have then just put them into effect. I believe that under that plan we would have every boy and girl in Ala- bama attending the school that he or she wishes to attend. This Ls not a one-sided thing. This does not provide benefits to one race at the detriment of another race. I was interested in observing in the text of the opinion of the Supreme Court that in this case they did cite two cases, one in 1964 and one in 1968, by the War- ren court. The 1954 case cited no legal precedents. As I have said, the Burger court has not distinguished itself in this case, in the opinion of the junior Sena- tor from Alabama; and it looks as if, even though Mr. Chief Justice Warren Is no longer on the Court, his presence is still very much felt there. I notice, too, that the opinion was a per curiam opinion. No one signed it. It was the utterance of the entire Court, an 8-to-0 decision. If the Supreme Court is divided on a question of this sort 8 to 0, I do not be- lieve there is a whole lot for anyone to be disturbed about if someone of a slightly different political philosophy should be named to the Court. At best it would then be an 8-to-1 opinion, which would not be too bad, I am sure, from the view of those who like this sort of opinion. Mr. President, I was encouraged by one Phrase in the opinion of the Supreme Court to which I have alluded. In the first numbered item of the Court's order it calls on the Court of Appeals of the Fifth Circuit to direct the school boards that they begin immediately to operate as a unitary school system within which no person is to be effectively excluded from any school because of race or color. Well now, that sounds all right to the junior Senator from Alabama because it smacks of being freedom of choice. If no Person is to be effectively excluded from any school because of race or color, that can only mean that he would have the free choice of going to the school to which he wishes to go. In that respect, if that in fact be the meaning of this phrase, I would certainly endorse those few words in the opinion. Mr. President, the Federal Executive charged with responsibility for imple- menting judicial decrees in the massive sociological experiment in Mississippi and throughout the South has frankly admitted that the proposals he imposed upon certain Mississippi school systems had been hurriedly prepared. The depart- ment conceded that to implement these plans would" surely produce chaos, con- fusion, and a catastrophic educational setback for the children involved." Does the Constitution of the United States re- quire chaos, confusion, and a catastroph- ic setback for children in public schools? The U.S. Supreme Court swept aside all such considerations and washed its hands of responsibility for such chaos. The Supreme Court ordered the Court of Appeals for the U.S. Fifth Judicial Cir- cuit to direct the school boards to accept all or any part of the hopped-up plan provided only that the plan "insure a totally unitary school system" instan- taneously and without regard to con- sequences. The opinion is indiffrent to the welfare of the children, untroubled by conse- quences and devoid of conscience. The order is free of education considerations, indiffrent to the = will and wishes of the children, their parents, and teachers and completely unconcerned about the con- venience or health or safety or welfare of the children involved. But more?it is indifferent to practical down to earth consideration for the future of public school education in the South. Mr. President, how is this decision to be implemented? We know, of course, that the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare will threaten to withhold public funds, a part of which are used to buy hot breakfasts and provide lunches for children of the poor. We know that the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Judicial Circuit will issue its decrees and injunctions and threaten public school officials with fine and imprisonment without benefit of trial by jury if they do not surrender their Constitutional power to administer local public schools and accept dictation from Federal courts and from the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. But, Mr. Presi- Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 -October 30, /904)3Pnwed FctiMMESMARRardorti9P7MkpAIR000300120003-9 S 13559 4. The Greek Government is amenable to the suggestion that your staff reporter be accompanied by an accredited press photog- rapher. 5. The Prime Minister has also invited Mr. Korovessis, the only accusser identified by name in your article. The Prime Minister has publicly assured Korovessis immunity from any jeopardy bodily or otherwise. From the Prime Minister's statement it is clear- ly evident that the journalistic investigation would deal exclusively with the brutality charges asserted by Mr. Korovessis to Mr. Wren. Therefore, the proposed investigation is acceptable only if directed to the afore- mentioned brutality charges and not to the alleged 200 instances of torture, which Mr. Wren in a vague but colorfill manner claims to have knowledge of. 6. In the event Mr. Wren's allegations as to the Korovessis' matter were proven to be true, the Government would immediate- ly take measures to severely punish to the full extent of the Law, those responsible for such acts. This was the essence of the re- mark of the Prime Minister "the execution (of the culprit) in the Constitution Square", which is a Greek metaphor often used by Greeks firmly convinced of the bona fides of their belief, and not the literal and nar- row interpretation placed upon his words. The use of such a significant figure of speech by the Prime Minister to emphasize the depth of his convictions should have aroused definite suspicions as to the extent to which the truth was distorted in Mr. Wren's article. 7. In closing, we reiterate that in spite of the offensiveness to the Prime Minister of the misinterpretation of his remarks, the in- vitation extended by him in the aforemen- tioned press conference still stands; namely that a duly accredited member of your rep- ortorial staff together with a press pho- tographer are welcome to visit Greece for the stated purpose. It must be understood that this invitation does not extend to any per- son who is not a journalist by profession or who, despite a journalistic background, through association in anti-Greek move- ments or lack of objectivity, is prone to pre- judge prejudicially and hence is completely unacceptable. The foregoing is based on the conviction that your renown publication has experienced conscientious and dedicated staff members capable of carrying out your intention to search for the truth through reputable chan- nels of proven journalistic reliance and free of prejudicial influences or motivations. Sincerely, GEORGE D. VRANOPOULOS, Consul General of Greece. JULY 29, 1969. GEORGE D. VRANOPOULOS, Consul General of Greece, New York, N.Y. DEAR MR. VRANOPOULOS: Please convey to the Prime Minister of Greece my disappoint- ment at his unwillingness to let Look prop- erly accept his initial invitation to "investi- gate the truth" about political torture in Greece, as reported in the May 27 issue of Look. Because the Prime Minister had expressed his interest in learning the facts, I had sug- gested that Look's representatives be three Individuals who could best present the evi- dence to the Prime Minister: Senior Editor Christopher S. Wren, who wrote the article; James Becket, who has written regularly for respected American publications; and Con- gressman Don Edwards of California, who of- fers valuable experience as a former agent of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and a current member of the Judiciary Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives. The Prime Minister's objection to Messrs. Wren, Becket and Edwards seems to be that they know too much. Otherwise he would be anxious to avail himself of the documenta- tion they are ready to present. Sincerely, [From the International Herald Tribune, Oct. 24, 1969] TORTURE LN GREECE On June 7, 1969, Premier Papadopoulos of Greece, incensed at an article in Look maga- zine entitled "Greece: Government by Tor- ture," challenged the author of the article and "the person who supplied the informa*- tion" to come to Greece at government ex- pense to make an "objective investigation." As someone who had provided the author, Christopher Wren, with information, I wrote the premier, expressing my willingness to accept at my own expense the invitation. I also expressed this in a letter to the Interna- tional Herald Tribune. Look magazine took up the premier's chal- lenge and said they would send at Look's ex- pense Mr. Wren, Congressman Don Edwards and me. Mr. Papadopoulos never answered Look directly nor did he answer my letter. However, a month later, the Greek consul in New York informed the magazine that we three were "absolutely unacceptable." The premier, however, retains a strong in- terest in the torture issue, considering it, in fact, more important than his very life. On Aug. 22, in answer to a question on this sub- ject by Congressman Yatron of Pennsyl- vania, he stated that "on my word of mili- tary honor," these stories "are infuriatingly and basely false," and "if evidence of even one such case is supplied, then the only duty left to me as a man under military oath is to commit suicide." Because of the premier's obvious concern, I propose now to send him the names of 400 persons known to have been tortured, a representative sample of signed affidavits of Greek citizens describing their tortures, the names and rank of 119 officials known to have been tortured, and the names of 21 places where torture is carried out, including the Dionysos camp run by the premier's brother. In spite of courtroom declarations by tortured defendants and overwhelming evidence, the government has made no in- vestigation, but, rather, has promoted the known torturers. For the sake of Greece, the premier should demonstrate his sin- cerity on this important issue. JAMES BECKET. PARIS. Mr. PELL. Mr. President, I commented on September 29, in the light of the Greek Government's failure to honor the Invitation it had extended, that the in- vitation was "false, and not meant to be accepted." There is nothing in the exchange of correspondence I have presented here today that would cause me to change that viewpoint. It was, in fact, entirely too much to expect that the repressive Greek regime would actually permit a thorough inquiry by a competent and knowledgeable team of investigators. Even without such a visit by investi- gators, however, there is ample evidence of the repressive nature of the current Greek Government. In the October issue of Harper's maga- zine there is an excellent article by Mr. John Corry entitled "Greece: The Death of Liberty." In the article Mr. Corry, a respected author, journalist, and former Nieman Fellow, provides a graphic de- scription of conditions in Greece and tells of the patience and extraordinary courage shown by the Greek people in living under the present regime. I ask unanimous consent that the article by Mr. Corry be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: GREECE: THE DEATH OF LIBERTY ' (By John Corry) The thing about the Greeks is that they have survived, and that while lesser peoples have waxed, waned, and disappeared, they have hung on, enduring their own rogues and geniuses, being pawed over by one Great Power or another, getting the history of the Medes and the Persians written in their hills, suffering their endless catastrophes, becom- ing as much Eastern as Western, and staying all the while peculiarly Greek, which means they are not like everyone else, but warmer, kinder, crueler, prouder, and more full of both courage and guile, with the more im- portant of these being guile. When Odysseus got back to Ithaca, Homer says, gray-eyed Athena said to him with nothing but ad- miration, "Crafty must he be, and knavish, who would outdo thee in all manner of guile," and three thousand years later, when some students at the University of Salonika were asked what they thought was the greatest virtue of them all, they answered nearly to a man, "To be clever." Greece, you must understand, is not so much a country of clear light, old ruins, and blue and green seas at it is a condition. It is where the citizens are sorry at politics and successful at business, where they love their country and despise their Governments, and where a queue is always a shambles, the rule being that the smaller the citizen the more quickly he will fall out of line. It is where there are many supplicants, but few beggars, Where there is kindness to foreigners and sus- picion of countrymen, and where everyone is absolutely certain that he is not only as good as his fellow man but positively better. "The first thing you must know about us," said a sophisticated Greek lady, "is that each one of us is sure he can run the country better than anyone else." Greece is also some- thing with which many Anglo-Saxons and Teutons have love affairs, Lord Byron being only the most publicized, and where any two citizens, like Talmudic scholars, can argue three sides of a question. When Thucydides, the celebrated Greek historian, began his history of the Peloponnesian War he wrote: "The task was a laborious one because eye- witnesses of the same occurrence gave dif- ferent accounts of them as they remembered, or were interested in the actions of one side or another." Nothing has changed much since then, and the sons of the eyewitnesses are still more interested in your knowing what they think happened, or ought to have happened, rather than what actually did happen. It is all very complex, even to the Greeks, and no one is ever quite sure what is really going on, and the only probable thing is that the Greeks will survive, and that their newest disaster, which is the Army officers Who run the country, will not. The Army officers, colonels mostly, took over the country on April 21, 1967, saying as they did so that they were the instruments of a National Resurrection and a National Purification, wherein Greece would be purged of corruption, mismanagement, and the Communist menace. In fact, there was cor- ruption and mismanagement, which there still is, and in the twenty-three years before the officers came to power, forty-one Govern- ments had risen and fallen. Moreover, al- though the officers have never produced much evidence to show there was a real Red peril, as opposed to the kind that gives Ev- erett Dirksen the vapors, they probably be- lieved that one existed. In 1963, when Prime Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 8 13560 Approved For Rejmippal 2/n2 ? CI A-REal BOIRMIi0300120003-9 IONAI, REC October 30, 19612 lifinister George Papadopoul was a colonel an the northern border, he put sugar in the fuel supply of his tanks, which made them atop running, and then said the Comm-masts id it. Then he told the Government of this nstance of Red duplicity, but nothing came f it when someone found out what had .eally happened, and the Government put it 'all down to the Colonels zeal. In his favor, however, It should be remembered that in rreece Communism truly had been all fire nd sword. In late 1944, after the Germans ad been driven out, Communist partt.sans ought both loyalist Greeks and the British rmy for control of the country. According to declaration filed at the old United Nations Organization by what was then the Greek Government, 46,985 civilians were killed by the Communists in the short war, and God alone knows how many the Governmem side illed. Then, in June 1946, fighting resumed n a more massive scale. There were atroci- ties on both sides, and when it stopped in i950 the Government said that its ' armed forces had suffered 49,720 casualties, which included those captured, and that the figure for the Communists was 79,773. It wae a ter- rible time, more terrible than the German Occupation, and it uprooted more than one Million Greeks, with all the misery tine: this Meant, while the damage to property aid to national life was simply incalculable. Nonetheless, I know of no one in Greec who thought this was about to bappen again, and however corrosive the life in Parliamer1 . may have been, however antiquated the rdational institutions, however upsetffing the labor dis- Putes, the street protests and demerstra- 'talons, Greece was getting by. Moreover It was being run by Greeks. There had been the ong years of the Turkish bccupation, which nded with the War for Independence in the early part of the last century, and then after 1830 the British, French, and Russian Am- bassadors had things pretty much their way. Otto I, a Bavarian, was Ring, and he ruled with all the grace of a Turkish Sultan sur- Inounding himself with other Bavariale, and ally being deposed in 1861. He was suc- eded by George I, who was a Dane, largely haecause when it looked as if the British Might get one of their own on the throne. the French and Russians had objected Even- tually, however, the British did becolne the ominant force, what the Greeks cell the 'foreign factor," but their suzerainty ended n 1947, when, with a polite cliplomat4c note, they yielded up their burden and asked the mericans to shoulder it. This was during the Civil War, and tio first here was the American military rnitsion, nd then the economic aid, great quantities f it that helped to rebuild the country and ere possibly the best and the brighteet uses f American munificence in the postwar pe- iod, and then the technical experts, the dvisers, the endless officials, the diplomats, nd all the beginnings of a new suzeirainty. 'I remember," an American diploma, says, when Paul Porter was the AID chief, and the director of the Greek budget woulti come n and see him and say, 'We want to spend o much money on this, and so mtich on hat,' and Porter would say yes or no, so hat he was really the guy who was retuning he country." (Porter later became A For- as's law partner; I do not know if this proves nything.) That suzerainty ended ii 1.961, When Congress, wearying of adding n ve na- tions to the Foreign Aid rolls without seeing S,ny come off, removed Greece, Taiwan, and israel. In fact, Greece by then had a' sound debt structure, her economy was growing, end she didn't need the money. (Neither did aiwan or Israel, but they both complained. ater, the economic aid to Taiwan thht was uspended was shifted over to inilitaary' aid; srael just hit American Jews up again.) Those years of the Truman Doctrine, of the Marshall Plan, were years of great AMerican prestige in Greece; we were well loved. Here, for example, is a Greek politician speaking. He is gray-haired and distinguished, books in three languages are on his library shelves, and he was an elected Deputy and a Minister hi more Greek gtvernments than he can easily remember. "In the early nineteen- fifties, the American Ambassador, Peurifoy, once called me and invited me to lunch. This was Just before an election. Peurifoy was an old friend, and the luncheon was just a social occasion. Bur; then along ca,me a free- lance photographer, who took our picture, and the next day it was in all the Athens papers. My people saw it, and Ian sure I got ten thousand votes because of it in the elec- tion. If this were to happen again, if people were to see my picture now with an Ameri- can official, I would lose the election." There are no elections now, of course, and the poli- tician, who probably had the photographer planted, could be overstating things. Still, there is a new anti-Americanism in Greece, and it worries the American Embassy, and it is probably strongest among the young, where It ought not, to exist at all. Why, definitely the Americans support the Colonels," the girt was saying. "It is the Pentagon and the CIA, not the people. If the people knew what was happening here they would be with us. All the students be- lieve there has been interference from the Americans." The girl was a leftist who smiled a lot, even when she was telling horror stories. She attended the University of Athens, and periodically she had to re- port to the fourth floor of the police station on Bouboulinas Street to be interrogated. Her boyfriend had been sentenced to ten and a half years on an unspecified charge, and her friends all thought she would end up in jail herself. (The extra half-year on his sentence is worth remembering because in Greece when Tau are put away for more than five years, or for more than ten years, the conditions of servitude can be made a little harder. Many of the political prisoners I knew of were in for five and a half years, or ten and a half years, with that extra half- year being just a special piece of nastiness.) "There are many informers at the univer- sity," the girl said. "I see them sometimes at Bouboulinas Street when I report there. That way I can te:.1 who they are. Everyone on the board of the Student Union is an informer, Before the Colonels took over, the board was elected. The head of the Student Union was always elected, too, but just after the Revolution the Government appointed a right-wing student to be the head. He didn't like the Colonels, Elther, and so he resigned. Now they are more careful when they ap- point someone." Aee there underground or- ganizations among the students? I asked. "Oh, yes," she said, "The biggest one is left- wing, ariel there is me for the Center-Union. They agitate." what else do they do? I asked. "They pass out leaflets," she said. Is there anything else? I asked. "Well," she said. "they write slogans on the black- boards." This Is the way it is among the students and intellectuals; if the counterrevolution comes it will corns from elsewhere. At the University of Salonika, which is even larger than the University of Athens, perhaps one- third of the professors have been dismissed, but the bothersome part in thinking about this is that a great many Greek professors ought to have been dismissed years ago, having long put up with an educational sys- tem whose newest ideas sprang from the Kaiser's Germany, which meant overcrowded classes, an absence of science facilities, and some of the most overbearing pedagogues in the world. "Have you ever heard of Montes- quieu?" a professor of history at Salonika asked me. Yes, I said. "Are you sure?" he said, Yes, I said. "And are you familiar with the American Constitution and the system of checks and balances?" he asked. I told him I was. "Well, then," he said, "perhaps I'll be able to talk to you about how a democracy works." The professor, who was a frosty man, 'with vague eyes, was absolutely opposed to the Colonels, but he had not been dismissed, although many of his col- leagues had. Dismissals are announced in the Government Gazette, and the reasons offered are something like `'illegal relations," which can mean meeting tomeotte on a street cor- ner, or "being against the actual situation of the country," which can mean anything at all. Moreover, the University of Salonika is full of police informers, perhaps more so than in Athens, and some do it- out of zeal, and some probably for fun, and some for either special favors or money, with the acceptable pay supposed to be about 500 drachmas, or $16.60, a month. One professor in Salonika said that a police official had complained to him that he was grading Bente of his students too low. Which ones? the professor asked. These, the policeman said, and offered him a list of what the professor took to be the policeman's Informers. It is also interesting that when the professor objected to the policeman's superior, there were immediate apologies. Dictatorship in Greece has a tentative quality; no one is ever quite sure of how far he can move against the regime, or of why he is not in jail when those with- out blame are, and so there is a lot of testing, of trying to find the paint Where the Colonels do act. The Colonels and their apparatchiki, however, are inconsistent,. When eighteen writers signed a declaration saying that freedom had died, two or three were called to pollee headquarters and po- litely asked why they hatialone each a thing. When Anna Synodinou, probably the best- known actress in Greece, renounced her career because the stage was no longer free, a general called her in, and said that as a man he admired her, but as a member of the Government hardly at all. Therefore, he said, would she please stop making inflam- matory statements. However, at the funeral of George Papandreou, the former Prime Minister, forty-one persons were arrested and sentenced to one to four and a half years for shouting what the police said were pro- vocative slogans. So, that is also the way it is in Greece, an Attic police state, where you cannot easily tell repression from simple inefficiency, and where you also cannot easily tell when a citizen is surrendering to the ale:tuns, or when he is, in fact, awaiting the policeman's midnight knock. Nothing is really the way it seems, and myth and reality, as they al- ways have been in Greece, are intertwined. "The only bullets we are receiving are the flowers that are thrown at us," said Deputy Prime Minister Stylianos Patakos, making a pun in Greek with the word for receive. "Be- fore you came here," he Said, "you thought there were Machine guns and tanks on the streets." Then he smiled benignly, and said, more or less, that everyone loved the Govern- ment. Still, when Prime Minister Papadop- oulos is driven to his office each morning from his modest home live minutes away, it is the way it would have been if Lyndon had decided to visit the Democratic conven- tion in Chicago, with Daley handling the security on Michigan Avenue; each intersec- tion is well blocked off, all traffic is stopped, and, I estimate, three hundred to four hun- dred cops stand at attention. Similarly, I once arranged a meeting in someone's apartment with a pleasant, gray- haired lady who looked like your old Aunt Florrie. "I got off at the floor above, and then walked down one flight," she said. "I learned that from a British diplomat. That way the concierge can't tell where you're going." I do not know for certain if the lady's caution was necessary, but there is a great deal of this Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Odober 30, 19 ON3 proved FoCODIGNESZ0116)%2102120211RIDP-7$113NASIR000300120003-9 S 13561 in Athens, with code names to be used on the telephone, orders never to call from a hotel, but always from a kiosk, because your phone may be tapped, instructions to take a taxi to a street two blocks from where you're going, and then to wait to see if you are being fol- lowed, and only then to walk to your ap- pointment. Middle-aged people behave the way they must have during the German Oc- cupation, and they tutor the young. None of this is to say that everyone acts this way; rather, it is for those who are committed, which is a small number of people, but they are the ones who yearn most for a democracy. From time to time the Prime Minister, of course, says that Greece is a democracy, or at least about to become one, but on form, as the horse players say, it is hard to prove. The press is controlled, there are no elections, there are no strikes, there are no political parties, there is no independent judiciary. There is not much of anything except what the Government says there is to be, and one of these is a Constitution. The Constitution is worth looking at because, the Government says, it was approved in a referendum by something like 92 per cent of the people. I do not think 92 per cent of the Greeks would agree on What day it is, and I met an officer who said that he personally saw a box of bal- lots dumped out because everyone was tired of counting. Nonetheless, we will say that a majority of the Greeks voted for the Con- stitution, and that the count, if not exact, was at least indicative. To begin with, the yes ballots were blue, which is the national color of Greece, and the no ballots were black. At first, the no ballots were to be red, sug- gesting that only a Communist would vote against the Constitution, but internal pres- sures, or perhaps a public-relations man, pre- vailed, and black was chosen. One woman said that when she voted she was given only the yes ballot, and that she was too timid to ask for one marked no, and a man told me that in his polling place the no ballots were stuck behind the ballot box, and that to get one be would have had to reach over the box and under the nose of an Army captain. To hell with it, he decided, and voted yes. Fur- thermore, a large number of people abstained Thom voting that day, even though absten- tion can be followed by civil penalties, the loss of a passport, for instance. In the Con- stitution itself, Article 138, which is the last article, says that the Constitution will be in force immediately, except for those articles that take effect only when the Government says they do. These articles deal with arrest, the courts, search and seizure, free speech and censorship, the right of assembly, the right of association, the vote, the right to form political parties, Parliament, and the secret ballot. So far as I know, none of these is in effect, although the Government repeatedly has pledged itself to a return to constitu- tional liberties. Whether or not this will happen is ques- tionable. There are many theories in Greece; one being that the Prime Minister is a secret moderate who is hard pressed by the younger, right-wing officers to stand even firmer than he does; another being that the Prime Min- ister is a natural despot posing as a secret moderate who is hard pressed by the younger, right-wing officers, and a third being that the Government is in such a chaos that no one is able to consistently press anyone else at all. Even before the newspapers were censored. Greece was always full of rumors, and now there are more of them. Some are sheer in- vention from no place in particular, some are planted by this side or that, and some are actually true. Everyone can find support for his own idea of what is happening, or about to happen, and any two people can interpret the same rumor, or the same evidence, dif- ferently. For example, last June 21, in a letter that seems to have found its way into every intel- ligence agency in town. Lt. Col. Dimitrios Ionnides of the military police wrote to the Prime Minister to express the dissatisfaction of some officers of the Revolution. A large part of the letter dealt with King Constan- tine, who led an unsuccessful counter-coup in December 1967, and has since been living in Rome. (Despite this, the Government hangs his picture in all its offices, gives him a pension, and keeps in touch with him through its Embassy.) Colonel Ionnides said that the offcers were unhappy with the con- sideration being shown to the King, and he asked that the contact through the Embassy in Rome be ended, and that those few officers involved in the counter-coup who had not been arrested be arrested. The Colonel also complained of a few internal matters, and then he said. "The hope on the part of former politicians for a return to parliamentary gov- ernment has made the implementation of the work of the Revolution difficult. A respon- sible declaration, in addition to the promises given to the efficers, should end these hopes." Now, this apparently meant that the Prime Minister already had told the officers that there would be no return to parliamentary government, and that Colonel Ionnides and his brother officers wanted him to tell the rest of the nation. Therefore, the Prime Min- ister was either (a) being pushed by the other officers into following a harder line, or (b) far in advance of his officers in taking a harder line, and just laggard in telling the nation so, or (c) neither or both of these. None of thi? would be very important, except that it indicates that a return to the conven- tional freedoms is still far in the future for 8.7 million people, and that once again we are trapped into having truck with another military dictatorship. American businessmen are more comfort- able with this Government," a lawyer said. "They don't understand that the long-term prospects are against them. After this Gov- ernment is deposed the American firms that are involved in this regime will be ousted." The lawyer, plainly nervous because his door- man, a former policeman, had seen me enter his office, made much of his living by rep- resenting American businesses in Greece, and he had for them a kind of affectionate con- tempt. "It is the managemnet level," he said, "they don't know, or don't care, what is hap- pening here. They welcome the stability, and if they have not supported the coup, at least they have tolerated it. In the end it will be as it is in South America; they will be driven out. My friends who are in jail, I don't know how much hatred they'll have for Americans when they get out, but these are the people who will someday lead Greece." As we all know, the business of business is business, and a dollar is amoral. Besides, capital in- vestment stimulates the economy, provides jobs, and generally enhances the well-being of everyone concerned. "Trade, not aid," calls up self-reliance, viable partnerships, and the best of intentions, and when an American concern invests money in Greece a great thing is made about it in the newspapers, and the Deputy Prime Minister is sure to lay the cornerstone. The conventioal wisdom is that invested money ultimately will help the poor, and for once the conventional wis- dom may be right. The other thing is that eve the most benighted Greek liberal knows that capitalism gets along better with the right than the left wing, and he is right, too. "There is no such a thing as American investment, there is only investment. It has no nationality," said Nicitas Sioris, the Under Secretary for Education, who was once the Under Secretary for Finance. He was not right; there is American investment, and it is an otuward and visible sign, to the Greeks, at least, that Americans support the Govern- ment. Before the Revolution there were no American banks in Athens. There was Amer- ican Express, but it was mostly in the busi- ness of handling remittances from home. Then, just after the Colonels took over, Chase Manhattan, First National City, and Bank Of America opened offices. Litton In- dustries, that great conglomerate, had been invited into the country when George Papan- dreou was Prime Minister, but it had dropped out when national politics became too com- plicated. Immediately on their ascension, however, the Colonels invited Litton back in again, and Litton agreed to understake the economic development of Crete and the western Peloponnesus, and, it says in the contract, to "refrain from any