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January 4, 1973
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Approved For Release 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP75B0038OR000300060001-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE Jana, a ry .,;'; 1973 same time that the American people gave the President a decisive mandate for peace along the lines that he had prom- ised it, they also gave a decisive vote of confidence to the Democratic Party in Congress and in the State houses. The Democratic majority has been increased in the Senate, indicating the people's in- tent and expectation that Congress would exercise its constitutional author- ity with energy and independence. The matter in any ease is not partisan. The opposition to the war was initiated 7 years ago by Democratic Congressmen and Senators against a Democratic ad- ministration. Many Republicans have actively opposed their own administra- tion's policy of continuing the war. Now, more than ever, it is the responsibility of members of both parties in Congress to use the legislature's power to cut off funds to end the war in Vietnam. I believe that Congress can and should act decisively immediately after the in- auguration. In the first instance Mr. Kis- singer, or Secretary Rogers, should ap- pear before appropriate congressional committees in the first day of the new session to explain the breakdown of the peace talks. They were invited to meet with the Foreign Relations Committee in advance of the new session, on January 2, but both declined. Should the admini- tration refuse to allow its spokesmen to testify, the Congress should proceed on an urgent basis to consider legislation to :regulate the practice of so-called exec- utive privilege. Congress and the Ameri- can people have not only the right, but the responsibility, to call their leaders to explain and-if they can-justify in pub- lic the extraordinary actions of the last two months. These actions, couched in secrecy, represent a blatant repudiation of the explicit assurances of peace which were given to the American people be- fore the election. But beyond the regulation of "execu- tion privilege," and most urgent and im- portant of all, Congress can and should proceed, through its appropriations power, to bring the war to an immediate end. Should it fail to do so, we may have to wait for the election of 1976 before the war can be ended. By that time, Mr. Nixon's indiscriminate terror bombing could well have destroyed North Vietnam as an organized society, while also in- flicting incalculable injury upon our own society and institutions. Mr. Nixon has, after 4 years, failed to end the war. He came to the brink of peace before the election but then, in the wake of the election, repudiated Mr. Kis- singer's agreement. That agreement would have given the Thieu regime the reasonable chance for survival on which Mr. Nixon has insisted; it would have left Mr. Thieu with armed forces many times larger and far better equipped than the forces of his adversaries. But a "reason- able chance" is apparently not enough for President Thiele-or for President Nixon. They now insist upon a guarantee of the Saigon regime's predominance in South Vietnam-a predominance they have not been able to establish even with the help of an army of half a million Americans, or with the pulverizing power of Mr. Nixon's fleets of bombers. Mr. Nixon has shown himself at the crucial moment unwilling to settle for a "reasonable chance" in the contest with Vietnamese communism. He still wants the victory and the submission of the enemy that have eluded two Presidents for 7 years. The President's failure to end the war has now thrust the responsibility upon the shoulders of a Congress which has long struggled to escape it. But the re- sponsibility is now inescapable. It is up to Congress, through its appropriations power, to end the war and to allow the North and South to settle the question of who rules Vietnam. That is the kind of peace Mr. Kissinger almost attained, and it must be recognized that an essen- tial element to such an agreement is that it might result eventually in a Commu- nist South Vietnam. although we hope it will not. If the Thieu regime is capable of marshaling its superior resources, it will spiring the loyalty of its people, it will prevail without further American par- ticipation. But if it cannot, the Vietcong will prevail. That is the meaning-the only possible meaning-of a "reasonable chance." For several decades American Presi- dents have made war as they saw fit be- cause Congress seemed incapable of as- serting its constitutional war power. Now, in an ironic twist of events, the President seems incapable of making peace and it is up to Congress to fill the void. It is a considerable responsibility, but it cannot be avoided. If Congress does not now ac- cept responsibility for ending the war, then it must share in full measure with Mr. Nixon the responsibility for perpetu- ating it. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have inserted in the RECORD certain letters which I have received showing the intense dismay of our fellow citizens with the renewal of the war in Vietnam. Mr. President, I also ask unanimous consent to have inserted in the RECORD the December 29, 1972, issue of World- wide Treatment of Current Issues. This press summary of world reaction to Mr. Nixon's recent bombing campaign shows a predominant attitude of revulsion on the part of America's friends and allies as well as other countries. A character- istic reaction was that of the Times of London, which spoke of a "revulsion of feeling across the world." There being no objection, the material was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: ATHENS, OHIO, December 22, 1972. Senator WILLIAM FULBRIGHT, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR FULBRIGHT: May I express to you my full support for your efforts to attain peace In Viet Nam. The resumption of bombing of Hanoi at this time when all Americans have been led to believe that peace is close at hand dangerously erodes our con- fidence in our own government. These bomb- ing raids senselessly kill Vietnamese civilians, take us further away from the objective of peace and endanger the lives of our own prisoners of war. Could any action be more irrational and irresponsible at this time? Millions of taxpayer dollars are diverted from the goal of solving internal