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Approved For Release 2002/01/10: CIA-RDP74B00415R00010011`0 July 20, 1972 CONGRESSIONAL charge from the plant, by using excess heat as its energy source. Mr. Austin also noted the efforts of Bottlers of Coca-Cola directed toward achieving a better environment. He cited such projects as recycling centers in the United States for the reclamation on one-way glass packages; the collection and recycling of aluminum cans by Bottlers of Coca-Cola in Australia; and the collection for recycling of aluminum bottle caps in South America, where almost all of the Company's products are sold in returnable packages. Mr. Austin noted also the independent funding, by his Company, of a number of major studies into the total environmental impact of all its packaging designed to seek to determine their true cost, from the mining and extraction of raw materials to the dis- posal of waste products. That way, he said, "we'll be able to make even more intelligent decisions in the future." Citing his Company's concern not only for the physical environment, but for the quality of life, Mr. Austin pointed to the Company's efforts toward the development of a protein- rich, nutritional beverage which could aid, the undernourished, and to the Company's efforts in a program in its Florida citrus operations to upgrade the standard of living for the migratory-type wrokers who harvest the citrus. The protein-beverage work, in progress for more than four years, is. not altogether al- truistic, Mr. Austin said, "We expect to profit from this venture. But so will those whose diets and lives are improved through our efforts. Those enterprises which succeed to the fullest are the very ones which enrich everyone involved." The Company's farm labor reform proj- ect, Mr. Austin noted, did not contain the profit motive when it was inaugurated; but today, due to the continuing success of the activity, that factor is now a possibility. With its individual components of better housing, better pay and benefits and im- proved health and educational facilities, the aim of the farm labor program is to stabilize the once migratory labor force and to raise the standard of living of the workers to a parity with other Company employees, Even though Mr. Austin called the pro- gram "at the beginning of the beginning," he noted that with steady employment and normal incentives, the individual produc- tivity rate is going up. The cost to the Company, he said, for equipment, supervisory personnel, transportation and other support requirements, have diminished surprisingly. "This translates quickly into a more profitable operation and a better return on investment," PROHIBITION OF GEOPHYSICAL EAPON OF WAR Mr. PELL. Mr. President, as chairman of the Subcommittee on Oceans and In- ternational Environment, I have been very much concerned over the unofficial and unconfirmed reports that the United States has attempted to modify weather conditions in Southeast Asia as an in- strument of warfare. During the recent Senate recess, a number of informative articles concern- ing this subject appeared in the press. Among these were articles writen by Bruce De Silva, in the Providence Jour- nal and Evening Bulletin; Seymour M. Hersh and John Noble Wilford, in the New York Times of July 3, 1972 ; and by Victor CohnA100?8Md1#~@4S4 July 2, 1972. These articles reinforce my belief that we must move quickly to ban the use of RECORD - SENATE S 11345 - ' all geophysical warfare. in an effort to achieve this goal, I have scheduled hear- ings on July 26 and 27, 1972, to receive testimony on Senate Resolution 281 which I introduced earlier this year. This resolution, which was cosponsored by Senators BAYII, CASE, COOPER, CRANSTON, HART, HUGHES, HUMPHREY, JAVITS, KEN- NEDY, MCGOVERN, MONDALE, NELSON, STEVENSON, TUNNEY, and WILLIAMS ex- presses the sense of the Senate that the United States should seek the agreement of other governments to a proposed treaty prohibiting the use of any en- vironmental or geophysical modification activity as a weapon of war, or the carry- ing out of any research or experimenta- tion with respect thereto. I believe that the articles referred to above will be of great interest to a num- ber of Senators. I therefore ask unani- mous consent that they be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the items were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: RAINMAKING IS USED AS WEAPON BY U.S.- CLOUD SEEDING IN INDOCHINA CONFIRMED- CHEMICAL ALSO EMPLOYED To FOIL RADAR (By Seymour M. Hersh) WASHINGTON, July 2.-The United States has been secretly seeding clouds over North Vietnam, Laos and South Vietnam to in- crease and control the rainfall for military purposes. Government sources, both civilian and military, said during an extensive series of interviews that the Air Force cloudseeding program has been aimed most recently at hindering movement of North Vietnamese troops and equipment and suppressing enemy antiaircraft missile fire. The disclosure confirmed growing specula-. tion in Congressional and scientific circles about the use of weather modification in' Southeast Asia. Despite years of experiments with rainmaking in the United States and elsewhere, scientists are not sure they un- derstand its long-term effect on the ecology of a region. SOME OPPOSED PROGRAM The weather manipulation in Indochina, which was first tried in South Vietnam in 1963, is the first confirmed use of meteoro- logical warfare. Although it is not prohibited by any international conventions on warfare, artificial rainmaking has been strenuously opposed by some State Department officials. It could not be determined whether the operations were being conducted in connec- tion with the current North Vietnamese of- fensive or the renewed American bombing of the North. EFFECTIVENESS DOUBTED Beginning in 1967, some State Department officials protested that the United States, by deliberately altering the natural rainfall in parts of Indochina, was taking environ- mental risks of unknown proportions. But many advocates of the operation have found little wrong with using weather modifica- tion as a military weapon. "What's worse," one official asked, "drop- ping bombs or rain?" All of the officials interviewed said that the United States did not have the capabil. ity to cause heavy flooding during the sunn- ier in the northern parts of North Vietnam, where serious flooding occurred last year. Officially, the White House and State De- partment declined comment on the use of