active par- ticipation in political activities in Greece," and to "act as the faithful servant of the Government." In return, the Government was to periodically deposit a million or so in U.S. dollars in a Litton account in Switzer- land. In Greece, Litton neither sows nor reaps, but gets others to come in and do so; it promotes, finding investment opportuniti- ties, and then finding investors. "Much has been said about this contract and the two contracting parties," Deputy Prime Minister Patakos said not long ago about the ar- rangements with Litton. "I wish to say there is nothing at all to this, and the work is progressing." It is a Government convention that, when someone says something it does not want to hear, the Government does not repeat it but instead puts out solemn as- surances that whatever was said was said by what it usually calls a "slanderer of Greece," and was all wrong anyway. In Lit- ton's case, the slanderers were saying that the Colonels had been had, and that Litton was falling far short of its commitment on bringing in capital. In the beginning, there was rosy talk about Litton pulling as much as $950 million into Greece, although the contract itself called for Litton to bring in somewhat less. By the second anniversary of the signing, however, there was only $1,650,- 000 in foreign capital brought in by Litton actually at work in Greece. There was a great deal more in the pipeline, of course, but it was not enough. When Patakos said, "Much has been said about this contract," it was Government talk, indicating that the Colonels themselves were a little unhappy, and sure enough, a little later It was an- nounced that the Litton contract would be revised. Still, whatever Litton tells potential investors abroad about the glories of Greece (periodically someone calls it a mouthpiece for the Colonels) it is sensibly quiet in Greece itself. It is not so with Thomas Pappas of Boston, a Greek-American, who contributes mightily to the Republican party, who said after the convention that he had "put in a good word for Spiro" and once suggested in Athens that he was an old CIA man. "After the Almighty God created men and beasts, He created the Greek-Americans, and He didn't know what to do with them." The speaker here, another former Minister, was saying that the Greek-Americans were neither Greek nor Americans, but something else. There are 2.5 million of them, and the former Minister, who was a traveling man, said that in America they acted like Greeks, and in Greece they acted like Americans. He spoke about them the way poor Greeks speak about "the rich Greeks," rich Greeks being both incomprehensible and suspect to poor Greeks, and he wished they would all go away. They will not, but it was really the more visible Greek-Americans that the for- mer Minister was talking about. Mr. Pappas is the most visible of all, and his people in Athens, if not Mr. Pappas himself, say that he is close to the President of the United States, knows full well who the next Ambas- sador will be, and, in fact, very probably will name him himself. Mr. Pappas, the for- mer Minister said, is a charming man who cooks spaghetti, tells funny stories, and is good to his friends. Still, he said, he wished he would go away. Pappas, whose family is from the same village as Spiro T. Agnew's, Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 S 13562 Approved For Rec49RrAlt:A3g18/ALCiffaID_BOgiMing0300120003-9,? jutober 30;196.9 came to Boston as a very small boy, prcispered greatly by importing olive? oil, Wad then got into real estate and Republican politics. He has brought a great deal of Money in Greece, and is now the proprietor of chemical rants, a steel mill, and a refinery In Salonnet to- rnato-paste and tomato-juice plants in the Feloponnese, cattle herds in Macedonia, and God knows what else. He has the condeesions for some canning factories, and most recent- ly he has started to build earne Coca-Cola bottling plants, for whichhe also has a con- eession. Coca-Cola had tried for years to get Into Greece, but other Goaernments, fearful of the competition for the Greek frill: and soft-drink industries, declined to achr,it it. The Colonels, recognizing- a good thing in having another American name around Wel- comed it. 1 Pappas put his first big motTey into Greece in 1962 when a right-wing Governmeat was in control, then suffered mildly in 196a when la left-wing Government tried to revise the Contracts, and by 1966 was trying to see that this never happened again. That was a year 1. en which the King dismiased the Govern- ment, and in its place there came a right- wing one, and a Prime Minister whet was Iclose to Pappas. The new Government, how- ever - lever controlled only a minority of deputies 'in the Parliament, and to survive it needed the support of members of the liberal Gen- ' aer-Union party. Pappas, according to the lbest of the political gossip in Athena, ap- proached several liberal deputies, promised them some considerations, and asked them 'to switch over. Some of them apparently did, although the next year was the year cf the lcoup, and so it hardly mattered. (When the 'Colonels took over, Tom's brother, John Pap- pas, a sometime judge, was in Greece, When ihe got back to Boston he said the coup was Igood for the country, and while this Was not much noticed in America. 4 I., was headline news in Greece.) After the cup, Tom Pappas and the Prime Minister frequently were pic- tured together in the papers. Tom, in fact, was the best man when the Deputy Prime Minister's daughter was married, and when he casually suggested about ,L year late] that he had worked for the CIA, well, there was the whole big ball of wax ,-the CIA, big bun- ness, and, of course, the Junta. Knowledgeable Greeks knew some ,hing about the U.S. Embassy, roughly rating the more important people there as either good guys or bad guys, and they know who some of the CIA men are in the U.S. militely mis- sion, and even a little bit about them. It is something else, though, to know wha,, the CIA men have been up to, one reason eeing ? that the Colonels themselvee put out seories about how the CIA supports them, and an- other being that it is generally hard te know what anybody is up to in Greece. The nallitalaa mission itself is more tranaparent. It IS .here because Greece is the southern anchor of NATO, and so on, and it gets along well with the Greek Government because, whirl the hell, we're all Army officers, and we're al Net doing a job, and so on. The Colonels love to have the American officers tint out for eere- rnonial occasions, and this is always recorded by the photographers, and then it gees all bver the papers, too. The Embassy people Io not like this kind of thing, and they hink that every time they .,tart to eeit it cross to the Greek Government that things ould be better off all around if the Goearn- ent gave at least the appearance of being a democracy, that then the military Mission comes in, tells the Colonels they're doing Just fine, and not to worry about the Em- bassy because diplomats just aren't realists. oreover, when the diplomats tell the A mer- can officers there is every possibility that he Junta will create so much anti-American eeling that the Greeks may well pull out of ATO sometime, that doesn't, seem to get cross, either. The CIA is another matter. There are a great many Greeks Who believe that Ameri- can intelligence truly has supported the Colonels. One persistent story is that fif- teen generals who were arrested last spring were denounced to the Greek Government by a Greek-American officer to whom they had confided their plans for a counter-coup, Another is that American intelligence re- cently turned over to Greek intelligence 1,200 telephone taaping devices for what was officially called "NATO purposes." The first story may be circulated by the Greek Gov- ernment; the seoo ad, I think, has the ring of truth. For years there has been a close relation- ship between the Greek and American in- telligence agencies. (Indeed, even though the Initials do not translate that way, Greek in- telligence Is always referred to as the CIA.) The Greek CIA, however, functions as both an FBI and a CIA, responsible for both in- ternal and external security, and it always has been run by Army men. When George Papandreou was Prime Minister he became annoyed by the agency's close relationship with the Americana and tried, without much success, to change it. George Papadopoulos, the leader of the Junta, served in and out of the Greek CIA for years, and there Is some evidence that, as early as 1952, he was in touch with, and Shortly later getting funds from, the American CIA. During the German Occupation, Greek Army officers had formed a secret organization to protect What they called "the Amy's ideals," and in 1952 Papadopoulos became its general secretary, and started to form his own inner circle within the secret organization. Showing a remarkable talent for conspiracy, he appears to have done this by about 1954, which is also about the time a few other officers be- gan to ball him the "Nasser of Greece," and as early as 1958 he told at least one other officer that he was ready to oust the King. He was, of course, a junior officer, small beer, and I do not know if anyone took him seriously. Moreover, to rise within the Greek Army it is almost mandatory for an officer to train in the United States, usually at Fort Benning, Georgia. On the day of the coup an Embassy officia: called the military mis- sion and asked who Papadopoulos was. The American officers mid they didn't know, and that there was no record of his having trained at Port Benning, or anywhere else in the United States. Nevertheless, there is an- other persistent story, this one saying that In the early 1980s, which would be just before he dumped that sugar in the fuel supply of his tank, Papadopoulos trained in the United States in the teoaniques of psychological warfare and anti-Communist espionage. I do not know if this is true, but some Greeks be- lieve it, and they are the people who will one day inherit their country. As a nation we have a talent for backing safe, right- wing leaders, and Greece, remember, was once torn apart by a bloody war over Commu- nism. I think that PapadopouLos, as a devoted anti-Communist, was involved with Ameri- can intelligence agents, maybe even with some high-class liberal types, the kind who always talk about adjusting ourselves to the realities of power, and I find it inexpressibly sad. From time to time, there have been charges In the American and European press, par- ticularly in Britain and in Scandinavia that political prisoners have been tortured in Greece. Most recently, Look Magazine said so, and the Greek Government cried slander, while Prime Minister Papadopoulos thought seriously enough of the accusation to call a press conference and denounce it. "People should know that only through the respect for truth can we survive in peace and free- dom," he said, and then declared that Look's principal informant, a political exile, was "a mentally deranged person, who has been an inmate in an asylum for disturbed persons." Therefore, he said, it was all a lie. Greek- American newspapers were even more out- raged. They said it was reprehensible to ac- cuse the Greek Government of allowing this kind of thing to go on, and they said that stories of,terture were nothing more than leftist fiction. In Greece. however, I got the statements of dozens of political prisoners who said they had been tortured. What is extraordinary is that the prisoners were will- ing to have their names published. I do not understand the courage, or perhaps the de- spair, of a man who will publicly denounce his jailers while he is still within their reach. It was explained to me that the prisoners simply didn't care, and that they thought nothing worse could happen to them than already had happened. I don't know; I think it may just be that they are Greeks. I have heard that when a German officer ordered a Greek officer to haul down the flag from the Acropolis at the beginning of the Occupa- tion, the Greek officer got the flag, wrapped himself in it, and then leaped from the parapet to the rocks below. I do not know if it really happened this way, but It sounds like something a Greek could do. just so, I think that a prisoner who allows his name to be used is also doing something a Greek could do. Of the dozens of statements about torture, here are only a few, and they are published exactly as they were translated into English. The only other thing is that Prime Minister Papadopoulos has said that, if torture can be proved, "I will not hesitate to order the exe- cution of those responsible right here in Constitution Square, and I shall assume full responsibility for it." I hope he keeps his word. Pavlos Klavdianos, 23 years old, student at the school of economics and commercial sciences: I was arrested oriFebruary 29, 1968, by the policeman Earathanassi. I was taken to the General Security offices. All the time I was being beaten and punched. In the office of the police officer John Kalyvas, I was beaten for about two hours by Kalyvas. Karapanayioutis, and Karathanassi. They used wood planks, metal wires, and rubber clubs. They tied very tightly my genitals with a rope and pulled them. After this I was taken to the terrace, where there is a little room. They tied me on a bench and -tortured me by beating the soles of my feet. . ... I was taken to the camp of 505 Marine Battalion in the area of Dionysos. I was tortured immediately with beating on my soles. I was burned with a lit cigarette on the wrist of the right hand. . . After this I was put in the punishment confine- ment room. There I was kept for thirty-eight clays. I was continuously tortured with beat- ing on the soles of my feet by Major Con- stantine Boufa, Major Basilica Bea,nnides and other officers. . . . Captain Spyropoulos fitted on my brow and my neck some electric wires and connected them with a live plug. This was done twice. Then they stripped me naked and made me run -under the rain in the yard. . . . For many days they did not allow me to sleep. . . . On orders from the commanding officer, John Manoutsakaki, two soldiers and a sergeant of the military police tried to rape me. Because I resisted they stopped giving me food and water. . . . Athanasios Kanellopoulos, 31, telephone company employee: I was arrested for my syndicalistic activities, for conducting prop- aganda againt the Junta, and because I lead worked professionally with the former pri- vate secretary of Andreas Papandreou. I was arrested on January 1, 1969. I was led straight to a colonel . . . who beat me for two solid hours. I was then handed over to the Piraeus Security Police, where I was beaten incessantly for ten days, bound hand and foot, half-naked, on the soles of my feet. . . The most severe blows I received Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 S 13564 ApprOveo For ReleNditiggitNAL qt#651P131-BigatiM19030012000(Mober 30, 1969 they do in seme socialist countries, but in Greece the Government will also pay the doctors to go, which may even be nicer. The Government also says there are more schools, more university dormitories, and more child-care centers going up now than ever before, and that it is putting aside 13 per cent of the national budget for educa- tion, which is more than any other Greek Government ever thought of doing. Further, there has been a rise of 200 per cent in the number of teaching assistants at the univer- sities. Presumably, they must all prove their loyalty to the Government, and the moldy figs at the universities will never see any virtue in it, anyway, but it is another small sign that something, somewhere, is being done. "As far as our greatest social need, it is hard to answer briefly," Lucas Patras, the Minister of Social Welfare, said. Mr. Patras Is a shy, pleasant man who studies a lot, and then writes things with titles like "The Problem of the Pensionable Retirement Age." "Our country is in a state of change," he said. "From a state of low social develop- ment we are moving into one of high de- velopment. This creates social problems, and all ,the problems are at an explosive stage. Social Security is in a state of anarchy. We must move to a new system. The distribution of doctors is not the best. We must make new decisions. The old leaders didn't under- stand the problem of moving from a pre- to a post-industrial society." Then Mr. Patras sighed a little, and went on to explain the problem of Social Security. There are 338 Social Security centers, which he called "founts," and each job or profession has its own, and each one runs itself. "Unfortu- nately, each fount was not part of an over- all program," Mr. Patras said, "but existed separately, no overall policy. This, of course, is kind of crazy, but that is the way it was before the Revolution." The Greeks pay their ' money into the founts, and when they are pensioned off, or go on unemployment, the founts pay it out again. Since no one has ever thought of a way to do this by mail, a Greek must present himself at the fount to do business. As an afterthought, Mr. Patras said that the Government at least had beaten the problem of the long lines that were always stretching out from the founts under the hot sun. He did not say how the Government had done this, and it is only a small thing, but I suspect it is terribly im- portant if you are an old-age pensioner with one leg. This is the same Government that exiled the composer Mikis Theodorakis to a miserable mountain village, posted some boors with guns nearby, and then banned his music all over Greece. I do not know how' many one-legged pensioners you have to get into the shade to make up for losing Theo- dorakis, but I think it should be pondered, especially by the people who let the old guy stand out there in the first place. In the end, what may save all the Greeks, even from themselves, is their madness. Not all Greeks have it, but enough do, and it helps them get by. A Greek driving an auto- mobile is mad, Which he must be, because all the other drivers are mad, too. Greek men know of only two kinds of women, the kind they bring home to their mothers, and the other kind, and they stare at women a lot, and flare their nostrils slot. It is a little mad, but I do not think they get much, and so maybe they must be this way. Greeks in nightclubs break plates when the bouzouki music gets to them, and this is mad, but there is not much else they can do, and they must do something. The Colonels have passed a law that makes it illegal to break plates this way, but the plates still get broken. "We Greeks break plates like we break the law," a man said, hurling a few at the bou- zouki player. The maddest Greek I ever met, in fact, was a bouzouki player. "I admire American saxophone players," he said. "They make me weep." He pursed his lips, grabbed an imaginary saxophone, and swayed forward and back, looking very sad. "Did you know there is no written music for the bouzouki?" he said, and I said I did not. "Well, there is none," he said, tearing a peach in two, and offering me half, "Tell me about the bouzouki," I said. "I will tell you.," he said, "because you are a friend of mine. I have been playing the bouzouki for thirty-six years, since I was six. The bouzouki has been seen in popular places only since 1953. Before that it was only in secluded places. It was a music for tough guys. It originated in 1930, and it was based on Turkish music, but only thugs and smug- glers ever heard it. Then it started to become popular with intellectual people. I remem- ber that rich people, snobs, would start com- ing to the tough-guy places. Did you know that my father is a colonel, and my sister is a scientist?" I told him I did not, and I asked him how he got to be a bouzouki player. "You cannot find a bouzouki player who will tell you his story," he said, "but I have a great desire to tell mine to you." Then he fell into a long silence. I asked him what made a good bouzouki player. "This is a most difficult question. I admire you very much for asking it. No he has ever asked me such a provocative question be- fore." Then he fell into another long silence, and looked very sad, but finally he said, "It Is intellect. This is the difference, the differ- ence between two players is intellect. If you have the same desire, intellect is the thing that separates us." He was silent again, and then he spoke about composers, commending several, and then saying, "But not Theodorakis, he is for the crowd. He is a thief, a pseudo-intel- lectual, and a Communist. You understand, of course, that I am talking only about music." I said I did, and asked him when he would play the bouzouki. "Not tonight," he said, and looked very sad. "I am not in the mood." Then he got up and walked away. The bouzouki player was not a fool, only a little mad. He will probably get by, and in the end he and some other mad Greeks will do in the Colonels. They may have to do it without the Americans, but in the end it will be done. On the day a Greek said, "Have you heard the latest?" which was that some more arrests had been made, nine- teen American newspaper boys came to Athens. They were jugeared, freckle-faced, and cowlicked, and they were all over the newspapers, and all over the television news. They were from the Hearst organization, and the Hearst man who was with them told the Prime Minister, "Some of the things that one reads today about Greece are myths. One finds this out when one comes to Greece, sees Greece, and live S in Greece. We shall take with us the most beautiful impressions of your country." Then the man from Hearst handed over messages from other Americans. John McCormack, the Speaker of the House, sent the Prime Minister "expressions of esteem." Senator Henry Jackson of Wash- ington said something about NATO, and then he told Mr. Papadoupoulos he was sure the newsboys would be impressed by "your coun- try and your people." Governor Richard B. Ogilvie of Illinois said it was wonderful that the newsboys would learn "how your brave people fought and struggled to remain free," and Ronnie Reagan, after saying something about "the idea of freedom and justice," sent "the best wishes to you, Prime Minister, Mr. Papadoupoulos, and to all the people of Greece from all the people of California." Governor Preston Smith of Texas said every- one was really looking forward to the time the Prime Minister could visit America, and then he sent his best wishes "for the con- tinuation of your success in your struggle for freedom and democracy." On television, the Prime Minister was beaming and beam- ing, and out there somewhere, a great many other Greeks needed all their madness to - survive it. RHODE ISLAND PARTNbaS OF THE ALLIANCE PROGRAM Mr. PELL. Mr. Bresident, this month an organizational meeting of the Rhode Island Partners of the Alliance Planning Committee was held in Providence to officially launch the 39th partnership involving private citizens of the Americas in a program known as the Partners of the Alliance. Rhode Island is to be joined with the State of Sergipe, Brazil, located In the northeast part of that country, in this partnership. Rhode Island is the 17th U.S. State to be paired with a Brazilian state in the program. Governor Frank Licht of Rhode Island opened the meeting and accepted the honorary chairmanship of the Rhode Island Partners of the Alliance commit- tee. The meeting was attended by over 40 private sector leaders representing such organizations as the chamber of commerce, Rhode Island Hospital As- sociation, various businesses and indus- tries, labor groups, newspapers, and radio and television stations. Mr. John Rego, director of the State Department of Natural Resources, was named to serve as temporary chairman of the Rhode Island Partners and to head the program development team scheduled to travel to the State of Sergipe, Brazil, at the end of this month. Other team mem- bers include: Paul Hicks, executive director, Rhode Island Industrial and Petroleum Asso- ciation. Robert Fredericksen, representing con- servation and natural resources. Jacob Dykstra, president, Point Judith Fishermen's Cooperative Association, Inc. Harold Bateson, president, Charles A. Maguire & Associates, Inc. Robert Crohan, vice president and general manager, Outlet Co. I congratulate Rhode Island's citizen team and wish them well in their meet- ings with the private sector leaders in Sergipe. I know they will accredit them- selves well in developing meaningful Projects in which the peoples of the re- spective States can work together. The partners program seeks to foster cooper- ation and understanding in the Ameri- cas, and I am confident that private groups and organizations in the State of Rhode Island will participate in this worthy undertaking. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that the remarks of Governor Licht, together with an explanation of the part- ners program by Mr. Wade B. Fleetwood, Deputy Director of the partners, and an article from the Providence Journal of October 4 be printed at the conclusion of my remarks. There being no objection, the material was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: REMARKS BY COV. FRANK LICHT OF RHODE ISLAND I am very pleased to be here this noon. I accept with pleasure the title of honorary chairman of the Rhode Island Partners of the Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 October 30, /96(Spproved Fcc6skilmstesgfAiltli2ZOktgISRIN_E_'7gER9i3HR000300120003-9 S 13563 on my testicles by kicking. As a result I suffered from damaged testicles, fits of dizzi- ness, and I am unable to walk properly. The names of my torturers are Kouvas, who led the torturing, Yannoutsos, Kotsaloa, Angelo- poulos. . . Sothis Anastassiadia, 29, stage designer: I was arrested by a group of police officers, with Lambrou, BabaUs, and Maths at the head. I was kept in solitary confinement for 130 days at the Security Heat'quarters. I was tortured repeatedly by sole-beating and beat- ing on my face and genitals. The torturers were Babalis, Krava rills, Kontoeeorgakis, Spanoa. . . . Stanaata,kis Nikiforos, 24, self-employed: r was arrested on April 13, 1968, by the Secu- rity of Heraklion, Crete. The same day I was tortured from 8:00 a.m, until midnIght by a group of men from the Security under the Director of the Gendarmerie on Crete. . . . I was beaten on the soles of the feet. My hands were wrung and I was kicked on the back While hung froln the feet . . . On April 1.8 I was sent to the Security Head- quarters in Athens--Bouboulinas? where I remained in complete isolation until May Yannfs Petropoulos, 24, decorator: I was arrested on April 4, 1968. I was taken to Gen- eral Security Headquarters in Athens and was beaten up. The next day I was taken to the DiOnysos Camp. There they shaved my head and made me eat up my hair. For many hours in a large room ten men were beating me all over the body and especially on the head and on the stomach. . . . Be- cause of the beating on the soles of my feet I could not walk for ten days. They took off four of my toenails. They burned withciga- rettes my fingernails. They staged a mock executiOn. They tortured me by the method of lettitg water drip on my brow.. . Mich el Apanomeritakis, 28, civil servant at the office of the Ministry to -the Prime Minister's office, member of the Center-Union Youth in Crete, member of a resistance group: Arrested on August 5, 1988, I was kept in total solitary confinement for forty days at the suburban Security Headquarters. I was taken for questioning and there I was inhumanly tortured for fourteen hours by seven men of the Security Police. They beat me violently on the head, the face, the loins, the belly, and the genitals. I also received several blows on the chest with a chair. The result Was a severe hemorrhage from the mouth, the ears, impossibility to walk for twenty days, partial loss of hearing in my left ear, and swelling of the genitals. My tor- turers *ere Karambatsos, lieutenant colonel of the Gendarmerie; Mavraidis, lieutenant colonel of the Gendarmerie; Pavates, lieu- tenant Colonel of the Gendarmerie, and four other policemen. . . . Panayiotis Tzavellas, 44, musician: I am an invalid. One leg has been cut off at the thigh and the other is also injured. I stiffer from endarteratis. I was arrested on August 8, 1968, and was tortured at a Security Station of the suburbs by punching on the head, kicking, and flogging. They broke one of my crutches by which they were beating me on the head and all aver the body. I was unconscious for five day. For forty-four days I was kept in complete isolation and slept on the cement floor without any bedding and in only my shirt. I am still detained awaiting trial. It is already six months. Nikolans Kiaos, 26, student of the faculty of physies and sciences: I was arrested on April 21, 1968, by seven police officers of the Students' Department of the General A.sfalia (police station] of Athens. . . . I Was taken to the office of Kalyvas, where, in his presence, Karapanayiotis beat me up. For a long while he was beating my head on the Wall. After this he took me to the terrace, to a covered room, and tied me on a bench. They beat me on the sales of my feet with Iron and wooden rods. They beat me on my genitals. In my mouth they placed a thief,: truncheon in order to drown my screams. . . . The same night they took me to the 505 13attalion of the In- fantry Marines at Dionysos. A lieutenant and a policeman called Chrisakis beat the soles of my feet. . . . On the 29th of April in the afternoon Major Goufas teat the soles of my feet in the presence of commanding officer Manousakaki. They beat rae all over the body with a wire truncheon. They tortured me with water drops falling on my brow. They were specially beating me on the ears. / passed blood in the urine and pus is still dripping from my ears. . . As I said, there are do2ens of other state- ments, all sounding much the same, and they should be read by all the junketing American Congressmen, hippies, tourists, and business- men in Greece. / think that all the men who were quoted are now in Averof Prison in Athens, which is neither the best nor the worst place for a political prisoner in Greece, but only a typical one. Physical torture, being mostly an instrument of police stations and Army barracks, evidently does not go on there, but a sad and nasty drying up of the spirit does. Averof is a clump of five build- ings, with sections for men and women politi- cal prisoners, and for ordinary convicts. Be- fore the National Resurrection came to Averof, prisoners with terms of up to ten years could be visited three times a Week, and prisoners with terms up to twenty years could be visited eight times a month, Now, political prisoners who get up to five years are allowed four visits a month, and for five to twenty it is twice a month, and for twenty to life it is once a month. Once, incidentally, any relative could get itt to see a prisoner; now the most distant relative allowed in is a first cousin, who Must he related to the prisoner's father, not to the mother. Fiancees are not allowed to visit tt all unless they have special permission from the Ministry of Justice, and this is not Men given. When relatives do visit they stand behind a low cement wall, and then there are bars, and then a fine wire net, and then more bars, and then the prisoners and their guards. For a while this summer, chil- irert were allowed to visa; their fathers or mothers twice a month !n a room where hey could embrace. Then it was announced hat the visits, which had been thirty min- .:tea, would be limited to five minutes. The ;cleanest children especially use up a minute c two of this in finding their fathers or tiothers among the other prisoners and _meads. Nearly all the cells in Averof hold two cisoners, and they are small cells, with a ,ery narrow space between -he cots. The pris- aners spend seventeen hours a day there, arid they are locked in at 7:00 p.m. in the urnmer, and 6:00 p.m. in the winter. The ells have no toilets, only buckets that are mptied in the morning. There is a toilet - hat all the political prisoners use, but it is eldorn cleaned, and its rotten, fetid smell I Nerflows into the cells. Some prisoneri say This is the worst thing of all at Averof. The alovernment spends eight drachmas a day on I cod for each prisoner, which is about 25 c rats, and It is popularly supposed that bout two drachmas of this are stolen. There 1; a canteen, however, and its profits are -used to buy drugs for the prison hospital. Families may also send in food three times Week, but they cannot :end in anything that is sold in the canteen, and sick pris- aners cannot receive any food at all. Candy 1; forbidden; I do not know why. The hos- rital is a few hundred yards from the cell- 'block, and when prisoners go there they go in handcuffs in a police wagon. The dentist kits on Friday, but he is equipped only to extract teeth. Foreign-language books are not allowed in the prison, and other books are allowed in only at the discretion of the waaden. Many books are banned in Greece. but the warden prohibits others as well. Once he banned Proust's Remembrance of Things Past. -- Averof is not a monumental tragedy, not like Belsen or Buchenwald, but it is grimy. There are probably only slew thousand peo- ple in the Avarofga of Groece, hat there are others who have been exiled fromatheir homes and sent into remote villages, andantino many others who pass in and out of police stations, sometimes being detained_ for a few hours, sometimes overnight, and sometimes for days and weeks. The newspaper pulaligh no stades about them; things are seldom announced. "Have you heard the latest?" Greeks seem to be forever saying, and the lataat is always something political, or something about another arrest. Perhaps one-thirclof the Army officers have been arrested, or xetired, and some of them are in exile, and some walk the streets, and some are kept in tan old hotel near Athens. The windows are nailed shut, and twice a day two guards take each officer downstairs for a turn around what was once a lobby. In Athens there is also an atomic- research center. Democritos, which is named for the Greek who said 2,400 years ago that all matter was made up of tiny particles. One morning in June an electronics seientist was arrested in his laboratory at Democritos, and more than a month later his colleagues still didn't know what had happened to him. At five in the morning of the day he had been seized, a Democritos chemist was taken from his home, questioned by the police, and then released. .The chemist had been invited to present a paper at a meeting of the American Chemical Society, but