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Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 E 760 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? Extensions of Remarks February 5, 1969 Few realize now that in 1967 West Virginia had its best mine safety performance since the state started keeping records 70 years earlier. Official figures reflected a fatality rate of 0.84 per million man hours during 1967, com- pared to 1.13 in 1966, 1.29 in 1965, 1.22 in 1984 and 1.81 in 1963. Even in 1968, before the thunderous blast at Farmington, Marion County, killed or trapped 78 miners, the state had a compara- tively good record of 1.09 man hours. Prepara- tion of laws and regulations to improve the record marred by disaster is now in a fluid state as the new administration looks at the past to learn its lessons and looks at the future with an eye toward taking advantage of every new idea and every technological ad- vancement to make the underground world safer for miners. During the past few weeks, before and after Moore took office, the State Mines Depart- ment staff, headed by Director Elmer C. Workman, union officials and operators put their heads together on proposed laws and regulations that would achieve these goals: A foolproof system of mine mapping that would guard against another Hominy Falls type of disaster, with the workings of one mine located too close to another. Mapping would be supervised by a professional engi- neer. More mine inspectors and higher salaries for them. A new definition of "return air," meaning that after a volume of air has passed through and ventilated all the working places on a so-called "air-split," it shall then be desig- nated as return air. Haulage lights on the rear, as well as the front, of machinery moving in the mines. The need for a good mapping program has received much emphasis in the general dis- cussions about mine safety. Among other things, the maps would show all shafts, slopes, drifts, tunnels, entries, rooms, crosscuts and all other excavations, Additional information on the maps would show: The outline of existing and extracted pil- lars, since designating an area "pillard" or "mined out," without the outline of the mined pillars, is unacceptable. Direction of all air currents, using arrows. Abandoned portion or portions of the mine. The outcrop of the coal bed within the bounds of the property assigned to the mine. The boundary lines of the coal rights as- signed to the mine. The known underground working in the same coal bed on the adjoining properties within 1,000 feet of such mine works and projections. The elevations of the top and bottom of each shaft and slope, all drifts and the bot- tom along at least two parallel entries in each set of main and panel entries at hori- zontal intervals, not exceeding 200 feet. Location of the principal streams and bodies of water on the surface, location of any impounded bodies of water inside the mine, and location of all boreholes pene- trating the coal mine, and the location of oil and gas wells, high pressure pipe lines, high voltage power lines, principal roads and occupied dwellings. One of the most significant provisions given study for the proposed law would per- mit any miner to examine a company mine map "if he has reason to believe that a work- ing place is in the proximity to other work- ings that may contain impounded water or noxious gases." Mine Director Workman made this simple but profound remark about safety in a coal mine: "A bad top never killed anybody." This simply means, he explained, that if a miner is informed that a top is bad, he doesn't get under it. This rule permeates all the rules of safety in a coal mine. Workman believes it's impossible to at- tain perfection in mine safety because of the element of human error. He estimated that at least 90 percent of all fatalities in coal mines can be attributed to human error. WHY THE SURPRISE AT "PUEBLO" SEIZURE? HON. ROBERT H. MICHEL OF ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, February 4, 1969 Mr. MICHEL. Mr. Speaker, while it will be some time before we get all the facts surrounding the seizure of the U.S.S. Pueblo, the early reports front the naval court of inquiry have pro- duced the surprising revelation that ap- parently no one in the naval chain of command had any idea that the ship might possibly be attacked or seized. As pointed out in an article by Mr. Richard Halloran appearing in the Sun- day, February 2, edition of the Wash- ington Post, the natural question arises as to? "What made everyone so sure the North Koreans would not try something so audacious as capturing that ship?" The article raises some very signifi- cant and pointed questions and I insert it in the RECORD at this point: Wily THE SURPRISE AT "PI7EBLO" SEIZURE? (By Richard Halloran) The question nobody seems to have asked yet in the Pueblo inquiry is: What made everyone so sure the North Koreans would not try something so audacious as capturing that ship? Cmdr. Lloyd Bucher, captain of the ship, testified in answer to a question from the board of inquiry: "No, sir, I never considered I would ever be attacked on this mission. It never occurred to me . . . it never oc- curred to me that I would ever be put in the position I found myself in that after- noon." Capt. Thomas Dwyer, in charge of naval Intelligence in Japan at the time of the Pueblo's capture, testified in closed session that he did not even know the North Ko- reans had publicly warned the United States against such missions. Rear Adm. Frank L. Johnson, the Navy commander in Japan at that time, testi- fied that such a seizure was considered "highly Improbable." He defined this as, "in effect, there is almost no chance of this hap- pening." "The feasibility of this type of operation," Johnson said of the Pueblo's mission, "Is dependent to a large degree on the safety provided by the time-honored recognition of the freedom of the seas. This has gone on for over 150 years. No public vessel had been seized in all that time. This was a very excellent precedent on which to base the safety of any one individual ship." Yet in June, 1967, only seven months ear- lier, Israeli -aircraft and patrol boats strafed and torpedoed the USS Liberty, a ship sim- ilar to the Pueblo on a similar mission on the high seas in the Mediterranean. That was the case of a friendly nation at- tacking an American ship and by accident. Did it not occur to anyone that a hostile nation might do so and deliberately? There was no attempt to capture the Liberty but the distinction between an at- tack and a seizure is surely only one of minor degree. IR military terms, capture Is the logical objective of attack. Consider the evidence of North Korean hostility toward the United States in the fol- lowing facts, all obtained from overt, pub- lic sources: On Nov. 2, 1966, the day President Johnson left Seoul after a state visit, the North Koreans ambushed and killed six American and one South Korean soldier in the southern portion of the demilitarized zone that divides Korea. That was the first incident in a marked upsurge of flagrant violations of the Korean armistice and clearly aggressive actions by the North Koreans. During 1967, the North Koreans killed 131 American and South Korean soldiers and wounded 294 more in attacks along and be- low the DMZ. There were a total of 445 fire- fights along the DMZ, plus more in the South Korean interior. Moreover, two American camps were shot up. There were artillery exchanges and at least one small tank battle. Two railroad trains were sabotaged. At sea, numerous South Korean fishing vessels were captured. A South Korean patrol boat was blown out of the water by North Korean ships similar to those that attacked the Pueblo. There were other exchanges of fire inside and outside territorial waters, north and south of an imaginary extension of the DMZ. In December, 1967, North Korean Premier Kim Il-sung reiterated in the clearest terms the North Korean intention to reunify all of Korea under Communist domination by force of arms. It was the third time that he per- sonally had done so and each time he em- phasized that American forces were the target of priority. On Jan. 6, 1968, five days before Pueblo left Japan, and again on Jan. 11, the day the ship sailed, North Korean broadcasts warned against spy ships off their coast and said they were determined to take counter measures. Most flagrant of all, the North Koreans sent 31 men into Seoul in an attempt to assassinate South Korean President Park Chung Hee. This blatant evidence of North Korean belligerence occurred on the night of Jan. 21?a full 36 hours before the Pueblo was seized. It would be interesting to know whether Bucher had been apprised of it. He may not have been for all three experi- enced naval officers testified that, in. effect, they had no idea the North Koreans were in a threatening mood and would violate the freedom of the high seas, just as they had violated so much on land and at sea before. Nor have the five admirals on the board of inquiry delved deeply into this point. Rear Adm. Marshall W. White asked Adm. Johnson whether the DMZ intrusions had not made him think the same thing might happen at sea?"a so-called crossing of the DMZ in the water." Johnson replied that the chances were so remote "a bookmaker would give you such fantastic odds that even someone as rich as Howard Hughes could not pay off on it." No one could have predicted, of course, exactly what the North Koreans might do, any more than any other event can be pre- dicted. Gen. Charles H. Bonesteel III, the commander of American forces in South Korea and a perceptive student of his North Korean adversaries, has often called Kim Il-sung a "meglomaniac" and said he would never try to guess what Kim would do next. One might also have been surprised at the audacity of the North Korean seizure of the Pueblo. But little could have been more audacious for North Korea than to send armed soldiers into South Korea to assas- sinate the President. But the basic question remains, in light of all the other evidence: What made everyone so sure that the North Koreans would not try it? Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 rebructry 5, 19.69 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ?Extensions of Remarks E 759 18 1839. Black Heath was a tearful harbiLger ot'things to come, for the exnjesion, like nost since, was unimaginably violent, crushini, or aSphyxiating all within the earth. Two men, somehow protected by a ervice near the mine mouth, survived, but 53 mIners vvere killed. According to Tatman, no rescue e orts were made. is is not surprising, forlt is hard to aet hew they could have helped. l!Afterdamp,' as In most mine explosions, leigred most ot ".he men, and would certainly ha v killed anyrss- cue worker foolish enough t0enter the nine prior to ventilation. , As it is known?and has be known eili .ee at least 1839?that combination of carton menoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and otl ter gases occurring after such blaats are refry( ri- sible for most deaths in mine explosions, the concerned layman wonders , why portalde breathing apparatus, usable in a deatte- dealing atmosphere, has not ,?-been develop ed by the coal industry, the 1:74-1. governineat, or some imaginative inventor., , It has been developed, of course, for maa- beis of mine-rescue teams, but such de:Vices are far too bulky to be practicable for indr- vidiral miners on a workaday basis. A crash program for the development of such devic?as seems long overdue. _ I Even if they made breathing possible only for a short time they could man the diger- enc , in many cases, betweenZfe and deata. coal miners do have available, it should Ire no d, a "self-rescue" devick_worn on the be11 that can help a miner te,,hreathe =dal: adv rse conditions for 30 minutes. It is tn.:- less, however, in an atmospbere devoid, of oxygen, as a mine atmosphete generally s , aft a blast. - e first rescue efforts aftera mine explc- sio , so far aS is known, ocisped on Anz. 14, 8'71, in a Pittston, Pa., anInracite nal,na. The efforts, however, were relatively minimal and quite fruitless, althougn__ the rescuere brenight 17 lifeless bodies to the surface., A 1 mine inspector and five etr six helpeis were more successful on Oct 27, 1884? at UniOntown, Pa., where 14 man were killec... Some miners, overcome with atterdamp, wee a taken outside the mine where they recoverec. But mine-rescue teams coulUo little after mine explosions without some ?method of IN - reaming alive in the afterdaniu. This mean: some sort of self-eantained breathing ap - paratus in most cases, for mans so-called masks are useless in an atrkosphere the; can't support life. Stich self-contained breathing apparatit for Mine use was introduced th the UMW. stat 4s as early as 1905, but wascalow in bei, perfc ted. When it failed to work in ar. atm sphere without oxygen theIntsked wage_ wearing it quite literally earned his title; he departed this life. From 1908 to the present, 11 is recorded that 35 mine-rescue men, weadfig, such ap- pars, lost their lives. Alm.oit two thirds of these accidents occurred #cm 1908 to 1921, only one since 1940. The dangers Of mine-rescue efforts in the old days are underlined by the experience Of a rescue party of 11 men on March 19, 1906. after a West Virginia explosion. The partly went into a mine where 13 men had perished the day before, and their open-flame carbide lamp sr set off another explosion, killing all 11 weuld-be rescuers. Themes A. Edison's electric mine lam first placed in service on a limited basis 1 West Virginia in 1915, helped to preven later repetitions of this tragedy. Today, mine inspectors are reluctant risk the lives of their men to attempt th rescu of men who may already be dead. / Is dose, but on a volunteer basis and oni after onsidering all the facts in each in dividu 1 case. Too often, such masked angel., can d little except retrieve bodies and wake pre liminary reports on the nature and exten of the blast. For major explosions in coal mines are deadly. The initial blast may shake the earth and shatter men in the process, but the after effects of the explosion, as be- fore noted, may be even more lethal. For the blast produces gases, including carbon monoxide, that quickly expunge life. Mine rescue workers with their breathing devices may survive in this afterdamp, as the miners call it, but survival for long without such gear is impossible. At Hominy Falls, W. Va., in May, 1968, 21 of 25 trapped m:.ners were saved after up to 10 days entombment, but methane and coal-dust explosions were not involved. Flood waters from ancien; diggings threatened these men, and the four victims drowned. Sometimes, as happened most recently at Humphrey No. 7 mine near Morgantown, coalminers can barricade themselves against smoke and gases, but a great deal of luck - is involved, particularly is being able-to get sufficient fresh air to remain aliye until help arrives. And no explosion wee' involved at Humphrey, a fact of great significance. Until some way is found to table trapped miners to breathe in a:a explosi n-created at- mosphere, the best-intentional lnasked angel will often be of little use, and entombed miners will die as surely as A they were suddenly thrust under 100 feet ?o water. f34, It is hard to believe, but from 19 through 1910, 3,316 coal miners were kine \ at work in 111, major mining 1.1sasters. This dismal, horrible record led to the creation, in 1910, within the Dept. of Interior, of the United States Bureau of Mines "... to make diligent investigation of the methods of mining, es- pecially in relation to the safety of miners, and the appliances best adapted to, prevent accidents...." It seemed hardly a moment too soon, yet the powers of the new bureau seemed un- impressive. Not until 1941, if my source of information is correct, did federal inspectors have the right to enter coal-mines. West Virginia did its share toward the crea- tion of the U.S. Bureau of Mines with the great butchery at Monogah on Dec. 6, 1907, when at least 361 miners (no one knows, for sure, the total) were killed in an explosion that holds the U.S. records for high score in coal mining's death's-head Olympics. But that is another story. Yet the story of the National Mine Rescue Assn. parallels it, in that Welch Post No. 1 at Gary was formed after the Bartley explosion in McDowell County on Jan. 10, 1940, killed 91 men. It appears to be a lamentable fact that mine-safety progress occurs only after public apathy is shocked into awareness by human sacrifice. In the early days of :1940, William Morris, E. L. Chatfield, Percy and Jim Gille, Glenn Bearden and Jack Pero, all of Welch, tried to get an NMRA charter, but not enough people were interested, in the Welch area far a charter to be granted. But not long after the Bartley "plosion Welch Post No. 1 was organized, with 61 charter members. The main organizer, Fred J. Bailey, Was named president. Aside from the parent -organization in Pittsburgh, "Mere are -"N MRA posts in only three states: Kentucky, Illinois, and West Virginia. Memberships in all of them is largely composed of safety directors of coal companies, mine lnspectcrs, safety inspectors, and mine rescue teams. There are varied degrees of membership, depending upon the nature and duration of a member's service. In West Virginia, NMRA now has 350 members and 57 life members. Most of the present high-ranking officials of the W. Va. Dept. of Mines are life members of NMRA, Elmer Workman, current director of the Dept. of Mines (awaiting replacement by a Republican), is such a life member, as is his safety director, Robert J. Marrs, In West Virginia, mine-rescue stations are maintained dually by the Dept. of Mines and coal companies, 27 stations for each of them. Workman recently explained how such sta- tions work in his department: "We have proper equipraent," he said, "stored at each of these 27 stations, and we train mine-rescue men there. Such men are paid seven dollars each time they come out for class, but for actual rescue work are paid top wages?$33 a day, plus overtime?accord- ing to the UMW scale. "Last year, which was about average, we trained 322 mine-rescue men in 35 classes, and 605 men in accidents and their preven- tion. In the 27 company-owned rescue sta- tions, they employ 224 men to perform sim- ilar training functions." The West Virginia Dept. of Mines, by the way, was created long before its federal counterpart. Mine inspection began in West _Virginia, under Oscar A. Veazey, in Septem- ber, 183. the year the department was cre- ated. Every year, mine-rescue teams, both state and company trained, from all over West Virginia hold competions among themselves. Similar national competitions, featuring first aid and mine rescue, are held in alternate years in one of the coal producing states, and area meets are also held in many min- ing centers to keep in practice. Much of the training of mine-rescue teams involves the use of breathing equipment? masks of one sort or another that enable men to live in polluted or oxygenless atmos- pheres. Obviously, men using such equip- ment must know it thoroughly, for their lives depend upon it. In the early years of mine rescue, such equipment came largely from Germany and England. But it has been U.S. produced for many years and consists of two basic types: ,masks designed for use in an atmosphere With enough oxygen to maintain life, and self-contained breathing apparatus that has Its own oxygen supply and may be used in an atmosphere without oxygen, provided no corrosive elements are present. Mine-rescue men must have yearly physi- cal examinations, must have no major physi- cal difficulties involving the heart or lungs, and must be no more than 50 years of age. Psychologically, they must be stable enough to Withstand what can be, in emergencies, extremely trying circumstances. The masked angels are important men when needed, little thought at, at least by the general public when all is going well in the coal-mining industry. OUR RESPONSIBILITY (By John G. Morgan) "It is difficult for me to understand how a state which is a prime producer of soft coal should not also be the leader among states in the adoption of modern safety laws." So declared Gov. Arch A. Moore Jr. in his first message to the West Virginia Legislature. "I think we of the State of West Virginia have an extraordinary responsibility in this area," Moore added. He further pledged that he will offer proposals "that hopefully, and in a novel way, will make our state a leader in the field of coal mine safety.' The Governor announced his support of legislation to make certain that miners af- flicted with "black lung" disease can receive compensation under state laws. As essential as coal mining is to the eco- nomics of the state, he said "it is also in- cumbent upon us to provide for the health of those now engaged in that vital industry." Moore thus set the tone of the new admin- istration in the field of coal mine safety. safety. This part of his speech was practi- cally a full notice that he will urge stronger laws and regulations to preserve life and limb in the mines. The Governor could scarcely do less in the wake of mine disasters last year at Hominy Falls and Farmington?disasters which spoiled previous excellent safety records. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release emoto9_: CIA-RDP71B00364Romool50001-8 February 4, 1969 CONGRESSIONA ORD?Extensions of Remarks E 727 held November 23 at St. Paul's Church. Lt. Gen. Lewis B. Hershey was the fea- tured speaker with Mayor A. Victor Gen- tilini present, representing the commu- nity and neighborhood commissioner Robert C. Swendiman, representing the Scouting movement. In these days of scare headlines and much TV news coverage of the hippie element and of youths involved in law- lessness and tumult, it is refreshing in- deed to be able to add a brief "well done." It is to be hoped that these young men who have done well will continue in their- devotion to the Scouting ideals of serv- ice to community, State, and Nation under God. ON RUNNING A COLLEGE HON. TOM BEVILL OF ALABAMA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, February 4, 1969 - Mr. BEVILL. Mr. Speaker, Dr. Harry Philpott, president of Auburn Univer- sity, has taken, in my opinion, a correct and courageous position with respect to allowing Yale Chaplain William Sloane Coffin speak on the Auburn campus. In answer to a Federal court summons re- garding a suit asking the court to over- turn Dr. Philpott's veto of an invitation by the Human Rights Forum to Coffin to speak at Auburn, Dr. Philpott an- swered: I shall continue to fight to the limit of my resources. Dr. Philpott said he felt educators should be a "little more knowledgeable" in the field of education than were stu- dents. Dr. Philpott has said some things that needed saying for some time now. I join with all reasonable Alabamians and Americans in supporting Dr. Philpott in this effort. At this time, Mr. Speaker, I place in the Extensions of Remarks of the CON- GRESSIONAL RECORD an editorial pub- lished in the Sand Mountain Reporter, which offers a timely insight into the problem and into Dr. Philpott's position: ON RUNNING A COLLEGE We applaud the statements made this week by Auburn University President Dr. Harry Philpott in answer to a Federal court sum- mons for Feb. 3 regarding a suit seeking to allow controversial Yale Chaplain William Sloane Coffin to speak on the Auburn campus next month. An Auburn group filed the suit asking the court to overturn Philpott's veto of an invi- tation issued by the Human Rights Forum to Coffin to speak on the Auburn campus on Feb. 7. The university president said the challeng- ing group, representing the Human Rights Forum, did not think he had the right to decide who would speak on the campus. "I think I do and I shall continue to fight to the limits of my resources," he said. Philpott said he felt educators should be a "little more knowledgeable" in the field of education than were students. U.S. District Judge Frank M. Johnson Jr. set the hearing on a suit asking for a pre- liminary injunction to be followed by a per- manent injunction on grounds the "oral Philpott rule" was unconstitutional. "The reputation of the human rights forum would be badly damaged should the speech not be allowed to proceed as planned," the complaint said. The plaintiffs told the court they thought Philpott's veto was not in keeping with other campus speakers, including former Gov. George C. Wallace; his late wife, Gov. Lur- leen B. Wallace; civil rights figure Whitney M. Young, and others. The suit noted the speakers had represented both conservative and liberal views. Coffin was convicted in a federal court in New York state of encouraging draft evasion and has appealed the conviction to a U.S. circuit court of appeals. " It is ironic that this campus group goes to the Federal court system to try to gain its objective of encouraging and counseling with a man who advocates the violation of the laws of this land, and who?in effect? would seek to threaten the security Rnd well- being of the very democratic process which provides human rights in a degree never be- fore enjoyed by any society. And it is most encouraging to see in this Instance a university president who stands his ground and tells it like it is?that a qual- ified and seasoned and trained university president, guided by a blue ribbon board of trustees, knows more about how to run the affairs of a university than does a group of university students. We would have avoided some of the tragic campus circumstances which have erupted across this country if more university administrators had taken such a firm stand a long time ago. THE SCISSORED "ig1la,0" RECORD HON. HARRY F. BYRD, JR. OF VIRGINIA IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Tuesday, February 4, 1969 Mr. BYRD of Virginia. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the Extensions of Remarks an edi- torial entitled "The Scissored Pueblo Record," published in the Norfolk Ledger-Star of January 31, 1969. William H. Fitzpatrick is editor of the Ledger-Star, and George J. Hebert is editor of the editorial page. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: THE SCISSORED "PTJEBLO" RECORD In an expression of his concern over the Pueblo affair, Virginia's Senator Harry Byrd has also cited an incidental example of bu- reaucratic arrogance in connection with the case which disturbed him greatly. Inasmuch as the court of inquiry now under way is likely to be only the beginning of a much wider examination of the ferret ship's capture, it becomes important to re- view what was said by important officials immediately after the seizure. But in going to the files of the Senate Armed Services Committee to look at testi- mony which the committee received last February 1 from Defense Secretary McNamara and from General Wheeler, chairman of the Joint Chiefs, Senator Byrd found something very strange indeed. One of the questions the Senator had put to Mr. McNamara, along with the latter's answer, had been completely clipped out of the report. Senator Byrd, while questioning certain of the Pentagon's specific censorship judg- ments, freely acknowledges the need to pre- vent some items of testimony from getting into the news accounts. And this is usually accomplished, he says, by red marks which the Defense censors put beside those por- tions of a report which are not to be made public after a closed-door hearing. But cutting the matter from the report entirely and leaving such a Pentagon- doctored file as the committee's permanent record of crucial testimony? The Senator's angry comment on this was that "nothing can justify keeping this information from the review of the Congressional committee charged with that responsibility." The Senator's complaint is fully justified. From his recollection of the testimony, he seems to believe that what was cut could have an important bearing now on the total assessment of the Pueblo fiasco. But even if not, the cutting of the report was a danger- ous assumption of authority. Senator Byrd is entirely right in calling the Pentagon's hand on it, and the censors ought to be put on full notice that any such tam- pering with the records will not be tolerated. EARLY RETIREMENT HON. THADDEUS J. DULSKI OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, February 4, 1969 Mr. DULSKI. Mr. Speaker, over the years our Committee on Post Office and Civil Service has worked to develop a reasonable and up-to-date retirement program for our Federal employees. It is not perfect, and, of course, there will always be differences of opinion on de- tails of retirement rules and benefits. But I believe it is basically a sound system. Joseph Young, the very able Federal columnist in the Washington, D.C., Eve- ning Star, had an interesting article the other day on the familiar subject of early retirement: TALK OF EARLY RETIREMENT WAS MERELY CONVERSATION (By Joseph Young) When I first started covering the govern- ment beat in the good old days of 1945, one of the first government career (3ffic1als I met was a chap named Farthington. Farthington was a trim, youthful 46, bright-eyed, with black hair and a splendid mustache. He was most helpful in furnishing us with good news leads and we remarked apprecia- tively that we hoped we would enjoy a long and pleasant association with him. "I'm afraid not," he said. "As soon as I can I'm going to retire." We expressed surprise, since he was so young. "Why shouldn't I retire?" he asked, warm- ing up to what apparently was his favorite subject. "I don't want to hang around until they force me to retire at the mandatory age of 70, feeble and no good to anyone," he said. "No, sir ! I want to get out and enjoy life while I'm still young." We wished him luck and asked when he thought he might take the plunge. "Well, I'm angling for an involuntary sepa- ration so I can get out and get my retire- ment annuity at the age of 50," he replied. When he reached the age of 50 and still remained on the job, we expressed mild sur- prise that he was still there. "Well, there's a government pay raise corn- ing up this year, and that will boost my high- five-year average salary on which my annuity will be based," Farthington said. "So I'll wait another year." The next year and another five years came and went and Farthington was still around, and we found the subject of his projected retirement too delicate to mention. But when Congress was considering the Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 E 728 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD Extensions of Remarks February 4, 1969 bill to allow employes to retire on frill annui- ties at age 55 after 30 years' service, 1'2 rthing- ton brought up the subject himself, 'Once this bill becomes law, I'll ge'; out of here so fast that it will make yes r head swim," he said, rubbing lais hands. "Ah, the life of leisure?Florida, fishing, e'-1 mining, afternoon naps." Congress enacted the bill into 1w but Farthington remained at Ills desk. "I understand Congress is going to liberal- ize the computation of annuities, so I might as well stick around another year," he ex- plained. "It won't hurt TOO and will be well worth it." The computation factors were lib! ralized. But?you guessed it?Farthington runained on the job. Even the yea' when employees w'e-e given an 8 percent bonus on retiring, Fart fington stayed on. "With the new pay comparability pay law, our pay raises the next few years will be fan- tastic and will raise my annuity ,remen- dously when I retire," he rationalit As he spoke, we noticed for the fi-st time that his once jet-black hair was pay and his mustache was straggly. And so it went year after year la! ctil last week, when we received a call front him. "Can you come over and see ie?" he asked in a quavering voice. We said we'd be right over, feeling rather guilty that we hadn't called on him in. several yea-s. On arriving at his office, our first impres- sion was that a stranger was seatec at his desk. Certainly, this white-haired tom with the palsied hands and wrinkled fac,1 was a far cry from our friend Farthingtc n. But, alas, it was he. "Help me, help me!" he cried. "How." we asked. "What is the matter?" "I turned 70 yesterday and they're forcing me to retire," he shouted wildly. "But I don't want to go?I'm, still in my prime and there's another pay rai te com- ing up. Can't you use your influene, to get me an exception from the 70-year Mandatory retirement age?" As we started to reply, two burly General Services Administration guards walled into the office unannounced. Approaching 5'arth- ington, one of them said, "All right, Pop, this is it. They need your office and you'll have to leave." "I won't go!" Farthington shouted. "Then you leave us no alteranti, e," the other guard said, hoisting Farthingtm over his shoulder like a sack of flour and carry- ing him struggling from the room. From down the hall, we heard kiqthing- ton's piteous wail: "Help me, Pm to! young to retire. Help me, I'm too young. . WEAPONS SYSTEMS: A STORY OP FAILURE HON. STROM THURMOND OF SOUTH CAROLINA IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED HTATES Tuesday, February 4, 196,S Mr. THURMOND. Mr. Presidi,nt, an article entitled "Weapons System: A Story of Failure," published in thc Janu- ary 26, 1969, Sunday Issue of the Wash- ington Post, affirms the tragic hiE.tory of the billions of dollars wasted in the re- search and development program in weapons systems. The article Makes a distasteful case for the billion S wasted through the lack or quality control. Although there are some who would use any pretext to abandon our research and development of new weapons systems, the obvious conclu.siGn should be that Improvements in the control of develop- ments are of the highest priority, Mr. President, there is overwhelming evidence that our R. & D. procedures and methods for developing and procuring effective weapons systems needs an over- haul. It has been emphasized by experts that the DOD must streamline its R. & D. program. This article provides more evidence. Mr. President, I quote from the news- paper article, written by Mr. Bernard/D. Nossiter, which apparently is a rev' w of a classified document prepared ba key Government official: The Paper first; examined 13 m - or aircraft and missile programs, all with "sophisti- cated" electronic systems, bully for the Air Force and the Navy beginning in 1955, at a cost of $40 billion. Of the 13, only four costing 5 billion could be relied upon to perform af more than 75 per cent of their specification Mr. President, this is a rious state of affairs. It is no wonder t e Soviets are closing the weapons gap.''hese glaring deficiencies in our R. & D. program make it easy for them. It is my fiin hope that the new administration, wit the advice and consent of this distingulhed body, will be able to correct the complex problems and produce effectivk weapons for the billions spent. article be printed in the Exten ions of I ask unanimous consent khat the Remarks. % There being no objection, the?article was ordered to be printed in the ECORD, as follows: - 1 1 [From the Washington (D.C.) Post, J4n, 26, 1969] t WEAPONS SYSTEMS: A STORY OF FAILbRE < (By Bernard D. Nossiter) 1 1 The complex electronic gadgetry at' the heart of new warplanes and missiles ge er- ally works only a fraction of the time ..ti at its builders had promised. The performance of the multi-billilan- dollar weapons systems started in the 1.150s was bad; those of the 1960s are worse. i The Pentagon appears to be giving he highest profits to the poorer performers ,in the aerospace industry. i These are the conclusions of an abstr se 41-page paper now circulating in Gove41 - ment and academic circles. The documenti a copy of which has been made available /to The Washington Post, is believed to be tae first systematic effort to measure how will or ill the Pentagon's expensive weapons pir- form. Its author is a key Government offic 1 with access to secret data and responsibll for examining the costs of the Pentago complex ventures. He and his agency can be identified hers. His paper, entitled "Improving the Acq sition Process for High Risk Military Elic- tronics Systems," aims at bringing down he costs and bettering the dismal performajice of Weapons. It does not discuss a question that might occur to others: if these wea lab behave so badly, why is the Money b ing spent at all? For security reasons, many of the p anes and missiles examined are not identifl d by name. i The paper first examined 13 majornd missile programs, all with " phisti- rcraft i and missile electronic systems, built for' the Air Force and the Navy beginning in 1955, at a cost of $40 billion. Of the 13, only four, costing $5 billion, could be relied upon to perform at more than 75 per cent of their specifications. Five others, costing $13 billion, were rated as "poor" performers, breaking down 25 per cent more often than promised or worse. Two more systems, costing $10 billion, were dropped within three years because of "low reliability." The last two, the B-70 *amber and the Skybolt rnistile, worked so badly they were canceled outright after an outlay of $2 billion, LOSES FURTHER LUSTER -*Kie paper sums up: "Less than 40 per cent of the effort produced systems with ac- ceptable electronic performance?an unin- spiring record that losse further luster when cost overruns and schedule delays are also evaluated." The paper measures "reliability" in thit context: The electronic core of a modern plane or missile consists essentially of three devices. One is a computer that Is supposed to improve the navigation and automatically control the first of the vehicle's weapons and explosives. Another it a radar that spots enemy planes and targets. The third is a gyro-scope that keeps the plane or missile on a steady course. When the Pentagon buys a new gadget, its contract with the aerospace company calls for a specific "mean time between failure of the electronic system." In lay language, this iS the average number of continuous hours that the systems will work. In a hypothetical contract for a new jet bomber, Universal Avionics will sell the Air Force on its new device by promising that the three crucial electronic elements will operate continuously for at least 50 hours without a breakdown, In the reliability measures used in the paper described here, the plane is said to meet 100 per cent of the performance standarclis, if, in fact, its gadg- etry did run 50 consecutive hours. However, if a key element breaks down every twelve and a half hours, it gets a rating of 25 per cent; every 25 hours, 50 per cent and so on. Should a system operate with a breakdown interval of 62.5 hours?a phenomenon that happens rarely?its reliability is rated at 125 percent. TEST FOR THE PILOT Quite obviously, the more frequent the breakdown, the more the pilot of a plane has to rely on his wit and imagination to navigate, find targets and fly a steady course. Over-frequent breakdowns in a missile can render it worthless as an instrument of destruction.. Curiously enough, as the paper demon- strates, the Pentagon and the aerospace in- dustry apparently learned little * * * the systems of the 1960s are even worse. The document first looks at the perform- ance record of the electronic systems in 12 important programs begun in the 1950s. All but four missiles can be identified by name without breaching security. Of the 12, only five perform up to stand- ard or better; one breaks down 25 per cent more frequently than promised; four fail twice as often and two break down. four times as frequently as the specifications allow. The document discusses some of the good and bad performers in this group. It observes that the F-102, the Delta wing interceptor for the Air Defense Command, was bedevilled by an unsatisfactory fire control system. Its first had to be replaced; the next was also unsatisfactory, and an extensive two-year program to modify the device was then undertaken. SIDEWINDER DID WELL In contrast, the Sidewinder, a heat sens- ing missile, performed very well. The study attributes this to the fact that the missile was developed in a leisurely fashion, with- out a "crash" schedule, and that several con- tractors were brought in to compete for key components. The paper next examines eleven principal systems of the 1950s. These cannot be iden- tified beyond a letter designation. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 1 S 1352 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE Mr. MANSFIELD. Yes, indeed. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. Mr. STENNIS. I thank the leader. TRIBUTE TO ALAN BOYD, FORMER SECRETARY OF TRANSPORTATION Mr. FELL. Mr. President, I am con- cerned at the comments and criticisms that have arisen concerning former Sec- retary of Transportation Alan Boyd. In the years that we worked together on seeking to develop a high speed ground transportation system in the densely pop- ulated northeast corridor between here and Boston, I found Mr. Boyd a man of complete probity and integrity. In my experience, his whole concern was always with the public weal and gen- eral good. In fact, I know of few men whom I would consider more public- service minded or more honorable than Alan Boyd, and wish to express this view at this time on the floor of the Senate. In this regard, I ask unanimous con- sent to have placed in the RECORD a copy of a column in the Evening Star of Jan- uary 30, by Charles Bartlett, a wise, prob- ing and Pulitzer Prize winning reporter. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the REC- ORD, as follows: BOYD'S INTEGRITY, SERVICE TO PUBLIC DEFENDED (By Charles Bartlett) The suggestion of murky dealings in the employment of the first secretary of trans- portation, Alan S. Boyd, by the Illinois Cen- tral Railroad is a cruel distortion of the spirit in which Boyd labored to launch his new department. The coincidence between Boyd's employ- ment as president of the railroad and his department's grant of a $25 million subsidy for the Illinois Central's commuter opera- tions was blatant enough to stir suspicions. But the very blatancy of the coincidence should equally at-test its innocence. Certainly if Boyd, an administrator who suffered many wounds for his lack of defer- ence to commercial pressures, had been bent on playing a cozy game with his prospective employer, he would have taken pains to avoid the incriminating sequence between the grant and his employment, No conniver would risk anything so obvious. The facts are that the grant was handled routinely by Paul Sutton the administrator of the Urban Mass Transportation program. Grants totaling $72 million had already been made under new legislative authority to five railroads that serve New York City. Illinois Centrars turn came up in December because a commuter system in another city, for which a larger grant was earmarked, had been hit with labor trouble. Boyd's personal negotiations with the Illi- nois Central are said to have begun in mid- December. On about Dec. 20, he returned to Washington and told his undersecretary, John E. Robson, that he wanted to have nothing to do with the Illinois Central ap- plication. He would have protected himself better if he had taken more formal precautions. But the grant process was so routine to the op- erations of the department and so divorced from the secretary's area of direct involve- ment that he presumably felt he had done all that was necessary. Boyd's attitude was conditioned by the quality of his performance in many intricate areas of the government's relations with in- duttry. As chairman of the Civil Aeronautics Board for four years, undersecretary of com- merce for 18 months, and finally secretary of transportation, he established himself with the public as well as with his close as- sociates as a public official of instinctive in- tegrity. The scars which he bear's from his Wash- ington experiences are scars suffered in battles to assert the public's interest over private selfishness. lie challenged the mari- time industry's claim upon a huge annual subsidy. He fought to impose a user tax on private aircraft owners who pay less than five percent of what their operations cost to the government. He struggled to impose so- cial concerns upon the highway builders. He pushed an unpopular railroad safety bill. The most lamentable consequence of this cloud of suspicion, apart from its personal damage to Boyd, will be its tendency to ob- scure the charter which he left this vital new department. His mandate was that trans- portation policies should be considered in the broadest terms of public interest instead of in the parochial terms which guide com- peting segments of the industry. This concept is important in a secretary of transportation because it affects his re- sponse to the problems like noise, disloca- tion, and inconvenience which are inevitable byproducts of extending mobility to large and crowded populations. Boyd was diligent to consider the citizen who wants to stay at home in peace and privacy as well as the traveler. The obscuring of this record it particularly serious at a time when his successor, John Volpe, may be less wedded to this broad con- cept. Much will be lost if the new adminis- tration diverts the influence of the depart- ment to a narrow concern with the problems of the companies which supply the trans- portation and build the highways. It it worth noting that while the Illinois Central grant was approved during Boyd's tenure, the contract was not signed and the matter was left open to review by Volpe. He is studying the papers and his readiness to clarify or compound the ambiguity will be a clue to the spirit in which he has taken power. NOMINATION OF RUSSELL TRAIN TO BE UNDER SECRETARY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE IN- TERIOR Mr. FELL. Mr. President, I rise to en- thusiastically support the nomination of Russell Train to be Under Secretary of the Department of Interior. I have known, liked, and admired Rus- sell Train for many years. He has a rare ability of being able to combine the qualities of integrity with political sagacity, of being able to comprehend the heat of people's emotions, while at the same time being able to keep his own cool. His whole background has been spent in public service or supporting the in- terests of the general community. Ac- tually, he has served in all three branches of our Government. In the legislative branch, he was an attorney on the staff of the Joint Committee on Internal Rev- enue Taxation for 4 years; then clerk of the House Ways and Means Commit- tee in the 83d Congress, and its minority adviser in the 84th Congress. In the ex- ecutive branch, he was a Navy officer in World War II and, later, an assistant to the Secretary of the Treasury, 1956-57. In the judicial branch, he was a judge on the U.S. Tax Court from 1957 to 1965. In addition to his public service he has a real sense of private business and the responsibilities and the workings of our economic system. February 4, 1969 Chief warden of his church and en- joying the respect of all his friends and associates, he has always displayed him- self as a man of the utmost character and probity. I can think of no better man for this job and congratulate President Nixon on his nomination. Mr. ANDERSON. Mr. President, will the Senator yield? Mr. FELL. I yield. Mr. ANDERSON. The hearing was held this morning and the matter already has been recommended to the floor of the Senate. He is a fine man. Mr. FELL. I thank the chairman. ANTI-BALLISTIC-MISSILE SYSTEM Mr. PELL. Mr. President, on another subject, and briefly, I understand that later there will be a discussion concern- ing the advisability of the anti-ballistic- missile system. I should like to add my own voice as being one of those who question whether we should go ahead with this system at this time. THE "PU " AND THE CENTRAL WTLEGENCE AGENCY Mr. SYMINGTON. Mr. President, there have been many implications and some statements that the Central Intelli- gence Agency had something to do with the problems incident to the U.S.S. Pueb- lo. Although I remembered that shortly after this unfortunate occurrence, the Di- rector of the Central Intelligence Agency stated that the Agency had nothing whatever to do with this particular situ- ation, I decided to make certain of that remembrance. Accordingly, after hearing and read- ing these implications and statements, I wrote a letter to the Director, and today received the following reply: CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY, OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR, Washington, D.C., February 4, 1969. Hon. STUART SYMINGTON, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. MY DEAR SENATOR SYMINGTON: Per your re- quest and in reply to your qtiestion, neither this Agency nor I personally have had any- thing to do with the mission of the USS Pueblo, the ship itself, or any of its crew. As you will note, in the sidelined portion of the attachment, the Department of Defense made a statement on January 21, 1968 setting forth the facts about Commander Bucher and the Pueblo. They are accurately presented. May I make one additional point: The informa- tion which the Pueblo was tasked to gather during this mission was of tactical and de- partmental interest to the United States Navy. I hope that the foregoing is responsive to your inquiry. Sincerely yours, RICHARD HELMS, Director. Mr. President, the Defense Department statement referred to in the Director's letter was published in the New York Times of January 25, 1968, along with the North Vietnamese text of the pur- ported confession which the Pentagon refuted. In connection with the foregoing I would read an important short para- Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 February 4, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE Mr. BYRD of West Virginia. E an- unce that the Senator from Nevada r Blau), the Senator from Idaho (pr. CfluitcH), the Senator from Misais- si pi (Mr. EASTLAND) , the Senator from ichigan (Mr. HART) , the Senator from Indiana (Mr. Mama), thaSenator from L uisiana (Mr. LoNo), the-Senator from G orgia (Mr. TALMADGE) , and the Semi.. to from Washington (Mr. MAGNUSON) , arp necessarily absent. also announce that the Senator from W shington (Mr. JACKSON) is absent be- ca se of illness in the family. further announce that the Senator froni Hawaii (Mr. Iarou'rE) is absent on offi ial business. n this vote, the Senator from Nevada (Mt. BIBLE) is paired with, the Senator froi New York (Mr. Gocomna) . If pres- ent and voting, the Senator from Nevada wo ld vote "yea," and the Senator frOrn NevYork would vote "nay." O this vote, the Senator from Missis- sip (Mr. EASTLAND) Is paired with the Sen tor from Louisiana (Mr. Loam). ilf pre nt and voting, the Senator front Misaissippi would vote "yea," and the Senator from Louisiana would vote I f her announce that, if pneient and voti g sit , the Senator from (liforgia (Mr. TAL ADGE) would vote "yea." Mr. ,se SCOTT. I announce that the Sen- ator from New York (Mr. GoOorat), the Senator from Kansas (Mr. PeAriaoN), and the enator from Texas (Mr. TOWER) are a nt on official business. Th4 Senator from California (Mie 1VIone y) is necessarily absent. Th respective pairs of the Senator from california (Mr. MURPHY). and that of the Senator from Texas (Mr. Towaa) have leen previously announced. On his vote, the Senator from New York Mr. GOODELL) is paired with the Senatcr from Nevada (Mr. BIBLE). If present and voting, the Senator from 1 New ork would vote "nay" and the Senato from Nevada would vote "yea." The result was announced?yeas 34, nays 47 as follows: IN?. 18 Leg.] YEAS-34 Aiken Allen Allott Anderson Boggs Burdick Byrd, Va.t Byrd, W. a. Cannon Curtis Dole Dominick Baker Bayb Bellmon Bennett B poke Case Cook Coontr Cotton Cranston Dirksen Dodd Ervin Fong Goldwater Ellender Nelson Fannin Prouty Fulbright PrOX1Tdrp Gore . Russell Hansen Smith Hatfield Spong JOrdan, Idaho Stennis McClellan Symington Miller Thurmond Montoya Williams, Del. Mundt Muskie NAYS-47 Gravel Griffin Gurney Harris Holland Hughes Javits Jordan, N.C. Kennedy Mathias McCarthy McGee McGovern McIntyre Metcalf Mondale Packwood Pastore Pell Percy Randolph Ribicoff Saxbe Schweiker Scott Sparkman Stevens Tydings Williams, Yarborough Young, Ohio PRESENT t.ND GIVING LIVE PAIRS AS PRE IOUSLY RECORDED-5 Mr. Hollings, for. Mr. Hruska, for. Mr. Mansfield, against. Mr. Moss, for. Mr. Young of North Dakota, for. NOT VOTING-14 Bible Hartko Murphy Church Inouye Pearson Eastland Jacksen Talmadge Goodell Long Tower Hart Magnuson So the resolution (S. Res. 82) was not agreed to. Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, I move to recensider the vote by which the res- olution was rejected. Mr. MANSFIELD. I move to lay that motion on the table. The motion to lay on the table was agreed to. PROGRAM?ORDER FOR ADJOURN- MENT TO FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 7, 1969 Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, I should like to query the majority _leader with respect to the schedule for the re- mainder of the day and also for to- morrow. Mr. BYRE) of West Virginia. Pres- ident, may we have order? The VICE PRESIDENT. T'Senate will be ift order. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. Pre dent, the calendar, like Mother Hubb rd's cup- board, is quite bare. There are s me nom- inations from the Committee on For- eign Relations, the Committee n Bank- ing and Currency, the Committ on the Interior and Insular Af7airs, and erhaps some others, that we should like o take up this evening. I believe the distinguished S nator from Colorado (Mr. ALLOTT) is a tiel- pp ting some action. A number of en- tors are prepared to engage in c llo- quy?perhaps a round robin is a et- ter term?on the question of the ASM ?and its usefulness or lack of it. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con,- sent at this time that when the Senate Completes its business today, it stand in; exijournment until 12 o'clock noon Fri- day next. 1 The VICE PRESIDENT. Is there ob- jection? The Chair heart none, and it is so ordered. , Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, It is Ithe intention at that time to lay before he Senate a joint resolution placing kthe House and the Senate in adjourn- Ment from the close of business on Fri- ir.o+ next until noon, February 17, 1969. 1Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, one fur- her inquiry: I should like to inquire bether the nominations have been inted on the Executive Calendar and nether they are available for th eiribers. 1 Mr. MANSFIELD. No; they have nt en printed on the Executive Calen I understand that five are from the C - ittee on Banking and Currency? UD sUPerintendents; one from the Commit- tee on Interior and Insular Affairs; two fi1prn the Committee on Foreign Rela- es. We thought we would be doing gavor to the other side to bring them We have no desire to rush them, but the Senator desires that they be brnight up, we will do so. r. JAVITS. Mr. President, will the Se tor yield? S13-5i Mr. MANSFIELD. I yield. Mr. JAVITS. A very serious situation exists in the country today which I do not believe is contemplated by the Sena- tor's request. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Sen- ate will be in order. The Senator from New York may proceed. Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, there is a very extensive longshoremen's strike in the country which is causing very great difficulty, and which has been very slow in getting settled. Although certain sec- tions of the country have agreed on terms, settlement has been held up until all agree. By adjourning or going over until Fri- day, and then for another 10 days, it is a fact that we are limiting the capability of the President, if he should so desire, to make some recommendation to the Congress, as has been done before in this kind of matter. a.- ore, because the situation is so uncertain, nd I cannot ask that any- thing sped* be done, I suggest to the majority leader the possibility of our having to deal with this question arid that Senators be advised it may be nec- essary that some other disposition be made as to our time if this matter blos- soms or if there is some kind of emer- gency, which there could be as the mat- ter is getting very difficult now. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I wish to say that the wishes of the Sena- tor from New York, or any other Senator for that matter, will be given every con- sideration. We will go over until Friday and from Friday to February 17; but the President at any time is in the position that he can call us back, and if he thinks the economic situation relative to the longshoremen's strike warrants it, if he issues a call, we would remain. Mr. JAVITS. I thank the Senator. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, did I get unanimous consent to have the Senate go over until Friday? The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. EAGLETON in the chair) . Yes. Mr. STENNIS, Mr. President, reserv- ing the right to object, I wish to ask a 'question. It had been planned to have earings in the Committee on Armed ervices on Thursday for some civilian pointments in the Department of De- f nse, some of which have not yet come er. Could I get unanimous consent that ey will be automatically referred to the ommittee if they are sent up? Mr. MANSFIELD. Yes, indeed. Mr. STENNIS. I ask unanimous con- sent to that effect. AUTHORITY TO RECEIVE MES- SAGES AND FILE REPORTS AND TO MAKE REI0ERRALS Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that during the ad- journment of the Senate, following the completion of business today until noon on Friday, the Secretary of the Senate be authorized to receive and refer mes- sages from the President of the United States and the House of Representatives and that committees be authorized to file reports. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Does the request include the right to refer? Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved Fori\t inggiMi0fRoSiebliDIRNM-164R000300150001-8 Febructry._4, 1969? CO S 1353 graph from the Pentagon reply to the purported confession and then ask unanimous consent that the entire arti- cle be printed in the RECORD at the close of these remarks. The Defense Depart- ment states: Typical of this propaganda sham is the suggestion that the Central Intelligence Agency had promised Commander Bucher and his crew "a lot of dollars" for their mis- sion. Commander Bucher is a naval officer commanding a naval ship and performing a naval mission. He is not employed by the Central Intelligence Agency and was prom- ised nothing by the Central Intelligence Agency. Nor were any members of his crew. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: TEXTS OF PURPORTED CONFESSION AND PENTAGON'S REPLY PURPORTED CONFESSION I am Comdr. Lloyd Mark Bucher, captain of the U.S.S. Pueblo, belonging to the Pacific Fleet, U.S. Navy, who was captured while carrying out espionage activities after in- truding deep into the territorial waters of the Democratic People's Republic of .Korea. My serial number is 58215401. I was born In Pocatello, Idaho, U.S.A. I am 38 years old. The crew of our U.S.S. Pueblo are 83 in all, including 5 officers besides me, 75 serv- icemen and 2 civilians. My ship had been sent to Sasebo, Japan, to execute assignments given by -the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. On Dec. 2, last, we received assignments at the port of Sasebo from Rear Adm. Frank A. Johnson, U.S. Navy commander in Japan, to conduct military espionage activities on the far eastern region of the Soviet Union and then on the offshore areas and coastal areas of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. My ship had conducted espionage activities on a number of occasions for the purpose of detecting the territorial waters of the Social- ist countries. A LOT OF DOLLARS Through such espionage activities, my ship detected the military installations set up along the coasts of the Socialist countries and submitted the materials to the 'U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Recently, we were given another important mission by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency?that is, to detect the areas along the far east of the Soviet Union and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency promised me that if this task would be done successfully, a lot of dollars would be offered to the whole crew members of my ship and particularly I myself would be honored. Soon after that, I reinforced the arms and equipment of the ship and made de- tailed preparations for espionage activities. Then we disguised my ship as one en- gaged in research on oceanic electronics and left the port of Sasebo, Japan, and conducted espionage acts along the coast of the Demo- cratic People's Republic of Korea via the general area off the Soviet Maritime Prov- ince. We pretended ourselves to conduct -the observation of oceanic conditions on the high seas, electronics, research on electric waves, magnetic conditions and exploitation of oceanic materials. MISSION BEGAN JANUARY 16 It was on Jan. 16, 1968, that we entered the coastal waters of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea via the Soviet Maritime Province. In accordance with the instructions we had received, my ship was on the utmost alert and observed and ascertained the depth of water, current, water temperature, sea basin, salt density and water transparency of the territorial waters of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea with radar and various kinds of observatory instruments in a clan- destine manner at Chongjin, Wonsan and several other points, and detected the radar network, accommodation capacities of the ports, the number of the incoming and out- going vessels and maneuverability of the naval vessels of the Korean People's Army. Furthermore we spied on various military installations and the distribution of indus- tries and the deployment of armed forces along the east coast areas and sailed up to the point 7.6 miles off Nodo when the navy patrol crafts of the Korean People's Army appeared. We were on the alert instantly and tried to escape, firing at the navy patrol crafts of the People's Army. ''WE HAD NO WAY OUT" But the situation became more dangerous for us, and thus one of my men was killed, another heavily wounded and two others lightly wounded. We had no way out, and were captured by the navy patrol crafts of the People's Army. Having been captured now, I say frankly that our act was a criminal act which fla- grantly violated the armistice agreement, and it was a sheer act of aggression. I have no excuse whatsoever for my crim- inal act as my ship intruded deep into the territorial waters of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and was captured by the naval patrol crafts of the Korean People's Army in their self-defense action while con- ducting the criminal espionage activities. My crime committed by me and my men is entirely indelible. I and my crew have perpetrated such a grave criminal act, but our parents and wives and children at home are anxiously waiting for us to return home in safety. Therefore, we only hope, and it is the greatest desire of myself and all my crew, that we will be forgiven leniently by the Government of the Democratic People's Re- public of Korea. PENTAGON'S REPLY The statement attributed to Cmdr. Lloyd M. Bucher by North Korean Communist propagandists is a travesty on the facts. The style and wording of the dOcument provide unmistakable evidence in themselves that this was not written, or prepared by any American. The major point which this propaganda utterance attempts to make is that the Pueblo had violated North Korean territorial waters and was in fact violating those ter- ritorial waters when the North Korean patrol craft appeared. This is absolutely untrue. The Pueblo reported her position at that time to be 39 degrees 25 minutes north and 127 degrees 55 minutes east. The Pueblo's position as determined by the radar track of the North Koreans themselves was 39 degrees 25 minutes north and 127 degrees 56 minutes east. These two reported positions are within a mile of one another, and both show con- clusively that the Pueblo was in interna- tional water. The Pueblo was under orders from the be- ginning of its mission to stay at least 13 miles from North Korean territory. There is no evidence to suggest that these orders were not followed and there is much evidence both from her own radio transmission and from the information broadcast from the North Koreans themselves in their own in- ternal report that the orders were obeyed. Typical of this propaganda sham is the suggestion that the Central Intelligence Agency had promised Commander Bucher and his crew "a lot of dollars" for their mis- sion. Commander Bucher is a naval officer commanding a naval ship and performing a naval mission. He is not employed by the Central Intelligence Agency and was prom- ised nothing by the Central Intelligence Agency. Nor were any members of his crew. The entire world learned during the Ko- rean war of the tactics and techniques of Communist propaganda and of North Korean exploitation of men It held captive. This Fabrication is but another example. No credence should be given this contrived statement. ECONOMIC HARDSHIPS OF OUR OLDER CITIZENS Mr. PROUTY. Mr. President, during the years since I came to Congress, I have been particularly concerned about the economic hardship our society im- poses on its older citizens. As we begin the 91st Congress, I know most of my Senate colleagues agree that much remains to be done for most Amer- icans age 65 or over. Today, I want specifically to mention one group of older Americans who indi- vidually, during their working years, have greatly contributed to the success of millions of other Americans but who often face economic hardship in retire- ment. I am speaking of the thousands of dedicated schoolteachers in the coun- try who are presently retired. I am hope- ful that all of us will give their retire- ment annuities special attention both at the Federal and State level. Recently, Ernest Giddings, the legisla- tive representative of the National Re- tired Teachers Association, showed me a copy of a State-by-State report on re- tired teachers pensions prepared by his organization. I ask unanimous consent, Mr. Presi- dent, that a copy of this report be printed in the RECORD, and hope that each Member will find the National Re- tired Teachers Association report as in- formative as I did. I congratulate that organization on its excellent research. There being no objection, the report was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: COVER LETTER TO RETIRED TEACHERS ASSOCIA- TION PRESIDENTS, STATE DIRECTORS AND LEGISLATIVE CHAIRMEN The following reports were submitted to the Washington office during November and December 1968 by Retired Teachers Associa- tion officers. In a few cases we edited the original report slightly in the interest of brevity. In those cases, we made a genuine effort to retain all facts and interpretations without distortion. The results of Retired Teachers Associa- tion efforts to improve benefits vary almost unbelievably. In one state, the median re- tirement allowance for the 8800 retirants is now above $3300 a year. In another less for- tunate state, the annual pension is $332 for the 513 beneficiaries on the rolls. One of the great essentials to success in pension legislation is cooperation between all groups concerned. Retired Teachers Asso- ciation officers who develop good working re- lationships with the State Education Asso- ciation and with officials of the State Retire- ment System seem to fare best before their State Legislatures. Unity and cooperation within Retired Teachers Association ranks seems an abso- lute requisite for a successful legislative campaign. Open and above-board disclosure of plans, proposed techniques and financial needs seem as important as good leadership. Friction between-the groups concerned seems always to decrease the possibility of success. Ideas which have been especially helpful in several states include: (1) A year-round continuing legislative committee. Approved For Release 2002/10/0?: CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 S1354 Approved For Reedv_2P02/10/09 CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 cAtESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE (2) An efficient routine _for the leg slatzlve committee to report regularly to all rtirees. (3) A plan by which each retiree , if he wishes, snake a cash contribut4oh no matter how small to the expense o Carry- ing on the legislative work in his statg (4) An efficient continuing meni erslaip campaign carried to every retired te?ier in the state in order to attain as nearly sl pos- Sible 100% membership in both NR A and the State RTA. (5) A more active local Retired T ihers Association in every community. Several copies of "Pension Report are being sent to RTA officers. They are i V1ted to request as many copies as needed fo other Officers, local presidents and legislativ etan- Mittees. We appreciate very much the splen 4 co- operation of all who contributed to th prep- aration of the foregoing summary. ERNEST (HDD/NG AIRTA Legislative Represent e. NATIONAL RETIRED TEACHERS Assoc Bete PENSION REPORTS BY STATE RETTRED TE ASSOCIATIONS-19D5 Many state Legislatures en icted sutial pension adjustments during the 1967 and 1968. Some provided percentage improve based on the increase in cost of living tie teacher retired. Other states refu eglected to make justifiable adjus owever, with almost no exceptions the p ign must be and is being waged ag 1q69 to keep the retired members t ching profession from suffering th d gnities of a decreasing purchasing ii their fixed pensions while the rest nomy is caught up in a spiraling infl The following reports by states are sented in order that Legislative Comm of your state may have the benefit o plans, techniques, formulae and accom ments of every other state. DEUENIBER 1 Alabama W. E. Snuggs, President ARTA: "R teachers in Alabama number more than [th an average pension of about $15 nth. Those who retired before 1955 aries were low are the ones sufferin gr atest inequities. `A spot check was recently made ofloh retirees' pensions in three separate pars of th state. In one area 36 were reportei , in another, 38, and in still a different are Se enty-eight of these were receiving th n $90 per month. Some were livin n ing homes or being cared for b c ly a e fallen farther and farther behind its dren. All were facing the same spir co s of living on meager pensions w h duatrial wages, the salaries of active teac ers and our expanding State economy every of their retirement. 'As a basis for recommendations for iii creased legislative appropriations for ed tion in the state, the Governor appoin coismission to make a study of educati tail ne ds. The Alabama Retired Teachers sb- cia ion prepared and presented to the c ?in- mi sion a position paper that recomme ?ds aut ?natio cost-of-living adjustments fa Ala erne retired teachers, with the re ult tha we have been given favorable consid a- tioi in their eport. Thus the situation se molte hopeful as we look to the regular sioni of the State Legislature early in 19 Alaska L la C. Tilly, President, Alaska RTA: ril l96, 1 ye % was added to pensions, ret o- acti e to July 1, 1967. This is a coA-of-livink inc ase. o Alaska pension for retired teachers IS less than $100 a month. The lowest pensicine are received by the group of about 17 retirees who retired early. Their pensions avereige $150 plus the aforementioned 11/2%. The autoinatic cost-of-living increase is not to IER an- ars tOfts since S or ants. casa- ba in the Mier Our tiOn. bre- ttees the lih- $. bred 51:MO per heti the lees ,in a? Lig feh In- a exceed 11/.., %; and therefore it is not neces- sarily geared to adjustments to increases in salaries of active teachers," Arizona Wayne R. Gibson, Director, Arizona State Retirement System : "In Arizona, from July 1967 through 1968, prior service pensions for employment before the start of the Retire- ment System were increased by 25% for those teachers who continued in employment after 1955. These teachers also have received the benefit of liberalized social security pensions. Some few teachers who had limited employ- ment before the establishment date became eligible for partial pensions by 1968 legisla- tion. "The improvement in the benefit status of members retired since 1955 accelerates an- other inequity. Teachers retired before that date receive, typically, $170 a month. Legis- lation to be proposed in 1969 will ask that benefits be increased to $200 a month. "Averages are deceptive and some Arizona teachers retired with as few as five years of creditable service. Benefits are also reduced by the payment method elected or payments continued to a beneficiary. Nonetheless the 'average' pension paid those teachers retired before 1955 who do not have a social security entitlement from teaching employment in Arizona is $140 a month." Arkansas Louis Merrill Griffin, President, Arkansas RTA: "Act 9 of the May 1968 Special Session o the General Assembly permitted the Ar- kan Teacher Retiaement System Board to inves a certain percentage (10%) of the system sets in cer lain high-grade common stocks. s should, in the future, increase the earnin of the system's investments. "The mm urn pension of Arkansas re- tired teachers $75 a month. Pension ad- justments have en inadequate. A proposed law would provide ont-of-living adjustments as follows: 10% to all retirees of 1959 and earlier, 9% for those vho retired in 1960, 8% for those who retire in 1961; etc. Then it proposes an addition o 1% annually for 10 years, then e % anni.11y, plus an increase in retirement paymen of active teachers from their salaries and from matching state funds. "Thus our efforts arle now involved in attempting to increaEe ietirement pay to all persons on the teactlet retirant rolls and this hopefully will inel de cost-of-living in- creases over a period f years. The General Assembly will convesi early in January 1969. "The Arkansas Eq4aation Association heads up our program Arers funds are included in the Public -school Budget) , so we work with tli_ealolesecure increases." California Mrs. Myrtle Workman, President, Califor- nia RTA: "In California, during the period from July 1, 1967 through 1968 to dateefour- teen measures relating to teacher retirement were enacted into law. Chief among these were the following: "(1) An increase, ranging from 2% to 23%, in retirement benefits for teachers, who re- tired in 1965 and in earlier years, applied to existing allowances up to $300 per month. "(2) Improvements in regulations govern- ing substitute teaching by retired teachers, if qualified, in both -regular and special schools, permitting annual earnings up to $2500 per year without loss of retirement benefits. "(3) Increase in the retired teacher's death benefit from $400 to $500. "(4) Technical changes to improve ad- ministration of the California Teachers Re- tirement System and ir eligibility for retire- ment benefits. Proposed legislation which should be considered M the 1969 session, along with other changes in administration of the retirement system, are (1) An auto- matic cost-of-living adjustment affecting all retired teachers; (2) Provision for increasing _- February,. 4 1969 contributions to the Teachers Retirement Fund to place it on a funded lxisie; (3) An increase in survivor benefits for active teachers. "During the month of September 1968, total benefits amounting to $11,522,795 were paid to 37,596 retired teachers, or an average of slightly over $306 per month. Slightly over 10,000 of these retired teachers currently receive a monthly benefit of less than $200, including almost 3,000 who receive less than $100 per month." Colorado Mae Gaivn, President, Colorado RTA: "The Colorado RTA is cooperating with the Retirement System and the Colorado Education Association to seek (a) a retro- active pension increase of 14% for those teachers who retired 10 years or more ago and 2% for those who retired 2 years ago, with proportional increases for those who re- tired between 2 and 10 years ago, and (b) an increase of We % each year that the cost of living increases by 3 percent. "The Colorado RTA is also sponsoring a bill to provide a $25 a month increase or an- nuity of $175 a month for qualified retired teachers under the Colorado Emeritus Fund." Connecticut Thomas J. Quinn, Chairman, Legislative Committee, Connecticut RTA: "No teachers in Connecticut receive pensions less than $100 a month. In the legislative session of 1967, a bill was passed which adjusted pen- sions by amount ranging from 2% for those who retired in the years 1963 to 1965 up to 63% for those who retired-in 1933. "A bill requesting an automatic cost-of- living adjustment every two years was re- jected by the 1967 legislature although a similar bill for other state retirees was passed. We are introducing in the 1969 ses- sion a bill which will grant automatic ad- justments in teacher's pensions "beginning July 1, 1969 and we have every assurance that it will pass." Delaware H. E. Stahl, State Director, Delaware NRTA: "During 1968, a thorough research study of state pensions in Delaware was made by the Martin E. Segal Company, Con- sultants and Actuaries of New York City. This study was made under the supervision of a statewide commission. The Delaware State Legislature appropriated $25,000 for this study project and the report of the commission and the recommendations made by the actuaries will very probably be made available to the legislature and the public early in 1969. A member of the Delaware RTA is on the state commission. "The average pension paid to all members under the Delaware Pension Plan was $212 per month in 1967. The maximum pension per month under pension laws in Delaware prior to 1966 Was $250; the minimum pen- sion was $125 per month. "In 1966, the Delaware State Legislature enacted a contributory pension law which provided for a monthly pension up to $500 per month for active teachers who retire after 1966. Each active teacher paid 5% on his or her monthly salary between $6,000 and $12,000 a year, with a ILIAXIMUM of $300 annually. "State employees in Delaware who retired from active service prior to 1966 receive be- tween $125 and $250 monthly pensions?all moneys appropriated by the State Legisla- ture of Delaware in a non-contributory plan. "We are planning to ask the State Legis- lature when it meets early in 1969 to legis- late to provide automatic cost-of-living ad- justments for all state employees who re- tired prior to 1966." Florida M. 0. Worthington, President, Florida ETA; Grace Adams Stevens, Ohairman, Leg- islative Committee, Florida RTA: "House Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71B00364R000300150001-8 S1260 Approved For Rgekik1038210-WiL TekgReil_BW,NVIV03001500Vegractr y 4 1969 drill pipe, bringing the well under control. This could occur in a very few hours. In the relief well a string of 20 inch casing is to be set and cemented at 559 feet, 13% inch at 2,000 feet and 9% inch at 2,800 feet, after which the bottom hole location of A-20 should be intersected at about 3,100 feet. At this point, mud would be injected into the relief well bringing A-20 under control. STATEMENT OF WALTER J. RICKEL, SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR, FEBRUARY 2, 1969 I am deeply disturbed by the threat to aquatic life and to the shores and beaches posed by the continued leakage of oil from the union well. So far, fortunately, the dam- age has been small. But even this damage is too much if more rigorous drilling prac- tices can avoid it. All possible steps are being taken to bring this leakage to an early end. In the meantime, close and continued sur- veillance is being kept on the four drilling Operations still continuing on Federal leases in the Santa Barbara Channel. At my direction each of these drilling op- erations is being reviewed by the responsible experts of the geological survey on the scene. My instructions are that all possible steps be undertaken immediately to provide the greatest possible margin of safety against any further well blowups. If there is any reasonable doubt as to the adequacy of these measures, my instructions are to order an immediate cessation of drilling until neces- sary corrective steps can be taken. In addition to this immediate review of each drilling program now underway, the Department of the Interior, under my direc- tion has instituted a full study of the ade- quacy of our existing regulations and prac- tices to cope with situations of this kind. The Outer continental shelf leasing regula- tions themselves have not been substantially reviewed since they were first issued over fifteen years ago. While the geological survey does try to keep its operating instructions to lessees up to date, I intend to make sure that both the regulations and the policies of the geological survey receive a new and careful examination to make sure that they embrace the most modern and up to date safety technology. I realize that to some degree it is impossi- ble to reduce the possibility of accidental occurrences to zero. I realize also that over 200 wells have been drilled in the Santa Barbara Channel area without accidental blowups of the kind that we have just ex- perienced. Nevertheless, and because of the geologic characteristics of the Santa Barbara Channel area I want to be sure that the drilling and casing practices now being fol- lowed are the best that can be devised. Cer- tainly the nation cannot and should not tolerate even a normal risk of pollution and damage to aquatic life, beaches and other property and natural resources. NEWS RELEASE OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, FEBRUARY 3, 1969 Secretary of the Interior Walter J. Bickel announced today that at his request all ac- tual drilling operations on Federal leases in the Outer Continental Shelf in the Santa Barbara channel are being temporarily placed in a stand-by condition. Participating in the voluntary action taken at the Secretary's request are: Union 011 Company of Califor- nia, Humble 011 and Refining Company, Phillips Petroleum Company, Gulf Oil Cor- poration, Texaco, Inc., and Mobil Oil Corn- pany. Also participating in the discussions was Kerry Mulligan, Chairman, of the Cali- fornia State Water Resourdes Control Board, who represented Governor Ronald Reagan. The temporary cessation does not include the relief well being drilled by Union Oil Com- pany as an alternative measure to bring to a halt the oil leakage now taking place at its well A-21 in the Santa Barbara channel. The agreement to place drilling operations in a standby basis was reached as a tempo- rary and voluntary measure while technical experts of the Federal government and the companies, with State observers present, re- view the drilling and casing procedures being used for the Santa Barbara channel drilling operations. "This procedure will afford a breathing spell until it can be determined whether corrective measures are necessary," Secretary Bickel said. "The review has al- ready begun as I ordered, and it is being carried out as rapidly as possible," Rickel added. The Secretary stated that those drill- ing operations which the technical experts find to be satisfactory will be given prompt clearance to resume. Others will be deferred until corrective measures can be placed into effect. "Our first concern at this time must be to take all possible steps to avoid a repetition of the incident I have just seen. I want to thank all companies for their cooperation in agreeing to take this first essential step to- ward that end." TEENAGERS SUPPORT COMMANDER BUCHER Mr. MONTOYA. Mr. President, I have received a letter from a young resident of Santa Fe, N. Mex., in support of Comdr. Lloyd M. Bucher, the captain of the Pueblo. Over 20 other teenagers signed a petition expressing their agree- ment with the writer's position. I am encouraged by this group's ex- hibited interest in national affairs. To those who are convinced that our youth is apathetic and indifferent insofar as the issues of the day are concerned: I would point to Lawrence Schulte's letter and the petition containing the names of the young people who support his posi- tion. I ask unanimous consent that the letter and the petition be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the re- quested items were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: SANTA FE, N. /dm., January 27, 1969. Senator J. M. MONTOYA, U.S. Congress, Washington, D.C. DEAREST SENATOR MONTOYA: Listening to the news from the Mutual Broadcasting Sys- tem January 26th, a newscast came to my attention. The newscast was about the com- mander of the U.S.S. Pueblo, Lloyd Bucher. The newscast stated that the Navy was con- sidering a courtmartial of Commander Bucher because he surrendered the Pueblo to North Korea. The reason I am writing this letter is be- cause I and many of the other teenagers of the surrounding areas believe Comdr. Bucher did the right thing. It has come to our minds that Comdr. Bucher was thinking of the lives of his men and of their families and not so much as the danger of the U.S. losing one battleship. Comdr. Bucher requested aircraft assistance and he received none at all when being seized by the North Koreans. He could not fight because the Navy gave him very nonpowerful guns compared to the ones the North Koreans had. Comdr. Bucher was only thinking of the lives of his crew and their families. If the United States is afraid of losing one small ship, then the youth will be more than happy to pay for the damage and loss of that one ship. Enclosed is a list of names who agree with what I am saying in this letter. My personal thanks to you for listening and remembering the youth of America. God bless you, Senator, ? LAWRENCE SCHULTE, (And the teenagers who respect Comdr. Lloyd M. Bucher). PETITION The following people agree for the non- court-martial of Comdr. Lloyd Bucher: Lawrence Schulte, Henry Anaya, Robert Martinez, John Garcia, Tony Schulte, Raymond Gallegos, Richard Chavez, Phil Garcia, Paul Arellano, Jo Ann Lujan, Anna Vasquez, Liz Sanchez, Roseanne N., Bernadette A., Rosaline C., Lorrie Lawrenson, Debbie Schutz, Patty Holmberg, Patsy Daranje, Edith Gonzales, Margaret Baldwin, John Vigil, Mike Garcia. NORTH KOREA SOUGHT WAR Mr. MANSFIELD Mr. President, a very interesting article was published in the Washington Daily News of Febru- ary 3, 1969, entitled "Top Pueblo Nego- tiator Reveals North Korea Sought War." The article was written by Jim G. Lucas, one of our best-known war correspond- ents, if not the best-known, and refers to an interview with Vice Adm. John B. Smith, the son of Lt. Gen. Holland M. Smith, a Marine hero in World War II. Mr. President, I shall read two para- graphs and a part of another paragraph contained in this article because I think this is a most important interview. Admiral Smith, who was one of the representatives of this country at Pan- munjom, said: I believe (North Korean prime minister) Kim Il-sung intended war at that time. That refers to the time of the Pueblo capture. The admiral said: He did not want a war which obviously would be instigated by North Korea. Be was trying to arrange one which he could blame on the United Nations command. He was hoping for Republic of Korea and/ or United States retaliation. Had either oc- curred, he would have invoked the North Ko- rea-USSR or North Korea-Chinese Commu- nist mutual defense treaties. And this time he would not have had a United Nations- sponsored free world defense effort such as he encountered in 1950. The U.S. failure to retaliate undoubtedly prevented the outbreak of a third world war. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent to have printed at this point in the RECORD the article by Jim G. Lucas, to which I have referred. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: TOP "PUEBLO" NEGOTIATOR REVEALS: NORTH KOREA SOUGHT WAR ? (By Jim G. Lucas) CORONADO, CALIF., February 3.?The North Koreans fully intended to "provoke a third world war" when they seized the spy ship USS Pueblo on the high seas on Jan 23, 1968, Vice Adm. John V. Smith said in an exclusive interview with Scripps-Howard Newspapers today. Adm. Smith, now commander of amphib- ious forces in the Pacific fleet, was senior member of the U.N. Delegation to the Korean Armistice Commission when the Puebho. was seized. He took part in the first 15 secret ses- sions to negotiate release of the spy ship and its crew. He is the son of the late Lt. Gen. Holland M. Smith, a Marine hero in World War It. "I believe (North Korean Prime minister) Kim Il-sung intended war at that time," the admiral said. "He did not want a war which obviously would be instigated by North Ko- rea. He was trying to arrange one which he could blame on the United Nations com- mand. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 20Q2/J0/09: February 4, 1969 iP7l 1259 to guarantee and subsidize taxable bonds, then the Federal Government would ne,ceSsarily want to "approve" the bonds, and lapprove is, as we all know, merely a niee word for control. A second source of support for the guarantee-subsidy approach typically comes from the centralists, those who advocate the continued transfer of de- eisiqnmaking from local governments to the Federal Government or those who, while concerned about the Ill effects of centralism, are not so especially con- cerned that they rate it very high On their list of priorities wheat other con- sidefrations come into Play. first response to these proposals is a constitutional one. To begin witli I have not yet been convinced that the Constitution permits the Federal GOv- eminent to tax securities isstled for public p oses by State and local tovernments. An legislation which attempts outright olp t epeal the tax exemption on State and local securities assumes that Congress may, without constitutional amendment, tax the interest on a State pr local bond baSed on the purpose of issuance of snch bond. My understanding has always been t t the Federal Constitution precludes an assumption that the Federal Govern- ment has the power to tax the States and th ir political subdivisions. The immunity of the States and local governments in the exercise of their legitimate functions from Federal taxation is necessary for the preservation of our etaistitutionally delineated dual sovereignty form of gov- ernment. rther, I seriously question the ma- te don that removal of the tax exeMP- ti n will produce more Federal revenues thn is gained by the States and munici- p lities in reduced interest cost. A study submitted to the Air and Water Pcillti- tiOn Subcommittee of thea Senate Clam- mtttee on Public Works in 1968 suggested that there would be decreased rather than increased Federal revenues if the tax-exempt status of State and local bonds were replaced with a systeni of gUaranteed-subsiclized taxable bonds , However, even if one were to acknowl- edge the validity of the constitutional and economic arguments, there still re- mains what is for me the critical pOlicy qUestion: What effect would replacing the tax-exempt bond with a guaranteed- subsidized taxable bond have upon the autonomy and financial integrity of State governments and their local enti- ties? I believe that the very clear answer iS that there would be disastrous effects if Congress exercises statutory poWer to tax State and local bonds. Clearly, local governments cannot survive if the Fed- eral Government can arbitrarily influ- ence local policy by penalizing certin 10- al activities with Federal taxation While rewarding other activities with taX. ex- emption. In my view, the independence Of local governments should not be de- Stroyed by the establishment of Federal rearantees, Federal subsidies, Federal uidelines, and as the inevitable reault, deral control. Mr. President, there is yet one other related matter. During the last session a proposal was enacted revoking the tax- exempt status of industrial development bonds. This measure was introduced by Senator ABRAHAM RIBICOFF as a rider to the Revenue and Expenditure Control Act. As finally adopted by the Senate- House conference, tins proposal revoked the tax-exempt status of industrial de- velopment bonds in excess of $1 million. The $1 minion Ceiling on tax exempts was amended later in the legislative ses- sion to $5 million under certain condi- tions. Of course, everyone recognizes that there has been abuse in some aspects of local industrial financing. A few locali- tiea issue bonds to establish facilities for private industry in amounts beyond the economic needs of the industry. Other abuses Occur when the firm for whom the facility is constructed has access to ade- quate financing through conventional channels and when tax-exempt financing of industrial facilities enables a commu- nity to pirate a going concern from established location. Unfortunately, howeve e Ribicoff amendment, in revotj.igihe tax-exempt bonds, employed a n of the term "indus- ent bond" and thereby problems than it solved. y enacted definition is not onds for industrial develop- to is so broad as to include many acknowledge and tra- vtate and local goernmental Chairman WiLsna. Miet.s, of Ways and Means Committee, ed this fact on the floor at passage of the act and in- of the confusion caused by eflnition, I introduced in ineridment redefining the al development bond." would have provided a e term in accordance cepted meaning, and for taxation of in- truly industrial ent was not acljournment ever, Senator of the Sen- lye an as- that his SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR WALTER J. HICKEL Mr. STEVENS. Mr. President, during the debate on the confirmation of Walter J. Hickel to be Secretary of the Interior, I stated that he was a man of action. He has already proved it. It is very heart- ening to me to note the position Secre- tary Hickel has taken on the very seri- ous problem of oil leakage in the Santa Barbara Channel. The Secretary flew to the site, inspected it, and reached an agreement with oil officials to halt fur- ther drilling until the reason for the leakage was discovered and steps taken to prevent any reoccurrances. By any standards this was rapid and effective action. The Federal regulations that deal with offshore drilling are not adequate?the State of Alaska has far more stringent regulation in this regard than does the Federal Government. The Secretary has stated that he will seek more effective '1111--attegG.uards for offshore drilling and I hope he will receive full cooperation in this effort, from all parties. Our Con- tinental Shelf oil reserves are a valuable economic asset, but development of these reserves must be balanced against the preservation of our seashores and marine life adjacent to them. Secretary Hickel is moving toward this goal which when achieved, will be a blessing for both the producers of oil and the millions of Americans who love and enjoy the beaches and seashores of this country. I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD the explanation furnished_rne by the Department of the Interior of the causes of the Santa Bar- bara Channel leakage, and the press re- leases of Secretary Hickers reactions to this catastrophe. There being no objection, the items re- quested were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: SUMMARY status of industr" distorted deflni trial develop created mor The presen limited to ment but bonds fo ditional functions the Hous acknowle the time vited corre tive legislation. As a resu the present the Senate an term "indust This amendmert redefinition of t with its generally would have provide dustrial bonds only Si situations. The ame brought to a vote prior of the 90th Congress; ho RUSSELL LONG, the chairma ate Finance Committee, did surance on the Senate floo committee will study the pr lem and will hold hearings if a similar bill is introduced during the next sessi n. It is my intention to introduce within Itie next few weeks a modified version bf this proposed redefinition. Without doubt the basic qu tion of exemption of State and local1 govern- mental activities ft?om Feder taxation will be raised during the 91 Congress. I am hopeful that thoro h hearings will be held in both the nate and the House. As for myself, , shall continue to oppose strennousW any legislation which would repeal outright the tax ex- emption on State 'end local bonds; which would replace the tax exemption with a system of Federal guarantees and sub- sidies; or which would penalize or re- ward a State by taxation or exemption, depending on whetter the Federal Gov- ernment approves or disapproves of the purpose for which the bond is issued. Well A-21 had been drilled directionally by Union Oil Company from Platform "A" on Federal lease P-0241 to a total depth of 3,479 feet with 13% inch casing set and cemented at 514 feet (238 feet below sea bottom) and a blow-out preventer installed. While pulling drill pipe the well started flowing mud and then mud with gas which was shut-in by dropping the drill pipe and closing the blow-out preventer. The well was then under control and remained so for a short time until gas and oil appeared on the water around the platform, having bypassed the upper part of the well. The work of restoring control over the well then proceeded in separate ways (1) to fish out or re-enter the dropped drill pipe and fill the hole with mud and (2) to drill a relief well which would intersect well A-21 at bot- tom and through which mud would be pumped. Either method is designed to pump mud into the formation at bottom which will kill the flow. Both operations have gone on simultane- ously so as to save time in the event it would be found to be impossible to fish out or re- enter the drill pipe. We understand that a check valve that it was necessary to mill out has been successfully milled so that it should then be possible to re-enter the drill pipe and gun perforate above the drill which is plugged. This will enable mud to circulate down through the drill pipe and out through the perforations into the space behind the Approved For Release 2002/10/09: CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Februiry 4, 19 (A f. proved FCCRettelitSaM/46/60:14M-141)PfriN4M4R000300150001-8 s 1261 HOPED FOR RETALIATION "He was hoping for Republic of Korea and or United States retaliation. Had either occurred, he would have Invoked the North Korea-USSR or North Korea-Chinese Com- munist mutual defense treaties. And this time he would not have had a United Na- tions-sponsored free world defense effort such as he encountered in 1950." Adm. Smith said the U.S. failure to re- taliate "undoubtedly prevented" the out- break of a third world war. The Pueblo's skipper, Cmdr. Lloyd M. Bucher has testi- fied before the court of inquiry investigat- ing the seizure that it was obvious to him in captivity the North Koreans expected re- taliation and were "scared to death." Adm. Smith said the North Koreans were gambling on the fact the U.S. already was heavily committed in Vietnam and on their "almost total air supremacy" in Korea. He said Kim Il-sung was goaded by the fact he is nearing 60, and "unless he did something drastic there is little chance of unifying his country and becoming its national hero." Adm. Smith said the North Koreans had "hundreds, perhaps thousands of jet fighter planes housed in underground hangars, and were sure they could wipe us out." FULLY MOBILIZED He said they were fully mobilized at the time. Americans and South Koreans knew this, he said. "We tried to stay calm, but we were anything but calm inside." the Admiral said. Since then, he said, the United States, while still heavily committed in Vietnam, "has reinforced the United Nations command (in Korea), particularly with aircraft, and this holds Kim Il-sing in check for the pres- ent." He would not go into detail, altho he said the number of planes available to each side represents a "much more respectable ratio." Adm. Smith linked the Pueblo incident to an abortive attempt a few days earlier by 31 "trained guerrillas, all regular North Korean army officers." to assassinate South Korean President Park Chung-hee. He said they got within 1,000 meters of the presidential palace. "They failed, but just barely," he said. Had Mr. Park been assassinated, he said, he believes a war would have been "inevit- able." "No one could have held the ROKS back," he said. Adm. Smith said negotiations involving the Pueblo were held in the Panmunjom com- pound, in a building next to the one in which formal U.N. negotiating sessions were held, but that he attended as an American, not a U.N. representative. "I got my instructions from the State Departknent, not even from the embassy in Seoul," he said. DETAILS WITHHELD Adm. Smith said he still was not author- ized to talk about the details of those nego- tiations, but agreed to "talk around them." Adm. Smith said the atmosphere in the se- cret sessions was "altogether different from that in the open U.N. hearings, which he said the North Koreans regarded as a "propaganda device." For instance, he said, the chief North Korean delegate, Maj. Gen. Park Chung-kuk, "Obviously is not a military man, and I never referred to him in open session as one." In- stead, he said, "I consistently referred to him as a stooge, a propagandist, and asked ques- tions which revealed his appalling ignorance of military matters." But in secret sessions, he said, "I referred to him courteously as general." He said the North Koreans "didn't give a dam" whether the American understood what was said in public meetings. In private sessions "we would ask, for instance, 'would you repeat that' and they would reply 'certainly,'" he said. Adm. Smith said he thought the North Ko- reans agreed to release the Pueblo crew "for a variety of reasons." "One, they had extracted the maximum propaganda value from them," he said. "They were becoming a financial burden. But I think the principal reason was that they now have a contract with The Netherlands gov- ernment to build a number of fishing ves- sels, and they'll have to operate on the open seas." The U.S. State and Defense Departments "leaked" this story to the press, then had "no comment" on suggestions we might seize them. "I doubt very much we would," Adm. Smith said, "But they didn't know that. I think this was conclusive in their tortured reasoning." PRECEDENT FOR CONFESSION Adm. Smith said there was precedent for the "confession" his successor, Maj. Gen. Gilbert H. Wodward, signed to obtain re- lease of the Pueblo's crew?altho Gen. Wood- ward at the same time repudiated it. Six years ago, he said, a 'U.S. helicopter crew strayed across the DMZ and was shot down. A year later, they were released, but only after Army Maj. Gen. Hamilton Howze signed a "confession" they were spies. He said the North Koreans constantly referred to this Incident. On smother occasion, he said, a U.S, flier was shot down, and the American represent- ative pleaded for Information about his con- dition to relieve the anxieties of his parents. Finally, he said, the North Koreans tossed a "picture of his broken, crumpled body on the table before us and said 'here is your man.' Then they burst out laughing. Later, they brought his body in and kicked it off the truck at our feet." Adm. Smith said he usually refers to North Koreans as "mad dogs." "People think this is hyperbole," he said. "It's the truth." He said the North Koreans "employ laugh- ter as a weapon." "They have a 'duty hyena' who sits in the back of the room and understands Eng- lish," he said. "They all take their cue from him. He starts laughing, and the others take it up. Gen. Park is the last to start laugh- ing." RED PRESS JEALOUS Adm. Smith paid tribute to the South Korean press, which he said "drives the North Korean reporters crazy." "The North Korean reporters are under instructions to circulate among us and learn what they can," he said. "The South Koreans will talk about the parties they've attended, the new homes they've built, the new clothes they've bought. There is no joy in North Korea. They have none of these things. ?The North Koreans need 48 hours even to assemble a press crew, brief them on the questions to ask. Their press is highly reg- imented, cruelly disciplined. They're terribly frightened of defections." On one occasion, he said, a meeting was postponed suddenly for 24 hours, yet the North Korean press came out with a "full report of their questions and our answers" of the canceled meeting. "When we finally reconvened," he said, "our answers weren't quite accurate, but their questions certainly were." Adm. Smith said Gen. Park once warned him: "You be careful, sir, we're going to cut off your head." "I was honored," he said. "Guillotining is an honor. They planned to cut off President Park's head and machine-gun every one else. I felt real distinguished." TRIBUTE TO EDUARDO MONDLANE Mr. BROOKE. Mr. President, it was with deep distress that I learned yester- day of the tragic and untimely death, by assassination, of Eduardo Mondlane, President of the Mozambique Liberation Front. I was privileged to meet with Eduardo Mondlane during my tour of Africa last year. I talked at length with him and with other leaders of the Southern Afri- can liberation movements. And I fully enjoyed a quiet dinner and long evening of conversation with Educardo and his American-born wife, Janet. To her and to their family I have extended my deep- est condolences. Dr. Mondlane was born in the Portu- guese colony of Mazambique. He was educated in Protestant mission schools, axid was the first black African in that colony to attain the equivalent of a high school and a college degree. He studied at Northwestern University, from which he earned a doctorate in sociology. He taught at Syracuse University, N.Y., and was known to many Americans as an articulate lecturer and a dedicated mem- ber of the United Nations Secretariat. In 1962 he was summonded back to Africa to become President of the newly formed Mozambique Liberation Front, more commonly known as Frelimo. In this capacity Dr. Mondlane showed re- markable organizational skill and deep concern for the needs of his people. While his wife, Janet, administered the Mozambique Institute in Dar es Sa- laam?a multi-purpose educational and refugee relief center?Dr. Mondlane con- centrated on building a politico-military organization capable of governing an in- dependent nation. At the time of his death, Frelimo controlled most of the two northern provinces of Mozambique, and was active in several other areas. They had established an effective system of schools, hospitals, and local self-gov- erning units. Mr. President, it is not for us to judge the nature of the movement which was led by Eduardo Mondlane. One of the deepest tragedies of the colonial system is that a man with the talents and abili- ties of Dr. Mondlane found no legitimate outlet for his leadership in his own coun- try. But the dream of Eduardo Mondlane is one which we can fully share. He fought and died for the principle self- determination. He sought freedom and justice for his people. He believed, with most of the peoples of the world, that none are truly free until all are free. The world will be a greater place for all if the dream of Eduardo Mondlane lives on. LETTER TO SECRETARY VOLPE RE- GARDING AIR TRAFFIC CON- TROL Mr. BROOKE. Mr. President, On Feb- ruary 3, I sent a letter to Secretary of Transportation John A. Volpe urging him to take prompt and vigorous measures to forestall the growing crisis in the Na- tion's air traffic system. In particular, the letter cites the per- sonnel problems in the air traffic field. It calls upon the Secretary first, to in- crease the number of air traffic control- lers; and, second, to upgrade standards and conditions of employment for air traffic controllers. I was joined in this effort by 21 of my colleagues: CLINTON P. ANDERSON, BIRCH BAYH, HENRY BELL- MON, WALLACE F. BENNETT, QUENTIN N. Approved For Release 2002/10/09: CIA-RDP71E300364R000300150001-8 S 1262 Approved For Reis@IspcjiNgtl& BURDICK, CLIFFORD P. C,,Ase, THOIII.A.R J. DODD, PETER El. DOMINICK, THOMAS F. EAGLETON, I-IniAm L. Fon. PHILIP A, HART, DANIEL L. INouyE, JAccill K. JAVITS, LEN B. JORDAN, THOMAS J. NICIN'TYRE, JACK MILLER, JOSEPH M. MONToyA, CLAIR DRNE ELL, CHARLES H. PENN., HUGH S.30TT, and RICHARD S. Semwe,4,kca. I ask unanimous consett that the lztter to Secretary Volpe be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the letter was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as f ollows : 1 V.S. SENATE, 1 Washington, D.C., anuary 31,1969. /-lon. JOHN A. VOLPE, . -- Secretary of Transportatio {Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. ... MY DEAR MR. SECRETAKE: As you know, ;Eiany members of Congresahave becorno in- reasingly concerned ahouCthe critical prob- e ms of air traffic control, from the stand- oint of both the procedure and the pe son- el involved in these entical operations. There is a pressing need more energetic action to handle the growing volume cf air traffic in a safer and more cgtleient manner. A matter of central impqaance is the per- sonnel policy to be folio 4.1 in this ,leld. As aircraft grow larger an more numerous, and as the control techno - les become ever more complex, it is impera _ ve that person- nel standards and practias be raised ac- Oordingly. More lives are .stake and snore Complicated tasks must be?performed. These decisive facts compel us to lprove incen'Aves and working conditions to 'bure that :ally qualified personnel are av?le at all tines to meet the immense dem Is on air taffic controllers. We believe that a great deji can and ah nild he done under existing autorrty to mess the hudding personnel crisis inlir traffic cOntrol. We urge you to take pronapt and vigorous easures to insure that tis crisis is core- stalled, not only by expan _ g the nuMbers o air traffic controllers bu also by upgrad- ihg the standards and con ons of enly boy- ent. These issues have re1ved much dis- cussion but little action ip. recent meitlas ad we earnestly hope that in concert a.rith the Civil Service Commission and the ope. rat- ing agencies, you will now takeswifter and effective action. ., Last year more than twetaty Senators co- sponsored a bill to create a CommisalOr, on Air Traffic Control, specifying that the Com- ssion would study and nips recommer da- t ons concerning the whole roge of opera ang a d personnel problems 14 the air traffic 11 Id. Although subsequently a commis ;ton s mewhat similar in purpOle was appall Loed. b Secretary Boyd, it appe s to have xx ade little, if any, progress towarpropoeing Vi tble selutions. The Federal Av1qkn Agency has seemed to lack either the depo or the int Lie- tiVe to deal constructively,with the acute problems of the air traffic controllers vho Man the systems involved. 'We are considering a variety of legisla-tve ideas bearing on these problems and VI; be in touch with you again in the coming onths. But at the outset of your tentlre as S retary, we wished to express both our con- cern in this matter and our strong desire to cCoperate with you in designing and iMple- rnenting an effective program for air traffic cOntrol operations and personnel. Sincerely yours, EDWARD W. BROO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT'S PPO- GRAM FOR EQUAL JOB OPPplie? IITUNITIES IN PRIVATE INDUSTRY DIRKSEN. Mr. President, on ,De- cember 23 and January 20 I3arron's pub- ,i:A:LCifEEBIRI131144W300150001.1brua ry 4,-1969 fished two parts of a three-part series of articles written by Shirley Scheibla deal- ing with the Federal Government's at- tempts to provide equal job opportunities in private industry. These articles are most revealing and lend substance to many allegations in recent months that employers are being forced to comply with reckless and conflicting orders is- sued by a number of Government depart- ments under the threat that their Federal contracts will be withdrawn if they do not knuckle under. The primary depart- ments responsible are the Equal Employ- ment Opportunity Commission and the Office of Federal Contract Conipliance. These administrators appear be intent on interpreting and adm' t law according to their ow notions of irfering the what it should be, regardlesi of what the Congress intended. In the final analysis it 14 up to the Congress, in performing It oversight functions, to see to it thatt e law is ilt administered as the Congress I tended. In this regard, I believe an exa 'nation of the practices of the EEOC and-')FCC is of the first order. A similar tye of examination was undertaken last ear with respect to one of the Indepenc1nt agencies. The Senate Subcommittee Separation of Powers held extensiv hearings on the National Labor Rela- tions Board in an attempt to ascertain whether the Board in interpreting and administering the labor law had adhered to the expressed will and intent of Con- gress in the original legislation. The great weight of opinion was that the will of Congress is often ignored and sub- verted by those charged with its imple- mentation. In the light of these conclu- sions and the articles in Barron's, I be- lieve the subcommittee should give the OFCC and the EEOC a good looking over. It is my strong impression that the or- ders and requirements flowing out of these offices exceed the authority granted to them by Congress and are beyond any reasonable interpretation which can be given to the intent of Congress in the enabling legislation. An additional sep- aration of powers problem exists in con- nection with the ()FCC since it was es- tablished by Executive order, and it may well be that this entire matter should have been dealt by the Congress in the first place. Mr. President, these articles are indeed Informative and worthy of attention, and I ask unanimous consent that they be in- serted in the RECORD. There being no objection, the articles were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From Barron's, Dec. 23, 1968] GENTLEMEN'S AGREEMENT??GOVERNMENT IS MAKING BUSINESS ITS UNWILLING PARTNER IN BIAS (By Shirley Scheibla) WASHINGTON.?"I'm no crusader," the wor- ried executive told a reporter recently, "but I'm no bigot either. All I am is a businessman trying to operate my company the best way I know how?which means bidding success- fully for contracts I can deliver on, and hiring qualified workers I know can get the job done for me." This employer, however, like thousands of others in the U.S. today, is dependent for most of his business on federal contracting agencies, and Uncle Sam is de- termined to wipe out racial discrimination in private employment?at Any cost. Because of the way Washington has been going about it, the cost can come high. "If I don't sign a commitment to hire a certain number of nonwhites in each job category," explained the businessman, "the government threatens to deal me out. I face formal complaints by the Equal Employ- ment Opportunity Commission and possible lawsuits by the Justice Department. I stand to lose millions of dollars in contracts?. which means that dozens or even hundreds of workers' jobs are placed in jeopardy too, affecting blacks and whites alike. Yet / have no way to guarantee that I can find the people to meet these quotas, particularly in high-ill classifications. And the irony of it is, it I do go all-out with such 'reverse discrimipation' in my hiring and firing, I run the yery`, real risk of all-out trouble with organized labor." BLOCKBUSTER APPROACH There's little doubt that the government's blockbuster approach to the centuries-old problem of employment bias may be creat- ing as many ills as it has cured. Not surpris- ingly, Parkinson's Law holds sway here in a chaotic proliferation of policy-making bu- reaucrats, acting under one or the other of two edicts: the 1964 Civil Rights Act and President Johnson's Executive Order 11246 of 1965, which combine to blanket any em- ployer of at least 50 persons as well as any contract of $10,000 or more involving federal funds. Enforcers include not only the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EE 00) , but also the Justice Department, the Labor Department's Office of Federal Con- tract Compliance (OFCC) and each of some 1.7,000 contracting officers representing 28 other U.S. agencies. Although racial consider- ations are predominant, incidentally, they by no means exhaust the government's pur- vietv as defined by statute, proclamation and regulatory nat. Beyond administrative confusion, how- ever?'not to say a clear lack of either co- ordination or consistency?are problems far more Aerious. Some official actions, for ex- ample, appear to constitute inexcusable abuse of unquestioned authority. Worse still, others ay well be illegal if not unconstitu- tional. Eoployers have been denied due proc- ess; firn have been placed arbitrarily 171 financial eopardy. In the name of fair em- ployment , finally, both the National Labor Relations',Act and the Civil Rights Act itself plainly seem to have been violated. UNDUE PROCESS? The most glaring instances of action with- out due process have Occurred under the aegis of OFCC. Ward McCreedy, acting director of the agency, admits that contracting officers have been holding up awards virtually on a daily basis, because of non-compliance with OFCC regulations. "Across the board," he said recently, "this experience has resulted in the company's submitting a program which does effect compliance. None of these people can demonstrate that they have suffered any fi- nancial loss owing to such delays on their bids." But the affected firms tell a different tale: many claim convincingly that the com- pliance procedure has caused substantial monetary losses. Since several of OFCC's reg- ulations are, to say the least, of dubious le- gality, the risks to which such employers are exposed would seem to entitle them?before and not after the action has been taken?to their day in court. What's more, OFCC's parent Labor Depart- ment, in determining which contracts are to be held up, appears to be applying a double standard. One notorious case in point in- volves New York's Neighborhood Youth Corps. As long ago as last May, several agencies were investigating criminal charges against this child of the poverty program. Alleged was the theft of millions of dollars which had been freely parceled out by the Labor Department. On September 13, with the charge still pend- Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 NEW YCApproxiddifor Release 2002/10/09 :13a4CRDP411441SAR000300150001-8 PAG Studyon Pueblo biscerns Weaknesses in Control By E. W. KENWORTHY Staff of Senate Panel Finds Special to The New York Times , WASHINGTON, Feb. 1 ? A Little Coordination Among !staff study prepared for the , Diplomats and Military Senate ,Foreign Relations Corn- ! .mittee concludes that the Pue- :bio affair has once again re_ the fleet commander in the Pa- cmealed serious weaknesses in theific through the chain of com- mand to the higher echelon of !whole command and control Government, including the Joint 0System for American intelli- Chiefs of Staff." :gence gathering operations. Last Feb. 1, Secretary of De- According to informed fense Robert S. McNamara told Isources, the staff found that in the Senate Armed Services ithe Pueblo incident the weak- Committee that the mission had inesses in command and control not been approved directly by I encompassed the level at which himself but by "my representa- the ship's mission was first a!:i- tive." Secretary Rusk likewise proved and daily monitored; the informed the committee that his t?timing of the mission; the risks designated representative had it assumed; the contingency plan- approved it. tiling in event of attack or Both Secretaries took re- seizures, and the dismissal of sponsibility for the decision, la warning about "spy boats" but both departments refused to as "routine." identify the representatives who i Most Serious Defect had made it. In its conclusions, the For- t . The warning was delivered eign Relations Committee staff iby the North Koreans to Amer- surmised that the decision had man officers at Panmunjom been made well down in the three days before the Pueblo 4bureaucracy and that those re- was seized by North Korea on sponsible for the over-all man- 1.1an. 23, 1968. agement of foreign policy were r The most serious defect the only dimly aware, if at all, of tcommittee staff found in the the Pueblo's mission, and not 3' ommand and control system The timing of the mission /es omatic and military arms of came in for sharp criticism in at all aware of the timing. was the very small amount of 'oordiriatien between the dip- the staff study. Although the stile Government. Johnson Administration, in its The study was based on vo- defense of the mission, took the IlArninous material supplied position that the risks had been ithrough the Department of minimal, the staff noted that the !State by the Defense Depart- mission began when North Ko- -ithent in response to questions rea was plainly in an extremely y the committee a year ago. belligerent mood. This is the background to e staff study: Violations Increasing Last Feb. 2, the committee Alleged North Korean viola- Sked Secretary of State Dean tions of the armistice agree- usk a series of questions. On ment had increased tenfold in arch 25, Mr. Rusk replied a year and 31 North Korean o most, but not all, of them. commandos had just unsuccess- y 1, Senator J. W. Ful- fully attempted to assassinate t, the committee chairman, President Chung Hee Park of another set of questions to South Korea in Seoul. Rusk,? who returned an- The staff study puts major on June 28. emphasis on the apparent fail- "e committee's first two ure of the diplomatic and mil- stions were: "When was this ltary missions in Seoul to take n approved?" and "Who par- seriously a warning delivered ated in the decision?" It by Maj. Gen. Pak Chung Kook, an answer to the first, but the North Korean delegate, to "a complete reply to the Rear Adm. John V?Srnith, the cond. flhINIflh 3NIA 'Carefully Planned" t After the seizure of the ship Alen. Earle G. Wheeler, chair. 