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May 2, 1973
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Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 CONFIDENTIAL INTERNAL USE ONLY This publication contains clippings from the domestic and foreign press for YOUR BACKGROUND INFORMATION. Further use of selected items would rarely be advisable. Governmental Affairs X/tv-*Aj~ CONRDENTDAI Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 THE NEW YORK TIMES`, WEDNESDAY MAY 2, 1973 Transcript Piesi lent's Broadcast A4dr. Watergate. f to e.i r Following is a transcript of President. A ? conducting the investigations to get all ectl ' h di t t d y r em to repor h1ixon's broadcast address in Washing- r the facts an ton Monday night, as recorded by Tire' to me right here in this office. New York Times: y r I again 'order'ed that all persons in the Government or at the re-election . Good evening. I want to talk to you tonight from my heart on a subject of deep concern to every American. In recent months members of my Administration and officials of the Com-. mitten for the Re-election of the Presi-4 dent including some of my closestt friends and most trusted aides-havol been charged with involvement in what has come to be known as the Watergate affair. These include charges of Illegal active,, ity during and preceding the 1972 Pres-r Idential election and charges ,that: responsible officials participated In ef- forts to cove up that illegal activity. ? The inevitable result of these charges, has been to raise serious questions. 'about the Integrity of the White House Itself. Tonight I wish to address those questions. Last June 17 while I was in t'lorida\I, 'trying to get a few days' rest after my.: .visit to Moscow, I first learned from? news reports of the Watergate break-in.r ??I was appalled at this senseless, illegalI ?action, and I was shocked to learn that;, employes of the re-election committee' were,apparently among those guilty, 'l immediately ordered an investigation ,by appropriate Government authorities: . On Sept. 15, as you will recall, Indict- ments were. brought against seven defendants in the case. As the investigation went forward, 1? repeatedly asked those conducting ihe, investigation whether there was apy, reason to believe that members of my Administration were in any way in- volved. I received repeated assuranceal that there . were not. Because of these' continuing reassurances, because I be-' lleded the reports I was getting, because', I had faith In the persons from whom 1' was getting them, I discounted the stn-i ties In the press that appeared to impli-, cate members of my Administration or, other officials of the campaign com-; tittee. Until March of this year, I remained' convinced that the. denials were true "and that the charges of Involvement by members of the White House staff were; false. The comments I made during this ress m b d y p y e period, the comments ma secretary in my behalf, were based on the information provided to us at the; time we made those comments. However, new information then came' to me which persuaded me that there was a real possibility that some of these.charges were true and suggesting further that there had been an'effort to, conceal the facts both from the public -from you--and`from me. -As a result, on March 21 I personally assumed the responsibility for coordi- nating Intensive new inquiries into the matter and I personally ordered those committee should cooperate fully with the F.B.I., the prosecutors and the grand', jury. I also ordered that anyone who ie ' fused to cooperate in' telling the truth, would be asked to resign from Govern-, ment service. And with ground rules, adopted that would preserve the basic constitutional separation of powers' between the Con gress and the Presidency, I directed that 'members of the White 'Hpuse staff' ,should appear and testify voluntarily under oath before the Senate committee. (which was investigating Watergate.. Full Truth Sought I was determined that we should get .to the bottom of the matter, and that 'the truth should be fully brought. out' no matter who was involved. At the same time, I was determined ,not to take precipitive. action and to 'avoid if at all possible any action that would.. appear to reflect on innocent, people. ? I wanted to be fair, but I knew that In the final analysis the integrity of this office----public faith In the integrity of+ this office-would have to take priorityl over all personal considerations. Today, In one of the most difficult de-'A 'tisions of my Presidency, I accepted the resignations of two of my closest asso-' crates in the White House-Bob Halde-i man, John Ehrlichman-two of the finest public servants it has been my privilege to know. I want to stress that in accepting these resignations I mean to leave no implica- tion whatever of personal wrongdoing' bn their part, and I leave no implication tonight of implication on the part of .others who have been charged in this matter. But in matters as sensitive as guard-i ' ing the integrity of our democratic. 'process, it is essential not only that, rigorous legal and ethical standards be, observed, but also that the public, you,i 'have total confidence that they are both, being observed and enforced by those+ in authority, and particularly by then President of the United States. Move Held Necessary. They agreed with me that this move', was necessary in order to restore that confidence, because Attorney General Kieindienst--though a distinguished public servant, my personal friend for' 20 years, with no personal involvement whatever in this matter-has been a' close personal and professional associ- ate of some of those who are Involved 'in this case, he and I both felt that it was also necessary to nacre a new Attorney General. The counsel to the President, John bean, has also resigned. As the new Attorney General, I have .today named Elliot Richardson, a man of unimpeachable integrity and rigor- ously high principle. I have directed him to do everything necessary to in-- sure that the Department of Justice has' the confidence and he trust of every' law-abiding person In this country. I .have given him absolute authority to; .make all decisions bearing upon the. prosecution of the Watergate case and. related matters. I have instructed him 'that if he should consider it appropriate, .he has the authority to name a special ;supervising prosecutor for matters aris- ing out of the case. Pursuit of Justice Promised Whatever may appear to have been', the case before, whatever improper ac- ,tivities may yet be discovered in connec-; ,.tion with this whole sordid affair, I, want the American people, I want you,, to know beyond the shadow of a doubt' that during my term as President justice Iwill be pursued fairly, fully and Impart.i-'l 'Ally, no matter who Is Involved. I This office is a sacred trust, and I ain', ,determined to be worthy of that trustl _: ' Looking back at the history of. this.' How could it have happened-who Is.' to blame? Political commentators have correctly, .observed that during my 27 years in politics, I've always previously insisted on running, my own campaigns for ,office. In both domestic and foreign policy,' 1972 was a year of crucially important decisions, of intense negotiations, of vital new directions, particularly in? working toward the goal which has been my overriding concern throughout my; political ' career-the goal of bringing peace to America, peace to the world. f And that is why I decided as the J972- campaign approached that the Presidency should come first and pol-? ?Itics second. To the maximum extent possible, therefore, I sought to delegate' .campaign operations, to remove -the day-today campaign decisions from the president's office and from the White House. Accepts Responsibility I also, as you recall, severely limited the number of my own campaign appearances. Who then is to blame for what hap- pened in this case? For specific criminal actions by spe= tific individuals those who committed; those actions must of course bear the, liability and pay the penalty. For the ,fact that alleged improper actions took, place within the White House or within . my campaign organization, the easiest course would be for me to blame those to whom I delegated the responsibility 'to run the campaign. But that would be a cowardly thing to do. I will not place the blame on subordi- nates, on people whose zeal exceeded their judgment and who may have done vnrong in a cause they deeply believed to be right. in any organization the man at the top must bear the responsibility. That responsibility, therefore, belongs here In this office. I accept it. And I pledge to you tonight from this office that I will do everything in Approved.For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432ROO0100150001-0 my power to insure that the guilty are. brought to justice and that such abuses are purged from our political processes i in the years to come long sifter I have ~j Some people, quite properly appalled, at the abuses that occurred, will say ,,that Watergate demonstrates the bank- ruptcy of the American political sys- tem. I believe precisely the opposite, is true. Watergate represented a series of IV, E ber of individuals. It was the system i that will bring those guilty to justice.' A system that in this case has in-1 eluded a determined grand jury, honest' prosecutors, a courageous judge-John' ,Sirica--and a vigorous free press. , , It is essential now that we place our ,faith in that system, and especially in' ,the judicial system. o ?'i It is essential that we let the judicial, (process go forward, respecting those -i safeguards that are established to pro tect the Innocent as well as to convict the guilty. It is essential that In reacting to,thet excesses of others, we not fall into" ex-, cesses ourselves. It Is also essential that we not be so ,distracted by events such as this that! we neglect the vital work before us, before this nation, before America at a time of critical Importance to 'Amer-, Turning to Larger Duties, Since March, when I first learned that the Watergate affair might in fact be, far more serious than I had been led to believe, it has claimed far'too much of my time and my attention. What- ever may now transpire in the case,' whatever the actions of the grand jury, whatever the outcome of - any eventual ,trials, I must now turn try full atten-' tion-and I shall do so-ante again to .the larger duties of this office. + ,, I owe It to this great office that I. hold, and I owe it to you, to my coun- I know that, as Attorney General, VI- allot Richardson will be both fair and her will be fearless in pursuing this case. wherever it leads. I am confident that with him in charge justice will be done;, There is vital work to be done toward. tour goal of a lasting structure of peace; in the world - work that cannot wait,"' ,work that I must do. Tomorrow, for example, Chancellor't p.Arandt of West Germany will visit the. White House for talks that are a vital, element of the Year of Europe, as 1973 'has been called. We are already preparing for the next Soviet-American summit meeting later' this year. This is also a ? year in which we are., 'seeking to negotiate a mutual and balms' anted reduction of armed forces in Eu-, -rope which will reduce our defense budget and allow tas to have funds for other purposes at home soy desperately',; needed. It. is the year when the United States and Soviet negotiators will seek to work out the second and even more w important round of our talks on limit- ing nuclear arms, and of reducing the 'danger of a nuclear war that would destroy civilization as we know it. # It is a year in which we confront the difficult tasks of maintaining peace in' Southeast Asia and in the potentially? explosive Middle East. There's also vital work to be done' aright here in America to Insure pros-a 'perity-,and that means a good job for: everyone who wants to work; to con=s trol inflation that I know worries every housewife, everyone who tries to bal-i lance the. family budget in America, to' Iset in motion new and better ways of, insuring progress toward a better life' for all Americans. ''When I think of this office, of what' it means, I think of all the things that, want to accomplish for this nation, of tall the 'things I want to accomplish for you Wrote Out Some Coals On Christmas Eve, during my terrible' ,personal ordeal. of the renewed bombing, 'of North Vietnam which, after 12 years of war, finally helped to bring America peace with honor, I sat down just before' midnight. I wrote out some of my goals. ,,for my second term as President. Let me read them io you: To make this country be more than 1 ever a land of opportunity-of equal opportunity, full opportunity- for every American; to provide jobs for all who ,can work and generous help for those who cannot; to establish a climate of decency and civility in which each per son respects the feelings and the dig- nity in the God-given rights of his neighbor; to make this a land in which: each person can dare to dream, can live his dreams not In fear but in hope,' proud of his community, proud of his rcountry, proud of what America haa? meant to himself, and to the world. These are great goals.' I believe we can, we must work for them, we can, 'achieve them. But' we cannot achieve these goals ; unless we dedicate ourselves to another, goal. We must maintain the integrity, of, the White House. And that integrity, must be real, not' transparent. There can be no `whitewash at.the' .White House. . ' We must reform our political process;`- ridding it, not only of the violations of ' the law but also of the ugly mob vio- lence,and other inexcusable campaign` tactics that have been too often prat- ticed and too readily accepted In the past including those that may have 'been a response by one, side to the' excesses or expected excesses of the other side. Two wrongs do not make a right. - ?''