then the cops said he couldn't go. What shall I tell the Ameri- cans? he asked the director of Democritos Tell them you broke a leg, he said. This was about the time that a lady scientist from Democritos was stopped at the airport while she was on her way to attend a professional meeting in Vienna. She could not leave, the police said, because she was a menace to na- tional security. The "latest" is always some- thing like that. The other side of all this, although I met few Greeks outside the Government who cared to admit it, is that the Government has done some things for its constituents. Any dictatorship, no matter how inefficient, usually does, and even Mussolini- made the trains run on time. Liberal- critica of right- wing regimes hardly ever acknowledge these things, probably because it would damage their case, but they ought to. For example, the Greek farmers, like American farmers, habitually overborrow, and the Greek farm- ers, like American farmers, habitually cry poverty. The difference is that the Greek farmers, who make up about half the popu- lation, really mean it. The per capita income in Greece is something like $750, and the farmers scratch out livings on little plots and patches of rocks and worn-out ground. By 1967 they owed the Government bank ten billion drachmas, which was about one-quar- ter of what they could produce in a, year, and in early 1968 the loans were pardoned. The farmers' pensions also were increased 70 per cent, and, while the Colonels are not the sort to upset a big landowner by par- celing out his estate, they are at least talk- ing about consolidating the small farmers' holdings. That is, if a farmer owns, say, four acres spread over seven different places, they would all be put together. The Government also has introduced free medical care, and it says that in 1968 farmera and their fam- ilies had 35 million free clays in hospitals, and that doctors also made four million free visits in rural areas. Before the Revolution, the Government also says, there were exactly 1,050 doctors in the poorest, most isolated areas of Greece, and now there are 1,410. The rule is that a young doctor, just out of med- ical school, must go into these areas for at least six months, which is similar to what Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 October 1965APProved FecjitognEggiM/AVCRE&MtBDP ?9504R000300120003-9 H 10261 The second amendment would have a retroactive effect. It provides a "second chance" to those young men who have been opposed to participation in the Viet- nam war and have been forced into the dilemma of service in a war they oppose for ethical or religious 'reasons or prison or flight from the country. By "second chance," I mean giving a young man the opportunity now to offer information to his local board in substantiation of his claim to exemption from military service provided he was conscientiously opposed to participation in a particular war at the time he received a notice to report for in- duction or at the time he left a jurisdic- tion to evade military service. Under both amendments any claim to exemption which is granted, would re- quire the young man to perform noncom- batant service in the Armed Forces or an acceptable form of alternative civilian service as that now performed by tradi- tional conscientious objectors. Mr. LOWENSTEIN. Mr. Speaker, I cannot believe that anyone here believes it would be either wise or fair to adopt this rule. It may seem to be politically clever to adopt it, but it is not even that. Every time we make a mockery of what legislative procedure ought to be we erode the credibility of this House and anyone who thinks that that is politi- cally clever is, in my judgment, political- ly very stupid. The country is in a turmoil about the draft. This House is supposed to be rep- resentative of the country. It ought not to be demean itself and insult the coun- try by refusing even to consider amend- ments and alternative proposals. That is one of our specific constitutional func- tions in the Congress?to decide how the United States shall raise the man- power for its Armed Forces. Nothing could be more "germane," and there could be no worse time to deny proce- dural democracy on a substantive ques- tion of such enormous importance to a functioning democracy. To adopt this rule is to engage, if I may use a phrase that has gained a certain currency, in effete snobbery of the most impudent kind. I am grateful to the distinguished gentleman from Missouri and the dis- tinguished gentleman from California for their leadership on this question and I thank the gentleman for yielding. GENERAL LEAVE Mr. BOLLING. Mr. Speaker, before I yield to any of my colleagues, I ask unan- imous consent that all Members may ex- tend their remarks at the conclusion of my remarks. The SPEAKER. Without objection, it is so ordered. There was no objection. CALL OF THE HOUSE Mr. FINDLEY. Mr. Speaker, I make the point of order that a quorum is not present. The SPEAKER, Evidently a quorum is not present. Mr. YOUNG. Mr. Speaker, I move a call of the House. A call of the House was ordered. The Clerk called the roll, and the following Members failed to answer to their names: Anderson, Tenn. Ashbrook Baring Barrett Bell, Calif. Brown, Calif. Burton, Utah Byrne, Pa. Cahill Carey Cederberg Chisholm Clark Colmer Daddario [Roll No. MO] Dawson Monagan Dent Morse Dwyer O'Neill, Mass. Edwards, Calif. Fatman Foley Pike Fraser Pirnie Frelinghuysen Podell Hanna Powell Hunt Pucinski Jarman Reifel Kirwan Sandman Lipscomb Springer Lukens Stuckey Van Deerlin McClary Whalley Mikva Widnall The SPEAKER. On this rolleall 384 Members have answered to their names, a quorum. By unanimous consent, further pro- ceedings under the call were dispensed with. PROVIDING FOR CONSIDERATION OF H.R. 14001, AUTHORIZING MOD- IFICATION OF THE SYSTEM OF SELECTING PERSONS FOR INDUC- TION INTO THE ARMED FORCES Mr. YOUNG. Mr. Speaker, I ask unani- mous consent that further consideration of this resolution be postponed until to- morrow. The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Texas? There was no objection. TITLE AMENDMENT OF S. 2917, FED- ERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969 The SPEAKER. Earlier today the House passed the bill S. 2917 with an amendment in the nature of a substitute. Without objection, the title of the Sen- ate bill will be stricken and the title of the House bill (H.R. 13950) inserted in lieu thereof. There was no objection. SESSION OF THE HOUSE ON FRIDAY NEXT (Mr. ALBERT asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute.) Mr. ALBERT, Mr. Speaker, I take this time before the Members leave, to advise that we plan definitely to have a Friday session. e- HEROISM IN GREECE (Mr. EDWARDS of California asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend his remarks and include extraneous matter.) Mr. EDWARDS of California. Mr. Speaker, the freedom of the floor of this House is a freedom we all enjoy, but we often fail to realize the rarity of such freedom. Today I am presenting to this House a letter from fellow representa- tives of the people of another country, but representatives who do not have freedom of the floor of their own parlia- ment. On this floor we have debate?, the most Important issues of our day often with views in direct opposition to the admin- istration being expressed freely and without fear. For the men who signed this letter, an expression of views in op- position to their administration's policy, a dictatorial policy, means the risk of jail and even of torture. These men in using the freedom of this floor risk the loss of their own freedom. Thus, this letter, signed by 56 former members and or ministers of the Greek Parliament is a precious document. Its cry for freedom in that country is a cry made at great personal risk. The letter speaks for itself and I hope the response of this Nation will speak for itself. The United States both officially and unofficially is well aware of the Greek dictatorship. Our State Department has described the dictatorship's trampling of the civil rights and liberties of the Greek people. Unfortunately, despite such statements, our Government continues to supply arms to that dictatorship to reinforce its subjection of the Greek people. I hope that we will cease such support and I urge the administration to end such support. Mr. Speaker, I include the letter from the 56 former members of the Greek par- liament in this RECORD and I include my reply to the letter in this RECORD. In addition I include the original con- gressional letter in this RECORD: ATHENS, GREECE, September 11, 1969. Congressman DON EDWARDS, Chairman, U.S. Committee on Democracy in Greece, Washington, D.C. DEAR Sm: We were informed of your letter to the Secretary of State, W. Rogers, dated July 30, 1969 and wish to express our sincere appreciation to you and the forty-nine other honorable members of the U.S. House of Representatives who expressed their concern for the prevailing situation in our country. In your Statement, Sir, you have men- tioned that Greece was "the only European nation among the Western Allies which in the post war period fell to a military coup". Allow us to remind you that Greece, in addition to her contribution to the allied victory during the war, was also the only nation in the World to have successfully opposed an armed Communist Subversion. It was exactly twenty years ago when the Greek army, under a parliamentary Democ- racy, with the leadership of the late King Paul and the generous material assistance of the U.S. through the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine, gave the final blow to the communist armies and forced them to retreat defeated and disbanded beyond the Greek borders. This aid was given by the U.S. Congress, not only to defend the coun- try from the communist threat but especially to secure and support the free institutions and democratic system of the nation. Having been subjected to so many sacri- fices, we believe that Greece, more than any other nation in the Western World, was en- titled to live in peace, freedom and Democ- racy. Furthermore, we believe that our coun- try, which bleeding and shattered was able to defeat the Communist Aggression imme- diately after she came out of Nazi occupa- tion, was and is in the position to defend Democracy without resorting to a military regime. The history of the last 20 years, contrary to what is being said by the present rulers, proves that Democracy was function- ing in our country and that the political leadership had knowledge of its mission. The achieved progress in all spheres of public Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 H 10262 Approved For RelmgalitOMMAEllt-EMBOOWN03001200037.9 uctobei- 2,-9) 1969 'life prior to the military coup is a good oon- firmation of such views. It is our view. Sir, that the moral, political, economic and military interests of Greece call for an immediate return to a free so- ciety, a government by the people f,ad a 1Democracy which will aeMeguard, net only our freedom, but also the bonds of friend- ship with your great countey. As elected representatives if the last Greek Parliament, we accept your eianifestaton of solidarity and declare that the struggle for freedom, decency, democracy and civil rights is indivisible and knows no geographic bar- riers or national borders, but it is and ought to be the responsibility of enlightenedleaders everywhere. We all have responsibilities for the defense of these traditions, but above all we have responsibilities to our people. Win- ston Churchill said: "Truat the people, rnaee sure they have a fair chanee to decide their destiny without being terrorized from any quarter." We do trust our people but they have no chance to decide their destinie; and they are being terrorized. It is for this that we declare again that the preservation of the sleet hurnaeistic ideals will be better guaranteed if the tr.s. of America remains a true beeeon of Freedom and Democracy. Your statement and the an- swer of the Under Secretary of Stet( will serve that goal if the ideas expressed vell he converted into policies of decisive elenift- eance. Please convey our friendly greeting: and thanks to the other honorable member:, who signed the statement with eeu. Sincerely yours, President of the last Greek Parliar lent: Dimitrios Papaspyrous, deleted. Ex-Members of Parliament end/or Elm- Min- isters: Christos Avramides, deleted, Mi -Meet Galinoe, Athana.sios Gelestathts, deleted Km- Inanuel Zapartas, deleted, Eennanuel Teeth- ris, Dimitrios Kinias. Stillanos Allamanis, Angelio Vlechoti ane- sis, Dimitrios Georgiou, Demi! ins Dame is, E. Dentrinos, deleted, Chrisostemos Karapi eris, deleted, deleted. George Bakatseloe, deleted, Zisis Papa lava- heu, George Relies, Evageho Savope Agisilaos Spiliakos, deleted, Anther. asios Talladouros, John Teirimolche Iakovee Dis- mantopoulos. Athanasdos Yannopoulce, John Cleitiov- raids, Hellas Papahellou, Age,ilaos Spillakeee John Tsirimokos, Constantine Maris, !Pongee los Aneroussis, Christos Pipil is. John Boutos, Panagiotis Papaligherao Fotios Pitoulis, Theocharis Pentis, del cted, deleted, Constantine Tsetse*, John Tour ibae, I. Tsoudepos. Constantionos Aposkitis. Consta: time Tsatsos, Thomas Adreadis, Achilles Papeloe- ka,s, Constantine Stefassstlm, Dimit zo Chatzigakis, George Stefanepoulos, George Graphakoe, Athanassios Tithetholuce (The names deleted have been done protect signers who have =del:gone poetical persecution.) To former members of the Greek Perlia- ment. DEAR SIRS: First let me express my a.dretra- bon of your courage, to erten the 56 former Members of the Greek Parliament who eigned the brave letter calling for a return to democracy in Greece. I laaw that son es of the members of this group have been ar- rested and all braved arrest in niaking known their views. We in the United States, still protected by our free institutions, belie* that the p( liti- cal fight you .are waging In a country far from our own is in behalf of free men every- where. We find it disheartening that our gov- ernment has not given a clearer sign of our s'upport of your efforts, beet we hope that United States policy can be changed. 4s yourioted in your letter, "It was exactly 20 years ago when the Greek Army, under a riatlia- mentaay democracy, with the leadership of the late King Paul and the generous mate- rial assistance of the U.S. through the Mar- shall Plan and the Truman Doctrine, gave the final blow to the communist armies and forced them to retreat defeated and dis- banded beyond the Greek borders. This aid was given by the us, Conrgess, not only to defend the country from the communist threat but especially to secure and support the free institutions and democratic system of the nation." Today the United States con- tinues to send military support to Greece, but sadly It is not being used to protect the "free institutions and democratic system of the nation," but to suppress those very in- stitutions and system. Many of us in Con- gress wish-to see this aid ended, and we will work toward that end. Speaking for myself, and I know for many of my colleagues, our dream is to see Greece free once again, to see it rejoin the honor- able company of Western European nations In the Western Alliance. It is our belief that the people of Greece should make their own choice without ?inside interference. We be- lieve the United States best can support the efforts of the Greek people to regain their freedom by making clear its lack of support of the present dictatorship. Finally, let me add my prayers to yours and all of the other Greek citizens who de- sire a return to freedom, that shortly democ- racy will once more reign in the nation which founded the concept of a free people, living together in justice and harmony. Sincerely, DON EDWARDS. Member of Congress. CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATMS, HOUSE CF REPRESENTATIVES, Washington, D.C., July 30, 1969. Hon WILLIAM P. PAGERS, Secretary of State, Department of State, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. SECRETARY: We are writing to you because of our deep concern over the situation in Greece, the only European na- tion in the Western Alliance in the post World War H period to fall to a military coup. Authoritative reports indicate that in junta-led Greece the economy Is in decline, fundamental civil liberties are suppressed, and people continue to be arrested and jailed Without charge. What's more, anti-Ameri- canism is reportedly on the increase because our long-time friends believe the United States is the principal support of a mili- tary dictatorship which has no popular base. Our policy of occasional, tepid expressions of "hope" that tee junta will return to democracy stands in rather hollow contrast to the repeated instances of high-ranking American military figures being pictured and quoted in the controlled Athens press lavishing generous comments on the junta. Thus we find ourselves in a situation where at a time of moral and political crisis in Greece, our traditional friends of liberal, centrist, and conservative persuasion be- lieve with bitterness that the United States supports the dictatorship and the dictator- ship, on the other hand, boasts about it. In the short term, and in the long term, we are in danger of reaping the whirlwind of anti-Americanism, especially when the junta falls, as it inevitably must. America's attitude is critical to the sur- vivability of the junta. The sooner the junta falls, the greater the prospect that a re- sponsible, democrat :.c, western-oriented suc- cessor government will emerge to bind the economic and political wounds. The longer the junta lasts, the. grimmer the prospect of political polarizeoion, turmoil, bloodshed, and unpredictable consequences to Greece and our own political, moral, and military interests. Accordingly, we respectfully urge your con- sideration al the Allowing action: 1. Since the poet of 11,13. Ambassador to Greece, presently vacant, has taken on a growing symbolic and praCtical Value, that it be filled by an experienced, civilian-oriented diplomat of superior credentials and not be treated as a political reward or routine pro- motion. 2. That a clearer sign of U.S. moral and political disapproval of the dictatorship be given and sustained. 3. That U.S. military aid to Greece should not be increesed, and indeed, should be cur- tailed. Sincerely, Hon. Joseph P. Addable?, Hon. Glenn M. Anderson, Han. Jonathan B. Bingham, Hon. John Bradernes, Hon. George E. Brown, Jr., Hon. Pbillip Burton, Hon. Daniel E. Button, Eton. Shirley Chis- holm, Hon. Jeffery Cohelan, Hon. John Conyers, Jr., Hon. James C. Corman, Hon. R. Lawrence Coughlin, Hon. Charles C. Diggs, Jr., Hon. Don Ed- wards, Hon. Joshua Milberg, Hon. Don- ald M. Fraser, Hon. Jacob H. Gilbert, lion. Seymour Halpern, Hon. Augustus F. Hawkins, Hon. Henry Helstoski, Hon. Floyd V. Hicks, Hon. Daniel K. Inouye, Hon. Charles S. Joeison, Hon. Robert W. Kastenmeier. Hon. Edward I. Koch, Hon. Robert L. Leggett, Hon. Allard K. Lowenstein, Hon. Abner 3. Mime Hon. Patsy T. Mink, lion. WilliameS. Moorhead, ROIL John E. Moss, Hon. Lucien N Nedzi, Hon. Gaylord Nelson, Hon. Robert N. C. Nix, Hon. Richard L. Ottinger, Hon. Bertram L. Podell, Hon. Adam C. Powell, Hon. Thomas M. Rees, Hon, Ogden It. Reid, Hon. Henry B. Reuss, Hon. Peter W. Rodin?, Jr., Hon, Ben- jamin S. Rosenthal, Hon. Edward It. Roybah Hon. William F. Ryan, lion. William L. St. One, Hon. James H. Scheuer, Hon. Louis Stokes, lion. Frank Thompson, Jr., Hon. Jerome R. Waldie, Hon. Stephen M. Young. Mr. KOCH. Mr. Speaker, I rise today to express my great admiration for the moral courage displayed by the elected representatives of the last Greek Par- liament who signed this letter read by the gentleman from California. It is also my intent to express my outrage at the continued oppression. of human rights and democratic principles by the ruling military junta in Greece. This letter from those brave and deter- mined Greek patriots is representative of the passion of the Greek people for free- dom and democracy that refuses to be quelled and is still so strong in the face of continued harassment and intimida- tion. I renew the plea made to the Secretary of State by 50 Members of this Congress for "clearer signs of U.S. moral and po- litical disapproval of the dictatorship in Greece." We can ill afford to continue our tacit approval for this outrageously tyrannical government which, despite its protestations of "future democratic re- form," makes no visible effort in that direction. Indeed, it is a regime that makes no effort to conceal its acts of op- pression and injustice and continues to ignore pleas to restore basic human rights. How can we hope that the ruling Greek Government will change its pres- ent course and reinstitute democratic processes when the United States does no more than pay lipservice to its interest in "full restoration of civil liberties" and Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approvect Octobc,r-29t 19 69 the "achievement of representative gov- ernment" If we do not manifest in decisive policy statements our intention to encourage freedom and representative government in Greece we will not only betray those who signed this moving letter, but the very basic traditions and ideals of the United States. WWII? 91110263 D74761110952020.13/110X2CCIA-R 364R000300120003- AN APPEAL FOR A MUTUAL MORA- TORIUM ON ARMS TESTING But when I think of our already over- burdened taxpayers and America's grave urban problems?the ghettos and the crime and the underprivileged?I pray for an end to the arms race. Just think what we could do here in America to achieve tax relief, model cities, and equal opportunity for all if the Federal Govern- ment did not have to expend time, effort, d f ntitstic amount of money to an a a engage in an arms race with the Soviet Union. So much could be done for so many if we were able to divert some of (Mr. BIAGGI asked and was given per- the resources that are now required to mission to address the House for 1 min-. sustain the arms race. ute and to revise and extend his re- Take, for example, just one item: The marks.) cost of the anti-ballistic-missile system. Mr. BIAGGI. Mr. Speaker, we are ap- Consider what America could do with proaching a date that could be a historic that money alone at home if we did not turning point for a world living under have to spend it in the arms race. I ask, therefore, that Congress help build the foundation for meaningful and effective talks at Helsinki. As a first and very important step, I urge expressions of support for a mutual moratorium on arms testing pending the outcome of an agreement with proper safeguards be- tween the United States and the Soviet Union. Such action would be an invitation to the Soviet Union to join us immediately in moving away from the shadows of war for the benefit of all mankind. It would also be a vivid demonstration of our good faith at the conference table on Novem- ber 17. the threat of nuclear warfare. On Nov. 17, the United States and the Soviet Union begin preliminary nuclear arms limitation talks at Helsinki. While I have constantly urged that such talks get un- derway, I have no illusions about any shortcuts for ending the arms race. But I do believe that as a first order of business at Helsinki we must strive for a mutual moratorium on all arms testing pending the formulation of com- prehensive agreements with extensive safeguards that can come only from pro- longed negotiations. I think this Con- gress and the President should express a sense of willingness to accomplish this objective. We have pondered too long while the world has been living under what the late John Fitzgerald Kennedy described as "a nuclear sword of Damocles." More than a year ago, our Nation and the So- viet Union pledged in the nuclear non- proliferation treaty to begin arms con- trol talks promptly. Now, at last, we are on our way to the conference table. But the luxury of time has been lost. Therefore, America and the Soviet Union must display a more urgent de- termination to reverse the arms race than either has exhibited thus far. Both sides are continuing the develop- ment of multiple independently target- able reentry vehicles?MIRV's. This policies of fraternities relating to the admis- sion to the fraternities of Negro, Jewish, and non-Caucasian students in priAciple? How many actually have Negro, Jewish, an non- Caucasian students as members? President Homer requested the national fraternities to provide him with the infor- mation necessary to answer these questions. In addition "to a complete statement" from them on these matters, he asked that they send him a copy of their constitution for use in the event that he received similar in- quiries in the future. The announcement that the Civil Rights Commission had begun an investigation into the affairs of college fraternities and sorori- ties created a stir among fraternity leaders. On July 12, Louis F. Fetterly, a California attorney and leader in national interfrater- nity circles, wrote to the Commission about Its activities. He asked for a copy of the ques- tionnaire and an explanation of the use to which the information elicited would be put. A week later he received a reply from Cor- nelius P. Cotter, Assistant Staff Director for Programs, who declared that "The Commis- sion is not at this time conducting a study related to fraternities or their admission policies." If such a questionnaire is being distributed among fraternities, he asserted, "it comes from a source other than this Com- mission." However, he added, "If you have reason to believe that a questionnaire is being distributed and represented as coming from this Commission, we should appreciate your help in securing additional information concerning it." On August 12, Mr. Fetterly wrote Dr. Cot- ter advising him that the letterheads, return envelopes, and title on the questionnaire all indicated they came from the United States Commission on Civil Rights, Washington 25, REPRESENTATIVE WAGGONNER'S D.C. Mr. Fetterly reported that the question- EFFORTS TO SAVE OUR FRATER- naire was being represented as part of a NITIES AND SORORITIES nationwide survey, and the covering letter and questionnaire were apparently sent by (Mr. LONG of Louisiana asked and Mr. Will Erwin, Co-Chairman of the Sub- was given permission to address the committee on Education for the Indiana House for 1 minute, to revise and ex- Advisory Committee to the U.S. Civil Rights tend his remarks, and to include extrane- Commission. On the basis of this new information, the ous material.) Commission ascertained that indeed there Mr. LONG of Louisiana. Mr. Speaker, was a questionnaire. It had been developed an article appears in a fraternity mag- by the Indiana Advisory Committee in co- azine, the Shield, of Phi Kappa Psi? operation with the Civil` Rights Commission volume 89, No. 4, summer 1969, pages of the State of Indiana and, "due to a mis- 253-262?which goes into considerable understanding," had been mailed without detail about the effortsof my colleague, prior clearance by the Washington staff of Representative JOE D. WAGGONNER, to the Commission. Mr. Peter M. Sussman, As- protect the Nation's fraternities and si stant Staff Director for State Advisory Com- mittees, to whom the ball had been bounced new type of multiple warhead will sororities from the meddling of HEW into by Dr. Cotter, explained that since this cc- greatly expand the striking power of their membership practices. This discus- tion was "contrary to established Commis- strategic missiles and further endanger sion of what has transpired in recent sion procedures," he had requested the In- all mankind, months is well worth the time and at- diana Advisory Committee to suspend any It has been evident for too long that tention of any reader who feels as I do, further use of the questionnaire. He went on weapons systems have become more that it is high time to put whatever to point out that the reference in the letter accompanying the questionnaire to a "na- tionwide survey" was in error: "Neither the sophisticated and more destructive? brakes are necessary on the extralegal, and America and the Soviet Union are sociological meddling of this Department. United States Commission on Civil Rights still locked in the arms race. We have With unanimous consent, I insert this its elf nor any of its Advisory Committees reached the point where it is not enough article in today's RECoRD, as follows: outside the State of Indiana is conducting to limit the buildup of strategic arms. CONGRESS, FEDERAL AID TO EDUCATION, AND such a survey." We must instead reverse it. FRATERNITY DISCRIMINATION Less than two months later, however, fra- I have often thought about the bil- (By Tom Charles Huston, assistant attorney ternity chapter presidents at campuses lions spent by the two superpowers for general, Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity) throughout the State of Utah received a weapons from which there can be no (Norn?This is an analysis of the legisla- letter from Adam M. Duncan, Chairman of survival. When I reflect upon this and tive history of the Waggoner Amendment and the Utah Advisory Committee of the Civil an assessment of the protection it provides Rights Commission. Mr. Duncan explained then consider that we are spending bil- for the fraternity system and for universities, that his committee had been "commissioned lions more to sustain the arms race, I through the 1965 Higher Education Act.) by Congress to make factual findings and find myself deeply distressed and wonder On June 28, 1958, President John E. Horner recommendations" on problems of racial dis- . whether the powers of the world have of Hanover College wrote to the executive crimination. The "function" of his commit- lost their senses. secretaries of national fraternities which had tee, he went on, was to serve as a "sounding chapters on his campus that he had been re- board" and "clearing house" for civil rights Yes, I agree that we must be able to defend our Nation from attack. I quested e by the U.S. Commission on Civil P roblems. Rights "to file with the agency an extensive Mr. Duncan enclosed a questionnaire which sure that this is the principal reason why questionnaire relating to policies in the civil he requested be promptly returned "in the we are moving ahead with the anti- rights area." According to Dr. Homer, "the enclosed, self-addressed and franked enve- ballistic-missile?ABM?system. questionnaire makes specific reference to the lope." The questionnaire concerned the Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 1110264 Approved For Releaml*Mg16W-IREW036finegi00120003-9 membership practices and internal opera- tions of the fraternity? It requested infor- mation on whether members of minority groups were accepted as members by the local chapter and, if not, whether this was due to a prohibition in either the local or national governing document. It also re- quested that copies of these documents be attached, or if this was not possible, that a place be indicated where the Committee could examine them. This intrusion into the affairs of a private organization by a govetinnent agency, coming as it did upon the heels of the Indiana case, aroused protests not only from fraternity ` leaders, but also from Members of Congress. During debate on the proposed Civil Rights Act in the House of Representative on Feb- ruary 6, 1964, Congressman Edward E. Willis of Louisiana, citing these incidents, moved to amend the bill by denying to the Com- mission the power to "authorize any investi- gation or study of the Membership practices of any bona fide fraternal, religiouis or civic organization which seleets its membership." 2 Congressman Emanuel Cellar, Chtirman of the House Judiciary Committee quid floor manager for the bill, accepted the amend- ment .? He told the Steatite that on behalf of the Judiciary Committee he had coMplained to the Commission that it had gor.e too far and exceeded its authority. On January 29, he had received a letter from Howard W. Rogerson, Acting Chairman of the Commis- sion, explaining that the action of the Utah Advisory Committee "was a very limited in- quiry . . into the racial practices of fra- ternities and sororities located at the State University." "The Utah committee," Mr. Rogerson reported, "was not interested in the practices of fraternities of sorbrities at private colleges. Nor was the committee in- terested in the practices of adult fraternal organizations, such as the Masons, which are unconnected with public institations of higher education." s The Cornmisnon was not, however, planning to pursue "even the limited Utah inquiry into the racial practices and sororities at the State university." Mr. Rogerson enclosed with his letter a nannoraindurn outlining the legal !pasts for the inquiry which the Utah committee made. The final paragraph of this memOranduni stated: "We do not recommend iihat the Commis- sion add a survey of practices at the State universities to its present program, but all of the factors discussed above indicate not only that there was a legal base for the Utah ques- tionnaire, but that the Commission would have ample authority to inquire further into this matter if it chose to do 80." 7 Congressman Geller was not satisfied by Mr. Rogerson's letter and, appeals, not impressed by the reasoning of the leg mem- orandum. He contacted Mr. Rogerson and re- quested a specific answer to the question of whether the Commission Intended to pursue this sort of inquiry further. Mr. Rogetsion re- plied in a lerbter dated January 30, that the Commission did not have any plans to do so. He indicated that the Utah committee had no authority to take any action if the qUeation- naires were not answered, and it did riot plan to seek further information from fraternities and sororities. He concluded with the assur- ance that no other questionnaires wexie being sent by any of the Commission's adVisory committees to fraternities or social Organi- zations.? lowed by more questionnaires, an Aware that similar assurance had been Celler advised the House of Representatives that it was essential to get -embedded in the statute, not correspondence or promites but some definite prohibitions against seine of these activities which have been complained of with reference to the Civil Rightsi Com- Mission." He felt the Willis Amendment ac- Footnotes at end of article. Oomplished this purpose and he Was happy to accept it Congressman Meader of Michigan, however had doubts that the Willis proposal was ex- plicit enough. Be offered a mine/Rube amend- ment whioh read that "nothing in this or any other Act shall be construed as authoriz- ing the Commission, its Advisory Committees, or any person under its supervision or con- trol to inquire into or investigate any mem- bership practice; or internal operations of any fraternal organization, any college or uni- versity fraternity or sorority, any private club, any religious organization, or any other private organization."11 Congressman Meader argued that the Commission believed, as expressed in the legal memorandum sent to Congressman Geller, that it had every right to conduct inquiries into discriminatory membership practices by private associations, and to pre- clude such activity it was necessary to spell out in the most precise terms the limitations which Congress wished to place upon the Commission, in this area.