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December 27, 2016
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April 28, 2014
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May 8, 1962
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11111111111111111111111111111.magyear Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2014/04/28: CIA-RDP74-00297R001600010078-2 LOOK may 8, 1962 STK I -20VV. c Its successes,': � Ike often expresde,d'iervati � ' /..1*-1:ci� 1 � A device, tolieirt1tgy trouble was?Ciiiitider �il.L.1-2 pirolt:s-meriAgiorted w twov a. .:"�` ..14-11:. I tt� icapyln 'case ,r1�41, gefput..aftlpshixthe, eject Uy. 4,1 � .they would have tirne-,... A %,i1E41;titl:(� . "Allen thilleizafter studying psycho gical test given e Old-not have sent 'him up that � 4', � t , . '4; �� � 4, r � '100.7, � r. : � �-���,-�-� e-�� - � IT 6 ts 7:36 A.M. when Francis Gary Provers crossed the bonier iii ilw Soviet Union on Ma'. I. 19fill on his tnenty�eighth espionage mis- sion as a U-2 pilot. Not many hours before. Powers and another 1i-2 pilot had taken rou- tine preflight psychological exami- nations. Such tests %%ere used to de- termini- a [tether the pilot had confi- dence in himself. his plane and his equipment. On the basis of the re- sults. Pimers was du wen to make the flight front Peshawar, Pakistan, to � House led to the exiilinations BY DAVID WISE and THOMAS B. ROSS Bodo. Norway. which would include a 2.919-mile photographic mission over the Soviet Union. The other itilot a-as instrueted to ft% a decoy mission along the Soviet border. Later. CIADirector Allen Vt.. Dul- les examined the results if the taut ps�chological tests. If he had been the agent um the scene, he decidemi. he would not have sent Pots ers over the Soviet Union that (lay. Dulles did not re-neat the specific rellSOIIS for his reservations about Powers. But theCIA director realized that some 1.1.2 pilots were worried about the destruction system of the 1 -2. In the event of trouble over the So'. jet Union�pilots were told�this s% stem would destroy the U.2 after they had tossed themselves clear in the ejection seat. But could the pilot be sure the delicate timing media- nism would work�particularly if the plane were hit by enemy fire? Could he be sure there W011 id be any time lag before the plane was blown up? At the outset. it was thought that the 1J-2 might include a device that would explode instantly. destroying the plane and killing the pilot if trouble developed. But no practical mechanism of this t)pe could be de- signed. The CIA feared that an auto- matic destruct lir might needlessly kill a pilot outside the Sun jet Union. Or it might detonate prematurely in a situation where the pilot's ingenuity could save the plane�and himself. Pouers and other 12-2 pilots %%ere not told to commit suicide in the e�ent that their planes mere disabled over the So'. jet Union. t Scruples a- continued COPVPICIIT C,ueV DAVID WiSr. AND TOMATO. /40.55 coseurnsto rwom 1111, U.! Aer�IR. TO er eV RANDOM D01.11.r. INC. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2014/04/28: CIA-RDP74-00297R001600010.6i8-7 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2014/04/28: CIA-RDP74-00297R001600010078-2 , ,lg:$11 � U2 As Powers flew toward capture, Ike relaxed unawares President Eisenhower first tad mantes Hagerty, his preSS seeretary. about the flights during a weekend automobile ride in /959. Ile mid he had often asked the C/A: "What happens if you're caught?" The CI.4 always responded: "It hasn't hapmmed yet.'' side. the CIA didn't think the "Kami- kaze" idea would work with Ameri- can lit ems. But Potters had been amply impressed with the necessity if destro% ing the es idence. Ile was told this could be done by activating a timing de% ire. throwing a switch marked "Explosion." and then ejert� lug Idinself. The plane was equipped with a destructor unit containing a three-pound charge of cyclonite. In a report issued after Powers was released. the CIA said "the pur- pose of the destruct mechanism was to render inoperable the precision camera and other equipment. not to destrot them and the film." Army Ordnance. on the other hand. de- seribes et clonite as one of the most powerful explosives in the world. Three pounds of it could blow up a fair-sized railroad bridge. If captured. Powers was advised to tell what he knew. bit. by bit, if this was necessary to ward off torture. The CIA recognized that in an age of truth serums arid sophisticated torture, a prisoner could be made to rr� This Soviet picture shows Powers after he was captured. If necessary to ward off torture, his instructions were to tell what he knew. hit by bit. When he was 18. his father told him: -If you kill yourself. you kill a man. It's a sin to kill yourself.- talk.) The CIA hoped that the grill- ing would stop before the Russians had learned et erything. In Powers's pockets was a hollow' edout silver dollar. Hidden inside was a pin containing a fatal dose of curare, a deatilt poisuun. It could kill a dog in MO seconds. Powers had been told that the pin would enable hint to take his ouwn life if he were injured and in agile after a crash ill an isolated area�or if he were tor- tured after hieing captured. As Powers crossed the Soviet border, it was 1:36 a.m. at Incirlik Air Base near the Southern coast of Turke y. Barbara Powers. his wife, was asleep ill one of the 22 identical trail- ers flanking an asphalt road on the base. There, an isolated bit of mid- dle-class suburbia had been created for seven 11:-2 pilots, their ground crews, their wit es and their u�hildren. They acre housed together. spent their free hours together and their children plat ed together in the asphalt street. Barbara had last seen her husband shortl% after p.m. April 27.1...ix me a fair-sized lunch.- he haul said. as Ire packed his gear for the 2.1 MI- mile flight lit air transport to Pesh� anal'. She had prepared potato soup. tuna lish. pimento cheese and imat sandw kites. sweet pick les. ol it es, cookies and coffee. Barbara had learned rout to ask C er been in ulo guueultuti7rilso.nlit 't hie SA illatui lonre Of her hus� band's work. Before he resigned front the Air Force in 1956 to take his CIA job at S2.500 a month_ he had asked her consent. And it hen hi' was sent overseas. she knew he us ould be int olved in the overflight pro� gram. In those rare periods when Powers could get extended lent es. the t oung couple trateled and lit ed in expansive stt Ie. The overflight of \lay I teas part Id the price they were willing to pat for the good life. Four hundred and twenty-five miles northwest of the Im�irlik Air Base, Secreta rt of State Christian A. ronris Potrers's 111/1101', libirre. Sill A h WilS but WS.