objectives--muddying roads and flooding lines of communication, But there were also many military and Government officials who expressed doubt that the project had caused any dramatic results. The sources, without providing details, also said that a method had been developed for` treating clouds with a chemical that eventu- ally produced an acidic rainfall capable of fouling the operation of North Vietnamese radar equipment used for directing surface- to-air missiles, In addition to hampering SAM missiles and delaying North Vietnamese infiltration, the rainmaking program had the following pur- poses: ?Providing rain and cloud cover for in- filtration of South Vietnamese commando and intelligence teams into North Vietnam. ?Serving as a "spoiler" for North Viet- namese attacks and raids in South Vietnam. Mitering or tailoring the rain patterns over North Vietnam and Laos to aid United States bombing mission's. - iDiverting North Vietnamese men and material from military operations to keep muddied roads and other lines of com- munication in operation. KEYED TO MONSOON The cloud-seeding operations necessarily were keyed to the two main monsoon seasons that affect Laos and Vietnam, "It was just trying to add on to something that you already got," one officer said. Military sources said that one main goal was to increase the duration of the south- west monsoon, which spawns high-rising cumulus clouds-those most susceptible to cloud seeding-over the panhandle areas of Laos and North Vietnam from May to early October. The longer rainy season thus would give the Air Force more opportunity to trigger rainstorms. "We were trying to arrange the weather pattern to suit our convenience," said one former Government official who had detailed knowledge of the operation. ,According to interviews, the Central In- telligence Agency initiated the use of cloud- seeding over Hue, in the northern part of South Vietnam. "We first used that stuff in about August of 1963," one former C.I.A. agent said, "when the Diem regime was hav- ing all that trouble with the Buddhists.". "They would just stand around during demonstrations when the police threw tear gas at them, but we noticed that when the rains came they wouldn't stay on," the former agent said. "The agency got an Air America Beech- craft and had it rigged up with silver iodide," he said. "There was another demonstration and we seeded the area. It rained." A similar cloud-seeding was carried out by C.I.A. aircraft In Saigon at least once dur- ing the summer of 1964, the former agent said. EXPAND TO TRAIL The Intelligence Agency expanded its cloud-seeding activities to the Ho Chi Minh supply trail in Laos sometime in the middle nineteen-sixties, a number of Government sources said. By 1967, the Air Force had be- come involved although, as one former Gov- ernment official said, "the agency was calling all the shots." "I always assumed the agency had a man- date from the White House to do It," he added. A number of former CIA, and high-rank- ing Johnson Administration officials depicted the operations along the trail as experi- mental. The state of the art had not yet advanced to the point where it was possible to predict meteorological warfare. "This is one of those the results of a seeding operation with any 200210 r ng, o o~fiiciallsaicl. D "e~SR000li~~00~nce, one Government o11i- cial said. "We used to go out flying around Most officials interviewed agreed that the and looking for a certain cloud formation," seeding had accomplished one of its main the official said. "And we made a lot of mis= S11346 Approved For Release 2002/01/10: CIA-RDP74B00415R000100110006-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE July 20, 1972 takes. Once we dumped seven inches of rain in two hours on one of our Special Forces camps." Despite the professed skepticism on the part of some members of the Johnson Ad-' ministration, military men apparently took the weather modification program much more seriously. According to a document contained in the, Pentagon papers, the Defense Department's secret history of the war, weather modifica- tion was one of seven basic options for stepping up the war that were presented on request by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the White House in late February, 1967. The document described the weather pro- gram over Laos-officially known as Opera- tion Pop-Eye-as an attempt "to reduce traf- ficability along infiltration routes." AUTHORIZATION NEEDED nam, particularly in the north along the Laos is practiced, in food-deficit areas, and in border. "We tried to use it in connection areas subject to flooding," with air and ground operations," a military ISSUE RAISED RECENTLY officer explained. One Government official explained more explicitly that "if you were expecting a raid from their side, you would try to control the weather to make it more difficult." This offl- cial estimated that more than half of the actual cloud-seeding operations in 1969 and 1970 took place in South Vietnam. Much of the basic research was provided by Navy scientists, and the seeding opera- tions were flown by the Air Weather Service of the Air Force. By 1967, or possibly earlier, the Air Force flights were originating from a special opera- tions group at Udorn air base in Thailand. No more than four C-130's, and usually only two, were assigned in the highly restricted section of the base. Each plane was capable of carrying out more than one mission on one flight. One former high-ranking official said in an interview that by the end of 1971 the pro- gram, which had been given at least three different code names since the middle nine- teen-sixties, was under the direct control of the White House. Interviews determined that many usually well-informed members of the Nixon Admin- istration had been kept in the dark. In the last year, there have been repeated inquiries and publicly posed questions by members of Congress about the weather mod- ification programs in Southeast Asia, but f t' h s been rovided - a t i The issue has also been raised in recent months by the National Academy of Sciences, on the floor of the United States Senate and at the international environmental meeting at Stockholm last month. Recognizing the many potential problems, the national academy issued a statement last year urging the Nixon Administration to sponsor a United Nations resolution "dedi- cating all weather modification efforts to peaceful purposes and establishing, prefer- ably within the framework of international nongovernmental scientific