% Congressman Roosevelt of California raised a question re- garding the definition of "private organiza- tions." L2 This phrase had not been included in the original Willis proposal, and Roosevelt feared that it would be construed so broadly as to limit the joower of the Commission to investigate discrimination in labor unions, corporations, and other organizations not generally included in the concept of volun- tary associations." On the basis of this objec- tion, Congressman Meader agreed to the deletion of the phrase.% Congressman Meader had also added an- other dimension to the Willis proposal by including the phrase "internal operations" in his amendment. Not only would the Corn- Mission be prohibited from investigating into membership practices of private groups, but also would be prescribed from conducting an inquiry into their "internal operations." Congressman Celler was worried that this Inclusion would unduly limit the authority of the Coniunissicin.16 It was one thing, he argued, to investigate membership practices, but quite another to look into internal oper- ations, The latter, he reasoned, might be of legitimate interest to the Commission where they involved the denial of rights granted to members of minority groups by other pro- visions of the Chil Rights Act Congressman Meader was asked what he had in mind when he referred to "laternal operations." "I will tell you what 'internal operations' was in- tended to get at," he answered. "The Masonic Order, /Knights of Columbus, and many fra- ternal organizations like the Eagles. Elks, or secret Clubs. It is not only their membership practices which should be protected but all of their internal operationa11 "Would you," faked Meader of Congress- man Celler, "permit a Civil Rights Commis- sion to demand a document of the ritual of a secret society cr fraternity or sorority or Masonic order?" a "No," the Judiciary Com- mittee Chairman replied.% Congressman Roman Pucinski of Illinois introduced a subject into the debate which would be hotly debated in the Senate a year later.% He objected to the amendment on the grounds that fraternities and sororities, as an integral part of a State uniiersity which received federal financial assistance, should not be permitted to discriminate on the basis of race, end therefore the Commis- sion should be authorized to investigate their membership practices. "I know from my own experience on the Committee on Education and Labor," he told the House, "that the Fed- eral Government is perhaps the greatest con- tributor to many of these universities and colleges. But we say under this amendment that while the Federal Government can spend millions of dollars in these institu- tions, the Civil Rights Commission cannot Investigate discrimination in these fraterni- ties."21 Congressman Celler replied that "In the Octobtr7 1969 first place,- sororities and fraternities are not supported by the Government. They receive , no loans or funds directly from the Govern- ment." sts Pucinski agreed with the thrust of this argument, but maintained that "being on the campus of the university bene- fiting from these taxes, they are a part of the university and indirectly benefit from Federal assistance." " Congressman Celler countered with the simple assertion that "I do not believe that is correct,"24 and the House proceeded to adopt the substitute amendment.% When the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was signed into law by President Johnson, it con- tained the Meader Amendmentas which pro- vided that: - Nothing in this or any other Act shall be constetted as authorizing the Commission, its Advisory Committees, or any person un- der its supervisian or control to inquire into or investigate any membership practices or internal operations of any fraternal orga- nization, any college or university fraternity or sorority, any private club or any religious organization." This section made it explicitly clear that the Civil Rights Commission Gould not under the color of Federal law investigate the ac- tivities of campus fraternities. The private acts of discrimination by voluntary student groups were beyond the realm of Federal con- cern or, at least, beyond the realm of the Commission's coneern. Congress, in various Titles of the Civil Rights Act, empowered specific Federal agen- cies to eliminate discrimination in the fields of educational employment% votinga? and public accommodations .% A key provision was Title VI, sec. 601, which declared that "No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Fed- eral financial assistance." la This policy clearly applied in the area of education where millibns of Federal dollars were being ex- pended annually in aid to colleges and uni- versities, both public and private. The imple- mentation of Section 601 of Title VI was to be effectuated through the issuance of reg- ulations by the Federal departments em- powered to extend Federal financial assist- ance.22 These regulations were to b " gen- eral applicability" as awl "consistent with achievement of the objectives of the statute authorizing the financial assistance in con- nection with which the action is taken." h On December 31, 1964, Francis Keppel, U.S. Commissioner of Education, sent a memo- randum to the presidents of all institutions of higher education in the United States ad- vising them that the regulation of the De- partment of Health, Education, and Welfare authorized under Section 602 of Title VI had been approved by the President and promul- gated by the Department to become effective on January 3, 1965.35 Each college Or univer- sity which received Federal funds was re- quired under Section 80.4 of the Department Regulation to file an Assurance of Compli- ance with the non-discrimination require- ments of Title V/. Unless the Assurance (HEW Form No. 441) was filed with the De- partment, the institution would not be eligi- ble for Federal assistance. Mr. Keppel enclosed with his memorandum an Explanation of HEW Form No. 441, which presented examples of the type of discrim- inatory practices which were prohibited under the Department Regulation.% Of in- terest to eciticators were questions 8 and 9 which explained the effect of the Assurance of Compliance upon their administrative practices: "8. What effect will the regulation have on a college or university's achnission prac- tices or other practices related to the treat- ment of students? "A. An institution of higher education which applies for any Federal financial as- Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 October 28, LOIftroved For Be1smuZ9M14/PR TrEiediggligigika41ii-000300120003-9 ment. The present administration policy is totally inadequate. It rests upon the concept of an election to be conducted and essentially controlled by the Saigon militarist regime while huge numbers of American troops remain in South Viet- nam, The VC and the Hanoi Govern- ment quite obviously will not accept a rigged election of that sort. Indeed, they may not accept any settlement to which the present Thieu-Ky militarist regime is a party. The President has never really faced up to this issue. His statements about not "imposing" a government in South Vietnam miss the point entirely. In fact, the administration is imposing the Thieu-Ky militarist regime on South Vietnam every day of the year. Were we to withdraw only our financial subpart from that dictatorship and the huge subsidy to meet the payroll of its troops, the Saigon Government would fall within a month. Thieu and Ky would then be forced to flee and rendezvous with their unlisted bank accounts in Hong Kong and Switzerland. The fact is that while professing a de- sire for peace, the administration has failed to create political conditions in Vietnam under which peace is possible. The desire of those Saigon militarist leaders to remain in power is totally in- consistent with President Nixon's state- ment that "What is important is what the people of South Vietnam want." These incompatible policies hold out the prospect not of peace but of a prolonged military occupation which will continue indefinitely to drain American treasure and lives. President Nixon and all responsible Americans want to get out of Vietnam as soon as possible. Walter Lippmann has stated that we are fighting a major war in South Vietnam in order to save face. It is true just as the Chinese sage Confucius said many centuries ago: A man who makes a mistake and does not correct it, makes another mistake. The same is certainly true regarding nations. It is now evident to practically all Americans that we do not have any mandate from Almighty God to police the world. There is a general realization that we never should have supported the French from 1946 to their defeat at Dienbienphu in 1954 in their attempt to reestablish their lush Indochinese colo- nial empire. Then, it was a tragic mistake that we went into Vietnam with our Armed Forces and Our tremendous air power and napalm bombed so many cities, vil- lages, and hamlets in South Vietnam to "save them." We are compounding that mistake the longer our Armed Forces remain there. Moratorium day, October 15, was the greatest peaceful mass demonstration in the history of our Republic. Amer- icans paraded with dignity or remained away from Work to show to administra- tion leaders that Americans want the war to end without delay?that Amer- icans demand a haltoss of price- less lives of recent high school graduates and the flower of the young manhood of America in a faraway little country of no importance to the defense of the United States. Very definitely, we should bring home as quickly as possible by ship and plane, in the same manner our Armed Forces were sent, the more than 500,000 Amer- icans in our Armed Forces now in South Vietnam. At the same time we should call on- the North Vietnamese to with- draw without delay all of their forces now in South Vietnam. This total ac- cording to former Ambassador Averell Harriman, a truly great American and our most skilled and experienced nego- tiator, is estimated to number not more than 40,000. I am hopeful that President Nixon will accelerate the withdrawal of American troops from South Vietnam. He should respond to the overwhelming will of the majority of Americans and immediately withdraw all of our Armed Forces from Vietnam. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there further morning business? Mr. PEARSON. Mr. President, I sug- gest the absence of a quorum. The PRESIDING OFFICER, The clerk will call the roll. The bill clerk proceeded to call the roll. Mr. FELL. Mr. President, I ask unan- imous consent that the order for the quorum call be rescinded. The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. PEARSON in the chair). Without objec- tion, it is so ordereft" ANNIVERSARY OF THE ENTRY OF GREECE INTO WORLD WAR II Mr. PELL. Mr. President, today, Oc- tober 28, marks the 29th anniversary of the entry of Greece into World War II. It is an important holiday in Greece for It marks the turning point in that coun- try's struggle for liberty and freedom. On October 28, 1940, the Greek people began a decade of fighting and sacrifice, marked by both triumph and tragedy, which encompassed some of Greece's most desperate moments and some of its finest hours. Those of us who care about the ideals for which the Greeks fought, and who care about the courageous peo- ple of that country, find it difficult to celebrate today, because of the fact that Greece is in the hands of a military re- gime which has made a mockery of the victories won by Greece during that tur- bulent 10-year period. I have spoken many times on the floor of the Senate in recent months on this subject. I do not intend to repeat or re- capitulate these comments today. Suffice it to say that the regime continues to be repressive. The Greek people do not en- joy the civil liberties which are the fundamental characteristic of a de- mocracy. Reports of torture by reliable observers continue, despite official de- nials. In fact, the regime has been cen- sored by the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe for violating the Euro- pean Convention on Human Rights and a subcommission on human rights of the Council will present a report on this sub- t ject in December. Finally, there are per- sistent reports of a growing anti-Amer- h ican sentiment in the country based on S13313 the feeling that the United States is sup- porting the present regime. The people of Greece should know that there are many in this Chamber, many in the House of Representatives, and millions of Americans who deplore the present situation in Greece. We are not only saddened by the apparent unwill- ingness of the Government to move toward the restoration of democracy, in the land in which democracy was born, but outraged by the violent methods being used by the regime toward those who question its principles and practices. There is, of course, little that we can do to help the Greek people, for the char- acter of their regime is, in the final anal- ysis, their own internal affair. But there is something that we can do not to help the military dictatorship. To this end, I have proposed an amendment to the foreign aid bill which would curtail mili- tary aid to Greece by insuring that no additional aid is programed until the Congress so approves. I shall do all that I can and have that proposed amend- ment enacted into law. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there further morning business? NOMINATION OF CLEMENT F. HAYNSWORTH, JR., TO BE AN ASSOCIATE JUSTICE OF THE SUPREME COURT Mr. BELLMON. Mr. President, since the nomination of Clement F. Hayns- worth, Jr., for the position of Associate Justice of the Supreme Court on the 18th of August of this year, every Mem- ber of this body and particularly those Members who serve on the Committee on the Judiciary have been flooded with comments from their constituents, special interest groups, labor organizations, and from many of their colleagues, concern- ing this appointment. Mr. President, every Member of this body has heard of the "Darlington case" and the,"Brunswick case." The facts of those eases and the judge's role in them have been repeated many times here on the floor of the Senate and any objective study of them can, in my opinion, only lead to the conclusion that the charges made are in fact not substantiated by any evidence before the committee or the Members of this body. From my examination of the testimony presented at the? hearings on Judge Haynsworth's confirmation, the commit- tee was primarily interested in deter- mining whether three basic criteria had been met by this nominee. First, is Judge Haynsworth a person of great integrity; second, has Judge Haynsworth demon- strated judicial temperament; and third, does Judge Haynsworth possess a high level of professional ability. Using these basic criteria as guidelines upon which one should base his opinion in considering the nomination, I have found ample evidence that the nomi- nee qualifies with flying colors. Judge Haynsworth has made disclos- ures of his financial holdings in more detail than is required by any Member of his body and in much greater detail than most members of the judiciary who ave previously been confirmed by the Senate. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 ? CIA-RDP71p0g36fE000012080W)% S 13314 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD? EA'" c er 28, 1969 Many members of the legal professien lobbying of Senators by private interest Baltimore, top lobbyist for the NAACP and whet have conducted cases before Judge groups. Lobbying is neither illegal or un- other civil sigh: had organiaetale en tions. Haynsworth as well as the organized bar, moral. Private groups are entitled to their e Haynsworthin the form of the American Bar As- opinions on Supreme Court nominees as use of his involv ent in the long, tangled legal case involving the Darlington sodIation, have expressed confidence in they are on any other subject. But, in Manufacturing Co. and Testae Workers his ability as a judge to render a fair and the case of Court nominees, the Senate union, his participation In Carolina Vend-a- 1114 decision in any case appearing be- has a duty, under the Constitation, to' Maxie oo. and his civil rights record as a f or him. consider their integrity, capability, and judge on the Federal Court of Appeals. I would also like to point out that mew experience, and if they apprOve the norm- Harris telephoned oaniel J Moynihan. of those expressing that view had. in inee on this basis, to advise and consent urban affairs specialist on the White House staff who was with the President in Cali- fact, lost cases in the judge's court. How- to the nomination. I question what new fornia, and Jerris Leonard, Assistant Attor- ev6r, it appears that they still hold to the insight into these imies will be - Wed ney General, on. Aug. 15 and warned them opinion that the decisions vrere rendered by a powerful lobbybw...lis.4 the AFL-CIO, considered Hayns- fairly using the cases decided in the pest Mr. Presidents-15*s lobbying effort is worth anti-tabor and anti-civil rights me detail in a Washington record as well as issues involving his ethical conduct whkle on the bench. In addition, Wang sent a telegram directly to the President raising the same issues. "The President didn't reply, he didn't reply at all," Measly said recently. "His reply came a few days later when he aianounced the ap- pointment of Judge Haynsworth." Mr. RSV" MON. Mr. President, it is clear, in view of the President's position and the organized opposition, that there will be a major confrontation on the Senate floor over the nomination of judge Haynsworth. The question has been raised from several sources that profess only an abid- ing concern for the well-being of the Supreme Court: "Why does not the President withdraw the nomination and avoid the bloody confirmation fight?" Mr. President, there is need for serious concern over the impact of this fight on the Supreme Court, The image of the Court has been tarnished recently by the resignation, under fire, of the Asso- ciate Justice whom Judge Haynsworth is supposed to replace. We need to be great- ly concerned by the public's loss of con- fidence in the impartiality of this Court. Concern for the Court, however, does and the evidence which had been pre- discussed sented. Post a Mr. President, there is need for seriOus un concern over the impact of this contro- p ve sy on the Supreme Court can find no reason to oppose a person w ly because his philosophy is contrarY as own. I can find nothing which 1110i- A s that the judge has committed an ethical practice. Judge Itaynswerth soi to ca un has been a distinguished circuit judge, and I believe he will be an outstanding g addition to the U.S. Suprema, Court. r. President, a major confrontation over the nomination of Judge Hans- worth to the Supreme Court is coming up ori the Senate floor in the near future. T e public's interest in the Court, and tl4e intense press coverage of the nomi- tion hearings, and attacks against the n minee insure that the Nation will be watching closely as the Senate votes on this nomination. The President has made it clear that stands behind Judge Haynsworth's mination. After reviewing all of the tIacks made against the nominee on his '1 rights record, his labor record, and his integrity, the President reafflrined h confidence in Judge Haynswerth His tter of October 3, 1969, to the minority leder states: In order that there be no ml hinderstatici- ing on the part of anyone, 1 send this letter to confirm that I steadfastas, support this nOmination and earnestly hese and trust that the Senate Judiciary Committee and the senate will proceed with dispatch to approve the nomination. a Cl It is equally clear that those who op- pose the nomination are not ready to relent. The machinery to block confierna- tion has been set in motion and it is . questionable if the attack could be , . we qualify him, he is an undistinguished stopped now even by those who started it. the choice and it would be better for the Thus, notwithstanding the fact that d the Court if another man were nominated. ? in his Mr. President, the only part of that a great deal of balance has been added tte the whole discussion in the Senate by. est single argument with which I can agree is that he has done nothing Wrong, nothing the efforts of the distinguethed Senator ? on rYf Con- trom Nebraska (Mr. Ileusen) al. the serious break that would disqualify him. Thereafter, distinguished Senator from Ken ucky and the nine- my disagreement with those who make (Mr. Coos), thousands of labor inion .-?- istratton the argument is complete. and union members and thousands of supporters of civil rights are writing and telegraphing their opposition to Itheir Senators. Most of these communications it reflect an understanding of, or ex sure to, only one side of the issue. The rep- resent the product of the massive fort that was begun several weeks ago then he entire story had not been presented. e are confronted, now, by thous ds of Harris, the AFL-CIO associate general ooun- cause too many people are opera wig un- eop/e and organizations who have pub- seir, arenedtAnwidre th j.wesJe.piBiLefiRllaer, legislativeJr.,nil wellkdniroec- der serious misapprehension. *cly committed themselves to fight the t? g. . wn The nomination by President Nixon Washington lawyer representing several civil Haynsworth nomination, right or Wrong. rights groups. of Judge Clement Haynsworth, Jr., does There is another dimension to the They alerted George Meany, president of not result in the Senate considering "just 'stop Haynsworth" effort: The outright the Aego-ceo, and Clarence Mitchell of another Federal judge"; but rather an e of October 16, 1969, and I ask ous consent that the article be ed in the RECORD. ere being no objection, the article ordered to be printed in the RECORD. 011OWS: ID RA i .N..b HAYS SWORTH FOR "SPECIAL" FIGHT (By Murray Seeger) Sen. Th as J. Dodd (D-Conn.) received a telephon call a few days ago from an old friend, Jay ?vestone, director of interna- tional affairs the AFL-CIO. The two men ually discuss their common interest in figh g communism, but this recent conversation was different. Lovestone was trying to get a mmitment from Dodd that he would vol against confirming Clement F. Haynsworth .Tr. as an associate justice of the U.S. Supre e Court. "We don't usually use on something like this," an AFL-CLO sta an said this week. "But the Irlaynsworth cake is special." The special nature of the Hayhsworth case that it represents the first occiton since 1930 that the labor federation h actively opposed a Supreme ()Oust nomination That nominee was John J. Parker Of North Carolina, the last o3urt appointee to lose a Senate confirmation vote. As one of the 10 Democrats on the majority side of the Senate Judiciary Cominitttee, not dictate the withdrawal of Judge Dodd warranted spec-al attention in the view Haynsworth's name by the President. Instead, it counsels those who attack of the AFL-CIO. He voted to send the Ha ns- N worth nomination to the Senate floor, ut Judge Haynsworth recklessly to consider may vote against confirmation. and decide whether their pique over the Another Democratic member of the or> mittee, Sen. Joseph D. Tydings of Meryl had an unusual visit from Al Barkan, direc of the AFL-CIO Committee on Politi al Education before voting "no" on the nomi a tion. Sen Hugh D. Scoot of pennsylvania, minority leader of the Senate who is uncommitted on the nomination, has pressured to vote "no" by the only Re can in the AFL--CIO hierarolay, Minton, of Philade'phia, president Glass Bottle Blowers' Association, United Steelworkers, biggest Lull state. Haynsworth has become the issue for the AFL--CIO in this gress and represents the between the federatio 1 4,4,T he ..s..:;.,c=4: ,ainst Haynsworth has Judge Haynsworth has been a distin- also renewed the alliance between the AFL- guished circuit court judge and it has cio and fewer civil right organizations at been predicted that he will be an out- a time when local unions and minority standing addition to the U.S. Supreme groups are battling in several cities. Court. "This has already become part of the 1970 congressional elections," one union source The public has shown little under- said, standing of the qualities which fit Judge When Haynsworth's name first came Haynsworth for his position. I think through the Washington rumor mill, Tons these qualities should be reviewed, be- choice of a men of his philosophy is suf- ficient to justify the lasting damage they may inflict on the Court. The demands for withdrawal of Judge Haynsworth's name seem to rest on an e argument that goes like this: While tin en Judge Haynsworth has not done any- bli- thing wrong, or anything that would dis- Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 E 8904- Approved eelftemdizai2012.: Cia-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 itht,OKI)? Extensions of Remarks October 27, 1969 There are now in effect laws that provide for imposing a prohibition on individual business firms against repeating a mailing to one who has objected to the post office, upon the receipt of what he considers objection- able material. This has only limited effect upon the pornographers. They can still make the first mailing with impunity. And further- more, each separate filth peddler can make a first mailing to the same household. H.R. 6186 details what would be considered pornographic and to be unlawful if sent to the home in which there is a minor. The broad interpretation of the word "knowingly" in the proposal would make it financially uneconomical for these depraved distributors to broadcast their filth on a mass basis. They would have to consider that any home could have minors present, and before making the first mailing, would have to determine in advance that such a condition did not exist. I believe this would effectively stop this obnoxious practice without being subjected to the charge of censorship. I hope that the legislation can be approved by your commit- tee at an early date. REPORT ON THE PRESENT GREEK SITUATION HON. DON EDWARDS OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, October 27, 1969 Mr. EDWARDS of California. Mr. Speaker, the news from Greece shows a rising tide of protests against the mil- itary dictatorship there. Unfortunately, the same news shows that the U.S. Gov- ernment continues to be linked with that dictatorship, resulting in a rising tide of anti-American feeling. The current of events in Greece was re- cently studied by N. A. Stavrou, a pro- fessor at Howard University. He has been kind enough to provide me with a copy of his excellent report, one that details fully what is happening in Greece. In insert this documented and first- hand study into this RECORD: A REPORT ON THE PRESENT GREEK SITUATION (By Prof. N. A. Stavrou) The present report is based on facts as- sembled during a research trip to Greece which lasted from August 1 to September 13, 1969. This trip was made possible by a Research Grant given by the Social Science Division of Howard University and had as its primary objective the study of Protest Groups and their formation. A specific re- search plan had been worked out prior to my departure from the States. However, soon after my arrival in Greece I discovered that scientific research was impossible under a regime of marital law. I was given warnings by many people not to proceed with the idea of conducting a survey of public opinion by submitting questions to ordinary people, because they told me, "You don't know to whom you are talking." Consequently, I had to revise my research methodology in several ways. Systematic sampling of opinions had to be substituted by selective gauging of reactions to questions purposely made to provoke. To support such responses I sought to examine the behaviors of groups of dis- contented persons. I thought I would have a better understanding of what is happening in Greece if I concentrated on five sources of information: a) former political leaders now in active opposition; b) former high ranking military officers as well as officers in active duty when this was possible; c) former elected officials of small towns or private associations; d) plain people from all walks of life whose confidence I had to cultivate before they could talk as they felt, and e) the government's position which could easily be sampled from the censored press, or personal interviews when possible Some of the political leaders and personal- ities with whom I had extensive discussions on the subject matter of my study and the current Greek political situation are: Hon. Panayotis Kanellopoulos, Former Prime Minister, Minister of Defense and Lead er of the E.R.E. Party. Hon. Stephanos Stephanopoulos, Former Prime Minister, Minister of Economic Coor- dination, Foreign Affairs, and leader of Li- beral Party founded after his break with the Center Union (FDK). Hon. Evangelos Averoff-Tositzas, Former Minister of Foreign Affairs (ERE). . Hon. Ioannis Zigdis, Former Minister of Industry (Center Union). Hon. Emmanuel Kothris, Former Minister of Commerce, Deputy of Center Union. - Hon. Ioannis M. Tsouderos, Former Dep- uty of Center Union. Hon. Spyros Markezinis, Former Minister of Economic Coordination and Leader of the Progressive Party. Hon. Constantinos N. Rallis, Former Dep- uty and Minister of Information. Hon. George Mavros, Former Minister of Defense and Interior, Governor of the Bank of Greece, presently considered as the leader of the Center Union. Hon. George Rallis, Former Minister of Interior (ERE). Hon. Harris Rentis, Former Deputy of Cen- ter Union, Minister. Hon. Ioannis Varvitsiotis, Former Deputy of ERE. Lt. Gen. Theodoros Griropoulos, Former Chief of Defense Staff, Chief of the Army, author (Retired). Lt. General Petros Nikolopoulos, Former Chief of the C.I.A. of Greece, Former Chief of Staff of the Army. Lt. Gen. Ioannis Sorokos, Deputy Chief of the Armed Forces (1969) , Ambassador Ap- pointee to London. Gen. Alexandros Hatzipetros, Chief of CIA. of Greece.* Lt. Col. L. Mavraganas, C.I.A. of Greece. Gen. George Thomopoulos, Chief of G.D E.A. (General Directorate of National Secu- rity). With General Sorokos I ?had a rather ex- tensive and probing (on both sides) conver- sation, while with the latter three individu- als I discussed no substantive matters. From Gen. Hatzioetros I requested Information on Front Organizations functioning in Greece between 1955-1967. He introduced me to Lt. Col. Mavraganas, who was ordered by the General to assemble unclassified information available in the Agency and give it to me. At the same time, Gen. Hatzipetros said that most of such information is kept by G.D.E.A., where he introduced me to Gen. Thomopoulos. Lt. Col. Mavraganas, after I told him what I was looking for, promised to send all information available and unclassi- fied "as soon as the Colonel who specializes in such matters returns from his leave." Gen. Thomopoulos requested a specific list of types of information and I submitted one to him. He, too, promised to mail available in- formation as soon as it could be assembled. So far, I have received no material requested from either agency. In addition to the above-mentioned per- sonalities, I have met a number of formerly high-ranking officials, local leaders, Union personalities newspapermen and former Ministers who wish anonymity. Through newspapermen and friends, I have tried to get some information on the role and fate e of the 45 generals who have been arrested and kept under solitary confinement in a t hotel outside of Athens. One high-ranking officer whom I was able to meet In his place of exile talked with me "freely" after I told him who informed me of his whereabouts The only place where I found suitable for . an exchange of views with the gentleman was by the sea, where we could swim and talk without being followed by his guard, a plain clothesman, never more than 10 feet away. The number of swimmers made it diffi- cult for the guard to see anything unusual going on between the General and another swimmer who could not be identified as a ...foreigner in the water. The gentleman not only talked to me under such circumstances, but he was also kind enough to write an ex- tensive analysis of the issues of Anti-Ameri- canism and effectiveness of the Armed forces. I had to make special arrangements to get this document, which is now in my possession. On the basis of information received from the above-mentioned Individuals as well as from hundreds of plain people I have the following observations to make on the current Greek situation: Political Process: There is almost unani- mous agreement among the politicians, form- er Deputies and local leaders that Greece is in for an absolute dictatorial regime which will be more repressive as the time passes. In *support of such arguments everyone points to the current developments, such as decrees promulgated, compulsory laws enacted and proposed (the Press Law was the conversa- tion piece during the last three weeks of my stay in Greece) as well as public pro- nouncements by government leaders. They all believe that the Salonica speech of Mr. Papadopoulos should suffice to convince any extreme optimist of the fact that Greece is going rapidly backwards. In addition to this, they point to the day to day behavior of the government, always with specific and irre- futable examples of brutal actions and un- controllable arrogance on the part of the authorities. It appears to them, they argue, that the regime becomes daily more insecure and more repressive. They feel, and know, they say, that a police state is rapidly being perfected and political persecution continues unabated. Personally, I had opportunities to observe the presence of the police state. Deputies and former Ministers who wanted to meet with me hesitated to do so because they were :allowed by plainclothesmen. At least three former Ministers who met with me were continuously being followed and I was a witness of this. They are Mr. George Mavras, followed by three men in a Volvo car; Mr. George Rallis and one former Min- ister who wishes his name not to be men- tioned. All political leaders that I have talked to, with the exception of Mr. Evengellos Averoff-Tositzas, feel that compromise with the present regime is impossible and whoever suggests it must be naive. The government, they point out, does not have and never has had such intentions. They have impressive evidence to support their position. Mr. Averrof feels that the government is of course unwilling to compromise, but a militant position by other political forces will prevent solutions from within or with- out the junta. "When you promise to court- martial them," he said, "they will fight and they will stick together." In line with this position, Mr. Averrof feels that "the Mevros- Kanellopoulos Political manifesto was a mis- take." Another slight variation from the posi- tion of the political world as I understand it comes from Former Minister of Economic Coordination and leader of the Progressive Party Mr. Spyros Markezinis. Mr. Marke- zinis feels that the present leaders are inept and inevitably will need the help of experi- need people, if they "properly care about Greece, as they claim." He is also willing to be he Prime Minister of a Transitional govern- ment. "After all," he said, "I was a success- ul Minister of Economic Coordination and *Introduced to him by Gen. Sorokos. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP711300364R00(300120003-9 89 03_ OctOer 27, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ?Extensions of Remarks the Georgia Council of Farmer Cooper- atives prepared a leaflet showing the di- verse ways cooperatives serve their mem- bers in Georgia. I think this information will be of interest to the Members of Congress. I am, therefore, including the following summary of these interesting statistics. In the marketing area in Georgia there are 23 cooperatives with 87,700 members. These cooperatives have 7,170 loyees and do a gross volume of busi- ness $329,100,000. The major products marketed by these cooperatives are poul- try, peanuts, milk and milk products, and grain and soybeans. In the area of production supplies there are 14 cooperatives with 84,000 members. These cooperatives have 470 employees and do a gross volume of business of $49,- 129,000. In the area of services, credit is pro- vided through Federal land bank as- sociations and Production Credit Asso- ciations. Electric membership corpora- tions provide electrical power and dairk herd improvement associations provide management services. These are just some of the many serv- ices which are provided through cooper- atives to aid farmers In nearly every aspect of their farm business. I join with the citizens of Georgia in saluting the fine work of our Georgia cooperatives. It might also be of interest to point out that the first agricultural coopera- tive marketing association formed in Georgia was in our 10th District. This was in the early part of the 1930's when the Athens Cooperative Creamery-was estab- lished in Athens, Ga., by my wife's father, A. P. Winston, Judge Henry West, L. M. Sheffer, Dr. Henry Fullilove, Dr. Harvey Cabaniss, and Emmett Cabariss. It is still a successful operation, being now Better Maid Dairy Products, Inc. Piper Cherokee which claimed 83 lies, add percentage of private pilots fly after drink- now fuel to the airport/airways issues. ing. And, ,when a small general aviation air- In each of the past three years, he said craft is involved, the finger invariably is alcohol has been attributed to 61A to seven pointed toward the "little" plane by initial percent of fatal private plane crashes. press reports. By way of comparison, National Safety Reaction holds the light aircraft had no Council states that alcohol probably is a right tO be there, regardless who was at fault, factor in at least half oe all fatal motor The Parade article declared: "It was a stu- vehicle accidents. dent with only 38 hours in the air. who Actually, the accident rate of general avia- rammed into an airliner in September over tion aircraft is decreasing---5,069, or 1.311 ac- the I dianapolis airport while making a cidents per every one millun airplane Miles practic pass at the runway." flown in 1968 compared with 6,115, or 1.78 ni Actu lly the accident occurred some 20, accidents per million miles flown i miles Southeast of the airport. Subsequent The number of fatal acciden findings suggest it was the airliner that creased from 603, or ,18 struck the light plane. flown, in 1967, to 692, o In at analysis of the 38 in-flight collisions flown in 1968. At the same t cent increase i from 114,186 ? a correspon the miles accordin Wichita Aga4 for comparison, some 26 million (25.5 per ce t) of the nation's 102.1 million motor vehic7es in 1968 were involved in accidents acco nting for 55,200 motor vehicle deaths, acco ding to National SafEty Council figures. There were 14.5 accidents per one million driven by motor vehicles and .04 itles per million miles driven. e FAA categorizes all non-airline and litary aircraft in the United States as aviation, or "private" aircraft. Its t numbers more than 100. 4 million genEral aviation hours , as a point in fact, 69 per cent as purposes and 31 per cent " ersonal use of aircraft," at the top of the as intended to ce, of records n the civil ictured miring uni- es- er occuri the N (NTSB dents, involv And g in the United States during 1968, tional Transportation Safety Board , which investigates all fatal air acci- ound FAA's air traffic control system d in at least seven. n all seven, traffic congestion, control tower Visibility and human performance lim- itation, and inadequacy of VI-1R (aircraft operating under "see and be seen" visual ? flight rules) traffic flow procedures were. found contributory to the chain of: events! leadin up to collision. Sight collisions are very rare at air- here traffic flow is directed In a posi in - d orderly manner," the NTSB declared, feta e analysis, NTSB said six of the 38 T ns occurred on or above an airport,, non- es within the airport traffic pattern,' gener thin two miles of the airport and 10 own ft ts more than five miles from the air- Of tla "In- ports tive a In t collisi 12 mi five w amide port. flown in The collisions involved 76 individual air- were for bus craft and 71 fatalities, although total pas- could be label according to ADS. The picture appear Parade article apparent depict the "private" plane m A check by the Wichita E maintained on each aircraft flow system revealed that all aircraf have transponders, radar, distance m equipment, autopilots, redundant co cations and navigation systems and, sence, were equipped coinparably or be than the two commercial jetliners shown the background. The five "private" aircraft in the picture represent a transportation investment by "private" businesses of $1.2 million, of which nearly $1 million is represented by the cost of electronic communication and navigation equipment alone. Indeed, these private planes are waiting for the navigation, air traffic control and fed- eral communleations system to catch up so equipment they, have installed can be used on any airport in the U.S. Most businesses &V corporations utilizing their own private airoraft today also heavy users of the cor" cial airlines. Whether public or pri va ir sat et vital concern to all. owever, in- million miles 0 per million miles e ther a was a nine per he ifeneral aviation fleet- 1967, to 121,237 in 1968?and ng nine per cent increase in wn by genera', aviation aircraft, to Aviation Data Service (ADS). sengers and crew members totaled '246. Of the aircraft, three were coManercial air- liners, one a military fighter and two were glider?the remainder being peeivered gen-, eral aviation aircraft. One collision, dentally, involved two planes beine used to herd horses in Wyoming. Twenty-one aircraft were described al being on pleasure flights, while 20 were eni gaged in some form of flight instruction. ] Concluded NTSB: "While there was no evidence of adverse weather having been a significant factor in any Cf the 38 in-flight iccidents, haze ind/or smoke were likely tia have been in the area in six instances; pre-Mitation,, showery in nature, was probably In the gen- eral area in 11 cases. "All 38 collisions, however, ?conned during daylight hours under VTR conditions (ceiling above 1,000 feet and visibility more than three miles). "It was noted most collisions occurred in areas and periods of greatest general aviation activity and the most likely time and place for cellisions to occur would be on bright clear Sunday afternoons in August at un.- oontr011ed airports," NTSB said. A Common misconception among laymen, including the Parade writer, is that radar equiPment on aircraft is used for spotting other aircraft. Stated Parade: "Few private planes are equipped with radar, to act as extra eyes for the pilot." Nor do any commercial airliners have thee "extra eyes." Aircraft radar is for weather avoidance and does not detect othtr aircraft. Parade also pointed out that the "private pilot who decides to go on a lark in the skies after drinking . . . is . . . probably the grea est threat to air safety." It dded that autopsies performed on pilots from the 692 fatal general aviation accidents, during 1968 "indicate that as many as 200. had been drinking. Of these accidents, oft cials said that alcohol was the cause of 5 'bey nd a shadow of a doubt.'" As recently as September, however, Ber- ner Boyle, NTSB chief of the Safety Anal- ysis Division, said he believed only a smell SALUTE TO GEORGIA COOPERAnvEs a HON. ROBERT G. STEPHENS, JR. OF GEOROIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, October 27, 1969 Mr. STEPHENS. Mr. Speaker, it has been brought to my attention that the month of October is "Co-Op Month." The theme this year is "Cooperatives: Prog- ress Through People." The State of Georg..a is observing this "Co-Op Month," along with the rest of the Nation. As part of this observance, SEEK MEASURES TO CONTROL PORNOGRAPHY HON. JAMES B. UTT OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPREShNIATIVES Monday, October 27, 1969 Mr. UTT. Mr. Speaker, I would like to include my statement on HR. 6186 which would seek measures to control pornography, which I am cosponsoring STATEMENT 131- JAMES B. UTT ON H.R. 6186 Mr. Chairman: I appreciate this oppor- tunity of including some comments in the record of testimony on the various measures seeking to control pornography. I am a co- sponsor of H.R. 6186 which would prohibit the dissemination through interstate com- merce or the mails of materials harmful to persons under the age of eighteen years and would restrict the exhibition of movies to such persona. My state of California has seen both a flood of the most vile presentations sent through the mails to the homes, and an expansion of the producers of the filth Printing presses have run around the clock turning out the tons and tons of advertis- ing material in full color and great detail. My constituents who are receiving such material are demanding that steps be taken to protect their loved ones from being exposed to the shock of seeing such traeh. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 imp rovtcbFROgescpWRE3RieiRSIA:mogilp3vIVA9319$1120003-9 October 27, do not wish to become a Minister again." However, he, too, is pessimistic about the prospect of the junta giving up or even shar- ing power with anyone, and he qualifies his willingness to be Prime Minister with import- ant conditions. Many feel that the junta will try occa- sionally to absorb political personalities of Pipinellis type and transform them into "Von Papens of Greece." Such occurrences will help the government in certain ways, but it will not break the front of opposi- tion. Personally, I have the feeling that two or three such persons entertain the thought of entering the governmental fold, but it is also quite likely that others who are with the government will resign. One candidate for resignation is Prof. Kyriakopoulos, Minister of Justice, who, I was told, had nothing to do with the Press Law, nor was he properly consulted about it. I feel that the arrival of the new American Ambassador will be the catalyst of certain developments in the rela- tions of the Junta with the opposition, if the Ambassador comes with specific policies in mind. However, no one believes that the American policy will change drastically and furthermore, those who could have helped to an orderly development, have reasons not to trust the Americans. Prospects: Everyone feels that as the gov- ernment becomes more repressive and the opposition more experienced, organized vio- lence will increase. My survey indicates, and practically all political leaders I have talked to agree, that the government has reached the point of almost complete separation from the people. The present rulers of Greece have absolutely no appreciation of the im- portance of support from below. At least four Former Ministers suggested that vio- lence is justified because the regime itself is violence par excellence. FurthermOre, they argue, "the 'bombs are better heard by the State Department and the C.I.A. than the voices of reason." "The Americans," they say, "do not consider the Greek problem critical so as to stop doing certain things because it does not appear critical. They look in the night clubs and bouzoukia joints and con- clude that here is a happy people. Perhaps few bombs will help them awaken and real- ize that we are in a deadly crisis." In con- clusion, everyone feels that orderly devel- opments. with the present government as a partner are impossible. Violence is to be ex- pected and in the long run it will be more extensive. I have asked many leaders why they don't make an opening for a dialogue with the government. Their answer.was quite simple and pragmatic: "The Greek people will brand anyone who deals with the present government a traitor and quisling. After all," they say, "if elections were to be held to- morrow, the political parties of 1965-67 will receive the same number of votes as then. We have our following intact," they say, "the junta does not have any at all." I sought to check on this claim and asked a local leader who is quite familiar with the attitudes of the countryside. He agrees that the political forces are divided as they were before the coup, but "parts of those forces have become militant" and in any outbreak of violence they will move to the left regard- less of where they belonged before April 21, 1967. Mr. Mavros said that "we made our offer. In the political proclamation with Kanellopoulos, we stated that we are ready to form or support a transitional govern- ment," he said. The offer has been laughed off by the junta, who keeps referring to them as the "Ex-politicians." ' On Support: I indicated above that the present regime of Greece has absolutely no appreciation for popular support and in the two years of its presence has done more to alienate its supporters than increase them. It is commonly agreed that even those who granted them good intentions earlier regret it now. Consequently, the support they have does not come from the people in general but from the following categories of special groups: (a) People who make their living from gov- ernmental employment, especially those who got their jobs after April 21, 1967. From this group, however, one must differentiate, a sub- group which actively opposes the regime. There is, for example, an active underground group made up of Civil Servants which cir- culates pamphlets with anti-regime material. (b) People who make their living indirectly from the state and from whom support is ex- tracted rather than offered. (c) Several extremist groups made up of people who have been active in the period between 1944 (such as people who composed the organziation X, under George Grivas) and who have the stigma of cooperation with the Germans. These people are presently zealous informers for the regime and are being Identified by the people as such. It is also a rather curious development to note that former Communists are among those who have become informers and supporters of the regime. The noted examples are, of course, Mr. Savas Constantopoulos', editor of the newspaper Eleftheros Kosmos (Free World) who was a high-ranking member of the Greek Communist Party and Mr. Th. Papakonstantinou, another high former rank- ing member of the Communist party who was Minister of Education and who has the dis- tinction of having studied in the Marxist Schools of Moscow. One serious problem with all those who are working for the state is that it is expected of them to prove their loyalty by concrete acts of support for the "National Government." This is more evident in the countryside where everyone knows everyone else. (d) A fourth group which supports condi- tionally the present regime is Big Business. Their support, as usual, depends on benefits they get by governmental policies. However, their rivalry can have serious political im- plications. Shipping magnates who brought their ships under the Greek flag, for example, did so for a very simple reason: They do not as yet pay a single penny of taxes to the State. This was confirmed by a former Minister of Economic Coordination, who is furious of the fact that the government insists on collecting taxes from his writings (exorbitant in his view) while big business gets a free ride. The fact that the Greek shipowners do not pay any taxes at all is based on a little known decree issued by the government which clas- sifies ships into several categories for pur- poses of taxation. Ships over twenty-five years old, for example, are free of taxation for sev- eral years. Newly-constructed ships are free for ten years; ships repaired in Greek ship- yards are free of taxation at a rate of one year per one hundred thousand dollars worth of repairs. This business group will continue to sup- port the government as long as it promotes its interests. It will also increase the opposi- tion because the workers will be forced eventually to oppose it actively and with it the government. As of now, no one can speak of trade unionism in Greece and it is ex- pected that the workers who lost all gains of the last twenty-five years will join the active opposition, and the government re- lations with big business will be affected seriously. Opposition: It is rather difficult to examine the makeup of the active opposition. How- ever, it is my view that the present regime is rejected by the vast majority of the Greek people of which a minority is prepared to do something against it. Potential opposition will come, many be- lieve, and I agree, from all those people di- rectly affected by the present regime. The number of such people is quite impressive and it is sufficient to make up a strong revo- lutionary force. Many feel it reaches the E 8905 vicinity of half a million people. When chal- lenged on this figure, they proceed to calcu- late. They claim that there were over one hundred thousand elected officials who lost their jobs, beginning with the Mayor of Athens and ending with the water distributor (an elective position in some places) of the remote village. Add to this, fired civil servants and dismissed officers as well as all those individuals who had a "file" in the Security Agencies, as well as their relatives and you come up with a larger not a smaller number. Furthermore, they say, practically more than three-fourths of the leaders of associations of all sorts have been forced out. Many be- lieve that not only do we have sufficient forces for future violence and upheavals, but also opposition leadership with respect and following. From this number of affected individuals one ought to deduct a smaller group which has been "revolutionized" by brutal violation of individual rights. They are the people ar- rested since April 21, 1967. Many say the often-mentioned figure of six thousand is incorrect. They put the number of persons arrested at 70,000 with detainment periods roughly from a few days to years. The figure of 70,000 arrested was supported by a former Lt. General who wishes his name not to be mentioned. He himself has been arrested and detained for a prolonged period. I sought to crosscheck this information. From further investigation, I found nothing to warrant re- jection of the 70,000 figure. It is cliamed by many, and I fully agree on this, that the forces of potentially extensive violence are all present in Greece. What is lacking is or- ganization and this might take some time because the opposition functions under a severe police regime which is in many re- spects harsher than in Communist states. Active Opposition: There are opposition groups from all three political groupings. However, so far the Right Wing and Center Forces are playing their role. Mostly the Right Wing. The Center Forces, I was told, have not yet played their role fully, while the Left is rubbing its hands with pleasure seeing the government effectively destroying institutions which they could not. A former Minister told me that in many cases leftists organizations have betrayed other opposi- tion groups to the authorities. For doing such things, he said, they are rewarded with state employment thus achieving another goal: infiltration of state agencies. Other Deputies and former Ministers had specific cases of such occurrences to reveal. It appears to me that the active opposition is presently structured in three layers with only the Royalists and the Right systematic- ally active. The Center Forces which accord- ing to some encompass a wide spectrum of intellectuals is rapidly organizing and will come forward. In the Center, I include the forces of Andreas Papandreou. The percent- age of his following is disputed by many. One former Minister placed the following of Andreas at 20%of the Greek voters. Others give invariably larger or smaller figures. A former Minister of the Interior stated: Re- gardless of what the precise number of An- dreas' following is, the Americans must real- ize that he is a force and any solution with- out him is difficult if not impossible." Tortures of Prisoners: I was very much interested in examining the charges of tor- ture by the police authorities in Greece. My findings confirm that there was both psycho- logical and physical torture. I have asked many people to express themselves on such charges, both former officials and plain peo- ple. One Minister believed that there was no wide-scale torture, but definitely there was, and still is, taking place in "preventive cases." People identified as opposition leaders, or people who are suspected of having in- formation on opposition groups are system- atically tortured, he said. He further stated that he "knew of four such cases in which Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 8906 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD?Extensions of Remarks October 27, 1969 Prisoners were brutally tortured." The same Views have been expressed by a former Min- ister of Interior. This gentleman, whose hon- esty was never questioned,. said, "It is re- pugnant to think that the Secretary General f the Ministry of the Interior and other high officials will themselves beat prison- He personally knows of-prisoners beaten by Mr. Lades. I have specifically checked on the case of Professor Mangaisis, whose wife Was court martialed and innsrisoned for four years because she sought the help of for- eign leaders for her husband. The gov- ernment presented Professor Mangakis in a Press Conference in which be denied being tortured. Thus she was accused of slander- ing the authorities and a court martial sen- tenced her to four years in prison. It is widely belived, though, that the Conference itself was staged and at least five creditable people told me that the "correspondents" were intelligence officers. This I cannot con- firm. I simply convey the allegations of peo- Pie whose honesty I have no reason to doubt. Besides the physical there is also psycho- logical torture. It involves people who are repeatedly called into the police statiOn for purposes of intimidation, One person, for example, told me of the pressures put upon his family a day after the cunstitutional ref- erendum in which he voted -no." The man (in Northern Greece) returned in the eve- ning from his fishing trip to find out that his entire family was in the police station for at least three hours, being drilled as to "why they voted no." Torture by police, I was told, does not involve only politica/ crimes; it ex- hands on any and all crimes. The individual has absolutely no protection and cannot complain -anywhere, being afraid that he Will be court-martialed for "slandering the authorities." There are two eases which I pan refer to here. One involv, a single Gen- darm (horopfylakas policeMan ) who sent to pourt 10 percent of the population of a small town in three days. When I asked why Bev- ral people didn't complain somewhere, the person who offered the Mformation said: "No one is crazy to go to the Court Martial on top of it." Another case which gives some indication of police behavior involved a person in the area of Thebe. Sometime ago a number of robberies and murders had been committed in Greece. The police naturally were look- ing for suspects. Finally they concentrated on one individual as the prime suspect. He was beaten so badly to "admit" the Oriffies, that he lost his sanity as well as his physical health. However, it was discovered later that all robberies and murders had been com- mitted by a group of German tourists who have done the same in England and other European countries. They were tried and onvicted, and their death penalty is now ebeing appealed. Economy: Not being an economist, I Cannot offer an expert opinion on the subject How- ever, a comparative report of the state of the Greek economy composed by a number of former deputies and specialists signed by former Minister of Commerce Emmanuel Kothirs contradicts with figures the claims of the present government. Personally, I have the following observations to make: ; For the time being there is economic sta- bility in Greece about which I am mit pre- pared to state how long it will last. The government is only doing patchworit with repeated loans and spending without cbiatrol. Salaries of officers of all ranks have dbubled in the last two years and the pesantry is offered "bribe-loans" and no one knows where the money comes from. There are definitely hidden dangers for an abrupt col- lapse of the Greek economy This might be precipitated by the deadly struggle currently in progress between four economic giants: Onassis, Niarchos, Andrea,dis and Pappas. I can say definitely that the Niarchos-Onassis conflict had and will have political inliplica- tions. A number of junta officers were furious, for example, when George Papadopoulos in- tervened in the refinery case in favor of Onassis after two expert Committees favored Niarchos. There is a group within the junta which is pressing for "moral purification" (ethiki apokatharsia) of the "Revolution" and this group was absolutely furidus when Mr. Papadopoulos ;.ntervened in favor of Onassis after the two men had a Man to man talk on the refiners contract. This group, apparently, is led by the commander of ESA (Greek Military Police), Col. loannidis, the -man who. sued Mrs. Mangakis for slandering his outfit. The Colonel was furious with Papadopoulos and his men when he learned that -the leader whc; came to power to stop favoritism intervened personally in favor of Onassis. The Onassis-Niarchos feud brought to surface other disagreements among the junta officers. The "purists" pressed Papado- poulos to put an and to the question of monarchy "one way or another." They sug- gested that pressure ought to be put on the King to take a position, any position, on the issues of bombs and resistance movements, as well as on the question of his return which is favored by another group of officers. The outcome of such pressures was a severe campaign against the monarchy dur- ing the first week of September in viola- tion of Articles of the Constitution which have not been suspended. The same pres- sure was also behind the Papadopoulos speech in Salonica in which he rejects in toto the parliamentary system because he said "no- where was progress achieved with Parlia- rrientary system." In conclusion, I would say that the strug- gle on economic giants in Greece will have serious political implications. Secondly, in the long run Greece is risking economic dis- aster and social diseontent because_ so far all serious economic :measures favor the big business. The repatriation of Shipping Mag- nates to Greece has no practical benefit for the Greek state ar.d the collection of rev- enues, since no one pays any taxes for sev- eral years. Many claim that the return of Greek ships under the Greek flag provides for employment of Greek hands. This view is also erroneous. I was told authoritatively that the shipping magnates have been press- ing and got tacit permission to hire as many as 25% foreign crewmen. This means that they are free to hire seamen from India and Pakistan at c:aeap salaries. From sea- men, I learned that all benefits achieved during the last twenty-five years of union- ization have been eliminated by daily decrees coming out of the Ministry of Merchant Ma- rines. For example, now a seaman who works for a ship for less than two years, but who decides to return home before the two-year period, is obliged by law to pay his way back as well as the way of his replacement. Imagine what this means for a seaman who is in Japanese ports and wishes to return home. Seamen tell stories of daily posting of orders and memos in ships telling them What "they cannot do." There are similar developments in other trade unions. For all practical reasons, one should consider free trade unionism as dead in Greece. Such organizations which are still formally in existence now have taken up an- other role totally unrelated to the interests of the membership: they have become the "transmission belts" or the regime and mega-. phones for propaganda. One example is the case of Professor Karageorgas who is impris- oned for his paracipation in resistance movements. During my stay in Greece, there were resolutions passed by many associations "condemning his activities with disgust," something that is totally unrelated with their official role. Anti-Americanism: There is widespread anti-Americanism in Greece and it comes from all sides, including the Government. The opposition and the average Greek is anti- American because he believes that the pres- ent regime came to power with U.S. aid, and stays in power with their help. To my state- ments that they had a wrong view of the U.S. position invariably everyone would an- swer: "If the Americans did not like the present government, it could fall in 24 hours. They like it and they keep it." This answer was given to me by former Prime Ministers and by plain people. One Prime Minister said flatly, "The Americans can topple there in 24 hours. If they stop the jet fuel and other sup- plies, they cannot last long." Another world-respected leader was bitter about the American role. "I don't say that the United States brought them to power as the average Greek does," he said, "what I am saying is that with your policies, you keep them in power." I tried to rationalize with him, saying that the United States has a dilemma here as to what to do with an ally who fulfills its obli- gations to the alliance but whose regline the United States do not approve of. I mentioned to him the letter of the 50 Congressmen and Senators, and the answer of the undersecre- tary of State as an example. He had many praising words for the Congressmen and Senators, but he insisted that "it is wrong to say that Greece fulfills her obligations to the alliance for several reasons: First, the alli- ance was set up to protect the Democratic way of life and the partners have undertaken the obligation to do that. -Greece obviously violates the cardinal ideal of the alliance. Secondly," he said, "Greece's participation in NATO is only academic." The Greek armed forces today have been transformed into a "politicized polite force and the Greek people view NATO as the ve- hicle by which they were enslaved. Therefore, the armed forces do not folfill their obliga- tions to the alliance, as the Americans are led to believe. As for the occasional ex- pression of concern about the prevailing Greek situation," he continued, "they are negated the day after they are made. Here is," he said, "the Secretary of State saying one thing the first clay, and the next your government sends over an astronaut with an autograph for Mr. Papadopoulos, or Dr. von Braun, who is quoted as saying that "Greece knows how to govern itself," One high-ranking officer (I do not mention the service to avoid the likelihood of being identified by the authorities in Greece) Who has been persecuted in a number of ways by the government, wrote an extensive analysis for me of the issue of anti-Americanism and its sources. "How can the Greek former Com- rades-in-Arms not be anti-American, when the Americans are silent about their fate and when they are kept in prison." lie, him- self, returned several honors and resigned in protest from inter-ally associations. A former `Minister of Education told me that the issue of anti-Americanism is very serious and the government of Greece is re- sponsible for this. "In their search for re- spectability," he said, "they sought accom- plices for what they did on April 21. At first, the people were led to believe that the coup was the outcome of a collusion be- tween three accomplices: the palace, the Americans, and the Army. The King, with his coup of December 13, proved to the na- tion that he was not an accomplice to this coup, at least. The Americans did not prove yet that they are not guilty. On the con- trary, by their acts, they support the view that they are." Origins and Make-up of the Junta: Au- thoritative information regarding the origins of the present military Junta contradict an- other myth: that they came to save Greece from Communism. Recent editorials in the "Eleftheros Kosmos"?a pro-government newspaper?places the origin of the Papado- poulos idea "to save the nation in 1238." My information supports the following: (a) The conspiracy started as an idea in Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 October 27_, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD Extensions 1956, when the military organization, ID. KA., sought to convince a General to seize power and declare a personal dictatorship. The General reneged at the last moment and