?1've been In public life for more than a quarter' of a century. Like ,any other ,calling, politics has good people and bad -people and ' Idt me toil you the great majority in politics, in the Congress, in, the Federal Government, in the state government are good people. I know that it can be very easy under the intensive pressures of a, campaign for even well-intentioned people to fall into shady tactics, to rationalize this on ,the grounds that what Is at stake is of. ;such importance to the nation that thd' tend justifies the mean$. ' '' , ' ' , And both of our great parties have .been guilty of such tactics, In recent years, however, the cam- ,paign excesses that have occurred on all ,sides have provided a sobering dembn- stration of how far this false doctrine .can take us. r;arns'on palling in Trap T=ie lesson Is clear. America in ito iolitical campaigns must not again fall -'into the trap of letting the end, how-' ever great that end Is, justify the means. I urge the leaders of both political parties, I urge .citizens - all of you everywhere-to join in working toward a new set of standards, new rules and. procedures to insure that future elec..' tions will be as nearly free of such abuses, as they possibly can be made. r This. is my goal. I ask you to join in I ,making it America's goal. When I was inaugurated for a second term this past January 20, I gave each member of my Cabinet and each Mem- 'ber of my senior White House staff a 'special four-year calendar with each day marked to show the number of days re-' maining to the Administration. In the inscription on each calendar-1, wrote these words: "The Presidential term which begins' today consists of 1,461 days,'no more, no' less. Each can be a day of strengthening' and renewal for America. Each can add ,depth and dimension to the American, experience. "If we strive together, if we make the ,most of the challenge and the 'oppor- tunity that these days offer us, they- can stand out as great days for America, ' and great moments in the history of the world." I looked at my own calendar this morning up at Camp David as I was working on this speech. It showed ex-. ,actly 1,361 days remaining in my term. I want these to be the best days In ,America's history because I love Amef- ,Ica. I deeply believe that' America Is .the hope of the world, and I know that )n the quality and wisdom of the lead-' ership America gives lies the only hope' for millions of people all over the world' 'that they can live their lives In peace , and freedom. We must be worthy of that hope ih every sense of the word. Tonight, I ask for your prayers to' help me in everything that I do through-, out the days of my Presidency to be worthy of their hopes and of yours. God bless America. And God bless each and every one of you. Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432ROO0100150001-0 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 NEW YORK TIMES 1 May 1973 Texts. of Statement., by ikon. and of Letters of Special to The New Yoit T1mei' ti WASHINGTON, April 30- .-Following are the texts of a' I statement by President 'Nixon `today announcing staff, resig= .nations and other changes' and of letters of resignation' 6to the President from 11, R. ,Haldeman and John b. Ehr lichnran, White House aides, , and Attorney General Richard: Kleindienst: Nixon Statement I have today received and, 'accepted the resignation of Richard G. Kleindienst as Attorney General of the Unit- ed States., I am appointing, Elliot L. Richardson to Suc- ceed him as Attorney General and will submit Mr. Richard- son's name to the Senate for ,confirmation immediately. Mr. Kleindienst asked to be relieved as Attorney General because he felt that he'could not appropriately continue as .head of the Justice Depart- ment now that it appears its investigation of the Water- gate-and related cases may implicate individuals with whom he has ' had a close 'persbnnl and professional ,association. In making this decision, Mr.' Kleindienst has acted in ac cordance with the. highest standards of public service, rand legal ethics. I am accept- ,ing his resignation with,, re- gret and with deep apprecla- ition for his dedicated service to this Administration. Pending Secretary Richard- son's confirmation as Attor- ney General, I , have asked ,him to involve himself Imme- diately in the investigative process surrounding the. Wa- tergate matter. As Attorney. .General, Mr. Richardson will assume full responsibility and authority for coordinating all ' 'Federal agencies in uncover- Ing the whole truth about this matter and recommend-' 'Ing appropriate changes In the law to prevent future; campaign abuses of the sort recently uncovered. He will, .have total support from me, 'in getting this job done. , In 'addition, I have today accepted the resignations of !two of my closest friends . and most trusted assistants In the White House, H. R. Haldeman and John D. Ehr- lichman. I know that their decision' -to resign was difficult; my de- cision to accept it was diffi-? cult; but I respect and appre- ciate the attitude ? that led them to it. I emphasize that neither the submission nor the accept- ance of their resignations at .this time should be ,seen by anyone as evidence of any wrongdoing by either one. Such an assumption would be .both unfair and unfounded. , Throughout our associa- tion, each of these men has Designation of Three irit of self- demonstrated a s p lessness and dedication that I have seldom seen equalled. Their contributions to the ,work of this Administration have been enormous. I great= ly regret their departure. ' Finally, I have today re-' .quested and accepted the res-; ignation of John W. Dean 3d from his position on the staff as White House counsel. Effective immediately, Leo i- ard Garment, special con-, sultant to the President, will' take on additional duties as, counsel to the President, and' ,will continue acting in this, capacity until a permanent successor Jo Mr. Dean is, named. Mr. Garment will -represent the White House in all matters relating to thq Watergate., investigation and will report-directly to me. Resignation Letters By Bhrlichman For the past two weeks it has become increasingly evi- dent that, regardless of the 'Actual facts, I have been a target of public attack. The. nature of my position on 'your staff has always de- manded that my conduct be both apparently and actually ,beyond reproach. I have al--' ways felt that the appear- ance of honesty and integrity is every bit as important' to such a position as the fact of one's honesty and' integrity. Unfortunately,. such ap- pearances are not always, governed by facts. Realistic- ally, they rah be'affected by repeated, rumor, unfounded charges or implications and whatever else the media car-. ries. For instance, this week totally unfounded stories ap- peared in The Los Angeles Times claiming I had asked our embassy in Lebanon to' help the Vesco group. in a banking deal. I not only did not do so but, in actual fact, I caused the State Depart-' meat to cable the embassy that no one at the White House had any interest in 'the Vesco deadings. . . . J he I have already re- sorted to you,many of the ffacts in the Gray case, I need only say that at no time did I directly or indirectly sug- gest'that Mr. Gray should do' other than keep the Hunt' docilments, although there ,have been reports toe con- trary. Equally without merit are the source stories about some alleged involvement in the Watergate matter. As I analyze my situation, I have to conclude that my present usefulness to you and ability to discharge my duties . have been impaired by these attacks, perhaps be-: yond repair. It is not fair to you and my staff colleagues for me to try to do my job under these circumstances. Too much of racy time. and.,tten- lotion is and will be consume& in concern for and straight-; ening our such allegations. At my request, I am going, to have separate interviews, .this week with the district attorney and the Senate,com- mittee counsel. Thus, I am looking for-,' ward to an early review of, ,the facts and evidence with' the appropriate authorities, ,and I should spend the time. necessary in relation thereto.' One of tie toughest prob-, ,lems we have in this life is, in seeing the difference be-' tween the apparent and the real, and in basing our ac- tions only on that which is? 'real. We all must do that, more than we do. I have con- fidence id the ultimate prev- ,alence of truth; I intend to do what I ? can to speed truth's discovery. Therefore, Mr. President, I submit to you my resigna- tion. There are on the Do- mestic Council staff so many good people of ability that I am confident a transition of my responsibilities can be af- fected without loss of prog- ress. I will do All I can to assist in accomplishing the transition. By Haldeman As you know, I had hoped. .and expected to have had an earlier opportunity to clear -up 'various allegations and innuendos that have been raised in ? connection with matters related to the Water-, gate case! It now appears that this process mays consume considerable time. Meanwhile, these is appar-' ently to be no interruption in the flood of stories arising' every 'day from all sorts of sources. I fully agree with the im- portance of a complete inves- tigation by the appropriate authorities of all the factors that may be involved; but am deeply concerned that, in the. process, it has become vir- tually impossible under these circumstances for me to ca on my regular respon- sibili ieg in the White House.' It is imperative that the work of the Office of the President not be impeded and your staff must be in a posi- tion to focus their attention on the vital areas of domes-,' tice and international con-, cern that face you, rather' than being diverted by the daily rumors and develop- ments in the Watergate case. For these reasons, I submit my resignation as Assistant to the President. I intend to cooperate fully with the investigation - and will at my request be meet- ing this week for that pur- pose with the U.S. attorneys and with the counsel to the s 1 es.. 4 Senate select committee. I am convinced that, in: due course, I will have the opportunity not just to clear up any allegations or impli- ,cations of impropriety but also to demonstrate that I have always met the high' and exacting standards of in-, tegrity which you have so' clearly and properly de- manded of all who serve on, the White House staff. I have full confidence that when the truth is. known the American people will be to- tally justified in their pride in the Office of the Presidents and in the conduct of that office by President Nixon. '? By ltleindienst It is with deep regret and' 'after long and searching `thought that I hereby submit my resignation as Attorney General, to take effect upon the appointment and qualifi- cation of my successor. Even though, as you know, I had previously indicated a desire to leave the Govern- ment this year for fhmily and, financial reasons, the circum- stances surrounding the dis-' closures made to me on 'Sunday, April 15, 1973 by .Assistant Attorney General Petersen, United States At- torney Titus, and Assistant United States Attorney Sil- bert, dictate this decision at this time. Those disclosures informed me, for the first time, that persons with whom I had close personal and professional assocations could be involved in conduct viola- tive of the laws of the United States. Fair, and impartial en-j, forcemeat o' the law requires that a person who has not had such intimate relation- ships be the Attorney Gen 'eral of the United States. `Mindful of Your Charge' It is not for merto comment now on the tragedy that has occurred. However, I will al- ways be mindful of your charge to me from the very beginning that the entire matter be fully investigated and that the full effect of the law be administered no matter. who it might involve or affect. You can be proud of the Department of Jus- tice for the manner in which it, from the beginning,, has responded to that charge. Finally, let me express my deep personal appreciation to you for having appointed me the 68th Attorney General of the United States. It is the greatest honor I shall ever have. I shall always be hum- bly proud to have been apart. of the Department of Justice and to have had the oppor- tunity to serve my country as a part of your Adminis- tration. Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CrA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 NEW YORK TIMES 2 May 1973 ' ardson was nominated formally trate'more" on 'National Secur- Such an appointment, which officials at the White House, sty affairs for the time 'being. the President said he would H. R. Haldeman and John D. today as Attorney General ' Kleindten'tt Stays On , leave up to Mr. Richardson, Ehrlichman, have arranged to while moving into over-all con- would be unpopular at the meet privately with the panel's trot of the Justice Department's Attorney General in Justice Department. Mr. Klein- staff on Thursday in a building is expected to remain in in the investigation of the Watergatf office until Mr. Richardson's dienst has oposed it since last ne.e, the White House. scandal. nomination is confirmed, but. June, when the Investigation Meanwhile, Mr. Kliendienst Mr.' Richardson, who was, as-, it was understood that he- beoan. , disregarded the prepared text signed "absolute authority to would 'make no' more broad But there are contimtvig of a Law Day speech here and make all decisions" on the case policy decisions In the depart- from ressuresCapitol Hillh and meise- asf erred his tragedyWatergate case by President Nixon in his telex ment. " vision address to the nation if a "critical problem" re- where. A number of Senators There is evidence that jus- last night, remained at his Pent- and Bar Association officials lice is going to be heeded," he garding? the Watergate inquiry, have, recommended an indepen- added. "We can take great ag n office today. arises, one source said today dent prosecutor, heart and renew our faith in ut he discussed the case Mr. Petersen or the Govern- ag in with the outgoing chiefs. ment prosecutors would con- While some Judiciary Com- the vitality of the role of law law enforcement officer, Rich- suit directly with Mr. Richard-, mutes sources held out the pos- In the United States." sibility that the issue could The Attorney General first and G. Klie . Mr. Klein-. son. hold 'up Mr. Richardson's con- excused' himself from the dienst's resignation was an. President Nixon's nomina- firmation, there was ho 'lm- Watergate inquiry and then re- nounced yesterday.. lion of. Mr, Richardson to be mediate strong opposition. Mr. signed his Cabinet post because Mr. Richardson has also' cbn=. attorney General reached the' Richardson has previously been of the possibility that friends ferred by telephone on the WO- Senate Judiciary, Committee confirmed in two cabinet posts. and associates would be indict- tergate affair with Henry Ei this morning. and the'?panet Petersen, the Assistant Attorney tenta~iveiv scheduled hearings Panel Meets Today ed by a Federal grand jury here: General, and William D. Ruck- on it for'Ma 9. Mr. Kliendienst spoke at' Y The select Senate Watergate length with his successor, Mr.) elshaus, the new acting director ' The Attorney Geherat-desig- committee, under Sam J. Ervin Richardson, on Sunda night.; of the Federal Bureau of in- nate was expected. 'to en? Jr. of North Carolina, is ached- Y t, ' vestigation. counter'close questioning from tiled to meet tomorrw for a They also talked by telephone s ns case on A Defense ,"Department committee.?i mea bers on ;the discussion. of public hearings about ever ral the W occasions yesterd WASHINGTON POST sev yeay. 2 May 1973 the President meant In hid By-WALTER R'UGABER ' ' spokesman said Mr. -Richard- apointment of a special prose- on the bkeak-in, set to begin! apee,AU 5 The New York Tirrin .. '' son would remain at the Pen- tutor to handle the balance of May 15. WASHINGTON, May 1--Secs tagoti until be is confirmed by the. department's Watergate in- A committee source said toy rotary of, Defense Elliot L Rich= the Senate and would "concen- vestigation day that two former rankin4l ichardson, Formally Nominated as Attorney; General, Takes OnVV'atergate Inquiry a Decision . ~,~~1 to if 1*.Cf-ahar' son, "I think it's what he's go-i `ing to be doing, but ... he didn't tell me," Laird said. ''He called the decision "a dough one to put on Elliot. t lt'looks like he'doesn't feel he'a capable and competent 16make the, Investigation, but Elliot thinks he Is." Laird said he was sure, in,. any event, that Richardson 'would make a full public re-' port on the results of the .broadening investigation.'