Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 17, 2016
Document Release Date: 
August 18, 2000
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
June 18, 1971
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP73B00296R000400090003-6.pdf1.81 MB
qmmb Approved For Release 2000/08/26 : CIA-RDP73B00296R000400090003-6 dune 18, 1971 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE Increasing recognition of outboard motor operation as a significant nationwide source of pollution and improved technol- ogy to correct the problem make such standards both urgent and feasible. :Studies investigating the effects and the amount 'of fuel exhausted by two- Cycle outboard marine engines began as early as 1961, revealing that outboard motor emissions damage water quality by tainting fish flesh and by producing from outboard motors is becoming a seri- ous pollution problem in our lakes and river systems. The quantities of wastes involved in outboard motor operation are shocking. The exhaust to the water has been esti- mated to range from less than 10 per- cent to more than 50 percent of the fuel originally put into a two-cycle outboard engine. Within the 1 billion gallons of outboard motor fuel sold annually, it has been estimated that 100 to 160 million gallons of fuel is wasted. By comparison, the Torrey Canyon disaster resulted in an oil spill of only 15 to 30 million gal- lons. Furthermore, the waste of this un- used outboard fuel costs boat owners be- tween $50 to $100 million a year in out- 0f-pocket expense. The source of the problem is relatively simple and should have been corrected long ago. Because of the design, the engine parts of the two-cycle motor are lubricated by mixing oil with gasoline. During the intake of this fuel mixture into the firing chamber, some of the fuel vapor condenses and accumulates in the crankcase, The unused fuel is evacuated from the crankcase by valves which open up and vent the fuel into the exhaust housing and then into the water. Accord- ing to a study made by, Stillwell & Clad- ding, Inc. in 1969, the two-cycle engine's open crankcase or "crankcase scaveng- ing" design is "highly inefficient." Significant steps have been taken re- cently in the improvement of the two- cycle outboard engine b1 the designing of a drain free engine which would re- cycle the unused fuel vented from the crankcase back into the engine as fresh fuel, and a recycling device that can be attached onto two-cycle engines. The recycling of fuel technique re- portedly is already being manufactured in all motor sizes and will be used in- dustrywide in the 1972 models. How- ever, in 1970, there were approximately 7,215,000 outbord motors already in use in this country, and over 98 percent of these are two-cycle motors. These older outboard motors will continue to leave massive fuel residues in our waters re- gardless of the fuel recycling innova- tion of the new two-cycle outboard motors. To cope with existing outboard motor pollution, it is clear that fuel emission standards set under this bill must cover existing as well as future outboard motors, requiring use of the best avail- able technology to reduce or eliminate the pollution in each case. Tie bill that I am introducing will accomplish these important objectives through the following: First, direct the Administrator of the Environmental Pro- tection Agency to study the available technology that could abate fuel emis- sion from two-cycle engines and establish standards for outboard motors accord- ingly; second, make it unlawful for any- one to operate a two-cycle outboard motor on the navigable waters of the United States after June 30, 1972, with- out adhering to these standards; third, establish a penalty of not more than $500 for any violation of these standards, and fourth, allow the Secretary of the de- partment in with the Coast Guard is operating to enforce the provisions of this bill by using law enforcement officers, Federal agencies, or the States. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that immediately following my re- marks there be inserted in the RECORD an article from the Jack Anderson column in the Washington Post dated May 15, 1971, which reports the disturbing find- ings of the 1970-71 EPA study on the amount of fuel deposited into our waters by outboard motors. The article is en- titled, "Motorboats: Super Polluters of Lakes." Also. I ask that the text of the bill be printed following the article. There being no objection, the article and bill were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: MOTORBOATS: SUPER-POLLUTERS OF LAKES (By Jack Anderson) With the warming of the weather, the na- tion's seven million outboard motors have started to pump a seasonal stream of gunk into America's once-sparkling waters. This is the scientific, if upsetting, conclu- sion of an unpublished Environmental Pro- tection Agency study. The study found that a single outboard motor coughs, splutters and spits as much or- ganic carbon pollution into the water in 24 hours as the sewerage from a neighborhood of 400 persons. Up to 30 per cent of the fuel used in out- boards, according to the study, actually is spewed into the water. Multiplying this by the total consumption of outboard motors in this country gives the staggering dimensions of the pollution problem-more than 100 million gallons of oil and