later became Minister in the Karamanlis government. (b) In 1958 the "Idea" of Papadopoulos was taking the shape of an organization "within the I.D.E.A.," or the officers of the organization still in active duty. (c) At least one General realized that "something was going on around Papado- poulos" and sought to disperse the key mem- bers of what appeared to him to be an or- ganization. "I send," he told me, "Papa- dopoulos to Kilkis, Lades to Filiates, etc." However, the General was accused by a prominent political leader of "persecuting officers friendly disposed towards E.R.E." (the rightist party). At one time, it said, the Gen- eral raised the question of removing Papa- dopoulos from the Army for "medical rea- sons, since he was not old enough to be, re- tired." However, during my interview, he avoided the question: "What was wrong with him?" (d) Some of the key members of the pres- ent Junta, I was told by the same General, had political connections with political par- ties. Specifically, Lades, Makarezos and a few others kept referring to Spyros Markezinis as "our leader." "I was teasing them," the General continued by referring to Markezinis as "their boss." (e) The organization was tentatively iden- tified as E.E.N.A. (standing for National Union of Young Officers). (f) It is widely agreed, however?and there is substantial evidence to this?that the original members of the organization pro- ceeded rapidly with the creation of power bases and satellite organizations of their own. This, they believe, will provide the seeds for developments from within. One such "satellite organization is the group of Col. Ioannielis, Chief of Military Police. (g) It is also agreed and partially sub- stantiated, that the government is rapidly promoting officers of trust and retires pro- fessional soldiers who were not members of the Junta but stayed with it for purely pro- fessional reasons. Newly promoted officers, when placed in key positions, tend to be "Independent" of their leader Papadopoulos and the army is thoroughly splintered. Solutions Proposed or Expected: The "best solution" proposed by former political lead- ers is a solution from the Army itself. They don't call it a counter-coup but there is no doubt about what they mean when they say, "The Army has a duty to vindicate it- self in the eyes of the Greek people, and return to them what it has forcefully taken away." A competent military leader suggests that out of 11,000 officers only a maximum of 2,500 ought to be considered committed Junta people. The rest remain professional soldiers whose effectiveness is jeopardized by a bad public image. It is an undeniable fact that the officers corps is viewed upon as an "oppressive group and praetorian guard" by the people, and the element of time is important for a solutipin from within, i.e. before the officers condition themselves being also an elite group. A sec- ond solution supported by some is a "transi- tional government" which will prepare the nation for a return to Democratic proce- dures. This is not rejected by the political leaders as a "bad solution" but as "academic, because the present group has no such in- tention." The third "non-solution" will be riolence and everybody agrees that it will in- crease as the time passes. The element which will precipitate the first solution is commonly agreed to be a clear-cut declaration of opposition against the present government by the United States, or at least a clarification of the U.S. policy regarding the Greek problem. If the United States makes it clear and known that it is not happy with the prevailing conditions in Greece, there will be developments from within the junta. On the contrary, if we in- sist on a "business as usual policy," there will be an increase in violence from below. Furthermore, if we promote a "gimmick- solution" by insisting a compromise between the political world and the junta be made, then the violence will continue and it will be controlled by the left, while all those politicians who would cooperate with the present regime "will be isolated together with it." As is evident from the present report, I do not propose any solution for the Greek prob- lem. This is left to the policymakers. What I propose, however, is a clarification of the U.S. policy and a coordination of the ac- tivities of the U.S. missions in Athens, With such a clarification, the people and the Army will know what to expect and what to do other than what they are already doing. MR. PRESIDENT: VIETNAM MORA- TORIUM SUPPORTED BY ESTAB- LISHMENT HON. ROBERT L. LEGGETT OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, October 27, 1969 Mr. LEGGETT. Mr. Speaker, last week the Nation expressed itself on American involvement in the Vietnam war. The President has made the decision to de- involve, Vietnamize or deposture. There Is little secret left with respect to Ameri- can intentions. I pointed up yesterday that the students were not alone in their encouragement of the President's ac- tion?they were joined by a large portion of rural America. Senator GOLDWATER and Gov. Ronald Reagan last night in Norfolk severely re- sented the moratorium expression of opinion to the President. They apparently think their hawkish, know-nothing views on nuclear bombardment of Hanoi should ring in a vacuum in the President's ears. As further evidence of the broad sup- port of the moratorium, I include at this point in the RECORD a letter from one of my Davis, Calif., constituents containing a published plea from the mayor of our town: DAVIS, CALIF., October 19, 1969. Congressman Roazier L. Ltcerrr, House Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR CONGRESSMAN LEGGETT: The enclo- sures speak for themselves; however we hope this cover-letter will make it easier for you to receive the message of the 393 citizens of the city of Davis, California: On October 0th Mr. Ralph Aronson wrote a letter to our local newspaper giving a per- sonal statement of his sympathy for the Viet- nam moratorium and his concern that the U.S. government not continue more-of-the- same in Vietnam. ("Vietnamization," in my own opinion is NOT a new solution?this having been what we originally set out to do from approximately 1954-55 on.) The reaction to Mr. Aronson's letter was one of general agreement, but even more, it was a spur to try to communicate our own feelings as well. The 393 signees in the en- closed advertisement and attached sheet chose the method of a public advertisement as possibly a more effective form of "protest" than individual letters (that often exist in of Remarks E 8907 "intention") might have been. Not only do YOU receive the message, our community re- ceived it. There was no organized "push" for these signatures?people just passed the sheet from hand to hand from Friday, Octo- ber 10 until Monday, October 13. The addi- tional signatures are those of people who did not come in contact with a "sign-sheet" be- fore the cut-off date for publication of the advertisement. They left their signatures at the editorial office of the local newspaper that they might be included with the "group" letter to you. High school and college stu- dents were not approached in this petition? we wanted to hear from the non-vocal part of our community and felt that student groups were making their own statement. Might I add that we were surprised to find a very wide cross-section of participation from con- servative to liberal elements in our town, Sincerely, Mrs. PERDYNE MDEOLF, WE SUPPORT AND ENDORSE MAYOR Anowsom's REQUEST FOR ". . . A MORE PROGRESSIVE AND POSITIVE ACTION TO THE WITHDRAWAL OF OUR TROOPS AND AN END TO THE (VIET NAM) WAR" (The entire text of Mayor Aronson's letter follows.) Youth should not be blamed for the rest- lessness regarding the commitment of funds for SST planes?their impatience for funds for ABM over funds for poverty?or their concern for funds for Mars over solutions to problems of people or their concern for programs benefiting minorities or dis- advantaged. It is time some of their restlessness, im- patience and concern is rubbed off on some, or all, of us and we take up the struggle, declare ourselves and take a stand. I cannot, in my own mind, be convinced of our leader's statements that the cessation of the Vietnam war will not release funds toward the prob- lems in this country. Since according to them, this money cannot, or will not, be forthcoming for use at home. Is this then to be construed as a valid reason to continue this war which, In all purposes, it and all its attached problems represent the greatest concern of all? Up to now I have been silent and apathetic to the cause, believing our statesmen were progressing toward a solution. / have allowed myself to be lulled by the pre-campaign strategy of our honorable President of the "secret" solution to the end of the war. After six months I have been more convinced that the "secret" lies in other hands than our own President and our own military and political leaders. We are being asked to enter into a 60 day moratorium not to publicly protest or demonstrate or criticize our leaders regarding their progress concerning the Vietnam war. Our honorable President seems to have for- gotten that it was this same criticism and demonstration against the past political party's policy that got him elected. We have already had six years of such a moratorium regarding the apathetic attitude of the American people and, rather than a 60 day moratorium against protesting the war. I favor a 60 day peaceful, responsible, protest with letters to congressional leaders advocat- ing a more progressive and positive action to the withdrawal of our troops and an end to the war. ? I have been soothed by the declaration we are training more South Vietnamese to take over their own cause. I cannot believe that this, in itself, is a solution either, since this seems to be only a method of perpetuating a war rather than a solution to peace. If the training of South Vietnamese is itself a solu- tion, then lets do it?if we can train our own boys in California, Texas, Georgia to fight under conditions in Vietnam, then bring 25,- 000, or 50,000, or 100,000 South Vietnamese here and train them quickly, easily, for fight- ing in their own country. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP711300364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 E 8908 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? Extensions I don't know If a Mayor of a community of 20,000 people can hare an affect u this re- gard, but if all Mayors of cities of 20,000 can reach Mayors of larger cities, and citizens of larger cities can effectively reach their State officials to eommunic,ate this concarn to our National officials, periaaps they will get the message. No more, enough! I aile not affiliated in this propokt with any organization, local or national, radical or con- ventional. I take this Stand as an .---zutividual and ask other concerned citizens to join me as individuals. Reaeo Altoresaa, Mayor o; Davi We, the undersignedsubscribe to the eipirit of Mayor Ralph Aronson's statemenk and agree to have our names appear with/an ad- vertisement in the Davie Enterprise stating this fact and to have the advertisement dis- tributed to President Nixon and Senators George Murphy, Alan Cranston nil Repre- sentative Robert C. Leggett. Dr. and Mrs, Jack Major, Kay, Oeasawara, Terry Lyon, Dorothy Dreyfus, jr. and Mrs. Lloyd L. Ingraham, Mr, end Mn. yI,rton M. Laude, Marion E. Small, Mrs. at Lwice B. Reynolds, Nora Sterling. Holley to Grant, Christopher 0, Grain, Mrs, R, Bands, Mr. and Mrs. Donald W. Syttee., Mr. J. T Lading- well, Marjorie L. Dakhla Donna Walter, Charles W. Walter, Mr. and Mrs. Do a Brush, Maxine Schmalenberger, Dr. anti M D. Wheat. Mr. and Mrs. 0. W. De, Mr. d Mrs. . Paris, Mr. and Mrs. C. Ye. Willis, and Mrs. an Q R. A. Oliveira, Mr. and Mrs. R. B Nie ick, Duane Paul, Mr. and MM. Gordon C. ta Mr. and Mrs. Harold Stints, Mr. sod Mrs. Theodore P. Lianos, She Toriallo, W. F. Trainor, Cynthia Hills, Juanita A. Is, F. J. Hills, James R. Hutchinson, Pat! Lola A. Hutchinson, Richard B Groveling, Kay C. Burrill, Dona Lee 13randota, William 'O. Bur- rill. Edwin L. Blackmore, Richard A. cr awford, David E. Lee, Thomas Cleveland, Joaa Cleve- land, Dr. and Mrs. Philip Yarnell, Dr. and [ Mrs. Andrew J. Gabor, Mr. and MI s. Carl [ _Renoud, Julia R. Sultanate Beverly Farmer, [ Richard W, Kulmann, Mr. and Mrs Tony Smith, Dean Karnopp, Grace Node, Nancy Cutler, Sandy Gee, KarIM Romstata C. K. [ Shen, Harumi Sawatomeri, Sylvia Laae. Stanley Johnson, Beth Johnson, !ttarvin Fisher, Cecile Carter, James R. Douglas, [ Lindy F. Suraegai, Hisa A. Kumagai, Oarroll E. Cross, Janet S. Cross, Wm. Wanner, [ Dave & Mary Lee, David & Jane Deemer, 'Ethel M. Espana, Carlos Espana, Eliaabeth Meyer, Mx. and Mrs. Wilson Smith, Mary [ Cooper, Milton and Jeanne W. Gardili T, Mr. and Mrs. KInsell L. Coulson, Mr. am. Mrs. [ James Biggar. - Mr. and Mrs. Glen Burch, Mr. Gerald Dick- inson, Mr. and Mrs. Donald C. Swaia Mr. and Mrs. Isao FujiMoto, Ur. and Mrs. Roland Peterson, Mr. and Mrs. Arther Lilyblacti, Mr. and Mrs. Theodore F. Gould, Lois L. Pole:rano, Mr. and Mrs. Paul Castelfranoo, Bober is M. Kenney, Linda A. Fitzgerald, Joan Wesahler, Colin G. King, Adrian A. Bennett, Cynthia 13. Bennett, W. Erie Gustafson, Eric E. Goan, Louise K. Conn, Grant Soda, John E. Diaper. ' Deborah Poineau, Elizabeth Draper, James IL Balderston, Kathy Davis, afx. and Mrs. Neal P. Peek, Mr. and Mrs. bon Christlaasen, Janet L. Hall, Kenneth Ma Ball, Calvin and Tippy Schwabe, Mrs. Betty J. Longs .tore. Ralph Stocking, Elsie Stocking, Jerome Rosen, Sylvia T. Rosen, Mrs. Jane K. Seller, katie Keller, Anna Keller. Daniel S. Seller, Sam Smith, Otto Heck, Shirley Kirkpatrick, Donald Ross, Peggy S. Eichorn, Jane Carey, Christine Hawtherne, (Jenny Lee, Henry Hagedorn. Betty O'Neill, Charlotte Musker, Margaret ifitl, Anne and of Remarks October 27, 1969 Bud Steubing, Ron and Flo Holmes, Charles and Carol Va a Alstine, Bob Fitzgerald, Bud and Laura Goodman, MadeIon Pytel, Alan and Terry Klinger, Stephne F. Moore, Jinny Moore, James Ganzer. Carol and Richard DeTar, Peggy Dough- erty, Janet and El11 Weigt, Milton and Marie Morse, Susie Boyd Erlean Hills, Betty Jane Polk, Eliza eirIT: tafson, Dulores 0. McCo n li?vglas W. lColm, Louis F. We ? er, Dennis Barrett, 'Merman Fink, M ha Barcalow Barrett, Mr. and Mrs. arles V. Moore, Mr. and Mrs. Allen J. Manzano, Mr. and Mrs. Frank C. Child, R. W. Harris, Vera M Harris, Doug Waterman. Donna Waterman, Roland Hoermann, John F. Pamperin, Phyllis Jacobs, Barbara D. Hoermann, Teri Wheat, Mr. and Mrs. Wm. J. Knox, Mr. and Mrs. L. L. Wade, Donald & Edith Rothchi: d, Celia Rabinowitz, Dick & Lois Grau, Donald M. Reynolds, P. It. Painter, Jeff Drowely, Judith P. Deyo, Viola and Fred- erick Peters, J. W. Osebold, Charles M. Har- din, Donald P. Keisler. Dolores E. Rhode, E. A. Rhode, Mr. & Mrs. Richard F. Walters, Mr. and Mrs. K. Uriu, Mr. and Mrs. Robera S. Loomis, Mr. and Mrs. Paul K. Stuinph, Mx, and Mrs, Arthur R. Spurr, J. 0. Wheat, Amy L. Wheat, Margery M. Vasey, Mrs. H. J. Phatf, Olive G. Lorenz, Oscar A. Lorenz, Jeanne It. Enos, L. Reed Enos, Jan A. Stannard, Anthony A. Staunard, Dianne M. Sullivan, James J. Sullivan, Stephan Cohen. Robert Miller, ElRoy L. Miller, Pat Collins, Bill Collins, Wayne Gerrard, Rodney Shep- herd, Bonnie Shepherd, Albert A. Royval, Twits Royvea, Hazel V. Gerrard, Mayme A. Butler, Sheila Day, D. C. Hudson, Ben and Merry Hart, W. C. Weir, Elizabeth R. Weir, and Mrs. Lloyd Musolf, Mrs. Max Rothe, MarTSeCttletsy LeNoue. Mr. and Mrs. Siannons, Mr. and Mrs. Donald Soaensen, Denny, Mr. and Mrs. D. C. Alderman, Mr. an s. Mar- vin Zetterbaum, Dr. and Mrs. Ro K. Sarlos, Mr. and Mrs. L. Rappaport, Clar. Cooper, Bonnie Paria, Mr. and Mrs. Ed Cos. tontine, The Rea. and Mrs. R. E. Senghas, Deborah E. Semerau, Ken Greider, Mr. and Mrs. Alvin D. Soltalow, Mrs. M. Goldman, Mr. and Mrs. Stephen SosnIck, Dr. and Mrs. Robert Maisel, Mr. and Mrs. Martin P. Get- tinier, Mr. and Mrs. David Volmam Mr. and Mrs. Sherman Stein. Mr, a,nd Mrs. James Valentine, Mrs. Mar- garet Seibel, Dorothy L. West, Dick Longen- bangle, Martin C. Hagan, Trude Parkinson, Margaret Neu, Pierre J. Neu, Mrs. Donna Mackie, Michael C. Hancock, Pleasant Gill, Marcella Eddy, Mrs. C. Assimachopoulos, Ronald D. Maus, Will Lotter, Jane B. Lot Shirley R. Maus, Thomas L. Allen, Patriot Allen, Robert M. Cello. Patricia Bernaurr, Irene M. Cello, an Hamilton, Sumner Morris, Joyce Morri Wil- liam Hamilton III, Kathleen M. MurPit , Alen Starribusky, Barbara Gunn, Dtfrothea Knowles, F. F. Knowles, Jerry Murphy, Rita T. Stambusky, Ruthann Seeley, John A. See- ley, Benjamin Lane, Robert E. Smith, Loren D. Carlson, Mr. and Mrs. Dennis C. Neu, David C. Lewis. Harriet K. Lewis, Richard L. Manford, Yvonne A. Ma.nford, Barbara R. McKinney, Charles L. McKinney, Marian G. Carlson, William F. Riddle Jr., Howard T. Nelson, Roy J. Hendrickson, Ronald D. Schechter, Gary 0. Eurrigio, Janice B. Belding, Mrs. Vernon Clift, Vernon Clift, Mr. and Mrs. Alden Crafts, M. J. Vepaska. Susan C. Fegley, Sue Ellen Tatter, Pattism Tutton, Mr. and Mrs. Charles Metz, Mr. and Mrs. Mike Duckor, Dr. and Mrs. 0. A. Leon- ard, Mr. and Mrs. James Neiswonger, Mr. and Mrs. Bickford O'Brien, Mr. and Mrs. Robert V. Hoagland, Mr. at d Mrs. Donald Lindberg, John C. Wetzel, John Vanliat, Mr. and Mrs. Jim Neiswonger, Mr. and Mrs. Paul G. Smith, Barbara Larsen, Rose M. Jacobson. BIG TRUCK BILL - HON. FRED SCHWENGEL OF IOWA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, October 27, 1969 Mr. SCHWENGEL. Mr. Speaker, my editorials for today are from the Worces- ter, Mass., Telegram and the Boston Her- ald Traveler, in the State of Massachu- setts. The editorials follow: [From the Worcester (Maas.) Telegram, Aug. 5, 19691 BEWARE THE BEHEMOTHS (By James J. Kilpatrick) Wesoreleaora?At One time or another, every motorist has known the miserable ex- perience?someltmes the terrifying experi- ence?of trying to pass a tractor-trailer truck in foul weather Conditions. The boxcar profile blocks the road ahead. One gropes through rain and flying spume, hands gripping the wheel. Just a couple of feet to the side, 35 tons of steel are rolling along at 80 miles an hour. At last you get around; and behold: Another truck ahead. NEW MARIMMAS A House suboommittee resumes hearings this weak. on a bill that brings these recol- lections vividly to mind. The bill would set new permissible maximum width, weight, and length limits for the interstate highway system. Truck and bus companies are ar- dently supporting the hill; the American Automobile Association, representing passen- ger car drivers, is just as dead set against it. For my own part, I wish there were some way to find a compromise down a Middle lane. Proponents of the bill make an excellent case--up to a point. The present interstate width and load limits were fixed IS years ago, according to standards laid down in 1946. Since then, the interstate highways have me into being. It is a plausible contention at these magnificent freeways are capable handling wider and heavier loads than the ol primary highways could leike. e bill would permit the states to author- ize an increase in single-axle loads from 18,- to 20,000 pounds; an increase in tandem- a loads from 32,000 to 34,000 pounds; and Increase in the gross load limit from 73,- 2 I pounds to a higher figure obtained from length and axle formula. The maximum permissible width would be increased from 96 to 102 inches. waive 'FROCKS These changes are recommended by the U.S. Bureau of Public Roads. They are not opposed by the American Association of State Highway Officials (AAKE(0). The point is made that roughly half the states already permit these higher load limits, under a grandfather clause inserted in the basic fed- eral act of 1956. The proposed increase in maximum width would make it possible for trucks to carry cargoes (such as plyboard) that comes In multiples of eight feet; the extra six inches, it is said, also would con- tribute to greater stability and to greater safety. So far, so good. The ordinary motorist may wince at the greater width, but it is hard to object to the proposed new limits on weight. At about this point in the debate, however, the proponents run out of gas; the remainder of their case is much less Impressive. The bill proposes a federal length limit of 70 feet. It's too much. Orogen now allows up to 75 feet on designated highways, and Ne- vada has a 70-foot limit, but 27 states hold to 65 feet, Iowa limits length to 60 feet, and 20 states have a 55-foot limit. Both the Bureau of Public Roads and AASHO recommend 65 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved for E 8836 liejeAK TOMNinCIARpn1B0036,099,9,1,9,01 2099tpber27, 1969 WILLAMS, U.S. Senator from Delaware, and the dean of the Iowa delegation in the House, Hon. H. R. GROSS. At this point I would like to include an article from the October 18, 1969, issue of Human Events which describes the First Annual Conservative Awards Dinner. The article follows: CONSERVATIVE AWARDS DINNER More than 300 leaders of the American con- servative movement turned out Saturday night, October 4, for the First Annual Con- servative Awards Dinner at the Sheraton Park Hotel, Washington, D.C. The dinner was spon- sored by the American Conservative Union, National Review, Young Americans for Free- dom and Human Events. The highlight of the dinner was the pres- entation of awards for outstanding congres- sional service to Sen. John Williams (R.- Del.) and Rep. H. R. Gross (R.-Iowa). The awards were bestowed by Rep. John Ashbrook (R.-Ohio), chairmazi`of the ACU, who re- minded the guests of how thankful Ameri- cans should be for the valiant work Sen. Wil- liams and Rep. Gross have each performed in Congress for more than 20 years. - Sen. Williams, first elected in 1946, is planning to retire next year upon the con- elusion of his fourth term and many times during the evening he was urged to recon- sider. But the Delaware senator who has sparked so many important congressional investigations remained firm in his resolve not to run again now that he has reached age 65. The guests were disappointed, but had to admire a man who insists upon stand- ing by his principles even if it means giving up a job he enjoys. Rep. Gross, a conservative known na- tionally for the sharp "no" he so often hurls at various spending schemes, received per- haps the biggest ovation of the night when he turned to the subject of Viet Nam. "We should win that war," he said, "or get the hell out." The evening's keynote address was delivered by columnist James J. Kilpatrick. While noting that opposition to foolish gov- ernment programs was certainly necessary, Mr. Kilpatrick also urged conservatives to "apply their talents to affirmative answers to American problems"?problems like con- servation, pollution, penal reform and low- cost housing. Conservatives have the proper principles at heart, he said, but "if I had only one political wish, conservatively speak- ing, I would wish to see us translate broad conservative principles more frequently into specific, affirmative action." Mr. Kilpatrick applauded those men and women who for so many years have volunteered their services to the conservative cause. He said that more than ever before their dedication was needed, because "there is much work to be done." Other remarks at the dinner were, de- livered by William F. Buckley Jr., editor of National Review, and Robert Bauman, secre- tary of ACU and a former national chairman of YAF, who served as master of ceremonies for the evening. Among the members of Congress who at- tended and joined in honoring two of their congressional colleagues were Sen. Strom Thurmond and Reps. Don Clausen, Jim Col- lins, John Hammerschmidt, Manuel Lujan, William Scherle, and E. Ross Adair. Guests from the White House staff in- ' eluded presidential adviser Dr. Arthur Burns, speechwriter Patrick Buchanan, Special Presidential Assistant Dr. Martin Anderson, congressional liaison man Bill Timmons, "inspector-general" Clark Mallenhoff and presidential staff aides Mort Allin and Tom Huston. Among the other Administration ap- pointees in attendance were USIA director Frank Shakespeare, Ted Humes of the Labor Department and Defense Department aides William Baroody Jr. and Jerry Friedheim. Other guests included John Mahan, chair- man of the Subversive Activities Control Board, and Ken Towsey of the Rhodesian Information Service. Also attending the dinner were such well- known conservatives as Holmes Alexander, Lemuel Boulware, Allan Brownfeld, Ralph de Toledano, Dr. Lev Dobriansky, Willard Ed- wards, Victor Lasky, Fulton Lewis III, Dean Clarence Manion, Neil McCaffrey, Stefan Possony, William A. Rusher, Phyllis Schlafly, George Schuyler, Paul Scott, Ken Thompson and Tom Van Sickle. The sponsoring organizations hope that next year's dinner will be even better at- tended and that conservatives lima all over the country will try to get to Washington to help honor two more members of Con- gress who, like Sen. Williams and Rep. Gross, have done so much to strengthen the con- servative cause. GREEK REGIME TOKENISM HON. JOHN CONYERS, JR. OF MICHIGAN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, October 23, 1969 Mr. CONYERS. Mr. Speaker, a recent dispatch in the New York Times reports that the military government of Greece Is undertaking a liberalization program. The press is now free?except there is a two-page list of banned topics. Sum- mary arrests and imprisonment are barred?except in cases involving "the public order and security." Military courts will no longer have jurisdiction over civilians?except in cases of treason, espionage, sedition, disturbing the peace, spreading false information, and arous- ing discord. In short, the people of Greece are now free?as long as they do not do or say anything the colonels do not want them to. Verily, the junta is preserving Greece as a bastion of freedom. I include the article entitled "Greek Regime Eases Martial-Law Curbs, but With Exceptions" from the New York Times of October 4, 1968, in the RECORD at this point: GREEK REGIME EASES MARTIAL-LAW CURBS, BUT WITH EXCEPTIONS ATHENS, October 3.?Greece's Army- backed regime today modified three martial- law rules?on press censorship, arbitrary arrest and trial by military courts?but the new measures contained a number of quali- fications, assuring that controls would con- tinue. Greek newspaper editors were told today that the press was now free. But they were handed a two-page list of banned topics and were told that although they no longer needed to submit galley proofs to the cen- sors, a copy of each paper must still be sub- mitted for approval before it goes to the newsstands. At the same time, summary arrests and imprisonment were barred "except in cases involving crimes against public order and security" and the jurisdiction of special military courts was narrowed. ANNOUNCED AT NEWS TALK The new measures were announced by Premier George Papadopoulos at a news con- ference in the marble-walled Senate cham- ber in downtown Athens. The timing of the measures puzzled for- eign diplomats in Athens. Some noted that that they came 24 hours after George Teistopoulos, an Under Secre- tary in the foreign office, returned from the United States, where he had talks with Sec- retary of State William P. Rogers, and passed on to the Greek leaders the strength of feel- ing in Washington in favor of substantial liberalization in Greece. It is also possible that the announcement was intended to counteract a statement in Paris Tuesday by former Premier Constan- tine Caramanlis, who said that the regime was making no progress toward democracy and intended to perpetuate its oppressive rule. It came a day too late to prevent the ap- proval of a resolution by the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe in Stras- bourg condemning the regime. The list of taboo newspaper topics in- cluded these: All news and comments "directed against public order, security and national integ- rity," such as "slogans or statements of out- lawed parties or organizations aiming at the violent overthrow of the prevailing lawful order." Topics of a subversive nature, including incitement to ctizens or the armed forces to violate orders and laws, or instigating dem- onstrations, mass meetings or strikes. Publications directed against the national economy, including rumors likely to provoke anxiety on the progress of the economy or the stability of the currency, or divulging state economic secrets. Reports likely to revive political passions and feuds. The 50-yearzold Premier said the new measures were justified by a substantial im- provement of the domestic situation since the coup of 29 months ago and by the support his regime enjoyed from the Greek people. "The patient is no longer in the plaster cast," he said, using his favorite analogy in which Greece is the patient and he the surgeon. "The patient is now in small splints. Let's hope he won't break his limbs again." Mr. Papadopoulos told reporters he had Issued orders, effective at once, abolishing press controls as well as banning arbitrary arrests and trials of civilians by special mili- tary courts. These controls had been author- ized under the martial law in force since the coup. "FREEDOM IS INVIOLABLE" "Personal freedom is inviolable," the Pre- mier declared. All arrests and imprisonments from now on will be carried out in accord- ance with the Constitution?"except in cases involving crimes against public order and security," he said. EXPLAINS EXCEPTIONS The jurisdiction of special military courts, set up by the regime to punish security of- fenses, will now try only cases of treason, espionage and sedition, including charges of disturbing the peace, spreading false infor- mation and arousing discord, he said. Most of the cases tried by special military tribunals since the coup have involved charges of sedition. Mr. Papadopoulos said the regime was negotiating with the International Red Cross for investigating allegations of tor- ture of Greek political prisoners. He said, "This should put an end to the infuriating campaign of lies about tortures in Greece." Mr. Papadopoulos, asked to comment on the statement by Mr. Cararnanlis, said he was not prepared to discuss the future of Greece with "anyone except the Greek people." Mr. Caramanlis, a rightist whose attack on the regime drew wide support from most Greek political groups warned the Athens rulers to make way for democracy or face violent overthrow. Mr. Papadopoulos said that he, as a citizen who had voted in the past so that Mr. Cara- manlis could become Premier, could only say: "Pity, I regret." Commenting on elections, he said: "We, Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 00tober 27, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ?Extensions of Remarks E 8835 EXTENSIONS OF REMARKS FACT SHEET ON CONTINUING RES- OLUTION FROM COMMITT.e.E Oi APPROPRIATIONS HON. GEORGE H. MAHON OF TEXAS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, October 27, 1969 Mr. MA.HON. Mr. Speaker, on tomoi- rov the House is scheduled to consid( r Hoise Joint Resolution 966, making cqr.- tiniing appropriations for November for thoe departments and agencies whase re lar appropriation bills for fiscal year 197 have not been enacted. here is Considerable interest anr MeMbers as to the provisions of th re;.- olution in comparison to the on undE r which most of the Government as op- era.ed since July 1, and particilar1y the effect of the resolution on authorized fun ing levels for certain edupation pre'- grans?more specifically te one for "category A" and "catego _ B" aid for sch ols in Federally impac ed areas. I have prepared a fact -et on the cor4mittee resolution in g eral and its eff t in this respect on the education programs. Copies will be vailable du/ - ing 'consideration on the ousc floor. I include a copy of the :fact sheet and a stipporting tabulation:I COSMITTEE CONTINUING R SOL ,11' ION FAct I-IEET?HOUSE JOINT RE L-E, vtom 966 (NoTE.?For impacted aid nd other edu: catiOn programs, see items 10 A. THE PURPOSES OF CONTINUING ESOLUTIONS 1. Continuing resolutions are not appro. priation bills in the usual sense. They do tot make additional appropriations. They mere 7 make interim advances that are chargeable against whatever amounts the two Houses of Congress finally appropriate in tile regular annual bills, 2. Continuing resolutions are nothing bu: interim, stop-gap measures neceis,ary to keep government functions operating on a pa- tion ally minimum basis between July 1 and enactment of the regular authorization and appropriation bills. They are designed t. preserve the integrity and optirvnq of the reg - ular I authorizations and appropriations prde - essee in the committees and in both Houses. 2. Continuing resolutions were never de- signed and never intended to "get ahead cr the regular order", i.e., to reSOlve weight. substantive, legislative or appropriation is-. sues outside the framework of the regula ? bills{ (If they were so used, a Pandora's box of disruptive end disorderly actions could well result.) 4. Continuing resolutions have always beet designed to avoid controversy so as to secur: prompt enactment, else they would jeopard- ize orderly processes and orderly continua- tion of essential governmental functions. 5. Continuing resolutions are thus a growth, born of long?and successful?ete- perience. They have become standardized is; their concepts and specific prftsions. Thev apply universally, and consistency, to all de" partments and agencies. The basic concep,:. over the years is this: . Legi lative status of Continuing Resolu- 1 a appropriation tion funding level bi 1 when Con- is always: ti uing Resolu- tidn becomes ef- feetive: When neither House has acted. When passed House but not Senate. When passed both House and Sen- ate. The budget estimate or last year's level, whichever is lower. Last year's level, or House level, which- ever is lower. The action of the two Houses; or if in disagreement, the lower of the two. Si. THE COMMITTEE RESOLUTION (HOUSE JOINT RESOLUTION 966) 6. The committee tasolution 'follows the basic concepts of past resolutions. It is a 30- day ution?for November only. . The committee resolution 'Makes a change in the application of the concept and thus in the effect on some operations, by taking account of congressional actions on appropriation bills striae July 1 when the current resolution weat into effect. 8. The committee resolution makes no change at all in 6 of the regular bills; they occupy the same position they did on July 1. It will have some limited effect on the Agri- culture and Legislatirie bills which have moved to the conference stage, and on the Labor-HEW, State-Justice-Commerce, and Public Works bills which have moved to the Senate since July 1. 