� youth oho -dour tcluit us... told.- If hen l'ott,rs fulls trunsfrt rrel hiS littrhura knew iIlllhIfI be bil Oirell ill flight, if III nussbt. Herter was also asleep. Ile haul ar- rit ell in Istanbul the night lwfort, for a \ ATO meeting. Ile hail slipped through hack streets to is ii.lthe rioting against the toppling regime of Ailtian Nlenderes. Ile did not know that a -2 was just entering the air- space of the CSSII. In Washington. it was 10:36 ID.111. Saturday night. April 311. At a 0111.1'ili1011S center. the (IA was using loins Im a map to re- cord the progress Of Powers's flight. 'rho, l'etlit.1" had IWPII 110i i lied as soon as the 1.-2 left Peshawar. At Eatttp !David. the Presidential retreat in 31arylattil. President 1)w ight Lb Eisenhower was relaxing after a (lay of golf. UllaWare that Powers was ill the air. Ill' had approved tlw 1 -2 program Ilse sears earlier�hut according to the stor he later related to friends. he bad haul misgivings. "I f of these planes is shot down.- EiseithOtsCr recalled suing l'l,llt III 111,1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2014/04/28: CIA-RDP74-00297R001600010078-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2014/04/28: CIA-RDP74-00297R001600010078-2 If the U-2 fails, Ike said, "I'm going to catch hell." at the meeting arranged to brief him on the 'program. "this is going to be (01 111V head. I'm going to catch hell. The world will be in a mess." The advisers replied that the Rus� sians would have to suppress any incident invol% ing the 1.-2. They could never run the risk of being humiliated by the reielation that their skies had been invaded repeat- edly. and that they had 1 .10.11 unable to do anything to prevent the incur. sions. Tlw President was not con� yineed. They would protest. he felt. because that would be the only way to stop the flights. But Eisenhower was confronted by a difficult decision. If he rejected the advice of his military and intelli- . gence experts. he would be depriving the nation of valuable�perhaps Lia� matchable�information. He ended �by approving the program. But lie continued to worry about the over. flights. Once a high ranking officer who was involved ill the U.2 program approached the President on another matter. Eisenhower cut him short, and exclaimed. "I don't want to hear any more about the U-2." The dan- gers of the operation were. however. much on the President's mind, and he often asked the CIA: "What hap� pens if you're caught?" The CIA re- sponse was always the same: "It hasn't happened yet." At Camp David. Eisenhower was resting before undertaking one of the most ambitious�and most cher- ished�projects of his Presidency. In Iwo weeks, he was to meet with other world leaders at a widely hailed sum- mit meeting in Paris. Then. as the guest of Premier Nikita S. Khrush- chev. he was to visit the Soviet I 'Ilion. Southwest of Washington, in the Virginia mountain town of Pound, the family of Francis Gary Powers had withdrawn 11(0. the night into a cluster of wooden houses along a solitary dirt road. They %s ere of hill-country stock. Isolated by their mountains. they lived by the Bible and their own stern rules. Out- siders were suspect. Th.- world be- yond %vas impious. Here in these 1110UlliainS Francis had helped his father farm a small patch of lanul. lie went regularly each Sunday to the fundamentalist Church of Christ. which his family attended. or to. the Baptist Church. A good at he did 'moderately well in his studies. finishing I wenty-second in a class (i9 at Grundy High School. His schoolmates there and later at college remember him as an unobtrusive. well-mannered boy, who kept to him- self. They do not remember ever hearing him utter a word of profan- ity. lie didn't smoke. Ile didn't drink. At 1.1. Francis persuaded his fa- ther to let him go up in a two-seater with a woman pilot. She liked the !my. and charged only half the usual S5 fee for the ride. "I left my heart up there. Pap." Oliver Powers recalled him sir% ing. 'and I'm goin back to git "Ile done what he bits told." Oliver remembered. "But lw was an adventiiresome Iro%.� And he added. "Ile lime'. wanted to fly with !none than one person ill the plane. Ile was a nervous boy. too." The father also recalled a enliven. sation lie had had with his son when Francis was 18. "If you kill yourself. you kill a man." Oliver told him one day. "A man who dies la sill, he can't be saved. It's a sill to kill yourself. The last act you do. if it's sinful, you go into discard." � Alone in his plane over the So- viet Socialist Republic of Tadzhik. Francis Gary Powers was nervously throwing the mission switches at the designated points on his map. lie was., feet 91 inches tall�the ideal size for the cramped cockpit of the U-2. But even for him it was a cruel plane. He sometimes said he "believed in it." much as a roan might state an article of faith.. But a pilot could have no true affection for it. For more than eight hours, he would be gripped by the ,ugly pres. sure suit. The slightest wrinkle would pooh at II ill) himr upon hour. raising blood blisters and wells. His neck haul been rubbed raw by the cork ring which served as the hermetic seal for his helmet. Often it would draw blood. The oxygen system forced hirn to reverse the normal process of breathing. Instead of exerting him- self slightly to inhale. he had to use pressure to exhale. He had been suffering lately from severe head. and earaches brought on by the artificial method of breathing he often aSed for eight (or nine hours. Powers %vas certain that the Soviet Air Defense Command was ke with activity. There had been signs of increasing Soviet emphasis on stopping the overflights. The 1 S. had been flying into Seniet airspace shier: the end of World War II. In one 21-hour pe- riod. 17 1111-17's had been ill the air over the