Some Rough Notes on A Reconnaissance Pilot Study in Psychological Susceptibilities and Experience in Producing It

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December 9, 2016
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July 29, 1998
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April 14, 1951
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Approved For Release P75-002 R000100050055-9 I;'t. bbi4 R=gh Notes Psychological Susceptibilit 14 April 1951 nt of State to whoa: the responsibilities for country studies sty notes were made at the request of !r. U. J. lggIes n assigned by C]1. Approved For Release 20 MID , 75-00662R000100050055-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP75-00662R000100050055-9 i2a To aid following dents may be useful. arranged primarily for the person acquainted theoretical framework back Itself. Bence to the material in these rough notes his of Chile study as vell with the study the reader's Interest is primarily the Immediate 1 one of getting hints for prosecuting or coaches a country study, he should give special attention to Parts III (and IV'). If he is Chile study dirg+ Part I, we suspect of such studies ac o note the way in which the from stipulations therein,, he will center up t to the administrator and the director of these notes closely, it will probably be well for ss reader to. scan thews as a whole before concentrating to atintelligeneen Jargon and distinctions in ence duties. As there has not been sufficient time to integrate par* Approved For Release 3 0 `F DP75-00662R000100050055-9 Approved For Release 2PP75-00Gfs2R000100050055-9 t!l Table Contents Lepect of "Psychological Intelligence" A Distinct Type of "Psychological Intelligence" 1. Theoretical V the Product of the Stud, .on of a Now Aspen A Functional Specialty d of Ccxparative Studies d Social Science or "Technology" lation to other Assumption (where possible) of Prior Area k nee or Cron Sense General B. The General Moth? General vision of "Specifications" and "Principles" do of the Pilot Study for General Procedure and for ,nd Positive Content the Analysis of the Individual Psychological s between Theoretical Objectives and Framework on d, and Concrete, Substantive Facts on the other Approved For Release 2Of! RDP75-00662R000100050055-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP75-00662R000100050055-9 8. Specific SugZes Additional .teriaa inr Indcct nation a Check-tea in General ther Activities To the Draftine of Policies Psychological Activities eke." and Themes for xnfor 4 e' T Approved For Releases p#; ~..tP75-00662R000100050055-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP75-00662R000100050055-9 A NCH IA MSA CE PILOT SAY IN PSYCHO AND E ERIE 1 IN PRODUC ONE ASPECT OF "PSYCHOLOGICAL I ELLDEfC' T the interests of iatIng this type of intelligence, Informational, and psychological-warfare fields, it is essential precisely what this reconnaissance pilot study is. 'nose who emzprehemi requests for country studies ---? for i&. this shady was considered . a pilot 'or "psychological vulnerabilities" in one instance, and #psychological factors that can be used as does it fit in with other psychological and social t one experimental reconnaissance study has been ecpleteds the quoted statements meant and entailed., the adiate n or. Recognising that there were and are differences of to be a distin ch ation of the roe for psychological-warfare of psychologll * Viz,, " Reco3anaissance Stun of Chile ss Psychological Suscaptihil- shoes that Psychological Warfare.." to be published in sprit g of 19!1 produosd in , ae ordance with the draft "Specifications for Country-by-Country Studies I Physical and Psychological Accessibility to Psychological Warfare,," of other types of so-called intelligence on the Approved For Release 2000/08/27 tl A-RDP75-00662R000100050055-9 Approved For Rejase 200 75-00"2R0001 00050055-9 a treatment of its "direct" or i diate "Busaeptibility 1.. Theoretical View of the Product of the Study In essence the product of the study is the packet of susceptibility situations and the core of each of those situations Is some :hm .ediately f otioning- (individual- or) group-psycholi reaction may be a psychol emotion cup--reactions are opinion, belief or conviction, or a cc nb1natioa of them* this collection of grs-reaction cores and th developed about them or upon them, certain thi noted:- ,, this means they a do not take place in isolati economic., sociologica sentiment or attitude, .ould be to,, present,, current. ,rt of "cure: and other psychol y are reactions with respect to such phenomena dge of these psychological group-- actions therefore requires concrete knowledge of such political, sociological and other psychological phencme belo r political? economic, eociOl gica psychological intelligence may refer either to past, recent, and events or conditions on the one hand, or to "estimated," predicted, anticipated events or conditions on the other, reaction. That l state (such as frustration a Approved For Release 2000/&7 -00662R000100050055-9 rT, 'A9 i " '^r Approved For Release 2000 'it A 5-0066,2R000100050055-9 these psychological group-reactions may be ones 'which been operative in the past and are continuing nt" ) or may be prt,ats#`,0r1, imagined, 10 So far as they are the latter, th present sized ae in the ease of "indirect" or sceptibility situations loose are situations s& or "estimate int encl. noes and underlying psychological potentiali? psycholagical-warf a ,e given persons or groups MsentXy susceptible patterns 6 and ?, 2 Principles to 19.50 (CO. same in draft 11 hotel.: hologil-Warfare Production Plan for Support of 1950 (Confidential)) As mentioned in Tab A of the of the circinstan In Append' on of psyohologi l- 'ar `are coxu issance Study of oilers Susceptibilities to Psychological these "indirect" susceptibilities were in the provided by the Chilean area in a heir assistance and more wou research. It rat not be assumed that the so-called suecep e added ups (or persons)., whether identified as currently as likely to function situation, constitute all the, of Psychological lute Approved For Release 20 An examination of them shows that 5-00662R0001 00050055-9 Approved For Release 20 M O ? I P75-00GC2R000100050055-9 ct attitudes enter to. deeply laid in the habits and cultures studied, or fleetingly psychological traits could throw light on current susceptibilities should be described prior to and separate from the analyses of susceptibility situations themselves. (See "Specifications," pp. 2,0 3, and Via..) Unfortunately,, the limitations involved in a study made this impossible. Fundamentally,, h the job of unearthing, identifying, describing and defining and dissolved a It has been intended that so far as deeply laid psychological traits as a whole constitutes a job area analysis quite apart from and different from the study of tionin psychological reactions observed to be presently utili2abl by psychological warfare.. -To some this prior area-enalysis job is one in the psychological aspects abc ," not "current intelli ence." As always, used to assume and build upon the basic, but of to be confused with it. vnet ores assumed that because, as indicated under b (-A-l-b) ice f ron Analysts t Realization of a New Aspect hological is more or less inevitably bound up with the o their specialties. This is especially likes among "cur- c, sological,, physical;, etc., that therefore the n these spheres of knowledge should absorb the psycho- d in the field of "estimates Approved For Release 20 '-~1AP75-00662R000100050055-9 w~ ~rr~yy , - Approved For Release 2000/Of8 Z [: IIAP 5-006 R000100050055-9 a. Firs the Tzltiplicity of the prob: itng for psychological contrast and cc*1 arison, discrimination and ion, definition, and interpretation,, sew, to leave no question in either the ordinary area specialist ts mind or the sychological) specialist's mind that the task of arieiysie here is a professional one. The fact product should not cabs e. To the dec. .ssance study tends to give way to the kind ch is needed, and hence, in particular, to elabo nature or -tne ask is the more obvious. b. The second respect in which light T.s thr+ confusion,, was the way in which the received the easignzent, took par In it, and learned of the psychological reactions tie requesters tried to elan my deairod from the area analyst professional after hear an illustration or two, declared -simply that they cou not out, They were accustomed to thinking tars relating to US called for something entirely- different Kett that. It required a complete reorientation in their think a considerable period, probi+ questions, and Approved FR s e2 f -- X682 OQ ? Approved For Release bP75-006628000100050055-9 . After having gone thrc ever, it should be noted, they came ceptibiiit; di; '; thereupon the functional. director had to center e a* a es, And on ;al attitude toward different y, it might be added, there was marked evidence of the area analysts' continued interes nalyses. To them unquestionably of intelligence. A Pane Fort ta%r,, expe med to those quite innocent of social (Thnct ps *c?hologica lence in employing social science methods. in fact, among area ve some assistance were persons with three further degrees and experience in social scienw and applied psychology. And on the mbole it can be claimed safely and judiciou these persons' grasp of the essential. principles involved and their deve t of ability to characterize susceptibility situations critically; e very real proportion to their prior functional experience. This is said, at this glace because it is further rea evidence that this t, of study is a functional speci.aeity* of a corroborating nature e fact that one of the above and another with considerable theoretical background but no relevant ice,, beca. a over-canfiden_t of their grasp of the general approach as aesis is was in some very direct proportion to their further intensive consideration of the entire 1 acquaintance with it; and their further usefulness project vas not cone ork provid ARWq"dbFAr5PpWcW 2O i i. IA- 6611 OW' GO 5fr9a s Approved For Release 2 ' P75-00fi62R000100050055-9 implicit warning and partly to reinforce the ages applied so relativ Lbility chains of a ample nature resemb those in the Chile study, initial idea gets across. Taut the more Intensive the study; as a m to be recognized frankly that the theoretical f aro An Applied pect,, s h o u l d now be apparent. ( IWA-1- + and, d above; also "The is upon the psychological Methodological Framework for the Country-by-Country Studies in CU's pro )rs, of relationships, of clificatic d; (2) the f of categorised 'actors and relation- ships, and