Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
December 22, 2016
Document Release Date: 
July 16, 2009
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
July 9, 1965
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP74-00390R000100060007-4.pdf1.15 MB
Approved For Release 2009/07/16: CIA-RDP74-0039OR000100060007-4 G NI RAL S `/1?tIS ADM;MISThATiOR9 WASHINGTON, D. C. M= GSA BULLETIN FPMR NO. B-2 ARCHIVES AND RECORDS '11. Purpose. This bulletin contains information to aid in preventing the possible loss of important data caused by blemishes on negative microfilm. 2. Background. Heads of Federal agencies were notified of the dis- covery of blemishes on processed microfilm negatives by General Services Administration Circular No. 326, January 21, 1964. Since that time, the National Bureau of Standards has conducted a study to determine the cause of these defects and to aid in establishing pre- ventive measures. Their published report (Technical Note 261, Sum- mary of. Current Research on Archival Microfilm, April 16, 1965) offers guidelines to be followed in processing, handling; and storing of microfilm to prevent possible formation of blemishes. The National Bureau of Standards has not made final recommendations so GSA has not issued new microfilming standards. 3. Interim practice concerning the microfilming of permanent records. Until further notice, General Services Administration will not approve the disposal of records of permanent archival value based on the retention of a microfilm copy of the originals. Existing authority for disposal will not be rescinded, but it is suggested that agencies follow the recom- mendations in paragraph 4, below. 4. Suggested agency action. Pending the issuance of new microfilm standards, agencies are urged to have positive copies made of existing collections of negative microfilm appraised by the National Archives as having permanent value. Agencies should also consider making positive copies of existing collections of negative microfilm of vital Approved For Release 2009/07/16: CIA-RDP74-0039OR000100060007-4 Approved For Release 2009/07/16: CIA-RDP74-00390R000100060007-4 records scheduled for long-term retention or indefinite storage. The making of positive copies of the negative microfilm should also be considered for current projects. 5. Expiration date. This bulletin expires June 30, 1966. LAWSON B. K1 TT, JR Administrator of General Services Approved For Release 2009/07/16: CIA-RDP74-00390R000100060007-4 Approved For Release 2009/07/16: CIA-RDP74-0039OR000100060007-4 SENDER WILL CHECK CLASSIFICATION TOP AND BOTTOM UNCLASSIFIED CONFIDENTIAL SECRET i OFFICIAL ROUTING SLIP TO DATE INITIALS I AN yg7i 2 STATINTL 3 4 5 6 ACTION DIRECT REPLY PREPARE REPLY APPROVAL DISPATCH RECOMMENDATION COMMENT FILE RETURN CONCURRENCE INFORMATION SIGNATURE Remarks : CCU- 1-113 S 11/ STATINTL TATINTL FOLD HERE TO RETURN TO SENDER FROM: AME, AD RESS AND PHONE NO. DATE 1;2 7 FOR N0. 1)12-7 Use previous editions GPO : 1968 0 - 297-542 (40) _ Approved For Release 2009/07/16: CIA-RDP74-0039OR000100060007-4 S A series will be held gall of 1970, specific major s The dates and top held in Washingt 10, 1,7 ceting and the Engi The 1971 will co Secret cours pres m J:-, .e with international standar of the differences in the ys- tem o measurement? and can we rain t:ionail%. whether or not there is a change in ur measurement s teen? The e Bering Fo August at De metable calls nd writing the rd ain recommendations 'ry of Commerce on the of action for the U.S., nting a report to Congress st 1971, which NBS states wi 'ANSI STANDARD FOR THE ABREVIATION OF PERIODICAL TITLE, recommendations serial publica'ions graphs and conf au,:hors, editor, wworking in va .:nembiguou specific 20 7 JAN Approved For Release 2009/07/16: CIA-RDP74-0039OR000100060007-4 ity i abbrevia rame of ref publications stigating a of the economy. C., will'be an- jointly by.NBS elation, will be field, Mass. r analyzing by the and for' in (ANSI) has published ican standard fo n of periodic joint itution the titles. of. the standard al and many no - including mono-1 ce proceedings. i1 to guide and assis librarians and Both areas of infor`mat preparing urtiqu ions withina ited .in hoot liographies pies of the standard, 4esignatec .iay, New York, N.Y.0,18, :r copy. R/ALA PLAN FOR PREP1ACIL C!NG OI\CORE COLLEGE BOOK COLLECTION Th ation core books the basis fo library progr collections that acquired, process with a catalog so The list is expecte 40,000 titles and i Selection of in the list will same reviewers tor of CHOICE, tion. of the ti senior editor The projc pices'.of th Committee with Phi Boston P Respons ACRL Edito Rut tr Pr Council on Library Re have jointly an preparation of a for college lib t is expected a contempla provid d, ties t e perfd o choose Peter D ill supervi les with the rCCS Associ- unced atalog of aries. 