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November 14, 2005
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March 14, 1971
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Ap roved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 TFIANSMITTAL SLIP DATE 7/7 TO: ROOM NO, REMARKS: FROM: ROOM NO. j BUILDINGy EXTENSION 1 FM O 24 I REPLACES FORM 36-8 WHICH MAY BE USED. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 PUBLIC FINANCING OF RADIO FREE EUROPE AND RADIO LIBERTY GISL r OUNS FILE COPY HEARING COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS UNITED STATES SENATE NINETY-SECOND CONGRESS FIRST SESSION ON S. 18 TO AMEND THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION AND EDUCATIONAL EXCHANGE ACT OF 1948 TO PROVIDE ASSISTANCE TO RADIO FREE EUROPE AND RADIO FREE LIBERTY S. 1936 TO PROVIDE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF AN AMERI- CAN COUNCIL FOR PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNI- CATIONS, INCORPORATED, TO GRANT SUPPORT TO THE ACTIVITIES OF PRIVATE AMERICAN ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGED IN THE FIELD OF COMMUNICATION WITH FOREIGN PEOPLES U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 64-995 WASHINGTON : 3.971 LEG I FILE CDPX Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500 50001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS J. W. FULBRIGHT, Arkansas, Chairman JOHN SPARKMAN, Alabama MIKE MANSFIELD, Montana FRANK CHURCH, Idaho STUART SYMINGTON, Missouri CLAIBORNE PELL, Rhode Island GALE W. McGEE, Wyoming EDMUND S. MUSKIE, Maine WILLIAM B. SPONG, JR., Virginia GEORGE D. AIKEN, Vermont KARL E. MUNDT, South Dakota CLIFFORD P. CASE, New Jersey JOHN SHERMAN COOPER, Kentucky JACOB K. JAVITS, New York HUGH SCOTT, Pennsylvania JAMES B. PEARSON, Kansas CARL MARCY, Chief of Staff ARTHUR M. KUHL, Chief Clerk Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 CONTENTS Statements by: ga~~ Bartlett, Paul, former president of Radio New York World Wide, Inc., New York --------------------------------------------115 Hillenbrand, Martin J., Assistant Secretary of State for European 15 Affairs ----------------------------------------------------- Hon. Ogden R., a Representative in Congress from the 26th Congressional District of the State of New York------------------ 6 Insertions for the record: 1 Text of S.18------------------------------------------------- Text of S.1936------------------------------------------------ 2 Statement of Senator Clifford P. Case at U.S. Senate Foreign Rela- tions Committee hearing on Radio Free Europe and Radio Lib- erty, May 24,1971------------------------------------------ Letter to Senator J. W. Fulbright, enclosing daily guidance summaries, from Congressman Ogden R. Reid, April 16, 1971----------------- 12 Department of State views on the expenditure of $40 million sought for American Council for International Communications, Inc---- --- 32 "RFE Alters Sullied Image," article by John M. Goshko, the Wash- Post, November 22, 1970---------------- ington 42 "Radio Moscow Hit by VOA `Jamming'," article by Marilyn Berger, 47 the Washington Post, November 16, 1971---------------------- VOA 173 KC transmitter------------ ------- -------- --- -- 48 Letter to Hen. Martin J. Hillenbrand, Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs, from William P. Durkee, Free Europe, Inc., New York, N.Y., May 28, 1971, enclosing. documents concerning RFE treatment of events in Poland prior to December 14, 1970, and the 52 period following through March 1971------------- "Embattled Radio Free Europe Defends Role," article by David 66 Binder, the New York Times, March 15, 1971------------------ 71 Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty: History------------ ---- Organizations qualified to receive grants from the American Council 74 -- - _ _ - - _ for International Communications, Inc-------------------------- Letter to Senator J. W. Fulbright from You Chan Yang, Ambassador at Large, Republic of Korea, chairman of the board, Radio Free 76 Asia, December 8, 1969, and enclosures------------------------ Letter to Mr. and Mrs. Pat Holt from L. William Horning, chairman, Radio of Free Asia, Washington, D.C., March 5, 1971, and en- closures ---------------------------------------------------- 80 Letter to Miss Morella R. Hansen from former U.S. Senator George Murphy, and enclosures-------------------------------------- 884 9 Information on Radio Free Asia -------_-__ ---------- -- Memorandum, Subject: Proposed changes in U.S. Government funded 126 broadcasting, by Paul Bartlett, July 1970----------------------- "American-Soviet `Broadcasting War,' or How's Your East-West Propaganda?" article by Paul Bartlett, Variety, New York, January 127 6,1971 ----------------------------------------------------- 131 U.S. Government Radio Facilities in Europe ------_----_ Statement by Free Europe, Inc., submitted by William P. Durkee, 140 president-- _ - - - - - _ - _ - Statement, appendix and annexes by the Radio Liberty Committee, Inc., submitted by Howland 11.Sargeant,president ---------------- 149 Letter to Senator J. W. Fulbright from Frederick C. Barghoorn, pro- fessor of political science, Yale University, New Haven, Conn., June 3,1971---------------- ---------------------- 171 Letter to Senator J. W. Fulbright from Foy D. Kohler, University of 172 Miami, Coral Gables, Fla ------------------------------------- to Senator J. W. Fulbright and enclosed statement from William E. Griffith, professor of political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., May 20,1071 --------- 174 (III) Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-Q PUBLIC FINANCING OF RADIO FREE EUROPE AND RADIO LIBERTY MONDAY, MAY 24, 1971 UNITED STATES SENATE, COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS, Washsngton, D.C. The committee met, pursuant to notice, at 10:05 a.m., in room 4221, New Senate Office Building, Senator J. W. Fulbright (chairman) presiding. Present : Senators Fulbright, Sparkman, Spong, Aiken, and Case. The CHAIRMAN. The committee will come to order. OPENING STATEMENT This morning the Committee on Foreign Relations is meeting to receive testimony on legislative proposals which are designed to au- thorize public funds for Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. These proposals will be inserted at an appropriate place in the record. (S. 18 follows:) [S. 18, 92d Cong., deal secs.] A BILL TO amend the United States Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948, to provide assistance to Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the United States Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948 is amended by inserting after section 702 the following new section : "AUTHORIZATION FOR GRANTS TO RADIO FREE EUROPE AND RADIO LIBERTY "SEc. 703. There are authorized to be appropriated to the department $30,000,- 000 for fiscal year 1972 to provide grants, under such terms and conditions as the Secretary considers appropriate, to Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. Ex- cept for funds appropriated under this section, no funds appropriated after the date of enactment of this section for any fiscal year, under this or any other, provision of law, may be made available to or for the use of Radio Free Europe or Radio Liberty." The CHAIRMAN. On January 25 of this year, Senator Case, the senior Senator from New Jersey, and a distinguished member of this com- mittee, introduced legislation which drew attention to the need for congressional oversight of the funding of these two radio stations. I understand that, following extensive consultations with the executive branch, Senator Case plans today to introduce another proposal on this subject which has the administration's endorsement. (S. 1936 follows:) Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 [S. 1936, 92d Cong., first sess.l A BILL To provide for the establishment of an American Council for Private International Communications, Incorporated, to grant support to the activities of private American organizations engaged in the field of communication with foreign peoples Be it enacted by the Senate and Ilonse of Popresentativcs of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as the "Atneriean Council for Private International Communications, Incorporated Act of 1971." SECTION 1. The Congress hereby finds and declares--- (a) that the existence of open communication among the peoples of the world is a matter of continuing concern to the American people and a posi- tive contribution to international stability; (b) that a free flow of information and ideas will encourage other peoples to enhance their social, political, and material well-being and will increase their awareness of the heritage they share with other peoples including the American people ; (c) that established private organizations in the communications field have demonstrated their effectiveness in furthering the foregoing objectives ; and (d) that in the interest of implementing the above objectives, it is desirable to establish an American Council for Private International Communications, Incorporated, which, by assistance to American private organizations, will enable the private sector of American life to participate in and contribute its skills to a constructive dialog with peoples of other lands. ESTABLISHMENT OF A CORPORATION SEC. 2. There is hereby authorized in the District of Columbia a nonmember- ship, nonprofit corporation to be known as the American Council for Private International Communications, Incorporated (hereinafter referred to as the "cor- poration"), which will not be an agency or establishment of the United States Government. Members of the board, officers, and employees of the corporation shall not be deemed to be employees of the United States Government. To the extent consistent with the provisions of this Act, the corporation shall be subject to the District of Columbia Nonprofit Corporation Act. SEC. 3. (a) STRUCTURE OF THE CORPORATION.-The corporation shall have a board of directors, a president, and such other officer and staff as the board of directors may determine. The corporation shall maintain its principal office in the District of Columbia and shall, at all times, maintain therein a designated agent to accept service of process for the corporation. Notice to or service upon the agent shall be deemed notice of service upon the corporation. (b) BOARD OF DIRE0`roRS.-(1) The corporation shall have a board of directors (hereinafter referred to as the "board"), consisting of eleven members, including a chairman and a vice chairman, all of whom shall be appointed by the President of the United States by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Not more than six members of the board shall be members of the same political party. The 1'retiident shall designate one of the members first appointed to the board as chair- man. After the expiration of his term or conclusion of his service as chairman prior thereto, the members of the board shall annually elect one of their members as chairman. The members of the board shall also annually elect one of their members as vice chairman. (2) SELECTION. All members of the board shall be citizens of the United States who are not regular full-time employees of the United States Government, and shall be selected from areas of professional, business, and cultural life relevant to the objectives of the corporation. (3) INCORPORATION.-The members of the initial board shall serve as incor- porators and shall take whatever actions are necessary to establish the corpora- tion under this District of Columbia Nonprofit Corporation Act. (4) TERM of OFFICE.-1n appointing the initial membership of the board the President shall designate six members, including the chairman, to serve from the date of incorporation for four years and five members to serve from the date of Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 3 incorporation for four years and five members to serve from the date of in- corporation for two years. Thereafter the term of each member of the board, including the chairman, shall be four years, renewadvice aable atndctoh nesent of the diseof the retion of the President of the United States by and with the Senate. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this paragraph: (A) the President of the United States shall appoint members to fill vacancies occurring prior to the expiration of a term, in which case the member so appointed shall serve for the remainder of such term ; (B) any member whose term has expired may serve until his successor has qualified. (5) COMPENSATION.-iVlembers of the board shall while attending meetings of the board or while engaged in duties related to such meetings or In other activities of the board pursuant to this section, including traveltime, be entitled to receive compensation equal to the daily equivalent of the compensation at the rate prescribed for level IV of the Executive Schedule under section 53.15 of title 5, United States Code. While away from their homes or regular place of business they may be allowed travel expenses,-including per diem in lieu of subsistence, equal to that authorized by law (5 U.S.C. 5703) for persons in the Government service employed intermittently. (C) OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES.-(1) The board shall appoint the president of the corporation and such other officers as may be necessary. All officers shall be citizens of the United States and shall serve at the pleasure of the board. No political test or qualification shall be used by the board in selecting, appoint- ing, promoting, or taking other personnel actions with respect to officers, agents, and employees of the corporation. tion at aorate not COMPENSATION.-Theexceed exceeding that prescribed for level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of title 5, United States Code. Other officers appointed by the board or employees appointed by the president of the corporation shall receive compensation at rates as set by the board but such rates shall not exceed the maximum rate prescribed for GS-18 in the General Schedule of section 5332(a) of title 5, United States Code. NONPROFIT NATURE OF THE CORPORATION SEC. 4. (a) The corporation shall have no power to issue any shares of stock, or to declare or pay any dividends. (b) No part of the income or assets of the corporation shall inure to the benefit of any director, officer, employee, or any other individual except as salary or reasonable compensation for services. party or candidate for (c) The corporation may not contribute to or otherwise support any political prop- erty and income, shall be exempt from ffi taxation now corporation, or l hereafter) imposed r by the United States or any territory or possession thereof. POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE CORPORATION SEC. 5. In addition to the powers conferred upon the corporation by the Dis- trict of Columbia Nonprofit Corporation Act, the corporation is authorized to- (a) contract with, or render financial assistance, including grants, under such terms and conditions as the board may approve to those private American organizations with established programs of broadcasting to other countries, or with other selected activities in the international mass media field, which organizations receive no other appropriated funds of the United States Government and which demonstrate their effectiveness in promoting the free movement of information and ideas across national frontiers, thereby strengthening channels of communications among the peoples of the world. (b) to develop and apply procedures, including audits, as may be necessary to insure that funds so granted are applied in accordance with the purposes for which each such grant is made. (c) to give particular encouragement and assistance to those American private organizations which- (1) are in turn qualified to enlist financial and other support from American private organizations, industry, and individuals; (2) enjoy or are capable of enlisting cooperation or financial sup- port from international or foreign organizations which share these objectives ; Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 (d) to prescribe such regulations as it deems necessary governing the manner in which its functions shall be carried out ; (e) to make and perform contracts when deemed necessary to carry out its objectives ; (f) to receive money and other property donated, bequeathed, or devised, without condition or restriction other than it be used for the purposes of the corporation, and to use, sell, or otherwise dispose of such property for the carrying out of its functions. (For the purposes of section 170 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 as amended (26 U.S.C. 170), the corpora- tion shall be deemed to be a' corporation described in section 170(c) (2) thereof.) (g) to obtain from time to time as appropriate, the services of experts and consultants to aid the corporation in accordance with the carrying out of the purposes of this Act ; (h) to accept and utilize on behalf of the corporation the services of voluntary and uncompensated personnel from private life and to reimburse them for travel expenses, including per diem, as appropriate ; (i) to rent office in the District of Columbia and elsewhere as necessary to its purposes ; (j) to make all other expenditures as are necessary to carry out the pur- poses of this Act. SEC. 6. The corporation shall on or before the 30th day of September of each year submit an annual report, with financial appendices as appropriate, on its activities under this Act during the year ending the preceding June 30 to the President of the United States and to the Congress. Such report shall include a list of the grants made by the corporation during the preceding year and a state- ment of the use to which such grants were put. SEC. 7. (a) The accounts of the corporation shall be audited annually in ac- cordance with generally accepted auditing standards by independent certified public accountants or independent licensed public accountants licensed on or before December 31, 1970; who are certified or licensed by a regulatory au- thority of a State or other political subdivision of the United States ; except that an independent public accountant licensed to practice by such regulatory au- thority after December 31, 1970, may perform such audits until December 31, 1975. (b) In addition to the annual audit, the financial transactions of the corpora- tion for any fiscal year during which Federal funds are available to finance any portion of its operations may be audited by the General Accounting Office in ac- cordance with such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Comptroller General of the United States. Any such audit shall be conducted at the place or places where accounts of the corporation are normally kept. The representative of the General Accounting Office shall have access to all books, accounts, records, reports, files, and all other papers, things, or property belonging to or in use by the corporation pertaining to its financial transactions and necessary to facilitate the audit, and they shall be afforded full facilities for verifying transactions with the balances or securities held by depositories, fiscal agents and custodians. All such books, accounts, records, reports, files, paper, and property of the cor- poration shall remain in the possession and custody of the corporation. A report of any such audit shall be made by the Comptroller General to the Congress and to the President, together with such recommendations with respect thereto as he shall deem advisable. SEC. 8. There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be nec- essary to carry out the activities of the corporation, which sums shall remain available until expended. Except for funds appropriated pursuant to this Act, no funds appropriated after the date of the first appropriation pursuant to this Act may be made available to or for the use of the corporation. Our witnesses this morning include the Honorable Ogden Reid, sponsor of this legislation in the House of Representatives; Martin J. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Hillenbrand, the Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs; and Mr. Paul Bartlett, former president, Radio New York World Wide, Inc. Mr. Bartlett requested to testify on the proposals under consideration this morning. Before calling the first witness, I want to say that Senator Case and Congressman Reid are to be congratulated for their efforts to subject the funding of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty to the normal authorization and appropriation processes of the Congress. Only in this way can the expenditure of public moneys be scrutinized and eval- uated as required by our Constitution. Senator Case has a prepared statement and has asked that it be in- serted at this point in the record. (The information referred to follows:) STATEMENT OF SENATOR CLIFFORD P. CASE AT FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE HEARING ON RADIO FREE EUROPE AND RADIO LIBERTY, MAY 24, 1971 L I am extremely pleased that the Administration has accepted my proposal to remove Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty from CIA funding. The Foreign Relations Committee and the Senate as a whole will now be con- sidering ways to provide open appropriations to these two stations. This is- only proper, for the Constitution clearly states that Congress! has the sole authority to appropriate Government funds. During -the last 20 years, several hundred million dollars of U.S. Government funds have been expended from secret CIA budgets to pay almost totally for these two radio stations' broadcasting to Eastern Europe ; yet at no time was Congress asked to or permitted to carry out its traditional Constitutional role of approving the expenditure. I can understand why covert funds might have been used for a year or two in an emergency situation when extreme secrecy was necessary and when no other Government funds were available. But the justification has lessened over the years as international tension has eased, as the secrecy surrounding these radio stations has melted away, and as more open means of funding could have been developed. In other words, the extraordinary circumstances that might have once been thought to justify circumvention of Constitutional processes and Congressional approval no longer exist. Thus, on January 25 of this year I introduced a bill which would have provided for direct Congressional appropriations to Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. But I was by no means wedded to this particular solution. In subsequent conver- sations with Administration officials I made clear that my purpose was to find any suitable mechanism which would bring the stations out from under CIA. To this end, I sent a draft bill to the State Department in March which would have set up a public corporation to run the two stations. The Administration now has responded with its own proposal for open fund- ing of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty through a non-profit corporation to be known as the American Council for Private International Communications, Incorporated. Later today I shall introduce the Administration bill in the Senate. While I approve of the basic premise in this bill, there are several specific provi- sions to which the Foreign Relations Committee and the Senate will have to give the closest scrutiny. Assistant Secretary Hillenbrand is here representing the Administration, and he will surely provide the details of the legislation. I will only say that, among other things, we in the Senate should give careful consideration to whether it is appropriate for the President to appoint all the Council's directors as the Administration has suggested. Additionally, the Ad- ministxat.ion bill provides for an open-ended Congressional authorization of funds Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 which would necessitate only annual appropriations. I would be inclined to favor specific authorizations which would have to be renewed on an annual basis. We shall need firm assurances that CIA participation in the stations will be terminated. I understand that the Administration does not feel it can discuss this question in open session, but I know we shall deal with it privately. And, of course, we shall have to establish that money appropriated for the American Council for Private International Communications, Inc. is not to be made available to any organization except Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. The Council should not be used as a means of expanding Government participa- tion in the dissemination of information overseas. Nowhere in the Administration bill is Radio Free Europe or Radio Liberty mentioned, but I want the record to show that it is only for support of these two stations that the American Council for Private International Communications is being established. If the Administration at some future date should wish to ex- pand the Council's activities, I would expect the Administration to return to Congress for authorization. In closing, I would like to congratulate the Administration for its position on Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. We in Congress can be encouraged that the Administration has reacted to our initiative. Congressman Reid, do you have a prepared statement? STATEMENT OF HON. OGDEN R. REID, A REPRESENTATIVE IN CONGRESS FROM THE 26TH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK Mr. Ram. Yes, Mr. Chairman, I do. The CHAIRMAN. Would you proceed, please, sir. Mr. REID. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I very much appre- ciate the opportunity to appear before you today to testify on the nature of the funding of two American radio stations operating overseas: Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, the former which broadcasts to five Eastern European countries (Poland, Czechoslova- kia, Bulgaria, Rumania, and Hungary), and the latter which broad- casts to the Soviet Union. INTRODUCTION OF PILLS EARLY IN SESSION As members of the committee know, in the early days of this Con- gress, Senator Case introduced on the Senate side., and I introduced on the House side, bills which would amend the U.S. Informational and Educational Exchange Act to authorize $30 million annuall y in grants to Radio Free Europe (RFE) and Radio Liberty (RL). This action was taken on the basis of evidence that our offices had that ap- proximately this amount of Federal. funds was being appropriated to RFE and RL from secret budgets-via the Central Intelligence Agency. Our bills would provide approximately the same amount of funds to these stations, but through open congressional funding, con- sistent with our constitutional role of approving such expenditures. Since that time, both Senator Case and I have been in close com- munication with the Department of State, the CIA, and other Government officials who have indicated an interest in this legisla- tion. Now it is my understanding that the State Department, the. 40 Committee headed by Dr. henry Kissinger, and the President have Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 7 approved the legislation that Senator Case and I plan to iuitroduce today. Needless to say, we welcome the administration's change of view on this matter, After a short discussion on the concept of these two stations, I will turn to a consideration of the administration's proposals, the broad outline of which I support, with some specific exceptions. Basically, however, I am here today to support this bill, and to enhance thereby, we hope, the credibility of IRE and IIL, which I consider to be u:,e-. ful and informational broadcasters whose major desire is to ;et international, national, and local news to persons who otherwise have no access or limited access to these events. In my judgment, this is not only a question of open funding, but equally of the independence of the stations themselves. To illustrate this, as it former editor of the Paris edition of the Herald Tribune, I became slightly familiar with some of the prob- lems of the private American press working overseas. By far the most important consideration in the workings of the paper-anii I cannot emphasize this enough-was its credibility in France and throughout Western Europe. I remember, for instance, during the early days of the Korea war, one of our correspondents in Korea, Homer Bigart, wrote several stories which were very critical of our military performance in Korea. Basically, he reported that our troops were running like rabbits; they were suffering high casualties and, in sum, were performing ineffectively. The story was teletyped back to Paris, and the U.S. Embassy in Paris then made strong representations to the paper not to run further reporting of this character, as it put the United States in a bad light. Obviously, we continued to run Homer Bigart's first- rate reporting. In France, there was considerable surprise that the Americans were admitting that things were going badly. Later, as we know, the military situation changed; Homer Bigart sent home stories which documented the change. And they were, I believe, credited all over France with accuracy. There was credibility, because what was in those stories was the truth, and in the end, people know what the truth is. In the end, lies catch up with their authors. So I think that credibility, in the long run, has to be our most important consideration. Consistent with this, one of the most important reasons the Tribune was credible was that it was edited in Europe, not 3,000 miles away in New York. We have looked into RFE's and RM's procedures in this regard. Although stories are, of course, written and edited in Munich, there. is also the possibility of a definite influence on these operations which steins from Washington. I would oppose the continuation of explicit or mandatory instructions coming from the CIA or elsewhere under this new system, as I strongly believe that the stations should be inde- Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 pendent.. While this may not be the time to go into past mechanics in this regard, suffice it to say that editorializing in the commentaries is not unknown on these stations and at times has been pronounced. This only relates, of course, to commentary or politically oriented pro- grams; but since these make up a plurality of IZFE programing (34.7 percent, as opposed to 16.1 percent news, 21.6 percent music and enter- tainment, and 27.6 percent miscellaneous), it would be, in my judg- ment, an important factor. In order to conform to what Senator Case and I felt a strong need for open funding, the administration has submitted a proposal which would establish basically a public-private corporation. This legisla- tion would not create any agency or department of the Government; it would be line-itemed in the budget under "Independent Agencies," however, and funded accordingly. A similar precedent was set in the -establishment of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. The advantages of such a corporation should be independence and freedom to broadcast what it wishes. The private media are better at this than the Government. The free press brings a fresh point of view and has the opportunity to reflect adversary positions. Content, there- fore, would not be solely determined by administration policy, and would reflect outside points of view. In the long run, it is more credible, in great part due to its independence. The concept of this legislation should, I believe, be broad, but should aim specifically at free and open expression. It should enable opera- tions to be directed essentially from Europe; and guidance, in my judgment, should be limited to background material and informational aid, not editorial opinion, and not mandatory instructions from the CIA. The administration's proposal which, as I have said, Senator Case and I plan to introduce today, calls for an 11-member Board,of Direc- tors, all of whom would be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to be selected "from areas of professional, business, and cultural life revelant to the objectives of the Corporation." As precedent, I have noted that the Corporation for Public Broad- casting's Board would consist of 15 members appointed by the Presi- dent, but in addition more specifically provides that members are to be eminent in education, cultural, civic, or communicational affairs, and are to "as nearly as practicable." represent various regions of the country, various professions, and various talents and experience. In my view, the proposal on the character of this new Board should be altered to be at the very least as specific as was the legislation for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. At best, I would urge that it should be amended to include some appointees by the Congress (pre- sumably by the Speaker of the House and the President pro tem of the Senate), by the President from nominees selected by the National Association of Broadcasters, by the Secretary of the Smithsonian, and Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 by the president of the Corporation for Public Broadcjsting. Such. a structure of the Board would emphasize communications and media above political relationships, and would therefore greatly enhance. the credibility of the broadcasting. Apart from the structure of the Board and the corporation specifi- cally, I would like to see language in the bill which was broad enough to create an umbrella structure-not unlike the British Council. This. then could become a genuine public-private corporation, with both public and private entities added to it, concerned with the exchange of ideas, culture, and the arts throughout the world. Although I would support the view of starting out this corporation with only the in- clusion of RFE and RL, I think we should keep the language of the charter broad enough to allow it to become, if the need arises, and I believe it would, a broad public-private structure. PURPOSE OF EFFORTS TO CIIANGE FUNDING PROCEDURES In closing, may I emphasize again that our efforts over the past several months to change the funding procedures of RFE and RL. have been made strictly for the purposes of enhancing the independ- ence and credibility of those two stations and of the congressional procedures that are clearly constitutional. I applauded Senator Case's. efforts in this regard, I welcome the administration's acceptance of our general proposal, and I urge the committee, most respectfully, to consider this issue and this legislation. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. The CHAIRMAN. Senator Sparkman. Senator SPARKMAN. I pass for the time being, Mr. Chairman. I was late getting in. The CHAIRMAN. Senator Aiken. TYPE OF BROADCASTING BY RADIO LIBERTY Senator AIKEN. Radio Liberty broadcasts only to Russia. What type of broadcasting would that be? Is it a type intended to make the Russian people discontented with their Government? Mr. REID. That relates a bit to the guidances that Radio Liberty receives, some of which I have here, as well as to the daily reporting of the news and the commentary. I think that there have been efforts to report incidents which would influence certain trends in the Soviet Union. I would hope that it would not be in the area you suggest because I think that would be counter- productive. I have not examined all of the material that they have broadcast in Radio Liberty. I have spot checked some of it. FUTURE OPERATION OF RADIO LIBERTY Senator AIKEN. In the future, who would operate Radio Liberty- a private organization? Mr. REID. In the future it would be under this private corporation and under the Board of Directors. Senator AIKEN. Who is on the Board? Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Mr. REID. It would be an 11-elan Board appointed in the adminis- tration bill by the President; but the committee, in its wisdom, might want to provide for some appointees not appointed by the President, who would reflect some of the concerns you` mentioned, and with broad experience in the media. CONTENT OF U.S.S.R. BROADCASTING Senator ALIEN. Does the U.S.S.R., which broadcasts wholly on Government-owned radio, broadcast similar programs to Western Europe or to other anti-Communist countries'? Mr. REID. They certainly have substantial broadcasting. I have not compared the content, and I would not be in position to say whether they are similar, but I think one of the questions that needs to be raised bore, aside from the independence of these stations, is whether the content in the main is the reporting of the news or whether it is serving certain other purposes which are editorial or reflective of a particular administration's policy in that area. That is where I think we a ct into dangers that I question, on the one hand, and lack of cred- ibility that can flow from very tight and mandatory policy require- ments emanating from Washington. WOULD STATIONS BE PERMITTED TO CARRY ADVERTISING? Senator All ..EN. Would either Radio Free Europe or Radio Liberty be permitted to carry advertising? Mr. REID. I think that is a question we have not addressed. It is supposed to be a nonprofit corporation, and basically, I suppose, the answer to that is "No," it would not carry advertising. But we would hope that the corporation would raise private funds, that it would move in the direction of the British Council, and that it would not have to rely as heavily as in the past on total Government financing. Senator AIKEN. At first, it would rely solely on the $40 million from the Federal Government? Mr. REID. That would be my understanding, Senator Aiken. Senator AIKEN. Whether it would carry advertising or not would depend on subsequent decisions. Mr. REID. I think that would be a subsequent decision of the Board within the nonprofit charter that the Congress might pass. Senator AixvN. That is all for now. The CHAIRMAN. Senator Case. COMMENDATION OF EXECUTIVE BRANCH RESPONSE Senator CASE. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Since my prepared state- ment has been inserted in the record, I would just like to make a few com n ments. Today is a good day for several reasons. In the broader sense it is a good day because we can see actual evidence that some of the things we say from Capitol Hill are heard by the administration downtown and that there is some response to constructive: criticism. This is ter- Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 11 ribly important because the role of the Congress in foreign relations and in government generally is something that has not been ade- quately maintained. ?o, in this instance, I. am veryy happy indeed that our efforts have been recognized by the,, State: Department, by the various administrative agencies, and by the President. As someone who has not infrequently found it necessary to be some- what critical of the conduct of the executive branch, I am very happy to have this occasion on which to commend the administration and to express pleasure in having worked together with it. My pleasure is enhanced by the fact I have been joined by a very agreeable Member of the House who sits in the witness chair now and whose friendship I have enjoyed for many years, and whose progress gas a member of this Congress, I have noted with extraordi- nary satisfaction. I very much agree with what he has said this morning. Senator AIKEN. I would like to ask one more question., Senator CASE. I will be glad to yield to the Senator from Vermont. ESTABLISHMENT OF SIMILAR COMMUNIST STATIONS COVERING UNITED STATES Senator AIKEN. These two broadcasting stations, which are sup- ported by our Government, are supposedly anti-Communist in nature. What would be the attitude of the United States if any of the Coin- munist countries established similar stations in Cuba or some other place where they can cover most of the United States? Has the ad- ministration taken a position on that? Mr. REID. I think that is an excellent question. Senator AIKEN. I thought it was, too. [Laughter.] GUIDANCE AS TO CONTENT AND HANDLING Mr. REID. Senator Aiken, I might just say I noted in my brief remarks, that perhaps, this was not the place to get into the mechanics of the guidance from Washington, but I do have guidances in my folder, if you are interested in looking at them. These guidances em- anate initially from Munich, and then go to Washington where they reviewed; and at some point, in some cases, are changed, although I yam told that is fairly rare. But one of them that I am looking at right now has the word "mandatory" on it. And what that reflects, I would assume, is very clear and explicit guidance as to the content and how the play of the news should be handled in the light of this mandatory guidance. This one happened to be on Rumania. There are other guid- ances that I have seen on the change in government in Germany and on China. If I were a newsman or an editor reading the instructions, I would think they were extraordinary explicit. Senator AIKEN. I think that is probably a question for Mr. Hillen- brand. That is all. I thank you for the time, Senator Case. (Letter and daily guidance summaries follow :: ) Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES, HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, Washington, D.C., May 25, 1971. Hon. WILLIAM FULBRIGHT, Chairman, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 1215 New Senate OJJlce Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN : It was a privilege appearing before your Committee yesterday, and as per our conversation, I am enclosing several Daily Guidance Summaries. These are drafted in Munich and reviewed by the State Department and the CIA in Washington. You will note that some are optional, Others mandatory. Further, I am told that there are overall guidance ,summaries prepared annually for each country to which the sections broadcast. At best, these guidance summaries inject serious editorializing into the con- tent of the broadcast, and at worst reflect a series of policy judgments that could be counter-productive and reflect archaic cold war points of view. Cer- tainly, by any reasonable test, they vitiate any concept of independence for the stations, and in my view should be specifically proscribed in any legislation. With warm regards. Sincerely yours, OGDEN R. REID. APRIL 16,1571. DAILY GUIDANCE: UNITED STATES-CHINA CONTACTS-A BEGINNING? The suddenness with which the United States table tennis team was invited to mainland China and the rapid pace of developments in U.S.-CPR relations during the past seven days have inevitably aroused great interest throughout the world-an interest that has been well reflected in the volume of comments on the visit appearing in news medias both in the West and in the Communist world. The unusually large coverage given to these developments is, on the whole, justi- fied. During the past seven days more has taken place as regards American-Chin- ese relations than at any time during the past two decades. In the first place, the Chinese willingness to invite the U.S. team to China has brought about the first instance of people-to-people contacts between Com- munist China and the U.S. The appearance of the American sportsmen in Peking and other Chinese cities is therefore an event of major significance in the history of Communist Chinese-U.S. relations. The meaning of these first, informal contacts has been further enhanced by Premier Chou En-Lai's remarks during a reception in Peking earlier this week. The Premier, after recalling American-Chinese contacts prior to the Communist take-over of the mainland, expressed his opinion that the acceptance by the U.S. team of the Chinese invitation opened a "new page" in. the relations between the two peoples. "Americans will come in the future, including correspondents in batches," the Premier was also reported as having said. The past few days have already brought about a favorable development in this respect. A number of correspondents working for American news media have entered the CPR and indications are that their reporting will not be restricted to the coverage of the table tennis team's visit (Tillman Durdin of the New York Tines has reportedly received a one-month visa and is on his way to Peking.) In addition to the visits of correspondents it is likely that in the future visits by students, scholars and businessmen will also be made possible. The United States in July 1969 lifted all restrictions on travel to China by people who would come under the above categories. Quite recently, in a further gesture designed to encourage contacts between the two countries, the U.S. lifted all restrictions on travel to China by United States citizens, a move that would make it possible for American tourists to visit the Mainland. Finally, a statement made by President Nixon two days ago made it clear that the United States is seriously considering the easing of restrictions which thus far barred all but minimum trade between American and the CPR and is inter- ested in actually encouraging trade contacts in the future. All this has been In line with the steady efforts of the United States administration shown during the past two years to help American-Chinese relations develop in line with the mutual interests of the two peoples. All these developments, however, do not mean that a meaningful improvement in the political, economic, cultural and person-to-person contacts of the two Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 countries will be an easy and quick process. Although American business circles are definitely interested in exploring the Chine market for possibilities of bilateral trade, it is questionable if China in the near future could become a trade partner of any real significance to the United States. Yet, the obvious limitations should not and probably will not discourage future business contacts and visits by U.S. businessmen to such important expositions of Chinese foreign trade as the bi- annual Canton Trade Fair. In the field of political relations,, the problems are even more formidable. The United States favors the resumption of U.S.-Chinese ambassadorial talks in Poland at any time convenient to the Chinese side. Yet It must be remembered that during the past sixteen years the ambassadorial talks resulted in no agree- ment on the major issues under discussion. Of all the outstanding issues the problem of Taiwan remains the most important and the most complicated. While interested in reducing the long-standing tensions between the U.S. and the CPR, and In seeking to resolve existing differences and to move toward a more constructive relationship, the United States is also determined not to sacrifice the interests of the Republic of China on Taiwan. Peking, on the other hand, is believed still to insist on the complete abandonment by America of the Na- tionalist regime of President Chiang Kai-shek as a precondition for a meaning- ful dialogue with the United States. This and other outstanding Issues therefore continue to block the way of American-Chinese relations in the political field. However, there is an interest- ing aspects of American-Chinese relations that could, in the long run, favorably contribute to the establishment of normal contacts. This aspect lies in the tradi- tional ties of friendship between the American and Chinese peoples. This friendship as created over a period of several decades by the frequent contacts of American scholars, educational institutions and-not less import- antly-by religious organizations with their Chinese counterparts. Joint struggle against a common opponent in World War II strongly reinforced the tradition of friendship. Those contacts were, however, Interrupted by the Communist takeover in 1949. One may speculate that these historic Sine-American ties at one time reinforced the great shock and bitterness in the United States at the takeover of the mainland by a stridently anti-American Chinese regime. However, there are many indications that the basic feelings of friendship remain and could under certain conditions again 'become a force in the relations between the two countries. The Soviet leadership during the past years has looked upon any attempt at establishing contacts between the U.S. and Communist China with distinct suspicion. The Soviet Press reaction to the U.S. Table Tennis team's visit to the CPR has thus far far indicated no change in this attitude. Yet, a number of times the United States has expressed its determination not to get involved in the ideological and political conflict betwen Moscow and Peking, and it has been stated clearly by American Government spokesmen that the recent moves to improve relations with Mainland China have in no way been intended to influ- ence Soviet-Chinese relations. East European media have so far reacted with restraint. All BDS cover the recent developments and future prospects of U.S.-Chinese relations along the above lines, using Western and Communist press comments, and avoiding overly enthusiastic predictions on the immediate improvement of overall contacts. For a useful review of the historic aspects of U.S.