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Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
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Document Creation Date: 
December 20, 2016
Document Release Date: 
July 14, 2000
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October 29, 1997
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PDF icon CIA-RDP72-00450R000100100036-1.pdf373.28 KB
Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP72-0045OR000100100036-1 D. Automated Composing and Printing The printing industry today is in the midst of changes as dramatic and revolutionary as any since the days of Gutenberg. In the not too distant future it is possible that an intelligence article will go from the analyst's keyboard to a printed volume all in electronic form, unseen except on the face of cathode ray tube editing consoles. But before that day comes there will have to be pressing requirements both in speed and volume to justify the enormous costs of fully automated systems. "Automatic printing" is as yet a misnomer. The chief advances so far have been in automatic composition where machines have been developed that will take a corrected paper tape or magnetic tape input and produce a photograph of the finished page ready for cold plate making. Printing Services Division has developed the EPIC system which uses a computer and various tape making machines to input an automatic composer (Photon 513), eliminating considerable keyboarding in the preparation of NIS's. The next advance in EPIC is the installing of a Photon 713 autocomposer in PSD in June of 1968. This now machine is some three times as fast as the Photon 513 and will decrease the throughput time necessary on many jobs. Many technical improvements have also been Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP72-0045OR000100100036-1 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP72-00450R000100100036-1 aG ,, crick p'iate n n , such as the Itek Platemaster i Y' ':C ~Cidresso r~ph-. ~i igrfiph 705, which are ideal for t;iio 1i lited nui;iber of runs of most CI i documents. Eastman- iiodai?k has developed a plate material to be used instead of iil::~ in automatic composers, which under some condi- ;:ions .;.ill eliminate the platemaking step, entirely. Still, the greatest improvement has been in automatic composing. Granddaddy of them all is the Linotron 1010, ,oi:tly developed by Merganthaler and CBS Labs for the Cove nl::cnt Printing Office. Its great expense is ,us;;d.icd by its speed in doing the large jobs GPO handles. "lice Photon 713 wilich will be installed in PSD in June was first developed in the late 50's. By the latest taadarc's it is a slow machine, but PSD has no require- :en t; for the greater speed and expense of the newer }ho i;on ZIP 901 or RCA Videocomp 70 ($350K up). Ii3M has two different automatic composing systems to offer: its own less expensive Selectromatic system now being used by Vii; and a system developed by Alphanumeric, Inc. before its absorption by IBM, an advanced system more like ~Lho ,inotron and Photon machines in design (and expense). Fairchild has marketed a Photo Text Setter line similar co, but cheaper than the others, but it suffers in being a Japanese machine. Generally speaking each of those .companies offers a varied line of automatic composers, Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP72-00450R000100100036-1 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP72-00450R000100100036-1 10 Q29ff- p:?iee rising slz_. p?.; as the speed of composing isL to match the output of high speed computers. But ecr.i:c of the limited number of copies of most Agency uoc~.::or t5 , PSD will p obably never have a need for the r.ost.expensive automatic composers, nor for the extremely ktg peed fully automatic presses and binders usually dcscribed in the more fanciful descriptions of future developments . ;,;thin the Agency PSD shouldt their first Photon in June, with perhaps one other programmed, depending on steps taken by o automate publication of their NPIC would also like to purchase a 713 =as an integral part of their !IS (Integrated Information System). OCI has begun work with their IBM Selectromatic Composer. There are no other hard plans for autocomposing o uipment purchase in the near future. Most improvements will be system improvements in procedures, such as in EPIC and in preparing material for the 713 and taking advantage of material already keyed. Because of the large data files already in machine language at NSA, they have procured a Photon ZIP 901 as.part of their TIPS System. Since the analyst could update his files remotely, it was hoped to put many of these files on mats and publish them as working aids (about 1500 copies). The high degree of automation on Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP72-00450R000100100036-1 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP72-0045OR000100100036-1 -.-,rough piatemak"~ lg has produced a serious c1, : ; is the printing process, however, with waits up to weeks. NSA has assembled a committee to find v: acs 4 speeding up this publication cycle, and PSD is 4a e u:L< to possible dif `iculties in their own post- (-OIlpo.`1::.ng area. norther area in the pr:Lnting cycle which will b ialy need more development is the production of ra,ics--half tones and map illustrations. This year v:LGi t;.ill attempt the firs step in this direction. v1Gi presently has an AUTG11.