USSR. Although A meri� cans did not know it. SCOW!, of pilots died in crashes along the So- viet borders. But not until 1955 had sustabied overflights become a possibility. Clarence L. I Kelly Johnson. a 1,(wk� heed vicepresident and its chief de- signer. had delivered the first 1.1.2's that year. f Development of the high- altit ude plane had been dela) ed for several months because the proj� ect was turned down by Air Force Maj. Gen, Floyd Wood. Later, some military men insisted that the design was faulty and predicted that the plane Won Id come unglued in flight. I Trevor Gardner. chief of Air Force research and development. and Rich- ard M. Bissell. Jr.. who was to run the program for the CIA. were con- % inced that the 11-2 would function effectively. The% pushed the prliject through. But Gardner expected the Soviets h. develop some means of countering the plane within a year or so. Once the 1-2 was in production. the Air Force objected to a proposal to turn the plane over to the CIA. The military could maintain tighter se- curit% . the Air Force insisted. But the original plan was followed. and the CIA used techniques of high es. piomige to maintain secrecy. All CIA employees who participated in the U-2 program were first required to undergo extensive lie-detector tests. Veil few documents were used. %psi communications were by word of mouth.' However. one evening one of the few CIA men who knew of the program dropped a top-secret 1.1.2 document on the floor (Chile closing the safe. A guard making the rounds spotted it on the floor, and after read- ing no more than the classification marking called the official back. Even with all these safeguards. stories about the mystery plane began to ap- pear. The most startling was in the Model Airplane News in March, 1958: "An unconfirmed rumor sais that L1 -2's are flying across the Iron Curtain taking aerial photographs." By 1960. the 11-2 flights had be. come almost routine. So many thou- sands of photographs were being taken that unprocessed U-2 film would sometimes pile up for months. The Russians made sporadb� pro- tests. lout mainly they suffered in in- dignant silence. because the% %yew unable to bring down the planes men after they lime spotted. One 1.-2 brought back photographs of Soviet fighters rising to the attack 01111 to lose control before they reached the altitude if "the Hark lad% of espionage--as the Russians called the 1 -2 ill their own militar% journals. On April 9. 1960. the Russians attempted to bring down a 1-2. The defenses failed�and this brought a se(�ret reprimand from Khruslicliev. Determined not to repeat that fail- ure. the Soviet Air Defense Coin. mand hail locked onto Powers's plane the moment it crossed the border. In turn. Poiiers was being tracked hy the l'.5.-network of radar stations along the Iron Curtain. It %vas 10::10 as Powers approach- ed Chelyabinsk. 125 miles south of Sierdlovsk. Along the route lie was following. the earlier 1-2 had spotted traces of diggings. Electronic eaves. dropping and reports from local agents had deepened the suspiciori that �the Soviet Union was building its first operational Intercontinental Ballistics Missile base. The primary imrpose of l'owers's flight was to pho- tograph the construction before the Russians could camouflage the site. Power's's automatic pilot began to act up. lie decided to take a bearing with his radio compass. 11e would need all exact navigational fix to fol- low the red line on his map. %%Idyll would take him over the antiaircraft rocket batteries near Sverdlovsk. (�1011iiiiied "Who needs it!" 104 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2014/04/28: CIA-RDP74-00297R001600010078-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2014/04/28: CIA-RDP74-00297R001600010078-2 The most RUN for your money! This black Phantom is the world's first 100 hp outboard motor. This is the new Mere 1000, loaf in' along at three-quarters throttle. This is a man's motor. ... but it's easy-handling enough for a beginner. It's all new, from prop to 90- cubic-inch powerhead. It was tested over more than one million miles at Lake X, Florida, before the O.K. was given for production. What can you do with this kind of outboard power? It's made for larger, deeper, heavier, seaworthy boats. You can pull more skiers. Go farther faster. Ease back on the single- lever throttle and plane along. Get half again the distance on a tank of fuel. Any place you use it, any way you use it, this new Mere 1000 Phantom will give you the most RUN for your money! 177ERCORY Now is a good time to see the Marc family of family outboards: 6-, 9.8-, 25-, 45-, 50-, 70-, 85-, and 100-horse- power motors! 0 1962, Kielinseter Corp., Fond du L.. Wis. U12 News of the U-2 failure was slow in reaching Allen Dulles Nine I s later. on a quiet, tree. lined street in lieo rget own. a tele- phone rang in the home 41f Hugh S. Cumming. Jr.. chief of intelligence 111141 1'1'Sr:itch of iii, 1'lilted States De- partment of Stale. It was I 1:15 a.m.. Sunda% . \ I. A maid 11I1551 4.1-1�11. Cumnibig WaS at ilturch se% eral blocks from his home. Not until he returned home shortly after 1141011 (1111 14./1111 that SO11101114' Slits Ilrge1111V to reach him. rrom the message. Cumming knew what it might lw: the 4.1iller was his CIA contact for the 1 .2 operatiOn. Although his name WaS unknown to the general public. Cumming was one of a handful of men at the Staie 1)epartment who knew the secret of the 1.-2. lie picked tip the phone and dialed his contact. hir 1)(41 istil there.- the % oice (Ill the other end of the line said ('Ill'- fully. W- don't know what happened Ill hint.- Although the comersation would have been meattingh�ss to any� 4/Ile listening. its import was chill. ingly clear to Cumming. It meant that the 1%2 was 4)%erdue at 1104141: it was presumed down. probably 501111.11 her(' ill 111I' SOV.11.1 1'111011. The fall. 4/f the plane and pilot was unknow II. Cumming was the first official of the Stale Department noti- fied Ill the CI A. The news had 1101 et reached CIA I)irector Allen W. lhalles. %%1144 was at the \Valdorf-As. torizt in New York Cif %. rereiving the Golden little Award -for distill. ....5 111' alld dedi- cation to Christian ideals.