American problems for the support a: this unpopular and immoral and murdei -I :s war. We have lost this war already an-1 need no longer seek to save "honor." Tl?e continuation of bombing attacks now ui?.d,-rmines support for American goals all oer the world. We stand condemned in worea opinion all over the civilized world. Our only hope is that t. ,e U.S. Senate and the Congress will put an e, ?d to financial sup- port of this new and de 'le?nted escalation. The American electorate as been promised that peace was in sight a: id President Nixon has been reelected on t rie basis of peace hopes. These hopes are o.v dashed anew. It is the legislative branch s our government that must now act. I urge that the Senate a( t now and with new aggressiveness to obtr in for us the peace that Mr. Kissinger had w-hin his reach and lost. JO it M. BURNS, T:!iio University. SALEM, VA., I)- -' niber 20, 1972. Hon. J. WILLIAM FULBRIGH U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR FULBRIGI r We believe the current impasse in the o, ret negotiations between the United Stat' s and North Viet- nam can be attributed directly to President Nixon. After eight years ..~ inconclusive war in Southeast Asia in wh: h the basic ques- tion has been sovereignt over South Viet- nam, how can he now insl .`. that this issue be settled in Paris in a man ier favoring South Vietnam? After eight yea..; of abortive nego- tiations, how can he acci. se the North Viet- namese of being devious? 'o us the answer is naivete, monumental in the face of eight years of frustrating war ar intransigence, monumental in the face Or the fervent ex- pectations of the American people. Now, with the settleme ?t "99% complete," Nixon orders the heavies bombing raids in history-in defiance of the will of the Ameri- can people and the consci -nce of civilization. Bombing has not and nsver can force the North Vietnamese to a ne otiated settlement favoring South Vietnam. Nixon should have learned this by now, bu i i his frustration and anger bombing is ti c only response he knows. Nixon is unable to se' 'b" this war. Con- gress must act quickly to it, is end before the faith of the American pee pee in their leader- ship has completely disc;.p' tired, and before their concept of courage nd humanity have been completely destroyer' We are ready to supp r your efforts fi- nancially and otherwise ? he extent of our capabilities. Sincerely, W. G . . WILLIAMS. ROSA IID H. WILLIAMS. NE,,,, oRK, N.Y., +1.,ember 20, 1972. Hon. J. W. FULBRIGHT, Chairman, Foreign Relati--05 Committee, U.S. Senate, Washington, 1?..^. DEAR SENATOR: On he ;r'ng today of the resumption of massive bombing of North Vietnam, I am overwhe :ned with a help- less sense of moral degradation. The Presi- dent's barbaric course ?f action outrages every sane and humane a ue of civilization and brands us as a natiol o murderers. You, above all other legisiato must speak out louder and plainer an,! more insistently than ever before. The President's uncon- sionable disposition to violence must be de- cried and curbed-in tl- name of respon- sible Americans and hun-: vity itself. Sincerely and in o remis, GILBERT FIELD. Approved For Release 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP75B0038OR000300060001-6 Approved For Release 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP75B0038OR000300060001-6 /c~. s i r ii 4, 1973 CONGRESSIONAL RECORIll - SENATE ers are known to exercise tight ideological aand organizational control over their mem- bers." Finally, says Walt, Red China has not signed the 1961 single conventions on drugs. Consequently. it does not report to the U.N. on its licit opium agriculture, nor does it accept inspection of any kind, nor does it participate in any international drug control operations. HOW SERIOUS IN THE DRUG PROBLEM? How serious is the drug problem in the United States? Our heroin addict popula- tion. says Walt, is almost 10 times as large as i was in 1960, and almost twice as large as i t was two or three years ago. The estimated 600,000 addicts we have are reportedly re- sponsible for 50 to 60 per cent of our street crimes and petty burglary. More than any other factor, It is the rise In addiction that has "converted our streets into dangerous jungles and our cities into places of fear, each addict requiring $50 a day to supply his habit." What America will be like three years hence if the number of addicts again doubles almost defies the imag- ination, says Walt. Moreover, says Walt, drug addiction has all the attributes of a contagious disease be- cause addicts are under an irresistible com- pulsion to hook others. Gen. Walt under- scored this fact by including in his report a diagram drawn by British psychiatrist Rene de Alarcon, documenting how two- addicts In the small British town of Crawley spread the sickness of heroin addiction to 56 other people over a period of five years. "To be precise," said Walt, "Dr. De Alacron was able to establish that the two initial addicts were directly responsible for initiat- ing another 46 young people into heroin ad- diction. The origins of the other 10 cases of addiction were not clearly traceable, but there is reason for believing that the exist- ence of an addict community in Crawley played some role. . Now multiply the in- fectious circles In this diagram by roughly 10,000 and-you will have some conception of the problem we are up against In America today." Yet, says Walt, he believes the heroin epi- demic can be halted through the use of a combination of domestic and international measures, including sophisticated spy satel- lites, trained drug fighters, tougher laws and diplomatic pressures. While some believe that the drug problem stems from ills in society and cannot be stopped by merely reducing the drug supply, Walt takes sharp exception to that theory. "Everything we learned on this trip," says Walt, "points in the opposite direction-it points to the conclusion that availability of drugs is a decisive factor, that availability can be controlled, and that, were It con- trolled, the rate of addiction is automatically limited." The GI's in Korea are basically the same GI's we have in Viet Nam, argues Walt. They come from the same, broad cross-section of society and they have, by and large, the same strong points and the same complex of weaknesses. Yet in Viet Nam our forces were caught up in a "massive heroin epi- demic" when high-grade heroin became sud- denly available at $1 a vial. This "saturation attack," Walt explained, "succeeded for the simple reason that no one had foreseen it and neither the South Vietnamese govern- ment nor our own armed forces had erected any defenses that might have dammed the influx as it got started." In South Korea. by way of contrast, heroin is not readily available because the South Korean government enforces its anti-nar- cotics laws In a stringent manner. In con- sequence, the heroin addiction has been kept at a very low level among our armed forces there. Mainland China and other totalitarian countries, notes Walt, have no problem In controlling addiction because of the Drac- onian manner in which they enforce their laws. Addiction is also effectively controlled in authoritarian governments like Taiwan and South Korea. "Most important of all from our own standpoint," says Walt, "is the Japanese ex- ample, because the Japanese have shown that it is possible to roll back: a far-ad- vanced epidemic within ,he framework of it highly Democratic society. This they suc- ceeded in doing by tough laws, rigorous en- forcement and heavy penalties. Their suc- cess Is ill the more striking because their high standard of living would under ordi- nary circumstances, make their country it prime target for the international drug traf- fickers." HERON TRAFFICKERS AIDED BY LAX LAW ENFORCEMENT To explain why we are having so much trouble combatting dope pushers. Walt in- troduced some interesting charts dealing with the handling of narcotics offenders in New York City from Jan. 1, 1969, through. Oct. 31, 1971. These charts dealt with Claw. "A" felonies; i.e., felonies involving more than 16 ounces of heroin. Sixteen ounces have a street value in New York of about. $170,000 and is enough for about 20,000 injections. In the first chart unve:led by Walt, more than 20 per cent of those arrested had been arrested a minimum of 10 times previously. that over 50 per cent had been arrested at least seven times previously. and that almost 5.1 per ? ent had been arrested over 18 times previously. Many of these previous arrest,, were also on narcotics charges. The second chart showed the sentences handed iown in Class "A" drug indictments, Nearly 40 per cent-38.1 per cent to be pre- else--go'; off with less than 10 years. With parole and good behavior, most of those with sentences of less than five years can be out on the streets again in two years or less. Yet this is only part of the story, says Walt. Major traffickers about whose guilt there was absoutely no shadow of a doubt have been acquitted on the "basis of tech- nicalities which would not be honored by any court in any other civilized country. Many more have skipped bail, even when the bail has been set as high as $50,000 and $100,- 000. And, among the smaller offenders, many have never been brought to trial, while many others h ve gotten off with suspended sen- tences." t END THE WAR Mr, FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, the time for debate on the merits of the war in Vietnam is past. The war has been debated for the last 7 years and has been shown to be without merit from the standpoint of American security and na- tional interest. By th time of the 1972 election, only 2 months ago, Mr. Nixon seemed to have accepted the war's futility. He assured us, through his closest adviser, that peace was "at hand." The President himself told Garnett Homer of the Star in an in- terview given on November 5 and pub- lished on November 9: Let nee tell you this on Vietnam-when I tell you I am completely confident that we are going to have a settlement, you can bank on it. On election eve, November 6, 1972. President Nixon assured the American people that, despite remaining "de- tails,"- S249 I can say to you with complete confidence tonight that we will soon reach agreement on all the issues and bring this long and dif- ficult war to an end. Once again Mr. Nixon has betrayed the promise of peace, just as he betrayed it after his election in 1968, and just as it was betrayed after the election of 1964. Owing to the secretiveness of the ad- ministration, we do not know exactly what went wrong with the October agreement. But by available evidence the President, after the election, changed his terms of peace, which had been agreed upon in October, not just in tech- nical detail but in the very substance of the agreement. He did this, apparently, by demanding North Vietnam's recogni- tion in some form of the Thieu regime's "sovereignty" in South Vietnam. This in effect would require North Vietnam to disown the Vietcong, which also claims "sovereignty" in South Vietnam. That indeed is what the war has been about: who is to be sovereign in South Vietnam, The October agreement left this unde- termined., just as the war itself had left it undetermined. That very imprecision made agreement possible. Now Mr. Nixon seeks to pin down in an agreement what has not been won in the war: the right of the Thieu regime to perpetuate its rite in South Vietnam. In order to compel North Vietnam to acquiesce in these substantially-radi- cally-altered demands, as against the October agreement, Mr. Nixon launched a campaign of unprecedented terror bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong. In so doing, he has taken the lives of hundreds. more likely thousands, of Vietnamese civilians, and he has created many new American prisoners-of-war, while losing B-52 bombers for the first time in the war, and losing them at a prodigal rate. Now, once again, he has stopped the ter- ror bombing-at least temporarily-an- nounced the resumption of peace talks, and urged the Congress to remain silent.. uncomplaining, and uninformed, on pain of being held responsible for disrupting the peace talks. The time for debate--and for delay-is past. The administration promised peace but failed to produce it. Unless the Octo- ber agreement-or some agreement-is signed within the next few days, surely no later than the inauguration, it will be the Congress' responsibility to take immediate action to end the war by cut- ting off funds for its prosecution. The Senate voted to do that twice last sum- mer, but those efforts were aborted. largely to allow the administration the opportunity to prove the effectiveness of its strategy for peace. If, as now appears quite possible, that strategy has col- lapsed, it is Congress' responsibility to deliver on the electoral promise which Mr. Nixon seems now, for