9. The committee resolution, replacing the existing resolution effective November 1st, will produce little or no change in authorized rates of interim spending levels for many programs and activities. But will permit significant changes in a hamiful of items in the Department of IIEV, especially in the Hill-Burton hospital grants (about $100 mil- lion more) and in certain education pro- grams (about $600 million more). C. EFFECT OF COMMIL .1...E ON EDUCATION PROGRAMS 10. The committee resolution adds about $600 million to the authorized spending level for education programs, as shown on the at- tached table. $319 million additional is for impacted area school aid (PL. 874). 11. For schools in Federally impacted areas, the committee resolution would authorize funds at the 1969 level for both categories "A" and "B"; a total of $506,000,000?some $319,000,000 above the currently authorized rate. There would be no special restrictions with regard to "category B". - Payments are made periodically during the fiscal year but the final payments are not usually made until late September or October, i.e., after the fiscal year for which they are appropriated. Thus an increase in these funds at this time w'ould have no prac- tical effect different from that of providing them when the regular HEW bill is enacted. EFFECT OF CONTINUING RESOLUTION ON EDUCATION PROGRAMS [In millions] 1969 1970 level budget 1970 1970 continuing resolution Present version effective July 1 nose (Public Law bill 91-33) Committee version effective Increase Nov. 1 Over (NJ. present Res. 966) version Supplementary educational centers (title III, ESEA)'? Library resources (title II, ESEA)1 Guidance, counseling, and tef.ting (title V, NDEA)1 Equipment and minor remade ing (title Ill,NDEA)179 0 Impacted area aid (Public Law 874)1 506 187 Higher education facilities construction grants, / 4-year undergraduate facilities i 33 ell NDEA student loans 1 193 A162 Library assistance: Service 41 ? 23 Construction 9 0 Title I, ESEA I 1,123 1,216 Vocational education' 248 279 Education for the handicapped 80 86 $165 $116 50 0 17 0 $165 50 $116 $165 (a) 50 17 (f) 17 79 585 +$49 +50 +17 - 79 +79 506 4-319 33 0 33 +33 229 162 193 +31 +19 +9 41 9 1,397 489 100 23 42 0 9 1,123 1,123 248 248 so 80 Subtotal 2,544 2,069 Other education programs 1,073 1,111 3,194 1,939 2,545 +606 1,029 950 945 -5 Total, Office of Education_ . 3,617 3,180 4,223 2,580 3,490 +601 1Joelson amendment items. Sec. 101(d) of the present con :inuing resolution made special provision for continuing State administrative activities only. Under the committee version funds for Loth State administration and program grants would become available effective Nov. 1. FIRST ANNUAL CONSERVATIVE AWARDS DINNER HON. JOHN M. ASHBROOK OF OHIO IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, October 23, 1969 Mr. ASHBROOK. Mr. Speaker, I was indeed pleased to participate in the First Annual Conservative Awards Dinner held at the Sheraton Park Hotel in Washington, D.C., on October 4, 1969. Jointly sponsored by the two leading conservative national publications and the two major conservative political ac- tion groups, the dinner was a success from every point of view. This was the first occasion on which the four sponsors, the American Conservative Union, Hu- man Events, National Review, and Young Americans for Freedom, have joined together in presenting such distin- guished service awards to conservative leaders in Congress. Those present included many officials of the Nixon administration and Mem- bers of Congress who joined in applaud- ing the distinguished recipients of the awards, our colleagues, Hon. JOHN. J. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 October 27, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD?Extensions of Remarks and only we, shall decide when they will be held in Greece." Asked if, in view of the fact that he had announced the freedom of the press, he would now allow the Greek papers to publish Mr. Caramardis' statement, Mr. Papadopou- los replied: "I will not." URGENCY OF ELECTORAL REFORM HON. WILLIAM L. HUNGATE OF MISSOURI IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, October 27, 1969 Mr. HUNGATE. Mr. Speaker, I would like to call to the attention of my col- leagues the following article which ap- peared in the St. Louis Globe-Democrat on October 22, 1969; URGENCY OF ELECTORAL REFORM The proposal for abandoning the anti- quated Electoral College system and adopt- ing direct election of the President and Vice President was gathering cobwebs for dis- couraging months. Congress now seems in a mood to pass the amendment for popular election and submit it to the states. This is what should be done without grow- ing any more moss on the issue. There is every evidence the great majority of the peo- ple want the constitutional amendment pro- viding direct vote for the President. The nation should be afforded the right to decide, by submission of the change to legis- lative plebiscite In all states. Shucking the archaic, frustrating Electoral College from the Constitution should have been effected long ago. Further temporizing and indecision on Capitol Hill cannot be justified. The need for dumping the undemocratic Electoral College process was trenchantly im- pressed on the country last November, when it appeared the choice of a President might be thrown into the House of Congress with attendant smelly political deals. In modern America it is utterly unacceptable that Con- gressmen might elect a President. But when the danger of a House presi- dential selection was over, and Richard Nixon elected, apathy set in. Now that apathy ap- pears to have lifted. The House recently passed the amendment proposition by a whopping vote-339 to 70, or 66 ballots more than the required two-thirds for an amendment to the Constitution. This has given the program a sudden, big Impetus. So thumping a majority for the re- form in the House should carry great weight in. the Senate. The House was overwhelm- ingly willing to divest itself of a 188-year-old constitutional right. Another influence toward approval of the amendment by the Senate Judiciary Com- mittee?the obvious first hurdle in the up- per house?was the appointment of Sen. Robert P. Griffin, Michigan Republican, to re- place the late Sen. Everett M. Dirksen. Mr. Dirksen favored the so-called "dis- trict plan", less satisfactory than popular election. Senator Griffin has declared he will support direct election. The President has sensibly shifted his at- titude on this reform. For some time he was lukewarm, even mildly antagonistic, toward dropping the Electoral College, which he thought could not be effected before 1972, the next presidential election. Now he thinks it can. There is no reason to believe it can't. It should. Present public sentiment indicates it will be approved if it comes out of Congress. As in the House, a two-thirds majority ballot in the Senate is necessary for approv- ing a constitutional amendment. Then the question must be submitted to the 50 state legislatures of the nation, where, 38 must ratify tlre--promssfl-te-p-ileee-it in the Con- stitution and junk the Electoral College, The House stipulated that the complete ratification process?by Congress and three- fourths of the states?must be completed by Jan. 2, 1971, if it is to be effective for the 1972 national elections. There is no reason this cannot be done. The measure will have to be acted on how- ever, with reasonable dispatch. It has been in the Senate committee about a month. If it is permitted to grow moldy there, this needed reform could be lost. Should it fail of adop- tion now, it likely will be pigeonholed many more years, as President Nixon observed when he called on the Senate Sept. 30 to indorse the revision. A report published last April by Newsweek magazine said one reason the President now wished to abolish the presidential elector system is that he had personal knowledge of how electors sought to bargain away their votes. The report stated several electors on the Wallace slate offered to trade their votes to Nixon in return "for presidential favors." Other similar offers were rumored; all were turned down. One reason for reluctance in Congress over dumping the Electoral College was a feeling states would not approve the amendment. There is growing evidence they would. A New York Times survey recently indicated 30 legislatures already have evidenced deter- mination to ratify, or lean in that direction. As only 38 are necessary, it looms as no in- superable task to persuade the remaining fence-sitter legislatures. The prospect that a President could ever again be elected by a minority or by logrolling deals in Congress, can be eradicated before the next presidential campaign in '72. SOCIAL SECURITY REFORMS: BRINGING THE SYSTEM UP TO DATE HON. WILLIAM A. STEIGER OF wrsomrsiN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, October 27, 1969 Mr. STEIGER of Wisconsin. Mr. Speaker, among all the victims of infla- tion, none are more deserving of urgent attention and relief than the benefi- ciaries of social security. They have in- vested part of their earnings in the promise of a continuing income?and the Congress must act now to fulfill that promise, in pace with realities. The President has taken the lead. His recommendation to increase basic bene- fits by 10 percent is nothing less than a positive obligation?and it is the level of increase that is actuarially sound. His recommendation to attach the future schedule of benefits to cost of living will go far to eliminate the repeated experi- ence of playing catch-up, as benefits lag behind living-cost increases?and it will take the political gamesmanship out of this process. Both recommendations are essential. Both are, in the broadest sense, non- partisan. And both deserve the support, now, of the Congress. Of equal importance is the President's recommendation that the "earnings test" be raised from $1,680 to $1,800?the amount beneficiaries may earn without any loss of benefits. He also would elimi- nate the 100-percent tax, the outright E8837 confiscation of all earnings beyond the $3,000 level. For all earnings beynnd the exempt amount, he would substitute a 50-percent tax and thus maintain an in- centive for earnings at any level within the capability of the beneficiary. To say that the Nation needs the experience and productivity of its older citizens is clear beyond question?yet, under present law, we penalize them for their enterprise. This irrationality must be eliminated, and the President has recognized the urgency of such a reform. NEW INDIANAPOLIS POLICE PATROL INNOVATION CUTS CRIME RATE HON. WILLIAM G. BRAY OF IND/ANA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, October 27, 1969 Mr. BRAY. Mr. Speaker, the war on crime is one that never ends, and its wag- ing demands the initiative and inven- tiveness of all law enforcement agencies and individual citizens. The city of Indianapolis, Ind., has come up with a plan, simple in concept yet effective in operation, that shows great promise. It is assigning personal patrol cars to policemen to drive off-duty as well as on. Indianapolis is the first major police department to utilize this, and the following story from the New York Times of Sunday, October 26, 1969, describes the practice, which could well be copied by other urban forces: [From the New York Times, Oct. 26, 1969] POLICE IN INDIANA DRIVE OWN CARS; NEW PATROL SYSTEM GIVEN CREDIT FOR CUT IN CRIME INDIANAPOLIS, October 25.?In Indianapolis, policemen are assigned their own personal patrol cars to drive off-dirty as well as on, and the system is given credit for helping to produce a pattern of reduced crime. While the national average for the seven major crime categories in cities of half a million to a million increased by 13 per cent for the first nine months of this year, five of the seven categories showed a decrease in Indianapolis and all seven showed an aver- age increase of only 1.2 per cent. The record so far in Indianapolis this year is so encouraging to city officials that they - are confident that the city's unusual pattern of big increases in most major categories may finally be broken. Major crimes in Indianapolis increased at an average rate of 15.6 per cent in 1968 com- pared to 1967. Now, with the normally heavy crime months of June, July and August be- hind it, the Indianapolis police department thinks the average for 1969 may set a na- tional example. OFF-DUTY USE ENCOURAGED Mayor Richard G. Lugar and Police Chief Winston Churchill give much of the credit to the system of individual patrol cars. "Nearly all state police departments have assigned oars to individuals," says Raymond' 3. Stratton, deputy chief of operations, but we are the first police department to do so." Under the Indianapolis plan, patrolmen are encouraged to use their cars, while off- duty for trips with the family to drive-in theaters or the grocery or church. "As a result," says Maj. Frank Spallina, administrative assistant to Chief Churchill, "we may have as many as 400 cars on the street instead of the old 100 or so per shift." Major Spallina says that "with all those Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP711300364R000300120003-9 E 8838 Approved -gtyAslitutminicRt2WidritebRDFUnOs203ns64R0900300120003-9 cars running around or parked throughout the city" there is "more reluctance by juve- niles to steal cars" and more heeitancy in general to commit crimes. Several arrests have been made by off-duty policemen since the individual iiatrol oar system went into effect in early June. In- cluded were arrests made by off-duty police- men who stopped robberies or burglaries in progress. A chief benefit of the program, according to Major Spallina, is the new spirit of pride it is giving the policemen, who have installed custom-fashioned equipment racks in their cars, or carpeted interiors, or who have spent their own money to improve such equipment as radios. Major SpaHine, looks on the perbonal at- tention shown on the can; as healthy evis,- dence of high morale. In the first nine months of 1967 ?rim rose 16.1 per cent in Indianapolis compare1fo the previous year. In 1968, the increase was 21.2 per cent compared to 1967. For nine months this year, only the cate- gories of burglary and larceny sthovred in- creases?of 9.1 and 5.6 per oentsrespectively. In the other major categorie,e, murder was down 18.6 per cent; forceable /tape was down 7.8 per cent; robbery was down 18.3 per cent; aggravated assault was down 6.6 per cent, and vehicle theft was down 12.3 per cent. RETIREMENT 0 PHILLIP S. HUG HON. OLIN TEAGUE OFT-As IN THE HOUSE OF ,SENTATIVES Monday, Oct .ser 27, 1969 Mr. TEAGUE of T -xas. Mr. Speaker, I want to call to the att rition of this House the departure from a overnment service of the Deputy Directo of the Bureau a the Budget, Mr. Phi _ S. known to his friends asSam? I first met Sam Hughes shortly after I came to Congress. I came to know him I intimately when the Korean GI bill of Irights was formulated and later in the outstanding work that be performed in I connection with the Survivor Benefits Act, Public Law 881 of the 84th Congress. Sam Hughes is one of those rare in- dividuals who has absolute integrity, who can give you an answer which you com- pletely disagree With but which at the same time forces you to see the logic of his position and know that his View is based upon considerable thought and a lot of plain ordinary horsesense. Sam Hughes, in the few moments that he has had of vacation, likes to climb inountains. Perhaps this is one of the rea- sons why he has had the ability to see so far ahead in regard to Government pro- grams. Certainly he has never lived in a rarefied atmosphere which one ,acco- eiates with heights, but has certainly been able to see clearly and much more so than many of us. The Federal Government is losing, in zny judgment, one of the ablest men who ever served it. An individual with 14ather keen insight once wrote "hindsight tends to etch deeply the clear lines of leader- Ship that appeared blurry close at hand." Sam Hughes' actions were never hlurry and he always showed positive leadership. Sam carries with him the best Wishes cl all of those of us on the Hill who have had the. good-An tune to luid11711111. We shall sorely miss his counsel and we wish him well in whatever endeavor he desires to pursue after the 21 years of distin- gUiShed service that he gave to the Bu- reau of the Budget. HIGHER EDUCATION IN A TIME OF CHANGE HON. ED JONES 0 P TENNESSEE THE HOUS:?, OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, October 27, 1969 ? Mr. JONES of Tennessee. Mr. Speaker, ?time of unrest in our Nation, especially on our college campuses, it is reassuring to know that sanity still pre- vails among some of our educators. One voice of reason which rings out clearly In the Eighth Congressional District of Tennessee is i;hat of Dr. Archie R. Dykes, chanceLor of the University of Tennessee at Martin. At the beginning of the current aca- demic year, Dr. Dykes, one of the Na- tions truly outs anding college adminis- trators, addressed his faculty with an analysis of the challenge facing higher education and a proposal for meeting this challenge. I was deeply moved by the speech, and because I feel Unit-Tar American leaders can bene t-from the or Dykes' ob- ing the entire text Remarks October 27, 1969 This world of ours is a new world, in which the unity of knowledge, the nature of human communities, the order of society, the very notions of society and Culture have changed, and will not return to what they have been in the past. What Is new is new not because it has never been there before, but be- cause it has changed in quality. One thing that is new is the prevalence of newness, the change in scale and scope of change itself, so that the world alters as we walk in it, so that the years of a man's life measure not some small growth or rearrangement or mod- eration of what he learned in childhood, but a great upheaval. Change, then, pervasive and revolutionary change, is the dominant characteristic of our time. We are living through a series of con- current and interacting revolutions in science, transportation agriculture com- munications, demography, civil rights, and, yes, education. Each of these revolutions has brought spectacular changes. Each has its train of tumultuous social consequences. As a result of these great changes, we in education, like everyone else, are for- ever required to see our world through new eyes and to behave in accordance with new understandings and new concepts. In a world changing as rapidly as ours, ideas, understandings, beliefs, and ways of doing things rapidly become obsolete. Our best knowledge and our best understandings have an ever diminishing life before they are re- placed with new knowledge and new under- standings. In brief, we have intellectual obsolescence in shorter times than we have e faced before in man's history. To per- sist ehaving and conducting our affairs as if eh ge has not occurred can result in catastrop e. For a minutes this morning, I wanted to share th you some of my thoughts' about the implications of these changes to hose of here in this room, the faculty and staff f The University of Tennessee at Martin. t me mention just a few observe- ions tha may be relevant. 1. The first implication of these changing imes h to do with what we are trying to accom ? Ish in education. Traditionally, we aye elved the major function of edueation as e disernination of information, the te ng of facts, the instilling of knowledge is and will continue to be an important unction of education. But in the context f a world of revolutionary change, when nowledge is doubling every ten to fifteen ears in some fields of study, when there incre-a-sing finiteness to the length of time n which the best knowledge will bold true, hen new facts and new information are oming into existence with unparalleled apidity, I think we may well wonder if the rimary function of education has not hanged. If schooling is regarded primarily a process of absorbing the funded knowl- dge of the past, it seems to me it may well ose its relevance to the world in which we ye. And if teaching is regarded as simply e peddling of facts and information, its mise may come in the years immediately head. The National Science Foundation now tells that knowledge in science is doubling ery ten years; that of all the research that as ever been published, more than half of has been published since 1950' that more han half of all money spent on research as been spent in the last eight years; and at of all the scientists who have lived nee the dawn of history, more than eighty scent are living and working today, We are d authoritatively that approximately 2,000 es of printed materials are published erg sixty seconds. If an individual at- mpted to keep informed by devoting his 1 time to reading, he would fall behind more than one billion pages every year. ('he explosion of knowledge, or the "Infos- tion revolution," is probably the most im- reasonableness of Cha servations, I am in of the addressHIGHSR ;,...- E ATION IN A TIME OF CHANGE t The cnnastances surrounding high edu- ce today are not unlike those portrayed ar es Dickens in the T ?ale of Two Cities, t describing the era of the French Revolution To paraphrase his classic language: "It is the best of times, it is the worst of h times, It is the age of wisdom, it is the age of foolishness It is the epoch of belief, it is the epoch of incredulity, It is the ;season of Light, it is the season ,Or o " k - nar kn es s It is the spring of hope, it is _the seaton of despair, We have everything before us, we have nothing before us . . ." Indeed, these are difficult and trying times In America, perhe,ps the most trying and most difficult of any period since the Civil War, more than a century ago. Yet, within our complex, frustrating, and perpelexing problems, there exist the greatest opportuni- ties our nation or any nation has ever had before it. And these same circumstances characterize colleges and universities throughout our land. Perhaps never before has higher educatinn generally and colleges and universities individually been confronted with problems which so clearly threaten de- struction, while, simultaneously, unparal- leled opportunities lie before them for prog- ress toward "undreamed of achievements. Truly, we live in a time of unparalleled change. And no one would question, I be- lieve, that these great changes going on about us have enormous implications for all of us, in our citizenship responsibilities, in our family obligations, but especially in our duties as faculty members in an institution of higher learning. Some time ago, an article in Fortune maga- zine, seeking to dramatize the gap between our present era and the past, quoted Robert Oppenheimer as follows: is as Ii1 th de a us ev It th si Pe tol Peg ev te ful by ma Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 E 8782? APPr"tclfgatftaA2.3,11F88419t,3191L1130983V/90222???8-A ACTION ON RATE REQUESTS BY STATE UTILITY COM- MISSIONS, JUNE-SEPTEMBER 1969?Continued Company Amount Amount requested approved PENNSYLVANIA Pennsylvania Gas & Water $2, 200, 000 $1, 800,000 Philadelphia Electric 29,707,184 29,707, 184 TEXAS Lone Star Gas 10,8i8,253 6,961,445 WISCONSIN Wisconsin Public Service 5, 167, 000 2, 000, 000 Wisconsin Gas Co 6, 447, 000 4, 021, 000 Total 312, 770, 062 239, 581, 129 1Jointly received rate increases totaling $6,500,000 plus oppor- tunity to obtain additional $7,700,000. a Note: $13,157 granted in April by State commission, full $23,900,000 granted in July by Supreme Court. a Note: 3 weeks after Florida Commission approved $3,700,000 increase, Southern Bell filed request for $32,000,000 rate increase. Note: Consumers Power reported request totalled $57,- 000,000. Michigan Public Service Commission reported to subcommittee request had totaled $108,900,000. In June. In July. 7 New York Public Service Commission has advised company it will accept revised request for $18,000,000. NATIONAL DAY OF PRAYER SPEECH OF HON. JOHN BUCHANAN OF ALABAMA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, October 22, 1969 Ur. BUCHANAN. Mr. Speaker, the Congress, by joint resolution of April 17, 1952, provided that the President "shall set aside and proclaim a suitable day each year, other than a Sunday, as a national day of prayer on which the people of the United States may turn to God in prayer and meditation at churches, in groups, and as individuals." Such a day is quite appropriate in the life of this country since America was founded on the ethical and moral prin- ciples embodied in the Judeo-Christian tradition. America's greatest strength lies in the faith and religious commitment of her people. "In God We Trust" must remain more than a mere motto for the people of America if our country is to remain strong and free. This year, President Nixon, by procla- mation on October 8, set aside Wednes- day, October 22, as our National Day of Prayer. In his proclamation, the Presi- dent asked that "on this day the people of the United States pray for the achieve- ment of America's goal of peace with justice for all people throughout the world." In observance of this day it was my privilege, along with a number of my colleagues who regularly attend the House and Senate prayer breakfast meet- ings to attend a prayer breakfast at the White House with Dr. Billy Graham. The remarks of both the President and Dr. Graham, together with prayer led by the Honorable DEL CLAWSON of Cali- fornia, were of great inspiration to those assembled. The one prayer on the lips of all man- kind, of whatever religious persuasion, should be a prayer for peace with justice and a prayer for those in places of high responsibility in our land. The President is to be commended for pe setting aside this day and it is my ho that all everywhere shall benefit from its men observance. MRS. LOUISE BOWKER, PRESIDENT, NEWSPAPER ASSOCIATION MAN- AGERS, INC. HON. J. W. FULBRIGHT OF ARKANSAS IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Thursday, October 23, 1969 Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, I was pleased to learn that Mrs. Louise Bowker, of my State, recently has added to her many accomplishments her election as president of the Newspaper Association Managers, Inc. The NAM is fortunate to have the talents and industry of this Arkansan leading this organization. I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the Extensions of Remarks an article published in the Missouri Press News outlining some of Mrs. Bowker's civic and professional contributions. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Missouri Press News, October 1969] ASSOCIATION MANAGERS ELECT ARKANSAS WOMAN PRESIDENT Mrs. Louise Bowker, secretary-manager of the Arkansas Press Association, was elected president of Newspaper Association Man- agers, Inc. at the group's 46th annual meet- ing August 22, in Williamsburg, Virginia. NAM is an association composed of managers of state, regional and national newspaper organizations. She is the first woman ever elected to the NAM board, having been chosen secretary-treasurer in 1967 and moving to the vice presidency in 1968. She joined the Arkansas Press Association as office manager in April 1956, was promoted to assistant manager in 1961 and became the first woman to head the 97 year old associa- tion in 1962. In 1962 she was chosen APA's "Man of the Year" an award bestowed on the person con- sidered to have made the greatest contribu- tion to the programs and progress of the Arkansas Press Association. She was elected Woman of Achievement in 1963 by Arkan- sas Press Women, Inc. She is currently serving as secretary of the Arkansas Highway Users Conference; vice president of the Arkansas Council on Chil- dren & Youth; and vice president of the Mid-America Newspaper Mechanical Confer- ence, the first woman in the country to be elected to such a board. She is a member of the Little Rock Advertising Club and is active on its legislative committee; the Sal- vation Army Auxiliary; North Little Rock Boys Club, and other civic organizations. She is a native of Jonesboro, where she was graduated from the public schools and Jonesboro Baptist College, majoring in busi- ness administration. Mr. Bowker is married to S. W. Bowker, an insurance executive of North Little Rock, Arkansas. Other officers and board members elected were: Vice President, Robert M. Shaw, Min- nesota Press Association; Secretary-Treas- urer, Richard W. Cardwell, Hoosier State Press Association; and Director, Ray Hamley, Maryland-Delaware-D.C. Press Association. ober 23, 1969 GREEK REGIME TOKENISM HON. JOHN CONYERS, JR. OF MICHIGAN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, October 23, 1969 Mr. CONYERS. Mr. Speaker, a recent dispatch in the New York Times reports that the military government of Greece Is undertaking a liberalization program. The press is now free?except there is a two-page list of banned topics. Sum- mary arrests and imprisonment are barred?except in cases involving "the public order and security." Military courts will no longer have jurisdiction over civilians?except in cases of treason, espionage, sedition, disturbing the peace, spreading false information, and arous- ing discord. In short, the people of Greece are now free?as long as they do not do or say anything the colonels do not want them to. Verily, the junta is preserving Greece as a bastion of freedom. I include the article entitled "Greek Regime Eases Martial-Law Curbs, But With Exceptions" from the New York Times of October 4, 1968, in the RECORD at this point: GREEK REGIME EASES MARTIAL-LAW CURBS, BUT WITH EXCEPTIONS ATHENS, October 3.?Greece's Army- backed regime today modified three martial- law rules?on press censorship, arbitrary arrest and trial by military courts?but the new measures contained a number of quali- fications, assuring that controls would con- tinue. Greek newspaper editors were told today that the press was now free. But they were handed a two-page list of banned topics and were told that although they no longer needed to submit galley proofs to the cen- sors, a copy of each paper must still be sub- mitted for approval before It goes to the newsstands. At the same time, summary arrests and imprisonment were barred "except in cases involving crimes against public order and security" and the jurisdiction of special military courts was narrowed. ANNOUNCED AT NEWS TALK The new measures were announced by Premier George Papadopoulos at a news con- ference in the marble-walled Senate cham- ber in downtown Athens. The timing of the measures puzzled for- eign diplomats in Athens. Some noted that that they came 24 hours after George Tsistopoulos, an Under Secre- tary in the foreign office, returned from the United States, where he had talks with Sec- retary of State William P. Rogers, and passed on to the Greek leaders the strength of feel- ing in Washington in favor of substantial liberalization in Greece. It is also possible that the announcement was intended to counteract a statement in Paris Tuesday by former Premier Constan- tine Caramanlis, who said that the regime was making no progress toward democracy and intended to perpetuate its oppressive rule. It came a day too late to prevent the ap- proval of a resolution by the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe in Stras- bourg condemning the regime. Rep. Gross, a conservative known na- tionally for the sharp "no" he so often hurls at various spending schemes, received per- haps the biggest ovation of the night when he turned to the subject of Viet Nam. "We Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Oct6ber 23, 1969-E Approved For Release 2003/12/02 ? CIA-RDP711300364R000300120003-9 8781 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -Extenszons of Remarks Commission TABLE 1.-UTILITY RATE 1NCREASES PENDING, BY STATE COMMISSION, JUNE 1, 1969, AND RELATED DATA --Continued Increases , _pending NaMe of company Category Amount Wisconain Public Service Commission-Cort,_ Wyoming Public Service Commission Date requested Wisao sin Telephone Co Telephone $1,000 Mar. 24, 1969 Gei Telephone Co. of iseonsin. do $2,800 Apr. 7, 1969 Dodge County Telephone Co _do (2) Apr. 8, 1969.. .. Valdeos Telephone Co do, (2) Apr. 14, 1969_ Muny Natural Gas Utility Gas $4,700 Apr. 16, 1969 -- Chippewa County Telephone Telephone $44,100 Apr. 25, 1969 OP., Inc. Wainakee Telephone Co BlaOk Earth Telephone Co Sh*ano, Wis Electric (2) Mattison Gas & Electric Co 2 Cheyenne Light, Fuel & Power Co. do (2) May 19, 1969 do May 23, 1969 May 29, 1969_ _ 1 Nov. 7, 1968 _ I do (2) See footnote 2, table 2, below. 1 Case h for which no amount of revenue requirement is ind cated represent either sm Gas $500,000 fElectric $168,000 IGas $142,600 Status of request Hearing held. Do. Hearing pending. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. On. On. COMM ission's order entered June 13, 1969, rejecffina company's proposal and requiring refiling tariffs permitting a total in- crease es follows: Electric. _ $48,419; gas, $50,852. panies or instances where actual additional revenue requirements have not been indicated at the our- present stage of the proceeding. TABLE 2.-TABULATION OF UTILITY RATE INCREASES P8NDING AS OF JUN 71, 1969, BY STATE AND CATEGORY State Alabama Alaska_ Arizona Arkansas_' None Californ a .. 60,137, 000 Colorado None Connec nut None Delawa e None District Of Columbia 24, 900, 000 Florida None Georgia+ None Hawaii 1, 621, 400 Idaho None Illinois . 2,159, 000 I ndiana + None Iowa 450,000 Kansas None Kentucky None Louisia a None Maine + None Maryland 24, 900,000 Massachusetts None Michigan 2-.120, 634,725 Minnesota (2) Mississi pi None Missour _. 17, 500, 000 Montan None Nebras a - (2) Electric None $219, 000 None Gas Telephone NaniNon None\$1, 062, 877 49, 153,000 -? None 340600 None' None 34,820 None None None 1, 472, 000 /08,000 None None None None None (1) 5, 521, 900 i67, 108,000 (2) None 11, 025, 000 None (1) None None (1) $493, 600 46, 424, 000 31, 500, 000 None None 13, 282, 000 17, 070, 548 981 089 None 4, 440 000 TABLE 2. State TABULATION OF UTILITY RATE INCREASES RENDING AS OF JUNE 1, 1969. BY STATE AND CATEGORY-- Continued - Electric Novada None Now Hampshire None Now Jersey __ None Now Mexico , $3,411, 662 Now York 22, 000, 000 North Carolina None North Dakota None Ohio None Oklahoma 360,000 Oregon . None Pennsylvania 29, 707,184 Puerto Rico None Rhode Island None South Carolina_ None 1 366, South Dakota_ (2) 345. 3 Tennessee None 6 114 920:052 U. MIS -----------(2) None 17, 000, 000 Verm 2.364, 000 4 0 None Virginia_ None 3, 00, 000 3, 120, 000 Washington None West Virginia_ 36, 600 1 139, 435 Wisconsin__ . 