organizations, an advisory mechanism for consideration of weather-modification problems of potential international concern." Senator Claiborne Pell, Democrat of Rhode .Island, and 18 other Senators recently filed a resolution calling on the United States to join in a treaty outlawing "any use of any environmental or geophysical modification activity as a weapon of war, or the carrying out of any research or experimentation with respect thereto." But, during the Stockholm conference, the United States delegation was instrumental in inserting a weakening clause in a recom- mendation calling for all governments to "carefully evaluate the likelihood and mag- nitude of climactic effects" from weather modification and to disseminate their find- ings. U.S. SPONSORS STUDY It said that Presidential authorization was "required to implement operational phase of weather modification process previously suc- cessfully tested and evaluated in same area." The brief. summary concluded by stating that "risk of compromise is minimal." A similar option was cited in another 1967 working document published in the Penta- gon papers. Neither attracted any immediate public attention. The Laos cloud-seeding operations did provoke, however, a lengthy and bitter, al- beit secret, dispute inside the Johnson Ad- ministration in 1967. A team of State De- partment attorneys and officials protested that the use of cloud-seeding was a danger- ous.precedent for the United States. "I felt that the military and agency hadn't analyzed it to determine if it was in our interest," one official who was involved in the dispute said, He also was concerned over the rigid secrecy of the project, he said, "al- though it might have been all right to keep it secret if you did it once and didn't want the precedent to become known." The general feeling was summarized by one former State Department official who said he was concerned that the rainmaking "might violate what we considered the gen- eral rule of the thumb for an illegal weapon of war-something that would cause unusual suffering or dispropriate damage." There also was concern, he added, because of the un- known ecological risks. A Nixon Administration official said that he believed the first use of weather modi- fication over North Vietnam took place in late 1968 or early 1969 when rain was in- creased in an attempt to hamper the abil- ity of antiaircraft missiles to hit American jets in the panhandle region near the Lao- tian border. Over the next two years, this official added, "it seemed to get more important-the re- ports were coming more frequently." It could not be learned how many specific missions were carried out. in any year. One well-informed source said that Navy scientists were responsible for developing a new kind of chemical agent effective in the warm stratus clouds that often shielded many key antiaircraft sites in northern parts of North Vietnam. The chemical, he said, "produced a rain that had an acidic quality to it and it would foul up mechanical equipment-like radars, trucks and tanks." "This wasn't originally in our planning," the official added, "it was a refinement." Apparently, many Air Force cloud-seeding missions were conducted over North Viet- nam and Laos simply to confuse or "attenu- ate"-a word used by many military men- the radar equipment that. controls antiair- craft missiles. The planes used for such op- p n orma Io no accura e to them by the Department of Defense. The weakening clause included the words, "This kind of thing was a bomb, and Henry "to the maximum extent feasible." Officials restricted information about it to those who later acknowledged that possible military had to know," said one well-placed Govern- use of weather modification was the basis for ment official, referring to Henry A. Kissinger, the amendment. the President's adviser on national security. However, the Department of Defense's Ad- Nonetheless, the official said, "I understand . vanced Research Projects Agency is sponsor- it to be a spoiling action-that this was de- lug research to determine how much and scriptive of what was going on north of the what kind of tinkering. with the atmosphere DMZ with the roads and the SAM sites." is required to disturb the climate on a global Another source said that most of the scale-an indication that the Pentagon is weather modification activities eventually not sure of the ecological impact of weather were conducted with the aid and support of warfare. the South Vietnamese. "I think we were try- The Defense Department acknowledges ing to teach the South Vietnamese how to that it conducted "precipitation augmenta- fly the cloud-seeding missions," the source tion projects" in the Philippines in 1969, in said. India in 1967, over Okinawa and the Mid It was impossible to learn where the staff- islands in 1971 and in Texas last summer- ing and research for the secret weather op- all at the request of the governments in- eration were carried out. Sources at the Air volved. Force Cambridge Research Laboratories at The results were mixed-success in the Hanscomb Field in Bedford, Mass., and at Philippines and Texas, but not elsewhere.. the Air Weather Service headquarters, while Other tests over the years have failed to in- .acknowledging that they had heard of the crease rainfall, or else failed to convince secret operation, said they had no informa- meteorologists that the rains would not have tion about its research center, fallen without human intervention. One Government source did say that a But tests in Florida, in 1968 and 1970, led group was "now evaluating the program to civilian Scientists to conclude that clouds see how much additional rain was caused." seeded with silver iodide crystals rained more ,He would not elaborate. than three times as much as unseeded clouds. The experiment, concluded by the National SCIENTISTS ARE CRITICAL OF RAINMAKING IN . Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, WAR produced "explosive" growth of rain clouds. (By John Noble Wilford) CONTROVERSY REMAINS After years of rainmaking experiments- While conceding that "there's still quite tion, scientists are still not sure they under- a bit of controversy over whether your seed- stand the short-term effects of cloud-seeding, ing caused rain or not," Ferguson Hall of the much less the possible long-term impact on agency's Office of Environmental Modifica- the ecology of a region or the entire world. tion said yesterday in a telephone interview This uncertainty has led to increasing con- from his Rockville, Md., office: "We seem to cern among scientists over the use of weather be on the verge of having convinced ourselves modification as an instrument of warfare. rainmaking will work in certain cases." Dr. Matthew Meselson, professor of biology Rainmaking research primarily involves at Harvard University, was quoted in the experiments in seeding clouds with silver June 16 issue of the magazine Science as iodide, dry ice, common salt and other Chem- saying: icals that can act as condensation nuclei. The "It is obvious that weather modification Federal Government is spending about $20 'used as a weapon of war has the potential million annually on weather-modification re- erations, C-130's, must fly at relatively slow for causing large-scale and quite possibly search. speeds and at altitudes no greater than 22,- uncontrollable and unpredictable destruc- There are two types of clouds, warm and 000 feet to dispkp tmveigtrftinRle'p%et2GO2Mt 'O greater QO4 R0 4o1 t ~ caws by which seed- cals effectively. well have a far reater. impact on e v l1ans n e i gger rainfall. A number of officials confirmed that cloud than on combatants; This would be especially In 1946, the first American experiments seeding had been widely used in South Viet- . true in areas where subsistence agriculture in cloud seeding, by- Vincent J. Schaefer of Approved For Release 2002/01/10 : CIA-RDP74B00415R000100110006-9 July 20, 1972 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ---SENATE S 11347 the General Electric Research Laboratory in believe it is important for nations to agree two long-range California programs--one Schenectady, were aimed at Supercooled not to wage weather war-"before," as he over the Pacific off Santa Barabara, an at- clouds, From an airplane, Mr. Schaefer put it, "it becomes a reality." tempt to increase rainfall over a national dropped three pounds of dry ice (frozen Son,.Claiborne Pell (D-R,h) Is prominent forest; the other over the Central Sierras to carbon dioxide) into clouds to create billions among members of Congress who believe it try to increase the snow-pack for electric of glistening Ice crystals, has become a reality. "There is very little utilities that depend on water power. MOISTURE To IcE doubt in my mind," he says. Rep. Gilbert Air Force weather modifying is done by Dry ice -or silver iodide, which is more Gudo (R-Md,) states: "There's no doubt in Air Weather Service, working out of Scott commonly used silver iodide, which in. the my mind that it's going on in Vietnam." Field, East St. Louis, Ill., with participation today clou to ice crystals that grow turger. and ,I think there's no doubt rain-making was by the Environmental Technology Applica- larger until larger utare heavy rough- to fail used in Laos on the trail," says a Senate tions Center at Suitland, Md, Operations rain they snow. committee aide well versed in defense af- over Indochina are flown out of Udorn Air Siithe iodide it snow. tly used as the seed- fairs, "And I think there's little doubt that it Force Base, Thailand, says a Senate source. ing agent because its crystals are similar to has been used fairly recently; that is, in "None of the weather research work in the those of ice and it is more effective in causing 1971," entire, DOD is classified," Saint-Amand supercooled water drops to freeze. Such use, in 1971 or otherwise, may have addsthe word research should be noted In warm clouds, salt or silver iodide pasti- . been only sporadic, several sources believe, here. "Our labs are open to anyone who wants moisture to cles can cause uds salt or sily a o irate water "Otherwise," said one, "a lot more people to come and see what we're doing." Chief droplets large enough to fall as rain. This would have known about it long ago." Scientist John N. Howard of the Air Force's would be the type of experiments that could It is a "successful" pre-1967 use, Sometime Cambridge Research Laboratories at Bedford. be effective In tropical or semitropical areas, in the years of Vietnam escalation, possibly Mass., made a similar statement. The Defense such effective ive tro Ain 1966, that is documented in the "Senator Department's Advanced Research Projects The type Southeast Asia. s agent that could cause Gravel" edition of the Pentagon Papers. In Agency (ARPA) likewise reports conducting a highly acidic of seeding agent as reported South- late February, 1967, this document discloses only classified research, east Asia, has not reort, S outh- the Joint Chiefs of Staff prepared a list of An ARPA study called Nile Blue has been eare has n loathe t been discuss disclosed, scientists the d, ibilian "alternative strategies" for President John- cited by some of the military's accusers as eat to Hee that the method has anode- son' prime evidence of nefarious DOD rainmaking, hygroscoe sething, One, titled "Laos Operations," read: Actually, Nile Blue Is a study by computer Most loud-seeding operations are con- "Continue as at present plus Operation of how purposeful or accidental man-made ducted by airplane-the 0-130 in Vietnam, Pop Eye to reduce tratllcability along hnfil- changes might affect the globe's year-to-year But small rockets can also be used to deliver tration routes . . , Authorization required climate rather than the day-to-day condi- the seeding agent, to implement operational phase of weather tions called weather. viodiffcation process previously successfully Nile Blue has been funded this year at WEATHER WAR: A GATHERING STORM tested and evaluated in same area," (Italics $2.6 million but will rise to $3.1 million in added.) fiscal year 1973, with use of a new super- (By Victor Cohn) In 1967-according to columnist Jack An- computer, I111ac IV, designed at the Univer- Technological America, that accomplished derson, who published the first allegation sity of Illinois and now being installed at laser-radar-electronic warrior, has been of Indochina rain-making-U.S. forces Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. larning to use still another remote-control. started secret Project Intermediary. Compa- Defending the project, ARPA Director weapon: bontrol of the weather for military triot "to hamper enemy logistics , . . (with) Stephen J. Lukasik told the Senate Appro- purposes. claimed success in creating man-made priations Committee in March: "Since it now Indochina-by the evidence of a long- cloudbursts . . . (and) flooding conditions" appears highly probable that major world ignored passage in the Pentagon Papers--- along the Ho Chi Minh trails, "making them powers have