the second time, to have betrayed. That, indeed, is the consensus of the Foreign Relations Committee, which agreed on January 2 that if a peace agreement is not reached by :inauguration day, January 20, It will then become Congress' duty to employ the legislative process to bring the war to an immediate end. Congress has the authority as well as the responsibility to end the war.. At the Approved For Release 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP75B0038OR000300060001-6 S 248 Approved For Release 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP75B0038OR000300060001-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE Jana,tr'y 4, 1973 several of the commission's basic assump- tions were in error." Among the many officials of foreign gov- ernments with whom Walt and his staff dis- cussed the Shafer report, not, a single one "shared the tolerant attitude of the Shafer Commission toward cannabis. In Japan, France and other countries we were told that the Shafer Commission. report had caused consternation in the ranks of those con- cerned with the problem of drug control, and that it seriously undercut their efforts to combat the growing use of marijuana in their own countries." In several countries, Walt added, embassy personnel stated that when the Shafer Com- mission team visited them, it seemed appar- ent that the team's mind was already made up and that it was seeking confirmation for a preconceived point of view. Walt said he was particularly surprised that the Shafer team, in the course of its foreign travels, did not once take the time to check in with Dr. Braenden. Dr. Braen- den's U.N. office, Walt remarked, is a clearing house for some 30 laboratories working on heroin and marijuana research. Thus, said Walt, it is difficult to accept the Shafer report as "gospel." Perhaps, suggested the retired Marine general, far more research should be made Into the effects of cannabis before we embark on the radical course of legalizing marijuana as advocated by the Shafer Commission. MORE ON RED INVOLVEMENT IN WORLDWIDE DRUB TRAFFIC While Gen. Walt makes the point that the world drug traffic is primarily a criminal phenomenon, he also emphasizes that the evidence is clear that Communists in various parts of the world have been involved in the drug traffic in significant ways. "In fact," he adds, "I find it impossible to understand how our media can ignore the clear evidence of Communist involvement while exaggerating out of all proportion the charge that corrup- tion among our Southeast Asian allies is the primary cause of the drug epidemic in our country." The evidence taken by the Eastland sub- committee, he pointed out, established that in one of the largest heroin smuggling cases on record, Manuel Dominguez Suarez, one- time head of the Mexican Federal Judicial Police, made nine trips to East Berlin, each time returning to Mexico with 50 kilograms of heroin-which was then moved across the border into the United States. Since Suarez was able in each case to enter East Berlin without having his passport stamped, said Walt, "it is clear that elements of the East German_ secret police must have been involved." There is also the remarkable case of Squella- Avendano. A prominent supporter of Chile's at least several hundred tons, possibly as Marxist president, Salvador Allende, Squella- much as 800 to 1,000 tons a year. Estimates Avendano was arrested in Miami on July 27, are, however, that in every country, perhaps 1970, for transporting 203 pounds of Chilean 10 per cent of the total output escapes into cocaine, worth $10 million. This was the larg- the illicit market, even when that country is est cocaine seizure to date. At his trial, hard at work cracking down on traffickers. Squella said he had been slated to receive an Thus, Walt hints, even if Red China Is not important post in the Allende government. deliberately selling opium on the world mar- "He-was," said Walt, "obviously a very im- ket, it is quite possible that 80 to 100 tons of portant man to the Communist network in opium grown an the mainland find its way the Western Hemisphere, because hard on the into the international drug trade. heels of his arrest, the U.S. attorney in charge There can be no question, said Walt, that of the case was approached with the bizarre large quantities of opium were coming out of proposition that Squelia be exchanged for China in the 1950s and early 19605. The re- four American hijackers then in Cuba." The ports which the United States and the offer was subsequently expanded to include British government filed with the United the master of the "Johnny Express," the Nations made this charge year after year, Miami-based ship seized on the high seas last much of it buttressed by hard items of evi- December by Castro's navy. Since then, there dence. The report filed with the U.N. in 1962, have been repeated articles in the pro-Com- for instance described in-depth interviews British or Portuguese or at:her customs Offi- cials. Every civilized nr?;inn in the world recognizes that other na* =ous must have the right to inspect ships and c:ergo sailing under their flag in order to arotect themselves against traffic in contrabsnsl of various kinds. "If China is to become a fully cooperating member of the commur,'ty of nations, she must abandon the attii,ide which at this point assures her ships and cargoes of privi- leges not accorded by ary other nation." Increasing numbers c, Chinese seamen, many of them based in Hnrg Kong, are being apprehended in the United States and Britain with quantities o ? heroin. In the case of the Hong Kong seam. n, Walt points out, "virtually all of them fare members of the Hong Kong Seamen's Ur:ion, which is com- pletely controlled by pro-Peking Commu- nists. munist press in Chile, hailing Squella as a which a senior American narcotics agent had "I want to emphasize ,vn:t there is no evi- national hero and a victim of American gathered from three Yunnanese, one of whom dence that the union, f such, is involved imperialism. had served as a mule skinner in a series of In narcotics smuggling. `iut the large num- In Southeast Asia, Walt stated, the Com- opium caravans moving from Yunnan into her of Hong Kong seamen. Involved in the munists are up to their ears in the dope traf- North Burma. traffic does raise some questions, especi$]ly fic. In Laos, he pointed out, the Communists The report of the U.N. Commission on in view of the fact