of conditioning cirt tances (3) the problem 'Of level Of chnolo y be s types of personnel to tern out susO aftecif'Icatione,c" constitutes what might be regard lal science or technolo* fence or Technol- notional specialty may be considered an applied social a science point of Vie , june 1950 (Confiden- '.ples" as a whole.) More abstruse', this ggested by such considerations as ohe configurational ceptibil,ity situation only parts of which can 3d group-reaction relationships the one hand and of and contingency relationships on the other (raised in section C under Tab A of the Chile study); (fit) the Various of the problem of the ideational element in psychological susceptibility situations specially Appen on Psychological Petenninants in "Principles" ions in the factors, in their relationships, in the Approv a 'O 8 :{ I c- ?6g 0 vv 'b 4WLLW Approved For Rel se 2000/0-812T:- ; 5-00&$'2R000100050055-9 ~o substantive and Methodological probl science. Ne rtheless, as hinted above, such social-ecien if problems may be minimised In the process of producing =ttidyr is closely super sed and a functiona' of then,. d of Comparative ft-Aies ssure for mass production of ccuntr*r studies possible that administrators untrained in the social sciences view of the difficulty of sect 1 spec:talists thoroughly familiar with the bility by competent "Specifications,," recourse should be bad to concrete accounts of "psy chologj,e 1 susceptibilities" after an utte otions. The chief di the various countries must be co pa b necessary both for over-all planning and for regional operational treatment (as in radio broadcasts to a number of countries together). (fie 111-A also page 6 of draft "S pec-ifications."t) .l C etence Here in Ttelation to other Even thou: h the problem of training and coaching ed (instead of merely concrete) country studies is taken up below other problems bearing on the ditficul be helpful to tie it In here with obtaining competent functional treatment of psychologUal =: msceptibilities, Undoubtedly training and personnel is a major aid in achieving such croten. However, there are other important aids. Ono would be an wer-all theoretical Approved For Release 20Q-QWQPJV7 --= G DP75-00662R000100050055-9 Approved For Relede 2000/08 '. ?*i #R - 0066GR000100050055-9 ~nc3 product desired In a c po sibly be In cted into the "s cite nba ents for field collection of paychologi d Part IV-B balm. And still another causal terms, to which all analysts m king ormational and psychological warfare programs and the operat- As tion (ire possible) of Prior Area Aral Terms it each be assumed to have his own independent r paragraph (A-1-d), reference was made of significant psychological traits deeply laid in the psychological susceptibilities ieent 1, econctti ceptibilty data, as to speak of other iortant spheres. However, just as the planner access to the area analyst's full.range of all such facts about a given people (so far as that is possible and feasible), so the fotional .'t Another is a td culture a pew :d to have like access to the as background he needs special as ~d out. Onlr when he has these do his own particular job, prior drawer together in descriptive and access. og , not the functional -a-VA W "W,iCFi ,t"CJ6 Ll yTi t.,'~1{~tl Y, Approved P R* t2W Q , [ ~-( 6 1 0 0 5- Approved For Release 2000109/27 ?IP75-OO6%2R000100050055-9 narrative or description level, with the time, perso relationships which might have been helpful to the at hand. And there were a great many gaps in the knowledge 0 be m a:ch more specialized "bai " if studies in depth ax plarmed, regardless of when No Substitute for Experience or Co=on Sense thus far has been largely upon the particular and d aspects of the study in the psychological euseeptibilitieea audiences prewmbly utilizable through information and paholo ialiet. All this handicaps the adequacy of the programs. This has not been meant to minimize id experience in identifying, analyzim, and ptibili.ties. To mare the contribution of cox non area analysts were ion, on the contrary, o present detailed descriptive ions containing pertinent psychological sm or cooperative emendation. Such as indicted elsewherej and the functional analyzes admitted to them uti,, these ar by functional specialists were in turn a felt, brought dividends. ut together and considered part of a single susceptibility ed, in probe which is especially dependent upon experience is the degree to which separate but, related ausceptibil-> of Approved For Release 2000/08127 'CIA-RDP75-00662R000100050055-9 Approved For Release 2 P75-006628000100050055-9 4~ ,tuation. Th general the principle followed was one favoring thor than compounded mains. For it was thought that be easier to pull out of the dcsn and separate a ?~ .fit bilit need hard be ids attempts were made to pool 1 specialization, experience,, and n: sense of the teams wor I. O LIE ATIO FROM THE "SPEC IFIGATIONSU Under section B of Tab- A of the Chile report s Yale E iri.oal' in the Theoret of the Pointe made follow the g or. together on a single ti.r ns." Long" (pp. 1-5) con' cire stanc future b. to be made in depth? three parts -- an introduction and spry, a treatment of physical accessibility, and a treatment of psychological bility. he other hand, differed on all these points. First, existing situations; and hence future are considered Incidentally ad of a study in depth, ti study is a reconnaissance- one. Third, the kind of introdue- k," The there, a study A rovt#10~07??r~1~4'l! 0`62 F8 5uc pp Approved For Release 2000/0 with the 1-d hological Accessibi physical accessibility was not included in the quest,. 