0114 * an of the Joint Chiefs, tolc! antvnuasaidal m1404 ,tulp Veit& ti House Defense Appropria.,P,TmOlaanTasEIN7113./Idai eq,1,.44 ons subcommittee that the'?' .2.tod ission "was carefully planned_i 5,002apatuooqns Allmiin7sir40,111. d reviewed all the way from44 sing ato. paw.mj l . amid 'Amp sui ?L96I `aa:qoa Approved For Releate 2015271tOr Mg P71600364R000300150001-8 ing infiltrated into our coastal waters a number of armed spy boats, together with a group of South Korean fishing boats, and repeatedly demanded you im- mediately stop such criminal acts." In response ?to a query by The New York Times on Jan. 26 on whether there had been such a meeting and warning on Jan. 20, the State Department re- plied that it knew of no such meeting. However, it cabled Seoul and learned that there ing. The transcript arrived later. When Secretary McNamara emerged from the Senate Armed Services Committee hearing on Feb. 1-12 days after the warning at Panmun- jom?he was asked about it. He replied that, to his knowl- edge, there had not been a meeting on Jan. 20. He instruct- ed an aide to make inquiry. When the Jan. 20 transcript arrived, it showed General Pak to have said in part: "It is quite obvious that 'if one continued the provocative act of dispatching spy boats and espionage bandits to the coastal waters of the other side under the cover of naval craft, it will only result in disrupting the armistice and inducing another war. We have the due right to make a due response to your thoughtless play with fire. We will fully exercise our rights." The State and Defense De- partments took the position that such warnings about spy ships had become so routine as to justify ignoring them. The committee staff in its conclusions, however, was un- derstood to have contended that, given the then belligeren- cy of North Korea, prudence would have suggested that the Pueblo be ordered 25 to 30 miles at sea, or else provided with protection. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 "CIA-RDP71B00364R000300150001-8 January 29, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE H541 In a letter to the chairman of the Post Office and Civil Service Committee the new chairman of the U.S. Civil Service Commission, the Honorable Robert E. Hampton, Makes clear that President Nixon stands behind these salary recom- mendations for Federal executives, mem- bers of the judiciary, and Members of Congress. He writes: The Bureau of the Budget advises that the present Administration supports the Ex- ecutive, Legislative and Judicial salary rec- ommendations submitted by President John- son as part of his 1970 budget, and believes that those recommendations should be al- lowed to go into effect. Mr. Speaker, in my judgment the task faced by the new administration in re- cruiting topflight executives to do the job it wants to do would be made infi- nitely more difficult if Congress acted to block the implementation of these salary recommendations. In his letter Chair- man Hampton makes this same point. He writes: Failure to adjust the salaries of top of- ficers to currently needed levels is unfair to the individuals concerned and can be a seri- ous handicap to the Government in securing and keeping the talent it needs. The chairman of the Post Office and Civil Service Committee, the Honorable THADDEUS J. DuLsKI, has made available to me a copy of that letter. Without ob- jection I shall insert it at this point in the RECORD: U.S. CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION, Washington, D.C., January 21, 1969. Hon. THADDEDR J. DULSKI, Chairman, Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: This is in response to your request for the Commission's views on H. Res. 128 disapproving the recommenda- tions which President Johnson made in his budget for adjustment of the salaries of Members of Congress, Federal Executives, and members of the Federal Judiciary. These recommendations were made pursuant to section 225 of the Federal Salary Act of 1967. I wish to assure you that this Commission fully supports the recommendations which President Johnson made in his budget with respect -to the adjustment of the salaries for these top officers. The responsibility for the well being of this country which is placed in the hands of Congressmen, Federal Executives, and the justices and judges of the Federal Judiciary fully justifies the recommended adjustments in salaries. Failure to adjust the salaries of top officers to currently needed levels is un- fair to the individuals concerned and can be a serious handicap to the Government in securing and keeping the talent it needs. The orderly method of adjusting top sal- aries provided in the Federal Salary Act of 1967 constitutes a very significant improve- ment in the total Federal salary system. The Commission strongly recommends support of the recommendations in the budget which represent the first action under this new quadrennial review. The Bureau of the Budget advises that the present Administration supports the Execu- tive, Legislative, and Judicial salary recom- mendations submitted by President Johnson as part of his 1979 budget, and believes that those recommendations should be allowed to go into effect. By direction of the Commission: Sincerely yours, ROBERT E. HAMPTON, Chairman. JOINT CONGRESSIONAL COMMIS- SION ON "PUEBLO" (Mr. WOLFF as-li=1 was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his re- marks and include extraneous matter.) Mr. WOLFF. Mr. Speaker, we were all elated when the crew of the Pueblo was returned safely last month. The Ameri- can people expected, as they had every right to expect, that there would be a complete and open investigation and re- port on the circumstances of the Pueb- lo's capture, the crew's imprisonment and general American policy in this matter. But this investigation has sim- ply not taken place; the court of inquiry has not done this vital job. There are serious and fundamental questions that remain unanswered for the American people. Was the potential value of the Pueblo's mission consistent with the inherent risks to the crew and possible loss of confidential information and equipment? Why were no contin- gency plans provided for so delicate an assignment? Why was there difficulty in communications between the Pueblo and Tokyo in the period immediately before the ship was lost? Is one man being made a scapegoat? Where does responsibility rest for loss of the ship? Are such missions continuing without better provisions for support? These and other questions can and should be answered without compromis- ing our security. On a matter such as this it is appropriate that the Ameri- can people demand and receive honest answers. In order to secure these answers I am today introducing a resolution to create a special joint congressional commission to study fully, and in public view, the entire Pueblo incident. This commission will be comprised of the chairmen and ranking minority members of the appropriate House and Senate committees and two appointed members, one to be appointed by the Speaker and the other by the President of the Senate. The commission shall have the neces- sary staff, funding and authority to in- vestigate thoroughly the entire Pueblo affair and shall report is findings to the President and Congress. Because this remains a clouded issue with so many unanswered questions, and because the answers to those questions may well prove vital to our national security and future international policy, I urge immediate action on the resolu- tion I am introducing today. Because of the urgency with which I regard this matter, and under leave to extend my remarks, I wish to include the resolution in the RECORD at this point: H.J. RES. 334 A joint resolution to establish a commis- mission to conduct a full and complete Investigation of the seizure of the United States Ship Pueblo Whereas the capture of the U.S.S. Pueblo by the North Korean Peoples Republic in January, 1967 was a source of great concern to the American people; Whereas the treatment of the Pueblo's crew- during the men's detention in North Korea reportedly involved inhuman harassment; Whereas there remain serious questions that cloud the entire incident of the Pueblo's capture; Whereas the American people have a right to a thorough and open investigation of the Pueblo affair: Now, therefore, be it Resolved by the Senate and House of Repre- sentatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, ESTABLISHMENT SECTION 1. There is established a commis- sion to be known as the "Pueblo Commission" (hereafter referred to in this joint resolu- tion as the "Commission"). DITTIES OF COMMISSION SEC. 2. It shall be -the duty of the Com- mission to conduct a full and complete in- vestigation of the seizure of the United States Ship Pueblo and its crews by the North Korean Peoples Republic. The Commission shall also review all the.conclitions and details relating to the detention of the Pueblo's crew In North Korea. MEMBERSHIP SEC. 3. (a) The Commission shall be com- posed of 14 members as follows: (1) The chairman and ranking minority member of each of the following committees of the House of Representatives: (A) Committee on Foreign Affairs. (B) Committee on Armed Services. (C) Subcommittee on Military Operations of the Committee on Government Opera- tions. (2) The chairman and ranking minority member of each of the following committees of the Senate: (A) Committee on Foreign Relations. (B) Committee on Armed Services. (C) Subcommittee on National Security and International Operations of the Com- mittee on Government Operations. (3) One Member of the House of Repre- sentatives appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives. (4) One Member of the Senate appointed by the President of the Senate. (b) Any vacancy in the Commission shall be filled in the same manner as in the case of the original selection. (c) (1) Members of the Commission who are full-time officers or employees of the United States shall receive no additional compensation on account of their service on the Commission. (2) While away from their homes or regu- lar places of business in the performance of services for the Commission, members of the Commission shall be allowed travel ex- penses, including per diem in lieu of sub- sistence, in the same manner as the expenses authorized by section 5703(b) of title 5, United States Code, for persons in the Gov- ernment service employed intermittently. (d) Eight members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum. (e) The Chairman of the Comimssion shall be selected by the members of the Com- mission. STAFF OF COMMISSION SEC. 4. (a) The Commission may appoint and fix the compensation of such personnel as it deems advisable. (b) The staff of the Commission shall be appointed subject to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive service, and shall be paid In accordance with the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates. POWERS OF THE COMMISSION SEC. 5. (a) The Oommission or, on the authorization of the Commission, any sub- Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP711300364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 542 CONGRESSIONA L RECORD ? HOUSE January 29, 1969 mrnittee or member thereof, may, or the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this oint Resolution, hold such hearings uci sit d act at such times and places, ad /lister tach oaths, and require, by subpena o ther- ise, the attendance and testimony such teeitn.eases and the production of such hooks, ords, correspondence, memoranda, pipers, nd documents as the Commission or such Subcommittee or member may deem advis- able. Subpenas may be issued under the sig- ature of the Chairman of the Oomrnisaion, such subcommittee, or any duly desig- nated member, and may be served by any persoil designated by such Chairman or Member. The provisions of sections 102 to 104, inclusive, of the Revised Statutes (2 r.s.c. 3192-194), shall apply in. the case of any failure of any witness to comply with any sUbpena OT to testify when summoned under authority of this section. REGISTRATION AND LICENSING OF FIREARMS (Mr. BINGHAM asked aid was given permission to extend his remarks at this pbint in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) IMr. BINGHAM. Mr. Speaker, the leg- iSlation passed by the last Congress pine- hg greater controls on the movement, possession, and use of firearms must not be regarded as constituting all that can be done to protect our society against the isuses of dangerous weapons. The need f r a truly comprehensive firearms eon- t 1 program has not yet been totally satisfied. '1 have consistently supported strong gin -control legislation, including pno1.1.- si ns for registration and licensing.' On t o occasions I have had the privilege to Propose registration provisions on ' the fidor of the House?in 1967 a, an amend- ment to President Johnson's Safe Streeta Act, and in 1968 as an amendment to a watered-down version of the Fireaitis Centro' Act of 1968, sent to Congress sh rtly after the assassination of Sen tor R bert Kennedy. irhe enormous outpouring of public 'Ie- mind and support for full proteetidn ag nst the misuses of firearms, with- ou unduly inconveniencing responsible s rtsmen and others who have a legiti- m te need for firearms and are capable of ising them safely, cannot be ignoiled. wq have a continuing commitment' to fin h the work begun on gun control with the 1967 and 1968 acts. Those aCts haVe put a stop to interstate and mail- ord r sales of both hand and long glina an4 ammunition, except between fedr- allk licensed dealers. They require that a person be 21 years of age to purchase a handgun and handgun ammunition, and at least 18 years of age to purchase lone guns. They make it unlawful for a dea er to sell a firearm or ammunitien to nyone the dealer has reasonable cau e to believe is a convicted criminal, a f tive, a drug addict or a person who is nentally defective. But until we have a w rkable system of gunowner licens- ing, it will continue to be next to impoS- sibl for any dealer to know when he may be s lling to such a person. A of June 1968, 39 States had lo licersIng or permit requirements to puj- chas handguns, and even fewer requird licenses or permits to purchase loxg guns, As a result, in those States, theie Is no way for a dealer to know anything about the people he sells weapons to, for local officials to verify whatever infor- mation purchasers may provide, or for local officials to undertake even the most cursory investigation to determine the medical or possible criminal backgrounds of individuals about to purchase guns. In short, it is still possible in many States for felons, convicted criminals, physi- cally and mentally unstable persons, drug addicts, and other individuals un- fit for firearms cwnership to purchase them over the counter. In the meantime, privately owned fire- arms continue to be involved in more than 20,000 deaths, 100,000 injuries, and 100,000 assaults and robberies each year. Without a national firearms registry, our ability rapidly to trace the ownership of weapons involved in these violations of the law remains primitive and largely ineffective. Granted, firearms registration arid licensing will not prevent or eliminate crimes of violence. Nor will they keep guns entirely out of the hands of crimi- nals and other irresponsible individuals. But it is no more rational to argue that strong gun-control laws should not be passed simply becguse some individuals will violate them than it is to argue that any law or licensing arrangement should not exist simply because some people will violate it. The fact is that a system of gun-owner licensin;, while it would not totally keep guns out of the hands of unqualified people determined to obtain them, would make it much more difficult than it now is for these individuals to obtain guns?more difficult particularly hi the expense which they would have to Incur and the time they would have to spend to locate a weapon. Furthermore, licensing and registration laws would add to the penalties that could be im- posed on criminals convicted of commit- Ing a crime using firearms if one accepts the argument that most of these individ- uals would be unlicensed and their weap- ons unregistered. A great many Americans take pleasure in the use of firearms for hunting, tar- get shooting, and other legitimate rec- reational purposes. None of the gun control provisions I have supported, or will continue to support, have been in- tended in any way interfere with or place undue or discriminatory hardship on sportsmen. It is my firm belief and understanding that strong gun control requirements, registration and licensing, will take considerably less trouble to satisfy than automobile regis- tration and driver licensing. Yet no thoughtful person would argue that it is discriminatory, unnecessary, or unduly troublesome to require automobile own- ers to register their vehicles and drivers to obtain licenses. A firearm, like an au- tomobile, is a device 'that can be recrea- tional and constructive when used re- sponsibly. But it can also be dangerous and highly destructive. The destructive potential of firearms, like that of auto- mobiles, is so great that some reasonable provisions are needed to regulate access to them. The vast majority of hunters and tar- get shooters are reliable, responsible citi- zens in their res" pective communities upon whom, I am confident, registration and licensing would have no adverse ef- fect and impose no real hardship. Some sincere opponents of strong gun control legislation fear and contend that registration and licensing is just "a foot in the door"?the first step in a program of restrictions on the possession and use of firearms that will end with a situa- tion in the United States like that in many European countries, where fire- arms can be used and housed only at spe- cial private shooting clubs, or like Japan, where personal ownership, possession, and use of firearms is prohibited entirely. I do not sympathize with this view. On the contrary, I feel strongly that a com- prehensive gun control program consist- ing of the Federal legislation already on the books and an effective system of reg- istration and licensing will preclude the possibility that there will ever be the necessity or the teMptation at some fu- ture time to go to the very extreme meas- ures that Japan and many of the Euro- pean countries have adopted. With these facts in mind, as well as my assurances to my own constituents that I will continue to do everything I can to build our present partial firearms control program into a fully effective and com- prehensive one, I ani tcglay introducing legislation to provide for Federal regis- tration of all firearms and Federal licens- ing of all firearms owners in those States whose licensing laws fail to meet mini- mum Federal standards. This legislation is identical to that already introduced by the distinguished chairman of the Committee on the Judiciary, the gentle- man from New York (Mr. CELLEit), and I am pleased to join with him in its sponsorship. TODAY'S PRAYER FOR THE UKRAINE (Mr. ROBISON asked and was given permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous material.) Mr. ROBISON. Mr. Speaker, today's prayer for the Ukraine, which has be- come a tradition in this body at this time of year, is one which should be partici- pated in by all who value the spirit of freedom in the face of oppression. On January 22, 1918, the independ- ence of the Ukrainian National Repub- lic was proclaimed, and for the ensuing 50 years Ukrainians everywhere have honored and celebrated the spirit of freedom which has continued to burn in every Ukrainian heart. I insert at this point in the RECORD the relevant proclamation of the mayor of the city of Binghamton, N.Y., which is self-explanatory as well as eloquent. The proclamation follows: PROCLAMATION OF THE CITY OF BINGHAIV/TON, N.Y. Whereas: January 22, 1969 will mark the 51st Anniversary of the Proclamation of In- dependence of the Ukrainian National Re- public in 1918, which fell under the Com- munist Russian military aggression two years later; and Whereas: During its rule the Communist Russian regime, based upon terror unheard of in the history of mankind, has kept Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 r594 ApproveafatesIttN2H2ypet4mgl&INFAMO3ofiliamafitm 500tJimary 2 9 , 1969 Mr. Speaker, I think the final para- graph of the conclusions in a recon- naissance report released by the Bureau of Reclamation in 1967 summarizes the situation with unusual terseness and clarity. The report said: The reconnaissance investigation of water resource development in the St. Vrain Creek basin reveals that full development in the St. Vrain. Creek basin, coupled with water resources development plans for the Cache la Poudre River . . . will not suffice to meet the increasing demands of Boulder, Long- mont, Ft. Collins, Estes Park and Loveland. It is apparent that full utilization of East- ern Slope sources, complemented by addi- tional sources from outside the basin, will be needed to serve demands by 1995. The report then recommended that: Feasibility studies be initiated at the earliest possible date to determine the most economical source of water to supply the needs of these Eastern Slope communities directed toward determining the most eco- nomic and desirable order of development to keep pace with water needs. The next move, Mr. Speaker, will be up to Congress. It is my hope that we can assist the dynamic and growing com- munities of my district and adjacent areas by authorizing the feasibility study which is so urgently needed. ANTISMUT BILL HON. CHARLES E. BENNETT OF FLORIDA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, January 29, 1969 Mr. BENNE1-1'. Mr. Speaker, today I am introducing a bill which I believe will be very effective in keeping pornographic material out of the hands of minors and In keeping minors away from obscene movies, because it is patterned after a State statute that the Supreme Court has upheld. Under this legislation, it would be a violation of Federal law to knowingly sell, offer for sale, loan, de- liver, distribute, or provide to a minor in interstate commerce or through the mails material which is defined as "harmful to minors" under the bill. It would further be a Federal crime under my bill to knowingly exhibit to a minor a motion picture, show, or presentation which falls in the "harmful to minors" category. For some time the Supreme Court has recognized that "obscenity is not within the area of constitutionally protected speech or press." In April of last year the Supreme Court held in Ginsberg v. New York (390 U.S. 629) , that a New York statute was constitutional which pro- hibited the sale to persons under 17 years of age of materials defined to be obscene to them even though the same material might not be obscene to adults. My new bill is patterned after the New York statute which was upheld in Ginsberg. It would appear from the Court's decision that this approach to the problem of ? keeping smut out of the hands of our youth would be held constitutional. The Congress has the power under the Constitution to regulate interstate com- merce. That is what this bill would do, and I do not believe any constitutional freedoms are being violated. Mr. Speaker, my bill would further re- move the appellate jurisdiction on the factual issue of harmfulness to minors, that is, whether a particular material or movie is "harmful to minors" as defined by the bill. What might be considered "harmful to minors" in some areas might not be considered such in other areas. I believe it would be beneficial to permit varying decisions on this point in the dis- trict courts, and the Congress is within its constitutional powers in so limiting the appellate jurisdiction. The flow of smut material to our youth is reaching alarming proportions. Our youth must be protected. With our mod- ern means of communications and trans- portation, it is almost impossible for par- ents to keep this type of material out of the hands of their children. Porno- graphic movies and obscene material can lead to antisocial behavior among our young people, and contributes to juve- nile delinquency and all types of sordid behavior. Examples of this degeneracy are found in national magazines and other periodicals and films. I am hopeful that committee action can soon be taken on this proposal so that the youth can be protected from the ever-increasing smut traffic in this coun- try. A copy of the legislation with the co- sponsors follows: H.R.5171 A bill to prohibit the dissemination through Interstate commerce or the mails of mate- rials harmful to persons under the age of eighteen years, and to restrict the exhibi- tion of movies or other presentations harm- ful to such persons Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That (a) chapter 71 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following new section: "i 1466. Exposing minors to harmful mate- rials "(a) It shall be unlawful for any person knowingly? "(1) to sell, offer for sale, loan, or deliver In interstate commerce or through the mails to any minor? "(A) any picture, photograph, drawing, sculpture, motion picture film, or similar visual representation or image of a person or portion of the human body which depicts nudity, sexual conduct, or sadomasochistic abuse and which is harmful to minors; or "(B) any book, pamphlet, magazine, printed matter however reproduced, or sound recording which contains explicit and de- tailed verbal descriptions or narrative ac- counts of sexual excitement, sexual conduct, or sadomasochistic abuse and which,taken as a whole, is harmful to minors, or "(2) to exhibit to a minor a motion pic- ture, show, or other presentation which? "(A) has moved in interstate commerce or through the mails, "(B) depicts nudity, sexual conduct, or sadomasochistic abuse, and "(C) is harmful to minors. "(b) Whoever violates this section shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned for not more than live. years, or both for the first offense, and shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than ten years, or both, for any second or subsequent offense. "(c) As used in this section? "(1) The term 'minor' means any person under the age of eighteen years. "(2) The term 'nudity' means the showing of the human male or female genitals, pubic area, or buttocks with less than a full opaque covering, the female breast with less than a fully opaque covering of any portion below the top of the nipple, or the depiction of covered male genitals in a discernibly turgid state. "(3) The term 'sexual conduct' means acts of masturbation, homosexuality, sexual inter- course, physical contact with a person's clothed or unclothed genitals, pubic area, or buttocks, or, in the case of a female, physical contact with her breast. "(4) The term 'sexual excitement' means the condition of human or female genitals in a state of sexual stimulation or arousal. "(5) The term 'sadomasochistic abuse' means flagellation or torture by or upon a person clad in undergarments, a mask, or bizarre costume, or the condition of being fettered, bound, or otherwise physically re- strained on the part of one so clothed. "(6) The term 'harmful to minors' means that quality of any description or representa- tion, in whatever form of nudity, sexual con- duct, sexual excitement, or sadomasochistic abuse, which? "(A) predominantly appeals to the pruri- ent, shameful, or morbid interest of minors; "(B) is patently offensive to prevailing standards in the adult community as a whole with respect to what is suitable material for minors; and "(C) is utterly without redeeming social importance for minors. "(7) The term 'knowingly' means having general knowledge of, or reason to know, or a belief or ground for belief which war- rants further inspection or inquiry of? "(A) the character and content of any material described in subsection (a) which is reasonably susceptible of examination by the defendant, and "(B) the age of the minor." (b) The table of sections for chapter 71 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following new item: "1466. Exposing minors to harmful mate- rials." SEC. 2. (a) The Supreme Court shall not have jurisdiction under section 1252 or 1253 of title 28, United States Code, to review any determination made under section 1466 of title 18, United States Code, that any mate- rial described in subsection (a) of that sec- tion is harmful to minors. (b) The courts of appeal shall not have jurisdiction under section 1291 Or 1292 of title 28, United .States Code, to review any determination made under section 1466 of title 18, United States Code, that any mate- rial described in subsection (a) of that sec- tion is harmful to minors. SEC. 3. This Act and the amendments made by this Act shall take effect on the sixtieth day after the date of the enactment of this Act. COSPONSORS Mr. BENNETT (for himself, Mr. ADAIR, Mr. BARING, Mr. BLACKBURN, Mr. COUGHLIN, Mr. DERWINSKI, Mr. DICKINSON, Mr. DONOHUE, Mr. EDWARDS Of Louisiana, Mr. FISHER, Mr. GOOD- LING, Mr. GRIFFIN, Mr. HALEY, Mr. HEBERT, Mr. tIOSMER, Mr. KING, Mr. KYL, Mr. LUKENS, Mr. PUCINSKI, Mr. POAGE, Mr. RARICK, Mr. SCHNEE- BELI, Mr. SrxEs, Mr. VIGORITO, and Mr. Wotrk) . PROBE OF "PUEBLO" SEIZURE NOW TIER HON. HAROLD R. COLLIER OF ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, January 29, 1969 Mr. COLLIER. Mr. Speaker, under the leave to extend my remarks in the REC- Approved For Release 2002/10/09: CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 January 29, APProve06WittkA183flelffeciER-RDP71R00364R000300150001-8 ? Lxtensions of Remarks haVe a direct impact on Stat'_, prograras. Moreover, the field organization of OPENS will strive to insure that our Federal efforts in consumer protection and environmental health are carried out in thivinost effective manner in concert with State and local programs. CHARLES C. JOHNSON, Jr., Assistant Surgeon General FOOTNOTES 113EAPC E. L. Progress Report on Wt-r Quality Criteria. Jour. AWWA.,_ 54: 1313 (Nov. nee). TAYLOR, F. B. Effectiveness of Wattr Quality Criteria. Jour. AWWA, 01:1313 (Nov. 1257 (Oct. 1062). .IDTJRFOR, C. N. & BEcit.En, E. Selected Data on public Supplies of the 100 Largest Citi,s in the United States, 1962. Jour. 56:236 (Mar. 1964). 4 Public Water Supplies of the 100 Large. t Cities in the United States. USOS water Si41?1 - ply Paper No. 1918. US Govt. Printing Of*, WaShington, D.C. (1962) . 'Tentative Methods for Carhon Chloe( - forra Extract (CCE) in Water. Jour. 54:123 (Feb. 1962) . ',Minutes of Advisory Comtel...1 tee on 1,:e of HSPHS Drinking Water Standards. Sel, 24-25,1965. PROGRAM INFORMATION ACT HON. EDWARD J. PATTEN OF NEW JERSEY IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESEN l'ATIVES Wednesday, January 29, 1969 W. PATTEN. Mr. Speaker, a maste. catalog containing all Federeal-aid pre- grain. information would proVide a windi, fall to many communities _throughout the Nation. - Oyer $20 billion a year is Spent by tile U.S. Government for Federal aid but there is no coordinated system to help guide communities to the funds Under present conditions, ft is aim* impOssible for any community to find out *hat Federal aid is available of the duplication, redtape, and confu- sion that exists. A remedy must be found. The solution to the frustrating proli- lem is to consolidate all Federal assist- ance information. If this would be done, local, county, and State governments would know exactly what U.S. grants and loareS can be obtained, what require- ments have to be met, and how to apply for the aid. Thanks to the brilliant work of our colleague, the gentleman froth Delaware, Wireirem V. ROTH, JR., it hes been rei- vealed that the $20 billion inFederal assistance involves more than 1,000 pro- grams. Examples of overlappfng and due plication are many. Representative Ruler, the chief sponsor of the propoSed legislae tion, has cited many, but I will list only a fewl: In the field of education, over 470 pro. grams are operated by 25 different U.S departments and agencies. There are 112 programs that provide aid to the poor. Seventy-four programs related to eco- nomid and business development. Eight Cabinet units and a agencies take Part in health programs, Teo U.S. agencies in three departments direct manpower programs. Such an appalling lack of consolida- tion and coordination must be corrected. I know that if the proposed Program Information Act is enacted, thousands of communities in the country would receive Federal grants amounting to many millions of dollars. These grants would enable thousands of projects to be started and completed that are now only in the planning stage. As one of the mar .y cosponsors of this measure and as a Member of the House, I commend Representative ROVE' and his staff for this magnificent legislative con- tribution. I hope that every Member will join the other cosponsors and then vote for the proposed Program Information Act if it reaches the House floor. The bill is one of the most prattical and valuable ever introduced fprhelping local, county, and State governments and should be passed during the 91st Congress. BROTZMAN UGJS AUTHORIZA- TION FOR .AST SLOPE WATER DEVELOPME1T i HON. DONALD. BROTZMAN OH \ COLORADO IN THE HOUSE op REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, .112.?uary 29, 1969 Mr. BROTZMAN. Ir. Speaker, last year in the 90th Congs my colleague ,g from Colorado, the d' uished chair- man of the House Interior and Insular Affairs Committee (Mr. Asernser) and I sponsored legislation to authorize the Bureau of Reclamation to conduct a feasibility study of the Front Range unit of the Missouri River Basin project. To- day the gentleman from Colorado (Mr. ASPINALL) again has introduced this measure and I am pleased to join him as a cosponsor. Basically, the Front, Range unit study would consider the feasibility of con- structing reservoirs and other facilities which would increase the supply of water for domestic and industrial use for such cities as Boulder, Longmont, Loveland, Fort Collins, Greeley, Estes Park, Broom- field, Lafayette, and Louisville, Colo. The budget submitted to Congress on January 16, 1969, includes $95,000 for such a feasibility study of the Front Range unit, subject, of course, to con- gressional authorization and appropria- tions. As a nation, we are coming to the reali- zation that our water resources are lim- , lied. We are realizing that it is not only' possible, but probable that our industraa , agricultural, and domestic thirst will exhaust our supply of water, ase now know it. In my own State of Colorado, and other States of the West and Southwest, the limitation of water supplies has been recognized for decades. Small wars have been fought over the possession of irri- gation water. Great court battles have been wages between States over water allocations. The States have been wracked, at times, by arguments between ihe urban and rural interests over who should have the precious water in times of drought. Er)93 Congressional action often has been required to assure full and equitable de- velopment of our western water re- sources, The 90th Congress, for example, will long be remembered, as the Congress ? which passed one of the landmark bills in the history of comprehensive water planning?the Colorado River Basin projects bill. It was MY privilege to join with Members pf both parties from Colo- rado, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, and California in securing sufficient support for this legislation. As we all know, it passed without substantial opposition. This act not only will benefit all of the States of the Southwestern United States, but the Nation as a whole will realize tremendous dividends. It would require pages to enumerate these national bene- fits, but I will mention two which are of towering importance. The water requirement for eventual development of vast deposits of oil shale now seems assured. This will guarantee the national several centuries of plenti- ful carbon fuels and petrochemical by- products. And vast new recreational areas will be developed, thanks to reservoirs which will be built, and roads which will be opened. The Nation has few more press- ing requirements, insofar as its pursuit of a life of comfort and dignity for all of its citizens is concerned. But important as the Colorado River Basin projects are, they concern only a portion of the water resources of the West. This landmark legislation had a direct bearing on the watersheds which ultimately channel into the Gulf of Cali- fornia. Meanwhile, other great river sys- tems?some of them highly developed, some relatively undeveloped?must re- ceive the attention of Congress in the years to come if we are to keep ahead of our great national thirst for water. The Front Range unit, when com- pleted, will facilitate the development and conservation of a portion of the water resources of the South Platte River Basin in Colorado. This study would investigate a num- ber of possible reservoir projects on Boulder, St. Vrain Creeks, and the Cache 1 Poudre River. Augmentation possibili- t , improved re-use techniques for cut- t losses from seepage and evapora- tl4n in existing canals, would be exam- in d. ood control benefits to be derived? w ile a secondary consideration?would defined. 'Lhe water supply problems facing the corrununities of northeastern Colorado are severe. For example, despite extensive and ex- pensive water supply facilities installed over the years by the two principal cities of Boulder Countee?BoUlder and Long- mont?the Bureau of Reclamation says their water requirements are assured for no more than 15 years. And 15 years is a very short span In the context of city planning. The Bureau of Reclamation also indi- cates that three of the smaller commu- nities of Boulder County?primarily Broomfield, Lafayette, and Louisville? probably will need additional water within 10 to 15 years. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 January 29, 1969 APIMMailigReINPVE 4146?-Mfaigil Fie90X6441060300150001-8 E595 can, I include two editorials which ap- peared in the Chicago Daily News and the Chicago Tribune regarding the U.S.S. Pueblo. I have personally forwarded a request to the Committee on Armed Services to conduct a complete investigation of the entire matter since there are circum- stances surrounding the seizure and sub- sequent release of its crew, and more re- cently the naval court of inquiry proceedings which need to be clarified. I am in wholehearted accord with the views expressed in both of these edito- rials, and I believe that the vast majority of the people of my district and the country share this position. The two editorials follow: [From the Chicago (Ill.) Daily News] THE "PUEBLO": SITTING Ducx The more we hear of Comdr. Lloyd M. Bucher's testimony, the greater grows the mystery of how the U.S. Navy could have put one of its own ships in the situation of the Pueblo. A sitting duck with a broken wing would have had a better chance. The Pueblo, a merchant ship refitted for reconnaissance and surveillance purposes, had no defensive armament worth mention- ing. It was once to have had 3-inch guns, but it was decided their weight would swamp the ship. Instead, it got two 50-caliber ma- chineguns?about as useful as BB guns. Comdr. Bucher said that he had considered the possibility of capture, and had written a letter to the Navy Department proposing that some kind of destruct systdin be in- stalled in the electronics and cryptographic areas of the ship. The proposal was rejected, and when the time came he was left to do the job with axes and hammers. At Pearl Harbor on the way to his station, Bucher said, he inquired what would happen if his virtually unarmed ship came under at- tack. He was told that both the Navy and Air Force had "plans to react," but that in the event of general war he could look for no air assistance. He got none. Comdr. Bucher said that he had not told his crew they could expect no air support because he didn't want to give them addi- tional concern. One wonders what the luck- less crewmen were told when they were as- signed to the Pueblo. In all the circum- stances, theirs was about as hazardous duty as the Navy affords. As for Bucher, he was told the risks were considered "minimal"? and one wonders by what tortured logic that conclusion was reached. At any rate all such calculations went out the porthole when the U.S.S. Pueblo suddenly found itself surrounded by North Korean vessels bristling with guns big enough to blast the Pueblo out of the water and fast enough to make escape impossible. In the circumstances, Comdr. Bucher seems to have done what he could: He took evasive, action as the enemy commenced fir- ing, and directed the destruction of classi- fied material. Bucher himself was wounded, but remained in command until he judged further resistance futile, and surrendered. The evidence is not yet complete, of course. But Sen. Richard B. Russell of the Senate Armed Services Committee had heard enough this week to remark that the testimony indi- cates "a tragic mixture of errors," and to say that if the testimony holds up, "then some- one higher up in the line of command has been guilty of a very grave dereliction of duty." We trust that the subject will be pursued until the truth is known. [From the Chicago (Ill.) Tribune] WHO SHOULD BE TRIED BY COURT MARTIAL? The investigation of the capture of the intelligence ship Pueblo by North Korean Communists opened with testimony by Comdr. Lloyd M. Bucher, the ship's cap- tain, who spent 11 months in captivity with 82 shipmates. His story bears some distres- sing parallels to the disaster at Pearl Harbor more than 27 years ago, and again we have the distinct impression that responsibility rests, not with the forces on the scene but with higher authority in Washington. Capt. Bucher was given an old merchant ship for conversion to an intelligence- gathering vessel. He made repeated requests to the chief of naval operations for im- provements, especially a system to destroy the radar, sonar, and sophisticated elec- tronic equipment aboard on short notice. He was denied all such requests on grounds of time and money. His armament consisted of two mounted .50-caliber machine guns which were dif- ficult to bring to combat readiness and were manned by less than skilled gun crews, There were 17 other hand weapons aboard. To destroy confidential documents, he was supplied with an incinerator which was not fuel-fed. It could consume paper only after it had been shredded, and this could not be achieved rapidly under emer- gency conditions. There was no mechanical means of scuttling the ship. The only way to admit water to the hull was thru two water cooling pipes, and if the ship had been flooded in this manner it would have taken up to two and one-half hours to sink. Finally, when Comdr. Bucher was as- signed to intelligence scanning in inter- national waters off a hostile coast, he was informed that no help from American air- craft could be expected in the event of at- tack. He agreed with the navy court that the chances of other forces coming to his aid were virtually nonexistent. The Pueblo was taken with scant re- sistance while crew members used fire axes and sledge hammers?all that were avail- able to them?in an attempt to destroy secret equipment. The ship has remained in communist custody ever since its seizure. Certainly even this early in the hearing, conducted before five admirals, it is ap- parent that there were glaring faults of omission in preparing the Pueblo for a ? hazardous reconnaissance mission. Inas- much as the captain had endeavored with all the force at his command to obtain remedial action before putting to sea, the fault rests in Washington with the naval command. ALL ACTIVITIES OF MANKIND ARE DEPENDENT UPON THE MINING INDUSTRY HON. HAROLD T. JOHNSON OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, January 29, 1969 Mr. JOHNSON of California. Mr. Speaker, one of the most distinguished men in the mining industry of California is Mr. Lee Rowland who has served for many years as a mining engineer. At the age of 84, Mr. Rowland's interest in this industry, which is truly critical to this Nation's survival, remains active and ag- gressive. He continues his mining opera- tions and is also the energetic national president of the Western Mining Coun- cil, an organization of mining industry spokesmen who are promoting the min- ing industry. Throughout his career, Mr. Rowland has given many speeches and written many papers in fighting to preserve the legitimate mining activity in the West- ern States. Those of us who have worked with him know that this is an uphill battle but it is a battle which must be fought if this Nation is to remain free and strong. One of the major problems that we face in fighting for the mining industry is the lack of realization among the people of our Nation as to just how dependent we all are on minerals. Mr. Rowland, who I am proud to say comes from Mariposa, Calif., a commu- nity in the heart of the mother lode min- ing area, which I represent here in Con- gress made an excellent presentation on this very issue summing it all up with the title: "All Activities of Mankind are Dependent Upon the Mining Industry." Mr. Speaker, so that my colleagues from throughout the country may benefit from Mr. Rowland's remarks, I insert them at this p9int in the RECORD: ALL ACTIVITIES OF MANKIND ARE DEPENDENT UPON THE MINING INDUSTRY Abraham Lincoln's message to the miners of the western states, given to Schuyler Col- fax who was preparing to leave for the Pa- cific Coast the day Lincoln was assassinated, was, "I want you to take a message from me to the miners whom you visit. I have very large ideas of the mineral wealth of our na- tion. I believe it is practically inexhaustible. Tell the miners for me that I shall promote their interests to the utmost of my ability; because their prosperity is the prosperity of the nation, and we shall prove in a very few years that we are indeed the treasury of the world." Lincoln was a thinking person. As guest speaker at a mining meeting in Sacramento, California, in the early nineteen thirties, Governor Stephens--opened his ad- dress with the following statement?"There are only two basic industries; they are Min- ing and Agriculture. We might exist without mining but we would return to savagery al- most over-night. When these two basic indus- tries are in a healthy condition our economy is in a healthy condition." Without mining there would not, and could not be either industrial prosperity of any kind of progress of, by or for the human race. In order to verify the foregoing irrefutable statements it is perhaps necessary to present at least a partial analysis in considerable de- tail with reference to the various phases of man's activities, but first let it be thoroughly understood that it is the Mining Industry which produces the many and various types of minerals and metals used in all industrial activities of the human race. Transportation: Transportation is one of the most important of our daily needs and activities, yet if it were not for the iron, lead, zinc, copper, aluminum and other minerals produced by mining, there would not, and could not be the hundreds of thousands of automotive vehicles, nor the highways over which they travel. It would be interesting to know the ntunber of persons traveling the highways in an automobile who have ever realized that if it were not for the mining industry they would have neither the auto- mobile nor the highway. There would be no iron for the construction of the body and the manufacture of springs, various gears, engine, drive shaft, wheels and other parts of auto- motive vehicles; no lead, zinc, copper and aluminum for batteries, wiring, trim, etc., and there would be no bulldozers, graders, compressors, drilling equipment or transpor- tation equipment with which to build and maintain the thousands of miles of highways. There would be no airborne equipment of any type for transportation of passengers or materials and supplies. There would be no locomotives, railroad cars or the rails upon which trains travel; Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002110/09 ? CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 E 596 wthssiONAL RECORD ?Extensions of Remarks January '2 9, -1t69 there would not and could not be any ocean going vessels such as passenger ships, freight carrying ships, warships or any other type of ship or boat and no bridges over 4reams or other bodies of waterbecause all are com- pletely dependent updn the remeival of vari- ous minerals and metals from the earth by the Mining Industry. Communication: Communication facilities of all kinds would not ancl could pc t exist (as we know them) becanse there we aid be no printing presses or paper to use in connection with the presses; no telephone Or telegraph equipment; no radio or television sending stations or receiving equipment alio no trans- portation for the distribution of newspapers and other printed material. There would not be the thousands of ii4ciet Offices throughout the nation and no 'buildings, equipment, material and supplies for the processing, handling and delivery of any kind of mail. All are dependent upon the minerals and metals produced by the Mining Industry. Farming and other agricultural industries: All agricultural produ.Ws are very important and necessary in coltdection with the ex- istence, activities andlarogress or mankind, yet those products are dependent upon the minerals and metals produced by the Mining Industry and without 'which there would not be the necessary toolS, equipmetr- and fa- cilities to carry on Such operations. There would be no farming ttalci other agricultural tools and equipment suchas bees, rakes, plows, harrows, mow* machine, cultivat- ing equipment, tractprz, trucks, grain and food processing and packaging equipment; no wire or other materiale used for fencing; no gardening or lawn toon or equipment and no saws, axes, sawmills, stackers and other equipment for the production and processing of lumber and other Wood produCt s, iee fact there would be no lutdbering India; try as we know it. Food processing: There would be no fruit or other harvesting eiquipment, processing, canning or bottling facilities and equipment and no refrigeration,I equipment for the processing of food?and DO transportation or labeling equipment for distribution and labeling. Educational institutions: There would be no educational institutions, buildings or equipment and facilities such as printed books, writing instruments or material, type- writers, adding machines and other equip- ment, even the desks and tables. Household appliances and ettaipment: There would be no household appliances or equipment of any kind, electrical or other- wise, such as washing machines wringers, irons, vacuum cleaners, cook stoves heaters, motors, tableware, crockery, organl, pianos and all other types of musical instruments, television or radio equipment, flfrniture of any kind or type, clocks, refrigeratiars, wiring for bringing in electricity for Lighting and appliance and equipment operation, or any and all other household items used by man- kind. Clothing: There would be no clothing, gar- ments including buttons and shoe laces, shoes, hats or other wearing apparel, articles of personal adornment includin.5 watches and jewelry of all kinds?all are eite?manu- factured by equipment construotel from, or made of the minerals and metals produced and made available by the Minini fndustry. Sports and recreation: There Would be no stadium for field or other sport ng events such as baseball, football, hockey, e?tnis and the Olympic Games or other type 6f Sports as we know them including huntingfind fish- ing. No golf balls, baseballs or bata hockey sticks and pucks or the type ofairotective clothing worn by the , players, ci no ice or roller skates. No guns of any kind for hunting or target shoOting and no fishing poles, reels, lines or ahcr equiptnent and again?no transportation to hunting and fishing locations or crossing the ocean or flying to various sports festivals. There would be no equipment or facilities for ex- tinguishing fires in the National Forests or recreational areas. Mining ? Even the Mining Industry itself could not fun ation without the use of picks, shovels, mine cars and rails, drills, pumps and drilling equipment, hoisting equipment, underground mucking machines, ventilating pipe and fans, ore treatment plants, trucks, assaying chemicals, equipment and supplies, explosives and all other types of equipment, appliances, material and supplies used in connection with mining activities which are purchased throughout the United States? and all of which dependent upon the Mining Industry. Some of the minerals and metals are being used faster than they are being produced. This applies to gold/especially which cannot be mined ate profit at a fixed price of $35.00 per ounce, made mandatory during 1934. To sum up tie foregoing efutable facts? there is not a single ma ufactured article that would be available fq our use if it were not for the Mining Indu try, therefore, the stability of our national send world economy and all the pragress tha4 has been made, or ever will be made by th human race?even the discovery of America has been and will continue to be complet y dependent upon the extraction and proc aging of the min- erals and metals from ttie mineralized de- , posits of the earth by t e Mining Industry no matter what type of go ernmental setup? Capitalistic, Republic, Conmunist, Socialist or whatever. Has the reader thought bout this matter While enjoying the luxuriek, comfort, travel, recreational pursuits and te fact that it is not at all impractical so f as time is con- cerned?to live in San Francisco and work in Los Angeles as compared With ferry boat transportation from Oakland, to San Fran- cisco during the early nineteeri hundreds? Is It too much to hope that thinking peo- ple may lend their support to\ those of us who are selfishly endeavoring td, protect the rights of legitimate mining claim\holders and the Mining Industry from the haliassment of government employees of the Aeople and other organizations that have no concern for the importance and necessity of tbe Mining Industry? In conclusion let me say that th4, necessi- ties in our everyday activities made atonable by mining is of basic importance nd the vital concern of every individual, 4ot just to those of us ,engaged in or connectd with mining or other extractive operation4. CONCURRENT RESOLUTION N N1GERIA-BIAFRA HON. LEE H. HAMILTOO OF IND/ANA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, January 29, 1969 Mr. HAMILTON. Mr. Speaker, as one of 8'7 cosponsors of the concurrent reso- lution expressing the sense Of the Con- gress that the President _should act to Increase significantly the amount of sur- plus food stocks and relief moneys for the assistance of civilians affected by the Ni- gerian-Biafran conflict, I wish to sup- port passage of the proposed resolution through the following remarks. THE RELIEF PROBIXIVL The area in Nigeria requiring relief in- cludes the former eastern region, which proclaimed itself the Republic of Biafra in May 1967, and certain areas of the midwest state. Best estimates available indicate that at least 4.5 million, and perhaps as many as 10 million people are affected by the conflict. Reports from relief experts on the scene vary, but it is clear that vast numbers of civilians have been dying daily, particularly children ?afflicted by malnutrition. As a result of the worldwide relief re- sponse, a large-scale relief effort has been operating under the supervision of the International Committee of the Red Cross?ICRC?in cooperation with other international-relief agencies. Observers have noted a deeli,pe in infant mortality due to the influx otsprotein foods, but it Is now feared that local carbohydrate foods are being exhausted, which will lead to an intensification of the disaster. THE RELIEF EFFORT In the areas under the control of the Federal Government, food, medicine, and other relief supplies are stockpiled in and being distributed from Zagos, En- ugu, Calabar and Agbor. Most of the supplies for Biafra are being stockpiled on the offshore islands of Fernando Po and Sao Tome for delivery by airlift. As of the first of January, relief sup- plies reaching Biafra totaled 3,000 to 4,000 tons per month. There are approxi- mately 260 relief personnel representing the ICRC and other relief organizations In Biafra. The ICRC estimates that it is feeding 850,000 persons in Biafra through its airlift from Fernando Po and 800,04)0 persons in areas under Federal Govern- ment control. Additionally, joint church aid, a group of religious organizations Including Caritas and Church World Service, have delivered considerable supplies of food into Biafra from Sao Tome and estimate they are feeding approximately 400,000 people in Biafra. The United States has thus far made about two-thirds of the global contribu- tion for relief in Nigeria-Biafra. As of January 1, the U.S. Government has donated a total of $22.6 million in cash and surplus food commodities. Of this total, $5.9 million in cash has been pro- vided to the International Red Cross. A major part of the U.S. Government contribution to the ICRC is Used for the the chartering of aircraft for the airlift to Biafra. On December 27 the U.S. Gov- ernment announced that it was making available for the airlift to Biafra four surplus C-976 cargo aircraft to the ICRC and an additional four to the American voluntary agencies participating in joint church aid. Of the total U.S. Government contri- bution, $15.6 million in surplus food? dried milk, bulgur wheat, and high-pro- tein blended food products totaling over 51,000 tons?have been donated to volun- tary relief agencies. The Catholic Relief Services is receiving $5.6 million of these foods; UNICEF, $6.2 mill;n; Church World Service, $3.6 million: and World Food Program, $161,000. The U.S. Gov- ernment also has paid overseas transport costs of the relief supplies donated by accredited American voluntary agencies. The private American voluntary orga- nizations have made substantial dona- tions of food and other supplies totaling more than $4.1 million as of January 1 on behalf of the relief effort. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 e t 4.4 January 28, 1964pproved QTIRMItcystRA21,1,0/fac61fERD.PAIRk0f3b4R000300150001-8 EXECUTIVE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SENATE IN 1898 MADE PUBLIC Mr. KENNEDY. Mr. President, I send to the desk a resolution and ask for its immediate consideration. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The reso- lution will be stated. The legislative clerk read as follows: S. RES. 69 Resolved, That any records of the proceed- ings of the executive sessions of the Senate for April 25, May 18, and May 31, 1898 (see references in Congressional Record, 55th Con- gress, second session, volume 31, part 5, pages 4244, 4994, and 5352) now in the custody of the National Archives, be made available to the public for examination. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there objection to the present consideration of the resolution? There being no objection, the resolu- tion (S. Res. 69) was considered and agreed to. GRANT TO ILLINOIS CENTRAL QUESTIONED Mr. WILLIAMS of Delaware. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD a copy of a telegram I sent to Hon. John A. Volpe, Secretary of Transportation, in connec- tion with the $25 million grant to the Illinois Central. There being no objection, the telegram was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: January 25, 1969. Hon. JOHN A. VOLPE, Secretary of Transportation, Washington, D.C.: The twenty-five million-dollar grant to Illinois Central at same time they were nego- tiating a $95,000 position for Allan Boyd, the Director of Transportation, raises serious questions of propriety. Strongly recommend that this grant be held up pending thorough investigation. JOHN J. WILLIAMS, U.S. Senator. Mr. BYRD of West Virginia. Mr. Presi- dent, I suggest the absence of a quorum. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The clerk will call the roll. The bill clerk proceeded to call the roll. Mr. STENNIS. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the order for the quorum call be rescinded. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. U.S.S. "PUEBLO" Mr. STENNIS. Mr. President, the Navy is now conducting a court of inquiry into the loss of the Pueblo. The duty of this court of inquiry is to determine the facts of the incident as they pertain to the Navy, and on the basis of those facts, to recommend to the Chief of Naval Opera- tions what action should be taken. The court of inquiry is not a trial court, but a proceeding more in the nature of a grand jury. The court of inquiry may, depending upon the facts, recommend several ac- tions ranging from commendation to court-martial. It has been reported by the press that one of the matters being considered by the court of inquiry is whether or not any Navy personnel, par- ticularly the commander of the U.S.S. Pueblo, violated Navy orders or were derelict in their duty to the extent that the disobedience of orders, or the dere- liction of duty, permitted the ship to be taken by hostile forces. Without commenting on the merits of the case as to that question, or as to any question that the Navy inquiry relates to, I point out that a Navy court of inquiry has the authority to take testimony on a question of that kind and to make find- ings on it. In fact, it is its duty. However, the fact that such testimony is taken on that question does not imply that any person is guilty or even accused of a wrongful act. It is my understanding that the au- thority of the Navy court of inquiry is limited to an examination of only the aspects of the Pueblo case as are wholly within the jurisdiction of the Navy. I assume the Navy officers in charge con- vened the court of inquiry because they believed it to be the proper procedure. Th!s is their prerogative and responsi- bility. They are acting through a sense of duty, I feel sure. However, after studying all the infor- mation material to the overall issue, as well as the available facts that pertain just to the Navy, hink it is entirel os- sible that because i s jur woo. ? Lrecrine Nay court of Irian ry vn no ee 'able towuroziorwm.- 12 ? cc in un e u ac are known about all the relevant circumstances that existed, and events which took place be- fore, during, and after the seizure of the Pueblo, will it be possible to ascertain the reasons the ship was lost and take protective measures against another such incident. jahough the Pueblo is a Navy shizjae responsibility for the policies and con- ations unae wnicn its officers and men - ?stmlovai..-1?...e.t.a.kaormadrol.torovi. . e llenartment of ia er evels in t e e - basis of facts now bein devel- o.e. mi rvices o ni nee- essarx to determine08 ? the as to ? r -s onsi : ? - avx an. o er au or ies in the De- partment of Defense. ;wigging& r - -*anted a ? %ii ay sanw:d oveir tua v_y re than one lii'vestiga ion o - eilnaP:SiPt ti i;rivre- Witnesses are required for e Navy hearing now in progress on the west coast. Also, II would not be sr ? eer to interfere with the hea-rniu2 . ? . may ?e that when the Navy court of inquiry is completed, much of that testimony would be useful in other hear- ings on the issue. er this ?pmpieted. a 41';:ieai.l?iyta- yestiation Decessigv. .t enat,e Armed Services Committee willproceed. Should the committee proceed, it will not be limited to the proof before nor the findings by the Navy court. Whatever action is taken by the com- mittee should be taken as soon as possible after the Navy court of inquiry is com- S 997 pleted. have theref re ormed oi os A - sire o ma a stody of Tiff, 'U in meal also requested tha the WI nesse sit EU Iranst- . . . ? _ -. o cornWirri . ? n ? - eir em rea say \In my opinion , * elirMa a. 'en? or the cow- mi ee s 'Ii CC. no in o n?arinf_s n emphasis that, in e hi inves itra inn an a, s imentar art of the stud come e ci i S 41- Ts I wou d expect it to do very soon there- after. Certainly, I want to say that our com- mittee is not wating to influence the Navy and its findings as a result of its proceed- ings, or other conclusions in any way. Navy has a direct, primary responsibility in the field of its inquiry. 1 the C..- ope e peep e o e coun ry as a w ole will in- form themselves as to just what the sit- 4 uation is and await accordingly. , ? There is no intimation from what I have said here as to what our committee feels about what the Navy should do. I believe in putting responsibility where re- sponsibility belongs. I have no idea what, according to the Navy's standards, its conclusions will be. That is our position. I hope that is clear. Mr. HOLLAND. Mr. President, will the Senator yield? Mr. STENNIS. I yield. Mr. HOLLAND. First, I congratulate heartily the distinguished Senator from Mississippi upon the stand he has taken. It is, of course, right that the Navy court of inquiry should proceed in a deliberate way to fulfill its duty to the Navy, and under the Navy precedents and Navy jurisdiction. I am happy, however, that the Senator, speaking as chairman of the Armed Services Committee of the _Senate, has, in effect, given notice to the 'Defense Department and to the Navy Department that his able committee, * which he heads so capably, does stand ready, if it feels conditions justify it, to make a committee inquiry and a sen- atorial inquiry into this matter at the completion of the hearings now under- way. Mr. President, I say this because I think that while the Navy Department must proceed under Navy rules, regula- tion, precedents, and traditions, the Sen- ate represents the people of the United States. The Senator knows, and every Senator knows, that there is great con- fusion in the minds of the people of the United States right now about this en- tire incident. I think it was a salutary thing for the Senator to say, as he has today upon the floor of the Senate, that his committee is watching this matter deliberately and without prejudging of any sort, is holding itself ready, and is giving notice to the Navy authorities and to the authorities of the Defense De- partment, that, if in its judgment it feels it must go into it after the naval court of inquiry has completed its proceedings, his committee will do just that. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For ReleaRagliOM ? CIMPZABOONIVAI30015000 S 998 CO S A L ? ya8 nuary 28, 1969 I thank the Senator. Mr. STENNIS. I thank the aenator very much. :IS ? .6 I ?SII ? : riTarffirslaWNWrit: ins- w .e s m ar 711101121173 i? ? ever itattel? ? WOW MIMPIM-It,X41" *MIPS KM) tSIO rue ? ers sec we. e me : ? to the American people that it is time to be yatient about this matter and withhold ?winclusious, and let these procedures go Tortn in the reg- ular way. However it comes out, / think the Navy ought to continue to have much responsibility with regard to its Oticers. If we tried to shift that responshility and have it another way, we would de- stroy a great department and a great tradition, the Navy. Mr. HOLLAND. Mr. President, *ll the Senator yield further? Mr. STENNIS. I yiel& 1 Mr. HOLLAND. Mr. President o ha. ? that the ator h em- - ?) le e: ?M, ?E,W, 3 - tie ? ena r rom or ? a - : a exactly that course to answer the myriad of letters he has received from disturbed cltizens, mostly from the State of Florida but some from elsewhere. I think it is incumbent upon all of us to allow the naval court of ix?quiry to complete its duties in the fullea and most deliberate way arid then decide, after we have seen the record arid after we have seen the judgment of the court 1 of inquiry, what should be done. I am glad the Senator has voiced the neces- sity for patience, because I thipc. the public needs to be patient just noW . I thank the Senator for the wise tate- ment he has made. Mr. STENNIS. I thank the eqator. As far as the Navy end the Defense Department are concerned, I have not really discussed this Matter with them. I did not want to try th influence them, and I did not want them, frankly, to try to influence me at this time. I have ob- tained the facts as I could. I think the public will be fully informed in time. trim. I yield the floor. _,- CLARK CLIFFORD% POSTURE STATEM$NT Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, as all thinking men and women know, there is now a very clear choice for the United States and the Soviet Tinion to make. The two nations can either make seri? AS at- tempts to limit their rrOtary arsenals or they can continue to escalate the arms race. Then, each country would place new burdens on its people and )n its economy, would defer expenditures to meet critical domestic needs, and move the hands on the doonisday cloct closer to midnight as each side raised th, ante in a gigantic war of nerves. No one has pointed out the prcblems we face and the choices we !mist make more clearly than has former See,etary Clark Clifford in the "Pbsture" statement he made about the Pentagon's view of the _ It is abundantly clear that the Senate should ratify the nonproliferation treaty noW:-It has been too long delayed and should be acted upon promptly. It is also clear that now Is the time to make arrangements with the Soviet TInion to talk about all the great prob- lems of disarmament. To escalate fur- ther by producing more inissiles and more warheads and then spend billions for anti-ballistic-missile systems to de- fend against the added weapons created, Is a ridiculous thing to do. We must make every effort to reach agreement. The Washington Star in an editorial last Friday, January 24, had some very sensible things to say about both Mr. Clifford's valedictory statement and the need to deescala,te the arms race. I ask unanimous consent that it be printed in the RECORD. CLIPPOE D'S VALEDICTION There is a three-course dinner for thought in Clark Clifford's first and final "posture" statement on the Pentagon's view of the world military situation. The interest is com- pounded by the Soviet offer for disarmament negotiations that greeted the Nixon adminis- tration as it assumed office. By the end of 1969, Clifford said, the U.S. missile superiority will have eroded. The Soviets will have caught up. Both sides will have more than 1,000 ICBMs, ready to fire from protected, underground shelters. In ad- dition, he said, .the USSR Ls "mpving vig-- orously" to catch the United States in sea- based missiles. It was not Clifford's purpose to throw a scare into the American public with his rev- elation that the missile gap is closing. The outgoing secretary's point was that the United States and Russia both have a hard choice to make. They must either move Into a new and limitless round "of arms devel- opment. Or they can try to negotiate a limit to the costly and deadly madness. The Soviets have greeted the new admin- istration with an offer to talk about all as- pects of disarmament, including interconti- nental missiles and anti-missile systems.. "When the Nixon government is ready to, sit down at the negotiating _table, we are ready" a Kremlin spokesman aTdd. There should be no delay. The first order of businesS should be the prompt ratiflcatibn of the non-proliferation treaty. And as soon as it can possibly be arranged, the United States should press, with all appropriate cau- tion, for full-scale arms teaks with the Soviets. Both nations need relief from the economic burden of another upward spiral of the arms race. The world needs some lifting of the oppressive nucleax cloud that presently covers its horizon. This period of change and of renewed beginning may be the best oppor- tunity for real progress. military situation. There are constructive steps we can take to meet these overriding problems. THE PEARSON:ANDERSON COLUMN TELLS OF CRIME AND VIOLENCE ? Mr. BYRD of West Virginia. Mr. Pres- ident, in today's Washington Post, col- umnists Drew Pearson and Jack Ander- son reveal the awesome dimensions of the wave of crime and viMence which threatens our R,apublic. In the column, Pearson and Anderson discuss the contents of a hitherto un- published report by the National Com- mission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence. The report catalogs the statistical evidence of the corruptness which threat- ens to undermine our free society. Importantly, however, Pearson and Anderson quote the report as stating: The intricacies of crime statistics have little meaning for the average citizen.... He appears less impressed with numbers and rates and trends than with the fact that there seem to be increasingly large sections of his city where he cannot walk safely even in daylight, much less at night, and that it Is now dangerous in many communities for bus drivers to carry cash or for taxis to pick up fares in certain parts of town after dark. . . . It has also prompted many citizens to arm themselves for self-protection. Mr. President, I have not yet seen the report in question, but from the Pearson-Anderson account it appears to be a document that all of us would do well to read. I ask unanimous consent that the Pearson-Anderson column be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the column was ordered to be printed in the RECORD as follows: [From the Washington Post, Jan. 28, 1969] THE WASHINGTON MERRY-Go-ROUND: REPORT SHOWS VIOLENCE GRIPPING UNITED STATES (By Drew Pearson and Jack Anderson) Probably the most sobering document President Nixon has found on his desk is a "progress report" on violence in America, depicting the country in the grip of a fury that has erupted on the campuses and ex- ploded in the ghettos, that stalks the streets and may even lie in wait for himself be- hind some dark window. The unpublished report, prepared by the National Commission on the Causes and Pre- vention of Violence, raises more questions than it answers. But seven task forces are still digging for the root causes of some of the most turbulent years in American history. In the fast five years, the report points out: 1. "239 violent urban outbursts, involving 200,000 participants, have resulted in nearly 8,000 injuries and 191 deaths, as well as hundreds of millions of dollars in property damage." 2. 370 civil rights demonstrations and 80 connter-demonstrations have occurred, in- volving more than a million participants. 3. Hundreds of student demonstrations "have resulted in seizure of university facili- ties, police intervention, riot, property dam- age and even death." 4. Antiwar protests "have involved some 700,000 participants in cities and on campuses throughout the country." The Commission also cited the soaring crime statistics, particularly the homicide rate, noting: "A dramatic contrast may be made between Manhattan Island, with a, population of 1.7 million, which has more homicides per year than all of England and Wales with a population of 49 million. And New York's homicide rates are by no means the highest among American cities." Concludes the Commission: "The elimina- tion of all violence in a free society is im- possible. But the better control of illegitimate violence in our democratic society is an ur- gent imperative and one within our means to accomplish." Even before he was sworn in, President Nixon had decided to devote his first 100 days to cooling the passions that have in- flamed the country. He will deliberately avoid controversy and conflict. In the language of the streets, he has told intimates he intends to "cool it." The magnitude of the headache Mr. Nixon has inherited is summarized in the report on violence which the Commission submitted to President Johnson on Jan. 9. We have obtained a bootleg copy of the report, which covers all forms of American Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP711300364R000300150001-8 January 28, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE 11515 SCHERLE CALLS FOR BIPARTISAN PROBE OF "PUEBLO" INCIDENT (Mr. SCHERLE asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend his remarks, and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. SCHERLE. Mr. Speaker, today I am introducing a resolution designed to create a special Joint House and Senate Bipartisan Committee to consider the events leading up to the capture of the U.S.S. Pueblo. This special joint commit- tee would be comprised of 16 members, one-half from Members selected by the Speaker of 'the House, and one-half ap- pointed by the President of the Senate. News reports of the Naval Board of Inquiry into the Pueblo incident have raised questions as to the ultimate re- sponsibility for this sordid affair. Testi- mony released to date indicates that the responsibility for the capture and sub- sequent imprisonment of 82 Americans was the result of indecision and inaction in the highest echelons of the adminis- trative branch of our Government. Two weeks ago I visited personally with Commander Bucher and many members of the crew of the Pueblo. I was asked repeatedly by them, "Why wasn't our call for help answered? We held out as long as we could, but help never came." That question has haunted me and brought a sense of 'guilt regarding the conduct of many of our Nation's top offi- cials. The information made public so far shows that the White House, the State Department, and the Defense De- partment were caught short of policy, short of plans, and short of guts. In de- fending the U.S.S. Pueblo, responsible military personnel passed the buck be- cause no one knew what to do or would accept the responsibility for doing it; the usual timidity exercised by the State Department handicapped immediate and effective action; and the White House was thrown into chaotic fear, precluding the exercise of judgement, which allowed a defenseless U.S. naval vessel to fall into Communist hands. Despite the fact that the ship made numerous calls for help, none ever came?why? The proceedings of the Naval Board of Inquiry to date are producing many un- answered questions. Press reports state that the Air Force will not be called to testify as to its role in this matter. Why not? A full-scale congressional inquiry is demanded by the American people and they deserve nothing less. PORNOGRAPHY?THE RISING' TIDE OF SMUT (Mr. SCHADEBERG asked and was given permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to in- clude extraneous matter.) Mr. SCHADEBERG. Mr. Speaker, on April 15, 1968, Public Law 90-206 went into effect, a law designed to help Ameri- cans stem the floodtide of obsenity en- gulfing the mailboxes and minds of our youth. I called attention to Public Law 90-206 in March of 1968, hoping to alert the parents of my district to this weapon for fighting smut with the following state- ment, made public at that time: WASHINGTON, D.C., March 20,1966.?Repre- senative Henry C. Schadeberg (R-Wisc.), said today that beginning on April 15, First District parents will be able to "at least par- tially slam the door on smut mail now flow- ing like a sewer into the hands of our chil- dren and homes.'' The Wisconsin Congressman said that on April 15 Public Law 90-206 goes into effect, which allows householders to "fight back against obscene material sent to their homes by advertisers of obscene mail both in Dis- trict Courts where it is received or where it originates. We can police our own mail boxes now," he said. Congressman Schadeberg outlined the fol- lowing three steps that can be taken on April 15 and thereafter and he urged "civic groups, church groups, the PTA and other com- munity organizations to assist parents, who wish to protest the mailings and slam the door on future ones." 1. If you receive an advertisement which you judge to be obscene, write a letter to the Postmaster General in Washington, D.C., or to your local Postal Inspector. Demand that he send an order to the mailer directing him to remove your name and address im- mediately from all of his mailing lists. You may also request that the Postmaster Gen- eral's order include the names of any minor children and other family members at your address. 2. If you continue to receive questionable mall in violation of the order, you may then request the Attorney General to seek a court order against the smut mail advertiser. 3. If you then get a court order and still receive the smut mail, the sender will be subject to contempt of court citations and a possible jail sentence. He said that by the April 15th deadline his District as well as his Washington Office would have forms available which will be sent to the parents on request, which "will be handy for parents who wish to protest the mailings," Congressman Schadeberg said that he is also investigating the possibility of amend- ing Public Law 90-206 or introducing new legislation which would make it illegal for advertisers to sell or otherwise obtain the names of citizens for advertising mail solici- tations without the permission of the individual. "It is my feeling that something can and should be done in this area, not only as a step forward in terminating obscene mail- ings but to help take the burden off the backs of our postmen and our mail service, -and alleviate some of the perpetual annoy- ance from junk mail deliveries." The Con- gressman said that "a man's name is one of his most valued possessions, yet it is bandied about, sold, re-sold, stolen and otherwise covertly obtained without his consent." He said the legislation he will seek would exempt mailings by political organizations, Veteran's groups, community schools, church and service organizations and would be "aimed squarely at where the problem lies, in the back rooms of smut peddlers and others who invade our privacy via the U.S. Mails." He noted that, J. Edgar Hoover, head of the FBI, regards smut as a serious problem, one that is conducive to creation of crime. Hoover declares: "It is impossible to estimate the amount of harm to impressionable teen- agers and to assess the volume of sex crimes attributable to pornography, but its influ- ence is extensive." He points out that police throughout the Nation "unequivocally state that lewd and obscene material plays a mo- tivating role in sexual violence. In case after case, the sex criminal has on his person or in his possession pornographic literature or pictures." "The new legislation provides the Ameri- can householder with an effective, enforce- able, tough law against invasion of moral privacy by smut peddlers using the mails It allows the recipient to decide what kind of mail is to be delivered in the family mail. It is a solid step toward guaranteeing individual rights," Congressman Schadeberg said. He said his office will have a form letter avail- able without cost for parents to send to local postmasters, plus one requesting the Attor- ney General of the United States to take legal action if smut peddlers persist in their obscene mailings. "Parents will not have to put up a cent in costs, other than the price of a postage stamp in putting a stop to the unwanted mail," he said. Congressman Schadeberg said he is dis- tributing the form letters to newspapers and urging them as a public service, to print them so parents can clip them out and use them for immediate communication with the proper officials. Mr. Speaker, I was hopeful at the time I made the above statement that the muck-peddlers would find it more dif- ficult to peddle their filthy wares. Such has not been the case, I am sorry to re- port. I believe the fault with Public Law 90- 206 was not in its intent but in the nature of the enforcing arm on which the Con- gress leaned in order to help clean up the mails. The Post Office Department Is a service organization or agency, de- signed and charged with the single pur- pose of delivering the mails. It is not an enforcement agency. It is neither equipped nor has the time to pursue this new obligation, according to the infor- mation I have in respect to the problem of policing pornography. I am now convinced that Congress must do more in this area. With this conviction in mind I am today submit- ting new legislation to attack the prob- lem of smut mailing from another start- ing point?the producers of this filth and the mailing list brokers who supply them with the names for their filthy mailings. A person's name is as sacred as his privacy and his reputation. It is the pri- vate property of each American and it should be illegal for anyone, for any pur- pose, to bandy our names about for any purpose whatsoever, without the express consent of each one of us. Daily I receive letters from my con- stituents expressing their amazement and disgust over receiving filthy mate- rials through the mail. In several in- stances the smut material is addressed by hand and sent from some hotel in a foreign country. Recently I came into possession of a particularly vicious smut mailing. It was sent to a young -college girl, whose name, I am certain, was se- cured from her high school annual, which, according to custom, is placed in the public library in her community and is thereby available for any caller to copy from at will. There are thousands of others just like this young miss, hundreds in fact from the high school from which she grad- uated. I can only assume that each year each graduating class is to have the names of its young female graduates punched into the smut mill forcing them to become the prey of every diseased pornography peddler in the publishing business. I believe this should not only be stopped but made illegal. And I believe It can be if Congress will approve the Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 H 516 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE January 28, 1969 legiSlation I am submitting, making a Federal offense to use the name of any individual without the clear consent pf that individual, whatever his or her a e and status in life. I believe that st4ff Penalties should be provided for naijr brokers who violate the restrictions in my bill when it becomes law. The bill is as follows: H.R. 4850 A bill to require mailing list brokers to register with. the Postmaster Goneral, and suppliers and buyers of mailing lists to furnish information to the Postmaster General with respect to their identity and transactions involving the sale or exchange of mailing lists, and for other purposes Be it enacted by the Senate and licruse of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That 4a) chapter 53 of title 39, United States Code is amended by adding at the end thereof the follewing new section: "I 4961. Registration of mailing list brokers; furnishing of information with respect to mailing lists (a) Each broker engaged in the sale or exchange of mailing lists shall file with the Postmaster General a registration statement, in Such form and detail as the Postmaster General shall determine, which shall cosier, among other matters prescribed by the Post- master General, (1) the name under which he is doing business, (2) the scope and n. eral character of the business, (3) the lo- tion of his principal business office, and (4) the names and addresses of the directors and the chief executive officers if the broker 0 a corporation, association, partnership, or other business association. "(b) Each individual and each corpo tion, partnership, or other business orga i- zation or association using, buying, selli g, renting, exchanging, or otherwise making available to others any mailing list shall, lob request, furnish to the Postmaster Gene al, in siuch form and detail, and at such tixes, as lie shall determine, infornaation respe t- ing (1) the name of the individual, corpora.. tion, partnership, or other business as a- Um or organization, and (2) the identity of indfviduals having a financial interest in any such organization or association, incliici- ing the responsible officers and employ es the be tici. ing " mea eof. Postai officials, upon request, sl4aIl ermitted to examine records and per- ars of transactions or mailings perta(n- to any such mailing list. c) As used in this section, 'Jar? et' as any person who engages either or all or part of his time, directly or indirec iy, as agent, dealer, or principal, in the busi- ness of offering, buying, selling, or othSr,- wise dealing or trading in mailing Iiists owned, rented, or used by another persOn. "(d) The Postmaster General shall appropriate rules and regulations to carry out the purposes of this section. Such ulatlions shall provide that a broker slall obtain the written consent of each peron to be included on such list before placing the name of such person on such list ad that a broker or user of such list shall re- move the name of such person from sjch list on the request Of such person.". (b) The table of contents of chapter, 53 of title 39, 'United States Code, is amended by Tserting? "40 1. Registration Of mailing list brokers: furnishing of information by sup- pliers, buyers, and users of mailing lists." immediately below "4060. Foreign publications free from mils- toms duty.". SEC. 2. (a) Chapter 83 of title 18, United States Code, relating to offenses against the postal service, is amended by adding at the end thereof the following new section: "I 1735. Mailing list brokers, suppliers, buy- ers, and users "Whoever, being required by section 4061 of title 39, United States Code, to furnish information to the Posunaster General, fails or refuses to furnish suah information as the Postmaster General shall request under such section, or violates any regulation of the Postmaster General under such section, shall be fined not mors than $5,000, or im- prisoned not to exceed one year, or both.". (b) The table of contents of such chap- ter 83 is amended by inserting "1735. Mailing list brokers, suppliers, buy- ers, and users." immediately below . "1734. Editorials and other matter as 'ad- vertisements'.". SEC. 3. The foregoing provisions of this Act shall become effeclve on/ the ninetieth day following the date of enactment of this Act. . Mr. Speaker, obviously, certain excep- tions must be made?for the Red Cross, veterans organizations, city and State governments, and ()thelegitimate %or- ganizations who use such information for legitimate purposes. I wo ld expect that an appropriate cominittelk of Congress will conduct hearings on iy measure, eliciting information from 'ecent pub- lishers and organizations, all of whom, I feel certain, are equally anxlcis to clean out the smut mailers, who not o y poison the minds of our young with t eir filth but add immensely to the t ayer's burden of paying for our postal prvices. The legislation I propose would ?equire name brokers to register with the Post- master General of the United States shall be provided with additional finds and help for the purpose of collating in- formation concerning all mailing brokers, legitimate or otherwise. Once collected, on an annual basis, such information shall be turned over to the Department of Justice, which holds the enforcement power to punish lawbreakers and which has theiknow-how and the personnel to handle such matters. I would further amend Public Law 90-206, turning over to the Department of Justice the assign- ment of recipient for complaints con- cerning smut from the people and for corrective action where warnings are ignored or violations occur. One other aspect of the pornography flood engulfing our young minds that needs reexamination concerns the estab- lishment in 1967 of the Commission on Obscenity and Pornography; There are several things wrong with this effort and organization. The Com- mission has been swelled with 8643,000 for operating expenses and salaries. No interim reports are required as to how these funds are being used or what prog- ress is being made. The Commission does not have to give an accounting until July 31, 1970. 1 mention these factors, not in criticism of its distinguished mem- bers, but lay the blame at our own door- step for not writing tighter legislation so that the American people might have an opportunity to take part or determine how well the fight against smut peddlers is going. I believe the 91st Congress might well amend H.R. 16489 to require an interim report. I believe further that Congress should signify its intent for the Commission to report to an appropriate committee of the Congress from time to time. I hesitate to suggest which corn- mittee of Congress this might be, prior to consulting with the leadership, but the urgency of the need for action is so im- perative that I offer the suggestion that either the new House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct or ;the Government Operations Committee may well be approcerifitaindies for riding herd on the Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. I will also, at the proper time, submit to Congress legislation designed to make permanent an investigative subcommit- tee of the House, staffed and instructed to pursue the problem of smut mailing and filth peddling on a permanent basis, with appropriate reports to Congress on a regular basis. ? The present setup and composition of the Commission follows: COMMISSION ON OBSCENITY AND PORNOGRAPHY AUTHORITY Public Law 90-100, October 3, 1967. RESPONSIBILITY To study the nature and volume of traffic in obscene and pornographic materials. To study effects of obscenity and pornography on minors. To recommend legislative, admin- istrative, and other appropriate action that the Commission may feel necessary to regu- late the flow of such traffic without interfer- ing with constitutional rights. To evaluate existing laws pertaining to obscenity and pornography and to evaluate and recommend definitions therefor. MEMBERSHIP Eighteen members appointed by the Pres- ident, composed of persons having expert knowledge in fields of obscenity and anti- social behavior; and with special competence with respect to obscenity laws and their ef- fect on juveniles. William B. Lockhart (Chairman), Dean. University of Mhmesota School of Law, Edward D. Elson, President, Atlanta News Agency, Atlanta, Ga. Dr. Edward B. Greenwood, Psychiatrist, Menninger Clinic, Topeka, Kans. Rev. Morton A. Hill, 8.J., Executive Secre- tary, Operation Yorkville, Inc., New York, N.Y. Dr. C. William Jones, Assistant Professor of Broadcast Film Art, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Tex. Honorable Kenneth B. Keating, Associate Judge, New York Court of Appeals, Albany, N.Y. Dr. Joseph T. Klapper, Director, Social Re- search, Columbia Broadcasting System, New York, N.Y. Dr. Otto N. Larsen, Professor of Sociology. University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. Rabbi Irving Lehman, Temple Emanu-El, Miami Beach, Fla. Freeman Lewis, Executive Vice President, Pocket Books, Inc., New York, N.Y. Rev. Winfrey C. Link, Executive Director, Four-Fold Challenge Campaign, Nashville, Tenn. Dr. Morris A. Lipton, Professor of Psychia- try and Director of Research Development. Hon. Thomas C. Lynch, Attorney General, State of California. Barbara Scott, Associate Counsel, Motion Picture Association of America, Inc., New York, N.Y. Cathryn A. Spelts, Instructor, South Da- kota School of Mines, Rapid City, S. Dak. Dr. Frederick H. Wagman, Director, Uni- versity of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. Dr. Marvin E. Wolfgang, Director, Center for Criminological Research, University of Pennsylvania. STAY, An office for the Commission staff was set up in Washington in August, and is located at Suite 500, 1016-16th Street, N.W. Their telephone number is 382-8655. The staff di- Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 January 27, .1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE S 931 who had been put in charge of "the other war." Each of thousands of hamlets had re- ceived one of six security designations. The designation for each hamlet evolved from about 15 criteria, each of which, in turn, had been measured on a quantitative scale. I remember having been struck by the Tact that the progress of pacification had never before been charted so scientifically. It seemed to me, however, that the criteria had little to do with hearts and minds and even less to do with Revolutionary Development. Since the whole thrust of our intervention was counterrevolutionary and since economic and political development was impossible under the circumstances, this almost had to be the case. While the information fed into the computer may have been narrowly factual, the inferences that resulted were wholly insupportable. And yet it was under- standable that President Johnson and others in his Administration were impressed, half- way around the world from Saigon, by the progress Komer reported right up to the eve of the Tet offensive. VI If such statistical concepts as the poverty line, full employment, and body counts have caused misinterpretation in the past, so have the full-blown analytical systems that are based on quantitative data. The most widely used of these in the government is the Planning-Programming-Budgeting System, known familiarly, if not lovingly, as PPBS. PPBS, briefly stated, is a system of plan- ning whereby each individual agency or de- partment is required to identify the specific goals of its programs, discuss the alternative ways in which those goals might be achieved, and then quantify the results of the pro- grams it is pursuing. It imposes upon each agency a requirement for disciplined think- ing that did not exist before, and it is clearly a more useful way of looking at governmen- tal expenditures than was the old line-item basis (personnel, supplies and materials, travel, etc.). Because_ PPBS had been widely and efficiently used in the Department of Defense under Secretary McNamara, Presi- dent Johnson ordered that it be installed throughout the government in 1966. But here, as in the world of statistics, there are subtle and treacherous pitfalls: faulty assumptions, the downgrading or distortion of matters which cannot be quantified, and the fatal error of supposing that technical procedures can eliminate the agony of decision. Its inherent dangers have been recognized by two of the foremost scholars in the field of national security. Dr. Thomas C. Schelling of Harvard University has warned that PPBS Is a procedure "whose worth depends on the skill and wisdom of the people who use it" and that "quantitative data can be subtly made prominent to the detriment of impor- tant qualitative considerations." Dr. James R. Schlesinger, director of strategic studies at the RAND Corporation, has emphasized that "analysis is not a scientific procedure for reaching decisions which avoids intuitive ' elements, but rather a mechanism for sharp- ening the intuitions of the decision-maker." As PPBS spread throughout the govern- ment, most agencies found that their most difficult task was the attempt to quantify the benefits of its programs. The danger was and Is that the areas which do not lend them- selves to accurate measurement--who can quantify the benefits of diplomacy, national parks, education??wfil be regarded as less important than those areas which do. VII When Wklbur J. Cohen was Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare, he once said that the chief statistician of HEW and his staff "do more to determine HEW programs than all the other officials in the Depart- ment." Was he kidding? Maybe he was, and then again maybe he wasn't. In either case, his statement dramatizes the fact that statis- tics carry great weight in determining gov- ernment policies and programs. I myself find it amazing, and sometimes frightening, to observe the extraordinary prestige of statistics both inside and outside of the government. For a recent example of Its national pervasiveness, we need go back only as far as the recent Presidential cam- paign, in which the Gallup and Hhrris polls played such a decisive role in shaping the candidates' respective strategies that their role in determining the outcome clearly ex- ceeded that in any previous Presidential campaign. Within the government, statistics in the '60's have reached such a pinnacle that men of affairs often become known by the sta- tistics they keep. Until the last two years or so of his Administration, President John- son's imposition of the latest popularity polls upon his visitors was a mark of his style. John F. Kennedy's attack on the Eisenhower Administration in 1960 centered on statis- tical comparisons of economic growth and missile stockpiles. President Nixon's discus- sions of law and order during the recent campaign rarely failed to mention statistics concerning the increase in crime. When I emerged from the obscurity of academic life to become U.S. Commissioner of Labor Statistics, I was startled to discover that I was good copy because I issued the figures on inflation and unemployment. To the amusement of my colleagues and the gratification of my wife, I was often de- scribed as "the Nation's leading expert" on subjects about which I knew little. I did discover, however, that positivism has triumphed in statistics, as it has in other sciences, so that statistics consists of technical procedures quite independent of content or purpose. I found the most gov- ernment statisticians are principally con- cerned with techniques, which have greatly improved in recent decades. But their out- look is often too narrow to encompass the larger role of numbers in public life. Like horses who obediently pull a wagon over a cliff, they exercise great skill in producing numbers but have little sophistication con- cerning their use and misuse. Although stat- isticians like to think that they are con- stantly warning policy-makers against mis- use, what they usually warn them about is the limited sample or the possible range of error, rather than the one-dimensional qual- ity of the statistics themselves. What I have said in these few pages may strike the reader as anti-statistical and anti- intellectual, but that is not my intent. I strongly believe that leaders need every available aid to understanding the murk and chaos of life. My concern is not with science, but with the abuse of science. It is human ignorance, indolence, and incuriosity which permit statistical data to be perceived as ob- jective verities rather than as the shadowy hints and clues they most often are. We need more and better statistics in or- der to illuminate our problems more fully. But we must remember that statistics, in- dispensable as they are and improved as they may become, cannot substitute for the in- tuitive feel of a problem resulting from first- hand exposure. Shoe leather and the human mind will always be needed more than sta- tistics when complex and qualitative judg- ments must be made. So will leaders who can confront ambiguity without heading for the nearest statistical escape hatch. THE "PUEBLO" INQUIRY Mr. CURTIS. Mr. President, I rise to pay tribute to a great American and a distinguished son of Nebraska. I refer to Comdr. Lloyd Bucher of the ill-fated U.S.S. Pueblo. Nebraskans are proud of Commander Bucher for his years of distinguished service to his country. We point with pride that Commander Bucher grew up and graduated from high school at Father Flanagan's Home for Boys at Omaha, Nebr., and that later he grad- uated from the University of Nebraska. His rise to a place of responsibility is in the noblest of American traditions. For some days, Commander Bucher has been giving forthright testimony. The fact that no help was sent to him is just as historically true as the fact that the Pueblo was seized. I suggest that Commander Bucher not be harshly judged by Monday morning quarter- backs who were so silent and inactive on the fateful day?January 23, 1968? when the Pueblo was attacked, chased, fired upon, and seized by Communist vessels. I am sure that Commander Bucher wants to be helpful, not only now but also in the future, in cooperating with various agencies of our Government. But I do point out the great suffering that this man already has endured, and I would express the hope that he not un- necessarily be subjected to repetitious congressional or other investigations. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCA- TION, AND WELFARE REPORTS SCHOOL DESEGREGATION PROG- RESS Mr. HART. Mr. President, the Office for Civil Rights of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare recently reported a significant increase in the desegregation of formerly dual school systems in 11 Southern States. The per- centage increase?from about 14 percent in September 1967 to more than 20 per- cent a year later?may not seem par- ticularly impressive unless one looks behind the statistics. A brief summary of what has hap- pened in the area of school desegregation will illustrate what I mean. In 1963, 9 years after the Supreme Court had de- clared that dual, racially-segregated school systems were unconstitutional, 1 percent of the Negro students in the Southern States attended school with whites. School segregation?unconstitu- tional separation of youngsters by race? was widespread, the decision of the Supreme Court to the contrary notwith- standing. In 1964, the Congress enacted the Civil Rights Act with its prohibition in title VI against using Federal funds to assist programs which discriminate on the basis of race, color, or national origin. Title VI. was implemented on a small scale at HEW in 1965 and provided with the appropriations needed for a larger staff a year later. In September 1968, little more than 3 years after the implementation of the title VI program at HEW, the school desegregation figure in the 11 Southern States stood at 20 percent. And in school systems desegregating under plans nego- tiated to meet the requirements of title VI, the figure was higher-25.6 percent. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 S 932 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE January 27, 1969 In other words, Mr. President, tie school desegregation figureIetween 1954, the year of the landmark }r9 wn decisic and 1963, the year before e enactment of the Civil Rights Act sc to only 1 percent. In the next 5 yea_t it incre sed 20 times that figure. Thivs significant progress and a credit to t4 administr x- tidn of a difficult progrea by HEV''s Office for Civil Rights. should point out, Mr. Vesident, that the statistics on desegre tion for lost September represent for e most r rt only progress toward the e al of an end to the dual racially seg ated school system. The Office for Ci Rights pm- gram requires that distri on, which r- merly assigned students d faculty the basis of race, adopt desegregati plans ending the dual sem in most cases by September 1969 or-at the latest-September 1970 ill cases where there are legitimate adm ijstrative rea- sons why the 1969 dea e cannot be met. September of this ktr should see another substantial increase in sch)ol desegregation in the Sout ern State.i Mr. President, for the iformatioh of readers of the CONGRES ONAL RECORD, I ttsk that the school dese etration Press release issued recently b EW's Office for Civil Rights be incluLed as part of rhy remarks at this point n the REcc RD. There being no objection, the press release was ordered to be_brinted in - he REMIT), as follows: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDU- CATION, AND WELFARE, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, Washington, 11.0., January 16, 1969. Preliminary analysis of the 1968 data on school desegregation in the 11 Deep South States shows that 20.3 percent of the 2.5 million Negro students in these districts or a total of 518,607 Negro children are at- tending schools with white children. (Table 1) This figure compares with 13.9 percent for the 1967-68 school year. At the same time, the data reveals that in the school districts desegregating under the requirements of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 25.6 percent of the one million Negro children in those districts or 272,281 are attending schools with white children. The overall desegregation figure, 20.3 per- cent, includes districts desegregating under court Orders as well as those desegregation under voluntary plans. The voluntary .plSlls under which the die.= tricts are destgregating have been developed locally ayfi have been submitted to the Of- fice for/Civil Rights of the bepartment of Health,1 Education, and Welfare. _ The percent figure, contained in sur- vey datik released today by the Office for Civil Rikhts, HEW's Title VI compliance agency, ares with the 19 percent or 202,794 Neo child' en reported in deseg- regated schodks in the same districts during the 1967-68 school year. The districts are in the following 'tate: Arkansas, Florida, A Georgia, Louisia, Mississippi, North Caro- lina, South Caroni* Tennessee, Texas and Virginia. All of the school cil \s?bricts in the 11th Deep South State, Alabama, are desegregating un- der court order. A comparison of the voluntary plan de- segregation progress in the 10 Deep South States for 1966-67, 1867-68 and 1968-69 is shown in Table 2. A desegregated school is defined, as in 1967-68, as one attended by minority group children in which at least 50 percent of the students are white. Preliminary analysis also showed that: 1. Desegregation progress in Deep South school districts desegregating under court orders was sharply below the voluntary plan desegregation figure. Data from court order districts showed that only 11.5 percent or 149,000 of the Negro students in those dis- tricts are attending sehool with white chil- dren. (Table 3.) 2, In those school districts in the 10 Deep South States which have submitted forms certifying they have eliminated their dual systems (Form 441) , 51.6 percent of the ---.,egro students are attending schools with e children. The preliminary figures account for ap- proxim ely 85 percent of the students at- tending ?ols in the 11 Deep South States. The repor la were to be completed and re- turned to TIEW by October 15, but school districts which account for approximately 15 percent of the students in these States failed to return reports or returned incom- plete information. TABLE 1.-01.111_ DESEGREGATION IN 11 SOUTHERN ST State Enrollmf it The only large system which has not yet reported data is Dallas, Texas. Dallas is un- der court order. A breakdown of the extent of school deseg- regation in the 11 Deep South States for all types of school districts (voluntary plan, 441, court order) is shown in Table 4. ES, ALL DISTRICTS REPORTING, FALL 1968 Desegregation 1 Number Ot district? repeal% Total Negro Alabama Ar ansas Flo ida Ge rgia Lor4isiana Mi sissippi No h Carolina -11 'The Office for Civil Rights estimatil that the data or which the 1968 preliminary analysis is based accounts for 85 percent of the esWefed 11,677,684 ,ublIc school students in the 11 Southern States. TA 2.-PUPIL PE :EGRfGATION IN 10 SOUTHERN STATES (3-YEAR COMPARISON?, VOLUNTARY PLAN DISTRICTS' Number of Percent of Negro Negro students students 588, 639 204,365 15, 039 7.4 376,470 94,791 22,048 23:3 , 160,644 282,226 67,961 24.1 883, 287 268, 044 38,196 14. 2 774,140 299,152 26,354 8.8 398,725 193,602 13,839 7.1 1, 12D, 602 330,449 92,028 27.E State Number of districts reporting Enrollment Desegregation 1 Number of Negro Total Negro students Percent of Negro students South Carolina_ 76 486, 509 196,203 Tennessee 120 843, 525 146,287 Texas 501 2,264, 881 306,648 Virginia , 115 992, 047 236, 023 ; Total --------- 1 ; , 2 I ncl u d es all districts trith total enrollment over 3,000 students and with less than 3,000 stud nts enrolled. 29,198 34,098 119,259 60,587 14. 9 24. 3 38. 9 25.7 21,560 9, 889, 409 2, 551, 790 518,607 20.3 sampling of districts Enroll rr net State and and year repartg Total Desegregation 2 Number of Negro Negro students Percent of Negro students Arkansas: I 1966 1 1967 ,1 1968 FlOrida: 1966 1 1967 1968 Georgia: 1966 1967 1968 Leuisiana: 1966 ' 1967 1 1968 1966 1967 1968 Nerth Carolina: 1966 1967 I 1968 3 3 173,130 73,545 217,378 82,215 13,821 179,755 66,199 14,417 21.8 296,344 41,917 204,273'76,226 297, 726' 78,772 543,254 109,117 588,291 141,208 567, 991 146,739 20,482 4,301 19,502 3,853 20,351 4,168 133,234 150, 05 161, 58 774,225 836,452 724,322 52,459 59,898 65,322 244,770 243, 081 232, 896 11,018 14, 213 25,253 11,091 19, 128 26,975 454 623 1,001 2,200 3,768 7,842 31, 339 40,236 63, 554 13.5 18.6 32.1 7. 4 13. 5 18. 4 10. 6 16.2 24. 0 4. 2 6. 3 12. 0 12.8 16.6 27.3 - State and year Number of districts reporting Enrollment Desegregation 2 Total Negro Number of Negro students Percent of Negro students South ins: 66 72 467,898 180, 922 9, 433 5. 2 1967 57 349, 835 143, 975 10, 257 7. 1 1968 70 459,043 182,987 28,207 15.4 Tennessee: 1966 40 171,802 23,466 7,690 32.8 1967 43 160,457 30,223 11,550 38.2 1968 31 155,674 25,240 12,051 47.7 Texas: 1966 334 886, 046 166, 341 47, 936 28. 8 1967 323 989,704 177,798 63,008 35.4 1968 177 850, 013 142,071 62, 374 43. 9 Virginia: 1966 50 371,086 107,311 18,410 17.2 1967 54 431,799 117,148 26,190 22.4 1968 53 370,799 119, 676 30, 607 25.6 Total: 1966 895 3, 837, 771 1, 033, 693 145,628 14.1 1967 902 4,007,749 1, 075, 625 202,794 18.9 1968 718 3,787, 262 1,064, 070 272,281 25.6 The Office for Civil Rights estimates that the data o based accounts for 86 percent of the estimated 10,846,02 States. (All districts in the State of Alabama are under wilich the 1968 preliminary analysis i; Pi laic school students in the 10 Southesi deral court order to desegregate.) For 1966, a desegregated school was defined as one which had 5 percent or more white enroll- ment-Tor 1967 and 1968 this definition was changed to schools which had 50 percent or more white enrollment. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 11 486 Approved Fccd5WERWSMMORECUIRFEDP7118:1811364R0003001i311804* 27, 1969 Into tax-free municipal and government bonds. They have also questioned the fairness of tax exempt philanthropic foundations, which a wealthy patriarch can use to dodge in- heritance taxes, and as a sanctuary for se- curities intended for his heirs. Every special loophole for some clubby little group should be peered into and prob- ably plugged. And for the ordinary man, surely a more up-to-date set of rules and a simpler tax form would win Congress a host of friends. THE "PUEBLO" INQUIRY (Mr. SIKES asked and was given per- mission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD.) Mr. SIKES. Mr. Speaker, no one is on trial for the Pueblo incident, but the inquiry now being conducted by the Navy has convinced a great many peo- ple that the Pueblo's captain and crew actually are being tried. There are many unanswered questions about the Pueblo incident, and the whole subject is a touchy one. The United States lost enor- mous prestige when the ship was sur- rendered and the crew not released for nearly a year. The method in which their release was obtained was salt in an open wound. The fact that the Pueblo's crew is back is, of course, a source of great satisfac- tion. But the indignities which were in- flicted upon them, including the death of one, rankle in the minds of the Amer- ican people. Now some very important questions which have long remained un- answered are coming to the surface. The Pueblo carried no self-destruct mecha- nisms to protect highly advanced com- munications equipment and codes. When the ship was surrendered, all of this fell into R4sian hands via the North Koreans. It has been assumed that our information-gathering electronic equip- ment is more advanced than that of the Russians. Whether or not that is true, they now know everything we know in this field. Of major importance is the fact that the U.S. Government still has taken no productive action to obtain the return of the ship and its equipment or reim- bursement for the ship and to obtain indemnity for the death, wounds, and suffering of the crew and their families. No one has satisfactorily explained the failure to send help to the Pueblo before she actually fell into Communist hands. The Pueblo case is not one which can be swept under the rug and forgotten. Con- gress will want to take a hand in bring- ing all the facts to the surface before blame is fixed for the loss of the Pueblo and the indignities to its crew, Appro- priate steps also must be taken to insure there will be no repetition of a situation where an American ship is left defense- less in any waters. It is equally essential that proper equipment be installed to in- sure that communications vessels be fully equipped with destructive devices for the protection of classified materials and equipment. Proud American traditions are at stake. We do not beg our way out of trouble. EDITORIAL COMMENDS SPEAKER CHOICE (Mr. JONES of Alabama asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend his remarks and to include an editorial.) Mr. JONES of Alabama. Mr. Speaker, the Home of Representatives has been commended by an editorial printed in the Decatur, Ala., Daily for the selection of the Honorable JoHN W. MeCortmAex as Speaker for the 91st Congress. For years, the editor and publisher of the Decatur Daily, Mr. Barrett Shelton, Sr., has been associated with progress and growth of the thriving Tennessee Valley area through his newspaper and In his personal civic endeavors. I am pleased to associate myself with the editorial comments about Speaker McCoamAcx and I include the editorial at this point in my remarks so that all of my colleagues can share these thoughts: MR. MCCORMACK WILL BE REMEMBERED AS GREAT The House of Representatives made an admirable choice in the selection of the Hon- orable John W. McCormack of Massachusetts as Speaker for the 91st Congress. Speaker McCormack, through his many years of service to the nation, has estab- lished an enviable record for fair play and consideration of all the divergent issues which meet in the Congress. On the occasion of his recent election to the speakership, rare tribute was paid to him by the Honorable Gerald R. Ford, the mi- nority leader. Mr. Ford was the Republican candidate for the speakership. After the elec- tion, Congressman Ford told of his regrets at losing and said, "But, it is an even sterner test of statesmanship and character to be magnanimous and gracious in victory?and for whatever comfort and consolation it may be to any of my colleagues I can testify that the distinguished gentleman from Massa- chusetts has always been magnanimous and gracious to me?every time I have tried to take his gavel from him in the American political arena." Our nation faces many tasks of consider- able complexity as we lay the groundwork to meet the technological demands and re- quirements of the 21st Century. No one is more dedicated to this task than Speaker McCormack. He has proved this with his leadership of the Congress in recent years when unparalleled amounts of new legisla- tion have been formulated to serve the peo- ple of this country. His open and friendly manner and his will- ingness to counsel and advise have made him a legend in his own time among mem- bers of the Congress. He is the very em- bodiment of all that is great about our representative form of government. The story is told that Speaker McCormack once confided in a fellow member that "rather than being known as a great man, I would prefer to be known as a good man, if I had a choice." In our opinion, Speaker McCormack will have his wish. He will be known as a good man, and he will be known as one of the great speakers of all times. NATIONAL PRIORITIES AND THE NATIONAL BUDGET (Mr. BROWN of California asked and was given permission to extend his re- marks at this point in the RECORD and to Include extraneous matter.) Mr. BROWN of California. Mr. Speak- er, over the past year or so, the term "national priorities" has taken on new popularity here in Washington. Pressing social problems, demands for maintain- ing a costly military operation in South- east Asia, exploration and exploitation of natural resources, the thrust toward placing men on the moon?the argument goes that all programs, all issues, must be put into some broad perspective, then evaluated according to a prejudged order of priority. Of course, what we term "national priorities" today is, in reality, nothing other than that old debate of guns and butter?the tradeoffs between sets of competing needs. The theory itself is simple and blunt: given limited re- sources, what must be sacrificed to reach a chosen objective? President Johnson's recent budget message spotlights the new attention given "priorities." According to the President, "the composition of the budget reveals much about the Nation's priorities." To gage by the budget he presented Congress, if Mr. Johnson's statement is indeed true, I feel that the Nation is continuing to head ,clown a tragic, ex- tremely costly path. I do not concur that America's paramount national goal should be one of further military buildup, of an increase in military hardware, and of the pursuit of a debilitating, wasteful war in Southeast Asia. If there is one thing that President Johnson's budget does not reflect, it is a real ordering of priorities. The budget may show priorities, but they are priori- ties of power, not priorities of need. Unfortunately, as much as President Johnson hopes his budget represents an accuarte presentation of national priori- ties, I think that he is wrong. Priorities ranked on the basis of lobby or monetary strength of special interests always get distorted. It has become a cliche to note that poor people?both here in America and abroad?carry less clout with Con- gress than do powerful industrial and military blocs, but that cliche holds as a good rationale behind the "priorities" of the fiscal 1970 budget. For example, what concept of priority can make rational the assignment by the General Accounting Office of only five auditors for over $40 billion of military negotiated contracts while, at the same time, putting between 70 and 80 auditors at work analyzing poverty programs. In a true sense, the budget does not ad- here to the very meaning of priorities. Instead of rating programs by individual merit, they are lumped together under functional headings, so that it becomes impossible to carry on any across-the- board analysis. Congress' experience last year in the expenditure control contro- versy bears testimony to this fact. Many vulnerable and sensitive programs? mainly in the poverty and urban areas? got sliced disproportionately to older, more established, but also often less val- uable programs. In the end, I am sure we shall see Congress finding it necessary to go right back into the very areas it cut Approved For Release 2002/10/09: CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 January 2714/123rffed For Ret*W121MIMPA.PitERE:31599AIMP0300150001-8 ing wilts, 200,000 additional units Under the rent supplement program, 1 0,000 roditional units of section 236 ho Ing, 00,000 additional units of sectio 235 meownership housing, and 150,0 0 ad- itional rehabilitated housing uni , arid Other housing tools. The Full Op ortu- pity Act would also proyide for II D to make grants or loans for financi and technical assistance to sponsors o low- nind moderate-income housing and elim- ates the ability of local communi ies to revent rent supplement and 221( 1(3) ousing by not adopting a workabl pro- ram for community improvement 1 The legislation which I have intro- duced, providing supplemental appro- priations for this fiscal year for sec- tion 235, section 236, rent supplei exits, i and urban renewal and the relate leg- islation for increased production o low- and moderate-income housing through public housing, extension of section 236 and rent supplement benefits to State and locally financed housing, and the 11'ull Opportunity Act, is urgently needed. With the passage of the 1968 Hdosing and Urban Development Act committing this country to the 10-year goal of 6 mil- lion units of additional low- and mod- erate-incoine housing, the 90th Congress Must take the necessary steps to en- dure that this goal does not remain an empty promise but becomes an actuality. 