1 6, 8 52, 000 Wyoming . . 168, 000 Subtotal Grand total__ _ None 45, 021, 500 None ? None I Oth r increase(s) pending with no set dollar aoiount requested or established. See table at: we 2 No regulation. UTILITY RATE INCREASE REQUESTS FILED WITH UTILITY COMMISSIONS SUBSEQUENT TO. JUNE I, [In millions of dollars1 Company STATE 1969 , Category Amount COLORADO Public Service Co. of Colorado Electric-gas CONNECTICUT Connectlicut Natural Gas Gas FLORIDA Southern Bell Telephone Telephone GEORGIA Southerh Bell Telephone do- IDAHO Idaho Power__ _____ ______ Electric ILLINOIS Commonwealth Edison do_ MASSACHUSETTS New Enrand Telephone & Telephone ._ Teleg aph. MINNESOTA Northern States Power Electric__ MISSOURI Kansas City Power & Light NEW JERSEY le, self 6ntral Power S, Light Electric New leney Power & Light do $1. 9 4.14 317,411,571 Gas None None None 4,377,701 $1, 300,000 None 1,208,783 1 238,088 None None 779,761 None 379, 000 None (1) None 16, 133,641 None None None None 2, 877, 000 11, 880, 000 142,000 175, 742,171 Telephone None None None None $175, 081, 090 3,449,850 3, 000, 000 127,739 None 11, 804,400 Nene None 9,200,000 894,491 29,417 2,052,212 (2) (2) None 822, 526 26,700, 000 98,200 1 22, 010,800 None 468, 006, 763 4 961,160, 505 " On July 30, 1969, Public Se ce Co. of New Mexico filed for an electric rate increase of $4,219,547. Does not reflect 25 applications to hich no dollar amount was available. UTILITY RATE INCREASE REQUESTS FILED WITH STATE UTILITY COMMISSIONS SUBSE V ENT TO JUNE 1, 1969 Continued Its millions of dollarsl Company NEW MEXICO Community Public Service Public Service of New Mexico Southwestern Public Service NEW YORK AC ON ON RATE REQUESTS BY STATE UTILITY COMMISSIONS JUNE-SEPTEMBER 1969 Comp y Category Amount Electric do do Consolidated Edison.................... 32.10 Iroquois Gas Corp Gas OHIO 29.7 Ohio Bell Telephone United Telephone of Ohio Cleveland Electric 8., 4 45..0 PENNSYLVANIA Duquesne Light......... Metropolitan Edison Telephone__ __ do Electric do do TENNESSEE South Central Bell Telephone. Telephone__ _ 23 TEXAS Lone Star Can Gas WISCONSIN Wisconsin Public Service_ Electric 123 Total 52. 0 7.3 5.8 $0.3 4.2 1.9 117.5 0.8 .-14 0 17.5 19.0 20. 7 4. 6 3.1 5. 1 498. 6 Amount requested Amount approved CALI ORN1A General Teleph no of California 1)46, 300, 000 646, 300, 090 Southern Calif nia Edison_ 60, 137, 000 46, 668, 000 Southern Calif via Gas., 5, 939, 000 (I) Southern Cou ins Gas 4.310,000 (1) COi ECTI CUT Souther ew England Te one 23, 900, 000 1 23,900,000 FLORIDA Southern Bell 5,775,625 3, 701, 500 MICHIGAN Consumers Power I 57,700,000 37, 822,000 Michigan Consolidated Gas_ _ _ 27, 000,000 1 4, 200. 000 3 2,800,000 MISSOURI Missouri Public Service...... 5,300,000 5,100,000 NEW YORK Niagara Mohawk NORTH CAROLINA Lee Telephone Co ___ 21, 880,000 239,000 Footnote at end of table. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 (:) 100, 000 October 23 , 1 9 6 9CONGRESell8RIZVEM: &14911:1700 0 (9 /3 IttA3 MX00120003-9 E 8783 job accomplishment" and suggested it be Approved For should win that war," he said, "or get the hell out." The evening's keynote address was delivered by columnist James .1. Kilpatrick. While noting that opposition to foolish gov- ernment programs was certainly necessary, Mr. Kilpatrick also urged conservatives to "apply their talents to affirmative answers to American problems"?problems like con- servation, pollution, penal reform and low- cost housing. Conservatives have the proper principles at heart, he said, but "if I had only one political wish, conservatively speak- ing. I would wish to see us translate broad conservative principles more frequently into specific, affirmative action." Mr. Kilpatrick applauded those men and women who for so Many years have volunteered their services to the conservative cause. He said that more than ever before their dedication was needed, because "there is much work to be done." Other remarks at the dinner were de- livered by William F. Buckley Jr., editor of National Review, and Robert Bauman, secre- tary of ACU and a former national chairman of YAF, who served as master of ceremonies for the evening. Among the members of Congress who at- tended and joined in honoring two of their congressional colleagues were Sen. Strom Thurmond and Reps. Don Clausen, Jim Col- lins, John Hammerschmidt, Manuel Lujan, William Scherle, and E. Ross Adair. Guests from the White House staff in- cluded presidential adviser Dr. Arthur Burns, speechwriter Patrick Buchanan, Special Presidential Assistant Dr. Martin Anderson, congressional liaison man Bill Timmons, "inspector-general" Clark Mallenhoff and presidential staff aides Mort Allin and Tom Huston. Among the other Administration ap- pointees in attendance were USIA director Frank Shakespeare, Ted Humes of the labor department and Defense Department aides William Baroody Jr. and Jerry Friedheim. Other guests included John Mahan, chair- man of the Subversive Activities Control Board, and Ken Towsey of the Rhodesian Information Service. Also attending the dinner were such well- known conservatives as Holmes Alexander, Lemuel Boulware, Allan Brownfeld, Ralph de Toledano, Dr. Lev Dobriansky, Willard Ed- wards, Victor Lasky, Fulton Lewis III, Dean Clarence Manion, Neil McCaffrey, Stefan Possony, William A. Rusher, Phyllis Schlafly, George? Schuyler, Paul Scott, Ken Thompson and Tom Van Sickle. The sponsoring organizations hope that next year's dinner will be even better at- tended and that conservatives from all over the country will try to get to Washington to help honor two more members of Con- gress who, like Sen. Williams and Rep. Gross, have done so much to strengthen the con- servative cause. BRIG. GEN. FRED W. VETTER, JR. ? HON. J. CALEB BOGGS - OF DELAWARE IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Thursday, October 23, 1969 Mr. BOGUS. Mr. President, it has often been said that "little things mean so much." And I am certain that the commander of the Dover, Del., Air Force Base believes it, for his example at the base illustrates that phrase accurately. In January of this year, Brig. Gen. Fred W. Vetter, Jr., assumed the top post at one of the Military Airlift Command's largest installations. Initially, the general expressed a de- sire to improve and maintain the physical appearance of the property and to strengthen the ties to surrounding com- munities. This ambitious officer set a personal example for all to follow. In the quest of better community rela- tions, the air base recently hosted a "Salute to Delaware," a daylong pro- gram of aircraft displays, parades, dem- onstrations, and a performance by the precision flying team, the Thunderbirds. Attendance was in the thousands despite the fact that it was a weekday. Delawareans are proud of this military base. I am confident that all Delawareans join me in commending and thanking General Vetter for the fine job he is doing. - An Associated Press article written concerning General Vetter, by Edgar Mil- ler, was published recently in the Dela- ware State News. I feel it is an excellent character sketch and illustrates quite well why those under his command and the citizens of the first State appreciate this fine officer and the job he is doing. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that the article published in the Delaware State News of October 17 be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: GENERAL PUTS SELF ON SPOT AT Am BAsz (By Eqoar Miller) DovErt.?Brig. Gen. Fred W. Vetter Jr. left himself wide open shortly after taking com- mand of the 436th Military Airlift Wing at Dover Air Force Base last January. "Put me on the spot," he challenged the base's 25,000 officers, enlisted men and de- pendents in an unusual?for a general? column in the base's weekly newspaper, The Airlifter. One of his first takers did just that. The writer was a sergeant with two chil- dren who said that with a third straight hardship assignment staring him in the face?this time in Greenland after previous tours in Korea and Vietnam?his wife was threatening to divorce him if he didn't give up his Air Force career. Vetter investigated, found the man's com- plaint was indeed legitimate and replied: "The assignment of this man was care- fully investigated and discussed with higher headquarters. He has been released from the assignment . .." Such swift, decisive action made the col- umn an immediate hit and Vetter now is deluged with mail, so much that he can only publish a representative selection. But he gives personal attention to all letters and each writer gets a personal reply. The letters have had results in several areas, from film processing at the post ex- change to spraying for Japanese beetles in flower gardens. While there are a few which are "petty and self-serving," most letters serve a useful purpose, Vetter says. "It's amazing the number of good and practical suggestions we are picking up", the general says. Some of the letters really do put him on the spot and "can be utter dynamite" if not handled right, Vetter says. Of course, Vetter's reaction to a given letter might not always be what the writer had in mind. Take the case of the three lieutenants who complained that officer of the day duty of- fered "very little in the way of a sense of discontinued. Vetter agreed that junior officers weren't getting enough out of the long, tedious hours of OD duty at night and on weekends so he expanded their chores to include "educa- tional as well as meaningful responsibili- ties" so they wouldn't be bored any more. The column has done much to give Vetter a reputation on the base as a man who gets things done?in a hurry. He has particularly emphasized spit and polish?often to the anguished groans of many airmen?at all levels of base life, from his own office down the base housing area. As a result, the base has taken on a neat and trim appearance. Housing area roads have been resurfaced and buildings are being painted throughout the base. "The men look smart and one senses a new feeling of ur- gency and pride," one staff officer, Lt. Col. Maurice G. Steele, said. Vetter begins his day with a brisk mile run at 6:30 a.m, through the housing area. During the run he takes note of any un- kempt lawns or houses. If he spots one he jots down the address and the occupant gets -a call from him later. He also calls those who have done a particularly good job of keeping up their quarters. Vetter's hobby is big game hunting and his office walls are covered with trophies from hunts on several continents. His latest trophy is still being mounted?the 61-inch antlers of a moose shot in Alaska. A native of Snohomish, Wash., who now calls Houston, Tex., home, Vetter began his career as an aviation cadet in 1942. He was promoted to general in April 1968. Vetter's lean, 5-foot-11 frame, his dashing salt and pepper mustache and graying tem- ples and his straight military bearing led one newsman to write in a biographical sketch: "If Hollywood were type-casting for an Air Force wing commander, Fred Vetter Jr. would get the role." THE 75TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE UNION OF POLES IN AMERICA HON. LOUIS STOKES OF 011/0 IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, October 23, 1969 Mr. STOKES. Mr. Speaker, October 26, 1969, marks the 75th anniversary of the Union of Poles in America. A fraternal service organization, the Union of Poles in America was founded in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1894 and has since provided in- numerable benefits to the Polish-Ameri- cans of Ohio. But more noteworthy is the great service this organization has pro- vided to our community through its many juvenile and adult social programs. The Union of Poles is headquartered in Cleveland and its national president, Mr. Richard E. Jablonski, also resides in that city. As a Representative for the city of Cleveland, I commend the Union of Poles for their 75 years of unselfish service and I wish them continuing success for the future. In saluting this organization, I would like to provide my colleagues with the following historical review of the Union of Poles in America prepared by Mr. Richard E. Jablonski: The Union of Poles in America, under the protection of our Blessed Mother, came into Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 E8784 Approved Fe6gatssesiM3A2/02 : CIA-RDF'711300364R000300120003-9 RECORD?Extensions of Remarks October .e.3, being as a result of the merging of two Unions, The Polish Etonian Catholic Union under the protection of the Immaculate ' Heart of Mary and Thb Polish Roman Catho- lic Union, under the protection of Our Lady of Czestochowa. This merger occurred at the joint convention in Cleveland, Ohio on May 30, 1939. The Polish Roman Catholic Union, under the protection of the Drimaculate Heart of Mary, was organized On July 1, 1894, in Cleveland, Ohio. Its first president was A. Skarupski. The Polish Roman Catholic Union, under the protection of Our Lady of Czeatochowa-, was organized on March 11, 1898, in Cleve- land, Ohio. Its first president was Francis Szemplachowski, Both of the unions, after many prelimi- nary discussions, held special conventions during the month of May 1938. Finally it was decided to hold a common cc:invention on May 30, 1939 in Cleveland, for the purpose, of finalizing the merger. Its first president,: was Joseph Missal. During the 30 years of existence, the Uniol of Poles has considerably increased lag mem bership and financial resources. The finan- cial resources are now approaching' the $1,- 000,000 mark. The entire organizatidn stands on a firm financial boat; and is one of the leading fraternal organizations in America. From an earned surplus, dividends have been paid to its members every year for the past 25 years. During World War II, the Korean War and the present War in Vietnam, the 'Union of Poles has guaranteed the entire payment of life insurance in case of death Or an in- sured member serving in tile Armed Forces? not excepting the policy with war reserva- tions. The Union of Poles is a participating mem- ber in the Polish American Congress and for many years has taken an active part in the social, cultural, and economik affairs of the "Polonia." The Union of Poles in America, a fraternal organization, strongly believes in serving its country; and taking an active part in help- ing the free world emerge a very great power in the service of mankind, for a better, stronger, and happier society of Fi?ee and Independent Nations. Today, we observe, together with the "PoIonia," the Diamond Jubilee, the '75th year of the founding of the Union. ' JIM COMSTOCK, WEST VIRGOTIA'S AMBASSADOR EXTRAORDINARY, PORTRAYS STATE WITH IMAG- INATION IN UNIQUE NEWSPAPER HON. JENNINGS RANDOLPH OF WEST vnionna 1 IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Thursday, October 23, 1969 Mr. RANDOLPH. Mr. President West l I Virginia is fortunate to have within its borders a journalist of the talegt and a 'capacity of Jim Comstock, whose ase of 'operations is Richwood in the forest r I lands of my State. a His keen powers of observation and w his ability to find new insights in nearly C every situation make the West Vilrginia Hillbilly a most popular and eagerly awaited weekly newspaper. Under the Ii guidance of Comstock, his partner, ron- s son McClung, and their erudite Master w of the print shop, C. Donnee Cook, the Hillbilly has become an institution known across the United States and overseas. to It is more than just a weekly news paper. It devotes itself primarily to the discussion of life in West Virginia, its strengths, it weaknesses, its heritage, and its future. Hillbilly likewise is ever alert to ways in which West Virginia can be improved. But it is also-a light-hearted publica- tion, filled with humor and Comstock's own, often-irreverent comments on events af the day. In tne course of bringing Hillbilly to its present state of journalistic eminence, Jim ' Comstock himself has become a southt-after personality who frequently giaces speakers' platforms in West Vir- glinia and other States. He reports on his :travels and observations weekly in a lengthy colum n called the Comstock Load. Elsewhere in the publication there may be discussions of many subjects under intriguing headlines such as these from recent editions of Hillbilly: "West Vir- ginia Cole Slaw Signs As American As Apple Pie," "Mamories of a B. & 0. Dis- patching Man,' "A Mighty Mingo Chief- t ," "How the Teacher Nipped a Riot," "A You Need Is a Peach Tree Limb To Find 'Water," "By Rail Up Shaver's Fork River," ok What a Big Dog Dragged In," "In the nd of Buckwheat Cakes," "Hillbilly Ram gs," "The Man in the Henhouse," "Have leeping Bag, Will Travel," and "Old Lik r in a New Jug," a regular compilation o notations and poetry. Hillbilly also feati1rs a regular heritage page, a lively excha ge of let- ters from readers and periodic reviews of various industries that cont ibute to the West Virginia economy. A piature of a pretty West Virginia girl always brightens Hillbilly's pages. Mr. President, Jim Comstock recently spoke at Salem College, my beloved alma mater, telling of the trials and trihula- tons of an editor. His appearance , was reported in the September issue of, the Salem College Bulletin, and I ask imous consent that excerpts from ti ar- ticle be printed in the RECORD. There being 110 objection, the e erpts were ordered printed in the REC RD, as follows: ED/TOR JIM COMSTOCK GIVES ADDRESS/AT SALEM "I founded The West Virgind Hillbilly because I wanted ik tell the world that West Virginia is a notch above the other states," Editor Jim Comstock told the, Salem Col- ege students. Comstock, West Virginia "anibassador ex- raordinary," spoke at Salem CcAlege and was eceived by the students with enthusiasm. He told of his special "ramp edition which aused quite a stink with the subscribers id especially wita the Post Office Depart- eat." He explained that the stunt drew national attention on the wire services and esulted in The National Geographic doing n article about the paper, ramps and Rich- ood?the home of the Comstock and Mc- lung publications "Every Monday morning I have 16 blank ages in front of me to fill," Comstock said. To a literate person that paper, when pub- shed, has meaning. I ask myself, 'Is there ome little thing in it that will lift the orld ?' " READERS HAVE POWER The West Virginia Hillbilly really belongs the readers, and the readers have the _ - 1969 power, he declared. Among the Many things which Hillbilly readers have done are? founding a "Past 80 Club," building a hos- pital in Richwood, sending a boy to Williams- burg, Pa., for rehabilitation, saving the scenic Cass steam railroad?the last of its kind in the country?for a tourist attraction, start- ing the drive to buy Pearl Bucks' birthplace home in Hillsboro for West Virginia. MELVIN MILLER Comstock told the story of Hillbilly's col- lapse a couple of years after its birth and of Melvin Miller who came to Richwood to encourage the two publishers to start again. Miller, who had just graduated from Bethany College, was on his way back when his small sports car failed to make a curve and he was killed. Inspired by Melvin Miller's faith, Comstock and McClung started the publication again. The first issue of the reborn paper was dedi- cated to Miller in Comstock's story, "Here, Melvin Miller, is Your Paper." "Each week I ask myself, 'Have I done something good? Have I been true to the dreams of a boy who wanted to start a paper?'" PRESS AGENT anti STATE Comstock is one of the state's best press agents. He has publicized its writers, sculp- tors, painters and musicians; worked to bring in new industries; and plugged its tourist attractions. In Hillbilly he has satirized West Virginia's politics, described its beauties in glowing words, and kept alive its rich folk heritage. AUTHORITY ON APPALACHIA Otto Whittaker, who compiled and edited the recent book, Best of "Hillbilly," says that Comstock probably knows more than any man alive about the yesterdays and todays of Appalachia and how it got that way, and for the past year he has been enlarging this knowledge with a felloWahip from the Ford Foundation. In addition to editing the Newsleader and Hillbilly, Comstock is compiling and editing a 25-volume encyclopedia on West Virginia. "In this encyclopedia we hope to preserve West Virginia's heritage Which is rapidly be- ing lost," he said. - STUDENTS FOR WHAT? HON. EDWARD J. DERWINSKI OP ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, October 23, 1969 Mr. DERWINSKI. Mr. Speaker, I have repeatedly called the attention of the Members to the rampage perpetrated in Chicago on October 9, 10, and 11 by mili- tant members of the MS. It is important that people around the country understand the developments in Chicago and therefore I insert into the RECORD a very effective commentary carried in the Sunday, October 19, Chi- cago Heights Star, a publication whose staff kept very close to the situation: STUDENTS FOR WHAT? By all accounts, militants of the self- styled Students for a Democratic Society alienated or at least embarrassed all but the most knuckle-headed of their admirers dur- ing the group's mOst recent descent upon Chicago. They came to tear the city apart. and they remained to demonstrate how badly decent people would fare if they in- deed achieved whatever brand of society they really want. Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 E 8672 41ROM'Art9145631ffe6E.RAIligalsg9PAPR9k3a9R12000Mtober 21, 1969 KOREA TODAY HON. RICHARD T. HANNA OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, October 21, 1969 Mr. HANNA. Mr. Speaker, this month's Army Digest carried an interesting and informative article on our military pres- ence in Korea. I include it in the RECORD at this point: KOREA TODAY: THE VIGIL CONTINUES Along 171/2 miles of tense and troubled frontier, you hear the accents of Iowa farm boys, Georgia mill workers, Harvard Law grads. Some are regulars, long-term profes- sionals; others are perfoming an obligation of citizenship. All have a hard and endless Job?watching the line along the American sector of the Demilitarized Zone, which straddles Korea's 38th Parallel. An entirely new generation has grown up since a gray Sunday in June 1950 when North Korea dispatched 117,000 tough, Soviet- equipped regulars south to strangle the in- fant Republic of Korea. From 16 nations came a swift response. American troops spearheaded an interna- tional army, the 'first of its kind and purpose ?the United Nations Command. It met the crisis to force the North Koreans, and the Chinese Communists who intervened to res- cue them, to the conference table at Pan- munjom?where recriminations still fly like shots. Today, actual shots still fly as Communists continue to break the unquiet peace. Soldiers of the United Nations Command are involved almost daily in some Com- munist-initiated act of violence along the 151-mile DMZ, Their vigilance continues against hostile raiders and infiltrators .trying to move south. Throughout Korea, UNC forces react swiftly to eliminate enemy agent teams and infiltrators who strike hard and often at their positions. In January 1968, a 31-man North Korean commando team crept into Seoul on a deadly mission?to assassinate ROK President Chung Hee Park. Intercepted a short distance from the Presidential Mansion, they were hunted down and killed or captured. Since 1967, there have been about 1,600 Incidents involving Communist violations of the Armistice, some 40 percent of which were small firefights. More than 550 enemy infiltrators and agents have been killed and nearly 50 captured. As General C. H. Bonesteel III, command- ing general, UNC/USFK/Eighth U.S. Army, observed: "With the exception of the con- flict in Vietnam, nowhere else in the world today is there so direct and inflammable a confrontation between Free World forces and vicious, strong and agressive Communists as there is along Korea's DMZ." Despite Communist orations at the Pan- munjom truce table, there is nothing to in- dicate that the situation has changed ap- preciably since the signing of the Armistice, July 27, 1953, when General Maxwell D. Tay- lor, then Eighth Army commanding general, told his troops: "There is no occasion for celebration or boisterous conduct. We are faced with the same enemy, only a short distance away, and must be ready for any moves he makes." Some of the United Nations countries who made Korea a proving ground of Free World resistance to Communist aggression have left token forces. The ROlts themselves man most of the 151-mile armed frontier. And the presence of the U.S. 2d and 7th Infan- try Divisions, and 314th Air Division tells the Reds: "We're still here? and still ready." Across the American sector of the line stretches a security system that includes mod- ern observation deVices and a newly com- pleted barrier fence. But the real barrier is in the hearts of the South Koreans, backed by their American and United Nations al- lies. Behind that protective line, this rug- gedly anti-Communist country has achieved political stability and impressive economic progress, making it one of the success stories of the United States assistance program. STRONG TRADITION Korea is a proud nation. Its people have kept their national and cultural integrity for thousands of years, despite invasions by the Chinese, Mongols and Japanese. Korea's location is of strategic importance. Geographically, it occupies a position athwart Communist approaches to the North Pacific. The Korean peninsula lies at the apex of three great power triangles?Russia, Red China and Japan. The capital, Seoul, is less than 500 air miles from Peking, the Chinese Communist capital, and from Harbin and Mukden, China's great industrial centers. It is even closer to Russia's ice-free port of Vladivostok. Red China and the Soviet Union maintain substantial forces nearby. Just north of the Demilitarized Zone stands the North Korean army, third largest in the Communist world. But the ROKs remain undaunted. Since the 1953 armistice, the Republic of Korea has built a well-led well-organized and thoroughly capable military force, which numbers among the largest in the non-Com- munist World. Its force of more than 500,000 Is organized into two armies, five corps, 17 divisions. In addition, it has two divisions serving in Vietnam. A newly organized Home Defense militia, composed, mainly of ex- servicemen, but including some 15,000 wo- men volunteers, numbers about 1.9 million. For the past three years, ROK soldiers have served with allied units in Vietnam. Their 48,000-man force there is noted for its toughness in combat and rugged effective- ness in civic action and psychological opera- tions. PROGRESS Behind the protective shield of its de- termined soldiers, Korea has achieved an economic miracle. New roads, highways, fac- tories, the stepped-up tempo of manufactur- ing and construction mark its long strides toward modern development. Exports, which amounted to only $32 million in 1960, ex- ceeded $500 million in 1968. The Gross Na- tional. Product has been climbing between 8 and' 12 percent a year for the past five years. Not only new industries but cultural and educational institutions as well are springing up all over the republic. Its literacy rate is among the highest in the world. Korea's growth as a peaceful, prospering nation provides an inspiring example to other developing countries. In less than two decades, it has shown the world how a society can modernize and prosper under free institutions. To developing nations around the world, Korea's visible progress toward growth and stability presents an attractive alternative to the repressive methods of totalitarian rule. Amid the heightened tensions brought about by infiltrations and forays from the north, Korea, the Land of the Morning Calm, maintains its vigil?and its serenity. Today, ROK forces make up the bulk of the United Nations Command. Shoulder to shoulder with other members of the United Nations Com- mand, U.S. Forces Korea and the Eighth U.S. Army, they share a common determination to stand their ground on cold and barren ridgelines to show aggressors that freedom Is not an empty catchphrase?that it will be defended whenever and as often as neces- sary. This is Korea today. WICHITA FALLS PUBLISHER THE FRIEND OF THREE PRESIDENTS HON. GRAHAM PURCELL OF TEXAS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, October 21, 1969 Mr. PURCELL. Mr. Speaker, Mr. Rhea Howard of Wichita Falls, Tex., was re- cently singled out by the Dallas Times Herald as a "Friend of Three Presi- dents." Not only has Mr. Howard been a friend of three Presidents, but he has also been instrumental in the growth and development of his community, his State, and his Nation through his active work in the newspaper business and the Democratic Party. The Governor of Texas, Gov. Preston Smith, once described Mr. Howard as a man who "had the nerve to walk out front, with his back to the crowd." This rare quality of leadership, Mr. Speaker, has stood for a number of years as an inspiring standard of public service to his fellow Texans. His courage and con- viction have championed many causes, and it is with a great deal of pride that I would like to share the accomplish- ments of this Texan with my colleagues, to whom I commend Rhea Howard as an exemplary statesman: (From the Dallas Times Herald, Oct. 8, 19691 HELPS BUILD CITY: WICHITA FALLS PUBLISHER FRIEND OF THREE PRESIDENTS (By Lois Luecke) WICHITA FALLS.--A Texas publisher who earned the friendship of three U.S. presidents and whose counsel was sought by the White House says a newspaperman has to be a champion for both the community and the area in which he lives. "I don't see how any man who runs a newspaper can dig a hole and crawl in, leav- ing the battleground of civic life. He must be a part of his city. He must take sides in is- sues. He must help solve the problems," he says. At 77, Rhea Howard, editor and publisher of the Wichita Falls Times and Record News, a newspaper veteran of 62 years and a long- time Democratic party leader in Texas, daily practices his philosophy of journalism. "There is no such thing as a city standing still," he will tell you. "Wichita Falls has gone forward and the newspaper has had something to do with it. A man who puts out a newspaper has to keep abreast of the times?maybe ahead of the times?to provide leadership." Howard followed in his illustrious father's footsteps when he became head of the Times Publishing Co. upon Ed Howard's death in 1918. He was 55 when he took the helm of the newspaper his father founded in 1907. In his 21 years as publisher, associates have seen not only a continuity in the fulfillment of the Times' founding principles but a new era of involvement based on personal com- mitment and leadership. He was tapped, and answered the call,-for help in nearly every civic endeavor: hellirew himself wholeheartedly into his political party's campaigns and has been a delegate to the last live national Democratic conven- tions. Howard was one of 22 Texas publishers in- vited by President John F. Kennedy in Octo- ber 1961 for a briefing and consultation on national and international affairs?an oc- casion which Howard deems "the highlight of my newspaper career." A close friend of former President Lyndon Approved For Release 2003/12/02 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 Oct ber 21, /9APPmE511MgM12.94F8it. CIA-RDP71600364R000300120003-9 I)? Extensiovs of Remarks E 8671 "That the flag of the United States be 13 strip* alternate red and white; that the union be 13 stars, white in a blue field, repre- senting a new constellation." Sine Congress did not specify the arrange- ment of the 13 stars on the blue background, Betsy had them arranged in a pirele, based on the idea that no colony th,uld take precee.ence. General Washington described the symbol- ism of the flag as follows: "We take the stars from heaven, the red from our mother country, separating it by white stripes, thus showing that we have separated from her, and the White stripes shall go dawn to posterity representing liberty." In 1.916, President Woodrow W.lion pro- claimed June 14 as the anniversaty of the creation of the first stars and stripes and as Flag Day, which is annually observed throughout America. Our flag is a proud symbol or the history of our people and our country. Its 13 stripes for th ? original 13 colonies and Tts stars far every state will always serve to remind us of our struggle from a small, young country to the greatest nation on earth. NATIONAL BUSINESS WOMEN'S WEEK HON. CLAUDE PEPPER OF FLORIDA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, October 21, 1969 Mr PEPPER. Mr. Speaker, the week of October 19 Marks the 41st anniversary of the National Business Wortien's Week, a time specifically devoted to dramatiz- ing the contributions of wortten to the professional and business world. The first observance took place in 1928, In the years since then, wcanen have made tremendous advances in our society. From an early effort of business and professional women to achieve accept- ance and status based on their ability and accomplishments, NBIA/Virbes grown to be a nationwide observance of the contributions of women in every seg- ment of our society. The objectives of National Businese Women's Week are noteworthy: to pub- licize achievements of busineSs and pro- fessiclial women everywhere, an he local, State and National levels; arid to pub. licize the objectives and program of the national federation. The National Federation of Business and Professional Women itself has an impressive membership of more than 180,000 women active in all the 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puei to Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Founded in 1919, its growth is exemplified by its em- blem, the Nike?Winged Victory of -Samothrace, which symbolizES progress. And the Federation of Business and Pro- fessio 1 Women can indeed take pride in th progress it has made tOward at- taini g its objectives, which are four- fold: Firet, to elevate the standards for women in business and in the profes- sions; SecOnd, to promote the interests of business and professional women; Third, to bring about a spirit of co- operation among business and profes- sional women of the United States; and Fourth, to extend opportunities to business and professional women through education for industrial, scientific, and vocational activities. The membership of this federation represents a force which is being ef- fectively molded for the promotion of ex- cellence in business and government. Its voice is the voice of conscience and concern. A leader since its founding in 1919 in