- l'or the 11101111411 at least. Cum- ming was the official who had to act. Ile picked 1111 the telephone again Ill call 1.0% Henderson. Cumming thought Henderson was till- Ill duty in the State Depart� 1114.111 that da littt all lamer% thought struck as he reached out to dial. Ile placed the receker back on its cradle. The head of the State De- partment's intelligence ser% ice was faced with a curious dilemma. The -2 program was 50 S14.1'1.1 that Hen- derson. although a high official. was not among those authorized to know iltil thing about it. The 1.-2 overflights were, in the language of the intelligence world. so "black" that only ii small group of men knew about them. At the State 1)epartment. among those few who knew were Secr(-ta r) Chris- tian Herter and Under-Secretary C. Douglas 1)111011. But Herter wzis ill Istanbul and Cumming thought I Ion w as a vi ay. ()tt double checking. 1101%e% er. Cunifit jug reached Dillon al his home. 1144th realized they were talk- ing over a 114111S4'4.1111.. 41111111/111 1/1111111. line. They spoke in a guarde41 fashion_ but reached an important decision, the first of many that were to be reached in the days ahead. Since mid. 1956. %%hen I.-2's began overthing the So% let 1 '11iott. the CIA had reads prepackaged -4115e1'" stories to suit the circuntstaiwes and the geograpk. These %sere 111110111- (111S 111111011111.1.1111111S 141 1/4` 11111411'd 0111 Of 1111' IdeS 111141 ISS11,41 is 5,11' 1/111111,111f41111111 1011 officers ;It hwal bases if and when a 1 -2 failed 10 4,11111. hark 11'0111 a 51�411.1 111I5514111. 11,,1 Dillon ;111,1 01111111111g 1111., v0111(911, Of 11 1.05 SI111' IS 111,11 hall lieen prepared for tile Ala I flight 44%er litissia. In intelligence par- lance. it co�er stor is a euphemism for a lie or partial lie. Its specific pur- pose is to protect the mission. the agent_ the tiati011 thitt has sem the spy 44tit on the mission and its intel- ligence apparatus. The cowl. stor% pulled 0111 Of 1he files to account for 1'0 %1 1.1'S's U-2 flight stated that the 1..2 had taken 4411. from Turke% 011 all upper-altitude research mission and had. tinfoott- natel v. overflown l'akistatt %%idiom authorization after the pilot re1lort451 mechanical difficulty. rm. diplomatic reasons. 1)illon 111111 (:umming I14151' agreed that any 1115.11- i1011 If Illy real jumping-off point for the flight. %could base 10 Ile (11'411111rd 11111 4.1 1114` (�11%4.1' SlOry. 1)11- 1011 .111S1 1110141 01111111111g 141 argue this view at a top-seeret C1.1 meeting being held that afternoon to decide 111�51 1111151' III 1 dangerous game. Dulles fills loads to the capital af- ler del 0 ering his speech in Nr11' York. ill did not learn that the I -2 (SI,' missing until he reached his home in (;eorgeto%%ti. bettseen 2 :owl :1 p.m. ii% this time. the Cl A had also not ili4.41 the l'etitagott :11141 the \\lilt,. House. Ilrig. Gen. Andrew J. 1;4444(1- poster. White House shill secrotar% 14,Issed the word zilong to Eiset11144%%er II 1:ittnp Da% id. Eight !tours Caviler. crowds had liegint III gather RI mold 11451 Square for the traditional \ lay Iht% celebration. \t III a.m.. mili- tar% units began aiming smartly past Khrushelie%'s rotund figure. A1111/11p. 1114. I.S11.111 4/1/Ser%1�I'S %tag I'. S. A1111/11SS1141411* 1,11'11 ell II E. Thmnpson. Jr. F011 -1151' 1111111111'S af- ter the Stall 41f 1111' 11111'11,14...1.114111111S011 1111111.111 a 1�0111111111 14111 011 111e l'eV11�11- .ing stand atop Lenin's tomb. \ lar- shut Konstantin Vershiniti. 41/111. !minder in chief of the Sol WI Air Force_ entered al till' rear of the stand 0111 is hispered to khruslichev. There %vas a brief. intense huddle 141 top Soviet officials. Thompson wits cut ious. but had 1141 15'il Of knowing %dim it ISIS all about. Later. looking back. Thomp- son seas con itwed that he had SI it- nessed the moment when Kit 01511. ('lies' h.artied that the 1.2 trotild tte�er finish its mission and was. ill (10%% II in Soviet territory. continued Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2014/04/28: CIA-RDP74-00297R001600010078-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2014/04/28: CIA-RDP74-00297R001600010078-2 NEW! SKIL GRASS SHEAR U12 At first, the CIA showed little concern over the failure Trims grass flush to walls, gets under fences, tool This new shear does all the jobs your lawn mower can't. Clips flush to walls, trees, without marring. Trims along walks, drives�gets into tight spots. Even shapes bushes, shrubs, evergreens. Safe, too! Scissor-action blades won't throw stones or dirt like rotary blade tools. Under $90 at hardware, lumber, garden dealers. Heavy duty model also available. Roller-handle for stand-up trimming, $5.00. FREE! Som Extension Cord with Skil Shears ($7.95 value). Limited time offer at most Skil dealers. 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In fact, results were so thorough, that sufferers were able to make such statements as "Piles have ceased to be a problem." And among these sufferers, �were a wide variety of hemorrhoid con- ditions, some of 10 to 20 years' standing. All this was accomplished without the use of narcotics, astringents or anesthetics of any kind. The secret is the new healing, substance Olio-Dyne.) quickly helps heal injured cells and stimulates regrowth of healthy tis- sue again .1 t is offe red in oin (ciet,t or An p- posit ory form called Preparation Ilk In addition to actually shrinking hemorrhoids without surgery, Prepa- ration 11 lubricates and makes elimina- tion less painful. It helps prevent infection which is a principal cause of hemorrhoids. Just ask for Preparation 11 Ointment or Preparation H Supposi- tories (easier to use away from home). Any drug counter. 