the ability to create modlfica- has been a test battleground, the site of impassable." purposeful rain-making. along the Ho Chi " tions climate that might se deter Minh trails. Some accusers, going further, cinsslFlEn" wonx mental to the security of this c couuntr ntry, Nile hold American rain-makers responsible for Sen. Pell, most persistently, and Rep, Blue . . . was established in FY 70 to achieve the flood disasters that struck North Viet- Gude and Sen. Alan Cranston (D-Calif.), a U.S. capability to aluate all con- the last year. on behalf of Members of Congress for Peace (2) deces of ea nds variety of of possible actions . , nain How much there is pa hard kernel of Through Law, have showered the Pentagon h he fore trends changes he global c etermine truth behind tall here past increasingly kernel o with inquiries since Anderson published his which foretell means to co , ,tend (3) determine ors accusations is unclear, hYet as the very charges in March, 1971. Defense Secretary t possible, climatic changes ounter potentially dele-seri- e"Wh climatic ch possibility that there has been serious Melvin Laird and Director of Defense Re-weather war-as at well as the emerging sous search and Engineering John Foster have "Wing tow muchs," Lukasik have ox tickle he that the Pentagon has been systematically ing repeatedly replied (to quote Laird) : "Some atmosphere osphow much you have t a climate. he aspects of our work in this area have a to perturb the earth's cldeveloping a rain-making capability-is d fi it ._. r e n e relat ie who warn of - In future "geophysical warfare" April, Senate Foreign Relations Com- How might such changes be made by one wars Waged by adjusting, changing, modify- mittee Chairman J. William Fulbright (D- country desiring to harm another? ing and ultimately despoiling the air, water Ark.), pressed further, asking Laird: "Why The highly respected Dr. MacDonald, who and earth, do you decline to discuss weather control will leave the White House soon to teach at They also include a growing number of activities in North Vietnam, yet you freely Dartmouth; wrote a 1968 warning against weather-modifiers, scientists interested in the discuss B-62 flights over Vietnam?" Laird geophysical warfare, titled "How to Wreck the peaceful users the peaceful users of seeding clouds, modify replied blandly, "We have never engaged the Environment." On weather war in Indo- or feeding preventing clouds, to lily- in that type of activity over North Vietnam," china, he now says only, "I wouldn't know Ing hu ica everyone else. Fulbright failed to go on to ask Laird about that." But melting the Arctic cap by OPERATION POP EYE a kill, bout Laos or Cambodia or the Gulf of Ton- some means, lie conjectured in 1908, might where Vietnam term "seeding" simply means making "He just didn't follow p on a that question," equatorial tcountry cIn a la-locked ould iflood the word s the proper clouds yield, rain, or destructive one of his staff explains, "He was trying to coastal cities while insuring itself a temperate force, by bombarding theft with silver iodide cover a whole range of things," climate with abundant rainfall. particles. The particles act as condensation The Defense Department freely reports that "As economic competition among many nuclei around which moisture can form. It has "field capabilities" for making rain. It advanced nations heightens," he warned, "it The would-be cloud engineers want to de- used them in the Philippines in 1969, In a may be to a country's advantage to ensure velop such programs through International six-month "precipitation augmentation proj- a peaceful natural environment for itself and cooperation, because both weather and ect" at the Philippines request: in India in a disturbed environment for its competitors. weather modification ignore borders. 1967, a a similar invitation; over Okinawa Operations . might be carried out cov- Weather modification, these men believe, and Midway Islands, and in June, July and ertly . The years of drought and storm is on the verge of huge advances, and needs August, 1971, over drought-stricken Texas, would be attributed to unkindly nature and only a period of concentrated research, in a at the urgent request of Gov. Preston Smith, only after a nation were thoroughly drained framework of interstate and international Pierre Saint-Amand, head of earth and would an armed takeover be attempted," rules, planetary sciences for the Naval Ordnance Far-fetched? Short-term rain-makin But "if it turns out that the U.S. has mili- Laboratory at China Lake, Calif., led the which MacDonald in 1968 called only a "fu- taristic uses for weather modification," one Philippine Project, which that government tore" military possibility-already seems an weather scientist maintains, "international considered highly successful, The India and easier, if capricious, weapon. weather programs would drop dead." Midway tries failed for lack of suitable A prominent White House a ig~31lltist r ciou~@ ut, ]~ "When the ro er meteorological condi- Gordon J. F. MacDo i~lAir (ea$rE3ys ~ ~A( I~~ .RtW a15 W4~1t ?6w9en clouds capable of ter of the Pores-man Council on Saint-Amand's view. producing natural rain exist)," Laird told beta of the President's re Sen. Pell in a November letter, "it Is a rela- Quality, is among those who Navy rain-makers are currently involved in tively simple matter to increase the amount Approved For Release 2002/01/10 : CIA-RDP74B00415R000100110006-9 S11348 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE July 20, 1972 of rain which will fall. The amount of In. tional arms race." "The use of rain-making as crease is frequently of the order of 30 to 50 a weapon of war can only lead to the develop- per cent." ' ment of vastly more dangerous environ- Laird carefully added: "Massive downpours mental techniques," he says. "We must move have not been produced, and theoretical quickly to place weather, climate and geo- knowledge at hand indicates that this will physical modification off limits." probably always be the case." This, if oblique, Joined by 13 colleagues (McGovern, seemed to quarrel with the allegations that Humphrey, Case, Cooper, Cranston, Hart, the 1971 North Vietnam floods have been pro- Hughes, Javits, Kennedy, Mondale, Nelson, duced by the Pentagon. Pell, however, main- Tunney and Williams), he has proposed a tains that U.S. cloud-seeding produced the Senate resolution urging that the United floods, which he says killed thousands. States seek a treaty to bar both weather war "IT IS ENTIRELY