-Chinese contacts, see Benjmin Welles' article In yesterday's the New York Times (F-68 of April 15). RFE GUIDANCE NouE No. 107, APRIL 26, 1971 Rumania defends economic sovereignty following the signing of the New Soviet- Rumanian friendship treaty last July, Rumania has undoubtedly shown a more accommodating approach than before in its relations with Comecon, agreeing to work closely with Intermetall and to join Interchim in late 1970, and to join the New Investment Bank in January of this year. But this has never meant that Rumania was prepared to abandon the insistence on political and economic sov- ereignty that has been the hallmark of Its policy in recent years. As if to dispel any doubt on the subject that may have arisen in either East or West, Rumanian media have since the first of the year argued with increasing vigor for the principles of sovereignty and independence, not only in the economic sphere but in all spheres of international relations. In the first issue of Lumen. (7 January 1971), for example, it was argued (By A. Cristescu) than "not only Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 does each State have supremacy over its own territory but it also exercises sovereignty in its relations with all other States" and that a "State cannot submit the problems which are exclusively in its area of competence to be solved by another State or to be subjected to international examination." This broader framework of the principles of international relations has es- tablished the basis for Rumania's continued rejection of any encroachment on economic sovereignty through majority. rule or other moves toward the exertion of supranational control in the economic sphere. It has also provided: the rationale for the Rumanian position on the right of each Comecon member to opt in or out of any particular co-operative scheme both at its founding and during its subsequent development. In short Rumania has insisted that the Comecon statutes and the reassurances of other members on the principles of International Socialist Relations in the economic sphere be taken literally and has categorically re- jected suggestions that "changes should be made in the meaning of international- ism in the contemporary era (or) that suprastate economic and political integra- tion represents the only chance of survival" (C. Lazarescu in the March issue of Lupta De Clasa, Rumanian P.S. No. 881, 6 April1971). On the eve of the 50th anniversary of the party the Rumanian stress on these principles and on the independent role of each communist party and State has grown. In his speech 24th Party Congress earlier this_ month, (on 1 April) Ceausescu again took the opportunity to point out that the diversity of economic, social and historical situations of the Socialist States could lead to some dif- ferences of view which must be settled on the basis of "Free Consent, in the spirit of the Marxist-Leninist principles and the principles of socialist inter- nationally, of respect for national independence and sovereignty, equal rights and non-interference in internal affairs, of comradely mutual assistance of reciprocal advantage." Shortly thereafter a major article in Scantcia (on 6 April, see Rumanian SR/14, 14 April 1971) strongly reiterated the Rumanian Party's in- dependent stand. At the just concluded Bulgarian CP Congress the Rumanian Delegate Ghorghe Pana repeated essentually what Ceausescu had said in Moscow. Now in the April issue of Probleme Economise an article by Ilie Radulescu, a member of the Central Committee and of the Academy of Social and Political Sciences-not Gheorgu Radulescu, Rumania's permanent representative to Come- con-strongly reasserts Rumania's reservations of economic integration. The only version as yet available in Munich is a condensed text made available by Agerpres on 24 April (contained in weekend monitoring report No. 192). In the article, the "generally varied principles of interstate relation" on which economic co-operation must be built are outlined, and it is asserted that : "Dis- regard of one principle or another, economic pressure of any kind, or interfer- ence of internationalism would only create asperity, mistrust and contradic- tions between socialist states which evidently would affect their relationship on the whole." The author then turns to more specific concerns. He accepts the socialist in- ternational division of labor as necessary, but argues that while it can apply to the "specialization of enterprises, to their co-operation, to co-operation be- tween various branches of national production, between various sectors of eco- nomic and financial activity," one cannot accept concepts according to which the socialist international division of labor should allegedly lead to a speciali- zation of the national economies, to the foundation of socialist national-economic complexes, conceived outside the sovereign authority of the socialist states, of respect for their national frontiers. He goes on to reject the idea strongly stressed now in Soviet and other East European thinking, economy of the socialist countries as a "unitary national economy," claiming that such an approach would limit the development of cer- tain states and perpetuate unequal levels of economic development. He rejects views which "coun+terpose the international to the national," which minimize the role of national efforts. Radulescu then counterattacks with the "infant industry" argument. He notes that the economic position of the socialist countries is often looked upon from a static perspective which ignores the demands of development and modern- ization. He insists that a modern industrial base is essential for each country, saying that to absolutize the industrial situation of some socialist countries and draw general conclusions from it so as to deny the need for the development of some new economic units and branches in the other socialist countries is contrary to the real demands of economic progress and of the deepening of international economic co-operation. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 To a degree the arguments presented here in the Agerpres version of Radulescu's article appear to be overly defensive, harking back as they .do to issues which were presumably settled in the early 1960's and arguing for the concept of "leveling" which has been reaffirmed a number of times as a long range Come- con goal. However, even allowing for possible slanted exerpting by Agerpres, the strong objections to snpranationalism and to any downgrading of Rumania's industrial development at this time reflect Rumania's principled reaction to the thrust of the Comecon integration drive of the past year. Since the 24th Comecon Council Session of a year ago the USSR has pushed with increasing vigor for "integration," and the concept itself has taken on more meancing connotations, at least in its longer-range and ideological implications. Moreover, some notably the East Germans, appear to be trying to use this toughening Soviet attitude in the opportunistic pursuit of their own aims, among the chief of which is to maintain their technological supremacy over the rest of Eastern Europe. With the finalization of Comecon's integration program due shortly it appears that Rumania's concerns with the principles of Comecon relations and with the practical implications of multilateral specialization in advanced industries have both been involved in the current discussions. These discussions have centered on questions of who will invest and specialize in which forms of production and what criteria will be applied in making these decisions. Having recently agreed to co-operate more fully in Comecon, Rumania evidently feels that strict concurrence with the principles on which Comecon has up to now developed is even more essential to the preservation of its sovereignty. This is why it feels constrained to register strongly and often its objections to the current motions of Comecon integration, which though not yet clearly spelled out, have become sufficiently known to cause concern in Bucharest. The Rumanian BD, which in the recent past has aired several programs designed to correct the impression gained from western press evaluation on Rumania's "rejoining the fold" will not return to this theme for the time being. All other BD's cross-report along the above lines. RFE DAILY GUIDANCE SUMMARY FOR MAY 4, 1971 Honecker's succession signals no change in East German course. In a move that has long been anticipated by his few friends and many foes, the long-time leader of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED), Walter Ulbricht, has relinquinished his rule over the East German regime. Ulbricht's resignation from his post as first secretary of the SED Central Committee was apparently a result of deteriorating health which, combined with advanced age, has begun to make it impossible for him to retain his grip on the party and state apparatus of the GDR. Ulbricht's resignation as leader of the party comes six weeks before the eighth Congress of the SED is to meet in East Berlin. It is very probable that the move has been timed to ensure that by the time the Congress convenes the leadership of the party will be firmly under the control. of the new first secretary, Erich Honecker. The change of the leadership in the GDR comes only months after the fall of Gomulka and the rise of Gierek in Poland. Which resulted from the upheaval in Polish coastal cities. In Czechoslovakia, the !third element of Gomulka's ear- lier dream of a "northern tier," top leadership was alternated twice within a rather brief period of time. Thus, the northern tier is now ruled by men rela- tively newly arrived at the Communist summit and each leader faces a daunt- ing complex of unresolved problems. At the same time, the replacement at the top in all three countries are dramatic eXaraples of the immutable laws of change which even totalitarian leaders must face, however reluctant they are to do so. Indications are that in an effort to ensure an orderly transfer of power and the continuation of the politics carried out by him for over two decades. Ulbricht has carefully groomed Erich Honecker for the job. The new leader of the SED, who was elected first secretary by a unanimous vote of the central committee yesterday, is a man of a somewhat different background. At 59, Honecker is almost 20 years younger than his predecessor. Besides, the new five year secre- tary lacks the experience of long years of exile in the Soviet Union, having spent a decade in Hitler's prisons and concentration camps, he was freed from im- prisonment by-advancing units of the Soviet Army in 1945. Yet, in outlook, as wel1 as in mentality, Honecker is very much like his former bass Walter Ulbricht, whom he strongly admires. His statements during the past Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 years give no reason to believe that in his approach toward the major political problems facing the East German regime Honecker will take a course substan- tially differentfrom that trodden by Ulbricht during the past decades. His state- ment, made immediately after having been elected to the job of first secretary, is a ringing reiteration of following the "Ulbricht Road." "I express the cer- tainty," Honecker maintained, "that there will be continuity with ?a carrying on of our firm and sure course...." The unlikeliness of any change for the better in East German approaches to major political issues during the immediate future was also voiced by the spokesman of the West German Government last night. As government spokesman Ahlers put it, Ulbricht's resignation and the appointment of Erich Honecker would not bring with it "essential political changes" in East Germany. In fact, Ahlers expressed that Ilonecker's appointment might have a negative effect on East-West German relations. In spite of Ulbricht's apparent attempt to achieve orderly transition of power within the party and government apparatus, it remains to be seen whether he is to succeed in the long run. The leadership of the SED has shown itself to be a fairly united body under the strong rule of Walter Ulbricht. Unpopular and even hated as he was, Ulbricht demonstrated great political skill (frequently border- ing on opportunism) in dealing with political matters and personalities both within his own party and vis-a-vis the rest of the Communist bloc. Toward the end of his career he managed to establish himself as something of a doyen of the international communist leadership, the man who knew Lenin, and one whose career goes back to the times when the Comintern was still a force to be reckoned with. His hand-picked successor, Erich Honeeker, has none of this prestige at his disposal. A life-long Communist and party functionary, Honecker still has to prove himself as the holder of the top party job. Among other things, he must be able to keep the leadership of the SED free of internal strife, forestall any struggle for power and retain at least the appearance of unity of the ranks. tJibricht's retirement and Honecker's succession is likely to be accepted with some relief by the leaders of the OPSU and the Communist regimes of Eastern Europe. Brezhnev's congratulatory message to Honecker asserted the high assessment by the Soviet leadership of his "contribution to the strengthening of the fraternal friendship and cooperation" between the Soviet party and the SED. Yet, in spite of his record, as the new head of the East German party Honecker is an unknown factor in East European politics, one that can be correctly appre- ciated only after a certain period of actual political performance. For the time being, however, it appears thatHonecker, U as first secretary of the SED, will not change the ideological position of the East German party or the inflexible, hard-line approach of the GDR toward domestic and international affairs. Although Ulbricht has retired from real political activity, his working style and his Weltausschauung are likely to dominate the GDR scene for some time to come. All BDS comment on Ulbricht's resignation along above lines and using world reaction as indicated in recommended list. It has been in the agricultural sector-still overwhelmingly private-that the PUWP under Gierek's .leadership has so far made the greatest changes in Poland's longer-term economic policies. The most recent agricultural policy changes for the 1971-1975 plan period were approved at a joint meeting of the PUWP CC held on April 14 and reported by Edward Babiuch at the Ninth Plenum of the PUWP CC held two days later. Joint recommendations on several important questions have been made to the government. These include: (1) the abolition, as of 1 January 1972, of compul- sory delivery of slaughter animals, grain and potatoes; (2) the establishment, as of 1 January 1972, of a comprehensive social insurance program (including, presumably, the provision of old age pensions) for private farmers; (3) the im- position of a revised and increased progressive land tax as means of com- pensating the agricultural development fund for .the loss it will suffer following the abolition of low-priced compulsory deliveries; (4) an expansion of the uses to which the resources in the agricultural development fund can be put so as to include investments other than those for agricultural machinery; (5) the adop- Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 tion of measures which will ensure the required quantities and range of agricul- tural production resources for the intensification of production; (6) the improve- ment of procurement and delivery procedures, of the contract procurement system and of the processing of agricultural output; (7) the establishment of norms which will ensure the realization of greater benefits from agricultural resources and the protection of agricultural and forest resources; (8) the further develop- ment of village self-government. Prior to the April 14 joint recommendations, a number of medium-terns and short-run agricultural policy decisions were taken: Most of the earlier decisions were directed toward reinvigorating the livestock sector. More grain was Ito be imported, although this often acted merely as an offset to the losses resulting from a bad grain harvest. Luckily, potato production in the private sector re- bounded well, enabling it to provide, for 1971 are not much larger than those supplied in the previous year, the promise has been made to maintain larger minimum concentrated feed supplies for the four remaining years of the new five-year plan. Gomulka's dogmatic plan to end grain imports at any cost- which played a large part in creating the difficulties experienced by the Polish agricultural sector-has been abandoned. Higher procurement prices for meat and animal products were guaranteed for two years, reversing the previously unprofitable character of livestock production. All these programs should help to restore growth in this sphere. The events of last December played a major role in bringing about significant changes in Poland's agricultural policy. Open criticism of past policies became possible and spread throughout the country, bringing to everyone's attention the plight of the farmers and the production difficulties facing agriculture, as well as their repercussions on the living standards not only of those living in rural areas also-and primarily-of those residing in the towns and cities. The policy recommendations approved in April are broader in that they go beyond the livestock sector, affecting not only conditions for productions in many agricultural sectors but also living standards in the rural areas. The new farm program has been outlined, some additional resources have been promised and financial conditions for production have been improved. However, much greater economic resources will have to be directed into the agricultural sector if the new program is to have a reasonable change of success. Other desiderata are the removal of the (generally admitted) bureaucratic crust, the completion of the promised expansion of rural self-government, and honest implementation of the policy of uniform treatment for all types of agricultural units, including the private farms. Although many of the recommendations for changes in agricultural policy have yet to be detailed by the Government, they undoubtedly represent a reversal of the thinking which led to the neglect of agricultural, of particular significance in this regard is the fact that the new proposal in effect explicitly deal with the problems of the individual farmer and, if implemented properly, will end many of the long-time problems that the latter have encountered in terms of both the profitability of their farms and a sense of security. These changes point to a recognition by the new party leadership of the importance of the agricultural sector as a basis for the improvement of the Polish people's economic well-being. The Polish BD will continue to discuss the problem of agricultural and agri- culture policy in its programming, following closely the proper implementation or lack thereof of the regime's stated good intentions. Any cross-reporting by the other BD's should be along the above lines. The attentions of editors is called to the 334-/trend paper of April 22, "Polish Agricultural Problems and the Post- Gomulka Agricultural Policy." DAILY GUIDANCE SUMMARY FOR MARCH 31, 1971 BREZIINEV'S REPORT TO THE 24TH CPSU CONGRESS To characterize Brezhnev's report briefly, it might be described as an effort at consolidation along well-known lines and an attempt at refurbishing the image of the Soviet regime. The attempts at consolidation are most noticeable when the General Secretary speaks on topics of external relations, but are also apparent in the discussion of domestic issues. The effort to improve the USSR's public relations image is evident in the discussion of a number of proposals for peace and disarmament. The impression left by the five hours exercise is that while there are some new formulations, the Soviets' essential tactics and funda- mentaQ objectives have not changed. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 On relations within the "Socialist Camp" Brezhnev desires closer economic and political cop.eration. His references to "economic integration" and to "tying together national economic plans more closely" are indicative of Soviet efforts to control Eastern Europe's economic relations with the outside world and to manage Comecon's economic affairs along lines consonant with Soviet economic interest. The call for "international conferences" to be included regularly in the practice of the World Communist Movement (WCAI) and reference to the "suc- cesses in coordinating the foreign policy activity of the fraternal parties and states" would seem calculated to justify and intensify the Soviets' role as director of Eastern European external affairs and to discourage any independent foreign initiatives. His remarks on negative phenomena such as "Rightist and Leftist Revisionism and Nationalism" which have occurred in the Communist movement are indicative of the Soviet leadership's continuing sensitivity to independent initiatives by some parties. The criticism of "Nationalism" may well be intended for Bucharest and Bel- grade while "left-wing revisionism" is the term usually applied to the Chinese. In addition, so that none of Moscow's East European "Allies" will be confused as to Soviet resolve, thegeneral secretary reemphasized the mission of the War- saw Pact forces in "extradordinary conditions created by the forces of imperial- ism and counter-revolution" to demonstrate that the "socialist countries" are not about to "give away their revolutionary achievements, that the borders of the socialist community are indestructible and inviolable." The CPSU leader asserted personally for the first time the "invitation" thesis contained in the "lessions from the critical development" in Czechoslovakia which the CPCS published last December and which was widely believed at the time to have been issued as 'a face-saving device in time for the 24th CPSU Congress, of course Brezhnev's repetition of the "imperialist lie" contained in the "lessons" hardly lends it any greater degree of credibility. In contrast, Brezhnev's remark on the Polish scene may be read as a pat on the back for Gierek and an expression of relief that the Red Army did not have to extend its "frater- nal assistance" to Poland. His statement that the "difficulties" in that country had. been "overcome" and that the Polish party is carrying out measures to "con- solidate" socialism met with some scepticism from radio Zagreb commentator HRZIC who questioned the basis for such optimism, stating that "it is clear to everybody, and especially to Poles, that the difficulties have not been over- come." One can, however, agree with Brezhnev that (given the invasion of Czechoslovakia and the Polish December events) "the past five-year period has made a considerable contribution to the treasure-house of the,collective experi- ence of the fraternal countries and parties," Indeed, several of the contribu- tions to this "treasure house" are reflected in the general secretary's expres- sions of concern for the Soviet worker and consumer and his admonition to that procrustean transmission belt, the Soviet trade unions, to defend the legiti- mate needs of the Soviet workers. This concern is clearly a reflection of the Polish December events. Concerning relations with other "socialist countries" Brezhnev was quite firm in asserting Soviet national interests (i.e. territorial claims) over compromise with the Chinese. Naturally, he blamed Peking for the hostilities which occur- red in 1969 and accused the Chinese leadership of an anti-Soviet line which splits this unity of the Communist movement thereby objectively aiding the imperlial- ists. In addition, he condemned the Chinese for setting up "Marxist-Leninist Par- ties" and forming blocs with the Trotskyites in an effort to establish "a counter- weight in the international Communist movement." Despite his observation that relations have shown some signs of "normalization" over the last 18 months "as a result of initiative displayed on our part," nothing appears to have been settled between the two Communist giants and the only improvement ascertainable since 1969 is the absence of armed combat on. the Sino-Soviet frontier. The Chinese, who are not attending the Congress, will probably not let Brezhnev's observations go without a rebutal. While Brezhnev listed. Yugoslavia among the socialist nations, his references to the desires of the Soviet people to see socialism in Yugoslavia strengthened and its ties with socialist states become firmer" drew an icy rejoinder from radio Zagreb's HRZIC who recognized that Brezhnev was finding fault with Yugoslav socialism. No doubt Tito's disinclination to accede to Soviet wishes and attend the 24th Congress was in part responsible for Brezhnev's pejorative references. On the international scene Brezhnev tried to paint an image of a peaceloving USSR making lots of initiatives for settling international problems. As if to Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 underscore his sincerity, the Soviet negotiator at the disarmament conference in Geneva, Roshchim has accepted a western proposal to deal with disarmament in the areas of bacteriological and chemical warfare as separate entities Brezhnev dusted off several old disarmament concepts which have been floated in the past. Most of these, while they cannot be dismissed out of hand, seem to be in the general nature of oratory calls for abolishing arms of a universal basis which have proved impractical in the past. For instance, the support for a ban on all nuclear chemical and bacteriological weapons and on all nuclear weapon testing "by everyone everywhere" or the call for a five-power conference including China and France to discuss nuclear disarmament (when the Soviet Union and the United States have yet been unable to achieve any agreement in the salt talks) are clearly efforts, however unconvincing, to demonstrate that the CPSU is a - party of peace. Other proposals, such as the liquidation of all foreign bases and the dissolution of the- - (PAGE 3 missing) is scheduled for the CPSU, the first in 17 years, and also announcing a reduction in Cosplan. Brezhnev may be preparing the way for settling the issue with his political opponents. In another novelty, Brezhnev stated that party. Congresses would now-take place only every five years. Thus they will coincide with the introduction of five-year plans. Brezhnev was clearly concerned about the ideological orientation of writers, youth and the Soviet people in general. He particularly attacks writers who criticize present-day Soviet reality and who have "irreversibly receded into the past as a result of the work done by the party to surmount the consequences of the personality cult." This would seem to be a reference to Solzhenitsyn. He also criticized those writers who try to "beautify the phenomena of the past which the party has decisively and principally criticized." He is concerned about the fact that many young people do not have. the proper ideological orientation, citing the fact that over half of the Soviet people are under thirty. Not sur- prisingly, Brezhnev reasserted the party's leading role in culture in line with what he -terms the Leninist principle of party-mindedness in directing the develop- ment of all forms of creative art. Thus the dead hand of the party will continue to stifle the Soviet creative intelligentsia. While some observers thought a reassertion of Stalinism might characterize the Congress, Brezhnev specifically condemns the personality Cult (Stalin), but lie balances this with a condemnation of "subjective errors" (Krushchev). Brezhnev asserted that the party was loyal to the basic principles of Marxism- Leninism and was concerned with a "correct and objective interpretation of Soviet history." This continues the effort to praise general developments in Soviet history from Lenin's death until 1964, while simultaneously condemning past leaders ex post facto for their faults and asserting the real Marxism- Leninism of the present leadership. Other elements in Brezhnev's speech are his concern for improving Soviet labor productivity in the fact of a decline in additions to the labor force and his emphasis on improving the technological base of the USSR (i.e., attempting to bridge the technological gap with the West). In short, the report of the general secretary Is essentially notable for its length and its total lack of new ideas. Its one solid contribution to the improvement of the lot of the Soviet citizen may be that such an address will now be delivered once in five years Instead of every four years as heretofore. All ed's report on Brezhnev's address along the above general lines, using appropriate materials as indicated. Senator CASE. 1 am very happy indeed to have had the participation of my senior colleague and to have received his thoughts. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 20 - PURPOSE OF PROPOSED LEGISLATION Mr. Chairman, so far as I am concerned, this matter started actively in January of this year when I, introduced a short bill to provide for open financing of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. The purpose of the bill was to bring out and terminate the covert governmental support for the two radio stations. CIA had been financ ng most of their costs for about 20 years, and I had become increas- ngly uneasy about CIA funding, although I recognized that at the outset clandestine support was probably necessary. After I introduced my bill, the Department of State put the matter under study. Representative Reid and I had many discussions with State's representatives, who were most diligent and cooperative in working out what I think is a good solution. I am introducing the administration bill, as Representative Reid is, today; and I look forward to working with the committee in per- fecting it. I agree with Representative Reid that some of the directors of this new body should be appointed by others than the President. I think Congress ought to participate as to appointments as well as con- firmation. I think this is a very good idea. I think we need assurance that CIA participation in the station is going to be terminated, and I agree in that respect with what Mr. Reid has said. I think that we ought to limit the money appropriated to this body, the American Council, if that be the name given It in the final legisla- tion, to the use of only Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty unless further authorization is granted by Congress. I would expect the ad- ministration would follow that policy. I congratulate the administration, and I'm very happy to have this matter placed before our committee for its consideration. I hope. after the committee does its usual fine job of perfecting the legislation, that it will come up with a favorable recommendation. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. The, CILaIRM AN. Senator Spong. Senator SPONG. I have no questions, Mr. Chairman. The CHAIRMAN. Senator Sparkman. SOVIET BLOC PRESSURE ON STATIONS Senator SPARKMAN. Mr. Congressman, what kind of pressure has the Soviet Union and the bloccountries brought to bear on Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty? Mr. REID. My understanding, Senator Sparkman, is, from time to time, the Soviet Union has raised this question, both informally and formally, with the United States, and most recently in connection with Soviet participation in the Olympics. I believe there has been some question as to whether certain countries would participate in the Olympics if these stations continued. I think this may be more in the nature of a threat than a reality, but ; from time to time, both by virtue of their comments and by virtue of their jamming, I think the Soviet Union has indicated strong irritation at some of the endeavors of these two stations. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 21 Senator SPARKMAN. Have they brought pressure also upon the Ger- man Government about the renewal of the permit? Mr. REID. My understanding is they raised this from time to time with the German Government. Senator SPARKMAN. There was a story in the Washington Star in July of last year, in which it was stated that there were indications that they would press pretty heavily upon the West German Govern- ment against the renewal of the permit. SIMILAR RUSSIAN STATIONS Does Russia have any similar stations in which she beams messages to the West? Mr. REID. I think some of them are roughly analogous, and I think there are some that are clandestine as well as open. Nonetheless, it seems to me the question is raised as to whether these stations essen- tially report the news or whether we are going beyond that in trying to effect policy changes within these governments, and this is the area that I think the committee and the new Board, if this Council comes into being, should look at very carefully. It is one thing to report news that people should have access to, but it is quite another to further the policy objectives of particular admin- istrations through the vehicles of these stations to the extent that that is true. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STATIONS AND VOICE OF AMERICA Senator SPARKMAN. What is the difference between what these sta- tions do and what the Voice of America does? Mr. REID. Well, my understanding, which is somewhat inexact, is that Voice of America carries the official U.S. position on aal dpal icy questions, whereas the other two stations broadcast a b material that they feel should be fully reported in the several countries. The breakdown is 16-percent news, about 34-percent commentary. I have some of the news analyses and commentary here. I think the news is pretty balanced and straightforward. The analyses would indi- cate what various points of view might be relative to a change of gov- ernment in Germany or to ping-pong diplomacy, in matters of that kind. The balance is sports and music. Senator SPARKMAN. I may say that I have had the privilege of visit- ing Radio Free Europe and spent a little time there. I saw it in opera- tion and talked with the officials and with some of the people who, were doing the reporting. I was very much impressed with it. I am pleased that you have come before us to make this presentation. OBJECTIVITY OF RADIO FREE EUROPE'S REPORTING You served in Europe' in connection with the Herald Tribune, did you not? Mr. REID. Yes, Senator Sparkman, I did. Senator SPARKMAN. You know something about the crossfires that build up among the nations that way. You know something about ob- jective reporting. Do you consider Radio Free Europe to be doing objective reporting? Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 22 Mr. REID. I think the news presentation, from what I can see of the files that have, been made available to me, is straightforward and ex- cellent. I think the analysis and commentary is reflective of certain U.S. policy positions at times, and is quite heavyhanded in terms of editorializing. I would give a high rating to news and not as good a rating to the commentary portions of the two stations. WITNESS' SERVICE IN ISRAEL Senator SPARKMAN. You served as Ambassador to Israel also? Mr. REID. Yes, Senator Sparkman. I particularly enjoyed your visit. Senator SPARKMAN. I remember visiting there when you were the Ambassador. Mr. REID. It was an official visit when you put in almost as much time as the chairman. Senator SPARKMAN. We went without our sport shirts down into the desert. QUESTIONS CONCERNING PROGRAMS BY DIFFERENT GOVERNMENTS Is there any question, taking your experience in Israel, with refer- ence to radio programs or news programs or whatever there may be put on by different governments of the world? Mr. REID. Yes, I think there are some very real questions, and I felt that some of the broadcast in the Near East, which were frequently clandestine, did not lower the political climate or enhance diplomatic options, and that is why I think this kind of entity is much better in the private sector with men exercising independent judgment. That is why, as a principle, I feel that the stations should deal essentially with news and lean quite lightly on editorializing and comment, because if we get into that area, it seems to me, we are doing something that other stations in other countries have done, involving ourselves to some degree in internal domestic affairs. No matter how much we may seek to avoid that, that is why I was a bit concerned when I looked at some of the guidances from Washington and from Munich to these stations, because it did not seem to me that it was entirely free from some edi- torial suggestions; this scenario is something which the committee should very properly look at as to what is the fundamental role. The role of announcing news and enhancing the flow of ideas in the culture and arts and education is one thing. The setup of stations to further implement U.S. policy objectives, or to undermine certain governments in other countries, it seems Ito me, is entering a different area and, perhaps, a questionable one. Senator SPARKMAN. Thank you very much. The CIIAIRMAN. Thank you very much, Congressman Reid. Mr. REID. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. PURPOSE OF U.S. BROADCASTS TO EASTERN EUROPE Senator CASE. There is one point I would like to pursue with Con- gressman Reid. I wonder if you would agree with me, and I rather suspect you would, that it is not embarrassing to be asked why we broadcast to Eastern Europe. I am not a bit embarrassed about this Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 23 because I agree with you fully that the purpose of this station Should not be to propagandize or to editorialize, but rather to be sure that the Russian and other Eastern European peoples have facts about what is going on in the world, and in many cases.what is going on in their own countries. When an open society like the United States deals with a. closed society, the conditions for peace and understanding do not exist when the closed society limits the information that its people receive. This is an entirely unfortunate circumstance and one which cannot in the long run be conducive to peaceful relations or peace in the world. To attempt to broaden the understanding of all people, as Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty ideally do, would seem to me to require no apologies. Mr. REID. Senator Case, I agree 110 percent with that. It seems to me when the United States proceeds to open funding and pursues a policy of open communication, we can do it quite well. When we get into areas that are clandestine and murky and not subject to con- ggressional scrutiny, and frequently involving ourselves in matters we should not get into, we do it sometimes not well and, at other times, badly, and I think the strength of this proposal is free, open communication. Senator CASE. Thank you very much. Mr. REID. Thank you very much, Senator, and again my compli- ments on your initiatives in this regard. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. The CHAIRMAN. The next witness is Assistant Secretary Martin J. IIillenbrand, Department of European Affairs, Department of State. Mr. IIillenbrand, do you have a prepared statement? Mr. IIILLLNERAND. Yes, I do, Mr. Chairman. The CHAIRMAN. Will you proceed, please, Sir. STATEMENT OF MARTIN 1. HILLENBRAND, ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE FOR EUROPEAN AFFAIRS Mr. HILLENBRAND. I appreciate the opportunity to testify on this bill to provide for the establishment of a corporation to be called the American Council for Private International Communications, Inc., which will support private American organizations active in the field ,of communication with foreign peoples. This proposal has the full sup- port of Secretary Rogers. ACTIVITIES AND APPOINTMENT Or COUNCIL The Council as it is conceived would make grants to eligible media from funds appropriated by the Congress. The private nature of the Council is designed to enable the media which it supports to fulfill their role as objective reporters and independent commentators, not as spokesmen for the U.S. Government. The Chairman of the Board of the Council would be appointed by the President, as would the Vice Chairman and the other nine mem- bers. All would be selected for their ability to ensure the disbursement of grants in the national interest. The Board would be responsible for assuring that the officers of the Council established adequate liaison with the Department of State. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 The Council would annually account to the Congress and its respon- sible committees for the proper use of grants the Council makes. Through the involvement and interest of the Council's Board mem- bers, all of whom would be appointed from private life, the Coun- cil would be able to determine that activities of the grantees were. ex- clusively those appropriate to mass-media operations for which they were funded, including news gathering and analysis. It is foreseen that the Council would use its appropriation primarily to grant funds to two existing private broadcasting corporations, Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, which are incorporated respectively in the States of New York and Delaware and which have obtained licenses abroad to transmit programs in their capacity as private organizations. IMPORTANCE OF RADIOS TO LISTENERS AND THE OTHER PEOPLES I would like to review briefly with the committee the importance of these two radios to the peoples to whom they broadcast and their value- to other peoples, including our own who share the view that an informed public is a safeguard of people. I would like especially to underline how important it is that these stations retain their private character. In regard to the significance of these radios, a principal source for my remarks are my personal observations and those of my colleagues who have served in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. I know of few matters related to this geographic area on which there is such a degree of agreement among us who have served in that area as on the beneficial and constructive roles of Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe. The service of each radio is in essence the same. Radio Liberty provides to the Soviet. Union and Radio Free Europe to most of East- ern Europe a large volume of information sand commentary which the peoples of those countries do not receivefrom other sources, but which they need in order to make informed judgments on public issues. Do- mestic media in the U.S.S.R. and Eastern Europe speak with a single voice, commonly omitting or distorting coverage of events about which the, public has every need to know. In place of full news ac- counts, questioning editorials, and independent commentary, the daily fare never challenges policies or goals set, by the government nor asks how wisely the public's money is being spent. A public so deprived of essential information has difficulty finding ways to promote. its own interests with respect either to domestic or to foreign issues. It is true that international radio services which function as agen- cies of various governments-the Voice of America, BBC, Deutsche Welle, Radiotransmission et Diffusion Francaise, and others-fill a part of this information void. However, out of well-founded diplo- matic considerations, such official government radios must take care to avoid the charge of interference in the internal affairs of other nations. In my view, there are no fundamental conflicts of interests between the American people and the peoples of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. In many respects, the interest of all these people can be seen to converge. For them as well as for us, large resources which could be allocated to meet human needs are siphoned off for the purposes of other policies. It seems a reasonable assumption that under any sys- Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 tem an informed public can better alter this situation in the interest of its own welfare than can an uninformed public. I am convinced, as are many of my colleagues, that the input of information by the radios into the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe strengthens the ability of these people to promote. their own general welfare. If these peoples do improve their own welfare, it will be possible for us further to reorder our own priorities to the benefit of the American public. RADIOS' SUCCESS IN FULFILLING THEIR PURPOSE Further, let me stress that the sole purpose of the radios is to dis- seminate information and to present analyses of that information which are thoughtful and responsible. Those of ,us who have lived in the reception areas credit the radios with a large measure of success in fulfilling their purpose. This success is borne out by the large lis- tenerships which the radios have attracted. RFE broadcasts in the ap- propriate language 18 hours a day to Poland, 19 to Czechoslovakia, 18 to Hungary, 12 to Romania., and 71/2 to Bulgaria. The result of thou. sands of interviews conducted by professional, independent polling or- ganizations with visitors from Eastern Europe in the recent past in- dicate that the RFE audience in the five countries named above is at least 30 million persons. This is about one-half of the total adult pop- ulation. In certain countries during periods of crises the percentage of listeners has shot up dramatically to 80 or 90 percent of the pop- ulation over the age of 14. I should add that these large audiences have been developed notwithstanding extensive efforts to jam broad- casts. A significant proportion of the broadcasts gets through even where efforts are made to jam them because the effectiveness of the jamming varies with the time and place, and because of the tenacity of the listeners. Radio Liberty broadcasts 24 hours a day in Russian, 10 in Byelo- russian, 13 in Ukrainian, 4 in Armenian, 4 in Azerbaijani, 4 in Geor- gian, 4 in North Caucasian languages, 4 in Tatar-Bashkir, and 4 in Turkestani languages. While it is more difficult to arrive at an accu- rate estimate of the actual size of Radio Liberty's listenership, an indi- cation of its effectiveness is the effort made by the Soviet Government since 1953 to jam around the clock all Radio Liberty frequencies. It is estimated that the jamming network costs the Soviets over six times as much annually to operate as the annual budget of Radio Liberty itself. While estimates of the number of Radio Liberty listeners are of necessity less precise than those for Radio Free Europe, there is extensive corroborative evidence which shows that, like Radio Free Europe, it has a large and tenacious audience. The costly effort of jamming itself is a clear indicator as are the thousands of references to the programs of Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe in the Soviet and Eastern European press. Also, each year, several thousands of let- ters addressed to Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe get past-or around-the censor or are sent to them by listeners traveling in the West. In these, there is an oft-repeated refrain : "Everybody around here listens to your program." This may be an exaggeration, but it gives some idea of how widely the broadcasts of these radios are lis- tened to. Further evidence comes from foreigners living and working Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 GOAL FOR WIIICII RADIOS ARE WORKING Mr. Chairman, we are at a point in the evolution of events in Europe at which we have, perhaps, significant opportunities for meaningful negotiation. This is a welcome situation. But we must bear in mind that our quadripartite negotiations for improvement of the state of affairs in and around Berlin have not yet been successful after many months of discussion. We do not intend, however, to stop trying. Our SALT talks in Vienna have advanced to the point at which, as the President has said, we have agreed with the Soviet Government "to concentrate on working out an agreement for the limitation of deployment of antiballistic missile systems" and, together with that, "to agree on certain measures with respect to the limitation of offensive strategic weapons." It is our hope that we can agree with the Soviet Union on how to relate these issues and how to deal with them to mutual advantage. We now have the prospect of exploring another major issue-mutual balanced force reductions. Mr. Brezhnev has told us, however, that we must drink from that bottle before we find out what wine is in it. Much more than an atmosphere of negotiations is at stake in these opportunities. At stake is not only the accommodation of divergent Western and Soviet -governmental interests, but the basis on which that accommodation is to be reached. Will it be achieved on the basis of a recognized Soviet sphere of influence confronting the NATO alliance? Or will it be achieved on the basis of new and more secure relationships in Europe permitting individual countries to develop paired. in these countries, who confirm that these peoples depend on the radios and that a significant proportion of the broadcasts penetrate the jam- ming. One of my colleagues, fluent in Russian, who recently spent a 2-year tour in the Soviet Union, has said that in all his wide travels in that country he seldom met an individual who did not admit to lis- tening to Radio Liberty. IMPORTANCE OF PRESERVING RADIOS' PRIVATE CHARACTER The final point I would like to emphasize is the importance of the radios' preservation of their private character. I mentioned that, in contrast to international radios which are identified as government agencies, Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe are able to report and comment on the domestic affairs of other nations much as would any commercial medium operating in a democracy. This is the unique char- acter of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty and is the key to their continuing value, for the reasons I have given. Additionally, these radios are, in order to prolong their present transmitting licenses, obli- gated to their host governments to maintain their private character. In recent months, Soviet and Eastern European media have increased their attacks on the radios in an effort to dislodge them or at least seriously curtail their services. In reaction, considerable public and media support for the radios and the principles for which they stand has been evoked in Europe. That good will can best be preserved by enactment of the proposed legislation which will enable the radios to continue to function effectively with their private character unim- Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 natural and normal economic cultural and informatiopal links with each other? If the second alternative is realized, if a free and open exchange of information develops within and between the individual countries of Europe--the valuable private international media of which I have spoken will no longer have a valid function. This is the goal for which these radios are working. Until that goal is achieved, there is every reason to encourage Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty to continue in their present role. It is for this reason that I wish to stress, in conclusion, that the establishment of the American Council for Private International Communications will be an act fully compatible with the objectives which I believe you, Mr. Chairman, and the members of your com- mittee share with those of us who are engaged in implementing the President's desire to move from confrontation to negotiation. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. The CHAIRMAN. Thank .you, Mr. Secretary. Senator Sparkman.. RFE AND RL POLICY ORIENTATION Senator SPARKMAN. Mr. Secretary, what can you tell us about the policy orientation in Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty ? Has their policy orientation changed over the years? Has it, shall I say, mel- lowed? What is their objective? Mr. IIILLLENBRAND. I think one can say looking over the broadcasts over the years, that there has been a gradual shift away from the intensity of the confrontation which existed during the height of the cold war period to a more, let us say, equable facing of the news on a day-to-day basis. This we anticipate would continue on into the future. Under the new system, because the private personalities responsible for the broadcasts and for the operation of these stations would. have no reason for changing this, I would anticipate that the dissemination of accurate information about conditions in Eastern Europe and else- where would continue to be the primary function of the radios in the future. ATTITUDE OF COUNTRIES RECEIVING PROGRAMS Senator SPARKMAN. Do I understand correctly that there has been, perhaps, some mellowing by the countries to which the programs are beamed with reference to trying to black them out or to keep their people from listening to the different programs? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Some of the countries have abandoned jamming of Radio Free Europe. Some continue to jam it. The Soviet Union, as I indicated, does continue an extensive program of jamming Radio Liberty. Senator SPARKMAN. That is all, Mr. Chairman. The CHAIRMAN. Senator Aiken. RADIO IN AMERICAN SECTOR BERLIN Senator AIKEN. Mr. Ilillenbrand, as I understand it, there is a radio station in Berlin that is called RIAS. I do not know what it means. I suppose the capital "I" stands for "Information." The "RAS" is some- Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 thing else. That is supported partly by the United States and partly by Germany; is that correct ? Mr. HILLENBRAND. The broadcasting facility you are referring to, RIAS, Radio in American Sector Berlin, that is what the BIAS stands for Senator AIKEN. Thank you. Mr. HILLENBRAND (continuing). Is a jointly financed activity. The basic responsibility, however, for the operation of the station is that of the U.S. Government, which, particularly through its informa- tional services, continues to operate the radio in Berlin and continues to be responsible essentially for the programing and for the contents of the broadcasts. Senator AIIKEN. Do you mean the U.S. Government is responsible for the programing? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, through the information services of the USIA; that is correct. Obviously, this is not a private broadcasting serivice facility in Ber- lin. It is not at all analogous to Radio Free Europe or Radio Liberty. Senator AIKEN. Do you know what the German Government's figures have been? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I could provide those figures in executive session if you wish, Senator. Senator AIKEN. Could you send to the chairman of the committee how much it is costing both the United States and Germany in classi- fied form if it is secret information? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Yes, I can provide that. (The information referred to is classified and in the Committee files.) Senator AIKEN. Will the new organization operate RIAS or con- trol it in any way? Mr. HILLENBRAND. No. Senator AIKEN. It will not. Mr. HILLENBRAND. It will not. It will have nothing to do with BIAS. Senator AIKEN. Why is it that I have had complaints that BIAS sometimes broadcasts material which is not very complimentary to the United States? Do you know how that gets in there? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I am surprised to hear you say that because cer- tainly that would not Senator AIKEN. I am repeating a complaint I received from some- one who is very, very familiar with international broadcasting. Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, I cannot speak to specific broadcasts be- cause this would certainly not be the general purpose of BIAS, but it is possible that certain rebroadcast of editorials from the American press, which is a common practice among stations of this kind or re- broadcasts of news material which originated in the United States, might have contained certain derogatory remarks. This is quite con- ceivable. But until we had some specific cases it would be very dif- ficult to say what the reason for them was. Senator AIKEN. The next time I get one I will send it to you. Mr. HILLENBRAND. Fine. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 TOTAL INDEPENDENCE IN RUNNING RFE AND RL Senator AIKEN. You have been quoted recently in a prominent newspaper as saying you are not trying to close down RFE or RL, that they serve a useful purpose, but that you feel they should be run by a board totally independent of the Government. What do you mean by "totally independent of the Government" if the Government pays the bills? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Did I understand you correctly to say that I had been quoted? Senator AIKEN. You are quoted as saying : We are not trying to close down RFE or RL. They serve a useful purpose, but we feel they should be run by a board totally independent of the government. That quotation is found in the New York Times. I am informed that it was not you but Congressman Reid who said that. I will go on from that. Senator CASE. It sounds like a pretty good statement anyway. You might adopt it. Senator AIKEN. I guess that was for Congressman Reid, that ques- tion, and I won't ask him to answer now. Under the administration's bill, does GAO audit Radio Free Eu- rope or Radio Liberty or could it audit only the operations of the Council? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, under the bill the auditing by GAO would be limited to that of the Council. But, presumably, it could work out a relationship with the Council so that information which Congress needed to have in judging as to the appropriateness of use of the moneys that it was appropriating, we really do not know. But the bill provides for auditing by GAO of the Council. Senatyor AIKEN. I understand that RFE and RL have been financed not onl by contributions from the CIA, but also by private contribu- tions. Is that correct? Mr. HILLENBRAND. That is correct. Senator AIKEN. What was the nature of the private contributors? Were they mostly individuals? Mr. HILLENBRAND. It has varied. There have been annual fund-rais- ing campaigns for many years in this country. In recent years, I think the tendency has been to move away from sensational and rather elabo- rate fund-raising campaigns to try to tap corporate funds and large contributors. But there is nothing inherent in the process which makes one or the other of these methods better. Senator AIKEN. Large contributors having a particular interest in the affairs of Europe, East and West. Mr. HILLENBRAND. I think so, yes. Senator AIKEN. It would be banks and manufacturing concerns? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Manufacturing concerns, concerns that have ex- tensive export interests and so on. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Senator AIKEN. Yes. Any foundations? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I do not believe there have been any foundations, but I may be wrong on that. That is something I could check. But, generally, there BROADCASTS AS CONSIDERATION AT SALT Senator AIKEN. I also understand that this matter of public relations radio broadcasts could well be considered in the light of or influence the SALT talks, which are impending with a promise of something like good results coming from them. Could the matter of broadcasts also become part of your SALT talks? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, this hardly seems likely since the SALT talks are dealing with the question of strategic arms limitations. We have, of course, as I indicated, had complaints from various coun- tries of Eastern Europe about the activities of these radios, but these have been of a moderate sort because I think it is understood there are set rules of the game here and the Soviet Union maintains much more extensive broadcasting facilities of an allegedly private nature to supplement their official broadcasts which are beamed to many, many countries of the Western World, including the United States. For example, Radio Peace and Progress, which broadcasts out of Moscow, is one of these, so that I do not believe, if the direction of your question was to imply that there might be some interference with these negotiations because of the existence of the radios, that this would be a significant factor. COST TO JAM POSSIBLE RUSSIAN BROADCASTS COVERING UNITED STATES Senator AIKEN. You said that it cost Russia seven or eight times as much to jam our programs as it cost us to broadcast them. Suppose they established a broadcasting station in some place where it could well cover the United States. Would it cost us seven or eight times as much to jam their programs as it would cost them to send them ? Mr. HILLENBRAND. lain not quite sure what the technology would be here, but certainly we would not be interested in jamming them because we do not engage in jamming' broad.nsts beamed at the United States. LICENSING OF U.S. BROADCAST FACILITIES iN EUROPE Senator AIKEN. iVe have broadcast facilities in several countries in Europe. Mr. HILLENBRAND. The transmitters of Radio Free Europe are the shortwave transmitters located-10 in Germany and 18 in Portugal. There is also a medium wave transmitter in Germany. As for Radio Liberty transmitters, there are eight for shortwave in Germany, six in Spain, and three, in Taiwan, on which time is leased. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Senator AIKEN. Are these broadcast stations licensed by the coun- tries in which they are located? If they were broadcasting openly as U.S. Government radio stations, would they still be,licensed? Mr. HILLENBRAND. They are licensed by the host, country. and the licenses are granted ? to these radios as private operations. So any .attempt by the United States to engage in such broadcasts would require relicensing ab initio. Of course, it would be merely one of the disadvantages of any direct U.S. Government involvement in this kind of activity. Senator ATiKEN. Do you feel that if the proposed legislation were enacted into law, the licensing of these stations would not be, perhaps, so open to question as it is now ? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, the licensing, the licenses, are continuingly valid, and there is nothing in this legislation that would change the nature of these stations' operations abroad, and, therefore, presumably relicensing would not be necessary. SSenator ATKEN. They would be licensed the same as they are now. Mr. IITLLENBnAND. That is right. - Senator AIKEN. I think that is all. The CHAIRMAN. Senator Case? Senator CASE. Thank you. Mr. Secretary, it is nice to have you up here, and I want to express my personal appreciation to you for your efforts in this matter. We have been carrying on discussions with you on RFE and, RIB for several 'months, and- I am grateful for your cooperation. Mr. HILLENBRAND. Thank you. LIMITATION OF APPROPRIATED PIINDS FOR Rrr AND RL Senator CASE. Neither Radio Free Europe' nor Radio Liberty is mentioned in the administration bill, whit Ave plan to introduce today. Of course, we all understand that these two stations would get their money from the new Council, the American Council for Private .International Communications. Can you state for the administration that the money presumably to be appropriated by the Council would be given only to RFE and RL unless Congress specifically authorizes otherwise? Mr. HILLENBRAND. That is the intent, and Congress would have sufficient safeguarding authority in the procedures which the bill contains to prevent any other use of these funds unless it were willing to,aut.horize them. There is nothing in the bill which would make it inherently impossible if Congress agrees. Senator CASE. I understand, but in the- absence of additional con- gressional authorization, money for the American Council will only go to RFE and RL. - Mr. HILLENBRAND. That is correct. Senator CASE. You would expect to come to Congress if that intent were changed? - - Mr. HILLENBRAND. That is correct. Senator CASE. I am very happy to have that assurance. (The following information was subsequently supplied:) Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 DEPARTMENT OF STATE VIEWS ON THE ExPENDITURE or $40 MILLION SOUGHT FOR AMERICAN COUNCIL FOR INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS, INC. The sum originally requested for the Council was $40 million. It is estimated that $21,706,000 would be granted to Radio Free Europe and $14,460,000 to Radio Liberty. A substantial part of this total estimated expenditures of $36.2 million is in German Marks. The $36.2 million estimate is based on the rate of $1-3.6.6 DM, the previous fixed rate. As the dollar relationship to the mark "floats," it is not easy to predict exactly what the dollar cost of the operations of the Radios in FY 1972 will be. Certainly it will not be less than $36.2 million- very possibly it will be 3--4a/o more. For each one percent drop in the exchange rate, the annual costs of Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe rise an approx- imate $300,000. There will be an additional amount of approximately $500,000 annually required for the operations of the American Council for International Commu- nications, Inc. Inasmuch as the Council, if established according to the proposed legislation, would be empowered to consider grants to other grantees in the field of private international communications, some funds for the examination of such projects and for small initial grants were envisaged. Should the Congress desire that, until the next authorization, the Council make grants only to Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, such funds would not be required. BROADER BASE FOR APPOINTMENTS TO BOARD Senator CASE. I wonder if there would be any objection from the administration if the Board of the American Council were somewhat more broadly based in its appointment, perhaps including nominees by the Speaker of the House and President pro teinpore of the Senate, so as to strengthen the separation between the Government of the United States, as such, and the corporation? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, in setting up this system, we were draw- ing essentially on the experience in the legislation which established the Corporation for Public Broadcastin , and Overseas Private In- vestment Corp. Obviously, there is nothing inherently or intrinsi- cally necessary about this system. It seems to have worked pretty well in these cases, and we think we have provided safeguards for congressional control at all points along the way. On the other hand, if the Congress feels that this is a desirable change in the legislation, perhaps this could be further discussed at the time when the appropriate committees are considering amend- ments. Senator CASE. Thank you, sir. ANNUAL AUTHORIZATION OF AMERICAN COUNCIL APPROPRIATION One of the questions that affects us and to which this committee is properly sensitive and alert, is whether, in foreign policy matters, this committee's jurisdiction should not be strengthened. To that end what would be the administration position on whether the American Council's appropriation should not be authorized each year instead of being scrutinized only as a regular proposition by the Appropria- tions Committees of Congress. I wonder if you think there would be any problem in providing in the legislation before us that the American Council's authorization as well as apppropriation of funds be considered annually? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, once again, we thought we had built enough safeguards into the procedures. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 33 Senator CASE. You are looking at Congress as a whole, and we are looking at Congress internally in its various functioning instrumentali- ties. Perhaps it is not a fair question for you, but let me ask it this way : You would have no difficulty in coming to this committee and discussing annually the operations of this Council, would you? Mr. IIILLENBRAND. Well, there was certainly no intent to avoid any particular part of Congress. Senator CASE. I understand. And you would have no difficulty if the authorization had to be renewed annually? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I think we could face that. Senator CASE. You think you could face that. You are very nice to put it that way, and I will accept that as as much of an assurance from you as I can get. I think that covers the questions that have not been already covered by my colleagues or by you in your direct presentation. I again want to express my appreciation to you and your associates in the Depart- ment for your cooperation. Mr. HILLENBRAND. Thank you, Senator. Senator CASE. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. PURPOSE OF ORIGINAL BILL The CHAIRMAN. When the Senator from New Jersey, Senator Case, introduced his original bill I thought the sole purpose was to put on the public record the truth about the appropriations bill for the fund- ing of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, of which purpose I thoroughly approve. HAVE OTIIER GOVERNMENT AGENCIES CONTRIBUTED TO OPERATION? Could you tell us, Mr. Hillenbrand, is the CIA the only Govern- ment agency which has directly contributed to the operation of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty? Has the State Department or any other agency contributed? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I can assure you that the State Department did not. Perhaps this is something, the past history here, which could best be most fully discussed in an executive session. The CHAIRMAN. Why, Mr. Hillenbrand? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, because there are certain sensitivities here which involve other governments as well as our own. The CHAIRMAN. The sensitivity, as far as I am concerned, is your disposition to conceal everything from this committee. STATE DEPARTMENT REFUSAL OF BERLIN TROOP COSTS TO GAO I was very offended at your refusal to allow the Government Ac- counting Office, working under the direction of this committee, access to the records of the cost of supporting our troops in Berlin and the contributions by the Germans. Could you explain why you did that? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, I might say to begin with, that this whole matter is now under intensive review, and we hope to be able to com- municate with you further on the subject in the near future. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 34 The C13:1IRMAN. You communicated already. I had an official re- sponse from the GAO that you had directed your office to refuse to make available to the GAO these figures. Is that not correct? Mr. HILLENBRAND. That is correct. The CHAIRMAN. Why not explain it now? What is the reason for that? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, the reason--the reasons which were con- tained in the letter to the head of General Accounting Office had to do with the essentially tripartite nature of the funding process for Berlin occupation costs, and the fact this was not a unilateral Amer- ican program. Moreover, there were a number of sensitive aspects to the question which our Ambassador in Bonn felt were overriding. Moreover, this is not primarily a matter for the State Department, but of other Gov- ernment departments, and we had to take into consideration the atti- tude of those departments. Those :are the basic reasons of the negative position which I took in this letter. Now, as I say, we are reconsidering whether in the light of your communication and the other objections that have been raised, whether we cannot perhaps, adopt a different attitude. But I am not yet in position to speak on behalf of the U.S. Government on this matter. The CHAIRMAN. It is American money, about which we were ask- ing, not what other governments put in. The essential point was whether or not the Germans maintain their fair agreed-upon con- tribution to the support of those troops. It did not concern other governments. We only asked how much our taxpayers were required to put into this operation. It never occurs to you that the Conress and this committee are also sensitive to the present tendency ogf the State Department, as has always been true of some of the others, to refuse to give us information. Does it ever occur to you that we are sensitive, too, about being hornswoggled by the departments? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, I believe that the information which this committee would want in this particular area of activity could be provided. The CHAIRMAN. It was not provided. It was refused to the GAO. That is the proper agency of the Congress to know this. I do not think it is at all proper for you to take this arrogant attitude that we are not entitled to know how the money, which we'iave voted, is spent. I do not think this deception is acceptable. I see no reason whatever for your refusing the Congress, who has to appropriate the money and has appropriated it, and saying, "No, we can't give the GAO that." Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, the moneys involved here, of course, were not appropriated by the Congress. They were The CHAIRMTAN. They were not? Mr. HILLENBRAND. They, in this particular case, were provided by the German authorities under the Berlin occupancy cost budget. The CHAIRMAN. But the agreement was to pay the costs of our oc- cupation forces in Berlin; was it not? Mr. HILLENBRAND. That is correct. The CHAIRMAN. If they don't pay it, it has to come out of the Con- gress ; doesn't it? Mr. HILLENBRAND. That is right, if they don't pay it, but they are paying. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 35 The CHAIRMAN. How do we know it? This is just the point. You refused to allow the GAO to see whether they are paying it or not. We cannot take your word on faith always, because we have been deceived too often. I think, occasionally, you should allow our people: to have access to the facts. I do not think it is acceptable that if the Germans do not pay it we have to pay it eventually. Somebody has to pay for those troops. This matter does not involve only this committee. There are at least 36 Members of the Senate who think we spend too much for the other forces, too. Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, Mr. Chairman, all I can say at this point is that I hope we would be able to communicate with you shortly fur- ther on this subject. The CHAIRMAN. I have no doubt you will send another letter saying for other reasons you won't make the figures available. That is what you usually do. I do not deny you are reconsidering it, but I do not like it. It casts a grave question about any new operation with which you could do the same thing. VOA BUDGET AND SIMILARITY OF OPERATIONS, Mr. Hillenbrand, how much is the Voice of America budget? Could you give us those figures? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I think I can get them for you. The CHAIRMAN. I think it is relevant to this because is not the Voice of America doing very much the same thing as Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty? Mr. HILLENBRAND. While I try to produce the figures I will answer the second portion of your question first, if I may, Mr. Chairman. Ac- tually, the answer is "No," because of the legislative authority which provides for VOA Operations. The VOA is essentially committed to providing information about the United States, its people and the policies of the U.S. Government. It does not purport to deal with what is happening in third countries, except to the degree that this is merely a question of the news ticker. The CHAIRMAN. It does not purport to give news? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Yes; but it does not have the facilities or the purpose to try to find out the details about what is happening in third countries, countries of Eastern Europe in this case, and to broadcast these details. For one thing, it does not have the extensive foreign language facilities. Its foreign language broadcasts in the course of a week to some of the countries in Eastern Europe are hardly equal to one day's broadcasting of Radio Free Europe. The two operations are completely disparate in nature. The CHAIRMAN. Don't we have a transmitter in the Mediterranean that can reach all of Eastern Europe, including Russia, under the di- rection of VOA? Mr. HILLENBRAND. We have the transmitting capacity. The CHAIRMAN. I will give you the figures. In 1971, the Voice of America budget estimate is $41,459,000; in 1970, it was $39,980,000; in 1969, it was $36,494,000; in 1968, it was $33,612,000; in 1967, it was $31,977,000. The 1970 figure is approximately what you are asking if these stations are to be continued they ought be a part of the annual appropriations. That is out in the open and it is public. But now you come up with a very interesting device for concealing the matter once again. You probably will conceal it and say it is for executive session only. We are going to pretend this is under private direction. Senator CASE. Mr. Chairman, may I interrupt? The CHAIRMAN. It will not be. I do not like the turn this has taken. I would support simply putting a line item in an appropriation bill and fighting it out. Are we willing to continue to proliferate the prop- aganda agencies on which we spend many millions of dollars, a great 1deal more money than we will spend on the legitimate information, educational-I mean radio domestically. I think it has taken a turn hich I did not anticipate. This device of a board which you appoint and which reports to you not, in my opinion, going to give the Congress and the public any eater knowledge or understanding or opportunity to control it. t""81 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 35 STATE DEPARTMENT REFUSAL OF BERLIN TROOP FIGURES TO GAO The CHAIRMAN. How do we know it? This is just the point. You refused to allow the GAO -to see whether they are paying it or not. We cannot take your word on faith always, because we have been deceived too often. I think, occasionally, you should allow our people to have access to the facts. I do not think it is acceptable. that if the Germans do not pay it we have to pay it eventually. Somebody has to pay for those troops. This matter does not involve only this committee. There are at least 36 Members of the Senate who think we spend too much for the other forces, too. Mr. IIIa LENBRAND. Well, Mr. Chairman, all I can say at this point is that I hope we would be able to communicate with you shortly fur- ther on this subject. The CHAIRMAN. I have no doubt you will send another letter saying for other reasons you won't make the figures available. That is what you usually do. I do not deny you are reconsidering it, but I do not like it. It casts a grave question about any new operation with which you could do the same.tlnng. Mr. Hillenbrand, how much is the Voice of America budget? Could you give us those figures ? W. HILLENBRAND. I think I can get them for you. The CII AIRMAN. I think it is relevant to this because is not the Voice of America doing very much the same thing as Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty ? Mr. HILLENBRAND. While I try to produce the figures I will answer the second portion of your question first, if I may, Mr. Chairman, Ac- tually, the answer is "No," because of the legislative authority which provides for VOA operations. The VOA is essentially committed to providing information about the United States, its people and the policies of the U.S. Government. It does not purport to deal with what is happening in third countries, except to the degree that this is merely a question of the news ticker. The CHAIRMAN. It does not purport to give news? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Yes; but it does not have the facilities or the purpose to try to find out the details about what is happening in third countries, countries of Eastern Europe in this case, and to broadcast these details. For one thing, it does not have the extensive foreign language facilities. Its foreign language broadcasts in the course of a week to some of the countries in Eastern Europe are hardly equal to one day's broadcasting of Radio Free Europe. The two operations are completely disparate in nature. The CHAIRMAN. Don't we have a transmitter in the Mediterranean that can reach all of Eastern Europe, including Russia, under the di- rection of VOA? Mr. HILLENBRAND. We have the transmitting capacity. The CHAIRMAN. I will give you the figures. In 1971, the Voice of America budget estimate is $41,459,000; in 1970, it was $39,980,000; in 1969, it was $36,494,000; in 1968, it was $33,612,000; in 1967, it was $31,977,000. The 1970 figure is approximately what you are asking Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 now for the continuation of Radio Free Europe and RL and any other. Actually, this bill is open-ended. You can finance anybody who wished to use these facilities if you saw fit. Mr. HILLENBRAND. If Congress saw fit. The CHAIRMAN. If the Board which you create saw fit, really; that is, in the operations of it. This is about the same amount. I cannot see anything this organiza- tion could do that VOA cannot do. VOA has the transmitters already. I think on the Island of Rhodes, or nearby, it has the transmitters which will reach all of this area. The VOA, actually, can reach pretty nearly every place in the world; can it not? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, it can reach those areas to which it is inter- ested in broadcasting. The CHAIRMAN. It has the capacity to do it if it wishes. You made a comparison with the National Education Television or maybe Mr. Reid did. Do you know how much the Government con- tributes to the upkeep of the NET? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Upkeep of what? The CHAIRMAN. It is our domestic public broadcasting. We usually call it the NET. Have you ever heard it called the NET? Mr. HILLENBRAND. No, I have not heard the terin NET. The Edu- cational Network; yes. The CHAIRMAN. Yes. Mr. HILLENBRAND. Channel 26, yes; I have. I would have to get those figures for you, Mr. Chairman. The CHAIRMAN. They are substantially less than you are asking for this, I believe. Mr. HILLENBRAND I think that is probably correct. The CHAIRMAN. Very substantially less. I think the budget estimate for fiscal year 1972 is about $31 million. It has not been nearly that large. PRIVA'I'E CHARACTER of RFF. AND RI, DENIED Several times in your statement you emphasized the private nature of RFE and RL; did you not? You want to preserve the private character. In your statement, you say you wish to emphasize the im- portance of the radios' preservation of their private character. How can you say that? Do you consider that the RFE and the RL are private in character? Mr. HILLENBRAND. They are private corporations which have been incorporated in States of the United States. The CHAIRMAN. I know the corporation is, but is the operation private? Who directs the operation policy of RFE and RL? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, there is a board of directors who sit in New York. The CHAIRMAN. Who appoints them? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Made up to some degree of very distinguished L Americans, such as General Clay and so on, who have--- The CHAIRMAN. Is there anybody from the CIA connected with the direction of the operation of the RFE ? Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, Mr. Chairman, I would be happy to give you that information in executive session. The CHAIRMAN. I do not think it is acceptable in anything else. The Senator from New Jersey, in introducing this bill, said it has been pretended that it was private all of these years and everybody knows it is not. It has been common knowledge that it is not, and now you insist that it is private. You tell us you will give it to us in execu- tive session. I do not understand this, and I do not think it is accept- able that you continue to say this is private when it is common knowl- edge it is not private. Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, of course, one of the essential purposes of the new legislation is to put the whole operation on a new basis. The CHAIRMAN. But it won't be private. I don't know why you keep emphasizing private. How can it be private when it is to be entirely financed with Government funds?, Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, we have the analogy of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, the Overseas Private Investment Corpora- tion, which likewise The CIAIRMAN. I do not know anybody who is going around and insisting that the NET is private. It is public knowledge that it is not and we all admit it and we appropriate money for it. Nobody pretends it is supported by private means. But the LIFE has been a deception to the American public all along. Your ads used to always carry the idea this was a private operation. For many years, no one could know that the CIA was paying for it and directing it. I consider that it was a deception. It was part of the attern of deception of the people. Innocent people made contributions o it, thinking it was a private operation. But I think it is high time hat it be made public. If we are to understand how this operation. is going to be made and carried on, 'I think we have to understand how financing that would be carried on. If this is going to continue to pretend to be private when, actually, it was not private, it is just the continuation of a deception. FUTURE PUBLIC NATURE OF RFE AND RL DOUBTED I told Senator Case originally that I supported strongly his idea that if these stations are to be continued they ought be a part of the annual appropriations. That is out in the open and it is public. But now you come up with a very interesting device for concealing the matter once again. You probably will conceal it and say it is for executive session only. We are going to pretend this is under private direction. Senator CASE. Mr. Chairman, may I interrupt? The CHAIRMAN. It will not be. I do not like the turn this has taken. I would support simply putting a line item in an appropriation bill and fighting it out. Are we willing to continue to proliferate the prop- I agencies on which we spend many millions of dollars, a great deal more money than we will spend on the legitimate information, educational-I mean radio domestically. I think it has taken a turn which I did not anticipate. This device of a board which you appoint and which reports to you is not, in my opinion, going to give the Congress and the public any greater knowledge or understanding or opportunity to control it. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Senator CASE. Mr. Chairman, may I make a statement here just to clarify my own position, since the chairman has raised a question of a possible divergence which I do not think we need to have? The CHAIRMAN. Yes, I yield. Senator CASE. As the chairman said at the outset, I was deeply con- erned that the Government should no longer continue in a covert 4peration. 1 The CHAIRMAN. That is right. That is what you said. Senator CASE. And I still maintain that. The CHAIRMAN. I think this device which they have come up with is simply creating an agency in which this is possible. Senator CASE. Now, the Government is not going to be engaged in a covert operation because we will be spending the money openly for these two radios. The question arises then of their day-to-day operation and here I think it is desirable to eliminate as far as possible the direction and selection of news from the control of the operating arm of the Govern- ment of the United States, the State Department, the CIA, or from the President, himself. This is why I have felt that the effort made with the American Council as a Government supported but inde- pendently operated agency was desirable. But the Congress has the right to know how the money should be spent and I would be one of the first to insist on this. One of my ob- jectives in my questioning earlier was to assure that the annual author- ization of this money be in the hands of the Foreign Relations Com-i mittee, so we could see that it was being well spent. FUTURE POLICY SUPERVISION OF RADIOS The CHAIRMAN. In the State Department's background statement The CHAIRMAN. It will not be. I do not like the turn this has taken. that they supplied us, they make this statement on. This is the official State Department statement which says : While the Corporation would be private and not a federal agency, there would be sufficient provision for policy supervision to assure that the radios will continue to work in directions compatible with U.S. foreign policy interests. In other words, everything will have to be cleared by the State De- partment and those who wish to preserve the cold war atmosphere could, of course, insist that this be done. Senator CASE. I would be happy for the chairman to develop this point because I am unhappy about that statement. The CHAIRMAN. That is their own statement about it and I do note think there is any doubt about it. What has happened is that these radios have become so objectionable to the Germans and others that they were faced themselves by the necessity for doing something. The senator, I thought, very properly said that one way to deal with it is to make it a part of the annual appropriations and we will have an opportunity to stop this since it is beginning to appear to be contrary to the President's own policy of trying to reconcile and to relax tensions in Russia and Eastern hurope. That is his announced policy. But this gives theta a device which enables them to continue the policies which many of them are very reluctant to give up because they have followed these policies for 20 years. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 It is the same as the reluctance to decrease the troops, the reluctance to do anything. But they were faced with the need, probably, of dis- continuance, and this looks to me as if it is a device which will try to insure their continuance by pretending these stations are private when, in fact, they are not private because they will be wholly fi- nanced by the Government. LPAST CL] STJPFORT FOR RPR AND RL If you won't give the figures in dollars, Mr. Hillenbrand, will, you give the percentage? Did the CIA support these operations during the past years by as much as 90 percent of the costs? discuss the history in an executive session. This whole effort of the Senator was to put this out in the open. Now you insist upon secrecy. What is the matter with that? here and now, and I am prepared to do that, but there are certain sensitivities about what has happened in the past. The CHAIRMAN. Everybody else knows it. The Germans know it and the Russians know it. The only ones you. are trying to fool are this committee because you think, it might, be prejudicial to this bill, I mail, in all executive session.-_ to occasionally` know what their-money is being spent for. I do` not think that is acceptable. This has nothing to do withhe so-called in- public airways. Everybody knows what ttheysay and if we are going to be asked to continue this at a $40 millioiilevel, which is the estimated dollars and certainly the percentage of CIA contributions to these operations. they supervise what it does. Neither the CIA nor 'any other agency is going to put out the money like this and allow some unknown ' or to believe that; would you? Mr. HILLENBRAND,' Of course, we are moving on to a view system The CHAIRMAN. I do not think it is a new system. It just has a new cover. You have decided you need a new cover because the old cover has will allow, you to get through the next few years before that becomes the figures, then I personally ani not o oing to support a program, parts e~?Tic11, .au insis gepin,~ n ~n- 'a~zt:.e ? ~~ , __ , ...atoz,,.frana New ersev. I thought. was to make it bu ICI c an`itit J. feel the same way about the payment of our troops in Germany. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 I do not think this is a matter for secrecy any longer. It is the same with respect to BIAS. I would like to know its cost and who pays it. Mr. HILLENBRAND. Mr. Chairman, I could put the estimated figures for fiscal year 1972 in the record, which would give you a good idea of past funding and, as I say, we can provide you any information you wish for your committee in executive session, but I am not at liberty myself today to talk about the past history of these radio stations in all open session. The CHAIRMAN. Then, as far as I am concerned, I am not willing to give you a device to continue it if you are not willing to tell us what has been going on and what it costs and what good it did. It certainly has succeeded, I think, to a great extent in keeping, alive the animosities which grew up after World War II. It contributed very likely to the fact that there is no more progress than there is in the SALT talks, on Berlin, and other places. WEST GERMAN GOVERNMENTS VIEW OF RADIO FREE EUROPE There was a long article in the Washington Post on November 22, 1,970, by Mr. John M. Goshko, which I will put in the record, Mr. Reporter. I will read one paragraph. It was on Radio Free Europe and contained the following statement : There have been persistent hints that Chancellor Willy Brandt, committed to a bold policy of reconciliation with Eastern Europe, has come to regard Radio Free Europe as an impediment to this goal. Rumor shys that the Government is weighing the possibility of forcing RFE out of West Germany either by refus- ing to renew its license or by inducing it to relocate "voluntarily." They are going to ask them to do it without causing an incident, I suppose. Are you familiar with that article ? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I remeipber it; yes, sir. The CHAIRMAN. It i s essentially accurate? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I think it was not essentially accurate. The CHAIRMAN. In what respect? Mr. HILLENBRAND. You notice he is referring to "rumor has it," and so on. The CHAIRMAN. Did you know that Chancellor Brandt did not have this in mind? Mr. HILLENBRAND. We have not been approached in this sense by the German Government. The CHAIRMAN. In what sense? Have you been approached in any other sense? Mr. HILLENBRAND. In the sense of the article by the German Government. The CHAIRMAN. Have you been approached in any other sense? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Obviously, this matter has been discussed. In the past, for example, every time the East Europeans raised this ques- tion then, obviously, there has been some discussion. The CHAIRMAN. What about the West Germans? Have they never raised the matter with you? Mr. HILLENBRAND. No ; I would not be able to say that. All I can say is they never raised it, objecting in any definitive sense as this article implies to the presence and continuation of these stations. In effect, Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 41 they have licensed them and they continue to operate under German license. The CCIIAIRMAN. We know they have. You never have had any indi- cation from the West German Government that they would like these to be discontinued? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Let us put it this way, Mr. Chairman, we have had discussions about certain problems that these stations, by their presence, have raised. But there have been no requests to terminate them. The CHAIRMAN. Have they ever indicated they would like to dis- continue the operation? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Not in that sense, no. The CHAIRMAN. In what sense? Mr. HILLENBRAND. In no sense. The CHAIRMAN. I do not think you ought to play semantic games with us. Just go on and say yes or no. Have they said they like the operation and would like it continued? Mr. HILLENBRAND. They accept the desirability of the continuation of these stations. The CHAIRMAN. Since we are paying so much of their defense goal, we have such a lever on them in a bargaining process, I can see how you can persuade them to leave it there. Have they ever indicated they would like you to consider removing or stopping the operation in any sense? ' Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, let us put it this way. The CHAIRMAN. Put it ',111y way that is understandable. Mr. HILL:ENmiAND. We have had discussions at what is known as the working level about whether there were other alternatives. HAS WEST GERMANY EVER INDICATED THEY WANT RFE DISCONTINUED? The CHAIRMAN. I know that, but have they ever indicated they would like this to be discontinued? Mr. IIILr:ENBRAND. They have never formally indicated it. The CHAIRMAN. I know they have never done it formally. They would not want to be too brusque because we might cut off some of our enormous payments for their defense. I can understand that. It is a small matter compared to the billions of dollars we pay for their defense bill. I want to know if they have ever indicated that they would like these to be discontinued, and then you talked them out of it? Have you ever indicated that they would like it discontinued? Mr. HILLENBRAND. That is not the way the discusison has gone. They have said, "We have got some problems here because we are being attacked." The CHAIRMAN. That is right. Mr. HILLENBRAND. "Let's see if we can't work these problems out." And we have been able to work these problems out. The CHAIRMAN. I know you can work it out. You have a tre- mendous leverage on them. I can understand that. They cannot raise too much fuss about it because it is a small matter compared to the bil- lions of dollars we are paying for their defense. That is common sense. Mr. HILLENBRAND.. Well, they make Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 The CHAIRMAN. You can horse trade thean out of it. But have they ever indicated they would like you to take them out? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, as I have said, they have said the presence of these stations presents certain problems. We have sat down with them, and it has not been by threat or by implied withdrawal of American forces or anything else that they have come to the con- clusion that this is something they can live with because of the posi- tive benefits to our mutual advantage that these stations present. The CHAIRMAN. I can understand how you can talk them out of it, but have they indicated that they would prefer you to stop it, and then you have made it plain that you are not going to? Mr. HILLRNBRAND. They have not used that language. That is not The CHAIRMAN. No, they spoke in German, I am sure. [Laughter.] Mr. HILLENBRAND. The meaning of what they said in German was not as you put it. (The article referred to follows:) [The Washington Post, Nov. 22, 1970] RFE ALTERS SULLIED IMAffE (By John M. Goshko) Munich-The long, white building has about it the antiseptic look of a hospital. Its setting beside the greenery of Munich's English Gardens gives the impression of indtitutional remoteness from the outside world. This is the headquarters of Radio Free Europe, recently described by a West German news magazine as "one of the last fortresses of the Cold War." Its offices, newsrooms and broadcasting studios hum with the activity of some 1,000 men and women who speak in a Babel of languages but with one purpose ; to penetrate the Iron Curtain with the "truth" as perceived by the Western world. For 20 years, this activity has made RFE the object of controversy on both sides of the Iron Curtain. Now this controversy is rubbing against the veil of anonymity that RFE likes to wrap around its operations. There have been persistent hints that Chancellor Willy Brandt, committed to a bold policy of reconciliation with Eastern Europe, has come to reguard Radio Free Europe as an impediment to this goal. Rumor says that the government is weighing the possibility of forcing RFE out of West Germany either by refusing to renew its license or by inducing it to relocate "voluntarily." These reports have been denied officially by everyone concerned but they are still shirring debate about the future of Radio Free Europe. Is it an anachronism in a Europe that seems to be moving away from the ideo- logical confrontations of the Cold War toward a new era of detente? Or is it something that people on "the other side" will need more thanev'er to help them understand the changes sweeping the continent? The answer is complicated both by the aura of myth and mystery surrounding RFE's operations and by the fact that it has not enjoyed the most favorable im- age on its own side. Most reasonably informed Americans and West Europeans are aware of RFE's existence; but few know what it actually is or does. Many tend to confuse it with the Voice of America, the broadcasting arm of the U.S.Information Agency. Yet, while sponsored and directed by Americans, RFE is officially a private, nonprofit organization that denies any links with the U.S. Government. Similarly, many people think that RFE is in the business of beaming propa- ganda to the Soviet Union. This is usually the result of confusion with Radio Liberty, an American-sponsored, private organization headquartered in Munich, which does broadcast to Russia. But while the Brandt government reportedly Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050089--0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 43 would like to have Radio Liberty out of West Germany, the two facilities are entirely unconnected. RFE's concern is not the Soviet Union but Moscow's so-called satellites, and its broadcasts are aimed exclusively at Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Ro- mania and Bulgaria. In fact, RFE is essentially a network of five radio stations, each tailoring its material to the interests of people in one of those countries and broadcasting to them in their native language. Their daily output-20 hours to Czechoslovakia, 19 hours to Poland and Hun- gary, 12 hours to Romania and 71/2 hours to Bulgaria-exceeds the combined total of all other Western stations broadcasting to those countries. The broadcasts are relayed by 32 transmitters in West Germany and Portugal with a total power of 2,245,000 watts. RFE's programming is heavily news and political commentary leavened here and there by lighter fare such as pop music programs aimed at East European youth. Its staff of approximately 1500 includes the East European exiles man- ning the five national departments, a large newsgathering and editing operation, a research arm and administrative and technical personnel. Although the size of its audience is a matter of some controversy, RFE claims that its broadcasts are heard regularly by some 31 million people-about half of the five countries' population over the age of 14. It cites the sporadic attempts at jamming and the frequent denunciations by the East European governments and press as proof that it has a definite influence on its listeners. Ralph E. Walter, a 46-year-old Minnesotan who is RFE's director, says : "Peo- ple wouldn't listen to Western radio like Radio Free Europe unless they knew that there is something on it that they want and can't get through the programs readily available to them in their own countries." "We have always maintained that RFE's job is to work itself out of business," Walter says. "When and if the time comes that a Pole or a Czech can read and hear a variety of views in his national press, there will no longer be a need for RFE." A LUCIUS CLAY PROJECT This goal-to give the people of Eastern Europe Information and Ideas denied them by the controlled press of their own countries-was one that few Westerners could fault when Radio Free Europe began broadcasting' July 4, 1950, at the height of the Cold War. Its founding spirit and perennial board chairman was Gen. Lucius D. Clay, the postwar U.S. military commander in Germany and a hero of the Berlin block- ade. Serving with him over the years on the board of Free Europe, Inc., RFE's New Yorkabased corporate parent, has been a Who's Who of the Wall" Street'and public service establishments. The current president and chief operating officer, !or example, is William P. Durkee, who was director of the Office of Emergency Planning under Presidents Kennedy and Johnson. In those early days, there was always an impressive bipartisan array of pub- lic figures to lend their names to RFE's fund-raising appeals. The public became accustomed to ads portraying RFE transmitters piercing barbed wire to reach Eastern Europeans hungry for word from the West. Like the Red Cross or the Community Fund, Radio Free Europe was regarded as a worthy cause. Then came the Hungarian uprising of 1956, and RFE suddenly stood accused of leading thousands to death or imprisonment by helping to_inoite the revolt through inflammatory propaganda and then raising false hopes that the West would intervene. Although RFE's role in the Hungarian crisis has Been dissected innumerable times? there has been no clear-cut verdict on the degree of its responsibility in that tragedy. Nonetheless, it became suspect in liberal, eyes of harboring a funda- mental anticommunism out of tune with the shifting subtleties of East-West relations. A CIA TAINT Three years ago, this picture was reinforced by revelations that RFE had ties Ito the Central Intelligence Agency and was the recipient of substantial CIA sub- sidies. Liberals now saw it as an organization' dominated by embittered exiles whose dreams of turning back the clock of Eastern European history were being manipulated by the CIA to perpetuate the Cold War. And when $randt's Eastern policy emerged a year ago, It was not surprising that many of its supporters should regard RFE as a potential threat to detente. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 44 Such suspicion is certainly understandable in view of RFE's frequent heavy- handedness and lack of candor, but it overlooks the fact that the organization's past reputation for hardline anticommunism is no longer valid. This does not mean that its basic goals have changed or that it is any more palatable to the East European regimes, which continue to denounce RFE as a "fascist" and "revanchist" troublemaker. But, to a degree that has not yet been fully grasped by its critics in the West, RFE has become increasingly sensitive to the changes affecting Europe and more sophisticated in applying this sensi- tivity to its programing. Emery Keeri-Santo, a Hungarian who heads RFE's audience research activities, explains the change this way : "The difference between the old and the new Radio Free Europe is the same as the difference between how the world, including the United States, regarded East-West relations in 1950 and in 1970. "When RFE first began, we looked on it as a five-year job. By then, we thought, the Iron Curtain would have been rolled back, and our broadcasts re- flected this belief. We were wrong, and eventually we had to make the agonizing reappraisal that meant recognizing and accommodating to the longer view. "Now, I think, our broadcasting no longer reflects a senseless and unbelievable appeal for the overthrow of communism. Our aim now is to assist the efforts of East Europeans to win through the process of natural, peaceful change a larger measure of personal freedom and national independence." This assessment of RFE is shared by a surprisingly large number of West- ern diplomats and journalists who deal closely with East European affairs. In their view, RFE is not an obstacle to detente but a device to further it by mak- ing clear to Eastern Europeans the West's point of view in the complex maneu- vers set in motion by Brandt's Eastern policy. Ralph Walter sums it up like this : "We're completely behind the idea of de- tente-provided it's the genuine article. To us, detente doesn't mean a mere freezing of the status quo so that the Communist governments will have a free hand within their respective domains. "We regard detente as opening the prospect for better understanding and more stable relations between East and West. That means give and take on both sides, including a greater flow of contracts and ideas. And as the game unfolds, there has to be a means of making clear to the people of Eastern Europe the benefits that this could mean to them personally so that they won't let their leaders mis- represent and short-change them." Many, however, still question whether RFE can fill the role described by Wal- ter. How much credibility, the critics ask, can East Europeans be expected to grant to the organization that is now recognized as heavily dependent on the CIA for its operating funds? The question is a tough one, and RFE's officers have not only been notably candid about answering it. At the lower levels, most RFE personnel take refuge in saying that they don't know where the money comes from-in some cases adding that they don't "want to know." And when one goes to the top, questions about the CIA are met with silence. NO MORE FUND-RAISING The old public appeals for funds have all but disappeared. Recently, two plaques outside the main entrance of the Munich headquarters that told in English and German about RFE's work being made possible by "the contributions of the American people" were quietly removed. When asked what RFE does for money now, its top people emphasize "corpo- rate contributions." But while it has received substantial donations from such sources as U.S. Steel, this obviously is only a part of the truth. From the available facts, there seems no doubt that the CIA played a big role in creating Radio Free Europe and continues to be its principal bankroller. How- ever, it also appears true that the CIA does not control RFE or even influence its policies. Instead, the relationship seems to be based on the idea that the CIA regards RFE's work as beneficial to U.S. policy aims and is therefore willing to under- write it because RFE could not continue without such subsidies. (A similar kind of financial relationship also appears to exist with Radio Liberty.) Those who work for RFE insist without exception that they have never seen any pressure to follow a "government line" or to soften news of commandary that might be at variance with U.S. policies or interest. Nor are these disclaimers Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 45 as disingenuous or self-serving as they might seem to a skeptical outsider. To go inside Radio Free, Europe and observe its workings at first hand is to discover a remarkable degree of independence and respect for conflicting opinions. Nowhere is this spirit so evident as in the news department, which likes to describe itself as a "news agency" that draws on its own correspondents and other sources to produce a comprehensive, round-the-clock report of world hap- penings. The news director is Nathan Kingsley, a jovial New Yorker who spent several years on the now-defunct New York Herald Tribune, including service as its national editor and managing editor of its Paris edition. His staff of Munich- based editors and field correspondents are mostly Americans or "Commonwealth types" from Britain, Canada and Australia. The newsroom atmosphere is professional. Those who work there represent a wide variety of political views, but all are experienced newsmen who seem to have jointed RFE not out of any special desire to fight the Cold War but because they like living and working in Europe. In an apparent effort to live down RFE's old 1950's-era reputation for un- reliability, the news department stresses objectivity to the point where Kingsley concedes that it is "overly bland and even sterile by Western standards." No fact is reported unless It can be attributed to a specific source, and in most cases, no story is used on the air unless it has been cross-checked with another source. So complete is the separation of news from opinion that all material for news broadcasts is put on white paper as a sign to the broadcasting departments that it cannot be used for commentary. (Materiel deemed suitable for commen- tary or analysis is put on buff-colored paper.) Kingsley maintains that there is no special way of handling stories that might be regarded as harmful to the image of the United States: or its European allies: "The rule is that if it's news, if it's of potential interest to our listeners, and if it's accurate, it goes on the air." The only exception to this, he says, is news of "a potentially provocative na- ture-a report of a riot or a political trial or some other development that could excite passions and cause violence or other trouble." The importance of this caution was demonstrated during the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, when thousands of Czechs are known to have tuned in RFE for news of what was happening. In contrast to Hungary in 1956, diplo- mats and foreign reporters on the scene in Prague unanimously praised RFE's coverage for its restraint. Similarly, later in 1968 when there were rumors of Soviet troops massing for a possible invasion of Romania, RFE refused to put the story on the air-a. caution not observed by scores of American and West European. newspapers and radio stations that later were forced to retract. A similar objective detachment is found in the research and analysis depart- ment, headed by James F. Brown, a boyish-looking Englishman who started out as a teacher of art history. The department employs some 80 analysts -to. monitor and study developments behind the Iron Curtain. Although their work is intended primarily for the assistance of the broadcasting departments, they have achieved such a reputation that their work is read by scholars, government officials and journalists all over the world. In the early 19dOs, for example, when Hungarian leader Janos Kadar was! still being dismissed by most Eastern Europe watchers as a puppet of Moscow, RFE analysis were among the first to recognize that he was moving Hungary into economic paths that would win him strong popular backing at home and a meas- ure of autonomy within the Communist bloc. In recent weeks, RFE has played a similar trail-blazing role in interpreting the position of Gustav Husak, the Czech Communist Party leader. In contrast to the widely held view that he was an interim figure who would gradually be swept aside by hard-line Stalinist elements, RIPE researchers have argued that Husak was gradually consolidating his power in the same manner as Kadar-a view that is beginning to gain considerable currency among other students of Eastern Europe. THE EXILES Finally, there are RFE's national broadcasting departments, manned by East- ern Europeans who have chosen the life of an exile, who know that they can never go home again. Typical of them all is the Polish broadcasting service, whose key personnel are mostly middle-aged men who left their homeland either during the Nazi occupation or the postwar Communist takeover. All are well-educated, Intel- 64-995-71-4 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 46 lectually intense in the Eastern European manner and have backgrounds as jour- nalists, teachers or professional men. The director, Jan Nowak, began his radio career when he parachuted into Po- land during the 1944 Warsaw uprising as a representative of the Polish govern- ment in exile and broadcast over the resistance movement's clandestine station. Ile has been involved in exile activities ever since, joining RFE in 1951. The activities he oversees include the standard RFE fare of on-the-hour news, youth-oriented rock sessions presided over by hip-talking disc jockeys and minute coverage of the activities of Poles in the West. A few years ago, when Moe Drabowsky, a refugee from a Polish village, turned in a stellar World Series pitching performance for the Baltimore Orioles, RFE filled the air to Poland with enthusiastic if mystifying accounts of his starring role in the exotic American pastime. But the real core of the Polish broadcasts is the lengthy commentaries on Polish affairs. Analysis of the Polish service's comments on the Bonn-Warsaw negotia- tions clearly support the view that there is nothing in RFE's broadcasting that could be regarded as detrimental to Brandt's drive for detente. On the contrary, the commentaries by Nowak and his colleagues have been almost unreservedly enthusiastic in their support of the proposed treaty. A DEBATABLE AUDIENCE Despite RFE's claims to a wide listenersbip behind the Iron Curtain, no one can tell how big its impact really is. Most impartial observers with long experience in Eastern Europe seem to feel that while RFE doesn't cut quite the swath it thinks it does and has some gaps in its credibility, it is listened to. Some go even further and say that RFE is the principal source of Western information for most East Europeans. Despite the denials, it is known that the hints about a possible crackdown on RFE and Radio Liberty originated with high-ranking members of the Brandt government. The general supposition is that they were trial balloons intended to determine what reaction would result and to put RFE and Radio Liberty on notice that they might someday become expendable. Nevertheless, the general feeling in government circles is that Brandt is not contemplating any action against either station in the immediate future. For one thing, Washington is understood to have reacted negatively to the idea and Brandt has no intention of straining his relations with the Nixon administraton over a relatively second-level issue like this one. However, the matter can be expected to come up again. In 1972, for example, Munich will play host to the Olympic Games and some Communist regimes have threatened a boycott if RFE and Radio Liberty are still operating in the city at that time. For the moment though, as one Bonn government source says, "Brandt has made quite a few concessions to the Communists already. Radio Free Europe is the sort of bargaining chip that he can hold in reserve and throw into the pot later." VOA BROADCASTING ON RADIO MOSCOW'S ASSIGNED LONG WAVE FREQUENCY The CHAIRMAN. You said a moment ago that there had been no radio jamming by the VOA; did you not? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I aid the U.S. Government doer. not jam foreign radio broadcasts to the United States. The CIL%IRMAN. Do you consider the Voice of America the U.S. Government or do you distinguish 1?ety een the Voice of America and the U.S. Government? Mr. HILLENBRAND. No; I think one can talk of VOA as an arm of the U.S. Government. The CHAIRMAN. Then are you familiar with an article by Marilyn Berger in the Washington Post of November 16, 1970, the headline of which is, "Radio Moscow Hit by VOA 'J'amming "? Then it goes on to say : "The Voice of America has resumed prime time broad casting on Radio Moscow's assigned long-wave frequency in a re- newed.'j amming' war." Are you familiar with the article? Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Rase 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Mr. HILLENBRAND. I a?m familiar with the article. I am also familiar with the fact that it is a rather loose usage of the word "jamming" to apply than term to this particular situation because the VOA was not jamming in the technical sense. They were merely broadcasting a perfectly intelligible program on the same wavelength. The CHAIRMAN. On the same [laughter]. I will please ask the audi- ence to refrain no matter how funny this sounds to you, because it interrupts my train of thou?ht. It is very easy to do and Mr. Hillen- brand knows that. He can do it too. The article goes on and makes this point : The frequency-173--was allocated to Radio Moscow by the 1948 Copenhagen Convention but the VGA used it up to 1963, when the Soviets stopped jamming. I will put the entire article in the record. The last part of it says : VGA officials generally deny any jamming activities per se. The argument has been made that since Germany was not a party to the Copenhagen Convention, VOA could use that frequency in transmitting from Germany. Independent radio experts feel, however, that unauthorized use of an assigned frequency disrupts the worldwide allocation system. Are you saying this article is also inaccurate? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, I think the article itself presented the argument. This was not technically jamming which is the position of the VOA in the matter. Now, this is not a responsibility, I might say, of the Department of State. (The article referred to follows : ) RADIO Moscow HIT BY VOA "JAMMING" (By Marilyn Berger) The Voice of America has resumed prime-time broadcasting on Radio Moscow's assigned long-wave frequency in a renewed "jamnb'ing" war. The use of the frequency of 173 kilohertz interferes with Radio Moscow's signals to Eastern Europe, but United States Information Agency officials said it is primarily designed to make up for Soviet jamming of other VOA frequencies. VOA officials said the programs, in Russian and English, can reduce Radio Moscow's audience outside the Soviet Union. But more important, USIA officials said ,? they make it possible for American broadcasts to reach large audiences in Eastern Europe, particularly Soviet troops stationed abroad. Both objectives appeared to be behind the use of frequecy 173 from a one- million-watt transmitter in Bavaria. The frequency was allocated to Radio Moscow by the 1948 Copenhagen Con- vention but the VOA used it pp to 1963, when the Soviets. stopped jamming, USIA officials said the United States resumed using the frequency Aug. 21, 1960, bile yeah to the day after the Soviet Union resumed jamming the Voice of America at the time the Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia. The 'decision to resume use of frequency 173 after a. more than five-year hiatus was made under Frank Shakespeare; head of the USIA, the VOA's parent aaencv. On Saturday, Pravda accused Shakespeare, who has. won a reputation for his hard-tine' views on the Soviet Union,. of spreading anti-Soviet propaganda., USIA officials, however, said the decision to use frequency 173 was an institu- tional one and not attributable to Shakespeare's personal Views, A. career USIA official said the United States clearly told the Soviet Union that it will stop using 173 when the Russians stop jamming. About a month ago, the USIA official said, there was an exchange of letters in which the United States proposed talks and offered specifically to turn off 173 if the Russians ceased jamming. The official said the Russians sent back a brusque note in which Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 they declared jamming to be an internal Soviet matter but that they would expect the United States to stop using frequency 173. Although the Russians consider the use of 173 as an American jamming device, at least some informed sources here call the charge unfounded. These sources say Radio Moscow uses the frequency primarily for domestic Russian programming and that the VOA broadcasts reach only into border areas of the Soviet Union, particularly the Ukraine. Interference with the Russian signal, these sources said, occurs mostly outside the Soviet Union, especially in central Poland. This means that in some areas of Eastern Europe, listeners who would normally receive Radio Moscow no longer can. VOA officials concede that their broadcasts on 173 do not reach many Russians within the Soviet Union. Independent radio experts do not hesitate to call the U.S. use of 173 a jamming operation. They say that although both Radio Moscow and the VOA would be received clearly in their immediate so-called "A" areas, it is impossible to put two signals on one frequency intentionally without jamming. Informed sources said the VOA uses frequency 173 for prime-time broadcasts a total of six hours a day, two in Russian and four in English. The powerful one million-watt transmitter with an omnidirectional antenna, informed sources said, could reach from the Urals to Ireland and as far south as North Africa if it were not in competition with Radio Moscow's 500-kilowatt transmitter. . Informed sources said it was hoped at first that the Russian resumption of jamming in 1968 was only a temporary device to keep news of events in Czechoslovakia out of the Soviet Union. In time, however, these sources said, the Russians stepped up their activities to pre-1963 levels. Voice officials concluded that they should use whatever means were available to them-including 173- to reach Eastern Europe. Besides using the 173 transmitter, VOA has increased the number of sbort-wave transmissions to penetrate Soviet jamming. VOA officials generally deny any jamming activities, per se. The -argument has been made that since Germany was not a party to the Copenhagen convention, VOA could use that frequency in transmitting from Germany. Independent radio experts feel, however, that unauthorized use of an assigned frequency disrupts the worldwide allocation system. (The following information was subsequently supplied.) VOA 173 KC TRANSMITTER (Submitted by Department of State) During the hearings of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on May 24, the Chairman referred to a Washington Post article about a VOA transmitter based in Munich which allegedly is jamming Soviet broadcasts. Subsequently one of the witnesses, Mr. Bartlett, criticized this facility at length charging that its activities were even more immoral than Soviet jamming of the Voice of America, because the Munich transmitter interferes with Radio Moscow broad- casts to the Russian people, whereas Soviet jamming of VOA, deplorable as it is, is designed to block foreign broadcasts to the peoples of the Soviet Union. The 173 KO transmitter operating out of Munich has side effects on Radio Moscow broadcasts to Eastern Europe, not over thousands of miles of Russian territory as Bartlett claimed. Here are the facts on the 173 KC trasmitter. It was first put on the air in 1953 to overcome jamming in Eastern Europe and enable VOA to reach the peoples of Eastern Europe. It interferes with Soviet broadcasts to those same peoples on that frequency, but does not, of course, affect the numerous other frequencies used by the Soviets to reach that same audience. In legal terms, while the Copenhagen Convention assigned this frequency to the USSR, that Convention does not apply to Germany nor is the US itself a mem- ber thereof. Nonetheless, the United States has stood ready from the beginning to terminate broadcasts from this facility as soon as the Soviets cease their prac- tice of jamming international foreign broadcasts to the USSR which is a clear violation of the principles of international broadcasting. In fact, in. 1962 when the Soviet Union ceased jamming VOA, the Munich transmitter was silenced. In 1968 massive jamming by the USSR was revived simultaneously with the inva- sion of Czechoslovakia. The United States, after a year of futile diplomatic Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 efforts to persuade the Soviets to once again cease jamming VOA, reluctantly reactivated the Munich transmitter. The United States has clearly stated to the Soviets our willingness to cease the VOA broadcasts on this frequency as soon as the Soviets are ready to abandon the jamming of VOA. The Soviets have rebuffed each diplomatic initiative to this end and refused to even discuss the question. Thus while VOA interference with Radio Moscow is not illegal, the United States is ready to cease broadcasting on 173 KG frequency at a moment's notice as part of a US-Soviet effort to expand rather than prevent free flow of in- formation between the American and Soviet peoples. Meanwhile the station reaches hundreds of thousands of listeners in the Russian language (including Soviet Armed Forces) who are stationed in Eastern Europe and East Ger- many, and Eastern Europeans in the English language. Thereby it partially compensates for the effects of Soviet jamming of VOA and other Western broad- casts. TECHNICAL JAMMING AND BROADCASTING ON SAME WAVELENGTH The CHAIRMAN. How would you describe technical jamming? What is technical jamming? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I think technical jamming is to utilize various noise devices and so on which completely make unintelligible the live broadcasts which are beamed to a certain area. Anyone who has lived in Eastern Europe would quickly recognize jamming and be able to distinguish it from a coverage of the same wave band, a technique, I might say, which is not unique to this particular ease. The CHAIRMAN. Is there any practical difference between making unintelligible noises and broadcasting on the same wavelength? Does that not interrupt and prevent the intelligible reception of the other broadcasts on the same wavelength? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Partly that would depend, I think, from my own experience, on the sensitivity of the receiver. The, CHAIRMAN. I thought the essence of jamming is to broadcast on the same wavelength. If they made these funny noises on some other wavelength, it would not jam; would it? It has to be on the same wavelength in order to interfere. Mr. HILLENBRAND. They cover a whole portion of the band, because there are various ways of jamming. DEFINITION OF PRIVATE AGENCY The CHAIRMAN. I do not remember. What did you finally say about calling this new agency a private agency if it is funded by the Gov- erment? What is your definition of private? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, I think the definition of private is essen- tially an organization which regardless of the source of its funds, is autonomous and has a board of directors that runs the organiza- tion, who are appointed by a process which does not make them be- holden on a day-to-day basis to the U.S. Government for instructions. This is the way the radios will operate under this new legislation. COMMON UNDERSTANDING OF "PRIVATE CORPORATION') The CHAIRMAN. Do you think the common understanding of the word "private" corporation or organization is one which may be funded by Government funds? Is that the way ordinary people inter- pret the words, "a private corporation"? Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, I think, technically speaking, the whole idea when the Public Broadcasting Corporation was set up, provided a prototype for some of the language in this bill. It was conceived to be a private, essentially a private operation. Now, the term public-private could be used, I suppose, to describe the interlocking relationship of Government and the operation, but in the way we conceived this operation actually taking place, we would not be interfering on a day-to-day basis with the technical or practical operation of these radios. The CIiAIRMMAN. Take the NET. That is operated under what is called the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967. It is not the Private Broadcasting Act of 1967. Don't you think, outside of the State De- f artment, that when you use the word "private," people usually think is privately financed and privately owned? A private corporation is usually one that is not owned by the Government. The Reconstruc- tion Finance Corporation was a good example. It was never called a private organization or a private corporation. I think it is deceptive to continue to insist that this is a private operation when it actually will be financed wholly by Government funds. If it is to be done that way, we are trying to get the record straight. EFFECT OF CONTINUING BROADCASTS ON UNITED STATES-RUSSIAN RELATIONS Tell me, Mr. Hillenbrand, do you think the continuation of these broadcasts promotes the lessening of animosity between the Russians and ourselves? Would it promote the relaxation of tensions? ' "4IThat would you think wouldbe the effect of continuing them? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I do not think the continuance will be a major factor influencing the basic negotiation of those issues which are up for discussion between us at the present time. I think these broadcasting facilities and the reputation which they have created for themselves are a. definite asset for the United States. There are assets on the other side which are much more active and spend a great deal more money for'similar activities than we do, and it seems to me during a transitional period, such as the present, it would be rather foolhearty unilaterally to simply waste our assets and not continue them. The CIIAIRMVLAN. Is this a chip which. we have to play in the negotia- tions and something we want to retain in order to give up in case there are negotiations ? Mr. HILL ENERAND. No, I do not think this is somethin you would negotiate about. This is something which creates, I think, the possi- bility of achieving negotiations over time because it does have a highly educative function. EFFECT OF PAST BROADCASTS ON UNITED STATES-RUSSIAN RELATIONS The CHAIRMAN. Do you think it has tended to improve our rela- tions with Russia in the past? Jr. HILLENBRAND. It would be hard to say that it has made them any worse. I think to the degree it has had an educative effect on Soviet people, and to the degree that these people have been able to influence policy at all, then I think this has had a positive effect. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 The CHAIRMAN. If it 'has been good for the Russians, why have they spent six times as much as Radio Liberty's annual budget to jam the broadcasts? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, obviously, the judgment of what is good for the Russians need not necessarily be shared by the Soviet Gov- ernment; and this is, I think, one of the differences between an open society and a closed society which should not have to be explained. The CHAIRMAN. Do you think we have the same attitude toward Russia that the Chinese have toward us, that our own enemy is the Government of Russia, but we are very friendly with the people of Russia? Is that our policy? Mr. HILLENBRAND. No ; I do not think anyone would all for that rather oversimplified explanation. The CHAIRMAN. What is the difference between that and what you said about the Russians and their government? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, I thought I had made my answer ~a little more clear, with a little more nuance than the description you gave of it. What .1 said was, there is a sophisticated audience in the Soviet Union which is capable by obtaining facts about conditions in the Soviet Union, which come from no other source, and which are unob- tainable from the Soviet press or Soviet radio, perhaps, to have a certain positive effect upon the general course of Soviet policy. This is true of all of the other Eastern European countries. The fact is that. when such a sizable percentage of the public listens to those broadcasts, it is bound to have a certain catalytic effect upon thinking in these countries. Obviously, these are things you cannot measure with mathematical precision. RADIO MOSCOW'S BROADCASTS TO THE. UNITED. STATES The CHAIRMAN. You mentioned a moment ago that Radio Moscow broadcasts in a similar manner to this country; did you. not? What program was it that you mentioned? 1V.Ir. HILLENBRAND. "Radio Peace and Progress." The CHAIRMAN. Is that a Russian program? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Those are foreign language programs. The CHAIRMAN. Are they beamed to America? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Beamed to the Western tiWTorld; I mean they ac- tually have The CHAIRMAN. I only asked about America. Are they beamed to the United States? Mr HILLENBRAND.. Yes, Radio Moscow broadcasts are beamed to the United States. The CHAIRMAN. Have you ever known anyone outside of the Gov- ernment who has ever listened to them? Mr. HILLENBRAND. No. The CHAIRMAN. What is that? Mr. 'HILLENBRAND. I have not, no. The CHAIRMAN. I have never heard it mentioned in our press. I do not recall ever having heard of ia man or a woman, and I do not think I have never received a letter, saying, "We heard Radio Moscow yes- terday, and they told us the truth about the CIA operations in Laos." Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Mr. HILLENBRAND. I think that is a tribute to the sophistication of the American people. The CHAIRMAN. Do you mean because they do not listen to it? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Or that they do not feel they need to listen. I think they realize their own public media provide them with all the information they require. The CHAIRMAN. You know that is strange because this committee, at least the chairman of it, believes that the Government does not supply us with half the information that we, need and to which we are en- titled. We are not as sophisticated as the public. I do not think we receive the information to which we are entitled. I have never really quite forgotten the famous statement attributed to one of the Assist- ant Secretaries of Defense that the Government has a right to lie. Do you remember that? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I remember it, but I did not make it. The CHAIRMAN. No, you did not make it. RFE COVERAGE OF RIOTS IN POLAND Mr. Hillenbrand, Poland is one of the five countries to which RFE broadcasts. Do you know how it covered the riots that took place in that country last year? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I think it covered them in a very sober and responsible way; it provided information about them, but it did not incite to riot. The CHAIRMAN. Do you think the broadcasts covered only the factual situation? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I think that is true. The CHAIRMAN. Did it editorialize about the situation in Poland? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, it provided commentary, but I do not be- lieve the commentary was in any sense inciting. If you wish, we could provide you with a detailed analysis of the broadcasting to Poland during this period. The CHAIRMAN. I think that would be interesting. Could you supply that for the record? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Surely. (The information referred to follows:) FREE EUROPE, INC., Hon. MARTIN J. HILLENBRAND New York, N.Y., May 28,1971. , A.ssistaat Secretary for European Affairs, Department of State, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. HILLENBRAND : In response to your request for a report dealing with Radio Free Europe's broadcasts to Poland during the period of the December difficulties in that country, I am forwarding the following : (1) An extract from a quarterly operational report covering the period from January through March, 1971, which I have submitted to the Chairman of the Board and Directors of the Board of Radio Free Europe: and, (2) A detailed study of broadcasting to Poland during this period with some reference to broadcasts prior to that period when relevant as background. I believe that these two documents constitute a fair and definitive statement of our 'treatment of the events in Poland prior to 14 December 1970 and the period following through March, 1971. Sincerely, Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 53 QUARTERLY OPERATIONAL REPORT, JANUARY-MARCH 1971 (EXCERPT) RFE BROADCASTING-POLAND A lengthy and detailed study 1 has been made of RFE broadcasts to Poland before and during the December upheaval and its aftermath. The positions taken by the Polish Broadcasting Department of RFE on current issues in Poland were compared with the known demands of the striking Polish workers during December, January and February, and with the concessions granted by the new Polish leadership since December 20. The results show a striking corre- lation between Polish popular demands, as revealed in the specific desiderata of the striking workers made public by the Polish press and radio, and in the con- cessions to both these demands and more general public desires which the new leadership felt obliged to grant in order to restore political stability and economic productivity, and the positions espoused by RFE in its Polish broadcasts. The area of greatest urgency for both the Polish populace and leadership was the broad one of distribution of the national product. This includes income policy, which in Poland embraces wages, family allowances, and the material incentives, or bonus, a system for workers ; the food price increases themselves, which had sparked the December riots ; the critical shortage of housing ; the problems of women workers ; and, of less urgency, the vacation system for workers. Concessions were rapid : wages and family allowances for the lowest- paid were raised in December, and the bonus system ,altered in January to con- form to the most vociferous of the workers' demands ; food price increases were rescinded in February, previous inadequate housing plans were scrapped and expanded programs approved in February ; the problems of women workers were given high priority in the new leadership's planning ; and recent increases in the charges for workers' vacations were rescinded and allocations for travel in- creased in February. In all these cases the concessions granted corresponded with the measures recommended by RFE before the workers' demands became publicly known. The next most urgent imperative was for political changes. Dismissals were essential to appease the populace and to reinforce the new leadership's credibility. A first series of dismissals swept the top leadership from the scene : Gomulka himself, Kliszko, Strzelecki, Spychalski, and Jaszczuk, the economic scape- goat, were removed from the Politburo on December 20; Cyrankiewicz was demoted from Premier to Chief of State on December 23; and on February 7, in accord with specific popular demand, Loga-Sowinski and Kociolek left the Politburo. It was then the turn of regional and subordinate authorities : dis- missals affecting Party leaders in Szczecin, Gdansk, Elblag, and Lodz appear to have been unitive, one in Cracow precautionary, and those of the Minister of Interior and the Deputy Minister of Defense responsible for the troops used against workers in December clearly deferential to popular feeling. Finally, the eddies swept out to include the leadership of the two minor parties, the United Peasant and the Democratic Parties, who theoretically govern in "coalition" with the ruling Polish United Workers Party. Still in the sphere of political changes, the new leadership's sharpest reversal was its proclaimed desire for "normalization" of Church-State relations, and the substantive concessions to the Church that followed. RFE's support of the Polish Catholic Church, its broadcasts of Church statements and news when the Polish media ignored them, its advocacy of Church desiderata in any future "normalization," had been consistent and undiminished over the years. RFE had similarly and repeatedly called for a reform of the Polish trade union movement to represent workers' interests, and the restoration to the Workers' Councils of the rights taken from them since 195G under Gomulka, and these were among the most frequently voiced workers' demands. No appeasement of Polish popular discontent, as it stood revealed in December, was possible without a redressing of the market. This meant in the first instance an improvement in supplies to the market, notably of meat. The new leadership resorted in January to imports, including meat from the West, and then in March, as part of a new program to reverse the critical decline in Polish meat production, raised procurement prices for meat and reduced feed prices, thereby restoring profitability to animal husbandry RFE had for several years attributed 3-Attached Study entitled "The Polish Crisis if 1070-71 and Radio Free Europe Broad- casts-Insight Into a Relationship." Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 54 the decline in meat production to its unprofitability for the farmer; the new average procurement price for hogs differed by only 0.0:5 zlotys per kilogram from that cited by RFE as necessary to restore profitability. The new leadership's aims for redressing the market apparently looked beyond the short term. In March the Politburo recommended to the Government (in conjunction with the Presidium of the United Peasant Party) the abolition of compulsory deliveries by private farmers of slaughter animals, grain, and potatoes, as of January 1, 1972, and the establishment by the same date of a comprehensive system of social insurance program for private farmers, who constitute 89% of the Polish agricultural labor force. Both measures had long been -advocated by RFE. The really essential, long-term step necessary to redress- ing the Polish market, and more, to overcoming the stagnation that has character- ized the Polish economy for some years now, is basic economic reform. RFE. in its vigorous support of economic reform going back to 1956 and before, has pointed out repeatedly that Poland is far behind the rest of the Soviet bloc, the Soviet Union included, in dismantling the Stalinist, command-type economy. The new Party First Secretary has promised far-reaching though unspecified, economic reforms, and domestic advocates of Polish economic reform have been placed in key positions. In their efforts to gain popular support and to differentiate themselves from their predecessors, the new Polish leadership has emphasized a new style of governing, which at least rhetorically corresponds to some of the demands advanced on behalf of the Polish people. by RYE over the years. Gierek himself launched the slogan of a "dialogue" between the leadership and the people in a New Year's Eve address; on various other occasions he has promised "honest and full" information in the media. The latter responds to strong worker demands; the former has been enthusiastically received by the populace. liFE. itself a longtime supporter of both steps, has stressed that a valid "dialogue" must be between Party and Government on the one hand, and the entire nation on the other, and not just between the Party leadership and the Party rank- and-file; it has also pressed at every opportunity for fulfillment of the promise of "honest and full" information on casualties suffered in the coastal disturb- ances to be a touchstone of the leadership's sincerity in this matter-as did the striking workers themselves. RFE continued to press strongly on this ques- tion until figures were finally given by. Gierek in an address to the Central Committee on February 7. RFE had long spoken against Gomulka's repressive cultural policy, and in particular against the persecutions of progressive intellectuals and artists! which followed on the disturbances of March, 1968. The new leadership, although moving slowly in this sphere, has taken tentative steps : several writers banned in 1968 are being published again, and there are indications of further steps to restore previously persecuted artists and writers to cultural life. However in the tentative initial steps to free cultural. life from its more obvious restraints, Gierek scored one major success with intellectuals on January 20 by authorizing the reconstruction of the Royal Castle of Warsaw, as dear to the hearts of Poles as the Are de Triomphe to Frenchmen or the Dam to Dutchmen. and a long-standing project, the mere mention of which had been forbidden under Gomulka. From January 15, 1955 to January 17. 1971. RYE had beamed 28 separate programs on this subject to Poland. In sum, the December events in Poland, and their aftermath. revealed, directly and indirectly, the enduringly democratic nature of the Polish people's funcla- mental aspirations, so far as they can be expressed and realized Within the limitations imposed by Soviet proximity. They also showed how remarkably closely the Polish Broadcasting Department of RFE, in its daily programming to Poland, is in touch with, and how faithfully it reflects, the problems and aspirations of its audience. Apart from what is revealed by this study. RFE's Audience and Public Opinion Research Department reported in mid-January that its most recent survey showed that a majority of Poles interviewed named RFE coverage of the price increases, the December riots, and the changes within the Party leadership as particularly interesting. This was hardly surprising, in view of the fact that subsequent events indicated how accurately RFE's output on the price increases reflected the feelings of the great majority of the Polish population, that RFE Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 55 was the first to break the news of the. coastal riots to the rest of Poland (an(l indeed to the rest of the world, on the basis of a Radio Gdansk broadcast audible in Poland only in the immediate area, and picked up shortly before midnight, December 15, giving RFE a news monopoly which lasted from 2332 hours De- cember 15 to 1600 hours December 16), and that RFE remained thereafter the only continuous source of news for Poles of the'unfolding events. By March 15 the surveys showed that among Poles it was still RFE coverage of the changes within the Party leadership, plus RFE reporting on the impact in the East and the West of the Polish events, that were singled out as of particular interest. The Polish authorities, which had ceased jamming RFE broadcasts in 1956, resumed it on March 17, 1971. We do not yet know how effective their jamming is. RFE's four other Broadcasting Departments of course made extensive use of events in Poland in their programming, in a classic example of RFE's "Cross- reporting" technique. As the Bulgarian, Czechoslovak, Hungarian, and Ru- manian regimes were all reluctant, in only slightly varying degrees, to provide news of the Polish events (and, in a reverse example of "cross-reporting" of their own, limited' their news of the Polish events to that given by the. Polish strictly official media only, and, after some relaxation of censorship in Poland, to even less than they provided), RFE's coverage was substantially the only source of news of the Polish developments for the public in the four countries. A measure of appreciation of the importance of this cross-reporting for the other countries was contained in the Audience and Public Opinion Research surveys for this period, showing that in mid-Tanuary a plurality of Czechoslo- vaks, Hungarians, and Rumanians pointed to the coverage of Polish events as particularly interesting, and that in mid-March this was still the ease, with a plurality of Bulgarian listeners interviewed having joined in the same estimate RFE's cross-reporting on the Polish events and their aftermath consisted of both news and commentary. The news to all four countries was, of course; iden- tical, but the commentary was adapted in each case to the local situation (an emphasis on the trade union component of the Polish developments for Ru- mania and Bulgaria, on the role played in Poland by the failure to carry through economic reform for Hungary and Czechoslovakia). There Were echoes from these countries of the effectiveness of the technique. In late December and early January rumors began circulating in Bulgaria, for example, of imminent price increases. RFE's Bulgarian Broadcasting Department, giving prominent attention to both the Polish events and the price issue in Bulgaria, in the hopes of eliciting a clear and authoritative Bulgarian statement on the issue, was re- warded in early January by a series of official denials of any such intention. The Czechoslovak Broadcasting Department, asserting to its listeners that both the Polish crisis of 1970 and the Czechoslovak developments in 1968-69 were inevitable symptoms of a chronic disease of the sociopolitical system imposed by the Soviet Union, noted that a panel discussion on Radio Prague on February 2 obliged the Director of Czechoslovak broadcasting to answer a listener who wanted to know if there was a "certain connection" between the two crises. (The Director, Jan Rlsko, replied that although he wouldn't want to seek any direct connection, the relations "between the Party and the masses" do some- times "become disturbed.") The Rumanian Broadcasting Department, which had devoted 15 to 20 percent of its daily newscasts, and 20 to 25 percent of its daily programming, to the Polish crisis, and emphasized the complaints and demands of the. Polish work- ers and the successive concessions by the Polish leadership, was able to ob- serve the new departure in Rumanian policy represented by the February 10-11 Plenum of the Rumanian Central Committee's call for trade union reform and the "further development of workers' democracy," and Ceausescu's own sharp criticism 'of past trade union practices. Similarly, the 15th Plenum of the Cen- tral Council of the Bulgarian Trade Unions on February 18 and 19 exhibited a more pronounced "concern for the individual," and urged basic trade union organizations to 'pay more and better attention to satisfying "the interests of the workers' collectives" ; shortly thereafter there were a number of changes in the Bulgarian Trade Union leadership. To the extent that these events repre- sent the influence of the Polish crisis among the Bulgarian 'or Rumanian workers, they were in large measure due to broadcasting by RFE, for RFE was the B?ul- garian or Rumanian workers' primary source of full and continuous information on Polish developments during the period. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 56 iFronm Facts and Views of the Week No. 68, Nov. 8, 19701 COST OF LIVING IN POLAND (By Mr. Podgorski) The average monthly cost of living for one person. even a child, amounts to at least 1,000 zl. at the present tine--our listeners in Poland complain to us again and again. I should point out right from the start, for the sake of accuracy, that the reference here is to normal average cost, excluding all "major investments", such as for instance, the purchase of a new suit of clothes. What is one to think of these comments? In the Statistical Annual for the year 1969, there is no factual information about the cost of living structure in Poland. The material drawn up by the Cen- tral Statistical Office only gives general indices the accuracy of which seems very dubious. Thus, for instance : On page 909, in the chapter on incomes and consumption there is a table in which one finds that the cost of living index presents a very favorable picture. Espe- cially in comparison with the index on the growth of nominal wages. The CSO intimates reassuringly that over a period of 13 years, that is, between 1955 and 1968 the index on the rise of earnings has tripled. As for the cost of living index, the table indicates that it increased by barely one-third. A comparison of these two figures would seem to suggest that the population of People's Poland is now at least twice as well-off as it used to be at the time when Gomulka Caine to power. Unfortunately, an analysis of these indices reveals a completely different pic- ture. Consider, for example, the index relating to real wages after taking into consideration the fluctuation of prices : It indicates the same level as the index relating to the rise in cost of living. This points to the sad truth that during the thirteen-year period between 1955-1968 there was no essential improvement in the standard of living of the average citizen. Let us consider one other comparison. An instructive illustration of the true ratio of average earnings and average prices, and by the same token, average cost of living, is furnished by the amount of a family's earnings which has to be spent on the -purchase of food. Under PUWP-governurent it devours a very substantial part of a family's income. During the period in question, expendi- ture on food slashed more than half of a citizen's income. In contrast, a citizen in Western European countries only spends between one-fourth and one-third of his income on food. The difficult living conditions of the contemporary "statistical" Pole is best illustrated by the fact that as much as 84% of his income is used up for food, clothing, Arousing, light and heating. The amount left for leisure-time and cultural activities, for durable investments and for savings is-so meagre, that it is almost impossible to try to split up this miserable little sum of money. The statistical data which illustrates the structure of consumption is even more significant. The amount spent on food totalled more than 580 zl. a month, per capita of population in People's Poland-and that was already two years ago. When one adds to this the other indispensable expenses also included in the statistical picture, it will readily be seen that the average monthly cost of living per person since-at least-the past two years amounts to more than 1,000 zl. Thus, the complaints we have been receiving from listeners concerning the decidedly unpropitious structure of the cost of living in relation to the level of wages-are fully substantiated. Let us look at the problem from a different angle. According to the data for 1968, the average nominal gross income amounted to less than 2,300 zl. per month. Assuming that one out of three persons earns a living in the PRL nowadays, and the average monthly cost of living amounts to more than 1,000 zl. per capita, we arrive at the conclusion that "official" average earnings are not sufficient to pro- vide for the upkeep of a family. For it follows from a simple calculation that roughly one out of three PRL citizens does not have enough money to pay for its upkeep. In consequence, a large number of people have to look for additional sources of income and often, in doing so, they do not concern themselves too much with the letter of the law. - So now we know where to trace the cause of the desperate search for 'half- time' and `quarter-time' jobs ! That's the reason for the menace of moonlighting during work-hours, common to all work establishments ! That's the cause of in- numerable machinations, goods sold "under the counter" and the ever more numerous embezzlements. That is the price which must now be paid for the dis- honest policy on wages and prices. When the covert and overt rise in prices imme- Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 diately devours the meagre doses of pay-raises, it is understandable that the practice of semi-legal and illegal machinations in an effort to make ends meet somehow, is bound to flourish. So as to provide for that third "statistical" family- member, for whose upkeep the official statistical earnings are simply inadequate. We all know what the consequences of this situation are. Under-paid em- ployees do not want to work efficiently. Conscientious work certainly does not pay in the PUWP system of government. But the persons who are responsible for this state of affairs should not be sought in the factories and work establish- ments, but rather at the top of the pyramid of authority, where the vital deci- sions are made on the ratio between cost of living and remuneration for work. THE DISASTROUS PRICE INCREASES IN POLAND (By T. Nowakowski) NARRAT. To tell you the truth, we should really begin today's program with a loud and soldierly swearword, thus "?taking the word out of the mouths" of millions of utterly indignant citizens in our country, who are not allowed to call a spade a spade. A "black" Sunday. The unlucky thirteenth. A Sinister gift laid by the Party and government leadership under the Christmas tree of millions of Poles, VOICE. On December 13-Sunday-all stations of the Polish Radio made public the text of the Council of Ministers bill announcing drastic price increases. NARRAT. That's right : an increase in prices ! And to mislead the population, the communique began by enumerating all those commodities which will become cheaper. This applies mainly to products which for a long time cluttered up warehouses because there was no demand for them, and they certainly cannot be considered as "basic necessities." Of what use is it to a citizen if the price Of tape-recorders, or old, unpopular records goes down, or the price of that famous asphalt-saturated felt whose quality had been causing complaints from the countryside since time immemorial-what's the use of that, if the price of food has substantially gone up? VorcE. There's a considerable increase in the prices of meat, all processed meat products, lard and bacon, wheat and rye flour, (pickled) herrings, fish, bakery products, groats, cheese, milk, jam, preserves-in short, everything, that's indispensable. The things that every housewife .needs to prepare a meal. The things which all working people need in order to live. VoicE. Coal, coke and brickets will become considerably more expensive- just when Winter has ibegun ! Wood for heating will cost more. Shirts will cost more. So will nails, bricks and roofing tiles. A painful blow for the farmer who might want to build something or do some repairs on his farm. It was officially announced that prices will go up in restaurants, snack-bars and canteens. VoieE II. The list of foodstuffs and industrial products whose prices have sub- stantially been hiked as of December 13-is a long and depressing one. NARRAT. Another thing that makes people equally indignant is the complete disregard for the public, the contempt for their needs and demands. People are indignant at the synical commentary attached to the new bill, which tries to per- suade the population that-we quote verbatim : VOICE. This is a move which is of the utmost significance to the further eco- nomic development of Poland. 'NARRAT. A fine development, indeed ! Once again, the structure of consumption has been adjusted to the errors of planning, on the assumption that the citizen is a patient upon whom surgical experiments can be performed without an anes- thetic. I wonder if even a single one of those Deputies to the Sejm who maintain that they have the confidence of their voters and that they represent their interests-will submit an interpellatlon in the building in Wiejska Street (parliament-Tr.) VOICE. It is inconceivable that a drastic price increase such as this in Britain or in France should fail to evoke criteism in the press and in parliament, and have the Trade Unions "up in arms". In our country, however, the central TU-actif has already endorsed the decision of the Council of Ministers. NARRAT. Before long, no doubt, pseudo-scientific articles are likely to crop up in the Party press, trying to'persuade readers that grain coffee-the price of which has gone up by as much as 92% !-is very bad for a man's health, like the im- ported coffee, and that instead of feasting on meat, the citizen should eat roots and berries that anyone can find in the woods. But one really doesn't feel like joking anymore. It's hard to display a sense of humor in the face of the atmos- Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 phere of public exasperation provoked by the draconian decree of the Council of Ministers. NARRAT. The unexpected, drastic increase of food prices In Polandhas: already produced reverberations in the foreign press. (There follow some excerpts from the cable of the LE MONDE correspondent in Warsaw.) NARRAT. We might add that if the decision to hike food prices had been an- nounced 'about two weeks earlier, the Polish Emigration which is always con- cerned about the fate of the people back home, could have organized the dispatch of many thousands of food parcels still before Christmas. But in view of the snail's pace of customs formalities in Poland, these parcels can no longer make it before the holiday. Musical Interlude. RADIO FREE EUROPE, MUNICH, GERMANY, POLISH BROADCASTING DEPARTMENT Program title-Daily Commentary No. 1474. Air date--14 December 1970. Length-9'45". Subtitle -Propaganda about pricing list. Author-L. Perzanowski. Approved by-J. Nowak. Translated by-W. Stankowska. OPENING ANNOUNCEMENT NARRATOR. A direct, general corollary of the whole Party propaganda about tue increase in prices is to be formulated as follows : the rise in prices is to be blamed on the people who bought too much food and too few industrial products. In this formulation I do not deviate a bit from the logics of the Party spokes- men commenting on the rise in prices. I have summarized all that in one sent- ence to show in full the improbable absurdity of the arguments put forward by the Party propaganda in its attempts to justify the raising of prices. This time again-as throughout the last 25 years-the authorities ruling on the principle of total monopoly of power failed to say one word of self-criticism, to make one gesture of admission that total power also means total responsi- bility for wrongs done to the people. This time again-as throughout the last 25 years-the official propaganda maintains that the regime is excellent, it is only the society which is bad. This time again-as throughout the last 25 years-the level of the official economic argumentation is an insult to the common sense and intelligence of the people. Logical acrobatics starts already with the very resolution of the Council of Ministers about the price increases. Will you listen, please: VOICE. Lower prices were set on shoes : on certain kinds of artificial-leather boots, which are now 22% cheaper. NARRATOR. And another excerpt : VOICE. Prices of certain kinds of leather shoes will be raised by 23.8%. NARRATOR. This means that the prices of shoes made of artificial leather, which nobody buys, were lowered, whereas the prices of leather shoes, the only kind of shoes worth buying and bought by everyone, were raised. There are more examples to that effect : prices of "certain" kinds of toothpaste were lowered, whereas the price of the "Nivea" toothpaste, most popular and in greatest demand, was raised. Prices of "certain" kinds of table glassware were lowered, but at the same time the price of tea glasses which are the most indis- pensable and most frequently bought type of household glass were raised. Prices of "certain" sports and touristic equipment were lowered, but the prices of bikes and motorbikes, the most popular touristic commodities in Poland, were raised. The prices of "certain" products of paper industry were lowered, while the prices of "certain paper products" were raised. It is interesting why it was not said precisely which products are cheaper and which more expensive now, but I bet that the more expensive "paper products" include either toilet paper or writ- ing paper, or both. Some perfumes are cheaper now, but baby powders and lotions which are articles of primary importance are about 16% more expensive. This list can go and on, as you can see for yourselves reading the resolution of the Ministers Council. The text of the resolution was announced by Polish Radio on Saturday, at 22 hours, several hours after shops have been closed, so that people were prevented Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 from buying anything at previous price before Christmas. Later Polish Radio said in a broadcast: VorcE. The resolution of the Council of Ministers concerning a change in retail prices is of utmost importance for the continuation of Poland's economic development. NARRATOR. Untrue. We heard identical statements three years ago, when the prices of meat were drastically raised by the authorities. VOICE. The change in prices will riot increase the budget revenue. NARRATOR. Then what was the idea of increasing prices? VOICE. So far the prices of a great majority of.foods have not covered the pro- duction costs, and in particular cases they have not even covered the cost of procurement of agricultural products. Losses arising from this situation had to be covered from the state budget. NARRATOR. In other words-at present the state will not have to subsidize the prices of these goods from its budget. But would not the authorities disclose for what the vast amounts of money saved in this way would be used? VOICE. Prices of basic food articles, with the exception of meat products, have not been changed for years. NARRATOR. Untrue. The prices of all, without one exception, foods were raised in the last years and are still going up at an even quicker rate, only there are no official communiques about this. VOICE. New relation between the prices of food and industrial products will contribute to the market equilibrium and will favor changes in the structure of consumption and production adjusting it to the needs and economic possibilities of our country which becomes more and more industrialized. NARRATOR. The "new relation" means that instead of a sausage one can buy a safety razor "Pol-Silver" ; "new relation" means that the average worker who now will spend all his wages on food for himself and his family-will shed tears of joy because the price of TV sets was lowered from 10,000 zloty to 9,000 zloty. In short-here is another evidence for the extent of the PRL rulers' disregard of the society, the rulers who think that the people will believe any nonsense. Commentaries broadcast by Polish Radio on Sunday followed the same line, so all this was not said at random, but was part of coherent tactics. On Sunday we heard the following thoughts.: VOICE. It has to be recalled that affluent societies are not rich because of what they eat but because of what they possess in durable goods. NARRATOR. This maxim was uttered by a certain Andrzej rletmanek to whom I prophesy a great career in the field of the Party propaganda. But even IIetmanek did not surpass a certain Jerzy Kowalski who presented the following "economic calculations" to listeners : VOICE. An extra outlay of about one billion two hundred million zloty is an- ticipated for the next year. This is calculated on 'the macroeconomic scale for the country as a whole : one billion two hundred millions zloty. However, if we divide this amount by the number of all inhabitants of our country, we will arrive at the figure of about 40 zloty of additional expenses per an average citizen a year, which is less than one zloty a week. NARRATOR. Or: 0,1428 zloty a day, or 0,0059 zloty an hour, ergo-0,000090 zloty a minute. So why all this fuss about silly some mnillionrh fractions of zloty? Cross my heart, I have never seen anyone making such a fool of himse'.1' and those who put him in front of the microphone. Jerzy Kowalski continued VorcE. According to the Statistical Yearly, last year the average Pole consumed 53 kilogram meat, apart from fats, exactly as much as the average Swede whose national income is three times higher. NARRATOR. This is really shocking and contrary to historical justice. Simple calculations made by comrade Jerzy Kowalski show that a Pole should eat three times less than a Swede, that is 17 kilogram a year, that is 4,5 dekagram a day. I suggest that Comrade Jerzy Kowalski should for his discovery be awarded all possible Party prizes for journalists and, in addition, that he should be sent as a correspondent to some attractive country. For instance to North Korea where-according to his statistical theory about meat consumption-everyone should have starved long ago, because the national income per head in North Korea is some dozen times lower than in Sweden. Since March 1968 the PUWP propaganda has not been so hypocritical. One can only wonder that on top of everything the authorities have chosen to discredit Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 themselves with this ,kind of propaganda, that they do not understand that their attempts to mock common sense of the people worsen the situation. What Should the PRL rulers tell the society at this moment? Simply : we have failed. Our system is wrong. We are unable to organize the economic life of the country. We are responsible for everything, but the costs of our infantile incom- petence have to be paid by you, by society. Were the official communiques to say the truth, they should say that and only that. Everything else is untrue. Not one man within the PUWP ruling group has shown the moral courage of Fidel Castro. MUNICH, GERMANY, POLISH BROADCASTING DEPARTMENT Program title-Focus on Poland No. 74. Air date-December 20, 1970. Length-9.45". Subtitle-Price increase in Poland. Author-K. Milotworska. OK by-J. Nowak. Translated by-M. Staniszewska. NARRATOR. Even before the price increase and its tragic consequences I meant to write a talk on the verbal equilibristics or, to put it simply, about the non- sense written and said in the press and over the radio about the economic situa- tion. I noted down many such items as, for example : "economic tensions", "the strengthening of the market equilibrium", "the policy of selective development" and "the dynamization of the people's needs". So as not to say that next year there will be a general crash and a deterioration of the situation on all sectors it is said that next year, I quote : VoicE. The economic plan provides for the maintenance of a relatively slow rate of development, mainly of investments, as well as a slow rate of the growth of consumption. NARRATOR. Last week's events confirm the cruel truth that this way of writing about problems which are the essence of the existence of 32 million citizens, that falsehoods, silence, calling something which is black white, is an evil method ! The height of hypocrisy was calling the price increase a move on which the citizens will almost gain, or in any case will lose only temporarily and to a minimal extent. I have chosen a few quotations from the radio and the press. And thus : VOICE. In the vocabulary of the binding terminology the price increase is either "a change of the ratio prices" or "a relative change of prices". NARRATOR. Basing itself on the ZYCIE WARSZAWY Radio-Warsaw said the following : VOICE. The present structure of consumption in the country is not compatible with either the present picture of our economy or with the tendencies in the, industrialized countries, and in addition it is becoming an impediment for further development. For the growth of consumption, and especially of foods, does not allow us to raise our standard of living. NARRATOR. It would appear from this that the less the people eats-the higher the standard of living of the citizens. Following this train of thought, in India where quite a lot of people die of starvation, but do not eat meat-the standard of living should be high. It seems that the rulers of the PRL would gladly bring the Indian and Moslem custom to our country. In the radio commentary of March 15, reporting on the last plenum of the CC, we heard the following : VOICE. Wladyslaw Gomulka said that during the last few years the increase of the population's income amounted to 20 and more billion zloty a year, and that during the years to come it will not be smaller but rather bigger. NARRATOR. This was a quotation from Gomulka's speech at the last plenum. Immediately after this quotation the commentator said : Voice. And thus also next year such a sum will land additionally in our pack- ets. Simultaneously the state will still pay a subsidy of over 10 billion zloty in order to maintain the level of the retail prices of basic consumer goods. And thus despite this very difficult operation of the change of prices, the state will con- tinue to pay 10 billion zloty in subsidies. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 61 NARRATOR. So the state will also lose'.? If both the people and the state are losing on the change of prices-then who is gaining on it? The official statements say-I quote the ZYCIE WARSZAWY of December 13: VoicE. The consequences of the change of prices will naturally affect families' budgets in various ways, depending on the level of their income and the sources of their subsistence. However in the result of the said economic and social moves these differences will be relatively small. Nonetheless the regulation of prices will temporarily reduce, within the limits of 2%, the real income of the lowest paid working families. NARRATOR. It will reduce the income of people only temporarily, only for a moment, and only within the limits of 2%'! The TRYBUNA LUDU of December 14 wrote : Voices. The decisions of December 12 concerning changes of retail prices and procurement-as it transpires from the communique-examined in the context of economic reforms as a whole-create opportunities for a rise in the standard of living. NARRATOR. Who are you kidding? ! At a time when beef went up by 18 zloty per kilogram, when a kilogram of lard costs 40 zloty, and a kilogram of ordinary sausage 52 zloty? On Tuesday, during the second day of riots in the three cities on the Coast and while Radio-Gdansk broadcast communiques about people who had been killed and wounded, Radio-Warsaw broadcast conversations recorded by re- porters in various shops. In these conversations all the customers, appear to be extremely happy with the regulation of prices. Voicz. For example a Warsaw reporter in a store with industrial goods asks a woman whose husband only earns 2.000 zloty whether she thinks that the price reduction will have a positive effect on the household budget. The woman answers: yes, very much so. Reporters also make interviews in stores selling television and radio sets, refrigerators, household utensils. Everywhere everybody is very pleased, of course. One reporters also visited meat shops but, strangely enough, this time he talked with the shop attendants, and not with the customers. . NARRATOR. Also according to reports on sales, everybody started buying, par- ticularly stockings, radio sets, television sets and vacuum cleaners. The prices of these goods have been reduced, but they have primarily been reduced because for months, for years warehouses have been full of them, as no one wanted to buy them because they were of poor quality and either too expensive, or both at the same time. Two months ago the communique of the Main Statistical Office said : VoicE. Stocks of market goods were 11% higher than during the same period last year, and the rate of their increase was two times higher than the rate of increase of sales. At the end of July among other things, a considerable increase of the stocks of radio sets (about 30%) was noted. Of vacuum cleaners by 115%, of polishing brushes by 63%, of sewing machines by 42%. Also stocks of wall material, roof tiles and tar-board increased. NARRATOR. And thus the prices are reduced simply because there was no demand for those goods. In such cases in normal countries the goods are re-priced without announcing a state price reduction as an alleged benefaction for the population. And incidentally many goods, not even fit to be re-priced, will now he thrown .at the people under the pretext of the reduction. VOICE. For example the prices of electric bulbs have gone down. But what of it if, for example, bulbs produced by the LUMEL factory burn out after a few days, and sometimes even after a few hours of use. Stylon stockings are cheaper, for their quality has been poor for a long time : they are not elastic enough, short under the knees, too wide in the ankles and they do not wear well. The stockings are also not obtainable in all sizes. VoIcE. The price of vacuum cleaners has been reduced. Fine, but how many times have the prices: of these vacuum cleaners been changed in the past? The ALFA TWO vacuum cleaner cost last year 950 zloty. The slightly newer model, called ALFA K-2, costs 1.150 zloty, and the latest version of still the salve vacuum cleaner, this time called ALFA K-2 LUX, costs 1.250 zloty. And so even after the price reduction it is still more expensive than the one last year. And the same thing happens with dozens of various industrial goods. New models, new patterns, sometimes only varying in color or in shape are introduced. And so there are con- stantly concealed price increases which will not be levelled out even now by the reduced prices of some goods. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 NARRATOR. Ladies and gentlemen, this is only a ten minute program. But even if it were longer I still wouldn't be able to cite all similar examples of how the people is cheated. The situation created by this is made worse by the fact that the authorities continue their practice of not telling the truth. Would it not be better to tell the whole truth instead? THE SITUATION IN POLAND-ROUND UP (By Mr. L. Meyer) NARRATOR. Last week the Polish Coast was a scene of dramatic and at the time tragic events. As a sign of protest against the economic policy of the Party, and especially against raising food and coal prices almost on the eve of Christmas, workers on the Coast resorted to strikes. Demonstrations were also staged, which the militia and army troops suppressed with exceptional brutality. Militiamen opened fire at the demonstrators, tanks and armed cars were used to disperse crowds. At least some dozen people were killed, and several hundred persons were injured. First demonstrations occurred in Gdansk. When shipyard workers, house- wives and students in protest demonstrations marched towards the center of the city, the Militia used marine tanks against them, while helicopters hover- ing above the town dropped tear-gas bombs on the crowd. On Tuesday, demon- strations in Gdansk recommenced with a new force, and when at night the demonstrators gathered in the center of the town, the Militia used firearms against them. During the clashes, the building of the Party Voivodship Com- -mittee and the railway station were burnt, shops were demolished. In mid-week the situation in Gdansk occupied by troops with tanks calmed down, but in some work establishments strikes continued until at least Friday. Also in Gdynia the Militia shot at a. crowd of several thousand demonstrators. Even Warsaw TV conceded that there were many killed and wounded. On Fri- day, the press on the Coast reported that the Shipyard of Paris Commune in Gdynia had been occupied by Militia and Army units. After the tragic incidents in the Tri-City, riots broke out in Szczecin and in Slupsk on Thursday. According to an eye-witness relation broadcast by Swedish Radio, the workers striking in Szczecin attempted to march to the center of the City, but militia barred their way. The workers, throwing bricks, dispersed militiamen. Simul- taneously; tanks appeared in the center of Szczecin. Crowds turned out in the streets of the town. Among the demonstrators there were many women.. The crowd shouted: "We are workers, not hooligans", "We want better wages and freedom of speech, but no tanks!", During the incidents windows were broken in the headquarters of the Party Voivodship Committee. Party archives were burnt. Fires started also in some militia stations and in the building of the local Party newspaper in the Hold Pruski Square (Prussian Homage Square). According to the relation of a Swedish tourist, published in the daily "Dagens Nyheter", the TU Headquarters were also on fire, as well as the private villa of the First Secretary of the Party Voivodship Committee in Szczecin, member of the CC, Antoni Walaszek. According to the same source, about five thousand persons demonstrated in the center of Szczecin on Friday afternoon. Strikes in some Szczecin work establishments, among them in the "Warski" shipyard, continued through Saturday. Saturday night, Warsaw Radio informed that the situation in Szczecin remained tense. Thursday riots in Slupsk began with demonstrations of solidarity with the workers of the Tri-City. According to an eye-witness, a Danish journalist, militia attacked the demonstrators at. the moment when the majority of Slupsk inhabi- tants returned home from work. Militiamen beat with their truncheons right and left, regardless whether they hit innocent. passers by, among them women. Only on Saturday the central mass communication media conceded that last week riots took place also in Elblag. In this town also some damage has been done. Not only the towns on the Coast, which were the scene of demonstrations are occupied by militia and army troops, but military vehicles appear also in the roads. In the Tri-City and in Szczecin curfew is still in force. For several days it was impossible to obtain telephone connection with these towns. Flights to Gdansk and Szczecin were stopped. Foreign correspondents were not admitted Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 to the Coast, and those who were. there at the moment when the mutiny broke out, were evacuated. It is also known that there were some disturbances in other parts of the country : in Cracow, where militiamen dispersed a crowd which gathered to dis- cuss the present situation in Poland. According to Western agencies, work stopped also in some factories in War- saw. The UPI mentioned the car factory in Zeran, a foundry in Warsaw, one of the Radio and TV factories and cement works in the neighbourhood of the cap- ital. If we are to believe the UPI, work was also stopped in the printing works which print "Trybuna Ludu". Finally, according to the 'Swedish daily "Dagens Nyheter", also in Ursus Works some disturbances occurred. The 24-hour break in telephone connection with Katowice ended on Saturday. According to a correspondence from Poland in the London weekly "The Ob- server", during meetings held in factories throughout the country, many work- ers demanded a rise in wages and a revision of the incentive system which is to come in force at the beginning of 1971. ITEM BY MR. T. ZAWADZKI-TIIE CC SECRETARIAT The new Secretariat of the CC has nine members, like the old one. Incidentally, the number of members and deputy members of the Politburo has also remained the same. The following have been removed from the old Secretariat : Gomulka, Kliszko, Jaszezuk and Strzelecki. The new CC Secretaries are : 1. Edward Gierek, in a way `ex officio', because of his position as First Sec- retary of the Party. 2. Stanislaw Kociolek, until now one of the Vice-Premiers. On December 12 Kociolek attended a meeting of the Party Organization in the Gdansk Shipyards, at which the question of the price increase was discussed. As we know, a strike broke out in that Shipyard in the morning of December 14. Kociolek used to be frequently mentioned as the future candidate for Premier. 3. Kazimierz Barcikowski, until now First- Secretary of the Voivodship Com- mittee in Poznan, and previously, for a few years, deputy-chief of the CC Organi- zational Department, and 4. Edward Babiuch-as we have- already said-until now chief of the CC's Or- ganizational Department. Artur Starewicz against whom-as it was said in Warsaw's political circles- a kind of political campaign was conducted-has retained his position in the CC Secretariat. - - It, will be interesting to see how the- functions will be divided in the CC Secretariat, As we know, each of the Secretaries supervises one of the govern- ment Ministries or exercizes control over various spheres of public life. III the present Secretariat Gierek has one of his proteges, Jan Szydlak. He is a former apparatehik from the Union of Polish Youth (ZMP),- and later he was fora few years one of the Secretaries of the Voivodsbip Coinimittee in Kato- wice, under Gierek. - - The present personnel changes at -the highest - Party level will undoubtedly be followed by certain changes on the Voivodship level. Someone will have to take the place of the First Secretary- of the Voivodship Committee in Poznan, now vacated by Bareikowski. Someone will also have to take over the functions of the First Secretary of the Voivodship Committee in Katowice, for Gierek will not be able to perform them now. Until now two Voivodship Secretaries, Zdzislaw Grudzien and Tadeusz Pyka, acted most frequently an Gierek's behalf. It seems probable that one of them will take over the Silesian heritage after Gierek. - - ITEM BY MR. T. ZAWADZICI-DEPUTY-MEMBEBS OF THE POLITBURO Out of the four deputy-members of the Political Buro only one has remained- Mieczyslaw Jagielski. The three others have been promoted to full members of the Politburo. They have been replaced by : IIenryk Jablonski, Wojciech Jaruzel- ski and Jozef Kepa. - Henryk Jablonski is, or at least was, closely associated with Cyrankiewicz as a former member of the PPS. Jablonski made a bad name for himself as the reformer of Polish scientific life, when he performed the influential functions of secretary of the Polish Academy of Science. His present position of Minister of Education and Higher Schooling did not bring him fame. It might be enough Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 to recall his attitude, full of approval, toward the police terror against the students in March 1968. Jablonski was the gravedigger of the remnants of uni- versity autonomy. General Wojciech Jaruzelski will be the real representative of the army in the Political Buro. Until now the army was symbolically represented in it by Marian Spychaiski. Opinions were circulating that the army was hurt because it did not have a proper representative in the highest Party authorities. Jozef Kepa is, in a way, Stanislaw Kociolek's protege. When Kociolek was the first secretary of the Party's Warsaw Committee Kepa was his subordinate as one of the four secretaries of the Voivodship Committee. After Kociolek was transferred to the Secretariat of the Voivodship Committee in Gdansk, Kepa took his place. It was said in Warsaw that Kepa was the organizer of the menio- rable meeting of the Party activity of March 19, 1968, at which Goinulka delivered his aggressive speech against intellectuals and the youth. Some ascribed to Kepa the posters calling for firm action seen at that time. It was also said that Gierek s name was chanted in the meeting-room not without Kepa's knowledge. This inci- dent greatly surprised Gomulka. GIEREK'S PROFILE (By Mr. T. Zawadzki) A_NNOU`cER. Now we shall broadcast first remarks suggested to us by the impres- sion of the news about Gomulka's fall and his replacement by Edward Gierek. NARRATOR. The new First Secretary of the Party, Edward Gierek, is 57 years old. Before the war he found himself in France, and next in Belgium, where he also stayed during the war. He was a member of the French Communist Party and later of the Belgian Communist Party. Ile returned to Poland in 1948. From the moment of his arrival in Poland, he joined the Party apparatus. At first, he worked in the CC, and later became the Secretary of the Party Voivod- ship Committee in Katowice. In 1953 he returned to the CC to the position of head of the heavy industry department. He was still on this post when the politi- cal thaw came in 1956, which helped him to move forward in his Party career. In March 1956 he became CC Secretary, and during the July Plenum he was elected a Member of the Politburo. At the October Plenum he did not put for- ward his candidature for the Politburo, but was elected one of the seven Sec- retaries of the CC. In the election, Gierek-similarly as Ochab-received the greatest number of votes. In March 1957 Gierek was elected the First Secretary of the Party Voivodship Committee in Katowice and he has remained on this post until now. At the same time, lie was one of the CC Secretaries, and since the Third Party Congress, that is since March 1968, he was re-elected a member of the Politburo. Gradually Gierek has become an autonomous ruler of Silesia. Thanks to his position in the Politburo, he could, as the First Secretary of the Voivodship Committee, obtain much more for his Voivodship than the secretary of any other Voivodship Committee in Poland. Gierek, the Party representative ruling the most industralized district, has shown solicitude for the problems of his area, and, in the first place, for the welfare of workers. Already in 1958, at the Twelfth Plenum, Gierek stressed the urgent need for improving living condi- tions of the workers. In the factional struggles of the last years, Gierek maintained an independent position, without committing himself to either side. During the memorable events of March 1968, he was the first among the Voivodship Secretaries to back Gomulka. It can be even said, that to a great extent he rescued Gomulka from defeat. But it does not mean that he opposed the brutal police methods used by :liaczar's Security Service towards the students. Gierek's words said during a mass meeting in Katowice on March 14 are worth recalling. He condemned intellectuals and students no less violently than Gomulka did it in Warsaw a few days later. During the developing economic crisis, Gierek was critical towards the plans of economic reforms launched by Jaszczuk. Gierek and Jaszczuk were competing in this field, which became quite obvious lately, especially during Jaszcznk's visit to Silesian foundry workers. When Jaszczuk criticised the shortcomings of the organization and achievements of the Silesian industry, Gierek ostentatiously did not take part in this conference, and at another conference, organized by himself, he stressed the need for linking every economic reform with striving for an improvement in the standard of living of workers. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Already once Gierek has directly faced a mutiny of workers threatening the Party. This happened in June 1956 when the workers in Poznan went out in the streets. It has not yet been established to what extent Gierek, as. the head of the heavy industry department, was co-responsible for the situation in the Poznan work establishments. Immediately after the incidents, he became chair- man of a Party-Government Committee, set up to investigate these events. Al- though the report of this Committee, called "Gierek's Committee", has never been published, Gierek has undoubtedly learned what force is latent in the embittered and indignant working masses. ANNOUNCER. You heard the first remarks suggested to use by the impression of the news about Gomulka's fall and his replacement by Edward Gierek. And now several words about the past of the new First Secretary of the Party. You will now hear our first comments of the news of Gomulka's downfall and of his replacement by Edward Gierek. W'ladyslaw Gomulka has resigned ... Ile left under the pressure of the work- ing class, under the pressure of the people who, justly seeing in him the man responsible for the disastrous economic situation in the country, said: enough. The mutiny of the workers and shipyard workers of Gdansk, Gdynia, Sopot, Szczecin, Slupsk, Elblag-Gomulka tried to crush by force : with the use of tanks, machine guns, militia truncheons and mass reprisals. But this mutiny spread all over the 'country in a broad wave of strikes. The authorities realized when it was already too late that no violence could intimidate the people and calm the agitation which spread all over the country. It became clear that there could be no question of restoring peace and order without changing the leader- ship. Fourteen years ago the leadership, was also changed under the pressure of the mutiny of the Poznan workers demanding freedom and bread and of the ferment which spread throughout the country. Gomulka, who returned to power in 1956 on this wave, condemned his predecessors, he announced a break with the errors of the past, a return to democratization within the party, to dialogues with the workers, to telling them the whole truth. He announced a change of the system and of the methods of ruling, but soon his whole policy became- a denial of his own words and led him in the end to the fate of his predecessors. Directly after the announcement of Gomulka's downfall his successor, Edward Gierek, spoke. There were no more threats in his speech and no insults against the workers who went into the streets of Gdansk, Gdynia, Szczecin and other Polish cities. Gierek pledged to give a self-critical, clear and true answer to the questions which follow from the last events. Ile announced respect for princi- ples of collegiality and democracy in the life of the party and in the activity of its leading authorities, he pledged to conduct broad consultation with the working class and the intelligentsia. He recalled-as he put it-that the parts must keep a close link with the working class and with the whole nation. Gierek pledged further that within the next few days the political bure would consider ways in which to improve the material situation of those fami- lies who suffered most as ?a result of the last wage increase. The words about the unpremeditated concepts in the economic policy which became the cause of the events of last week--might mean that under the pressure of the work-erg, some regulations will be recalled. But it is not easy for the people, cruelly disappointed in. the hopes which it laid 14 years ago in. Gom:ulka-to believe in words before they are followed by deeds. The people are faced today with the question : Will the new leadership know how to draw conclusions from the painful lesson which Gomulka gave to it? Will it (the new leadership) understand that rule exclusively based on vio- lence is bound to lead to a catastrophe, that the people can neither be lied to nor insulted. That an improvement of the economic situation is not possible without a radical reform and without a change of the present system, adapted to the requirements and needs of a modern state. Has the voice of the workers, the youth, the women, who also this time demanded not only bread but also free- dom-reached Edwards Gierek's ears? The first task of the new authorities is to reach an -agreement with the work- ing world and with the whole community, in order to restore peace and order. A return to normal life is undoubtedly in the interest of the country. This task will not be made easier for the new leadership by the presence in the political Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 burp of Mieczyslaw Moczar, who is in the eyes of the people the personification of the brutal and barbarian methods with the aid of which the youth's demon- strations were crushed in March 1956, as well as the present workers' mutiny in the cities on the coast. Many people responsible, together with Gomulka, for the policy of the last 14 years have left leading party positions. Also connected with this period is the name of Moczar, as that of the man who built up its present dimensions the apparatus of terror, which casts its shadow on the life of the whole country. The workers, together with the whole community, have won today their first great victory. They have shown that their will and their demands must be taken into consideration by the authorities. That there are limits which no one can exceed. (The detailed study referred to is in the committee files.) The CHAIRMAN. Do you know whether it encouraged the overthrow of the Communist regime in Poland? Mr. HILLENBRAND. That was not the purpose of the broadcasting. As I say, the sophistication of these broadcasts has greatly increased over the years, and they have moved away from the cold war confronta- tion which existed in the 1950's. The CHAIRMAN. Are you familiar with an article in the New York Times of March 15, 1971, written by David Binder? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I remember it vaguely, but I do not remember. The CHAIRMAN. The fourth paragraph says : By spreading the word in powerful broadcasts to Poland during the follow- ing days, Radio Free Europe undoubtedly contributed to the spread of anti- government riots beyond the Gdansk area and to the subsequent change of leader- ship in Warsaw. Do you think that they are bragging? Is this giving them too much credit? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I think in this sense, yes. The CHAIRMAN. You would say this article also is not correct? Mr. Hus.ENBRAND. I would not say the whole article because I do not know what is in the rest of it, but certainly that statement goes beyond the proven facts. The CHAIRMAN. A later paragraph says : Mr. Czechowicz, 33 years old, denounced Radio Free Europe as a "secret service transmitter" aimed at subverting Communist rule in Poland, and he boasted that he had uncovered "a whole lot" of Radio Free Europe "agents" in People's Poland. I will put the article in the record. (The article referred to follows:) [From the New York Times, Mar. 15, 1971] EMBATTLED RADIO FREE EUROPE DEFENDS ROLE (By David Binder) Bonn, March 14.-Shortly before midnight last Dec. 15, a 51-year-old native of Poland named Andrzej Przewoski sat languorously in a ground floor monitor- ing studio of the Radio Free Europe building in Munich listening simultaneously to two regional broadcasts from Poland. The strongest transmitter at the northern port of Szczecin was playing music. Suddenly the other transmitter at the port of Gdansk cut in underneath the music with a communique. It was 11:32 P.M. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 What Mr. Przewosld heard was the first official word from Poland that there had been violent demonstrations in Gdansk and that the Communist authorities had imposed a curfew there in nearby Gdynia and Sopot. ,By spreading the word in powerful broadcasts to Poland during the following days, Radio Free Europe undoubtedly contributed to the spread of anti- Government riots beyond the Gdansk area and to the subsequent change of leader- ship in Warsaw. But in their dedication to the idea of performing as a free press for Com- munist countries in Europe, the station's officials tend to stress another aspect of their work. They see their Polish reporting as a characteristic instance of how the United States-sponsored station stays- on top of and occasionally ahead of the news-not just Eastern European news but the news of the entire world. Nonetheless, Radio Free Europe has come under criticism recently. In January, Senator Clifford P. Case, Republican of New Jersey, demanded that the station be subject to Congressional control. He noted that Radio Free. Europe was financed by the United States Central Intelligence Agency, despite its "claim to be nongovernmental" and to be "sponsored by private contributions." Last Wednesday in Warsaw, Andrzej Czechowicz, who had worked for the station in Munich for six years, appeared before more than 100 newsmen to disclose that he had gone to Munich as a member of the Polish Interior Ministry's intelligence service. Mr. Czechowicz, 33 years old, denounced Radio Free Europe as a "secret- service transmitter" aimed at subverting Communist rule in Poland, and he boasted that he had uncovered "a whole lot" of Radio Free Europe "agents in People's Poland." He declined to say how many or who they were. Regarding the timing of Mr. Czechowicz's revelations, Communist sources have remarked that Eastern European Governments are waging a campaign against the station in an effort to dislodge it before the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich. Yesterday in Lausanne, Switzerland, the International Olympic Committee said it would ask Radio Free Europe and its sister station in Munich, Radio Liberty, not to broadcast propaganda during the Olympics next summer. Although Radio Free Europe broadcast live from the Mexico City Olympics in 1968 and covers other sports competitions, it is events such as the riots in Poland that are given the station's main attention. And the Munich staff is proud of what it sees as the competitiveness, comprehensiveness and objectivity of its coverage. A little over 14 years ago Radio Free Europe was confronted with a similar situation during the Hungarian uprising. But its response in 1956 was quite different. Then, in a critical moment, a commentator broadcast a translation of an English newspaper editorial suggesting that if the Hungarians would hold out a few days against the Soviet Army, the United States would come to their rescue with force. The transmission was more or less in keeping with Radio Free Europe's policy of that day, which was attuned to the position. of Secretary of State John Foster Dulles that Communist power in Eastern Europe could be "rolled back" and the Soviet satellites "liberated." The station was then, as it is now, financed almost entirely by the United States Central Intelligence Agency, with an annual budget said to be more than $21 million. Its Munich -director, Ralph Walter, is a C.I.A. man, as are other officials here : According to 'a source long familiar with the operation, American employes brought into the inner circle of the station were sooner or later required to sign a paper making them privy to the C.I.A. connection. The source described the text as saying : The undersigned has been informed that Radio Free Europe is a project of the C.I.A. and that the C.I.A. provides funds for operation of this organization. The undersigned has now been officially informed. If he divulges this information to a third party, he becomes liable for a flue and punishment not to exceed $10,000 and 10 years in prison. To his knowledge, the source said, the punishment had never been applied. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 68 SOMETIMES SMACKS OF SPYING The C.I.A. connection, according to the source, has occasionally carried the station's staff members into activities smacking more of espionage than of ordinary news-gathering. He spoke of assignments by Radio Free Europe being given to regularly accredited newspaper correspondents to enter Eastern Euro- pean countries on missions for the station. "They were paid by R.F.E. to bring back specific information." The source said he was also aware of the participation of station employes in escape networks aiding Eastern Europeans in flights from their countries. Finally, the source spoke of continuing contracts between station personnel and residents of several Soviet-bloc countries for Information-gathering purposes. 