108 At Camp 1)aviri, it wag raining on the morning of Ma y I . Eisenhower had golfed in nearby tieti5litirg the. day before. Because of Ilic rain. he cancelled plans for earl) church and a round of golf afterwards. and de- cided it) return to the %Vhite llottse in the afterno(In. Secreta r I 1)efense Thomas S. Cates. Jr.. and 1)r. Hugh I,. Dryden. deputy ;idtiiinistrator r,f the National Aeronautics and Space Arbuinistra- ii011 I \ ASA I had also recei%-erl worrl now that the 1 .2 11a1'11V1111111-t. Mitch later. fanri fill tales were to circulate on the Washington cocktail circuit that the CIA had brilliantly tlecei% ed \ ASA into belie% Mg the 1 .2 flew only "weather- missions. Actu- ally. Dr�den had willingly allowed NASA to be used Its 1111. CIA's rover from the %et.) Skirt Of 111e project and hod no regrets about it later. Ile knew the full scope of the risk% es- pionage program. as did ihrer� other ke% 1111`11 at \ ASA. One of them was 01.011 II, h iSli that lie didn't. The rail afternoon Still was breaking through the overcast as Cumming. drove to the 1:1 A meet ing that nould shape the precise lam guage of the coo er sm..). lit' headed for the CIA building in downtown WaMlinghoi. where hm,r,-s Rigid progress had 'wen plotted. Clowning (ills the titik Slate De. 1/Z114111(41i Mall present. The rest were :11111 11111 11.1'11 i experts Ilium the CIA. The) were concerned but not 1/%1.1'1% SO. Trlie, tilerl. solo ever indiealimi that l'ouers was 110%1'11 ill lilt' SOViel Union. nut the eliances that the iiiissians ould recover damning physical eli- (letut'e of the overflight seemed slim. Vowers. it was 11AS11111Oli. lund AllreltAS- fully folloned his orders to destroy the phow in ease of trouble. As for Powers. if he were still all).., he could he disowned as On unknown pilot wit limit a plane. The discussion. therefore. ..entered on the cmer :dor). (:umming. limier 1)illtor's instructions. argued vela.. !newly against an) mention of Nisi- sham lie maintained that there were overriding political I0:11,011S to Iltat I'llIkiS1:111 0111 1.1 the poser, laird, be- cause of its exposed geographical po- sition. on the 1111111, of both the Sos iel Union and Communist Chin(1. I)illon and Cumming. in their telephone romersation earlier in the tla). had considered %drill! 1'mild 111.51 stand the furor 11 (4 storm arose III the flight Thii'i reached the conch'. shin that the "Iiirks. a I ((alit 1110(1111 lough and independent-minded pro- ide. could take the i.niernational 10). III kal pressure better than die l'aki. stanis. The CIA agreed to drop l'akistati from the l'itser st,iui. Nob a new flight plan had to be agreed upon. 111141 ill the war-room setting were testrictell III 1111t 1:11-1 that the I .2's actual height range and fuel capacity were still top secret. The cover story. therefore. had somehow II, fall within the limits of pre% imisl) published data 011 -1111. I .2. itichutling the 19719 edition ,of how's If/ 1hr r, t. I s ircroll. According to Ihe I .2 ii as a weather-re- search craft capahle of maintaining all illtit11(1e llo higher than .15.0110 01111.1 1/111014111C.11 data said idaite could II 1111 to four hours. This restricted abililies .11 115' men working on the cover stilt'', this Sunda% afternoon. with slide ride, ,dipers and maps. the technical experts norked out a triangular flight plan skirting continued 1000 1-�-�2 Mt S MUll16AN "At first, tee considered-I a survival shelter: then Eileen bad this brilliant idea." Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2014/04/28: CIA-RDP74-00297R001600010078-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2014/04/28: CIA-RDP74-00297R001600010078-2 Mrs. Pou)ers was ordered to return to the U S. immediately the Soviet border but remaining en- tirely within Turkish airspace. The revised cover story was dis- patched by CIA closed communica- lions to various key points, Mehl& ing Adana. Turkey. where it was to be given out to the press if questions were asked. it was also transmitted to our Secretary of State in Istanbul. The vast. interlocking intelligence. and diplomatic machinery of the United States Government was 1110V- :big. but, like a fogbound ship on a collision course.. Barbara Powers awoke in her trailer on the base at Incirlik at 5 a.m.-Monday, May 2, to the sound of pounding on her front door. Sleepily, she went to the dam Sev- eral of her husband's friends were there. The thought passed through her mind that this was "just another wake-up party." They were some- times held for amusement bv the pi- lots and wives of the isolated detach- ment. "This had better be good," Bar- bara told the group at the 'door. "Barbara, we have some bad news." one of the men replied. "Gary is missing. We have search planes out, but they haven't found him yet." What followed was later hazy in her mind. "The next thing I remem- ber is the base doctor giving me shots. I don't know how many I had." For the next few days, she was to re- main under heavy sedation, await- ing word of Gary's fate. A few hours later, at the nearby Tnrkish city of Adana, Yusuf Ay. han, a local newsman, thought he was on to an interesting story..Ayhan had picked up a tip, and had now colt- firmed it at the air base. lie was the first reporter to receive, and write, the cover story plotted out by the men at the CIA meeting in Washing- ton the previous day. "An American plane of the U-2 meteorological-reconnaissance type, which is well known for its excellent performance and was based at u'irlik near Adana. was reported miss- ing on Sunday." Avlian wrote. "The C-2 plane. which flies at an altitude over 10.000 metres, thereby ap- proaching the atmosphere to investi� gate the reasons behind changes in weather conditions, had sent its last message out Sunday, when the pilot reported a breakdown of his oxygen equipment. No further news was re- ceived from the plane after that." At 3:30 p.m., May 2, Harry Press's phone rang. Press, a be- spectacled. cautious bureaucrat, was in his office one block from the White liouse, lie was one of the four men at NASA who knew that the U-2 was photographing military targeis in the Soviet Union under NASA cover. The caller was Maj. James Smith at Scott Air Force Base. Belleville. III. Major Smith, the U-2 project officer there, relayed to Press essentially the same cover story that YUSIlf Aylian had picked up in Adana several hours earlier. Had Press known of the Sunday CIA meeting�which he did not�he might have deduced that the message he received from Smith had actually originated a few blocks away in WashIngt on. It had gone halfway around the globe and back to him. On May 3, the cover story finally found its way into a few newspapers in the United States. Meanwhile. the United States In- telligence Board moved quietly into the behind-the-scenes decision-mak- ing on the 1-2. Its chairman was Allen Dulles, and it included the heads of the intelligence branches