gas poured into our streams and lakes and along our coast lines. Many bodies of water simply don't con- tain enough bacteria to consume the gush of oil and gas. The residue fouls the shore- lines, kills fish, pollutes drinking water and greases the skins of swimmers. The study has been conducted quietly- if that is the word for an outboard motor test-by Dr. Williams Shuster, head of the Bio-Environmental Engineering Division of famed Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He ran his tests with two engines, one 33 horsepower, the other 5 horsepower. His re- search team used an 18-foot-long, four-foot- deep swimming pool and took samples of the water for measurements. As a double check, they also put containers on the fuel vents of the engines to collect the waste. The lowest amounts of dumpage came from the high horse-power motor when it was tuned and speeding. Then only 4 per cent of the fuel leaked into the water. But at low speed, the motor threw off 27 per cent of its fuel. This increased to 30 per cent when the motor was untuned. Footnote: The federal government has now given the Boating Industry Association a $100,000 contract to study the effect of out- board motors on the nation's water. The as- sociation includes the manufacturers whose S 9395 motors are causing the pollution. Thus, the contract is a little like asking a tubercular cook whether he might infect his customers. Eight years ago, incidentally, the outboard motor makers were offered designs which would have largely prevented pollution. S. 2096 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as the "Outboard Motor Pollution Control Act of 1971". SEC. 2. The Federal Water Pollution Con- trol Act is amended by redesignating sections 21 through 27 as sections 22 through 28 re- spectively, and by inserting after section 20 a new section as follows: "REGULATION OF OUTBOARD MOTORS "SEC. 21. (a) The Administrator of the En- vironmental Protection Agency, after con- sultation with the Secretary of the depart- ment in which the Coast Guard is operat- ing, shall promulgate, not later than June 30, 1972, regulations requiring that two-cycle outboard motors used on vessels or any other water craft on the navigable waters of the United States be equipped or modified in such a manner as will use the latest avail- able technology to prevent such motors from polluting such waters. "(b) (1) After the effective date of such regulations it shall be unlawful to operate a two-cycle outboard motor on the navigable waters of the United States in violation of such regulations. "(2) Any person who violates the provi- sions of this subsection shall be liable to a civil penalty of not more than $500 for each violation. Each violation shall be a separate offense. The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating may assess any such penalty. "(c) The provisions of this section and regulations established thereunder shall be enforced by the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating and he may utilize by agreement, with or with- out reimbursement, law enforcement officers or other personnel and facilities of the Ad- ministrator, other Federal agencies, or the States in carrying out such provisions. "(d) Anyone authorized by the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating to enforce the provisions of this section, may except as to public vessels or watercraft, (1) board and inspect any vessel or other watercraft upon the navigable waters of the United States, and (2) execute any warrant or other process issued by an officer or court of competent jurisdiction." By Mr. PERCY (for himself, Mr. MCCLELLAN, Mr. RIBICOFF, Mr. JAVITS, Mr. SCOTT, Mr. 13YRD of West Virginia, Mr. ALLEN, Mr. BEALL, Mr. BROCK, Mr. CLES, Mr. GURNEY, Mr. JACKSON, Mr. .MATHIAS, Mr. MUSHIE, Mr. ROTH, and Mr. SAxBE) : S. 2097. A bill to establish a Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention to concentrate the resources of the Na- tion in a Crusade Against Drug Abuse. Referred to the Committee on Govern- ment Operations. SPECIAL ACTION OFFICE FOR DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION ACT Mr. PERCY. Mr. President, it is with mixed emotions that I appear in the Chamber today. I am, of course, highly pleased to announce a bold, new White House initiative to deal with the agoniz- ing problem of drug abuse in this coun- try. But to even allude to this initiative one must face up to the oppressive facts Approved For Release 2000/08/26 : CIA-RDP73B00296R000400090003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/26 : CIA-RDP73B00296R000400090003-6 S 939 CONGRESSIONAL. RECORD - SENATE that establish the depth and dimensions of this disease that is infecting our so- ciety, and especially our youth. President Nixon, in his message yes- terday to Congress, echoed that thought. "We must now candidly recognize," he said- That the deliberate procedures embodied in present efforts to control drug abuse are not sufficient in themselves. The problem has assumed the dimensions of a national emergency. Noting that "drug addiction destroys lives, destroys families, and destroys communities," the President went on to Despite the magnitude of the problem, despite our very limited success in meeting it, and despite the common recognition of both circumstances, we nevertheless have thus far failed to develop