'ted "package college li- d with core reselected, d delivered books could be immediately. o be available Approved For Release 2009/07/16: CIA-RDP74-0039OR000100060007-4 be included medby.the iron, edi- compila- plp of a t will be under t Association of Col ded by CLR. An Advis has been appointed by blic Library, as Chairma bility for preparation of talog has been delegated t the ALA Publishing Board ial Committee, with Williarm r, ALA's Associate Executivc br'for Publishing Services, as ect Manager,, and J. Donald Thor cutive'Secretary of ACRL, provi 1'iaison with the Advisory Committe NBS FINDINGS ON PREVENTION OT MICROFILM BLEMISHES (NBS) Institute for Basic Standards study'reveals that gases evolved from paper and paper-lined storage cartons are responsible for the formation of blemishe's on processed microfilm. Dis- Approved For Release 2009/07/16: CIA-RDP74-0039OR000100060007-4 `placement of image silver has keen pin- to an oxidation reduction re- action caused by peroxide and other gases. The study, by C.S. 'McCamy and C.I. Pope of the NBS Institute for i 13asic Standards, has also indicated that simple precautionary measures ~iay betaken to eliminate "redox" blemish- ing The-formation of spots or blemishes on processed microfilm was cause for, alarm amcng film manufacturers, archi- vists, Government agencies, etc. Th' extent of the concern is reflected b the number of agencies that sponsore the research t o solve the pblm roe: the National Archives and Records Service, the Library of Congress; th Social Security Administrationthe Navy Bureau of Weapons, and the Adju:ant G ' eneral s Offif th D ce oeepartment o the Army. In addition, the?Natio,nal Microfilm Association solicited and secured financial support from the Bell and Howell Company, E. I. duPon de Nemours and Company, Dynacolor,' Corporation, IBM Corporation, Minn-- sota Mining and Manufacturing Compan ?Recordak Corporation, University Microfild X ms, anerox Corporation When it became apparent that blemilsh formation was a widespread problem, a, field survey was conducted in which 100 trained inspectors examined over 7400 roles of microfilm in different Gover}i- ment agencies. More than 370,000 ob- servations were recorded and then star tistically analyzed at NBS. Among the findings of the.. survey were: blemishes existed--in 6 different types; blemish formation was more severe in humid storage areas; films stored in metal containers were practically blemish free; films stored in air-conditioned! 1. Use safety base permanent record film as specified in the ANSI (ior;e rly USASI) specifications for photographic films for permanent records. 2. Use no higher densities than arc required for the intended purposes and use dark characters on a light back- ground if this is feasible. 3. Residual thiosulfate concentra- tion should not exceed 1 microgram per square centimeter, but should be greater than zero. The optimum concentration appears to be about 0.5 microgram per square centimeter in a clear area. 4. Keep processing machinery and film clean'. 5. `Avoid scratching film. 6. Store films in containers made of inert materials, such as metals or plastics of proven quality. With good ventilation and clean air, the con- tainers need not be sealed. to ty 7. Do not permit storage temperature exceed 70?F nor the relative humidi- to exceed 40 percent. 8. Avoid wide-range cycling of tem- perature and humidity, since this ac- celerates the imbibition of gaseous contaminants. D- P AND DA VI TO PP OPOSE STAND FUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT areas were less prone to blemish; and; The L.ib when there were no leaders on the,fill of the Americ ___~ rolls, blemish formation was 2 to 3 signed an agreem _.