of the armed services. Cum-ling. the State Department's man on the board. was increasingly worried over the missing 1.1-2 pilot. Ile wanted to bring a widening circle of officials into the consultations. On Wednesday. May 4, Colonel William M. Shelton, Powers's com- mander. told Barbara to go back to the United States as soon as possible. Ile explained that when her husband was found, he would be sent home immediately for a medical examina� lion. She would see him sooner. the Colonel argued. by going hotne. This did not make much sense to Barbara. She had her first premonition that something very odd was happening. Nevertheless. she followed her in- structions. packed and began making arrangements for the long trip home to Milledgeville. Ca. In Moscow, lihrusheliev, in an expansive mood at a Czech em- bassy reception, told the diplomats lie would go before the Supreme So- viet the next day. Ile promised his speech would be interesting. At the White House. the Presi- dent breakfasted with Republi- can Congressional leaders. signed a grain apeement with India and went to the Burning Tree Club for a rotund of golf. But James C. Hagerty. the Presidential press secretary. had learned a disquieting piece of news. The "weather" plane that was re- ported down in Turkey WAS actually a 1 -2 missing over Russia. Ilagerty remembered a conversa- tion he had had at the Commodore Hotel in New York just after the 1952 election. He and Eisenhower had agreed that IlagertY would be told of security secrets only on a "need-to. know" basis. For a long time, there- fore, liagerty did not know about the spy nights. But in the fall of 1959, the President and Hagerty were riding in an automobile together on one of the President's weekend trips. Dur- ing a rambling conversation. EISCII. bower had turned to Hagerty sud- denly and revealed that United States planes were flying over the Soviet Union. "We're getting some information back from Russia, Jim," the Presi� dent had said. Ile made it plain he was worried about the overflights. This was .when he revealed that he had often asked the CIA: "What happens if you're caught?'' On the fifth of May, the 1,300 delegates to the Supreme Soviet gathered in the .Kreinlin. U. S. Aim bassador Thompson had an .uneasy feeling, lie had been placed in a choice position, a front box in the great hall, to which he was not en- titled by protocol. There was, be re- flected, something puzzling about it. At 19 a.m., Khrushehey Munched into a marathon speech. it was 3 a.m. in Washington as he began. fattish- chev unfolded a new tax-and-cur- rency program. Ile spoke, pessimis- tically, of the coming Summit,confer- ence. De regretted Eisenhower's intention to have Richard M. Nixon represent him at the Simunit confer- enee if he had to leave Paris before it was over. If Nixon were at the Summit, it woukl be like "letting a goat watch over the cabbage patch.'' Toward the end of his 3.14-hour speech Khrushchey dropped the bombshell. Early on the morning of May 'Day, he declared, "at 5:36 a.m. Moscow time, an American plane crossetl our border and continued its flight into Soviet territory and was shot down." He was about to go to Paris to meet Eisenhower. Khrusln�hey said. and now the U. S. Air Force had committed an aggressive act..K h rush chev looked up at the box where Thompson sat, and asked. "What is this, May Da y greet i ngs ?" The States was seeking to "tor- pedo" the Summit. he eharged. "The question then arises: WM. sent this aircraft across Ow Soviet frontier? Was it dispatehed with the approval of the Commander it) Chief of the United States armed fool,. a p,ost. as we know. held by the President ? Or was this aggressive at under- taken hy the Pentagon militarists without the President's knowledge?" Western reporters rushed for the telephones. Al 7 .00,11. that morning in Wash. ington, all members of the National Security Council were notified by telephone to report immediately to various predesignate(' helieopter liads fAr evacuation from the capital. as 'Mill of a three-dav nationwide "Operatlim Alert 1960" Ci� il De- fense exercise. The NSC lv, in hI meet with the 'President at the "Crow's Nest," a highly secret, partly under- gronnd dispersal headqearters I. ,eated in the mountains within a 60- mile radius ef Washingom. The President took off by helieopter �from the White House at 7:30 a.m.. un- aware. like the other members of tin' NSC, of Khruslichey's speech. At the White House. Hagerty. who did not go to the "Cri.iw's est." an- eontinned IIII"TI'll "Ironic/ .rott like to sing along with ,e2 PE 'NC L S Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2014/04/28: CIA-RDP74-00297R001600010078-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2014/04/28 : CIA-RDP74-00297R001600010078-2 . U12 The Defense Secretary worried about "an international lie" swered a call from the UPI WaShilig� toll bureau. Hagerty said he was not aware that an American plane had been shot down inside the Soviet [Mon and had not heard about Khrushehey's speech. Soon after. Hagerty reached Giwil- paster at the "Crow's Nest." Ginal. ipastir told him that the President was already ii, the NSC meeting. A few moments later. ealled Ilagert% and told him there would lie a meeting on the 1 -2 after the NSC meeting. Ile would either call Hag- er! v afterward and inform him of the results. lir lie would return Ii- u,stiv ill the While House by heli- copter a:111110 so then, he said. After the \S( meeting ended. a sided few of the 16 ollieials who had attended it moved into a SO141111'1' r011111 next door. Ilere were six of the most powerful men in America: the President : Acting Secretary of State Douglas Dillon: Defense Secretary Thomas Gates; CIA Diret�tor Allen Gonlim Gray. Assistant to the President for National Security; and C Ipaster. Dillon and most id' the others felt that there would have to be some ollivial teaction to Klirtish� i�Ite�'s charges. The decision was reached to keep on telling the cover story; all statements Would he made by the State Depart writ. Bid Gates was troubled. Ile suggested that if 1�11ruslichey had the physical evi- dence. the President of the United States might have to tell the truth. Ile warned that the prestige of the Presidency should not he involved ill CaieS was