a concerted effort to find a better solution to this increasingly grave threat. At present, there are nine Federal agencies involved in one fashion or another with the problem of drug addiction. There are anti-drug abuse efforts In Federal programs ranging from vocational rehabilita- tion to highway safety. In this manner our efforts have been fragmented through com- peting priorities, lack of communication, multiple authority, and limited and disper- sed resources. The magnitude and the sever- ity of the present threat will no longer per- mit this piecemeal and bureaucratically- dispersed effort at drug control. If we can- not destroy the drug menace in America, then it will surely in time destroy us. I am not prepared to accept this alternative. Thererore,T am, transmitting legislation to the Congress to consolidate at the highest level a full-scale attack on the problem of drug abuse in America. Calling for a statutory Special Action Office of Drug Abuse Prevention in the White House, the President has asked for $155 million in new funds for combating drug abuse, bringing to $371 million the total amount to be spent for this purpose. Of the new funds, $105 million is to be used solely for treatment and rehabilita- tion of addicts. Other requests include: $14 million to enable the Veterans Ad- ministration to expand its five drug ad- diction clinics to 30; $10 million for edu- cation and training in use of dangerous drugs; $2 million for research on drug detection techniques; $7.5 million for in- tensified investigation of large-scale traffickers and $18-million for customs inspections and pursuit of smugglers; $1 million to 'help other nations train en= forcement officers; and $2 million for research on herbicides to destroy nar- cotics-producing plants. The President said he would' ask Con- gress to permit drug control assistance to Communist countries that are now in- eligible for aid. EXTENT OF THE PROBLEM The scope of the addiction problem is chilling. The financial costs alone exceed $2 billion each year, but are inestimable in terms of the human costs-the per- sonal suffering and mental anguish- that the American society is forced to bear: HEROIN Heroin addiction can be found in cities, in suburban and rural areas. In recent testimony before the Senate Sub- committee on Alcoholism and Narcotics, Dr. Bertram S. Brown, Director of the National Institute of Mental Health, said: Affluent suburbs often thought to be free of heroin associated with ghettos are sud- denly aware of heroin use among their youth. Since possession and traffic in heroin is illegal, it is difficult to know precisely the number of heroin addicts in the country. NIMH estimates the total at 250,000. The House Select Committee on Crime puts the figure at 200,000. About half of the addicts in the coun- try reside in New York State. In New York City, narcotics addiction is the greatest single cause of death of ado- lescents and young adults between the ages of 15 and 35. In the past 8 years, New York City has lost more lives to drugs than the entire State of New York has lost to the war in Vietnam. Heroin addicts need from $20 to $150 per day to support their habit. If New York City's approximately 100,000 ad- dicts spend an average of $35 per day on heroin, the total exceeds $3.5 million per day or $1.3 billion per year. Most turn to crime to get the money to pay for the heroin, since they ordinarily are unable to earn enough to pay for it. One survey in New York City showed that only 2 percent supported their habit through gainful employment; 98 percent were in- volved in criminal activity. If addicts steel goods, they must steal five times the cost of their habit, since stolen mer- chandise brings only 20 percent of its value when fenced. On a yearly basis, an addict must steal $90,000 worth of merchandise. According to a recent, authoritative estimate from the provost marshal's office in Saigon, there are between 30,000 and 40,000 American servicemen in Viet- narn who are heroin users-close to 15 percent of the troops stationed there. One study showed that the average age of the addicts included in the survey was only 20.5 years and the length of time addicted 5 months. With plenty of cheap heroin available in Vietnam, the servicemen have no trouble supporting their habit. But when they return to this country, their habit becomes more ex- pensive-and most will have to steal to pay for it. They are sentencing them- selves to lives of crime. . Mr. President, at this point I would like to recall my own personal experience in Vietnam when in Danang I met with the son of our distinguished colleague from Virginia (Mr. BYRD). Harry Byrd, III, was a marine stationed up in the Danang area. When I asked about his work he indicated he had supervisory responsibilities in a brig. I asked him what the most frequent charge brought against GI's in Vietnam was. at that time. This was of course several years ago. He indicated that even at that early time most occupants of the brig were there for drug usage and drug abuse. He indicated that because of the boredom of GI's and the fact that many were pro- testing against the war and resented being there and fighting a war in which they did not believe, drug addiction, and June 18, 1971 particularly, at that time, marihuana smoking was possible because the enemy itself saw to it