POSSIBLE" and research into it. As chairman of the n e i t - itt Robert M. White, the nation's chief weather man as director of the Commerce Depart-, ment's National Oceanographic and Atmos- pheric Administration (NOAA), declined to discuss military matters in an interview. But to the question, "Could cloud seeding cause flooding?" he-unlike Laird-said, "Yes, it is entirely possible to get heavy rains out of certain clouds." "In the past decade," White added, "there. has been a considerable change of view in the scientific community on weather modi- fication. I think most knowledgeable people would agree that we have. primitive capa- bilities for modifying certain weather pat- terns. And it is reasonable now to look to possible development of more sophisticated ones." Among patterns that can "predictably" be modified, he said, are: cold fog (which can. be cleared from airfields); cumulus clouds (most common in the tropics-"In Florida," White said, "we have been able almost at will to make them grow explosively") ; oro- graphic clouds (moist air moving up over mountains-"At the right temperature you can begin thinking of milking them for water") and hailstorms (which can often be suppressed, according to recent claims by the Russians, who fire silver iodide into them from rockets and artillery). Beyond these, there are storms like hurri- canes-as Hurricane Agnes, for example- which cannot yet be reliably suppressed, "but for which we have some encouraging results," in White's view. All in all, he sums up, "We're beginning to move from a situation where everything that happens in the atmosphere is an act of God to where some things are an act of man." THE MORAL ISSUE What perturbs many scientists is the mor- ality of using such "acts of man" for mili- tary purposes. The Navy's Saint-Amand emphatically does not see turning weather into a weapon as something inherently evil. "If you estimate the amount of damage done by impeding someone's transportation versus blowing or burning them up, I don't think it Is so im- moral, " he told Science magazine. Most scientists, left-wing and establish- ment, seem to disagree. The Science for Vietnam, Chicago Collec- tive-a radical anti-war group of scientists and students who first spotted the passage in the Pentagon Papers-charges: "The U.S. gov- ernment has embarked on a totally new and insidious form of warfare . (that) could disrupt the economy and social structure of a small country; it could create famine . . . University of Connecticut Graduate Dean Thomas Malone, chairman of the National Academy of Sciences' Weather Modification Panel, likewise says: ".I'm opposed to it." He urges a treaty that would not merely ban weather war but go on to encourage interna- tional weather modifications "in a positive way." A 1971 Academy study urged the United States to sponsor a United Nations resolution dedicating all weather modifying to peace. r ees Senate Foreign Relations Comm national environment subcommittee, Pell will try to smoke Laird out further at up- coining hearings, perhaps this month. LACK OF RESPONSE The administration, too, may be consider- ing the subject. But how seriously it is doing so is unsure. The Pentagon's Foster told Gude that the National Security Council Under Secretaries' Committee "at the request of Dr. Kissinger is currently meeting to formulate a definitive national policy. Presumably this policy, when completed, will be announced to the nation in some appropriate fashion." The NSC unit involved is headed by Herman Pollock, the State Department's director of international scientific affairs. He reports that it has considered only peace- ful weather-making, not military. Pell is undiscouraged by lack of adminis- tration response so far to the pleas that it support his proposed treaty, or that the President declare that the United States will never be first to wage weather war. "I remember what happened five years ago when I first introduced a draft treaty to ban nuclear weapons from the seabed," he says. "I got rather unreal executive branch comment, just as we're getting now. But I knew very well that a strip of missiles along the Atlantic ridge and 'creepy crawlers'- tank-like underwater missile carriers-were on the drawing. board at the Pentagon. "I see the same process now. I think that given a few years, we'll get some sort of treaty here, too." Of all fields of science, Dean Malone has said, none has produced more world coopera- tion than meteorology. "What, a tragic re- versal it would be if we started using our knowledge to beat one another over the head." PELL FEELS U.S. WAGES WEATHER WARFARE (By Bruce DeSilva) WASHINGTON,-The Pentagon has the pow- er to change the weather and already may have used that power to kill and destroy in Southeast Asia. "I strongly believe clouds have been seeded in Southeast Asia for military rea- sons. There is very little doubt in my mind," Sen. Clairborne Pell said during an interview in his Washington office last week. David Kearney, a member of the profes- sional staff of the Senate foreign relations committee, is less cautious. "I have no doubt at all," he said. Senator Pell said he believes the military has been seeding clouds, perhaps beginning as early as 1966, to clear them away from bombing targets in North Vietnam. lie said he also believes seeding with other chemicals has produced torrential rains. The rains have washed-out portions of the He Chi Minh Trail impeding the infiltration of supplies and men from North to South. Vietnam and caused floods which killed thousands, he said. Defense Department spokesmen had ad- mitted that they have the capability to dras- firm, but carefully avoided denying, that such activities are under way in Southeast Asia. Beginning in June of last year and lasting well into the normally dry season in the fall, North Vietnam was devastated by heavy rains, typhoons and floods. According to reports by Pierre Darcourt, a French journalist, the heavy rains triggered mud slides, washed away or weakened roads and breached dikes. The Associated Press reported that flooding destroyed 10 per cent of the country's rice crop and killed thousands. North Vietnamese Premier Pham Van Dong, the Christian Science Monitor reported, said water levels in the entire Red River and Thai Binh River system rose to "unprece- dented levels." He called the flooding the "worst disaster since the beginning of the war." An act of God? Perhaps. But Senator Pell said he believes the dis- aster was merely the most successful of Pen- tagon rainmaking