.' "As the attorney for ' the, President, (Richardson) has to bring this thing out now,": Laird said. Rep.' Henry S. Reuss (D-` Wis.), one, of the first to de-? mand appointment of a' prosecutor from outside the administration's ranks, said he supposed that even a .thoroughly Independent law- yer-investigator would re- main tied to the Attorney ,General in,a limited way, for example, in seeking per- mission to. propose immu ,nlty for any suspects whose testimony is' deemed essen- tial. Reuss said, ' however, that he foresees no problems on ,that score. "I can't imagine " By George Lardner Jr. and Sanford J. Ungar Washington Post Staff Writers The White House emphtt-? sized yesterday that it 'is, toking a hands-off attitude 'towards appointment of a special prosecutor in the )Watergate scandal. President Nixon said at `his Cabinet meeting yester- 'day afternoon, according to several present, that he was' leaving the decision entirely 'up to Attorney General-des- Ignate Elliot L. Richardson. The powers of any such prosecutor, presidential .press secretary Ronald I.." Ziegler told newsmen ear- Iler, would also be up to Richardson to determine. Richardson, who is winel- ling up his affairs as Defense I Secretary at the Pentagon,, 'gave no hint of his plans. eFormer Defense Secretary. Melvin R. Laird, who spoke with Richardson on Monday, ? fold reporters that he felt a special prosecutor would b'~ appointed, but stressed that his bunch was not based ou anything Richardson told him explicitly. the Attorney General, spe- cifically Elliot Richardson, thinking more than 10 sec- onds before agreeing to an immunity request from a special prosecutor in this case," Reuss said. The actual grant of immu- nity must come from the courts, but under the laws governing it, a Justice De- partment spokesman said yesterday, the request must be authorized by either the Attorney General, the dep- uty attorney general, "or a designated assistant attor- ney general," a lineup that would seem to exclude dele- gation of that power to a special prosecutor. In the Watergate investi- gation, Mr. Nixon said April 17 that he did not want Im- munity granted anyone "holding, in the past or at present, a position of major importance in the adminis- tration. - ." Since then, how- ever, White House counsel John W. Dean III, who was fired Monday has re- portedly been pressing' for 'Immunity in-return for tell- ing all he knows. Immunity aside, It re- mained unclear Just what he said he was giving Rich- ardson authority to name "a special supervising' prosecu. tor for matters arising out of the case." Departing Attorney Gen- eral Richard G. Kleindienst, in an appearance at the U.S. Courthouse for Law Day ceremonies, told The Wash- ington Post that he had no idea precisely what Mr. Nixon had In mind. Robert G. Dixon, assistant attorney .general for the Justice De- partment's Office of Legal Counsel, added in a tele. phone interview that his of- fice has not yet been asked to draw up any charter for a special Watergate prosecu- tor. Dixon and his staff would normally be. assigned that chore. "We haven't thought down the road that far," Dixon said. "Each one of these sit- uations is sus generic" (one of a kind), he said of such appointments. The government has often resorted to outside lawyers and jurists to handle major controversies and scandals involving potential conflicts of interest. During the Teapot Dome scandal of the 1920s, the. Coolidge administration, af- ter several nominations that proved unsatisfactory, named two outside prosecu. tors, Republican Owen J. Roberts and former Ohio Democratic Sen. Atiee W. Pomerene, under a congres- Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R0001001150001-0 'atonal resolution calling for Senate approval of the, choices. 1 Coolidge said at the time that employment of outside i counsel was "in accord with; former precedents." Former Interior Secretary A l b e r t Fall was subse-; ,quently convicted of taking, a bribe, to lease government oil lands, but oil magnates -Harry Sinclair and Edward L. Doheny were acquitted of : all charges except for a pair( of contempt citations, one of the Senate and another of the courts, involving Sin claar. Special prosecutor Rob erts, who was later named, to the Supreme Court, also` headed a special five-man 'board of inquiry named by. President Roosevelt on Dec.} .16, 1041, to investigate then surprise attack on Pearli Harbor. The board, report ,ing the next month, accused Adm. N.E. Kimmel and Lt,,, Gen. Walter C. Short . of WASHINGTON POST 2 May 1973 "dereliction ' of duty;" charges that both officers disputed until their deaths.: Adm. Kimmel maintained he had taken "a bum rap"~ and blamed President Roo- sevelt and other high U.S. officials, saying they with-' held vital Information that would have alerted him and Short. Charges of. corruption in'i the Truman administration' also' brought appointment of an outside prosecutor al :though his tenure was short= lived. President Truman! ,named New York attorney' Newbold Morris to direct a. probe of government corrup- tion early in 1952, but he asted 'only two months. (Friction developed between, 'Morris and Attorney Gen feral Howard McGrath over'. a'questionnaire Morris sir culated inquiring into they ,outside sources of Income of various federal officials. Me-1 Grath fired Morris and Mt.1 Truman then announced the 'resignation of McGrath. Guards Files Resigned A ides' By Carroll Kilpatrick Waehlnaton Poet Staff Writer Monday night television re- port to the natlort,, on Watergate: F131 agents moved into the 'While Ilouse on a 24-hour basis yesterdnyto snfegunrd files in the offices of three president jai aides whose res- ignations President Nixon accepted Monday. Later, at a Cabinet meet- ing, the President report- edly spoke with irritation about the way the agents were standing around in the corridors in full view of visi- tors. At a news conference prior to the Cabinet meet-. lag, press' secretary Ronald L. Ziegler said that the FBI men were put into the of- fices of former aides, John D. Ehrlichman, H. R. Halde- man and Jahn W. Dean III "to physically protect the files to make sure that ac- cess and removal of any files were supervised in ac- cordance with 'very strict procedure." Ehrlichman and Halde- man, who are still in their offices but are not conduct. ing official business, "wanted this to take place'; and are "fully cooperating," Ziegler said. . Dean. whom the President fired, was not In his office. and Ziegler said he knew of no Jett or of resignation from Dean. ? In other developments in the wake of Mr. Nixon's ? The. President followed the hastily-called Cabinet meeting with an hour-long meeting with Vice Presi- dent Agnew, described as an "Important" conference. The White House will make an announcement about the meeting today, official sources said, suggesting that the Vice President will be given a major new as- signment. ? Ziegler apologized to The Washington Post for charging last fall that its Watergate stories were based on "hearsay, charac- ter assassination, and innu- endo." ? Mr. Nixon hinted strongly at new action to curb inflation. He promised a statement today on the ; economy after he holds .a" morning meeting with his chief economic advisers and an afternoon meeting with the Labor-Alanagement Ad- visory Committee. ? Editorial reaction from the nation's press to the President's speech on Watergate generally ap- plauded what was described as his limited action to re- store public confidence but said he failed to remove all suspicions. Ziegler reported Approved For Release 2001/08/075: .many. favorable telephone responses to the address. Mr. Nixon began and ended his long day with. (meetings with West German. Chancellor Willy Brandt. They conferred In the Oval ;Office in the morning and at 'a dinner the President and' ;Mrs. Nixon gave for their ,gue?t last night. But Mr. Nixon's chief at- tention was centered on' (Watergate even though he,' 'said in' his Monday address 1 'that he would 'now turn my' ',full attention once again to 'the larger duties.of this of flee." At the Cabinet meeting, Mr.. Nixon told his col- ,leagues that Haldeman's ,aides would continue to per form administration . chores at the White House and that iKenneth R. Cole Jr., head of the Domestic Council, would ' be the proper person to dis-_ cuss domestic issues with In ,stead of Ehrlichman. Apparently bristling aver, ,the fact that FBI guards' 'were in' the White House corridors and thus suggest- ing that Ehrlichman and (Haldeman could not' be ;trusted, the. President' )re- portedly ordered the agents inside the Offices they were' protecting. ' ' ' ,i Similarly, the'. President referred "rather bitingly," i one source said, to:what he called the "political play" by, Sen. Charles H. 'Percy,,(- I1L) in demanding ' the ap- ointment of a special pros- ecutor to conduct the.Water- `pate invistigation.` ' Percy should not. he mak- ing that decision either for the President or for Attor- ney General-designate Ellidt L. Richardson, Mr. Nixon observed. He'noted that he ad 'given . Richardson , full authority tb appoint Much 'an investigator if he should. ,deem it advisable. Percy's resolution asking _tthe President to name a ape- caul . prosecutor was ap "Proved by'the Senate 'with- ,,out dissent..?It is not binding ,'but puts pressure on the ad- 1 11 ;.ministration: ' . Despite; the talk about' Watergate, the President ? "was not looking backward,. but forwara," one person 'Present reported. r At Ziegler's briefing, Bal. timore Sun correspondent ,Adam Clymer asked ' whether, In view of the ? President's praise in his speech of "a vigorous free press," he Was ready to apol. ogize to The Washington Post for a number of attacks be made on it in the course of the developing Watergate story. '!We would all have to say ,that mistakes were made, in terms of comments," Ziegler -replied, "I was overly enthu- aiastic in '.my comments about The Post, particularly CI ~RDPV20Bt t21 t0100150001-0 -context of developments that have taken place." Describing his criticisms as an "overstatement," Zie- gler said: "I would apologize to The Post 'and to Mr. 'Woodward and Mr. Bern- stein." Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward are The Post reporters who did the bulk of the paper's investigative work on the Watergate case. They have "pursued the story" and "deserve credit" for their work, Ziegler said. '. "When we are wrong, we a''are wrong, as we were in' that case," the press secre- tary said. He emphasized that he did not necessarily agree with all that Bernstein and Woodward wrote and was not prejudging the Individu- als mentioned In, The Post stories.' ? ' Katharine Graham, pub- lisher of The Washington Post, said she accepted the apology "with pleasure.", "The administration was trying to undermine the credibility of the press for the last 10 months," she said In New York. "It is a very great satisfaction to find that the press's credibility, -has been proven to the whole world and I hope that this will be remembered. "We could never, never have reported the Water- gate without the use of anonymous sources and yet the courts, the grand juries, and the government are subpoenaing such sources." In another development, former Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Laird told report. ers in a meeting here that Mr. Nixon never asked him to become Involved in the Watergate investigation "in any way." Friends In the Cabinet and in Congress did ? approach him, he said, but they were not speaking for the President. Laird said he had told Mr. Nixon some time ago that he would not be available' for any full-time assignment be- fore July 1. "I have a commitment to him to talk to him before r take on any other full-time jb," Laird said. In an interview with CBS, Haldeman said he was con` winced that when the truth is known "I will be seen as totally clear of any of the implications or allegations that have been made." ' Discussing the decision .to place FBI agents on guard in the Ehrlichman-l-lalde- man-Dean offices, Ziegler. said the order by Acting FBI Director William D. Ruciielshaus was made after a conference between Attor- ney General-designate Rich- ardson and Leonard Gar- ment, acting counsel to the President. "This procedure is. not to Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 east any aspersions but' Co make sure that a strict pro., cedure is followed in rela- tion to the security of White House papers," Ziegler couw mented.. The Associated Press .re. ported that. Haldeman and Ehrlichman had culled through their files, to docu- ment their claim of inno. ,cence. The two former aides 4were seep leaving the White iliouse together in a or with what appeared to be papers! on their laps. A spokesman' said any papers removed ,would have been with the ,approval of the FBI agents. NEW YORK TIMES 2 May 1973 My' EE INDICTED By SEYMOUR M. HERSH , a Gpech,!to TheNew York TImes WASIIINGTON, May 1-Gov. tlrnmcnt Investigators say they. now have evidence that high-; ranking officials of the White House and the Committee for. the Re-election of the Presidei1ti, conspired after the June, 1972,!' Watergate break-In to arrango', a careful cover story designed: to obstruct the Federal invests-? gation. This investigators also say` ithe evidence shows that the obstruction of Justice was to ordinated by, President Nixor:'si two closest advisers, H. i R~ Haldeman and John D. Ehrlich-', man, who resigned yesterday,! and former Attorney Generale John N. Mitchell, who headed,' the re-election" committee alt the time. Threw other former Whits House aides, Jeb Stuart Mal gruder, a special assistant ta( Mr. Nixon, Frederick C. LaRue,' another special assistant, and John W. Dean 3d, the presi. dent's counsel, were also in volved in the initial covetu . attempt, investigators said. The cover-up was formulated during some planned secret: meetings held at the re-election' headquarters here in late June, according to. Investigators. The basic scheme was said' to have called for all of these- Involved in the operation to: deny any knowledge of it, and' for the re-election committee to, lssuo public statements to that effect. In essence, investigators, said, everyone Involved in the operation repeatedly lied to , Federal Investigators; prosecu- tors, other White House offl- dais, and finally, to President Nixon: All six men are expected to be Indicted by the Federal grand jury now hearing tee tI- mony on the Watergate lac'- dent, sources close to'the case today. .At least four other persons were also involved in the cover-up, and 'are now under investigation by the grand jury, the sources said. They are Dwight L. Chapin the Presi- dent's ' former appointments' secretary, Gordon Strachan, a Haldeman assistant, Herbert L Porter, who. worked for Herbert >tleIn's information office, and Kenneth W. Parkinson. The last Is a' Washington : lawyer who was, hired by 'the re-election committee shortly after the June 17 break-in. ~ In addition, investigators` said, there were many others who were-In the words of one source-"seduced by the opera- tion:' The grand jury and Sen- ate. Investigating committee are now trying to determine, among other things, whether those persons knew the full Implica- tions of their roles in the :cover-up. If The. ' scheniet ^?,as' allegedly' ,worked out by Mr. Ehrlichman, Mr.' Haldeman,-..