overruled. The derision � iii whith DUHUS tO CO11[111111! ill Ii,'. The State 1)epartment would do the 1� Mg. meetite." was brief. The Presi� dent attended it. but left abruptly to keep an 11:30 a.m. appointment. ( had to dash to make the helicopter bark to the \VItite House ith Eisenhower. Ile had tut chance 10 telephone Hagerty lwfore departing. In his office. I I a gert y was besieged all morning 1.y lieWS111(.11 seeking eomment on die sensational charge In khrtislichev. Since he hail re- ceived no instructions. lie could say nothing. The President and ( ood. paster landed at the White House at I I :21 a.m. At 12:05 p.m.. Hagerty announced to newsmen: "At the di� rection of the President. a complete inquiry is being made. The 1.1.SIlliS if this iini1niirv. the facts as developed. will be made public by the National Aeronautics and Space Administra� lion and the 1)epartment of State." It was the first time anyone hail mentioned a statement by NASA. The officials at the mountainside con- ference had derided that only the State 1)epartment would make any comment. Hagerty may have erred. lir he may have acted on instructions from (;inalpitster�accounts conflict. But it was clear that somewhere be- tween the mountainside meeting and the W hitt! House. tlwre was a serious breakdown iti communieation. It was the initial error in a day of monu- mental confusion. I lagert) indicated that the report- ers mould do well to get right over to NASA. NB( i's Ray Scherer and A'ewstreek's Charles Itoberts ran across l.a fay ette l'ark from the White Ilouse and burst into the office of W'alter T. lionney. who was the press cunt inued JOSIPH MIRACH I "It 'twat much 01 a proposal. lie suggested we pool pay envelopes. - NOW.. DEFENCIN: NEW MORE EFFECTIVE APPROACH TO ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM PAIN New muscle-relaxing tablet works three ways to give more effective temporary relief from minor pain of arthritis, rheumatism, body aches, neuralgias, and muscular strains in 8 important areas of pain. While there is no known cure for arthri- tis and rheumatism. today there is a new source of relief from the minor pain and muscle stiffness of arthritis and rheuma- tism. Scientists have developed a new kind of medicine you can take frequent- ly. according to directions, for prolonged relief. This medicine works by the newest prin- ciples. It acts to produce muscle relaxa- tion. It has been tested extensivel.V on patients suffering from minor grades of arthritis. rheumatism and various forms of body aches. neuralgias and muscular strains. It has been reported clinically superior in bringing relief. In case after case, doctors reported that pain and muscle stiffness were relieved. Many patients said they could reach, lift. walk, bend and move with greater ease and freedom. In fact, twice as many pa- tients reported relief, compared to those taking the most widely used pain tablets. This new medicine is DEFENCIN�a two- layer tablet with prescription-type ingred- ients, nowavailable without prescription. Here is how DITENCIN works, what it does, and its three-action relief. The chain of pain The pain of arthritis, rheumatism and related conditions is not a simple matter. It is like a chain with many links. Mus- cles, joints and nerves make up these - links. When pain at the joint makes mus- cles tighten and "lock" they restrict joint movement. Every time we do move, it hurts. This pain, in turn, irritates nerves, making the pain seem still worse. Muscles, joints, nerves�this is the chain of pain of arthritis and rheumatism. Loosening the chain Aspirin. common pain tablets and ordi- nary non-prescription "arthritis" pills are designed essentially to blunt pain. They act primarily in one way ... give only partial relief. act directly against only the pain sensation itself. These ordinary tablets don't act directly against muscle stiffness to loosen the chain. DEFENCIN does. It goes to work right at the source of the trouble, relaxing tight, tense muscles that aggravate the pain of minor arthritis, rheumatism and related conditions. DEFENCIN checks pain im- pulses as well as soothes irritability and edginess due to pain. It attacks pain and muscle stiffness, each at its own source, /omens the chain of pain. A unique new three-action 'formula DEFENCIN is a combination of prescrip- tion-type medicines: each tablet brings this unique three-action relief: t 1) As a muscle relaxant. DEFENCIN acts to ease muscle tightness and stiffness, re- duce pain at the source, and help restore movement. (2) As a pain reliever. DITTNCIN checks the pain from the affected joint areas for hours. (3) As a calmarive. DEFENciN relieves the irritability' and edginess that accom- pany:and aggravate painful conditions. How DEFENCIN has helped others People with body aches and stiffness in all 8 areas listed below�from arthritis and rheumatism to simple "Charley Horse- -have taken DEFENCIN under the super- vision of doctors in clinical tests. The results bear repeating: In case after case, doctors reported that 'pain and muscle stiffness were relieved. NI any. patients said they could move, walk, stoop. bend with greater freed:mi. In fact, twice as many patients reported relief, compared to those who took the most widely used pain tablets. In some cases, all symptoms were completely relieved. For more effective relief, get DEFENCIN.. Sold in drugstores: a bottle of 24 tablets for $1.00; 72 tab- lets for $2.50. A et admnred product ni Grove Labormorses �Ftegislered I rademnrk C;) WHICII OF THESE NIUSCLE OR JOINT PAINS DO T011 HAVE? Minor arthritis, rheumatism and related pains can strike anywhere in your body. often causing painful conditions listed below. Ness DITtfltxcitst can relieve pain and stiffness in any of these :treas. I. Aching back - pain in mos. cles especially in the small of the back. Overexertion can cause stiffness here. 2. Sore shoulder-pain in mus- cles that raise and lower arm. 3. Wry neck -pain in muscles that turn the head, often after eXPOSLat to dIllftS and cold. 4. Strained ankle - pain here makes it hurt to move or put weight tot your foot. 5. Stitt knee pain in surround- ing muscles may keep leg stiff. 