efforts in the region. The best evidence that the Pentagon is altering the weather is provided in brief re- marks in the Pentagon Papers. The signifi- cance of th remarks apparently went largely unnoticed during the furor of other sensa- tional disclosures in the documents. According to the Gravel edition of the papers, Volume 4, Page 421, the Joint Chiefs of Staff presented President Lyndon B. John- son with a memo in 1967 suggesting that modifying the weather in the region might be one way of widening the war without creating dissent at home. The memo stated In part: "Laos Operations-Continue as at present plus Operation Pop Eye to reduce trafficability along infiltration routes. Authority/ Policy Changes-Authorization required to imple- ment operational phase of weather modifica- tion process previously successful tested and evaluated in some areas." Later that year, the President was pre- sented with a list of escalation proposals, the Papers indicate. The list included the follow- ing item: "Cause interdicting rains in or near Laos." Other evidence concerning the rainmaking efforts are circumstantial. In March of last year, Jack Anderson, a nationally syndicated columnist, claimed in his column that the Air Force has been seed- ing clouds over Laos and Cambodia since 1967. He said the project went by the code name of "Intermediary-Compatriot." Unlike other Anderson columns, such as the one on the ITT memo or the disclosure of a secret U.S. posture during the India-Paki- stan war, this column went largely unnoticed nationally. Last Sept. 23, Senator Pell sent a letter to Rady Johnson, assistant secretary of de- Tense for legislative affairs, inquiring about "the Air Force weather modification activities against the North Vietnamese." The letter, and all subsquent communica- tion, was made public by the senator and was inserted in the Jan. 26 Congressional Record, The letter asked the following questions: "1. What are the objectives of the proj- ect known by the code name 'Intermediary- Compatriot'? "2. How long has this project been in ex- istence? Would you provide a rather detailed description of this project? "3. In what specific countries is this proj- ect conducted? "4. What amounts have been spent on this project over the last three years? "6. Is the Department conducting any similar offense-oriented weather modifica- tion programs? If so, what are the naives of these projects and where are they being V111CPP 11D.blUlY] uv ,.also, arawavsav dv...,.,..?'..?.+'., ,,iVtyyly 1LL,:a Ot490 swa .+.+l ,?- .. ??--?--r we will face ~1Ai~ i~i Q~~fJi ter conducted?" putting the gMhc`i?ih5te 2"t ter ti~`l eiQOO,100110006m'HER LETTER Pell argues that present military activities committee hearing with Sen. J. William Ful- The following day, Mr. Johnson replied, "Could very well lead to another interns- bright of Arkansas, they have refused to con- saying the questions had been referred to Approved For Release 2002/01/10 : CIA-RDP74B00415R000100110006-9 July 20, 1972 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE S 11349 t o lesl t - if Pentagon call rain, I, It also the director of defense research and engi- cuss the impossible neeei - trying to develop ways to divert typhoons matter even if they want to. dis er waiting for a response for two woeka, Senator Pell said he has been offered a to the shores of other nations or cause earth- After Withoute senator wondered, abillity to ask quakes? it classified it woud limit declined son, treaty banning such activities, Senator l sent another letter Mr. John- soagain again asking for a a reply ly to Defense Department officials probing ques- an inland nation could melt the antarctic sily ing questions. can On Nov. 23, Mr. Johnson sent the senator htio about the earings and prject at out sot( oniitxa cordingato scientists)sand riaise The a lengthy reply. the level of the sea by 300 feet, lie said. Treply stated in peat that "the poson on the subject. LARGELY UNNOTICED Senator Pell referred to an article by Gor- techniques inherent p weather modiflcatio When Mr. Laird appeared before the for- don J. F. McDonald, a member of the Coun- echniques the support prt military operations for morsign relations committee in April to testify cif for Environmental Quality in the Nixon than been the subject to Po more administration, which was printed in 1963 than 20 years. For a number er of of these years, concerning renewed bombing of the North, in a book titled "Unless Peace Comes." the Department of Defense has been con- Senator Poll and Senator Fulbright ques- I the article, "Unless said weather ducting several modest research and devel- tioned him briefly on weather modification. and climate le Mr. McDonald "might be carried modific opment programs relating to various forms The exchange went largely unnoticed in the out covertly since at ion great iereguried of weather the l xter, M .Johnson " press. Pell asked Mr. Laird if the United ity permits storms, flooding, earthquakes, In the letter, M sfored that rp and tidal waves to be viewed as unusual but search has been u. undenrt take en for "the sup- States had engaged in rainmaking activities not unexpected," pression of hail and lightning (to reduce "for military reasons in Southeast Asia." ' "OR EVEN xcoREA" damage to military property and equipment Mr. Laird replied, "I don't discuss the op- and to increase safety of operations) and the crating authority that we go forward with as "Such a secret war will never be declared dissipation of fog at airports and within far as Southeast Asia specifically, but I would or ever known by the affected population. It harbors (to enhance operations of safety Of, be glad to discuss with you the techniques could go on for years with only the security aircraft and ships.) " that have been used outside the battle zone." forces involved, being aware of it," the article "RELATIVELY SIMPLE" Senator Fulbright asked, "Why do you de- stated. The letter added that "One example of cline to discuss weather control activities in "These are the kinds of weapons I don't fruitful field research has been the investi- North Vietnam, yet you freely discuss B-52 want to see developed," Senator Pell said, gation of precipitation augmentation. flights over North Vietnam?', adding that the Soviet Union is doing re- When the proper meteorological conditions After a brief exchange between Mr. Laird search on weather and climate modifications, prevail (that is, when clouds capable of pro- and Senator Fulbright, Mr. Laird said: Senator Pell said he plans