that t e Communist lead- occupy some 80 to 90 per cent of the opium- Narcotic Drugs of May 14-,' ~_xne 1, 1962, sum- growing areas. In Thailand, the Communist- marized the evidence: "With reference to the led guerrillas control an important stretch of question of the origin e f opium in the opium-producing land along the Laotian Burma-Mainland China-L; as-Thailand bor- frontier. In both Thailand and Laos, the vil- der areas, information was reported by the lages where the opium is grown are under the representative of the United States concern- thumb of manager-cadres, trained in Peking ing investigations carried out in recent and Hanoi. Both movements are armed to a months in cooperation wit:. r survival. "With that single thought gilding him, he approached life with a special sensitivity few men possess. As he hiked thro igh the splen- dors of Arizona nature-one ,.f his favorite pastimes-it was more than exercise and en- joyment of the landscape. He v a:, making his way as a free man-through ti ,e freedom ex- plicit in nature and the Creation." Next to his devotion to ne vspaper work, Fitzhugh loved the outdoors. -e was a con- servationist before it ever occ_irred to most of us that without it there wil be no wilder- ness, no unpolluted streams. no forests to pass on to future generations. im recognized no grandeur except that of the Arizona land- scape. His family (his wife Me-yal, daughter, Meri-le (Mrs. Robert Collum) and son, Lee) shared his interest in the outdoors. Lee is now teaching forestry at Noi hern Arizona University. When Fitz was not jousting with some branch of government or com ' development that he did not believe was in the public interest, he wrote a homespu -type column that often dealt with nature and the out- doors. Those who read his edits rials only may have looked upon him as a per ietually angry man. But for contrast listen to his paragraph from one of his columns des:irg with un- changing nature: competitive,",1te quoted Fitzhugh as sayiri "The sky looked the same if you tipped in summing ,41) his attitude toward life. Then\ pour head way back and look d straight up Marquardt added: "That was an understate- `between the pines. The clouds came over the ment." The;, Republic editor was speaking b the way, holding their meet airs mostly in from 14 ye rs of bumping heads with his th\ a4ternoons to decide whey- is the White counterpar on The Gazette. Motl~titwins to rain today. The;. ciapped their Anyone eading Fitzhugh's hard-hitting handb;h} thunder to worry fisl or men caught editorials 41d columns easily could conclude far froon amp, even if they didn't intend to that hew out to prove the old saw that rain on at particular gagg e of humans "The pen Z. mightier than the sword." Born that day.'".'? to a pio er ranching family he possessed His colurit~ "Close to Home , revealed his the instinkts attributed to early settlers who love for the sl,mple things of 'ife. He began fought totts~ protect their possessions. But Fitz writing it in Ei,.Centro, Calif. and it main- fought with words that he pounded from his tamed an almost rural fiavoi even after it typewritet, and he fought for all mankind. was syndicated by the Chicago; :u ii-Times and His publisher, Mr. Eugene C. Pulliam, said was sold to some of the nation' l.ergest news- of Fitz: "He had a code for life which he felt paper. In its earlier years it deal:. with prob- should be followed by politicians, profes- lems that the man on the stre +t or-the fam- sional people, business people, and just people sly next door could associate.,w th. and it was generally. He believed strongly that everyone not until Fitz returned to -Pl.oenix and his should receive a fair deal, a square deal, an son and daughter began aPj coaching ma- equal deal. His comments in carrying out his turity that it became more political and philosophy created controversy at times, but philosophical. In that colum i file can be he seldom was wrong." found some of his finest writin... No one ever heard of Fitzhugh giving in Because of my interest in the preservation without a fight. Yet Marquardt said in The of Arizona history, Fitz often chided me that Republic that after Fitz had argued his point, the Arizona Historical Society, !ati concerning "he knew how to concede graciously if he itself with the restoration of old residences became convinced he was wrong." One of in Tucson, Yuma, Prescott, et,.. when in his Fitzhugh's associates on The Gazette, Larry opinion the real Arizona hist rv was to be Approved For Release 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP75B0038OR000300060001-6 Approved For Release 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP75B0038OR000300060001-6 J" .CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE January 4, 1973 found in prospectors' camps or pioneer ranch cabins. These many facets of Fitzhugh caused some of his associates to look upon him as a complex man. Larry Ferguson described him as "a study in contrasts." "He was kind, gentle, compassionate and understanding," Larry said. Yet at times he could be (so) demanding (he was) impossible to live with or work for. * * * You see, he was a perfectionist. "He demanded perfection of himself. He demanded it of others. To work for Fitz was to search for Utopia. It never quite came off to his satisfaction, but * * * tomorrow may- be, or the next day, The Gazette's editorial pages would be perfect in every way." This viewpoint also was expressed by Bert Whitman, Gazette cartoonist, who considered Fitz as "the best, toughest, hardest-hitting editor I ever had. He was also the most stimu- lating. He caused me to work twice as hard on a cartoon as I had ever done in 35 years of cartooning." Fitz' demand for the best in everyone led a colleague at The Gazette to remark upon his death: "The fire that some of us felt burned too hot at times has gone out and now it may seem to be terribly, terribly cold." - if Fitz was demanding on those who worked with him, all agree that he demanded more of himself. He firmly believed that every man should do whatever he was ex- pected to do. His final day at the office was indicative of his sense of responsibility. His last edi- torial was removed from the typewriter with- in the hour of his departure for the hospital where he was to seek relief from back and leg pains. At the time he became ill he was writing the report of a committee appointed to evaluate the Arizona Academy's Town Halls. He