that it was widely and freely distributed. Trucks would come through villages and when they would see a group of GI's, dump off large quantities of marihuana. And no one knows how many of the harder drugs might have been made similarly accessible. This problem that I heard about first- hand several years ago in Vietnam has grown until it has now reached the crisis stage. Mr. RIBICOFF. Mr. President, will the Senator yield? Mr. PERCY. I yield. Mr. RIBICOFF. Mr. President, I am pleased to be a cosponsor of this legisla- tion with the distinguished Senator from Illinois. I am confident the legislation will receive prompt hearings by the Committee on Government Operations. The problem of drug abuse in this country is expanding and now wastes the lives of. hundreds of thousands of Amer- icans every year, many of them poten- tially our most promising young people. The recent disclosures regarding addic- tion in our Armed Forces in South Viet- nam only highlight the pervasive impact drugs have in our society. The need for a concerted attack on this problem is obvious. Until now, how- ever, the Federal Government's drug abuse prevention and control programs have been fragmented and uncoordi- nated. Responsibility was unfocused. As late as last year coordination was being handled by an ad hoc committee chaired by a special assistant in the White House with numerous other responsibilities. Under the President's bill, 10 programs from more than five departments and agencies will be supervised by a Presi- dential appointee working full time on this matter in the White House. I hope the creation of a new White House office will lead to greater coordination and bet- ter results. An additional $155 million is to be provided along with the powers needed to oversee Federal drug abuse efforts effec- tively. The Director of the new White House office will have the authority to prescribe policies, prepare budgets, and set priorities. I am pleased to cosponsor this legisla- tion for the purposes of introduction and am confident that it will receive prompt and thorough hearings by the Govern- ment Operations Committee. Details of this legislation aside, no one can dis- pute the great need that led to its for- mulation and introduction. We must be careful not to deceive our- selves, however. Enforcement needs to be improved. Education and rehabilitation are critical. But ultimately we must ad- dress ourselves to the ills of our society if we are to remove the underlying causes of much of the drug addiction in this country. Why do so many feel the necessity of the drug habit? We needto know, so we can eliminate the causes that lead to drug involvement. Mr. PERCY. Mr. President, I should like to thank my distinguished colleague, who is chairman of the Government Op- Approved For Release 2000/08/26 : CIA-RDP73B00296R000400090003-6 June 18,41p971 oved For Release erations Subcommittee on Executive Re- Congress on "Marihuana and Health" organization. I would like to express my from the Secretary of Health, Education, deep appreciation for his having become and Welfare determined that by the end the principal cosponsor of this legisla- of 1970, one college student in seven was tion. In fact, I am delighted at the in- using marihuana weekly or even more terest and support each of the other co- often. In a substantial number of colleges .sponsors of this bill has expressed. Also, and high schools, a majority of students I should like at the same time to express used marihuana. my appreciation to Senator JAVITS of New Marihuana is at the center of great York, another cosponsor of the legisla- national debate. For example, this week tion and who, together with Senator witnesses testifying in San Francisco be- RIBICOFF, will be handling some of the fore the National Commission on Mari- major, substantive matters in this area huana and Drug Abuse contradicted each in the Senate Committee on Labor and other on such questions as whether mari- Public Welfare, huana usage leads to experimentation This matter, we would trust, would be with harder drugs; whether marihuana referred to the Government Operations produces a toxic reaction in the central Committee, because its essential purpose nervous system of adolescents; and is to set up a Special Action Office for whether marihuana should be legalized. Drug Abuse Prevention, which falls with- We appear to know that marihuana in the jurisdiction of the Government is not physically addictive-though it Operations Committee. By having over- may be psychologically habituating. We lapping jurisdiction in the Government also know that it leads to an alteration of Operations Committee and the Labor and time and space perception, a sense of Public Welfare Committee with ranking of euphoria, a loss of inhibition, exag- members in the persons of Senator RIaI- gerated laughter and attention loss. And coir and Senator JAVITS who serve on we know that it has relatively minor both committees assume very active physiological effects. But, beyond this, we leadership roles in both. I think we have know little in spite of the HEW report a coordinated effort which will insure and the spate of opinions that bombard early hearings and prompt action by the us regularly. We await next year's report Senate in this most .urgent area. of the National Commission on Mari- I again want to express my deep