-.Mr . Mitchell ,and, Mr. Dean, incii4ded pay ments to the arrested 'defend, ants,' promises f'of ' executive clemency, a series of public denials, and arrangements with Mr. Magruder and, Mr. Porter to perjurethemselves- . during the trial of the seven Water- ;gate defendants." ' ? The additional funds needed for the payoffs,, sources said, were collected by Herbert W. Kalmbach, President Nixon's personal lawyer, who also served as a chief campaign money raiser. Although Mr.' Kalmbach made a special effort to raise the cash after the men were arrested, the source add- ed. It has not beer' determined ,whether he was aware of Its ultimate use. He, too, is now under Investigation by the grand jury. The White House said today that the lawyer is no longer handling legal mat- ters for Mr. Nixon. "This Is the thing which absolutely 'blows my mind," one investigator said In an interview. The account of the cover-up provided to The New York Times was confirmed and cor- roborated In interviews during the last 24 hours with a variety of officials and attorneys in- volved In the case. Perhaps the grossest fabrica- tion, sources said, was the co- ordinated account provided to the Federal prosecutors, and used by them as a bulwark in the subsequent Watergate trial, of the initial rationale behind the cash payments to G. Gordon Liddy, one of those convicted of the bugging of the Demo- cratic National Committee. The Government was told by a number of re-elected commit- tee officials that the $100,000 given to Liddy was to pay 10'. intelligence. agents $1,000 a month each- for 10 months in 1972 to find,out if anti-Repub- lican demonstrations were plan- ned. "That was a complete fabric- ation," one investigator said. "Just a complete lie." Hugh . W. Sloan Jr., treasurer of the re-election committee, who gave the cash to Liddy, according to investigators, was the only key official who ap- parently chose not to partici-I pate in the cover-up, causing his superiors to alter some de- tails of the agreed-upon story. Mr. Sloan' had been urged to commit perjury during the Watergate trial by testifying that he gave Liddy and his as- sobiates only $40,000 in 100 bills rather than the 'i35,000 that was actually provided, in formed sources said. On atI least three occasions, Mr., Sloan has told investigators that Mr. Magruder and Mr. LaRue attempted to pressure him Into changing his story. Mr. Sloan confirmed the ac- count in a telephone interview last night from his father's home, but refused to discuss the matter, saying that he would talk only to the appro- priate officials. Investigators said, however, that Mr. Sloan had unsuccess- fully attempted, In the days fol- lowing the first public disclo. sure of the Watergate break-in, to tell both Mr. Ehrlichman and Mr. Haldeman of his concern' over the re-election commit- tee's role In the bugging. "Sloan made incredible ef- forts to get word to the Presi- dent or somebody about what he knew ' was wrong," one source noted. "They all told him to go back to the com- mittee." His first attempt to tell high- er-ups of : the impending scandal, investigators said, came six days after the break- In, during an evening party aboard a chartered vessel In the Potomac River. The party was In honor of Col. Vernon C. Coffey of the Army, a White House military aide who was being reassigned to the Nation- al War College, and many ?White House and re-election committee, officials attended. this time, one source said, Mr. Sloan "had begun to read this stuff in newspapers about $100 bills floating around and he really . began to. get scared." ."He thought his fingerprints might be on the bills and he also thought that if the white House didn't deal with the problem quickly it could hurt the President," the source said. According to Investigators, Mr. Sloan aproached Mr. Cha- pin, who was then Mr. Nixon't appointments secretary and a Halderman protegd, and asked] for an appointment with the White House chief of staff. In- vestigators also say that he; roughly these words, took place during his White House meet- ing with Mr. Ehrlichman: Sloan: "I think we've got some real problems at the com- mittee in connection with this bugging of the Democrats." Ehrlichman: "That's problem you have over there. I don't want to know any facts; it's none of my business. If you have a personal problem about It, get a lawyer."Sloan: "Let me tell you what I think may be going on over there." Ehrlichman: "I don't want to be told any details." Mr. Sloan, sources said, never did get an appointment with Mr. Haldeman, and he was, in effect, told by Mr. Chapin to mind his own busi- ness. But according to Investiga. tors, at precisely the moment when Mr. Ehrlichman was tell- ing Mr. Sloan he wanted no "details," and Mr. Haldeman was reft1sing? to see him, both men, were already involved in developing the initial cover-up story. Later, sources said, when Mr. Sloan told Mr. Parkinson, the re-election committee attor-i ney, about the effort to force. him to testify to smaller pay- ments to Liddy than had been granted, Mr. Sloan said he' would not do so. The sources' said that this apparently forcedi Mr. Parkinson to go to Mr.l Mitchell and urge him ,,and the others to tell the t!-ue story." now suspect that both Mr,,Park- inson, and one of his associ. ates, Paul L. O'Brien, had rea- son to suspect that a cover-up was taking place in connection with the re-election commit- 'tee's cash outlays, although the men apparently did not know for what use the Watergate teamnwas using the funds. "Everybody knew that Sloan was the fly In the ointment," one Investigator said. "Sloan kept them a little bit honest, to his undying credit." A number of, sources cau- tioned that the Investigations have yet to turn up -- as one put it --- "a nice, tidy little meeting where they all sat down and planned how to do it." Instead,,the sources said, some meetings involving com- mittee officials were held it late June, with telephone con- sultltions handled at a high ,level with Mr. Heideman and Mr. Ehrlichman. "Haldeman and Ehrlichman were running the cover-up," one investigator said during an Interview. He added that it was not known whether the two Presidential aides were aware of the Watergate bugging operation before the arrests. "We don't know whether Nixon to this daythe knows what really happened,' investiga- tor added. "He really thinks they're clean," with Mr. Ehrlichman, the Pres- ident's domestic adviser. Accordjng to the investiga- tors, Mr. Sloan said that the following conversation, using not "be seen by anyone as evi dence of any wrongdoing by either one." In their statements,] ~Mr. Haldeman and Mr. Ehrlich?I Approved For Release 2001/08/07: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000104150001-0 man criticized the newspaper "rumors" and "Innuendos" sur- rounding their roles in the Watergate inquiry. and said a full Inquiry would demon- strate that they were not guilty of any wrongdoing. . The investigators say that the cover-up publicly began within two days of the arrests inside the Democratic headquarters, after newspapers identified James W. McCord Jr., one of those arrested, as a "security coordinator" for the Republican re-election committee. The committee Issued a ,statement in Mr. Mitchell's namo declaring that "we want to emphasize that this man [McCord) and the other people nvolvcd were not operating either in our behalf or with our consent." The Mitchell statement added: "The person involved is the proprietor of a private security firm which was employed by our committee months ago to assist with the installation of, our security system. He has, as' we understand it, a number of business clients and interests, and we have no know! edge' of those relationships . There Is no place in our cam- paign or in the electoral process or this type of activity and we will not permit it nor con- done it." That press. release, invest!- 'gators say, was the first stage of the conspiracy just beginning to unfold. "The original strat- egy was to blame it on Mc- Cord," one source said, and Liddy---who officially was a counsel for the Finance Com- niittco to Re-elect the Presi- dent-was among those advo- cating that'stratcgy. "There was a bunch of little meetings in C.R.P. [the Commit- tee for Re-election of the Pres- ident)," the source went on, and Liddy was quoted by one witness as saying 'That's just McCord, always doing some-' thing like that." Liddy himself was dismissed on June 28, 11 days after the break-in, after a newspaper re- ports linked the $100 billsi found on the Watergate team to the finance committee, but the news did not come out until nearly one month later. By the time he was dismissed, for re- fusing to discuss the operation with agents from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, he had agreed to become a focal point of the cover-up, investigators said. "The strategy then became ,to blame It all on Liddy," the ggurce ? added. "Everybody knew that Gordon know how to keep his mouth shut, and they were right-he did."* During his closing argument at the end of the trial of the Watergate defendants, Earl J. Silbert, the principal Assistant United States Attorney trying the case, pointed his finger at Liddy and described him caus- tically and repeatedly as "the boss. ' He depicted the Watergate team, led by Liddy and Mc- 'Cord, as being "off on an enterprise of their own." Mr. Liddy, a former F.B.I. agent And White House aide, "was the money man, the supervisor" of the group who had been 'playing cops and robbers," Mr, ea -t MA e Liddy, who was' Jailed after his conviction In the bugging operation, is still withstanding pressure from the White House and the Federal prosecutors to ,give his account. ) Sometime in late June, in- Ivestigators said, President Nixon assigned Mr. Dean to! investigate the possibility of; White House involvement in; 'the bugging operation. In his speech last night r. Nixon. implied that his c investi= gators had lied to "I don't think Dean had any' prior knowledge of the 'bug= ging," one investigator said. "He agreed to go along with the cover-up. Once he found out how many people would be hurt% he was convinced that the scandal would really dam age the country." i ' ' " The investigator gave.,thi~~ paraphrasal of what he said was the approach used by the two high-level Presidential aides to the counsel when the question of the bugging was initially discussed: "Now, Jolm, we know that the President is asking you to do this investigation. But the President doesn't know Any- th!ng about all of lulls, and we do. Consider in your mind the ,consequences of the whole story coming out, and what it would do to the country." The investigator said that after listening to the explana- tion from Tiis superiors, "Dean ,went into the bag and falsi- fied his. report to the . Presi- dent." ' Mr. Dean's subsequent re- lease of information to various newspapers in the last two weeks about the involvement of higher-ups was based in part on his anger, the investigator said, upon learning that Mr. Haldeman and Mr. Ehrlichman had "given him all this bull about wanting to protect the Presidency, when really they were just protecting' their necks." Federal sources have since acknowledged that it was Mr. Dean who first told.investiga- tors earlier this month about the meeting at which L.. Pat- rick Gray 3d, acting director of the F.B.I., was in effect told to destroy White files be- longing to one of the Watergate participants. Also at the meet- ing, alon with Mr. Dean, was Mr. Ehrlichman. The overall effect of the in- itial cover-up was-so complete, sources said, that the prosecu- tors ignored a number of vital clues pointing toward a con- spiracy during their initial in- vestigation and the trial. The most significant of these, sources said, was provided by Mr. Sloan himself, who went to Mr. Silbert and Seymour Glanzer and Donald E. Camp- bell, his deputies, and told them that pressure was being placed. upon him by Mr.. Ma- gruder and Mr. LaRue to com- mit perjury. Mr, Sloan acknowledged the meeting with Mr. Silbert during. the brief telephone interview; but the prosecutors, as has been their practice, refused to dis- cuss grand jury matters with a teporter, WASHINGTON POST 2 May 1973 Law rp ? , 9 . t Asserts, .lei ?ei s By Lawrence Meyer and John P. MacKenzie Washington Poet Staff WOWS c ? ff , In one of his last acts as - . successor, Elliot L. Richard- k'Attorney General of the son, is confirmed. Included 'United* States, Richard. G. In the prepared speech I Kliendienst told an audi- Kleindienst no longer found fence of judges and lawyers quite appropriate were the - Piesterday that "these days following expressions of so far as the law Is con- pride in the Nixon adminis- t?:::..tcerned are days of sorrow, ,but they are not days.of de- fspair. The law has pre- i vailed." Discarding a prepared ;text as "not quite relevant, at quite appropriate," the .man who resigned Monday as the nation's top law en- orcement official because of the Watergate scandal Wild - he wanted to *"extemporaneously ' and from my heart say a few trat.ion's record: "When men usurp the law, then government is subject to their whims, their person- alities and their varying eth- ical standards. "Beginning In the early 1960s, a wave of lawlessness swept across the United States. It showed itself in the increase of general crime, in mob disorders, and In such spectacular inci dents as assassinations, bom- bings and hijackings. "These trends showed that (Stances we now find . our. a relatively small but grow- selves In.", Ing number of Americans', t"? But Kleindienst touched far from recognizing their 'repeatedly on the theme of duties as citizens, were put- this prepared text and the Ling themselves above the 'theme of the Law Day ob- law. 