1 1 Legislation to increase the oppropria- tions for housing programs in this fiscal year not only will increase the volume of low- and moderate-income housing hut also provide opportunities for new jObs for minority residents in the con- structions of such housing. A massive housing program comblned with job- creation program has been urged by the ational Committee for a Confronta- t on with Congress, a grassroots group in New York City, which has called upon the Congress to extend to the ghetto the same concern for housing that Congress did 20 years ago when it promoted the suburban housing boom through FHA and VA loan programs. In the 90th Congress I was cosponsor of legislation called the Jobs-in-Honsing Act of 1968, which recognized the *alue to be derived from creating tens of thousands of new well-paying construc- tion jobs while at the same time rebnlid- ing our central cities. Recognizing the eXplicit connection between more jobs and more housing, the National Co it- tA'ie for a Confrontation with Con ress sPent many hours with Members ofcon- gess promoting jobs-in-housing and succeeded in their efforts by having on- gress adopt section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968. is jobs-in-housing provision will b of enormous benefit to low and modeat in- come urban residents, for it appli s to the supplemental appropriation bi ls I have introduced for sections 235 and 236, public housing and rent supplements. Section 3 states: The Secretary of Housing and Urban De- velopment shall require, in consultation with the Secretary of Labor, that to the gre test eXtent feasible opportunities for trainin and eniployment arising in connection with, the planning, construction, rehabilitation, and oPeration of housing assisted under Such pregrams be given to lower income persons residing in the area of such housing. Supplemental appropriations will pro- vide expanded opportunities to minori- ty groups and contractors in the planning and construction of low- and moderate- income housing. The lack of jobs and slum housing are two interlocked mani- festations of poverty. The unemployed, who are seeking, not handouts, but de- cently paid jobs, could be employed in the very task of .:Tbuilding?their neigh- borhoods. Another bill, H.R. 4149, is also related to the question of obs and housing. It deals with the prqblem of minority group contractors whcf are unable to obtain bonding. It wo i authorize the Small Business Admillistration to indemnify corporate sureti on bonds covering con- tracts of sound nall business concerns and would help n ority contractors to satisfy certain le1 requirements in order to participate lu the construction of low- and moderate-hnie housing? thus providing job opport 'ties and mi- nority entrepreneurship in?-the housing area. In the last Congress I draftedand in- troduced the Cooperative Rehabilitation Act?H.R. 51 of the 91st Congr s? which would make it possible for IQW Income tenants to acquire and rehabili- tate buildings, turning them into cooper\ atives. It is the duty and responsibility of this Congress to insure that the Hous- ing and Urban Development Act of 1968, unlike its predecessors, achieves the goal first set forth in the Housing Act of 1949?"the realization as soon as feas- ible of the goal of a decent home and a suitable living environment for every American family." It has been over 20 years since Congress stated that goal. It is now time for Congress finally to fulfill that promise and free millions of ill-housed Americans from the evils of slum housing. APPROVAL OF PRESIDENT'S ACTION IN AIRLINE CASES (Mr. FLYNT asked and was given per- mission to address the House for 1 min- ute and to revise and extend his remarks and include extraneous matter.) Mr. FLYNT, Mr. Speaker, I wish to express my strong approval of the action taken by Presiden; Nixon in rescinding the order of the Civil Aeronautics Board in the transpacific route cases. While it has been true in the past that international route cases have been de- cided near the end of an administra- tion, no decision has ever been sur- rounded by so many reports, rumors, charges, and conatercharges as have filled the air and the press following the announcement of the decision in the transpacific route case. Some of these reports and charges were so serious that they could not be ignored. The only effective and appropri- ate way that the more serious of these charges could be pnved or disproved was by the action which President Nixon took on January 24, 1969. Many air carriers had filed administra- tive requests for reconsideration. They included successful and unsuccessful ap- plicants for transpacific routes, so that the demands for reconsideration were ?,. ',minute, to revise and extend his remarks and to include an editorial.) ',Mr. FEIGHAN. Mr. Speaker, a very tira' ' ly and thought provoking editorial c, app axed in the Cleveland Plain Dealer on Piursday, January 23, 1969. I have sent a copy of this editorial, entitled "Fix and UiIate U.S. Income Tax," to the dis- tinguis ed chairman of the Ways and Means ommittee for consideration by him and he members of the committee. This editOrial is well worthy of the read- ing and cansideration of other Members of the HouSe: Fix All'I'D UPDATE U.S. INCOME TAX 1 There are at least two things drastically wrong with the federal income tax. This Con- gress should correct them. First: Loqpholes and allowances are open to oil well oWners and to some million-dollar- a-year meg. But the common man with his dcoommdgeson , come cannot find and use those Second: The old income tax return is as out of date as Aunt Ellas's antimacassars. There has been a massive upward march of incomes and prices, but the $1,000 ceiling on standard deductions and the $600 per- sonal exemption have stood still. In 1950 almost every taxpayer could use the simple 10% standard deduction. It made filling out an income tax return simple. But in those days 94% of all families, approximately, earned less than $10,000. So the $1,000 ceiling affected only 6% of the families. Today about one-fourth of all families are up to $10,000. What's more, a much larger part of family income today has to be spent on deductibles. The average home's real estate taxes and mortgage interest in Cleve- land very nearly reach the $1,000 mark, and rising hospitalization, charities and union dues compel the rank and file taxpayer to sweat through itemizing his deductions. The $600 personal exemption, once related to food, clothes and housing cost, is now below federal poverty standards for any aver- age urban family. On the opposite end, many congressmen have rapped at wealthy individuals and cor- porations which pour their investment money 11 485 not based solely on disappointment with the awards. Many Members of Congress, Demo- crats and Republicans alike, and pos- sibly about equal numerically, submitted formal requests to the President to recall and review the transpacific decision. This demonstrates that the congressional in- terest in, this matter was bipartisan, The President's action was one with which no one Owl find fault. The air carrier industry sbqd the users of com- mercial aviation should applaud the courage and forthrightness which Presi- dent Nixon displayed in this matter. No harm can come from the action with which President Nixon recalled and rescinded the transpacific order. It pre- cludes nothing. If the order and decision were properly arrived at, both can be re- instated. If they were improperly arrived at, they can be corrected. This was probably the single most sig- nificant action taken by the President of the United States during his first week in office. It was an appropriate one and one which meets with near universal ap- proval of all Americans. FIX AND UPDATE U.S. INCOME TAX (Mr. FEIGHAN asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For edecertmon ityeditimiwtyloonooi5osimary 27, 1969 S 938 President Johnson has been another case. While Hickenlooper has given general sup- port to the stated aims of the administra- tion in Vietnam, he has been constantly wary of fast political dealings. Even as he criticized the "unrealistic doves" of the Senate, Senator Hickenlooper has usually voiced his own sharp differences with the Johnson administration on the manner in which the war was being fought. BOMB PAUSE One of. the most disappointing aspects of the Johnson administration's performance was in the period immediately prior to the election, Hickenlooper related last week. Hickenlooper said that while there were numerous rumors of a possible bombing pause just before the election, he received a call from an unnamed high figure in the Johnson administration assuring him there would be no bombing pause. Hickenlooper said he had some reservations about the assurances at the time, but since there was no way to effectively challenge such a private assurance merely accepted it with "thanks." "The announcement of the bombing pause a few days later did not surprise me, but it certainly did disappoint me to find such mis- representations being made by high level spokesmen on such an important matter," Hickenlooper said. Hickenlooper said, "There i no point in identifying the man at this time." At the proper time, he expects to try to make avail- able more details of the unwritten story of his years in Washington. Dozens of cartons of iiickenlooper's papers have been sent to the Herbert Hoover Library at West Branch, Ia., where they will be available for examination by students and authors interested in the early years of the Atomic Energy program and the tumultout story of foreign affairs in the period since World War II. Senator Hickenlooper finished the last bit of discarding of papers from his desk late Tuesday, and tossed aside two copies of a small brown covered history of "Mormon- town"?the early name of Blockton. NO MENTION The little history was printed in 1961 at the time of the centennial for the little Tay- lor County village. It contained no note on the boy from Blockton who served aS Iowa's governor and U.S. senator. There was only one small picture of a teen- age boy and a huge black setter dog cap- tioned simply, "Bourke B. Hickenlooper and his dog." Hickenlooper is saving the two small cen- tennial pamphlets for his two children, not because they tell any great story about their father but to demonstrate "it takes quite a bit to impress some of the folks down there in Blockton." Senator Hickenlooper who will have a pen- sion of more than $20,000 a year has had a number of offers to join law firms in Iowa and Washington, but has made no decision on the future. Mrs. Verna Hickenlooper has a serious heart condition that in recent weeks has confined her to her bedroom. Hickenlooper said he will delay any de- cision on whether to remain in Washington or return to Iowa until after Mit. Hicken- looper's health has improved. ruin' LET THERE BE NO MORE11 "PUEBLOS" Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President,k is of utmost imnorianae that Presidtia Olio;s Comradei Chief of the Armed Fore of th United States, di- /Tot . 4,poinplele se a pn or tne rribra- our sjpv gLr :Renee poll9c ships 1 ligg, c rom the tr.S. Navy, even to the ex- .tent of onorablv ilischarging - ? . ? ? nlisted zafaifigairourz=. The ue o operation was a disgrace from the outset to the moment that Com- mander Bucher without offering even show of resistance suffered the North Korean boarding party from a small North Korean naval vessel to back against our armed naval vessel and board and capture it without any resistance whatever. During 2 hours of harassment preceding that, Commander Bucher never even had the covers removed from the ship's .50-caliber guns, nor did he proceed out to sea away from about 13 miles off the coast of North Korea at full speed. The first lesson that officials of the executive branch of our Government must take to heart from this is that ,jyx must withpt ? -1: - el separire tfle o era ions ?IP ? ? ? llencO cof- r es, suc as e sls er s ups - : . IU, IT- ? av . The Soviet mon as at this time - than 100 spy or intelligence collect- ing vessels. They are in evidence at prac- tically all times off the coast of the United States and wherever and when- ever on the seven seas U.S. warships are maneuvering, engaging in target prac- tice or mock combat maneuvers. The spy ships of the Soviet Union are disguised as fishing trawlers. Many, probably most of them, have no fish nets whatever nor other strictly fishing equipment. All of them are equipped with radar and high- ly sensitive detection devices for under- water surveillance as well as listening- in devices. They are everywhere in evi- dence. At the time of the Pueblo's capture, Soviet trawlers were operating beyond our 3-mile limit off Norfolk, Charleston, Guantanamo Naval Base, Cuba, and var- ious ocean areas off our Pacific coast from San Diego to the Alaskan waters. If the commanding officers of these Russian trawlers, so-called, are in fact officers of the Navy of the Soviet Union that is entirely unofficial and secret. Z.a,, follow ie examnlp of pie Sr .uur 10 or ipore intern ence or s., , ships -must- .iitt,j sin 41 I Offiadlik MOM e i:ence A:enc : ? rue, e co " .ers an. execu ficers and most of the seamen would un- doubtedly be men whose past records as officers and enlisted men of our Navy have been excellent, during their period of former service in our Navy. Director Helms of the CIA replete with a sa5l rec. c 9?1 Muncjers such as the 112 aftair an he Poo I Dia ea Bay cif I. e re ? ? e u UC. o 'Eats er. s evil en a is was an unnecessary and an ill-timed operation from the out- set. He and the admirals of our Navy are to be condemned for this risky intelli- gence collecting operation just outside the 12-mile limit back and forth along the coast of North Korea at a time when we were so heavily involved in a major war in Vietnam and Thailand. It is evi- dent not only that it was ill timed but poorly planned. As a Member of the Armed Services 0$ 0: iKtatil.01-111411014?Mt011111.40.041:4141 ? ? ? - ? ? ? :0 oar ca - ured with ut firings,Apt. withouipa ng even l the and without pi/9D removinff ciivers from the au - caliber guns on the forward deck of the pue./o . ? . ew or me omcers an. men o e sma oa and threa.,entig its officersende'men, myein au.Tro There must be an investigation or elms sordid affair. There are so many unan- swered questions. A ? for example, should an American s In a era ou-ratum be ... .n? Dv ' . - so: so- t's0 ? ? 11 py ng is and a ways has een an operation conducted by either civilians or by men who are ostensibly acting as civilians and have been sepa- rated from duties as army or naval offi- cers. Furthermore, we have a duty to as- certain from the admirals of the U.S. Navy the reason their failure in misin- forming the Armed Services Committee of the Senate as to the facts surrounding the mission and the capture of the Pueblo. Last year at 2:30 p.m. on Tuesday af- ternoons we on the Armed Services Com- mittee of the Senate listened sometimes for as long as nearly 2 hours to highly secret intelliegnce briefings, usually made by officers of our armed services. Follow- ing the capture of the Pueblo, in one of these highly secret briefings I recall the officer telling the fact, or at least he al- leged his statements to be facts, that only one of the 83 officers and men aboard the Pueblo was killed. He stated that in destroying highly secret and clas- sified material and instruments an explo- sion blew off the leg of this one crew- member. He later died. Now Commander Bucher testifies that small arms fire from the North Koreans mortally wounded this crewmember. We must have the facts. Otherwise, what reliance can we place on such briefings? My conclusion is that this briefing re- garding the Pueblo involved a waste of our time. It was inaccurate in my judg- ment on many counts. Even the chart displayed on the screen referred to the U.S. warship Pueblo. Now, many citizens write that Com- mander Bucher should be awarded a medal. A medal for what? Let us think of John Paul Jones, Decatur, Preble, and Capt. James Lawrence, of the 44-gun American frigate Chesapeake, mortally wounded when his frigate was boarded by officers and men of the English 14- gun frigate Shannon outside of Boston oceanfront in 1813 at a time when he was valiantly seeking to repeal the Brit- ish boarding party. The last words of Captain Lawrence as he was carried be- low deck mortally wounded were, "Don't give up the ship." During the War Between the States and down through World War II, no warship of our Navy was ever captured or sunk or scuttled without a fight. Fur- thermore, of thousands of Americans im- Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Acnuary 27, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE S 937 This simply is not fair. We in en- gress have made great strides in enlaio- ing the franchise and protecting the right to vote. We ought to take a further ctep and insure that this power of the ballot is an equal power. By amen ing ; the Constitution in favor of direct op- ular election of the President we can give life to this belief in fairness. - HICKENLOOPER SAYS FAREW IvirICLE BY CLARK MOLLENH FF r. MILLER Mr. President, on 4an- ualry 3, my senior colleague from Iciwa, Beurke B. Hickenlooper, voluntarily bowed out of a distinguished career of public service-24 ' years in the Senate, 2 years as Governor of Iowa, 4 years as Lieutenant Governor, and 4 years as a State representative. In these 34 years, Senator Hicken- looper gave his State and the a- tiqn dedicated, principled, hard-working se vice. "Service Above Self" was his mOtto, and it was only natural that per- sonal integrity was his reputation. A firm believer in the constitutional inStitutions and safeguards of our Gov- ernment, he sought progress for our Peo- ple on a sound and lasting basis. He be- lieved strongly in the preservation, of States rights consistent with the exer- cise by the States of their responsibili- ties, and he felt keenly about the ex essive concentration of power in W shington to the detriment of the via- bil ty of the States. is Senate career spanned the Ad- ministration of five Presidents, and he WEIS often called upon by these leaders of our country for his wise and well- informed counsel. He well understOod that compromise is the art Of the 1 I,s- la ive process, but fundamental p I- pl s of good government were not within hi area of compromise. ranking Republican on the Senate Fo eign Relations Committee, he cion- st tly devoted his energies to the search foit a just and lasting peace within the fa ily of nations. At the same time, this wa carefully balanced by his recogrd- tio1 that the security of our country mist never be compromised. He was bot on to take the hard line of belligerence. bu , rather, the firm line of straWht- fo ward commonsense. n January 2, the distinguished Wash- in ton reporter for the Des Moines Aeg- ist r, Clark Mollenhoff, wrote a fitting susimation of the public life of the Man kn wn far and wide as "HickenloOpcir of Iowa." I ask unanimous consent that th article, entitled "Hickenlooper days `F rewell,' " be placed in the RECORD There being no objection, the article i s ordered to be printed in the REcor o, a 3 follows: HI ENLOOPER SAYS FAREWELL: ONLY 40 NE OWAN HAS SERVED LONGER IN THE t S. ENATE (By Clark MollenhoM , WASHINGTON, D.C.?The cawrnousr ly I office safe is empty and the walla of the f tar floor office are stripped bare orthe meme t as of 24 years Bourke B. Hickenlooper served in the United States Senate. Today the 72-year-old Iowakayer will bow out of the Senate after nearly a quarter of a century in which "Hickenlooper of Iowa" was recognized in Washington and throughout the world. He is a little heavier and somewhat slower moving than he was 15 or 20 years ago, brit there is remarkably httle change in the face or the demeanor of tee man who has served longer than any other political figure in the last half-century. Only former Senator Wil- liam B. Allison, a Republican who served from 1893 to 1908, served longer than Hickenlooper. STARTED IN 1934 When he relinquishes his seat today to Senator-elect Harold Hughes, a Democrat, Hickenlooper will end a public career that started when he W0.5 elected to the Iowa House in 1934. Although Hickenlooper, the third ranking Republican in the Senate, made a decision not to seek re-election because of a possible tough Republican primary fight, he has found it easy to reconcile himself to the philosophy that it was wise to retire. 'His time in office spanned the administra- tions of five presidents?from Franklin D. Roosevelt through Lyndon B. Johnosn?and he was intimately acquainted with Iowa-born President Herbert Clark Hoover and Presi- dent-elect Richard M. Nixon. Although the late Senator Brian McMahon (Dem., Conn.) has the technical title of the first chairman of the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy, McMahon never actually servea as chairman in late 1946, and it was Hickenlooper who headed that important congressional body in Jan- uary, 1947, as the first active chairman in the dawn of the nuclear age. He has con- tinued as a senior member of that commit- tee in the 22 years it has been in existence. It has been a period of controversy, with triumps and a few stinging defeats. He was allied with Gen. Leslie R. Groves, head of the Manhattan Project, in pushing for further nuclear developments in the period immedi- ately following the explosion of the first atomic bombs. Later, Hickenlooper was allied with other congressional leaders .n. forcing the Navy to promote Hyman Rick over from captain to rear admiral and front rear admiral to vice- admiral. NUCLEAR POWER Rickover, a tough, bright and outspoken advocate of nuclear power for submarines and surface vessels, periodically found him- self in bitter battles with the "battleship admirals" and politteal civilians at the Pentagon. Rickover has periocacally paid tribute Aro Senator Hickenlooper Is a leader 4. Congress in forcing the executive branch to move foz- ward with the nuclear submarine program and later the nuclear surface ship prograin. While Hickenlooper's role in the develota ment of nuclear power was of historic signif- icance, his role in the foreign affairs field was even more important in recent years. The boy who was born and reared in the little town of Blockton, Ia., toured more than 65 countries and talked with presidents, prime ministers, and kings in his role as ranking Republicans on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. If Blockton had been any more than five miles from the Missoari border, it is doubt- ful if Bourke Hickenlooper could haafe claimed to have been out of Iowa until he was 20 years of age. He was 20 when he made his first long trip to Richmond, Va., where he attended a national convention of his University of Iowa college fraternity, Sigma Phi Epsilon. On the same trip he made his first visit to Washington, and the son of a small town hardware merchant kept traveling. After re- ceiving his bachelor of science degree he joined the Army as a second lieutenant, and in 1917 went to France with a field artillery unit. PRACTICED LAW After graduating from law school in 1922, Bourke practiced law in Cedar Rapids until 1934 when he was elected to the Iowa House. Two two-year terms in the Iowa House were followed by two terms as lieuteant-governor, and one term as governor before he was elected to the Senate in 1944. Although he is regarded as a conservative Republican, Hickenlooper pushed the first aid to dependent children program through Iowa at a time when the Hawkeve state was one of only two states without ADC programs. In the Senate, Hickenlooper has rewirded himself as "for social programs that can be properly administered and do not create de- pendency." In recent years he has been distressed by "the lack of standards and the lack of safe- guards" in the laws providing for foreign aid and for a broad range of poverty programs. He said he has "never been opposed to so- cial programs that will actually help people get on their feet." "I do oppose these open-ended giveaway programs that have no standards and are an invitation to mismanagement and corrup- tion," Hickenlooper said "It is bad govern- ment." AGAINST FRAUD It is on the same basis that Senator Hick- enlooper said he has periodically 'questioned the amount of foreign aid or the laws under which foreign aid was being administered. While he usually ended up voting in favor of foreign aid, his objections were "based on the need for better management and more safeguards against frauds." In his period of time in the Senate, he has most resented "the oversimplification" by various groups in analyzing votes in Congress. "Votes against poverty programs OT other social programs are too often pictured as votes against poor people when in fact those votes are an attempt to get some common sense into a program so poor people will be benefitted," Hickenlooper explained. In the same manner, Hicicenlooper said votes against foreign aid are too often char- acterized as "a return to isolationism and a retreat from world responsibility, when in fact it is simply an effort to get better man- agement into these programs." In Senator Hickenlooper's first years in the Senate, the great bipartisan figure was the late Senator Arthur Vandenberg, a Michigan Republican, who was an important figure in getting Republican support for President Truman's first foreign aid program, the Mar- shall Plan. In more recent years, Hickenlooper has been regarded as "Kennedy's Vandenberg" and later as "Johnson's Vandenberg." Because of opposition of the Vietnam War by Foreign Relations Committee Chairman J. William Fulbright (Dem., Ark.), Hicken- looper was often the strongest supporter that either Kennedy or Johnson had on the committee. NO PATSY It was a title that Senator Hickenlooper wore uneasily, for he was wary of being the Republican patsy for a Democratic admin- istration. He managed to handle it with just enough wariness that he was usually able to give the Democratic administration support against the most vociferous doves without relinquishing his right to criticize. Hickenlooper's periodic rose garden walks with President Kennedy were an important part of American foreign policy in the 1961- 43 period. The personal relationship was ex- cellent and Hickenlooper "trusted his (Ken- nedy's) motivations and liked him as a. per- son." "I had some serious reservations about his maturity and his judgment from time to time, but I never doubted his good inten- tions," Hickenlooper said. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 ICIA-RDP71B00364R000300150001-8 January 27, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL 'RECORD ? SENATE S 939 prisoned and on numerous occasions tor- tured by the Japanese in World War II, following the death march from Bataan, and elsewhere, no one, but no one, ever knew of an officer of our Armed Forces or of an American civilian taken captive signing a confession or statement de- nouncing his country. North Korea has a nonaggression treaty with the Soviet Union. According to the provisions of this treaty the Soviet Union is obligated to send its armed forces to the aid of North Korea in event another nation attacks that country. This nonaggression treaty is similar to that our Nation has with West Germany. The fact that North Korea indulged in more than twice as many intrusions into the demilitarized zone in 1967 than dur- ing the previous year was an insufficient reason for CIA officials to undertdke this risky surveillance operation by the Pu- eblo along the North Korean coast for more than 10 days and nights at a time our Nation was heavily involved with more than half a million of our Armed Forces in and off the shores of Vietnam and Thailand. i raii+14.44414. 4#2,_ :Ines off the C ec n c rd 11.6 W I ? . am? commun - - IP I 0 O' .1 1 : 0 11 , .? - I ' ' - I was ? e shore the more in orma ion could more easily Pe obtained. In this perion of our racti6 suenee it was assumed and hoped at the Pentagon and at the CIA offices that orders not to intrude further than 13 miles off shore had been fol- lowed. North Korean authorities claimed the Pueblo had intruded into their ter- ritorial waters and on some occasions was but 5 or 6 miles from the nearest North Korean island. It is certain that both the United States and the Soviet Union will con- tinue to employ spy ships. In view of the Pueblo blunder, our Nation must de- vise a new policy for handling any future incidents like that of the Pueblo. Spying Is a risky business. The risks ought to be well considered in advance. There must be no more Pueblo incidents. The Con: ress and President Nixon . I ei S ? ? '4 " sri Y ? - mot, elb syna re orrri ? ouc centra p .e le?Pne.p Agency and s su.y1n operatips Com- Mencing with President Eisenhower there has been a pattern of CIA blun- ders, humiliating to our Presidents and to the American people. '11 President Nixon be th- 41114?11110PAIMW _irel,igaiiTifellMinV iJi a ? ? Lbw nrp ? 11P OR ere e CONFLICT-OF-INTEREST RULES SHOULD BE REVIEWED Mr. MATHIAS. Mr. President, the cur- rent transfer of power from one admin- istration and one group of Cabinet of- ficers to another has reopened discussion of the complicated question of conflicts of interest. Several cases have spurred us to reassess the current ways of in- suring that the private interests of a high government official will not have an improper influence on his decisions in matters of public policy. In the case of men entering Cabinet posts, stringent rules have been applied, as a condition of confirmation, to pre- clude potential conflicts of interest. These nominees have opened their per- sonal accounts to close public and con- gressional scrutiny, and have been re- quired either to divest themselves of certain holdings, or to place their funds in blind trusts for the duration of their public service. In the case of men leaving the Govern- ment for private posts, we are now con- fronted with the difficult case of the Department of Transportation's approv- al of a $25.2 million mass transit grant to the Illinois Central Railroad shortly before the former Secretary of Transpor- tation left that office to become president of the Illinois Central. In this instance, Secretary Boyd did refuse to become in- volved in that application, precisely to avoid any conflict-of-interest possibili- ties. But his action, while well moti- vated, left only the unsatisfactory alter- native that he effectively abdicated his departmental responsibility to review the largest single mass transit grant made to date by DOT. Secretary Volpe has properly initiated a full review of this case. These events have emphasized the size of the challenge we face in trying to make more sense out of a tangled and often grey area of policy. Our task is made more difficult by the human fac- tors involved, such as the fact that Cab- inet officers and other high officials have to earn a living and feed their families after they end their Government serv- ice, and must become job seekers as their terms expire. In my judgment, we should review the current laws, enacted in 1962, governing the business activities of former public officials and those who, while still in office, are considering private offers. For example, we should consider legislation to require that any relevant employment offer made to an official with jurisdic- tion over any case, application or con- tract award should be made part of the public record of that matter. This would be similar to proposals long pending to include in the public record of every case before an adminis- trative agency a full report on all writ- ten and oral communications about the case from Members of Congress and all other outside parties. Other amendments might be in order as well. Second, we should develop more clear and consistent standards for incoming officials. This month various committees have required one step for one nominee and a different course for another, de- pending on the size of the holdings in- volved and the degree of concentration of one's capital in a given industry. More consistent rules would be helpful both to this body and to all individual citizens who will have to measure the financial impact of possible Government service in the future. Finally, the current cases raise ques- tions reaching beyond the executive branch. As Joseph R. L. Sterne pointed out in an excellent article in this morn- ing's Baltimore Sun, we are operating under a double standard, since there is no requirement for public disclosure of out- side income and holdings by Senators, much less any rule requiring us to divest ourselves of any holdings which might raise conflict-of-interest questions. I have discussed in the past the im- portance of removing this double stand- ard, and of giving the public the facts on which to weigh any potential or apparent conflict of interest on the part of Mem- bers of Congress as well as executive offi- cers of the Government. Last year Mrs. Mathias and I made full public dis- closure of our own assets and the sources and amounts of our outside income dur- ing my entire period of service in the other body. I intend to bring this public report up to date this year, and will also press for legislation to strengthen the Senate rules by requiring public dis- closure by all Senators. Mr. President, this is a field in which there are no easy answers, and only hard thought can produce sound policies. I hope that the appropriate committees will take up these problems without delay. I ask unanimous consent to include in the RECORD at this point the article from today's Baltimore Sun which I referred to above. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: SENATE DOUBLE STANDARD REVEALS ITSELF ONCE AGAIN (By Joseph R. L. Sterne) WASHINGTON, January 26.?The Senate's double standard was showing once again dur- ing the ritual leading to last week's confirma- tion of the Nixon Cabinet and the new deputy defense secretary. Executive branch officials, one after the other, paraded before Senate committees to discuss how they planned to divest them- selves to certain holdings or to establish trusts in order to avoid conflict of interest. NO SUCH REQUIREMENTS Sitting in judgment were lawmakers who have imposed no such requirements on-them- selves. The new Senate ethics code will require senators to file public statements listing cam- paign contributions they have received for the first time this year. By May 15, they will also have to file with the comptroller gen- eral?but not for public scrutiny?copies of their income tax returns and lists of their assets and liabilities. But there was never any serious move dur- ing last March's debate on the new ethics code to require the divestiture of hddings that might arouse conflict-of-interest ques- tions. MOST IMPORTANT REASON And given the present mood of the Senate, no such move is in prospect. Perhaps the most important reason for this state of affairs is the sincerely held belief in some Senate circles that a double standard Is justified. A senator has to answer for his conduct in primary and general elections, it is argued, while members of the executive branch face no such cleansing process. Legislators, with rare exceptions, are con- fined to the establishment of broad, general policy, while administrators have a direct control over the awarding of contracts. And there is a theory that the whole legis- lative process quite rightly involves an inter- play of conflict among geographical areas and and economic groups from which a lawmaker cannot and should not stand apart. KERR AND WILLIAMS The late Senator Robert S. Kerr (D., Okla.), one of the most powerful Senate op- Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71B00364R000300150001-8 S940 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE January 27, 1969 e ators in modern times, felt no compune- t on about voting for oil-depiction allowances d spite his own large oil holCilogs. He fignred tie people in his oil-rich state wanted the d pletion allowance and.believed his holdings .s,, ould make him fight zealoUsly for them. The opposite of the coin is represented in Senator John J. Williams (R., Del.), a Self - appointed watchdog of ethics in governinont, Who will not accept any federal agricUlture benefits for his farm even though he does not object to his colleagues obtaining sub- s dies on the same basis as the ordinary citizen. Although there have been a few rare ap- peals to force senators to divest themSelves of holdings in a manner comparable to re- quirements for Cabinet officials, there has been a growing demand for mandatory dis- closure of financial assets. During last year's ethics debate, for ex- mple, a proposal to require public State- .1 ents failed by a vote of only 40 to 44, MORSE SPOKE DOT One of the blunter attacks on the present tnator Wayne Morse (D., Ore.). crecy was made at that time by fermer "The Congress continues to be the one ranch of the federal government Where public confidence in honetty and ethical practices has never been firmly earned and robably not deserved," Mr. Morse dedlared. '41t is the fault of the Congress itself." "We have written statutes to codify ethical practices in the executive civil serv- tce, and among the judiciary. But we have neither statutes nor codes for standards of Congress in which the public can have any confidence. "It would be impractical to apply the ame statutes to Congress as apply to the i.i vil service, since there is no tenure in Con- ess . . . but there is one protection Which e continue to deny the public. It is the knowledge upon which to pass the judgment of public opinion." Countering these arguments was the oh- Servation by Senator Karl E, Mundt (R. S.D.) that not even presidential appointee have disclose their financial position pu liely. They merely have to file confidential eino- randa with the Civil Service Commissin. and the Senate committees dealing with their eonfirmation. Senator Everett M. Dirk,sen (R., Ill) Ire- Ouently told newsmen during that period that he did not favor public disclosure be- itause he had not sought public ?ill= "in Order to become a second-class citizen," One reason for the obvious Senal em- barrassment over "conflict of interes ? lies erhaps in the phrase itself. CONFLICTS OF ATTITUDE It literally evokes an image of a s nator tasting a vote or using his office for h s per- onal financial gain, but in actual p Utica]. se, it has been applied rather carele sly to Much less reprehensible conduct. For in addition to literal conflicts f in- rorest, government by its Very natur pro- kes conflicts of obligation and confl cts of attitude. The conflict of obligation can be seen When enators promote projects that are helpful to heir constitutents (or some of the con- tituents) but-May be contrary to t e na- tonal interest. The conflict of attitude deals with the in- elinations or training of public ?facials. If a rhan is a liberal or a conservative, a buiiness- Man or a farmer, a conservationist or it cold Warrior, his attitudes may be regarded ti hos- tile quarters as contrary to public inte st. The last conflict was very much in ev dence during Senate consideration of thre con- troversial Nixon appointees?Walter J. lio1cel, the Secretary of the Interior; David Packard, gle Deputy Secretary of Defense, and 'David . Kennedy, the Secretary of the Treasury. Mr. Rickel quickly eliminated personal financial conflict of interest in his case by promising to divest of certain holdings? particularly a $1 million investment in na- tural gas pipelines--in whatever way the Senate Interior Committee might direct. But he aroused co:atroversy in his attitude toward conservation. "I am afraid that Governor Bickel as Secre- tary of the Interior, would be tempted to re- move the reins from unlimited private ex- ploitation of our natural resources," declared Senator Alan Cranston, (D., Calif,). "I do not suggest that he would do so in order to further his own interests... . . Rather, I fear he would tend to favor freer commer- cial exploitation in the belief that doing so would further the national interest." Similarly in the David Kennedy case, most personal financial questions were removed when the Treasury Secretary agreed to get rid of most of his ho:.dings in the Continental Illinois National Bank. This, however, failed to relieve misgivings in some Senate quarters that Mr. Kennedy, because of his background, would be overly concerned with the banking industry itself. Senator Albert Go:.?e's lone vote against Da- vid Packard was based on his belief that there was a financial conflict of interest in the decision to permit the deputy defense secretary to retain--in a trust he will not control?a $800 milion investriaent in the electronic company he founded. Yet the Tennessee Senator publicly, and other senators privately, questioned whether a man whose whole life had been spent in the "military-industrial complex" could bring a broad, dispassionate attitude to the Penta- gon. In, dealing with other Nixon appointees, Senate committees continued to apply string- ent rules. LITTLE MENTION William P. Rogers, the Secretary of State, was told to sell his shares in Flying Tigers Airlines, an overseas freight-hauling com- pany. John A. Volpe, the Secretary of Trans- portation, sold his interest in the construc- tion company he founded. Maurice H. Stalls, the Secretary of Commerce, placed his invest- Ment portfolio in the hands of a "blind trust." George Romney, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, continued the trust arrangements he set up as Governor of Michigan. - And so it went, with hardly a senator men- tioning the double to be their own judge in handling their own financial affairs. Senator Charles H. Percy (R. Ill.) said he had lost "many hours of sleep" wondering if he should vote on the Packard nomina- tion since Mr. Packard headed a firm com- petitive to Mr. Percy's old company, Bell & Howell. But Senator Percy never raised the ques- tion of whether he should divest himself of his Bell & Howell holdings before voting on defense appropriations that are at least of indirect benefit to that company. CONCLUSION OF MORNING BUSINESS Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, is there further morling business? The VICE PRESIDENT. Is there further morning business? If not, morn- ing business is closed. AMENDMENT OF RULE XXII The VICE PRESIDENT. The Chair lays before the Senate the pending busi- ness, which will be stated. The BILL CLEsn. A motion to proceed to consider Senate Resolution 11, to amend rule XXII of the Standing Rules of the Senate. The VICE PRESIDENT. without ob- jection, the Senate will resume the con- sideration of the resolution. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimOus consent that I may sug- gest the absence of a quorum, without losing my right to the floor. The VICE PRESIDENT. Without ob- jection, it is so ordered. The clerk will call the roll. The bill clerk proceeded to call the roll. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the order for the quorum call be rescinded. Mr. President, the winds of change are blowing throughout the world, through- out the Nation, and throughout this Sen- ate. We will face up to this fact, recog- nize it, or be blown away by it. Change is in the air, and we cannot avoid it much less ignore it. New voices are being heard and they will and should be listened to. If they are not then I warn the Senate that in. time--14n my opinion, a short time?the principle of majority- rule to invoke cloture?which I do not favor?will become a fact and the basic' character of the Senate as a deliberative body, and I stress the word "delibera- tive," will be a thing of the past. If that happens, and it can and will happen un- less some of us change our rigid posi- tions, this institution, unique among all the parliamentary bodies of the world, protected to a degree from the public pressures of the moment, will be changed fundamentally and in a way detrimental to the best interests of the Republic and the Senate. Last week the vote was 45 to 53 on the appeal from the cloture ruling which was made by the former President of the Senate, Mr. Humphrey. On the basis of 100 Members voting, it would seem that the Senate was not more than five votes away from sustaining the chair. As com- pared with the last test on this issue, the vote represents a probable increase of eight in favor of a rules change by ma-? jority vote at the outset of the session., When a similar maneuver was attempted In 1967, the vote was 37 to 61. In my judgment, a majority procedure to bring the issue of rule XXII to a vote has gained favor because of a certain rigidity of attitude which still exists in the Senate on the question of Cloture." It exists notwithstanding the fact that two-thirds cloture has been invoked four times in the past 8 years and without calamity in the Senate. On the contrary, these four actions have helped to keep the Senate attuned to national needs. It seems to me that if Senators would view cloture for what it is, a sensible procedural method for bringing discus- sion to an orderly close in 100 hours at a reasonable point in a prolonged debate, then the present rule XXII would not have to be changed at all. The two- thirds requirement for cloture would then perform the legitimate function of delaying a vote until?not a bare majority?but a substantial part of the Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 PAGE WASHINGAV9AvV9PSr Releaselitibh twaat14641.906-364R000300150001-8 tteblo Captatn Te f N. Korean Shelli By George C. Wilson Washington Post Staff Writer TIONADO, Calif., Jan. 21 rth Korean gunboats d up on the USS Pueblo 9. capturing it last Jan. wounding the captain, M. Bucher, and two a r. Bucher describkViirt &WA* wounding for the 'first 41,14 haser and four torpedo meant to take 1110,.?44p. cc he realized this was inent, Bucher ? tolrlte t he considered trying to tie the Pueblo butligurefi if it sank the NOW- s might dive down Au get _ the secret eciithament gely intact. - .The gunfire that hit Bucher, $1gnalman Wendell Liiffi'?or giouston, Tex., and conibuti1. ions technician Steven J. bin of Silver Spring,11:, ~ame from the subcha ? e CIT more of the torpedo boats, Bucher said. time in testifying toct#1ie'rdre the Naval court of intuirkniii the seizure of the spy ship while it was operagni off Wonsan Harbor. ucher said he was, _ y in international, waters at the time and did nothelieve until the last minute that the , Bucher was hit in the? but- ticks by one piece of shtap_nel 'lid in the right ankle by three } ther pieces. He said 1.kafi as wounded in the le; aliti obin in the neck. He had been staring n e gun barrels of tin torpedo boats surround is - hip before this firing an ad also been signaled by tht chaser - chaser that it was gotrig?tO begin firing unless the Pte ? heaved to. Once the gunfire stiterelt mid? "I did not feet:ar, time tat there was anst in 'go To' War With rorl Approved For Release 2002/10/09: CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 E?BLO?, tFroin .;$ i..nos hips surround! was InPletely, hopele 1011 rov me. I sly out- defending the Pueblo ts machine 11 e on ,the bow nd a see- the stn;+ 1?i4 told the "TC) i1an uP n (on the b w) wpul? tha hay Cant certain eith, inquiry,* now- Mc days old, journed be Bitch to ?4v the NorTh ora boa s the ship and whether the ere resisted by the men ant ueblo. he skipper, still speak- a monotone dSee aiding up through Itla4 iffdeal that will de- ,ftfture, gav4 the ;Inds chroikology datt, of Tlar disastrous d' whe the Pueblo was cap- tu ew minutes before 12 on Jan. 23, Bucher I received a call from uartermaster first class s Benton Law) who said ted a fast moving ship." ought it might be a sub- tructed Law to infirm it approached within Iles," Bucher said. "I Id him to check our po- siti by radar. He reported bet.c we were 15 to 17 miles fro the nearest land, ling Do. f er," Bucher donfinOd, told me it was within 'les. I went ;to the brlwT and used my binoollars ig eyes' ? 22-inch bino- I tentatively identified I. SO-1. ship approached and Me ? our Shilfr --= at a 500 to 1000 yards. inained on the flying I noticed he (the sub- wat at- ba.itie stations e deck guns were . . . 57-millimeter can- armed aiid pointed, in ttion. ,i '10 ' - ueblo twk ridge o e PA was by 10 to 12 pqople." le e4Yet d "only rou- u veillane l' from this ter. The Ip0-1J ircled 4io twied. I he bridge wh me," said, "was qu termaa- and Mr. La 'Y (chief Officer G. H. Lacy of Wash.. I ofdered all o'taS helOW ilecks." ay suspicions in such en,e1 nters with armed boats, Bu4 er said th " standard dr i the Pub was any- thi. bot format he kenetal dr of those I'dplde, on sta- tio ar' from home was quite rel ed: f wore Wash khaki tro s iiii` d `a 7ather flight jac an(I, a w te woal ski ca th a white ssIe. It kept my* swarm," micher said, rdered Law to hoist the ndicating we were a re- - vetael,Th ? Bucher told ourt. "The SO-1 raised its asking 'What nationality?' g'sponse was to hoist the lag . . . My ensign. I no- 'quite a 141 of activity on p-l. They must have been surprised we were a U.S. fla sea the fla U.S tica the cud sti S ng the fast developing eve a unfolding on the flat Sea wintry day, Bucher said ie ordered Ensign Tirlio- thy L. Harris of Jacksonville, Fla..,,to keep a running narra- Liveibf what was going on. "1raS not pakkpprct1ed. prehensive," Bucher s d, "but I tfipghtI might h ve this cr-Li with oc all the'tfrne we etrilffoniRelease 2902/10/b felt that their manned guns was an act of intimidation." But just in case it was more than that, Bucher said, he had ordered the engine room to light the two diesel engines so the Pueblo could move out of the area quickly. "The engine' room replied," Bucher said, "Ready to an- swer all bells." This means the engineers were ready to respond to orders for steam- ing the Pueblo at any speeds Brucher,wanted out of the ship. "Mr. Lacy reported sighting three torpedo boats?P-4s? approaching from the west. The _13-4s were armed with ma- chine gun tubes wer approach guns we and their torpedo coVered when they ? But their machine manned all after- LtickilS7 Bucher had just fin- ished sending a situation re- port ti his commander in Japan, so- the communication link vas in operation. The skipp r ordered that line kept open The SO-1, standing off within easy firing range of the Pueblo, then put up a flag sig- naling "Heave to or I will fire." Bucher said "to confirm my belief I called Mr. Murphy (Lt. ,Edward R. Murphy of San Diego) to check in the diction- ary for the definition of heave to." Bucher, although he did not explain it here today, might have wanted to make sure he understood the flag signal displayed. Position Confirmed "I asked Law to check our position. He reported us 15.8 miles from Ung Do. I also asked Mr. Murphy, the naviga- tor, to confirm our position. He confirmed the findings of Law. I went to the wheelhouse and took a fix," which he said showed the same results. "I prepared a flag signal saying roughly," Bucher con- tinued, "I am in international waters." "With P-4s approaching, I ew I had to get this out"? meaning the ward about this now dangerous looking en- counter?to Navy superiors in Japan. This time, in contrast to the day before when it took be- tWeen 12 to 14 hours to make radio contact with his com- manders, Bucher said the Pueblo "had goad luck" since it was already in contact with Japan. "Through a voice tube I had people in the wheelhouse call It. Harris in Research (Lt. tephen Robert Harris of ,ichland, Wash., who was in Charge of the secret research section on the Pueblo) to tell Japan 'We have company' and to leave the line open." Bucher said he sent several messages and raised their transmission priority by the addition of secret code names. In this case, the word "Critic" meant it Would be flashed to the White House. And that was the code word he used. "As soon as he (the SO-1 subchaser) got close enough ? that was about 1000 yards ? I started drafting a message so people could be alerted to pos- sible trouble. I still considered we were not in serious trou- ble. I, had a conversation with chief warrant officer Lacy, the engineer, about scuttling if nee 4ary. In his opinion, it cottd not be done quickly." Bucher said that his fatho- terreReleastd2002/10CPP 180 feet of water un1 ernedth the Pueblo at the time. "It not unusual to recover equip- tor' el ,(11360SEL4t156 out scuttling. , ? Bucher said. "And with the water temper- ature nearly freezing ? about 35 degrees ? the men could only survive about five min- utes. My only concern was to destrny the classified mate- rial." Remains in Touch All this time, Bucher said he kept in touch with Japan through "chatter action" ? keeping radio traffic moving over the line to keep others off it., Even as the subchaser men- aced the Pueblo with its guns, Bucher said he still thought the North Koreans were just trying to provoke him into an action that would embarrass the United States. The P-4s?still only three of them at this time in the after- noon of Jan. 23?moved in closer. They got within point- blank range, Bucher said. Two of the boats were on either side of his bow and the third off the stern. "Mr. Lacy asked me if we should go on general quarters. I said no." Bucher said he thought going on deck "wear- ing helmets and breaking out arms" would escalate the situ- ation by forcing the North Ko- reans to show some counter- action. "About this time two Migs ?I believe Mig 21a?passed over the ship. The Migs didn't worry me, those torpedo boats 50 yards away with their guns uncovered and manned did. "The SO-1 and one of the P- 4s came together and had a conversation with mega- phones," evidently about what to do next to the Pueblo, Bucher said. The first solid indication that boarding the Pueblo was contemplated came when Bucher noticed that one of the torpedo boats carried army troops with rifles tipped with bayonets. "The P-4 was backing slowly toward me. I said on the bridge, 'I'd be damned if they would get away with that.' I ordered full ahead one-third. I ordered the ship to continue on course 080 and hoisted the flag which means under the International Code `Thank you for your consideration. I am departing the area'." Bucher continued?with no trace in his manner gf the drama he was describing to the court and its hushed audi- ence of over 100 people: "I should have filled my yardarms with armfuls of flags. That would have con- fu d him." He put up the "thank you" flag in hopes of baffling the North Koreans, buying the Pueblo time. The war of nerves and flags?but not yet gunfire?had been go- ing on for about an hour. Although Bucher did not specify times, this would have meant sometime after 1 p.m: North Korean time. Fourth P-4 Arrives "We got away at one-third speed in order to leave the area in as dignified a way as possible and not to appear as if in panic," the skipper said. "By this time a fourth P-4 had arrived and we now had com- pany on both sides of the bow playing porpoise at a range of 10 yards." This is a harassing maneu- ver where boats cut back and forth in front of a ship in a Rantrigosiician." manned and aimed at me all the time," Bucher said. The 050-caliber a- AU. In still covered. After explaining the prob- lem about removing the ice-en- crusted canvas gun covers and the fact that manning the one in the bow would have meant certain death for the ordered there, Buche saw no point in se g' essly sending people to. their deaths." , While the Pueblo Was frio`v- ing out of the area and gain- ing speed all the time, Bucher said ' a second SO-1 subeliaser showed up on the scene.'"The first torpedo boat at tla point hauled down its heave to sU- nal. ? "I managed to geit t:. .9 to . , three thousand yards-' Y>. Bucher said. Then one , the P-4s opened a torpedo "tube and "aimed it at me." Noshots had been fired yet, howeier. "I hoped they were still ' trying to intimidate me, but in the back of my mind I knew they had tried to boar my ship." He evidently was refer- ring to the P-4 that had backed up to the Pueh -with its cushioning fenders bver- board in an apparent' attempt to board the Pueblo. Bucher had achievedost, f full speed when one the- subchasers came astern f the Pueblo. "As he cornmenced closing he raised again the sig- nal 'Heave to or I'll fire'," Bucher said. "I ignored the signal at this time and contin- ued to run at full speed. I came slightly to the right so that his target and target angle would be more diffi- cult." Bucher kept fish-tailing the Pueblo in hopes of preentin the smallest possible 4et- o the subchaser. But the pttrati-? ing ship was so much faster, that it not only maneuvetedi : self into a good firing pdsitio but 'tried to drive the 1Silehlo toward the North Korean shore. Reds' Intention "I could not come much far- ther to the right without head- ing toward land," Bucher ex- plained to the five ' sitting on the court. the subchaser's) intention box me in and head nit toward the beach." The skipper added th)it-dttr-.. ing this frantic chasing gam. "1,...,,had already passed thea word to destroy the cleasiffedl matter" aboard the Pueblo. "At a range of betwegn It00- and 2000 yards," Buoher jaid, "The SO-1 opened up on ink" In this first salvo, the *kipper_ estimated, there were be- tween six and 14 individual shells from what I believe are 57-millimeter cannon." Although most -of the shells from the first salvo went "over our ship," Bucher said, "at least one hit our radar mast which would have been our signal mast and our navi- gational radar." That salvo?the only firing Bucher had time to get into to- day? was the same one that wounded him and his crew- men, Leach and Robin. Rear Adm. Richard R. Pratt of the Court questioned Bucher on the relative heights of the Pueblo's deck and that of the torpedo boat threaten- ing to board her. Bucher said that at the after quarter the Pueblo's free board was about the same as the torpedo boat's, about four feet, so that it would be easy to jump from one to the other. 15000Influiry Wednesday is expected to go into the board- ing by the North Koreans. Approved For Release 2002/10/09: CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Course o This map shows the course, the spy ship Pueblo saileci Until the time of her capttfre laiY North Koreans on Jan. 23: (1) Pueblo left the port of . . . Sasebo, at 6 a.m. (Japan time': Jan, 11 with, the mis- sion of jobserving 8ovief Naval maneuvers in the Tsushima Straits and tuning in on radar and radio coin- munications from North Korea CIO' r. Lloyd M. Bucher hop4ce to, d to record the coastal defe se radar signals of NOrt Korea so the U.S. woul know how to . foil then the event 6 wa His plan was to collecj eIe tronte intelligence off or Koreff first and th n ?ob- serv0 the Soviets on is Way horrik The Pueblo 1iad au- thorfty to movOislose as 200 iards to takCpi tures of RusSian ships. I-Tik area of operition was between the latitu es of 39 degrees and 42 degrees north. B cher progeeded north- war to, '' the' 42-degree bounary,. running into 'a hear storm enroute near the 4isjand? of :Ullung Do (2). He moved off his course to get ,lout of the storm and theit'he4dect, for his first obj ,tktivel ?.-', the North Ko- rean port of Chongjin (3). He arrived there Jan. 16. Bucher- said he "laid to off that-port for approximately twottlaysro onitorina LINT t (elltroni# tpoca,64 e) sig- nal aricl l c6rding hem." Ile :said Ti O ni bServed coal- e*lal sh ps Whil laying off t hongjin, "butTI did not conoOder myself detected." }IF procedure at this and other point way to lay to 3 to 4 miles off the coast dur- ing:the day and then mode out 4o between 20 to 25 mil at night! The Puetlo , I -' j. Pueblo s Mapped 128' Song jin * 40? Mayong Doir Wonson 0Rgy SOUTH KOREA Tstishins Islands 34" 4 Sasebo cl JAPAN T26 0 3 U8 BY Jciaephidastrangelo?The Washington Post lay dead in the water while listening for signals. Bucher said he stopped the ship at 20 different spots off the *eh Vittan coast 4 4 so oceanographers could col- lect water samples. Although Bucher did not say so, such samples are useful in deter- mining how temperature - layers in the Sea affect sonar for' detecting foreign submarines. Bucher sailed south from Chongjin to Songjin (4), ar- riving there Jan. 18. He eavesdropped in that area for two days. He told the court he observed "very lit- tle activity, either visually or electronically." On the night of Jan. 19, the Pueblo lefrgongjin for Mayang Do. (5). He laid to off Mayang Do until Jan. 21. Bucher said he spotted a North Korean subchaser, known as an SO-1, in "the gathering dusk" of Jan. 21. The subchaser went by at 25 knots, Bucher said, and "evi- denced no interest in the ship . . . I decided we had not been detected" Bucher told the Court, and therefore did not communicate with his commanders in Japan, presumably because such sig- nals might alert North Ko- rea to the Pueblo's presence. The Pueblo left Mayang Do the night of Jan. 21, Bucher said, and "headed for Won- san Harbor" (6). The Pueblo lay dead in the water on Jan. 22, listening, watching and taking samples of ocean wa- ter. "During the afternoon around 1 or 2 p.m.," Bucher told the Court yesterday, "we were approached by two gov- ernment fishing vessels," He said they had no arms.`13u- cher ordered the crew below deck because he said he did not want the Korean vessel to see the unusually large number of men to-- Pueblo carried for an aprarent cargo ship. , It was off Wonsan (6) on Jan. 23 that the Pueblo was surrounded by Korean gun- boats and captured in what Bucher said was international waters about 15 miles from the island of Ung Do. Approved For Release 2002/10/09: CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 NEW YOARPrPYMIEFS'r Release 2002/10/09 DWILEMIT11?004R000300150001-8 PAGE I Pt.fierikli5Itipper ays Navy Rejected Destruct System By BERNARD WEINRAU13 Special to The New York" Times CQrt OliADO,, Calif., Jan. 20?Comdr. Lloyd M. Eftleher, he ald: i'.'er 'O't 'the 1),LT121o, said ;today that the Navy had iui'_ ,t,pycin,71s,,, 147,4 for a 'destruct system" for the aecret?elet-tronic and cod in& gear on the inteTienetn. Continued From Page 1, Cal. 3 - "I made the request at least ' itallecl two .50-caliber,. gun - two, perhaps three time' COM- . ,--, - gull ,.. Mounts, he said. mender tucher said . the openin ? g of the Naval _ourt at "I was not opposed to the . Matallation of these guns btit of Inquiry into the seizati VI I never had much confictence the ..314 last January by llorth in' them," said Commancler Korea. "I'm quite sure," heilsir atieher, a thin, sunken-cheeked that one letter was to the nilei B Ifficer who has served in the , , of Naval vperations. Y 1 y ? : , ? "They had to be adjuSted wery time they were used," e said. "The best time I had, in practice was 10 minutes. Thei worst was one hour." - "It never occurred to Me," he testified, "that I would be, using them on anything other , an a harassing trawler." ' Commander Bucher said, un- had been rejected because ol der questioning, that he had "money arid time." been told in Hawaii on the way to Japan that "the Navy had "there were never improve- plans to react in the event of ments that we were permttted our capture, as well as the Air I because of money and time," 'Force, through the Joint Chiefs I said Commander Bucher, them f staff." first witness at the Coug of' "But because of commitments Inquiry. "We did nc+ii get he main aircraft which have to re-' main on the line and ready t6 - improvements I requested.' , go in the event of a general Cogenander Bucher's Allure' War, [I was told] it would not or inability to destroy secrett be likely that the Navy or Air Standing stiffly beside-a dia- gram of the Pueblo, the 41- year-old commander tad the Coutt of five admirals that his nurtwrOUS requests to id.t511 such electronic equipmeit aS a more eXtensive phone hookup, damage control gear and alarms equipment on his ship is expectk ed to be a key issue at the Court of inquiry in an aitiphi- theater on the Naval Amphibi- ous Base here. . The fact that the Nortn Ko? - reans* boarding the ship were not rentilSed is also expected to be a key issue. Commander Bucher Usti- tied that he had requested three gun mounts on the rue- Mo. Two days before the hi left the Yokosuka Naval ase in Japan for the mission _oft North Korea, the Navy' in; Continued on Palil,to1umn Appr Force would come to our as- sistance to save this ship," he said. "I did not tell this informa- tion to my officers or men," Commander Bucher recalled. "I did not want to cause any =- due worry." Commander Bucher said that in Japan he had been briefed by Rear Adm. Frank L. Johnson, then commander of United States forces there. Commander Bucher recalled that Admiral Johnson had told him the two .50-caliber guns on the Pueblo were _to be used only "if all else failed" and in the event of "a, arassment situation that had not been experienced before." "Admiral Johnson said the Ogg_ should never uncover the guns unless it was abso- lutely necessary," Commander ucher said. In his daylong appearance day Commander Bucher de- fended_himself in a voic both ka" Realeaserlit0 / of Naval Operations, he said, the request for a i-....51ruct system" aboard the iPaeblo because "this equipment had to be built integral to the sensitive electronic equipment on the ship." "The equipment on the ship had alceady been installed, Commander Bucher said, ,",It was not possible because of`ex- penses and time to rebuild the electronic equipment." Shortly before the Pueblo began the mission off North Korea, Commander Bucher said, he made a request to purchase 30-pound cans of TNT from the Navy in Yokosuka, Japan. "I told them I wanted something that would destroy this equip- ment," he said. "They weren't available," he added with a shrug. 'I Gave My Reasons' 1-f_e said his request ter' a destruct system had been nlade between April and June, 1966, while the Pueblo, a former cargo ship, was outfitted in Puget Sound in Washington. The Chief of Naval Operations then was, Adm. David L. Mc- Donald. gave my reasons why I thought it was so important," he observed. "I do not have a copy of this letter because the letter was either destroyed when we were captured or it wag captured with us." a The 177-foot intelligence ship was captured in the Sea of Japan by North Korean gun- boats. Commander Bucher and 81 other surviving Pueblo crewmen were released last Dec. 23 after 11 months in captivity. The ship's mission was to col- lect electponic intelligence, par- ticularly of radar installations, along the coast of North Korea. In addition, it was to check on the movement of vessels, in- cluding submarines, near North Korea. During his testimony today, Commander Bucher sat stiffly behind a green-felt-covered table or stood with a pointer next to a diagram of his ship. rt.s he spoke he glared unblink- ing at the counsel for the court, Capt. William R. Newsome. He rarely tufned to the five ad- mirals, sitting three feet away. Commander Bucher repeated- ly emphasized the lack of e tiiPtrient that could easily de- y secret material. "To de- stroy equipment, I had fire axes and sledge hammers capable of being swung by standard sized sailors," he said. "For publications, I had ar incinerator installed. It waE not fuel-fed. The contents thal itehrhotalin it had to be Pr71480,0164ROL00300150001-8 on, pointing to a stack of papers on a nearby table. "To destroy a vOlume of papers about eight inches high like this stack over here?it would take 15 minutes." Commander Bucher staid that the Pueblo stored 50 "antiswini- mer" grenades but he did not use them to destroy publica- tions or equipment. "I gave no thought to use the grenades for destroying publications," he observed. "They were concussion, not gragmentation grenades, not ef- fective for publications. It would have just blown the papers around." Replying to a series of ques- tions by Captain Nev./Some, Commander Bucher bluntly discussed the quality and needs of the Pueblo. "I needed additional sound power tele- phones [for onboard communi- cation] and we did not haw them by the time the ship wa.5 captured," he said. "The ship's steering system was an old system, manufac- tured by a now ' de- funct elevator company," he went on. "The system was most troublesome. I lost steer- ing as many as 60 times in a period of two weeks. "-It would have taken 15 or 20 minutes to make prepara- tions to scuttle that ship," dom- mander Bucher said at another point. "To scuttle the ship it- self would have taken 214 to 3 hours." Captain Newsome then asked: "How vulnerable was the Pueblo to sinking?" -4ornmander Bucher re- plied: "If the Pueblo received a hele by collision of 8 to 12 inches in diameter, the ship would not have been saved. We did not have the capability to save the ship with a hole that size and with the damage control system we had." Commander Bucher said that the Pueblo ? who hull was crammed with sonar, naviga- tion equipment and hyper-sensi- itive radar ? sorely needed Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 "many technical improve-I meats.' Ile said that the intelligence ship had only one public ad- 'dre 'system, two amplifiers ' Wiling problems," a gen- alarm "with bugs" and no iofl alarms. liat was another thing that ?quested and was turned 'I he said. ander Bucher said that ebb o and a similar ship, m Beach, had received a appropriation of $11- for overhaul in Puget . "That was cut back by million dollars for each he said. "I'm not sure made the decision in ington." many instances the im- ements we had asked for deferred," Commander er said. "The cut of $1- ion prevented the accom- hments of many of the sug- ted improvements I had de." In addition ti_U Navy ke nding us in Puget Soun e month at a tine, he sa "We were supposed to leave in December and we kept ,re- ceiving extensions one month at a time. Consequently work that might have taken five weeks was not recommended," "We finally left [for Japan] in May," Commander Bucher said. The setting for the Court of Inquiry is the amphitheater on the first floor of the N a Amphibious School. The 10 seats in the? amphitheater re filled by 9 this morning sith newsmen, the wives of Pu lo crewmen and a handful ofre- tired naval officers who ve in this lush peninsula city c- ing San Diego Bay and the Pacific. Marine guards stood in de and outside the amphitheater. Additional Marine and Nvy guards stood at the sun-dappled entrances around the three- story, gray brick school, chevk- ing visitors for entry pales and watching especially or e, recorders that could be den to record testimony, at dosed sessions of the court Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : bIA-RDP71B00364R000300150001-8 "-- January 17, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE highly questionable how truly effective any defense of Western Europe can be without French participation. Internally, several of the NATO govern- ments as weak. Italy for months had a coali- tion government which recently fell, a stiva- tion which could lead to a prolonged parlia- mentary crisis. The military junta which rules in Greece is far from satisfactory to many of our NATO members. And, the po- tential conflict in Cyprus between Greece and Turkey could erupt without warning. Finally, there is a European fatalism, sub- merged by recent events, which could surface again. This fatalism rests on a conviction that the Soviet Union could overrun the con- tinent with conventional weapons or destroy it with a nuclear arsenal almost at will. Under such circumstances, Europe's best defense?as it has been for over twenty years?is the promise of the U.S.?the fore- most nuclear NATO nation and perhaps in- evitably the dominant partner?to come to Europe's defense in case of aggression. Such a situation has, quite naturally, never pleased some Europeans, especially General de Gaulle. This group argues that in an emergency the U.S. would follow a course most beneficial to its own security, regard- less of the policy or action favored by the European members of NATO, leaving the European nations with only limited control over policy decisions which could determine their own destiny. Such an attitude has in the past and could again cause Europeans to adopt the approach 'which either says (1) the U.S. believes Europe is important to its own security and will defend it against aggression despite European contributions or (2) the U.S. does not con- sider Europe vital to its defense and would act in its own interest, whether or not there was an alliance. A conclusion as described above, then, poses a second problem: how should the U.S. react? There are four main choices: The United States can leave Europe to its own de- fense, it can seek a co-operative agreement among the NATO members, it can carry a disproportionate part of the alliance's re- quirements, or it can play a delicate balanc- ing game of trying to convince the Europeant the 'U.S. still will decrease its support unless they contribute more while continuing to convince the Russians and Warsaw Pact na- tions that the U.S. nuclear arsenal and con- ventional power stand behind the defense of Europe. WHITHER NATO? As the North Atlantic Treaty Organization approaches its 20th anniversary, which it will celebrate next April, these are the problems with which it must deal on an internal and external basis. It appears unlikely that any of the mem- bers will use the 20-year option of announc- ing an intent to withdraw from the alliance at the end of a year's time. It is likely, however, that some restruc- turing and modification will take place. As I have stated before, I believe the U.S. stands willing to bear its full share of the burden of NATO. But, as many other NATO nations, the U.S. has certain economic prob- lems, including a balance of payments one, and the U.S. has widespread domestic needs, which must be met. Unless the other mem- bers of NATO are willing to contribute pro- portionately to the alliance, I believe the U.S. will find it difficult to justify its ex- penditures. The events of August 1968 are, however, a dramatic reminder to Western Europe of the original threat which led to the creation of NATO and of the necessity for maintaining its strength. A prompt and complete fulfillment of the pledges made at the Council meeting would be a welcome indication of European recogni- tion of that threat and of intent to meet obligations too often abandoned in the past. CHRISTMAS EVE IN SPACE Mr. SYMINGTON. Mr. President, the recent success of Apollo 8 brought with It considerable comment on the Christ- mas Eve reading from space of passages from Genesis. A recent editorial in the Belton (Mo.) Star Herald properly underscores the views of many concerned citizens and I ask unanimous consent that it be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: WHAT'S WRONG WITH GENESIS? (By Joseph J. Maurer, Editor) With the accolades of the world being ac- cepted by the United States and our three remarkable astronauts, one dissident note has been sounded. Mrs. Madalyn Murray O'Hair, the woman who was instrumental in getting prayer re- moved from public schools, now wants prayer banned from outer space. After hearing the words from Genesis read by Frank Borman, James Lovell and William Anders while they circled the moon on Christ- mas Eve, Mrs. O'Hair said she would register complaints with the National Aeronautics and Space administration and that she is getting a mail campaign started with her note to the Manned Spacecraft center. _ Mrs. O'Hair said in part. "It seems to me, that when man is expanding human knowl- edge and attempting to explore so that W-e can find answers that it is extremely un4 fortunate for a nation to direct?or persons in a program to assume for themselves? either one way or the other, that they should read portions of the Genesis Bible which 1,0 accepted by a very minor number of persons in the total world. "Christianity, you know, is a minor re- ligion .. ." Mrs. O'Hair is entitled to her beliefs. How- ever, we too, are entitled to ours. If in some future flight to the moon, the crew does not care to recite a prayer or read from the Bible, that is their prerogative. In the meantime, it seems, we must make our wishes known. Our founding fathers fled to America to escape religious oppression. This country was found- ed by men who believed every man had the right to believe and worship as he wished. It was not their intent that religion be denied or that those who chose to express it publicly be castigated. There is an expression (paraphrased) which goes "The only way evil can triumph is for good men to do nothing." Perhaps it is time we and you, our readers, did something. In addition to writing to the Manned Spacecraft center in Houston, Tex., it might be appropriate to write our repre- sentatives: Sen. William Cason and Rep. Frank L. Mickelson in Jefferson City; Sena- tors Stuart Symington and Thomas Eagleton and Rep. William Randall in Washington, D.C. Christianity may be a minority religion, but the words of Genesis predates the word Christian. The words of Genesis are a part of basic Jewish beliefs and most probably are basic to other religions who also believe in a supreme being who is responsible for the creation of our world. Surely in an era when the age-old com- mand "Love one another," is so vital to our very existence, we can clo no less than to stand and be counted for what we believe in. Accordingly the following telegram has been sent to astronauts Borman, Lovell and Anders in Houston and copies of this issue of The Belton Star-Herald will be sent to our representatives in Jefferson City and Wash- ington D.C. "Congratulations for a magnificent job. Your example of courage and faith has been S 543 an inspiration to men of all countries and faiths. Your Christmas Eve message of words from Genesis gave hope and solace that all inhabitants of this planet may yet live to- gether in peace." ASSUMPTION BY SENATOR PELL OF CHAIRMANSHIP OF SUBCOMMIT- TEE ON EDUCATION Mr. PELL. Mr. President, it is with a sense of humility that I assume the post of chairman of the Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. Humility, because of the fact that the previous chairman of this subcommittee was Senator Wayne Morse, under whom great advances were made in the field of education. I look forward to the work on this sub- committee. The past 4 years have been landmark ones, during which the Federa'l commitment to education has grown from $700 million in 1964 to $6 billion this fiscal year. Now we must restudy these programs in a contemplative, but also a creative frame of mind. There is still much to be done so that we can point with pride to an educational system that not only makes available the best pos- sible elementary, secondary, and higher education, but also insures that no citi- zen is denied education because of eco- nomic or racial reasons. It is my inten- tion to vigorously pursue these aims. FOREIGN TRADE ZONE AT MACHIASPORT Mr. MeINTYRE. Mr. President, the application of the State of Maine for a foreign trade zone at Machiasport is still pending before the Foreign Trade Zones Board. The circumstances surrounding its consideration raise the most serious questions regarding the integrity of Gov- ernment officials. The history of willful procrastination and delay has been the subject of inquiry before my subcommit- tee on Small Business of the Banking and Currency Committee. Inquiry into this matter is continuing. I intend to deliver a detailed report to the Senate and the American people on this matter at an early date. "PUEBLO" Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President, the Pueblo affair was another huge blun- ? - -ntral Inte111 enffe .en Director e ms o e s e responsibilAriftor sqs er. w ch was reniTh orth-e CIA ill-conceived and poorly planned Bay of Pigs opera= tion?also a horrendous blunder. It wag a great humiliation to our Government and to President John F. Kennedy who at the time said he would like to teat up the CIA and throw the pieces to the four winds. The Bay of Pigs disaster not only resulted in the loss of lives of Americans who participated in it but cost our Government millions of dollars in meeting blackmail demands to liber- ate Cubans captured in that ill-fated invasion.Whis as . CentrakIntelligwee. A:enc o?-r, ? ? ? ?? ? -9 ? ? o . - ? # asco, oug t disaster and humilia- tion to President Eisenhower in the U-2 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 S 544 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP711300364R000300150001-8 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE capture. This incident destr yed the summit conference that Presid t Eisen- hower had arranged with lead is of the Soviet Union. It afforded Premier Khru- shchev a forum for denunc1aton and table-pounding with his shoe. , e Amer- icans felt ashamed about this. President Eisenhower gallantly assumed blame for the U-2 operation, when, in fact, he knew nothing about it. Later, we exchanged the chief Soviet spy, Rudolf Abel, for our spy, Gary Powers. The United States has fewer than 10 Intelligence collecting or spy snipe and the Soviet Union an unknown number, but far in excess of ours. It sho id be the ? a' a ' Ma I. e e es - Mille e direct- asso n ? ? atitcgrAnso..0..atalatatavaltfivaZaariaisooskaa? nomakimia: b- sev? - ? e owe Union s a mon un navy. Its intelligence collecting ships] are dis- guised as trawlers. They are ncit a part of the Soviet Navy nor would any offi- cials in the Kremlin admit that they are commanded by officers and manned by seamen of the Soviet Navy. We should follow suit, and ? ? 11 a? 0 a Zia mart II ? MISIMIIIMITaV,M1111R- se ac. an: rem our Welcome as the news of the r lease of 1 the Pueblo crew was, the who e affair remains highly messy and unsati factory. The Pueblo was engaged in an ill-timed spying operation along the Oust of North Korea. North Korea has a non- aggression treaty with the Boyle Union. According to the provisions of t s treaty the Soviet Union is obligated to end its armed forces to the aid of Nort 1 Korea in event another nation attac $ that country. This nonaggression t eaty is similar to that our Nation has wi h West Germany. That fact, coupled ith the fact that more than one-third of our Navy and more than 600,000 of our Armed Forces in addition to th naval personnel off the coast of Vie ? M are In Thailand and South Vietnam dearly demonstrate that ? . "?0 mission .ff the .. :._. ? North Kore. -4. ? .ffiniRunicagioiroitsjiMillOriarry ? ? MS' - . . am es 3 ere were urgen re sons : ? neTeuur a convWe no at mgency that time to undertake the risk invol ed. The mission of the Pueblo ap ? ? rently was to drift along the coast of North Korea intercepting messages. e had 1 broken the North Korean code. I a 00 .? rs 't 0 the e :in? ? i he C ar a an un- ec ?PIJMNIOluNIMMMIMIIIK?Atmeikt? .rtngampoaffartnirlim tiransmast. irinwmt. ore .e o? a ? a e sine following the seizur Of the Pueblo it was known and publicly stated by Defense Secretary McNamar that there were 10 days and nights w en no messages came from the Pueblo, tid in this period of radio silence it wlaS as- sumed and hoped at the PentagOn and at the CIA offices that orders not to in- trude further than 13 miles off had been followed. North Korea thorities claimed the Pueblo h trudecl into their territorial wa Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 shore au- d ers a distance but approximately 5 miles from one of their islands. The Pueblo was seized outside the 12-mile limit. This was an act of piracy on the part of the four North Korean small torpedo or gun- boats. Possibly No:7th Korean officials claim the right to hot pursuit which has been Our claim in South Vietnam in pursu- ing fleeing Vietcong from South Viet- nam into the territory of Cambodia and Laos. The American people have every right to question the behavior of Commander Bucher, his executive officer and some members of the crew. Ours is a nation whose navy has a great history and noble tradition. In the entire history of the Re- public no U.S. naval vessel ever sur- rendered to an enemy without firing a shot. No nava:. vessel was ever boarded without its officers and crew fighting to repel the invaders. The Pueblo had two 50-caliber machineguns. Commander Bucher did not even order the covers removed. They were not removed. No warning shot was fired across the bow of any North Korean vessel. Now 82 A/11yr- cans members of the crew and q cauif rAin rt 0. 0 e. " fl .:l t 6:114.11rainarmormtras. ? _ lose ? - .1111- ees ' - ? 4r0TAIMmiosat.o romova?i?inatai A ea 6111115a 11.1M, a ali MirPare e or- . ? a a 014153001Vallraina to the Senate mi flflI1ae ou se : ad .f=1111111ena . - mer cans rejoice that these men are safe at home. Very definitely, a most thorough court of inquiry will, and should, question the members of the Com- mander ana ms eltutive officer. eperatievxes.: and Com- crew, t Why did he at the time just preceding the capture not offer some show of resist- ance? Why, instead of directing his ship to proceed at one-third of its speed in the 2 hours from the time the North Korean gunboats commenced harassment opera- tions and before it was boarded did he not either fire at least one of the 50- caliber guns across the bow of one of the North Korean ships or proceed at full speed out to sea away from the North Korean shores? Why was no effort made to scuttle the ship when there were mil- lions of dollar's worth of highly secret material and apparatus on board? That Commander Bucher, a Naval Reserve of- ficer, failed to direct any of these opera- tions and during the period of imprison- ment reportedly signed a great many statements and reportedly publicly de- nounced his own Government before North Korean news reporters are ques- tions Americans have a right to have answered. What would John Paul Jones, Stephen Decatur, Preble, or Lawrence or other officers of our young Navy have done? How would they have behaved? What about admirals like Farragut or Porter? Very definitely, it appears that the skip- per and the crew failed to acquit them- selves in the tradition of the American Navy from 1775 right down through World War II. The United States has lost a naval ship filled with electronic devices. This January 17, 1969 truly was not a warship. It was simply an intelligence gathering factory. Yet, it was flying under the colors of the U.S. Navy. Its skipper and executive officer were U.S. Naval Reserve officers. No more Pueblo incidents should be tolerated. Furthermore, the Commander In Chief of our Armed Forces has an obligation to change the future opera- tions and status of intelligence gathering ships. They must be separated absolutely from our Navy. Russian trawlers, dis- guised as Russian fishing trawlers, are no part of the Navy of the Soviet Union nor are they ever protected while on their missions by Soviet air power or naval power. It is unfortunate that years ago we failed to separate absolutely our spy ships from the U.S. Navy. Zia CTA rinPratinri trated bs Direc CIA cer am that both the United States and the Soviet Union will con- tinue to employ spy ships. In view of the Pueblo blunder, our Nation must devise a new policy for handling any future incidents like that of the Pueblo. Spying is a risky business. The risks ought to be well considered in advance. IT ? C " la a a ? . ? 'mi lit1.11-)ob1ttaMarfogoiliMM; s is e responsi y or t e umiliation and tremendous loss of prestige inflicted on our country. There was a lack of planning in this intelligence collecting operation. The information sought to be gleaned was never worth the risk. Never again should a U.S. naval vessel be per- mitted to become an intelligence collect- ing factory, loaded down with highly secret electronic devices. chant - ? am the on ? wn ll nTr- - - ? as ? ? ctrorit,45115111174MMIPAN? - .r. OSSI ? y is was an y a ited period. Helms should be dismissed as head of the CIA, and a halt put to the arrogant policies and opera- tions of the entire Central Intelligence Agency. The CIA is a watchdog that needs a master. The Congress must un- dertake serious and constant surveillance over its operations. The Pueblo itself, although it cost more than $7 million, is now of no value whatever to us. It is an empty shell. Much highly classified secret material has long since been seized and gone over thoroughly by experts and doubtless ended up in Peking and in the Kremlin. It is certain that all electronic instru- ments and devices were removed shortly after its capture. The damage done to our country is almost beyond belief. All of our code have been scrapped, and our manner of intelligence collecting opera- tions halted and changed. If the North Koreans make any use of the Pueblo its exterior will be so changed in all prob- ability that it will be unrecognizable. Last Christmas fOr all Americans was happier knowing that 82 men taken pris- oner by the North Koreans were back with their families after 11 months de- tention as prisoners of war. We judge that these men were compelled to live on a diet foreign to the American way for January 17, Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE S 545 11 months and subjected to brutality, being sometimes kicked or struck by their captors. This was the bitterest sort of captivity far away from home and de- prived except on infrequent occasions of Red Cross help and the delivery of let- ters from loved ones. We Americans would do well to re- member that in South Vietnam our Armed Forces always immediately turn over to the military of South Vietnam all prisoners of war taken by us. Our Na- tion is signatory to the Geneva agree- ment for the Humane Treatment of Pris- oners of War. Yet, for 5 years in South Vietnam we have in fact been guilty of violating this obligation and have aided and abetted the South Vietnamese sol- diers in inhumane treatment of pris- oners of war captured by our forces and then turned over to soldiers of the Saigon regime for interrogation and fre- quently for execution. Prisoners of war taken by Americans in Vietnam have their arms tied behind their backs, then they are blindfolded and then turned over to the South Viet- namese. Sometimes prisoners of war taken by our Armed Forces have been executed by the South Vietnamese with- out any trial. During the TET lunar offensive early In 1968 Americans reading the news- papers of Sunday, February 4, 1968, and looking at television news that day saw a young Vietcong officer, arms tied be- hind him, being murdered by Saigon police chief Nguyen Ngoc Loan. The pic- tures on television clearly showed Saigon police chief Loan aiming his revolver a few inches from the head of the young Vietcong officer taken prison- er by American soldiers but a few min- utes previously. This prisoner of war was at the time blindfolded and his arms were tied behind him. Doubtless our fellow countrymen were treated very harshly; yet the skipper and crew of the Pueblo survived captivity. Not one died in that period of 11 months. Certainly we should insist that Vietcong or North Vietnamese prisoners of war be given at least as good or better treatment than our men received from the North Koreans. Those of us who served in combat in World War 11 saw German soldiers, taken shortly before as prisoners of war. Never did we see one with his hands tied behind him nor his eyes blindfolded. Sometimes their hands would be clasped above their heads, directly after their capture while they were being led to in- terrogation centers, but that is all. Let us make certain that the Pueblo incident becomes an object lesson from which we will profit in the future. These intelligence collecting factories should not be classed as naval vessels and my colleagues and ask unanimous con- sent that it be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: SET THE "PUEBLO" RECORD STRAIGHT For reasons of military security, the Ameri- can public may never know the full story of the seizure by North Korea of the intelli- gence ship Pueblo. The court of inquiry to be convened Thurs- day will satisfy the United States Navy's re- quirement for thoroughgoing investigation of any incident in which a vessel is lost or damaged. But whether it will answer the public's questions as to why and how the Pueblo was so easily taken by an enemy force is another matter. There have been too many confusing ac- counts of the Puebld's voyage and its end. For that reason and for the reason that a great nation was humbled and made to ap- pear ridiculous by a fourth-rate power, the record should be set straight and assurance should be given that nothing of this sort will be permitted to happen again. On top of all the conflicting information about the Pueblo's station inside or outside of North Korea's territorial waters comes a late report that the ship, equipped as it was with highly sophisticated detection and com- munications gear, lacked explosive charges to destroy the equipment or sink the ship be- fore it fell into enemy hands. Another report holds that the Pueblo crew had only enough time before capture to dis- pose of "some" secret gear and papers. And still another, that "nearly all" of the equip- ment and papers were wrecked or thrown overboard. One more shocker, a statement by a Pueblo crewman, is that no one had been trained to operate the ship's machine guns which re- mained covered during the attack and sei- zure. Admittedly the machine guns would have been no match for weapons aboard the North Korean subchaser, patrol craft and airplanes at the scene?but why were they aboard the Pueblo if not to repel boarders or at least delay capture? The conduct of the Pueblo's crew under enemy fire is not questioned. There are large questions, however, concerning the way the Navy equipped and managed the Pueblo's mission. The official inquiry into the ship's loss iisoho:):ild provide answers for the public as well as for the Navy. 4F)? ? ? - : - ? ? ? ?? 41:116' ? I . -res ent, in he P am n Dealer of Cleveland, Ohio, of January 14, 1969, there appeared an excellent editorial entitled: "Set the Pueblo Record StrEiight." I believe this editorial clearly and concisely sets forth the need for a thorough investigation by a court of in- quiry to develop the full story of the seizure of the Pueblo. I commend this to THE PRIVATE INVESTMENT COM- PANY FOR ASIA Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, I wish to call attention to a growing movement in the world by which private enterprise control is making a tremendous contri- bution to the economic development of less developed areas of the world, a really historic development that started with Adela Investment Co. in Latin America, which is now a phenomenal success. I had the honor of starting that program in motion, in association with Vice President HUMPHREY, who was my partner in that matter when he was in the Senate, and with the aid of out- standing and distinguished business, leaders. Primarily I refer to the chairman of the First National City Bank of New York, George S. Moore; the executive vice president of Standard Oil Co., New Jersey, Emiliog Kollado; and Jacques Maisonrouge, president of IBM World Trade Corp. I did that as an officer of the North Atlantic Assembly. This great precedent was fabulously successful, and more and more illumi- nating as the most significant contribu- tion to the economic development of Latin America. The Private Investment Company for Asia is a similar type or- ganization for Asia. The principal or- ganizers again are George Moore, chair- man of the First National City Bank of New York, and Emilio G. Collado, ex- ecutive vice president of Standard Oil Co., to whom I referred. They are now joined by other distinguished men in the world such as Stanley DeJ Osborne, partner of Lazard Freres & Co.; by the Chase National Bank, with David Rock- efeller; and by Kuhn, Loeb & Co., through Nathaniel Samuels their man- aging partner, as well as by the Bank of America, Rudolph A. Peterson, the pres- ident being the operative personalities; including the IBM World Trade Corp., with Jacques Maisonrouge as its presi- dent, again taking the leading position. Then there is the Fuji Bank in Japan with Yoshizane Iwa,sa president being the dominant factor bringing about this development. I shall report further to the Senate upon this matter, but it is of such enor- mous significance coming where it is, in Asia, that I call the earliest attention to it that is possible for me?to wit, the first announcement of its formation. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent to have printed in the RECORD the article on the subject, published in the New York Times of January 13, 1969. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: DEVELOPING NATIONS OF ASIA TO RECEIVE PRIVATE-CAPITAL Am (By John H. Allan) The Private Investment Company for Asia, a new multi-national corporation designed to make private capital investments in the un- derdeveloped nations in the Far East, an- nounced-over the weekend that it has com- pleted its formation. The first meeting of the board of directors, blue-ribbon group of international finance and trade leaders, will be held Feb. 12 in Tokyo, the company's headquarters site. Called PICA for short, the company was formed by a group of prominent financial and industrial concerns in the United States, Japan, Europe, Canada and Australia. It has authorized capital of $40-million, of which approximately $16.8-million will be paid-in?one-third by American investors, one-third by Japanese and one-third by the others. About 120 financial institutions and com- panies have agreed to subscribe PICA's capital, The board is expected to elect Willem A. van Ravesteijn president of PICA. Mr. van Ravesteijn formerly was managing director of the Industrial and Mining Development Bank of Iran. Yoshizane Iwasa, president of the Fuji Bank in Japan, is to become chairman of the board. Stanley deJ. Osborne, partner of L.azard Freres & Co., will be chairman of the execu- tive committee. The other American directors of PICA will be: Eugene R. Black, former president of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; Emilio G. Collado, executive vice president of the Standard Oil Company Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 S546 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE January 17, 1969 t (New Jersey); Jacques Maisonrou 6, presi- dent of IBM World Trade Corporati la; Also, George S. Moore, Chairma of the First National City Bank; Rudolph t, Peter- son, president of the Bank of Ame lea; and Nathaniel Sanruels, managing pafner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. Senator Jacob K. Javits, Republicanof New York, was instrumental in inter sling a number of the sponsors "in the l4eed and practicality of the undertaking," P CA said. Senator Javits also helped form 4DBLA, a similar private investment corn y orga- nized to make private investments In Latin America. ROBBING EVERYBODY THROUGH INFLATION Mr. SYMINGTON. Mr. Presictlent, a recent article describes the secon -great- est problem facing president-elect Nixon as inflation: The American consumer has beerj caught in a money maelstrom, and the experience is not a pleasant one. Inflation in this country is no steepest spiral in 17 years; an would appear no signs of a decel In 1968 alone, the Consumer P dex?a measure of the average in prices of goods and services? some 4.75 percent. Various measures have been t effort to dampen the inflationar sures; as exaMple, a tax increase, reductions in Government expen and now a further increase by til eral Reserve in the prime inter to 7 percent. In this connection, I ask una consent that three articles deal' the current "money crisis"? Faces Prospect of New Money Cri Richard Dudman in the St. Loui Dispatch of January 5; "A M Maelstrom," by Erich Heinemann New York Times of January 9; an It Looks for 1969," by Sylvia Po Washington Evening Star of J 6?be inserted at this point RECORD. ' There being no objection, the 4rticles were ordered to be printed in the E-ORD, I as follows: [From the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, iJan. 5, 1969] in its there ration. ie In- Ihange Limped ken in pres- odest %Wes, e Fed- t rate ftrious 8 with is," by Post- tary in the ``How ter in rittary the NIXON PACES PROSPECT OF NEW MONEY CRISIS (By Richard Dudinan) 1, WASHINGTON, January 4.--The pros'iect of la new world currency crisis in 1969 51 high on the list of problems facing Preoident- elect Richard M. Nixon. A measure of the anxiety over the future Of the dollar was shown last month when [Nixon's nominee for Secretary of the Trees- lury, David M. Kennedy, touched off world have of gold Speculation merely by trj7ilig to avoid comment before taking offic?n [whether the price of gold should be inc eased. If Nixon's campaign promises were a easily tarried out as made, the outlook wo id be much better. Two of his promises, to e1tl the Vietnam war and to curb inflation, 'would deal with two of the main factors hi the uncertainty about the dollar, AN OPEN SPIGOT As long as the war continues, it will heavy outflow of resources, an open that makes it hard for the United St end the deficit in its balance of pay The continuing deficit in this balance Outflow of U.S. dollars against earnin gian a spigot teeth lents. of the s and credits received from foreign nations is a continuing threat to the stability of the dol- lar and to the international monetary sys- tem. Domestic inflation, now in its steepest spiral in 17 years, affects the other side of the scale. Rising prices at home attract foreign imports, and rising costs at home hobble American exports in their competition in foreign markets, increased imports and re- duced exports threaten to wipe out the fa- vorable U.S. balance of trade that normally has been inmportant plus in the over-all bal- ance of payments. Like the war, inflation promises to be an intractable problem for the Nixon adminis- tration, just as it has been for the Johnson Administration. The Morgan Guaranty Trust Co. of New York said last month that prac- tically all forecas:ers, including its own, had underestimated the inflationary rise. It would not risk a prediction for 1969. NIXON PLANS Nixon's plans, as outlined in his campaign, at least, threaten to continue the inflationary pressures. His estimate of a 10-billion-dollar increase in annual military expenditures after the Vietnam war is over will stand in the way of his goal of a balanced budget. And the encouragement he has given to the steel, textile and tobacco industries for additional protection against foreign im- ports will contribute to an expected drive this year for import quotas. These, of course, would lead to retaliation by foreign nations, and the result could be a further reduction of the normally favorable trade balance. A year ago, the international monetary system was in the midst of a crisis, and the dollar was the chief casualty. Devaluation Of the British pound on Nov. 17, 1967, had led to heavy speculation in gold, largely by foreign holders of dollars. Newly mined gold could not satisfy the demand, and it was met by active members of the interna- tional Gold Pool?the United States, Britain, Belgium, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands and Switzerland. TWO-TIER SYSTEM The private demand for gold continued into 1968. The United States, which bore most of the loss, saw a drop of 2.3 billion dollars in its gold reserves. Members of the Gold Pool met in mid- March and adopted a so-called "two-tier" gold price system. Rather than selling gold to try to hold its price at $35 an ounce, they would let the private commodity price of gold seek its own level. It has been fluctuat- ing from $38 to $42 an ounce. The official price of gold in its monetary role, as a cur- rency base, remains fixed at $35 an ounce. Secretary of the Treasury Henry H. Fowler has hailed the establishment of the two-tier gold price sytem as one of two major devel- opments that marked 1968 as a turning point in the international monetary system. The other was the completion of negotia- tions on a proposal to create "paper gold" through so-called Special Drawing Rights under the International Monetary Fund agreement. When ratified, the new system will enable Western nations for the first time to create international reserves instead of relying on newly mined gold or the out- flow of dollars or other currencies from countries with balz,nce of payments deficits. STRAIN ON MONETARY SYSTEM In a report last month on the condition of the dollar, Secretary Fowler noted that too much expansion of international re- serves could spur world inflationary pres- sures. But he pointed out that a deficiency of world reserves could strain the interna- tional Monetary system seriously. "When there is no increase in global re- serves," he explained, "one country can add to its reserves only at the expense of some other country or countries. The resulting competition for reserves can lead to an es- calation of world interest rates, and to a cumulative spreading of restrictions on in- ternational transactions as countries try to make additions to their reserves." Fowler said that the "paper gold" system, although it will help the equilibrium of the monetary system as a whole, will not remove the need for equilibrium in the balance of payments of individual countries through policies of their own. He said this remained "one of the most difficult and challenging problems in the field of economic policy and international economic co-operation." NOVEMBER carsis A new monetary crisis last November grew partly out of the economic aftermath of the strikes and riots in France last May and June. Subsequent labor agreements increased wages by 10 to 14 per cent, about twice the rise that had been expected. An outflow of capital from France reduced the French gold and foreign exchange reserves from 6 billion dollars to 4 billion dollars in seven months. At the same time, rumors of a possible appreciation of the deutschemark arose from a heavy flow of funds into Germany and a continued heavy German trade surplus. An adjustment was worked out without revaluation of currencies. Germany agreed to reduce its trade surplus by adjusting its border taxes. France maintained the value of the franc, restored tight exchange con- trols and revised border taxes to strengthen its trade position. A 2-billion-dollar multi- lateral credit arrangement was set up to give further support to the French franc. MULTILATERAL ACTION Fowler called this group of measures a further step toward establishing the princi- ple of cooperative multilateral action in handling the financial affairs affecting the major countries and the major currencies. "At many times in the past," he observed, "there has been a tendency to look upon the international monetary problems from a narrow nationalistic and short-range view." From Fowler's report, it is evident that one Of the major requirements for a stable inter- national monetary system, even under the new arrangements, is the long-sought ad- justment of the economy of the United States. The trade surplus, which averaged 5.2 bil- lion dollars a year in 1960 to 1965 and reached a record high of 6.7 billion dollars in 1964, has been declining steadily since then and could drop below a billion dollars - for 1968. There were deficits in March. May, June and October. Fowler called this decline "the most disappointing aspect of our re- cent balance of payments performance." SECURITIES SALES On the favorable side has been a con- tinued increase in foreign purchases of American securities, stimulated by the dis- orders in France and the invasion of Czecho- slovakia in August. Efforts to reduce new American direct in- vestment abroad and loans by U.S. banks to foreign borrowers have been successful. A major remaining drain is the "tourist deficit," the amount by which foreign ex- penditures by American tourists fail to match the expenditures in the United States by tturists from abroad. Gross expenditures of American tourists are nearly 4 billion dor- lars a year, nearly as much as total U.S. military expenditures abroad. The Nixon administration can be expected to continue the efforts of the Johnson ad- ministration to achieve world-wide liberal trading practices that will provide equal ac- cess to world markets. Fowler said the United States could no longer be tolerant of harm- ful trade measures, and Nixon has promised to fight discriminatory practices by foreign countries. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 NEW y ocipRrqyxtEs r Release 2002/10/09 ulchkaDP71-Eleek3:664)00300150001-8 Associate se " QUIRY: Adm. Thomas H. Moorer, left, Chief of Naval Operations, at Congressflitial*"' nunittee hearing yesterday on Pueblo incident. At right is Adm. Joseph McD advocate. Admiral Moorer said Navy was taking precautions against repeti orer Defends Joint Chiefs' Scrutiny of ARREN WEAVER Jr. Special to The Now York Times WASHINGTON, March 4?The Navy's highest officer main- tained today utider presistent Congressional questioning that the Joint Chiefs of Staff gave "proper consideration" to the risks involved in widespread intelligence activities such as the use of the U.S.S. Pueblo. Adm. Thomas H. Moorer, the Chief of Naval Operations, de- clined to divulge how much time the Joint Chiefs had spent in evaluating the mission of the Pueblo, the intelligence ship seized by the North Koreans off their coast in January, 1968. Representative Otis G. Pike, chairman of the House Armed Services Special Subcommittee investigating the Pueblo cap- ture, asked Admiral Moorer whether the Pueblo mission had been part of an intelligence "package" and how many other ctivities had received the i.ehigfs' approval at the same , time. "There is a package," the r replied, "and once a h this is given the closest my by the Joint Chiefs of . It may take an hour or f mote or it may not, depending on whether there are any cru- cial aspects in the package." 1 `Large Number' Involved Admiral Mdorer declined to say how many other intelligence projects were in the same pack- age, but he said ' it was "a large number" and that all the missions had been extensively reviewed by staff before the chiefs approved them. "'"* "Obviously, in this case [the Pueblo], they were all wrong," r, Pike, a Democrat of Suf- folk, Observed. 