`AP program which automatically };a.ots maps to various scales and projections through the use of a plotting table in combination with digitalized line and point descriptions of the earth's surface. The lot Uer will scribe on a mylar material which will act as a negative for making the map plates for reproduction. In the more distant future, however, a much faster system will probably be devised to project these computer stored digitalized points onto a cathode ray tube from which turn strips will be produced for cold plate making, in a fashion similar to the way the CRT now images individual type characters in an automatic composing system. In Tact, it is the versatile cathode ray tube Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP72-0045OR000100100036-1 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP72-0045OR000100100036-1 ie variety of applications ,...cli offers the G i e is future possibilities in all phases of automatic ~rin iutomate(! techniques also exist in the preparation of maa a- c~^ pts prior to the composing- step. Tape-driven type;vriters and cathode ray tube editing devices can dra:,icaliy cut down the amount of retyping now necessary in preparin; material to be printed. In the EPIC system, _.or example, edited pages are retyped by a tape-driven typewriter and only the changes must be rekeyboarded. The most intriguing prospect for automating the preparation of material for printing exists where this material is already in machine language as, for example, in electrical communications systems. STATSPEC r 'he problem is this: 1. Their input into headquarters is entirely by teletype, and constitutes the largest volume of machine language input in the Agency. However, at the present time nothing is done to take advantage Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP72-0045OR000100100036-1 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP72-00450R000100100036-1 L?pis already keyed input; it is printed on lotype paper, edited, and manually retyped on .,.ats for reproduction. 2. The volume of words monitored, and words ..ccived into headquarters is constantly rising. would like to publish more words a day to :,.iep up with the rising input. They state they vc consumer requirements to justify increasing e number of words they publish. However because of equipment limitations PSD feels that they cannot increase the number of pages which can be printed in the limited time required for a current intel- 1..gonce document. Consequently to publish more will have to increase the number of positions devoted to this program or print more words to a page (now averaging 425 words a page) with equal or better resolution. 3. The is the biggest daily print b by far in the Agency and constitutes a high proportion of PSD impressions annually. Any changes in the production manner or timing of these publi- cations will have very large repercussions in PSD. In 1966 OCS, the and undertook a series of experiments Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP72-00450R000100100036-1 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIIA--RDP72-00450R000100100036-1 ULVIiL ;d _, i rve jJ o~ he feasibility o:l automating the i:'cc:,"ciI1 of the The OCS survey, ;u 30 September 19G6 pointed to three areas-- }~ e-eciitinr;, editing, and post-editing, in which a COI, iL C ' a,16 other devices such as CRT's, could aid in publication cycle; with three options in both edit- ,~ post-editing, of increaser equipment complexity ,rci costs . The Director of Computer Services pointed out at the time that under any of the alternatives the graphic duality of the product might be improved, but there " ou.ld be no improvement over the present manual system in accuracy or timeliness. Also, while under the il,Tplest alternative there might be some overall s~iVins, in the more elaborate system any savings in manpower would be more than offset by increased equipment costs PSD has recommended that E::~ise CRT's to edit the nac ino language input and prepare clean edited magnetic tapes which could be used for automatic composition on Ie ihof-on 713 to be installed in PSD in June 1968. The volume o the is such that at least one more 733 would have to be purchased for about $80K ($59K for the machine and the rest for peripheral equipment Faster and more versatile auto composers are available, Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP72-00450R000100100036-1 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP72-0045OR000100100036-1 .pit $'50K u . Tncier such a program PSD u11; to 800 words to a page with good legibility, output without increasing i page impressions . is presently considering several fields for atcr;i t on including automation of .e ~_rst step t:.s an implementation of their AUTODIN nt ioils system. The change from a five level code o eight level ASCII code as their standard commo code iii Ve them a better machine langu ge input, simplify wiLh computers, and allow the field bureaus ~o i,i;: o ~ t o ress in formatting far beyond the mere capitalization possible with the old code. The second step would be a pre-editing program where 1. non-publishable information such as cables would be moved from the information input which would be ::or_?ected on some machine such as a Friden Flexowriter ..he machine presently being used experimentally) from an edited teletype printout. The Flexowriter would thus a, e i ale machine language for a speedier preparation of mats for ?,SD reproduction. When this much of the program had proven itself successfully, it is hoped to take the machine language from Commo to computer to CRT devices where the editors will edit the machine ?-FrE#fiE? Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP72-0045OR000100100036-1 y uoublang Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP72-0045OR000100100036-1 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP72-0045OR000100100036-1