'servance that inspired it- "We saw this most dra- ithat this is a government of matically in cases where `laws, not men. witnesses to a crime refused "I'm proud that here in' to testify because they did not want to become Involved udge named John J. Sirica ' "' "would " " even "cal It the who, with great courage police oet' not M ? ~ pwhile a crime was be. ,.under most difficult eircum- ing committed. standes, has assured the citi- ' "I am pleased to point out zens of this country that jus? ' that we are witnessing a re- Mice will be done." ? '' versal of this alarming trend As Kleindienst' spoke, Sir-. . In short, what seemed !Ica-who presided at the to be the growing popularity Atrial of the seven convicted of lawlessness, where Amer- rtWatergate conspirators-sat icans put themselves above a'few feet away in the U.S., or outside the law, has been District Courthouse eeremo- tnial courtroom. . . '.With pride,. Kleindienst. again cited the statistics he eferred to In the past when discussing the Justice De- partment's investigation of . the 'Watergate affair-2,500 interviews conducted, 20,000 hours spent on the case, 500 agents Involved And 53 of .the FBI's 59 field offices. Kleindienst resigned Mon- 'day, telling the President that "persons with whom I "had had close personal and $rofessional associations Edobld be involved in conduct violative of the laws of the ,United States. Fair and im- Ppartial enforcement of the* law requires that a person who has not had such Inti- ,jnate relationships be the ;Attorney General of the 'United States." !l:e continues to serve as Attorney General until his Those were the remarks that Kleindienst did not de- liver. Instead, he concluded his off-the-cuff remarks by expressing another kind of pride. "As I make this, my last Law Day speech as Attorney General of the United States, my belief rather than being lessened baa been strengthened" in the promise of the United States. "There will be an- other Attorney General 200 years from now who can say we have prospered because we have been true to that promise." a Outside, where the teicvi- sion cameras ? waited for him, Kleindenst repeated his message again. "We are a country of law, not of men," be said. The events of the past few days "prove that the law prevails. It works Its will." o Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 ho in Watergate: ' es Include To n Nixon WASHINGTON POST 29 April 1973 affair, which initially involved littl?1'' known individuals, has now -reached int6l the 'uppermost reaches of the Nixon administration. The following glossary of names,' along with the accompanying diagram,'i sketches the principals involved in re cent. developments and their relationship, to etch other. most Important question, as yet unan-j sweted, in the Watergate affair is flow, much, if anything, the President kdewt abopt the hugging of the Watergate, other acts of election campaign espio-, nag and sabotage, and the effort to' cover up the scandal-before his an-i nouncement April 17 that his own in-` quiry, begun March 21, had turned tlp+ "major developments" in the case. Adcording to highly reliable sources; 'in the executive branch, the President, ,was told as early'as last December that{ former Attorney General John N. Mitch. ell and White House .counsel John W., Dean III were probably deeply In,", volved In' both the Illegal electronic'surveillance and the coverup. , i 'Charles W. Colson, among other! White douse staff members, was reli ably reported to have told the Presi-? dent that persons. in his administration', were obstructing justice and that ac-? tion should be taken. Colson has de nied giving Mr. Nixon any such warn-, Ing, and Gerald Warren, deputy presi- dential press secretary, said the White. House would have no comment on the reports. The President is officially reported; by the White House to be, conducting', his own independent investigation Into, the affair. Mr. Nixon also has had at least two meetings with John J. Wit= son, the lawyer recently retained by' top White House aides H. It. Haldeman, John N. MITCHELL-Attorney Gen- cral' from 1969 until he resigned in, March, 1972, to become the President's, campaign manager, Mitchell was Mr. Nixon's law partner for two years, his .1968 presidential campaign manager and his closest adviser for some time before and after the 1968 election. ,Mitchell resigned as manager of the President's 1972 campaign on July 1, 1972, citing personal reasons after his wife, Martha, publicly demanded that, he quit. Subsequently, it was reported thatDlitchcll?was one of a handful of top campaign and administration offs vials' with access to a secret fund usee to finance the Watergate and other,es- pionage and sabotage activities. Before the election, Mitchell repeat- edly denied having any knowledge of the Watergate bugging. On April 20, 1973, after testifying before the federal grand jury here. Mitchell conceded ' that he had attended meetings where .the bugging was discussed but insisted "I never approved any such plans." . However, Mitchell's deputy ?at the Committee for the Re-cl,?ctlon of the President. Jeb Stuart Magruder. re. portedly has told federal prosecutors John N. MITCHELL Gordon STRACHAN John EHRLICHMAN Herbert W. KALMBACH Dwight CHAPIN Donald H. SEGRETTI' STANS F Mau L. flriok) GRAY Frank A. sruRGis '' Convicted Watergate Conspirators By Joseph Mastrenselo-The Washtnatoq Post thatlMitchell and White house counsel' Dean approved the bugging and later approved trite payment of funds to the, men indicted for the Watergate cmn %piracy in an effort to buy their si- 'Ience. H.R. (Bob) HALDEMAN-President Vixon's White House chief of staff and, until the recent flood of Watergate ;revelations, the man to see for anyone 'who wanted to see or communicate with the President. Haldeman was con- sidered generally to be the molt pow- erful man on the White House staff and competed with Mitchell for power. .both within the administration and in political campaign matters. Associates of White House Counsel Dean have said that he will testify un -der oath before the grand jury that Haldeman and other high White House officials actively participated in a cover-up to hide the involvement of' presidential aides in the. bugging. Haldeman has denied the charge. The 'grand jury reportedly has al- ready been told that the President's re- election committee, on Haldeman's or- ders, transferred $350,000 to the White House before April 7, 1972, when a .new campaign finance law became effective. , . The grand jury was told that Halde- man ordered, the money given to a re- 8 election, committee official, Fred La- Rue, who, sources close to the investi- gation have reported, paid large sums of money-"hush money"-to the Watergate conspirators to pay for their silence. In the wake of recent revelations, Haldeman's White House influence re- portedly has been drastically reduced, and there have been recurrent rumors within the White House staff that his resignation was imminent. John D. EHRLICHMAN-Assistant to the President for domestic affairs, Ehrlichman remained relatively ur touched by recent Watergate Affair revelations until it was disclosed April 28 that Acting FBI Director L. Patrick Gray 111, after meeting with Ehrlich- man and White House counsel Dean, had destroyed documents taken from the White House office of Watergate' conspiration E. Howard Hunt Jr. Ehrlichman said in a statement that he was present at a meeting with Gray and Dean at which the documents were discussed and turned over to Gray, "but neither then, nor at any other time, did I give Mr. Gray any re- quest, suggestion or instruction regard- ing what should be done with the con- tents." An associate of Dean's says that Dean was at the meeting but that "it was John Ehrlichman who ordered Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 John W.' DEAN Jeb Stuart MAGRUDER Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 "ray to destroy the documents." Herbert W. KALMBACH-President Nixon's personal lawyer, Kalmbach' had' control over a $500,000 account, that allegedly was used to finance the ,political campaign sabotage activities of Donald H. Segretti. Kalmbach has testified before the, grand jury investigating the watergate affair, according to reliable sources. Kalmbach is being investigated by the 'jury on possible charges involving ob-, struction of justice by providing some of the money used by others to buy the silence of-the convicted Watergate con-1 { ppirators, ? according to government, sources. Maurice STANS-Former Secretary of Commerce, Stans resigned to be- come finance director of President` Nixon's re-election committee. +' Stans -kept between $350,000 and $700,000 from campaign -contributions fin cash In his office safe. According to, testimony at the Watergate burglary trial, convicted Watergate conspirator G. Gordon Liddy was given $235,000 from these funds. This money wasp }used, among other things, to finance. ,the break-in and bugging of the Demo 'crattc National committee. The money came in cash campaign contributions from a variety ? of sources, including a $100,000 contrib- ution from Texas oil executive robert 11. Allen, who routed the money' through Mexico, and $200,000 from in- ternational financier Robert L. Vesco, under Investigation by a federal grand jury In New York In connection with a, Securities and Exchange Commission' fraud inquiry. The Committee for the Re-election of the President says that both the Allen and Vesco contributions, 'were returned. ` John W. DEAN-Initially a remote figure in the Watergate affair. Dean ,has become a focal point' in the re- ?cently renewed investigation. Accord- ing to reports of what former deputy, Nixon campaign manager Magruder, has told federal prosecutors, Dean, along with Mitchell, helped plan and approved the Watergate bugging oper- ation. Magruder also has reportedly told prosecutors that Dean and Mitchell later arranged to buy the silence of ,the Watergate conspirators. Former Acting 'FBI Director Gray has told a senate ? committee that he turned FBI Watergate investigation re- ports over to Dean. Last week, It was learned that Dean was present at the meeting with Ehrl- ichman and Gray, after which Gray de- stroyed documents from E. Howard Hunt Jr.'s White House office. At the meeting, Dean told Gray that the docu- ments should "never see the light of day," according to FBI and other sources. Dean has also reportedly told the President that Dean, Haldeman and' Ehrlichman would have to tell all they knew about the Watergate bugging case and face the possibility of going to jail "to save the presidency." On, April 6. Dean reportedly told federal .prosecutors all he knew about the bug- ging and subsequent cover-up, but he has not yet testified before the grand. 3ury. Dean left the Justice Department in 1970 to become White House 'Counsel; with the strong backing of Mitchell. As White House counsel, handling legal problems for the President, Dears? worked closely with Haldeman. -; L. Patrick GRAY Ill-Until his res- ignation Friday, the acting director of; the FBI, Gray supervised the FBI in-~ ;vestigation into the Watergate affair.' (Impeccable sources close to him havel confirmed and Gray has not denied re-4 ,ports that he destroyed documents be-: ,longing to Watergate conspirator E. Howard Hunt Jr. after a meeting with White House aides Ehrlichman and Dean. Gray is reported by an associate to,, be "just sick about all this" and anx-' sous to appear before the grand jury. ?Jeb Stuart MAGRUDER-A former" merchandising executive in the cos- metics business, Magruder worked un-' der Haldeman oil the White House' staff, which he left in May, 1971, to es- ,tablish the President's re-election com- mittee. Magruder ran the committee' ,until Mitchell became its director in .March, 1972. Magruder stayed on at Mitchell's deputy. At the Watergate trial, Magruder ?testified that he hired Watergate con- spirator Liddy on Dean's recommenda-, ition to handle committee legal prob- lems, Magruder denied under oath, 'however, that he knew about or ap- proved the Watergate bugging opera- tion. ' ;j Associates of Magruder say that her, has since told federal prosecutors than Mitchell and Dean both gave Magru- .der approval to conduct the bugging.' Mitchell, who admits he heard a dis- epssion of bugging but insists he ref- used to approve it, told the grand jury that he believes Magruder went over ,,his head to unnamed White House offi-: cials for approval of the Watergate op' eration, according to a Mitchell associ- ate. Frederick C. LaRUE-One of Mitch- ell's most intimate assistants and ? a former White House aide, LaRue has' been described by federal Investigators ,as being one of the re-election com-; I mittee officials who directed, a "housecleaning" to destroy committee documents following' the June 17,' Watergate arrests. LaRue also was in-, ,valved in paying the Watergate con spirators money to keep them silent, according to reliable sources. Dwight CHAPIN-Now an airline ex- ecutive, Chapin was appointments sec- retary to the President and his chief advance man for important trips, 'in- eluding the visit to China in 1972. A University of Southern California graduate, Chapin, with Haldeman aide Gordon Strachan, recruited Donald Segretti, a college classmate of both, for political sabotage activities during the 1972 campaign, Chapin left the White House staff after the 1972 elec- tion. Gordon STRACHAN-A former White House aide on Haldeman's staff and now general counsel for the' United States Information Agency, Strachan (pronounced 'Strawn) helped recruit Segretti. Strachan also report- edly took $350,000 from Haldeman to LaRue to pay the conspirators after their arrests, Strachan acted as the link between; Segretti's missions and the intclligence;, gathering operations of Hunt and Liddy:; Donald H. SEGRETTI-A college classmate of Chapin and Strachan,i Segretti was paid at least $30,000 by, Nixon lawyer Kalmbach to conduct po-, litical sabotage. Segretti reported di-' rectly to Chapin and also communi;, cated with convicted Watergate cony spirator Hunt, l G. Gordon LIDDY-Described byd' the prosecution during the Watergate) trial as the brains and boss of the) Watergate bugging operation, Liddy" now emerges more clearly as the field' commander in an extensive espionage` ,bureaucracy. !i Liddy is a former Treasury Depart.; ment official, White House aide and', ex-FBI agent who was hired, according' .to Magruder, to handle legal problems 1 for the re-election committee. Magru der testified at the trial that he also'! authorized Liddy to spend $250,000 to gather intelligence on demonstrations -threatening security at the 1972 Repub-;. lican convention and at appearances of-' speakers on behalf of the President ,during the 1972,spring primaries. ? The latest revelation about Liddy Is j that he and ? his friend and fellow,; Watergate conspirator, Hunt allegedly, broke into the office of the psychia4, trist for Daniel Ellsberg in order to ob-, tai' files. Ellsberg is standing trial In,' connection with the disclosure of'the l Pentagon Papers. E. Howard HUNT Jr.', --A forme( CIA agent and ex-white 'House aide," ,Hunt was brought into the Whited ;House by Ehrlichman, and special) counsel Charles W. Colson, purport- edly to work on declassifying the. Pen.. tagon Papers. Hunt was. used report. edly for a variety of missions, Includ- ing gathering political Intelligence.' that could be used against Sen. Ed- ward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.), ?, According to convicted Watergate, conspirator James W. McCord Jr.,. Hunt and Hunt's late wife, Dorothy,, ,made vague offers of money and exec-, ' utive clemency to the Watergate con- spirators to remain silent. Hunt's wife. was killed in a Chicago plane crash, Nov. 30. She was carrying' $10,000 in' t 1 b",- t h $ 00 ime at t e James W. j12cCORD Jr.