'That's right,' Admiral MAigfrAtiklIbilieRgties1 people have a deep and real interest in knowing the depth to which these matters are con- Informs a House Pane( Such Activities Were Evaluated for 'an Hoar or More' sidered," the Congressman said. "When you talk about decid- ing a great number of cases in an hour, I hate to have that testimony hanging there for the public to read." "It's fair to say," the admiral replied, "that the Joint Chiefs of Staff do, when and where necessary, give this proper con- sideration." Admiral Moorer testified for more than four hours in open session as the first witness of the hearings and then continued in closed session. Assurances Declined On a number of occasions, Admiral Moorer declined to an- swer questions, either on the ground that his answer might violate security or because it involved matters currently be- fore a court of inquiry into the Pueblo seizure in Coronado, Calif., whose findings he will ultimately have to review. Admiral Moorer refused, in response to a question, to pro- vide any assurance that there would not be a recurrence of the Pueblo incident. "I don't think anyone can do that," he replied, "but we are taking every possible precau- tion ?against this happening again." Asked if the Joint Chiefs had participated in the decision not to send aircraft to the aid of the Pueblo, Admiral Moorer said it "was actually made in Hawaii" but that military lead- ers in Washington "Liought that was the best course of IP leiligati61AERBRIT1 B Stratton, Democrat of upstate New York, asked if that action by the chiefs had not been similar to Comdr. Lbo ) Bucher's decision "not to tato on the PT boats" when the Pueblo was attacked. r "I don't think I'd say that", Admiral Moorer replied. "I'd sustain your position," Representative Pike said to Mr. Stratton. In defending the Pueblo mis- sion, Admiral Moorer said that the Soviet Union had 40 un- armed intelligence ships oper- ating around the world "well beyond the protective reach of other Soviet forces." He said they were regularly stationed off bases in Scotland; Spain, Guam and South Carolina, from which United States Polaris submarines operate. The officer insisted that ea Pueblo was an overt intel- ligence craft and did not op- erate under the "cover" of a hydrographic ship, although it carried such personnel. Mr. Pike cast some doubt on this statement with questions that the admiral refused to answer for security reasons. Although the Pueblo did not have an automatic destruction system to prevent its intelli- gence material and equipment from falling into enemy hands, Admiral Moorer said, compara- ble Navy ships now have such devices. Raid of, North Backed SEOUL, South Korea, March 4 (Reuters) ?President Chung Hee Park said today that th( United States should have giver an ultimatum to North Kore; after the seizure of the Puebt and threatened to bombard selected area of the North, The President told a grou of 47 American journalists an businessmen that such a sho, of force would have led ? PROlin MAIM ueolo. The group arrived here la night on an Asian tour. 1111 S 2330 Approved For IWAs_e_2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 CTRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE March 4, 1969 doing. We must see for ourselves, come out of isolation. The means of communication have never been more available. Never have we had more ways and opportunities to assure the con- tinued confidence of our customers, sup- pliers, employes, stockholders, the public, and government. IN sraVICE TO FREEDOM Tonight, we consider what we can do, with government, to preserve free enterprise. We might keep in mind what Edward Gibbon wrote of the people of ancient Athens: "In the end, more than they wanted free- dom, they wanted security. They wanted a comfortable life and they lost it all?secu- rity, comfort and freedom. When the Atheni- ans finally wanted not to give to society, but for society to give to them, when the free- dom they wished for most was freedom from responsibility, then Athens ceased to be free . . . ." Let us, by our service to our society, as- sure that no future historian shall ever write that of America. Rather, let him say that America remained free, free because its peo- ple so valued their freedom that they gave themselves fully to its service. RESTORATION OF FORT LARAMIE Mr. McGEE. Mr. President, Wyoming is proud of its heritage in the history of America, and proud of the landmarks which record the progress of the wester- ing which took place across our prairies and mountains. Among these, the out- post known as Fort Laramie stands out, for it was a trading center, a fort to protect settlers and travelers, and the scene of peace parleys. Under the direction of the National Park Service, Fort Laramie is being re- stored and stands today as a significant monument to our past. Last week, the Christian Science Monitor featured Fort Laramie and the historic ride of Portu- gee Phillips for assistance for the im- periled garrison of Fort Phil Kearny in 1866. Because the article by Charles W. E. Morris tells Us much about our West- ern heritage, I ask unanimous consent that it be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Christian Science Monitor, Feb. 26,1969] WEST RIDES AGAIN AT FORT LARAMIE, WYO. (By Charles W. E. Morris) Lying within a big bend of Wyoming's Laramie River near the junction of the North Platte, is old Fort Laramie, one of the West's most famous frontier outposts. The first fort on this site was established in 1834 by fur trappers and traders and named Fort William. Enlarged some 15 years later and renamed Fort Laramie, it of- fered protection to the pioneer settlers during the western migration of the wagon trains over the Oregon Trail. It also served as a relay station for the Pony Express and the Overland Stage. During the years of fighting with the plains Indians, it was also an important base of operations and later the scene of sev- eral_ peace parleys. The western migration had begun, a few years earlier following the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. In the spring of 1804 President Jefferson had commissioned Capt. Meriwether Lewis and Capt. William Clark to explore the newly acquired North- west Territory. After spending a winter near the mouth of the Missouri, the young explorers and their company, numbering about 40, began the ascent of the river. They wintered in North Dakota, crossed the Rocky Mountains, and descended the Columbia River, and in November, 1806, they reached the Pacific. After wintering on the coast they began their return journey, reaching St. Louis in September, 1807. In 21/a years they had traversed some 9,000 miles of wilderness. The glowing reports which they brought back spurred the onrush of homesteaders and prospecters, but most of the way led through Indian territory, a fact which was to have violent repercussions. Located in a prominent spot alongside the access road leading from the highway to the fort is an unusual memorial tablet?a memorial to a horse. It commemorates the amazing feat of endurance of a truly mag- nificent animal in carrying its rider from Fort Phil Kearny to Fort Laramie, a dis- tance of 236 miles through heavy snow- drifts in s-ibzero weather. It may well be history's greatest ride to seek help. Fort Phil Kearny, an advanced outpost, was built in 1866 to protect the increasing number of settlers and prospectors moving into the region. The building of the fort in violation of a treaty with the Indians, and the invasion of their traditional hunting grounds, together with the increasing slaugh- ter of the buffalo and game animals, had been 'watched by the Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapa- hoes with growing alarm and anger. Led by their great war chiefs, Red Cloud and Crazy Horse, they had taken to the warpath in an effort to drive the white man from their land. Woodcutting parties from Fort Phil Kearny that had to drive their wagons some seven miles to the timber were constantly attacked by the Indians, and troops frequently had to make sorties from the fort to rescue them. As the tribes concentrated in the area in ever increasing numbers, their attacks on the iso- lated homesteads and wagon trains became more frequent. On Dec. 21, 1866, a woodcutting detach- ment was attacked on its way to the timber. A force of 81 men under the command of Captain William Fetterman set out to rescue them. His orders, both written and oral, from the fort commander, Colonel Carrington, were terse and explicit. "Relieve the wood train. Under no circumstances pursue the Indians beyond Long Trail Ridge." Fetter- man, a brave but impetuous officer, had openly voiced his contempt for the Indians. Disregarding his orders, he pursued a number of retreating warriors, but was led Into an ambush where some 2,000 braves were lying in wait. The ensuing fight was desperate but of short duration. Of the relief force there were no survivors. With his depleted manpower, Carrington could scarcely hope to hold the fort for long against the Sioux and their allies. It was de- cided to try and get a message through to Fort Laramie. A civilian scout and experi- enced frontiersman, John `Portugee' Phillips volunteered to make the attempt. Carring- ton gave him his own horse, a fine thorough- bred animal, and about midnight, Phillips, bundled in his great buffalo coat, set out in a howling blizzard. Some miles from the fort he ran into a party of Indians, but was able to shoot his way out of the trap. He reached a way station where he had hoped to get help in sending a message through. But finding no help avail- able, he continued on his deSperate journey. Shortly before midnight on Christmas Eve he reached Fort Laramie. On the parade ground the gallant horse sank into the snow and expired. Phillips staggered into "Old Bedlam" where a gay party was in progress and gasped out the news of the disaster at Fort Phil Kearny before collapsing. In a short time a relief column was on its way to the beleaguered garrison. When they arrived they found that because of the severity of the storm, the Indians had remained in their tents and had not attacked the undermanned fort. Today, as a national monument, Fort Lara- mie is under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service. A number of its buildings have been restored to their former condition, no- tably "Old Bedlam," former officers quarters and the scene of most social activities the Cavalry Barracks, Sutlers' Store, and a num- ber of others. Plans call for the ultimate restoration of many more of the buildings and the furnishings of them in accordance with the period of the 1860's. Somehow the simple memorial tablet to a horse serves to dramatically remind us that man in his conquest of the West had to de- pend in large measure on his four-footed partner, whose courage, stamina, and devo- tion made these achievements possible. PLACE THE BLAME WHERE IT IS DUE Mr. HANSEN. Mr. President, ever since- the crew members of the U.S.S. Pneb were returned to this country, I ave been receiving mail from Wyoming citizens concerned about the welfare of these men. Wyoming people, and indeed citizens everywhere, have been deeply touched by the disclosure of the physical and mental toture these men suffered at the hands of their North Korean captors. To my knowledge, no charges have been filed against any Pueblo crew mem- ber. The people of the United States and all of us in the Senate want to insure that the Navy continues to treat these men fairly. Wyomingites feel that if blame must be fixed on the part of the United States for the seizure of the Pueblo and its crew, it must be shared by all in our Govern- ment who had anything to do with the Pueblo's presence in the waters off North Korea, with her mission there, and with her apparent inability to defend herself from.being pirated by the North Koreans. Among those who share this, view is the distinguished and able Senator from Colorado (Mr. Dammam) , who is a member of the Committee on Armed Services. Senator DOMINICK'S statements regarding the responsibility for the Pueblo incident were the subject of a recent editorial written by Editor James Flinchum, of the Wyoming State Tribute, at Cheyenne. I agree with Mr. Flinchum's observa- tion that commendation is due Senator Dammam for his willingness to publicly raise some pertinent questions regarding the Pueblo incident. These deserve a re- sponse from our Government. I ask unanimous consent that Mr. Flinchum's editorial be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as f ollows : [From the Cheyenne (Wyo.) State Tribune, Jan. 25, 1969] LET THE SENATE INVESTIGATE A public service merit badge is due Sen. Peter Dominick, a World War II fighter pilot and holder of the Distinguished Flying Cross and Air Medal with cluster. The Colorado Republican said yesterday if the Navy persists in persecuting Cmdr. Lloyd Bucher, skipper of the Pueblo, then the Navy's brass ought to be summoned for interrogation by the Senate Armed Services Committee, of which he is a member. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Mach J,, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE and big business. But some people seem to talloraost about,?and worry most about? the bigness of business. Many who deplore the bigness of busi- ness mistake economic competition for the predatory life of the jungle, where the big grow bigger as the small grow fewer. This is not the case. The growth of big businees has not occurred at the expense fo small businesses. As the head a the Small Busi- ness Administration has pointed out, a eerie tury ago about 300,000 businesses?nearly all small by today's standards?served a pop., ulation of 29 million. Today 4.8 million serge a ponulation of 200 million. So, While popula- tion has grown seven-fold, the number oi businesses has multiplied 16 times. Big and small businesses are mutually de- pendent. The critics of bigness forget this; overlooking that the big company is also a big bustomer. General Motors, for exaxnple, spends nearly half of its income for the. goods and services of more than 37,000 smaller businesses?over three-quarters of whom employ fewer than 100 people. Then, to sell its products, General Motors depends on tens of thousands of additional small businesses?on 14,000 vehicle dealerships and 128,600 other retail outlets. Big and small business aid and support each other to the benefit of thenation's economy and the individual eintietner. Small business is frequently the .......eieerce of new products and new methods. Wall business offers imaginative entrepreneurs a range of oppOrtunity for individual initiative. And small business is well able to _offer the per- sonal service, special attention, and flexible operation required to meet the increasingly varied demands of the consumer. BIGNESS AND COMPETITION Moreover, bigness is often Misundersteod as prima facie evidence of monopoly power. But the proof of monopoly is not the Size of firms, nor the fewness of firms i Li an incline. try. Rather, it is the absence of competition that identifies monopoly. Iri the automobile business, for example; corripetition is the Central fact of life. Ante manufacturers compete in product innova- tions, price, and marketing techniques. The four major domestic companies offer 882 models, and foreign companies offer scores moee in the American market. tet even the smallest automobile mann- facurer is a big company. Automobiles, because of their sheer size and complexity, need large capital investments if they are to be produced in the volume essential te lo' cost. Their design demands large reseaxch and development organizations. Their manu- facture calls for extensive facilities and large and skilled labor forces. Their sale and sere.- iciag requires a nationwide network of sheer- rooMs, service centers, and parts warehouse& Big companies also exist in many other Bel s that are highly competitive. In Illinois alo e are headquartered 57 of the 500 largest industrial corporations in America. You Pan be proud of the important contributions alley have made to our nation's economic groWth. Those who decry the bignees of priVate industry fail to consider the unweloOme altriatives. hen government takes over an induetre, responsibility only shifts to other Mande, to menagers bound by political strings and slew to respond to consumer needs. Or when a nu4mber of smaller companies are artifleang su4etained in business, prices tend to irise anl value to the consumer drops. The glum prophets of doom have al ays predicted?and some still do?that the grOwth of corporate business must inevit4iily to lead a massive takeover of power. hey envision our country transformed Ingo a corporate state, where the private corporatieni is !dominant. Nothing could be further /rein the truth. If you question this, just ask of! us who are asked to "visit Washi regularly. 1 irne Both the bigness in American business and the progress of our economy result from our historic freedom to compete. The company that does the best job gives progress to our country. And the people, in turn, by buying its products, give the company its size. America must always have a place for big business if our country L5 to compete success- fully in the widening markets of the world. PRODUCTIVITY, WACES AND Peaces In addition to the myth of dangerous big- ness, there is also serious misunderseezeding of the concept of productivity anyhow it applies to wages and prices. -- Productivity is a popular wOrd- at the bargaining table. And it has a place there. In fact, twenty years ago, General Motors helped give historic recognition to the truth that continuing technological improvement is essential to the progress of all. In 1948, for the first time, our union agreements had a provision for relating wage improvement to the increasing productivity of the country as a whole. Expanding markets, effkient management, and technological innovation have helped American industry achieVe a startling in- crease in productivity. ? But, unfortunately, mr people have come to take annual prod tivity increases for granted, to accept thern with the cer- tainty of Christmas coming very December. Surely, the popular logic goe, since produc- tivity never fails to go up ev ry year, a corn- Pany can afford to lower ita prices, or in- crease wages, or both. 1 But popular logic fails to remember that the much-discussed annual gain in produc- tivity is only an average. In sone years, there is a higher productvity gain t roughout the economy; in other years pr uctivity falls short. Some industries achie e more, but others less. In any case, a fix ad incr ase?whether 3.2% or 2.8% or whatever figur you want to use?is only an average. Muchi like the size of the average family, 3.7 perso s, it is a fig- ure so exact that no parent as ever been able to achieve it. The three is asy. It is that seven-tenths of a person that hard. THE ELUSIVE; OBJE VE An annual increase in prod ctivity is not automatic, but must be es/ned, and re- earned, every year. Manageneent each year must take off from a higher base. Each year we must work as hard ;as we can to be as efficient as we can. Then 'we must be even more efficient the nexi, yew'. It is never easy to improve on your best?and do it every year. Productivity can be tedversely affected by many factors: unnecespary work stoppages, resistance to improved technology, low- quality workmanship? absenteeism and poor employe morale?jus l to mention a few. Moreover, increased productivity is predi- cated, not on speed-up, but upon the ex- pectation of a fair day's work from every employe. The objective of technological im- provement is to increase the output of the labor force while still maintaining the prin- ciple of a fair day's work from every employe. The illusion that the annual increase in productivity is automatic underlies many hasty and hostile reactions to wage and price. decisions. We cannot have balanced economic growth if inflation is allowed to continue at its cur- rent rate. Price stability, equitable wages, and technological innovation are essential to con- tinued economic progress. Our nation en- joyed remarkable growth from 1961 through 1964, with good balance between wages and productivity. But imbalance since then, com- bined with excessive growth in del-nand, have produced the infiaticnary tendencies which now imperil our economy. We haVe seen our world balance of trade deteriorate in the past few years as we have priced ourselves out of competition in many different lines. We can- not eliminate our balance-of-payments prob- S 239 lem, nor long preserve the value of the dollar, unless we balance wages with productivity. We must find ways to draw the public's at- tention to excessive wage demands and their implications on prices as vigorously as price changes are emphasized. And we must do so before the fact?not after the wage contract is signed, and its impact on prices becomes inevitable. These two myths?of increased produc- tivity that is automatic and bigness that is dangerous?are typical of the misunder- standings that better communication can clear up as government and business work more closely together. THE TASK WE FACE TOGETHER The constant objective of our concerted efforts should be to protect and preserve the system of free enterprise that is the distinc- tive hallmark of our national economic life. Our American system?the profit system, or free enterprise, or capitalism, call it What you will?has produced a far better social product than any other system the world has ever known. It hat; not achieved a perfect social order, but our constant mission as Americans is to improve it, not to weaken it. History has cast us as builders and not destroyers. Management's obligation to its stockhold- ers is, of course, clear and primary. Those who own a business expect to earn a profit on. their investment. But profits and progress do not compete. Rather, each produces the other. Mismanaged industry can neither make a profit nor build a nation. Profit provide a the funds for growth and progress; growth that in America has underwritten our unmatched system of individual security, opportunity and dignity. So government's concern with social prog- ress finds an ally, not an adversary, in busi- ness. The job of business is to provide the consumer with goods and services at the lowest economic cost. To do this, business Innovates, it grows, it creates more economic opportunities. In short, it gives progress to the nation. Government can and should promote a better business climate?not for the sake of the businessman, not for the sake of the stockholder, nor the worker, nor even the consumer?but for the sake of the nation as a whole. Business wants a better understand- ing with government, and will continue to work cooperatively to assure our continued progress as a nation. Americans must always be free to criticize. Criticize, yes, that is our right. But serve also, that is our duty. A PART FOR EACH, A PART FOR ALL The better America we must help build summons from each of us a dedication, a compassion, an effort, and a sacrifice. Every American must try to serve by involving him- self in the daily work of our society. We must make sure that the legacy of our America is not lost or diminished by our inaction, our indifference, our intolerance, or. our indolence. We must be willing to face the hard facts of what we must do. America grew great because its people were characterized by energy and industry, We had a willingness to work?and a determination to earn. We live in a challenging age where much can be accomplished?and quickly. We must make the most Of our opportunities for crea- tive change. Material progress has given us more leisure time, more time to think, to concern ourselves with things outside our own jobs, our own communities. Perhaps, to some ertent, this has stimu- lated he discontent that is so evident in our world today. More people want to participate, to involve themselves, to shape events with their own hands. _ If we are to be creators of constructive change, we need not only to be involved our- selves, but must be aware of what others are Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 v?is.? Approved 76mtaffsfampinawPOTH4R000300150001-8 March 4, 1969 S 2331 Senator Dominick, who served in the Air Force said: "It appears that the Navy is try- ing to fix responsibility on the commander (of the Pueblo) for not having fought his way out of an untenable position." As Dominick made his statements in Wash- ington, in effect accusing the Navy of pro- longing the agony this unfortunate officer already has undergone, It was revealed in New York that a three-star Air Force general made the decision against sending U.S. fighter planes to aid the Pueblo while it was under attack by the North Koreans off Wonson just a year ago on the same date. The Long Island newspaper Newsday said the decision against sending fighters to aid the Pueblo was made by Lt. Gen. Seth J. McKee, commanding general of the U.S. Fifth Air Force in Japan. Newsday said a subse- quent review of McKee's decision by then Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara con- cluded that the Air Force general had acted wisely. Despite this, the Navy is persisting in not only formally investigating Commander Bucher, but doing so under circumstances that suggest it considers he did wrong in surrendering the Pueblo. As this newspaper has said previously, how can the Navy pursue such a course when it was apparent that the Pueblo, armed with little more tha,n-.50 cali- ber machineguns, could have resisted only suicidally? Despite what was reported about General McKee's decision not to send Air Force fighters to assist the Pueblo, the five-admiral Navy court of inquiry which is patently try- ing Bucher, announced yesterday that it would call no Air Force witnesses at the court of inquiry now underway at Coronado, Calif., because "the court considers it can fulfill its charge without doing so." As a matter of ordinary fairness, how- ever, if the Navy is to proceed on this matter it ought to summon not only General McKee but also Defense Secretary McNamara and any and all other witnesses whose testimony might have some bearing on his case. In the meantime it is apparent that the people of America and many of their repre- sentatives in Congress are highly disturbed over the Navy's callous treatment of Com- mander Bucher. "It's my feeling" said Senator Dominick yesterday "that we should have a hearing before the (Senate) Armed Services Commit- tee to try and fix responsibility on the per- sons responsible for turning down his (Buch- er's) request for equipment and for failing to adopt contingency plans to take him out of a spot into which he had been ordered by the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Government." The Armed Services Committee not only should investigate the failure to protect the Pueblo when it called for help but also why the Navy is seeking to make Commander Bucher the fall-guy for a tragic occurrence that should not have been allowed to occur? simply because nobody made plans in ad- vance to help this helpless little ship on a most hazardous mission. Is this a cover-up to try and shield those really at 'fault? WISE WORDS FROM ENGLAND Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President, it is noteworthy that leading parliamen- tarians of the United Kingdom including Alistair MacDonald, Stanley Orme, Frank Allaun, and Norman Atkinson, all dis- tinguished Members of the House of Commons, recently issued a statement expressing their hopes In the following language: Now that a new American President has been installed millions of British people are hoping he will act to end the terrible and continuing war in Vietnam. The parliamentarians added: - We warmly welcome the reopening of the Paris talks and urge the United States to start the withdrawal of her troops from Vietnam and recognize the National Libera- tion Front as steps most likely to secure peace. As Labour Members of Parliament we would like to pay tribute to all those in your country who have struggled so persistently and courageously to end that war. This seems to us the greatest antiwar movement in this generation. If the fighting stops it will lay the basis for further relaxation of tensions between East and West: in Europe, the Mid- dle East and elsewhere. Vast savings in arms spending could be devoted to other and better purposes. This is something worth working for, both by your people and by ours. PRESIDENT NIXON'S TRIP TO EUROPE Mr. BAKER. Mr. President, I wish to speak in appreciation of the manner and the spirit in which President Nixon con- ducted himself on his just-completed trip to Europe. The world is waiting anxiously now for the first signs of progress toward un- derstanding and the building of friend- ship among people and of confidence among nations. All of our Presidents before him have journeyed far and wide in search of peace, so this role is not unique to Mr. Nixon. But today is a time for success in this role because the people of the world are wary of conflict and the man- ner in which the problem is approached is critical. I point this out because the hopes of men of good will everywhere have been dramatically heightened in the past week. What seemed so distant only a few months ago glimmers today in light of the President's efforts to reunify rela- tions with our European allies. First of all, Mr. Nixon thoroughly pre- pared himself by studying the sources of contention that have separated us from our friends. His approach to our allies was one of candor which expressed concern and compassion for their problems and for their point of view. He was never an ad- versary placing demands on the table. It is refreshing to note the response he received from this method of diplo- macy. Friends who were cautious before are now sparked with renewed deter- mination. Those who.were contemptuous are now speaking of a new day. And from these relationships President Nixon has laid the foundation for what will be the greatest task of his admin- istration?emerging as the peacemaker. He is off to a good start. CONTRIBUTION OF MOBILE, ALA., BANKS TO INTERNATIONAL TRADE RECOGNIZED BY PRESI- DENTIAL "E" AWARDS Mr. SPARKMAN. Mr. President, it was gratifying to learn that two banks in Mobile, Ala., received the Presidential Export "E" Award on January 8, 1969. On that day, Mr. Monroe Kimbrell, of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, presented the Export "E" Emblem to Mr. Robert Bacon, president of the First National Bank, and Mr. E. Ward Faulk, president of the Merchants National Bank, at a ceremony at the new Inter- national Trade Center in the Port of Mobile "in recognition of outstanding Icontributions to the increase of U.S. trade abroad." The many and continuing contribu- tions that occasioned these awards are contained in an article in the Port of Mobile magazine for January. I ask unanimous consent that the article be printed in the RECORD following my re- marks. I might add to the list, from my personal knowledge, the cooperation ren- dered to the Senate Small Business Com- mittee in its regional export expansion inquiry by the banking community of Mobile. An expression of this is found in the testimony of Mr. J. W. Oliphant, vice president of the Merchants National Bank, who keynoted the public hearings in Mobile on November 10, 1967. This kind of leadership, provided by these banks in international trade, is an intangible quality which is significant to the prog- ress of the port in many ways. Winning the Export "E" is a consider- able honor, because it is awarded for service beyond the call of duty to custo- mers of a city and region and also to the national interest in strengthening the balance of payments. As I recall, the "E" awards program originated during World War II when it was given for production achievements. It was reactaivated for the export field in 1961 by President John F. Kennedy and Gov. Luther Hodges, of North Carolina, who was serving as Sec- retary of Commerce at the time. See Executive Order No. 10978 of December 5, 1961. The names of the two recipient banks convey the fact that they are national in character. The awards confirm that they have now become truly interna- tional. I wish to bring this to the attention of the Senate not only to add my con- gratulations for a job well done, but to indicate what is happening across the gulf coast and throughout the South. We have great opportunities and a great need to rebuild the prowess of the United States as a trading Nation. We are par- ticularly proud, of course, of the part being played by our region, our State, the Port of Mobile, and the First National and Merchants National Banks in this endeavor. I shall continue to do all I can to ad- vance these efforts, and to bring the benefits of increasing world commerce to small and large business, and to the positive side of our Nation's balance of payments. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: MOBILE BANKS RECEIVE "E" AWARDS The First National Bank of Mobile and the Merchants National Bank of Mobile were awarded on January 8, 1969?at a ceremony at the International Trade Club at the Port of Mobile?the President of the United States' "E" Award "in recognition of out- standing contributions to the increase of U.S. trade abroad." Mr. Monroe Kimbrell, president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, represent- Approved For Release 2002/10/09: CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 S 2332 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE March 4, 1969 ing the President, made the awards to Mr. Robert Bacon, president of the First Na- tional, and Mr. E. Ward Faulk, pres lent of the Merchants National. On hand was Mr. Houston H. Feaster, Di- rector of the Alabama State Deckle; who received the "E" Award for the Arama State Docks in 1965, and Mobile's onl previ- ous recipient, witnessed the ceremo y. The Docks Director added his congratula ems to those of the Secretary of Commerce cif `the United States, the Honorable C. R. Senith, who announced the award earlier lin the month. Both banks have been active in ffering foreign banking services Since the eirt of ,Mobile was primarily a cotton and umber port, long before the 40-year-old A4abama 'State Docks or the Presidential "E" award was ever dreamed of, Mr. Feaster said. : President Eisenhower re-instituted the award for service contributions to the -Na- tional Export Expansion Proeram, and in his proclamation reviving the wartime big "E" symbol, the President said in part: 1 I "The `E' flag that once flew over plants making notable records in war product oh.. . now will fly over factories contributi t g sig- nificantly to the goals of internationa peace end prosperity. The United etates mat, in /he best traditions of American competitive- ess and ingenuity, push forward with the .evelopets of the world. An increased level Icif ax- ment and sale of goods in all the mar- Ports is absolutely essential for a h,ealthy Situation in our international balmiest of a.yments. Such a healthy situation in turn till enable us to carry out international re- sponsibilities for preservation or fraedom. More exports will mean a stronger Arnerica; 4 more prosperous America; and greatee as- Surance of a free world." ' The award recognizes the contributions of ie the two Mobile banks to the erowth a 41 de- velopment of the Port of Mobile and t flow of Alabama and American 0,ieds and prod- nets to overseas markets. Both banks have gone far beyond the simple financing of exports. They hay fur- nished information that ranged from h 1 Ing to find overseas markets to he receipt of final payment. Through their netw it. of bank correspondents overseas, they have secured and relayed important infor ation te the exporter, including (1) depefldtble credit information on foreign iirms (2) over- seas demands for particular product uSual terms of selling or buying an Methods of obtaining payment without n- dile risk. I They have uncovered the names of re Pon- sible firms or individuals who are inte eted in representing or acting as agents) er- ican. firms. IThe Mobile banks' contribution to fo eign trade varies from direct loans to exp rters and manufacturers to financing secur I by dOcuments on particular shipments. ey ccelect funds from abroad directly from ver- sees banks. They offer acceptance fina cing to exporters. They forward letters of edit isSued by foreign banks to I he exp rter promptly. 'The international banking dcpartmen4ts of beth banks have been expanded ovei the years. Each is always eager to work wits the exporters, large or small, no matter wh titer the exporters are only beginning to seek foreign markets or have been long-e tab- lished in the export trade. Soth banks have had representativeS on the Regional Export Expansion Councll ' of Al-Anta, and later on the Council in la- ba a after it was established in 1963. ey ha 'e encouraged their personnel to pa C./- pa e in the Council's sponsorship of tsde fo urns, seminars and meetinga throug mit th State and in trade missions abroad all in I the interest of Increasing the expor of Alabama products. he First National and Merchants Na- tiohal Banks have always supported the I 1 I (3) the activities of the port and the various serv- ice organizations. Their officers and per- sonnel have served as directors and officers of the following organizations: Mobile Port Traffic Bureau, Propeller Club of the United States, Mobile Traffic and Transportation Club, International Trade Club, World Trade Committee of the Mobile Area Chamber of Commerce, Alabama World Trade Club of Bireainghane and the National Defense Transpertation Association. The banks are members and are active in the Banker's As- sociation et Foreign Trade, a national bank- ing associaTion consisting of over one hun- dred forty banks in the United States offer- ing foreign bankir g services. In addition, a nurriber of foreign banks with offices in this country are members. In this association the Mobile banks have served as directors and officers. The banks are also represented at the National Foreign Trade Council Con- vention held in New 'York each year. In addition, the banks hold memberships in the International House, New Orleans, Mis- sissippi Valley World Trade Council, and various world trade Associations throughout the south and mid pest. Foreign trade cpuld hardly be accom- 1 plished without tie part that commercial banks play. Shipp :I's through the Port of Mobile know this. REFORM OF 4ECT0RAL SYSTEM Mr. MUSKIE. Mr. President, the Sub- committee on Constitutional Amend- ments of the Convnittee on the Judiciary is currently holding hearings on the re- form of the electoral system. As a co- sponsor of Senate Joint Resolution 1, the proposal offered by Senator BIRCH BAYII to substitute the direct election of the President for the electoral college sys- tem, I have felt that one of the most significant arguments in its favor is its recognition of the importance of the right to cast an effective vote. This right is now denied all those voters who do not cast their ballot for the candidate who carries their particular State., However, the rig ht to cast an effective vote?the right to equal representation? will not be completely insured by the sub- stitution of the direct election of the President. For even in this case, those voters who cast their ballots for the losing candidate find themselves without representation in the executive branch of our Government. The power of the executive branch has grown so much that the opposition representation in the Congress may not be a sufficient check. Mr. David From]cin, a New York City lawyer, has raised these questions and suggested a possible answer in a recent issue of Interplay magazine. His proposal for a formal structure of the opposition is worthy of study. E ask unanimous con- sent that the text of the article be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: LEADER OF TILE OPPOSITION: AN AMERICA N LACUNA (By David Fromktn) "Only in America " the familiar phrase begins, but in this case it must read: "Only in America or, if you used a different set of numbers, in Gaullist France." For in no other Western demacracy could the candi- date of 31,770,231 veters receive supreme power while the cend date of 31,270,533 vot- ers receives no power at all. In theory, the elected President represents all of us. But in years like 1960 and 1968 he really represents less than half the electorate, and the other 30-plus million voters have no one to speak for them in the high glazes of government: their leader vanishes. For another four years, half the nation has no voice. The British, in the course of a long con- stitutional development, have created a role for the leader of the defeated party, a posi- tion in which he, too, can contribute on a continuing basis to the thinking and lead- ership of his country and the shaping of its policies. We, on the other hand, have no use for such a leader. In the United States he raises funds to make up the campaign deficit; then, more often than not, we send him home. Quite apart from its unfairness--that one man passes into the pages of history and the other out, by the margin of one-half of one percent?ours is a wasteful system. To the extent that our parties fulfill the obliga- tion to nominate their beet men for national office, we are wasting the Judgment, talent, knowledge and experience that the candi- dates of the losing party can contribute to public life. Among my personal examples are Wendell Winkle and Adlal Stevenson; every- one will, of course, have his own.. The defeated candidate who decides to resist the tendency of the system--who de- cides that, even without another political position such as Senator or Governor, he will remain in public life?must support himself and his staff by private means. He goes to a private foundetiOn. He administers a university. He heads a large corporation. He Joins a law firm. Whichever alternative he chooses, he is retained by some private inter- est. His political program must take account of the needs and desires of his employers, clients or donors. His future political avail- ability is limited by the "conflict of inter- est": was there a single freewheeling client of his law firm who was not dredged up against Richard Nixon in the campaign? The viciousness is in the system itself. We force the leader of the losing party to serve private interests when we should be requiring him to serve the public interest. The chief defect of the way in which we treat the losing candidate, however, lies in Its effect upon the victorious candidate. Ours is the only country In the Anglo-Saxon world whose Head of Government is not checked, balanced and limited by an adversary, a Leader of the Opposition, with whom he is locked in continuous public debate. One rea- son is that our Head of Government is also Head of State. As the Symbol of the nation as a whole, he is to that extent lifted above the leader of the opposite party. This only makes matters worse, for It cloaks him in an im- munity that he should not have. The impor- tant things the President does nowadays arb the life-and-death things done as leader of party and government, the very areas in which he should face constant challenge. In comparison, ceremonial functions of the presidency matter relatively little, although their existence adds to the aura and influence of the office of the presidency and can be misused. The excessive growth of executive power has been observed throughout the world and almost universally deplored. One need not go far as de Riencourt in The Coming Caesars to view with apprehension the growing ac- cumulation of overwhelming power in the hands of one man. There Is no one to ques- tion the President of the United States, ex- cept the newspapermen who do so at his pleasure. He does not submit to congressional inquiry. He may subtly commit us to foreign or domestic conflicts, without our being aware until they and their consequences are upon us. He dominates the media of com- munication. When he chooses to argue his case to the people, there is no one to argue the case against him: no one equally known, with equal access to communications facili- Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 NEW YORK TIM,ES_ Approvea ror Release 2002/10/09 :BORED14tIggft000300150001-8 PAGE Pueblos Main Task Was to Survey Russian Fleet' By BERNARD WEINRAUB Special to The New York Times CORONADO, Calif., March 2 ?The Pueblo steamed out of Japan on January, 1968, with 83 crewmen, most of whom were inexperienced at sea, un- aware of any possible threat and unsure of the intelligence ship's mission. More than half of the crew- men had never been to sea before?including 20 of the 29 canrnunications and decoding specialists in the secret "re- ek space." Although the was on an intelligence ering mission, only two members spoke Korean. 1,4 six enlisted men and rs, however, spoke Rus- . Testimony at the court of inqUiry and conversations with avy officials indicate that the primary phase of the Pueblo's final mission was to collect data on Russian naval opera- tions in the Sea of Japan. The secondary mission of the ueblo was to move along the coast of North Korea to check on radar installations and thi movements of submarines in the area. geative Importance Weighed The relative importance that the Navy placed on the two missions of the Pueblo wa4 rscored by the fact th the ship's two Korean-speaking crewmen joined the Pueblo ig December, 1967, two weeks hef ?ore the former cargo shtp sailed from Yokosuka, Japarf, toward North Korea. Most of the "research" or intelligence crewmen joined the Pueblo in May, when the vessel was converted into an intelli- gence craft. Her 177-foot hull was fitted with hypersensitive radar, navigation equipment and sonars. At the time of the Pueblo's mission, Navy officials say, the "No. 1 p t for intelligence ships W soastal waters off ComiuJs.t China. Armed Chinese fishing boats In previ- ous months harassed and steamed as close as five yards to naval intelligence ships in the East China Sea off Shanghai. The second priority was off the coast of the Soviet Union in the Sea of Japan. Navy officials say that there was a 'high de- gree of harassment" of United States intelligence ships in the zone, including "extremely close" passes by nucleared pow- ered guided missile submarines and destroyers. Some of the harassing inci- dents?in which smaller Rus- sian craft pointed 37-millimeter guns toward American ships at a distance of 20 yards?lasted several hours. The third priority was off North Korea. The Pueblo's sis- ter ship, the Banner, had two missions near Wonsan on her way north toward the Russian coast. One of the intelligence missions was for 11 hours; the other for a day and a half. There was little harassment The Pueblo's mission was di- vided into two phases. The intelligence ship was to sail north in the Sea of Japan off North Korea. After collecting intelligence in three separate areas along the coast, she was to reverse course and steam south to watch and eavesdrop on Soviet Navy operations. This was to be the major thrust of what turned out to be the Pueblo's final mission. "We were to attempt to sur- vey the Soviet naval units which were known to be oper- ating in the Tsushima Strait area and had been operating there for many months," Comdr. Lloyd M. Bucher, the Pueblo's skipper, testified. "We had placed these ships under surveillance by air and it was not known at the time what the ships exactly were doing there and why they were assigned to that location. "What Pueblo hoped to do was to survey these ships and obtain photographs if possible. "We were permitted to close their formation to a distance of 500 yards for normal s lance and to a distance o yards to obtain photogra y. It was my intention to tip care of this particular phase pf my assignment as the final Part of my operations." Unprepared for Attack Commander Bucher and the Pueblo's crewmen have peated over and over that te ship had been unprepared for a North Korean attack or any hostile actions beyond harass- , ment. Since most crewmen were unaware of the ship's inta- gence mission?they had only been told that the Pueblo wits engaged in "oceanographic re- search"?there appears to have been considerable confusionln the feverish efforts to burn and scuttle the 600 pounds4f secret papers on the ship. Navy officers say that few of the crewmen, possibly even Commander Bucher, knew that the ship carried so many secret papers and so much decoding equipment. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 ASHINGoRpmsdi,For Release2,092/Talt9cisktffP71600364R000300150001,4y; 3 House Armed SerAces committee will begin u ar- Tuesday on the Adm. Thomas H. ogrer, 'ef of Naval Operatinna, ading off in open session. ep. Otis G Pau' (Th-NV), c irman of the special Stib? committee, said in an inter - w yesterday that the us I be on the national ty implications of the P 10 'ieizure, the command and COMmunications gaps, and the code of conduct for American Servicemen. Besides that, Pike said, "aAii. are interested in more of the4 Whys. Why the particular figuration of the ship? Wlfo iniade the decision? The ques- tion of the characterization the mission as low risk." _At the moment, there ' kntention to call Cmdr. L 14 Bucher or other mein_ of the Pueblo crew. But Pike said they are welcome to tes- tify if they reAltie'Srthe op-por- tunity. Approved For Release 2002/10/09: CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 February 25, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? Extensions of Remarks freedom meant so much to him. Remember the ditches, dirt, machine guns and mustard gas that surrounded the men at Verdun and Argonne? They too knew the mood, felt the magic of their freedom permeate their liv- ing?and because they knew that mood, be- cause they felt that magic, nothing, not even death could shake it loose from them. Remember the marines who raised that flag over Iwo Jima? That was no baseball game, but a place where men fought and died for a thing that they believed in?where men went beyond feeling and knowing to giving. And that's freedom's challenge?to feel freedom, yes, but to care about it so much you'd even die for it. For the half-million men who have died for this nation in war, freedom was more than just a word. Like baseball to Charlie Brown, it was the focal point of their lives? something they wept over, lost sleep over, got stomach aches over?a something whose loss would be infinitely worse to them than losing their own lives. They knew what freedom meant to them and they cared about it so much they even died for it. Knowing, caring, and giving?does it mean as such to you? THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION CITATION HON. HENRY BELLMON OF OKLAHOMA IN THE SENATE OF THE UNI.LELD STATES Tuesday, February .25, 1969 Mr. BELLMON. Mr. President, the cause of world peace is uppermost in the minds of all Americans at this critical time in our Nation's history. Perhaps at no previous time has there existed a greater need for understanding among the peoples of the world. It is heartening to know, therefore, that many of our educational institu- tions are contributing to that kind of exchange of ideas between nations that builds the foundations for peaceful and progressive relations. I am proud that my alma mater, Oklahoma State Uni- versity, holds an outstanding position in this field. Seventeen years ago, under the leader- ship of the late Dr. H. H. Bennett, one of the most noted and respected educa- tors of our time, Oklahoma State began a program in Ethiopia which has resulted in the establishment of an agricultural college and research station. These efforts were recognized in the designation of Oklahoma State Univer- sity to recevie the 1969 Institute of In- ternational Education-Reader's Digest Foundation Award for Distinguished Service in the field of international ed- ucation and cultural relations. The award was presented February 19, 1969, in Washington. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that the citation accompanying the award be printed in the Extensions of Remarks. There being no objection, the citation was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION CITATION To OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY To thousands of students in remote towns and villages all over the world, the campus of Oklahoma State University surely must seem to be the source from which the "fountain of knowledge" emanates. Each year?for almost twenty years?groups of teachers, consult- ants, researchers, and advisers have spilled forth iii a steady stream from the town of Stillwater, Oklahoma, taking with them to newly developing lands their accumulated skills and a common desire to share their specialized talents. The African nation of Ethiopia, in par- ticular, has welcomed its association with Oklahoma State University since 1952 when the first group of experts arrived to estab- lish and operate a technical high school at Jimma. In succeeding years the university has worked?with the help of U.S. aid, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the National Science Foundation?to establish a college of agriculture at Alemaya and an agricultural research station at Bishoftu. The highest compliment to the over 180 participating university staff members is the fact that most of their jobs now can be held by the local personnel they have trained. This, after all, has been the chief goal of their educational assistance program?whether it be in Ethiopia, in Pakistan, in Thailand, or in Latin America?"to create independent and self-reliant world neighbors." Fortunately for the students and teachers who remain on the Oklahoma State campus, the international exchange of people and ideas has been a two-way flow. Over the past two decades, the number of foreign students has increased over 'eight-fold to more than 500 visitors this year. In presenting the distinguished service award to Oklahoma State University, IIE and the Reader's Digest Foundation heartily commend the university for demonstrating the diversity of international education pro- grams and for proving first-hand the mag- nificent results of enabling others to help themselves. U.S.S. "PUEBLO" HON. WILLIAM J. SCHERLE OF IOWA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, February 25, 1969 Mr. SCHERLE. Mr. Speaker, under leave to extend my remarks in the RECORD, I include the following letter and newspaper article. The letter is one which I sent to Secre- tary of the Navy John Chafee. DEAR MR. SECRETARY: What were the "rather long and learned dissertations from other sources" that reversed the Navy's posi- tion from the original ruling that the Mili- tary Code of Conduct did not apply to the crew of the USS Pueblo? According to the February 21, 1969, issue of the Washington Post and Washington Evening Star a startled reporter told Navy Captain William R. Newsome, Counsel for the Navy Court of Inquiry, "that sounds like a reversal." With a smile the Navy Attorney replied simply, "It does." Who were the "other sources?" Who is calling the shots on how this case is being handled? Earlier in the Inquiry, January 23, 1969, Captain Newsome had ruled, with the re- ported advice of the Navy's judge advocate general's office, that "the Code of Conduct is inapplicable in this present situation. We had an opinion that the crew members on the Pueblo were not prisoners of war; they were illegally detained. We are not in a state of hostilities at the present time with the North Koreans. Consequently, they are not the enemy, of course we don't have prisoners of war. And when we don't have prisoners of war, we don't have the application of the Code of Conduct. . . ." E1341 Does the Court of Inquiry contend that because Commander Lloyd Bucher wanted to save the lives of his crew by signing a phoney confession that he is more guilty of violating the code than US Army General Gilbert H. Woodward, who, acting on orders from the highest government level, knowingly signed a false confession to obtain the release of the Pueblo crew? I think not. As one who has been extensively involved in the Pueblo affair, I cannot accept this double standard. To do so would make a mockery out of the Navy Court of Inquiry. Please provide me with the reasons for this abrupt reversal of the Navy's decision. Sincerely yours, WILLIAM J. SCHERLE. "PUEBLO" HELD SUBJECT TO RULE (By George C. Wilson) CORONADO, CALIF., February 21.?The Navy, in a reversal of opinion, has decided the American fighting man's code of Conduct ap- plies to the Pueblo crewmen after all. Capt. William R. Newsome, attorney for the five admirals who comprise the Naval Court of Inquiry looking into the Pueblo seizure, confirmed the change of opinion last night. He told reporters, however, that no legal action is contemplated against Pueblo crew- men for breaking the code while in captivity in North Korea. The code, he said, "is like the Ten Com- mandments," which can be violated "spiri- tually" but not "punitively." APPRAISAL OF CODE The court's focus instead, he said, is on the 1955 code itself and its viability in today's environment. He called the inquiry "an ex- cellent vehicle" for appraising the code and recommending changes. He would not say who or what reversed his earlier, opinion that the code did not apply to the Pueblo men because they had been "Illegally detained," as distinguished from be- ing taken as prisoners of war. Newsome does not set policy for the Court of Inquiry hut acts as its hired legal hand. Vice Adm. Harold G. Bowe Jr., president of the court, and his four fellow admirals on the court obviously decided to focus on the code. Questions all this week were framed to de- termine if the Pueblo crewmen knew about the code and why they had violated it. Their testimony will influence the Navy Depart- ment in Washington, which right now is try- ing to come up with a position on the code in advance of Congressional hearings on the subject. ALL ADMIT BREACH To a man, the Pueblo crew admitted to breaking paragraph five of the code: "When questioned, should I become a prisoner of war, I am bound to give only name, rank, service number, and date of birth. I will evade answering further questions to the utmost of my ability. I will make no oral or written statements disloyal to my country and its allies or harmful to their cause." Another part of the code directs the man to "resist by a means available" and "make every effort to escape. The six officers, 74 enlisted men and two civilians on the Pueblo gave the North Kore- ans more than that minimum amount of in- formation. Many of them also signed confes- sions of spying and they participated in propaganda press conferences and petitions while in captivity. The Pueblo crewmen have told the court they could not hold out against the physical and mental torture. They added that, the Koreans already had answers to most of the questions they were asking during severe beatings. The Pueblo was captured with many of the records of the men and the ship's mission intact. The crewmen contend their plight therefore was different than that envisioned Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 t 1342 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? Extensions of Remarks February 25, 1969 by the code. They said they were not like a soldier captured with no detailed inferma- "tion about him or his outfit on his persbn. Newsome conceded the Pueblo was $, Spe- cial case in another way?two civilian Were aboard the ship serving as oceanographers for the intelligence center. This raises the cjuestion, Newsome said, of what code they were supposed to follow. For purposes of comparison, here is what Newsome said in his earlier statement and fist night about the applicability of the code to Pueblo crewmen: Jan. 13?". . . the Code of Conduct ,is in- applicable in this present situation. We have had an opinion that the crew members on the Pueblo were not prisoners of war; they were illegally detained. We are not in a state Of hostilities at the present time with the North Koreans. Consequently. they are not he enemy. Not being the enemy, of course, e don't have prisoners of war. And when e don't have prisoners of war, we don't have the application of the Code of Conduct . . He said the legal opinion had come from the Navy's judge advocate general. WARNING BY SUPERIORS , Feb. 20?"It has become Obvious that the Code of Conduct is applicable in this situa- tion. First of all, because the understanding Of the people themselves, and second of all, because of certain things which -transpired board the ship at the time of its capture." Ie apparently was referring partly to the Warning passed to the men by their American Superiors not to tell the Koreans anything more than name, rank, service number and date of birth. "One of the tasks of the court is to ex- amine that code and see whether or not it meets our present needs . . . I think we have an excellent vehicle for doing that light WAR PRISONER CODE APPLIED TO "PUEBLO" (By Robert Walters) CORONADO, Ceare.?The counsel far the Navy court of inquiry investigating the cap- ture of the USS Pueblo unexpectedly has changed his position and melee that the 'Jill- tary Code of Conduct is applicable t< the 82 surviving crew members of the in gence gathering ship. Prior to the convening of the-five-admiral court one month ago, its counsel, Capt. Wil- liam R. Newsome, said the code was "in- applicable" because the Pueblo crew members Were "illegal detainees" rather than ''pr son- ers of war" during their 11 months cif cap- tivity in North Korea. _ But under questioning by reporters yes- terday, Newsome said: "It has beconn ob- vious that the Code of Conduct is apt Ilea- 'tee in this situation." One startled reporter teed the atto Rey: 'That sounds like a reversal." With a = Newsome replied simply: "It does." The code, promulgated by Pres dent Dwight D. Eisenhower in 11155. is design ,e1 RS a guideline for United States troops cap ured by enemy forces. It was initially lasers d by the White House as an exeeutive order and subsequently incorporated in Navy ee eula- tions as a "general order." ANSWERS RESTRIC IED Of the Code's six provisions, the one which has emerged as most applicable to the ac- tions of the Pueblo crew reads as follows: "When questioned, should I become a pris- oner of war; I am bound to give only name, rank, service number and date of birth. I will evade answering further questions to the utmost of my ability. r will make no oral or written statements disloyal to my country and its allies or harmful to their cause." Similar references to "prisoners of war" appear throughout the code, and it was on that basis, Newsome said yesterday, that the code was initially held to be inapplica- ble to the Pueblo case. The term "prisoner of war," as defined by the Geneva conventions on the subject, re- quires, among other elements, a declaration of war?a conditioa which does not exist between the United States and North Ko- rea. But Newsome said that since,. this initial ruling the court of inquiry has received "rather long and learned dissertations from other sources that indicate that the Code of Conduct has wide applications." He de- clined to identify the "other sources" or to elaborate. IN A MURKY AREA The full impact of the decision remained unclear because Newsome acknoenedged that the area Was a murky one. "There's a big question with respect to the code's applica- tion," he said. - He rejected, repeatedly and emphatically, suggestions that members of the Pueblo's crew might face punitive action for viola- tion of the code's provisions. "The Code of Conduct is a moral code; it's not something you can violate punitively," the attorney said. ? That apparently ruled out the possibility of any serious legal rebuke for the Pueblo's six officers and 76 crew members, all of whom signed an open letter to President Lyndon B. Johnson "admitting" that the Pueblo vio- lated North Korea's territorial waters and was engaged in espionage activities at the time of its capture. Newsome apparently also rejected the pos- sibility of a reprimand for violation of the code, explaining that "reprimand" is a for- mal military legal term with limited appli- cation. "A reprimand is an administrative action?a non-punitive form of punishment" applied only to those who fail to follow ad- ministrative regulai,ions, he said. The court counsel said the Uniform Code of Military Justice does contain _specific pro- hibitions against many of the acts which the Code of Conduct warns about in "moral" terms. Failure to comply with these regulations is punishable by court marital, and Newsome said that Article 1C4 contained several such proscriptions 'under the heading of "aiding the enemy." However, Newsotne added: "Conceivably you could find some offense under the UCMJ . . But it's not a direct step." Every member of the Pueblo crew to tes- tify before the court has said that he has a basic understanding of the provisions of the code and that, in theory at least, he re- garded it as an important document to be respected and obeyed. CODE ABANDONED However, the crew members said, in the particular circumstances surrounding their capture, the code had to be soon abandoned as a guide for two reasons: 1. The North Koreans captured hundreds of pounds of highly classified documents when they seized the Pueblo, and thus had access to papers describing much of the ship's intelligence work. To deny what al- ready was in the form of printed reports would only be foolhardy, they said. 2. During the armed conflict in their coun- try in the early 1950s, the North Koreans had exceptional success in "brainwashing" cap- tured American fighting men, breaking their minds and forcing them to "confess" against their will to numerous "crimes." Determined resistance to the N.orth Ko- reans last year would only have led to a sim- ilar situation, the crew member said. In the end, the North Koreans would have secured their "confessions" anyhow?and would have inflicted serious mental or physical damage on their captives in the process. Recent questioning has coneentrated on the code, attempting to have each witness explain in detail why he freely acknowledged violating its provisions. "WOULDN'T POLLOP7 RULES" Yesterday's questioning of Lawrence W. Mack, photographer's mate first class, was typical. "These people had an unsavory repu- tation, and it was clear to me that they wouldn't play by the rules to get the in- formation they wanted," he testified. Explaining that during the interrogation the North Koreans frequently displayed doc- uments captured from the Pueblo, Mack said: "I had the impression that they never asked a question unless they knew the answers themselves." He added: "What informIttion they wanted they were going to get one way or another, and they could get it frorn Joie hard or get it from me easy. . . . But they were going to use torture or whatever was necessary to get it." In describing the method used by the Ko- reans to elicit information from him. Mack Said he was forced to kneel on the floor of an interrogation room and hold a chair above his head for as long as 90 minutes. MENACED BY BAYONET "You can hold that chair up for only so long, and after a while your arms get pretty tired," said Mack, explaining that'every time he lowered the chair a guard "kept poking his bayonet in my face. I was worried that if he wasn't careful he might take my eye out by accident." Mack added: "All I could see was unend- ing torture. So I told the Korean officer, "Why don't you tell this guard to shoot me and get it over with?' " He said he "went through a period of considerable mental torture" be- fore finally providing the information de- manded. Crew members also testified yesterday that 11 months of malnutrition, inadequate medi- cal care and severe beatings left some of them with permanent physical disabilities. The Pueblo's chief quartermaster, Charles B. Law Jr., for instance, had perfect vision when he was captured, but began "going blind" because of malnutrition and now suf- fers from "central blind spots" and is ex- tremely nearsighted. Law, the crew member unanimously ac- claimed by the Pueblo's officers for his ability to provide leadership and keep morale high among the enlisted men during the deten- tion period, said that prior to the Pueblo's ill-fated mission, he had better than perfect vision-20-13 in one eye and 20-14 in the other. But "about the first part of August (of 1968) my eyes started to go bad, he said. A North Korean physician attempted to treat the disorder with numerous injections, but Law said that after the crew's repatria- tion and return to this country he Was told by Navy doctors that his vision had per- manently deteriorated to ,20-200. In addition, Law said he was told by doc- tors that he had "central blind spots" and that his vision problems were uncorrectable by glasses" because he sustained an "in- fiamation of the optic nerve" as the result of Malnutrition. Another witness, Radioman 2.C. Lee Roy Hayes, said he was stricken by hepatitis while a prisoner and "also had my jaw bro- ken by the Korean guards." Hayes said that in a letter the North Ko- reans forced him to write to Ohio's Gov, James A. Rhodes, he tried to signal his de- sire that the United States retaliate for the Pueblo's capture by dropping an atomic bomb on North Korea. Hayes said the letter to his governor in- cluded the line: "I long to behold the great and glorious light of mit fatherland." He explained: "By this, I meant that they should drop the atdra bomb on North Korea." Like virtually every other crew member to testify, Hayes said he not only expected but hoped for some form of ITS. military retalia- tion although all of the nfen knew that such action would undoubtedly lead to their death. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 February 25, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ?Extensions Hayes-said one of the "signals" he included in letters from the prison camp to his par- ents was to capitalize the word "right" each time he used it. He explained: "They're very conservative, they're right-wing in their pol- itics, like I am?and I tried to make it clear that I wanted this thing settled from that point of view." SEEING US IN LONDON HON. VANCE HARTKE OF INDIANA IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES ? Tuesday, February 25, 1969 Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, a bril- liant young American, William Janeway, now contributes a column of observa- tions and reflections on the American scene to the British journal, the Spec- tator. I was especially struck with his re- marks published January 10, 1969, and in order to be able to share these with my colleagues I ask unanimous consent that Mr. JaneWay's column be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the column was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Spectator, London, England, January 19691 AmEnicA: A NEW Y ORK DIARY (By William Janeway) Last week Sir Denis Brogan confessed him- self able to identify only one event of "any general interest" which made news in Britain during the past year: the resignation of George Brown. New Yorkers have had a sur- feit of news: the war and the riots; the as- sassinations and the election. Given the pres- ent stalemate in the Vietnam fighting and talking plus the constitutional interregnum between the election and inauguration of the new President, one might have expected the Christmas season to offer some relief, But New York managed to celebrate the holidays in appropriate 1968 fashion: a strike of fuel oil delivery drivers cut off the heating in more than half the city's homes and offices just as the Hong Kong flu attacked in full force. As a fitting side effect, the extra school days, scheduled to allow students to catch up on the weeks missed during the teachers' strike of October and November, had to be cancelled for lack of fuel to heat the class- rooms. The specifics of New York's accelerating disintegration have more than parochial sig- nificance. The fundamental issues in the teachers' strike, for example, provide a Useful perspective in which to judge Powellite demagogy on the British racial situation. The struggle in New York is between the black leaders of the city's various harlenas, who demand a decisive say in how ghetto children are to be taught and by whom, and the teachers' union, which since the last war has passed beyond issues of pay and job security to virtual control of education policy. (That the union is predominantly Jewish has added a further explosive ingredient to the brew.) The city administration is caught in the middle between the two most self-conscious of New York's bloc votes: Mayor Lindsay's poll ratings make Harold Wilson's look good. The strike is likely to break out again at any moment, as are boycotts of non-community controlled schools. The teachers' strike in New 'York is only one outcome of the broad and bitter drive by ghetto inhabitants to gain a measure of con- trol over the institutions which have been the instruments of their systematic exclu- stem from the political, economic and social life of the country. As a result, the racial con- flict in New York now completely overshad- ows the relevant issue of education policy per se: how best to provide meaningful oppor- tunities for personal growth and social mobil- ity for all deprived children. In Britain, by contrast, education policy can still be the prime means of preventing the highly diverse immigrant minorities ever being forced into the homogenous damnation of Harlem-style ghettos. The alarums and excursions of 1968 have had one definite impact upon social inter- course across the Atlantic. Whatever the level of conversation seems on a wholly different level from that in Britain. Enoch Powell and the Editor of The Times may be playing to a great hush in John Osborne's refound land; in New York the Tiber runs red with blood through every cocktail party and around every dinner table. It is not Just the intensity of discussion of the Great Issues that is strik- ing?and the prospect of one's city burning down, one's head being cracked by a passing police nightstick, or one's son, husband or self being called to defend freedom in Viet- nam does add a certain intensity to the dis- cussion. War-talk, race-talk, student rebel- lion-talk is never-ending, Item: drunken businessman to previously unknown travel- ing companion on the three-hour delayed Boston to New Haven 'express': 'I say we ought to clear them out of there. Declare war and use the bomb.' Pause. 'I don't know what the hell we're doing there in the first place.' The unmistakable sign of a successful Nixon Administration would be the return of public discourse by private persons to the level of triviality experienced in America in the 1950s and in Britain today. Some chance. Now is the time, of course, for full-blooded speculation over the purposes and prospects of the incoming Administration. One aspect of Nixon's cabinet-making is clear, at any rate. For the first time since the pre-FDR 1920s, the Republicans are preparing to build their own Washington establishment of power brokers and inside operators. Unlike the ideologues and outsiders who held office under Eisenhower, men like the new Secre- taries of State and Defence, William Rogers and Melvin Laird respectively, are political pros. Their archetype is the man whom Lyn- don Johnson called in as receiver-in-bank- ruptcy for the Itusk-McNamara-RostoW policy in Vietnam, Clark Clifford. In the yet- to-be-written history of the age, Clifford will surely receive credit second only to Eugene McCarthy's for saving the 'System' from the folly of its managers by stopping the escala- tion of the war. Clifford has been the legend- ary master-operator of the System's Wash- ington nerve-centre for a generation. As Secretary of Defence, he put first things first by restricting the bombing, by refusing rein- forcements by moving towards negotiations, and by expressing a clear willingness to sacrifice the Saigon government in the in- terests of American political and social sta- bility. During the last nine months he has given an object-lesson to the new adminis- tration in self-interested American pragma- tism at its most enlightened. The great big question of the next four years is whether Nixon and his pros will have the shrewdness and the skill to pursue continuity with Clif- ford's pragmatism, rather than the conntinu- ity with LBJ's megalomania and with Rusk's dogmatism that Nixon espoused during the campaign. The political acumen of President Nixon and his advisers will be tested to the full as soon as the Inaugural ceremonies are over. In addition to the great issues of war, law and order and inflation, the F-111 scandal is about to blow up again. The project is by now an undoubted failure, at the cost to date of some $10 billion of US money (not to count the extra cash conned out. of Britain and Australia). The navy version has al- ready been cancelled and the air force ver- sion keeps falling down when they let it fly. of Remarks E 1343 On all accounts, a perfect tar baby to stick to Las's bedraggled coat-tails as he heads home to Texas. But Nixon has given a mighty, and all too characteristic, hostage to fortune. Three days before the election, in a vain effort to carry Texas, he went to Fort Worth (where the plane is produced) to pledge that he would make the F-111 "one of the foundations of our air superiority." At the end of the year, he compounded the po- tential embarrassment by naming as Under Secretary of Defense a director of General Dynamics (which makes the F-111). Now the relevant Congressional committees are getting geared .up to reopen hearings on the whole mess, with final cancellation looming in the background. One suggestion for get- ting the new President off the hook: back up his pledges to protect Israel's security by giving F-ills to Nasser. The past year has seen the consolidation of one aspect, and not a minor one, of the last decade's social upheaval. The progressive in- tegration of educated, middle-class Negroes? tokenist as it may be?has become dramatic. The active recruiting of black students by prestige, private universities barely raises a growl from reactionary alumni any more; there was one American Negro in the class which entered Princeton in 1961; more than eighty were accepted for admission in .1968. The professional schools and the professions are following suit. Television confirms the change: perhaps a quarter of the announcers, newscasters, etc. on New York's seven chan- nels are black, virtually all television adver- tising is integrated, and Diahann Carroll's friendly, formula, middle-middle-middle- class series is in the Top Ten. But the irony is stark. As the room for movement within or beyond middle-class America has expanded for those who can break out of the ghetto, the noose around the ghetto itself continues to tighten. Dur- ing this same decade, the number of people on New York's welfare rolls, overwhelmingly black and Puerto Rican, has risen from slightly more than 200,000 to over one mil- lion. A knowledgeable estimate is that an- other one million qualify for relief which they have not applied for. The city's budget is now greater than California's or that of New York State, and welfare is the largest item. The low skill jobs are disappearing and the craft unions, the next step up in a city without heavy industry, are bastions of the white backlash. The roads out are few: edu- cation to the professional level for a tiny elite, employment in the public sector for more (but the near-bankruptcy of the city has cut back opportunities sharply). Hence the demands for Black Unions, Black -Capi- talism, Black Power. Outside of the ghetto, the cost of living in central New York is following the astronauts to the moon, with no likelihood of re-entry. Rents are up more than 40 per cent. A first- run cinema ticket now costs more than two pounds. One new house-owner, around the corner from the Metropolitan Museum in the heart of Upper Middle Claes Manhattan dis- covered that the cost of installing a complete burglar alaYm system, with private, armed police on automatic call in radio cars, was more than offset by the saving on insurance premiums. New York Magazine put the pre- tax income necessary for a family to live in Manhattan in the style to which television has accustomed us at over $100,000 per year. No wonder that a measuria of de facto hous- ing integration is taking place, with white graduates finding feasible rents only on the fringes of the ghetto. In the meantime, financial and artistic New York constitutes to run wide open. The 'action' on Wall Street is wilder and woollier that ever; further uptown, the off-off-Broad- way theatre, playing to an increasingly un- epatayable bourgeoisie, is less self-censored and more exciting than post-LordlChamber- lain London. A dance to the music of chaos? At the least, the 'contradictions' of American Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 E 1344 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? Extensions of Remarks February 25, 1.969 society have, in New York, reached a 'world .bistorical. extreme: the 'West's economic and cultural capital towering over a humah refuse heap. CLEAN WAThei,S: A CONTINUMG GOAL HON. RICHARD D. McCARTHY OF NEW YUAN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRmsENT.arrivEs Tuesday, February 25, 1969 Mr. McCARTHY. Mr. Speaker, I in- tsoduce today on my behalf and that of my colleagues, Mr. Arnifitis, Mr. ADDARBO, Mr. ANDERSON of California, Mr. BING- HAM, Mr. BLATNIK, Mr. CONYERS, Mr. DULSKI, Mr. EDWARDS Of California, Mr. FARDSTEIN, Mr. FRASER, gr. HALPERN Mr. HASTINGS, Mr. HECHLER of West Virginia, Mr. HELSTOSKI, Mr. Hofesae, Mr. ,3osiss lei' Alabama, Mr. KmicZYNsxf, Mr, Mc- KNEALLY, Mr. MIKVA, Mr. OTTINGEk, Mr. lzio of New York, Mr. Reims, Mr. Rosa/s- lam, Mr. SCHEUER, and Mr. Wolar a Comprehensive water quality bill. I Much of this bill is the unfinished work of the last session of Congress?legisla- tion that did not reach final passage before adjournment. Both branches of the Congress had passe slightlydiffer- ing versions of water piglution control bills by overwhelming majorities. But, unfortunately, minor ditterences in the tWo bills were not ironed'out in time to enact a final version. It Is up to us to complete that work, to make this needed Water pollution control legislation ?nu of t e first orders of businaas of the last ngress. This bill goes beyond the major points r ised in last year's discus ,-,ions. It to- cises on the problem of lateral sewers, t e part of a sewerage astern that is most important in our rapidly grow .ng metropolitan areas. It simplifies adram- is ration of our water potution control p ograms. And it makes some minor anges that can speed up progres$ in ths field and insure that those States t at do move rapidly are treated fairly in the legislation. The United States facet many major problems today, the threat of nue,ear war, the crisis in our the tensions of I racial coniliot, and a growing pros- pe 'ty that has bypassed puts of our so- city. Each commands our attention, the f commitment of our mental and ph steal resources. But even while we strive to find solutions in these areas, we mast conserve our rich natural heritage of lands, waters, and seashores, for is the foundation on which Our econoinic and esthetic wealth rests. Enhanced' it is a source of strength; blighted it irLli slow and cripple us. Our land is rich in rivers and 1 4s arie seashores. Majestic rivers flow to the s 3a: The Hudson, the Ohio, the Chat a- haochee, the Mississippi, the Missotiri, the]I Columbia, the Rio Grande, and Colorado. Great inland seas wash shores of our northern States: Super' Michigan, Huron, Erie, wad Onta Each serving as channels qt commer as Sources of pleasure to millions, II giving rise to generations of sailors t have sailed their reaches. Magnificent ocean beaches shoulder the Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Pacific, each beach with its individual character, beauty, and form. And the great bays lining our coas.'s: Boston, New York, Chesapeake, Charleston, St. Petersburg, Galveston, San Diego, San Francisco, and Puget Sound, each an arm of the sea serving as a gateway to a major city. In the mind's eye one can see these rivers and lakes, bays and beaches in sparkling, unspoiled beauty. The true picture is something else again. For in a century we have- defiled our waters in a way that early genera- tions could not conceive. Our growing population, our indiscriminate indus- trial activities, our callousness toward the human values of our environment have turned our major waterways into sewers, have polluted our beaches, and threaten the very existence of some of our major lakes. 'This should be a source of shame for all Americans. Fortunately, Congress has recognized the importance of water pollution con- trol and has emoted legislation to aid States, cities, and towns in constructing sewage treatment systems. The authori- zation bills for Federal funds in this field have passed by overwhelming margins in both branches of the Congress. But the appropriations have not matched the authorizations; there has been a gap?a gap that has seriously hampered progress on construction of needed treatment plants and sewers. A total of $581 million was authorized for sewer systems in fiscal year 1968. We appropriated $296 million. A total of $836 million was authorized for fiscal year 1969. We appropriated $303 million. Our appropriations were more than $800 mil- lion below the amoint authorized. In the meantime our towns and cities are un- der legal orders to construct sewage treatment systems. It is no wonder that they sometimes fa:1 to comply. There has been some justification for the failure to appropriate the ameunts of money that have been authorized. The demands of the Viesnamese conflict have hampered progress in this area as it has in so many others. And until there is a lessening of the conflict, there will con- tinue to be a shortage of funds. This shortage has forced us to look for other means to meet our pollution problems. First, this bill is designed to make the limited funds that are available go as far as possible. By shifting from an individ- ual grant approach, one in which the total Federal sum is given to each proj- ect, to a capital :financing approach, available funds can be used to start many more projects. The capital financing ap- proach is one hi which the Federal Gov- errunent enters a 3t-year contract with a town or city that has an approved con- struction project. The Federal Govern- ment pays its share of the costs, as much as 55 percent, over a 30-year period rath- er than in one lump sum, The Federal Government pays both for the principal and the interest costs associated with the bonds issued by the town or city for the Federal portion. This is a key provision of this bill; it will allow us to start on many more water pollution control projects than we are at present. It eliminates a major bottleneck in the search for clean waters. Second, this bill establishes_ controls for the critical problem of oil pollution. No American needs to be reminded of the threat that oil poses to our ocean beaches, our harbors and our rivers. The Torrey Canyon, the Ocean Eagle that spilled oil on the beaches of San Juan in Puerto Rico, the Hess oil barge at Reho- both, Del., the catastrophe in the Santa Barbara Channel, the 1,000 oil spills that the U.S. Navy is responsible for each year, and the thousands of oil spills from industrial operations on our rivers and harbors must be controlled if we are to restore the quality of our waters. The oil spillage provisions of this bill were drafted before the major Santa Barbara incident. There is no question that the committee hearings may cause us to revise these provisions to more adequately meet this threat. Third, this bill deals with the problem of thermal pollution. Thermal pollution is a new threat, a threat rising from the growth in the number of nuclear power plants that are now being constructed around the country. Nuclear power plants operate in a manner that releases much more heat than the conventional power- plant. This heat must be distributed, and it is usually done with cooling waters. The cooling waters become a problem, however, because the heat reduces the capacity of the water to handle other pollution. Plants must be designed to either store the cooling waters until the heat is lost into the atmosphere or to use cooling towers to dissipate the heat. This bill requires that any Federal agency responsible for licensing of in- stallations insure that the installation' will not be a source of water pollution. The Atomic Energy Commission licenses each nuclear power plant; pollution con- trol will be a part of its licensing func- tion under this legislation. Fourth, this bill addresses the ques- tion of avid mine drainage from mining operations. Waters draining from aban- doned mine shafts are so acidic that they destroy any animal life in the streams and rivers they enter. Techniques must be found to control this source of dam- age. This bill provides assistance in meeting this problem. Fifth, this bill eliminates a provision in the current bill that would deprive some States Of Federal funds to which they are entitled. A prepayment clause in the present bill says that States which start projects approved by the Federal Government but for which funds are not available at the time can be paid for these projects at a future date, should these funds become available. This pay- ment clause expires on June 30, 1971. This provision will discriminate against those States which have begun work on water pollution control projects In good faith. They will lose considerable sums of money should this clause expire. My bill removes that expiration date. This is important to New York State, where a considerable number of projects have been started with some expecta- tion that Federal assistance would be available at a later date. Sixth, and perhaps of most signifi- cance, is a new provision bringing lat- eral sewers under the control of the Fed- eral Water Pollution Control Adminis- Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09: CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 February 20, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD Extensions of Remarks E 1193 at least, these people have a God-given right to pursue their freedom. Lastly, it will be necessary for the State Department to distinguish between 'involve- ment" and "intervention." It is true that the United States cannot spread itself thinly and risk its own national security by intervening in all of the world's disputes as an interna- tional policeman. Nobody has suggested this In the case of Biafra. It would be equally dangerous, in this small world of today, how- ever, to ignore confict like the one in west- ern Africa because there, as in the Middle East and in Southeast Asia, the communists are pursuing a policy of colonization which is part of their overall plan of world con- quest. At long last, we have learned of the necessity to become "involved" in the Middle East crisis. We have shipped arms to the Israelis to counterract the massive Soviet military subsidy of the Arab nations. In the Middle East, we have also learned the art of "involvement" without the kind of "inter- vention" which has cost us the lives of 80,000 American boys in Vietnam and Korea. If the Soviet drive in western Africa is to be stopped, if Moscow is to be denied control of that area's rich oil deposits which are essen- tial to the security of the NATO nations, and if the Soviet Union is to be blocked in its campaign to acquire a seaport on the Atlan- tic Ocean (Lagos) , it will require a consider- able amount of U.S. "involvement" in the Ni- gerian-Biafran struggle. Such "involvement" now will preclude the necessity of "interven- tion" later, THE IMPORTANCE OF CONSERVATION HON. SILVIO 0. CONTE OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 19, 1969 Mr. CONTE. Mr. Speaker, one of my constituents, Wescott E. S. Moulton, of Williston Academy, Easthampton, dis- cussed the importance of conservation and the very serious problems our indus- trial society has created for our natural environment. Because of the importance of this subject, I place this speech in the RECORD: WILLISTON ACADEMY CHAPEL, February 1, 1969. My text this morning is taken from various parts of the Bible. Genesis, Chapter 1, Verse 1: "In the be- ginning God created the heaven and the earth." 115th Psalm, Verse 16: "The heaven, even the heavens, are the Lord's: but the earth hath he given to the children of men." In September 1870, on the banks of the Yellowstone River in Wyoming, an exploring party of 19 men sat around their campfire discussing what should be done with this unbelievable country they had been travel- ing through. Some wanted to stake personal claims for their own advantage, but Cornelius Hodges, a judge in Montana Territory, pro- posed the idea that Yellowstone's unique natural, spectacular beauty not be owned by a few individuals. He said, "I feel it should be a national park." Thus a wonderful new concept was given its birth. The other men present on that historic night were persuaded and each promised to urge the proposal as vigorously as they could. These men kept their word and such was their prominence, their energy, and their followthrough that Congress two years later, in 1872, established Yellowstone as the first national park in the world. The idea grew and prospered?You know their names: Sequoia (1890), Yosemite (1890), Crater Lake (1902), Grand Canyon (1919), The Everglades (1947), and Many others all over the country even in Alaska and Hawaii. If ever you have camped and visited such places as the Petrified Forest, White Moun- tain National Park, hiked the Appalachian Trail (fromfrMaine to Georgia) and other such wonderful nature centers, you have a first-hand idea of how much these parks mean to you and will mean to your children. If you have been to them recently you know how overcrowded they are. The danger and the urgency are great. As those men planned way back in 1870, on the banks of the Yellowstone, we not only should protect these parks, we must ex- plore new possibilities for the millions of Americans yet unborn. I return to the Bible: Psalm 104, Verse 24: "0 Lord, how mani- fold Thy works: In wisdom hast Thou made all: The earth is full of Thy riches. And Ecclesiastes, Chapter 1, Verse 4: "One generation passeth away, and another gen- eration cometh: But the earth abideth for ever." But does it? Listen to these words. The speed in which our world is being altered is incredible. Forests are taken down, hillsides eroded and bulldozed. Waters filled in, and air and water polluted. The hidden danger, the mistaken assump- tion is that Man is the Master of Nature. If we so alter our environment eradicate that so it of ingredients we need for life, then we will surely pass the way of other life forms that have become extinct. Man needs oxygen to live. It wasn't until green plants and certain ocean plankton had evolved that the natural process was begun by which oxygen is main- tained in the atmosphere. This life-giving process is called photosynthesis. In the United States alone, oxygen-pro- ducing greenery is being paved over at a rate of one million acres per year. The oceans have become the dumping ground for as many as a half million sub- stances, few of which are tested to see if the plankton vie need can survive them. New factories, new automobiles, new homes, and new Jet airplanes have incred- ibly increased the rate at which combustion takes place which results in oxygen being used and replaced in our atmosphere by car- bon dioxide and carbon monoxide. When and iS we reach the point where the rate of combustion exceeds the rate of photosynthesis, the oxygen content of the at- mosphere will decrease. Indeed there is evi- dence that it may already have begun to de- cline around our largest cities. U.S. and Russian meteorologists agree that air pollution is already causing colder win- ters. Recently, deposits of D.D.T. have been found in human beings all over the world. Its extreme danger is -that its residue lasts longer and is more deadly than scientists had previously held. The evidence has become overwhelming that effective pesticides of much lower gen- eral toxicity are now available and that the use of D.D.T. should be outlawed. No one in the world knows, when we aim at a particular pest, which other organism may be eliminated by a ricochet. If some pesticide, herbicide or defoliant should by inadvertence kill too many of the nitrogen-living organisms?those organisms that enable living things to make use of the nitrogen in the atmosphere?then life on Earth could end. It is that simple. It is that dependent. It is that fragile. What can you as an individual do about all this? You can write your Congressmen. The most effective way to present your view and. con- cern is to write your Senators and Congress- men in your own words by personal letter. A couple of weeks ago, our teacher, The Reverend Douglas L. Graham, because he was concerned about the nomination of Alaskan Governor Walter J. Hickel to be Secretary of the Interior, wrote to Massa- chusetts Senator Eward W. Brooke about his concern. Mr. Graham received a four-page letter in reply. You, too, can make known your ideas and each one will be counted. Ecclesiastes, Chapter 5, Verse 9: "More- over the profit of the earth is for all: The King himself is served by the field." Here is one urgent example where you can test your importance, influence, and follow- through. The Everglades National Park in Florida was established in 1947. Now it is facing ex- tinction. Here is 11/2 million acres of the largest sub-tropical wilderness in the U.S., with a tremendous variety of plant, animal and bird life. The Everglades needs water if it is not to become a dump. It took thousands of years to create the Everglades. Now men have the ability, the machines, and the will to destroy it quickly. The draining of land for buildings and now the proposed new Jetport in Florida could kill this wonderful recreation area. The Lord gave us this world, but what we do with it is up to us. If the Bible teaches us anything, it points the way to keep ourselves and our world livable. Let us pray? Oh Lord, give future. Give us the follow-through Ideas known to And help us ours. In Thy Name we ask it?Amen. us the wisdom to plan for the will, the courage and the to make our constructive the leaders of our country. to preserve your world and THE GREATER SIGNIFICANCE OF THE "PUEBLO" CASE HON. LOUIS C. WYMAN OF NEW HAMPSHIRE IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 19, 1969 Mr. WYMAN. Mr. Speaker, the awe- some scope of the problems involved in the Pueblo case is sharply presented by Herbert W. Armstrong writing in "The Plain Truth Issue" of January 1969. I commend the reading of this article to the thoughtful review of Members of Congress and others who are deeply con- cerned to assure nonrepetition of such disastrous incidents in the future: WHAT PRICE HONOR? (By Herbert W. Armstrong) Of course we all rejoice that the crewmen of the U.S.C. Pueblo are back home safe? even if not as sound as they might have been had they not been subjected to almost un- believable beatings and inhuman torture. But many are overlooking the other side of the coin. I'm not a military man. I person- ally do place the value of human life far ahead of the value of materiel ships, and military equipment. I did not vote to make the United States a military power. But it Is a military power?in a world of military powers. And as such it must conduct itself as military powers are conducted?or lose face, lose honor?and, in the end, lose all free- dom! And this poses some serious questions: Approved For Release 2002/10/09: CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 E1194 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ?Extensions of Remarks February 20, 1969 To what depths of disgrace is the most powerful nation in the world willing to stoop? The United States stood disgraced before the ,world when it allowed the U.S.S. Pueblo to be captured, or to be in such position that it could be taken. WHAT SHOULD HAVE SEEN DONE To maintain honor and prestige in the world the U.S. Navy should have: (1) either protected the Pueblo so that it coUld not have been taken, or (2) sent superiol naval forces immediately after it and taken t back at any cost?even to obliterating all North Korean naval forces. This nation had the power to do it. But that power is not worth much when held in disrespect and cord erapt by even little nations. The manner of release of the Puebla erew- peen after 11 months of torture and into iman treatment was one of the most disgraceful and bizarre diplomatic episodes in the his- tory of international affairs. Orientals would die before they would lose face. If they knew the truth, no nation need ever go to war. But they do not knoW. And they do go to war. If America is goleing to be part of such a world, participating in its ways and its wars, it cannot continue to endure as a free country if it is willing to Cringe and crawl before little pip-squeek na- tions like North Korea. De we not stippose North Vietnam, the Kremlin, and the Chi- nese Communists are watching and new are laughing contemptuously at us? Yet big, powerful United States, with the Mightiest military power any natiolt ever had, has lost all pride in that power. It eigned a document drafted by North Korea meekly apologizing for offenses it says em- phatically it did not commit. It is like sign- ing an unconditional surrender to a con- queror in time of war. The very lac that the United States repudiated the contents of the document, branding its statements as lies before signing, dishonors this natiob the ore. If this nation has so little honor left that it publicly confesses to signing officially to 4 lie, it brands itself as a liar! Military men enlist, or are drafted, as men risking their lives for the honor and freedom of their country. When the United States did have onor, it often lost a hundred times as neatly Men to win a single battle. Military men have taught that human lives in certa n in- stances are more expendable than mflitary equipment or ships. Repeatedly in past wars that policy has been acted on. But now the weak excuse is that they saved the lives of the men. The men who were not required to sacrifice their lives, are borne. But the ship is not. The North Korean$ still have it. Had Theodore Roosevelt been President, the ship would have been rescued imrnfdi- ately after capture. Authorities today protest that to have gone in after the ship vec uld have cost the crewmen their lives. Of ?Curse we don't want to sacrifice those lives r But when a U.S. Naval ship was attacked and captured by an enemy naval force, thai was an act of war. And right or wrong, thi tibn has adopted the means of war?or in- taining and using military force--to pr tect eta honor, its freedom, and its sovereign y as a free nation. And to accept military d eat, when attacked in an act of war, on th ex- ctise that we were saving the lives oil our military men, is to surrender in battle r titer than fight and risk the lives of soldie s, or sailors. To carry that policy out to its iti- mate conclusion, in repeated aurrencleils, is to lose not only honor, but nitimatel all freedom. UPHOLDING NATIONAL HONOR I In previous wars, the United States has sacrificed hundreds of thousands of liv s in uniform?for what purpose? Why, offi ials weuld answer, to protect the Nation's h nor, and its freedom! No military nation can op- erate a military force, by accepting defeat ha an enemy attack, on the excuee we wanted to save the lives of men who had offered those lives to protect our honor and our freedom! The United States military saved those lives. We are glad they are home. But at what cost? First, they are home in obvious mental and moral exhaustion. They report having suffered inhuman tortures and beatings, pro- longed isolation, attempts at brainwashing. But how many more lives will yet be lost in future battles because enemies will now be emboldened by tins display of weakness to anticipate easy victories over a United States that is afraid to fight? Those lives were put on the block when those men donnee. their uniforms. If men sacrifice their lives for the honor and free- dom of their country, then, even at cost of their lives?the way things are done in this world?the nation's honor should have been upheld before the world. It should have been an example that shouted to the world: "Don't tread even lightly on U.S. honor?be- cause any nation who dares to do so will suffer the consequences." Then we should have been respected. I have mentioned before how I was stand- ing not more than six feet from former Pres- ident Theodore Roosevelt, during President Wilson's campaign .for a second term in early autumn of 1916. President Wilson was run- ning for re-election on the campaign slogan: "He kept us out of war." Mr. Roosevelt repeated the slogan con- temptuously. Mr. Wilson had been sending the Kaiser note after note, protesting the sinking of United States ships by German submarines. "I was President for seven-and-a-half years," said Mr. Roosevelt. "And if I were President now, I would send the Kaiser just one note?and he would know that I meant it! I did send the Kaiser a note when I was President. A German battleship was steam- ing toward Manila Bay to take the Pteilip- pines, then a United States possession. I sent a note to the Kaiser demanding that he turn his battleship back immediately! The Kaiser did not act. Immediately I sent a second note. But I did not send the second note to the Kaiser. I sent Jt to Admiral Dewey, in command of the U.S. Pacific fleet. My note ordered Dewey to steam full speed upon the German battleship, fire once over her, and order her to turn back. 'And if she does not turn back, sink her!' my note said. The Kaiser learned that I meant it!" Yes, the United States had PRIDE in its power then. Today we have multiple times that power, but we are afraid to use it. Not only did this country lose face the world around by this incident, that disgrace- ful release was made to look like a heroic act. What a travesty on honor! Of course we are glad these men are back and alive. We would also like to have thou- sands of others back alive who died in battle to protect their country's honor and its free- dom. Many, many centuries ago, the God of our fathers promised unconditionally to Abra- ham the overwhelming national greatness, wealth and power that has come to the United States and Britain. In Moses' day it was promised to the children of Israel of that day?IP they would be ruled by His laws and statutes. Otherwise, penalties would follow naturally for disobedience, and this great promise would be held back for a duration of 2,520 years. That 2,520 years came to its end in 1800-1803. Since the promise to Abraham had been unconditional, God was bound, and such vast national wealth and greatness as no nations had ever enjoyed came quickly? first to the British, then to America. But if we disobey God's right laws and reject Rim, once He has kept His promise by bestowing on us that promise, He foretold multiplied national punishments, and a com- plete FALL 01 our nations. Britain already has been reduced to a third-rate world power. Among the punishments- was this: "And I will break the pride of your power" (Lev. 26:19). This nation has rejected God in its schools and institutions of learning. Science has re- jected God (though some scientists as indi- viduals still profess Him) , and set itself up as the Messiah to lead us out of our troubles. Our morals have hit a toboggan slide. Our homes and family life are breaking down. Our juveniles are delinquent. A tenth of us are mental cases. We are rapidly becoming a nation with crime running rampant. Our people are taking to stirntilants, depressants, drugs, narcotics, In alarming proportions. Respect for law and order is breaking clown? and, though we don't seem to know it, our Nation is breaking down! And here is another example: God has kept His word?He has broken the pride of our power! HUNGER IN AMERICA HON. ROBERT 0. TIERNAN OF RHODE ISLAND IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 19, 1969 Mr. TIERNAN. Mr. Speaker, following Is the fourth installment of the current series of "Hunger in America" which is running in the New York Times: HUNGER IN AMERICA: MEXICANS AND INDIANS /TS STOICAL VICTIMS (By Homer Bigart) SAN ANTONIO, TEX.?Tacked on the wall of the inner City Apostolate were four new slips from hungry Mexican-American families for food. The Rev. Ralph H. Ruiz, who runs the mission for the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of San Antonio, glanced at the slips and ex- claimed angrily: "The whole welfare system in Texas stinks." The mission is on the fringe of Alazan- Apache Courts, the city's oldest public hous- ing project, where some 6,000 Mexican- Americans live in wretched poverty and fre- quent hunger. Of all the nation's ethnic groups?white, black, brown or red?the "Mexicanos" are suspected by nutritionists of being most vulnerable to hunger. For although there are nearly five million of them scattered through the Southwest, the Mexican-Americans have generally been un- demonstrative about their misery, complain- ing so seldom of empty stomachs that the "Anglos" (the non-Mexican whites) give them scant attention. "Brown Power" has not yet taken to the streets of San Antonio. Hungrier even than the Mexican-Ameri- cans, but less obtrusive because they are smaller in number and confined mainly to isolated wastelands, are the reservation In- dians. Of the more than 300,000 Indians liv- ing on reservations by far the largest tribe is the Navajo of northeastern Arizona. Alto- gether, 115,000 Navajos exist on an arid plateau bigger than the whole state of West Virginia. THE LAST FRONTIER The western half of this remote region, the state's last frontier, was not opened up by roads until about 13 years ago. Even today there are Navajos who live 50 miles from the nearest improved road. Last year 20 infants were brought in dead at medical stations, ac- cording to Dr. George E. Bock, the United States Public Health Service medical director, and 18 of those deaths were attributable to delay in reaching medical aid. At Tuba City, administrative center for the western half of the reservation, Dr. Jean Van Duzen, chief of pediatrics at the Indian Hospital, reported 27 cases of marasmus (calory starvation) and 17 cases of kwa- shiorkor (extreme protein deficiency) among Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RaP71BODMR000300150001-8 H 1122 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HU r eoruary 20, 1969 would never travel by bus. Higher air travel rates would force the student group to the private automobile. Student highway casualty rates would multiply. The 6 million student travelers in 1968 filled seats that would otherwise have been vacant. The benefits of reduced air travel fares should be extended to the elderly on a standby, or seat-available basis. Most elderly citizens living on retirement in- come cannot afford to travel at regular rates. Several years ago, the commercial air carriers imposed a penalty on travelers who canceled air travel plans without ample notice. Such penalties do not now exist and today the airlines suffer great expense because of passengers who either make multiple reservations or do not show at all. The standby traveler who uses airline carrier space on a space-available basis fills a seat which would be otherwise va- cant. He takes his chances on travel. He travels at times of low travel density. The reduced standby travel rate pro- motes more efficient use of the airlines which today operate half-vacant air- craft much of the time. The revenue pas- senger miles are less than one-half of the available seat-miles. The elimination of reduced standby fares will only create more vacant seats in aircraft which at present have twice as many seats as there are passengers. The reduced fare schedule for standby passengers is good for the airlines and good for the general public. THE "PUEBLO" (Mr. GROSS as.Vcr arrinwas given per- mission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include a letter.) Mr. GROSS. Mr. Speaker, I have a letter from a good friend?an ordinary everyday citizen?who expresses discern- ingly and well his sentiments concerning the tragic and sordid case involving the Pueblo and her crew. I am sure he bespeaks the sentiments of many, many Americans who find this whole affair incredible and who demand that never again will honorable citizens of the United States, military or civilian, be abandoned to a fate which in some respects is worse than death. The letter follows: As I read in the newspaper the proceedings of the Navy court of inquiry into the affair of the Pueblo, I feel a deep sense of resentment about the treatment of the officers and men of that ill-fated ship, not only at the hands of the North Koreans but at the hands of their own Government. A sense of shame sweeps over me as I become ever more deeply aware of how these poor souls were allowed to slip away into an environment of Commu- nist torture and hopelessness by the same Government that once nurtured the face of John Paul Jones, and:that is today acknowl- edged as the most powerful in the world. Why do we persist in publicizing the Navy's exhaustive cross-examination of the Pueblo crew? All we are doing is exposing the weaknesses of our Government, the ti- midity of our leaders, the pathetic rational- izations of our patent inability to react to a real threat, our obvious unpreparedness, OUT failure to recognize that the chain of our world-wide defenses is no stronger than its weakest link. Certainly, the examinations taking place at Coronado, California, do not reflect on the men of the Pueblo except to show their status as sacrifices offered up to the Red enemy in favor of "not rocking the boat" or not creating a more serious crisis which might call for firm and truly American action. Just what are we afraid of? And if we are so afraid of the possible consequences of fast and forceful action on our part, why is it that little nations like North Korea are not similarly afraid? Just how can we ex- pect our military men to carry on in unsel- fish and dedicated performance of their du- ties when incidents like the Pueblo demon- strate no real intention to back them up and to move heaven and earth, if need be, In the process. These men of the Pueblo were not cloak and dagger types, operating covert- ly behind enemy lines. They were not of the sort who, if captured, must never be acknowledged. They were military men, uni- formed personnel, performing their mission (even if one of intelligence) in an overt manner. They should have been able to ob- tain a response to their call for help from any U.S. military capability within range, immediately and without question. The plain truth of the matter is that they were aban- doned by their own, shamefully abandoned, and this travesty is still being pursued through the .medium of a public court of Inquiry. I wonder and so does many another Ameri- can what this court of inquiry hopes to prove? So far it proves nothing except ab- ject failure on the part of our civilian and military leadership to deal courageously with a bunch of bandits in North Korea. And in the process it demonstrates beyond belief the failure of our Government to plan in depth an efficient intelligence operation and to effectively protect the interests of the United States abroad. Hail to the men of the Pueblo! I honor them for enduring their trial of fire?I sym- pathize with them for what they are going through now?I hope no other Americans will ever have to share their experience?I hope no other American will ever have to feel so alone, so left to his own devices by a country he was born and bred to trust and love and expect great things of. APPOINTMENT AS MEMBERS OF U.S. TERRITORIAL EXPANSION ME- MORIAL COMMISSION The SPEAKER. Pursuant to the pro- visions of section 1, Public Resolution 32, 73d Congress, the Chair appoints as members of the U.S. Territorial Expan- sion Memorial Commission the follow- ing Members on the part of the House: Mr. HAYS, Mrs. SULLIVAN, and Mr. CAMP. APPOINTMENT AS MEMBERS OF THE LEWIS AND CLARK TRAIL COMMISSION The SPEAKER. Pursuant to the pro- visions of section 3(b), Public Law 88-630, the Chair appoints as members of the Lewis and Clark Trail Commission the following Members on the part of the House: Mr. HUNGATE, Mr. REUSS, Mr. BERRY, and Mr. CUNNINGHAM. APPOINTMENT AS MEMBERS OF COMMISSION TO STUDY MORT- GAGE INTEREST RATES The SPEAKER. Pursuant to the pro- visions of section 4(b), Public Law 90- 301, the Chair appoints as members of the Commission To Study Mortgage Interest Rates and the Availability of Mortgage Credit at a Reasonable Cost to the Consumer the following Members on the part of the House: Mrs. SULLIVAN and Mr. BROCK. COMMUNICATION FROM THE CLERK OF THE HOUSE The SPEAKER laid before the House the following communication from the Clerk of the House of Representatives: The Honorable the SPEAKER, U.S. House of Representatives. DEAR Sin: I have the honor to transmit herewith a sealed envelope addressed to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, said to contain a message from the President wherein he transmits a special study regard- ing the administration of the Headstart pro- gram. This envelope was received in the Office of the Clerk at 3:55 p.m. on Wednes- day, February 19, 1969. Sincerely, PAT JENNINGS, Clerk. SPECIAL STUDY OF HEADSTART PROGRAM, OFFICE OF ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY?MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES (H. DOC. NO. 91-75) The SPEAKER laid before the House the following message from the Presi- dent of the United States, which was read and, together with the accompany- ing papers, referred to the Committee on Education and Labor and ordered to be printed: To the Congress of the United States: Section 309 of the Vocational Educa- tion Amendments of 1968 directed the President to make a special study of whether responsibility for administering the Head Start program should be left with the Office of Economic Opportunity, or whether it should be delegated or transferred to another agency. Congress asked that a report of this study be sub- mitted by March 1, 1969. I am submitting the report herewith. This report has been prepared in con- sultation with the heads of the Executive departments and agencies concerned. The study concludes that Head Start should be delegated to the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. It leaves for later determination the ques- tion of whether the program should eventually be transferred. As I have in- dicated in a message to Congress today, I will present a set of recommendations before the end of the current fiscal year on a permanent status and organiza- tional structure for the Office of Eco- nomic Opportunity. At that time, I will make a recommendation on whether Head Start should be transferred, or whether it should remain a delegated program. Section 308 of the same Vocational Education Amendments of 1968 directed the Commissioner of Education to make a special study of the means by which the existing Job Corps facilities and pro- grams might, if determined feasible, be transferred to State or joint Federal- state operation. The Commissioner was directed to report his findings to Con- gress by March 1, 1969. Approved For Release 2002/10/09: CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Ag9rAved For Rtase_202110/09 ? CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 February 20 NCi-KESS.R_NAI: RECORD ? HOUSE 111121 before World War n, so the Pentagon e,x- perts do not really know whether it can be done or not. The history of the 1947-48 effort to do aWay with the draft tends to support the President's theory. You get that story in the accompanying article, on the next Page. ENLISTMENT UNDER PRESSURE What is known for sure, as a result of elaborate manpower studies by the Pen a- goi in the past two years, is this: he hot breath of today's draft amanita for a large share of the manpower nova in uniform. Many more youths are prodded into vo unteering by the threat of the draft th in are actually drafted into the service. 'the most recent Pentagon study snows th t 38 per cent of the enlistees in all serv- icea would not have volunteered without the pressure of the draft?including 43 per cent of all Army volunteers, 23 per cent of the Navy volunteers, 43 per cent of the Air Force and 30 per cent of all Marines. In the Wilber corps, the comparable figure is 41 per cent. Draftees actually comprise oily 20 te 26 per cent of the Army's strength. There are no ldraftees in the Air Force or Navy, only a fevr in the Marine Corps from time to time. So the basic problem in ending the draft is to find another way to keep volunteering high. HOW 1V/ITCH MORE PAY:. An increase in military pay, the Pentagon studies conclude, may not be enough, by it- self, to replete the spur of The draft. yet better pay is at the top of the list of possIble incentives. The big question is how large pay raises must be to lure the needed recruits add re-aniistrnents. To maintain a force of 2.6 million meal fit l963, the service required an "input" abo t 800,000 men during that year, cou ingl inductions, enlistments and re-enl me What it would take to raise that numher of Volunteers each year without a draft, the manpower experts say, will dcaoend on the state of the nation's economy -just holy har4 it is to get a good job in civilian life. Depending on the unemployment rate, Pentagon estimates show that added mili- taryspayroll coats would range from 4 to Ht billian dollars a year. Ir a year when unemployment reached it per pent?compared with the current 3.3 per cent?the most likely minimum cost is given as about 8 billions. Other studies carry more optirnistic price tags of from 5 tO 7 billions yearly. Bait a vital point, Military experts note, is that, even outlays such as the would not guarantee an adequate supply Of the better- eduaiated manpower needed by a force of 2.6 million men in this era of sophisticated war- fare. In, particular, they stress, itwould be cum. cult to induce 3,000 or more paw icians an- nual)y?nearly 50 per cent of th,C)be graduat- ing I from medical schools each year?to volunteer for military service through itt-1 armlet' pay alone. '117 same problem is likely to be met, tie auth rities add, in the case of computer prt grammers, intelligence analysts, missile r - pairmen and electronic technicians. Any vo unteer plan that is adopted is thus expectd to allow forcontinued drafting of physicia and certain other highly skilled people. Harold Wool, a top manpower official in the Pentagon for nearly 20 years, gives h s view I as follows, in a just-published boo "The , Military Specialist": "Exclusive reliance upon wage incentives as a inea,ns or tncreasing the supply of high qualilied volunteers would prove very costly. and probably impracticable, in. a high- ployment economy." No halfway system of incentives will wor , either, in Mr. Wool's judgment. He puts t this Way: "A comprehensive voluntary recruitment effort must encompass the whole range of living and working conditions which shape the image of military service. . . . It is un- likely that any partial program that does not substantially alter the image of mili- tary service can hope to succeed." Besides higher pay, Mr. Wool sees the need for "better use of individual Allis and abilities; opportunities for upward mobility from enlisted to officer ranks; improved hous- ing; and Increased emphasis On Measures to enhance the status of military personnel" in the American society. AN ALL-EL ACK FORCE? Would all-out efforts to lure _volunteers turn the armed forces tnto mercenaries, most- ly black? This has been suggested by some authorities. However, a Pentagon study indicates that an all-black military aorce Wziot o_real pos- sibility. There are not enough Negroes in the U.S., according to this-Study, to fill up the armed forces, even ie every qualified Negro enlisted. Of the 200,000 inale Negroes who turn 18 each year, the aliglifily more than half qualify i for e arnae forces under present stand- ards. If all t alifying Negroes volunteered and stayed in, service for six years, their num- bers then yr uld account for only about one quarter of ? armed fcrce of 2,6 million men. On the .