% times as severe as when film rolls had of?Audiovisual Ins leaders of approximately 1.5 meters. affiliate of the These factors tended to confi4m the Association, t r duct r_ . . theory to a+' ----' --_ -, p o s f paper storage cartons were responsible standards for blemish formation. Standar Results of the study have. indicated several precautionary measures that may be taken to prevent blemish formation: player je 'rogram (LTP) ssociation h the Department ction (DAVI), an jointl sponsor and afting of audiovisual quipment. will be sought fo tape recorders and 16mm motion picture sou ors, and. filmstrip and comb' mstrip(slide projectors. ci pro- Approved For Release 2009/07/16: CIA-RDP74-0039OR000100060007-4 ayback _r . /tJ A411- \ Approved For Release 2009/07/16: CIA-RDP74-0039OR000100060007-4 ev ew o roposed USA Appendix C Microscopic Blemishes Some processed negative microfilms on cellulose ester base in storage for two to twenty years have developed microscopically small colored spots or blemishes. These spots wergfirst discovered in 1961. The fogged leader at the outside of'the roll is more frequently affected by the blem- ishes, which are generally red or yellow in color and are smaller in size than the image characters (for example, a typewritten cipher reduced 20X) on the microfilm. On occasion, these spots are observed further into the roll and appear in image areas. Evidence to date- indicates that nega- tive microfilms on polyester base are neither more nor less susceptible to microscopic blemishes than microfilms on cellulose ester base. A more detailed description of the blemishes and of the techniques used in inspecting micro- film is given in National Bureau of Standards Handbook 96.(14) The snots are believed to be caused by the oxidation of the image ilver and the migration of the silver ion to local- areas. The color may be due to colloidal silver. 10,15) Oxidizing agents which can cause image degradation are aerial oxygen, whose action on the film is strongly acceler- ated by moisture, and atmospheric contaminants, such as peroxides, ozone,. sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and nitrogen oxides, all occurritg in industrial atmospheres. Perox ides may be present in some varieties of wood and may ,also be formed as the result of aging o paper inserts etc..,ad films this is not quite as good in all respects or under all conditions as is the case with cellulose ester-type bases. The extreme chemical inertness of this new film base makes the problem of adhesion much more difficult. Of importance is the effect of very low relative humidities which cause the gelatin photographic and backing layers to contract and im- pose severe stresses on the gelatin adhesion. Cycling relative humidities from moderate to very low cause alternate ex- pansion and contraction of the gelatin layers which can be particularly severe on the adhesive bond. The magnitude of this stress on the bond is very dependent on the thickness and physical characteristics of the gelatin layers which differ with each type of film. Under extreme conditions of elevated temperature and low or cycling relative humidities, gelatin photographic layers and backing layers on polyester base sometimes de- velop adhesion defects, such as slight edge peeling, flaking, emulsion cracking, etc., while similar layers on cellulose ester base under the same conditions do not exhibit these defects or do so to a lesser degree. For this reason the relative humidity is extremely important for permanent record storage. The recommended environmental conditions for archival storage are temperatures less than 70 F and a relative humidity between 30 and 50% RH. It is essential that polyester base films for permanent records not only meet the requirements of this specification, but that they are stored under proper storage conditions. These are spec- if ied in pertinent USA standards. cardboard containers commonly used in storing film. The latter appear as a likely source of oxidants associated with blemish ormation. The conditions under which microfilm is processed have been found to play a role in the development of the blem- ishes when the film has been improperly stored in a humid atmosphere. Good processing techniques are essential so that the film emerges from the process free of water and chemical spots, dirt, dust, scratches, and other blemishes. Washing procedures should provide uniform removal of the thiosul- fate and the associated silver compounds. Drying should be uniform and extremes of temperature should be avoided. A small quantity of potassium iodide in the fixing bath com- bined with proper storage conditions; has been found to provide