-Former Be-` curity director for the President's re- election committee, McCord main tained his silence until March 21, when' he delivered a letter to Chief U.S. Dis- trict Judge John J. Sirica offering to tell what he knew about the Watergate affair. McCord's revelations to Senate investigators and the grand jury have played a major role in breaking open the conspiracy. 'McCord was arrested inside the. Democratic Party's Watergate head- quarters in the early morning hours of June 17 along with four men from Miami who had been recruited by .Hunt-'Bernard L. Barker, Eugenio R. Martinez, Virgibo R. Gonzales and Frank A. Sturgis. The men from Mi- ami all pleaded guilty to all chargeg against them. -LAWRENCE MEYER Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RD9 P77-00432R000100150001-0 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 WASHINGTON POST 3 May 1973 As Am Reporte (f , (? By Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein Washington Post Staff Writers The Nixon administration tapped the telephones of at least two newspaper reporters in 1971 as part of the investigation reportedly ordered by President Nixon into the leaks of the Pentagon Papers to the press, ac- cording to two highly placed sources in the executive branch. The wiretapping was su- pervised by Watergate con- spirators E. Howard Hunt It was decided at a Nixon' campaign strategy meeting: that some members of the dame vigilante squad respon-; sible for the Pentagon Papers wiretapping would be used.' to wiretap the telephones of .Democratic presidential can-'-; didates, according to one of the sources. James W. McCord Jr., one of the convicted Watergate' conspirators, reportedly has told a federal grand jury here that the Watergate bug- Jr. and G. Gordon Liddy,, who were then working in the White House, and it was authorized by John N. Mit- chell while he was Attorney General, one of the sources said. In this electronic surveil- lance, according to the same source, Hunt and Liddy supervised an independent team, or so-called "vigilante' squad," of wiretappers not employed by the FBI-the agency that normally per 'forms legal wiretapping. That source named two re- porters from The New York Times, which published the Pentagon Papers in June, 1971, as being among those whose phones were tapped. Another source confirmed that the telephones of Tines reporters were tap- ped but could not identify -those placed under surveil-; lance. The legality of such wire- tapping is an unsettled ques- tion. The Supreme Court last year unanimously re- jected Nixon administration claims to the right to con- duct electronic surveillance without a court order in so- called "domestic subversion" cases. But the Court left open whether the executive -branch has such power in national security cases in- volving "foreign subversion." According to The Post's sources. ' the' wiretapping connected with the Pent- agon Papers followed earl- ier White House-ordered wiretaps of other reporters to discover tho. sources of leaks of information about the Strategic Arms Limi- ttation Talks (SALT) to the news media. In addition, during the 'first Nixon administration, the office or home tele- phones of at least 10 White .House staff members also' were tapped in the course- -of investigations Into nvw feaks,'the sources said. Bing team had planned, but never carried out, the instal lation of Wiretaps and eaves- dropping devices In the cam- paign headquarters of Sens. iGeorge. McGovern and Ed,' ;round S. Muskie. Although the activities of the squad were authorized 'by then 'Attorney General' 'Mitchell, the source said,. they were more closely super- vised by Assistant Attorney, General Robert. C. Mardian,, .who later became the poll-' tical coordinator of the' Committee for the Re-elec. tion of the President, the source said. According to the sources; the wiretapping in the Pen- tagon Papers 'ease began shortly after the Times started publication of the classified, multivolume his- tory of the, Vietnam War, ,The Times had obtained the documents from Daniel Ells- berg, the former Defense' '.Department analyst now on, trial in Los Angeles. In June. 1971, the govern:" ment moved unsuccessfully' in court to permanently halt publication of the Pentagon papers on the grounds of na- tional security. At the time, a White House team known as "The Plumbers," whose members included Hunt and Liddy, was attempting to determine how The Times obtained the' Papers. The Los. Angeles Times reported last year .that Liddy had proposed to the. ? Justice Department that The New York Times be tapped -in-the Pentagon Pa- pers Investigation. How- ever, at the time, the Los Angeles Times reported that the Justice Department lturned down Liddy's sug- 'gestion. The "plumbers" project was under the direction of 'former presidential counsel' Charles W. Colson and John, Ehrlichman, who until .this. week was President Nixon's' principal domestic -affairs adviser, according to a statement given to the FBI, last week by Ehrlichman. The project was undertaken on orders from the Presi- dent, Ehrlichman told th ' FBI. According to Ehrlichman's statement, Hunt and Liddy broke into the oftlce of Daniel Ellsberg's psychia- trist, after which Ehrlichman said he told them "not to do it again.` The statement by Ehrlich- man, who resigned from his White House job Monday, makes no mention of the wiretapping conducted dur- ing the Pentagon Papers project. Accordiing to The Post's sources, all records relating to the activities of the vigi- lante squad that conducted that wiretapping have been destroyed. Only six to eight people ,had first-hand knowledge of, the squad's activities, accord ing to one source who said' the June 17, 1972 arrest. at the Watergate set those peo-. pie "off the edge" with worry that the Watergate break-in -would lead to dis- covery of the earlier wire-, tapping by theNixon admir>,-, istration. ' The Washington Post ref ported in February that Hunt! -and Liddy were regularly' routed Information obtained from national security wire-? taps for several months in' 1971 and 1972. It could not be learned at that time exactly what wire- tap information they re-' ceived, though "presumably the reports from the taps of Times reporters would have gone to Hunt. and Liddy be-' cause they were supervising the operation. The information from na- tional security wiretaps is among the most closely held and sensitive data collected by the U.S. intelligence com- munity and had been tradi. tionally supervised by the Justice Department Internal Security Division. The division, which was headed by Mardian during the first Nixon administra- tion, was abolished earlier this year. Hunt's and Liddy's work' as White House "plumbers" was supervised by D a v i d 'Young, a former staff mem- ber of the National Security Council. Young r e s i g n e d from the council staff about' three weeks ago .without ex- planation. Former White House aide' Egil Krogh Jr. was In over all charge of the "plumb-' ers." Krogh, 33, presently undersecretary of the De- partment of Transportation, suddenly took leave yester- day from his post. He has{ refused to return a report- er's daily telephone calls for' the last five days. On March 12, Time mag- azine reported that the FBI hat, tapped the telepones of brews reporters, first with the approval of Its late di.- rector, J. Edgar Hoover, and then by his successor, for- mer acting FBI Director L. Patrick Cray. However, dur. ing the.Senate confirmation hearings that led to the with. drawal of Gray's nomination to be permanent director of the FBI, Gray testified that he had no knowledge of such taps by the FBI. According to Time's ac- count, the White House asked Hoover to tap the tele- phones of reporters and White House officials sus- pected of leaking informs- tion about three years ago.. "Hoover balked, and de= manded authorization from John Mitchell, then U.S. At- torney General," Time re- ported. "Mitchell sanctioned the surveillance . . . on grounds of domestic secur- ity, which sidestepped the necessity of getting a court order for each tap. The -operation started with only ,one tap, but soon expanded Ito Include surveillance of six or seven 'reporters, plus an undetermined number of . White House aides." "The wiretapping actually helped keep Hoover on the' job until hisi death last year. ," Time reported. "Richard Klelndienst, then l deputy at- torney general tried to force' Hoover to step down, and in 1971 even gave his support to a proposed congressional in- vestigation of the FBI. En- raged, Hoover indicated to Kleindienst that if he was called to testify on Capitol Hill, he might disclose talc wiretaps.", The only wiretapping of reporters and White House aides known to The Post's sources was conducted by the vigilante squads of pro- fessional wiretappers and ex. CIA and ex-FBI agents-not by the FBI. "They were out of FBI channels," one source stressed. Asked about the Time magazine report of FBI wire- taps, Gray said at his con- firmation -hearing: "When I saw this particu* lar article and checked the records and indices of the Federal Bureau of Investi- Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 +`gation, and I am told also. that the Department of. Justice checked the records of the Internal Security Dl-. 'vision of the Department of Justice, and there Is no rec ford of any such business, :here of bugging news re-j 'porters and White House' people." Gray also testified: "If these acts were committed, certainly it Is a felony, no : question about It certainly." NEW YORK TIMES 29 April 1973 MRS. HUNT'S MONEY SAID TO BE FOR MOTEL CHICAGO, April 27 (UPI)- An accountant related by mar- riage to a Watergate conspira- tor, E. Howart Hunt Jr., quoted Mr. Hunt Friday as saying the $10,000 his wife was carrying the night she was killed in an airline crash was to buy a Holi- day Inn franchise. The money was found In Mrs. Hunt's purse In the wreck- age of the United Air Lines jet that crashed near Chicago's Midway Airport last December.; Harold C. Caristead of sub- lurban ' Flossmoor, whose ' Wife C was a cousin to Mrs. Hunt, said e' had discussed the Holiday Inn franchise with Mrs. Hunt. Mr. Caristead, a certified. pub- lic accountant with motel in- vestments, added that the price of the franchise when he talked with her by phone was $10,000. "By the time she was on her away out to Chicago it had gone up to $15,000," he said. Carl. stead said a theory that Mrs. Hunt wanted the franchise to cover for secret income she re- ceived during her husband's im'~ prisonmcnt was "ridiculous." James W. McCord, another Watergate defendant, reported.; !"silence" a' Federal grand jury that' Mrs. Hunt was the courier for "silence" money paid to the' seven, defendants by theCom. mittee for the Re-election of the' President. BALTIMORE SUN 3 May 1973 . . 7oseph Kraft We Still Await Full ' Watergate Story I watched the President's Watergate telecast with a Republican senator who had repeatedly proclaimed. that full disclosure would vindi- cate Mr. Nixon. At the end of the speech, the senator ,called his press secretary to say he would Issue no state- merit. "I feel," he said, "like throwing up." the reason for that feeling' is-that Mr. Nixon has once; more decided against full disclosure on Watergate. In- stead of telling it as it was, he has set up an adversary proceeding in which one' group of former White House aides, praised by Mr. Nixon, will pit their stories against the version of another group whose reputations are now being blackened by the White House. The best evidence of the nondisclosure policy lies in the recent events not men- tioned by the President. For- get all about the crossing of the Watergate affair with the Ellsberg case. Say nothing of the ilisclo sure by L. Patrick Gray, the former acting head of the. FBI, that he had burned papers taken from the office of men implicated in the Watergate break-in and given to him by John D. Ehr- lichman and John W. Dean 3d of the White House staff. Overlook the fact that Mr. Dean had threatened, to, spill the beans if he were made a "scapegoat" for Watergate, Think only of the behavior` of John N. Mitchell, former, attorney general. He had .publicly acknowledged at- tending high-level meetings, at which the project for bug.' the Democrats had been discussed.. Having heard of ,the plans in advance, Mr? Mitchell had to know ft at WASHINGTON POST 26 April 1973 tNairobi Paper ,;Cites Watergate was involved when the men breaking into Watergate ,were apprehended June 17. Since he was then serving as head of the Committee for the Re-election of the Presi- tdent, it is hard to believe he would not, have signaled some kind of word to his close friend in the White House. ' But the President made nog mention of that.semi,confes= sion as though it were a mere bagatelle - the kind of thing a former attorney gen- eral does every day of the, week. What Mr. Nixon said was ,almost as confusing as what he left' unsaid. On the one -hand,..- for example, he. warmly praised the two top White House aides whose resignations were announced on the day of the speech. He called Mr. Ehrlichman and H.R. (Bob) Haldeman,' 'the White House chief of staff, "two of the finest pub- 'lic servants it has been my privilege to know." ' At the Cabinet . meeting next day, Mr. Nixon pounded the table angrily and denounc- ed as "a stupid act" the post- ing of FBI men in'the offices of Mr. Ehrlichman and Mr. Haldeman. In harsh contrast was the' treatment accorded Mr.? Dean . and Mi. Gray. Mr. Dean was dropped without any praise in a way that made it seem clear he was fired. Mr: Gray was pulled back from a resignation he was about to offer April 26 so Ronald L.' Ziegler, the White. House press secretary, could announce a resignation next day with the kind of winks and nudges and background hints which suggested that Mr. Gray had been fired. .. .:.The contrast in treatment coincides with different ver- sions of Watergate. Mr. NAIROBI, } enya, April '25--The Watergate scan. tdat is giving the United 'States a good name-at ;least In Nairobi. Readers of the Nairobi ,Daily . Nation were told ,today: . c Haldeman and Mr. Ehrlich- man are insisting on their own innocence and that of the President. Hence, the White House has an interest. in making them seem credible witnesses. . . Mr. Dean and Mr. Gray,. however, are telling stories that implicate the highest White House aides-hence, Mr. Nixon's interest in, blackening their reputations.' In the end, I have no doubt that a large part of the story will come out. A grand jury is sitting. There will be in- dictments and a public trial. 