- .er hand, if nearly all Negroes concentra in the Army, and that branch were fixed t a size cf 1 million men, Ne- groes woul soon comprise more than half of all U.S. ?idlers, under the assumptions stated abov As a eta in efforts to reduce reliance on the draft, D ense Secretary Melvin It. Laird announced bruary 4 he will seek "major revisions" in Unary pay to stimulate vol- unteers. - CON TONAL HEARINGS Changes in e way the draft _operates, even if on a at. dby basis, also are in the wind. Chairman . Mendel Rivers (Dem.), of South Carolina, f the House Armed Serv- ices Committee, se ? :February 10 that his Committee willhold earings this-spring and reopen the draft la to congressional re- view, to Include possi ly a lottery selection system. With firm White H se backing, and a growing mood for draft ?ges in Congress, a trial of the "volunteer rmy" idea is con- sidered certain. But its timing depends on events in Vietnam and Ale need :or U.S. forces elsewhere. THE LAST alma THE UNITED ST#ESTRIERTO XXVI' ON VOLTJ VTEMAS The U.S. sought to get atong without a military draft soon after Wor d War II ended In 1945. The effort was Hinit , and it failed. Late 1945 and all of 1046 was a time of chaotic demobilization for th armed forces. They dropped from 12 million-men tO 2 mil- lion by the end of 1946. The elraft went on, but calls were low, with none at all called in several months. On March 3, 1947, President Truman told Congress the armed forces were dotan near the level of 1,641,000 that was the goal for the year starting July 1, 1947. _ "The only assured MeallS of maintaining the Army and Navy at their required strengths . . . is through resort to Selective Service," the Preaident said, but added: "I have decided however . .. with the ear- nest desire Of placing our Army and Navy on an entirely volunteer basis at the earliest possible moment, that I should not recom- mend an extension of the Selective Service and Training Act at this time." As a result the draft law, which 4prpireci on March 51, 1947, WRE not renewed. The Selective Service System was abolished, its records put in storage. The armed farces laaanched a recruiting campaign. The Pentagon got special au- thorny to hire civilians to replace enlisted men. With no draft, however, volunteering lagged. The civilian economy was booming. Jobs were plentiful. Many people, including high officials, thought atomic weapons had made soldiers obsolete, with no future. And there was no pay raise for the military, de- spite much talk about changes to make serv- ice careers more attractive. By January, 1948, the armed forces had dwindled to 1.4 million men-15 per cent below the authorized levels, which President Truman had described as "absolute require- ments" for "reasonable assurance of secu- rity." In March, 1948, Mr. Truman told Congress this: "I believe that we have learned the im- portance of maintaining military strength as a means of preventing war. We have found that a sound military system is necessary in time of peace if we are to remain at peace. . . . We have paid a terrible price for unpreparedness." The President recommended a system of universal military training, obligating youths 'to serve at age 18 for 12 months, followed by a period in the reserves. A renewed draft was urged for those already past 18. Congress rejected unlVersal service but re- newed the draft. Volunteering picked up im- mediately. First draft calls for the period from November, 1948, through January, 1949, were cut back, and only 35,000 were inducted. From mid-January, 1949, through June, 1950, no one was drafted. But the machinery kept going. Youths were registered, classified, deferred, "kept on the hook" through all of this year and a half of "standby draft." Then came the Korean War, which ended the draft lull and talk of an all-volunteer military system. In 1951, Congress even adopted the name, though not the substance, of a universal military training law. It set up the draft sys- tem still in use today--and under increasing attack is outmoded after 18 years and the onset of new conditions. REDUCED AIR FARES (Mr. VANIK asked and was given Per- mission to address the House for 1 min- ute and to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. VAN1K. Mr. Speaker, I am today joining my distinguished colleague from New York (Mr. SOMMER) in efforts to amend the Federal Aviation Act to au- thorize the Civil Aeronautics Board to continue youth fare reductions on com- mercial aircraft for students under 22 years of age and military Personnel. In addition, this legislation authorizes the Civil Aeronautics Board to extend re- duced fares to retired senior citizens. The current policy of reduced youth fares and military fares are under attack in the Federal courts as discriminatory to the general traveler_ This litigation is fostered by interstate bus operators who complain about the shift of passengers from bus to air transport. Some of the major air carriers also seek a termina- tion of these reduced rates which have filled otherwise vacant seats on commer- cial aircraft. The low-paid serviceman is entitled to ride commercial aircraft at reduced rates--otherwise a 4-day pass would be meaningless. The morale at the soldier Is best fortified by a visit to his home. Reduced air fares for students have served to divert millions of students from the highways to the airplane. They Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP711300364R000300150001-8 19 MprecicirEmikigmEo9gmfb LittRavoinogp6omphp0150001-8 February 19, E 1143 Against a muted background of traffic horns echoing outside on Chase Manhattan Plaza, Rockefeller, a PhD. in economics from the University of Chicago, folded his six feet of height onto a sofa and replied to questions. Q. Do you think there is likely to be an- other dollar crisis this year? A. Well, I must say I don't think you can rule it out as it passibility. But I think that the position of the dollar is a great deal stronger than it was six months ago. There's no question about that. Whereas nine months ago there was a real crisis of confidence in the dollar around the world, I think the combination of our tax bill and the troubles in France served to change that very dramatically. The result is that today the dollar is very much in demand, and of course there's a tremendous flow of long term investment into this country. Q. But do you feel, sir, that we have our house in order, on our domestic economy? A. No. I think we've taken the first steps. I think that the new team in the Treasury is absolutely first rate. Q. Of course we have a Chicago man in Treasury Secretary David Kennedy. A. lie was a candidate of mine. But to answer your question: Have we put our house in order? We have not yet dealt with infla- tion. And although our balance of payments appears superficially to be much improved, we haven't yet dealt with the most funda- mental aspect which is our trade balance, which has continued to decline. So until we get our inflation down to a very minimum, manageable amount?which I would hope would be under 2 percent, and until we improve our trade balance (what is called the current account), I don't think we can feel comfortable about our situation. TAX AND suarAx Q. Regarding the inflation, are you sug- gesting that the 10 percent surtax should go on for at least into the next fiscal year? A. In effect, yes. It's very hard for me to see how the situation could change suffi- ciently between now and the middle of the year to justify removing the surtax. Q. What about agitation in Congress to Increase the tax burden on upper-bracket incomes? A. Well, certainly from a political point of view, it is appealing. But the importance from a revenue point of view of the (federal) income that could be derived if you took 100 percent of the highest brackets would be minimal. It really would be insignificant . . it has political appeal, but from a purely tax point of view, I don't think it's that important. Q. This might be an indiscreet question. Of 'course there are no indiscreet questions, only indiscreet answers. But what about the agitation regarding the oil depletion allow- ance and the tax setup for oil income? A. Well, that's quite different. There, the tax that could be derived would perhaps be more significant, although I honestly don't know exactly what it would mean. I think that there it is a question of what one thinks is good policy in terms of the de- velopments of our petroleum resources. If we don't think it's important to main- tain our known reserves of oil, why, then, a very easy way to eliminate those reserves is to eliminate the depletion amount. If we do think it's important to. maintain them, then depletion (allowance) is naturally the essen- tial thing, SPACE BUDGET Q. Would you stretch out?that is, slow down?spending in the space budget, for example? A. I would be inclined to look at that area pretty hard. And I think probably some of the highway programs?again they could be stretched out. They're certainly important, but probably less urgent than some others. I'm sure a lot could be done in the field of agricultural price supports. Economically, this would certainly be desirable. Whether it's politically possible is another question. Q. How do you weigh the priorities of full employment and inflation? A. At the present time we have over-em- ployment in many respects, particularly in the skilled trades. There's a real shortage of people?we feel that in the bank. We have hundreds of unfilled requisitions for people. Q. What does that mean in bank terms? economists? A. No, just typists, computer operators, and so forth. I think that an easing up of the economy would take the pressure off the employment market, and I think we're going to see some Increase in unemployment as we measure it. My guess is that when the figure gets below 4 percent (it has ranged around 3.3 percent lately) , that the pressures of inflation are apt to be very great. But that is not to say that we shouldn't continue to work with that portion of the population which is unemployed and which, for all intents and purposes, now are unem- ployable. JOB TURNOVER Q. You are speaking of Negroes, hard- core . . .? A. Yes. Essentially the groups with the largest percentage of unemployment are peo- ple under 25, Negro, and in the large cities. And I think we should do a lot of work with them and bring them into the labor force. But this is something entirely apart from monetary and fiscal policy. Q. I'm trying to think concretely. Who are going to be the unemployed when you go up a couple of percentage points to over 4 per- cent? Who will they be if you're having suc- cess, hopefully, bringing these hard-core people in? A. I suppose what it means is that there's a little bit more time between jobs, that kind of thing . . . that the turnover period is not quite as rapid as it is now. Q. Are you saying that this is such a big economy that there is room for a few rough edges in that machinery? A. Right. I'm afraid we had three years of considerable inflation, and I'm afraid that it's not possible to eliminate that, without some price. And the price means the slowing down of the rate of growth of the economy, and some moderate increase on a temporary basis in the percentage of unemployment. Q. Do you think Federal spending on prob- lems of the cities ad poverty must be in- creased, despite anti-inflation priorities to hold down the Federal budget? A. I'm certainly very much in favor of care- fully developed and selected programs in terms of job training, education and aid to construction of housing for the lower income groups. These are the three areas that particularly need help. But I don't think we can afford unlimited expenditure. Q. Would you include on that list tax relief for businesses that are doing a lot in a train- ing way or are building special plants in the inner city locations? A. I think there are instances where tax abatement can be a useful tool. Obviously one has to use it sparingly, or else you lose your source of revenue. DEFENSE BUDGET Q. How do you feel about the defense budget? A. Of course, hopefully, the war in Viet- nam will come to an end, and this should bring some significant relief. But I'm afraid we can't look for drastic cutbacks in the general defense budget at the present time. I'm afraid that the action of the Soviets in Czechoslovakia and the Middle East and the Mediterranean and elsewhere is an indication that we're not yet at the ? point where we can look for a major cutback. Q. How do you see the problem of adjust- ing the economy, when the Vietnam war budget is phasing out? A. I don't anticipate that being an acute problem, or one that would be of long dura- tion. I think I have seen the figure that it would involve a readjustment of the labor force, something on the order of 2 percent. This is hard on the 2 percent, but this isn't a sufficiently large number so as to cause general disruption in the economy. So I think this need not be a serious thing for us. Indeed . . . it could be a little bit helpful in slowing up the pace of the economy and helping us cut back during the process of readjustment. Q. Do you see the gross national product going up over $1 trillion? (It was $860 bil- lion for 1968.) A. Oh, I think it will, in a year or 18 months. FURTHER IN RE U.S.S. "PUEBLO" HON. JOHN 0. MARSH, JR. OF VIRGINIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, February 18, 1969 Mr. MARSH. Mr. Speaker, whether it represents a blunder or embarrass- ment?or something more or less seri- ous?the incident of U.S.S. Pueblo, now under inquiry by the Navy, has troubled many citizens. In a column of recent weeks in the New York Times, James Reston raised the question of how national blunders and embarrassments might be evaluated dis- passionately for the record of history. Without specific comment, I include the text of this column, as follows: COMMANDER BUCHER: WHO WILL INVESTIGATE THE INVESTIGATORS? (By James Reston) The Navy Board of Inquiry in the Pueblo spy ship case raises some interesting ques- tions about how we investigate official blund- ers in the United States. Obviously, the Navy had to look into the ships mission, its activities off the North Korean coast, its inability to destroy the enemy or itself, and the consequences of its capture, but was this inquiry conducted by the right people, at the right time and in the right manner? Not only Crndr. Lloyd M. Bucher, the Pueblo's skipper, is suspect in this tragic inci- dent, but the Navy and the Defense Depart- ment are also under suspicion, and the latter are in effect sitting in judgment -on them- selves. BUCHER'S ORDEAL Commander Bucher and his crew clearly had to be questioned quickly and in private on the intelligence aspects of the case while their memories were still fresh, but why a public inquiry before Commander Bucher had regained his composure and under con- ditions which raise serious doubts about whether the spirit of due process was being followed? The Navy's handling of the pUblic in the open hearings is also very odd. It concedes the public's right to know what is going on in the open part of the board's hearings and it keeps a transcript of the proceedings, but it refuses to allow the public transcript to be published, or permit the reporters in the open hearings to take down their own tran- script. Thus a news reporter who knows shorthand can record the Q and A while an- other reporter who does not know shorthand can not. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 E 1144 ApproveiMMTMM/1_0/09 ? CIA-ROP711300364R0030015000.1-8 RECORD?Extenszons of Remarks February 19, 1969 THE LARGE QI7ESTION The main question here, however, it not about the transcript or even about the Navy. The Navy Is at least following a tredition all too often ignored in Other parts of the Government?that is to say. it does inVesti- gate error. The question is whether it can really be objective about its own errors, whether in thit case it is being fair tto Com- mander Bucher, and even more important, whether we have in this country an adequate system for reaching objective judgments on major policy blunders much more serious than the Pueblo case. There is, of course, the right of investi- gative review in the Congress, which in many cases is highly effective, but in some eases is unavoidably political and subjective. The President has the power to set up investigat- ing commissions, as President Kennedy did after the Cuban Bay of Pigs disaster, but again there is the problem of the actuaed passing judgment on himself. The British have more effective instru- ments for dealing with this sort of thing. Being older and therefore knowing More about human weakness, political cutting, and the slippery slopes Of truth, thy have created the device of the Royal Comnitasion, which can call upon men and wo n. less subject to the usual frailties of bition and suspicion to sit as a Committee Of in- quiry on the really momentous blunders that trouble a nation. The United States has recognized the need for some such committee of elders to help us through supreme crises. The Pueblo case Is not in this category. It merely rapes the questions of right and wrong procedures. But Pearl Harbor and the murder of Presi- dent Kennedy did force us to experiment with something like the Biltish Royal Com- mission--something that could minhnize doubt in a doubting age, something laeyond polities to investigate great politica] ques- tions. , We did set up a kind of committee of elders to investigate Pearl harbor and the Kennedy assassination, and, while the pres- tige of the elders did not _avoid controversy, they probably minimized It and suggested a way to deal with such problems in the future. TIME FOR REAPPRAISAL Probably the militant young of the present day would reject the whole idea of an out- side committee of elders, since presumably some of its members would be over thirty, but even so, something 1.11 the investigative procedure is missing, some group of our citi- zens who would command the maxilla= of respect, to find out what went wrong on the really spectacular mistakes of national policy. Even now the nation does not knew how we lost our way before the Bay of Pigs, and It is obviously too early to look into the blunders of Vietnam, whisk have cost us the lives of over 30,000 of our fellow ceuntry- men. But there should be some better way than we have now of studying the pot to learn for the future, and the tragic case of Commander Bucher merely reminds i that our procedures of investigation nee4 to be re-examined. A TRIBUTE TO IEDTJARD MONDLANE HON. DONALD M. FRASIIIR OF MINNESOTA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTNIfIVES Tuesday, February 18, 196 Mr. FRASER. Mr. Speaker, cne of Africa's exceptional leaders, Dr. Eardo Mondlane, president of the Mozaljhbique Liberation Front, was assassinated Feb- ruary 2. Dr. Mondlane gave his life to the cause of freedom and self-determi- nation for his people. In a resolution adapted 2 days after Dr. Moncilane's death, the Board of World Ministries of the United Church of Christ passed the following resolution, a fitting tribute to the fallen leader: The United Chu:Th Board for World Min- istries expresses gratitude for the life of Dr. Eduardo Mondlane for his service to his country, for his ex f maple of steadfastness and courage, for his leadership and for his Chris- tian witness to al: mankind. This Board is proud to have had a small share in his train- ing and to have been associated with him as a student, as a worthy staff member of the United Nations, as a member tof the faculty of a great university and latterly as a far-seeing leader of his people in their struggle for freedom. He excelled and excited the admiration and love of many. We sorrow over his tragic death and ex- tend to his wife, Janet, and their children our deepest sympathy. . MEETING THE CHALLENGE HON. DON EDWARDS or CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, 17ebruary 18,1969 Mr. EDWARDS of California. Mr. Speaker, there is much discussion about the failure of our institutions to provide students with skills that will equip them to take their place in the labor force once they have completed their formal edu- cation. Unemployment and the resultant social and economic problem it presents often can be traced directly to the lack of skilled training necessary to gain em- ployment. With a vocation comes pride and dignity, and feeling of achievement, and the chance to direct one's life that a person who is unskilled and unemployed does not have. In our technological society there is an increasing demand for skilled work- ers. This is a challenge that must be met by our cities and schools. I am proud to say that the city of San Jose Unified School District Is doing just this. On January 30, 1969. I had the honor of at- tending the dedication ceremonies at the San Jose Regional Vocational Center and in a speech Mr. Henry T. Gunderson, a member of the board of education of the San Jose Unified School District, told the audience how San Jose is meeting the challenge through vocational education. I now include Mr. Gunderson's timely comments in the RECORD, as follows: MEETING THE CHALLENGE (By Henry T. Gunderson) Today we hear a great deal about meeting the challenges thar, face our schools, and the changing times We are living in, and how we must adjust to keep abreast. This is true, but it is the tempi) of change that has been thrust upon us by events over which we had no control that is responsible for the prob- lems to which we now seek solutions. This tempo has greatly accelerated in recent years, due to man's new fund of knowledge and means to apply it, and whether our scientific and technical development was motivated by Sputnik or the arms race, the problems con- fronting us are no leas real. To fully appreciate this tempo of change, permit me to go back in history and trace a few events that have affected our lives. Please note the time lag ever decreasing, from the time an idea was advanced, to its devel- opment and ultimate use. Hero of Alexandria built a boiler about 150 B.C., and used the steam generated to drive a crude turbine. However, it wasn't until 2000 years later that steam was used to usher in the Industrial Revolution that brought a great change in people's lives. The Industrial Age started a movement from the farms to the cities, and the need for indus- trial skills. The first principle of electricity was dis- covered by Thales in 600 B.C. However, it wasn't until 1894, through the combined genius of Tesla-Edison, Steinmetz, and others, that the first commercial power gen- erating plant was put into service. In the 16th century Leonardo da Vinci drew plans for an aeroplane, which looked remarkably like contemporary planes, and 400 years later the world moved into the air age. In 1895 the X-ray was discovered, and only 24 years later, Rutherford split the nitrogen atom by alpha rays. Then, 26 years later, the atomic bomb became an awesome reality. In 1926 experiments were made with liquid fuel rockets, and in 1957, came Sputnik. Our national attention and energy focused on catching up in the missile race and we moved into the space age. At present, plans for equipment, jets, and spaceships are becoming almost outmoded before they are built, due to the acceleration of man's fund of knowledge and his ability to store, retrieve, and analyze said knowledge at will, through the use of the computer. Many of you present here tonight in your life have witnessed more technical and scien- tific development than in all the rest of the history of the world. We have seen great strides in the field of electronics, transpor- tation, communication, and the conquering of outer space, just to name a few, and with even greater predictions for the future. Each of the events I mentioned has brought with it a constant demand for new skills and knowl- edge that must be acquired, not only to build and to construct what our engineers design, but to service and maintain them as. well. The 20th century has brought with it fantas- tic developments, and in its wake has created many major problems for which solutions must be found. The days are gone when man was permit- ted a slow gradual change, when simple basic skills were handed down from father to son for centuries on end. The problems of present day society permit us no such luxury. Like Alice in Wonderland, we must run twice as fast just to stand still. Vocational training has a greater role to play than ever before, if we are to fully meet our responsibilities to our youth. We must provide them with the skills which will enable them to organize their lives?develop positive goals?and pro- vide for themselves and their families?a life of dignity, fulfillment, and achievement. Those of you assembled here tonight, that received your first occupational skills at a Vocational school recognize its value. Yet today a large percent of our students are dropping out, or terminating their formal education upon graduating from high school, with no specific skills. Too often they become unemployed statistics, present many of our social problems, and endure needless years of frustration. The Federal government, in response to these problems, has authorized the expenditure of high sums of money for many programs that have one thing In com- mon: to provide the necessary- education and acquisition of skills to gain employment. Skills that might have been acquired at schools such as this and must be provided if such conditions are not to be perpetuated. This new Regional Vocational Center is 'Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 1072 ApprovetWeNtIMPPVLS69116arEAMINPV/4Wea}15q0P318cary 18, 1969 family home was destroyed. His late father, John W. Evatt, was a career officer on the San Francisco Police Department. OTHER POSTS After his retirement from Mare Island, Mr. Evatt served as an assistant Solano County probation officer for five years, then served part-time with the U.S. Marshal's office. He was the husband of the late Mary A. Evatt, who died in 1960; the father of Edward Vincent Evatt and Mrs. Beverly Ann Whor- ton, both of Vallejo. Five grandchildren also survive. Mr. Evatt's community activities included nine years of service on the Vallejo Planning Commission, with terms as chairman; as a member of the board of directors of Catholic Social Service, and as chairman of the 1960 March of Dimes in Solano County. ELKS MEMBER He had been a member of St. Vincent's Parish since coming to Vallejo in 1919. From 1943 to 1946, as a member of Vallejo Elks Lodge 559, Mr. Evatt was director of the lodge's canteen for servicemen and for this voluntary work, he was presented with an Award of Merit from the Grand Lodge of Elks. Mr. Hyatt was a member of the Last Man's Club of Solano County, an organization formed in 1937 with a roster of 37 veterans of World War I who have met annually for a reunion on Armistive Eve. He also was a past commander and adjutant of American Legion Post 104, a member of Carl H. Kreh Post 1123, Veterans of Foreign Wars; and of the Association of the 363rd Infantry Regi- ment, Co. C., 91st Division, American Expedi- tionary Force. He was a member of Solano Chapter 16, National Association of Retired Civil Em- ployees, and of Samoset Tribe 22, Improved Order of Red Men. A popular master of ceremonies through- out his years in Vallejo, Mr. Evatt was a member of American Guild Variety Artists, an organization of show business people. He also was a life member of Eagles Aerie No. 5, of San Francisco. GIVE PRIORITY ON POSTMASTER JOBS TO CAREER POSTAL WORK- ERS HON. THADDEUS J. DULSKI OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, February 18, 1969 Mr. DULSKI. Mr. Speaker, I favor taking the selection of postmasters out of politics and I have developed far- reaching legislation toward this end in the postal reform bill?HR. 4?which I introduced on the opening day of the 91st Congress. At the same time, I believe that we should give initial consideration to our career employees in selection of post- masters?even as the Department has been doing for years with its noncom- petitive examinations for postmaster candidates. In more and more cases, in recent years, our new postmasters have come from the ranks. However, in announcing his policy on selecting postmasters, Postmaster Gen- eral Blount has eliminated the "promo- tion" prospect for career postal workers. He would have only the open competitive examination. This is a mistake. I am introducing legislation today which will give priority to career postal workers in selecting postmasters. It requires that a competitive exami- nation be given first to career postal workers when a postmaster vacancy develops. If there is no qualified postal worker, then an open competitive ex- amination can be given to all who wish to apply. The examinations would be given by the U.S. Civil Service Commission as they have been right along. The Postmaster General would be re- quired to select for appointment the top qualified individual from the list which would be certified by the Commission. Political clearances would be barred. It is my firm belief that selection of postmasters should be on the basis of merit and experience. U.S.S. "PUEBLO": MISTAKES THAT 6IffMT BE IGNORED HON. JOHN M. ASHBROOK OF OHIO IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, February 17, 1969 Mr. ASHBROOK. Mr. Speaker, the temporary relief which came at the re- lease of the men of the U.S.S. Pueblo has now been replaced by an anxious con- cern. Across the Nation people are ex- amining reports from the inquiry by the Navy and expressions of interest by var- ious congressional committees. No greater interest in the men of the Pueblo and the ramifications of the in- cident has been indicated than by the Newark, Ohio, Advocate. Their constant probing for answers, their constant re- minders, and attempts to distill facts from contradictory reports, have been helpful to the people of their area and have also provided a fine standard of journalistic interest and expression. This newspaper recently published three editorials on the incident. Three more in a long series. First, a comment of December 23 following release of the crew. Second, a statement of January 14 which calls for an investigation by Con- gress. Third, a statement 1 year after the seizure directed at an examination of the roles played before and after the sur- render and seizure. The concern of the paper and the peo- ple of that area has also been brought to the attention of the distinguished chair- man of the House Armed Services Com- mittee, in a continuing attempt to have the problems clarified and the answers given. The point of it all is simple: mistakes of this magnitude over such a long pe- riod cannot be ignored. I insert the editorials at this point: HONOR VANQUISHED The men of the Pueblo are free. That is good. Eighty-two of them are still alive. But that is where the goodness stops. From there, negligence, incompetence, cowardice in the face of the enemy and humiliation take over. It is time for investigation. We have bemoaned the fact that a fourth- rate power like North Korea could so easily defeat the United States of America. Well?look at the facts and the mystery disappears: 1. North Korea showed greater nationalistic pride and purpose than our leaders judged them to have when they approached the Pueblo with armed ships. 2. Their military men showed more per- sonal courage and national dedication than U.S. fighting men when they captured by force of arms an American ship on the high seas. 3. North Korean leaders showed superior dedication, planning and tactical ability when they delivered the Pueblo to a North Korean port while our leaders wallowed in indecision and self-pity. 4. Once they had our ship, our men and our national pride, North Korean leaders proceeded to out-negotiate us with a deci- siveness of purpose, which has become for- eign to our own diplomats and military lead- ers. 5. In the final humiliation, our leaders agreed to a statement that could have been signed months ago. North Korea made the United States dance to its tune until it was tired of playing. 6. They have our ship, our national defense secrets and a big chunk of our national pride. 7. That makes North Korean a fourth-rate power with first-rate national pride, courage, decisiveness and dedication. The United States of America is stuck with the role of being a first-rate power with fourth-rate mil- itary and diplomatic leaders. Shame on us. These seven points make one thing very clear: The incompetence, cowardice and in- decisiveness must be removed from our mil- itary and diplomatic services, for another Pueblo can never happen. The role of our leaders?from the highest general to the officers of the Pueblo?must be investigated by Congress. Congress alone knows the dedication, courage and pride of the American people. Let it act swiftly to remove those military and diplomatic lead- ers who do not truly reflect these great quali- ties. We dare not lose time. If these Do-called leaders had been men of honor, they would have resigned their commission by now. In the absence of honor, let us at least have justice and safety for the American people. INVESTIGATION, NOT VENGEANCE The Advocate is seeking congressional in- vestigation of the Pueblo fight. We single out military and diplomatic leaders simply because they are responsible. Regardless of who did what in the fight, those who accept the honor of their positions must accept the responsibility when things go wrong. Top Navy and Pentagon officials are pres- ently preparing a "court of inquiry" involv- ing the Pueblo's crew. Well, the Pentagon can have its little witch hunt, It's not the Pueblo's men who need investigating in this fight. America needs to investigate the in- vestigators?and the sooner the better. The Advocate does not seek vengeance. We seek information on behalf of the people, just as we do when local public officials refuse the people public information. The Advocate has gone to court on many occasions to es- tablish the "People's Right to Know." We can do no less on matters of national or international injustices. In that area we are indeed a small voice, but that does not ex- cuse us from speaking. Only Congress can get at these men of high position because they have built buffers and platoons of "yes men" to keep the public Ignorant of their weaknesses, fears and mis- takes. They often treat the public like em- ployes who are given information when or if they feel it is necessary. As most Americans, The Advocate is an- gered by the seizure of the Pueblo. We were concerned about the fate of the 82 deserted Americans. We were ashamed by the treat- Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 18, i@RgwecckpitOggffiratiallailla:CIA-RDP71600364RQ00300150001-8 February KMAACIJ ? Extensions 01 emar s negotiate and it wouldn't call the cops: 7't just went limp. Altho the university did refuse the rebel deMand for amnesty, and altho it has M- stitilted disciplinary proceedings aged fit soniJe members of the occupation force, th re is iinplicit in its attitude some suggestion that students are a privilegeci class, exe pt trona the processes of authority and law whieh govern all others. This outlook is reflected in some rather muzzy rhetoric with which President lid- ward H. Levi saluted the encL of the sit-In. He said that universities are different "films other institutions of modern life." By exten- sion, we suppose, students also are to be considered different from the common herd, whOse actions are governed by a healthy respect for the arm of the law. AS the distinguished Charles B. Huggins said, the hard-core revolutionaries who seek to bring America to its knees seized univer- sity property and engaged in other criminal acts. Dr. Huggins was almost alone among the members of the administration and faculty to voice censure of this behavior in unMistakable language. If any ordinary person had tried to take pos4ession of someone else's property the haw wo d be breathing down his neck in an instant. But the university, with vast for- bearance, put up with this intolerable act of aggression for 15 days. We have said re- peatedly that any institution or official with a decent respect for law and property rigfits would not have stood still before this chill- lenge but would have cleared the building without delay. A threat of expulsion nipried a siMilar invasion of the university's admln- istrition building within 20 minutes list May. We do not see any material difference lie- tween the invasion of the premises of a pri- vate university and the invasion of a private home. Both are acts of lawlessness, and they invite the penalties written into law that appy to everyone. By turning the other cheek the university enc urages a repetition of these tactics, abel the revolutionists promise to satisfy ttis dea h-wish, The rebel circular announcing the nd of the sit-in said, "It's over for no*." The operative words are "for now." The intention was repeated by a leader of the &quatters in saying, "But let the univer- sity know this: We will be back. We must regroup and plan new strategies. We May wait until spring or this fall, but we will be back." T to ere is one thing the university can do to protect itself against the threat, and that Is throw the book at everyone who had t hand in bringing disgrace to the instituticir. The lot of them should be sent packing. AtlY other university which wants them can have them, but it is warned what to expect. A GEN. DOUGLAS MAcARTHUR COMMEMORATIVE STAMP HON. MARIO BIAGGI OF NEW YORK I/s1 THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, February 17, 1969 r. BIAGGI. Mr. Speaker, I wish ith urg the issuance of a Gen. Dougllai Ma Arthur commemorative stamp. Is ing such a stamp would be but a sinal tribute to a man who was in eve sense a heroic American. Our count will not soon produce another man MadArthur's greatness. He belonged an age which acknowledged the imPera. tivesi of duty, honor, and country. We can find no better words to live by, this side of, Scripture,, than his, given at his last public appearance at West Point: The shadows are lengthening for me. The- twilight is here My days of old have van- ished?tone and tint. They have gone glim- mering through the dreams of things that were. Their memory is one of wondrous beauty, watered by tears and coaxed and caressed by the smiles of yesterday. I listen vainly, but with thirsty ear, for the witching melody of faint bugles blowing reveille, of far drums beating the long roll . . . But in the evening of my memory . . . always there echoes and re-echoes: Duty, Honor, Country. A stamp would be an appropriate trib- ute to the memory of Douglas Mac- Arthur, but the record of his he will always be his finest memorial. Gradu- ated from West Pant in the -elass of 1903, he had a 4-yea.:' average of 98.14?: a scholastic record unequaled for years. He won his "A" in athletics and the rank of first captain of the corps. As a young officer in Mexico, MaGAr- thur was with the U.S. expedition that seized Veracruz in 1914. He led a scOut- ing mission so daring that he was recom- mended for, but not awarded on that occasion, the Medal of Honor. In World War I he was wounded twice and decorated 13 times. He was called the "greatest leader of troops we have' by the commander of the American Ex- peditionary Force, Gen. John J. Persh- ing. After serving as the Army's youngest Chief of Staff, MacArthur arrived in the Philippines in 1935 to map defenses for the islands. On orders from Washington, MacArthur turned over to Gen. Jona- than Wainwright the task of defending Bataan and Corregidor and moved to Australia to direct the war in the Pacific. He vowed: "I shall return." He did. On October 20, 1944, the General waded ashore with his troops at Leyte. Nine months later, liberation of the Philippines was completed. On Septem- ber 2, 1945, aboard the battleship Mis- souri in Tokyo Bay, General MacArthur accepted the Japanese surrender and embarked on a new career which some say was his greatest. As the Supreme Commander in Japan, he wrote the constilaition that shaped that country's democratic future. He transformed a feudal, militaristic nation into a peaceful democracy and a staunch ally. At '70 years of age, MacArthur again commanded troops. His defeat of the North Koreans was brilliant. Then Red China entered the war, and MacArthur was forbidden to carry the initiative into China. The general passed away in 1964. How- ever one judges his rale in history, none would deny the impressive impact he made on all by his outstanding qualities of leadership, his pro:round dedication to whatever he undertook, his sense of jus- tice, his high principles, and his firm Ideals. So that this Old Soldier will never die in our memory, let us urge the approval of the issuance of a s Amp to commemo- rate proudly the memory of one of our Nation's greatest military leaders. E 1.01r MILT EVATT OF CALIFORNIA: WAR- RIOR, ENTERTAINER, MARSHAL, PLANNER, SHIPBUILDER, AND RIEND HON. ROBERT L. LEGGETT OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, February 18, 1969 Mr. LEGGETT. Mr. Speaker, on Jan- uary 28 last the wonderful career of my friend, Milton J. Evatt, came to a close. Uncle Milt was a little-sung hero but one of those rare individuals who in one lifetime could Manage a dozen separate careenseand bring a little guidance and lightrinto the lives of those he touched. Milt was an unsung hero of a gen- - ration of very talented people?self- taught?not by any college or any train- ing school. He many times mused over his teenage tenor 3-hour night club en- gagements when his repertoire would extend from Irish lullaby& to Yankee Doodle Dandy. A soldier during World War I, he not only entertained the troops but ended up in the hospital, a poison gas victim. After the war he returned to Vallejo where he started at the bottom in ship construction and rose to assistant man- ager of the progress section, a position he gallantly filled during World War U. He voluntered to emcee the Elks USO show during the war years when he matched wits entertaining troops with e best acts of the last generation. He orked for many years on the Elks Sick Committee having a main concern for ' hL,buddies and comrades of World War I. Ie also served as Commander of Amer- ican'Legion Post 104. He retired with 30 years', service from the Navy yard in 1952. \ No man to retire before his time, Uncle Milt wee, recruited as Assistant Solano County Probation Officer where he worked far another decade with hard- to-handle ?'uveniles?his advice was 14 carat. He work d for years in civic develop- ment, risim to the position of chairman of the Vaijejo Planning Commission. Upon reaching mandatory county re- tirement,. he worked for a half dozen years as an assistant Federal marshal In San Francisco, He was later to emcee my first orga- nizational dinner in my bid to this seat in the U.S. Congress. An adviser to my office for many years on the problems of the elderly, his coun- sel a will missed and his friendship treasured. /Part of his newspaper epitaph reads -as follows: MILTON J. EVATT TAKEN BY DEATH Milton J. (Milt) Evatt, 77, of 301 Butte St., Vallejo resident prominent in community activities for the past half-century, died Monday night in a local hospital after a brief illness. Mr. Evatt, a native of San Francisco, came to Vallejo in 1919 following Army Service in Europe in World War I. He was employed as a pipe fitter at Mare Island, and retired in 1952 as a progressman. He was a survivor of the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906 in which his Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 February 18, 19ApprCellttigiVERSOMPASORMikb -ClitaPRZIP09P WM*00150001-8 E 1073 ment we got and accepted at the hands of an outlaw nation?treatment that was greeted by silence or glee by other nations of the world. But we are horrified at the thought of such a blow to our national safety happening again or even becoming commonplace. We know the military and diplomatic leaders who let the Pueblo fight happen did not al- low it on purpose?that they are sorry. We know that all men are subject to mistakes and many can be ignored or forgiven. But mistakes of this magnitude over such a long period cannot be ignored. They must be probed until all the weaknesses and fears have been fully bared and defined. Only in this way will we and other nations of the world know that it will not be permitted to happen again. Only then can we safely announce in ad- vance what we will do if any outlaw nation tries it again. It is childish to expect the gen- erals of the Defense Department or the dip- lomats of the State Department to wash their dirty linen in public. Career men run those departments and they would already have resigned if they in- tended to dash their own careers and those of their associates in weakness and fear. It has come down to this: Only one man and his associates can protect America against the threat of such fights in the fu- ture. He is most emminently qualified. This man is Cong. L. Mendell Rivers of South Carolina, chairman of the House Armed Services Committee. Our plea for in- vestigation rests with him because Congress is where our hope lies. Write to Cong. John Ashbrook and Cong. Rivers, House Office Building, Washington, D.C. Tell them in your own words why Amer- ica must have this investigation. SCAPEGOAT?NO, NO, NO It is fitting for The Advocate, and every concerned American, to make special note of this date?the first anniversary of the Pueblo fight. It is not a time for breast-beating about our loss but rather a time for reasoned investigating into causes and preventive measures. The Navy and the Pentagon are at this moment trying to make Commander Lloyd M. Bucher scapegoat of the whole affair with the dishonest hope that this will satisfy the American people. Well it won't. The investigators need investigating. We believe they should and will be. We are not qualified to make a judgement or even comment upon the guilt or innocence of Commander Bucher. But we know for certain that the full responsibility for this shameful incident in American history does not rest upon the shoulders of one frail man. The most shameful roles in this incident were played before and after the surrender and seizure. FFA WEEK HON. MARK ANDREWS OF NORTH DAKOTA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, February 17, 1969 Mr. ANDREWS of North Dakota. Mr. Speaker, as a recipient of the FFA hon- orary State Farmer Award, I wish to call to the attention of my colleagues that February 15 to 22 is FFA Week in Amer- ica. The theme of National FFA Week is "An Opportunity for You." FFA provides an opportunity for youth in agriculture to learn, to do, to earn, and to serve. The FFA organization does not make these young people great. But rather it provides them the opportunity to excel, to grow, and become outstanding youth leaders for agriculture in America. Experience in leadership, citizenship, and cooperation, and the pursuit of vo- cational and educational objectives pro- vide these young people with opportuni- ties for personal growth. Participation by members at local, State, and national levels within the organization is the basic plan. An FFA member begins his career as a student of vocational agriculture. He has thus elected to begin his career in agriculture. He and the others like him find common goals and objectives in FFA. His opportunities in FFA are many; much more than the awards or contests which are important in providing compe- tition, experience, incentive, and en- couragement. The member can apply what he learns in the classroom to his personal agricultural situation. Through active participation, the member can demonstrate his ability in public speak- ing, parliamentary procedure, or live- stock judging. He also takes part in es- tablishing chapter goals, and just as im- portant--helps accomplish them. Many typical chapter activities include earning their own resources and providing com- munity services. Through the FFA, a member can de- velop skills and prepare himself for his vital role as an adult leader in American agriculture. Millions of young people have grasped these opportunities and pro- gressed. Many more will find opportuni- ties in FFA to learn, to do, to earn, to serve. MID-DECADE CENSUS BILL HON. THOMAS L. ASHLEY OF oxxo IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, February 17, 1969 Mr. ASHLEY. Mr. Speaker, today I am introducing a bill which provides for a mid-decade census of population, unem- ployment, and housing in the year 1975, and every 10 years thereafter. This legislation is not new and, in fact, passed the House of Representatives in August of 1967 but, unfortunately, it failed enactment by the Senate during the 90th Congress. I urge its adoption by both Houses as quickly as possible, because there appears to be universal agreement that an inventory at 10-year intervals of the most important resource of our country?its people?is altogether too infrequent. We are in fact now pay- ing the price for failure to act years ago to provide for a 1965 census by having to use obsolete 1960 figures in appraising our condition and needs, and in the plan- ning and conduct of vital programs in education, poverty, roadbuilding, and many other fields. Not only the Federal Government, but State and local govern- ments, business and other interests, are suffering from a lack of timely and re- liable data. Much money has been spent to fill in the statistical gaps with surveys and estimates but the results fall short In comprehensiveness and reliability of what a mid-decade census would have produced. Other national censuses?agriculture, manufacturing, retail and wholesale trade and services, mineral industries, transportation, State and local govern- ment?have by law been placed on a 5-year basis. This bill would restore the most important and widely used census to an equal footing with the others in terms of frequency. I would like to cite some events which have taken place in Toledo, Ohio, in the Ninth Congressional District which clear- ly illustrate the need for a mid-decade census. Toledo, Ohio, has grown by 20 percent since the last census was taken 8 years ago. This is one of the fastest growth rates in the State of Ohio, and the city's largest population boom in nearly half a century. But because most Federal and State programs returning tax dollars to local communities are funded under formulas based on the 1960 census?the only re- cent official figures available?this tre- mendous growth has cost the city of Toledo hundreds of thousands of dollars. Toledo's largest documented loss is the forced return of more than half a million dollars in local government fund pay- ments because the census did not show that 81 percent of the residents of Lucas County live in incorporated areas. The last census figures showed 79 percent of the county's population living in incor- porated areas, 2 percent less than the number required by law to enable the city to get a 70-30 split of the local gov- ernment fund. After 1963, when city officials knew that the 81-percent figure had been passed, largely by virtue of annexations, it began claiming a 70-30 split and the money was granted by the State. How- ever, the county filed a claim for return of $377,831 on the basis that the city- county fund had to be based on the latest census figures and the county won in court. The city was therefore ordered to repay the money. The dispute over the funds has taken on many additional arguments on both sides and the city has been ordered to repay $445,000 and $176,000 in fund over- payments. But the basic dispute goes back to the census figures and based on four appeals, court decisions have gone against the city in the past 15 months. These rulings have gone against the city despite the fact that the Toledo- Lucas County Plan Commission has said that by 1964 as many as 85 percent of the county's residents were living in in- corporated areas. The Commission esti- mates that 90 percent of all Lucas Coun- tians live within incorporated areas now. In addition to the money the city has been ordered to repay, the outdated 1960 census figures have cost Toledo and other incorporated communities in the county thousands more than could have been claimed if the official figures were up to date. Another example of the need for a mid-decade census is illustrated by the results of the Supreme Court's one-man, one-vote edict in 1962 requiring redis- tricting of congressional districts and re- apportionment of State legislatures. In Ohio, as in other States, officials used estimates of current population in get- Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 E 1074 ApproveMfaftbgfellKederti-REVAMPRRWRI4500ineruary 18; 1-96 ting in line with the equal vote dictim. But those plans using the current popu- lation estimates were overturned when justices ruled that official figuresH-even though outdated?had to be used In the past 8 years we have witnessed a dramatic rise in the number of Fed- eral programs designed to aid States and localities and various segments of our population in such areas of education, health, regional development, housing, transportation, urban renewal, and re- source development. We have appro- priated millions of tax dollars to these all-important efforts to improve ciur do- mestic welfare. It is imperative that,these tax dollars go where they are needed and planners can only assure that this is done if they have the official statistical data giving them an accurate pictUre of where the need lies. As the Congress strives to enact the programs which will improve the en- vironment and opportunities of a our citizens, we must be certain that we act on the most up-to-date and accurate in- formation available. We do not have this data now. With the dynamics ef eco- nomic and social change constantly ac- celerating, the need for timely aCCurate statistics will be even greater in future decades. It is Our responsibility to see that this data is at our fingertip that it is available for use by all pu offi- cials and planners?and as we seek the assistance of private industry and ;orga- nizations in efforts to make this cOuntry a better place in which to live surely we have an obligation to give theta the facts as they are. RELEASE OF LT. JOSEPH P. FROM RED CHINA DUNN HON. SILVIO 0. CONTE OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, February 17, 19619 Mr. CONTE. Mr. Speaker, under leave to extend my remarks in the RECORD, I include the following resolution by the Commonwealth of MassachusettS: RESOLUTIONS URGING THE PRESIDENT AND THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES OBTAIN THE IMMEDIATE RELEASE OF LT. J aSPH P. DUNN, OF RANDOLPH, FROM RENctaiNA Whereas on February 14, 1968, L . Joseph P. Dunn of Randolph, a 'U.S. Navy pilot, was shot down in the China Sea and has been de- tained by the Red Chinese govern got, al- though Peking has acknowledged phiblicly only the fact of his crashing; and Whereas the unreasonable detentitoe, of Lt. Dunn tends to heighten the aireauy tense relationship between Red China Old this country while his family and friends! attempt to endure the agonizing wait for inftrination as to his well being: Now, therefore, be it Resolved, That the IVIassaehusetta ,Senate respectfully urges the President and 'tile Con- gress of the United States to use all reason- able means to obtain the immedia5e,release of Lt. Joseph P. Dunn frOm the control of the Peking government; and be it further Resolved, That a copy of these re olutions be transmitted forthwith by the Se etary of the Commonwealth to the Preside t of the United States, to the presiding officel? of each branch of the Congress and to the members thereof from the Commonwealth. Senate, adopted, February 5, 1969. NORMAN L. PIDGEON, Clerk. Attest: Jor-IN F. X. DAVOREN, Secretary of the Commonwealth. OUR FORMER COLLEAGUE, BARRATT O'HARA HON. RAY J. MADDEN OF INDIANA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, February 18, 1969 Mr. MADDEN. Mr. Speaker, Rabbi Har- old P. Smith, of Congregation Agudath Achim of South Shore, 7929 Yates, Chi- cago, fll., extends a great tr ute to our former colleague, Barratt 0' ra, Rabbi Smith is a formfU" chairman o the Rab- binical Council of America witk a host of friends in the House of Reprwnta- tives where he was former acting Vap- lain. He was invited by the Chicago NilY Calumet on January 24, 1969, to write, a "Viewpoint" column for the religious community of the Calumet area. I take pleasure in extending my remarks to in- clude this column which pays tribute to our former colleague, Barratt O'Hara: APPLAUSE FOR O'HARA (By Rabbi Harold P. _Smith) I have been invited to write this "view- point" column today, and although I am an Orthodox rabbi I want to follow the unor- thodox procedure of dedicating this column to one faithful individual in public life whose unmatchable faithful service to our Southeast area constitutes, in itself, a very beautiful chapter in public service. I do so because all too often we take such rare indi- viduals for granted. I refer to the outgoing Congressman of our Second Congressic nal district, Barrett O'Hara, You should know if you don't already know, that Barrett O'Hara has been one of the most beloved and most revered men in the United States Congress. Having been chair- man of the Rabbinical Council of America, I have been in position to observe, often from close quarters, how deep and abiding has been, and still is, the reverence and love with which the legislators regard Barratt O'Hara. It is not merely because he is one of the few still surviving veterans of the Spanish- American war. It AS not merely because he has been one of the most informed, most intelli- gent men in the United States Congress and has remained remarkably alert and knowl- edgeable despite his 87 years. It is not Merely that he is such a very loveable man who constitutes a personal embodiment of the Biblical ideal alit "Thou shalt love" thy neighbor as thyself. It is all of these things and many more. But the big quality I would point out here Is the remarkable and extraordinary sense of loyalty and faithfulness which Barratt O'Hara has mamfested to every single citi- zen who has been one Of his constituents. I would assert with confidence and without fear of contradiction that no citizen of our Second District, however unimportant he may consider hirnself, has ever gone to Bar- ratt O'Hara's office in Washington without getting the highest possible level of atten- tion, courtesy, and friendship from Barratt O'Hara himself, personally. What has all this to do with religion? A great deal! The quality at gratitude is the very essence of religion, and ingratitude nothing short of religious desecration. Prayer, in its highest form was never in- tended to be exclusively petitionary, i.e., ask- ing the Good Lord for things we want. Much more was it intended to provide us an oppor- tunity to give expression to our feelings of thanks and gratitude for the blessings which are Divinely bestowed upon all of us. The proper development within us of the fine human quality of gratitude and appre- ciation is, in a very real sense, as religious a process as prayer. As Barrett O'Hara leaves office after all these years of loyal and faithful servioe far beyond the call of duty, I am wandering whether there is in our hearts an adequate measure of gratitude. I don't think we ought to let such .a ven- erable man merely fade out of office without any expression of public thankfulness. It is my "Viewpoint" that we ought to have a public testimonial dinner in our district where nobody wants anything from any- body?no fund raising, no political motiva- tions, nothing?only to express appreciation to a wonderful human being who has faith- fully and capably served our area. I am hereby making the first reservation. CORALVTT,T ,F DAM HON. FRED SCHWENGEL OF IOWA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, February 18, 1969 Mg. SCHWENGEL. Mr. Speaker, when spring draws near in Iowa, especially after a severe winter such as the State has exerienced this year, thoughts natu- rally Wm to the problem of possible floods. n can be a frightening time of Year for those who live in areas subject to flooding. The personnel of the Corps of Engineers and other State and Fed- eral officials concerned, assure me that their contIngency plans are in order, and that they Will be ready and able to cope with any problems which may arise. In this respect the Iowa City Press Citizen recently featured an excellent editorial on the background and func- tion of the Coralville Dam, which relates to this problem. Under unanimous con- sent I include the editorial in the RECORD, as follows: ANOTHER TEST? The Coralville Dam and Reservoir have been in operation about a decade now. That's long enough for it to become accepted as a part of the landscape, long enough to make it difficult to recall when the river in Iowa City wasn't turned on and off like the water from a spigot. It's even long enough so that the bulk of controversy about water levels years. But rates is confined to election But what is the reservoir? It is: At summer level, 680 feet above sea level, it is the second largest body of water now existing in the state of Iowa--only Spirit Lake is lsrger?with a surface area of 4,900 acres. (Completion of the Red Rocks and Rathbun Dams and Reservoirs soon will take the Coralville Reservoir down a couple of places in the rankings.) During the summer months, June 15-- tpt. 25, the reservoir holds more than 171/2 llion gallons of water which, its operators, Approved For 'Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R00 300150001-8 11 900 Approved ForReltufkraCRAMAElit-E6M3(10W40300150Ongruary 17, 1969 It was his selfless parents who turned tragedy into hope when they suggested that the young boy's heart might be used for a transplant. Without it, doctors believe young Christine could not have lived much longer. She was suffering from a serious heart defect since birth. Mr. Speaker, I know that all of my colleagues join me in wishing this coura- geous young girl and her family the very best. We offer our best wishes to the talented team of doctors and professionals who performed the operation and have cared for Christine. I believe the feelings of most Cincin- natians are well captured in the following Cincinnati Post & Times-Star and Cin- cinnati Enquirer editorials: [From the Cincinnati Enquirer, Feb. 10, 19691 Two CHILDREN, Two MIRACLES Two modern-day miracles touched the col- lective conscience and heart of Greater Cin- cinnati this past weekend. One, the successful transplanation by a surgical-medical team at Children's Hospital of the heart of William Michael Becker, seven-year-old Loveland lad who suffered fatal brain injuries in an auto accident earlier last week, into the body of six-year-old Christine Corhn, suffering from a congenital and incurable heart defect, is a surgical mir- acle that, to the amazement of the lay mind, has become an accepted technique in medi- cine's rapid advancement. But when the mir- acle occurs almost at one's doorstep its mean- ing becomes all the clearer. The second miracle is the unfaltering con- cern and empathy for others so nobly demon- strated by Mr. and Mrs. William Becker, the parents of William Michael, in their time of deepest grief. Upon being informed that their dying son's heart could offer hope for a nearly normal life to a little girl who herself was faced with the prospects of an early death without a new, strong heart, the Beckers hesi- tated not a whit. By giving new hope to Christine Corhn, they have memorialized their son in a fashion whose meaning is beyond the power of the written word to convey. Though the discipline of surgery may cause doctors to view the hu- man heart as just another organ or muscle, we feel constrained to think that Mr. and Mrs. Becker have caused their young son to live for them through their unselfishness. The Beckers' total commitment to their hu- manitarianism was further demonstrated by their allowing William Michael's skin, kid- ney's and eye parts to be taken in science's? and humanity's?cause. The hopes of everyone for her continued improvement and eventual recovery go out to Christine Corhn. Along with heartfelt sympathies, Mr. and Mrs. Becker are extended everyone's emo- tional sharing in a miracle of which only they can be fully aware. [From the Cincinnati Post & Times-Star, Feb. 10, 1969] TRIUMPH OF THE HUMAN SPIRIT A great human drama is unfolding in Chil- dren's Hospital and the community is gripped by it. The hopes and the prayers of all of us are centered on pretty little Christine Colin and the doctors and nurses who watch over her in her battle for life. And the hearts of all of us go out to Mr. and Mrs. William Becker who have turned a personal tragedy into a triumph of love for humanity. They donated the heart of their little boy, killed by a traffic accident, to Chris- tine that she might have a chance for a normal life. The whole community honors the Beckers. We hope their grief is lessened by the knowl- edge that they tried to help Christine Corhn. We pray that help will be successful. ONE-BANK HOLDING COMPANIES POTENTIAL THREAT TO DEPOSI- TORS (Mr. BENNETT asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. BENNETT. Mr. Speaker, the House Banking and Currency Committee has published a staff report on the one-bank holding companies in our country, which presents a p6tentially dangerous situa- tion to banks and their depositors. In 1933, the Congress adopted a very sound principle, which I believe should be upheld today. That is, it is against the public interest for banks and non- banking businesses to be controlled by the same ownership. In 1956, the Congress enacted the Bank. Holding Company Act to prevent undue concentration of control of banking by bank holding companies. Included in this legislation were several exemptions, and on signing the law, President Eisenhower said: The legislation falls short of achieving these objectives . . . The exemptions a,ncl other special provisions will require the further attention of the Congress. The most glaring loophole in the 1956 law was the one-bank holding company exemption. The significance of this loophole? The new House Banking Committee report states? has been dramatically illustrated in the United States. The report points out this includes nine of the 12 largest commercial banks in the country, and since 1956 the num- ber of known one-bank holding com- panies has grown from 117 to 783. In bank deposits, the increase has been from $11.6 billion to $108.2 billion, a growth of over 800 percent. In light of the committee's excellent staff report, it is obvious that something must be done to guard against continued monopoly, concentration of business power and conglomerates of big business and big banks. Mr. Speaker, my bill, H.R. 946, which I have introduced over the'last two Con- gresses, would remove the exemptions to the Bank Holding Company Act, includ- ing the one-bank and the labor and agri- cultural organization provisions. In 1965, when this legislation was be- fore the House of Representatives, my amendment to a bill which would have removed the long-term trust exemption from the 1956 act, was passed on a record vote of 199 to 179. This amendment stripped the Bank Holding Company Act of all its loopholes, but only four exemp- tions were removed in the Senate. I believe the Congress should and will act this year to remove all exemptions from the 1956 act. I have written to the distinguished chairman of the House Banking Committee of my interest in assisting him with this legislation. Chairman WRIGHT PATMAN has said: This issue concerns the question of the proper relationship between the business of banking and all other businesses. It is not strictly a banking issue at all, or even an issue only involving the relationships among different segments of the financial commu- nity. It is, in essence, a question whose answer could shape the ultimate structure of the en- tire American economy for many years to come. OUTSTANDING RECORD OF NA- TIONAL PROGRESS UNDER PRESI- DENT LYNDON B. JOHNSON (Mr. ALBERT asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend his remarks, and to include an editorial.) Mr. ALBERT. Mr. Speaker, well-de- served recognition and praise for the out- standing record of national progress during Lyndon B. Johnson's 5 years as President of the United States continues throughout the country. Perhaps, a re- cent AFL-CIO News editorial best ex- presses the feeling of Americans in all walks of life with a simple, but deeply felt "Thank you, Mr. President." Under unanimous consent, I place the editorial in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, as follows: THANK You, MR. PRESIDENT In the final days of the Johnson Admin- istration the news media?especially the press?are apparently trying to redress the torrent of criticism, and in some cases abuse, that they have aimed at Lyndon Baines Johnson. In summing up the five years of the John- son presidency the editorialists, the inter- preters, the columnists have discovered?or perhaps rediscovered?the tremendous John- son record on civil rights, education, fighting poverty, conservation, consumer protection, health, aid to the cities, manpower and the real increase in income and purchasing power that stemmed from government economic policies. The AFL-CIO was proud to have had a hand in helping build that record. It repeat-, edly called attention to the breakthroughs and benchmarks set by the Administration on behalf of all Americans. But the critics waved that aside along with the concrete accomplishments, and concentrated on a negative, carping theme geared to a dislike for the President's style, all the while ignor- ing or downplaying the substance. An editorial in Memo from COPE notes that "the quieter facts of the Johnson presi- dency are without equal in our history." It adds that. "no single administration will or can clear up all the problems of a society as vast and complex as our own. But Pres. Johnson was willing to challenge our prob- lems on more fronts than anyone who has served in the office, and his success in many fields has been remarkable." The Johnson record is imprinted in bold letters in the nation's lawbooks. Over the next few years that record will have an in- creasingly important impact on the develop- ment and the quality of American life. The belated recognition by the news media of the substance of the five years of the Johnson presidency is welcome now because it will provide a yardstick to measure the new Administration. For his dedicated efforts on behalf of all Americans we join the nation in a heartfelt "Thank you, Mr. President." "PUEBLO" BLAME MUST BE SHARED The SPEAKER. Under a previous order of the House, the gentleman from Illi- nois (Mr. FINDLEY) is recognized for 30 minutes. Mr. FINDLEY. Mr. Speaker, there can be no denying that Commander Bucher Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Febmary 17, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE educate the know-it-alls today?in spite of themselves. It is 'up to the public sector to define and defend that line that separates dissent from disruption. But it is up to the private sec- tor?and especially to the family--to pave the way for a peaceful society. A lack of discipline in the home ultimately results in an undisciplined citizenry. The public sector cannot act in "Locus Parentis." Our 'colleges and universities have an ob- ligation here, too. College administrations must do more than offer courses on Democ- racy; they must assure their students the "due process" which is an integral part of our Democratic system. This means where abuses exist, ready avenues of redress must be available. Student participation, where it can con- tribute, to the quality of education, should be encouraged. But this must be developed in a manner that is constructive rather than disruptive. We can take a lesson from history observed. Our university tradition began with two me- dieval universities. In Paris, faculty set up shop nci students were the consumers. In Bologx4a, students set up shop and hired their tefachers. The Bologna student-eentered Systen lacked stability and, interestingly enougli, educational "relevance." Ultimately, the TIrlversity at Bologna survived by switch- ing to the Paris system, putting the scholar in conamand. A solciety as sophisticated as ours can es- tablish practical, workable degrees of stu- dent participation. We can navigate some midcll course without students locking teachers up or administrators locking stu-1 dents out. Another middle-ground which must be found is the place of the college In the com-4 munitV. Higher education can Only benefit from 8, close, introspective look at such poll Icies as "publish or perish"?; an insistence on relevancy in curriculum; a voice for fac- ulty below the professorial level; the proper balande in decisions between administrators and abadernicians. The middle-ground ap- pears to be somewhere between ivory tower retreat and settlement house. Immersion. There should be strong ties between the coil, lege and the community. Certainly if our institutions of higher ed.4. ucation have an obligation to re-think their relationships with students, all levels o/ goy} ernm nt have an equal responsibility and op -unity here too. Our young people are not only our great, est product, but our most promising resouma I don't mean this poetically for some poieLt in the future, but for today. If Our local governments could but 1 to harness the volunteer power of high sch and college students they would have an ens- thusiastic work force money couldn't buy. As Governor of Maryland, I sought to ene ergize and mobilize our Student resource. Our nucleus came from student groups seek- ing a voice in setting state college budget*. Quite often, young people fail to appreci- ate the budgetary dilemma of a Governqr with infinite good causes and finite resource*. Abraham Lincoln brought home this point with humor when he described a struggle between his sons Willie and Tad. What was wrong between them, he said, was limit what'S the matter with the whole world. I'vle got three walnuts and each wants two?' I Urged the students to help their state and their campuses by doing their bit for the community. With student volunteers providing manpower on priority inner city, projects, we could reallocate funds to higher education programs. I sOught to establish a youth corps with older students helping younger ones as tii tors and recreational counselors,_as big broth- ers and sisters. I feel it's not just enough to demeind a say?you have to deserve it. Go17- erninents should make a way for students to pa.rtieipate and students should participate in a way that earns their say in state govern- ment. We want youth advisors and we want them to be more than armchair experts. We're looking for civic activists. Every leVel of government would benefit from a student internship program compar- able to the federal government's. Acttially, at the state level, I favor an even broader program extending from post-grad- uate to pre-college youth. State governments are generally small enough to tailor summer work programs to the student's potential and will find it a valid investment. A good part- time internship experience in the present is a means of recruiting good full-time per- unconscionable, and could well destroy sonnel in the future. the U.S. chance for a favorable balance At the federal level our work is cut out for of trade in 1969 and years ahead. us. The first thing we should do is lower the Mr. Speaker, Kansas farmers have pro- voting age to eighteen. Not only becau_se,--eittee.d soybeans in increasing amounts in they're old enough to fight?but b lase recent years. In fiscal 1968, Kansas they're smart enough to vote. I thin, is il- logical that in most states a girl X consid- ered mature enough to er,ter a lifetime con- tract of marriage at eighteen, IAA not ma- ture enough to vote. . Once our young people can sound off at the polls, I believe there will b a WO need to sound off in the streets. They'll have the chance to be counted where it counts; Finally, L think we as s m 'ral community must take heed of the disiluaionment and disenchantment of our you g. The young have a way of looking at r ality with an honesty and freshness we nnot fail to appreciate. Hans Christian An erson under- stood this when he wrote the wc1iderful story of the emperor's new clothes. emember? no man in the kingdom, includi the em- peror, dared to admit he could n!2t see the handsome cloth suit w:aich the con-man tailors said was invisible to those ho were selfish, vain and stupid. Only a lit e child in delightful candor piped up: " e em- peror is naked." -. Well, we have a veritable children' cru- sade telling us America can be an eveil bet- ter country. They are ready to go to work, and we must be ready to accept their con- tributions and to listen to their respon- sible criticism. . We must prove our syrtem can change pur world; and we must welcome all -those who would change our world into our system. President Nixon has put priority on includ- ing every American, young and old, in our system. White House Staffers are already working on the ways and means to mobilize those who would serve as well as seek a bet- ter America. But let me make it clear that while the volunteer movement may ,be sparked by the federal government, it mnst be managed by the communities ?Ind H 899 nations of the European Economic Com- munity have proposed to impose on im- ported oilseed products. These proposed taxes do not techni- cally violate the letter of the agreement reached between the United States and the EEC, but they do violate the spirit of that agreement. /f imposed, these taxes could destroy a third of the $1.4 billion agricultural export market which the United States negotiated, at great sacri- manned by the private citizens. We may propose ways to serve but only the people can dispose. For our young itiineans doing their own thing in their own e*,ay, on their own time. It means doing 9,* well as demanding. It means contributipn as well as confrontation. Freedom depends on order-on laws, not violence. And to any who would destroy our freedom, I will take a lesscar from the minis- ter friend of Abe Lincoln", who sermonized: "I'm prepared to defend this union till hell freezes over, and then fight on Ice." We cannot afford sell-delusion or delay. For as President Jbion says, "The American dream does n come to those who fall asleep." MIZE INTRODUCES RESOLUTION OPPOSING EEC ACTION ON SOY- BEAN TAX farmers exported over $14 million worth of soybean oils and meals to the EEC. This market, and the market upon which farmers depend in over 30States, could be destroyed by the precipitous action under serious consideration in Europe. I firmly believe that Congress must speak out on this issue as a body. There- fore, I am today introducing a House concurrent resolution which, if passed by this body, will put the House on record as opposing the internal taxes on oilseed products. The concurrent resolution which I propose clearly states that the United States cannot afford to ignore foreign action which would destroy sub- stantial trade, carefully constructed over the years. Further, American farmers who have depended upon U.S. trade nego- tiators to assure them a market in Europe must also depend upon our European trading partners to conform to the spirit of resulting agreements. I urge the Members of the Congress to support this resolution. I am encouraged that similar legislation has been intro- duced in the House and is under con- sideration by certain Members of the Senate. A decision by the Council of Ministers of the EEC can be expected within 30 to 60 days, I am informed. It is imperative that the Congress speak with one voice In opposition to the proposed action, be- fore it occurs. TWO CHILDREN, TWO MIRACLES (Mr. TAFT asked and was given per- mission to address the House for 1 min- ute, to revise and extend his remarks, and to include extraneous Matter.) Mr. TAFT. Mr. Speaker, the miracle of life continues in Cincinnati, Ohio, to- day. Christine Corhn, the 6-year-old girl who received the transplanted heart of a 7-year-old auto accident victim, con- tinues to improve at the Children's Hos- pital. She has done well since she underwent the heart transplant operation, Febru- ary 8. Christine's was only the fourth trans- plant attempted on a child; and doctors, who performed what was the first heart transplant in Cincinnati, are-encouraged (Mr. MIZE asked and was given per- about Christine's chances. mission to extend his remarks at this The miracle of life, however, has point in the RECORD.) another side to it. The 7-year-old boy, Mr. MIZE. Mr. Speaker, on February 6, William Michael Becker, whose heart I announced my profound concern over now keeps Christine alive, was fatally the "internal taxes" which the member injured in an auto accident February 5. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71.Ba0364R000300150001-8 February 17, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD? Hou SE H901 permitted the U.S.S. Pueblo to be taken. Likewise, he failed to scuttle the vessel. But, in all fairness, a closer examination of the situation shows that he had neither the means to defend his ship or to scuttle It. If indeed he must assume blame, he is by no means alone in this regard. The military traditions he violated were small by comparison with those violated by much higher authority. In fact, in some respects, Commander Bucher can be even viewed as an inno- cent victim. He is the victim of fate; he found himself in a bad place at a bad time. Furthermore, he appears to be the victim of an attempt by his superiors to place the blame for this tragic and hu- miliating affair on his shoulders alone. Most important, the commander joins other courageous men as the latest victim of the failure of recent American military policy. Foremost among our failures are those which involve the new doctrines of flexible response and gradualism. As formulated in 1961, flexible response was viewed in its broadest application to be the maintenance of military force suf- ficient to respond to enemy aggression at any level of conflict, up to and includ- ing nuclear war. Flexible response was necessary, proponents argued, becaue the doctrine of "massive retaliation" left the United States prepared to either sur- render or instigate a nuclear holocaust. It was argued that since the threat of nuclear weapons was not credible to Communist nations engaged in small and ambiguous steps, a substitute would have to be found. That an unarmed, unescorted, tin- protected vessel of the U.S. Navy?inap- propriately called an intelligence ship? should be sent on such a sensitive mis- sion as "eavesdropping" on a hostile Communist power shows the complete bankruptcy of the military doctrine of flexible response. The question of whether flexible re- sponse is an adequate military doctrine is one of judgment, but the fact is, as the Pueblo incident, among others, clearly reveals, the weapons, men and material necessary to implement flexible response were not available. In this latest of incidents, a vessel of the U.S. Navy was sent on a sensitive mission close to the shoreline of a hostile power. Ordinary prudence would have required under the doctrine of flexible response that sufficient force or man- power be available to come to the aid of the ship if necessary. Yet, what were the facts? There were only four jet fighters available for duty in Korea; all of them were armed with nuclear weapons. In order for the jets to be effective in dog tights, the nuclear weapons had to be removed. Time did not permit such re- moval. The U.S.S. Enterprise was 600 miles away at the time of the seizure; the near- est 'American destroyers were a full day's sail away. The Pacific Command, in other words, was unprepared to defend the Pueblo. Commander Bucher had only two pos- sible responses, and neither was very flex- ible: he could surrender his ship, or sink it with heavy risk of American life. It was like a, one-sided flip of a coin, and Bucher was the loser either way. Nor was the Pueblo the only incident of the past 18 months which reveals the hollowness of our flexible response capa- bilities. In January 1968, the Vietcong launched the surprise Tet offensive and succeeded even in violating the security of the U.S. Embassy in Saigon. In June 1967, the U.S.S. Liberty was attacked and sunk by units of the Israel Air Force. In August 1968, the military warning system of NATO did not perceive the So- viet and Warsaw Pact invasion of Czech- oslovakia. The Senate Prepardness Investigating Committee has reported that the 'U.S. Armed Forces in Europe are not sufficient to repulse a conventional Soviet attack. The failure. of "flexible response" in Vietnam was hardly reassuring and its effect as a deterrent to further trouble in Southeast Asia is therefore highly questionable. Another of the questionable doctrines pushed upon us during this decade that has seen America appear to be a "paper tiger" is that of gradualism. Sometimes called measured response, it meant a slow, step-by-step increase of military force?never enough to defeat the enemy, but sufficient to keep the conflict raging. Others before Cominander Bucher paid heavily for the failure of this doctrine. Let us not forget that seizure of the Pueblo was accomplished by a govern- ment with which our country was re- cently engaged in a costly but undeclared war, and it occurred in the environs of another costly, but undeclared war, this time in Vietnam. Through the doctrine of gradualism in both the Korean and Vietnamese wars, the greatest, most hallowed traditions of the United States were violated in a fundamental way. To illustrate: In neither war was defeat of enemy forces established as our objective. In neither were the resources of the United States ever mobilized behind our men in battle. In neither were field commanders given traditional freedom to direct operations. In neither was a declaration of war enacted by Congress or even asked for by the President. In both wars, military commanders were denied permission to broaden attack on the enemy in order to shut off its sources of supply and replacement. Enemy sanctuaries were permitted. Our military operations in Vietnam have been repeatedly described as a lim- ited war with limited objectives. Presi- dent Johnson refused to grant permis- sion to field commanders to close Hai- phong Harbor, invade North Vietnam or engage in "hot pursuit" into Cambodia. Although our Government in 1965 offi- cially determined that South Vietnam was under attack from the north, only an air and sea response was ever per- mitted?and only then under sharp lim- itations which severely curbed its effec- tiveness. Later, even this response was stopped completely, although no determination was made that attacks from the north had either ceased or lessened. Never was any serious effort made to employ, sanctions against nations supply- ing the enemy, much less to quarantine North Vietnam. Indeed, the Johnson administration re- sisted congressional attempts to impose modest sanctions. An example was ad- ministrative efforts, partly successful, to override the clear expression of Congress which I authored in 1966 which sought to block benefits under Public Law 480 from going to any nation making shipments of any kind to Hanoi. Thus, if Commander Bucher must bow in shame, other more prominent heads should, be bowed too. Chief among these are the political and military leaders who were the architects, proponents, and exe- cutors of flexible response and gradual- ism; Those who allowed our defenses to de- teriorate to a point where not only was our response not flexible, but nonexis- tent; Those who cast aside and violated the great military traditions of the United States; Those who sent a half-million U.S. troops into combat without declaration of war or other proper legislative sanc- tion; Those who shackled field commanders and refused to impose economic quar- antine on the enemy; Those who announced to the world, in- stead of leaving in doubt, that our super- weapons would never be used; and Those who proceeded with business-as- usual attitude at home as well as in in- ternational policy. Business as usual ap- plied even to the Soviet Union, heartland of Hanoi support. Among these must be former President Johnson, who cannot escape primary re- sponsibility for establishing the empty doctrine of flexible response and the fallacious one of gradualism. Also, to blame are the Joint Chiefs of Staff, chaired by Gen. Earle G. Wheeler, who acquiesced in the doctrine. Each could have resigned over the course of our Nation's military policy and thus likely forced a reassessment. Or, each could have publicly protested. None did. Each accepted, and went along, execut- ing the policies with all their grim con- sequences. How ironic it was that just a few days before Commander Bucher went on trial for violating military tradition, General Wheeler, under whom flexible response and gradualism flourished, received from the President the Distinguished Service Medal. Is it just for these military leaders to continue in command with scarcely a word of censure while Commander Bucher is in the dock? And my colleagues in the Congress who, like myself, served while the doc- trines of flexible response and gradual- ism were being bandied about and car- ried out, can we escape judgment? Despite the clarity of our constitu- tional responsibility to provide for the proper maintenance of the Armed Forces, we failed to establish that our ships at sea were not safe from capture by the Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 H 902 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE February 17, 1969 smallest of nations. We sat back and Permitted the enlargement ar combat forces in Vietnam without clear legisla- tive sanctions. We shunned cur funda- mental responsibility. We failed to face squarely the question of war declaration. We thus denied to our military forces, and to the Nation as a whole, the uni- fying force the war-making decision would bring. We failed in our duty to delve into the hollowness of flexible re- sponse and gradualism doctrines. So move over, Commander Bucher. You are not really the only One who should be in the dock. Ther are lots i more of us who must share he blame and the shame. You just happea to be a convenient whipping boy. Mr. CUNNINGHAM. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. FINDLEY. I ant glad to yield to the gentleman from Nebraska. Mr. CUNNINGHAM. I have Spoken out on many occasions, as the gentleman in the well is doing today, regarding the handling of the Pueblo matter. I would like to add a side light to what the gen- tleman has mid. I do not know if the Ameridan people are aware that Commander Eicher was an orphan. He was brought a -Father Flanagan's boys' home in mfr district known as Boys' Town, Nebr., wliore Com- mander Bucher lived for ma4nt years. He was graduated from Boys van High School at Boys' Town, Nebr. 4fter that he enlisted in the Navy and erved his tour of duty and then cam back to Omaha and married an Omaha girl and worked his way through the University of Nebraska, after which he Was 1grad- uated, and the Navy became hi career. The people of my congress onal dis- trict, knowing Commander B cher was taken in by Father Flanagan's boys' home and was a star athlete and an out- standing citizen of Boys' Town, are over- whelmingly outraged at the seemingly Inhumane treatment that is being given Commander Bucher. I am sure that affects not only my own district. I know for a fact that this is the feeling of the people of he entire State of Nebraska and the fee nig is in- tense not only in the State of $?aska, but in the entire Middle Wes. I know now also that the feeling i.$ intense throughout the United States. So, aside from the military spects of which the gentleman speaks, I did want to bring out this personal skellght in this discussion, so the people Will know that Commander Bucher was an out- standing individual. As I said be was an orphan and took his ,:choolin at Boys' Town under the leadership and rection of Father Flanagan and Monsi or Weg- ner, the present director. He w s one of the outstanding students and athletes in that great "City of Little M a." Cer- tainly people from our area a d hope- fully from all over the Unite1 States will bear that in mind as we d ctiss this sorry affair in the history of our country. Mr. FINDLEY. Mr. Speaker, I am glad to have the gentleman's Contribu- tion. There certainly is the human side to this. In speaking today, I do not want to leave the impression that I minttn1ize the gravity of whatever shortcomi Corn- mander Bucher had, and it appears quite plain that he failed in measuring up to the great traditions of the U.S. Navy. I feel very bad about that. I regret the boyhood experiences he had. How- ever, I do not think we should overlook the gravity of this episode. My main purpose is to point out that even though Commander Bucher violated military traditions, they are small by comparison with the military traditions that our very highest political and mili- tary leadership have violated in recent years. Mr. CUNNINGHAM, Commander Bucher had no shortcomings. He is a great man and a credit to our country. Mr. CART:E.R. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. FINDL:EY. I yield to the gentleman from Kentucky. Mr. CARTER. Mr. Speaker, certainly it has been a sorry incident in the history of our country. It seems to me our Navy at least should have had a destroyer on the horizon to protect this spy ship?if that is what it was, and we recognize now that is what it must have been. If not a destroyer it should have had air cover. Of course, there are many reasons ad- vanced why these things were not pro- vided. For instance, there is no doubt that we have overextended ourselves in South Vietnam, that most of our military might and muscle is in that area. Our flexible response was not available in the Pueblo incident. Neither is it available now in Europe. I feel that even the recent maneuver which we carried out, in which we trans- ported 15,000 troops over to Germany, was carried out slowly and not effectively done, showing again that we are con- centrating on a distant area in Asia which really does not mean that much to our future. Again it casts a reflection upon the character of the American people that the crew of the Pueblo was forced to sign a document admitting what was said was not the truth. And then a major general of the U.S. Army also signed a document saying that we were in enemy waters when actually we maintained that we were not. This involves problems of great significance. It involves the character of the people of the United States. Certainly I believe we should return to the thinking of great men who have lived in history and have provided great - leadership?for instance, Lincoln, who said: Let us have faith that right makes might; and in that faith let us to the end, dare to do our duty as we understand it. Mr. FINDLEY. I thank the gentleman for his comments. As I understand the facts, the com- mander and the crew of the Pueblo had no information that they were sent on any kind of suicide mission. They had every reason to expect if they got into trouble they would have support. I am sure the gentleman, like myself, had some part in World War II. There was never any moment during my serv- ice with the U.S. Navy when I doubted that the full resources of the United States, whatever they might be, were be- hind me and would seek to advance my safety and the success of my mission. Yet, out of what has happened with the U.S.S. Pueblo, arises the question as to Just how far we have departed from these traditions of yesterday. Mr. CARTER. How weak we have be- came in our action. It reminds me again of the President who said: "Speak softly and carry a big stick." How far have we gone from that tradi- tion? Mr. FINDLEY. I thank the gentleman. The SPEAKER pro tempore (Mr. Kocn) . Under a previous order of the House, the gentleman from Ohio (Mr. MINSHALL) is recognized for 5 minutes. [Mr. MINSHALL addressed the House. His remarks will appear hereafter in the Extensions of Remarks.] ThANSJ'.bE OF SPECIAL ORDER . Mr. CArealitY. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that the special order granted to the gentleman from Pennsyl- vania (Mr. Flom) for tomorrow, for 1 hour, be transferred to February 19. The SPEAKER pro tempore. Is there objection to the request of the gentle- man from Louisiana? There was no objection. BANK HOLDING COMPANY AMEND- MENTS?CRUCIAL TO THE CON- TROL OF FINANCIAL CONGLOM- ERATES The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under a Previous order of the House, the gehtle- man from Texas (Mr. PATMAN) is recog- nized for 15 minutes. Mr. PATMAN. Mr. Speaker, today I am introducing a bill which seeks to stop the dangerous trend toward mixing the business of banking with all other busi- nesses. In the wake of the great stock market crash of 1929 and the subsequent great depression, Congress, in its wisdom, de- cided that commercial banking should be divorced from all other businesses. This principle was established in what is known as the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933, an amendment to the Federal Re- serve Act. It was further strengthened by the passage of the Bank Holding Com- pany Act by the Congress in 1956. However, many loopholes remain in the Bank Holding Company Act and, because of this and other trends in economic structure, such as the rise of financial and other conglomerates and the merger movement, present law is inadequate to control the situation. Therefore, I am introducing legisla- tion today which I feel will meet this problem in a straightforward and ade- quate way. At this point in the RECORD I insert a press release issued this morning on my intention to introduce the bill, along with the bill itself and a section-by-sec- tion analysis of this bill: Wasanarcaon, D.C., February 17.?Chair- man Wright Patman (D. Tex.) of the House Banking and Currency Committee, will in- Approved For elease 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/ 71,1444faR000300150001-8 Intelligence Officer Testifies He Saw. No Threat to Pueblo CORONADO, Calif.?The sen- ior naval intelligence officer in the command to which the o reported when it was ed has told a military Of inquiry that he was una- of two North Korean Is broadcast in the weeks ediately prior to the cap- official Navy summary of 's testimony, heard in session by the board of y, quoted Capt. Thomas L. as saying he "had not warnings broadcast by the Koreans Jan. 6 and 11, first broadcast came e the Pueblo was still in n, preparing for its mission. second warning of "deter- Mined countermeasures" on the afirt of the North Koreans came :he day the Pueblo left Japan. It vas captured less than two ?leeks later, on Jan. 23. Dwyer was assistant chief of staff for intelligence under the =nand of U.S. Naval Forces Japan at the time of the itnadcast warnings and the cap- ure of Pueblo. He now is assis- ant to the commander of the taval intelligence command for cean surveillance and intern- ;ence operations. His testimony before the five dmirals conducting the court of nquiry tended to support the :ontention of Cmdr. Lloyd M. 3ucher, captain of the Pueblo, hat he never received any indi- :tation of concern about enemy Mack from his superiors at any line prior to or during the intel- igence mission off the North Ko- Tan coast. English Broadcast two roadcast On Jan. 6, 70 South Korean fishing craft were attacked and five captured by three North Ko- rean ships. On Jan. 11, an incur- sion was made by two fast North Korean ships into a group of 200 South Korean fishing boats, one of which was sunk in a collision and three forced to head north. The North Korean broadcasts were virtually identical. The first said: "The United States imperialist aggressor army, which has been incessantly committing provoca- tive acts lately on the sea off the Eastern coast, from 6 a.m. to- day again dispatched many armed boats, mingled with fish- ing boats, under the escort of armed warships into the coastal waters of our side on the east- ern coast to perpetuate provo- cative acts. "Detained Vessels" "Our naval ships on patrol duty on the spot took necessary countermeasures and detained the vessels involved in the hos- tile acts. As long as the United St a tes imperialist aggressor troops perpetuate provocative acts, our People's Army units will take more determined coun- termeasures against the enemy in the future, too." Bucher, testifying in open ses- sion last week, said that during the briefings prior to his depar- ture from Japan on the intelli- gence mission he never received any information "that would in- dicate that there was any dan- ger of my ever coming under attack." Dwyer also told the court of inquiry that the type of ship- board "destruct devices" which al News A Bucher said he requested for the monitored by e United Pueblo several times but never e received was now? being devel- oped for future use on intelli- gence ships. The Navy transcript of the closed hearing quoted Dwyer as saying "that he was not aware of any destruct devices at that time or now, although he under- stood that one was in the off- ing." Lack Cited by Bucher Throughout his testimony last week, Bucher said the lack of any such destruct device to keep sensitive electronic intelligence equipment and classified publi- cations from falling Into the hands of the North Koreans pre- vented his men from destroying all of the classified mAdrial and hindered his efforts to aVold cap- ture. The navy said Bucher told the court Friday that 80 to 90 per- cent of all classified information and equipment under his juris- diction was destroyed before the ship fell into North Korean hands. He also said he was not aware of how successful the de- struction effort was in the ship's intelligence quarters. Dwyer concluded his testimo- ny at a closed session yesterday, and was followed to the witness stand by Capt. Forrest A. Pease, chief of staff for the commander of United States Naval forces in Japan. None of yesterday's testimony was disclosed by the Navy. The court is in recess today, and is expected to resume closed hear- ings tomorrow. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001:8 E 978 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD?Extensions of Remarks February 7, 1969 the central, the top-management, task. The purpose is to make it possible for top man- agement to concentrate on decision-making and direction, to slough off the "doing" to operating managements, each with its own mission and goals and with its own sphere of action and autonomy. If this lesson were applied to government, the other institutions of society would then rightly become the "doers." Decentralization" applied to government would not be just an- other form of "federalism" in which local rather than central government discharges the "doing" tasks. It would rather be a sys- tematic policy of using the other, the non- governmental, institutions of the society? the hospital as well as the university, busi- ness as well as labor unions?for the actual "doing," i.e., for performance, operations, execution. LEARNING tk4OM "PUEBLO" HON. R. LAWRENCE COUGHLIN OF PENNSYLVANIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Friday, February 7, 1969 Mr. COUGHLIN. Mr. Speaker, the plight of Comdr. Lloyd Bucher and the crew of the Pueblo has touched all of us in this country deeply. The many questions arising from the capture of the Pueblo, the treatment of Command- er Bucher and his crew by North Ko- rea, and their subsequent release dis- turbs the conscience of our Nation. ? While we cannot undo the circum- stances of this national tragedy, I think there are lessons to be learned. I present for inclusion in the RECORD an editorial that states in commonsense words what so many of us feel. The editorial was printed in the February 5, 1969, edition of the Norristown Times Herald, a daily newspaper published in Norristown, Pa. The editorial states: LEARNING FROM "PUEBLO" - Things would be SJ much simpler if this were an either-or world?if people were al- ways either all good or all evil, either all right or all wrong, either all wise or all stu- pid. The impression emerging from the Pu- eblo is that there is no one villain respon- sible for the loss of the ship, and perhaps no villain at all. Based on past experience, the Navy was not acting from deliberate stupidity in hav- ing "on call" rescue forces that existed on paper only. According to Rear Adm. Frank L. Johnson, who commanded U.S. naval forces in Japan at the time of the Pueblo seizure, 16 spy runs were made off the coasts of Red China, Russia and North Korea during hip tenure'. While there had been numerous acts of har- assment of U.S. ships by the Russians and Chinese, the North Koreans had never both- ered them. Apparently, an unwritten law of this par- ticular espionage game makes it permissible to make things as miserable as possible for your opponent, bet not cricket to employ outright violence. Until North Korea changed the rules, that is. Anyway, said Johnson, he had little or no authority to take rescue action. As for the Pueblo being armed with only two .50 caliber machine guns, Cmdr. Charles R. Clark, former skipper of the USS Banner, sister spy ship of the Pueblo, testified that he did not want even these aboard his ship. He felt they were not only useless but pro- vocative. Still unexplained, of course, is why the Pueblo was not provided with the where- withal to enable her crew to destroy the ship's electronic gear and other secret cargo. Common sense would seem to dictate that not just enemy attack but any number of chance events, such as being blown aground on a hostile shore, might make such action necessary. No one is being done proud by the revela- tions coming from the Pueblo inquiry. But while the Navy brass ale busy passing the buck among themselves, the man in the street fervently hopes that someone in the Pentagon has learned and is applying the lessons that have been taught by the sorry incident. AMENDMENTS TO THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT TO PROVIDE NATIONAL MINIMUM WELFARE STANDARDS AND ELIGIBILITY RE- QUIREMENTS HON. HUGH L. CAREY OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Friday, February 7, 1969 Mr. CAREY. Mr. Speaker, I have today introduced legislation that would amend the public assistance provisions of the Social Security Act to require the estab- lishment of nationally uniform minimum standards and eligibility requirements for aid and assistance. The welfare situation in our major cities has, indeed, reached the critical stage. Other services, such as police, fire, sanitation, education, and transit have been and are being shortchanged because of the burgeoning welfare costs. It is now time for the Federal Government to act before the situation becomes totally un- manageable and the local tax base is eroded even further. We have long recognized that needy persons, particularly dependent children, are a national responsibility. Neverthe- less, the new budget request of the New York City welfare commissioner is $1.7 billion, an increase of $400 million over the current level and the largest single item in the expense budget. Much of this can be attributed to the disparity between the level of welfare payments in our city and those in the nonurban areas. The average monthly payment for aid to de- pendent children in New York City, for example, is $61.70 per month as compared to only $8.40 in Mississippi. An editorial in the January 3 issue of the New York Times, entitled "Welfare Quagmire" sets forth some of the welfare problems confronting our metropolitan areas. I include the full text of the article at this point in the RECORD: WELFARE QUAGMIRE The necessity for a basic shift in welfare policy is painfully underscored by the re- quest of the Department of Social Services for a monumental $1.7 billion to finance aid to New York City's needy in the fiscal year beginning July 1. This represents a rise of nearly $400 million over the budget the de- partment originally requested for this year; It is four times the budget for 1964-65, the last full year of the Wagner administration. What makes the astronomic upsweep in the city's outlay for the relief of human misery doubly dismaying is that it occurs in a period of unparalleled general prosperity. As Mayor Lindsay noted in a cheery New Year state- ment, the over-all level of unemployment in the five boroughs declined last year to 3.2 per cent?a rate he described as "the lowest in the city's history." It becomes increasingly clear that the wel- fare rolls have a life of their own detached from the metropolitan job market. Twenty years ago there were a quarter-million people on relief in this city. By 1965 the number had risen to a half-million. Now it is Just short of a million, and it is expected to go a quarter-million higher in the next fiscal year. The most tragic statistic of all is that the rolls include nearly 600,000 children, growing up in homes bereft of hope. The great bulk of the rest in this roster of social casualties are mothers, the aged and the disabled. Apart from 25,000 receiving wages so low they re- quire supplementary aid, the rolls contain only 42,000 men listed as eniployables? among them alcoholics, addicts and others with physical or emotional infirmities. A great part of the increased caseload in this city results from the technological re- volution in agriculture that has uprooted millions of Southern Negroes and sent them cascading into Northern cities in search of jobs. The first need in a new welfare policy is acceptance by the Federal Government of responsibility for the full cost of this ex- ported misery. National welfare standards are an essential part of such a shift so that people would be encouraged to seek new lives in their own home states instead of coming to strange cities without skills, schooling or friends. The New York 'State average payment for aid to dependent children is $61.70 a month, as against $8.40 a month in Mississippi. But no restructuring of the welfare system will eliminate all the demeaning features that lead to a cycle of inherited dependency and withdrawal from a work-oriented society. That means a priority matter for the new Administration in Washington must be the development of a new system of income maintenance, through some such device as a negative income tax or universal children's allowances, that will bring the welfare popu- lation back into the mainstream of American society and provide incentives for their res- toration to self-support. Mr. Speaker, in the legislation I have introduced today, which is being co- sponsored by many of our colleagues, the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare will be given the power to set minimum standards and uniform cri- teria for all States, subject, of course, to congressional review. This policy was recommended in 1966 by the Advisory Council on Public Welfare in its report to the Secretary. More recently the task force organized by President Nixon to study public assistance made a similar recommendation and last week, Secre- tary Finch endorsed the concept. This measure, therefore, represents an important and long overdue step by the Federal Government in its recognition of the welfare situation throughout the Nation. It would attack the problem in two fundamental ways: First, by es- tablishing a uniform system in all the States, the current migration of needy persons from rural to urban areas would be greatly abated. Second, by setting uniform acceptance standards whereby persons are declared eligible for bene- fits, the present State-by-State shopping for the most liberal requirements would be curtailed. Expert knowledge indicates that better education, training, housing, and employ- ment opportunities can be made avail- Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Febrdary 7, _1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- Extensions the unproductive. All of man's institutions? and for that matter, all men?are commit- ted to what they are used to and reluctant to accept that it no longer needs doing or that it des not produce results. But govern- ment is tinder far greater pressure to cling to yesterday than any other institution. In- deed, the typical response of government to the failUre of an activity is to double its budget and staff. Nothing in history, for instance, can com- pare in futility with those prize acts ities of the American Government, its welfare poli- cies and its farm policies. Both policies are largely responsible for the disease they are supposed to cure. We have known this for quite sonae time?in the case of the farm pro- gram sinee before World War It; in the case of the welfare program certainly since 1950. The preblem of the urban poor is undoubt- edly vast. No city in history has ever been able to absorb an influx of such Magnitude as the American cities have had to absorb since the end of World War II. Wherever it happened in the past, there was the same collapse Of family, community and local gov- ernmen in the cities of England in the late 18th cen ury when the Irish came in; in the cities of North America around 1840, again with the corning of the Irish; in the cities of eontin ntal Europe later on, as for instance when th Czechs started to migrate in large numbers into the Vienna of the Hapsburgs in the ceasing years of the 19th century. The influx of almost two million rural Ne- groes an Puerto Ricans into New York City alone in tess than a 15-year period exceeded any of t ese earlier migrations. It is unpre- cedented in the history of cities. But we cer- tainly coned not have done worse if We had done not ling at all. In fact, the 19th century cities th these las which, i illiterate nothing- York Cit t did nothing, did better. And so, 20 years, has Sao Paulo in Brazil, ndated by similar floods of rural, Negroes fresh from serfdom, did and is in better shape than New Our we?are policies were not designed to meet this problem. They were perfectly ra- tional?and quite effective?as measures for the temporary relief of competent people who were unemployed only because of the catas- trophe of the Great Depression. Enacted in the mid-1930s, the relief policies has essen- tially finiehed their job by 1940. But being government programs, they could not . be abandoned. Far too massive a bureaucracy had been built. The emotional investment in these programs and in their slogan: had be- come far too great. They had become "sym- bols" of the New Deal. Small Wonder, then, that we reached for them when the entirely different problems of the 1960s arose, that is, when the rural Negro moVed into the core city in large num- bers. And small wonder, that these programs did not vork, that instead they aggravated the probl m and increased the helplessness, the depe dence, the despair of the Negro masses. Th it all we could do when relief failed to relieve was to double the budget and to double the number of people engaged in fill- ing out forms. AN OPPOSITE RESULT The farin program tells the same etery. It was designed?also in the 1930's?to save the family fa?mer and to restore his economic and socia health. Instead it has subsidized his replacement by large, heavily capitalized and highly productive "industrial farms." This may well be a more desirable result than the one the farm program was meant? and is stil meant?to produce. But it was an abysmal ailure in terms of the programs announcei objectives. Yet the program goes on, with n increased budget and increas- ingly perverse consequences. Lest this be read as a criticism of the American Government, let me add that this experience knows no distinction of race, creed or I nationality. The depressed-areas policy in Great Britain detes back to the 1920s. In all that time, it has not restored to economic health one single "depressed area." But it has effectively penalized the shift of labor to areal of higher productivity, higher wages and better jobs. It thereby has slowed growth in the healthy regions. Yet when- ever it is realized that the "depressed areas" are still depressed, the budget goes up. , Government is a poor manager. It is of necessity, concerned with procedure, just as it is also, of necessity, large and cumbersome. Government us properly conscious that it administers Public funds and must account for every penny. It has no choice but to be "hureaucratic"?in the common usage of the term. - : every government is, by definition, a "gov- ernment of paper forms." This means in- evitably high cost. For "cor.trol" of the last 10 per cent of any phenomenon always costs more than the first 90 per cent. If control tries to account for everything, it becomes prohibitively expensive. Yet this is what gov- ernment is always expected to do. And the reason is not just "bureaucracy" and red tape; it is a much sounder one. A "little dishonesty" in government is a cor- eesive disease. It rapidly spreads to infect the Whole body politic. Yet the temptation t dishonesty is always great. People of m s trieans and dependent on a salary ancile 1.ry large public sums. People of m est po- ition dispose of power and ewer contracts oci privileges of tremendots importance to %her people--construction jobs, radio chan- els, air routes, zoning laws, bililding codes Od so on. , To fear corruption in goverisseent is not irrational. This means, however, that gov- rnment "bureaucracy"?and is consequent i leh costs?cannot be eliminated. Any gov- raiment that is not a "govemenent of paper cames" degenerates rapidly ihto a mutual tooting society. POLITICS LOOKS ELSE HERE The generation that was i love with ,the -Mite 30 and 40 years ago belie ed fondly that deernment would be econos cal. Eliminat- reg the "profit motive" was hought to re- ece costs. This was poor eco mics, to begin Ith. It -is worse public admi istration. 'The politician's attention oes not go to he 90 per celet of money an effort that is devoted to existing programs and activities. They are left to their own de ces and to the ender mercies of medioe ty. Politics? ightly?is primarily concer ed with "new regrams." It is focused on risis and prob- ems and issues. It is not fi used on doing job. Politics, whatever the form of govern- ,i ant, is not congenial to lanagerial orga- ie,ation and makes govern ent defective in , anagerial performance. We have built elaborate/ safeguards to pro- ept the administrative s ucsure within gov- raiment against the Mica' process. This the purpose of eve civil service. But al- b.ough this protec the going machinery rem the distortion'and pressures of politics, :aieo protects t e incumbents in the agen- iee front the 4e1nands of performance. Of course, We maintain officially- that civil Setvice tennee is compatible with excellence. tit if wee-had to choose, we would probably ay that mediocrity in the civil service is a leeeee evil than "politics." As far as the Judi- (eery is concerned?Where we first created ridependence"?this is certainly true. How t- it is true in administrative agencies is ciehatable. A good many people have come to 401eve that we need some way of rewarding performance and of penalizing nonperform- anoe, even within civil service. I still, the premium Within government will beon not "rocking the, boat" in existing agen- eies, that is, on no innovation, no initiative, but rather on doing with proper procedures that has been done before. Within the polit- ical process, attention will certainly not be paid to the on-going routine work unless of Remarks E 977 there is the publicized malfunction of a "scandal." As a result, management of the daily work of government will remain neglected, or be considered a matter of following "procedure" and of filling out forms. By excelling as a manager, no one in politics will iget to the top unless at the same time he builds his own political machine, his awn political fol- lowing, his own faction. We can?and must?greatly improve the efficiency of government. There is little rea- son these days to insist on "100 per cent audit," for instance. Modern sampling meth- ods based on probability matheniaties ac- tually give us better control by innecting a small percentage of the events. But we need something much more urgently: the clear definition of the results a policy is expected to produce, and the ruthless examination of results against these expectations. This, in turn, demands that we spell out in considerable detail what results are expected rather than content ourselves with promises and manifestos. In the last century, the audi- tor general became a central organ of every government. We learned that we needed an independent agency to control the daily process of government and to make sure that smovaegs appropriated was spent for what it was intentle_cl for, and spent honestly. Now we may have-to develop an independent gov- ernment agency that compares the results of policies against expectations and that, in- dependent of pressures from the executive as well as from the legislature, reports to the public any program that does not deliver. AUTOMATIC CUTOFF We may even go further?though only a gross optimist would expect this today. We may build into government an automatic abandonment process. Instead of starting with the assumption that any program, any agency and any activity is likely to be eternal, we might start out with the opposite as- sumption: that each is short-lived and tem- porary. We might, from the beginning, assume that it will come to an end within five or ten years unless specifically renewed. And we may discipline ourselves not to renew any program unless it has the results that it promised when first started. We may, let us hope, eventually build into government the capacity to appraise results and systemati- cally to abandon yesterday's tasks. Yet such measures will still not convert government into a "doer." They will not alter the main lesson of the last BO years: government is not a "doer." The purpose of government is to make fundamental decisions and to make them effectively. The purpose of government is to focus the political eneegies of society. It Is to present fundamental choices. The pur- pose of government, in other words, is to govern. This, as we have learned in other in- stitutions, is incompatible with "doing." Any attempt to combine government With "do- ing" on a large scale paralyzes the decision- making capacity. There is reason today why soldiers, civil servants and hospital administrators look to business management for concepts, princi- ples and practices. For business, during the last 30 years, has had to face, on a much smaller scale, the problem that government now faces; the incompatibility between "gov- erning" and "doing." Business management learned that the two have to be separated, and that the top organ, the decision-maker, has to be detached from "doing." Other- wise he does not make edecisions, and the "doing" does not get done, either. In business, this goes by the name of "decentralization." The term is misleading. It implies a weakening of the central organ, the top management of a business. The true purpose of decentralization, however, is to make the center, the top Managernent of business, strong and capable of performing Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 ? Approved For Release 2002/10/09: CIA-RDP71.1300364a00030915099A8wary 7, E 980 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ?Extensions Of Kemal& 1969 CENTERS OF 'TERRORIST OPERATIONS Jordan Complete freedom of movement, activity and recruitment is permitted to the ter- rorist groups in Jordan. Their bases and camps exist openly along the cease-fire lines. In some areas they are in complete control? as was shown by documents captured during the Israel raid on Karameh, where the Fatah in this town have their own police force and jails. Iraq The Iraqi task force stationed in the Mifraq area of Jordan supplies the saboteurs with arms and equipment, including Russian 120 mm mortars. Officers and men of the 421st Palestine Commando Battalion, part of the regular Iraqi Army, lead units infiltrating into Israel. Many members of this battalion were killed and others captured during the Karameh raid. A fixed allocation has been made in the Government budget for "strengthening the movement of the armed struggle." Syria Until several months ago the major bases and headquarters of the infiltrator bands were located in Syria. On the eve of the Karameh operation, several hundred officers and men were transferred to Jordan, to join the terrorist organizations in that country. A number of captured terrorists have said, in open court, that they had undergone mili- tary training in Syria. Others have proved to be officers in the regular Syrian Army. Egypt In January, 1968, senior Fatah officers vis- ited Cairo and reached an agreement for the training of saboteurs in regular Egyptian army camps. According to documents cap- tured at Karameh, more than 100 have al- ready received such training. On April 25, a unit of infiltrators in- tercepted near Beer-Ora carried documents issued by the Egyptian Embassy in Amman. They had completed a special sabotage course in a military camp near Cairo and were then transferred to Jordan. In recent weeks the same pattern of am- bush, sabotage and shelling has been initi- ated by units of the regular Egyptian Army on the bank of the Suez Canal. HOPE FOR PEACE IS THE VICTIM Although the campaign of terror has borne some fruit in the mounting toll of dead and wounded Israeli Jews and Arabs, it has proved totally futile in its primary purpose. It has not, at any level, affected the administra- tion of the occupied areas, nor does it pose a threat to the survival of Israel. The danger of a major conflict still constitutes the basic problem for those who are concerned with the maintenance of peace in the area. But it is worth noting that the wars of 1956 and 1967 came as the culmination points of a deliberately escalated policy of terrorist war- fare. The past year has proved that terrorists from across the border can be contained and prevented from establishing a foothold among Arabs in the occupied areas. Counter measures against marauders have so far re- sulted in almost 900 terrorists dead and 800 wounded, with several thousand more serv- ing prison terms in Israeli jails.