some protection against these blemishes in micro film.lll) It must be emphasized that the conditions under which microfilm is stored play a vital role in the development of these defects Storage in cool, dryair that is free of oxidizing gases or vapors is important. Storage in metal cans rather than with paper or in cardboard cartons, which produce per- oxides with age, is recommended. A protective gold treatment provides a high degree of pro- tection against microscopic blemishes and may be applied either as a part of the photographic processing procedure or as a post-processing treatment.l12,t3) Appendix D -~, Emulsion Adhesion One property of film on polyethylene terephthalate) base which requires consideration is that of the adhesion of the photographic and backing layers to this' base. For some. REFERENCES (These references are not a part of USA Standard Specifi- cation for Silver-Gelatin Type Photographic Films on Poly- ester Base for Archival Records, PH1.41-196x.) (1) Adelstein, P. Z. and McCrea, J. L. Permanence of Processed Estar Polyester Base Photographic Films. Photographic Science and Engineering, 9 (September, 1965), 305-313. (2) Anderson, D. H. and Woodall, N. B. Infrared Identifi- cation of Materials in the Fractional Milligram Range. Analytical Chemistry, 25 (December, 1953), 1906- 1909. _ (3) Carr, D. S. and Harris, B. L. Solutions for Maintaining Constant Relative Humidity. Journal of Industrial Engineering Chemistry, 41, (September, 1949), 2014- 2015. (4) 'iprabtree, J. I., Eaton, G. T., and Muehler, L. E. The Removal of Hypo and Silver Salts from Photographic Materials as Affected by the Composition of the Pro- cessing Solutions. Journal of- the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 41, (July, 1943), 9-68. (5) Crabtree, J. I and Henn, R. W. Increasing the Washing Rate of Motion-Picture Films with Salt Solutions. Journal of the Society of 'Motion Picture and Tele- vision Engineers, 65, (July, 1956), 378-381. (6) Evans, G. H. Testing Aerial Photographic Negatives for Residual Sodium Thiosulfate. Photogrammetric . Engineering, 8, (1942), 121-128. (7) ' Centa, J. M. Performance Characteristics of Cronar Polyester Photographic Film Base. Photogrammetric Engineering:-2j t tel'tlber, 19651, 539-542. Approved For Release 2009/07/16: CIA-RDP74-0039OR000100060007-4 R i f P Standard for Archival Film 141 Approved For Release 2009/07/16: CIA-RDP74-0039OR000100060007-4 L GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION National Archives and Records Service Washington, D.C. 20408 January 3, 1969 i IN RCF1.V RCFCR 70h Mr. R. L. Bannerman Deputy Director for Support Central Intelligence Agency Washington, D.C. 20505 Thank you for your letter of December 16 asking about the status of the research program to determine the causes of microfilm blemishes. Since our last progress report, the National Bureau of Standards has completed its research and prepared a preliminary report of findings and recomendations. On the basis of this report, the United States of America Standards Institute has drafted proposed standards for processing and storing archival microfilm so as to prevent the blemishes. We anticipate that USASI will publish the standards in about a year. To enable agencies to undertake new microfilming programs, we are developing GSA standards for archival microfilm which will permit the disposal of permanent records. Unless legal or technical difficulties arise, the yederal Property Management Regulations concerning standards for archival microfilm should be available by March 1969. If you need more information please contact Mr. Herbert E. Angel, Deputy Archivist of the United States, telephone code 13, extension 33435. Sincerely, 'f Voe C~Ir n ^ JAMES B. RHOADS Archivist of the United States Keep Freedom in Your Future With U.S. Savings Bonds Approved For Release 2009/07/16: CIA-RDP74-0039OR000100060007-4 Approved For Release 2009/07/16: CIA-RDP74-00390R000100060007-4 ? .~ Gay ti . r ... ' Iiu of the Unit CCl 'v:.ucJ Gc cve.l Se1-'iicez: A~:iniwjrtti:?:a Ar hi v (? , o nd R Co dr' Service D. C. in 19 4 the Ccnt_al Intelligence 1~,,e Cj' a_,rceo, _`:. nvL: c!! ilex ^..~,?11Li to "G. *nu'fer funs s y to t.`i c: c~_..:al .,.?~:: ~'?;:u tr.,nd::cci.z to ZuapOr t a re nearch prov ': ;n to Gec.C: .1:dG the CC of bi !.a::.:va on ==CAN. Si:;CC c. .e M ...~,._ ~_ Ca. --Z ? the ct dy on two accocic:i,ir April ?,~, li?vvL . bo'r 1965 but Mal C