wrote final changes, painfully and labori- ously, in long hand from his hospital bed. In intensive care two days after lung sur- gery he marked an absentee ballot in the November 7 general election. Didn't he be- lieve that every good citizen should vote? Ed Fitzhugh was a native of Phoenix, the son of a native Arizonan. His paternal grand- father came to the state as a boy in 1847. Fitz was first introduced to journalism at Phoenix Union High School where his as- sociates included Gov. Jack Williams, Reg Manning, Republic cartoonist, and Jack Lefler, Wall Street columnist for The As- sociated Press. He had hoped to be a car- toonist when he came to work for The Phoenix Gazette, but he turned to sports and became sports editor before leaving for California at the age of 20. He worked for the old San Francisco News, the Sacramento Bee, and the Los Angeles Examiner before settling down for 20 years at El Centro where he became an editor and columnist and at one time published his own weekly. In 1951 he became editor of the Chicago syndicate which already was selling his col- umn. Five years later he went on to write editorials for the Indianapolis Star, and 14 years ago he returned to his beloved Arizona, the city of his birth, and his first newspaper. His experience had been as varied as his talents. Some on The Gazette, paraphrasing, re- marked the other day that Fitz had gone on to work for that big newspaper in the sky. You can just bet that by the time we catch up with him he will be working to improve it. (From the Phoenix Gazette, Dec. 4, 1972] EDWIN A. FrrzHuGH (By Don C. Urry) Only seven weeks ago Ed Fitzhugh sat In the chair from which, as editor of The Phoe- nix Gazette for the past 14 years, he had written his outspoken and competent edi- torials and his always perceptive, often beau- tifully sensitive column, "Close to Home." The chair is empty, the office is dark. An outstanding editor has left the American scene, and to those of us who knew him well his loyalty and his pride in journalistic ex- cellence will long be missed. The list of his accomplishments in ness- paper work is both varied and distinguished. His many years of extensive reporting-even as editor he never forgot that the life-blood of a newspaper is good reporting-ranged from some of the nation's most famous trials to the national political conventions and foreign affairs. He had been a syndicate edi- tor, the publisher of his own weekly in.Ca'.i- fornia an editorial writer for The.tndianapo- lis Star. He cherished the thought in 1958 of returning to Phoenix, his birthplace, as edi- tor of The Gazette, the paper where he had started some 30 years earlier as cub and later as sports editor. Through his whole career ran the thread of intense striving to bring out the best in himself and in the work of others. His high talent as a writer and his self-discipline combined to make him a most facile producer of readable, incisive newspaper copy. He could be hard-hitting and he could be gentle. He could dispose trenchantly of a public issue that aroused his anger, and in the next hour he could write a column that sensitively bal- anced the ideological aberrations of Charlie Chaplin with the great comedian's genius as an entertainer. He found time to become exceptionally well versed in constitutional law and in the history of Communist subversion in this country. Aside from his professional work he contributed to his community through such activities as membership on the Community Council's board, the presidency of Friendly House. and participation in the executive planning of the Arizona Academy whose Town _ Halls often benefitted from his skill Fitz died Sunday, after a bout with cancer and an operation from which there could be no recovery. It was typical of the man, how- ever, that he spent five weeks in the recov- ery room before he went "gentle into that good night." He was attracted to newspapers during his Phoenix Union High School days, spent with such luminaries as the Goldwaters, Jack Williams, Blanche Friedman Bernstein, and Reg Manning. He worked for newspapers in :ion Francisco and Indianapolis, edited a syndicate in Chicago and returned to Phoenix 14 years ago. In between he achieved the goal of every newspaperman-be edited and published a weekly newspaper. That happened to be in El Centro, where he learned about the water problems facing both California and Arizona. He also learned about communism by covering a major trial of California Communists. While newspapering was his vocation, the law and wildlife were his avocations. Fitz subscribed to a special service that brought U.S. Supreme Court decisions to his desk as soon as they were promulgated. He read them with more understanding than any lay editor we have ever known. Fits was a conservationist before it was the "in thing." He liked to hunt, but he liked the great out-of-doors even more, and many of his editorials testify to his determi- nation to pass the wilderness on to future generations. On the wall of his now quiet office there hangs a photo of a horse-drawn carriage on a dirt road in front of the Phoenix Enter- prise which later was merged into the Arizona Gazette. The photo was taken on Second Street in Phoenix in 1905, four years before Fitz was born. It was the old Phoenix that Ed Pb tz- hugh loved so well. A life dedicated to making those old traditions mesh with modern times was not spent in vain. as a coordinator and analyzer of committee reports. PRESS BLACKOUT ON INTERNAL SE- Away from the workaday wend, Fitz was -CURITY SUBCOMMITTEE HEAR- an enthusiastic outdoorsman with deep fam- ily and personal roots In the back country of Arizona, on which he was an expert. And the hands that could make a typewriter sing coudc`. also make wood carvings of rare beauty. A sense of shock at an untimely loss sad- densais colleagues. None who knew him could doubt his sincerity, nor fail to respect the firmness with which he held his beliefs. In an era of submissiveness, he was a fighter for what he held to be right. But he was also a friend whenever a friend was needed, whether it was a family in sickness or a disconsolate boy crouched on the street beside an injured dog. There have been too few like him. [From the Arizona Republic, December 5, 1972] "30" FOR A COLLEAGUE (By Frederic S. Marquardt) Ed Fitzhugh once summed up his attitude toward life in these words: "I in very cour- petitive." As editor of The Phoenix Gazette, Fitz