* The casualty figures for the period from August 1 to October 10, 1968, amounted to 109 killed and 206 wounded. In one area, however, the effects should not be minimized. Recent attacks on citizens in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv provoked spon- taneous outbursts against Arabs who were near the scene, and pressure on the Gov- ernment to? review its liberal policy in the administered areas was increased. Although the Government has strongly resisted any ? *September, 1968. such change, a continuation of such inci- dents can only work to weaken and destroy the contact and daily intercourse which has developed between Israelis and Palestinians, in Jerusalem and in the other areas. END NAVAL INQUIRY OF CAPTURE OF U.S.S. "1:2a1.3.19: HON. JONATHAN B. BINGHAM OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Friday, February 7, 1969 Mr. BINGHAM. Mr. Speaker, the cap- ture and detention of the U.S.S. Pueblo and her crew by North Korea and the action of the U.S. Government to obtain the crew's release, raises many serious questions. I have been particularly con- cerned with the prospect that Captain Bucher and his men might be subject to persecution and punishment for alleged violations of the Code of Military Con- duct and other Navy regulations govern- ing the behavior of military men, in com- bat or encounters with hostile forces. On the basis of what has appeared to date, I feel strongly that for several reasons Captain Bucher and his men should not be subject to prosecution. First, the Code of Military Conduct is quite new in American law, and its applicability to situations of warfare and international tension is untested. Second, the code was issued by Presidential decree, and has never been passed upon by the people through their elected Representatives in Congress, as I believe it should be. I am particularly disturbed with the effects of the provision in the code that American soldiers held by hostile govern- ments can give no more information than "name, rank, and service number." I have outlined why I feel this provision is un- fair and unwise, and what I think should be done about it, in a letter to President Nixon urging him to change it as soon as possible. I have received such a large volume of correspondence, from my own con- stituents and people across the country, expressing interest In the proposal set out in my letter to President Nixon that I feel it useful to insert the letter at this point for the readers of the RECORD: TEXT OF LETTER BY CONGRESSMAN BINGHAM TO PRESIDENT NIXON CALLING FOR REVISED MILITARY CODE OF CONDUCT JANUARY 27, 1969. Ma. PRESIDENT: The mental and emotional torture suffered by Commander Lloyd M. Bucher and members of the crew of the USS Pueblo at the hands of their North Korean captors shows (in addition to the inhumanity of the current government of North Korea) the shameful and ludicrous inadequacy of the Code of Conduct for Military personnel, The rule that requires American prisoners, under threat of court martial, to give their captors nothing more than "name, rank, and service number" must be drastically revised. The mistreatment American prisoners are forced to undergo to avoid signing false "statements" and "confessions" does not prevent their captors from using such state- ments for propaganda purposes. If death or sheer stamina under torture permits an American prisoner to resist snaking or sign- ing statements dictated by his captors, it Is easy enough for them to use similar treat- ment on other prisoners until someone sub- snits. Even if no prisoner can be forced to make or sign trumped-up statements, hostile captors can forge prisoner's signatures, or simply issue whatever propaganda statements they wish to promulgate without a pris- oner's submission. In short, American prisoners are forced, by the "name, rank, and service number" limita- tion, to trade severe mental and physical mis- treatment, and sometimes their very lives, without in any way frustrating the enemy's goals?to suffer and often to cite for nothing. The probability that American prisoners would be subjected to this kind of severe mental and physical torture could be greatly reduced if the following steps were taken immediately: 1. Revise the "name, rank and service num- ber" provision of the Code of Military Con- duct to permit any American soldier impris- oned or detained by a hostile government to sign or make any statement or confession Which does not contain any factual informa- tion that would be useful to the hostile power and that, to the best of the prisoner's knowl- edge, is not already known to the hostile government. 2. Announce through all available diplo- matic and public channels, including the United Nations, that American military per- sonnel have been so instructed, and that no statement or confession signed by any Amer- ican military person held or detained by a hostile government can be believed. These changes would be consistent with our international commitments under the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. American captives would not be allowed to give any real assistance or factual information to hostile governments, any more than they are permitted to do so under the current Code. What these changes would do is remove one of the major excuses used by hostile captors to torture and kill American military men, reduce the proba- bility that American soldiers would have to suffer such torture and death, and reduce the propaganda usefulness of false enemy statements and confessions attributed to American captives. I strongly urge you, as President of the United States, to make these changes in the Code of Military Conduct by Executive Order before any more American military men are forced to suffer and perhaps die under the senseless "name, rank, and service number" rule. JONATHAN B. BINGHAM, Member Of Congress. Public response to this statement has been nearly unanimously favorable. A few examples of the many letters I have received are included below: LONGPORT, N.J., January 27, 1969, Hon. JONATHAN B. BINGHAM, House Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR CONGRESSMAN BINGHAM: I was very much interested to read in the Atlantic City Press this morning your proposal to Presi- dent Nixon on the Code of Military Conduct. These have been my thoughts for some time. I have wanted to express them to someone who could remedy this situation which I feel would beat the communists at their own game. I have never written to a Congressman or Senator before but after following the case of the Pueblo and Cmdr. Bucher, I feel that I must speak out. I have written to any state senator, Senator Clifford Case and asked him to support your proposal. This is of great concern to me as I have three young sons. Two of them will probably be in the service in a few years. As I told Senator Case, I don't want them to be traitors to their coun- try, but I don't expect the impossible from them either. I feel this is the case with Cmdr. Bucher and other American prisoners. It is impossible to endure this inhumane suffering Approved For Release 2002/10/09: CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 February 7, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD?Extensions able on a more equitable basis in non urban areas. If the Federal Governmen will act now to reform the system, it wil be nrUch easiersto assist the poor in thei present environment than try to provid for them in our large cities where it beconting increasingly difficult to affo the programs they require. The enactment of this legislation wil not have an adverse or regressive effec on the present level of assistance in any+ State. In States with low levels of per capita income, Federal support grants will Make it possible for them to attain the national minimum standsvd while' keeping the present State and local ef- fort requirements. I ant hopeful that the Ways and Means Committee will give early attention to this legislation and that action can be secured in the present session in order that steps can be taken to reverse the trend ' toward ever-increasing welfare costs. BACKGROUND ON THE FATAH HON. BENJAMIN S. ROSENTHAL OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES I Friday, February 7, 1969 Mr. ROSENTHAL. Mr. Speaker, Israel contimies to be harassed by Arab terror- ist groUps. Because these raids occur with suet' tragic frequency, many Amer- icans have become blunted to these in- cursione and threats to Israel's existence. The following description of El Fatah activities appears in the January 1969 edition Of the Middle East Information Series and vividly documents the fre- quent attacks of terrorist bands on Israel communities?a reminder to all of us of the daily loss of lives in the Middle East: 13ACMGROUND ON THE FATAH Since the end of the Six Day War some 236 Israelis have lost their lives and 870 have been wounded as a result of "border incidents''. The terrorists make no distinc- tion betWeen civilians, soldiers, Jews, Druse or Arabs.) In September alone, for example: On September 4, hand grenades set off in the crowded Central Bus Station in Tel Aviv killed one 65 year old man and injured 51 others, beth Jews and Arabs. On September 9, an explosive charge set off under a truck in the market place in Gaza, wonnded the Israeli Arab driver and 15 other people. On Sep ember 13, three Druse watchmen were murdered by a marauding band in the Negev. I Innocent bystanders are not the only tar- gets , in the campaign. The shelling of the string of settlements in the Jordan ami Belt- shan vens has become so frequent that in some kibbutzim (communal farm settle- ments) the younger children sleep in under- ground shelters. Farmers working in their fields are fired on, dirt roads are mined night- ly and frontier patrols come under bazooka and mortar attack. Almost daily the news headlines carry stories of Soldiers killed or wounded, either on routine I patrols or in unexpected artillery duels. Altliaugh the incidents may be pro- voked by one of the terrorist groups, it is the *As of September, 1968. These figures have risen sharnly within the last two months. regular Jordanian Army, according to on the spot observers, which provides covering fire for the retreating saboteurs and sets up the heavy artillery barrages. Until recently, terrorist activity operated exclusively from bases in Jordan and Syria. However, recent incidents along the Suez Canal?implanted mines, ambushing of Israeli soldiers, sniping and shelling?In- dicate the opening up of a "new front" in the operations. WAR BY OTHEB MEANS Official statements of the Arab Govern- ments and speeches delivered at the United Nations term the terrorists' activities a direct consequence of the June War and the Israeli occupation of Arab territory. However, for in- ternal consumption, cor sistency is aban- doned and a different purpose and goal of the campaign is generally conceded. For instance, the Egyptian governmens paper "Al Com- houriya" stated, on November 17: "These events are not a result of the ag- gression of June 5 and ot Israel's conquest of part of the Arab lands. Mmost three years ago and more, several Palestinian organiza- tions began armed operations in vccupied Palestine; their activity wag4nerely istepped up after the aggression." , Even more explicit isine editorial of the Saudi Arabian paper " -Jailed" of March 18: "The Arab Fedayee activities are simply the preparatory gro network for the next Arab round and the, aunching of the victory campaign." In other words.ft.errorisrn is to be used as a "softening up' stage to demoralize Israel and weaken its onomy until such time as the Arab States an reach a level of military competence tha will enable them to under- take the final n uidation. RESIS NCE OR TERROR? The employniet of these methods is no few feature in th area. They were used as far back as the 192's and 1930's, both against Jewish settlers and hose Arabs who opposed the policies of their eadership. But in those days the terrorists di ? ot call upon the ghost of Che Guevara; thei leader and source of inspiration was the e Mufti of Jerusalem, Raj el-Hussein, ally of itler and friend of the Balkan fascist lead s. His support de- raved from the ultra-na onalistic elements ho opposed all forms o Jewish-Arab co- ?aeration and rejected a p ceful solution to the conflict based on coe :istence. Despite the invocation of the name Che and other "freedom fighters", the pone of the existing ti rrorist groups has changed fttIe. They still c: ing to their former slogans nd appeal for *aamther round". I To compare the activities of t e Fatah and Sinner groups with those of the national re- etstance movements of the past, s to make a transparently false analogy. Su cessful re- ist;tance movements, whether In ireland, Cy- plus, Cuba or Algeria, were alwa s based on mass support of the peaple, seeking to lil)erate themselves. This is far removed from th situation Which exists in the Israeli oceupi d areas to- day. The success of the Vietcong s based on lilar support it receives from the /local popu- -often undertaken at gr at personal risk. The Fatah has failed to ke any sub- stantial headway in achievi g this basic rerequisite. ra ) Part of this failure can be/credited Army. Mi- nor to the two-pronged policy of the nor frictions are avoided ;raid the edge Is taken off hostility by a pplice of giving the local Inhabitants a free hind in the running o their own affairs. There are today less than 3 Israeli officials engaged in the total ad- nistration of the occupied areas. The lift- / ,g of travel restrictiens and permitting a certain amount of Riede between the East and West Banks of the Jordan have also served as stabilizing factors. a of Remarks E 979 Terrorism is countered by tough measures and those caught harboring active Fatah ele- ments face the prospect of having their houses blown up. Capital punishment, how- ever, is not invoked, since it has been abol- ished under Israel law. Collective punish- ment is not meted out to a community, as was practiced by the British in pre-1948 Pal- estine. Not only have the terrorists failed to bring about a popular uprising but the lo- cal population of the West Bank and Gaza have clearly demonstrated their reluctance to provide either shelter or support for the operations of the saboteur bands. Much of the information which has led to the capture of saboteurs has been supplied to the army by local citizens. The Palestinians of the West Bank and Gaza want an end to the Israeli occupation Mit, from all available evidence, the ma- jority looks neither to total war nor to ter- rorist aotivities to achieve this goal. The people appear to be willing to come to terms with the reality of Israel's existence, and to seek some form of political accommodation and settlement. While this applies to the majority, there remains a part of the population that un- doubtedly sympathizes with the terrorists and from these circles are recruited the small groups of militants who form the terrorist cells operating in East Jerusalem, Gaza, Hebron and Nablus. But one indication of the extent to which they have to go in re- cruitment was the announcement by Fatah on May, 1968, that its ranks are now open to "non-Palestinians". Even the Vietcong? whose name is often invoked--has never been obliged to resort to foreign volunteers, and the FLN was never dependent on recruits from other Arab countries. BASES OUTSIDE PALESTINE Faced with inadequate support from the local Palestinian population, the terrorists have been compelled to depend on bases across the borders. From these centers they can infiltrate at night, lay their Mines and return by daybreak. Prior to June 1987, the terrorists' head- quarters were based in Syria, with Jordan providing a transition point. Today the op- erations are conducted from camps in Jor- dan. No longer absolute master in his King- dom, it is doubtful whether King Hussein could control the Fatah, even should he wish to do so. The result could well be the down- fall of the regime, an eventuality which neither Egypt nor Syria would view with regret. One .direct consequence of the Fatah operations from bases in the Jordan valley has been the abandonment of the villages in the area by the local population, result- ing in a substantial loss, which the Jor- danian economy can ill-afford. Not only has the base of operations changed in the past year, but a radical trans- formation has taken place in the training and composition of the saboteur bands and in their relationship to the Arab States. Frustrated by political state/nate, in- ternal disaffection and military weakness, the Arab governments have turned to open sup- port and encouragement of terrorism as part of their overall strategy against Israel?the "old" war is being conducted by other means. Speaking at El-Mansura (Radio Cairo, April 18, 1968), President Nasser stated: "We recognize the terrorist' movement . . we will support add give aid to this move- ment . . . the activities of the Asifa com- mandos and the Fatah are a positive element in our campaign." In support of this policy, funds, arms, training facilities, shelter and covering fire when required are all being provided di- rectly by the Arab Governments. Although most of the rank and file terrorists?among whom the casualty rate has been about 90%?are Palestinians, many of the officers are Syrian, Egyptian, Iraqi and Jordanian. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/QU CIA-RDP711300364R000300150001-8 February 7, 1969 CONGREgSIONAL RECURD ? Extensions of Kemarks E 981 over a period of time. I wish you every suc- cess in your endeavors. Sincerely, MrS, MARGUERITE PACENTRILLI. ROCHESTER, MINN., February 1, 1969. Hon, JONATHAN BINGHAM, House Office Building, Washington, D.C. , -- DEAR REPRESENTATIVE BINGHAM: Than.. you for your interest in the plight of the military man, beholden to say only "name, rank, and serial number" to an unreasonable captor. The Navy, with which I have had recent acquaintance, makes no effort to prepare its men for imprisonment by a hostile power; no preparation for interrogation or "brain- washing". Why can't we learn from our experiences in Korea? Is the military incapable of pre- paring its soldiers for an eventuality as real as combat? Someone with interest, understanding, and compassion should review this difficult area with the Armed Services. Sincerely, DONALD SWITZ. THE GEORGE W. HENRY FOUNDATION, INC., New York, N.Y., January 26, 1969. Hon. JONATHAN BINGHAM, House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. SIR: I hope you will not consider it pre- sumptuous for me to write to express whole- hearted agreement with your proposal to amend the rules relating to the conduct of members of the Armed Forces who may have been taken prisoner. I am greatly and gravely concerned by the circumstances that neces- sitated your introduction of such a Bill. This concern arises out of the circumstances sur- rounding the Naval inquiry into the loss of the 17.5.5. Pueblo, from which it might ap- pear that the Navy is primarily in search of a scapegoat to bear responsibility for the ship's loss. Certainly others than Com- mander Bucher, especially after hearing his testimony that he besought the Navy to pro- vide him with electrical equipment that would speedily destroy the secret parapher- nalia over which there is so much pother, must bear this burden. Someone, seemingly, was penny wise and pound foolish. Hence I think the Bill might profitably include pro- vision that Commander Bucher and his crew, now, according to report, threatened with court martial, should be held blameless for the ship's capture or their conduct under trying conditions. The rule that a man need give only his name, rank and serial number is little more than the proverbial scrap of paper. Certain- ly in our wars with civilized (?) Germany and Japan, enemy interrogators sought to find out much more than that; and we are told that their efforts to obtain information were accompanied by both physical and psy- chological pressures?not too different from the police "third degree". Were our and our Allied interrogators altogether blameless? You are wise in suggesting that our Gov- ernment should make proclamation that prisoners may feel free to sign anything, from a statement that the moon is made of green cheese, up or down, to be left unmolested. As to the turncoats. I feel each case should be investigated on its own merits. Young people are not superhuman. Only the Lord knows how much pressure they can stand; and a great deal of mercy should be available even to a repentant defector who was tortured or "brain washed" into telling more than his prayers. With regard to Commander Bucher and the Pueblo crew, I believe that, instead of their being court-martialed, they should be welcomed in the words of the old gospel hymn: "Home again, home again, From a foreign shore. And, oh, it makes our hearts rejoice, To see our friends once more." Instead of a court martial, they would seem deserving of Purple Hearts, and even some sort of commendatory medal, as their country's evidence of appreciation of their ordeal. We are told in the scriptures to make unto ourselves friends of the mammon of un- righteousness. Does it not follow that, in dealing with an unscrupulous enemy, the Marquis of Queensbury rules must be sub- ject to a great deal of interpretation? In hope that your Bill will speedily become law, I am, Your obedient servant, ALFRED A. GROSS, Executive Director. NEW YORK, N.Y., January 26, 1969. CONGRESSMAN JONATHAN BINGHAM: Con- gratulations on your asking Nixon to inter- vene in Bucher situation. Have gotten 100 signatures on letter which you will get copy of soon. HARRY J. UFLAND, MCALLEN, Tax., January 29, 1969. Hon. JONATHAN B. BINGHAM, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. BINGHAM: I am enclosing a clip- ping from The Dallas News of a day or two ago, telling of your letter to President Nixon proposing a revision of the military code of conduct to allow captured servicemen to confess to "anything so long as the confes- sion 'does not contain factual information that would be useful to the hostile power'." May I commend you on this! About two years ago, when the very first American soldier to ever escape from the Viet Cong was given great publicity and I learned of the things they tortured him for because he would not admit to things or sign things, I had the great thought that every American ,s ?idler should be instructed to sign anything, say anything. Thus, what a laughing stock it would make of any enemy, flaunting "signed statements" . . . when all the world would know that U.S. soldiers had been instructed to sign or say anything! (any idiot knows that he would not be fighting for his country if he felt "that way" about it!) Thus, he could say he hated his country, he could say he loved Communism, he could say he thought "we" in the wrong . . . and sign the paper? and all would automatically be discounted? not only by us, but by the world! Suddenly I realized, "Why haven't the people who know military not thought of this before!" I had a great urge to "take pen in hand" and write Johnson, or the Defense head, or a senator or representative, or somebody! My husband said, "If you feel this strongly about this, by all means, write!" But?I thought?"who am I, a mere house- wife, to enter into things military!" . . also, I just didn't put in motion my fine thought. And now you have come up with this great idea . . . and, my thanks to you! Remember, if a gunman held you at bay and said he'd kill you if you didn't say you hated your wife, or your children, or your country . . . you'd say it! (Not that that would mean you did! . . . it's as simple as that! Sincerely, Mrs. GORDON KETHLEY, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF., January 27, 1969. Congressman JONATHAN BINGHAM, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. DEAR SIR: I was pleased to note in the news this weekend the position you have taken with regard to the amendment of the Uni- form Code of Military Justice. In fact, I was about to write to you to ask that you take some action in that regard. It is quite in- equitable to permit diplomats ta sign con- fessions and disclaim their validity while de- nying the men in the military the same privilege. It is particularly ludicrous in view of the fact that the latter rather than the former are most likely to be in the most Immediate physical and psychological peril. I am therefore in complete agreement with you, and if possible, I would like to see the proposal that you have made. Sincerely yours, CAROLYN GENTILE, Esq. JESSUP, MD., January 27, 1969. Hon. JONATHAN B. BINGHAM, U.S. Representative, New York. SIR: Congratulations on recommending a revised code of conduct for captured service- men. We should, in my opinion, announce to the world that we are instructing our servicemen to, should they become captive, tell any tale (true or false) that pops into their mind. Then, the enemy would never know whether they were receiving reliable information or not. It is completely unrealistic to expect cap- tured servicemen to remain silent (or to give only their name, rank, and serial number) while being tortured or threatened with torture. Any "brave" politician or other critic who expects this should volunteer to trade places with the captive. I wish you well with your recommendation. Sincerely, KENNETH A. STEVENS. SIDNEY, KY., January 31, 1969. Representative JONATHAN B. Bmonam, Democrat, New York. DEAR SIR: Support you in your support con- cerning Commander Lloyd M Bucher, Pueblo Skipper. Please stop persecution immediately. He is to be honored for bravery in my opinion. Respectively, Mr. & MTS. WAITER M. ARROWOOD. SAN MAR/NO, CALIF., January 30, 1969. Hon. JONATHAN B. BINGHAM, House Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. BINGHAM: I was delighted to see in the Los Angeles Times last Monday a report that you have urged a change in the code of military conduct "to allow American prisoners to make meaningless confessions, and that such confessions be branded as false by the government . . (to the effect) that no statement or confession signed by any American military person held or de- tained by a hostile government can be believed." In "Modern" warfare as practiced by our Communist enemies, torture and starvation of prisoners held by them indeed makes the present code a desertion of our armed forces by their government. I trust you have made your recommenda- tion a resolution. Sincerely yours, ROMAINE L. POINDEXTER. RESEDA, CALIF., January 30, 1969. HOD.. JONATHAN B. BINGHAM, House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. DEAR M. BINGHAM According to the in- formation printed in a recent newspaper--a copy of which is attached?you have writ- ten to President Nixon urging him to change Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 E982 ithe Code of Military Conduct to, iallow American prisoners (of w to imake meaningless confessions and th4tRuch iconfessions be branded false in adv Oa by the government." In effect, you are suggesting that we teach icor fighting men to lie in certain situations, ii.e., when they are prisoners of war. When docs the lying stop? Are we to stop t aehing Approved For CON elease 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71B00364R000300150001-8 RESSIONAL RECORD ?Extensions of Remarks February 7, 1969 the men the meaning of honorable co lunder any circumstances? Who is ti them right from wrong?for each "sit It would be much better if our le and I presume you come unclor this c in some dubious fashion?would set g envies of honorable conduct in out daily lives?under all circumstances. Do not teach Our fighting men to "give up" and Be and cheat their way out of a tight spot. For your information, I served in tte U.S. Navy?submarine service?during World War II and the Korean War; and, I have a draft- eligible son who has not been taught- - either by precept or example- to lie or cheat, tinder any circumstances. I expect him 1: ) live by the "right" and "wrong" attitudes I have taught him. Stop running down the moral fibre of our youth by such suggestions you have -v :need to the President. Yours truly, duct? teach non." ders? Usgory ,c1 ex- ANTHONY PAOLANT5 CO. Mr. Speaker, the current hearin ;- at Which Commander Bucher and his men are being required to appear is ri :A a formal trial. It is a preliminary ir ves- tigation to find out what happened and whether there is any catise to proSc cute Bucher, or any of his crew. As I ha', , in- dicated, and as my letter to Presiient Nixon implies, I do not believe that these men should be brought to trial. It is unfortunate that the men 01 the Pueblo must suffer the anguish and Strain of a full-scale inquiry, but, I feel that a full disclosure of all the facts is necessary, and can bring nothing but 1resirable results. I believe that the facts ill justify the actions taken by Com- ander Bucher and his men. Further- ore, and no less important, a complete iring of all the facts should make it lear to our military and political lead- rs, and to the public, that major and astic changes must be made in the bode of Military Conduct, and that the Content of the code must be deterthined not by Presidential decree but by the congress. , The first several sessions of the inquiry Conducted by the Navy in California I 'on- firmed what many observers suspected before the inquiry opened?that more Was at issue in the Pueblo case than Merely the behavior of Commander Bucher and his crew. It is now clea that the behavior of high Navy official and the structure of the Navy comman ' are also at issue. It is an elernenta rule hoth of law and commonsense tha it is nniust for any person or- organizati n to Stand in judgment of the facts of a mat- t r in which that person or organi il tion is itself involved. But that is exactl, the position in which the Navy finds tself. he Navy, in its inquiry on the P eigo incident, is in a position to pass jud ent on its own case. ' For that reason, and because I feel the men of the Pueblo should not have to endure more than one full-scale inVesti- gation, I have called upon Secretary of Defense Laird and Secretary of the Navy Chafee to cancel the Navy inguiry until such time as a joint congressional corn- mittee can be appointed to resume and conclude the inquiry which the Navy began, but is not now in a fair position to continue. I have also urged the chaittaen of sev- eral congressional committees which have indicated interest in conducting in- vestigatory hearings into the Pueblo incident to consolidate their investiga- tory efforts by supporting a resolution to appoint a joint congressional committee to carry on the Pueblo inquiry. My letters to Secretary of Defense Laird, Secretary of the Navy Chaf?.e, and the chairman of the Senate Armed Services and Foreign Relations Committees, and the House Armed Services Committee, follow: Hon MELvrN R. LAIRD, Secretary of Defense. Hon. JOHN H. CHAFEE, Secretary of the Navy. GENTLEMEN: I respectfully urge that you cancel the current Naval inquiry into the capture of the USB Pueblo by North Korea. It has become clear, as the Navy inquiry has progressed, that the Navy is in the position of adjudicating what may turn out to be a case against itself. The behavior?the action or inaction?of the Navy Command nowtseem to be as much at issue as the behavior of Commander Bucher and his crew. Since this is so, to permit the Navy to continue this Investigation at this time would be improper. The inquiry now being conducted in Cali- fornia by the Navy should be cancelled, to be resumed and completed by a more impartial and representative body. The men of the Pueblo should not have to endure more than one full-scale investigation. Several Congressional Committees have In- dicated an interest in convening Pueblo in- vestigatory hearings after the Navy inquiry is over. I am calling on the Chairmen of these committees to consolidate their efforts, and to support a resolution calling for forma- tion of a joint Congressional investigating committee to conduct the inquiry hastily and, I believe, ill-advisedly begun by the Navy. Cordially yours, JON. THAN B. BINGHAM, Member of Congress. Hon. JOHN C. STENNIS, Chairman, Senate Committe on Armed Serv- ices. Hon. J. W. FULBR/GET, Chairman, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Hon. MENDEL RIVERS, Chairman, House Committee on Armed Serv- ices, GENTLEMEN: The men of the Pueblo should not have to endure more than one full-scale inquiry. Such an inquiry is already being conducted by the Navy, but it Is now clear that the behavior of high Navy officials and the very structure of the Navy Command are at issue. This puts the Navy in the position of passing judgment on the facts of a case in which it is itself deeply implicated. For these reasons, I have today called upon Sec- retary of Defense Laird to terminate imme- diately the Naval inquiry currently in progress. Your Committee, among others, has ex- pressed interest in 3onducting investigatory hearings on the Pueblo incident. I wish to enlist your support for the consolidation of Congressional investigatory efforts by the formation of a single, joint Congressional in- vestigating Committee to resume and com- plete the inquiry begun by the Navy. I will introduce a resolution to provide for the se- lection of such a joint committee when the House reconvenes or: February 17, and I hope that my resolution--or a similar one?will have your support. Cordially yours, JONATHAN B. BINGHAM, Member of Congress. PRIORITIES FOR PROGRESS OF CHICAGO HON. ROMAN C. PUCINSKI OF ILLINOIS IN ilia HOUSE Or REPRESENTATIVES Friday, February 7, 1969 Mr. PUCINSKI. Mr. Speaker, yester- day more than 2,000 leaders of industry, government, science, education, and commerce attended the 65th annual meeting of the Chicago Association of Commerce and Industry at which was unveiled an imposing program of priori- ties for progress or Chicago. The president of the Chicago Asso- ciation of Commerce and Industry, Mr. M. P. Venema, outlined the progress made by Chieago to date and outlined a breathtaking program of priorities des- tined to make Chicago the most impos- ing and impressive metropolis in the en- tire world. Mayor Richard J. Daley of the city of Chicago acknowledged the huge oppor- tunities that lie ahead for Chicago in the next decade and pledged his effort toward those goals. I am today placing in the CONGRES- SIONAL RECORD the entire statement of Mr. Venema; Mayor Daley; George W. Dunne, president of the Cook County Board of Commissioners, and Mr. George L. Dement, chairman of the Chicago Transit Authority. I think it is important for the Nation to see the impressive progress which has been made in Chicago and equally im- portant for our friends throughout the country and the world to see what excit- ing plans lie ahead in the continued growth of metropolitan Chicago. The Chicago Association of Commerce and Industry is to be congratulated for the leadership it has provided in work- ing with all levels of government toward a better Chicago. I should like to call my colleagues' at- tention particularly to the acknowledge- ment Mayor Daley gave to the Federal Programs and assistance which have made a great deal of the progress so meaningful. Mayor Daley and all of those attend- ing the meeting yesterday joined Gov. Richard B. Ogilvie in expressing a united dedication to the fact that government at all levels and industry working to- gether can solve the great crises of America's urban areas. I am also including the list of the leaders of Chicago who have worked so closely together toward the common growth of our city. This is the kind of team that is deter- mined to make Chicago the greatest in- dustrial complex in the entire world. The impressive speeches follow: THE 65TH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE CHICAGO ASSOCIATION OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY? PRIORITIES FOR PROGRESS?WHO WILL PAY? SPEAKERS TABLE W. Stanhaus, Chairman and President, Spector Freight System, Inc.; New Director, CACI. Sidney Epstein, President, A. Epstein and Sons, Inc.; New Director, CACI. Otto L. Preisler, President, Home Federal Savings & Loan Association of Chicago; New Director, CACI. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 b.'s/Tr/4 Fe r ary 7, 1969Approved EigeluggiFfnefElpoSktbRD1364R000300150001-8 11881 1VIINORITY EMPLOYEE Mr. GERALD R. FORD. Mr. Speaker, I offer a privileged resolution (H. Res. 238) and ask for its immediate consideration. The Clerk read the resolution, as fol. lows: 11. RES. 238 Resolved, That pursuant to the Legislative Pay Act of 1929, as amended, Robert T. Hart- mann is hereby designated a minority em- ployee (to fill an existing vacancy) until otherwise ordered by the House, and shall receive gross compensation of $28,000 per annum. The resolution was agreed to. A motion to reconsider was laid on the table. CONGRESSIONAL SALARIES The SPEAKER. Under a previous order of the House, the gentleman from Washington (Mr. FoLEY) is recognized for 10 minutes. Mr. FOLEY. Mr. Speaker, the Decem- ber 1968 Report of the Commission on Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Sal- aries recommended salary increases for the top officials of the three branches of the Federal Government. The Commis- sion is chaired by Frederick R. Kappel, retired chairman of the board of direc- tors of the American Telephone az Tele- graph Co., and is established by the Fed- eral Salary /tot of 1967. Before President Johnson left office his recommendations, pursuant to the Salary Act, were sent to Congress. The President lowered this ad- visory Commission's original recommen- dation of $50,000 to $42,500 per annum for Members of Congress. Mr. Speaker, I want to make my posi- tion quite clear in this matter. I believe that this House avoids its responsibility when Presidential recommendations of this kind are submitted to it and when Members do not vote on such recom- mendations one way or the other within the 30 days required by the Federal Sal- ary Act of 1967. I believe that the advis- ory Commission's study was useful and that the President's amended salary rec- ommendations were essentially sound but the House should have acted for- mally with respect to them before the time expired. Mr. Speaker, I think the recommenda- tions were essentially sound because: First. We cannot get enough top-flight people today from the private sector to serve as administrators of the Federal executive agencies unless the salary level is raised over the present rates for Cab- inet and sub-Cabinet officials. Second. Unless the Congress is to tend more toward becoming the domain of Members with independent incomes, sal- ary increases are necessary. As the ad- visory Commission said: It is our feeling that Members' salaries should be adjusted to compensate for the substantial and unique responsibilities they bear, to meet the cost peculiar to elective rather than appointive office, and to mini- mize the need to rely on other means of aug- menting income. But notwithstanding these considera- tions, the U.S. House of Representatives cannot, with any justification, complain about the erosion of its own power unless It has the candor to go on record for or against this and other Presidential rec- ommendations of similar import. If the House of Representatives wishes to main- tain its national authority, it must meet this responsibility. Therefore, Mr. Speaker, I intend to introduce an appropriate resolution to facilitate the House expressing its sup- port of, or opposition to, any future Presidential recommendation made pur- suant to the Federal Salary Act of 1967 for pay raises for top officials of the ex- ecutive, legislative, and judical branches of the Federal Government. I believe that this House must have an opportunity to vote as a body on such Presidential rec- ommendations within a reasonable pe- riod?if necessary, irrespective of the action of the concerned committees. Furthermore, in view of the Commis- sion's suggestion that the income for Members of Congress is needed in part to "minimize the need to rely on other means of augmenting income," I believe this is an appropriate time to consider legislation requiring more complete dis- closure of outside income and assets by Members of the House, and I also intend to introduce legislation to this end. For my own part, I wish to announce that, had the President's salary recom- mendations come to the floor of the House for action, as should have been the case, I would have voted against a resolu- tion disapproving these recommenda- tions. "PUEBLO" INCIDENT NEEDS FULL INQUIRY The SPEAKER. Under a previous or- der of the House, the gentleman from Ohio (Mr. ASHBROOK) is recognized for 60 minutes. Mr. ASHBROOK. Mr. Speaker, all Americans are watching the U.S.S. Pueblo inquiry with the greatest concern. - I am sure each Member of this body has received the great volume of mail I have?and it runs very nearly 100 percent in favor of Comdr. Lloyd Bucher and against the military-executive estab- lishment. Above all, the individual thoughts expressed in these letters is the indication that we have entered a period in the history of the Pueblo af- fair when the vast majority of the peo- ple truly believe they are about to be- come the victims of the "closed Gov- ernment." They are about to be thrown into the ranks of the uninformed be- cause of bureaucratic coverup. The peo- ple are concerned that having waited patiently through 11 months while the men they supported were tortured and their Nation humiliated, they will now be treated to an exhibition of how government in error merely pulls the cur- tain from public view and buckpasses all the problems away. In times such as these, the "people's right to know" is paramount. But this right is not always observed. We have had coverups following blunders; we have had our national pride and prestige slandered by the demands of self-serv- ing bureaucrats. And many people be- lieve it is about to happen again, pri- marily because they have had too many bad experiences not to expect it. Looking back just a few years reveals the massive coverups in the Billy Sol Estes, Otto Otepka and Jerry Jackis cases, where loyal employees were axed by the bureaucratic system while their tormentors were untouched and in some instances were awarded promotions. The strange circumstances of the Bobby Baker case are closed as far as the light of public scrutiny is concerned; the TFX contracts, a multibillion-dollar blunder with enormous political implication is now accepted by many as history; the Walter Jenkins-L. B. 3.-Don Reynolds Incidents are now nearly forgotten. All these have one common denominator. They represent the type of government above the people, government beyond their view, which threatens to subvert the truth in the search for the facts con- cerning the U.S.S. Pueblo. I have been as concerned as anyone about the men of the Pueblo and the na- tional and international ramifications of this piracy. And I am sure I have been as vocal as anyone. A look at the index to the daily CONGRESSIONAL RECORD will re- veal that as early as January 25, 1968, within hours after capture, and as late as January 30, 1969, I spoke out to the public and to my colleagues. And be- tween these times there have been many other occasions when I have forcefully stated the positions of the people whom I represent and my personal views. Nearly 6 months after the ship and crew were seized, my eighth annual pub- lic opinion questionnaire indicated the feelings by the people that the Govern- ment had taken the wrong tack. Asked if they favored an immediate retaliatory move when the ship was captured, nearly 80 percent of those answering said "Yes." Asked whether we should continue diplomatic activities?this was June 1968?or issue an ultimatum and go get ship and crew, 70 percent of those with an opinion selected the latter. THE PEOPLE SPEAK I indicated the concern of many people when, on April 17, 1968, I forwarded to President Johnson telegrams, letters, notes, and petitions. In this letter I stated: There are nearly 700 names here and they represent an equal number of incredulous Americans?men, women, and children, wives, mothers and sisters, who are ashamed of the lack of success in bringing about the return of these men and their ship. The apparent abandonment of the Pueblo and her crew is a frightening and shameful precedent and one which, as these letters pointedly indicate, a great number and I believe a great majority of Americans find totally alien to our time-honored standards and beliefs. I was among the many millions who urged the President to take action. As the letter stated, two areas should have de- manded attention: Take whatever action is necessary to secure as quickly as possible the return of the U.S.S. Pueblo and her crew; Explain, in full, to me and to the American people, what actions have been taken, what policy is being followed, and why. The thousands of bumper stickers and the activities of many thousands of peo- ple, alone or in quickly organized groups indicated at the time that this was a Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09_: CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 11882 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE February 7, 1969 nationwide concern of a magnitude sel- dom seen in our history. There can be no doubt that a critical need exists to conduct a detailed, wide- ranging, organized investigation, There were too many contradictions from Gov- ernment spokesmen when the Pueblo was seized, and the responsibility has been shifted and reshifted too often. The de- lay in informing the President of the harassment anclboarding of the ship has not even today been finally pla0ed. Our Government's response vVas mud- dled and totally ineffective and our di- plomacy disastrous. We have had a con- sistently weak?indeed, foolish?policy vis-a-vis world Colinnullism so the Pueblo disaster was part of a larger sordid pic- ture. With a strong sounding voice we took the weakest of stands. "We cannot tolerate this piracy," we said, but we stooped to the absurdity of hallifig then Secretary of State Rusk appeal the "good offices" of the Soviet Union for l help. By refusing, the Soviets added inenit to the absurdity. This double blunderfirst of assuming that the Communists ,were not the same tyrants of old and Second of hoping they would aid us rather than their ally, was the type of pot which allowed 83 Americans to survi as best they could in the horrors of Nbrth Ko- rean prisons. The American people and the people of the entire world were asked to swallow a diplomatic lie in order to achieve the political?not humanitarian kr mili- tary?expedient of seeing the captured men returned for Christmas. Again our policy in dealing with the CoMmunists was based on weakness rather than strength, falsehoods, and colnpromise rather than truth. Now, the people of America fwatch as a board of inquiry examines. The thought across the Nation seems to be that Comdr. Lloyd Bucher is to be made a scapegoat. This was the thought until the people and their Representatives in Con- gress began to protest. It is now obvious that any full and final resolution to all the questions will come only from Congress. And the only way a full and final as well as 4 reason- ably public inquiry can be had iS through the operation of a joint bipartisan con- gressional committee. Secrets should be protected but we should not allow a coverup to be accomplished by simply stamping "secret" on the inquiry. Admittedly, there are several options. We can rely solely on the inv stigation being conducted by the Navy b t this is incomplete and of questionable bjectiv- ity. This sort of agency intros ection is valuable to some degree but th re is still the built-in limitation of havin the ac- cused sit as judge of what ma well be his crime. We might also take s a sup- plement the correlative exami ation by the Deputy Secretary of Defen e, but to a great extent the same limita ions ap- ply; the people in the Depart edt sup- plying the information today were to a great extent also present when lie blun- ders occurred and undoubtedlr were a party to them. At least, they lave been responsible for his policy of appease- ment. In addition, neither of these in- vestigations is directed at the probable liability of the White House, the State Department or the interwoven patterns of the National Security Agency. We might also rely on the various com- mittee investigations which are being conducted or which have been an- nounced. These, however, are approach- ing the total question in a segmented Manner, on a nearly random basis and are not coord.tnated either within their Houses of Congress or between the House and the Senate. MY ENQUIRY PROPOSAL I propose an alternative. Along with other Members of the House, I have in- troduced legislation to establish a joint House-Senate committee to conduct a full investigat.ion. Its 16 members would be divided equally between the two polit- ical parties. It would have no other duties than to investigate all ramifications of the capture of the Pueblo. Eight of the members would be appointed by the President of the Senate and eight by the Speaker of the House. This bill, House Concurrent Resolu- tion 109, lists the function of the com- mittee as: SEC. 2. The joint committee shall under- take a full and complete investigation and study of all circumstances leading up to the capture of the United States ship Pueblo and all events pertaining to the vessel and her crew after its capture until the time of the crew's release. The investigation and study shall give special attention to the policy and actions of the military departments con- cerned with respect to the preparation of the United Stats ship Pueblo for its mission and the military response of such depart- ments during the period immediately pre- ceding the vessal's capture. Such investiga- tion and study shall, in addition, examine in detail the activities of the Department of Defense and the Department of State with respect to the negotiations (including of- ficial statements issued to the public re- specting such negotiations) undertaken to effect the release of the crew of the United States ship Pueblo. The committee is charged with sub- mitting an interim report as soon as pos- sible and a final report not later than the end of the present session of Con- gress. It is charged with making specific recommendations, including "specific recommendations for legisla- tion." It will have the power to subpena witnesses and papers and reports as needed. Granted, the naval inquiry now in progress in Coronado, Calif., into the capture of the Pueblo is a procedural matter which follows serious events and tragedies invo]ving naval personnel and material for the most part. In this light, the inquiry has been productive so far in revealing information regarding the operational aspects of the Pueblo affair. If, however, the inquiry ends up by oversimplifying and placing responsibil- ity for the capture of the vessel on a solitary naval officer, I am sure there will be a reaction from the American public loud and clear which will demand a complete expo.3e of the whole mess from top to bottom. Take, for example, the question of whether Commander Bucher violated Navy regulation No. 0'730, which forbids surrendering command to a foreign state "so long as he has the power to resist." Either the j.njection of this question into the inquiry is a diversionary tactic or .the testimony of former Secretary of De- fense Robert McNamara before a Senate _ committee in 1968 is in error. On Feb- ruary 1, 1968, Secretary McNamara, along with Gen. Earle Wheeler, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, testified before the Senate Armed Services Committee on a bill to authorize Defense Department appropriations for fiscal year 1969. When asked if the Pueblo and similar ships with their electronic gathering equip- ment were not one of the most important types of craft at that time, Secretary McNamara responded with specific refer- ence to Commander Bucher: Yes, and may I add there that his first re- sponsibility was not to attack the harassing vessels but rather to destroy his equipment. Several sentences later the Secretary again emphasized this point: But I do know that his orders were that under such circumstances his first objective was to destroy equipment and associated documents. Let me repeat a very key passage from the above statement: . . . his first responsibility was not to at- tack the harassing vessels but rather to' destroy his equipment. From the testimony of Commander Bucher and others, we learn that the Pueblo skipper set out to do just that? destroy the electronic equipment and as- sociated documents. PossibLy he did not perform this duty well, but to charge him with policy errors is unfair. Evidently, the responsibility for the capture of the ship lies with those much higher in authority than the commander of the Pueblo. General Wheeler, when asked during the Senate hearing if we had learned anything from the Pueblo affair, responded: Certainly, we must take a look at the in- structions to the captains of these vessels. [Deleted.] If, as Secretary McNamara has stated, Commander Bucher's first responsibility was not to fight back if the enemy closed In but to destroy the intelligence equip- ment and data, then we might possibly have the spectacle of an inquiry board endeavoring to establish why one of its officers did not disobey, rather than obey, his first and most binding operating or- der. I realize the danger of oversimplifying in complex cases of this nature, and this is precisely why a congressional investi- gation is urgently needed. Incidentally, such an investigation could review the Pueblo's operating orders which, of course, is classified information but which could well throw considerable light on the prioritiec under which Com- mander Bucher operated. A MISMANAGED MISSION, An even broader aspect of an investi- gation concerns the placing of respon- sibility for the pathetic mismanagement of the mission from its initial inception to the signing of the false statement late in 1968. The overall responsibility for the mission lies, as is to be expected, right here in Washington. Secretary McNa- mara, during the above-cited Senate hearings, stated: The basic purpose of the mission was re- viewed at the upper echelons of the Gov- Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 February 7, 1969 ApprovedcFglaVtgmfflOA1NEoRii RDB61gW364R000300150001-8 H 883 ernment in Washington. It is true that it had been recommended by field commanders, but it is equally true that I am certain other high officials in Washington must assume responsibility for it. What role, for instance, did the highly secretive National Security Agency have in the Pueblo operations? Here again we have highly classified information which would have to be handled by a commit- tee behind closed doors, the results of which might never be revealed to the public. This was precisely the case when the House Committee on Un-American Activities probed the security procedures and practices of NSA several years ago when two top echelon employees defected to the Soviet Union. These resulted in extensive overhaul of certain aspects of that agency's operation. The hearings in that case were behind closed doors?they were never published?but nevertheless many changes and the enactment of a Federal statute resulted thereby correct- ing serious deficiencies in that Agency. At this point, one can only wonder why the Pueblo was allowed to begin its mission with highly secret intelligence gathering equipment but lacking the nec- essary destruct equipment to destroy it upon confrontation by the enemy. Possi- bly the answer is simple: our naive for- eigh policy planners do not believe that the Communists are our enemy. The in- telligence sector of the Pueblo operation was under the jurisdiction of NSA which, in turn, is under the direction, authority and control of the Secretary of Defense. Should the NSA, which has both a secu- rity mission and an intelligence mis- sion, bear the blame for not insisting on adequate destruct equipment to destroy, if necessary, the reams of secret docu- ments which eventually did fall into the hands of the North Koreans? This cer- tainly appears to be a relevant ques- tion when one considers that a function of the NSA is to prescribe security policies and procedures for the U.S. Government. In addition, it organizes, operates and manages certain activities and facilities for the production of intelligence infor- mation, areas which certainly appear to be pertinent to the Pueblo operation. One thing is certain: one would be hard pressed to hang the blame for the loss of the sensitive equipment and docu- ments on Commander Bucher who tried a number of times to have the necessary destruct equipment installed on the Pueblo. Who did make the judgment that time and money would not allow the installation of such equipment which, belatedly, is available today? Another question which poses itself as the result of the hearings by the Naval Board of Inquiry is why the Pueblo was allowed to travel undefended in hostile waters. As I understand the chronology of events, up until June 1967, two de- stroyers had escorted the U.S.S. Banner in its sorties into unfriendly waters. Thereafter, the destroyers were with- drawn, leaving the Banner and later the Pueblo, virtually at the mercy of hostile forces. The need for protection was fur- ther increased when one considers that prior to the Pueblo's arrival, the North Korean Government had publicly pro- tested by radio that American surveil- lance ships were operating in the vicinity of Korean waters and that the North Korean Government intended to take ac- tion. As to the possibility of air cover for the Pueblo, the military airfield at Osan, South Korea, was, I understand, less than 30 minutes by air from where the Pueblo was accosted. Yet, there were only four U.S. fighter planes at Osan, none of which could have been called upon for help; one was being repaired and the other three were armed with nuclear weapons. The question arises as to why the Ban- ner at one time had the protection of two destroyers which were later withdrawn. We know from Secretary McNamara's testimony before the Senate Armed Serv- ices Committee that there were no con- tingency plans for the Pueblo. He stated: I think the point is that we don't maintain contingency plans to react to hijacking on the high seas in all the situations in which that is possible, and there wasn't such a plan here. This could explain why Rear Adm. Frank L. Johnson, commander of the naval forces, Japan, said, according to Commander Bucher, that if the Pueblo "got into trouble there would probably be no help forthcoming." The question still remains to be an-- swered as to what factors were in- volved in the change of policy whereby the Banner at one point in time required a two-destroyer escort when, in con- trast, no protective provisions were made for the Pueblo. Was it some cold war "deal" with our enemies? Finally, there remains the problem of what to do about future seizures. As I have previously indicated, adequate de- struct equipment has been installed in other intelligence ships around the world. Also, according to Wayne Thomis in the Chicago Tribune of January 29, some of the newer recoilless guntubes in the 75-millimeter and 105-millimeter classes were probably added. This, unfortunately, is but a minor step in our efforts to prevent further Pueblo recurrences. What will be our diplomatic policy in similar cases in the future? Shall be allow our men to rot in Communist prisons until Christmas rolls around, sign a false statement and hope to get them home for the holidays? Or should we, perhaps, explore ways to persuade the allies not to trade with those regimes which hijack ships of other nations in international waters. Or should we totally revise our cold war strategy in this battle for survival? The handling of the Pueblo incident will give some indication of whether we continue our same losing policies of the past decade or learn by our mistakes, clean house, and work to restore the United States to its position of prestige. The resolution follows: H. Cox. RES. 109 Whereas there is deepening public interest and concern with respect to the capture of the United States ship Pueblo by North Ko- rean forces; and Whereas, although the open sessions of the court of inquiry have given the public a par- tial account of the circumstances surround- ing the capture of the vessel and the treat- ment of the commander and crew during captivity, there remain many vital questions to be answered, particularly concerning the actions of the military and other agencies with regard to the preparation of the United States ship Pueblo and crew for its ill-fated mission, the response made to the calls for assistance from the vessel upon the approach of hostile forces, and the manner in which the ultimate release of the crew was effected: Now, therefore, be it Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate concurring), ESTABLISHMENT OF COMMITTEE SECTION 1. There is established a joint con- gressional committee to investigate the United States ship Pueblo affair (hereafter in this concurrent resolution referred to as the "joint committee") to be composed of eight Members of the Senate appointed by the President of the Senate, four of whom shall be members of the minority party ap- pointed after consultation with the minority leader, and eight Members of the House of Representatives appointed by the Speaker, four of whom shall be members of the mi- nority party appointed after consultation with the minority leader. FUNCTIONS SEC. 2. The joint committee shall under- take a full and complete investigation and study of all circumstances leading up to the capture of the United States ship Pueblo and all events pertaining to the vessel and her crew after its capture until the time of the crew's release. The investigation and study shall give special attention to the policy and actions of the military departments con- cerned with respect to the preparation of the United States ship Pueblo for its mission and the military response of such departments during the period immediately preceding the vessel's capture. Such investigation and study shall, in addition, examine in detail the ac- tivities of the Department of Defense and the Department of State with respect to the ne- gotiations (including official statements is- sued to the public respecting such negotia- tions) undertaken to effect the release of the crew of the United States ship Pueblo. REPORT SEC. 3. The joint committee shall submit an interim report to each House of Congress as to the results of its investigation and study as soon as possible after the date of approval of this concurrent resolution, and not later than the close of the current ses- sion of Congress shall submit a final report to each House of Congress with respect to its activities, investigations, and studies un- der this concurrent resolution, together with such recommendations (including specific recommendations for legislation) as it deter- mines appropriate in the light of the investi- gations and studies conducted under this concurrent resolution. VACANCIES; SELECTION OF CHAIRMAN AND VICE CHAIRMAN SEC. 4. Vacancies in the membership of the joint committee shall not affect the power of the remaining members to execute the functions of the joint committee, and shall be filled in the same manner as in the case of the original selection. The joint com- mittee shall select a chairman and a vice chairman from among its members. HEARING; SUBPENA POWER SEC. 5. For the purpose of carrying out this concurrent resolution the joint commit- tee, or any subcommittee thereof authorized by the joint committee to hold hearings, is authorized to sit and act at such times and places within the United States, including any Commonwealth or possession thereof, whether either House is in session, has re- cessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hear- ings, and to require, by subpena or other- wise, the attendance and testimony of such witnesses and the production of such books, records, correspondence, memorandums, pa- pers, and documents, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the signature Approved For Release 2002/10/09: CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 II 884 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE February 7, 1969 of the chairman of the joint cqmrnittee or any member of the joint committee desig- nated by him, and May be served by any person designated by such chairman or member. PERSONNEL AND IITILItAT ION OF SERVICES OF AGENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONS SEC. 6. The joint committee is 'empowered to appoint and fix the compensation of such experts, consultants, technicians, ehd clerical and stenographic assistants, to procure such printing and binding, and to make such ex- penditures, as it deems necessary and advis- able. The joint committee is authorized to utilize the services, information, and facili- ties of the departments and establishments of the Government, and also of private re- search agencies. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS SEC. 7. The expenses of the joint commit- tee shall be paid from the contingent fund of the House of Representatives On vouchers signed by the cahirman or vice chairman of the joint committee. TRIBUTE TO THE LATE JAMES P. GRIFFIN , (Mr. McCORMACK (at the request of Mr. McFALL) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD, and to include extraneous mat- ter.) ? Mr. McCORMACK. Mr. Speaker, I rise to pay my respects to the life and service of the late James P. Griffin. I Since the year 1911, "Jimmy" or "Griff" was a familiar and popular per- sonality here on the congressional scene. I am sorry, indeed, to note that his death will deny us that association here in the future. Jimmy began his employment as a Page in 1911. In the ensuing years he held several posts in the empldy of the Republican leadership, but such was Jimmy's devotion to the House of Repre- sentatives that he gave of himSelf will- ingly, generously, and ably, to all Mem- bers regardless of party affiliation Those who knew Jimmy only in his later years of some infirmity cannot remember the sprightly, eager, cheerful young James Griffin who contributed so much to this Congress during his 910 years of service. But all of us were Vounger once, and, God willing, we may be older, yet. I am sure nothing enriches the "golden years" like the knowledge that our friends remember the earler miles we have walked together. As I participated at the M g cele- brated for our departed frie4id, Jim Griffin, I was impressed by th sincere feeling of those who had com to pay their respects, and who would, like my- self, be missing Jimmy in the day ahead. To his sisters, to whom my del friend, "Jim" Griffin was devoted, I ex end my deepest sympathy. I include in the RECORD at ths point, the obituary from the Washing n Eve- ning Star of January 13, 1969: JAMES P. GRIFFIN, PAIRS CLERK roe ROUSE GOP UNTIL 1961 James P. Griffin, 75 who retired in 1961 as Republican pair clerk after 50 years of serv- ice with the House of RepresentatiVes, died x, Friday in Georgetown Hospital afte a heart attack at his home, 2262 Hall Place . Griffin, whose career spanned nine Rouse speakers from Joseph Cannon to Sam Ray- burn, was known as "the historian Of Capi- tol Hill". because of his minute knowledge of congressional lore. His memory was such that he once floored ? an elderly excongressman by recalling not only his name, district, and term of service, but the subject of his maiden speech. Born in Baltimore, Mr. Griffin spent his youth in New Jersey. He came to Washing- ton in 1911 to be a House page. Known to House members as "Griff," he subsequently became chief page, deputy sergeant-at-arms, and minority clerk on the Republican side. In his final job as pair clerk, Mr. Griffin was responsible for pairing congressmen on opposite sides of a question so that the votes of absent members could be recorded. Although this required speedy footwork when a vote was scheduled in a matter of minutes, Mr. Griffin, despite the 275 pounds supported by his 5-foot 9-inch frame, always managed to come through. After his retirement, Mr. Griffin continued to be a frequent visitor to the House press gallery. He leaves three sisters: Mrs. Agnes At- tredge, who lived with him, Mrs. Marie Buck- ley of Washington, and Mrs. Catherine Mack Of Springfield, Va. ? Friends may call from 2 to 4 and 7 to 9 p.m. today at Lee Funeral Home, 4th Street and Massachusetts Avenue NE. A rosary will be said at 8 p.m- tonight in St. Peter's Catho- lic Church, 313 2nd St. NE, and a requiem mass will be said at 10 am, tomorrow in the church. Burial will be in Mount Olivet Ceme- tery. INTRODUCTION OF A BILL TO AMEND THE AGRICULTURAL ACT OF 1949 REGARDING THE SUP- PORT LEVEL OF CIGAR-BINDER TOBACCO, TYPES 51 AND 52: The SPEAKER. Under a previous order of the House, the gentleman from Con- necticut (Mr. DADDARIO) is recognized for 5 minutes. Mr. DADDA RIO. Mr. Speaker, I am to- day introducing a bill to amend the Agri- cultural Act of 1949 to revise the support level of cigar binder tobacco?type 51, broadleaf, and type 52, Havana seed. This bill, am convinced, would breathe new Ale into the Connecticut Valley cigar binder tobacco business iri order to introduce an element of stability by placing a realistic support level or floor under the market for Connecticut tobacco. It should be noted that the growers themselves voluntarily requested the Sec- retary of Agriculture to reduce the price support level from the then existing level, in an effort to prevent further accumula- tion of surplus cigar binder tobacco. This was a time of complexity in the fields, as a result of the development of synthetic sheet tobacco, variously known in the trade as homogenized cigar binder, re- constituted cigar binder, and other trade names. The use of sound leaves for tobacco binder had lost much of the market, for which growers had been pro- ducing fine quality cigar binderleaf since early colonial days. The growers found the impact of this technological develop- ment to be disastrous, and tremendous surpluses developed. , The present price support level has be- come ineffective in giving the grower the support of proection intended by the law. The enclosed bill would meet the need to restore an element of stability to this situation. I hope it can be passed promptly so that the growers can be made aware of it in time to formulate their spring seedbed and growing plans for the 1969 crop. RECESS The SPEAKER. Without objection, the House will stand in recess for a few minutes while we await a message from the Senate. There was no objection. Accordingly (at 12 o'clock and 14 min- utes p.m.), the House stood in recess sub- ject to the call of the Chair. AFTER RECESS The recess having expired, the House was called to order by the Speaker at 12 o'clock and 30 minutes p.m. MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE A message from the Senate by Mr. Arrington, one of its clerks, announced that the Senate had passed without amendment, joint and concurrent reso- lutions of the House of the following titles: H.J. Res. 14. Joint resolution making a sup- plemental appropriation for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1969, and for other purposes; H. con. Res. 124. Concurrent resolution providing for an adjournment of the two Houses of Congress from Friday, February 7, 1969, to Monday, February 17, 1969; and H. Con. Res. 133. Concurrent resolution commending the leadership of the Boy Scouts of America for their fine work and contribu- tion to American youth. ? PARLIAMENTARY INQUIRY The SPEAKER. For what purpose does the gentleman from Iowa rise? Mr. GROSS. Mr. Speaker, I rise to propound a parliamentary inquiry. The SPEAKER. The gentleman will state his parliamentary inquiry. Mr. GROSS. Mr. Speaker, since sev- eral House resolutions have been passed today by unanimous consent, my ques- tion to the distinguished Speaker is whether it would be in order at this time to call up House Resolution 133 disap- proving the pay increase for certain officials and employees of the Federal Government? The SPEAKER. The Chair will state to the gentleman from Iowa that it has already been announced that there would be no legislative business today. Under those circumstances, and without deter- mining the merits of the resolution, the Chair could recognize the gentleman. Yet the Chair in its discretion will not recognize the gentleman for that pur- pose. SPECIAL ORDERS GRANTED By unanimous consent, permission to address the House, following the legis- lative program and any special orders heretofore entered, was granted to: Mr. FoLEY, today, for 10 minutes; to revise and extend his remarks and to include extraneous matter. (The following Member (at the request of Mr. MCCLURE) to revise and extend their remarks and to include extraneous matter:) Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 6, 1969 E 880 Approveg?rGINMVE,2/ffebieriA-ARIVONs3etritigaM50011714ruary he will make a good President of our coun- try. He seems like a good man. He has a very nice family. He has a big job. I think he is a very special man, and he made a very good speech. I hope he will stop the war. This is the first time I saw a President get sworn in, and I am glad we have a TV in our room. We made hats in our classroom and put Nixon on them. We wore them while we watched TV. We stood at attention while they played the National Anthem. It was an exciting day for all of us." MY OPINIONS OF THE INAUGURATION David Cooper: "In school today we saw the Inauguration and I liked it. "It's too bad Mr. Johnson had to leave. But he was in the White House long enough. "I don't see why any new President has to open a bubble and stick out his head and wave his arms around. They should just sit in the car and wave to people. "And I don't see why they need bubble cars either." MY FEELINGS OF THE INAUGURATION Judy Yankelunas: "January 20, 1969 was a very exciting day for everyone. For Mr. Johnson it was probably a sad and a happy day for him. For Mr. Nixon it must have been a very happy day for him. In the next 4 years when another man is elected to be President of the United States will Mr. Nixon feel the same way as Mr. Johnson did?" WHAT I LIKED ABOUT THE INAUGURATION Nancy Corteville: "When the cars go down the road and the secret service men ran along the sides of the cars. And listening to the speeches and watching the balls in color seeing all the pretty dresses. And watching everybody get sworn in. The parade is fun to watch especially in color because it really is very pretty. "And then they sometimes show pictures like of the White House at night with its light shining on it. It really is very pretty. "When they are showing pictures of the President and where he is, It's just a day when almost everyone is happy." UKRAINIAN-AMERICAN COMMU- NITY MARKS ANNIVERSARY HON. GLENN CUNNINGHAM OF NEBRASKA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 6, 1969 Mr. CUNNINGHAM. Mr. Speaker, the Ukrainian-American community in Omaha recently observed the 51st anni- versary of Ukrainian independence and the 50th anniversary of the Act of Union In a fitting and solemn celebration. The glorious days of Ukrainian inde- pendence are not forgotten. I am proud to pay tribute to the Ukrainian people in my district and those behind the Iron Curtain and fervently hope they will again be free of the Communist yoke. I include as part of my remarks the following letter from Dmytro Wijtek, chairman of the Ukrainian-American Association, Inc., of Omaha, Nebr.: January 22, 1969 marked the 51st anniver- sary of the Proclamation of Independence of Ukraine, and the 50th Anniversary of the Act of Union, whereby all Ukrainian ethnic lands were united into one independent and sov- ereign state of the Ukrainian nation. The independence of Ukraine was proclaimed in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, on January 22, 1918, and the Act of Union took place a year later, on January 22, 1919, also in Kiev. The young Ukrainian democratic republic was immediately recognized by a number of foreign governments, including that of So- viet Russia. The latter, however, almost si- multaneously with recognition, began a large-scale invasion of Ukraine. By 1920, Ukraine alone and unaided, succumbed to the superior forces of Communist Russia, and in 1923 had become a part of the Soviet Union. The freedom-loving people of Ukraine have not accepted Soviet Russian domination and have been fighting for the reestablishment of their independence by all means at their disposal. During World War II, the Ukrainians or- ganized a powerful underground resistance movement, known as the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UpA), which fought not only against the Nazi regime, but against the Soviet Rus- sian occupation as well. Bloody and relentless persecution of Ukrainians continued after the death of Stalin, and it continues now under Breshnev- Kosygin. Briefly, the Russian rule in Ukraine can be summarized as follows: Exploitation of Ukraine's economic re- sources for the benefit of Moscow and its im- perialistic ventures in Asia, Africa and Latin America; Continued deportation of Ukrainians to Central Asia, replacing them with Russian settlers for the purpose of augmenting the Russian ethnic element in Ukraine; Arrests and trials of "Ukrainian bourgeois nationalists," who in fact are Ukrainian pa- triots fighting for freedom of their country; Terror and assassination of Ukrainian leaders outside Ukraine, such as the assassi- nation of Dr. Lev R. Rebet, a noted Ukrainian writer, and Stepan Bandera, head of the Or- ganization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), both of whom were slain by KGB agent Bog- dan Stashynsky in Munich, in 1957 and 1959, respectively; Persecution of all religions in Ukraine, de- spite the fact that Moscow claims that "reli- gious freedom" is assured to all Soviet citi- zens; Enforced Russification, aiming at the cul- tural and linguistic genocide of the Ukrainian people. A number of Ukrainian intellectuals were arrested, tried and sentenced at hard 'labor for advocating more freedom for the Ukrainian people. Among them are Such known writers as Vyacheslav Chornovil, Svya- toslav Karavansky, Ivan Dzyuba, and many others. In December 1968, the U.N., in defi- ance of the destruction of Human Rights in Ukraine, awarded a "Human Rights Award" to Prof. Peter R. Nedbailo, a representative of the Ukrainian SSR in the U.N. Human Rights Commission, thus making a mockery of Hu- man Rights Year, 1968. Today, more than ever, Ukraine is a colony of Communist Russia. Both the U.S. Congress and the President of the United States expressed their concern over Ukraine by enacting the "Captive Na- tions Week Resolution" in 1959, whereby Ukraine is enumerated with 21 other non- Russian captive nations in the USSR. THE SAD "PUEBLO" STORY MUST NO1 ISE it.N.VEATED HON. DANTE B. FASCELL OF FLORIDA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 6, 1969 Mr. FASCELL. Mr. Speaker, all Amer- icans were disheartened by the capture of the U.S. vessel Pueblo by North Korea and the subsequent mistreatment of Comdr. Lloyd M. Bucher and his crew. We are glad that Commander Bucher and his men were eventually released after lengthy diplomatic pressure and nego- tiations. The outcome of the current Navy hearings on the matter is yet to be known, but certainly there will be few plaudits growing out of this sad episode in our history. While it is fortunate that the explosive Incident did not touch off another Ko- rean war, it appears necessary that Con- gress also hold hearings and examine the facts concerning the Pueblo seizure. We must take whatever actions are justi- fied to insure that there are no future repetitions, and I will be personally con- cerned with seeing that this is the case. In the meantime, the Nation will be watching the Navy hearings which delve so deeply into our national pride and military tradition. I am pleased to call the attention of my colleagues to an edi- torial from the Miami Herald of Janu- ary 23, 1969. This editorial asks penetrat- ing questions about the "sorry naval affair" which it says has many of the undertones of the Pearl Harbor fiasco of more than 27 years ago. I believe that many of my colleagues will be interested in its contents, as follows: THE SAD "PUEBLO" STORY MUST Nor BE REPEATED All hands must be heard before public judgment is passed, of course, but the early testimony of the skipper of the intelligence ship Pueblo is disquieting. What Comdr. Lloyd M. Bucher told a Navy court of inquiry in California has many of the undertones of the Pearl Harbor fiasco of more than 27 years ago. Whatever its political origins, the Japanese attack on Hawaii was successful largely be- cause U.S. commanders had poor communi- cations and improper liaison. The intelli- gence system broke down. Cmclr. Bucher has testified that the Pueblo was outgunned by the North Koreans who waylaid her at some point offshore as yet to be determined. He did not resist because, properly, he "saw no point in senselessly sending people to their deaths." His first warning message to naval head- quarters in Japan took 12 to 14 hours In transmission, "as we had feared." The ship contained few or no "destruct devices", and critical equipment was limited. During the capture, the day after Pueblo had been detected by North Korean fishing vessels, the radio antenna was shot off. Ap- parently there was no substitute gear. According to Cmdr. Bucher's testimony, his fears about inadequate communications and a shortage of destruct devices was passed on to his superiors in Japan, where the ves- sel was based, before he sailed. But nothing happened. Again there must be no prejudgments. But if the witness is telling the truth it is clear that Pueblo was a sitting duck for the enemy. The ship could not be defended. Neither could her commander alert head- quarters ashore in time to get help. It had been disclosed earlier that only nuclear bomb equipped planes were available to go to Pueblo's help. Would the extra 12 to 14 hours have enabled the Navy to bring up air support of a conventional nature? fighter-bombers, say, from somewhere in the _Pacific? That is only one of the many questions which must be asked about a sorry naval affair. This nation is deep in the intelligence busi- ness, as are most nations, for its own defense. It will continue that posture, which it is learning with difficulty. Thus there must be no more Pueblos. The public has a right to assurance on that score, and we trust it will come out of the humiliating inquiry into the plight of a brave man and his' valiant crew. Approved For Release 2002/10/09: CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Febltuary 6, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ?Extensions of Remarks E 879 TELEGRA/VL I join you in strenuously proteAing thel Iraqiovernment's execution of fourteen' 1,.1 perso accused of spying. The United States. and e United Nations, I feel. should, promptly and formally condemn this barba-1 rous att. It seems questionable, to say the least, that the UN should condemn Israel for the destruction of a few airpktnes and , remain discreetly mute at the public hang- ' ing of nine Jews and the violent murders of . scores of others by Arab terrorists operating I within Israel's borders. I hope and pray that ; Israel will achieve her goal of ending blood- i shed in the Middle East and of est-iblishing 1 a just and meaningful peace there. Please , inform me of any resolutions adopted at the i protestnieeting and I will make them known , to the President and the Secretary of State. A NE* THOUGHT, A NEW POSTURE HON. HENRY C. SCHADEBERG -OF WISCONSIN IN TIE HOUSE OF 1:2PRESENTA1'IVES i"hursday, FebrzAry 6, 1969 Mr. SCHADEBERG. \Mr. Speaker, much has been written abdut the dignity and calmness surrounding the inaugu- ration on January 20 of our 1,;?tw Presi- dent, Richard Nixon. Few, h ever, in commenting or writing about this great and stirring event, have touched on the real sphit of the occasion with more:in- sight than the writer of an article in the Chicagct Sun-Times. I urge my colleagues to refresh their minds and spirits after this lapse of time since that event by reading the article and sharing tile im- pact it made on Charles Bartlett, the writer. The article follows: A NEW THOUGHT, A NEW POSTIEZE (By Charles Bartlett) WAsnnstcror.r.?A nation straining for an expression of Richard M. Nixon's leadership found it IMonday in the calm, measured dig- nity of his inauguration. Even the skies co- operated to furnish a cathedral-like gray cast which gave the occasion an aura that was solenan but not grim, cold but reai?nring. The Democrats contributed by the gen- erous style in which they departed. Lyndon B. Johnsen was rarely friendly, more formal, or moreiresidential than he seemed as he l gave up is office. The transfer bore no traces of the se ring politics that produced it. The onlookers seemed to catch quickly the spirit that Mr. Nixon has in mind. The absence f sparkle and jubilation was no more important than the presence of the hippies. The tone of the accession lay some- where between protest and celebration, and the event gained its quality from its absorb- ence of b th moods. The impact of the new spirit stemmed from the consistency with which Mr. Nixon applied it The cautious pace of his appoint- ments, the low key of his pre-inaugurol pro- nouncements, the unprecipitous fashion In which he debarked from the aircraft that car- ing as he stood on the inaugural platform, car- ried him to Washington, his unexcited bear- and his abstention from ringing rhetoric as he addresied the nation became manifesta- tions of a leadership intent on launching an interlude instead of an era. The key was the assertion "We cannot learn froi#one another until we stop shouting at one anoher, until we speak quietly enough so that our words can be heard as well as our voices" That was the new thought, the new posture that the new President offers, a challenge less stimulating than the New Deal or the New Frontier or the Great Society, but nonetheless a response unarguably ap- propriate to the times. Mr. Nixon spoke of "the long night of the American Spirit," but he _eft it to the evan- gelist, Billy Graham, to lash the society for its materialistic and permissive inclinations and the erosion of its values. He spoke of the measures the government must take in more emphatic and precise terms than his ambivalent campaign had promised. But he also rnade it clear the government cannot do all that needs to be done. The sense of balance which Mr. Nixon is prescribing for the country was contained with his speech. It reached out to the young, the Democrats and the hostile, and it weighed the causes for hope against the sources of concern. His words leaned more upon reason than exhortation and they made themselves felt because they were clear and strong and not because they were eloquent. The test of the occasion will not come in the immediate reaction to it. The test will be Mr. Nixon's success making his inaugura- tion a turning point in popular attitudes. If he can kindle a new readiness to face the harsh dynamics of swift change in a more constructive and less contentious spirit, he will have contributed as much to this mo- Ment in history as he possibly could have. An interlude cannot be the total theme of a Nixon Presidency because it is not in it- self enough to carry the country on a progres- sive course. But an interlude calculated to summon character and composure can be a healing respite and a prelude to something greater and more positive. That seems to be the spirit in which Mr. Nixon intends to ex- ert his calming influence. CENT EDWIN FUMO II HONJHN H. DENT OF PENLVANIA IN T HOUSE OF REPFESENTATIVES HE Thursday, FebruarYX, 1969 Mr. DENT. Mr. Speaker, rzote with great happiness an event of February 1. Ifi the early hours of that day,nt Meth- dist Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., Vincent win Fume II was born to Vin ent J. d Susan Ann Fumo. The child is the st for the young couple. , Mr. Speaker, the joy of this oceasion first reserved to the proud parents and elatives. But I wanted the occasion to acknowledged in the RECORD for at east two reasons. First of all, because he child may grow up to become Presi- ent of the United States and this pub- ic mention of his birth may endear roe ? him to the point where he will then ppoint Me Chairman af the Tariff ammission--where I sometimes in frus- tion thirst to serve. Second, and most eriously, however, because his parents re fine examples of the best our society aHis41 produce, , with whom I have had nit a professional and new social asso- iation for some time, is .% teacher and 1$0 studies law at Temple University. In &Mimi, his passion for participation in ood government should someday lead ifn into active public service, where I w he will serve with distinction. The c ild's mother is a beautiful young ? moan who has chosen the full-time ?Ofession of wife and mother, the most able among the rest. I know young Vincent is already sur- rounded with all he needs, and especially with the abundant love of his parents. I will only add my congratulations and the best wishes of us all. OPINIONS OF INAUGURATION HON. FRANK HORTON OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 6, 1969 Mr. HORTON. Mr. Speaker, there is nothing so sincere as the words which express the feeling of youngsters. I would like to share with my colleagues short essays written by a group of fourth graders from my district at the William- son Central School in Williamson, N.Y. If anyone should think that cere- monies get to be old hat, they should read what these youngsters have to say. The feelings they express assure me that the youngsters of today do share a sense of history. These letters appeared recently in the Williamson Sun, a weekly newspaper. OPINIONS OF INAUGURATION The Williamson Central School students of Mrs. Marjorie McCleery's fourth grade watched the inauguration of President Richard Nixon on TV January 20. Mrs. Mc- decry had her students write their opinions of the inauguration. A few of these are pub- lished here: NIXON Cindy J.: "I wonder what Nixon did when he was a boy. Did he have a dog? Mr. Nixon how is Mrs. Nixon? How are you? I like Mr. and Mrs. Nixon and the dogs. Do you have one or two dogs? Do you have a horse? Do you like Snoopy? He likes you. Do you like me?" FROM THE OLD TO wtax New Jackie Weaver: "Today is a very special occasion. Mr. John- son is our old President. Nixon is our new one. "I liked the Inauguration very much. I can't remember having seen one before. "I liked the bands. There is one thing I dislike about the Inauguration, they have too long prayers." THE INATIGURATION Jefferi Covington: "It was a nice Inauguration. "I missed Agnew Inauguration because I had to go get milk and ice cream for my class, and that is why I missed Agnew get inaugurated. I saw Nixon get InaUgurated. I liked his speech as well as the Sen. speech. I liked the parade very, very, very much." MY FEELINGS OF THE INAUGURATION Bob Verbridge: "It was like New Year's Eve. I felt the thrill go up and down my spine. After lie took his hand off the Bible, I said amen, Lord, let this man go into his work safely and come back alive 4 years from now, safely, Amen. As Mr. Johnson left the white house, I could almost feel the joy of sadness go through me. As the office went from hand to hand. May the be light on the roads to come ahead. May it choose to go on getting men like this for all the years to come. I must say one more thing. This man will lead our country onward. "He will always be a great American." THE INAUGURATION Lori Warren: "I thought that it was a very interesting Inauguration. I think that Mr. Nixon will keep our country at peace, and Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Ap_proved_For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-R1:9411430M4R000300150001.15,,LLo_ VV A SHINUT ON POSE Pro ays Allilitary Is Deficient By Richard Homan WEtsilington Post Staff WrIter The massive high-level cbn- fusion and indecision that fol- lowed attacks on the USS Pueblo and the EC-121 spy ane lead to the "inescapable conclusion" that the U.S. "niil; itary command structure is neW simply unable" to re- spond swiftly to a major crisis, a House subcommittee said yeaterclay. In an era of nuclear missiles, the subcommittee warned, the shortcomings brought to light by the two incidents have "frightful implications." The special Armed Services Uhconimittee formed-to inVes- tigate the two incidents said the inquiry "has resulted in the unanimous view that there exist serious deficiendies In the organizational and admin- iStrative Military cob-Una/1d structure of both the Depart- Merit of the Navy and the De- partment of Defense. ' The absent or slugLh re- e by military c o TriTiftl- the emergencies evident 'Pueblo and BC-fl iiici- clibefistrate the ' riad comPlete revievr ofThur Fitary-civilian c o m in a-n d _ _ ucture and its caliabilify to 'e ope With "ernergerce? 5M-ra- tions." In a scathingly-worded and painstakingly-documented 77- page report, the Committee also: ? Accused the entire intelli- gence community of making no more than a "token effort" to scrutinize the potential haz- ards involved in the Pueblo mission and said its "failure ? . . to provide essential and available information to poten- tial consumers in a timely fashion necessarily raises seri- ous questions concerning the effective operation and admin- istration of these organiza- tions." ? Recommended immediate steps to modify the rigid Code of Conduct governing 'activi- ties of U.S. servicemen held prisoner, providing A"clarifica- tion" and "latitude."frIPProved For Release 2002/10/09: ? Went far heyond official Pentagon staternelits in dis- closing that the capture of the Pueblo resulted in "a serious compromise of our Nation's in- telligence capabilty" and the "compromise of a great deal of classified information in- vblving naval operations." ? Recommended that the full Armed Services Commit- tee "monitor more closely" the Defense Intelligence Agency and the National Security Agency, requiring that each "provide the Committee with a detailed report concerning the scope of their activities, their personnel and their total expenditures." Because of their super-sensitive activities, both have been spared close scrutiny in the past. ? Accused the Defense De- partment of a "demonstrated lack of candor," of making "a deliberate effort to bury and obfuscate," of giving the sub- committee "half truths" and of being "less than forthright" in their testimony about the Pueblo incident. ? Acknowledged the need to continue such missions but said it was "not convinced that the magnitude of this intelli- gence reconnaissance activity is completely justified." Scuttling Devices Defense Secretary Melvin R. Laird announced yesterday that U.S. spy ships, under new orders, are now directed to use wall measures available to protect the ships from search and seizure," and have been given "new scuttling devices," smaller crews and a lesser amount of classified material. The report of the nine-man subcommittee's findings and recommendations were re- leased a day after transcripts of its hearings. The committee warned that major weaknesses exist in the U.S. military's ability to trans- mit operational messages rap- ? idly to commanders with au- thority to act, in the com- manders' willingness to act de- cisively and in the procedures or prior approval of intelli- gence-gathering missions. Chart i in the report show that the message from the Pueblo reporting it was being boarded reached the Pacific Command headquarters 1 hour, 17 minutes after it was sent and notification of the downing of the EC-121 did not reach Washington?either the Pentagon or White House?un- til more than an hour elapsed. Because of communications delays, lack of readiness and proper equipment, indecision and uncertainty about U.S. treaty restrictions at Japanese bases, no combat aircraft were available to aid the Pueblo until several hours after it was seized. "The advantages of speedy, modern and sophisticated com- munications equipment were often more than offset by the indecisive and inefficient han- dling of these communications by the various commands in- volved," the report said. No Time The committee noted that President Nixon recently said, "when a war can be decided in 20 minutes, the nation that is behind will have no time to catch up." "The reluctant but inescapa- ble conclusion finally reached by the subcommittee is that because of the vastness of the military structure, with its complex division into multiple layers of command, and the failure of responsible authori- ties at the seat of Government to either delegate responsibil- ity or in the alternative pro- vide clear and unequivocal guidelines governing policy in emergency situations?our military command structure is now simply unable to meet the emergency criterion outlined and suggested by the Presi- dent himself." The report disputed a U.S. Navy decision after the re- lease of the Pueblo's crew that no changes were needed in the code of conduct. "At the very least, clarifica- tion is required as to the appl- icability of the code of con- duct in those instances in which detainees are not pris- oners of war and are not ac- corded the protection of the Geneva Conventions," the re- port said, and when a prisoner Is not given such protection, "the code of conduct should 0 latitudeo 3 6 4 for ot3hoe gav&gonie Rl B The report itself did notj judge Cmdr. Lloyd Bucher's , decision to surrender the Pueblo without a fight. Subcommittee chairman Otis G. Pike (D-N.Y.) and Rep. William G. Bray (R-Ind.), the ranking Republican, indicated in a press conference that they were not pleased with it. "I believe I would not have reacted in the same way," Pike said, but he would go no further. "Very frankly," Bray said, "I would have shot it out. Cmdr. Bucher simply did not want to take the responsibility that the old-time kind of officers took." 150001-8 NEW YORK TIMES DATE 2 JUL 1040 PAGE / Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 House Panel Accuses Military of Serious Defects By HEDRICK SMITH special to The New York Times WASHINGTON, July 28? A House subcommittee charged today that the North Koreans' capture of the intelligence ship Pueblo and their shooting down of an EC-121 reconnaissance plane showed that the United States' ability to react to na- tional emergencies was imper- iled by "serious deficiencies" in the military command struc- ture. In a sharply worded 77-page report, the nine-man subcom- mittee of the House Armed Services Committee asserted that the American military command structure was so cumbersome and the responsi- bility sometimes so unclear that it "is now simply unable" to respond swiftly enough to crises. Representative Otis G. Pike of Suffolk County, the subcom- mittee chairman, told a news conference this would affect the President's ability to deal with a nuclear war. Mr. Pike, asked if there would be enough opportunity for the President to get enough information and react, replied, "My answer would be a flat no." Time Lag Feared "We have never demonstrat- ed any capability to get a mes- sage from The scene of a crisis to the President and get a mes- sage back from him on what to do about it in the time frame necessary to act," Mr. Pike said. The subcommittee report, equally sweeping and critical, charged that the "absent or sluggish response by military commanders to the Pueblo inci- dent and North Korea's down- ing of an American EC-121 in- telligence plane last April dem- onstrated the need for "a com- plete review of our military- civilian command structure and its capability to cope with emergency situations." The subcommittee proposed a blue ribbon panel of civilian and military experts, Repre- sentative Pike said that he hoped the panel already ap- pointed by Secretary of De- fense Melvin R. Laird to inves- tigate over-all Pentagon opera- tions would "look hard" into this question. The subcommittee, which held public and secret hearings last March and April, put much of the blame for thArgiltEON seizure Jan. 23, 1968, on the defense establishment, from the American naval commander in The New York Times Representative Otis G. Pike Chiefs of Staff and their aides. The report, approved unani- mously by the subcommittee, found fault with the Navy and Defense Departments for inad- equately assessing the risk of the Pueblo mission off the North Korean_ coast, for not preparing adequate contingency plans in the event of emer- gency and for "unacceptably long delays" in relaying the Pueblo's distress messages to higher echelons. Commander Criticized The report was critical of Read Adm. Frank L. Janson, former commander of American Naval forces in? Japan, having called for the risk of the Pueb- lo mission "minimal" but said that the ultimate responsibility for this critical evaluation rest- ed with the Defense Intelligence Agency headed by Lieut. Gen. Joseph F. Carroll. The report also noted that a warning on Dec. 27 from the National Security Agency urg- ing a consideration of protec- tive measures for the Pueblo was rejected by the staff of Adm. Ulysses S. Grant Sharp, former commander in chief of, American forces in the Pacific, and overlooked by D. I. A. dur- ing the Christmas holiday weekend. The committee members also took issue with the Navy De- rim enaniarAnarcitorno9 NIREn?tolt FS by contending that menacing broadcasts from North Korea, cited by the N.S.A. nieSSZIffe. The Congressional investiga- tors also disputed official con- tentions that there had been contingency plans if the Pueblo ran into an emergency. "No one on the staff of [Ad- miral Johnson] had the faintest idea of what forces might be made available to them in an emergency, and what appears to be more disturbing is the ap- parent total absence of any prior concern over this possi- bility," the report said. Bucher Not Evaluated The subcommittee made no attempt to evaluate the respon- sibility of the Pueblo's skipper, Lieut. Comdr. Lloyd M. Bucher. Mr. Pike said its concern had been with higher echelons be- cause Commander Bucher was acing a Navy Court of Inquiry at the time of its hearings. But with North Korea's treat- ment of Commander Bucher and his crew obviously in mind, the subcommittee urged a "re- vision and clarification" of the military Code of Conduct that required captured servicemen to give only information about their identity. Where the captives are not being protected by the 1949 Geneva conventions on the treatment of war prisoners? which was the case of the Pueblo crew?the subcommit- tee suggested that "the Code of Conduct should provide some latitude." Mr. Laird's respOnse to the report was an announcement that the Pentagon had already taken steps to "correct a num- ber of deficiencies in the area of military intelligence." In a letter to Representative L. Mendel Rivers, the South Carolina Democrat who heads the Armed Services Committee, Mr. Laird said the Defense De- partment had done the follow- ing: cInitiated a study in depth of world-wide reconnaissance missions to determine the de- gree of risk, value, cost, means of protection and other matters. 41Made arrangements for es- corts and contingency support forces for patrols entering sen- sitive areas and set up survival, evasion, resistance and escape training for crew members sent on such hazardous minims. 