1956 WAS A `WATERSHED' The crushing of the Hungarian uprising In 1956 by Soviet armor also led to the crushing of cold-war agitation by Radio Free Europe and, in less dramatic farm, at the Munich station aimed at the Soviet Union and then called Radio Liberation. At Radio Free Europe commentators and policy advisers were dismissed or shifted to Innocuous jobs. Radio Liberation changed its name to Radio Liberty and gradually toned down its more aggressive commentators. "It was a watershed, a great shock for the square-jawed freedom fighters, and it forced a change of staff, outlook and leadership," recalled James F. Brown, a 42-year-old Englishman who directs the station's research and analysis section. "To listen to some of our Hungarian commentators today you would think they were Kadarites"-followers of the Communist party chief, Janos Kadar. Noel Bernard, the Rumanian commentator who was here in the early period. describes the change this way : "Before 1956 we were an agitation station, telling people what to do, how to take advantage of certain laws. Now we are an informational station, a detached, constructive critic." At Radio Liberty, which broadcasts in 17 of the Soviet Union's major languages. the policy shift was effected by persuading the Russian emigres who were broad- casters that calm, objective reporting and commentary worked better than "mere condemnation." A PROFESSIONAL STAFF A visitor finds that both Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty are staffed by specialists who take pride in their professionalism. Radio Free Europe has numerous former employees who have gone on to successful careers in maga- zines and universities. In turn, the Munich operation has drawn a number of journalists and academics to its staff. The news director, Nathan Kingsley, held senior positions on The New York Herald Tribune for 16 years. Most of his staff colleagues in the softly humming central news room also have good professional credentials. With more than a thousand employes at its Munich headquarters, Radio Free Europe is a complex organization. In effect it comprises five radio stations di rected to Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Rumania almost around the clock. DOES RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS Although it is not the primary purpose of either station, research and analysis of events in the Soviet bloc are important products of their work. Among the 1,200 subscribers to Radio Free Europe's research papers and press translations are many of the Western world's leading universities, governments and journalists. On a lesser scale the same is true of Radio Liberty's 300 outside subscribers, Radio Free Europe charges only mailing costs for the service. Analysts like James Brown and Radio Liberty's Keith Bush are well regarded among historians and other. professional students of Soviet-block affairs. The main Polish commentator, Jan Nowak, is regarded as an outstanding expert on contemporary Poland. Attacks on the two stations from Communist countries have been made as long as they have been transmitting-Radio Free Europe since 1950 and Radio Liberty since 1953. The employes of both stations have become hardened to them and even regard them as a measure of their effectiveness. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 69 But attacks in the Western press and in some western governmental circles wound the radio people here, especially when they are branded in the West as "cold warriors" working for "propaganda stations." "Certainly we were children of the cold war," said Ralph Walter. "But the answer to that charge is that we are no longer children." The average age of the Radio Free Europe employes is 45. It is perhaps a bit lower at Radio Liberty, where the director, Kenneth Scott, has recently hired several colorful Soviet defectors. The main argument at the two stations is that they have matured politically in trying to fulfill their role of "breaking the monopoly on information" in their target area. Asked about the disclosure that Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty are financed by the Central Intelligence Agency, Mr. Walter remarked : "Our broad- casting policies are made here in this house and are not guided by anyone in Washington. We are nobody's. mouthpiece." A Radio Liberty official concurred. Officials at both stations were dismayed by the suggestion by Senator Case that their funds should be put under Congressional rein. They argue that the danger in such a step would be to subject their independent policies to partisan political control and reduce them to a "mouthpiece role" identical to the Voice of America. "If we are compelled to function like the Voice of America, we might as well pack up the operations and go home," said a Radio Free Europe official. They see themselves as providing a free press for societies that maintain only a controlled press, and they offer evidence suggesting they have had an increas- ing impact on the controlled press. "If the Czechslovak Communist press could have gone on -as it was developing before the 1968 invasion, we would have reached a point where we phased out Free Europe broadcasts to Czechoslovakia," Mr. Walter said. The CHAIRMAN. Your position is that it was incorrect, an over- statement? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I think that is an overstatement, that one sen- tence there, or that paragraph you quoted. The CHAIRMAN. You know Mr. Agnew may be right. Our media are more unreliable than I thought because all articles written in this area. are incorrect, according to the State Department. Mr. HILLENBRAND. I am not challenging the factual portions of the article, but you will note these are expressions of opinion. The CHAIRMAN. Yes. REE AND RL ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS It is estimated that $12 to $20 million in free media time is donated annually to Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty for their public advertising campaigns. Can you comment on that? Do you know whether that is correct or not? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, I had seen figures of that kind. I do not know whether they are correct or not. The CHAIRMAN. Is that in accord with what you have estimated? Mr. HILLENBRAND. The figures? The CHAIRMAN. Yes. Mr. IILLENBRAND. We have no informed judgment about how much free TV time in this country is worth. The CHAIRMAN. I have seen many ads, which we call spot ads in political life, in which it has been asserted: ,"This is a private orga- nization and, in order to save you from communism, would you send a contribution?" It is similar to. the appeals of the..Reverend Carl Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 McIntire, Mr. Schwartz, and Billy James Hargas. All these people have similar appeals: "If you will send us $100, or $1,000, we will save you from communism." This is the type of ad which has been occurring for many years on the media. I do not know whether our local media knew that this was CIA- supported or not. Do you know whether they knew it or not? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I do not know. If it was common knowledge as has been implied The CHAIRMAN. It is only recently that it is common knowledge. It was not for a long time. I did not know about it really until 5, 6, or 7 years ago. Nobody ever told us. We just found it out by some mysteri- ous process of osmosis. No one in the Government ever told us that it was CIA operated. WOULD ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN CONTINUE UNDER PROPOSED LEGISLATION? Would Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty continue this adver- tising campaign under the proposal that you have submitted? Mr. HILLENBRAND. This is not ,.t necessary activity of the new The CHAIRMAN. Would it be done? It was not necessary before. It was only a fraud because the CIA would have paid it all anyway whether anybody gave money or not. Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, this would obviously be one of the things to which the new Council under the legislation would want to address itself. The CHAIRMAN. Is it your purpose that it be done or would it be acceptable to you to put into the legislation that this is not to be done? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, actually, Mr. Chairman, I should add, too, that in recent years these programs have not been for fundraising purposes. Apparently-and I can put this in the record or, perhaps just briefly summarize it-these broadcasts to which you have refer- ence were part of a campaign or part of a program of the Advertising Council which sponsors apparently 20 national campaigns a year of this kind. RFE has been one of the beneficiaries, one of the 20, since 1950. There was no campaign in 1967. The benefit conferred on any nonprofit public service organization by Advertising Council sponsorship is the elimination of all costs of the national publicity campaign associated with space and time alloca- tion by media, and creative talent and time provided by the cooperat- ing advertising agency. The beneficiary organization is responsible only for out-of-pocket costs connected with the physical production of the materials and their distribution to the media. Well, that is the background on the kind of broadcasts you are referring to. It does not seem to me that kind of thing is in any way essential to the operation of these stations under the new setup which the legislation would provide. But I would not, sitting here today, say that this will not take place because I do not have the power of decision. WITNESS' VIEWS CONCERNING PROHIBITING PRIVATE FUNDRAISING The CHAIRMAN. Would you recommend that we put into the legisla- tion they are not to solicit private funds on the basis that it is a private organization or would you oppose it? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I would say that private fundraising should be left open as a possibility. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 The CHAIRMAN. Then you would oppose it? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, there are two different things. There is private fundraising, then there is also the question of benefiting by this Advertising Council campaign which could or could not be used: to raise funds privately. As I say, the use of this Advertising Council benefit is essentially a matter for the new organization to decide. The CHAIRMAN. Personally I am not going to be a party to the continued deception of American public in asking for contributions for a propaganda organization of the Government on the theory that that produces a private activity controlled by private means. I only want your position on it. Senator CASE. Mr. Chairman, may I make a comment on that point? I do not want to interrupt your train of thought. The CHAIRMAN. Yes. Senator CASE. I very strongly want to support your position on this. It seems to me that whatever may have been appropriate before, under- cover financing ought not to continue, and I think it would be highly inappropriate for individuals to give private donations to this station. I would oppose it, and I would be happy to have the legislation specifically prohibit it in whatever way you wish to prohibit it. The CHAIRMAN. I certainly would, too, but the Department is not ready to take that position. Senator CASE. This is for us to decide. The CIIAIRMIAN. I know, but I would like his attitude since he is here. Mr. HrLLENBRAND. We thought the analogy to channel 26-after all, they do ask for private contributions on channel 26. The CHAIRMAN. That is not a cold war organization. It is not de- signed to keep alive the cold war. It is not a propaganda organization. It is informational and educational.. Mr. HILLENBRAND. I do not think this is a major problem. The CHAIRMAN. It is public and it is called public. You do not seem to see any degree of deception in palming off some- thing that is called private when it is public. Everybody knows NET is public and if they give to it, it is with that knowledge. I mentioned a moment ago some material furnished by the State Department as background information. It is not marked classified. I do not know whether that is an oversight or not. But you have no objection to putting it into the record because it is background history of Radio Free Europe. I will put it in. I quoted one paragraph a moment ago, which was the State Department's own attitude. (The information referred to follows:) RADIO FREE EUROPE AND RADIO LIBERTY Submitted by Department of State HISTORY Radio Free Europe (RFE) was established in 1950 and Radio Liberty (RL) in 1951. Both are private organizations, incorporated as such (see Tab A). In the wake of disclosure in 1907 of CIA funding of the National Student As- sociation, the Katzenbach Committee recommended to President Johnston that Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 it should be the "policy of the United States that no federal agency shall pro- vide any covert financial assistance or support, direct or indirect, to any of the nation's educational or private voluntary organizations." The report also provided for exceptions where "overriding national security considerations" so require. The Committee did identify RFE and RL as organization'3 which had received covert support. The Rusk Committee (Tab B) decided later in 1967 that the Radios fell out- side its purview (a) because they did not represent a clear-cut case of legitimate private voluntary organizations, and (b) because they had been considered of such great importance to US policy for so long. ACTIVITY OF THE RADIOS RFE and RL as private radio broadcasters report and comment extensively on internal developments in their target areas and do so in an objective fash- ion. The importance of their programs (Tab C) and the necessity that they retain their private character (Tab D) 'are outlined in the indicated attachments. While some might argue that the Radios are an irritant in US relations with the countries to which RFE and RL broadcast, these countries have shown a readiness to improve their relations with the US-particularly in the economic, scientific, and technological sphere--despite these broadcasts. This is a tacit recognition both of the value they place on relations in these fields with the US and of their assumption--based on their own practice-that such broadcasting is a normal international practice. In fact, clandestine stations financed and operated by the Soviet Union or its allies broadcast-in addition to the foreign language services of overt Soviet bloc radio stations--to the following countries: Portugal. Spain, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Iran, West Germany, South Korea, Laos, Thailand, South Vietnam and Malaysia/Singapore (Tab E). RFE contains five separate language services broadcasting the daily num- ber of hours indicated : Bulgarian-71/2, Czech and Slovak-19, Hungarian-18, Polish-18, and Romanian-12. It starts from the assumption that the audiences in these languages consider themselves Europeans and are interested in what trends are taking place in non-Communist European countries and how their compatriots broadcasting from free Europe assess their own internal events. In meeting this interest, RFE presents objective information and commentary about eventsin the target country and in neighboring countries. This has in a number of instances strengthened evolutionary trends in the target countries toward so- cieties less confined by dogmatic Stalinist practices and better oriented toward Western Europe and the United States. RFE is known to have an audience of at least 30,000,000 persons in the target countries. This would be over 36% of the total population of 85.6 million in these five countries. This is the case in spite of the fact that its frequencies are jammed in Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria and recently have been subjected to increasing interference in Poland. Radio Liberty broadcasts in the following languages of the peoples of the So. Viet Union for the indicated number of hours daily : Russian-24, Byelorrussian- , 10, Ukrainian-13, Armenian-4, Azerbaijani-4, Georgian----4, North Caucasian languages-i, Tatar-Bashkir-4, Turkestan languages-4. While it is difficult to have an accurate estimate of RL's audience, an indi- cation of its effectiveness is the Soviet government's around the clock jamming of all RL frequencies. This has been done continuously since' 1953 and it is estimated that it costs the Soviets about $150,000,000 annually, or more than ten times the annual RL budget, to maintain this jamming activity. Like RFE, RL is able to reach much of its audience despite this jamming activity. RL has been a forerunner in broadcasting to the USSR. dissent documents which make their way to the West. Leading Soviet dissenters attach great im- portance to foreign radio playback of news on their activities. These broadcasts spur the dissenters to continue their struggle for political and civil rights. RL strives to encourage pressures on the Soviet regime toward economic reforms and a more liberal policy on culture and information. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 1p6Rf;IdN POLICY dBS CTJftS There is no question that steady. internal pressures for .reform in Eastern Europe and the USSR and for closer economic, cultural, informational, and tour- ist links to the West are compatible with US policy objectives. The President, in his address to Congress noted the breakdown in the monolithic nature of the Communist bloc, the resultant new aspirations and expectations in the Eastern European countries and their historic ties .to Western Europe and to the United States. While stating. that the US has no desire to undermine Soviet security, lie underscored. the right of the Eastern European countries to conduct incle- pendent policies. In the case of Eastern Europe, Radio Free Europe works for just such policies, responsive to the aspirations of the people of these countries. At the same time--conscious of the Hungarian experience-it avoids, pressing for a pace of change which would produce a harsh Soviet repressive reaction. In the case of the Soviet Union's need-as the President has put it-for "crea- tive economic and social change." The President added, after recognizing that the US also needed such change, "Both of our interests--and the world's interest- would be served.if our competition could be channelled into, more performance in that field. RL is not a tribune for revolution in the Soviet Union as it wants no responsibility for the likely repression which would follow. However, it does activity assist and stimulate the forces for creative internal change in the Ti SSR. This activity, even when traced to the United States causes no embarrass- nient vis-a-vis a country which actively encourages a, party in the United States whose primary loyalty is expected to be to Moscow=the OPUSA. In view of the current feeling in Congress with regard to the Radios a pro- posal for public funding of the Radios has been devised (Tab F), modelled on the Public Broadcasting Act (Tab G). It is designed, to greatest degree possi- ble, to preserve the .Radios' private character just as the Public Broadcasting Act is designed to channel public funds to Educational Television Stations with- out impinging on their organizational independenee. Unlike Senator Case's origi- nal Bill (Tab H), which proposed to amend the US Informataion Act (Tab 1) and place the Radios under State or USIA, the proposed Bill creates a private corporation designed to receive and administer publicly appropriated funds en- couraging to "private organizations in the communications field which have dem- onsti^ated their effectiveness." It is extremely important that RFE and RL retain their private character: (a) Their freedom to comment extensively on internal matters in the target areas would be inhibited were they to be closely and overtly linked to the US Government or made a part of any Federal agency or administrative body, (b) Their licenses to operate radio transmitters in the FRG, Spain, and Por- tual are held as private broadcasters and could be subject to discontinuation were they to become governmental entities. The idea of this new corporation would be that it would pass on, in the form of grants to the Radios, Congressionally appropriated funds in the magnitude necessary for the continued operation of the Radios-a total of approximately $36.2 million annually. The corporation could conceivably make grants to other useful private international mass media if Congress so desired. The private nature of the Corporation would reduce the apparent involvement of the President and the Secretary of State to a minimum, and in this way refute possible charges that every RFE or RL commentary was an expression of U.S. Government policy or opinion. While the corporation would be private and not a Federal agency, there would be sufficient provision for policy supervision to assure that the Radios cont4nued to work In directions compatible with U.S. foreign policy interests. . (a) The Chairman of the Board of the corporation would be appointed by the President as would the Vice Chairman and the other thirteen members. All would be apprised at the time of their appointment that they would be responsible for assuring that the officers of the Corporation establish close policy liaison with the Department of State, which would chair an interagency committee responsible for liaison with the Corporation and with the international mass media funded by it. (b) Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty would have close liaison with State Department policy officials in Washington and Munich. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 The Corporation could provide assurances to the Congress, annually if desired, that the funds granted by it were properly used. (a) It would require full annual reports from the grantees as a condition of the grant. (b) It would have the power to conduct audits of the grantees. (c) It would, through the involvement and interest of its Board members, all of whom would be from private professions, be enabled to determine that the Radios and their organizations were not performing any activities other than the broadcasting activities for which they were funded together with the normal news-gathering and new analysis activity which is a part of such activity. ORGANIZATIONS ELIGIBLE FOR COUNCIL FOR INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS FUNDS The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Hillenbrand, as best that can be determined by the Department of State, can you provide for the record a list of all organizations that would be eligible for funds provided to the Council for International Communications, Inc., assuming such a bill is en- acted? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, our intention, of course, as I have already pointed out, was that unless the Congress agrees otherwise it will be used initially only for the funding of Radio Free Europe, and Radio Liberty. The CHAIRMAN. I know, but the bill does not specify that. It does not even mention these 50 organizations. Mr. HILLENBRAND. Presumably the appropriations markup or bill would contain this limitation. We have no intention of using this to fund other operations which would run counter to or which have not been discussed with the Congress. (The following information was subsequently supplied:) ORGANIZATIONS QUALIFIED TO RECEIVE GRANTS FROM THE AMERICAN COUNCIL FOR INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS, INC. (Submitted by Department of State) TheDepartment does not, at the present time, have a list of established orga- nizations in the international media field which might legally qualify under the terms of the proposed legislation to apply for grants from the Council. Under the terms of the proposed legislation, it would be the Council's job to consider appli- cations for grants and to convince Congress each year as to the eligibility of potential recipients for such grants as it recommended. The Department of 'State is making direct recommendations this year regarding two organizations it re- gards as eligible under the legislation only because the Council itself, not being in existence, cannot make such recommendations. The Department has in mind no organizations other than Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty as recipients for grants administered by the Council. However, sincefuture needs for encouraging nongovernmental international media cannot be foreseen, it seems prudent to leave open the possibility of meeting them. The Department recognizes that if in the future the Council is to obtain appropria- tions for grants to organizations in the field of international communications other than the abovementioned organizations, it must convince Congress that such organizations are not only technically eligible but also worthy of receiving financial support from the United States Government. The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Hillenbrand, although your principal respon- sibility is with Europe, are you familiar with an operation called Radio of Free Asia? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Not very much. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 75 The CHAIRMAN. Have you heard about it? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I have heard about it, but I could not talk about it intelligently before you. The CHAIRMAN. I will put in the record the letter sent out by Radio of Free Asia appealing for public support. One of the letters was sent directly to me some time ago and also one to a staff member Mr. Halt. This also purports to be a private organization. I- thia it states that contributions are tax deductible. Incidentally, were contributions to the RFE tax deductible? Do you remember? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I believe they probably were, but I would want to check on that before I said categorically. I think they were. The CHAIRMAN. I think so. RADIO OF FREE ASIA'S ELIGIBILITY TO RECEIVE COUNCIL FUNDS Would Radio of Free Asia be eligible to receive contributions from the Council if it is setup? Mr. HILLENBRAND. As far as we are concerned, no. We could give you assurances in writing if you would wish them, Mr. Chairman, that it is not our intent to use these funds for any purposes than for the operation of the two radios. LEGISLATIVE LIMITATION OF FUNDS TO RFE AND RL The CHAIRMAN. Would you have any objection if we put a limita- tion in the legislation that this is solely fror the support of the RFE and RL? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, we would prefer to keep the legislation in such a way as to make possible, if Congress desires it in the future, to use it for other purposes, rather than to foreclose this in the basic legislation. The CHAIRMAN. If Congress desires it in the future, it could change that limitation. Would you have any objection if we put it in now? We can always change it later. Mr. HILLENBRAND. Offhand, personally, I would not. I do not see any. The CHAIRMAN. You would have no objection to our saying that the Birch Society, for instance, will not be eligible to use these facili- ties to spread its educational programs? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I think if you wanted to put that in there, that would be acceptable to us. The CHAIRMAN. Do you think the Minutemen ought to be excluded, too? The only way to do it is to do it by a general exclusion, isn't it? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Or you can write specifically it is going to be used only for specific purposes. The CHAIRMAN. You would have no objection to that? Mr. HILLENBRAND. If you mean the two organization just men- tioned, I think we would find that acceptable. . SOLICITATION OF FUNDS BY RADIO OF FREE ASIA The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Reporter, I want to put these letters from Radio Free Asia in the record. . (The information referred to follows:) Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 76 AMBASSADOR YOU -CHAN.TANG WASHINGTON, D,C., December 8,1969. Hon. J. W. FULLBRIGHT,. .. .. Washington, D.C. DEAR FRIEND : Since you are active in the fight against Communism in Wash- ington, I know that you are anxious to do all you can to help the Americans being held prisoners in Communist North Vietnam. As you know, American prisoners have been subjected to brutal suffering by torture, isolation, degradation and public humiliation at the hands of the Communists. With the help of anti-Communist Americans such as you, Radio of Free Asia (ROFA) is fast becoming one of the most important weapons against Com- munism in all of Asia. ROFA began its anti-Communist broadcasting in 1966. Each week we broad- cast over 41 hours into Red China and North Korea, using powerful 500,000 watt transmitters located in Seoul, South Korea. Radio or Free Asia is now preparing to mount a massive effort to bring this inhumane treatment to the attention of the American people and to the world. Our campaign will take three different approaches : First-we want you and others to mail the enclosed post cards to your Senators urging them to take a firm stand and publicly denounce Hanoi's cruelties to American prisoners. Second-we will make carefully planned mailings of the Reader's Digest ar- ticle to people such as clergymen, radio and TV newscasters, editors and edu- cators--asking them to speak out against the evils of Communism-as evidenced by the maltreatment of U.S. prisoners. Third-we will broadcast into Red China and North Korea the truth about how inhumanely Communism treats all captive people. Our purpose is to bring tremendous pressure to bear during the Christmas season on the North Vietnamese to stop torturing, beating and starving American prisoners. You can have a significant part in making Christmas and all of 1970 a lot happier for an American G.I confined in a dark, disease-infested Communist prison. The G.I. you may be helping may be someone who lives near you. Because of the extreme urgency of the situation, I could not wait until I heard from you before I committed ROFA's money to this fight. I took a risk in the hope that you would want to help. Please don't let us and the American boys down. If you could possibly send ROFA your Christmas gift today, we would be able to begin our campaign immediately to aid these helpless American bays. Sincerely, YOU CHAN YANG, Ambassador at Large, Republic of Korea, Chairman of the Board. P.S. Our finances are very tight. I am writing to you today in the prayerful hope that you will come to our aid and to the aid of the American prisoners of war. ROFA-RADIO OF FREE ASIA THE FREE WORLD'S WEDGE AGAINST THE SEALED WORLD OF COMMUNISM! News-35.7%. Religious Programs--17.1%. News Commentary, Freedom In- terviews-28.6%. Cultural, Educational, Entertainment-Special Programs Like Story of Apollo 11-18.6%. ROFA tells the truth many ways, so that all may hear-and start on a path toward freedom. TO BREAK THE CHAINS OF IGNORANCE AND SLAVERY . . . SPECIAL PROGRAMS . . . SPECIAL EVENTS . . . THAT INFORM AND INSPIRE Lt. Kim Shin-jo, sole survivor of a 31-man North Korean Communist Com- mando team, sent on a mission to assassinate the President of South Korea, exposed in a ROFA interview how he had been deceived by his Red Masters. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Lt. Kim said, that he was grateful to his former: Red Premier who! selected him for this awful mission, because through this,, he obtained "a one-in-a-million chance for freedom. A specal memorial series of broadcasts based on ~ the Inspiring life story of General Dwight David Eisenhower brought truth about America's. fight for freedom by describing how General Eisenhower commanded history's largest military force in World War 11-and yet he and America did-not keep one foot of territory or enslave one single person. One billion people in Red China and North Korea were denied the news of Apollo 11 and man's first moon landing, but ROAF took the chance of a life- time-the chance to broadcast every detail of the moon shot and moon landing to the blacked out millions. Over 450 special programs spotlghted the news of man's landing on the moon, the "gaeat leap for mankind" that could Only have been made in the free world. And there will be many more special projects, ROFA is ready. When the free world achieves extraordinary greatness ... when the slave world of Red Asia makes a disastrous mistake . . . when the call to freedom can be,made loud and clear ... the powerful transmitters of 1;iOFA are ready, the dedicated work- ers of ROFA are ready. ROFA asks you to be ready, too. Make your contribu- tion to the most effective weapon now working against Red Asia-the truth broadcast by ROFA . . . the truth ROFA broadcasts every day. EVIDENCE OF RADIO OF FREE ASIA "BREAKTHROUGH" Recently, the South Korean government was startled by the sudden, unex- pected surrender of Red North Korean espionage agent Hong Sa Chang. He gave up his Red Spy mission and sought freedom. It was a triumphant day for Radio of Free Asia. This Red Spy testified that his motivation for defection came long before he left the Red capital. He had been a listener of ROFA and the broadcasts gave him the motivation to defect. This former Red Spy came to the ROFA microphone and gave splendid testimony to millions of captive people. He said : "I first heard ROFA in the capital of North Korea through my secret radio at night. I could not believe my ears. I was hesitating as to whether I should accept the program as truth. It was a matter of life or death. But when I kept on listening, I knew ROFA was telling the truth and I accepted it. Then I planned my defection. Now, I have freedom and my life is deeply indebted to Radio of Free Asia." What do the people hear that is worth risking their lives for? They hear the news. Real news. Not slanted or rewritten. They hear the eye-witness interviews of ex-Communists who have found their way to freedom. They hear stories of Great Advancement, dramatic readings of man's cease- less search for liberty even under the tyranny of Communism. They hear about the heroes of Freedom, prominent Freedom-fighters against the Communists. They hear about the Irrationality of Communism-discussions of communist theory and ideology analyzed and criticized by specialists. They hear about the superiority of Democracy-democracy is explained and extolled by experts in reaching and informing the Asian people. They hear how it really happened-the truth behind the news which reveals conspiracies and lies of the Communists. A GENERATION TAUGHT TO DENY AND REVILE GOD . . . NOW HEAR HIS WORD To the Asians, with their deep religious feelings, the denial of God is one of the most terrible Communist doctrines. ROFA's religious programs bring the Word of God to some who have almost forgotten Him . . . to many who have known Himn, . . . to those who turn in prayerful Thanksgiving to the goodness, the wisdom, the glory of God IN THREE SHORT YEARS ROFA HAS BECOME A POWERFUL VOICE FOR FREEDOM IN ASIA . . . TRUTH TO ONE BILLION ENSLAVED MINDS In August of 1966, a dedicated band of anti-Communists . . . men who, knew Asia ... who believed in the future of a Free Asia .. who had fought their way out of the total oppression of the Communist way of life . . . joined together. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 They worked around the clock to produce timely broadcasts of the truth. They still do. And that work has paid off in freedom ! When the ROFA staff first started broadcasting, they could only send a mes- sage four hours a week. They had makeshift equipment, that was begged or borrowed. And yet, even in the beginning, people listened, and acted. Defectors from the Communists credited ROFA with awakening them to the belief in freedom. Time and again references were made to ROFA by Freedom seekers. The Red hierarchy began to denounce ROFA more and more fiercely as it became a greater threat. NOW IN THREE SHORT YEARS-LOOK AT THE ROFA VICTORIES Broadcasts have increased from 4 hours to 44 hours a week, eleven times more broadcasting time than ROFA's initial commencement of operations. NOW AMERICANS EVERYWHERE ARE UNITING IN SUPPORT OF ROTA Mr. A. T.-Sodus, N.Y.: "We are retired with not too much income now, but wish to help Radio of Free Asia even just a little" Mr. V.H.-Pottersville, N.J.: "Enclosed is my check to help ROFA fight Com- munism in Asia." Mrs. D.C.-Fairfax, Va.: "I will most certainly send a contribution. I have been donating from time to time to ROFA and think it is a very worthwhile cause. I will continue to do so on a regular basis." Mrs. H. M. C.-Villa Park, Ill.: "Communism has stifled spiritual development, initiative, responsibility and brotherhood. Thank God for organizations like ROTA." Mr. S. R. G.=Harrisburg, Pa.: "I am living on a small pension, but please accept my contribution, as I think it will go to a good cause." RADIO OF FREE ASIA (A project of the Korean Cultural & Freedom Foundation, Inc., Washington, D.C.) HONORARY PRESIDENTS Honorable Harry S Truman General Dwight D. Eisenhower (1064-19eO) HONORARY CHAIRMAN His Excellency You Chan Yang, Ambassador at Large, Republic of Korea OFFICERS Mr. L. William Horning, Chairman of the Board Col. Bo Hi Pak, Executive Director Mr. Chong Hoon Kim, Operations Director Mrs. Sylvia R. Reiter, Secretary Mr. Charles M. Fairchild, Treasurer Edie Adams Senator Gordon Allott Astronaut William A. Anders Desi Arnaz Congressman John Ashbrook Astronaut Frank Borman Claire Lee Chennault Nadine Conner Robert Considine Bing Crosby Senator Carl T. Curtis Tony Curtis Don DeFore Congressman John H. Dent Phyllis Diller Senator Peter Dominick Mike Douglas Senator Paul Fannin Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Honorable James A. Farley Senator Hiram Fong Congressman Gerald R. Ford Connie Francis George Jessel Sammy Kaye Governor Harold Le Vander Congressman Donald Lukens Congresswoman Catherine May Governor Tom McCall Speaker John McCormack Senator Jack Miller Agnes Moorehead Senator Karl E. Mundt Senator George Murphy Hildegarde Neff Jack Nicklaus "Partial Listings. Jane Powell Vincent Price Gen. Matthew Ridgeway (Ret.) Phil Rizzuto Senator Hugh Scott Dean Smith Sam Snead Robert Stack Admiral Felix B. Stump (Ret.) Lowell Thomas Governor Norbert T. Tiemann Senator John Tower Johnny Unitas John Wayne Gen. Alfred Wedem,eyer (Ret.) Johnny Weisslnuller Roger Williams COMMUNICATIONS ADVISORY COMMITTEE Mr. Sig Michelson, Vice President, Time- Mr. Mark Evans, Vice President and Di- Life Broadcast, Inc. rector, Metromedia, Inc. Mr. William G. Harley, President, Na- Mrs. Mary Dorr, President, American tional Association of Educational Women in Radio & Television Broadcasters THESE DISTINGUISHED AMERICANS ALL URGE YOU TO SUPPORT RADIO OF FREE ASIA- TIIE MOST EFFECTIVE VOICE OF TRUTH AND FREEDOM BEHIND TIIE BAMBOO CURTAIN Adm. Arleigh Burke (Ret.) : "Radio of Free Asia is a valuable and worth- while means through which communism can effectively be fought and anti- communism effectively nurtured." Robert Considine : "Radio of Free Asia'?s programs, in my opinion, are sound and will accomplish its mission. I urge you to give your wholehearted support." Bing Crosby : "I urge all Americans to Support Radio of Free Asia. I know the effect broadcasting can have our man's mind and action." Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890-1969) : "ROFA is to be congratulated for build- ing a bridge of truth between the Free world and the captive millions behind the Bamboo Curtain." Congressman Gerald R. Ford : "The Free World must penetrate the Bamboo Curtain with a message of truth for the millions locked behind it or the hearts and minds of those millions will perish in servitude." Sammy Kaye : "The work by Radio of Free Asia is tremendous and I whole- heartedly endorse it." Senator Karl Mundt : "The willing contributions of fine Americans in support of Radio of Free Asia are a vital sign to millions of the real meaning of freedom and justice." Senator George Murphy : "Liberty's foundation rests on truth. Radio of Free Asia's ability to broadcast the truth to the Asian people makes it an invaluable service for America." Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway (Ret.) : "Our support of Radio of Free Asia is vital in telling the Korean people that they are not alone in their fight against Com- munist aggression. I urge all Americans to help ROFA !" Lowell Thomas : "ROTA deserves the enthusiastic support of all of us who are lucky enough to live in the free world. I for one heartily endorse the cam- paign it has been conducting." Senator John Tower : "ROFA plays a. major role in containing the communist advance in Asia. I'm convinced ROFA's work is in the very best interests of America and the World." John Wayne : "ROFA is one of the most effective weapons now working against world communism." Bob Hope : "By broadcasting the truth to the captive millions behind the Bamboo Curtain, I believe ROFA can be highly effective in helping to bring eventual peace to Southeast Asia." Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 RADIO OF FREE ASIA, PROJECT OF THE KOREAN CULTURAL AND I'REFPQM FOUNDATION, Washington, D.C., March 5,1971. MR. AND MRS. PAT HOLT, Bethesda, Md. DEAR MR. AND MRS. HOLT : If you don't have time to read this letter, at least sign the enclosed petition. Every American, regardless of .how he or she feels about the Viet Nam war, owes it to our men who are prisoners of the Communists, in North Vietnam to do something to help them. And surely, signing this petition is the least wecan do for these men who are being held captive in filthy jungle cages. You may wonder, Mr. and Mrs. Holt, why signing your name on a petition could move the incredibly cruel and evil Communists to release our American Prisoners of War. The answer is that the Communists are convinced that we Americans are not interested in these men who are held prisoners, We know this to be so because every Congressman, Senator and private citizen says the same thing when they return from a meeting with the Communists. And as long as the Communists believe that we are not interested in our prison- ers, they will continue to torture our soldiers and hold them captive in bamboo cages. I'm sure you know, Mr. and Mrs. Holt, from your Maryland T.V. stations and newspapers that Hanoi refuses to abide by the Geneva Convention which regu- lates the care and treatment of prisoners of war. Captured Americans are chained in cages. They are beaten and starved. No mail or CARE packages ever reach them. They cannot even write a letter home. Their situation is desperate. But when Radio of Free Asia sends millions of signed petitions to Hanoi the message will ring clear. The North Vietnamese Communists will know that you and I demand the freedom of the POWs. They will realize that the prisoners are a valuable source of bargaining power. Once this happens, you may be sure that negotiations leading to the release of American POWs will get underway. Here's what you can do to help. First, sign the enclosed petition card and mail it back to me in the enclosed postage paid reply envelope. The more signed petitions we receive, the more effective this program will be. Radio of Free Asia began broadcastiing into North Korea and Red China in 1966. But because of our limited budget, we didn't have enough money to broad- cast into North Vietnam. However, because of the increased reports of inhumane treatment of our cap- tured soldiers by the Communists, I felt we must take the financial risk and so we began broadcasting into North Vietnam. Unfortunately we will not be able to continue these critically needed broad- casts unless we receive additional contributions in the next few days-as our bank account is very low. A check from you today for $100, $50, $25 or $10 will allow us to continue broadcasting appeals for the humane treatment and release of our American Prisoners of War. Your donation will also allow us to print, package and fly these millions of petitions to Hanoi. It will only take one minute of your time to sign your petition. If you mail. it today, I will receive it within a couple of days. Cordinally yours, L. WILLIAM HORNING, Chairman, Radio of Free Asia. P.S. Please accept the enclosed American flag decal with our thanks for getting your petition back promptly. RADIO OF FREE ASIA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT RADIO OF FREE ASIA Q. Who listens to ROFA broadcasts? A. There are at least 6 million radio receivers in homes behind the Bamboo Curtain. They provide Communist thought controllers with a sure way to get their Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 81 hate propaganda through to people in remote areas. But they also provide ROTA with a built-in channel to reach these seine minds'with the voice.of Truth. There is ample evidence that hundreds of thousands of people daily risk torture and death to tune in to ROFA. Word of mouth, whispered from friend to friend, carried from town to town, spreads the Truth still farther, The Communist information monopoly no longer exists. Q. Who runs Radio of Free Asia? A. ROFA is not an agency of the South Korean government-or any govern- ment. It is a project. of the Korean Ciiltural & Freedom Foundation, Inc. head- quartered in Washington, D.C. Its Directors and Advisory Council include distin- guished Americans from all walks of life. The work of ROFA is entirely financed by the voluntary private contributions of freedom-loving people throughout America and the free world. ROI+'A receives no subsidy or financial aid of any kind from the U.S. government. Your contribu- tions to ROFA are tax deductible. Q. What has ROFA actually accomplished? A. In its four short years, ROFA's successes have been impressive and many- too many to detail in this brief report. A few highlights : The 1969 Apollo moon landing was totally ignored in Red news media. Seizing this opportunity, ROFA broadcast a total of 450 special programs on the event- became, for millions of people, virtually their only source of news about this "great leap for mankind." Eisenhower : Portrait of an American Hero . . . eight weeks of programs telling the life story of a great American who is remembered and respected by the com- mon people of Asia in spite of Red propaganda. Through this Eisenhower Por- trait ROFA also conveyed the image of his love of freedom ... his hatred of lines land oppression . . . his dream of lasting peace. Interview shows with many defectors from Communism, ranging from North Korean spies and "assassination team" members to ordinary farmers and fishermen, who chose freedom after ROFA broadcasts had planted the seeds of doubt and given them the courage, to escape. Continuous news and special events programs giving the lie to Communist claims . . . exposing Red barbarity and deceit . laying bare its atrocities and repressions In China, North Korea, South Vietnam and Eastern Europe. Q. Can my contribution to ROFA help the cause of world peace? A. The single greatest danger to world peace in our Nuclear Age is lack of information. Daily, millions of Chinese are being told that Communism is invincible . . . that Red China's atomic and hydrogen bombs can bring them world conquest ... that America is a "paper tiger" torn by internal dissent and ripe for revolution. Let this kind of war-promoting propaganda go unchallenged and the trigger is set for a miscalculation that could destroy civilization. The truth can expose the lies, shatter the myths, end the Red monopoly of people's minds. And keep the world from plunging tragically into the atomic abyss. [Reprinted from the New York Times, Sept. 27, 1970] PRISONERS OF WAR : "You TALK TO THE RATS" (By Tom Kelly) WAsunNGToN.-"The worst part of captivity is the isolation. "You talk to the rats, you balk to the wall. After six months, you don't know if you're crazy. You say, `I'm in a Communist prison camp,' and you've heard about brainwashing and you wonder if that's what happening to you." Navy Lieut. Robert Frishman is a former prisoner of war in North Vietnam. He is 29 years old and now lives in San Diego, Calif, He is very thin-150 pounds on a 6-foot-2-inch frame. His eyes are bumming bright- and in respose he has the introspective air of a man who fasts on purpose, to lift his mind to God. Only nine have been released and Lieutenant Frishman is one, presumably for medical reasons. He was a prisoner for 22 months, from October of 1967 to August of 1969. He was, sent to a 10-by-10 brick unheated cell in a prison compound, his wound still open. Each night he wrapped his arm in a single blanket and each morning when he pulled it off the wound ripped open. It took six months to heal. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 He was interrogated-told that his cause was unpopular throughout the world-and beaten. The beatings and the interrogations stopped. In the next 20 months, he would be punished severely twice-by being forced to sit on a stool without rising. "I ate my meals sitting on that stool," he said. "I sat there night and day. After two days my legs swelled up with edema and after two more days I passed out and fell off the stool." Some prisoners were punished more brutally-their arms tied to their legs in back, they were hung face down from the ceilings of their cells. A man with an untreated broken leg was dragged through the corridors. But the, crushing punishment for most was boredom. Lieutenant Frishman was released in August of 1969. Ile believes he was selected because pictures showing his great emaciation and his shriveled arm had aroused indignation and some pressure from the West. He thinks more pressure-from Americans, doves or hawks, and from neutral countries-might persuade Hanoi to release other sick or wounded prisoners and perhaps permit all prisoners to receive mail on a regular monthly basis. In 22 months he received two letters from his wife and two from his mother. They had written 120. Radio of Free Asia (ROFA) is a project of the Korean Cultural and Freedom Foundation, a non-profit, citizen-supported organization with headquarters in Washington, P.O., and broadcasting facilities in Seoul, Korea. ROFA is not controlled or subsidized by any government agency ; its sale support conies from freedom-loving, anti-Communist citizens. Its purpose : to promote freedom and defeat Communism throughout Asia. ROFA began broadcasting in August, 1966, from powerful 500,000-watt trans- mitters leased from STATION KITS in Seoul, Korea that can reach 6,000,000 radio receivers in Red Asia. The Bamboo Curtain has been penetrated by ROFA but much more must be done to effectively counter the relentless propaganda of the Communists. ROFA's OBJECTIVES To broadcast the truth : While Communist dictators confuse their sub- jects, ROFA will reveal the true picture of Communism, with all its contradict tions, setbacks, violence and cruelty. To put freedom on the offensive: Rather than just react to Communist charges and provocations, ROFA will emphasize the positive values of Freedom and Democracy and present them in a dynamic and challenging way. To enhance spiritual values : Godless Communism leaves no room for the spiritual side of a man's nature. ROFA will appeal to the souls of these enslaved Asians by stressing man's basic right to believe in and worship God when and how he chooses. To instill the hope of freedom : The Bamboo Curtain isolates, the mind as' well as the heart by shutting out all hope of escape. ROFA will speak to the captive peoples as friends, giving them courage to keep their spirit alive for the day free- dom will return. Today, the focal paint of the world conflict between Freedom and Communism has shifted from Europe to Asia. This very minute, young Americans are fight- ing and dying in Vietnam. Tomorrow, the "hot" war could break out in any num- ber of other turbulent Asian countries. The Communists control a population of almost one billion Asians-one billion people isolated behind the Bamboo Curtain-subjected, day and night, to a relentless barrage of Communist propaganda. Some attempt must be made to reach and influence these enslaved souls with the message of truth and freedom. Radio of Free Asia is doing this now. GEORGE MuaprIV, Washington, D.0- Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 83 RADIO OF FREE ASIA ? 1028 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. ? Washington, D. C. 20036 bear Mr. Morning: Please send directly to Hanoi the petition I have completed below. I want to help Radio of Free Asia over its financial crisis. I've enclosed my contribution to allow you to continue broadcasting emergency appeals for the release of American Prisoners of War. $500.... $250..