hearings on ducing natural rain exist) it is a relatively "We have never engaged in that type of his resolution and treaty late next month or simple matter to increase the amount of rain activity over North Vietnam." in August. which will fall. The amount of increase is Senator Poll said last week that Mr. Laird He said he expects to have "some exciting frequently of the order of 30 to 50 per cent." carefully limited his response to "activity witnesses" for the hearings and hopes the Mr. Kearney laid some scientists have told over North Vietnam." it would be expected hearings will "flush out" the truth concern- him the increase could actually be ten or 20 that clouds would be seeded over Laos or ing Pentagon weather modification activities. Cambodia or over the Tonkin Gulf, depend- times than the mon he notedn a 50 per cent in on the time of year, rather than over Asia ca have a tremendous erains of Southeast North Vietnam, Senator Pell added. POLITICAL SPYING Asia can have letter that The senator said the Defense Department Mr. Johnson's noted that in 1969, has been "extremely sensitive" to question- Mr. GOLDWATER. Mr. President, the the e Department o of f D Defense; at the request, Ing about weather modification and that in- whole subject of political spying is one o ra the ainmakine prong projjec, ecto on t thhndeeed a Philip p siine Is Ise i- formation about it has been difficult to get. that has intrigued me for some time. As Such an operation is easy to keep secret, a matter of fact, the whole pursuit has lands to relieve a drought. "The Philippine because three men in a small plane are all ? struck me as an exercise in futility from successful that they have they have the subsequently taken that is needed to carry it out. Large numbers of men need not be involved, the senator said. the first time it was ever brought to my attention. steps h l to acquire an independent capability," Senator Pell said one indication that the attention. recent weeks, we have heard a great the letter added. Pentagon is involved in weather modification "I trust," the letter closed, "that the fore. over Vietnam Is the United States' decision amount of inflated rhetoric about an going information will be helpful to you and to torpedo a resolution on weather modifica- alleged attempt to bug the telephones regret the delay in responding to your in. tion at the United Nations Environmental for an eavesdropping operation aimed at quirt'." Conference in Stockholm earlier this month. the Democratic National Committee QUESTIONS UNANSWERED A resolution on the question required that headquarters in Washington, D.C. Quite But the l lettetter r did did not answer a single one before taking any action that might have an naturally the suspected culprits in this of Senator Pell's questions. effect on the climate, a government should caper were-you au guessed this Senator Pell sent a letter to Defense Secre- evaluate the change that could occur and fascinating ng ca Capp r e-yu guess, the tary Melvin Laird on Dec. 3 stating his dig- disseminate its findings. satisfaction with Mr.-Johnson's letter and "IT GIVES THEM AN OUT" Democratic Committee has brought a $1 requesting "a written response to the spe- The United States succeeded in amending million suit against o icials of the GOP ciflc queairdnre the agreement to say that information will be because of some alleged connection be-Mr. ste Laird referred the letter research John and d disseminated "to the maximum extent fea- tween the caperees and the campaign to reply y to o Sen- sible. relect President Nixon. eterwho sent who s ea written defense engineering, soot Pell on Dec. 16. "It gives them an out. They can say that Mr. President, needless to say it "Certain aspects of our work in this area dissemination is not feasible for security brought back interesting memories to a are classified," Mr. Foster's letter said. "Rec- reasons," Senator Poll said. man who was once his party's presi- ognizing that the Congress is concerned with Fearful that the Pentagon's tinkering with dential candidate and had the experi- the question of the military application of natural phenomenon may not be limited to ence of having his campaign train weather modification technology, I have, at making rain, Senator Pell has prepared a rded by a pretty 23-year'-Old Demo- that direction of Secretary Laird, seen to it draft of a treaty that would ban all weather b boaoardd spy who ettyd 3- a reporter but that the chairmen of the committees of Con- and climate modificatalon activities as weap- gress with primary responsibility for this de- oils of war, who actually worked for the Democratic partment's operations have been completely on March 17, he introduced a resolution National Committee. informed regarding the details of all classi- in the Senate stating that it is "the sense of I might have forgotten this interest- fled weather modification undertakings by the Senate" that such a treaty be negotiated. ing bit of cloak-and-dagger work in my the department. Among its 14 sponsors are Senators Edward own campaign had it not been for an "RESPECTFULLY DECLINE" M. Kennedy of Massachusetts, George Mc- amusing and informative and well writ- "However, since the information to which Govern of South Dakota and Hubert H. Hum- ten editorial in the e ARepublic of phrey, Minnesota. June 24, entitled Arizona riz stern at Work." a I refer has d is classified as aces It mind it "When I proposed the seabed treaty (ban-a necessary .and is pectf ll de l n to I find a any ping nuclear arms from the ocean floors), a The Republic notes that when the Dem- res oy he dot t make any string of ABM's along the Atlantic Ridge ocrats were caught at the game of spy- further s o respectfully activities disclosures of te.detais oP these and creepy crawlers (tank-like weapons that ing, the press reacted with light feature activities at this time: " awould crawl along the ocean floor) were. on stories which compared the Democratic Senator Pell l said he understood the letter the drawing board at the Pentagon," Sen- ploy with the exploits of James Bond.. It and mean that dw ~x"Ilsx ' ease 2/01./10: CIA-RDP7~}B00415ROA~'F10 1a1~(9~0b~ omment: men of t But now that the Democratic campaign and Rep. the Senate r and House a. armed h services 'CAN LEAD TO DISASTER committees, had been briefed on the matter. Weather modification is also "a weapon sanctuary has supposedly been breached by The briefings were confidential and make that can lead to disaster," he said. GOP funotionaries=one of them a former