11Reduced the number of such personnel to the Minimum. The letter also said that the Pentagon had given the As- sistant Secretary of Defense for Administration new responsi- bilities "to improve the over-all coordination and effectiveness of Defense Department Intelli- gence activities." : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 41114r4402 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71B00364R000300150001-4 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD? HOUSE July 28, 1969 Increasing GI Bill utilization is the prin- cipal purpose of the PREP program which would be established by the bill. This pro- gram would seek to reach the Veteran before his discharge by involving him, in the last year of his military service, in education or training which would prepare him to pursue education or training under the GI Bill. Joseph Cannon, the acting director of the veterans' affairs division of the Urban League has stated: Two major problems his organization faces are? The inability of emerging servicemen to get information in regards to pursuing edu- cation and available education program; and The failure of the average Negro GI to obtain skills in military service which can easily be transferred to any civilian jobs which offer upward mobility in either pay or status. Although the PREP program is not limited to people from disadvantaged backgrounds, it is clear that they are the ones who are most in need of the assist- ance which PREP would provide. It would involve them in the program and then guide them in taking advantage of continuing aid available under the regu- lar GI bill following their discharge. The PREP program would operate as an extension of Project Transition pres- ently run by the Defense Department. Project Transition was established in 1967. It is primarily for individuals who most need vocational training or educa- tion in order to make the change to civilian life. The in-service training is provided during the serviceman's last 6 months of duty and emphasizes counsel- ing, training, education, and placement. Thus far, the program has not reached its potential. Of the 940,000 men and women separated from the armed serv- ices during this period, only 60,000 were reached. Only 26 percent of the partici- pants in the program have not finished high school. This is only slightly higher than the overall military level of 21.4 percent. Most of the training under Proj- ect Transition has been undertaken by the military services themselves. PREP would fill a link here by providing funds to entice private instruction, counseling, and guidance. All members of the Armed Forces who have served at least 1 year of active duty and have 12 months or less of active duty remaining would be eligible. The Vet- erans' Administration, working jointly with the Secretary of Defense and the Commissioner of Education, would pay the expenses necessary for the program. It is important to note that the service- men enrolled in PREP may only take courses required for, or preparatory to the educational training or vocation they plan to pursue following their release from active duty. As with the other pro- visions in the bill, the funds will be paid directly to the educational institution. These four programs which provide educational and training assistance rep- resent a giant step in repaying our obli- gation to our veterans and helping de- velop them into worthwhile citizens of peace. Senator KENNEDY expressed this feeling recently when he said: This nation has a rare opportunity to assist and benefit from the men who have broken out of disadvantaged background; and ma- tured in the service. If we follow through with full veterans programs, including edu- cational services for veterans, we can insure that returning servicemen will not revert to unproductive lives in ghettos or other areas. Rather, veterans whose horizon and aspira- tions have broadened in the service can con- tinue to contribute to our national welfare as constructive, well-educated citizens. We have an obligation both to the' men as in- dividuals, and to society as a whole to give them a chance. It is my feeling that the enactment of H.R. 13006 would be an investment in these men which would reap a profit for all the citizens of America. JULY 25 IN PUERTO RICO The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under a previous order of the House, the Resi- dent Commissioner from Puerto Rico (Mr. CORDOVA) is recognized for 15 min- utes. Mr. CORDOVA. Mr. Speaker, the 25th of July is a date which has long been significant in Puerto Rico. Its original significance, while Puerto Rico was part of the once vast Spanish domain in America, lay in the fact that it is the feast day of the patron saint of Spain, the Apostle James?Santiago. It ac- quired a very special significance in 1898, when Gen. Nelson Miles and his troops landed at Guanica on July 25 and brought with them the Stars and Stripes which have ever since flown in Puerto Rico. A third dimension was added in 1952, when July 25 was selected, precisely because of its already significant im- portance in Puerto Rican history, as the date on which the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico should be- come effective. In a very real sense, the 25th of July symbolizes not only some of the most significant elements of the history of Puerto Rico but also some of the most significant elements of its culture and its spirit. For Puerto Rico is proud of the Spanish heritage, the Christian faith, which are recalled on this date in the celebration of the feast of Santiago throughout the Spanish-speaking world. Puerto Ricans are proud of the citizen- ship which they share with 200 million other Americans in the 50 States of the Union. Puerto Ricans are proudly bear- ing the Stars and Stripes in remote re- gions of the world, in the service of their country, as they have previously done in all of the conflicts in which our Nation has been involved since the First World War. And Puerto Rico is extremely proud of the democratic tradition, and the prin- ciples of individual dignity and integrity which are embodied in the Constitution of the Commonwealth. In observing this anniversary, Puerto Rica is particularly happy to salute the three men who have successfully termi- nated the most momentous journey in the history of man, and to give thanks to God for their safe return. U.S.S. "PUEBLO"?A TRAGEDY OF ERRORS The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under a previous order of the House, the gentle- man from Indiana (Mr. BRAY) is recog- nized for 10 minutes. Mr. BRAY. Mr. Speaker; after 5 months' work and extensive hearings, the Special Subcommittee on the U.S.S. Pueblo and the EC-121 of the Committee on Armed Services has finished its re- port. I had the honor to serve as ranking Republican member of this subcommit- tee. The result of long, painstaking work, the report, in its own words, lays bare "serious deficiencies" with "frightful implications" for our national security. The subcommittee felt it was beyond the scope of the report to make specific recommendations for solutions to the problems uncovered. But the subcom- mittee does recommend, to quote from the report: "that the President establish a special study group of experienced and distinguished civilian and military per- sonnel to approach this problem on an emergency basis and make such recom- mendations for changes in both the Na- tional Security Act and the military structure itself that will provide our Na- tion and its military forces with a genu- ine capability to respond quickly and decisively to emergencies of a national security nature." The report, quite lengthy, reflects the unanimous view of all nine members of the subcommittee. The consequences of the Pueblo are that the incident de- stroyed a 150-year-old image of prestige and invincibility, and did incalculable harm to our diplomatic credibility, as well as to our reliability as military al- lies. It is an extremely serious compro- mise of our Nation's intelligence capabil- ity. Following are some of the highlights of the report. U.S.S. "PUEBLO" INADEQUATELY PREPARED Loss of the ship itself, and its equip- ment, was relatively harmless. But, over- all, considering loss of the documents aboard, as the report says: We have sustained a most serious intel- ligence loss, a loss which could have been precluded entirely by appropriate planning for the intelligence collection mission. There was inadequate preparation; this was the first intelligence-gathering mission directed against North Korea, but the Pueblo did not have adequately trained personnel. The ship had no pro- vision for storage of registered publica- tions, nor did it have a proper inciner- ator. A request by Commander Bucher for emergency destruction devices was turned down. The security group detachment was never formally inspected. Its state of readiness was only assumed. The officer in charge of the detachment knew that the North Korean linguists on Pueblo were not qualified, but he failed to in- form Commander Bucher of this. The linguists were incapable of obtaining and passing on information that might have been monitored from North Korean radio broadcasts, and this fact alone may have contributed materially to the situation. The Navy had not allowed for delays in outfitting the ship before it left, and, as a result, many of Commander Bucher's requests for outfitting ? were never ap- proved. And, although the Navy had some months earlier ordered installation of defensive armament on all ships, save hospital ships and submarines, the Com- mander Naval Forces Japan never re- Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 July 28, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD? HOUSE State, local, and institutional codes would involve a Federal force of campus policernen nsmber1ng in the thousands and wOuld cobstitute an administrative nightmare de- vOid of criteria for rational judgment. One final objection?and this one per ape the most fundamental of all. Such ch- nirmes of repressive Federal interver4tion into the affairs of each local campus vi late the most deep-dooted, the most honOred traditions of American adlication?tand would, in the end, destroy its essential nature. We want our universities to be centers of diVersity . . . creative, independent, compo- nents of a vigorous pluralism. We do not want a ' monotonous and monolithic imposes unity?in which all our educational institu- tiOns conform to a Federal code of conduct, to a stifling Federal intervention. rro advocate such intervention, in my View, is a form of radical extremism- fatal, indeed, to the perpetuation of our free and pi-drill- istio society. COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAM IfOR VETERANS EDUCATIONAL ASSIST- ANCE The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under a previous order of the House. the gentle- man from New York (Mr. i iALPERN) is recognized for 10 minutes. Mr. HALPERN. Mr. Speaker, to Cor- rect the deplorable circumstances which cause returning Vietnam veterans ndt to take advantage of their GI bill of rights, I have introduced H.R. 13006 to proVide added educational and training ineen- tives for returning veterans and to es- tablish a predischarge education pro- gram. The blatant inadequacies in the Cur- rent veterans' law are disgraceful. Only one out of every 10 veterans are using the GI bill benefits today and those who need it the most?the disadvantaged and high school dropouts?are ignoring it. Certainly we have an obligation to metivate these men and women to be jut as valuable to their country in Civ- ilian life as they were in military life. Twenty-three percent of the 1 millisn men and women in the Armed Forces who will be discharged this year are high school dropouts, yet only 2.4 percent are participating in GI bill education pro- grams. The bill I have introduced is identical with the goals of similar legislation in- traduced by Senator ALAN CRANSTON, S. 2668. It would establish four programs administered by the Veterans' Adminis- tration. They are: First. Educational assistance payments for college preparatory or academic de- ficiency courses in other than secondary schools. Second. Direct allowances for expeilises for refresher courses, tutorial or remedial aid, counseling or other special aid for veterans already enrolled in school. Third. Allow noncredit defielencY conrses to be counted toward full-time st tus to enable veterans to secure a run- t e educational assistance payment. Fourth. A predischarge educatiOnal program?PREP?providing veterans with education or vocational training prior to their discharge from active Mil- itary duty. The program would be financed by VA payments to the eligible veterans or on their behalf to educational institutions. The VA would also sonsult with the Sec- retary of Defense and would draw upon the experience of the Office of Educa- tion in establishing these programs. Before explaining how each of these programs would operate, I want to say a few words about the failure of the exist- ing GI bill which was amended in 1967 to help educationally disadvantaged vet- erans. One of the reasons the program has failed is because benefit allowances are not sufficient for today's cost of liv- ing. Following World War II 50 percent of the eligible veterans utilized the cols? lege and vocational aid avail%Jle1inder the GI bill. But since Ja ry of 1966, only 21.4 percent of t Vietnam vets have utilized their euiefits. One of the reasons for this i/the lack of funding available for prospective college students. At the presentAime only $130 a month is available fois'a single man who wishes to continue s education. With the increase in price ince World War II, this amount is gra ly insufficient. The gentleman from exas (Mr. TEAGUE) has introduced H.R. 1959, which would raise these al- lotme ts. I heartily support his bill, as well as y own bill, H.R. 12461, which proposes even larger increase in fund- ing?a 50- ent increase to $190 a month. But the real ma, for the failure of the GI bill today is of motivation. The average 22-year-oh turning vet- eran today does not look fa ably upon the prospect of returning high school?especially if he already as a family or plans to get married, and ? st of these programs until now have n really met the needs of returning GI's. This is evident from the statistics on veteran utilization of GI benefits. After World War II, 50 percent of the veterans used their rights; after Korea, 42 percent used their rights. Today a little over 20 percent are using their rights. Today, almost a quarter of the over 70,000 returning Vietnam veterans each month have not finished high school. Only a tenth are taking advantage of the existing programs available under the GI bill. Many of these young, men are from disadvantaged backgrounds--from from the Nation's ghettos as well as its rural wastelands where they have be- come alienated from the mainstream of American life. It is essential that the country now does not lose the energy of these young men. President Nixon recognized this problem when he said, upon establishing his Committee on the Vietnam Veterans: Veterans benefits have become more than a recognition for services performed in the past, they have become an investment in the future of the Veterar. and his country. The time has come for a careful re-evaluation of this investment. Just as there is a_clifference between the kinds of battles fought at Nor- mandy in 1944 and in South Vietnam in 1969, so there is also a difference in the kinds of problems faced by the returning veterans of these battles. Therefore, we must be cer- tain our programs are tailored to meet the needs of today's veterans. The first of the four programs estab- lished under H.R. 13006 tries to help motivate veterans to use their educa- tional benefits under section 1678 of title 38 of the United States Code. This H 64(n program permits refresher courses to be taken at any appropriate institution off- ering such courses, including junior and senior colleges. At present these courses can only be taken at secondary schools which usually are not sensitive to the needs of veterans with records of failure in high school. Under the 1967 GI bill amendments, the veteran who needed additional high school or equivalent training was en- titled to receive full educational assist- ance allowances without having it charged against his entitlement. But the veteran was required to take these courses at a secondary school. The low utilization level-10 percent?which I previously mentioned has arisen from multiple causes which could be offset by this new program. Presently, a veteran who needs a re- fresher or deficiency course in order to qualify for admission to an educational institution for which he is otherwise qualified, must take these courses at a secondary school. My bill would permit these courses to be taken at any quali- fied institution offering precollege assist- ance. This would include junior colleges, preparatory schools, community colleges, and special programs under the auspices of universities. The second provision in H.R. 13006 provides for direct payment to the edu- cational institution for expenses of re- fresher courses, remedial assistance, tu- torial, counseling, or other assistance or training the veteran may undertake while enrolled there. This provision also falls under section 1678 which covers special training for the disadvantaged veteran. As in the first program, the pay- ent is made directly to the educational i Minion involved and no charge is m e against the veterans period of en- title ent under the GI bill. Th third provision would provide that noncr -dit courses, which the veteran must ke because of some deficiency in his e ucational background, may be counte toward full-time status, so that he ca receive the full-time educational assis flee allowance. Fdr instance, if a veteran started col- -lege before entering the service and now wants to change his major, but he is deficient in certain areas, the noncredit prerequisite courses he would have to take would count toward his full-time allowance eligibility. This would not ap- ply to any noncredit courses which the Veterans' Administration would be pay- ing for under the second provision in this bill. The veteran would be allowed to take the number of noncredit courses neces- sitated because of a deficiency, which when added to his credit hours would be the equivalent of a full semester load. The final provision envisioned in the bill is the most far reaching. It estab- lishes a predischarge education pro- gram?PREP?to provide educational vocational training to veterans prior to their discharge from active military duty. This would represent the farthest step yet taken to speed the assimilation of the veteran into civilian life. As Senator CRANSTON SO well stated, when introducing his bill: Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 uly 28, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD HOUSE ceived the directive. As a result, the Pueblo only received two .50-caliber machineguns; the least any ship was to receive was 20-millimeter cannon. The Pueblo was inspected by higher authority at Japan, before it sailed, to check the effectiveness of destruction ca- pability of classified material, but the inspection was found to have been "in- formal and cursory" and Pueblo's capa- bility was obviously inadequate. Com- mander Bucher was told in Japan that his mission was probably to be off North Korea, and that, if he was attacked, U.S. forces were prepared to act. But he was also told any rescue help would be too late to save the ship. A POSSIBLE NORTH KOREAN REACTION TO "PUEBLO" IGNORED The report is especially critical of failure of high defense authority to realize the high risk involved in the Pueblo's mission, The risk was classed as minimal on the grounds that the ship would be operating in international waters, and on the very shaky and thor- oughly unjustified assumption that North Korea would respect and observe international law in this regard. But, at the time Pueblo sailed, North Korea had been giving ample demonstration in vari- ous trays, for some time; of an increas- ingly hostile and belligerent attitude. The National Security Agency, alone, deserves special praise for being alert to the risk. NSA, on December 29, 1967, sent a message to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and to the Joint Reconnaissance Center which, and I quote from the report: "questioned the minimal risk assessment assigned the U.S.S. Pueblo mission," The report continued: This message recited a history of North Korean incidents and suggested that in view of the evident increase in hostile actions taken by the North Koreans, it might be considered desirable to establish ship protec- tive measures for the 13.5.5. Pueblo mission. THE LOST MESSAGE This message never got from the Joint Chiefs, to the Chief of Naval Operations. It was lost somewhere in the Pentagon. A copy was sent to the Defense Intelligence Agency by the Pentagon's Special Com- munications Center but DIA took no ac- tion. When our subcommittee asked why, the explanation given was that the mes- sage came in at night over a holiday. As the report says, about the handling of this message: At best, it suggests an unfortunate coin- cidence of omission; at worst, It suggests the highest order of incompetence. The existence of such a message was never even hinted at when the Pentagon briefed congresional committees im- mediately after the incident, and no mention was made of it until March 4, 1969. The impression is that there was a deliberate attempt to conceal the fact the message had ever existed. Handling of it was bad enough, but trying to cover it up Is worse yet. NORTH KOREA OPENLY BELLIGERENT In addition to this, North Korea's Radio Pyongyang, on January 8 and Jan- uary 11, 1968, acused the United States of committing provocative acts along the east coast of Korea, and the North Koreans threatened retaliatory action. The Pueblo was seized on January 23, 1968; neither the commander in chief, Pacific Fleet Headquarters, nor com- mander, Naval Forces Japan, had been made aware of these newest North Korean threats. Now, it has been know for Some time that North Korea's Premier Kim Il-Sung is a reckless and quite possibly unstable man who will stop at nothing to get what he wants. A fellow-Korean has called him: A Stalinist dictator whose fanatical dedi- cation to revolutionary objectives is sur- passed only by his brash audacity in seeking to carry them out in the face of all obstacles. THE COMMUNICATION GAP The Navy had no contingency plans for rescue of the Pueblo in case of an emergency. To compound this lack, the only forces on call that could have helped were air, but there was no pro- vision for communication between the Pueblo and aircraft; the provisions were only for ship-to-ship transmission. The report expresses great concern over, and uses the term "human in- efficiency" to describe the delays in the two critical messages getting from Pueblo to higher authority, which could have acted. The report, incidentally, carries a full log of messages from the Pueblo and . others, showing timelag until receipt. I would like to cite some of these timelags. With the first message, it ranged from 23 minutes?to commander, Naval Force, Japan?up to 2 hours and 34 minutes?to the Joint Chiefs of Staff. With the second, it reached commander, Naval Forces Japan in 4 minutes, bin did not get to the JCS for 1 hour and 39 minutes. Lacking of emergency telephone proce- dures meant a 40-minute delay in the Navy's asking help from the Air Force. The Navy had a carrier about 1 hour's flight time away, but did not use it. At the same time, of the many Air Force bases in Japan, not one was alerted, nor was aid sought from them, by responsible authorities. Air Force planes were eventually dis- patched from Okinawa, but they did not have enough fuel, were diverted to South Korea, then kept from taking off again because of darkness. It seems the respon- sible commanders had both the author- ity and opportunity to act if they could have done so at once. But they could not, for the reasons outlined above. REACTION OF COMMANDER BUCHER I want to comment specifically on Commander Bucher's role when the ship was first threatened, then boarded. Our subcommittee studied transcripts of the messages sent to and from the Pueblo, from the time of the first threat to ac- - tual boarding. A complete log of these messages, wtih their content, and time of transmission, is included in the report. It is obvious from the text of the mes- sages Commander Bucher sent, and from those going back to him, that he did not intend to resist, and that higher author- ity did not react to this, nor did they ordec him to take any other course of action. Again, to quote directly from the report: 116403 Therefore, the failure of Commander Naval Forces Japan and higher naval authority to officially respond to these communications and direct the Pueblo to take more aggres- sive and positive actions constitutes, in the view of the subcommittee, a tacit endorse- ment and approval by Commander Naval Forces Japan of the actions taken by the Pueblo. EC-121 The subcommittee was also given re- sponsibility for investigation of the EC- 121 incident, when an air reconnaissance plane was 'shot down by North Korean planes in international air space, over the Sea of Japan, on April 14, 1969. Our response to this was quick, but, again, we found preparations had been lacking. CONCLUSION I wish to conclude by quoting directly from the "Summary of Findings and Recommendations" in the subcommit- tee's report: The inquiry made by this special subcom- mittee into the 0.5.5. Pueblo and the EC- 121 incidents has resulted in the unanimous view that there exist serious deficiencies in the organizational and administrative mili- tary command structure of both the Depart- ment of the Navy and the Department of De- fense. If nothing else, the inquiry revea's the existence of a vast and complex military structure capable of acquiring almost in- finite amounts of information, but with a demonstrated inability, in these two in- stances, to relay this information in a timely and comprehensive fashion to those charged with the responsibility for making decisions. As President Nixon recently said, 'When a war can be decided in 20 minutes, the na- tion that is behind will have no time to catch up.' The reluctant but inescapable conclusion finally reached by the subcommittee is that because of the vastness of the military struc- ture, with its complex division into multiple layers of command, and the failure of re- sponsible authorities at the seat of govern- ment to either delegate responsibility or in the alternative provide clear and unequivocal guidelines governing policy in emergency sivations?our military command structure is now simply unable to meet the emergency criterion outlined and suggested by the Pres- ident himself. The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under a previous order of the House, the gentle- man from Texas (Mr. GONZALEZ) is rec- ognized for 10 minutes. [Mr. GONZALEZ addressed the House. His remarks will appear hereafter in the Extensions of Remarks.] FEDERAL CONTRACTING The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under a previous order of the House, the gentle-. man from New York (Mr. FARBSTEIN) is recognized for 20 minutes. Mr. FARBSTETN. Mr. Speaker, I have today introduced legislation which would bar for a 2-year period Federal contract- ing and procurement officers from tak- ing jobs with contractors or other direct beneficiaries of the contracts that they have participated in granting, awarding, or administering. It is the companion measure to legislation introduced by Sen- ator PROXMIRE, of Wisconsin, last Thurs- day. The country has increasingly become aware of the fact that prime military Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 H 6404 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE July 28, 1969 weapons systems contracts normally ex- ceed their estimates by 100 to 10 per- cent, that deliveries can be dela ed for ' years, that the quality of the nihed , product is frequently quite po, and that defense contractors in m y in- stances enjoy huge levels of pro s. ' By taking effective steps now toIelimi- ' nate this kind of waste, billions of dol- lars could be slashed from the defense budget annually without affecting na- tional security or reducing funds for the Vietnam war. A former official Of the Defense Department's Office of the Con- troller puts the figure that can be saved for fiscal 1970 at $9.2 billion. The Congress and the American peo- ple have the right to ask why the De- fense Department not only has allowed this situation to develop but has at- tempted to cover it up once it was brought into the open. I do not believe there is a conspiracy th defraud the American, people tn the past many of the officers have performed Valiant and even heroic service on behalf ef the United States. The country is in- deed grateful to them for their pastserv- ice and for their patriotic endeavors. , But what can be said, and should pr0P- Orly be said, is that there are inherent factors in the present system of defense procurement which contribute tek the waste and inefficiencies. Primary among these is the fact that less than 10 percent of defense contacts are handled through open bidding), The advanced state of technology, we are Old, has left the checks and balance of pe free enterprise system inoper e highly specialized nature of mi technology today has meant that a few contractors, and in some only one, have the capacity to unde many defense contracts. Turning figure around, this means that eve percent of the $40 billion in defense tracts annually let are negotiated ting DOD personnel on one side table with personnel of the defense on the other. A second major fact is the conglo ate nature of the defense industr l Ittive. tary only Mee ake this ' 90 On- f a ken er- . , A handful of American firms control the overwhelming majority of the persotirkel and facilities needed to successfully in- plate a defense contract. The result, that that only 10 defense contractors du .tkg fiscal 1968 accounted for 30 percen of all defense contracts. But what makes these two facts so crit- ically important is that so many Defence Department personnel end up wor for defense contractors when they le ye the Department. According to a reyort prepared by the Department in Ma there are 2,072 retired military offlct of the rank of colonel or Navy captip and above employed by the 100 contr tore, which do the most business with the Defense Department. I am sure this most dangerous edtd sholcking situation is not a question of deliberate wrongdoing, but rather a question of what can be called the ld school tie"?a community of interest 6- tween the Defense Department offlcIal and the defense contractor which worci to the benefit of the large contractors who employ a large number of retired Defense Department personneL 1 Former high-ranking military officials have access to the Pentagon that others do not have. Former high-ranking aft- dais have personal friendships with those still at the Pentagon. And in some Gases former officers may even negotiate contracts with, their former fellow officers. Or they may be Involved in developing plans and speci- fications, making proposals, drawing up blueprints, or taking part in the planning process or proposing prospective weap- ons systems. And they may be doing this In cooperation with their former fellow officers with whom they served and by whom in some cases even promoted. In addition, there it le subtle or un- conscious temptation to the officer still on active duty, After all, he can see that over 2,000 of 'is fellow officers work for big companies. How hard a bargain does he drive ith them when he is 1 or 2 years awe, from :,etirement? Witness the case of five. former Air Force orcers who blocked efforts to cut costs o the Minuteman missile guid- ance and control system. In so doing they were helping the contractor. Subse- quently, these officers accepted execu- tiveipbs with the system's manufacturer, Nor American Rockwell. According to the. Justice Department, these officials vitted no current law. What we have is a 1969 version of the 5 ifercenters of the Korean war era? forrner Government employees who ped- dlell their "influence" to contractors for a f e?usually 5 percent of the contract. e bill I am introducing today would long way toward remedying this tion by making this type of activity tion of Federal law, subject to enalties. d bar an employee who y and substantially 'ng, or admin- from tak- ing a job within 2 years of te Mating his Federal employment with anyone Who has a direct or substantial interest in\ the contract or grant. The penalty for violating this bar would be a maximum fine of $10,000 and/or a maximum prison sentence of 2 years, This legislation is designed to cut down on the incentive for Federal contracting and procurement officers to make lucra- tive awards to private companies and then leave the Federal Government to accept a generous job offer from one of those companies. The ultimate effect should be to cut down substantially on the tremendous cost overruns that the Federal Government has been experienc- ing on its contracts. The bill will apply to those individuals who play an important role in the deci- sional process which confers a financial benefit upon a contractor, grantee, claimant, or any other beneficiary. How- ever, I do not intend to prevent any Fed- eral officer or employee who works for the procurement or grant office, or who has responsibility over it, from taking subsequent employment with any bene- ficiary of Federal largesse. My bill would only prevent such employees from taking jobs with those contractors or grantees who have benefited directly from some action on their part--the participation must be personal and it Must he sub- go situ a crimin My bill participated per In the granting, aacd istration of a contract or g .h ? stantial, The pro forma signature of the Secretary of Defense on a procurement authorization, for example, would not, in my opinion, constitute personal and substantial involvement such as to bar subsequent employment under this bill. The text of H.R. 13138 follows: Hit. 13138 A bill to amend Public Law 87-849, approved October 23, 1962, to strengthen provisions relating to disqualification of former Fed- eral officers and employees in Matters con- nected with former duties and official re- sponsibilities, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and Rouse of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. Subsection (a) of section 1 of Public Law 87-849 approved October 23, 1962 (76 Stat. 1123), pertaining to disqualification of former officers and employees in matters connected with former duties or officials re- sponsibilities, and disqualification of part- ners, is hereby amended by inserting after the word "responsibility" at the end of sub- paragraph (b) a new subparagraph (c) as follows: "(c) Whoever, having been an officer or employee of the executive branch of the United States Government, or any independ- ent agency of the United States, or of the District of Columbia, including a special Government employee, and who, having par- ticipated personally and Subst an tiall y dur- ing the last two years ,of such employment as such officer or employee, through decision, approval, disapproval, recoinmendation, the rendering of advice, investigation, or other- wise, in the granting, awarding, or admin- istration of any contract, bid, grant, or procurement authorization whose total value exceeds $10,000, is employed in any capacity within two years after his employment has ceased by anyone other than the United States who has a direct and substantial in- terest in the contract, bid, grant, or procure- ment authorization in which he participated personally and substantially while SO ern- ployed?". SEC. 2. Subsection (a) of section 1 of Pub- lic Law 87-849 is hereby further amended by? (a) striking, after the word "responsibil- ity" at the end of the second subparagraph, the dash, and inserting in lieu thereof " or"' (b) inserting after the words "That noth- ing in subsection (a) or (b)" in the third subparagraph, -the words "or (e)"; (a) striking the period after the word "em- ployee" at the end of the third subpara- graph), inserting in lieu thereof a semicolon, craided further, That and ibcroviso: "Prrting further the following addi- tionalnothing in subsection (a) or (b) or (c) pre- vents a iormer officer or employee from be- coming ehiployed by an agency of any State or local tovernment or any educational in- stitution Al the head Of his former depart- ment or 'agency shall make a certification. In writing, !published in the Federal Register, that 1, national interest would be served by suqti employment, and that such former officerror employee may act as agent or at- torriey during such employment on any mat- ter formerly within his official responsibility or in which he has personally and substan- tially participated if the certification shall so state."; and (d) striking at the beginning of the fourth subparagraph the clause designation "(c)" and inserting in lieu thereof the clause desig- nation "(d)". MACHIASPORT (Mr. CLEVELAND asked and was given permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to in- clude extraneous matter.) Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 ? Tr."; 4Riff:MRCI FcfrIPRROase7'2002/10/09 : ?CIA4RDP71B00?364R000300150001-8 7.10,,A7.7V 7;:c., I-71N , 7,At 77T4 T,KtV AOLLIVC:' ". CUP 1. 41fin :0144.11rit.:;?p.4.11111 T 1 ? 4,,?i-k.?i"E .1.1t :7 AC* C ??1`.41', rrEtlat ft* UIAIM # . ifir.t0t1 TIC ?51[.. ? 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Lf:?ntlii 4,411A4 11LITy :TO t4srltv) To A .5.1441100 UIAt TAL P;Jttt,01r* ? 4.1;INS. _ivirTty ..ittrTIttos 101TELL .C1'w 1.1.04,IY:ACT AKoliflp?? ?P,..;17;i4Potr: r).0?Oliro*CA TAO .)40it1Ntiq?-:)1 lVi11,11 i#1 711, Pc I',..3.4',i0?11J?,? FOR 9C 1.111.11 IN. C.? Tat 3.4r774 t T4 tI IN 1t E...t5 OF PROCA A.1:1 run ALE TAJ,L 6 tkiti.1:. 1164 P?RLS DENT' CMPX Alott! 310t PiCA r Vte,..';_ tilt,X)0?0:, 1,N1T7L 7;4 XI'S filittgftiC4P .!-11/41011 ZI iA '41:7, .-4,4-vAt1 plicmucTIoN0... SAY! 00-44070t1 :;.t.Ct!3 It.V3 14,01-*R? 41114 E. ritoingrnot4 f3F T41: lottAptlist.liAs ,4 2.3.1tf,Cf; J'AiNtik:0 196A 1T14 1iLtP.$ .11 411Y *O?tV 4#,?,10.Z1t4,141, RUM4 ptit ?Vototiss pl#1$1.t E$T alc.::?'*?...k.RD 4. fa IX 14. 6.111,7&17.0 T 1 !ri4 WrRE .1141NEE '7) LS ?ONEV-:: ? 1.15Y5u Mrsq-Oat$0 200,2t1oitoaA-Pattli itEIGT3,64Rogoii6iM -Pt4s? " 4C; t e7,1141111 . Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 1 TRANSMITTAL SLIP DATE e--.43Lcaq TO: z7441 01 ROOM NO. I BUILDING REMARKS: ta AL.- -(111.--1 42,-"Y? 14.-f C-0-1.14-4-e42) 11 T V 9a.,?,? A- I. uLt Q1/4-42 . FROM: (7 44(... ROOM NO. 1 BUILDING EXTENSION FOR" "? .241 REPLACES FORM 36-8 FEB 55 WHICH MAY BE USED. (47) Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDE'7113003fi4R000300150001-8 June 26, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD- Extensions of Kemarks 25. Forrester, Carl, Mercer. 26. Funelli, Richard, Farrell. 27. George, Michael, Erie. 28. Good, Paul, Sharpsville. 29. Harmon, Robert, Erie. 30. Hedglin, Miles, Grove City. 31. Henry, Leonard, Erie. 32. Higgins, Merle, Jamestown. 33. Hill, David, Erie., 34. Hymers, Charles, Erie. 35. Jarzenski, James, Cochranton. 35a. Julius, William, Erie. 36. Kahler, Charles, Meadville, 37. Kaspaul, Alfred, Fairview. 38. Kelly, Gregory, North East. 39. Kennedy, Thomas, Erie. 40. Klaric, Terrence, Farrell. 41. Kranonczyk, Richard, Erie. 42. Krupinski, Raymond, Erie. 43. Logue, John, Franklin. 44. Martin, Ronald, Erie. 45. McNeish, Richard, Mercer. 46. Millison, Dennis, Sharon. 47. Mitchell, David, Erie. 48. Neidrick, Jack, Erie. 49. Nelson, John, Erie. 50. Nichols, Colin, Spartansburg. 51. Niemann, David, Conneautville. 52. Norman, Gary, Erie. 53. Parobek, Silas, Albion. 54. Phillis, Donald, Titusville. 55. Powers, William, Erie. 56. Probst, Delmar, Erie. 57. Rahn, Donald, Erie. 58. Rauber, William, Wheatland. 59. Reagle, John, Titusville. 60. Reynolds, Jack, Erie. 61. Reynolds, John, Linesville. 62. Rudd, James, Meadville. 63. Russo, Augustine, New Castle. 64. Santone, Joseph, Erie. 65. Shaffer, William, Erie. 66. Shields, Robert, Erie. 67. Smith, Olen, Erie. 68. Snell, Marc, Erie. 69. Stearns, Allan, Girard. '70. Suvara, Frank, Erie. 71. Szoszorek, Gerald, Erie. 72. Tinko, Donald, Corry. 73. Trypus, Frank, Meadville. 74. Walter, Clifton, Erie. 75. Westfall, Robert, Meadville. 76. Vandervort, William, Erie. 77. Vaughn, John, Erie. 78. Yeast, John, Edinboro. THE ROLE OF GOLD IN CONTRIB- UTING TO INTERNATIONAL MON- ETARY STABILITY HON. HASTINGS KEITH OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, June 25, 1969 Mr. KEITH. Mr. Speaker, the past few years have seen a deterioration of confidence in the international monetary system. Compounding this problem, in- flationary pressures have eroded the po- sition of the dollar, the cornerstone of world currency stability. Concerned with this serious situation, Mr. Charles Sevigny; of West Hanover, Mass., has written me a series of articu- late and thoughtful letters on the role of gold in contributing to international monetary stability. For the benefit of my colleagues in their deliberations on this issue, I include Mr. Sevigny's latest let- ter here under unanimous consent: JUNE 16, 1969. Hon. HASTINGS KEITH, House Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR HASTINGS: This morning I received a notice from the South Shore National Sank announcing that they are increasing our interest rate to 11%%. This reminded me abruptly of our previous discussion con- cerning economics in this country. You mentioned in your last letter that since you are now several years out of col- lege you do not have a clear or sharp recol- lection of your course in Economics. I am sure that if you look back, or if you were to ask any college sophomore, that you would find that it has been a well estab- lished fact that no economy can survive without gold behind its currency or govern- ment as a stabilizing factor. The history of world government has proven this and 1st has been taught in all the schools and col- leges. We have two great basic problems in this country. I am not now talking about the social problems and all the racial and col- lege upheavals but rather about basic prob- lems. These two problems are shortage of manpower and unstable currency because it is not properly backed by gold and because we are unrealistically trying to buy gold in 1969 at 1935 prices. Just for a moment let's talk about man- power. I am sure that you feel the pinch as well as we do, since the last time I talked to you you asked me if I knew where you could get some people to join your staff. The same applies everywhere no one has enough help, no one can get enough help. Every company that I know of, and I am sure you realize that I know a great many, are being forced to curtail their operations because they can- not get enough help to expand into the new fields that are opening up. In the meantime we are exporting our manpower at a rate that is beyond belief. We have over 100,000 civilians working in Vietnam and from all reports that I hear they are Just in the way of everyone over there and adding to the troubles of that already unhappy country. The State Department employs at least an equal number of people around the world within most offices about three people doing one persons work. We have military men spread everywhere you can think of. We are supporting the military effort of former enemies that we defeated 25 years ago and are now well able to take care of themselves. In the meantime we are dying for help at home. Essential services like getting your roof fixed, having someone repair your oil burner, shoveling snow, painting your house, you cannot hire a plumber or an electrician all these things and thousands of others are going undone because we do not have the people and those people that we do have are not elarning manual skills. We have a huge gap between college trained people and un- skilled labor that is not being filled by trained people simply because there are no people to train for these positions. In the meantime all of this employment of Ameri- cans in foreign countries is contributing to our deficit of payments by the money that they spend overseas which is usually equal to Just about their pay. Add to the above the fact that we are not realistically facing the gold problem and you will find a combination of effects and side effects that can easily draw us into a very bad serious situation at home while we are busy trying to run the affairs of the rest of the world. This does not mean that I am an isolationist because I am not. It is however my experience that governments, like people, like to lead their own lives in their own way and they do not like to be helped until they ask for help. Then and only then should we offer our help and in such an instance it should be offered on a very limited scale. In this way other nations become self-sufficient not rather than dependent upon us. I like to use the expression "increase the price of gold" rather than the negative term of "devalue the dollar". In my opinion the Republican Party, and in fact everyone in government, should use the positive expres- sion rather than the negative. In connection E 5299 with this I have some very definite ideas. As you know any fool can criticize, however, I think that before one should criticize they should have a workable plan as an alterna- tive ready to suggest. My suggestion would be that: Congress should pass a new Law governing the price of gold. This law should tie the price of gold to the world market value which is the true value of the metal. The Treasury should be authorized to buy gold only from domestic producers as long as it is available. In other words they should not be permitted to buy foreign gold until the domestic supply is exhausted unless or until some specific situation arises which would make the need for additional gold im- portant to us. We should pay world gold prices for domestic gold and about $1.00 an ounce less for foreign gold landed here. I believe that I told you in my previous letter that Goldfield Corporation, one of the largest owners of gold producing property in this country, tried within the past two or three years to.produce gold at the Treasury price of $35.00 an ounce using the most modern possible methods. It was found that it was impossible to do so and they therefore shut down their operation. I hope you realize that I have no axe to grind in this other than good government. I do not own stock in Goldfields or any other mining company nor do I own a gold mine of any kind myself. I do think however that we are being very un- realistic trying to buy gold in 1969 at 1935 prices which were too low even for 1935. The Republicans in Congress should get behind the increase in the price of gold in order to bring about a stable currency and therefore a stable government. This going off the gold standard was one of the great frauds imposed on the American public by the New Deal. We have only had one or two opportunities since the days of the New Deal where a Republican president could reverse this serious mistake. To me it is the only way that we will get enough solid valuable cur- rency into circulation to meet the demands of a greatly expanding economy. If we do not take such a step as this the only alternative will be to print money with no backing and contribute seriously to the inflationary spiral that we are now in since the money will be nothing but paper. By using the method I recommend every dollar will then be backed by hard money at Fort Knox. These two problems are tightly coupled together. The one on one hand drains our manpower reserves and creates tremendous deficit in our balance of payments thus con- tributing to the inflationary spiral and the other effects that I stated above. I would be extremely grateful if you would give these facts your serious attention and do whatever is possible to spread the gospel. Yours very truly, SEVIGNY'S CANDY, INC., CHARLES P. SEVIGNY, President. U.S.S. " EBLO" SEIZURE CALLED S SCHEME HON. JOHN R. RARICK OF LOUISIANA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, June 25, 1969 Mr. RARICK. Mr. Speaker, the current issue of the Reader's Digest publishes the story of Communist Gen. Jan Sejna of Czechoslovakia, one of the highest rank- ing officers ever to defect to the West, regarding the participation of the Soviet Union in the hijacking of the U.S.S. Pueblo, and the value to the enemy of the intelligence obtained in that venture. The accurate assessment of our spine- less response is a matter to which we Approved For Release 2002/10/09: CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 E 5300 Approved Fd5?81fitigi9H10/.09.?,CIAzIRDP71600364R000300150001-8 L KLCOKll? Extensions of Remarks June 26, 1969 Should give Our Serials attention Per- haps our total incompetence to defend the U.S.S. Liberty, a SinWar ship, against Israeli attack in the Mediterranean Mg- ' geSted to the enemy the feaSiblity of the Second Operation. The obvidua im- plication is that it is open season on Americans. This Canna be tOlerated. I include the article, together alth a news Clipping frOill the Washington Daily News, following in remarks: [From the Washington Daily News, *lune 23, 1969] CZECH DEFECTOR BARES Darams?"Pormo" CALLED SOVIET PLOT (By Mike Miller) , A former Czechoslovakian general who de- fected to the United States said today that :Russia planned the seizure of the U.S. Intel- ligence ship Pueblo andi collaborated with 'North Korea in carrying it out. 1 Gen. Jan Seine, writing In Reader's Digest said Soviet Defense Minister Marshal Andrei Grechko told him eight menths price:1 to the Incident that Russia was geing to "h Mate" the United States by grabbing one ofj its spy ships. The defector said the Russian els andi- cated the seizure would take place some- where in the Pacific in eollaboratiab With the North Koreans. , Gen. Seine was the Czech Cornidunist 1Party's senior secretary aseIgned to the Min- istry of National Defense prior to his defec- tion in February, 1968, the month after the Pueblo was seized. 1 INFORMATION GAINED 1 He said Russian generals also told Czech Ricers following the incident that "im arise- y valuable information" was obtained from .,h e ship, including a detailed analysis1 or the deployment of U.S. Naval forces in t 4 Pa- cific. Codes obtained from the spy sh j also were enabling the Russians to read previ- ously indecipherable 'U.S. messages which they had recorded on tape, he wrote. The defector quoted Gen. Grechko as' Say- Mg: 1 "It is absolutely insolent the way the Americans sail their damai ships arotirld as if they owned the water. , "Their espionage ships Come right Up to Our shores to spy on our coiranunications. But I can tell you this: We have decided to humble the Americans. Just as we hturaili- ated them in the air by shooting dovin the 17-2, we are going to humiliate them at sea by grabbing one of those ships. Asked about the danger Of a U.S. reaction, Gen. Grechko replied: "Don't worry about that. The Americans haven't dared to bliack- ade Haiphong (North Vietraainese port), be- cause they know that our aups would shoot their way thru. They won't do anything altrout an incident like this, either. We are not afraid of them, and that is what thewhole 'vlAarld Will see." Gen. Sejna wrote that Gen. Grechk4 aid the Soviets had ruled out a seizure i ;wa- ters where the incident Might prov ISO a Confrontation between the Warsaw Pact countries and NATO. The Mack Se 1Was eminated because it was regarded as a " ussian lake," but the Pacific was c (wen because it- was considered an "Am Haan preserve," the Czech said. On Jan. 24, 1968, the morning afte the Pueblo was seized, he quoted Soviet C lOtiel General Aleksandr Kushchev, senior W inaw Pact representative in Prague, as tell1n a gathering of officers: "During the night we learned that. With the collaboration of our ICsaaan corn des, we have achieved a great success. Th an- tire operation went off smoathly?incr ibly smoothly. The Pueblo crew, to a man ea- pitulated. They did not fire a shot. 'We've all heard what a great communi- cations and command system the Americans hare. 'Vela yesterday it took Washington liter- ally hours to pull itself together and even begin to react. This is a precise example of ho* the most advanced military technology cannot compensate for a lack of will and leadership." A GOMMUSIIST GENERAL'S STARTLING CHARGE: RUSS/A PLOTTED THE "PUEBLO" AFFAIR (By Gen. Jan Sejna) ? (Norz.?General Jan Sejna is one of the highest-ranking communists ever to defect to the West. Until February 1968 he was the Czechoslovak Communist Party senior sec- retary assigned to the Ministry of National Defense, charged with political control of the-Czechoslovak Ministry and General Staff. As such, he dealt almost daily with the So- viet marshals, generals and agents who rule Eastern Europe as a Soviet colony, and was privy to many military and political secrets of the Warsaw Pact nations. During 1967 and early 1968, in the strug- gle for control of the Czechoslovak Commu- nist Party, he was accused of siding with the forces of arch-Stalinist Antonin Novotny. The general contends that he represented a groin) of politicians and young officers op- posed to hard-line military men seeking their owa, gain in the political intrigue that has characterized the turmoil in Prague. Never- theless, when Novotny lost, Sejna fled to the United States?bringing with him a perspec- tive of the communist world rarely before available to the West. (The following article, the first he has re- leased since his flight, is excerpted from Sejna's forthcoming book. Much of what he reports here canna; be confirmed because of the rarefied circles in which he moved. But he has been interv:ewed at length by Digest editors, anti specific references that could be cross-checked have been painstakingly Investigated. No contradictions have been discovered.) I first learned in May 196'7 that the Rus- sians were planning to capture an American intelligence ship?eight months before the USS Pueblo was selaed off Korea. Some dozen Czechoslovak and Russian generals had gathered at the state guest villa in Prague for a luncheon honoring the Soviet defense minister, Marshal Andrei Grechko. I remem- ber that the meal of delicate Czechoslovak fish, beef soup with liver dumplings, veal roulade, cream tarts and fruit was especially excellent. Our thres-hour conversation was fueled by Italian aperitifs, Russian vodka, red and white Bulgarian wines, and some truly fine French cognac which we had liber- ated from the Germans. Marshal Grechko, whom I had of ten en- countered at Warsaw Pact conferences and during private visits in Prague, is taciturn to the point of rudeness when _sober. But when he consumes too much vodka and Cinzano, he becomes a belligerent, loose- tongued braggart. Drinking heavily that afternoon, he embarked on his favorite sub- ject?the invincibility of the Soviet armed forces?with emphasis this time on the multiplying might of Russian sea power. He admitted that the Soviet Union had been powerless to intervene during the Cuban and Middle East crises because of the supremacy of American naval forces. The re- fusal of Nikita Khrushchev to allot enough money to develop a powerful Soviet fleet was a primary reason why the Russian military supported his ouster. But now Soviet naval strength was growing and would soon chal- lenge the Americans on all the oceans of the world. "It is absolutely insolent the way the Americans sail their damn ships around as if they owned the water," Grechko declared. "Their espionage ships come right up to our shores to spy on our coraznunications. But I can tell you this: we have decided to humble the Americans. Just as we humiliated them in the air by shooting down the U-2, we are going to humiliate them at sea by grabbing one of these ships." Marshal Grechko did not specify when, where or how the Russians expected to commandeer a U.S. ship. But he indicated that the seizure would be accomplished somewhere in the Pacific, in collaboration with the North Koreans. The Russians, he said, did not want to stage an incident in waters which might involve the Warsaw Pact in a confrontation with NATO. The Black Sea also had been ruled out because the world looked upon it as "a Russian lake"; loss of an American ship there would not be sufficiently "sensational." The Pacific had been chosen because it was considered an American preserve. As I listened to Grechko talk, it became apparent that the Russians were almost as intent upon hurting the Chinese as upon hurting the Americans. "Our Korean com- rades, of course, are not capable of carrying this off without us," Grechko said. "But we will guide and protect than. This will again show them that it is we, not the Chinese, upon whom they can depend. They will see that we act while the Chinese simply bray and posture." General Josef Vosa,h1o, deputy minister in charge of the Czech air force, asked, "Is there not a danger that the American reaction could cause serious complications?" "Don't worry about that," Grechko re- plied. "The Americans haven't dared to block- ade Haiphong, because they know that our ships would shoot their way through. They won't do anything about an incident like this, either. We are not afraid of them, and that is what the whole world will see." Grechko's arrogance made me privately want to doubt anything he said that day. Still, I wondered. I had disbelieved Khrush-- cher/ in 1961 when he secretly let us know that within a few months a wall would be erected to seal off West Berlin. I now also re- called a conversation I had had in March 1966 with Grechko's predecessor, Marshal Rodion Malinovsky, a much more prudent man. He had confided that the Russians sus- pected American ships of being extremely effective in ferreting out Soviet secrets. "Mark my word," he had vowed, "we are go- ing to do something about those ships." In the months following the Grechko luncheon, nothing related to his boasts came to my attention, and I almost forgot about them. Then, on the morning of January 24, 1968, I received a call from the secretariat of the National Defense Minister, informing me that "an unusually important announce- ment" would be made at the morning brief- ing. In the ministry council chamber, Soviet Colonel General Aleksandr Kushchev, the principal Warsaw Pact representative in Prague, rose. "During the night we learned that, with the collaboration of our Korean comrades, we have achieved a great sUccess," he began. We all were stunned as he announced that the Pueblo had laeen hijacked and was at the moment in communist custody. "The entire operation went off smoothly? incredibly smoothly," Kushchev reported. "The Pueblo crew, to a man, capitulated. They did not fire a shot. Frankly, we thought it would be much more complicated. The Americans were so bewildered that they failed to destroy thousands of documents. It will take our experts quite a while to analyze them. We may have a gold mine. "We've all heard about what a great com- munications and command system the Amer- icans have," Kushchev went on. "How they use computers, how they can respond in- stantly to an attack. Well, yesterday it took Washington literally hours to pull itself to- gether and even begin to react. This is a Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 A p rgejIRFEosrs Release il0E0MK99 : EIV0Pn7s1 RI) ORMs0300150001 -8 E 5301 June 26, 1969 precise example of how the most advanced military technology cannot compensate for a lack of will and leadership." Kushchev bragged on about the propa- ganda triumph. "On the one hand, it is a humiliation for the United States: we have made clear that the Americans do not rule the seas anymore, On the other, this is a dis- grace for China. It proves to the entire so- cialist camp that the Soviet Union helped North Korea gain stature, while the loud- mouthed Chinese could do absolutely nothing." No one in the room doubted that capture of the Pueblo was a great coup. However, I and some of my fellow officers could not quite accept Kushchev's account of it. Accus- tomed as we were to Soviet propaganda ex- aggerations, we simply could not believe that the crew had not attempted some resistance to prevent the capture of thousands of val- uable documents. In the next few days, though other Soviet officers confirmed Kushchev's version. Also, I began to see indications that the intelligence information the Russians were extracting from the Pueblo was immensely valuable. . At the weekly general staff briefing on Feb- ruary 23, we heard an extraordinarily de- tailed analysis of the deployment and opera- tions of American naval forces in the Pa- cific. The source was identified as the Pueblo. Furthermore, we were told that, by using codes found aboard the ship, the Russians now were able to reach previously inde- cipherabIa American messages that they had been recording on tape. I derive no pleasure in recounting this American defeat and Soviet victory. I re- port these details now because I think they carry with them a Message of importance to the people of the United States and the West: The Soviet Union today is increasingly dominated by a militaristic clique of mar- shals who, with few exceptions, are peril- ously ignorant of the West. These narrow- minded hard-liners understand and react only to the prospect of superior force. Signs of weakness tempt them to risk ever more irresponsible adventures. Unless they are convinced that the Amer- ican government and the American people are prepared to resist future aggression, then more aggression is inevitable. On the basis of my personal experiences with these men, I know that each time one of their military gambles pays off, they edge cloSer to the brink. And by recklessness and miscalcula- tion, they are likely to plunge the world into war that ordinary men everywhere des- perately want to avert. (Norz.?General Sejna's assertions were made available to The Reader's Digest last April 13, Just two days before North Korean MIGs shot down a U.S. Navy EC-121 recon- naissance plane in the Sea of Japan. No evi- dence exists at this writing that the Soviet Union had a hand in this second act of pi- racy perpetrated by the North Koreans within 15 months.) DR. ROMAN SMAL-STOCKI: DEDI- CATED AMERICAN PATRIOT OF UKRAINIAN ANCESTRY HON. EDWARD J. DERWINSKI OF ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, June 25, 1969 Mr. DERWINSKI. Mr. Speaker, as many Members know an American of Unusual stature and background passed away recently. I refer to Dr. Roman Smal-Stocki, who died in the George- town University Hospital at the end of April. He left us a legacy of literary works and experiences which, I have no doubt, we will greatly profit by as the aggressive forces in Moscow determine the next round of conflict with us. Those who knew him personally es- teemed him for his rich past of diversi- fied experience as scholar, diplomat, and freedom activist. His roots were in East- ern Europe, and he was one of the first to witness the irnperalistic onslaughts of the Soviet Russians into his beloved Ukraine. But his principles and dedica- tion to a life in the cause of world free- dom, and primarily for the sustained freedom of his adopted country, led him to the United States, for which, since the end of World War II to the day of his death, he defended with all his heart and mind as the last bastion against the forces of Soviet Russian imperio-colo- nialism. As other Members have, I pay lasting tribute to this truly great man and dear, personal friend. His wit, his insights, and his wisdom we shall sorely miss. How- ever, his truths and convictions have been transmitted by generations of stu- dents who today are working in diverse fields in the spirit of their venerable teacher. In my tribute, I include the fol- lowing in the RECORD as a humble ex- pression of his traits and works: First, a brief eulogy by Dr. Lev E. Dobriansky of Georgetown University, titled "The Great Loss of a Patriot, Christian, Scholar"; second, the obituaries in the Evening Star of April 29, "Roman S. Smal-Stocki, Ukrainian Scholar, Dies," in the Wash- ington Post of April 29, "R. S. Smal- Stocki, Slavic Expert at CU" and the New York Times of April 29, "Dr. -Ro- man Smal-Stocki Dies; Ukrainian Edu- cator was 76"; third, a complete release on the man by the Shevchenko Scien- tific Society, of which he was president; fourth, a memorial in the Ukrainian Weekly, Svoboda, dated May 17, by Dr. Clarence A. Manning, professor emeri- tus, Columbia University, titled "The Stream of History"; and fifth, the speech of Representative MARTIN B. MCKNEALLY, of New York, who was the last to appear before the Ukrainian Studies Center in Washington, D.C., which the late Pro- fessor Smal-Stocki directed and at which I and others had the privilege and pleas- ure to address in the past: THE GRAVE Loss OF A PATRIOT, CHRISTIAN, SCHOLAR (By Lev E. Dobriansky, Georgetown University) In the evening of Sunday, April 27, Dr. Roman Smal-Stocki died at Georgetown Uni- versity Hospital in Washington, D.C. He passed away quietly. The last to visit him and to receive his courageous "thanks" and "good-by" were the Very Rev. Constantine Berdar, Rev. M. Makukh, Rev. Maletius Woj- nar, Dr. Bohdan Skaskiw, and the UCCA President. With extraordinary strength of mind and moral fortitude to the last, one of Ukraine's greatest sons extended his arms to clasp the hand of each, then faintly ut- tered his final expression of friendship, and lapsed into a coma preceding his death. These final moments typified the genuine greatness and towering stature of the man. For Ukrainians in particular, but for all free men in general, the death of Dr. Smal-Stocki Is a grave loss to the ceaseless cause of free- dom. It is truly the grave loss of a patriot, Christian, and scholar. Selflessly and with unparalleled devotion, he dedicated his entire and long adult life to the cause of a free and independent Ukraine and later, through it to the preservation of the freedom and security of his America. Personal glory, money, even the advantages of a marital existence were alien considerations to his unique and price- less dedication. Through all the stages of his rich and varied life?as a student, an ambas- sador, a professor, an author, an intellectual leader, and a staunch defender of the Faith? he was wedded to the vital and promising cause of a free Ukraine. As an internationally renowned scholar, the good and ever-witty Doctor has left the world an invaluable legacy of books and writ- ings not as a monument to himself but to the life-giving cause that he served so bril- liantly and incomparably. The interminable fears and anathema expressed by Moscow and its totalitarian offshoots toward his works are in themselves a measure of their power of ideas and spiritual force. As the President of the world-esteemed Shevchenko Scientific Society, he excelled all others in his writings to defend the erection of the Shevchenko Memorial in our Nation's capital. His warm humanism, his breadth of know- ledge and understanding, and his Christian humility are immortally imprinted in this legacy. Only relatively few might understand fully, but this tragedy is an irreparable loss to the freedom of all the captive nations in the USSR, and thus a heavy loss to man's struggle for freedom. In tribute to the lasting memory of one of Ukraine's greatest servants, The UCCA president will initiate at the coming UCCA executive meeting the dedication of the 10th Congress of Amerioans of Ukraine Descent to the immortal spirit, works, and contributions of our departed intellectual leader. Also, this proposal will extend to the autumn issue of The Ukrainian Quarterly. As he would have us remember?Three Cheers, our dearly beloved friend. Erne, Domine, animam ejus, Requiescat in pace. [From the Washington (D.C.) Evening Star, Apr, 29, 1969] ROMAN S. SMAL-STOCKI, UKRAINIAN SCHOLAR, Dins Roman S. Smal-Stocki, 76, director of the Ukrainian Studies Center at Catholic Uni- versity, died Sunday of cancer at Georgetown University Hospital. He lived at 201 Taylor St. NE. Born in 1893 in Czernowitz, Bukovina, now a part of the Soviet Ukraine, Mr. Smal-Stocki studied at the universities of Vienna, Leip- zig, and Munich. In 1917 he lectured at the Oriental Academy, a foreign service school in Berlin. In the early 1920s he was associate profes- sor of Slavistics at the Ukrainian Massaryk University in Prague and later was a guest professor in English Universities. He taught Slavistics at the University of Warsaw in Poland from 1925 to 1939, and then was a prisoner of the Nazis during World War II. Coming to the United States after the war, he was professor of Slavic history at Mar- quette University from 1947 and director of its Slavic Institute from 1949 until becoming professor emeritus. He had been a visiting professor at Catholic University since 1965. Mr. Smal-Stocki was a leader in the fund- raising campaign to erect a statue of the Ukrainian poet-hero Taras Shevchenko in Washington. The statue, dedicated several years ago, is at 22nd and P Streets NW. He was also curator and a director of the Byzantine Slavic Arts Foundation here. From 1915 through 1960 Mr. Smal-Stocki-published 11 books?in Ukrainian' German and Rus- sian. He also had written more than 70 schol- arly articles. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 II Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 E 5302 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD?Extensions of Remarks June 26, 1969 Outside his literary career, Mr. Stri served as an envoy and minister Ukrainian Democratic Republic in and Great Britain in the early 19 was deputy premier and foreign mi the Ukrainian National government irom 1937 to 1940. He was' active in several socie voted to the works of Shevchenko pa historical and other arts and Prayers will be offered at 7 o'clock tonight at the Ukrainian Catholic Seminary, 201 Taylor St. NE. A mass will be offered tomorrow in Phila- delphia at the Cathedral of the Imniaeulate Conception, the mother church of the Ukrainian Catholic Metropolitan Province in the United States. It is requested that expressions ef 'sym- pathy be in the form of contributions to the Smal-Stocki Memorial Fund at the Ukrainian Catholic Seminary. -Stock' Of the &many OS, and ister of in exile is de- asWell sciences [From the Washington (D.C.) Post, Apr. 29, 19691 1, I R. S. SMAL-STOCK/, SLAVIC EXPERT Al CU I Roman S. Smal-Stocki, 76, a Ukrioaian- I born Catholic University professor who es- i caped death sentences in both Hitler'S Ger- many and Soviet Russia, died of cancer I Sunday at Georgetown University HoSpital. I He was condemned to death in eibbentia I in the 1920s by a Russian tribunal Ifor his I activities in the Ukranian indepeindence movement, but he had fled to Poland. ' From there he went to Prague, Czechoslo- vakia, where he was arrested by Nazi troops I after Germany's occupation of that coun- try. Ukranian guerrilla fighters freed' him, however, and he escaped a Nazi death war- rant by taking refuge in a monastery_ From there he went to Prague, Czechoslo- Inow in the Soviet Ukraine, the son of a I Ukranian count. He studied at the Universi- ties of Vienna, Leipzig, and Munich, receiv- Iing his doctorate from the last in 1914, ' After World War I, his native Ukraine won I a brief interval of independence arid Mr. ',Smal-Stocki become envoy to Great Britain I for the short-lived Ukrainian Deniocratic IRepublic from 1920 to 1922. , When the Russian armies retoek the 'Ukraine he fled. He taught at universities in I both countries before being arrested by the IGermans, ' After World War II, with the help bi sev- eral high American officials who w re ac- quainted with his career, includingthen ISecretary of State Edward R. Stettin us Jr., 'he came to the United States. From 1947 to 1965 he taught Slavic history at Marquette University, before coming to Catholin Uni- versity. Mr. Smal-Stocki authored 151 books ,and many articles, most of them on Slavic 'history, his specialty. ' In Washington Mr. Smal-Stocki Was a Ileader in the effort to bring to this c ty the Istatue of Ukranian hero Taras Shev benko Ithat now stands at 22d and P Street nw. ' During his life he had known ElOsely Winston Churchill, Georges Clemeinceau, Thomas Masaryk, and other world le4ers. ' He was a member of the American istor- lea' Society, American Catholic Hi tOrical Society, and numerous other profeSsional groups, many of which he served as an officer. He was curator of the Byzantine Slavic Arts Foundation in Washington [From the New York Times, Apr. 29 19691 DR. ROMAN SMAL-STOCKX DIES; UKRA/N/AN EDUCATOR WAS 76 . Dr. Roman Smal-Stocki, philologist &In- 'cater and author, died Sunday at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington. He Was 76 years old and was a former leader cr. the Ukrainian National Republic, an indeperdent State from 1917 to 1920. Dr. Smal-Stocki, who was born under Austro-Hungarian rule, received a PhD. degree, summa cum laude, from the Uni- versity of Munich in 1914. He was active in the establishment of the independent Ukrainian state and was the councilor of its legation in Berlin. Later he Was Minister of Its Government-in-Exile in Berlin and London. He was also formerly deputy premier of the exiled government. Between the two world wars Stocki was associate professor he history, language and culture .of e Slavic peo- ples at the Ukrainian M yk University in Prague and at the Uni'' -ity of Warsaw. After the conquest f Poland he was ar- rested by the Ge ? ans and interned in Prague until the en of the war. He came to the inited States in 1947 and was associate prc essor of Slavic history at Marquette Univ rsity and later directed Marquette's Slavic Institute. At his death 4w. Smal-Stocki was a visit- ing professor of the history, language and culture of the Mc peoples and the his- tory of the Sovi Union at the Catholic University of AME a and the head of the Ukrainian Stndies ter at the Ukrainian Catholic Seminary of t. Joshaphat, both in Washington. He was president of thi American Shev- chenko Scientific Society, h headquarters in New York. The society is n4XIed for Tares Shevchenko, Ukrainian poet. Surviving are a brother, Dr. tor Smal- Stocki, and a sister, Mrs. Irene Luclf,4j. PROF. ROMAN f.3MAL-STOCKI, UHR N/AN SCHOLAR, EDUCATOR AND STATESMAN, Ddse IN WASHINGTON WASHINGTON, D.C.?Prof. Roman Sinai,: Stocki, outstanding Ukrainian scholar, edu- cator and statesman-diplomat, died on April 27, 1969 at Georgetown University Hospital, after a short illness, at the age of 76. He was a Visiting Professor at the Catholic University of America for the past few years, and resided at the Ukrainian Catholic Semi- nary, 201 Taylor Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. Prof. Smal-Stocki was born on January 9, 1893 in Cherniviel (Czernowitz), Buko- vina, then under Austria-Hungary (now part of the Ukrainian SSR). He came from a prominent and distinguished Ukrainian family, holding tbe nobility title of von Rawicz, bestowed upon the family in 1685. His father, Dr. Stephan Smal-Stocki, a pro- fessor at the University of Chernivtsl, was an outstanding Ukrainian philologist, mem- ber of the Diet of Bukovina, and a leader of the Ukrainian national rebirth in Bukovina; his mother, Emilia, nee Zarevych, was born into a Ukrainian priestly family. Upon his graduation from a gymnasium, Prof. Roman Smal-Stocki studied at the Universities of Vienna, Leipzig and Munich, where he specialized in Slavic studies under such prominent scholars as W. Wondrak, E. Bernecker and A. Laskin, in comparative Indo-European philology and philosophy un- der A. Kulpe and W. Wundt. In_ 1914 he re- ceived summa cum laiede his Ph.D. degree at the University of Munich. SCHOLASTIC CAREER Dr_ Smal-Stocki began his academic career in 191' became j3ecame a lecturel? at the 1 Orientalische A carrate ('GeErian Foreign Service School) in Berlin. From 1921 to 1923 he was Associate Professor at the Ukrainian Masaryk University in Prague, and in 1924- 25 he was a guest professor at King's College of London University, the School of Eco- nomics, and Pembroke College of Cambridge University. Subsequently, from 1925-1939 he was Professor of Slavistics at the University of Warsaw, Poland, where he was also very active in Ukrainian cultural arid political life. With the outbreak of World War II, he was arrested by the Gestapo and was detained as a civilian internee for the duration. In 1947 he emigrated to the United States and joined the staff of Marquette University In Milwaukee, Wisc., where he taught Slavic history until his retirement in 1965; he was also Director of Marquette's Slavic Institute since 1949. From 1965 until his death he was a Visiting Professor at Catholic University of America and Director of the Ukrainian tudies Center at the Ukrainian Catholic Sc nary, both in Washington, D.C. P OLIFIC AUTHOR, DEDICATED EDUCATOR Prof'. Smal-Stocki's contributions to the studies of Ukrainian and Slavic linguistics are enormous. Early in his scholastic career he published New Educational Trends (4 volumes, 1917-1919, together with Prof. W. Simovych), Studies on Ukrainian Linguistics (together with Prof. I. Ohienko) and Travaux de l'Institut Scientifique Ukrainien (6 vol- umes). In 1929, with the establishment of the Ukrainian Scientific Institute in War- saw, Prof. Smal-Stocki became its secretary and editor; under his direction, 40 volumes of Ukrainian studies had been published. He also participated in the publication of a complete edition Of works of Tares Shev- chenko, and was editor of its 15th volume in Warsaw. In the United States, under his direction there appealed 6 volumes of the Marquette University Studies and 18 volumes of Mar- quette University Slavic Institute Papers (edited jointly with Prof. Alfred Sokolnicki). Prof. Smal-Stocki wrote many books in Ukrainian, German and English, among them: Outline of Word-Building of Ukrain- ian Adjectives (1921), Significance of Ukrain- ian Adjectives (1926), Primitive Word-Build- ing (1929), Ukrainian Language in Soviet Ukraine (1935), Shevchenko in Foreign Lan- \guages (1936)?all in Ukrainian; Abriss der -Ukrainischen Substantivhildung (1915) and rmanisch.-Deutsche Hulturinfluesse in Sp gel der Ukrctiniichen Sprache (1938) --in G an; and Slays and Teutons: The Oldest Ger nic-Slavic Relations (1950), The Na- tionaUt,y Problem of the Soviet union and Russia Communist Imperialism (1952), The Captive ations (1959), and The History of Modern lgarian Literature (1960, with Prof. Clarence Manning). In addition, over 78 scholarly akticles and papers were written by Prof. Smal tocki in Ukrainian, Polish, Bul- garian, Ge an and English. As presid4it of the American Shevchenko Scientific So4iety (since 1951) and president of the Sup're4ve Council of Shevchenko Scien- tific Societi (Europe, Canada, Australia and the United tates), Prof. Smal-Stocki con- tributes' gre tly toward the prolific activities and expansi n of the Shevchenko Scientific Society in t e United States, which in fact is a free Ukrafinlan Academy of Sciences. Under hI presidency, the Society organized two World Congresses of Ukrainian Free Sci- ence and hundreds of scientific conferences and lecgures, dedicated to Ukrainian history, language, culture and science. The American section of the Society under his direction is- sued 18 volumes of Proceedings, 18 volumes of Ukrainian Studies, 31 volumes of lectures, 21 volumes of monographs, 9 volumes of Pro- ceedings of various sections of the Society, 3 volumes of Ukrainian Archives, and 2 vol- umes of Ukrainian Literary Library, and sev- eral non-serial publications. He was the founder in 1956 and president of the Com- mittee of American Slavic Learned Societies In New York and served as its president since that time. POLITICAL LEADER, STATESMAN AND DIPLOMAT Prof. Smal-Stocki was one of the great and outstanding Ukrainian political leaders. statesmen and diplomats who took an active part in the establishment of a free and in- dependent Ukrainian state in 1917-1920. His political career began in 1915 when he joined the "Union for -the Liberation of Ukraine," Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 June 23, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD?Extensions of Remarks E 5145 right, fair, reliable, and highly profes- sional. He is not only a great commentator, but a fine gentleman, and an the occasion of his 25th year of broadcasting in tlite political arena, it is a pleasure to join the many friends of Joe McCaffrey in saying?you are more than a "household word"; you are the voice of Capitol Hill. keep up the good work. LEGISLATION TO EXTEND THE GOLDEN EAGLE PASSPORT HON. JOEL T. BROYHILL OF VIRGINIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, June 23, 1969 Mr. BROYHILL of Virginia. Mr. Speaker, last year the 90th Congress in amending the Land and Water Conserva- tion Fund Act repealed the annual Fed- eral recreation area permit, known as the Golden Eagle passport. The Federal agencies still have authority to collect recreation fees, but after March 31, 1970, there will be no annual permit which may be used at all Federal recreation fee areas. The Golden Eagle passport, of which 692,300 were issued between 1965 and 1968 and 403,100 so far in fiscal 1969, per- mits the bearer and everyone within a private vehicle and attached camper or trailer, to use one or all of the over 3,000 national parks, forests, and refuges, as well as other federally operated recrea- tional areas, with the payment of a single $7 fee. I am convinced that the people in my district in Virginia, as well as for the many hundreds of thousands of other Americans, who enjoy the wanders of nature, the national parks, the national forests, and other Federal recreation areas, the Golden Eagle passport is an unsurpassed bargain in outdoor recrea- tion. I think there is no doubt as to the Interest in preserving this simple method of collecting this fee, either for the Gov- ernment or from its user citizens. As per- sonal opinion, if for no other reason than its simplicity, it ought to be maintained as an example that all acts of this Gov- ernment are not confusing and compli- cated. Not only does the Golden Eagle passport benefit the hundreds of thou- sands of our citizens who travel across the breadth of this land in campers and trailers, it users also put revenues into the land and water conservation fund. This revenue helps finance such projects as Federal acquisition of additional au- thorized areas, multipurposes metropoli- tan parks, snow-ski areas, campgrounds, swimming pools, and bicycling paths in all the 50 States, the District of Colum- bia, and our territories. After a slow start in 1965, when only $633,600 in fees were collected, ever-in- creasing acceptance and demand has increased estimated receipts in fiscal 1969 to $5,200,000. The Golden Eagle pass- port has proved its value and popularity. We must not let it expire. Mr. Speaker, it is for these reasons that I offer for introduction legislation to extend this program. My bill will estab- lish separate fee programs for entrance to and use of areas administered for out- door recreation and related purposes by the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture, and for other purposes. This bill will extend the Golden Eagle passport indefinitely. One small change wil be made to the fee now in use; the present fee is to be increased from $7 annually to $10. This increase is ac- ceptable to the users as reasonable and the funds collected are to be used di- rectly for the users benefits. I have been told it is still a bargain. Mr. Speaker, I urge early consideration and action on my bill. RUSSIA AND THE "PT.......2a3.4ct" HON. JACK EDWARDS OF ALABAMA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, June 23, 1969 Mr. EDWARDS of Alabama. Mr. Speaker, when the U.S. Navy ship Pueblo was hijacked by the North Koreans about /8 months ago, there was considerable opinion in some places that Moscow was terribly embarrassed by such a rash act, and that the North Koreans had com- mitted this piracy in spite of Russian efforts to prevent it. Opinions such as this come from the same people who are flabbergasted when a few months later Russian armies in- vaded Czechoslovakia. In the view of these people the Soviet Union was sup- posed to have renounced the use of power. Insofar as information is available to the public today, there is no certainty that the Soviet Union played a role in seizure of the Pueblo. However, a news item pointing in this direction appeared today, and I include it at this point in my remarks as a devel- opment of real interest to those con- cerned with this issue: CZECH DEFECTOR SAYS RUSSIA SPARKED SEIZURE OF PUEBLO A high Czechoslovakian defense official who defected to the United States last year said yesterday that the Soviet Union collab- orated with North Korea in the capture of the U.S. intelligence ship Pueblo. The assertion by Gen. Jan Seine in a copyrighted article in the July issue of Reader's Digest runs counter to the official position in Washington that the Russians had little?if anything?to do with the Pueb- lo's capture. Seine based his contention primarily on remarks he said were made by Soviet De- fense Minister Andrei Grechko while Grechko was drinking heavily at a party in Prague in May, 1967, and on the words of a Soviet general who announced the Pueblo's seizure to the Czechs the day after it happened. Sejna quoted Grechko as saying: "It is absolutely insolent the way the American sail their damn ships around as if they owned the water. Their espionage ships come right up to our shores to spy on our communications. But I can tell you this: We have decided to humble the Americans. Just as we humiliated them in the air by shooting down the U-2, we are going to hu- miliate them at sea by grabbing one of these ships." Seine, said Grechko did not say when, where or hew this would occur but that he indicated the Pacific area had been chosen because it was considered an "American preserve." He quoted Grechko as saying: "Our Korean comrades, CrY course, are not capable of car- rying this off without us. But we will guide and protect them." He heard nothing more, Seine, said, until Jan. 24, 1968, when Soviet Col. Gen. Alek- sandr Kushchev, the chief Warsaw Pact representative in Prague, announced the seizure at a meeting at the Czech Defense Ministry. "During the night? we learned that, with the collaboration of our Korean comrades, we have achieved a great success," Kushchev was quoted as saying. He then told?with an air of surprise, Sejna said?how the Pueblo had "capitulated" without firing a shot, leaving thousands of undestroyed documents, a,nd how "it took Washington literally hours to pull itself together and even begin to react." Sejna said other Soviet officers later con- firmed Kushchev's account, and subsequent briefings indicated that "the intelligence in- formation the Russians were extracting from the Pueblo was immensely valuable." Until February, 1968, Sejna was the Com- munist Party official In charge of political control of the Czech Defense Ministry and General Staff, and frequently saw Soviet and Warsaw Pact officials. He flew to the United States when Antonin Novotny lost power in the 1968 Czech political crisis. REPORT OF SOUTH VIETNAM STUDY TEAM HON. RICHARD D. MCCARTHY OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, June 23, 1969 Mr. McCARTHY. Mr. Speaker, a U.S. study team made up of eight prominent individuals recently visited South Viet- nam. The team was sent there by a group of well-known churchmen con- cerned about the war and by reports of political repression in South Vietnam. The members included our distinguished colleague, the gentleman from Michigan (Mr. CONYERS) and a noted Jesuit, the Reverend Robert Drinan, S.J., dean of Boston College Law School. I found the report of the U.S. study team illuminating as well as disturbing. I was, for instance, surprised to learn that although most Catholics in South Vietnam support the Thieu government, a significant segment is critical of the war and of the present Government. The team found Catholics who want a closer tie with the Buddhists, who are actively seeking an early peace. Many of these Catholics are seeking what some call a "third solution"?between communism and militarism. Father Hoang Quynh, for instance, who is an active member of the All-Religion Citizens' Front, has worked with Buddhists in trying to pre- vent further friction between the Budd- hist and Catholic communities. There are other Catholics who are close to Pope Paul's VI's views on negotiations and Peace. They have won the confidence of Buddhist leaders. Mr. Speaker, I believe the study team our colleagues will study its report and I Join with others in praising the gentle- man from Michigan for his part in this important effort. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 E 5146 CONGRESSIONAL NEVADA CHAPARRAL TEA, A POS- SIBLE CANCER CURE? HON. WALTER S. BARING OF NEVADA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, June 23, 1969 ' Mr. BARING. Mr. Speaker, with all the talk and debate about cigarettes alleged- ly causing cancer and with the keen in- terest this past week in House passage of a cigarette bill, I feel research under- way in my State of Nevada and neighbor- ing Utah deserves attention nationwide in regard to the drive of mankind to cure disease. Therefore, I offer for the REcohn to- day a report from the Nevada Ranh and Home News about a "tea" made from a evada bush which the Indians haVe ap- arently been using for years as a ' sort of cure-all. This Indian habit has drawn the attention of some doctors in Reno land Utah at the respective universities with the thought being that perhaps the s.o-called "tea" may be a cancer curt. ' I submit the news release for inc Usion p,t this point in the REcortn: pESERT CREOSOTE BUSH SHOWS PRONitSE AS CANCER CURE A little "Chaparral" or "Indian" tea brewed from the leaves of the desert creosote bush just might cure cancer. , Sound like an Indian medicine man talk- ing or maybe a barker for patent renfedies? If current research proves fruitful, itai Could ae a highly trained and eert medic 1 doc- "I've kidded some of my students that maybe the intricate and sophisticated World of medical science is catching up wit the medicine men," said Dr. Ronald P rdini, associate professor Of biochemistry at, the University of Nevada, who is engaged in re- search concerning the creosote tea. Dr. Par- dini delivered a paper last Friday, June. 18 at a regional meeting of the American CheMical Society in which he discussed phases Of the research into a derivative of the creosote bush leaves that has indicated some promise, as an anti-cancer drug. The meeting was held in Salt Lake City, Utah. Staff members of the Biochemistry Depart- Ment, College of Agriculture, at the Uni- versity of Nevada including Dr. Pardini, Dr. Dean C. Fletcher, chairman of the Depart- tient, and James C. Heidker, a graduate stu- dent working toward the Ph D. have now been conducting research on the creosote bush derivative for a number of months, I Dr. Fletcher related an intriguing story about how the research got started. Interest Was first generated, he said, at the U ver- sity of Utah Medical School eoncerni g an elderly patient Who was suffering fram a melanoma or cancer of the face whici had metastasized or spread. Previous su eries had not helped. A radical surgery was r com- mended for the removal of a consid fable amount of tissue but the person, due his advanced age, refused. The disease wa felt terminal and the old man Went back jio bis home in St. George, Utah to wait. Some months later he returned to the Univrsity of Utah and exhibited a miraculous ree very. When questioned the only deviation froni his normal routine was the drinking each aay of the "Chapparal" tea as recommended by an old Indian friend. 4 any rate, the Man's story intrigued th* at the 'Utah iikedical School enough to seriously look into the tea. I Researchers at Utah, according to Dr. Flet- cher, were able to isolate the active ingredi- ent in the creosote leaves Which appeared to RECORD ? Extensions of Remarks June 23, 1969 be the only material which might inhibit cancer growth. This was "Nordihydroguaiartic Acid" or NDGA. When extracted this ap- pears as a white powder that can be chemi- cally synthesized in the laboratory and ad- ministered in capsule form. Dr. Fletcher, who is a member of the cal faculty of the School of Meiie, Utah University, became acquainte.4ith the drug and decided to experiment th it in Neva- da. So far only the Uni sity of Utah and Nevada are working wi the "tea". The two university's are coop ating in the research. Dr. Pardini'a part ular phase of the study, and that which he eported upon at the Salt ( Lake meeting, is to determine the site of -action of the d g or where in the cell it works and how t works. Previous to coming to Nevada, Dr. ardini had been associated with the Stanfo Research Institute where he had worked o screening tests for anti- cancer drugs. Spec: ally he had researched the phenomenon o:f tochondrial functions within the cell. This is e portion of the cell where energy mtabolism kes place. He had worked with various dam which inhibit mitochondrial functions, an n turn inhibit cancer cell growth. Dr. Pardin ound NDGA to be a potent inhibitor of mit ondrial en- zymes. It also appeared to work ? cifically on diseased or cancerous cells an not on other cells. His wcrk also showed t t the inhibiting action of NDGA was specic to the compound and not a nonspecific nti- , oxidant effect. He also postulated how it an N work to inhibit tumor growth. Meanwhile, Dr. Fletcher has been worki with the medical fraternity in Reno in ac tualiy administering the drug to patients. Similar work is also being done in Salt Lake. In addition, researchers at Utah are gather- ing case history sf5udies on Indian people who have traditionally taken the tea to de- termine how this might have influenced or effected incidence of cancer or certain types of cancer. "All we can say at this time," said Dr. Fletcher, "is that the drug appears extremely Interesting and interesting enough that we are continuing study on it." In the "Chaparral Tea" derived from Lar- rea Divaricata, one of the creosote bushes of the Southwest and found in Nevada, may be some hope in the fight against cancer. In- dians in the country have had faith in It for a long time. THE ACCOMMODATING ASTRONAUTS HON. OLIN E. TEAGUE OP TEXAS IN THE HOUSE OF' REPRESENTAT ES Monday, June 23, 19 Mr. TEAGUE of Mr. Speaker, on Monday, May 19, 1969, the Washing- ton Daily News carried an editorial de- scribing the flight of Apollo 10 and the contribution of Astronauts Stafford, Young, and Cernan to the Apollo pro- gram and to the future of manned space flight. The key facts of this editorial are that these astronauts place the impor- tance of space exploration above their own aggrandizement. I commend this editorial to your reading: THE ACcoMmo SATING ASTRONAUTS The trio of astronauts now on their way to the moon in the Apollo 10 spaceship have got to go down as tame of the most accom- modating men in history Their predecessors in Apollo 9, who blazed the trail to the moon two months ago, had the thrill of looking back across space and seeing Earth as a bright blue ball of life. And in mid-July of the three astronauts aboard Apollo 11 two will have the incom- parable experience of being the first human beings ever to set foot upon another celestial So the "tree men now flying Apollo 10 are sort of mi 1e men, short on glamor?rela- tively?but lpng on the services they are called upon to perform. For their flight is the dress rehearsal for the planned moon land- ing. They are to make the final checkouts of the lunar landing craft by twice descending to within nine miles of the moon's surface, and they are to take a close look at the land- ing sites targeted for July's history-ntaking moment. Yesterday, everything seemed to go off "on, the tick"?blastoff from Cape Kennedy, the long rocket "burn" that headed them racing for the moon, and the needle-threading link- up of the command ship with the lunar landing vehicle. We pray that the rest of the trip will go without a hitch and that the three?Tom Stafford, John Young and Gene Oernan?will return safely from their most obliging service. HONOR PLEDGE OF FOUNDING FATHERS HON, MARGARET M. HECKLER OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, June 23, 1969 Mrs. HECKLER of Massachusetts. Mr. eaker, "Honor Pledge of Founding Fa- t rs" was the title of a very incisive edi- to al by the Taunton Gazette recently. In time of considerable confusion con- cer g the spirit of the more radical me ers of the younger generation, this edit ial speaks to a key issue which has often been overlooked. It addresses itself to th problems of method and mental attit ? e which are so important in deter- mini g the character of any movement for c ? ange. I offer the full text of the edi- tori for consideration by all my col- leag es, who share my concern over the cri of spirit in our society: ONOR PLEDGE OW FOUNDING FATHERS e revolts taking place on the nation's mpuses are a "symptom of the serious oral duplicity in ottr history and culture as well as the perversion of values in our so- ciety," says a psychiatrist. The students are wise to the "say one thing and do another" attitude that pervades so- ciety, says Dr. Charles de Leon, assistant pro- fessor of psychiatry at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. "They know that two of our greatest heroes, George Washington and Thomas Jef- ferson, their flowery rhetoric bout democ- racy and justice notwithstanding, were simple slaveowners." This is, to be sure, fact of history. But before anyone condemns the American ex- periment as a monumental sham and elossal fraud, perhaps we May be permitted to ask a silly question. If Presidents Washington and Jefferson were slaveowners, why is not President Rich- ard Nixon a slaveowner? Perhaps it Is because Nixon is a Quaker, as was Benjamin Franklin, who spent the last years of his life vainly petitioning Con- gress to abolish slavery. Well, then, why is not former President Lyndon B. Johnson, a southerner, a slave- owner? Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 NEW YORK TIMES DATE -Pi0414d7 PAGE 410 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71B00364R000300150001-8 Li)ii-be/A The seilstio: Who Is to j-u4e the Judges? By JAMES RESTON Secretary of the Navy Chafee says the Pueblo case is "closed," but an Interesting philosophic question remains. Who is to judge the judges? The men who make decisions about war and the men who carry them out live by different rules. The first vol- unteer for political office and most of the second are drafted to fight, and both, being human, make mistakes; but the fighters must answer for their missions and the men who ordered the missions do not have to answer and even sit in judgment on their men. It is easy to understand why the senior officers of the Nagy recommended a court-martial for Commander Lloyd Bucher. He broke the Navy's tradition of going down with the ship, and tradition is important. It is also easy to understand why Secre- tary Chafee rejected the court- martial, for the Pueblo was not only a naval and political dis- aster, but a rebuke to the United States as well as to Commander I3ucher. And Secretary Chafee clearly wanted to bury it as soon as postible, Any reasonable man would have done the same thing, but after the legal and political problems of the Pueblo are over, everybody Is still vaguely un- easy. It is out of the headlines but not out of sensitive minds. For Commander Bucher, while he may have been a weak and blundering captain, has become a symbol of the helpless indi- vidual directed and even hu- miliated by the judgments and power of the state?and this is almost the central conflict in our society today. Ihe 301 Committee Consider, for example, the 303 Committee in Washington, which very few people, and probably not even Commander Bucher, have ever heard of, even now. This is the committee charged with approving intelligence mis- sions all over the world, such as the Pueblo mission off the North Korean coast. It is com- posed of the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the Under Secretary of State, the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency and the Presidential Assistant for National Security Affairs in the White House, among others. These are human beings, too, subject to human error. They have primary responsibility for recommending these spy mis- sions. They are above even the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the commanders in the Pacific, let alone Commander Bucher or his superior officers in Japan. They approved the Pueblo mission They made the judg- ment that even a spy ship out- side territorial waters would not be attacked, or at least that the advantage of the spy mis- sion was greater than the risk. In the perspective of history, it was not an unreasonable recom- mendation to the President, but it proved to be wrong?and was even repeated by the 303 Com- mittee and by the President after the Pueblo incident when they approved sending an un- guarded spy-plane into the same area, only to have it shot down. All made mistakes of judg- ment, but only Commander Bucher was held accountable and put through a medieval trial which exposed his agony and broke his spirit. Maybe he was unfit for com- mand. Maybe this orphan boy, pushed beyond his capacities, was too weak to be strong enough to risk the resentment of his crew. But other men chose him for command and pushed him into a situation be- yond his capacities?and they are invisible, unidentified and uncharged. Kennedy's Reflection "Life is unfair," President Kennedy said, and this is the only point of the story. The misjudgments in the Pueblo in- cident were general. No one man was to blame, but every- body was to blame, and only Commander Blucher waablamed in the end. "A time will come," H. G. Wells wrote many long years ago, "when a politician who has wilfully made war arid pro- moted international dissension will be as sure of the dock and much surer of the noose than a private homicide. It Is not reasonable that those 'Who gam- ble with men's lives should not stake their own." It is a hard philosophy and one wonders whether it will ever come true. But the Pueblo Case dramatizes the inequality between the men who give the military orders arid the men who have to carry them out. There were politicians and naval officers who tried to prove that all would have been well if only Bucher had carried out the old tradition, and gone down with his men and his ship, but he defied the tradition and has now taken his rebuke. It is the old Billy Rudd dil- emma of duty and conviction all over again. The individual has been punished and the in- stitution has been spared. Sec- retary Chafee tried to soften the tragedy by saying: "They have suffered enough and fur- ther punishment wotrld not be justified," so the novelists arld dramatists will have to take it from here. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 May 7, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-Extensions of Remarks E 3735 RESULTS OF THE MINSHALL OPINION POLL HON. WILLIAM E. MINSHALL OF OHIO IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, May 7, 1969 Mr, MINSHALL. Mr. Speaker, under leave to extend my remarks I wish to insert in the RECORD a copy of my May Washington Report in which are given the results of my recent opinion poll, a copy of which was sent to every home in the 23d Congressional District. WASHINGTON REPORT: MAY, 1969 Results of the 1969 Minshall opinion poll reveal that the more than 25,000 people who returned their questionnaires were almost evenly divided over the controversial ABM . . . overwhelmingly in favor of a national popular vote and suspending federal funds to colleges which tolerate continued flagrant disorders . . . strongly opposed to the SST, 10% surtax and guaranteed annual in- comes . . Law and order-in all phases in- cluding civil strife-head the list of problems facing the nation, according to nearly a third of those polled, Taxes and inflation rank sec- ond, the war in Vietnam third ... Percentage of returns this year reached an all-time high: I welcome this enthusiastic response and only regret that time and staff limita- tions prevent my personally answering each of you who added comments to your return. All were read with great interest. Results of the poll follow: [In percent' No Yes No opinion 1. Do you favor 1 year of compulsory training for all young men? 67.7 30.4 1.9 2. Do you approve of the proposed limited antiballistic missile system? . 45. 4 45.2 1 4 3. Does the U.S. space program justify its cost? 43.9 50. 8 5. 3 4. Should the voting age be lowered to 19? 43.7 54.6 1.7 5. In cases of continued flagrant campus disorder, should Federal funds for the college involved be suspended until order is restored?_ 78.6 18.8 2.6 6. Should the electoral college be re- placed by a national popular vote for the Presidency? 96.0 11.9 2.1 7. Do you favor financing the research and development of a supersonic transport aircraft at an estimated Government cost of approximately $1,500,000,000? 20.6 76.5 2.9 8. Are you in favor of continuing the 10 percent income surtax? 20.3 77.4 2.3 9. Should the Government subsidize a guaranteed annual income? 15.5 81.1 3.4 10. Do you think the fl'xon administra- tion has made a good start? 63.9 26.5 10.5 11. If the Paris peace talks do not succeed in ending the war in Vietnam, what alterna- tive would you suggest? Percent Escalate the war and win 30. 0 Get U.S. troops out of Vietnam now 27.6 Phase out, turn war over to the South Vietnamese 14. 4 "Win or get out" 8.6 Negotiate elsewhere or call in U.N 3. 9 Miscellaneous suggestions 4. 3 No opinion 11.2 12. What do you think is the principal problem facing the Nation today? Percent Law and order 30. 9 Taxes and inflation 23. 1 Vietnam 13.7 Race relations 9.4 Big Government/excessive Federal spending 6. I Percent Poverty 3.2 Communism in the United States 2.2 U.S. Supreme Court decisions 1.0 Miscellaneous 6. 3 No opinion 5. 1 abin THE NAVY WAY HON. EDWARD P. BOLAND OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, May 7, 1969 Mr. BOLAND. Mr. Speaker, the Secre- tary of the Navy, John H. Chafee, yester- day announced that he has overruled a board of inquiry recommendation seek- ing a court martial for Comdr. Lloyd M. Bucher, captain of the Pueblo. The Sec- retary's decision, I think, is eminently just. Secretary Chafee pointed out that the entire Navy-the chain of command stretching all the way from the Pacific to Washington-shares responsibility for this incident. Circumstances that the Navy's high command did not anticipate thrust Commander Bucher into this cruel dilemma: surrender his ship, or sacrifice the lives of his men. Commander Bucher, I feel, made the wise and humane choice. Armed with only a few small machine- guns, surrounded by a vertitabIe flotilla of North Korean speedboats bristling with armament, Commander Bucher realized that to resist would be to invite certain disaster. It seems plain, too, that armed resistance would have given the Pueblo's crew even less time to destroy classified documents and devices. The officers chiefly responsible for this task-Lt. Stephen R. Harris and Lt. Ed- ward R. Murphy, Jr.-have also been exonerated from the board of inquiry's allegations. Caught up in the chaos of a sudden armed attack, lacking adequate equipment for the destruction of secret material, unaware whether the North Koreans meant to seize their ship or merely harass it, these two melt reacted predictably under the circumstances. It is easy-after months of pondering their plight and analyzing their options-to second guess Harris and Murphy. It is far less easy to carry out, in the midst of battle, a mission made virtually impos- sible by the Navy's lack of foresight. If anyone is responsible for the Pueblo's seizure, it is the Navy's high command itself. The Navy failed to equip the Pueblo adequately, failed to brief her officers on the latest relevant intelligence reports, failed to prepare defense plans in the event of an enemy attack. Yet the board of inquiry placed little emphasis on the Navy's failures, prefer- ring to level charges at the victims of these failures. I am delighted that Secre- tary Chafee has ruled against the board's recommendations. I am delighted, too, that Defense Secretary Melvin Laird has made assurances that the records of the Pueblo's officers will not be blemished by this incident. With permission, Mr. Speaker, I put in the RECORD at this point a Washington Post editorial dealing with the Pueblo incident: [From the Washington Post, May 7, 1969] THE NAVY WAY It figured that the Naval Court of Inquiry into the Pueblo case would render a stern and starchy judgment, recommending court- martials for the two principal officers-in- charge on the ship, and reprimands or ad- monitions for failures of one sort or another on the part of three other officers intimately involved in the affair. Orders must be obeyed and ancient traditions served for the sake of military discipline. And it also figured as the case moved up for review, first by the Commander in Chief, Pacific, and then the Chief of Naval Operations, and finally the Secretary of the Navy, that justice would be tempered by compassion and a keen aware- ness that there was blame enough to spread rather liberally up through the higher eche- lons to the top men of the service. This is the Navy way, or more correctly the military way, and it is understandable, as far as it goes. Down the line there is morale to think about; and at the top there is an in- stinct for self-preservation that is by no means unique among military men. So there would be much to be said for for- getting this whole unhappy affair were it not for the fact that its ending somehow doesn't satisfy. "I make no judgment re- garding the guilt or innocence of any of the officers of the offenses alleged against them," Secretary Chafee was careful to say, in setting aside the court's recommendations-and there is something to his argument that, If punishment were indicated, the three who were actually captured by the North Koreans have suffered punishment enough. The fact remains, however, that a cloud of sorts has been cast over them and not dispelled; the real test of the Navy's compassion will there- fore come in the effect this cloud will have on their careers. Secretary Chafee is a good deal less per- suasive in his argument that the two other officers-and by implication, even more senior officers who had a hand in this the Pueblo mission-should not be punished be- cause their "failure to anticipate the emer- gency that subsequently developed" resulted from the "sudden collapse of a premise which had been assumed at every level of responsi- bility and upon which every other aspect of the mission had been based-freedom of the seas." If this was in fact the premise upon which the whole project was based, it is hard to see how the Court of Inquiry could then have found' any grounds for recommending a letter of reprimand against Rear Admiral Johnson, for "failing to plan properly for effective emergency support forces for con- tingencies . . ; and negligently failing to verify effectively the feasibility of rapid emergency destruction of classified equip- ment and documents . : ." Apparently there was some planning for the worst, some con- sideration that "freedom of the seas" was not protection enough; it just wasn't done properly. Secretary Chafee put it rather well. The charge of failure to anticipate the emergency, he said, "could be levelled in various de- grees at responsible superior authorities in the chain of command and control and in the collateral support structure." And he added: "The consequences must in fairness be borne by all, rather than by one or two individuals whom circumstances had placed closer to the crucial event." Amen, Mx. Secretary. But is that an argu- ment for letting the matter drop? There ob- viously is more here than has met the public eye-more about how these missions are cooked up, how they are reviewed by higher authority, how the risks are weighed, and what has been done to improve the odds that this sort of thing doesn't happen again. We are told by Mr. Chafee that "a variety of corrective actions have flowed and will flow" Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP711300364R000300150001-8 1 1 1 1 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 E 3736 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ?Extensions of Remarks May 7, 1969 from the Pueblo incident. But we n't told what they are and it is not all th4 easy, any more, to take these things on fait Perhaps Congress can elicit more light. P rhaps the Defense Department min, on its oWle accord. The one interest that hasn't yet been ade- quately served in the Pueblo affair is the right of an uneasy public, long sinee grown skeptical, to know. SMOTHERED BROTHER'S HON. EDWARD L KOCH OF NEW ToRK , IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, May 7, 1960 SsiONAL *WORD Et Mr. KOCH. Mr. Speaker, oillApril 8 I placed in the CONGRE letter which I sent to Dr. Franki tanton of the CBS network registering my ob- jections to the dismissal of th panoth- ers Brothers by CBS. / should 11 Oat this point to place in the REcoan h reply: COLUMBIA BROADCASTING SYSTEM, Iso., New York, N.Y., April 1 ,..1969. Hon. EDWARD I. KOCH, House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. DEAR CONGRESSMAN KOCH : By ydur letter of April 8 concerning the cmcellatiOn of the "Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour" you ac- cuse CBS Television Network "ce ors" of having "little respect for the Intel' gence of the 33 million Americans who regularly enjoy these talented and irreverent ent Wieners" and you charge "that a few cant oils and humorless men can decide what political or religious satire can be televised on air waves that belong to the American peoplO in the first place." , The action of the CBS Televisionretwork was taken precisely because of its ? ligation to the public?not despite that obligation. The central issue involved here is rwhether a broadcast organization has a resp eibility to the public with respect to quettpfls of taste and, if so, whether it is en tied to 1 establish reasonable procedures in oxder to 1 exercise that responsibility. The Smothers ' Brothers made it abundantly clear tut they : were unwilling to accept the criteri estab- lished by the Network. Moreover, th y:failed to observe their contractual oblig tIon to I deliver tapes of their programs in itne for 1 review by the Network and for pre 1k1W by 1 closed cieuit to stations affiliated iliz the 1 Network. In the larger question of taste, w recog- nize that there are no simple, a,er se-the- board standards that will be approp late to all audiences or all time& What is rip good 'taste for one individual may offend " .ther. , And certainly of all art forms, topic satire and parody are the most difficult to assess. At the same time there is also the ? rablern :of reconciling two distinct resporisi ? Cities. On the one hand, we have an oblig 'on to 1the ideals and purposes of creative t, and lwe try to do everything we can to xpand creative freedom and encourage arti tie ax- pression. On the other, we have an ?taiga- tion to the audience?and to its nee of i decency, propriety and morality. In your letter you seem to sugge tf that we should eliminate all standards 0 taste, and let the viewers fend for themsel els. As a mass medium that seeks to info ? 