-.? $100.?,.. $50..... $25..... $10..... $5..... $.....other Mr. Name Mrs. Miss Please make checks payable to: ROFA POW Project All contributions are lax-deductible ------------------------------------ His Excellency Pham Van Dong, Premier Democratic Republic of Vietnam Hanoi, North Vietnam Premier Pham Van Dong: As concerned United States citizens we are joining Radio of Free Asia's appeal to your humanity and that of your nation in regard to our prisoners of war and our men missing in action: in the name of humanity RADIO OF FREE In the name of humanity RADIO OF FREE ASIA calls for Hanoi to disclose the names ASIA calls for repatriation of sick or of all POWs it holds, and to urge the Na- wounded who might not survive captivity. tional Liberation Front and the Pathet Lao )n the name of humanity ... RADIO OF FREE to do the same. ASIA calls for the International Red Cross or International Control Commission to be In the hame of humanity ... RADIO OF FREE permitted to inspect the prison camps 'in ASIA calls for the assurance of proper de- North Vietnam as has been done in, the tention facilities, food and medical care of South. the POWs. In the name of humanity ... RADIO OF FREE ASIA calls for, in short, an honoring by In the Name of hi,manhy ... t1ADIO OF FREE Hanoi of her legal obligations under the ASIA calls for unhampered correspondence Geneva Convention which she signed in With their families, Name Address City State Zip (If additional space is needed for more names, please use other side) Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 City State Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Miss MORELLA R. HANSEN, 2415 I Street NW., Washington, D.C. DEAR Miss HANSEN : If you do not have time to read this letter, at least read and sign the enclosed petition. Every person in Washington regardless of how he or she feels about the Vietnam war, owes it to our men who are prisoners of the Communists in North Vietnam, to do something to help them. And surely, Miss Hansen, signing this petition is the least we can do for these men who are being held captive in filthy jungle cages. You may wonder how signing your name to a petition could move the incredibly cruel and evil Communists to release our American Prisoners of War. The answer is that the Communists are convinced that we Americans are not interested in these men who are being held prisoners. I know this is so because of Senators, Congressmen and private citizens have told me the same thing, upon returning from meetings with the Com- munist delegates. And as long as the Communists believe that we do not care enough, they will continue to torture our soldiers and hold them captive under horrible conditions. It was only a year ago that Americans like you and me first learned of the terrible conditions of these captives-Americans chained in cages, beaten and starved, without mail or packages ever reaching them, unable even to write a letter home. Their situation was desperate. Then our indignation boiled over. Concerned Americans began their protests and thousands of petitions flooded Hanoi and other world capitals. As you know, Miss Hansen, these protests and petitions have brought action ; 80% of the mail that has come out of prison camps in North Vietnam has arrived since the people in Washington and many other American cities have become aroused and sent petitions to show our indignation to Hanoi. Radio of Free Asia joined this crusade to help captured American servicemen. ROFA already transferred over 90,000 petitions! When ROFA sends thousands of signed petitions to Hanoi, the message rings clear. . . The North Vietnamese Communists will realize that you and I demand the freedom of the POWs. But-we cannot stop now. We must persist and keep fighting until freedom of our men prevails. We must continue our untiring resolve. Here's what you can do to help. First sign the enclosed petition card and mail it back to Radio of Free Asia in the enclosed postage paid reply envelope. The most signed petitions we receive, the more effective the program will be. Radio of Free Asia began broadcasting into North Korea and Red China in 1966. But because they didn't have enough funds, they couldn't broadcast into North Vietnam. Finally, because of increased reports of inhumane treatment of captured Americans by the Communists, ROFA abandoned its planned budget completely and started broadcasting into North Vietnam in an all-out effort to help these POWs. As you read this letter, ROFA is telling the people of North Vietnam that American and world united in favor of these prisoners. It is telling Hanoi why holding and misusing the POWs is NOT to their advantage. ROFA needs your financial help to continue these critically needed broadcasts. ROFA needs your help desperately. ROFA receives no assistance from any govern- ment. A check from you today for $10, $25, $50 or $100 will help ROFA continue broad- casting appeals for the humane treatment and release of Americans held as prisoners. Your donation to Radio of Free Asia will also enable them to print, package and transmit thousands more petitions to Hanoi. It will only take a minute of your time to read and sign your petition. If you mail it today, Radio of Free Asia will receive it within a couple of days. I have asked them to let me know when they hear from you. Sincerely yours, GEORGE MURPHY, Former U.S. Senator. P.S. I am enclosing an American flag decal to express my personal thanks for your cooperation in getting your petition back promptly. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 85 RADIO OF FREE ASIA TIIE VOICE OF TRUTH AND THE HOPE OF FREEDOM FOR THE OPPRESSED MILLIONS BEHIND THE BAMBOO CURTAIN [A project of the Korean Cultural and Freedom Foundation, Inc., 1028 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.] Harry S. Truman Dwight D. Eisenhower (1964-1969) Mr. L. William Horning, Chairman of the Board Col. Bo Hi Pak, Eceeeative Director Edi-e Adams Senator Gordon Allott Astronaut William A. Anders Des! Arnaz Congressman John Ashbrook Astronaut Frank Borman Mrs. Claire Lee Chennault Nadine Conner Robert Considine Bing Crosby Senator Carl T. Curtis Tony Curtis, Don DeFore Congressman John II. Dent Phyllis Diller Senator Peter Dominick Mike Douglas Senator Paul Fannin Honorable James A. Farley Senator Hiram Fong Connie Francis George Jessel Sammy Kaye Honorable Harold Le Vander Honorable Donald Lukens Honorable Catherine May 1 Partial listing. OFFICERS Mr. Chong Hoon Kim, Operations Director Mrs. Sylvia R. Reiter, Secretary Mr. Charles M. Fairchild, Treasurer COUNCIL' Governor Tom McCall Honorable John McCormack Senator Jack Miller Agnes Moorehead Senator Karl E. Mundt Honorable George Murphy Hildegarde. Neff Jack Nicklaus Jane Powell Vincent Price Gen. Matthew Ridgeway (Ret.) Phil Rizzuto Senator Hugh Scott Dean Smith Sam Snead Robert Stack Admiral Felix B. Stump (Ret.) Lowell Thomas Honorable Norbert T. Tiemann Senator John Tower Johnny Unitas John Wayne Gen. Alfred Wedemeyer (Ret.) Johnny Weissmuller Roger Williams COMMUNICATIONS ADVISORY COMMITTEE Mr. Sig Mickelson, Vice President, Time-Life Broadcast, Inc. Mr. William G. Harley, President, National Association of Educational Broadcasters Mr. Mark Evans, Vice President and Director, Metromedia, Inc. Mrs. Mary Dorr, President, American Women in Radio & Television THE STORY BEHIND RADIO OF FREE ASIA Radio of Free Asia. (ROFA), with headquarters in Washington, D.C., and broa,deast facilities in Asia, is a project of the private, non-profit, citizen-sup- ported Korean Cultural and Freedom Foundation. No government agency -subsidizes ROFA. It is solely supported by sincere Americans who want to defend freedom in America, promote freedom abroad, and defeat; Communism by'telling people the truth about it. ROFA began small. In its first year, August to December 1966, 60 hours of pro- grams were beamed to enslaved people behind the bamboo curtain in North Korea Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 and on Mainland China. As more Americans learned about ROFA's broadcasting on behalf of truth and freedom, they willingly gave their support. Broadcasts were expanded to 409 hours in 1967, 1291 hours in 1908, 1930 hours in 1969 and 2156 hours in 1970. As war continued in Southeast Asia, wives, mothers, sisters and the general American public became deeply concerned about humane treatment for American POW's and the fate of Americans missing in action. ROFA's broadcasts to North Vietnam in the humanitarian cause of the POW's and MIA's was begun in 1970. ROFA's goal is 2700 hours of broadcasting to North Korea, Mainland China and North Vietnam in 1971. The four main objectives of ROFA broadcasts are : 1. Broadcast the truth. We fight Communist propaganda by presenting facts to show people behind the bamboo curtain how their governments are trying to con- ceal the truth from them, to confuse them and to lie to them. 2. Put freedom on the offensive. We believe that success against Communism depends upon seizing and holding the initiative. ROFA emphasizes the positive values of freedom and democracy, presenting them interestingly, dynamically, convincingly. 3. Enhancing spiritual values. America's greatest and most lasting contribution to the world is not material abundance but the high moral spiritual values which enable men and women to live full lives and to live them more abundantly. ROFA tells enslaved Asians of the principle that all men are free and equal under God, not responsible to Marxism-Leninism or to the false priests of Red dogma, but only to God and their fellow man, and that every man, woman and child has the right to worship when, where and how he chooses. 4. Keep the hope of freedom alive. Men and women behind the bamboo curtain are cut off from communication with people of the outside world. To the mil- lions to whom Communists say : You have no alternative but Communism, ROFA says : You have friends all over the world ; Communism will lose in the long run ; keep alive the hope of freedom for the day that freedom will return. ROFA's PROGRAMS OF INFORMATION AND HOPE The original moon landing by Americans in 1969 was totally blackedout by news media behind the bamboo curtain. ROFA broadcast a totalof 450 hours of special programs on this event to give millions in Asia the only word they had about this "giant step for mankind." Interviews with defectors from Communism have been broadcast. The moving words of North Korean spies, trained Communist assassins, and ordinary farmers and fishermen who chose freedom have been broadcast back to give others cour- age to vote with their feet for freedom. Now ROFA is telling the true story of Communist North Vietnamese in. humanity toward American prisoners of war and their families, and of the grow- ing wave of world opinion against North Vietnam's refusal to abide by the hu- mane provisions of the Geneva Convention. [From the News American, Baltimore, Md., Friday, Nov. 6, 1970] BOB CONSIDINE: BROADCASTS FOR FREEDOM Radio of Free Asia is now the most persistent voice raised against the treat- ment of American prisoners of war being held by North Vietnam. As yet, the broadcasts with which it bombards Hanoi and the North Vietnamese people have not sprung one POW or moved the Communists officials to release the names of those being held. But it is the best method yet found to get to the core of the tragic situation. "Hanoi leaders may refuse a petition sent to them through the mail ; they can harshly turn down wives of American POW's who travel to Paris to ask for compassion ; but they cannot stop broadcasts from coming through." RADIO OF FREE ASIA is a project of the Korean Cultural and Freedom Foundation, Inc., a non-profit patriotic and anti-Communist organization with headquarters at 1028 Connecticut Ave. N.W., Washington, D.C. It is there that the programs to be aimed at North Vietnam are written and recorded for shipment to Seoul and airing. They are beamed at the prime Asian time, 8 a.m. on two short wave frequencies. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 87 "Each program reports actions and statements which express Americans' deep humane concern for prisoners of war and they put pressure on leaders in Hanoi to abide by conditions of the Geneva Convention," writes Bo Hi Pak, executive director of the Radio of Free Asia. "In the future ROFA plans to strengthen its broadcasting service to North Viet- nam by leasing transmitters in Southeast Asia. With these new medium wave facilities we will be create literally a barrage of broadcasts to shatter the monopoly of information Communist leaders in Hanoi try to maintain in the areas they control. Dear Senator Murphy: Please send directly to Hanoi the petition I hove completed below d oet tx t ladrts of Free Asia over its financial crisis. ,I've enclosed my contribution tr1 altar 1r fa cpts lrrt broadcasting emergency d peak for the release of American PrNonere sat War. S RADIO OF FREE ASIA ' tuzs Connect ept Avenue xv w ? washtn jtea C 'C out t6 As concerned United States citizens we are joining Radio of Free Asia's appeal to your humanity and that of your nation in regard to our prisoners of war and our men missing in action: 47 the name of humanity RADIO OF FREE ASIA calls for repatriation of sick or ASIA calls for Hanoi to disclose the wounded who might not survive cap- names of all POW's it holds, and to tivily. urge the National Liberation Front and In the name of humanity ... RADIO OF FREE the Pathet Lao to do the some. ASIA calls for the International Red in the name of humanity . RADIO OF FREE Cross or International Control Com- ASIA calls for the assurance of proper mission to be permitted to inspect the detention facilities, food and medical prison camps in North Vietnam as has core of the POW's. been done in the South. His Excellency Phom Van Dong, Premier Democratic Repuhlicof Vietnam Hanoi, North Vietnam Premier Pham Van Dong: ,n the name of humanity. . RADIO OF FREE ASIA calls for unhampered corre- spondence with their families, n the name of humanity RADIO OF FREE In the name of humanity... RADIO OF FREE ASIA calls for, in short, an honoring by Hanoi of her legal obligations under the Geneva Convention which she signed in 1957. City State Zip Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 "Through ROFA broadcasts, people in Vietnam are learning that America is united on this issue, 'that world opinion is not with Hanoi and that they have- nothing to gain by refusing to abide by the terms of the Geneva Convention. "I must report to you that launching these important programs was not easy, and would not have been possible at this time without the wholehearted coopera- tion of President Chung Hee Park of the Republic of Korea." Contributions to the Korean Cultural and Freedom Foundation are tax deductible. THESE DISTINGUISHED AMERICANS URGE You To SUPPORT RADIO OF FREE ASIA Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890-1969) : "SOFA is to be congratulated for build- ing a bridge of truth between the Free world and the capitve millions behind the Bamboo Curtain." Bing Crosby : "I urge all Americans to support Radio of Free Asia. I know the effect broadcasting can have over man's mind and actions." John Wayne : "ROFA is one of the most effective weapons now working against world communism." Lowell Thomas: "Radio of FreeAsia deserves the enthusiastic support of all of us who are lucky enough to live in the free world. I for one heartily endorse the campaign it has been conducting, and which I hope it will continue until the day comes when such things are no longer necessary. Surely Radio of Free Asia will hasten that hour." ROTA HELPS THE CAUSE Or WORLD PEACE In our nuclear age the greatest danger to peace is lack of information. Millions of Chinese on the Mainland and other Asians are being told that Communism is invincible, that America is a "paper tiger" which is weak and easily defeated. If this propaganada goes unchallenged, the trigger is set for miscalculations that could lead to the destruction of civilization. Only truth can expose the lies, shatter the myths, and end the Red monopoly over the minds of enslaved Asians. By broadcasting day after day the truth of America's might and humanity to peoples behind the bamboo curtain, ROFA helps to ward of miscalculations which could lead to world catastrophe. FUND SOLICITING BY RADIO OF FREE ASIA The CIIAIRIIAN. This is a very difficult organization to find out about. I tried 2 years ago. It came up in connection with the hearings on the Vietnam policy proposals. The honorary chairman of the board is Mr. You Chan Yang, Ambassador-at-Large, Republic of Korea. Upon inquiry, we found it very difficult to get anybody to take responsibility for Mr. You Chan Yang, but he was soliciting funds all over the United States, using the traditional computerized letters which our domestic political organizations use. They were obviously being sent to anybody. They were not very discriminating in sending it to me and Mr. Pat Holt and others. Evidently they buy a. very large mailing list and they say the contributions are tax deductible. We had some examples of the most vitriolic attacks upon China and North Korea. I was wondering how the President would view the continuation of this kind of activity if he is serious about seeking a reconciliation or more normal relations with China. The President obviously cannot go around supervising all of these activities. I think we might present a situation in which one hand of the Government under this kind of organization will be doing some- thing quite contrary to the announced policy of the President of the United States. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Would you mind asking the Assistant Secretary for the Far East, who I believe that is Marshall Green now, if he could supply the com- mittee with whatever information he has about Radio Free Asia. Would you mind asking him that? Mr. HILLENBRAND, I will speak to him, Mr. Chairman. I, frankly, do not know anything about it myself. (The information referred to follows:) U.S. TREASURY DEPARTMENT, INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, Washington, D.C., &ptcmber 17, 1964. THE ]KOREAN CULTURAL AND FREEDOM FOUNDATION, INC., .1028 Connecticut Ave., NW., Washington, D.C. GENTLEMEN : Based upon the evidence submitted, it is held that you are exempt =from Federal income tax as an organization described in section 501(c) (3) of the Internal Revenue Code, as it is shown that you are organized and operated exclusively for the purpose shown above. Any questions concerning excise, em- ployment or other Federal taxes should be submitted to your District Director. You are not required to file Federal income tax returns so long as you retain an exempt status, unless you are subject to the tax on unrelated business income imposed by section 511 of the Code and are required to file Form 990-T for the purpose of reporting unrelated business taxable income. Any changes in your organization's character, purposes or method of operation should be reported immediately to your District Director for consideration of their effect upon your exempt status. You should also report any change in your name or address. Your liability for filing the annual information return, Form. 990-A, is set forth above. That return, if required must be filed after the close of your annual accounting period indicated above. Contributions made to you are deductible by donors as provided in section 170 of the Code. Bequests, legacies, devises, transfers or gifts to or for your use are deductible for the Federal estate and gift tax purposes under the provisions of sections 2055, 2106 and 2522 of the Code. You are not liable for the taxes imposed under the Federal Insurance Con- tributions Act (social security taxes) unless you file a waiver of exemption certificate as provided in such act. You are not liable for the tax imposed under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act. Inquiries about the waiver of exemption certificate for social security taxes should be addressed to your District Director. Your District Director is being advised of this action. If distributions are made to individuals, case histories regarding the recipients should be kept showing names, addresses, purposes of awards, manner of selee? tion, relationship if any to members, officers, trustees or donors of funds to you, in order that any and all distributions made to individuals can be substantiated upon request by the Internal Revenue Service. (Revenue Ruling 56-304, Cumu- lative Bulletin 1956-2, page 306.) Since your operations have been limited, this ruling is based on the under- standing that your continuing operations will conform to those proposed and evidenced to date. Every exempt organization is required to have an Employer Identification lumber, regardles of whether it has any employees. If your organization does not have such a number, your District Director will take steps to see that one is issued to you at an early date, Very truly yours, JoIIN R. BARBER, Acting Chief, Exempt Organizations Branch. DDE, Gettgsberg, Pa., August 11, 1966. KOREAN CULTURAL AND FREEDOM FOUNDATION, 1028 Connecticut Avenue N.TIW., Was&hington, D.C.; Radio of Free Asia and the Korean Cultural and Freedom Foundation are to be congratulated for building a bridge of truth between the Free World and the captive millions behind the Bamboo Curtain. They deserve the wholehearted Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 support of all of us in their mission of bringing understanding of the Free World to all peoples cut off from it by the Bamboo Curtain. Radio of Free Asia has a vital role to Play in winning and maintaining peace in Asia. Countries in Asia that are cut off from the outside world by the Bamboo Curtain lack the understanding so vital ,to the development of policies of peaceful cooperation. Radio Free Asia can help break down this isolation and open the closed societies in Asia to the free flow of ideas from countries throughout the world. I urge my Fellow Americans to study the aims of Radio of Free Asia and to give such support as they can to this significant stand for freedom in Asia. DWIGHT RISENHOWER. RADIO OF FREE ASIA, Mr. WILLIAM DYESS, Washington, D.C., Hay 25,1971. EUR/C11P, room 5221, Department of State, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. DYESS : Thank you very much for calling this office in regard to Radio of Free Asia. Upon your request, I hasten to put together overall information on Radio of Free Asia as well as the Korean Cultural and Freedom Foundation, Inc., since Radio of Free Asia is a project of this Foundation. I conscientiously put together all current information, in general. If you do need any specific information, please contact me at any time. Along with this information, I enclose some reference material. Also enclosed is a booklet on the Little Angels, National Folk Ballet of Korea, which is the Foundation's cultural project and which you might be interested in. With best wishes, Very sincerely yours, RADIO OF FREE ASIA SCRIPrNo. 51 FLIGHT TO FREEDOM (Svetlana Alliluyeva, daughter of Red Dictator Josef Stalin) THE DRAMATIC STORY OF THE FAILURE OF COMMUNISM (Language broadcast in Chinese and Korean) PRELUDE: RINGING OF ANCIENT BELL AS A SYMBOL OF LIBERTY This is Radio of Free Asia-the voice of Truth and freedom-bringing you the facts about world events and the message of hope. ROFA broadcasts are. made possible by the voluntary contributions of private citizens who believe in freedom and peace and who care about your welfare. Music. INTRODUCTION August 15 is a day that will live forever in the annals of all who live freedom on the China Mainland, in North Korea, in North Viet Nam, and throughout the free world. On this day, one year ago, Radio of Free Asia began broadcasting operations--to end the Communist monopoly of information in Red Asia. No other day in recent history has shown more clearly the eternal unquench- ability of man's commitment to be free, whatever the odds against success, what- ever the sacrifices required. While your Communist rulers try to deceive and confuse you, Radio of Free Asia broadcasts the true state of affairs in the world. Our broadcasts come from people like yourselves=peasants, workers, merchants, mothers, daughters and sons. Through them is revealed the true picture of international Communism-its contradictions, setbacks, failures, violence, cruelty and inevitable collapse. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Two months from now, Communists will celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Bolshevik 'Revolution. They have a long record of victories to support their fore- cast of world domination in the near future. They can claim that one-third of the world's population lives under Commu- nist rule. They might even claim that the flame of their revolution has finally started to blaze in North America, which they consider to be the bulwark of capitalism. In your own land, your Communist leaders are telling you that their advanced science has produced atomic and hydrogen weapons. They're telling you that they can soon wipe out American military might. All of this is very impressive. Yet, there is a calm soft voice you have not heard that has the strength to re- fute the Communist claims of inevitable success. It is a strong voice because the person is telling the truth-and truth is all-powerful. 5VETLANA's BACKGROUND She was a Communist ; she knows Communism from the inside ; knows the Communist leaders ; witnessed the growth of Communism throughout her life. She is supposed to be in Russia, but, in truth, she is not. She fled- from Com- munism. We speak of Svetlana Alliluyeva, daughter of Josef Stalin, the former dictator of Communist Russia. Stalin's daughter was a person of privilege in her own country, and regarded as being state property. She is, in some ways, the saddest of women. Her mother committed suicide, her father was reviled by his close associates. She left her home and her children because life under Communism became unbearable. Com- munism is like an old tree with green leaves, but inside the trunk and roots are steadily rotting away. No one can testify to this decay better than Svetlana Stalin Alliluyeva Svetlana came to the free world because she wanted to live a free and inde- pendent life. She wanted to exercise her human right to believe in God, and to publish what she had written. Now I want you to hear her and draw your own conclusions. Listen as Svetlana answers the question : What series of events turned you away from Communism? 5VET7 ANA SPEAKS Well, 20 years ago, when I joined the Communist Party as a student at Mos- cow University, I believed in Communism, as everybody did-all my friends, people of my generation. I must say that it was a long chain of events. Perhaps the studies of -the history and social sciences and economics, and Marxism itself made me, well, a little bit critical of many things which I would see around me, and of the things I would see in our country and in other Socialis- tic countries, because it was not exactly what we were told theoretically. Later, in. the last 10 years, everybody in our country, especially the younger generation, but also my generation,. became more critical. The lack of freedom was quite evident to everyone. In the last five years religion has worked a great change in me. I was brought up in a family where there was never any talk about God. But when I became an adult, I found that it- was impossible to exist without God in one's heart. I came to that conclusion myself, without anybody's help or preaching. This was a great change because since then the main dogmas of Communism lost their significance for me. Instead of struggling and causing unnecessary bloodshed, people should work more together for the progress of humanity. This is the only thing which I can take seriously-the work of teachers, scientists, educated priests, doctors, law- yers-their work all over the world, regardless of states and borders, political parties and ideologies.- - Announcer : What event determined you to turn to religion? Is yours a formal religion or simply a generalized belief in God - Svetlana : It is a generalized religion. I believe that all religions are true and different religions are only different ways to the same God. For me, God is the Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73BOO296ROO0500050001-0 power of life and justice. And when I am talking about God, I am talking about happiness to live and to enjoy life on this earth. I feel that humanity should be one, that mankind should not be destroyed. This is my belief in God. Announcer: You said you left Russia seeking freedom of self-expression? Were you stating your disapproval of your father's rule in the Soviet Union and if so, in what way? Svetlana : Well, there are two points to this. First of all, self-expression. I mean-for the person who thinks lie is a writer, he can write. And this is the only thing he can do. Such a person needs freedom to express what he can do and be sure that his books will be published. This is what I-and many other writers- couldn't do at home. Now, about disapproval of politics, or the politics of my father. Well, I must tell you that I disapprove of many things. But I think that many other people who still are in our Central Politburo in Russia are responsible for the same things for which he [my father] alone was accused. And if I feel somewhat responsible for those who are killing people, I also feel the responsibility lies with the Party, the regime and the ideology as a whole. Announcer: Did the Sovietattitude towards your proposed marriage to Mr. Singh cause you to reevaluate conditions in Russia? If not, what did? Svetlana : Yes,-how in a country where marriage is allowed by law, why should a person like myself not be allowed to marry by the Party and by the government? I think this is not the business of the government at all. And the whole thing finished quite tragically because my husband died in Moscow, and his death made me absolutely intolerant of the things to which I was rather tolerant before. And a lot of other things : I can mention the court, the trial of Andrei Sinyav- sky, which produced horrible impressions of all intellectuals in Russia. I can say that I lost any hope that we were going to become liberal, somehow. Announcer : In your statement [Friday] you said because of your name, you were considered as a kind of a state property by the Russian Government. Would you give us more details about the demands and restrictions on your personal life made by the government? Svetlana : Well, I was told many times, officially, that I would never be allowed to travel abroad because I would meet the press and this wasn't for me. Secondly, I was not allowed to marry, officially, an Indian citizen, although he was a member of the Indian Communist Party. I had some rights which other people didn't have, but as you know, people cannot live by bread alone. We also need something else, and I knew that work as a writer would never be possible for me In the Soviet Union. Announcer : Are there many other Russians who also feel that a belief in God proffered strength to meet the daily challenges all human beings face? Are there many other Russians who also feel that a belief in God is important for them to meet the challenges of their life? Svetlana : I believe there are many. Announcer : Of all the factors which brought you to the point of coming to the United States, which would you say was the outstanding one? Svetlana : I think that the most important for me was the death of my husband, because I was attached to him, I loved him, I respected him. And when he was denied in the Soviet Union the basic human rights, it affected both of us. When he finally died, I felt that I completely changed. I have become intolerant of many of those things of which I was tolerant and patient before. Announcer : Do you believe that religion and Communism can exist together? Svetlana : I don't think that-I don't think that violence and revolution can go hand in hand with the idea of love for everyone. No, I don't believe they can be joined together. Announcer: Would yousay that you favor a democracy set up on the form of our democracy here as the kind of government you are In favor of? Svetlana: Well, I believe, of course, your society has more democratic freedoms. This is what I believe and what I see. Announcer : What dogmas of Communism, to use your words, do you believe have lost their significance or are wrong? Svetlana : I believe that in the modern world, In the 20th Century to which we belong, in the century of the atom bomb and space flights, to hear that class revolu- Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73BOO296ROO0500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 tion can bring people progress has lost its significance. Progress in our time should be reached by the work of humanity, not class struggle. This is what I believe. If we sum tip these words of Svetlana Stalin Alhluyeva-the daughter of Com- munist Dictator Josef Stalin-she is saying that Communism is not good for people, not even for the Communist leaders and their families. LIFE UNDER STALIN Now, let us review the conditions of life on the Chinese Mainland under Com- munist rule today. For years under Stalin, millions of people were wrenched away from their fam- ilies, their work, their villages. They were sent to concentration camps. Many were taken because of completely false denunciations. They were tortured by investigator beasts, and taken away, covered with their own blood. Millions of innocent men and women were forced to move from their own lands into barracks in far-off, strange places and there kept tinder guard. Many were. shot or died from hardships of the life forced upon them. Stalin was a man without mercy. During the 1O30s he initiated a great purge of' Ills enemies-Stalin's cultural revolution-to destroy all who disagreed with him.. In these purges, more than 10,000,000 people died for no other reason than to make. Stalin feel more powerful, more secure. The officers of the Red Army were not trusted, either. On one occasion Stalinr assigned a General to a new post, then changed his mind and had him shot. The only protest-passible to the people came in the form of prison songs. Isere are two of them which expross the deep suffering, the bitterness of Communist captives : The first one : Yesterday we burled two Marxists. We didn't cover them with flags ; One of them had the rightist deviation ; The other one not even that. And another one : They finished me, the bastards, they finished me, They destroyed my youth, My golden hair was turned white, And I am on the brink of ruin. Stalin's terrorism against those closest to him came to a climax after world' War II. Mayors of cities, governors of regions, high officials of the government were taken. They were forced to confess to crimes they never committed. Then they were shot. Just before his death, Stalin was plotting to seize and execute officials of the highest rank-Foreign Minister, Premier and Defense Minister:. HOW IT AFFECTED STALIN'S DAUGHTER Svetlana lived in the comfort of the finest cruelty, but she sensed it, and now she has revolted ,against it. Svetlana, who lived through all of this 'terroristu and bloodshed, was asked:.. whom to blame. She said it was not enough -to blame her father, Josef alone for crimes committed by the Communist Party. Many now lit iiow r' in Russia are guilty of the same cruelties. With all of these crimes against the peo- ple, farm production was hurt, factory production was hurt. It was all due to the Communists and it was a crime against the progress of humanity. After Stalin died, his closest associates. turned on his memory and denounced him. Communism-"the promise of paradize"-was even betrayed for the leaders themselves ! Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 LIFE UNDER MAO How much Communist Russia is like the regime of Mao Tse-tung ! Mao Tse-tung and his Communist officials have turned your life into one of fear and torment. The cultural revolution and civil war rages on the Chinese Mainland. Communists are fighting not for your progress, not to give you para- dise, but to gain more power for them selves.. Whoever wins, you are the losers. The people peasants, workers, writers, cultural workers--you who want only to live in peace, improve the conditions of daily life, enjoy your family and the great heritage of China-you are the ones who suffer. THE MEANING OF SVETLANA'S ESCAPE Svetlana's escape from Communist Russia and her true words have a special meaning for each one of you. When you see hate and struggle around you, when you see families torn apart and neighbors taken away for no cause, when you we unnecessary bloodshed, remember Stalin's daughter, Svetlana, who said that Communist dogmas no longer have any meaning. She condemns the crimes committed by the Communist officials in the name of the party, and she .:aid: "Instead of struggling and caus- ing unnecessary bloodshed, people should work together for the progress of humanity." God made man to live free. No power on earth can-for long-oppose this `God-given right. No dogma, no ideology, no government can do it. In the past 50 years Communists threw God out the window. Communism tried to take the place of God and promised paradise for everyone. For a time there was the life of great expectation, of inflamed hopes. You were caught up on the fervor of working for the promised goal.. But are you in paradise to- day? Can you even see any signs of approaching it? Look around your home. Look into the faces of your wife, your husband, your sons and daughters. Look into your neighbor's face. Look at your rulers. Now draw your own conclusions whether you have paradise ; whether the promises of Communism have been true or false. Svetlana said that Communist dogma lost its meaning when she discovered that she had to have God in her heart. No "ism" that violates the universal principles of God and Creation can long survive, because it is not founded on truth. Remember : Svetlana was taught the words of Marx from childhood-words that say matter is the only reality, that there is no human soul, no spirit, no eternal life. She looked around her at what Maxism and Communism did to the people of her generation. And she finally came to the conclusion : "It was impossible to exist without God." She testified, and you heard her say : "Since that moment the main dogmas of Communism lost their significance for me." HOPE FOR THE FUTURE Here is dramatic proof of what Communism has promised and how Communism has failed to make good on its promises. We, in the Free World, who believe in freedom under God, know that other hearts in Red Asia-millions of them- beat with ours ; that others are committed to our cause ; that other clear eyes are fixed on the Communist tyranny over the minds and souls of men-a tyranny that will inevitably fall before the awesome power of truth. On this day, the First Anniversary of Radio of Free Asia, we look forward with confidence in the positive power of mankind's commitment to be free. De- spite the torments of today, human freedom. is the wave of the future : freedom to discover and pursue happiness, to grow wise and to live in friendship with SIGN-OFF This has been a special anniversary broadcast of Radio of Free Asia-sup- ported by the voluntary contributions of free people-to bring you the voice of truth, hope and freedom. Concluding music. Station identification. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 RADIO OF FREE ASIA, A PRODUCT OF THE KOREAN CULTURAL AND FREEDOM FOUNDATION, INC. PROGRAM LISTINGS OF BROADCASTS TO NORTH VIETNAM ON POW'S Program number and broadcast date Program title Participants or program sources Inaugural broadcast Sept. 9-15, 1970 ----- Members of Congress Unite for Humane Treatment of POW's. 1. Sept. 16-22 --------------------------- America Unites For Humane Treatment of POW's. 2. Sept. 23-29 --------------------------- Wives and families fight for humane treat- ment of POW's. 3. Sept. 30-Oct.6------------------------ Congressman Zion presents petition to Mai Congressman Roger H. Zion of Indiana, Van Bo at Paris. MIA wife Mrs. Wanda Ruffin. Congressman Roger H. Zion of Indiana ------ News report on the activities of the U.S. Congress, the American people and the United Nations on behalf of POW's/MIA's. Congressman Zion says that Congressmen want North Viet- namese to know that their own leaders are leading them down a had trail and are giving them a bad reputation in the court of world opinion. Library of Congress POW files_____________ Documentary covering worldwide efforts in behalf of humane treatment for POW's. Congressional hearings and national league POW/MIA wives tell of meetings with Swedish Prime Minister files. Olaf Palme, Pope Paul, and the North Vietnamese delegates in 4. Oct. 7-13 ----------------------------- Congress meets in joint session to stress unity an POW issue. Paris and the opening of the headquarters of the National League of Families of American Prisoners and Missing in Southeast Asia in Washington, D.C. Congressman Zion describes his persistent efforts to overcome North Vietnamese refusals and his breakthrough meeting with North Vietnamese Delegate Gen. Mai Van Be in Paris. The Con- gressman presented a petition signed by 406 Members of the U.S. House of Representatives. His 40 minute talk with Mai Van Bo is regarded as a major achievement in direct communica- tions with the North Vietnamese . Congressional Record -------------------- News report on statements by Congressmen Albert, Boggs, Bush, Arends, Adair, Ford, Brock, Zion, Murphy, Teague, Daniel, R W ivers, ylie, Morgan, and Zwack; and Senators Mansfield, llender, Fulbright, Stennis, Byrd, Scott, Aiken, Young, Allott, a and Griffin pointing out that the treatment of POW's is not a military or political but a moral issue. News report on statements by Congressmen O'Neill, Scherle, and Fulton and official statements by spokesmen of Norway, Chile, Greece, Costa Rica, Iran, Tunisia, Nepal, and the Phillippines. 5. Oct. 14-20 ---------------------------- Groundswell of activity on POW issue fol- Congressional Record, UN releases, ROFA lows joint congressional session, press files. 6. Oct.21-27---------------------------- Returned POW's speak out to urge action in behalf of POW's. 7. Oct. 28-Nov. 3_____________________ Wives and families push for new action on POW's. Congressman 0 Neill calls for a public outcry against Hanoi's position Tape of statements and press conference Maj. Rowe reports how he was shackled in irons in a small at May meeting of National League of bamboo cage and subjected to mental torture by the Vietcong Families. and how he escaped. Col. Morris Overly and Lt. David Matheny report on physical tortue and mental harrassment during their rs of eport caDtiVibn the tements their release. Tape of statements and press conference at News r and pof the League of Families held May meeting of National League of in Washington, D.C. Mrs. Joanne Vinson urges that the Inter- Families and ROFA press files. national Red Gross be permitted to inspect prisoner of war camps in North Vietnam. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 RADIO OF FREE ASIA, A PRODUCT OF THE KOREAN CULTURAL AND FREEDOM FOUNDATION, INC.-Continued PROGRAM LISTINGS OF BROADCASTS TO NORTH VIETNAM ON POW'S-Continued B. Nov. 4-10----------------------------- Disabled American Veterans launch National Comdr. Cecil W. Stevenson------- DAV National Comdr. Cecil Stevenson described the Disabled elaborate effort on POW issue. American Veterans' radio, television, and direct mail campaign to produce a hoped-for 10,000,000 letters in behalf of POW's and MIA's. 9. Nov. 11-17---------------------------- National League of Families plans vast new National Coordinator Joanne Vinson, Assist- Mrs. Joanne Vinson, national coordinator of the National League of mail campaign. ant National Coordinator Mary Jane Families, and Mrs. Kevin McManus, assistant national coordinator, McManus. discuss letters received from some POW's and announce a nationwide campaign of writing letters to Hanoi and to the North Vietnamese in Paris. They hope for 100 tons of mail. 10. Nov. 18-24---------------------------- Senator Brooke calls for joint congressional Senator Edward Brooke of Massachusetts-_._ Senator Edward Brooke explains the resolution he has introduced committee on POW issue. jointly with Senator Robert Byrd to establish a joint Houes and Senator Committee on Treatment of Prisoners of War. Senator Brooke says he feels that more should be done to facilitate com- munication between POW's and their families and to gain better treatment for POW's. 11. Nov. 25-Dec. 1------------------------ International Longshoreman's Union plans ILA President Thomas W. Gleason, ILA John M. Bowers tells what the International Longshoremen's continuing activity on behalf of POWs. vice president John W. Bowers. Association is doing to prevent American flag shipping from dealing with the North Vietnamese and offers to unload Russian shipping in the United States, which is not now offloaded here- on the basis of 1 Russian ship unloaded for each 5 POW's released by the North Vietnamese. mun 12. Dec. 2-8------------------------------ Fort Walton community organizes nation- Dave Anderson Rev. Talmadge Smith ------ These e2 leaders in Fort many others Walton, have been of Fla., disclose madehowawa their com the POW/ wide and worldwide effort for POW's and MIA's. MIA issue through distribution of 58,000 copies of a booklet on POW's/MIA'a, and the outpouring of support from women, students, workers, and businessmen. Fort Walton raises $17,000 to send 8 POW/MIA wives to Southeast Asia and to Paris to get their message across directly to North Vietnamese officials. 13. Dec.9-15----------------------------- Fort walton M [A wives stir opinion in Europe MIA wives Marge Brinckmann and Nancy Mrs. Marge Brinckmann and Mrs. Nancy Bannon, of Fort Walton, and Southeast Asia. Bannon. Fla. describe their trip to Laos, New Delhi, Rome, Stockholm, and London, their audience with the Pope, the efforts to arouse worldwide public opinion on behalf of humanitarian treatment for POW's, and the release of the names of all American POW's. 14, Dec. 16-22---------------------------- Senator Curtis calls for increased activity Senator Carl Curtis of Nebraska and MIA Senator Carl Curtis and Mrs. Cathy Plowman discuss the rising on POW issue. wife Cathy Plowman. public indignation over North Vietnamese refusal to live up to the provisions of the Geneva Convention on POW's and express support for a proposal for an exchange of POW's in Vietnam. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 15. Dec. 23-29 ---------------------------- National League Explores increased world National League National Coordinator Mrs. Joanne Vinson, national coordinator of the National League of press coverage on POW issue. Joanne Vinson and Press Club President Families, and Michael Hudoba, president of the National Press Michael Hudoba. Club, discuss editorial opinion by the press of the United States, France and other countries urging humanetreatment for POW's: Mrs. Vinson reports that press comment in the United States has increased 280 percent in the past 2 months. 16. Dec. 30-Jan. 5, 1971____________________ VFW commander makes world tour on POW Comdr. Herbert R. Rainwater ------------- Veterans of Foreign Wars Commander in Chief Herbert Rainwater issue. reports on his 17-nation world tour, including stops in the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, India, and Southeast Asia, his talks with North Vietnamese officials, and the VFW's support. for release of POW names and humane treatment for POW's. 18. Jan. 6-12 ----------------------------- Civil air patrol launches activities on behalf Cal. William M. Patterson, vice chairman___ The vice chairman of the civil air patrol describes CAP's private, of POW', volunteer effort on behalf of POW's/MIA's which features dis- tribution of more than 100,000 bumper stickers. 19. Jan. 13-19 ---------------------------- Congressmen Montgomery and Zion discuss Congressmen Roger H. Zion of Indiana and Congressmen Montgomery and Zion comment on the significance news activities on behalf of POW's. G. V. Montgomery of Mississippi. of the Findley-Stratton resolution on the Sontay POW camp raid by American forces, on their own petition efforts directed at Hanoi, and the strong bipartisan support in the United States on the POW/MIA issue. 20. Jan. 20-26---------------------------- New actions at Paris, the U.N. and U.S. Con- Library of Congress POW files, Congres- Documentary cites 13 violations of the Geneva Convention by the gress on POW issue. sional Record, U.N. Radio Service, ROFA North Vietnamese, covers the action of the Social Committee press files. of the United Nations on POW's, and comments on the U.N. action by Ambassador Yost, Senator Pell, and Congressmen Zablocki, Schmitz, Boggs, and Fisher. 21. Jan. 27-Feb. 2_________________________ Senator Griffin proposes unilateral POW Senator Robert P. Griffin of Michigan ------- Senator Griffin discusses his concern for POW's/MIA's, his visit release. with North Vietnamese delegate Gen. Mai Van Bo in Paris. and his resolution for an unilateral prisoner release by the South Vietnamese to increase the pressure of world opinion on the North Vietnamese. 22. Feb. 3-9------------------------------ POW wife reports on communists use of POW wife Mrs. Wilmer M. Grubb__________ Mrs. Wilmer M. Grubb, a POW wife, tells how Communists circulated POW's for propaganda purposes. photographs showing her husband to be in good health for several years before informing her that he had died on a date prior to their release of the photographs, and describes her plans for legal action through the U.N. 23. Feb. 10-16 ---------------------------- AMVETS launches dramatic effort to stir National Comdr. Robert Showalter --------- AMVETS National Comdr. Robert Showalter discusses AMVETS' world opinion on POW's. unigce campaign to help POW's/MIA's through a pen-pal and a language teachers' letter writing effort, work with some 800 ethnic groups, and a program for businessmen to take advertise- ments in behalf of POW's/MIA's in foreign newspapers. . 24. Feb. 17-23 ---------------------------- New year heralds wide variety of activities ROFA press files ------------------------ Documentary covering Maj. James N. Rowe's book "Forest of in behalf of POW's Darkness," the 100-tons of mail project of the National League of Families, a letter writing campaign to U.N. Ambassadors, the "Let My People Go" project of the Chattanooga News Free Press, U.S. Congress action to declare a "Week of Concern." the U.S. Post Office Department's POW/MIA stamp, and new. year's comments by Senators Javits, Percy, Hansen, Dole, Bennett, and Pearson. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 RADIO OF FREE ASIA, A PRODUCT OF THE KOREAN CULTURAL AND FREEDOM FOUNDATION, INC.