'A Senate investigating com- mittee' will air the whole episode. The press is not exactly inactive. Moreover, a new attorney general, Elliot L. Richard- son, is looking into the whole business. Mr. Richardson' fancies.himself as President, and he has shown in past. service at the departments of Defense and Health, Edu- cation and Welfare a willing- ness to front for Mr. Nixon's dirty work. But Mr. Richardson is also a distinguished attorney with a deep respect for our his-, tory and our laws. He has the authority to appoint a special prosecutor. If he does not appoint a special prose- cutor, he will be under the, strongest possible pressure to do a thorough job. So I doubt the President's TV statement will do much more than buy time before ..more of the full story emerges. The big question Is why Mr.' Nixon uses so many stratagems to muddy the story and drag out its telling. The answer that suggests itself is what made the sena- tor feel like throwing up. It Js that Mr. Nixon himself may, not have clean hands.' "It Is going to be easy tb say that a corrupt system !`exists in the United States. Yet ... Americans have something to be proud of.. They have a so. ciety in which scandals in- volving their chief execu. tive are discussed In pub- lic. How many other coun? tries can boast the same tradition7" Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP]j1-00432R000100150001-0 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 NEW YORK TIMES 3 May 1973 ESTIGATORS . G.O.P. JDESPREAD effort. J chief domestic adviser who- also "The Republicans had pee le resigned Monday, along with in all of the campaigns," one In. John N. Mitchell, former At- kvestigator said, "but . not at torney General, conspired with high levels. They had little at least three other officials, to people nobody would suspect." I arranged a cover-up story to They started playing tricks with the avowed- goal of heavily Influencing the nomination of the Democratic candidate," he added. Intelligence operations are commonplace in political cam- paigns and usually include ef- forts s to collect all published in- formation about an opponent along with occasional efforts to obtain advance copies of speeches, travel schedules and the like. The Justice Department's fraud unit is known to be in- vestigating the Republican es- pionage activities for possible violations of Federal law. The prime espionage target throughout late 1971 and in early 1972, investigators said, was Mr. Muskie, whose cam- paign was repeatedly jarred by Inexplicable incidents - such as the disappearance of vital polling dtea, the misrouting of the candidate's personal plane, and the anonymous "Canuck" letter in the New Hampshire primary that accused Mr. Mus- kie of casting ethnic slurs oni French-Canadians. "We do have evidence that there was infiltration of the ;~uskie campaign and that man ocuments were stolen or pho- tographed," one investigator said. He specfically cited a private staff letter to Senator Muskie callin on shim to stage hear- 72 kie canceled the proposed bers of the eventual Watergate hearing, team, were assigned to the In a private meeting with a, (,peration. group of Republican congress- Hunt, a former agent for the men a little more than a month Central Intelligence Agency, is ago, Mr. Haldeman wrs re- known to have begun research- ported to have acknow;edged bi ing the background of potential ing personally responsible for Democratic Presidential candi- ?organizing a political intellig- dates and recruiting a number Bence operation in 1972. He was of former colleagues and asso-l quoted as saying, however, that ciates for his political opera-1 the project had involved no il- 'tion while working with the, Iegal activities. "plumbers," so named because The New York Times quoted their job was to stop leaks ofI Goverment investigators today Information. Hunt coordinated, as saying they had evidence his political activities with; that Mr. Haldeman and John Charles W. Colson, a Whiter into the full ramifications of the Watergate break-in. Mr. Mitchell issued the fol- lowing denial today: "A tort' appearing in today's New York Times alleging that I conspired with H. R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman and John Dean [the former White House coun- sel) to obstruct justice in the Watergate case is absolutely false and without factual foun- dation." Mr. Ehrlichman and Mr. Haldeman, meanwhile, were scheduled to testify tomorrow before the Federal grand jury investigating the Watergate. preak-in and cover-up. Both men have denied any wrong- doing. Investigators; cautioning that their inquiry was far from com? plete, provided the following account of how the Reublican espionage and sabotage operat- ing developed: Officials around ` the Presi- dent, believed , to have been led by Mr. Haldeman began to become concerned about the 1972 elections in early 1971. At some point, Mr. Haldeman` decided that a well-planned and', well-financed espionage cam- paign was needed to insure the ocrat candidate. By that 'time, Hebert W. Kalmbach, Mr. Nixon's personal ings on a proposed tax bill In paign fund-raiser, was begin. California because it would bet ning to collect cash that would him "favorable publicity." later be set,aside for the es- The letter, the investgator pionage operation. said, was stolen by an espion-' In June, 1971, when The New age agent and sent to an of. York Times began publishing ficial In the Republican re. the secret Pentagon papers on election - headquarters who the history of the Vietnam war, then sent it on to a Washing- a White House group, called ton columnist. When a column the "plumbers," was assigned about the letter was published to discover who had made the a few days later, the source papers available to the press. said, an embarrassed Mr. Mus E. Howard Hunt Jr. and G. Gor- House special counsel and its chief political operative. At the same time, Dwight L. Chapin, a Haldeman protege who was then Mr. Nixon's ap- pointments .secretary, got in touch with Mr. Kalmbach to, arrange for payments to Donald H. Segretti, a former college classmate who was recruited to, direct the espionage operation. Over the next 10 months, Mr. Segretti made more than 20 known contacts in his at- tempt to recruit fellow inform- ers and agents and established a loosely organized network of about 10 agents. Investigators have determined that many of those received substantial cash payments from Mr. Kalmbach. Others were apparently paid in cash by Mr. Segretti. By early 1972, both Liddy and Hunt had been reassigned toi the Republican re-election com-, mittee, where they continued to' recruit fellow saboteurs, along with a string of informers and obstructionists who were assign ed specific campaign targets, investigators said. One key op- eration was in Florida, where Miami-based anti-Castroltes be- came involved In the state's pri- mary. i In early February, Hunt and Liddy flew to Miami for a meet- ing with Mr. Segretti that was arranged by Gordon Strachan, another Haldeman aide who helped' direct the Segretti p- erations in the field. ~ Mr. ' Haldeman, working' through Mr. Strachan and Mr. Chapin. directly controlled the Segretti operation until the Miami meeting. Afterward, Hunt and Liddy both began to direct more of Mr. Segretti's move- ments, with Mr. Strachan re- duced to a monitoring role. The merging of the Hunt-1 Liddy operation with the Seg- Iretti -Kalmbach - Chapin gropp,' each with Its separate inform- ers and agent provacateurs, was considered an important step, making the over-all operation more manageable, investigators said. As the campaign picked up steam in 1972. hundreds of per-. sons were added to the re-elec- Approved For Release 20.01/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 KDENOCRATIC NOMINEE IN Oil 4 which they discussed plans to defeat Senator Muskie so as to' increase the chance of Senator McGovern, a South , Dakota Democrat. "Nonetheless," one source ,said, "there was' a definite strategy worked out before the election. They -tried to make sure that the Democrats nomi.' nated their weakest candidate." In this context, the source said, the bugging of the Demo- cratic National Committee head quarters in the Watergate com- plex here in June, 1972. wasl By SEYMOUR N. HERSH BMW to The New York Tim $ WASHINGTON, May 2--43ovi ernment Investigators say they, now have evidence that Repub-j lican sabotage and espionage! efforts In the election cam-t paign last year were far more! widespread than was previous-' ly known and were designed tot help Senator George McGovern, win the Democratic nominations for President. I Republicans viewed Senator;' McGovern, the eventual nom= Inee, as the weakest candidate President Nikon could face, the Investigators said. They added. that there was no way of de= termining how much ovdr.alf. Impact the major Republican intelligence effort, organized at a cost not yet fully estimated, had upon the 1972 primaries. The Investigators said that the espionage program, initially authorized by H. R. Haldeman, the White House chief of slaff, who resigned Monday, Included at its peak three network!, of. agents controlled by the Write House and the Committee for the Re-election of the President., The Federal investigators said they. had confirmed that at least some allegations about Republican disruption voiced last year by Democratic candi- dates were substantially cor- rect. These sources said, them is now evidence that a Nixon lsupporter was infiltrated Into, the campaign offices of Senator, Edmund S. Muskie, Democrat of Maine, in early 1972. Once there, he intercepted a variety of confidential documents that were subsequently leaked to the press. , The basic Republican slxat- egy was worked out in early 1971, investigators said, when' Mr. Nixon was running behind Senator Muskie in public opinion polls. Tho Harris sur- vey, for example, showed that by early May, 1971, Mr. Muskle had a 47-to-39 per cent lead over the President, an Increase of 3 percentage points In three months. The investigators emphasized that there is no evidence thus far that Republican leaders had held a formal meeting at the White House or elsewhere to Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 tion committee staff and mas- sive infiltration of other cam- paigns began, using mostly the young. At least 30, and possibly 40, paid informers were recruited by March by the re-clectiol campaign'and were assigned to various Democratic headquar- ters and offices. Their basic target initially was Senator 'Muskie, but after his setbacks In the early primaries the youths were assigned to infil- trate the campaigns of the other Democrats believed to be among the leading contender9 ,for the nomination - Senator Hubert H. Humphrey of. Min- 'tiesota and Henry M. Jackson of Washington, investigators said. Aim Is Changed The over-all ~oal of attacking Senator Muskie was quickly re Vlsed; instead' the new aim would he to do as much dam. go as possible to the other leading candidates so as to im- prove the position of Mr. Mc-1 The Times's sources said the, Republicans believed that their biggest triumph came in the 'Florida primary In . March, 'vhich was won by Gov. George C. Wallace of Alabama. ' A few days before the elec- tion, a flyer was distributed .throughout the state on Muskie stationery accusing both Sena- tor Humphrey ,. and Senator Jpckson of illicit sexual activi ti'aced-to'the re-election effort,. ,the sources said, although that; aspect of the. inquiry is still (going on. ~.. i ? I WASHINGTON .POST 4 May 1973 Poll Says Halt of People Believe Nixon Helped hover up Water lyate, . Half of those interviewed In a special Gallup Poll said they believe that President Nixon participated in ? a ,"cover-up" of the Watergate affair. ti Four out of 10 said they- thought Mr. Nixon knew in advance about the bugging tof the Watergate last June. ,The same percentage did "No," and 15 per cent said not heliev that he told the they had no opinion.. "whole truth" in his address., i In answer to another to the nation Monday night, question, 40 per cent said A large majority-74 per they thought Mr. Nixon. cent-said they think that knew In advance about the (someone outside the Nixon Watergate bugging. Forty Administration should be ap- seven per cent, said they did pointed to head the Water- not think so, and 13 per cent gate investigation. had no opinion. ! , The special survey con. Asked if, they felt the sisted of telephone inter- President "told the whole views with 456 persons Wed- truth" in his speech, 30 per nesday night. A normal Gal- cent said "Yes," 40 per cent lop -Poll consists of about said "No," and 15 per cent 1,600, personal . interviews. had no opinion or were not ,Thee shorter, telephone poll aware of the Nixon speech. ,'was undertakeii. iq an at- Fifty-eight per cent said NEW YORK TIMES 3 May 1973 F.R.I. MEN WARNED AGAINST DISCLOSURE apeclsi to The New York Times ' WASHINGTON, May 2- William D. Ruckelshaus, act- ing director of the Federal Bu= reau of Investigation, warted the agents in charge of 59 field offices today against disclosing F.B.I. investigative information on the Watergate case to the mass media. Mr. Ruckelshaus, who took over as acting director after ,L, Patrick Gray 3d resigned on Friday, summoned the agents NEW YORK TIMES to bureau headquarters here tot 2 May 1973 review with them his role and they believed there is little difference between t h e Nixon administration and previous administrations in the extent of corruption. Twenty-nine per cent thought there was more cor- ruption in the Nixon admin- istration, and 8 per cent thought there was less. Five per cent had no opinion. A majority Indicated that the Watergate affair had re- duced to some degree their confidence in the federal government. Thirty-seven per cent said their confi- dence had been reduced "somewhat" and 21 per cent said their confidence had been reduced "a great deal." Another 37 'per cent said their confidence had not been reduced at all, and 5 percent had no opinion. Three-fourths favored ap- pointment of an outside in- vestigator. the current job of the 'F.B.I. He cautioned the, agents to be "extraordinarily careful" to protect the confidentiality of F.B.I. sources to avoid damag= Ing the reputation of innocent ,persons and jeopardizing the )ultimate prosecution 'of those who are guilty. , In his half-hour session with 'the agents, Mr. Ruckelshaus re- !assured them that he believed that someone who has "a broad background in la w enforce- ment" should be named perma- nent F.B.I. director. Senior by- reau officials sent a telegram to the White House Monday urging that the new director be selected from . within ' the bureau. ' Ziegler Apologizes to ashingtoni Post 6n ,Watergate- Special to The Now York Timis the Watergate case first broke. York to address the Society of WASHINGTON,, ,May 1 "J. was overenthusiastic." the Silurians. Ronald L. Ziegler, the White His comments about The Following is a transcript of House press secreary, apolo- Post, the press secretary con- Mr. Ziegler's exchange with gized to The Washington Post tinued, were "an overstatement reporterg about The Post: today for his earlier criticisms . . particularly if you look at ' Q. Ron,' a question in view of the newspaper's coverage it in theh context of develop- of the