4 and entertain, television must maintain tend- ards, as must other mass media. Sta dards of taste are basic to any civilized eiety, and it is the main function of th mass media to refiect those standards. If tel vision Were to eliminate such standards, I sitspect that you?as a public official and a con- cerned citizen?would be among the first to deplore broadcasts you feund offensive. An editorial in the current Tv Guide (copy enclosed:, puts it this way?"The issue is: Shall entertainers using a mass medium for all the people be allowed to amuse a few' by satirizing religion while offending the substantial majority? The issue is: Shall a network be required to provide time for a Joan Baez to pay tribute to her draft- evading husband while hundreds of thou- sands of viewers in the households of men fighting and dying in Viet Nam look on In shocked resentment? . . For all the Smothers Brothers' pseudo-intellectualism, it seems doubtful that they have encoun- tered George Bernard Shaw's statement that 'Liberty means responsibility,'" At CBS we try to be constantly aware of that responsibil.ty. And the vast majority of the public, I am certain, would have it no other way. The CBS Television Network affil- iates?who, under the law, must bear the ultimate responsibility for what they broad- cast in their communities and surrounding areas?have endorsed the Network's cancella- tion of the "Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour." In light of these considerations. I trust you will understand my dismay at your letter. Sincerely, Dr. FRANK STANTON. EUGENE TIMOTHY KINNALY HON. THOMAS P. O'NEILL, JR. OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 6, 1969 Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. Mr. Speaker, it was less than 10 months ago that we gathered in the House on a very happy occasion. We were honoring a great and noble American and a very dear friend on his 50th anniversary as a congressional aide in the House of Repre- sentatives. We were joyous in our trib- utes to Eugene liinnaly and were happy to have the opportunity to honor him. Today we join once again to pay trib- ute to Eugene Kinnaly, but this time in great sorrow for he has left us. I am doubly glad today that we did pay trib- ute to Eugene Kinnaly on July 18 of last year, for all too often it is only after death that appropriate tribute is made to great men and great friends. We were fortunate to have known Eugene Kinnaly and it was our fortune to be able to honor him while he lived. For more than 50 years this excep- tionally good and kind man served as the confidant of legislators and administra- tors. For 50 year's he was a behind the scenes technician of legislation. For 50 years he was a dedicated public servant. -But more than that, Mr. Speaker, he was a loyal, able, and devoted friend. He was a man of great responsibilities who never tired. He was a iran of tremendous tasks whose energy never diminished. He never sought the fame and praise that was due him. His only goal was to serve the Speaker, the Commonwealth, and the Nation. This he always did, and he did It with such great knowledge and ability that all who came near him benefited from his assistance, his intelligent ad- vice, and his great kindness. He had a multitude of duties that cov- ered the entire range of our beloved Speaker's endeavors, but throughout his hectic day he was never too busy to take time to give someone a reassuring smile or a kind, encouraging word. He was a patient listener who always gave sound and thoughtful counsel to those who sought it. He was loved on Capitol Hill as he was loved in his home city of Boston. He was respected not only for his great ability but also for his magnifi- cent virtue, for he was one of the most charitable and religious men I have ever encountered. He was considered a living saint by his friends and relatives and this was entirely justified for he had none of the vices and all of the virtues. Ralph Waldo Emerson said that virtue was its own reward. This must be true. for Eugene Kinnaly sought no other and his goodness was increased by the good he did for others. Emerson also said that the only way to have a friend is to be one, and Eugene Kinnaly had so many friends because he had befriended all he encountered. I mourn his passing and I grieve at our loss. I will miss his great warmth and understanding, his sincere friend- ship, and his kind and noble character. I extend my heartfelt sympathy to his family and to our beloved Speaker and also to us, for we have all lost a dear and trusted friend. May God be with his family in their time of sorrow, LEGISLATION TO PROVIDE TAX AID TO SERVICEMEN IN KOREA HON...MICHAEL A. FEIGHAN OF 01110 IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, May 7, 1969 Mr. FEIGHAN. Mr. Speaker, I am proud today to join my distinguished colleague from New York (Mr. WOLFF) in sponsoring legislation to provide American servicemen in Korea with the same tax benefits enjoyed by servicemen in Vietnam. Our enlisted men in Vietnam are cur- rently entitled to exclude all income re- ceived for services performed in and around that country in computing their taxes. Officers are permitted to exclude up to $500 per month from their gross income when tabulating their tax returns. This exemption also applies to income received by a serviceman while hospitalized as a result of injuries re- ceived in a combat zone. As my colleagues are aware, the Vietnam area is presently the only area designated as a combat zone. Our American soldiers serving in Southeast Asia are highly deserving of these tax benefits for their hazardous duty but the distressing fact is that such severe hostilities are no longer confined to Vietnam. The capture of the U.S.S. Pueblo and the recent fatal attack on an American EC-121 by the North Koreans are strong indications of the growing perils faced by our servicemen stationed in and around Korea. Here in the House we will shortly be considering legislation that exempts from taxable income, the salaries re- ceived by the Pueblo crew during their Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71B00364R000300150001-8 May 7, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ?Extensions of Remarks E 3725 be free and take its rightful place among the peace-loving nations of the world. We should note today the heritage which the Rumanian people who have come to the United States have so will- ingly shared with us. We are all richer because of the contributions Rumanian Americans have made to this country. DARTMOUTH COLLEGE'S 200TH ANNIVE1-1,SARY SPKECH OF HON. DAVE MARTIN OF NEBRASKA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, April 29, 1969 Mr. MARTIN. Mr. Speaker? An Institution? Wrote Emerson? is the lengthened shadow of one man. Of no place may this be said with greater truth than of Dartmouth and Eleazer Wheelock. Alone among the pre- Revolutionary colleges in America, Dart- mouth owes its existence to the vision, the energy, and the tireless effort of one man who, in the finest American tradi- tion, journeyed to the frontier, to what was then truly a wilderness, and brought into being a college whose name has en- tered significantly into the pages of our national history. Born of the enthusiasm generated by the great awakening, the first truly American major religious movement, Dartmouth's origin as an Indian charity school reflects the lifelong zeal of its founder for the upraising of the Ameri- can Indian. Indeed, the special associa- tion of Dartmouth with the North Amer- ican Indian lasted more than 15 decades until well into the 20th century, Perhaps the most notable feature of Dartmouth's beginning is the absence from Governor Wentworth's charter in 1769 of any kind of religious test for student, teacher, president, or trustee, a truly remarkable provision for the age and wholly in tune with Dartmouth's long championship of freedom of speech and inquiry. The Dartmouth College case of 1819, argued by Dartmouth's greatest son, Daniel Webster, before the Supreme Court of the United States, "did more than any other single act," wrote Chan- cellor Kent, "proceeding from the au- thority of the United States to throw an impregnable barrier around all rights and franchises derived from the grant of government, and to give solidity and inviolability to the literary, charitable, religious, and commercial institutions of our country." Little wonder the inscrip- tion over the entry to Webster Hall to- day reads: Founded by Eleazer Wheelock, Refounded by Daniel Webster. The story of Dartmouth over the past two centuries is at once a vital part of American history and a significant chal- lenge to the present. At a time when universities and colleges across the land are in turmoil, crucial elements in Dart- mouth's past appear strikingly relevant, from the peaceful action of the under- graduate body, which, in 1824, per- suaded the trustees to admit Edward Mitchell, a Negro from Martinique, to the firm stand taken in 1830 by Presi- dent Lord against student rioting? Go, young gentlemen, if you wish; we can bear to see our seats vacated but not our laws violated. Not without reason has one observer of Dartmouth through many decades? Prof. James Linn of Chicago Univer- sity?speaking metaphorically of uni- versities and small colleges as the de- partment stores and gift shops respec- tively of American culture, described Dartmouth as "the great American col- lege; vivid; the one Rubens in our col- lection." While few today might share the belief of Eleazer Wheelock that Dartmouth's location "was not determined by any private interest or party on earth, but the Redeemer's," none could deny the beauty of her physical setting in the New Hampshire hills, nor the extraordinary aptness in context of her venerable motto, Vox clamantis in deserto: "A voice crying in the wilderness." In a day when the humane and civilizing func- tions of our colleges and universities seem threatened, these words, spoken by President Hopkins some 3 decades ago have special pertinence: Ill nature, intellectual arrogance, and churlish intolerance are but sorry concom- itants of any movement, but they are sin- gularly out of place and tragically harmful in association with any movement which de- sires to be recognized as liberal. For two centuries, Dartmouth has served this Nation and the larger human community as a voice in the wilderness, calling men to heed those counsels of reason, tolerance, and understanding without which civilization itself will surely perish. Never was her mission more needed nor her message more timely. LAW AND ORDER: A MORAL RESPONSIBILITY HON. HERMAN T. SCHNEEBELI OF PENNSYLVANIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, May 7, 1969 Mr. SCHNEEBELL Mr. Speaker, it gives me great pleasure to announce that the winner of the Pennsylvania Ameri- can Legion's annual essay contest is Miss Debbie Skiba of 4859 Londonderry Road, Harrisburg, who wrote on "Law and Order: A Moral Responsibility." Debbie is a member of the National Honor Society and editor of her school paper. She will be awarded a $250 schol- arship and a trophy at the American Legion's State convention on July 17. Although she is quite talented in the literary field, Debbie is planning her future career in medicine. Her achieve- ments to date point to a promising future. It is gratifying to know that young people of Debbie's caliber actually make up the majority of our youth and if this were not so we would be living in a state of anarchy with no hope for the future. The leaders of tomorrow will come from today's youth and I strongly feel they should be given every encouragement possible, rather than relegate their ac- complishments to the back pages of the newspapers. In her essay, Debbie has projected some very astute observations about the turmoil and dissension, given so much attention these days. She has expressed wisdom beyond her years and her ad- monitions are thought provoking. Congratulations, Debbie, on a job well done. THE DECISION OF THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY REGARDING THE "PUEBLO" INCIDENT HON. NICK GALIFIANAKIS OF NORTH CAROLINA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, May 7, 1969 Mr. GALIFIANAKIS. Mr. Speaker, I rise to comment on the announcement made yesterday by the Secretary of the Navy, the Honorable John H. Chafee. I am referring to the Secretary's decision not to try or otherwise punish anyone involved in the seizure last year by North Korea of the U.S.S. Pueblo. The Secretary carefully reviewed the findings and recommendations of the court of inquiry, of the Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet, and of the Chief of Naval Operations. He then reached his own decision that all had suffered enough, that there will be nei- ther trial nor punishment for the Pueblo crew, their commanding officer, Comdr. Lloyd Bucher, nor any of his su- periors in the chain of command. The Secretary made this decision even though it amounted to overruling some of the recommendations made by each of the lower reviewing authorities. But, Mr. Speaker, the basis for Secretary Chafee's decision is probably of greater signifi- cance than the decision itself. I should like to quote from his statement of yes- terday: The major factor which led to the Pueblo's lonely confrontation by unanticipatecily bold and hostile forces was the sudden collapse of a premise which had been assumed at every level of responsibility and upon which every other aspect of the mission had been based?. freedom of the high seas. At that particular point in history, the common confidence in the historic Inviolability of a sovereign ship on the high seas in peacetime was shown to have been misplaced. The consequences must in fairness be borne by all, rather than by one or two individuals whom circumstances had placed closer to the crucial event. Mr. Speaker, I believe Secretary Chafee's decision was eminently correct. I also believe that his reasoning is sound and well founded. But, certainly, Mr. Speaker, we must be able to derive some indirect benefit from his shattering and tragic incident. The disregard of some and the lack of other international treaties has led virtu- ally every coastal nation to the point of unilaterally establishing its own bound- aries for territorial waters. As is well Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 E 3726 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? Extensions of Remarks May 7, 1969 known to all Members of Congress, the Pueblo has not been the only American ship recently involved in seizures 3y for- eign nations well beyond the ter itorial limits recognized by this country. As an essential concomitant t World peace is certainly mutually este fished and uniformly recognized intern tonal maritime boundaries. And I submit that the longer the family of nations waits to address this growing problem, the nore difficult it will be to resolve. Therefore, Mr. Speaker, I am ipday Introducing a resolution oxpressiifig the sense of this Congress that the Pr sent lof the United States consider anPr riate steps leading to the convening of ti in- ternational conference for the p rpose of establishing a uniformly reco razed boundary for the territorial seas ot all coastal nations. I sincerely hope that all of m col- leagues who agree that this step i Seri- ously needed without delay will jo ri me by introducing similar resolutions ank1 by supporting an effort to obtain early pdop- tion of this resolution by the Congress. REMARKS OF DEPUTY DIRECOR HARTHON L. BILL, NATI NAL , PARK SERVICE, AT DEDICA ON , OF RESTORED SUPREME C LIRT ROOM, INDEPENDENCE HALL, PHILADELPHIA, PA? APRIL 28, 1969 HON. JAMES A. BYRNE or asasasesaavatua IN THE HOUSE OF REPESgNTATflTS Wednesday, May 7, 1969 Mr. BYRNE of Pennsylvania. Ur. Speaker, on April 28, as a member o the National Historical Park Advisory ? em- ission, I had the honor of attend On pressive ceremony in Philadel siia w en the restored Supreme Court oom was dedicated at Independence Ha l' in Independence National Historical k. Oh this important occasion the de Tidy director of the National Park Service the Honorable Harthon L. Bill, ;.;ave the fel- lowing eloquent address, which I tad like to bring to the attention of my Icei- leagues : REMARKS OF DEPUTY DIRECTOR HARTH041 L. laILL, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE AT EDI- CATION OF RESTORED SUPREME COIIRT ROCiA2, INDEPENDENCE HALL, INDEPENDENCE ' NA- TIONAL HISTORICAL PARK, PHILADEL PA., APRIL 28, 1969 in his epitaph which Ben Franklin - poSed?at a relative early age--he referr to hlinself as "Benjamin Frantlin, Prin er," One of the greatest men this nation lies prOduced, Franklin's list of aeloievemen in so many diverse fields reflects the scope depth of his mind. nd yet, throughout his Ring and di4lli gu shed career, he retained his interest in the craft of printing, installing a private pss in his Paris residence and reporting bac to America on new printing methods which he en ountered in Europe. , or a number of reasons, the careeeS of Franklin seems to me to epitomize our lila-- poses in gathering here today. Franklin was first a craftsnian, who never lost his love for the work of has skilled hones. And part of our appreciation today shotild go to the many skilled craftsmen whose cern- bined talents have set a stage in this room which will help us recall, vividly, the events of a dramatic era of our history. Through them, we see this courtroom today much as it looked when the Supreme Court of the United States cams here to meet in 1791. Whether as scientist, philosopher, diplo- mat, or printer, Franklin pursued excellence. Much is being written these days about the quest for excellence, and sometimes you get the idea that if one were to put his mind to it, he too could achieve excellence. Unfortunately, to pursue excellence cans for a degree of devotion a Da patience which Franklin had, but which is seldom encoun- tered. John Gardner, you will recall, turned a memorable phrase a few years ago when he declared that we much recognize there can be excellence or shoddiness in every line of human endeavor, and that we must honor excellence, however humble the activity, and scorn shoddiness, however exalted the activi- ity. Or, Gardner wryly observed, we could end up as a society with neither plumbing nor theories holding water. Franklin has a relevance, also, because he was a consequential participant in many of the events which took place in Independence Hall. The National Park Service has, as you know, uncovered pertions of the foundation of Franklin's home, and I have appointed a special committee ao recommend how best the Franklin Court remains can convey to park visitors the contribution of Franklin. Before we can decide, for example, whether or not to reconstruct Franklin's home, we must answer the creation, "why"? Why, indeed, do we painstakingly restore historic buildings such as Independence Hall, or entire districts such as Society Hill? The Colonists, who declared their indepen- dence here, fought the Revolutionary war in pursuit of an idea, a concept best expressed by Christopher Gadsden, that "There ought to be no more New England men, no New Yorkers ? . . but all of us Americans." We have been engaged in a search for na- tional identity ever since the arrival of the first settlers, by which time Shakespeare had already portrayed the British character. Franklin himself had begun to note "Amer- ican Traits," during the Revolution. It is in the preservation of the important sites of our cultural heritage that we help our children to appreciate their Identity as Americans. But there is, perhaps, an even more critical reason for the saving of historic buildings and urban districts. The preservation of a great historic monument is one thing. The integration of such a project into a major effort to improve the quality of the urban environment and to enhance the life of each citizen is quite another. This, perhaps, is one of the greatest contributions of Indepen- dence National Historical Park. Not too long ago, when most Americans lived in rural areas, conservation, was con- cerned almost completely with preserving natural resources and landscapes. Today, when nearly three out of four Amer- icans live in cities, the most effective conser- vation work Is being done in urban areas, by organizations such as the Old Philadelphia Corporation, the Philadelphia Redevelopment Authority, and your City Planning Commis- sion. Arnold Toynbee reduced his whole theory of history to a basic equation: How has this come out of that? The answer to this question should deter- mine what this natio:a will do to Celebrate the 200th anniversary of its founding here in Philadelphia in 1976. What has truly been the flowering of the spirit .of the American Revo- lution? A few years from now, in 1972, the National Park Service will celebrate the 100th anniver- sary of the establishment of Yellowstone as the world's first national park. We, too, must answer the question: How has a National Park System of 275 separate areas come out of the Yellowstone idea? It has evolved in response to the needs of people. It is a long way from busy Chestnut Street in Philadelphia to the wilderness back country of Yellowstone, but both are part of the single fabric of our natural and cultural Inheritance. And in a world of change, na- tional parks must maintain their relevancy to the needs of the nation, The completion of this Supreme Court Chamber of Independence Hall is another milestone in fulfilling the dream of men such as Judge Lewis for the Independence Square group of buildings which served as the seat of the Legislative and Executive Branches of our Federal Government, As funds become available, we hope to complete the second floor of Independence Hall so that concerts and other social activities, once a part of the life of the city, can be resumed, I am delighted that the Chairman of the Independence National Historical Park Ad- visory Commission, Arthur Kauffman, is pro- viding the leadership for a fund raising drive to reconstruct the Graff House, where Thomas Jefferson wrote the draft of the Dec- laration of Independence. As you know, the Federal Government has agreed to provide matching funds. We live in a highly technical age which threatens to submerge the Individual, and to root out or cover over the elements of beauty and tradition in our lives. The face of America, the nature of the environment in which we live, these are the standards by which historians at the 300th anniversary of the Declaration of Independ- ence will rightly judge us. Changes in our lives and in the face of our cities and our countryside are inevitable. But, let such change reflect the consensus of a deeply concerned and widely informed nation. GENE KINNALY HON. DOMINICK V. DANIELS 05' NEW JERSEY IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 6, 1969 Mr. DANIELS of New Jersey. Mr. Speaker, it is with great sorrow that I learned of the passing of Eugene T. Kinnaly, administrative assistant to the Speaker of the House, and one of the finest men who has ever served the Con- gress of the United States. A kindly and modest man who was as completely loyal to Speaker MCCORMACK as it is possible for any man to be, "Gene" Kinnaly was the very model of a congressional assistant. Like Speaker MeCosmacw, he was a native of South Boston, a peninsula which juts out into Boston Harbor and is one of this Nation's greatest incuba- tors for public servants. Fifty years ago last summer, he came to Washington to serve as the right hand of the late Congressman James Ambrose Gallivan who then represented the Ninth Massachusetts District. He served with Mr. Gallivan until the latter's death in 1928 and such was his own popularity that there were many in South Boston and Dorchester who urged him to seek election to Congress in his own right. It is a matter of history that instead of seeking elected public office, he of- fered his support to a young attorney Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 11 3384 Approved For 14441Niekratitida,: tacPBP7-t1504441k000300150001_8May 6, 1969 sponse of "All right, sir," Brother Pea- cock would always have a rejoinder, "My, what a handsome jacket you have on," and the like, and so it always went on each Sunday morning. You can see why it is that we love Carl Peacock. To know him is to trust him and respect him?as a man, as a teacher, and as a minister. He demonstrates by Biblical example, the ministry he teaches and preaches. Henry Adams once said: A teacher affects eternity. He can never tell where his influence stops. Certainly this is true of the Great Teacher. It is also true of those who follow in His footsteps. THE NEED FOR AN INCREASE IN SOCIAL SECURITY THIS YEAR (Mr. VANIK asked and was given per- mission to address the House for 1 min- ute and to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. VANIK. Mr. Speaker-, as a Mem- ber of the 91st Congress, as a member of the Ways and Means Committee, and as a member of the Democratic caucus, I expect to use every strength I can mus- ter to ensure action this year on an ade- quate increase in social security bene- fits. The critical inflation-created needs of our elderly retired must be considered in this session of Congress. The will of the majority of Congress to meet these crit- ical needs must not be suppressed. Our elderly retired should not be al- lowed to become the scapegoat for an inflationary condition which engulfs all segments of our e'conomy. They must not be left out. Next year is too late to prevent mil- lions of our elderly retired to fall from levels of self-sufficiency to despair and poverty. The inflationary impact of the last 2 years has driven several millions of our senior citizens below poverty levels of subsistence. (Mr. MADDEN asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend his remarks and to include extraneous matter.) [Mr. MADDEN addressed the House. His remarks will appear hereafter in the Extensions of Remarks.] MR. EUGENE T. KINNALY?A GRA- CIOUS MAN, A KNOWLEDGEABLE ADMINISTRATOR (Mr. PEPPER asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend his remarks and include extraneous matter.) Mr. PEPPER. Mr. Speaker, it is a sad occasion today in which I join with my colleagues in expressing my sincere sense of sorrow for your loss of an able assist- ant and a devoted friend, Mr. Eugene T. Kinnaly. The only solace to come from the passing of a trusted and loyal ad- viser is through the remembrance of as- sociation. I am mindful that the 41 years in which Gene Kinnaly served yourself and this House faithfully will remain with is forever. He was a gracious man and a knowledgeable administrator. More qualities than these you cannot ask. I share your loss. A COMPARISON OF MODERNIZATION OF RAILROAD SYSTEMS (Mr. WEICKER asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. WEICKER. Mr. Speaker, it was interesting to see a recent news release from the World Bank and the Interna- tional Development Association an- nouncing a $17 million loan for the mod- ernization of the Tunisian railroad sys- tem. Since our total share of World Bank-IDA funds is about 33.8 percent, it would seem that our contribution toward improvement of Tunisia's rail- roads is on the order of $5,670,000. Of course I am delighted to hear that this fine north African country will soon have the most modern of transportation facilities, but it does seem ironic that while the desert will flower, commuters in Connecticut and New York are but crushed petals doing battle to gain Fed- eral assistance for modernization of rail facilities. Mass transit in the Northeast is a na- tional disgrace. I wonder if Connecticut could apply to the World Bank for a railroad modernization grant. THE SUPREME COURT QUESTION (Mr. ANDERSON of Illinois asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. ANDERSON of Illinois. Mr. Speak- er, the shocking disclosures this week re- garding a member of the U.S. Supreme Court have already stimulated great pub- lic controversy. I certainly have no desire to use this incident as a weapon with which to bludgeon the entire Court for its actions of the past, present, or future. It seems to me that the really funda- mental question is whether we will take any action or attempt any action to prevent a recurrence of such incidents. What is truly sad in the aftermath of the Fortas affair is that doubts inevitably have crept in and been created in the mind of the public as to the integrity of the judicial process itself. This is some- thing that far transcends partisanship or even the reputation of any single member of that Court. It is doubly tragic because it must be viewed in the context of the crisis of our times, which is the growing disrespect for law and contempt on the part of some for our basic insti- tutions. Therefore I am today introduc- ing legislation which would have the ef- fect of repealing the tax-exempt status of any foundation which makes or offers to make a payment of any kind or de- scription either under the guise of hon- orariums, grants, payment of trips, re- tainers, fees, and so forth, to any public official either at the Federal or at the State level or to any member of the courts, either Federal or State courts, while such public official is in office, or which makes any such payments to a Federal or State official during the 2- year period following his retirement from such public office or position on our courts. It seems to me that the public expects some affirmative action from the Con- gress and that this is one direction in which we can and should move. fat SECRETARY OF NAVY DECISION ON "PUEBLO" AFFAIR ger?.????????? (Mr. MAYNE asked and was given per- mission to address the House for 1 min- ute, to revise and extend his remarks and include extraneous matter.) Mr. MAYNE. Mr. Speaker, as a Navy veteran of World War II, I have followed the Pueblo affair very closely and read this morning's statement by Secretary of the Navy Chafee with great interest. I concur with the Secretary's conclu- sion that no useful purpose would be served by further legal proceedings against the personnel of the Pueblo, either individually or collectively. The facts surrounding the loss of the Pueblo have been fully aired, and our principal concern should be to make sure that such a tragedy is not repeated. The court of inquiry was properly convened, and should be commended for proceeding in a thoroughgoing yet dignified manner, leaving no stone unturned to insure a complete historical record. However, I agree with the Secretary of the Navy that to carry out the court's recommendations as to punishment would merely protract and inflame this unfortunate chapter in our otherwise proud naval history. ? JUSTICE SHOULD ACT NOW (Mr. GROSS asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend his re- marks and include extraneous matter.) Mr. GROSS. Mr. Speaker, according to the newspapers, Louis Wolfson, whose family foundation gave Associate Su- preme Court Justice Abe Fortes $20,000, which Fortes nursed for 11 months be- fore returning, has made some state- ments which ought to be of prime con- cern to the U.S. Department of Justice. According to the Washington Post, Wolfson, only days before beginning a 1-year Federal prison sentence for his financial manipulations, alleged that his Federal prosecution had been full of "shocking double standards and injus- tices," and that he had turned down high-level offers of political assistance. The Wall Street Journal says: If Louis Wolfson is to be believed, he could have obtained a Presidential pardon last December, sparing him the anguish of a one-year jail sentence . . . for the illegal sale of stock. According to the Journal: Through political connections, the mil- lionnaire industrialist says he could have secured a pardon from President Johnson if he had asked for it. Wolfson says he re- ceived this assurance "from somebody who is as close as anybody could be" to Mr. Johnson. I trust, Mr. Speaker, that the Justice Department will move immediately to answer the charge that it is guilty of "shocking double standards and injus- Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 May 6, 1969 Approved FocOttomg8/041)Mzigi6189211/(?91t4R000300150001-8 about which he will have to suffer long. Mr. McCORMACK. Mr. Speaker, I ap- But I want our Speaker to know that preciate the very thoughtful remarks of those of us who knew Gene Kinnaly loved my distinguished friend, the gentleman him, Oven as our Speaker loved him, be- from Texas. cause he was selected by the Speaker and Mr. BOLAND. Mr. Speaker, it was very he lled that confidence of the sad to hear this morning of the death Speaker with a distinction seldont of your dear friend and long-time ad- equaled and which he never failed. ministrative assistant, Eugene Kinnaly, I eXtend the sympathies of Mrs. RiverS who so competently served his congres- and myself to the family of Gene Kin sional district, the Comm9gwealth of naly, and also to our beloved Speaker. Massachusetts and the--Irgion for more Mr 4 McCORMACK. Mr. Speaker, I than a half ceMff on Capitol Hill. value' very much the thoughtful remark a I know w a tremendous loss this is of mY distinguished friend from South for you, . Speaker, and for your be- Carolina. loved w e; because Gene Kinnaly was Mr! Speaker, I now yield to the gentle not o your loyal and efficient assist- man from Georgia, (Mr. FLYNT). ant,teut a warm and constant compan- Mr, FLYNT. Mr. Speaker, I would like ion you and Mrs. McCormack. to associate myself with the remarks CiOne Kinnaly loved the House of Rep- that have been made on the occasion of resdntatives and Capitol Hill where he the death of the administrative assist. had labored for 51 years. He first came ant ta the Speaker of the House of Rep, here in 1918 as secretary to the then resentatives, Mr. Eugene T. IC onaly. Congcressman James A. Gallivan, and re- Gene Kinnaly served the gentleman main here with you after Mr. Gal- e% from Massachusetts as a Member and in van's th in 1928. the capacity as administrative assistant Over is long period of years, Gene to the majority leader, and as adminis. Kinn-sly ekned the liking, respect, and trative assistant to the Speaker of the the admiratran of his friends and asso- Hous of Representatives, long and well, elates on Capital Hill and in the execu- Throitigh serving the Speaker he alsd tive departments downtown. His loyalty, served all the Members of this body and tact, warmth, poi ia arid dedication will the House of Representatives, long be remembered., Mi. Speaker, I share the grief and A brilliant man, Gehe was remarkably sense' of sadness expressed by the gent well versed In all matbe,rs touching on tleman from Massachusetts, our beloved Government and polities.Ve was a mem- Speler, (Mr. McCoamAcx). ber of the Massachusetts 'bar, and was Mr McCORMACK. Mr. Speaker, / admitted to practice before Ne Federal value very much the very thoughtful re-4 courts and the U.S. Supreme urt. markS of my distinguished friend front Gene Kinnaly had a breadt of ex- Georgia. perience and depth of understanding of I row yield to the gentleman froth the problems of constituents and' col- Oklahoma (Mr. EmumrsoN). leagues, of his beloved city of BoNn, Mr EDMONDSON. Mr. Speaker, I joi4 and of the Commonwealth of Massachtk- my eolleagues in extending our dee setts. At his fingertips was a wealth cr4 sympathy to you and to your Iamily an4 = knowledge about what makes Washing- to the many friends and loved ones o ton run and the intricacies of dealing GenelKinnally. with Federal agencies. He had a genius Fran my first visit in your office, M1 for getting things done which endeared Speaker, and my first experience with hi him to everyone beset by the complexi- kindness and with his consideration, I ties of Government. have treasured the relationship that I Every visitor to the Soeaker's office was had lth this fine man. I know he wa4 greeted by Gene with the same friendly a maii of great heart and a man of coin smile and warm welcome. I never kn.e passi n and of great understanding? him to turn away anybody who had man Who accepted responsibility and me problem. He listened patiently and his rdsponsibilities bravely and tireless very manner gave quiet assurance t at ly. I 1now how much of a role he playe every effort was being made to anjwer In th4 important business of the Affic I each request, resolve each issue, o solve of th Speaker of the House of Represen each problem. tativ s, and I join my colleagues in Through the years Gene Ki aly was extending our deepest sympathy to all dependable, trustworthy, smote, always who loved him, willing to lend a hand to tj new Mem- Mr. McCORMACK. Mr. Speaker, I ap bers of the Congress, a always quick preciate very much the thoughtful re- to offer his time, talesIS and encourage- mark, of my distinguished friend, the melt in behalf df at5ers. gentl man from Oklahoma. Mr. Speaker, it was a great privilege I y L eld to the gentleman from Texas and a pleasure to have known and (Mr. oakars). worked with Gene Kimaly. He was a Mr. ROBERTS. Mr. Speaker, I ap- devoutly religious mai, who attended preciate the distinguished Speaker of the daily morning Mass and strolled away House yielding. from the busy clamor of the Speaker's office each noontime for private prayer In nearby Saint Peter's Church on Capitol Hill. Mr.' Speaker, I first met Gene Kinnal when 1 came here in 1940 with Speake Rayburn and my first instructions wer to see Gene Kinnaly and let him tell mel Although we shall miss him and we what II ought to be doing for Speaker' mourn his death, Gene has gone to join Rayburn. his beloved wife, Alice Louise?Mulhol- He was my friend and close associate land?Kinnaly, who was separated from during all these years. I deeply appreciate him by death in 1948. the cantributions he made to this coun- Mr. DONOHUE. Mr. Speaker, like all try, and particularly to the Speaker of of my colleagues here, I was deeply the Hause of Representatives, grieved to learn of the sudden passing of H 3383 that great, good, and kind gentleman, Eugene T. Kinnaly, who spent some 50 years in dedicated service to his country and to the U.S. House of Representatives. For some 40 of these 50 years, he was the chief assistant to our beloved Speak- er, and if ever there was a supremely capable, intensely loyal, and devotedly patriotic congressional assistant, it was Eugene Kinnally. To tb.e great majority of us, he was affectionately known as "Gene." He personified the highest traditions and ideals of patriotic service; his superior talents, his modest personality, his kindly nature and cooperative disposition have become a legend on Capitol Hill. He has left, for all of us to follow, an inspiring example of honor and excel- lence in memorable service to his coun- try and his fellow man. No man can do more and each of us should strive to do as much. We pray that the Lord will grant him eternal peace. Mr. MONAGAN. Mr. Speaker, I was shocked to learn of the death of Gene Kinnaly and I am proud to join with my colleagues in paying tribute to this out- standing public servant. ... I have known Gene since coming to the Congress and I always found him to be knowledgeable, resourceful, and above all cooperative. He was not only a strong right arm to our Speaker in his congres- sional career of 41 years, having also served Mr. MCCORMACK'S predecessor for 11 years, but he also rose to the rank of personal and affectionate friendship and I commiserate with the Speaker in the knowledge that Gene's passing is a per- sonal loss to him much more than a pro- fessional one. There is one other facet of Gene's character which bears reference. In a world which is increasingly dominated by material considerations and regard fhr wealth and temporary things, Gene re- tained the religious devotion unfortu- nately more characteristic of another day. I have often seen him at noontime making his way from the Capitol to near- by St. Peter's church where he paused each day in the midst of his busy load to attend a service of divine worship. This then was the friendly, devoted, and saintly man whom we allremember with such affection. His passitig is a loss not only to the Speaker and his family, but to the House of Representatives itself. REV. CARL PEACOCK, PH. M. (Mr. BRINKLEY asked and was given permission to address he House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. BRINKLEY. Mr. Speaker, may I express the appreciation of the House to our visiting Chaplain, Rev. Carl Pea- cock, Th. M. He serves at Edgewood Bap- tist Church in Columbus, Ga., and is my friend, as well as my pester, there. His love for people dominates his life and is the pilot for his ministry. When I think of him, the picture which comes to my mind most clearly is of him stand- ing in front of the Sunday school build- ing and leaning over to shake hands with my 8-year-old perpetual motion ma- chine, Freddie, and saying on a man- to-man basis, "How are you today, Freddie?" And to Fred's standard re- Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 S3252 Approved For Reeaedipaln9A:LCIMmiBOOS3 E6?1110N300150001-8. March 26, 1969 all age groups in both the fatal and non- fatal accident categories. Their rate was only one-third that of the rest of the licensed drivers. In rilinois, a high-population State, not only do senior drivers enjoy the low- est accident involvement rate, but their accident propensities are less than half those of the youngest age group, and 12 percent better than that of the next best group. Indiana's senior drivers have the low- est frequency of accidents of all age groups; Kentucky's senior motorists boast the best accident avoidance records of all age groups, both with respect to the "all accident" category and to injury or fatality-producing collisions; Senior drivers in Maine have propor- tionately fewer accidents than other age groups; In Maryland, senior drivers excelled all other motorists as the most accident- free drivers; Minnesota, where senior citizens rep- resented 12.28 percent of the driving public?the highest proportion of any State surveyed?they are on record with the best accident avoidance performance of any age group in the State; also, the safety record of these senior drivers ranked third best among the 31 jurisdic- tions analyzed, after Washington, D.C., and New York; Montana's senior drivers enjoy the lowest accident involvement rate among that State's motoring public; Senior drivers lead New Jersey's safety parade both with regard to "all accidents" and injury-accidents; they average about the same as all other drivers with regard to fatal crashes; The senior 8.8 percent of New York's drivers boast the second best accident avoidance record among the 31 jurisdic- tions studied; In Ohio, another highly populated State, senior drivers outranked others in regard to accident avoidance; Oklahoma's senior drivers ranked tops among the six age categories with regard to involvement in accidents; Senior drivers ranked most favorably In Oregon both as to "all accidents" and Injury-producing accidents; South Carolina's senior drivers are Involved in proportionately fewer acci- dents than any other age groups in the State. Virginia senior motorists rank tops in accident avoidance among the State's drivers; Washington senior motorists enjoy the finest accident avoidance record among all Washington drivers, Finesilver noted that these findings "parallel and con- firm" an earlier noteworthy study, the Crancer report, on older motorists in Washington State. Wisconsin's senior citizens also rank lowest in accident involvement among the State's six age groups. The District of Columbia study shows that there is a direct correlation between an increase in age and a decrease of responsibility for accidents. ,The highest accident involvement in the District of Columbia is with the teenagers-78 out of every 1,000 are responsible for an accident. The midd/eage driver ranks medium in accident involvement-50 out of every 1,000; and the sein,or driver enjoys the lowest accident responsibility factor-31 out of every 1,000. These remarkable findings confirm that the older driver is certainly not the hazard some would portray him. Quite the contrary, drivers past age 65 repre- sent a rational, responsible, and reliable segment of the motoring public. Insur- ance practices ought to reflect that fact. The Washington Evening Star pub- lished a report of the University of Den- ver study at the time it was released. I ask unanimous consent that the article be printed in the RECORD as a vivid re- minder of the excellent safety marks earned by the Nation's older drivers. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: DRIVERS OVER 65 RATED AMONG SAFEST ON ROAD ? DENVER?Motorists over 65?long a scape- goat in analysis of the nation's spiraling ac- cident ratc actually are among the safest drivers on the road, a University of Denver study showed yesterday. The study, covering 31 states in all re- gions of the country, showed senior drivers averaged 37 percent fewer accidents than the proportion of accidents to numbers of driv- ers would indicate. Although senior drivers represented 7.4 per- cent of all drivers in the states surveyed, they were involved in only 4.8 percent of the accidents. Denver fist. Judge Sherman G. Finesilver, head of the study team said it "will be piv- otal in refuting current popular thinking about older drivers." Senior drivers averaged the lowest of all age groups in frequency of injury-producing accidents. Older motorists averaged 40 per- cent below their proportionate share of the driving population. Senior drivers also averaged slightly less fatal accidents?about 7 percent?than their proportion would dictate. Finesilver said it was possible the difference in fatal accidents was less surprising because older persons are less able to recover from injuries. Commissioner William Mechill of the Fed- eral Administration on Aging said he hoped the study will eliminate misconceptions about licensing and insuring senior drivers. "I hope that it will lead to a cessation of arbitrary practices and attitudes directed to older drivers and ultimately create fairer, more enlightened practices in licensing and insuring of older drivers," Bechill said. The study was financed by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. SMOG CONTROL IN CALIFORNIA Mr. MURPHY. Mr. President, on March 17 the Oakland Tribune did an editorial urging the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to grant to the State of California a waiver which is required under my amendment to the Air Quality Act of 1967, unless the Sec- retary proves that the California stand- ards are not technologically and econom- ically feasible. I submitted a statement to the Depart- ment urging that the complete waiver as requested by the State of California to implement the State's pure air act of 1968 be granted. Mr. President, because of the impor- tance of this issue, I ask unanimous con- sent that this editorial be printed in the RECORD. ? There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: SMOG CONTROL STANDARDS The Federal Government assumed primary jurisdiction for establishing and enforcing automobile smog control standards when Congress passed the Federal Air Quality Act of 1967. Because California's scheduled standards were stricter and were aimed at a more crit- ical smog problem than exists elsewhere, Sen. George Murphy secured passage of an amendment authorizing the granting of a waiver for this state. The Federal Government is required to grant the waiver unless the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare determines that California's proposed standards are not necessary and are not technologically and economically feasible. A series of public hearings have been held on California's request for the waiver. When these formalities are concluded and when the testimony presented is fairly evaluated, we trust that California's request will be granted. The Murphy amendinent was passed be- cause Congress acknowledged that the spe- cial conditions existing in California might require tougher state smog control stand- ards than those incorporated in federal reg- ulations. The State must and should have the authority to establish its own air pollu- tion standards so long as they do not fall below the federal minimums. THE "PUEBLO" INCIDENT?GEN- ERAL McKEE DOES ANSWER Mr. HANSEN. Mr. President, on March 4, 1969, I referred to views of the distinguished and able Senator from Colorado (Mr. Dommicx) which sug- gested publicly raising some pertinent questions regarding the Pueblo incident. It was suggested that the Government respond to these questions, and there has been some response in the testimony of Lt. Gen. Seth J. McKee, U.S. Air Force Assistant Vice Chief of Staff, formerly commander of the U.S. 5th Air Force at the time of the Pueblo incident. Also on March 4, 1969, the Senate gave its unanimous consent that an editorial entitled "Let the Senate Investigate" from the Cheyenne, Wyo., State Tribune of January 25, 1969, be printed in the RECORD. The editorial noted that a Long Island newspaper, Newsday, had alleged General McKee made a decision not to send Air Force fighters to assist the Pueblo. The Cheyenne newspaper sug- gested that General McKee be afforded the opportunity to testify publicly on what took place. The House Committee on Armed Serv- ices Special Subcommittee To Inquire Into the Pueblo Incident gave General McKee that opportunity March 20, 1969. General McKee's testimony shows he did, in fact, order Air Force fighter air- craft to assist the Pueblo, but that be- cause of distance involved the aircraft were unable to reach the Pueblo before darkness. Since questions were raised earlier as to whether General McKee did issue proper orders in regard to the Pueblo incident, I ask unanimous consent that his statement before the House subcom- mittee be entered here in the RECORD. Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Marc111, 26, 1969 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE On the heels of this pronouncement came an arrangement for the sale of lamb to U.S. military commissaries abroad, and this ef- fort may be extended to the Antarctic and U.S. baSes there. This could be the time for sheepmen in the UMited States to discuss some sort of an agreement. PROPOSED REREFERRAL QF SUB- MERGED LANDS BIM Mr. JACKSON. Mr, President, on Thursday, March 20, the distinguished junior Senator from Texas (Mr, TOWER) introduced a bill to amend the Sub- merged Lands Act with respect to the seaward boundary of certain States. This measure was assigned the number S. 1619, and was referred to tbe Com- mittee on the Judiciary. It will be recalled that the Interior Committee was the unit of the Senate to which in 1953 was referred the measure that fOrmed the basis of the Submerged Lands Act which S. 1619 would amend., This Measure was Senate Joint Resoluf tion 13, 83d Congress, and it was spo - Bored by the able Senior Senator fr m Florida (Mr. HOLLAND), for himself nd 39 Senators from both sides of the 4sle. Senate Joint Resolution 13 waatbe 1 test in a long series of bills dealing with the so-called, but miscalled, "tidela ds" issue. Under the acting chairmanship of the Senater Guy Cordon, of Oregon, the In- terior Committee held hearings on the Holland bill as it had on previous sub- merged lands bills in the 81st and 82d Congresses. Some 13 days of hearings were held, beginning on February 16, 1953, and concluding on March 4. The committee met in executive session for 4 days to work out amendments to the resolution; it was reported out with minority views, and the text of Senate Joint Resolution 13, as amended by the Interior Committee, was passed by the Senate on May 5, 1953. The House ac- cepted the Senate amendment, and the measure was signed by President Eisen- hower on May 22, 1953, to become Pub- lic Law 31 of the 83d Congress. I cit the details of the legislative his- tory on.]. in y to establish that at least three Congresses measures in the Senate respecting the submerged lands have be en referred to the Interior Committee, and it was the text, substantially, of the Interior Committee's bill that became the law that S. 1619 of this Congress would amend. As the Members of the Senate know, the Submerged Lands Act was and is part of a le islative package, so to speak, with the Otter Continental Shelf Lands Act. The firmer deals with the lands inside the sea boundaries of the States, which were clearly established for the first time by the Submerged Lands Act. The other, the 0 ter Continental Shelf Lands Act, deals vith the lands beyond the States' sea bo ndaries. Significantly, when the very able jun- ior Senator from California (Mr. CRANS- Tax) introduced on February 23, 1969, his bill, S. 1219, which concerns opera- tions inder the Outer Shelf Act, this measure was, properly, referred to the Interior Committee. Now, I am aware that the Legislative Reorganization Act of 11)48 provides that proposed legislation affecting "State and Territorial boundary lines" shall be re- ferred to the Judiciary Committee. How- ever, Mr. President, in view of the long and clear history of referral of submerged lands legislation to the Interior Commit- tee, I submit that the 4uoted provision means, or certainly has come to mean, boundary-line problems between a State or a territory and another ter- ritory?not between a,?.rtte or territory and the Govemmfnt of the United States. Therefore,1?. President, in view of the legislative Afistory and the precedents, when S. _1'619 is called up I shall move that it, be re-referred to the Committee on Inferior and Insular Affairs for con- sideration. THE PRESIDENT'S DECISION ON THE ABM SYSTEM Mr. MURPHY. Mr. President, in an- nouncing his decision on the anti-ballis- tic-missile system, President Nixon once again displayed those qualities of lead- ership which have made the beginning of his administration such an outstand- ing success. It is heartening to see the favorable re- sponse which his studied and intelligent approach to the complexities of the anti- bItiliatimissile decision has brought from the ,----eple.,(24such example is an editorial in the March-11- tional Ob- server and I ask unanimous coiTeaUt this article be printed :n the RECORD. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: THE VERDICT ON ABM ?A SDVIET TEMPTATION? The President's decision on missile de- fenses must be viewed in psychological as well as military terms. As such, the decision made good sense, and could ultimately do much to slow down the arms race. The most vocal critics of the decision won't see it that way. They will see it simply as a triumph of the "military-Ladustrial complex" over those who would strive for arms-limita- tion agreements with the Soviet Union. But aiay talk of conferring with the Russians about arms or anything ease requires a good measure of guesswork about what the Rus- sians really intend. So any decision on an antiballistic-missile (ABM) system?even a decision to defer a decision?would be a gam- ble. Mr. Nixon has made the best gamble. First of all, Mr. Nixon's decision is less likely to provoke the Soviets than would a decision to push ahead with the Sentinel 'system. A decision to protect the cities, if that were truly possible, could be interpreted by the Russians as a way to blunt a Soviet retaliatory attack against the American popu- lation after a U.S. first strike. Mr. Nixon's decision also recognizes a brutal but apparently unavoidable fact. It Is now not possible to provide adequate pro- tection for the American ,aopulation against Soviet missiles. The best defense, the Presi- dent has concluded, remains the nation's second-strike capability?the ability of this country to inflict unacceptable losses on the Soviet Union, or any other nation, should that nation decide to launah nuclear missiles against the United States The United States and Russia each have the capability to destroy each other many times over. This raises a good question: Is a defense system really neaessary to protect S 3251 American offensive missiles, or aren't there already enough?or soon to he enough? land-based and seaborne missiles available to survive any first strike by Russia or anybody else? Perhaps there are. But the arms race be- ing what it is, the Soviet Union might easily be tempted to increase its offensive arsenal even more, with the goal of developing an attack that could destroy much of the Amer- ican offensive arsenal. A defense system to protect U.S. long-range missiles could dis- courage such a step-up in arms competition. The Nixon decision also means that the United States will go into any arms talks with Russia having made a determination to employ a missile defense. This certainly gives this country a better bargaining position than it would have had had Mr. Nixon de- cided against any deployment, or decided to delay a decision on deployment. A de- cision to delay would leave great doubt in Soviet minds about American intentions. Mx. Nixon's decision has left the next move in the quest for weapons control up to the Russians. His statement last week was conciliatory, and left plenty of openings for the Soviets if they truly wish to slow down or stop the arms race. OLDER DRIVERS RANKED HIGH IN DRIVER SAFETY Mr. WILLIAMS of New Jersey. Mr. President, last year during hearings on automobile insurance coverage, I told the Antitrust and Monopoly Subcom- mittee that older drivers are being pen- alized?because of their age?by the in- surance companies. It seemed to me that preliminary data confirmed what I had long suspected: many motorists in their seventies, sixties, and even late fifties, left without coverage because of ar- bitr cancellation of their automobile insuran in spite of consistently good driving rec. ds. Now the ? t has been corroborated by the final r ts of a study conducted with funds fro the Adminiatratian on Aging. The pled fact is that motorists over 65 may be ong the safest on the road. For those ho think that living past 65 automa cally reduces an indi- vidual's capabili es, the study should be a revealing gli pee into the safe and steady world the older driver. Conducted ? the University of Den- ver College f Law, the study examined the drivin records of 30 States and the District ? Columbia. It found that sen- ior drivers averaged 31 percent fewer accidents than expected, based on their proportion of the driving population. Judge Sherman G. Finesilver, head of the study team, points out that the na- tionwide survey shows senior drivers to have better reords, by comparison, as their number increases in the total driv- ing population of a given State. Judge Finesilver supplied the follow- ing highlights of the State-by-State sur- vey: In Arizona, a State with a large senior population, the older driver ranks sec- ond lowest in accident involvement among the six age groUps studied; Delaware's senior drivers enjoy the lowest accident rate of any of the six age groups; namely, Under 24, 25 to 34, 35 to 44, 45 to 54, 55 to 64, and 65 and over; In the District of Columbia, senior drivers had the lowest accident record of Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 March 26, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE S 3253 There being no objection, the state- ment was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: STATEMENT OF LT. GEN. SETH J. McKEE, U.S. AIR FORCE, ASSISTANT VICE CHIEF OF STAFF, U.S. AIR FORCE, WASHINGTON, D.C., Fon- MERLY COMMANDER U.S. 5TH Ant FORCE, FUCHU AIR STATION, JAPAN, FROM AUGUST 1, 1966 TO JULY 1, 1968, BEFORE THE HOUSE COMMI.r.u.k. ON ARMED SERVICES SPECIAL SUBCOMMITTEE To INQUIRE INTO THE "PUEBLO" INCIDENT, MARCH 20, 1969 Mr. Chairman, Gentlemen: I am Lt. Gen- eral Seth J. McKee, Assistant Vice Chief of Staff, United States Air Force. At the time of the Pueblo incident, I was Commander of the United States Fifth Air Force, with head- quarters at Fuchu Air Station, Japan. I welcome this opportunity to answer ques- tions you may have concerning the Fifth Air Force role in connection with the Pueblo in- cident. Based on public media statements it appears that two of the central questions relating to the Fifth Air Force role are: (1) Why were Alert Aircraft not provided; and (2) Why were aircraft not sent to relieve the Pueblo? Perhaps my response to these questions will further your investigation and provide a background for additional ques- tions you may desire to ask. In order that my response to the first ques- tion may be fully understood, I believe it Appropriate that I provide some background regarding previous Fifth Air Force association with this type mission. Prior to the Pueblo mission, her sister ship (the U.S.S. Banner) was used for this type of mission in the waters that were in the Fifth Air Force Geographical area. Of some sixteen missions known at Fifth Air Force to have been planned or conducted by the U.S.S. Banner, Air Force Alert Aircraft were re- quested of Fifth Air Force by the Navy for three of them. On one additional occasion, A request was made that air support forces be notified of the area and time frame of the mission, and this was done; however, no re- quest was made for alert aircraft, and no aircraft were committed to alert. Of the three missions for which we planned air support, one request for support was cancelled by the Navy due to mission cancellation, and two missions were supported by Fifth Air Force With aircraft and crews on alert. The first mission Fifth Air Force supported was mission number nine for the Banner. Coordination between CINCPAGAF, CINC PACFLT, Fifth Air Force, and COMNAVFOR Japan, established the alert requirement, the rules of engagement, and the alert posture to be maintained. Coordination with elements of the Strategic Air Command was effected to provide in-flight refueling for the fighter aircraft. Copies of the CTF-96 Operations Order which detailed the ship's operations and procedures Were distributed to Air Force units, and Fifth Air Force and subordinate units issued implementing instructions. The Banner was directed by the Navy to add the Air Defense Control Center at Naha; Oki- nawa', as action addressee on assistance re- quests, and to perform a communications check with the Naha Air Defense Control Center when the ship arrived in the operat- ing area. The Defense Control Center at Naha was directed to forward any request for as- sistance to my Fifth Air Force Command Center by flash precedence, with information copies to CINCPAC, CINCPACAF, CINCPAC FLT, and COMNAVFOR Japan. Direct voice communications would be used as back-up. Additional communications procedures were established to be used by the ship and the alert aircraft, and standard visual and voice identification signals were established to aid in spotting the vessel in relation to other surface craft. Fifth Air Force aircraft were then committed to the alert (in Okinawa) with the stipulation that they would be uti- lized only when directed and as considered appropriate by CINCPAC or higher authority. The authority to launch aircraft was subse- quently delegated to me as Commander, Fifth Air Force, with the restriction that it could not be delegated lower. Aircraft were placed in incremental launch reaction time of 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and one hour, with the provision that upon call from the Banner, or upon launch of any'air- craft, all others would go to cockpit alert. Reaction time from first notification to the Banner operating area would have been ap- proximately 45 minutes. This Fifth Air Force alert posture was in fact maintained from the time the ship arrived in the operating area, until seven hours after It departed that area. Similar coordination between the various command and control agencies occurred on each of the missions for which Fifth Air Force was requested to plan or to provide air support. In the case of the Pueblo, no Fifth Air Force support was requested. Therefore no alert was provided, Just as no alert was provided the Banner in those instances where none was requested. I have gone into these details, Mr. Chair- man, and Gentlemen, to underscore the fact that when aircraft are dedicated to an oper- ation, and committed to an advanced alert, these aircraft are dedicated to the specific operation by command directive, and brought to that state of readiness only through carefully planned, coordinated, and directed actions. With reference to the second question, as to why were aircraft not sent to relieve the Pueblo, I would like to emphasize that con- trary to articles that have been published in the newspapers, no decision was made at Fifth Air Force to not send aircraft to relieve the Pueblo. In fact, I personally made the decision to send aircraft, issued appropriate orders to effect such action and Fifth Air Force fighters were launched. We began launching fighter aircraft out of Okinawa (where my only operationally ready combat units were located) as rapidly as possible. Unfortunately, they could not get to the scene prior to darkness or prior to the time that the Pueblo entered the three mile limit. Therefore after they landed in Korea, it was too late to refuel and relaunch in support of the Pueblo. The first notification to my headquarters of the Pueblo's predicament was by a secure phone call to a member of my staff. This was followed by two closely spaced critic mes- sages citing the Pueblo's position and first call for help. These were received in the Message Center at 1357 and 1407 Local (0457Z and 05073) respectively. Following receipt of the phone call, my staff plotted the ship's position, checked the availability of aircraft, and proceeded to my office where I was re- ceiving a previously scheduled briefing. The staff members brought with them the mes- sage that had been received at 1407. I was personally notified and promptly briefed on the Pueblo situation at 1415 Local (0515Z). I immediately proceeded to my Command Center which was a two to three minute walk from my office, and placed near simul- taneous phone calls to CINCPACAF in Hawaii and to the 18th Tactical Fighter Wing in Okinawa. While waiting for CINCPACAF to get to the secure phone in his headquarters, I directed the Commander of the 18th Wing to prepare all available aircraft for launch as soon as possible. Know- ing that available aircraft would be in ?a normal training configuration, I directed that the first six aircraft be launched armed with 20 mm cannon only in order to ex- pedite their arrival in South Korea. About this time CINCPACAF came an the phone. I advised him of the Pueblo and its state of stress and of actions that I was taking. I further advised him that it was my intent to strike in support of the Pueblo provided I could get aircraft to the scene prior to darkness and prior to the time the ship reached the three mile limit. CINC PACAF concurred in my actions and told me to carry on with my plans unless advised by him to the contrary. I then passed these instructions on to the Commander, 18th Fighter Wing, with the further instruction that his aircraft would stage through Osan, Korea, because the scene of action, with recovery in Korea, was beyond the range of the F-105s stationed in Okinawa. I then directed all other Fifth Air Force units (which were all in the process of converting to a new type aircraft) to bring all possible aircraft to operational readiness and to prepare for deployment as rapidly as possible. The 18 TFW on Okinawa launched the first increment of aircraft at 1611 Local (0711Z), which was one hour and twenty-three minutes after I gave the order to launch. This involved recalling seven air- craft from training flights, diverting six from various stages of training preparation, servic- ing all aircraft, and briefing aircrews. A later incoming critic message reported that the Pueblo had been boarded and had gone off the air at 1432 Local (0532Z). At 1645 Lo-cal (0745Z) CINCPAC Headquarters replotted the position of the Pueblo and reported the ship was estimated to be in the harbor at that time. It was somewhere around this time that I came to the unhappy conclusion that we would arrive too late to be of assistance to the Pueblo and so ad- vised Headquarters PACAF. The first F- 105s which were launched from Okinawa arrived at Osan at 1735 Local (08353). Sun- set at Wonsan was 1741 Local (0811Z) and darkness at 1753 Local (0853Z). Obviously later arriving aircraft were also too late to be of assistance. Therefore, in answer to the second ques- tion, Fifth Air Force aircraft were sent to relieve the Pueblo with orders to attack, but, regrettably, they could not get there before the ship was captured and in port. Gentlemen, this concludes my prepared statement. I would be happy to respond to other questions that you may, have at this time. GENOCIDE: WE MUST ACT NOW? XXIX Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President: take 5 quarts of water, 6 pounds of human fatty acids; add 8 ounces of caustic soda. Boil for 2 or 3 hours, then cool. As late as 25 years ago, this formula was practiced and perfected for the manufacture of soap. The second in- gredient is stated correctly?it calls for "6 pounds of human fatty acid." A civil- ized mind can only be disgusted by such an unappetizing recipe. And for the victory gardens of the Third Reich, after wide research and ex- periment, the perfect fertilizer proved to be the ashes of human bodies. Dachau, Treblinka, Belsen, Ausch- witz?these are but a handful of the places where Nazis flirted unceasingly with the most precious commodity we know, a human life. For example, at Auschwitz alone, 17 tons of gold were extracted from the dental fillings of slaughtered men, women, and children. As a caveat for those unfortunate living dead, an infant would be torn in two by ripping apart his legs. Mr. President, my purpose in citing these atrocities, these crimes against humanity, is not to rekindle old flames of hatred and revenge or to encourage further retribution of those guilty, but rather to make a plea to the living. We must respect the sacrifice of these_ mil- Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP711300364R000300150001-8 S 3254 lions of fellow human beings, and we must at this time male a solemn vow that we will never again, as Vilized people, allow such inhumane a ihila- tion to occur on this earth. For the last 20 years, the Genacide 1 Convention has been stalled in t 6 For- eign Relations Committee of the Senate. We cannot conveniently blame Our in- action on the State Department, the Ex- ecutive, or the House of Representatives. 1 This time, the Senate alone and each of us as Senators must accept individual re- sponsibility for our collective falltre to act. The very keystone hi the defense of peace is universal conderimation Of geno- cide. Let the Senate follow the .ad of I almost 70 other countries and now, in 1969, ratify the United Nations conven- tion on genocide. Mr. HANSEN. Mr. President, the sub- stantially modified anti-ballistic-missile system proposal endorsed by President Nixon on March 14 has given Members 1 of Congress a rare opportunity. Those among us who have been labeled "hawks" or "doves," either by editorialists jr self- professed, have the unusual chance to 1shed these labels and build theinSelves new images. The administration's proposal bears the mark of the statesman?the mark of compromise, often so difficult to achieve but often so essential for the welfare of the United States and the people of this planet. At the same time, this proposal does not compromise our national secinIty, nor does it feed the costly fires of an arms race. It is a realistic and reaeonable approach. It is the best offered te ,date. 1 Mr. Saul Friedman, of the Akron, 1Ohio, Beacon-Journal has made some observations about the administration proposal. I ask unanimous consent that they be printed in the RECORD at this point. There being no objection, the ,article was ordered to be printed in the RACORD, as follows: NIXON'S "LITTLE ABM" HAS WINNEF SIGNS (By Saul Friedman) WssniNcrox.?Once again, President Nixon is carrying water?or in this case anti ballis- tic missiles (ABM) ?on both shoulders, But in his attempts to head do n the Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE March 26, 1969 AN ABM APPROACH FOR HAWKS AND DOVES middle of the ABM controversy, the P may have given his critics, especially crate, their first real reason to fig the new administration. In short, the moon may be at an end. Yet a strong argument can be ma his plan for the deployment of the given much more to the opponents missile system than to its suppor that reason it now has a better cha approval in Congress. At his Friday press conference, th Presi- dent said he thought his plan wou d. pass after a close vote. There were signs lO may be correct. Not only did Nixon withdraw the Missiles from the cities, at least for the present, he also backed off even further from the orig- inal Johnson Administration deples ment plan. Here is what Nixon gave the ABM doves: He rejected a "thick" or "thin" sysib m to Sident Demo- t with bney- 4-that Ai, has of the S For ?e for protect the cities, thus deflating critcism that it would not work, that it would be too costly, and that 1.*; would upset the strategic balance between the U.S. and the Soviet Union and begin a new round in the arms race. He cpt deployment of the ABM back from 15 sites in the Johnson Administration plan, to just two sites. The primary purpose of Nixon's plan is to protect American Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) sites, rather than cities. This would protect the U.S. ability to retali- ate, or give a better "second stsike." The Nixon plan strengthens the U.S. "deterrent," and may stabilize rather than upset the arms balance. Finally, Nixon has reduced by nearly $1 billion the Defense Department appropria- tions request for work on the ABM next year. The amount requested for the Johnson pro- posal was $1.8 billion. Nevertheless the hawks were more satisfied than the doves, because they too got some significant concess ions. Most important, if Nixon's plan is approved, the ABM foot will be through the door. Cit- ing the beginning of other weapons systems which have grown like topsy, ABM critics expect that once started, the system will be unstoppable and will expand into a $100 billion giant. AN INDEPENDENT SMALL BUSI- NESS ADMINISTRATION Mr. WIrALIAMS of New "Jersey, Mr. President, as chairman of the Subcom- mittee on Tjrban and Rural Economic Development, of be Select Committee on Small Business, I EMI well acquainted with the plight, of the urban small busi- neasman. rn my home State of New Jersey, which is, as Senators know, highly in- dustrialized and urbanized, I feel that the Small Business Administration has done a splendid job in dealing with the many business problems racking the ur- ban small businessman. SA, has sev- eral excellent programs which can be tailored to the need of either the urban or rural small businessman. That agency has in almost every case brought these programs to bear effectively in resolving small business problems in New Jersey. I have always considered one of the great advantages of small business to be that a small Ehopowner or storekeep- er has an opportunity to meet his cus- tomers, hear their complaints, and make sure that his business measures up to his own high standard of excellence. This same analogy is true with regard to the SBA. It Is a small, decentralized, Government agency. SBA has field offices in every State in the Nation, and it is highly responsive to the people and vast- ly more effective than some of the larger bureaucracies centered in Washington. I am concerned over recent reports and rumors that the SBA will be trans- ferred to the Department of Commerce or in some way lose its status as an in- dependent Federal agency. I think the majority of the Members of Congress and the Nation's small business commu- nity, which consists of over 5 million small concerns, strongly feel that the American small businessman deserves a forum, free frora conflicting ? responsi? bilities to the large business community; to protect and promote his interests. In terms of the difficulties facing to- day's urban small businessman, I want to see the SBA remain independent; re- main viable; and remain ready to trans- late its programs into responsive action Without the lost motion engendered by cumbersome bureaucracy. Mr. President, this matter of SBA's independence is not new to my colleagues in the Senate. Several years ago there was another effort to transfer the SBA In-to the Department of Commerce. The Senator from Alabama (Mr. SPARKMAN) , the distinguished chairman of the Select Committee on Small Business at that time, led the fight to preserve SBA's inde- pendence, and now it appears that we must once again fight this same battle. During the previous attempt to abolish the independency of SBA, I took the Sen- ate floor to speak out against this pro- posed transfer. The remarks I made then are just as cogent today. Accordingly, I ask unanimous consent to have these re- marks printed following the conclusion of my statement. In summary, I can only urge Senators to give serious consideration to any at- tempt to downgrade or dilute the inde- pendent status of SBA. This is not now, nor has it ever been, a partisan battle. For over a decade and a half SBA has lived up to its mandate to aid, counsel, and assist small businessmen throughout the Nation. It seems highly illogical to tamper with this proven formula for success in these times of business uncer- tainties. There being no objection, the remarks were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: THE TALK ABOUT ABOLISHING THE SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Mr. WILLIAMS Of New Jersey. Mr. President, continuing rumors that the Small Business Administration will be done away with or lose its status as an independent agency have become a matter of great concern to New Jersey voters and to me. For the past 15 years there has been a clear line of support, on a bipartisan basis, for a program of intelligent concern for the problems of growing and dynamic independ- ent businesses. This has been shown in the formation of a Select Committee on Small Business in 1950, the enactment of the Small Business Act of 1953, the Small Business Investment Act of 1958, several small business provisions to the Revenue Act of 1964, and of course, the crea- tion of the Small Business Administration. However, the Senator from Alabama [Mr. SPARKMAN], who has been tlie acknowledged leader in this field during this period, was moved recently to comment on a current rILMOr that the Small Business Administra- tion would be consolidated with the Depart- ment of Commerce and thus lose its identity. I seems to me that the 15 years of solid support for SBA and its programs has re- flected recognition by the Congress and the Presidency that the self-reliance and re- sourcefulness of independent business were basic national values. The founders and those who are car- rying on the nearly 5 million of these firms are not relying on quantities of Govern- ment aid or creating manifold problems. They are furnishing jobs, producing useful goods and services, and providing tax support for all levels of Government; and are thus helping to resolve many problems. From my contacts with businessmen across the State of New Jersey, I know that the Small Business Administration is looked to by these people as a source of counsel, as- sistance, and individual consideration of Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved cFalaftggrA0A2L1 RECORD - RDEpzeimp 4070 ret:215 0 0 0 s March 17, 1969 ORDERLY AND RATIONAL PROG- RESS AT GEORGETOWN: THE IDEOLOGICAL GAP NARROWS HON. CHARLES H. WILSON OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, March 17, 1969 Mr. CHARLES H. WILSON. Mr. Speaker, the Nation has been made very much aware in recent months of the numerous disorders and violent disrup- tions which have plagued many of the campuses of our institutions of higher learning, as militant groups of students have sought to impose immediately vari- ous kinds of drastic changes in the struc- ture, curriculums, and administration of these institutions. What is not generally known, however, is that in some colleges and universities equally important changes are being brought about by an Intense but quiet expression of student activism which, because of its orderly, rational, and patient character, lacks the dramatic quality to be considered news- worthy. Thus, only a few days ago, the students of Georgetown University's Ed- mund A. Walsh School of Foreign Serv- ice won a significant victory in their 2- year campaign to bring about important reforms in the basic structure and func- tioning of that w6r1d-famous institution. This student achievement at Georgetown appropriately coincides with the celebra- tion of the foreign service school's 50th anniversary, and the university news- paper, the Hoya, in its March 13 issue, has described, in its editorial of that day, the significance of this achievement, not only to the Georgetown community but to universities throughout the Nation. Under unanimous consent, I include their editorial in the Extensions of Re- marks: THE SFS VICTORY The results of the proceedings which took place last Saturday in the Hall of Nations will not make natoin-wide headlines, nor merit extensive coverage by the broadcasting media, but they are nevertheless a victory of the greates1 dimensions for Georgetown stu- dents in general and School of Foreign Serv- ice students in particular. This victory is truly unique when one considers the means to which students on other campuses have resorted in order to make known their de- mands. The recent incidents at American University and the continuing controversy at Howard are prime examples. The movement for a core faculty with a separate budget for the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service had been debated for two years prior to passage. Since the first proposal for such a structure was made in The Hoya by Dr. Walter I. Giles, patience and persistence have characterized the move- ment, both when defeat seemed imminent and passage assured. Victories were few at the outset, but the students, led by the un- tiring examples of Dr. Giles, Dr. Quigley, and more recently Dean Mann, never gave up. Indeed, it may be stated that Georgetown has not seen such a display of activism and unity on the part of her students in a long while. When faced with the question of the future of their school's existence in the year of the fiftieth anniversary of its founding, the students responded to the challenge with a vigorous intensity that surprised everyone but themselves. They presented their case not with violent protest, but with intelligible communication. By their actions and words, they did not widen the ideological gap with the opposition, but in fact narrowed it, to the point where some of the proposal's earliest critics voted in favor of final analysis. The students of the? School of Foreign Service may well be proud of the method by which their victory was achieved. But the entire Georgetown community should be proud, too. Georgetown has presented an ex- ample of student power to which universities throughout the nation would do well to sub- scribe.?R. H. SUPPORT OF LEGISLATION TO PER- MIT TAX CREDITS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION EXPENSES AND TAX DEDUCTION ALLOWANCES FOR TEACHERS HON. CHARLOTTE T. REID OF ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, March 17, 1969 Mrs. REID of Illinois. Mr. Speaker, our tax laws have been used in a variety of ways to help and encourage the business community, but there is no business that is more important than the education of our young people. Today, I am again introducing two bills which I sponsored in the 90th Con- gress to further education. The first would allow a tax credit for higher edu- cation expenses such as tuition, fees, books, supplies, and equipment. The sec- ond would amend the Internal Revenue Code to permit teachers to deduct ex- penses, including the cost of ? certain travel, incurred in pursuing courses for academic credit and degrees at institu- tions of higher learning. We all know how the cost of a college education has risen in recent years and will probably continue to rise in the future. It is our responsibility as Mem- bers of Congress to devise a solution to this cost problem which will benefit both moderate- and low-income families and students, and we must also preserve the diversity of higher education by assisting all of our institutions. At the same time, we must accomplish these goals with the least amount of governmental interfer- ence in our educational system. While this tax credit provision ad- mittedly is not a cure-all, it will provide relief for strained family budgets and allow for the continued independence and diversity of our institutions of higher education. It would be my hope that the provision in the bill which allows the tax credit to anyone who pays the expenses of a college student regardless of the relationship between the two individuals would lead to increased private scholar- ship assistance to low-income students. This would be in line with President Nixon's efforts to involve voluntary citi- zen participation in meeting America's needs. All Members of Congress are aware of the outstanding job being done by the teachers of our Nation. Furthermore, they are doing a better job every year, as can be shown by the success the United States has had in meeting the educational challenges and demands of our times. To be able to meet these challenges, how- ever, teachers, must continually return to colleges and universties to study new de- velopments in their fields of academic en- deavor and in educational devices and methodolgy. Continuing teacher educa- tion is an absolute prerequisite for those who wish to become principals, super- intendents, or other administrators. But beyond this, teachers are in increasing numbers, having to continue their edu- cation merely to retain their present status. The purpose of the second bill I am in- troducing today is to provide by statute the tax deductions which are allowed teachers for educational expenses. While Internal Revenue Services rulings and regulations on this question are subject to change on very short notice, teachers must plan their return to colleges and universities many months in advance. It is for this reason that I am sponsoring specific legislation to provide for such deductions. SOME THINGS TO KEEP IN MIND ABOUT THE NAVY'S COURT OF INQUIRY ON THE "PUEBLO" INCI- DENT HON. CHESTER L. MIZE OF KANSAS IN TITE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, March 17, 1969 Mr. MIZE. Mr. Speaker, because some aspects of the Navy's court of inquiry on. the Pueblo incident have been misinter- preted, I feel that it is 'fair to examine an explanation of what a court of in- quiry is and why one was convened for the Pueblo incident. Such an explana- tion has been provided by Adm. Thomas H. Moorer, U.S. Navy, Chief of Naval Operations and president of the Naval Institute, in an address to the members of the American Bar Foundation on January 25, 1969. These remarks were later circulated as a memorandum to the members of the Naval Institute. I have seen a copy of this memorandum and feel that its publication in the CONGRESSIONAL REC- ORD will help clear the air of some of the misunderstandings and misinterpreta- tions. Under leave to extend my remarks, I insert the memorandum at this point in the RECORD: MEMORANDUM TO MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL INSTITUTE You, as lawyers, will understand why I, as Chief of Naval Operations, and thus in the reviewing chain of command, cannot make comments on the substantive aspects of testimony given during the Inquiry. I will be ready to do this at the appropriate time. I can, however, put the nature of the In- quiry in proper perspective and, hopefully, reassure the American people that the Court of Inquiry is being conducted in a straight- forward, legal and objective manner. First: What is a Court of Inquiry? It is a fact-finding body?that and nothing more. It is not a court-martial. Witnesses at a Court of Inquiry are not on trial. A Court of In- quiry cannot even prefer charges. It simply records the facts and makes recommenda- tions to the convening authority?in this case the Commander-in-Chief of The Pacific Fleet. These recommendations may cover such things as operational procedures, mate- rial improvements, communications, train- ing of personnel, international law?and many other subjects?and; if warranted, the - Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 March 17, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD Extensions of Remarks Li level of ou ed below are parity percentage for January and February for some major crops. Commodity January FebriiM 1969 Cotton, Wheat_ Corn Peanut Button t Milk_ W001_ Barley Flax Oats. Sorghu Soybea s Beef,. Chicks Eggs Hogs Lamb Turkey 41 2 47 8 65 74 74 83 3 L5 44 65 67 69 64 70 78 67 83 6 74 8 85 65 2 verage 72 73 THE TEKTITE I PRQJECT i10N. GEORGE E. SHIPLEY OF ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, March 17, 1969 M. SHIPLEY. Mr. Speaker, 3 weeks ago, on February 15, 1969, at 1152 hours, e.s.t. four brave scientists from the De- part.. ent of Interior entered the waters of G eat Lameshur Bay, St. Sohn Island, In t e 'U.S. Virgin Islands. For 60 con- tinu us days these pioneers of the last fron er will live and work beneath the surf ce in a four-chambered habitat de- sign d by the missile and space division of t e General Electric Co. headquar- tere in. Valley Forge, Pa. Behaviorists and ?iomedical experts from the Depart- men of the Navy and the National Aer0- nau ics and Space Administration will mon tor the movements and even the drea s of these daring Americans. e Tektite I Project, named after a, min ral originating in space and fo d on arth and symbolizing the projee 's mul !disciplines, has three primary mi sion or programs. These are a biomed cal rog-ram, a behavioral proitram, a m rine sciences program. The goals thes three programs range from ga ing nowledge valuable to Navy missio to 1 ? rig-range space missions to learni how to harvest the oceans' riches. Tlktite I is a prime example of eco omy and teamwork which in less than year and a half brought together foir divergent agencies?three Federal aijd one private industry?to begin, on sched- ule a project which will have great iii- pacI on our Nation's progress in tii oce Ins. The Navy, NASA, Department Inte ior, and General Electric Co. are ll equ 1 sponsors. Tie four scientists, who are aquanauts merely as a means to an end?explo - lag the oceans?are Richard A. Wall r oceanographer; Conrad V. W. Mahnke oce nographer; Dr. H. Edward Cliftoi geol gist; and John G. Van Derwalk r, biol gist. In the early days of their quest for owledge, these Americans have al- rea y found and met the perils of the oce n. They have had to battle a moray eel which was blocking the entrance in- to their habitat, and they were trapped beneath the surface as a severe thunder- storm ravaged the islands above them. In the coming weeks, they will set a new record for duration in living and work- ing in a saturated condition. For the 60 days, they will be subjected to pressures on their bodies equaling two and a half atmospheres. Little is yet known of what ? this could mean to the human body. All Americans, indeed the people of the world, will follow with interest and pride these four intrepid scientists. We will anxiously await tae results of their 60-day mission with ant eye to preparing - for future missions so that one day, loon we will be able to use the oceans 6 help fill the empty stomachs of starv' peo- ple throughout the world. COLUMNIST DAVID LWRENCE VIEWS COURT RULING 0 NEWS- PAPERS AS LEADING TO MORE MONOPOLY HON. JOE L. EVINS OF TENN:MSEE IN ridt. HOUSE OF R SPRESENTAT7ES Monday, March 17, 1969 Mr. EV1NS of Tennessee. Mr. Spea r, I was recently pleased to join with oth? in introducing and sponsoring H.R. 27k, a bill to allow two newspapers operatin under joint arrangement to be treated as a single entity under antitrust laws. The purpose of this bill is to give to newspapers who have combined their printing and other mechanical facilities equal treatment with one-owner news- paper cities where both newspapers have been merged under single ownership with a single editorial policy. In other words, the purpose of this bill is to assure two editorial voices and to afford the same rights and privileges io two owners who wish to preserve separate, independent editorial voices available to single owners who have acquired two newspapers in the same city. This bill is especially important in view of the fact that ihe Supreme Court has recently made an adverse ruling which will tend to wipe out the two- newspapers arrangement with joint mechanical agreemen :s. In this connection, I place in the RECORD herewith a column from the Nashville Banner, wr..tten by Mr. David Lawrence, which outlines the impact of the Supreme Court ruling. The column follows: COURT'S NEWSPAPER RUL ENG LEADS TOA TOTAL MONOF OLY (By David Lawrence) WasHmeroN.?The Supreme Cour 61" the United States has just proclaime a novel doctrine?that two competin businesses cannot merge unless one is,oh the verge of bankruptcy and cannot flai'd some other pur- chaser. What the court has unwittingly rec- ommended is a means of awarding the stronger business an eventual monopoly. The case in point arose in Tucson, Ariz., where one newspaper WES making about $25,- 000 a year, and the other was losing about the same amount. An agreement was reached which provided that each paper would retain its owns news and editorial departments as well as its corporate identity, but the produc- tion and distribution equipment were to be combined, and the circulation and advertis- ing departments operated jointly. This arrangement has been in effect since March 1910, and the venture proved profit- able to both papers. In 1965, the owners of one paper purchased the other, but con- tinued separate news and editorial depart- ments for each. Now the Supreme Court calls the combina- tion "an unreasonable restraint of trade" and declares that there was no_real proof that in 1940 one of the papers was "on the verge of going out of business." The new decision is important, because there are at least 41 newspapers in 22 cities which have entered into similar arrangements during the last 25 years. What the Supreme Court overlooked is the nature of the competition faced even by a single newspaper in a community today. It may not have a rival in printed form within the same city, but it has newspapers coming by airplane and bus into its territory from cities not far away. Likewise, television and radio cover the area, and a daily newspaper has plenty of competition from the "com- mercials" used by advertisers on local broad- casting stations. In 1920, there were 2,042 daily newspapers in the United States. This total, according to the latest figures, has declined to 1,749. There are only 327 morning papers and 1,438 evening papers, and 16 of these are "all day" newspapers. Many a large city has only a morning paper and an evening paper, whereas even 20 years ago, when the population of the United States much much smaller, they had several. New York City, for instance, has gone from 10 dailies to only three. Boston had seven papers, and now has four. Los Angeles today has two dailies?half of the number it once ad. What most people do not realize is that n wspapers cannot survive on the income ob- ta ed only from the subscribers or purchas- ers t the newsstands. Advertising revenue is ess tial to meet expenses and furnish a pro . Competition from other media, such as r io, television, magazines and outside news pers in the same area, has severely cut d n opportunities -for the small dailies to sta in business, particularly when pay- rolls, e ipment and other costs continue to rise. The in rging on the production and busi- ness side as saved many a community news- paper. In most cases where a morning and evening n wspaper are published by the same ownershi , editorial pages are independent of each othe . What' not perceived by the Supreme Court isj that when two newspapers com- bine sorjie of their operations, they have not by ny means stifled all competition in the co unity. They have merely devised a way of meeting the heavy competition they face fyiom other sources. Metnwhile, national labor unions, operat- n as a monopoly with apparent immunity in antitrust laws, impose wage scales all er the country which have brought about the downfall of a number of newspapers over the last several years. Unless Congress passes a pending bill which would permit two daily newspapers to enter into joint operations when one could not otherwise snrvive, Many of these publi- cations will go out of business. This writer, on June 1, 1964, in discussing a similar anti- trust case filed by the Department of Jus- tice at that time against a combination of two newspaper enterprises, wrote: "Under the oldest concept of property rights, it has never been held that an owner should be forced to go to the borderline of bankruptcy before he can sell a deteriorating asset to a competitor. The Department of Justice evidently thinks otherwise and that antitrust laws may be used to bring about a form of commercial suicide." Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 Malgerts,40;, 1969 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? Extensions of Remarks recommendation for further legal proceed- ings. Next: Why are we having of Court of In- quiry? A ship has been lost. We always have a Court of Inquiry when this happens? whatever the cause. Particular emphasis is being placed on pro- tecting the rights of the individuals, and on lessons learned. These lessons will be of great assistance in the future. When the Inquiry opened its initial ses- sion, the first witness was Commander Bucher. He was given the legally required advice concerning his rights as a party to the Inquiry. Counsel for the court made it clear that Commander Bucher was not at that time suspected of having committed any offense under the Uniform Code of Military Justice. Later, when Commander Bucher, in his testimony, indicated that the North Koreans had bordered his ship, the counsel for the court?as required by the law you know so well?told Commander Bucher it was pos- sible that he had violated 'U.S. Navy Regula- tions, Article 0730 which reads: "The com- manding offcer shall not permit his com- mand to be searched by any person repre- senting a foreign state nor permit any of the personnel under his command to be re- moved from the command by such persons, so long as he has the power to resist." He ex- plained to Commander Bucher his right to testify no further and gave him the routine, required warning that, if he did so, the in- formation could be used against him later. Since this simple act of legal procedure? basic to our legal system?caused so much controversy, was so misinterpreted and has caused so many to prejudge the outcome of this Inquiry, let me emphasize three points: First: Such a warning was not unexpected by Commander Bucher or his counsel?here are the words of Commander Bucher's counsel addressed to the counsel for the court: "We have discussed this matter with Commander Bucher in some detail. As you know, we had some preliminary conversations with you be- bore this Court of Inquiry convened as to the procedures that would be followed and the manner by which Commander Bucher's story and the story of the USS Pueblo could be pre- sented to this Court. We obviously antici- pated the situation that we find ourselves in at the present moment. We have discussed this in detail with Commander Bucher. In view of your warning, Comander Bucher per- sists in his desire to fully and completely tell this Court of Inquiry the details of the 23rd of January and the event subsequent thereto. Based on that, Commander Bucher, with the Court's permission, requests that he be per- mitted to testify, and complete this phase of the story. Commander Bucher, am I cor- rectly reciting your wishes in this matter? And do I correctly recite that you have been adequately and fully apprised of all your legal rights which include the right to re- main silent on this portion?" Commander Bucher answered in the affirmative, Second: I would like to emphasize that a Court of Inquiry must begin with a blank record. Newspaper accounts, rumors, second- hand reports or prejudgments cannot be considered. The official record of the Pueblo's capture and the treatment of her crew must come from testimony and evidence presented to this Court of Inquiry. For the Court, what has appeared and will appear in public ac- counts simply does not exist. Third: Whether the Navy?or anyone in the Navy?was pleased or displeased with Commander Bucher's testimony could have nothing whatever to do with that warning. I realize I am "preaching to the choir" when I tell you that. However, the requirement to warn Commander Bucher is obviously not so well understood by some. Ladies and Gentlemen?I am deeply troubled?that what was a routine and totally correct legal procedure has been widely misinterpreted. As Chief of Naval Operations?I intend to ensure?and the Court itself will ensure? that Commander Bucher's rights?as well as all others appearing before the Court?are fully protected. Possibly there will be similar warnings concerning self-incrimination as additional witnesses testify. The point to keep in mind is that the Navy is searching for facts?not scapegoats. We are doing so? within limits imposed by national security? in open hearings, because I believe that this is the way the American people would want it done. And we are taking well-tested and legally prescribed steps to protect the rights of all concerned. I earnestly request you, who are so well- qualified, to assist me in explaining the legal aspects of the Pueblo Inquiry to the American people. And, I earnestly request the American people to be patient, not to pre- judge, and to have full trust and confidence that the procedures used In developing the facts surrounding the piracy against the Pueblo are being carried out by experienced men of great integrity who have only the welfare of our country at heart. THE 10TH ANNIVERSARY OF HAWAIIAN STATEHOOD SPEECH OF HON. PAGE BELCHER OF OKLAHOMA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, March 12, 1969 Mr. BELCHER. Mr. Speaker, I would be remiss in my duty if I did not take the opportunity which the gentleman and the gentlewoman from Hawaii have provided to participate in the commemo- ration of the 10th anniversary of the adoption by Congress of legislation ad- mitting Hawaii to the Union as the 50th State. As a Representative from your rela- tively young sister State of Oklahoma, I think I have a special appreciation for the meaning and importance of state- hood to the people of Hawaii. I was born in what was then Oklahoma Territory and am the only member of the Okla- homa delegation?and, I suspect, one of the few Members of this entire body? who can claim to have been born in a territory-of the United States before its admission to statehood. I recognize that Hawaii's two very able Representatives share that distinction with me, as do both of the gentlemen who represent the State in the U.S. Senate. At the time Congress was considering statehood for Hawaii, there was consid- erable doubt expressed about the wisdom of statehood for noncontiguous terri- tories and, in some people's minds, doubt about the island's readiness for state- hood. I am glad to be able to say that I was one who did not share either of those doubts. And I share the view expressed by other Members who have spoken that the contribution which Hawaii has made, as a State, to her own people and to the Nation as a whole have surpassed even the most optimistic expectations and have more than warranted my support and that of the other Members of Con- gress who voted for admission. I congratulate the citizens of Hawaii upon the excellence with which they have assumed the responsibilities of statehood, and I congratulate the gen- tleman and gentlewoman, upon the qual- E 2043 ity of representation which they have given their State. While I have differed with them on issues, I know them as dedicated public servants who are con- scientious in their efforts to serve the people who have sent them here. May the next 10 years be as remark- able as the past decade has been, is my wish for Hawaii and her people. MAKE PUNISHMENT ITT CRIME HON. HENRY C. SCHADEBERG Or WISCONSIN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, March 17, 1969 Mr. SCHADEBERG. Mr. Speaker, the Janesville Gazette in my district is one of the finest newspapers in the country. Robert W. Bliss is the knowledgeable Publisher of the Janesville Gazette. He has written a challenging and provoca- tive editorial on the Vietnam war which I submit to my colleagues in the House. It is directed to the President of the United States. It should be read by every Member of Congress as well. The editorial follows: MAKE PUNISHMENT FIT CRIME The Vietnam War forced Lyndon Johnson to abandon any plans he might have had for another term as President, and now that same issue starts Richard Nixon squarely in the face. And events in recent weeks have sharply reduced his maneuvering room The Paris peace talks drag interminably on, with progress measured in millimeters. While the talk continues, Americans are being killed and the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese are strengthening their position. President Johnson reached an "under- standing" with the North Vietnamese last November. Under its terms, the United States would stop bombing North Vietnam if the Communists would not shell population cen- ters in South Vietnam. That understanding has been violated at least four times by the Communists. Saigon was hit by enemy rockets yesterday, with 25 civilians killed and 70 wounded. The attack came hard on the heels of Nixon's statement that the United States "will not tolerate a continuation of this kind of attack without some response that will be appropriate." The latest attack put the next move up to Nixon, but he apparently will not make it until Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird re- turns next week from Vietnam. Whatever de- cision he makes will be an agonizing one. Nixon could resume full scale bombing of North Vietnam, which would be nothing more than continuation of Johnson's discredited war policy. We bombed North Vietnam for more than three years with little effect on the enemy's fighting effectiveness. Even the Joint Chiefs of Staff, when asked by former De- fense Secretary Clark Clifford last year what effect the bombing had, replied "Not much." North Vietnam would gain more politically than it would lose militarily from resumed full-scale bombing. The bombing of the north was the single greatest factor that turned world opinion against the United States in this seemingly endless conflict. But if Nixon does nothing about the re- cent Communist attacks, the enemy is likely to escalate them to gain a better bargaining position in Paris as well as a better military position in Vietnam. Doing nothing also would undercut Nixon's largely conservative support at home. One thing Nixon has on his side is the fact that the United States has demonstrated Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP711300364R000300150001-8 E2044 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 CONGRESSIONAL a sincere desire for peace. We have riot vio- lated the "understanding." The Coz4iiumists have Clearly Nixon must make some eaponse, but the punishment should fit the c What seems to be indicated here i clear message to North Vietnam that t fp next attack will result in a bombing ;Mission against a military concentration in' North Vietnam. One attack, one bombing mission. This limited response will demonstrate that we seek no wider war, and at the setae time Will serve notice on the Uommunists that we do not intend to negotiate under the gun. RECENT PAY RAISES uNETHICAL HON. J. HERBERT BURKE OF rioaro.A IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, March 17, 1969 Mr. BURKE of Florida. Mr. Speaker, Ialthough I agree with the comments which my colleague, the-gentleman from Kentucky (Mr. CARTER) , made On the I-louse floor on Monday, March 10, and Ooin in his sentiments, nevertheless, I feel that if the recent pay increase is as he says unconstitutional, then a , court tuit would be sufficient to determine the alidity of the law granting the raise. I believe, however, we should be justifiably Sure and for this reason I have intro- duced legislation that would repeal the jay raise granted to Congress, the ju- iciary, and other Federal officialS. I I, like many of my colleagues had trong objection to the manner by Inch these pay raises came about, since felt at in these trying times when in tion threatens the very economic foun tion f our Nation, our right to enact pay raise 1 gislation should have been debate and assed by the vote of the Members r ther t an by the back-door method that Was used. Some of us through our vote in tan- g ess have consistently exercised re- s raint and responsibility when voti d on iijportant fiscal matters. The fact lillat we were denied the opportunity t ,di- rectly oppose the pay increase is in s irp conflict with our past efforts to be Isure tc help bring our financial picture into sharper focus through our vote. I am not a rich man and could use the increase, but I did not think that we had the moral or ethical right to take Ithe method that the Congress did in milli,- in at the figure recommended by th se- le t Commission. ore importantly, the method by w ich the pay increase was unpleme ted raises a far more serious question of wt,at is right and what is wrong?Par- ticularly in these times when inflatiOn is literally robbing millions of peop14 Of any hope for their economic future. 1 ft is my hope that through passageof thiS legislation Congress will repeal he pay raise. In this way, it can later br rig the case for the raise to the floor for 4l? bate and grant to each of us the righ to vot as we should, either for or against. I I RECORD ? Extensions IN SEARCH OF A FUTURE HON. DONALD M. FRASER OF MINNESOTA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, March 17, 1969 Mr. FRASER. Mr. Speaker, on March 4, 1969, students and professors in col- leges and universities throughout the nation took time to reflect upon, to ques- tion, and to protest the misuse of science for military ends. When one pauses to consider the fact that defense now ab- sorbs 60 percent of our national budget, and about 12 percent of the gross na- tional product, and that the United States and Russia between them have nuclear stockpiled which allow for ap- proximately 15 tons of TNT for every man, woman, and child on earth, the sig- nificance of this day take on tragic pro- portions. Dr. George Wald the 1968 Nobel Prize winner in physiology and medicine, ad- dressed a crowd of 1,200 on that day at the Massachusetts Institute of Technol- ogy. Participants there in the March 4 Movement were disturbed at the lack of focus in the days nufnerous panel dis- cussions and speeches', Dr. Wald pro- vided that locus. In what the Boston Globe said "may be the most important Speech of our time," Dr. Wald discusses'sre of the most immediate issues facin our coun- try today?the conflict in Vietnam, the draft, the ABM system, the crisis in our educational system, nuclear stoCkpiling, and the increasing size of the military- industrial complex:. This is the profound, moving testi- mony of a man deeply troubled by the incongruities of life today. But, these are also the words of a man truly aware of mankind's potential for good?of man's ability to create one world, a world for all men, I commend this speech to my col- leagues, and I include it in the RECORD with the sincere hope that Dr. Wald's thought will help us all to become more completely committed to the idea that "our business is with life, not death." The speech follows: A GENERATION IN SEARCH OF A FUTURE, (By Dr. George Wald) All of you know that in the last couple of years there has been student unrest break- ing at times into violence in many parts of the world: in England, Germany, Italy, Spain, Mexico and needless to say, in many parts of this country. There has been a great deal of discussion as to what it all peens. Perfectly clearly it means something- differ- ent in Mexico from what it does in France, and something different in FranceslIt'atm what it does in Tokyo, and something fferent in Tokyo from what it does in this country. Yet unless we are to assume that students have gone crazy all over the world, or that they have just decided that it's the thing to do, there must be some common meaning. I don't need to go SO far afield to look for that meaning. I am a teacher, and at Harvard, I have a class of a,b(aat 350 students?men and women?most of them freshmen and sophomores. Over these past few years I have felt increasingly ;hat something is ter- ribly wrong?and this year ever so much of Remarks March' 969 more than last. Something has gone sour, in teaching and in learning. It's almost as though there were a widespread feeling that education has become irrelevant. A lecture is much more of a dialogue than many of you probably appreciate. As you lec- ture, you kneep watching the faces; and information keeps coming back to you all the time. I began to feel, particularly this year, that I was missing much of what was corning back. I tried asking the students, but they didn't or couldn't help me very much. But I think I know what's the matter, even a little better than they do. I think that this whole generation of students is beset with a profound uneasiness. I don't think that they have yet quite defined its source. I think I understand the reasons for their uneasiness even better than they do. What is more, I share their uneasiness. What's bothering those students? Some of them tell you it's the Vietnam War. I think the Vietnam War is the most shameful epi- sode in the whole of American history. The concept of War Crimes is an American in- vention. We've committed many War Crimes in Vietnam; but I'll tell you something in- teresting about that. We were committing War Crimes in World War II, even before Nuremburg trials were held and the principle of war crimes started. The saturation bomb- ing of German cities was a War Crime and if we had lost the war, some of our leaders might have had to answer for it. I've gone through all of that history lately, and I find that there's a gimmick in it. It isn't written out, but I think we established it by precedent. That gimmick is that if one can allege that one is repelling or retaliating for an aggression?after that everything goes. And you see we are living in a world In which all wars are wars of defense. All War Departments are now Defense Depart- ments. This is all part of the double talk of our time. The aggressor is always on the other side. And I suppose this is Why our ex-Secretary of State, Dean Rusk?a man in Whom repetition takes the place of reason, and stubbornness takes the place of charac- ter?went to such pains to insist, as he still insists, that in Vietnam we are repelling an aggression. And if that's what we are doing?so runs the doctrine?anything goes. If the concept of war crimes is ever to mean anything, they will have to be defined as categories of acts, regardless of provocation. But that isn't so now. I think we've lost that war, as a lot of other people think, too. The Vietnamese have a secret weapon. Its their willingness to die, beyond our willingness to kill. In effect they've been saying, you Can kill us, but you'll have to kill a lot of us, you may have to kill all of us. And thank heavens, we are not yet ready to do that. Yet we have come a long Way?far enough to sicken many Americans, far enough even to sicken our fighting men, Far enough so that our national symbols have gone sour. How many of you can sing about "the rock- ets' red glare, bombs bursting in air" with- out thinking, those are our bombs and our rockets bursting over South Vietnamese vil- lages? When those words were written, we were a people struggling for freedom against oppression. Now we are supporting real or thinly disguised military dictatorships all over the world, helping them to control and repress peoples all over the world, helping them to control and repress peoples strug- gling for their freedom. But that Vietnam War, shameful and ter- rible as it is, seems to me only an immediate Incident in a much larger and more stub- born situation, Part of my trouble with students is that almost all the students I teach were born since World War II. Just after World War II, a series of new and abnormal procedures Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 3 NEW YC.AtiprtithildiStir Release 2002/10/09 :-LOWSPVIA46614R000300150001-81jA" Warning on Peri! to the Puebio, Went Astray, House Unit Says By WARREN WEAVER Jr. &Pedal to he New Yorik 'nines WASHINGTON, March 14 ? The National Security Agency issued a written warning a month before the U.S.S. Pueblo was captured that the danger of its mission had been under- estimated and protection for the intelligence ship should be given serious Consideration. But, a House subcommittee reported today, the message never got through to any of the top military authorities to whom it was sent, including the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Chief of Naval Operations and the Commander in Chief of United States Forces in the Pacific. The investigating committee also reported for the first time officially that the National Se- curity Agency had been respon- sible for the special intelligence unit aboard the Pueblo and that the Central Intelligence Agency had had nothing to do with the mission. Even if the military commu- nications system had not failed at the critical moment, the warning was sent, the Pueblo and its crew of 83 might have been seized by the North Kore- ans on Its first intelligence mission anyway. The admiral who cleared that mission as involving "minimal risk" testified today that he would have taken exactly the same action even if he had re- ceived the message from the National Security Agency ? United Press International Rear Adm. Frank L. Johnson which he did not. "These messages come through all the time," said Rear Adm. Frank L. Johnson, who was Commander of United States Naval Forces Japan, at the time of the Pueblo incident. Later, Admiral Johnson said he did not want to give the impression he ignored messages from the National Security Agency, but he said that there was "a constant flow of this type of accusation and threats ?reports of possible enemy at- tacks ? passing through his Navy office. Admiral Johnson testified for Continued on Page 7,-tolumn tea %.tir hours before the House Armed Forces subcom- mittee investigating the Pueblo. The subcommittee is headed by Representative Otis .G Pike Democrat of Suffolk County. A the opening of the hear- ing, Representative Pike read a three-page 'statement of fact"?conclusions reached by the subcommittee based on a series of closed hearings "on th Pueblo with intelligence offi- cials., Story of the Warnhm This statement included the story of the National Security Agency warning and how it went astray, plus two more ul- timate ironic facts: The direc- tor of the agency never saw the message, which had been sent over his signature by a staff member, until after the Pueblo was captured; and the agency, according to the Pike subcommitteehad neither the responsibilitrpr the author- , ty" to send -the message, in he first place. The Pike committee also said its inquiry had established the following: (iThe Central, jaeligzice enc did not Pueblo mission, staff it or nky any part in its formulation. unit aboard the Pueblo was under the supervision of the National- Sestelisy, wMh7h?d-eaTi?basic I th e ec_r2msAuryalance___and crystpmaphic?work. tiThe amount of review that the Joint Chiefs of Staff give any one of the large number of intelligence missions, such ar the Pueblo's, is "necessarily citrgorY4afitrperfunctory;" '4"There is' a great difference of opinion at high intelligence levels as to whether or not the loss of the \ Pueblo was very serious in terms of our national security and national in- telligence effort. "There was, and remains, a great deal of confusion at high Navy levels as to the rating of missions in terms of risk." Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71B00364R000300150001-8 Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 EVENING ST A?. DATE WaminLon uebla' _ ever Deily red ? By WILLIAM' GR'G The stateirient continued: Star Staff Writer Closed-door hearings of the House Armed Services subcom- mittee investigating the Pueblo seizure have disclosed that a National Security Agency mes- sage to the Joint Chiefs of Staff warned that the Pueblo might be ,,in more danger than first thought. But the message never reach- ed the Joint Chiefs, who, on the same day, approved as low risk the spy ship's mission off North Korea, where it was seized by the Communists last year. The subcommittee today re- leased a summary of its closed- session findings, which also! said: "There was, and remains,- a! great deal of confusion at high Navy -levet 'as to the rating ofl (intelligence) missions in terMs! of risk." Thousands of reconnaissance missions are approved each year, the statement said. Be- cause of this volume the review and approval procedures of the Joint Chiefs of Staff have been "necessarily cursory and per- functory," "On the same day that the (Pueblo) mission was approved by the Joint Chiefs, a message was sent over the signature of the director of the National Se- curity Agency suggesting that the characterization of the mis- sion as minimal risk might be wrong. The message did not object to sending the Pueblo but said consideration should be given to protecting it. "The message was directed to the Joint Chiefs of Staff. No Continued From Page A-1 member of the Joint Chiefs received the message. "The message was received at the staff level of the Joint Chiefs and redirected to the commander in chief, Pacific.. "The commander in chief, Pa- cific, apparently never received the message. It was received at the staff level in his office and not brought to his attention. "At the same time that the message was redirected to the commander in chief, Pacific, an information copy was sent to the chief of naval operations. The information copy was never de- livered." 'Although the message carried the signature of the director of tliel NSA, the subcommittee said "The-re are hundreds of people In the National Security Agency who are authorized to send out messages signed 'Director, Na- tional Security Agency'." "The director never saw it un- til after the Pueblo was cap- tured" by North Korea last year, said subcommittee chair- man Otis Pike, D-N.Y. Pike also acknowledged that NSA "had neither the responsi- bility nor the authority" to ques- i4lumu6 tioii A* ortheifueblo -- --- However, the subcommittee said that, while the Pueblo's mission was requested by the Navy, additional tasks were given to it by the National Security Agency at the Navy's invitation. "The Central Intelligence Agency neither requested the mission, had any part in its formulation nor any personnel involved in it," the report said. The subcommittee found there remains a great difference of opinion at high intelligence levels about whether the loss of the Pueblo also was very ser- ious in terms of either the na- tional security of the United States or the national intelli- gence effort. None of the witnesses the sub- committee heard said they felt the risk to the Pueblo was in- creased when 31 North Korean infiltrators made an attack and an attempted assassination of the president of South Korea was made two days before the Pueblo's capture. According to the subcommit- tee, military intelligence mis- sions numbering in the thou- sands are conducted each year approaching the sensitive areas such as the territorial waters and the air space of Communist bloc countries. These range from very simple protects strch as weather patrols to 'more sophis- ticated" missions than that of the Pueblo. "To put this into some perspective," the subcommittee said, "the Soviets have over 4 times as many reconnaissance ships similar to the Pueblo as we have." American intelligence mis- sions can be planned at very high leyels or "from quite far down" in the Navy, Air Force or Army. The subcommittee resumed open hearings today with testi- mony from Rear Adm Frank L. Johnson, commander of U.S. na- val forces, Japan, at the time of the Pueblo incident. He testified he was "sem'- what opposed" to eveh the two .50-calibre machine guns which were installed on the Pueblo be- cause these "might be consid- ered provocative." He said he was also opposed because of the success of 16 un- armed missions conducted as of December 1967 alid because the capabilities of sudh w4aponSare 'ilnarginal in any except limited Circumstances such as mall boats and personnel." He said he also felt that the availability of these weapons "might encourage ill-advised counteraction" by crew mem- bers and "create the opposite of the desired unopposed use of and Safety on the high seas." The guns were not used by the crew when the North Korean: Approved For Release 2002/10/09 : CIA-RDP711300364R000300441412014P. March 10, 1969 AERTNISTIMIts RPM ENOWs7 WqMigN0300150001-8 E1803 G WHAT NEXT FOR COMMANDER BUCHER? dents, but was up 19 percent in cities of only 25,000 to 50,000 people. And in suburban areas, an increase of 18 per- cent was recorded. The FBI also stated that the police were successful in clearing only 20 per- cent of the crimes reported, a decline of 9 percent from the clearing rate for the previous year. And during 1968, police arrests for all criminal acts rose only 4 percent, com- pared to the 17-percent overall rise in crime. Crime is clearly a nationwide problem rquiring action at every level of govern- ment from the Federal level down to the States, counties, cities, and towns. These new FBI statistics serve to point up the dimensions of the crime crisis. Every State should review its own laws and en- forcement procedures, and especially its courts. Congressional committees should immediately do the same. DEPARTMENT DENIES HOOVER RETIREMENT HON. CARLETON J. KING OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, March 10, 1969 ? Mr. KING. Mr. Speaker, many Ameri- cans heaved a sigh of relief when it became known officially that J. Edgar Hoover does not plan to retire as Direc- tor of the Federal Bureau of Investiga- tion. Mr. Hoover has a tremendous rec- ord, one which many of us feel will never be equaled again in our history. We all wish him continued good health, for while he is on the job we feel we can rest at night. The Copley News Service printed the dential, which I am pleased to quote: PLANS TO CONTINUE: DEPARTMENT DENIES HOOVER RETIREMENT WASHINGON.?The Justice Department Wednesday flatly denied reports that J. Edgar Hoover plans to retire next Jan. 1 as director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The report has been published in various newspapers and syndicated columns in the past week. "There is absolutely no truth to it," said a spokesman for Atty. Gen. John Mitchell. "There is no understanding between Mr. Hoover and the attorney general concerning any resignation or retirement. Mr. Hoover has not indicated any such plans to the President or the attorney general. "President Nixon asked Mr. Hoover to continue in his position as director and he agreed. That is the simple situation." One published report, it was disclosed, was traced to "a cocktail party conversation." The man who wrote it did not check with the Justice Department, officials said. Speculation about Hr. Hoover's future has flared from time to time for several years in Washington. The director is 74 years old. He will be 75 next Jan. 1. He entered the Justice Depart- ment in 1917, became special assistant to the attorney general in 1919 and was appointed assistant director of the old Bureau of In- vestigation in 1921. He became director of the bureau in 1924 and began building the FBI. Associates describe Hoover's health as "excellent." "I have a hard time keeping up with him," confessed one aide many years his junior. HON. GLENN CUNNINGHAM OF NEBRASKA * IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, March 10, 1969 Mr. CUNNINGHAM. Mr. Speaker, to- day, Comdr. Lloyd M. Bucher is sched- uled to testify for the last time before the Naval Court of Inquiry in Coronado, Calif. But last week the man who com- manded the Pueblo was in a different at- mosphere. The orphan who overcame many obstacles to gain that command was enjoying two of the things he loves most?his family and the sea. Washington Post staff writer George C. Wilson recorded this poignant return to the sea of the the man whom we in Nebraska are especially proud. He is one of ours?a graduate of Boys Town and the University of Nebraska. Mr. Speaker, I commend to my col- leagues Mr. Wilson's account which ap- peared on page 1 of that paper's Sunday, March 9, edition, as well as the Parade magazine story, "What Next for Com- mander Bucher?" of the same date: [From the Washington (D.C.) Post, Mar. 9, 1969] BUCHER RETURNS TO THE SEA (By George C. Wilson) "I'm about ready to go to sea again," Cmdr. Lloyd M. Bucher of the Pueblo said as he felt the sloop rising with the swells from the open sea. Point Loma?holding the Pacific back from San Diego Bay?was dead ahead. Once past the point, Bucher would be free again?free of the oppressive atmosphere in that tiny hearing room in Coronado, Calif., where five admirals are trying to decide what to do about this skipper who gave up the ship. But on this day, the courtroom was well astern of the graceful Kabala, a 29-foot sloop chartered for the day. And "Pete" Bucher was feeling a helm for the first time since Jan. 23, 1968, when his ship was captured by North Koreans off Wonsan. It felt good. His wife, Rose, said she could tell. "Pete wants to go to sea again," she said even before the commander himself an- nounced it from the bow. And Rose?though separated from her husband for 11 harrow- ing months while he was imprisoned in North Korea?did not try to fight it. She was enjoying the sail, taking the tiller herself occasionally and grateful the whole family was together at last. - The Bucher's' sons?Michael, 16, and Mark, 14?were aboard, accompanied by a friend. They worked the jib sheets and tried the tiller when their skipper-father relinquished It. Bucher's eyes roved the shoreline. He spotted the unmistakable shape of the type of vessel he still loves most?a submarine. He headed the Kahala right for the base where the sub was tied up. He got close enough: to read the numbers. And there beside the sub he had ilibt spotted lay the Ronquil, a submarine he knew inside and out. He had served as her executive offi- cer before getting command of the Pueblo. Easing the sloop alongside the nearest sub, Bucher asked permission to tie up. The sub's executive officer came on deck and welcomed the fellow submariner and his family aboard. "Welcome home, captain," said a sailor standing atop the long black hull of the sub. An officer told Bucker: "I plastered my car With Remember the Pueblo stickers." Bucher and his family retired to the Bal- last Tank?a club near Point Loma which submariners built. He met a few old friends there and relived the days before the Pueblo. Then it was back to the sloop and back to Coronado. On Monday he is scheduled to testify for the last time before the Naval Court of Inquiry there. Then maybe a big maybe?it will be back to sea. WHAT NEXT FOR COMMANDER BTJCILER? (By Lloyd Shearer) CORONADO, CALu..?Last month, the U.S. Navy's court of inquiry, investigating the North Korean capture of our spy ship Pueblo?the Navy prefers to call it an Auxili- ary Oceanographic Environmental Research Craft?got into gear. It is the most publicized hearing of its type in the 191 years of American Naval history, which began in 1775 when George Washing- ton ordered officers and men from his Army to man five schooners and a sloop to prey on inbound English supply vessels. The Pueblo court of inquiry was covered by every major radio and television network in this country, plus 68 journalists repre- senting the domestic and foreign press. One result of this intensive press coverage and almost daily TV exposure is that Comdr. Lloyd "Pete" Bucher, skipper of the Pueblo, is today, in the eyes of the public, the best- known and most identifiable man in the U.S. Navy. If you doubt that statement, stop any ten pedestrians or as many as you like, ask theta if they can identify two prominent Navy officers, one named Moorer, the other named Bucher. Adm. Thomas Moorer, Chief of Naval Operations and a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, IS the Navy's highest ranking officer. But publicity-wise, he is understandably enough, no match for Pete Bucher. FLOOD OF LETTERS Like it or not, and he doesn't particularly, Bucher at 41 but looking 55, has become a public idol. Circumstances have launched him into a celebrity orbit where he is trying to maintain a "standard" bearing?standard is one of his favorite adjectives?in what is for him a strange environment of congratu- latory telegrams, supportive letters, and ad- miring phone calls, all numbering in the hundreds. He is also, via his civilian attorney Miles Harvey, the recipient of many lucrative offers for books, articles, TV, radio and club ap- pearances, none of which he can presently accept without Navy clearance. His wife, Rose, has already received $27,500 from McCall's magazine for an article, largely ghost-written, describing her wifely and frustrating efforts to free the Pueblo and its crew. While Bucher, if he resigns from the Navy, can easily, in the opinion of one top Hollywood agent, "earn a million bucks or more from the film rights to his life story. "Bucher's biography," claims agent Red Hirschorn, "has all the ingredients for a great motion picture: adventure, humor, tragedy, love, danger, and, best of all, a happy ending. "What I would like to see him do is to play the leading film role himself. I'm sure he can do it. He's intelligent, articulate, photogenic. As an actor, he could lend au- thority to the part. Even more important, we could probably get him a percentage of the profits, which I feel would be more than sizabld. If lucky, he might earn as much as $2 million." Pete Bucher has 18 years of Navy service to his retirement credit. He can retire at the end of 20 or 30 years. The choice is his. If he retires at the end of 20 years, he draws 50 percent of his salary or about $503 a month. If he retires at the end of 30 years, he draws two-thirds of his commander's salary. There is little doubt that Bucher can prob- ably earn more money outside the Navy than Inside. But if there was a man who lived Approved For Release 2002/10/09: CIA-RDP71600364R000300150001-8 E1804 Approved FQE_ReleasVORMitb_gfapal,p0913814R41M4015CDT06=6, 10, 1969 CONGKESSIUN the service with unflagging dedication it's Pete Bucher. Friends say it would take more than money for Bucher to resign his commis- sion. "A bum rap," says an old shipmate, "a serious reprimand by higher authority might do it. Otherwise, I'm sure Pete will pull his 20 or 30 years." Bucher has described the Navy as "my whole life," and has reportedly requested a submarine command. But he probably will have a lengthy wait before he learns of his next assignment. The court of inquiry, studying thousands of pages of transcript, will first send its find- ings and recommendations unannounced to Adm. John J. Hyland, Commander in Chief of the U.S. Navy in the Pacific, who origi- nally ordered the court to convene. Admiral Hyland's review and recommen- dations will then be bucked along to Admiral Moorer in.Washington. Moorer in turn will pass his recommendation to Secretary of the Navy John Chaffee. That ends the Navy's immediate chain of command. But Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird will probably take a good, hard, close look at the findings and then pass them along to President Nixon, who has de- clared publicly that he will review the entire Pueblo affair, not only on the basis of in- nocence or guilt of Bucher but on the basis of preventing any other such ship loss. In addition, the Pueblo skipper will have to testify before the Senate Armed Forces Committee, and will probably submit to fur- ther questioning by Deputy Defense Secre- tary David Packard, also charged with in- vestigating the cause eelebre. "I LOVE, ROSE" In fact, Bucher is likely to spend most of this year responding on a number of oc- casions to the same questions put to him by Capt. William Newsome and the five scrupulously fair admirals who conducted the court of inquiry. He answered these questions in detail?honestly, forthrightly, factually, with a minimum of melodrama until that memorable, emotion-charged Thursday morning when his brown eyes welled up with tears and a lump formed in his throat. It was the morning during which he told the court in cracked voice of how, When he thought the North Koreans were about to blow out his brains, "I repeated over and over again a phrase, 'I love you, Rose.' I thought this would keep my mind off what was going to happen." The two questions the public as well as Bucher are most interested in at this point are (1) will he be court-martialed for hav- ing violated Navy regulations, Article 0730? It states: "The commanding officer shall not permit his command to be searched by any person representing a foreign state nor per- mit any of the personnel under his command to be removed from the command by such person, so long as he has the power to re- sist." (2) Will he be given command of an- other U.S. Navy.ship? During the course of the Pueblo court of inquiry, I polled four separate groups on these two questions. They consisted of 38 journalists covering the hearing, 18 retired Navy officers, 30 enlisted Navy men on the amphibious command base, and 12 Navy wives. These groups agre