2 * To obtain a more comprehensive view of the content of the Chile study, reference should be made to the contemplated scheme of analys wed to 5-00612R0001 00050055-9 vailable (see. h d in I-A-/: above,, and the .bliograph in Tab D of the opt that no priorities are indicated.* The heart Of psycho: ptlbi)J (a) of section C represented In the Chile study by "Packet of Individual Susceptibility called for in 2, of section C, "Presentation of ologi l-Susceptibility situations contemplated at the problems f( This is given in I udy 5, section Co outline present in the susceptibility situations. nt is the orientation to d as he reader some idea represented in this so: country Tab A, And Tab BO as Indicated above, p biblio to th of relei "Spec:fjcatjo don C,referrin to future times and ciramm"ances was tted or oV`F6" 1+e 2000/08/27 CIA-RDP75-00662R000100050055-9 on) presumed to be e new type of undertaking speeta of A.' Approved For Release 200& 4a 75-006628000100050055-9 Apx nt is continued upon the its serially presented in the "SP ciri l? raphe 1-4 on preliminary definitions, ware accepted as applicable in the study, though needing. 2. 1b bined" situations (a h 5. the concept of ""direct" and "indirect"" prove espe e study it 'will probably be .ere so eas., section. III, "Pertinent Concepts mined ones. On the other hand or.,i of divisive and unifying pa, jar components Of s oet tibil if:V A4m~-..a,4 4- graph 6/of the "Specifications," appeared Lion to c) qualifica,tio graph 7 tore, discuss liminary info actors or relationships, (d) conditioning cix- eef factors, (b) significant chief factors originally envisaged as in i.ned in theory. The idea of check lists of three Ph attempted, Similarly', seated in paragraphs 9 and although general concept y to classifica one pro- felt to be valid, although only pre- descriptive treatnt of qualifications was attempted App r eI Ht4 elf, and then only in part of the be rewritten. Tab A in the Chile ani ful because so felt to still valid, Approved For Release 20d i t -. I P75-00b'b`2R000100050055-9 appeared to call for no radical revision. obvious rood for critical and systemat Lp which might well be born omprehensive country study. situation should be Usti ket of filled-in forms constituting part his should be compared with the form listing in Tab B of the "5 there he as possibly In general, the substantive and topical aspects of the Chile study of the Chile report, es in the form Toyed. The new blank 5 on the form provides for the topica; susceptibility situation, as used in the Outline in blank 6 gives the topical item(s) psychological slated in he old ink 6. In addition,, a blank in the upper left-hand corner gives (precise muter) of the title of the susceptibility and the blank in the upper right- nee to the numbers o: .e topical Outline... ast to this attention to substantive topics,, the bi stud of susceptibility patterns are not filled stud prevented I patt tentatively presented in A, ApproWW&qr7~eggaag 210 / V of the "Principles," Accordingly; QW6REQ7fa&W2R0001 00050055-9 Approved For Release 20 d field data, and (b) more detailed and definitive policy were not reasy.. to make decisions on them without (a) access to more or the information and paychol P75-006?tR000100050055-9 of the old form and item 11 not indicated because the initial area analysts the brief documc Country Studies In ClAts 1' Proje Point View," hno 1 5O (confidential). 4, And incidentally.,, blanks 1,1 2, and 3 wex Social Science Requesterj blanks 4 and 5 in the old form were combed 4 bl.>nks 15 and 16 of the old form are beyond the nt reconnaissance study. Blank 10, dates of produc- s m1 r pos1tioa, program of "The Mathodological 'Framework for tion and revisions,, are of first importan cmae revision of these doewnents is undoubtedly needed. of the "Principles," revision would need to wait upon x . Howmer, the material on "qualifications" in several of the pp.. n e s, and the class ations and titling of patterns in Ai n at once, des e.g., P. 10, line 'PtiONNS THE Pte` 1d be diffic AND FORT :1 3':Tl AN ,Y T id Framework on the ductive study on the one hand, and the Bided upon.) e Facts on the oath, point, Approved For Relea . QIQ 7 :-CIA-RDP75-00662R000100050055-9 Approved For Release 2000d8 A- 75-00U2R000100050055-9 deliberate cri ital use of broad analytical concepts on the other. With- and under the illusion of being inductive, the area anal t able to couch his concre uncritically in a sources, and to do it so c o habitual, and hence rats of conceptualization. If ount studies are to be comparative., there seems no escape from 3 ; of the critical selection of broad concepts for comparative hand.- ndations to such categorized materials must of course be made by both the area specialist and the functional, special.:ist, but be done e on between the area analyst(s) a or director, the area analys study the problem by being asked whether people in the c discontented or dissatisfied in any way,, whether they are Wry or provoked on the one hand, or have strong enthusiasms, loyal- ties,, likes,, etc.,