ap- huana and Drug Abuse before forming preciation to our esteemed colleague. a firm judgment on many of the issues AMPHETAMINES concerning marihuana. In 1969, over 8 billion amphetamine A NEW OFFENSIVE pills were produced and consumed in To counter the vicious cycle of addic- the United States-enough for 40 doses tion, the President has proposed a "new of amphetamines for every man, wom- all-out offensive," dealing with the an, and child in the United States. Ac- sources of supply at home and abroad cording to the National Institute of and proposing the establishment of a Mental Health, the total legitimate med- central authority within the Executive ical need can be measured in the thou- Office of the President to have overall sands. NIMH puts the number of per- responsibility for all major Federal pro- sons using oral amphetamines without grams of drug abuse prevention, educa- a medical prescription at about 5 mil- tion, treatment, rehabilitation, training, lion. Intravenous, use of amphetamines and research programs. The authority or methamphetamine is limited to about will be designated at the Special Action 100,000 users. These "speed freaks" face Office of Drug Abuse Prevention, It will an emergency when their drugs are with- be headed by a Director accountable to drawn: an abrupt "crash." the President. BARBITURATES Because of the emergency nature of In 1969 over 4 billion barbiturate cap- this problem, the President has estab- sules were produced and consumed in lished this Office by Executive order, ef- this country-again, far more than fective yesterday, pending passage by the ,iwould be needed for legitimate medical Congress of specific enabling legislation reasons. NIMH. estimates that 2 million which I am introducing today. people take this drug regularly without I am deeply pleased to see that the ,medical need. Barbiturates often are used in suicide attempts; accidental ov- erdoses in combination with alcohol con- stitute another hazard. Barbiturates di- minish the physical and mental re- sponses to such an extent that users are endangering the general public when performing such tasks as driving a car. HALLUCINOGENS Use of hallucinogens, such as LSD, which can cause birth defects, appears to be leveling off. Repetitive use of LTD now is found among a relatively small number of individuals, although experi- mentation by young drug abusers un- iortunately continues to flourish. MARIHUANA According to NIMH, marihuana usage is increasing rapidly. An estimated 10 $o 12 million Americans have used the drug at least once. The recent report to S 9397 To the extent that rehabilitation is re- quired for Vietnam veterans, the Presi- dent: Ordered immediate establishment of testing procedures and initial rehabili- tation efforts to be taken in Vietnam. Ordered the Department of Defense to provide rehabilitation services and the rehabilitation of all returning discharged veterans who desire this help. Announced the request of legislation to permit the military services to retain for treatment narcotic addicts due for dis- charge. Described the authority of the Direc- tor of the Special Action Office to refer patients to private and Veterans' Admin- istration hospitals as circumstances require. Described authority to be sought by the Special Action Office to make VA fa- cilities available for drug rehabilitation to all former servicemen regardless of the nature of their discharge. Asked Congress to increase the present VA budget by $14 million to permit im- mediate initiation of the program. The President also announced a re- quest to Congress to amend the Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act of 1966 to broaden the authority for use of metho- done maintenance programs under rigid standards. He also instructed Dr. Jaffe to review immediately all Federal laws pertaining to rehabilitation and announces he will submit any legislation needed to expedite the Federal rehabilitative role and cor- rect overlapping authorities. EDUCATION An additional $10 million to increase and improve education and training in the field of dangerous drugs. ENFORCEMENT To expedite the prosecution of nar- cotics cases, legislation will be sought permitting the Government to utilize in- formation obtained by foreign police and also will request legislation to permit a chemist to submit written findings of his analysis in drug cases in order to speed the process of criminal justice. Dangerous drugs and narcotics en- forcement are to be stepped up with re- quests to Congress for; $2 million for research and development of equipment and detection techniques; authorization d f di f 2 un ng o 3 5 added positions in President has announced the appoint- an ment of Dr. Jerome H. Jaffe, director of the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous the drug abuse control program of the Drugs; supplemental appropriations of Depart- State of Illinois, to head this new office $25.6 million for the Treasury Depart- in the temporary capacity of special con- ment-about $7.5 million for intensified sultant to the President for narcotics investigation of large-scale traffickers; and dangerous drugs. approximately $18 million for Bureau of Dr. Jaffe, dangerous has been a leader in Customs investigation and inspection ef- 37, developing innovative techniques for the forts and for the pursuit and apprehen- :