oc- casionally locked horns with members of his own staff, or with the editors of The Arizona Republic. His convictions ran deep. When it came to making editorial policy he always knew what he believed and was able to argue his point. But he also knew how to concede graciously if he became con- vinced he was wrong. As must happen between competing newspapers, there were times when we on The Republic did not see eye-to-eye with our opposite numbers on The Gazette. But we respected each other, and we knew there was room for more than one opinion on most questions. Mr. THURMOND, Mr. President, late last fall the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, of which I am a member, held extensive hearings and published extensive staff studies on the worldwide narcotics problem. Key witnesses in- cluded such distinguished citizens as for- mer Marine Gen. Lewis Walt and Dr. Olav J. Braenden, Director of the United Nations Laboratory. Despite a continual press campaign on the subject of nar- cotics-much of it aimed at loosening our narcotics laws-.very little attention was paid by the press. Included in the hearings were authoritative statements by experts and many constructive sug- gestions such as General Walt's proposal to use satellite technology to monitor worldwide the fields of growing poppies. The hearings also showed that stricter narcotics laws are the answer to clean- ing up the drug problem. Japan has led the way in this field and has virtually eliminated its own menacing addiction problem. The hearings also underline the fact that Communist China refuses to co- operate with any worldwire monitoring system and opens itself to grave suspi- cion of complicity in the drug traffic. Although these hearings were quite ex- tensive, they were very thoroughly sum- marized in brief by the Washington newspaper, Human Events, virtually the Approved For Release 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP75B0038OR000300060001-6 Approved For Release 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP75B0038OR000300060001-6 THE WASHINGTON POST DATE 2 - U ? 3 PAGE. The Washington Merry-Go-Round sons, was not possible," the mented between Customs at documents said. the Treasury Department and U.S. Losing Drug-Smuggling mar By Jack Anderson and Lea Whitten The government's war against'drug smuggling, trum- peted as one of the major do- mestic successes of. the Nixon administration, is losing the battle to fleets of small pri- vate planes and fast boats. Classified aocuments from the Customs Bureau made available to us demonstrate the extent of the government's failure. They flatly state that the narcotics agents cannot compete with the ingenuity of the smugglers. The dope runners have or- ganized the most important small boat operation since the evacuation of Dunkirk, and the government's fragmented narcotics forces are unable to cope with them. "We must undertake a pro- gram to provide Customs con- trol of small boat traffic enter- ing the United States," one of the documents asserts. "Smuggling of narcotic drugs by small boats is a serious problem. At present, we have no means of effecting interdic- tion of drugs entering the United States by this means." The high flying dope ped- dlers operate with equal free- dom, hauling their cargo of white powder from Mexico and Canada with virtually no opposition. "Smuggling by meahs of pri- vate aircraft has grown in it situation where control of this against drugs Is badly frag- i telligence Ager e, - are tradi- tionally regarded. as close- mouthed characters who spend their waking hour*.: tracking spies and tapping tel= ephones. Angus MacLf ant Thuermer, the agency's "public informa- tion officer," dr fie, tradition. He is one of th - nation's fore- most "pig stic', and he doesn't mind tal ~iiig about it. ` He became a.laicted to the exotic sport of "gig sticking". nicely underp a-.'ed British nicely underpayed British term for huntin:: -wild boar on horseback witl a spear"- while serving w`th the Foreign Service in India Last year, T muermer went back to India for another hog hunt. When he returned to the States, he broke CIA tradition.: and published I i F memoirs of the hunt in an r b,.cure weekly newspaper -ailed the "Piedmont Vlrgi rdan." In short, the situation is so the new Drug Enforcement out of hand that Mafia and Administration (DEA) at the free-lance traffickers have vir- Justice Department. A memo- tual carte blanche to haul randum describing a meeting their wares across the United last month between Customs' States borders. p'ederal anti-narcotics offi- cials have made elaborate plans to increase their effi- ciency in the air and on the water, but budget conscious bureaucrats have cut out this capability. For this fiscal year alone, the Office of Manage- ment and Budget has sliced the Customs budget for these air intrusion coordinators and George Brosan, a top Customs enforcement official, makes clear that neither agency knows what the other is doing. There are about 50 planes of various kinds available at any one time to the two agencies for air and boat surveillance, But without cooperation be- i tween them through use of in- farmers who signal the depar- depar- plans from $11.4 million to Lure of a shipment from some T $3.3 million. lonely harbor or airport, the preventing penny-wise narcotics nny-wcse policy agents splanes are useless. They can- can- from m acquiring not "picket-line" the entire from sophisticated tools, including aircraft with border. special tracking equipment, DEA, which may wind up boats fast enough to catch with the whole program even- smugglers' craft, and seniors tually, is too busy reorganiz- to seek out the dope runners. ing to take on any new duties, The drug fighters are using particularly ones as compli- some electronic sensors bor- Gated as the "Air Intrusion" rowed from the military, but operation. ' find them virtually worthless. The overall mess is best The heavily publicized sei. I summed up by Brosan: zures of millions of dollars l "Both the Drug Enforce- worth of narcotics are largely ment Administration and the the work of old-fashioned cus-I immigration and Naturaliza- toms and narcotics agents at tion Service have token pro- ports or elsewhere, based on grams. Neither. can compare leads from painstakingly nur- with the present Customs ef- tured informants. Arrests of l fort, and possibly some smugglers through random I thought ought to be given to