6. Painful elbow-pain in mus- cles around the joint that flexes the arni. Arthritis quite fre- quently attacks here. 7. Painful hip-rain in noiscics of hip often extends down hack of (high. It sometimes loots even to sit still. IL Sore urki -pain in muscles that move and bend the wrist anti hand. This is often an area which is quite susceptible to rheumatism. OVER, 1 1 3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2014/04/28: CIA-RDP74-00297R001600010078-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2014/04/28: CIA-RDP74-00297R001600010078-2 � Dorit put shoes on HOT, ITCHY FEET! Unless you apply Absorbine Jr. New Research Proves Embedded Fungi Killed with Penetrating YG-7* Itching cracks between toes are sure signs of Athlete's Foot�a fungi in- fection which can burrow deep and become a serious medical problem. Now Absorbine Jr. with the pene- trating fungicide YG-7* (chloroxyle- noL has shown in laboratory tests to penetrate into horny skin tissue to kill embedded fungi. Only Absorbine Jr. offers all this scientific proof of effectiveness: I. Test-tube experiments prove 100% kill of fungi within 5 minutes. 2. Radioactive isotope tests prove penetration into skin. 3. Laboratory tests prove killing power on embedded fungi. 4. Evidence from foot specialists show effectiveness against Athlete's Foot. Don't put shoes on hot, itchy feet without applying Absorbine Jr. with penetrating YG-7. NOTE�Foot Specialists: Write tor summary ol laboratory research on effectiveness against embedded fungi. Address: Medical Director, W. F. Young, Inc., Springfield, Mass, U92 The crucial U-2 statement was drafted hastily, not cleared spokesman for the space agency. -Where's the statement ?- asked Scherer.. lot is secretaries hooked at the IleW Men ill tater astonishment. "What statement?" they asked. "The statement that Jim Ilageriy said OU %%ere going 111 11111 unit." re- plied Selterer. \ 41 1111e had hilt1\ 5S 5's presS Chief Illal he Was ti VIII Mil a slate- Meld. Bonnet retreated Its Ills inner "Ili" and 11,11,41 Ilagerh� 5 fen' tuts. mews later_ he announced Its 1% mild has(' a statement at I :311 p.m. Officials 411 CIA and the Slate De� ',ailment had alread% met to work out the ie�l of a statement k� stied Is Lincoln While. department siissk.'rctiiasi. It was released at I 2: 15 p.m. White. w ho did not knots that the I -2 was a sin plane. declared: Department 111 State has been informed In \ iSS that as au- nouticell Slat :; ass unarmed plane. a 1...2 to catlicr�rescareli plane I.:v..1 at Adana. Tiivke. piloted lo a ci% Hiatt has been missing since Slav I. Dim. lug the flight of this plane. the pilot reported dillienln stills his 44,9 gun equipment. SI s. khrushelte% att� matured that a L. S. plane has been shot (low is mei- the I 5.5.11. mu that date. It 111:1 IlIal till, 1111. miss- ing plane. It is entirel% imssilds. that basing a failure in ihe ox S gets equip- ment, so hirli could result in the pilot losing cuite-rionstiess. the 111111111` 14/11� 111111141 1111 111111111111111' 1/11111 1111' a 11111- 11411.1.111111. 111Si:1111V 111111 111,�1111`1111111y iolaied S11%11.1 ��'Itile White was meeting news. men at the State Department. Bonne% spent 'an agonizing three-quarters sir isii !mu, ti, is., it was clear tut the NASA press chief that 111' was going tui hit% e to go 11111 and lie convincing' Its dm newsmen who.had trusted him. l'rotti the start. 11 lllll haul known tIt,' '-2 was an espionage plane. hur flair dins. both Dr%slell and Bonne% had been in direct contact to ills ( 5. preparing a list of false atusw yrs to expected questions from the press. The list haul been sent tut the space tsgu'usis lo the CIA os ith- out clearauce Iso the State 1)epart� meld. i 1)r% den later testified that the CIA had told him that this material bust been cleared. I Ott this Thursula.). noliod% bothered 1111111111111 \ ASA 111 1111. 11011,1011 that only ihe State De� is rtment would speak for the Gui% ern. titetit. Reporters were on lionneCs doorstep demanding information. Ilonite%. after consulting to ith .Dt. � den. decided to take the CIA ques� lion-and-answer sheet and meld it i one statement. It would be bet- ter. 14�4114.14 felt. than 141 44ligage its a "free-for-all- with the reporters. eloseted himself in his ot. lice stills the CIA guidelines. per. suittall% nited tip a statement in rough form and pate it to a secret:tn. She smoothed out the language as she ren ped it on a Multilith mat. The United States Government was now about to make 1111e of the most crucial statements of the cold war. Yet the statement had been hast� il% drafted. and edited bv a seen.. titr. It haul not been cleared so ith the State Ihpartment. the (:1 A sir the White !louse. It had not been seen In Herter. Dulles or the President. IN THE NEXT ISSUE OF LOOK THE U-2 FAILURE: Who was responsible? Why did Ike insist on taking the blame? A new controversy about ARTHRITIS A Canadian doctor's patients say they're cured, but medical authorities doubt it BIG BUSINESS: Is it too big? A provocative article by SEN. HUBERT HUMPHREY mad. Why be hurt by hemorrhoids PAZO lets you be active in comfort Reeellt research reveals fast new tray to shrink hemorrhoid tissues, stop pain and itching�all without surgery. Its a combi- nation sit six modern medications in one complete formula: The PaTo Formula, NEW. RELIABLE RELIEF. Pants is the onto leading formula with these six active in- gredients to shrink arid soothe hemorrhoid tissues. Research shows tlds new combination brings symploni.itic rehel even to long-time pile still erect. CLINICALLY TESTED BY DOCTORS: r.t7,1 ac- tually proves to do more than just shrink hemorrhoids. It also relieves pain and itching promptly. lights infection. promotes healing. and lubricates membranes AVAILABLE NOW in stainless ointment and suppositories. Ask for ... laniPAZO!wrxon PHOTOCIUIZ ANSWERS (See page 1(5) I -D ( What Price Glory). 2-B (Destination Tokyo). 3-F (Story of GI Joe). ( The Fighting 69t11). 5-A ( Wings). 6-I ( Dawn Patrol). (C01111111111(1 Deeision).. 8-E (Battleground). 9-G (A Fare- well to Arms). 10-ti (Fur Whom the Bell 7'olls). buy and hold., U.S. Savings Bonds REMOVE WARTS! Amazing Compound Dissolves Common Warts Away Without Cutting or Burning t-4 1. Cl Doctors warn picking or Scratching at warts ma!, cause bleeding. infec- tion. spreading. 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