-Continued PROGRAM LISTINGS OF BROADCASTS TO NORTH VIETNAM ON POW'S-Continued Association work on behalf of POW's/MIA's, pointing out the many legal problems resulting for governments and individuals due to failure of the North Vietnamese to adhere to the Geneva 26. Mar. 3-9 ------------------------------ Pensacola organizes 1st student trip to Convention. MIA wife Mrs. Jackie Kent and high school MIA wife Jackie Kent and teacher Marilyn Wolf who accompanied Paris. , teacher Miss Marilyn Wolf. the 1st student group received by the North Vietnamese in Paris on the POW/MIA issue, tell how the Pensacola, Fla., community was organized to support the Paris trip for the students. 27. Mar. 10-16 ---------------------------- Pensacola students meet with North High school students Debbie Hogg and Kip 2 students tell of their meeting with North Vietnamese delegate Vietnamese in Paris. Jackson. Gen. Nguyen Tuan Lieu in Paris and details of dramatic con- frontations with the North Viet am d ffi l i f 1 n ese an o a c s o 1 other embassies in Paris. 28. Mar. 17-23---------------------------- Orlando businessmen launch program in Businessmen Richard Eckstein Orlando businessmen Richard Eckstein and Lou Masterson describe ' behalf of POW s. Masterson, how they organized a rally for POW's/MIA's in Orlando, attended 29. Mar. 24-30---------------------------- Congressman Lou Frey discusses effective- ' by some 10,000 fellow citizens. Congressman Lou Frey, of Florida, and POW Congressman Lou Frey and Mrs. Kay F. Perkins a POW wife ness of local programs for POW s and ' , , wife, Mrs. Kay F. Perkins. evaluate the work of community efforts and their relationship MIA s. to the achievement of effective action at national and interna- tional levels. 30. Mar. 31-Apr.6------------------------ New committee plans national protest for ' ' National Director Allan Finger ------------ Allan Finger, national director of the POW Day Committee explains POW s and MIA s. , how his organization was formed and its plans for a day of pro- test to dramatize visually America's concern for POW's/MIA's 31. Apr. 7-13 ----------------------------- Congress votes national week of concern for ' ' . Congressional Record, ROFA press files---- Documentary describing the purpose of the U.S. Congress Joint POW s/MIA s. Resolution for a 'Week of National Concern" and covering statements by Congressmen Anderson, Price, Fascell, Wolff, Gonzalez, and Du Pont, and Senators Brock, Allen, Dole, and Fulbright. 32. Apr. 14-20 ____________________________ American Legion ' ' American Legion National Comdr. Alfred P. Chamie discusses the s/MIA POW s. American Legion's program for POW's, stressing actions by State legislatures and distribution of a special prayer for POW's/ MIA's. 33. Apr. 21-27 ---------------------------- America's largest private yacht joins cam- Yacht owner Conrad S. Mikufec describes his plan to sail to South paign for POW's/MIA's. Vietnamese ports and other ports in the Far East and to use his yacht for meetings in behalf of POW's/MIA's in both North and South Vietnam. 34. Apr. 28-May 4_________________________ Miami, Fla. group organizes effort for ' Businesswoman Lola Morrow and business- Mrs. Lola Morrow and Ted Kowalski, both in business in Miami s and MIA's. POW , man Ted Kowalski. Fla., tell of their program to express concern of people in Dade County for POW's/MIA's, through a series of billboards. 35. May 5-11 ----------------------------- Minute of silence campaign launched in Newspaperman Jere Sellars and MIA wife Chattanooga newsman Jere Sellars and MIA wife Mrs. Wayne several States for POW's and MIA's. Mrs. Wayne Fullman. Fullam launch a "minute of silence" program establishing a time in Chattanooga when everything stops for 1 minute to demon- strate the community's concern for POW's/MIA's. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 BACKGROUND -INFORMATION ON TUE KOREAN CULTURAL AND FREEDOM FOUNDATION, INC. WHAT IS KOREAN CULTURAL AND FREEDOM FOUNDATION, INC.? The Korean Cultural and Freedom Foundation,, Inc., was chartered on the 27th of March 1964, under the code of the District of Columbia, as a non-profit citizen supported organization. IRS U.S. Treasury Department issued their Tax Exempt Certificate under the category of Charitable and Educational listing on September 17,1964. Its purpose is to aid the fight against Communism in Asia,' help maintain and strengthen freedom throughout the world and promote understanding and good will between the East and the West, through cultural exchange programs. Former President Harry S. Truman has been serving as Honorary Chairman of the Foundation, and the late President Dwight D. Eisenhower served as Hone ovary `President from 1964 until 1969. The Founding President and Chairman of the Board was Admiral Arleigh Burke, USN, (Ret.) Prominent Americans from every field of endeavor gathered as members of the Board of Directors. The Foundation adopted the Little Angels, National Folk Ballet of Korea as its first cultural program. This is a native Korean folk ballet group composed of children-the first professional children's folk ballet troupe in the world. The Foundation has sponsored the Little Angeles world tour five times in the past. Their sixth world tour in 1971 includes Europe and North America. The New York Times gave a glowing review in 1908 saying, "The Little Angels are a phenomenal company!" The Little Angels performed on the Ed Sullivan show three times and they twice received Certificates of Appreciation from the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. More important, however, is the educational aspect of this troupe. The Little Angels gave numerous performances for the school systems in America, and brought to hundreds of thousands of American students from elementary school to the college level, deep understanding of Oriental culture and heritage. In 1971, the Little Angels are scheduled to appear in John F. Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C., the first Korean cultural troupe to perform in this new cultural center. The late President Eisenhower was delighted with the Little Angels program and its "people-to-people" aspect. The troupe gave its first American premiere per- formance in honor of General Eisenhower at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on Sep- tember 20th, 1965. Since then, the Little Angels were invited to the White House twice : the first invitation came from Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson in 1967 for a recep- tion, and the second honor came when President Nixon personally invited them to perform in the East Room of the White House on December 18th, 1970 for the White House Christmas festivities. The Little Angels are known as the Little Am- bassadors of Good Will and Friendship. The Foundation launched Radio of Free Asia as the Foundation's freedom project on August 15th, 1966. Radio of Free Asia was designed to serve as a bridge of truth between our world and those behind the Bamboo Curtain. It is a vital voice of truth and freedom for the oppressed millions behind the Bamboo Curtain where isolation is severe. General Eisenhower gave inspiration and staunch support to Radio of Free Asia..He called this project the "Bridge of Truth." In the four years since its first broadcast on August 15th, 1966 until the end of 1970; Radio of Free Asia(ROFA) achieved a total of 5,758 hours and 25 minutes of broadcasting in 9,590 separate programs in three languages : Korean, Chinese and Vietnamese and gained approximately. 100,000 standing supporters in the United States and the free world. The Foundation also has organized a project in the field of the development of human resources, in which the Foundation is undertaking a scholarship program particularly in the field of arts, for promising students in Korea and the United States. The Foundation has the plan to build the Little Angels Performing Art Center as a permanent home for the Little Angels, in Seoul, Korea. This center will in- clude the, Little Angels' school. The Foundation also plans to erect Radio of Free Asia's own transmitters in both short and medium wave to enable Radio of Free Asia to broadcast their program on an around-the-clock basis.. At .the present time, Mr. L. William Horning, distinguished 'eteran business executive is serving as Chairman of the Board. The Korean Cultural and Freedom Foundation has its general headquarters in Washington D.C. and Operation Headquarters in Seoul, Korea. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 "I first heard Radio of Free Asia in the capital of North Korea through my 'secret radio at night. I could not believe my ears. I was hesitating as to whether, I should accept the program as truth. It was a matter of life or death. But when I kept on listening, I knew Radio Free Asia was telling the truth and I ac- cepted it. Then I planned my defection. Now I have freedom and my life is deeply indebted to Radio of Free Asia...." This is the moving testimonial spoken over the microphone of Radio of Free Asia by former Red spy of North Korea, Mr. Sa Chang Hong, He spoke these words over Radio of Free Asia to millions of North Koreans who are still suffer- ing under the yoke of Communism. When Mr. Hong listened to Radio of Free Asia in the Red capital, Pyung -Yang, he stated that he was particularly moved by the freedom interview in which former Red reporter Mr. Hang Goo Lee described vividly his experiences- his life under tyranny and his life under freedom. It must be noted that the primary goal of Radio of Free Asia is not to en- courage defections. This dramatic incident, however, demonstrates that Radio of Free Asia broadcasts do reach listeners behind the Bamboo Curtain and that listeners react to it. There are almost one billion men. and women in Asia cut off from the out- side world and fed daily on the propaganda by their Red masters, Radio of Free Asia helps to shatter the monopoly of Communist information for them. Radio -recognizes no boundaries and penetrates the Red barriers where other means fail, reaching out to 73 of the population of the world. In our nuclear age, lack of information is a significant danger to peace. Mil- lions of Mainland Chinese and other Asians are being told that Communism is invincible and that America. is a "paper tiger." weak and easily defeated. If this propaganda goes unchallenged, the trigger is set for miscalculations that could lead to the destruction of civilization. Only truth can expose the lies, shatter the myths, and end the Red monopoly over the minds of enslaved Asians. By broadcasting day after day the truth of America's might and humanity to peoples behind the Bamboos Curtain, ROFA helps ward off miscalculations which could lead to world catastrophe. '(1) To Broadcast the Truth : "Know the truth and the truth shall make you free." This is an expression accepted by free men everywhere but never so appropriate as when applied to the suffering millions in Asia behind the Bam- boo Curtain. Therefore, ROFA's first and foremost objective is to broadcast the truth. ROFA broadcasts the facts about America and the free world, its economy, political system, and mankind's continuous struggle for freedom. ROFA also broadcasts the facts about Asian Communism and their own rulers ; the facts about international communism, its contradictions, setbacks, failures, violence and cruelty. ROFA separates the facts from Communist propaganda thus helping to lead the oppressed people into intelligent judgment. (2) To Put Freedom on the Offensive: ROFA believes that success, against Communism depends upon seizing and holding the initiative. ROFA therefore emphasizes the positive values of freedom and democracy, presenting them interestingly, dynamically and convincingly. Radio of Free Asia defends human rights and freedom; ROFA stresses peace with honor, justice and freedom with dignity. -(3) To Enhance Spiritual Values: America's greatest contribution to the world is not its material abundance. but the high spiritual values which enable men to live full lives and to live them more abundantly. Radio of Free Asia provides enslaved Asians with a feeling of the spirit of free men. It voices the principle that all men are free and equal under God, responsible not to Marx- isul-Leninism or the false priests of Red Dogma, but only to God and to their fellow men. Every individual has the right to worship when and where he chooses. (4) For Companionship to the Millions: People behind the Bamboo Curtain are isolated by Communist-instilled fear of one another. They are lonely people. Radio of Free Asia serves as a companion to them, voicing and sharing their Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 101 hopes one day to be free, giving them courage to keep their spirit alive and pointing out the efforts being made to make the world one of free peoples and independent nations. Radio of Free Asia is a bridge between private free citizens in the free world and the freedom-starved people behind the Bamboo Curtain. Population Number of radio sets in use' China (Communist)---------------- ------------- ------------------ ------- --- 725, 000, 000 5, 500, 000' Korea (North) ------------------------------------------------------11,000,000 162,000 Vietnam (North)------------------------------------------------------------ 18,400,000 130 000 Cambodia ------------------------------------------------------------------ 6,000,000 , 400,000 Laos ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 2,000,000 70,000, Mongolia--------------------------------------------------------- -?---- 1,000,000 100,000+ Total---------------------------------------------------------------- 763,400,000 6,362,000 These figures were obtained from the USIA and are based on Research and. Information Service documents for the year ending 1965. The concept of radios in these areas is different from the concept of radios in America where one person may own many sots. In Communist-held countries, one radio set may be for the benefit of a group; for instance, a group of families, farmers, villagers, etc. In other words, access per radio in Asia would be far greater than for one radio in America. Even though radio sets in number are relatively small in relation to population, the impact of radio broadcasting is far greater than that of the same number of radios in the Western World. Programming : Radio of Free Asia's programming covers five major areas : 1. News : Daily happenings of the Free World, as well as news of the listener's own country is broadcast. Audiences are informed of the true happenings in their own country. News broadcasts by Radio of Free Asia are current, constant, factual, and comprehensive and are prepared for the level of the people who hear them. News broadcasts provide a correct understanding of the current world situation and provide comparisons with information put out by Communist controlled informa- tion media. 2. Commentary and Press Reviews : Radio of Free Asia's viewpoint is that commentary and press reviews are of prime importance because this is where the ideological battle should be fought between freedom and tyranny, between individual rights and state supremacy, between Democracy and Communism, between private enterprise and Communist economics. These programs analyze international developments in the Free World. Thee progress of the Free World is compared with the true picture of international Communism. The extensive evaluation and research based on. fact is gathered from all levels of the Free World community. Radio of Free Asia serves as a communications link between the private citizens of the Free World and the peoples behind the Bamboo Curtain. 3. Religious Programs : Radio of Free Asia enhances the spiritual values of men. This objective is met by programming proper and adequate religious pro- grams of all faiths. Knowing that all religious life in Communist countries have been downgraded, Radio of Free Asia through all its 'religious programs provide these captive peoples with religious thoughts and ideas. These programs consist of short ser- mons, religious messages and religious music. 4. Educational Programs : Radio of Free Asia informs the people of up-to-date know-how in many fields and how this knowledge has been used to provide it better way of life in the free world. Many accomplishments of modern science are made known to the captive people for Radio of Free Asia continuously sup- plies modern scientific information. Included are developments in medicine, agriculture, home economics, aviation and space technology. 5. Cultural Programs : Radio of Free Asia provides companionship to the mil- lions of captive peoples. The cultural -programs provide not only companionship but also comfort. By reporting the free world's artistic and cultural develop- ments, these programs utilize the universal language of culture to provide cour- age and inspiration for those cut off from the outside world. Extensive musical programming, art and book reviews are featured. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 102 SOURCES OF FUND FOR RADIO OF FREE ASIA Radio of Free Asia is solely supported by the private voluntary contributions of freedom-loving people of the world. Private contributions are the only source of funds for Radio of Free Asia and they provide the opportunity for millions of Americans to participate in the fight against Communism in Asia and to enhance freedom throughout the world. Business, corporations, foundations, and organizations have also contrib- uted to the Korean Cultural and Freedom Foundation, Inc., for this vital project. Radio of Free Asia receives no government subsidies. As of May 1st, 1971, Radio of Free Asia has approximately 100,000 standing supporters in the free world, primarily in the United States. Radio of Free Asia has done, and continues to do everything in its power to live up to General Dwight D. Eisenhower's noble description of it as a "citizen's radio for freedom." After the aims and concepts of Radio of Free Asia had been submitted to criti- cal review by a wide spectrum of American opinion early in 1966, it was decided to proceed with the broadcasting project. Radio of Free Asia (ROFA) was established as a project of the Korean Cul- tural and Freedom Foundation and an agreement was made with the Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) to lease broadcast facilities. The Foundation established Radio of Free Asia Operations Headquarters in Seoul, appointing an Operations Director in charge. The main headquarters were established in Washington, D.C. where all policies and guidelines are de- termined and from which control over the broadcasts is exercised. On August 15th, 1966, the first program was beamed from the transmitters in Seoul to North Korea and to the Mainland of China. These programs were in Chinese and in Korean and were broadcast a- total of four hours a week. By the end of 1966, Radio of Free Asia had been able to broadcast a total of 120 pro- grams for a total of 60 broadcast hours. - A special, format of programming, known. as the "Package Program" is used. This is designed to give maximum and concentrated information within a short span of 30 to 45 minutes. These programs highlight world news, concise news analysis, and commentary of special features of the- day-such as interviews and constructive information in the field of, for example, home hygiene, latest tips on animalhusbandry and the like. This same program is broadcast repeatedly during the day, often in different frequencies. This program thus assures the, receptive audience that they do not have to tune in for long hours. Sometimes, listening to free world radio like Radio of Free Asia can become a life-risking hazard for listeners. Frequently, they tune in secretly onconcealed radios. For this reason, Radio Free Asia programs are also beamed during the night hours thus providing more opportunity for radio listening. After the first year, the weekly broadcast schedule was expanded into daily programs and by the end of 1967, Radio of Free Asia had completed the broadcast of 819 programs in a total of 409 hours, 30 minutes-almost 7 times over that of 1966! Steady expansion of Radio of Free Asia programming proceeded with the succeeding years of 1968 and 1969, because of the continuous support to Radio of Free Asia in the United States by concerned citizens. In 1968, Radio of Free Asia beamed a total of 2,583 programs in 1,199 hours and 10 minutes. In 1969, the record further advanced into a total of 2,920 pro- grams within 1,930 hours and 30 minutes. In 1970, Radio of Free Asia marked a special milestone when it initiated its first Vietnamese service into North Vietnam. This program has concentrated solely on giving the facts of trueworld opinion to the rulers and the people of North Vietnam in regard to American POWs. This program was first beamed in short wave from Seoul, Korea, on September 9, 1970. - The total accomplishment in the year 1970 in all three language services reached a total of 3,146 package programs totalling 2,158 hours. and 45 minutes. The following accomplishment chart shows the yearly breakdown of pro- grams and hours formulating the five year accomplishment of 9,500 programs, 5,758 hours and 25 minutes. - Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 From June 1st, 1971 onward, Radio of Free Asia has made arrangements to lease transmitters in Manila, The Philippines, to beam the Vietnamese program to North Vietnam thereby lessening the broadcast distance and improving recep- tion in North Vietnam. Programs Hours - Minutes 1966: Korean broadcasts_________________________________ ------------------ 80 40 -------------- Chinese broddcasts____________________________________________ 40 20 -------------- Subtotal ------ 120 60 ---- 1967: Korean broadcasts-------------------------------------------- 715 357 30 Chinese broadcasts-------------------------------------------- 104 52 ___------_---- Subtotal--------------------------------------------------- 819 409 30 1968: Korean broadcasts____________ 2,282 1,048 40 Chinese broadcasts --------------------- -_--_--_-__--_-_---_--.- 301 150 30 1969: Korean broadcasts--- ..................... 2,555 1, 748 ---------- Chinese broadcasts--------------------------------------------- 365 182 ' 30 Subtotal ------------------------------------- --........... .. .2,920 1,930 30 1970: Korean broadcasts-------------------------------------------- 2,555 1,916 15 V etnamese broadcasts ------------------ --------- -------- 228 157 30 Grand total ---------------------------- - ------ 9 590 SPECIAL PROGRAMS OF RADIO OF FREE ASIA - "The great achievement-of Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins and the space pioneers ;behindithem-is a story that belongs to:all mankind. It-is a crime against humanity that Communist press. and -radio have denied news of this triumph to nearly -one billion.people in Communist Asia." - - - This is - a quotation from Radio of Free Asia's press release right after the historical moon landing. To shatter this news blackout, Radio of Free Asia ,devoted 450 Special Programs to bring every detail of the moon shot to the Main- land of China and North Korea. This activity was designated by Radio of Free Asia as "Apollo 11 Mouth." This is one example of Radio of Free Asia's Special Programs. These are similar to -a "task force" for Radio.of Free Asia. When a special need arises in which ROFA wants to inform the. people behind the Bamboo Curtain of some special -or extraordinary event and when special material is available, Radio of Free Asia uses Special Programs broadcast over the Radio of Free Asia system. When the Communist world launched the spectacular world wide propaganda campaign to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Bolshevik revolution, Radio of Free Asia immediately took action to counter the propaganda of Communism, by serializing the powerful book, "Worker's Paradise Lost" by Eugene Lyons. This book is a balance sheet of failure of Communism for 50 years. - - When Svetlana'Stalin, daughter of Josef Stalin made her dramatic escape to freedom, Radio of Free Asia brought her testimony to the millions of Asians who would never have known of this fact, otherwise. - When the late President Dwight D. Eisenhower passed away, Radio of Free Asiaprogrammed America's greatness in pursuit of freedom. This was embodied in the life of the President and this Special Program was entitled, "A Portrait of an American Hero." . Radio of Free Asia values interview programs with those international figures who have experienced both life under Communism and the value of freedom. ROFA. calls these Special Programs "Freedom Interviews."- Who can explain and Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 testify to the evils of Communism better than the people who have defected from behind the Iron Curtain and the Bamboo Curtain and who have been victims of Communism themselves? Radio of Free Asia interviews Red Refugees and defectors from Communist tyranny ; those who have bitterly tasted. the yoke of Communism and who were the victims of tyrannical masters and who narrowly escape and now live in free- dom. Men from Russian slave campus . . . freedom fighters in Hungary , . . refugees from. Tibet and Mongolia ... a displaced school teacher from Czecho- slavakia . . an escaped musician from Red China . . . a pastor from the Rumanian underground church . . . a former Red Espionage agent from North Korea . . . and many others. All these come under the Special Programs of Radio of Free Asia. Indeed, it is the "task force" of Radio of Free Asia. In the last five years, Radio of Free Asia broadcast a total of 47 such Special Programs in varying lengths. Some programs were serialized for as many as six months, while some were covered in a single day broadcast. The following are some of the highlights of these Special Programs of Radio of Free Asia. (1) "Flight to Freedom," September 15th to 22nd, 1967: The Dramatic Story of the Failure of Communism as told by Svetlana Stalin. The news of Svetlana's flight to freedom made headlines all over the world-EXCEPT behind the Bam- boo Curtain. Radio of Free Asia made it possible for the oppressed millions to hear her story, which we entitled, "The Failure of Communism." (2) "Worker's Paradise Lost," November 7th-21st, 1967: On November 7th, 1967, the Communists celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolu- tion with a world wide propaganda campaign. ROFA combatted it with a group of programs based on a serialization of Eugene Lyons' powerful book, "Worker's Paradise Lost" which effectively exploded all the myths the Communists were celebrating and trying to perpetuate. (3) "Communism on Trial," March 21st to 28th, 1968: Radio of Free Asia gave first hand reports on the international "Communism on Trial" held on Feb- ruary 19th to 21st, 1968 at the Hall of Nations, Georgetown University, Wash- ington, D.C. Radio of Free Asia's microphone was there all three days and interviewed exclusively all prominent anti-Communist witnesses at the trial- then reported these truths on Special Programs on March 21st through March 28th. 1968 over Radio of Free Asia system. (4) "To Murder a President,- January 23, 1969: Interview with Lt. Sin Jo Kim, former North Korean armed commando who was sole survivor of a band of North Korean Communists who attempted to assassinate President Park of South Korea. Lt. Kim said in this interview, "I am even grateful to Red Premier Kim of North Korea for selecting me as a member of this horrible mission. It was through the failure of this mission that I obtained my freedom-a one in a mil- lion chance." (5) "Eisenhower: Portrait of an American Hero," June 8th, 1969 to July 7th, 1969: This program featured the inspiring life story of the late General Dwight D. Eisenhower and his lifelong crusade for truth and freedom, his valor and courage to defend America and the American values of freedom and democracy. (6) "Man on the Moon," August 2nd to August 31st, 1969: The achievements of the U.S. Space program, "Man on the Moon." The success of the U.S. space pro- gram, especially the Apollo projects was vividly conveyed to the uninformed peo- ple behind the Bamboo Curtain. This remarkable achievement was not only a success for the U.S., but also a triumph for all mankind. This was repeatedly broadcast into Red China which was totally blacked out during Apollo 11 landing on the moon. (7) "The War of North Korean Aggression," January 1, 1970 to June 30th, 1970: This Special Program commemorated the 20th anniversary of the out- break of the Korean War in which 30 thousand Americans died and thousands of Americans were wounded. Radio of Free Asia broadcast into North Korea a complete factual account of how and why the Communists started this war in 1950 and were completely responsible for the crimes and atrocities which fol- lowed. ROFA included the capture of the U.S.9. Pueblo. the shooting down of the U.S. reconnaissance plane and the killing of all the crew. (8) "Lenin's 100th Birthday-A day of mourning for the victims of Com- munism," April 24th, 1970: In the U.S., the United States Communist Party designed an unprecedented youth movement under the guise of peace which was motivated by the philosophy advocated by Lenin. The object of this well conceived and professional program was to disclose to the victims of Com- Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 munism themselves, the complete failure as a system of economics and government. (9) "Life under Communism as compared with life in the Free World," June 15th, 1970 to June 19, 1970: These Special Programs were based on special interviews with Dae Jim Kang, former North Korean espionage agent who defected to freedom. He tells the people of North Korea and Red China what he found outside the "bamboo curtain" and he movingly explains why when -ordered to return to the North-he chose Freedom instead ! Ten thousand programs have been broadcast in 6,000 hours of broadcast time. But much remains to be done. The future holds the key -to completely fulfilling our commitment as -an independent citizens' broadcasting system reaching the millions of fellow human beings behind the bamboo curtain in. Asia. Listed here are three projects and plans for future developments: (1) Leasing Air Time in Other Localities : Radio of Free Asia has been leasing air time from the Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) in Seoul, Korea. Seoul is a strategic point in Asia and KBS's 500 kilowatt transmitters and their short wave facilities have been serving the purpose. But that is, not enough. In order to cover the entire area of Red Asia, Radio of Free Asia will lease other transmitters in different locations in Asia. This will enable ROFA to broad- cast its programs with greater impact on larger numbers of listeners. (2) Construction of Radio of Free Asia Transmitters : Radio of Free Asia's ultimate goal is to broadcast around the clock. This around the clock operation is the key to our total accomplishment of ROFA's objectives. The only way for ROTA to achieve this goal is for ROFA to own its independent transmitters. Toward this end, ROFA Is planning to build both 100 kilowatt short wave transmitters with multi-frequencies that will enable ROTA to pinpoint various targets in Asia and 100 kilowatt medium wave transmitters with directional antenna which will be able to target the entire North Korea and a part of Manchuria. (3) Library and Research Center: ROFAemphasizes quality in programming. Knowledge of both the free world and the Communist world are vital and Important for the quality programming of Radio of Free Asia. In the future, Radio of Free Asia will have a library and research center on broadcasting in Asia. This will give all the necessary information for the quality productions for ROFA programs under the stimuli of unbiased knowledge and truth. This library and research center will also provide other academic communities and other research Organizations with reference material for their- studies. RADIO OF FREE ASIA BROADCASTS ON TIIE AMERICAN PRISONER Or, WAR/MISSING IN ACTION ISSUE IN NORTH VIETNAM No voice is stronger than the voice of humanity. No voice carries farther than one broadcast by radio. Every week, voices carrying the moving story of Ameri- scans' rising concern over North Vietnamese treatment of our POWs and MIAs is now being broadcast over Radio of Free Asia directly to the North Vietnamese. The programs to North Vietnam in Vietnamese language began on September 9th, 1970 from facilities which Radio of Free Asia leases for this purpose in 'Seoul, Korea. These programs are broadcast daily at the prime Asian time of 8 A.M. over two broadcast short wave frequencies 9.640 and 15.430 megacycles. From June 1st, 1971, these Vietnamese programs are beamed from closer trans- mitters located in Manila, The Philippines in short wave frequencies of 9.505 Megahertz. Hanoi's leaders may refuse a petition sent to them through the mails ; they may turn back the wives of American POWs and MIAs who travel to Paris to seek information about their husbands ; but they cannot stop radio broadcasts from getting through. In addition to the broadcast service, Radio of Free Asia is conducting a peti- tion campaign on behalf of POWs, in cooperation with the National League of Families of American Prisoners and Missing in Southeast Asia and the American Red Cross and already have transfered approximately 150,000 petitions. Following are the aims and concepts and other policies of Radio of Free Asia's Vietnamese program on the POW issue and this petition campaign. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 AIMS AND CONCEPTS It is ROFA's purpose, through broadcasts day after day, to make the people of North Vietnam aware that the vast majority of Americans are united on the issue of POWs/MIAs that world opinion is against Hanoi on their refusal to, give us a full list of POWs and to permit Red .Cross inspection of their POW camps ; and that they have nothing to gain by refusing to adhere to the Geneva Convention except condemnation by world public opinion. His Excellency Pham Van Dong, Premier Democratic Republic of Vietnam Hanoi, North Vietnam Premier Phom Van Dong: As concerned United States citizens We are joining Rodio of Free Asia's appeal to your humanity and that of your nation in regard to our prisoners of war and our men missing _ in action: In the name of humanity... RADIO OF FREE ASIA calls for Hanoi, to disclose the names of all POW's it holds, and to urge the National Liberation Front and ASIA calls for the assurance of proper detention facilities, food and medical care of the POWs. In the name of humanity ... RADIO OF FREE ASIA coils for unhampered corre- spondence with their families. In the name of,humoniiy...RADIO OF FREE Name ASIA calls for repatriation of sick or wounded who might not survive cap- tivity. In the name of humanity' .. RADIO OF FREE' ASIA calls for the International Red Cross or. International Control Com-_. mission to be permitted to inspect the prison camps in North Vietnam ashas- been done in the South. In the name of humanity... RADIO OF FREE ASIA calls for, in short, on. honoring by. Hanoi of her legal ,obligations under the Geneva Convention which she signed in 1957. (If additional space is needed for more names, please use other side) ..Afore -than 1,600 U.S. men are missing or presumed: captured some 800 in North Vietnam, 500 in North Vietnamese or Vietcong hands in South Vietnam and 200 in Laos. These men, now out of combat, are entitled to humane treatment. Their wives and children have an inalienable right to know where they are and how they are. We must not leave anything undone which can be done to help POW and .AHA wives and their children in their quest for the information to which they are entitled. Communicating the rising groundswell of protests to the ?North Vietnamese does get results. 80% of the mail that, has come from our men' in prison- camps in North Vietnam has arrived since the American people began to demonstrate their indignation to Hanoi's leaders. This response shows that-leaders in Hanoi listen to the pulse of the American people. It is the American people who must in- crease the pressure of American and of world opinion on Hanoi. The time has come to expand the people's crusade for information about and humane treat= ment for our POWs and MIAs, ROFA serves as a "Bridge of Truth" carrying- information about this rising crusade to Hanoi. Radio of Free Asia has committed itself to carry on its radio campaign in this humanitarian cause to increase pressure on Hanoi leaders to : Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 (1) Release a.full and complete list of American prisoners of war, and (2) Give American POWs the humane treatment to which they are entitled. SCOPE OF ROFA'S VIETNAMESE PROGRAM ON POW ISSUE Radio of Free Asia plans to continue broadcasting into North Vietnam in the Vietnamese language repeatedly on the following five (5) points : 1. True and factual American and world opinion on the prisoners-of-war/MIA issue with emphasis on the fact that holding and misusing American POWs by Hanoi is not to their advantage. 2. Programs on American sentiment and mood with stress on the fact that Americans may be divided on war issues, but are clearly and solidly united in their stand on the POW/MIA issue. k3. Repetition of the text of the Geneva Convention, covering rules on treatment of prisoners of war, to which Hanoi is one of the signatories. 4. Repeated programs an Radio of Free Asia's "Plea for Humanity." 5. The names of North Vietnamese prisoners of war in the South when these names can be officially obtained. GUIDE LINE ON ROFA'S VIETNAMESE PROGRAM ON POW ISSUE (1) A program staff at ROFA headquarters, Washington, D.C. produces the material. It is voiced in Vietnamese and tape-recorded here and sent to Korea for broadcast. (2) ROFA produced one program a week, but to gain maximum penetration the program is broadcast daily at the prime Asian time over three broadcast short wave frequencies. This same program is repeated every day of the week at the same hour. (3) Each program reports actions and statements which express Americans and foreign nationals deep humane concern for prisoners of war. They put pres- sure on leaders in IIanoi to abide by conditions of the Geneva Convention for the humane treatment of prisoners and for prompt reporting of the names of POWs/ MIAs through the proper international body. (4) In the future, ROFA plans to strengthen Its broadcasting' service to North Vietnam by leasing medium wave transmitters in South East Asia. With these new facilities ROTA ix-ill be able to erea"te' llferally a barrage of broad- casts to shatter the monopoly of information Hanoi leaders try to maintain, in the areas they control. The petition campaign serves two distinct purposes: (1) By contacti lgniillions of Americans through this campaign, ROFA can further arouse the, lincrican conscience and enlighten American public to a greater awareness of the` plight of the American POW. This will eventually lead to stronger American "'well-as stronger world opinion for more pressure on IIanoi ; (2) By collecting and transmitting hundreds of thousands of these signed petitions by concerned American`s to Idanoi representatives in-Ph rts RO]4 can apply substantial pressure upon IIano -for their speedy release bf the America' POWs. Many people express doubt 'as to, the wisdom of launching this petition Cam- paign, because of Hanoi's past refusal to accept petitions. Even SO, ROVA. feels strongely about the effectiveness on two counts. First, petitions by .the milliops will create a visual monument of the indignation of the American public 2ncj,le=, come a visible symbol of Hanoi's cruelty and inhumanity. Secondly, by doing our utmost we are letting our men in captivity and their families know that ti}Wyy will never be forgotten. The petitions will be a visible symbol of true brotlieriopd and comradeship and will present comfort to those suffering families. U re are with them, and will fight it through, until they have their loved ones. In this petition campaign, ROFA coordinates its efforts with the National League of Families of American prisoners and Missing in South East Asia and the American Red Cross. RADIO OF FREE ASIA'S PETITION CAMPAIGN ON DEIIALF OF PO;eS Ii.OFA broadcasts in Vietnamese on behalf of the America.hP'OWs/MIAs is the primary action of the campaign. A second and vitally important part of this effort' Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 108 `Sen. Gordon Allott Sen. Howard II. Baker Sen. Henry L. Bellmon -Sen. Paul J. Fannin 'Sen. Hiram L. Fong Sen. Thomas J. McIntyre Sen. Jack Miller Sen. Karl E. Mundt Sen. Winston L. Prouty Sen. William Proxmire Sen. Hugh Scott Sen. John J. Sparkman Sen. Ted Stevens Sen. John G. Tower Sen. Milton R. Young Speaker Carl Albert Rep. Jackson E. Betts Rep. Hale Boggs Rep. John Brademas Rep. Elford A. Cederberg Rep. Don H. Clausen Rep. James C. Cleveland Rep. Harold R. Collier Rep. Dominick V. Daniels Rep. John H. Dent Rep. Edwin W. Edwards Rep. James G. Fulton Rep. Richard Fulton Rep. Charles S. Gubser Rep. Lawrence J. Hogan Rep. John E. Hunt Rep. Harold T. Johnson Rep. Charles Raper Jonas Rep. Robert McClory Rep. William S. Mailliard Rep. Robert D. Price Rep. Albert H. Quie Rep. Henry P. Smith, III Rep. M. Gene Snyder Rep. William B. Widnall Rep. Charles E. Wiggins Gov. John A. Burns, Hawaii Gov. John A. Love, Colorado Gov. Melvin H. Evans, Virgin Islands Gov. Tom McCall, Oregon Gov. Luis A. Ferre, Puerto Rico Gov. John J. McKeithen, Louisiana Gov. Stanley K. Hathaway, Wyoming Gov. William G. Milliken, Michigan Miss Edle Adams Col. William A. Anders Desi Arnaz Miss Nadine Conner Hon. William C. Cramer Bing Crosby Bob Crosby Hon. John Dempsey Don De Fore Miss Til Dieterle Miss Phyllis Diller Mike Douglass Mark Evans Miss Connie Francis Hon. Samuel N. Friedel William G. Harley Hon. A. Sydney Herlong, Jr. Miss Hildegarde George Jessel Murray the "K" Sammy Kaye Hon. Thomas S. Kieppe Hon. Harold LeVander Jerry Lewis Hon. Donald E. Lukens Colin G. Male Hon. Catherine May Hon. Keith H. Miller Miss Terry Moore Miss Agnes Moorhead Hon. George Murphy Jack W. Nicklaus Miss Jane Powell Phil Rizzuto Hon. Winthrop Rockefeller Cesar Romero Hon. Richard L. Roudebush Hon. Don Samuelson Hon. Armistead I. Selden, Jr. Dean Smith Sam Snead Robert Stack Lowell Thomas John Unitas Vincent T. Wasilewski Johnny Weismuller Roger Williams Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 SENATORS, CONGRESSMEN AND GOVERNORS Wiio, TIIOUGII NOT ON THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE, HAVE ISSUED STATEMENTS SUPPORTING RADIO OF FREE ASIA Wallace F. Bennett (R. Utah) Allan Bible (D. Nev.) .J. Caleb Boggs (R. Del.) Harry F. Byrd, Jr. (D. Va.) Robert C. Byrd (D. W. Va.) lIoward W. Cannon (D. Nev.) .Clifford P. Case (R. N.J.) Norris Cotton (R. New H.) Peter H. Dominick (R. Colo.) James O. Eastland (D. Miss.) Barry Goldwater (R. Ariz.) Robert P. Griffin (R. Mich.) SENATORS Edward J. Gurney (R. Fla.) Clifford P. Hansen (R. Wyo.) Ernest F. Hollings (D. S. Car.) Roman L. Hruska (R. Nebr.) Warren G. Magnuson (D. Wash.) Joseph M. Montoya (D. N. Mex.) John O. Pastore (D. R.I. ) Charles H. Percy (R. Ill.) William B. Saxbe (R. Ohio) John C. Stennis (D. Miss.) Herman E. Talmadge (D. Ga.) Strom Thurmond (R. S. Car.) :John M. Ashbrook (R. Ohio) Alphonzo Bell (R. Calif.) ,Ben B. Blackburn (R. Ga.) Edward P. Boland (D. Mass.) William S. Broomfield (A. Mich.) James T. Broyhill (R. N. Car.) ..Joel T. Broyhill (R. Va.) John H. Buchanan, Jr. (R. Ala.) William M. Colmer (D. Miss.) John D. Dingell (D. Mich.) Robert Docking (D. Kans. ) John M. Haydon (R. Am. Samoa) CONGRESSMEN John J. Duncan (R. Tenn.) Edward A. Garmatz (D. Md.) Carleton J. King (R. N.Y.) George P. Miller (D. Calif.) Alexander Pirnie (R. N.Y.) W. R. Poage (D. Tex.) Sam Steiger (R. Ariz.) Joe D. Waggoner (D. La.) Clement J. Zablocki (D. Wise.) GOVERNORS Linwood Holton (R. Va.) Richard B. Ogilvie (R. Ill.) (Additional material provided is on file with the committee.) The CHAIRMAN., They, are apparently continuing to solicit funds; are they not? They are still soliciting tax-deductible funds from Amer- icans on the same idea that they are going to save us from communism. It is'a very appealing subject, but it also would seem to me that what they are -saying is directly contrary to the announced policy of this Government. Wouldn't you say it is contrary if that is what they are .doing? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, since I do not know what they are doing, I Just would prefer not to comment. The CHAIRMAN. I will ask it as a hypothetical question, but you need not answer it. VIEWS OF ADVISORY COMMISSIONS ON INFORMATION AND CULTURAL EXCHANGES When this legislation was being formulated, did anyone in your shop in the State Department consult with the U.S. Advisory Commis- sion on Information? Did you consult? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I did not personally. The CHAIRMAN. Did anyone in your shop consult? Mr. HILLENBRAND. If I could merely inquire they are informed, I am told, through USIA, which is the normal liaison with them. The CHAIRMAN. They were not consulted. Their opinion was not -requested ? Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Mr. HILLENBRAND. If they had any opinion to give, apparently they did not volunteer it. The CHAIRMAN. Was the Advisory Commission on Cultural Ex- changes consulted and were its views requested? Mr. HILLENBRAND. No. The CHAIRMAN. Neither of these advisory commissions has recom- mended this bill, have they? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, I would assume not, if they were not con- sulted. The CHAIRMAN. In view of your announced purposes, which tare in formation and better relations, why do you not think the Commission on Cultural Exchanges should have been consulted to see what they thought about it? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, cultural exchanges are usually thought to? refer to ano' kind of activity than radiobroadcasting. But- The CHTAIR1kMAN. Do you approve of the cultural exchange program? Mr. HILLENBRAND. -I certainly do. REQUESTED AMOUNT AI: D FUNDING OF CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM The CHAIRMAN. I notice the amount you are requesting is more than that devoted to the cultural exchange program, although it has been in existence over 20 years. Is the amount riot more than is cur- rently being supplied by the Federal Government for the support of the cultural exchange program? Mr. IIILLENBRANI). I believe that is correct. The CIIAIRiIAN.'Do you know what the amount for the cultural exchange is? Mr. HILLENBRAND. I do not have the figure. The CHAIRMAN. It is $36 million. -I think it was down, to $31 million the year before last and it is now $36 million. I had the figures here a. moment ago. It does not matter exactly. but, this request is more.. Don't you think if you obtained this, kind of money it would be bet- ter to to the cultural exchange program, Which is an estab- lished organization? Mr. HILLENBRAND. Well, the two activities are entirely different. As you know, Mr. Chairman, the State Department has tried. for many years to improve; its cultural affairs budget. It has not been for lack of trying. The CHAIRMAN. I have the figures here. For fiscal 1971, the cultural exchange program funding was approximately $36,950,000; fiscal 1970, $32,300,000; fiscal 1969, $31,425,000; fiscal 1968, $45 million. In 1967 it apparently reached its peak of $47 million. It was cut back from $47 million to $31 million and ilr;_1971 it is now $36 million. The exchange program operates under formal agreements in roughly 50 countries. According to the committee records most ambas- sadors have agreed it is a beneficial program that does not contribute to the prolongation of the cold war. However inaccurate you say the articles I put in the record are, I have never seen an article which indicated that the cultural ex- change program has exacerbated the differences among various coun- tries. As a matter of fact, one of the countries with whom we have. Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 an agreement under the cultural exchange program is a Communist country. I think I have put in the record all that I wished to. Senator CASE. Just a comment or two. The CHAIRMAN. Yes, certainly. DISTINCTION BETWEEN AMERICAN COUNCIL AND PAST OPERATION Senator CASE. In my formal statement, which I included in the re- cord without reading in full, I made strongly the points that the chair- man has been emphasizing and with which I fully agree. I unequivo- cally support the elimination and termination of the CIA participa- tion in these stations. That is my position. If legislation is necessary or would be helpful for that purpose, I would certainly cooperate in trying to develop the specific language.'And' I assume the intention of the adiniiiisti?ation is the same on that point. If I did not think so, I would not introduce the administration bill. I do not expect that either the administration or Congress should go on year after year just spending money for something it does not approve of. But the proposed American Council is a different kind of agency or in- struirentality for the day-to-day operation ofIiFE and RIB than existed in the past under CIA. I would like to make that distinction as to my conception of the American Council from the way PI'E and PL were operated in the past. AuriVITY OF RPE AND RL IIAS SERVED ITS D'AY The CIIAn MAN. I say to the Senator that it seems to me if there is any ext5'dti'ttibn of improveirient of our relations with'ltiussi'i,,it seems to e `this kind of activity has served its dcy. Thtit expectation has certainly been' aroused to a''greater eterit than usual by recorit `state merits of the' ,administration and 1: certain'Ly4 hope those 'statements prove to be, Gortect. 'I think to continue to tyy to stir up-trouble in Fastei n Europe a td in Russia is contrary` to the .'resident sown. pokey. This kind" of activity is 'icceltable and common :yin w-rti}ire even tinder conditions. as they existed under Stalin, lust as the con tin.iiatiori of large numbers of troops in Gerniaiiy was proper at that time. It strikes me that if the President wants to move into, a period of negotiation rather than confrontation he ought to quit confronting them with daily msiilts. I know he does not do it, but to allow an agency` of the Government to do it seems to me contrary to the Press= dent's own announced'purposes. Now that I see more clearly,, I tim not sure what is in the mind of the administration, but if I ain going- to support anything, it is going to be simply a public. authorization of the continiiationof RFE. We could at least stop RFE much more easily when and if we make an agreen}Qnt with Itussia that is at all significant. It won't. come all at. once. It will be a step if Nye make one, significant agreement on arms. I would say that is a step toward improvement all along. We would not, I believe, continue to insult them daily, either by direct attacks or even the; assumption that, they are ignorant and deprived. of all this woiiclerful neivsfrom the U.S.A., Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 Approved For Release 2007/01/18: CIA-RDP73B00296R000500050001-0 112 ~--~ NEED FOR RFE AND EL QUESTIONED You have already pointed out that there are a number of other government agencies, German and French and others, who supply them with basic information Tf t e t th want to the ";b c b . y e o e an su y sc ~u v