checks of small planes or f combining the three pro- quent. THE WASHINGTON POST Friday, August 2z. 913 B 19. { who work fort he Central has anything to say to report ers about CI! affairs, . he waxes poetic al,oat pig stick=; ing. Footnote: So proud of his" pig-sticking pro .vrss is Thuer- mer that he kt ergs his spear In his office. - It invited us over to see it. but we po-', litely refused w ti n he added - ,hat "it Isn't every day that : you get to stick an Anderson ? man." a 1973, United Fc at ire asndieste Approved For Release 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP75B0038OR000300060001-6 Approved For Release 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP75BQQ.380 300060001-6 THE WASHINGTON POST DATE `)i PAGE The Washington Merry-Go-Bound And CIA i Thailand to a meetinuwhere he laid ouVt strange Shan proposal. Asian Guerrillas Offer Opium Deal By Jack Anderson The. colorful Shan guerrillas have offered to sell the United States most of the Southeast Asian opium crop and to wage war on any other opium con- voys that may try to operate in the area.. In exchange, they want $12 million in hard cash and a U.S. promise to help them win autonomy from Burma. This astonishing proposal was made in writing by two top Shan leaders who sent an emis- sary down from the , hills to meet clandestinely In Bangkok with Rep. Laster Wolff (D-N.Y.). As chairman of a House narcot- ics subcommittee, Wolff. is the House's leading expert on Burma-Thailand-Taos opium production. He was In Bangkok last month on a survey with five other congressmen, The signed Shan offer to de- stroy up to 400 tons of ' F igh- grade Asian opium, Combined with the U.S.-sponsored crack- down on Turkish opium, theo- retically could wipe out 73 per cent of the supply of heroin on America's streets, And $12 mil- lion admittedly would be cheaper than trying to stop the smuggling operation the hard way. As Wolff recounts his dra- matic encounter in Bangkok, the Shan emissary, an English- man, arranged by letter and tel- ephone td meet with him in a hotel lobby.away from his con- gressional colleagues. A fol- low-up meeting was held in a nook off a bustling Bangkok street. The Englishman handed him the two-page proposal signed by Gen. Law Hain Han and ,Boon Tai, the two rebel leaders, who also sent as evidence of good faith a handwritten' list of .all recent opium shipments by mule, backpack and trucks with in the vast Shan state area. Skeptical at first but eager to explore the offer, Tolffinite American diplomatic. stop growing the lethal stuff- I In Wolff's view, the s dti antage The United States also secretly of destroying 400 tons of opium afar outweighs the ruff ing of of- r,ficial Burmese feathers. which ;direct dealings with h* Shans would cause. this private session, the authorities confirmed that the Englishman was an authentic Shan contact and that some of the handwritten reports of opium convoys agreed pre- cisely with their own secret in- formation. Our own sources re- port that both the State Depart- ment and CIA had also been ap- proached by the Shan insur- gents but that the negotiations ,had been aborted by Washing- ton. Wolff left it to the American officials in Bangkok to pursue the offer but asked for a quick progress report, fearing the unorthodox Shan gambit a night become snarled in red tape and bureaucratic timidity. When Wolff reached Hong Kong four days later, he was called by his Shan contact. who reported nothing whatsoever was being done about the Shan offer. At our request, Wolff has now sorted to show us the proposal In hopes this might stir at least preliminary talks on the feast. bility of buying up the Shan opium crop. After all, the I4 THE WASMNGTON POST Thursday, Sept. 13,197, F 19 paid $1 million to Chinese traf- fickers and others in Thailand for contraband opium, which was burned. (A secret CIA re- port claims, however, that the U.S. authorities were deceived and really burned cheap fodder covered with opium.) Wolff's document, typed be- neath the crossed swords let- terhead of the Shan State Army, is titled "Proposals to Termi- nate the Opium Trade in Shan State." It begins. "The Shalt Rats Army and its allies will Invite, .. the United States Narcotics Bureau, or any similar body, to visit the opium areas of Shan State and to transmit information about opium convoys on their own wireless. "The &M. and its allies will ensure that all opium con- trolled bytheir armies is burnt under international aupervi- aloe. The opium will be sold at a price to be negotiated later, but the halls ... should be the Thai border price," At present, this would amount to roughly $12 million for 4b tons of opium. In return for these "tempo. racy measures," the Shan ar- mies want a "Permanent lolu- tion" based on political self-de- termination for the Shane and agricultural assistance from tke United States to "replace opium with other crops." If this is finally accomplished, prom- Jet the Shan leaders, they will United States has subsidized national supervision to search Turkish opium farmers with $351 out and destroy any opium million a year so they would fields that still remain. Our own CIA sources confirm that the Shan State ..riny is a tremendous factor in i ne= South- east Asian drug traffi. One se- cret report by the CiAs Basic and Geographic Imelligence Office asserts: "The ~?han State Army, the largest cf several forces that have beer lighting for Shan independenre from Burma ... is also heavily in- volved in the opium bi is' ness." Another CIA docuzr,ent tells of caravans of "up to 100 horses and donkeys and 3004--) 400 men carrying in excess of 16 tons" moving out of the Shan State, Classified CIA and Jus- tice Department duct: ments say 400 tons of the 700 to "50 tons of opium produced in Southeast Asia come from Burma, much of it from regions con rolled or near the Shan State amies. Wolff, while reli,ci.ant to leave Congress during the wind-up of the 1973 .e.sion, is willing to serve as ar emissary to:the Shan general: ii it will help got negotiations cuing. Al- though he is unwillir, io vouch for the Shan Seneral~ ability to deliver on their pro #ol-als, he ' feels they at least wa r:+.nt seri- ous talk. "So far," Y,! told us, "the U.S. governmen s""ems far more eager to wipe ' +t insur- gents than to wipe out the her- oin trade." 01973, United Feature v dicate Approved For Release 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP75B0038OR000300060001-6