President's comments of ' the Watergate case. ments that have taken place." when he came out and said a ? Mr. Ziegler's apology to The He said that Mr.' Bernstein'and few words to the press last !Post and to its investigative Mr. Woodward had vigorously evening. Are you ready to reporters, Bob Woodward and pursued the story, and deserved apologize to The Washington Carl Bernstein. who have made the credit they were receiving. Post for your comments of ka number', of important dis- "When we're wrong, we're last October? (closures about the Watergate wrong," Mr. Ziegler concluded, Mr. Ziegler:, I don't have (case, came in response to a."and I would have to say I the problem of the press, lgticst!on: was in that case and other giving me hell because that Several times in the last two cases." happens on a relatively fre- 'weeks. Mr. Ziegler had refused in New York. Mrs. Katharine quent basis. I think we would 'o apologize when asked sim- Graham, publisher of The Post, all have to say, and I would ilar stiestions about his state- said today she accepted the be. I think, remiss if I did not the developments that have taken place. A press secretary, In this job, has to attempt to reflect the Presidency and the White House. He also finds himself speaking on his own from time to time, as I was doing on that occasion. It was an overstatement, I believe. In thinking of it at this points in time, yes, I would apoligize to The Post, and I would - apologize to Mr. Woodward and Mr. Bernstein. Now, having said that, I don't want to say that I agree with everything they write, and everything they have written. I think that would he a mistake, too. But ments last October accusing apology by Mr. Ziegler. say that mistakes were made they have vigrously pursued The Post and fits reporters of ' "We appreciate it and accept during this period in terms this story and they deserve "shabby iournalism" and "a it with pleasure." Mrs. Graham of comments that were made, the credit and are receiving blatant effort at character as- said, adding that "the Admin- perhaps. I would say that I the credit for it. sassination." Istration was trying to under- was overenthusiastic at the When we're wrong, we're "Mistakes were made during mine the credibility of the press time in my comments about wrong, and I would have to 1this period." 1r. Ziegler said for the last 10 months." The Post. particularly If you say I was in that case and :'day of the Appim iadSFtO Ri9lIeaW&a2Q61L/Q :NDIA-i B 7t; 0164t32ROO0rtOO150001-- ,the judge in the Pentagon papers trial ordered today Ithat the grand jury testimony '. Howard Hunt Jr. gave yes- terday in the Watergate case be turned over to him imrle- diatety. . Hunt reportedly that he and G testified. Gordon Liddy, con- victed in the burglary at na- tional Democratic headquarters last June, personally took part In the break-in at the office of Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist the night of Sept. 3-4, 1971. in Washington, Federal Dis- trict Judge John J. Sirlca or- dered that 37 pages of testl? many by sent to Fed- eral District Judge William Matthew Byrne Jr., who y Y Hunt be Is pre- siding at the trial hero of Dr. Elisberg and Anthony J. Russo Jr. Judge Byrne reiterated today , with fl some anger, that "the burden is on the Government" to prove that neither the Jus- tice Department nor the White i,Houso nor the Watergate cony spirators had Interfered with the constitutional rights of Dr. Elisberg and Mr.. Russo and 6therefore "tainted" -this case.1 The two are charged with six counts of theft and one of 'conspiracy stemming from the disclosure of the secret Penta- :on study of the Vietnam war. In another development, Judge Byrne disclosed that a number of former high-ranking Government officials had re- fused to be interviewed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the court-ordered inquiry in 'to the link between th . Water- gate affair and the Pentagon papers , trial. He . declined to give their names to the de- fense at this time, saying he would if he decided to hold a court hearing on the matter. But he did turn over to the defense a statement by Earl J. Silbert, the Watergate prosecu- tor, in which Mr. Silbert de- Iciined d to make public the flame of the person who told hirt on April 15 that Hunt and Liddy shad broken Into the psy,:hia- trist's office. He also turned over an F.B.I. interview, conducted on April 30 in Phoenix, Ariz., with Rob- ert C. Mardian, former Assistant Attorney General, In which Mr. Mardian said that. In his own Words, "At no time while I was Assistant Attorney General of the United States did I acquire any knowledge of the al' aged burglary by Liddy or Hunt or anyone else. He did say, however, that hei 'did have knowledge acg4ired He also said that he had re- ceived in his chambers'an in ~ventory of Hunt's former White House office, and that from the looks of the Inventory there would be more information to be turned over to the defend- ants when the Hunt material arrives. He mentioned, for example, a "legal-size folder marked time and pay records" and said he would probably turn that over to the defense presumably be- cause it will show where 'Hunt land Liddy were each day and chow much they were paid for ;their services. Judge Byrne told the prose- cutor, David R. Nissen,.that he did not know what "other in- -vestigations were going on in the Federal system or the country system." "When` I order the turnover," ,he said, "it's up to the Govern- ment to determine what effect ([the material] has on this and 'other cases." The implication was that the Government should perhaps bring In other criminal cases as -a result of the Information gathered in this investigation. As an example, the judge said he wanted to know about a voucher found in Hunt's of- fice for payment for three men to spend the night of Sept. 13, 1971, in a Los Angeles hotel. The Inventory list also show- ed that Hunt had "one tad folder marked 'ELLSBERG'" containing the following ma- terial: "Three typewritten copies, oni legal size white paper of a 28~ page document reporting a chronology of ELLSBERG' from? birth, April 7, 1931, through Nov. 12, 1971, insofar as it relates to the Pentagon pa- pers. " 'The Inventory list says that page 26 of the document shows that Dr. Elisberg occupied a room in the Bel Air, an ex- pensive hotel here from ' Dec. 30, 1970, to Jan. 4, 1971, and that during that period he made a telephone call from his room to Dr. Lewis J. Fielding, 'the psychiatrist whose office was broken Into. ?'. According to the Ellsberg file, Dr. Elisberg twice saw a Cambridge, Mass., psychiatrist -once on Jan. 29, 1971, and once on Feb. 2, 1971. Dr. Ells, berg had previously denied ever seeing a psychiatrist In Cambridge. Further, the inventory list shows that during the period of Sept. 'I through . Sept 6, 1971, Hunt billed the White House for work of eight hours a day; but the list does not show where the work took place. It also shows that' the former White House counsel, Charles. W. Colson, authorized payment fo Hunt on Sept. 13, 1971. While all this was going on in the courtroom, before the, jury was called in to hear fur-1 .ther testimony, the Los Angeles ,County district attorney, Jo-I seph P. Busch, announced that he was conducting an investi- igation into the break-in at the psychiatrist's office. He said that he had already flown to Washington .to discuss the inquiry with Henry E. Petersen, Assistant Attorney 'General, and that "we will au- dit the Federal Court to receive Immediately all data" released by Judge Byrne, There were these further d6- velopments in the case today: 9The defense read in open court an article in The Wash- ington Post saying that Presi dent Nixon had been consulted before the report of the break In at Dr. Ellsberg's psychiat- rist's was turned over to the judge, and that Attorney Gen- eral Richard G. Kleindienst made the decision to consult the . President had to be consulted,'the article said there was a 1;-day delay between 'the time the Justice Depart- ment admitted to learning of the break-in until it was fl-' nally reported to the judge. ' , 9Another Post article was read saying that Hunt and Lid- dy supervised the wiretapping of at least two New York Times reporters in 1971 as part of their investigation of the publication of the Pentagon papers, and that this wiretap- ping had been authorized by John N. Mitchell, then Attorney. General. ` 9The defense said that Hunt and Liddy were part of what was called an ex-office "vigi- lante" team, operating from the White House, that was put to- gether to conduct wiretapping operations that the F.B.I. ap- parently declined to carry out. 9Asked about rumors that legal papers were being drawn up to drop the prosecution of Dr; Ellsberg, Mr. Petersen said in Washington that the reports wefe untrue, "based ' on information available. to the Department of Justice at this time, the case is clean and un- tainted, he said. Ex-Rand Head Questioned Once the jury was called pack into court today, the .cross-examination of Harry Ro- ,wen, former president of the Rand Corporation, was con- tinued by the defense. Mr. Rowen said that the set of the Pentagon papers that Mr. Ellsherg and Mr. Russo are accused of Xeroxing were not logged into the Rand Corpora- tion's top secret control sys- tem until Dec. 31, 1970, long after it arrived at Rand, from where Dr. Ellsberg Is accused' of stealing it. This would tend to prove Dr. Ellsberg's contention that the papers had been given special treatment at Rand and that he had been given special access Ito them. Mr. Rowen also said that It was unusual to transport top secret documents from Rand'a Washington office to its Santa 1Monica office by the armed forces courier team, but that the Pentagon papers had been transferred by Dr. Ellsberg on a special courier pass., This, too, 1would tend to prove the de- fendants' contention that Rand purposely got the papers out of ttst own system. Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 WASHINGTON STAR 1 May 1973 By JAMES R POLK ? Stor?Newo Stall Writer Convicted Watergate spy E.: Howard Hunt billed the White; House for a consultant's feel for the day of the break-in ati the Beverly Hills, Calif., of- ficC of Daniel Ellsberg's psy-l chiatrist . i A source close to the Water- gate case said the U.S. attor- Heys here have time-and-pay; records (or Hunt showing that he was paid by the White House for four hours work on Sept. 3, 1971. That was the date of the burglary at the of- fice of Dr. Lewis Fielding, who was treating Ellsberg, now on trial for disclosing the ? Pentagon Papers. Watergate prosecutors, col- !ecting evidence on the Call- fornia break-in, now have air- line tickets showing Hunt and co-conspirator G. Gordon Liddy were in Los Angeles at the time. They used assumed' names of "Hamilton" and "Larimer" when they flew' back the next day. ELLSBERG'S trial In Los, Angeles was rocked last Fri- .day by the disclosure the Jus-' tice Department has informs ,lion that Hunt and Liddv NEW YORK TIMES 3 May 1973 broke into a psychiatrist's of- fice to obtain Ellsberg's treat- ment records. Hunt's time-and-pay rec-. ords show that he submitted' bills to, the White House for., work on Sept. 2, 3 and 4 in. 1971. At that time, Hunt and Lid- dy were both among the so- called "plumbers"* in 66 White House assigned to trace the Pentagon Papers leak,; Liddy was a full-time em- ploye, Hunt a $100-a-day con- sultant. U. S. District Judge Mat-, thew Byrne Jr. demanded the government find out whether, this did indeed happen and, if so, for whom Hunt and Liddy were working The Hunt payments were; routinely approved by former White House political aide: Charles E. Colson, who re signed this year to become ai Washington lawyer.. Colson, who had hired Hunt for the White House job earli-, er in 1971, signed all of his Consultant billings as a nor-, mal bookkeeping procedure. Beverly Hills Police Chief B L. Cork said the break-in at Fielding's office was reported ? i lsberg Judge. Confir s . on Sept 4, 1971 and apparent- ly had happened the previous night Airline tickets show Hunt and Liddy, posing as "Hamilton" and "Larimer," took a flight back from Los Angeles to New York on Sept 4. At one stage of the Water- gate trial, the prosecution had planned to call an American Airlines stewardess on that flight to testify that Hunt and ,Liddy were traveling together under aliases then. However, the prosecution changed its plans after Hunt pleaded guilty THE STEWARDESS, who asked that her name not be used, told The Star-News that Hunt struck up a conversation with her and later sent her a book as a gift She said Hunt. wrote the accompanying let-, ter on White House stationer y, signing it as "Hamilton." -? The White House time-and pay records show Hunt turned: in a slip for four hours of work on Thursday, Sept 2; another four hours on the day of the break-in, and'two hours on' Sept, 4 when he was leaving. Los Angeles. ' Presumably, at his hourly ',`2 . Talks With hrliciliman 1 ? I By MARTIN ARNOLD Speolel to The New York Time; 1 LOS ANGELES, May 2-The In another interviews, H. R. judge In the Pentagon papers Haldeman is reported to have trial confirmed today that told the F.B.I. that he knew twice during this trial he met nothing about the White House directly with Jhon D. Ehrlich- investigation of this case. Bruce man to discuss the possibility Kehrli, a staff secretary to the of becoming director of the President, also denied to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. F.B.I. tha the knew anything The defense said it would about the Investigation. use this latest disclosure to Mr. Ehrlichman, however, re- move again for an "Immediate portedly told the F.B.I. yester- dismissal" of the charges day that on his orders David against Daniel Ellsberg and Young, a member of the Na- Anthony J. Russo Jr. tional Security Council staff, In another development, and Egil Krogh, of the White United States District Court House staff, headed the in. Judge William Matthew Byrne quiry that led to the break-in Jr. Also turned over to the de- at the office of Dr. Ellsberg'a fense more F.B.I. reports of in. psychiatrist by G. Gordon Liddy terviews with former high offi. and E. Howard Hunt Jr., two cials of the Nixon Administra- convicted Watergate conspira? tion. I tors. One of them was a second in. Mr. Young resigned today. terview-conducted yesterday- and Mr. Krogh took a leave fro with Mr. Ehrlichman in which the position he has held dur- he reportedly said that he had lag the second Nixon Adminis- inothing to do with the special tration as Under Secretary of ,White House investigation of Transportation. this case for more than a year,, Mr. Ehrlichman reportedly told the F.B.I. that he had as- ,but that the Inquiry was con-1 d th lt f th s i s o e nve e resu ducted by two of his aides. sum e - _~ttrr I Appr ~iotr-R~dt1t 6QQ01t A)S/07wal 27 consulting rate, he would have been paid a total of only $;125. Chief Cork said Beverly Hills police files show two break-ins reported Sept. 4 for Dr. Fielding's office and a physician's office in the same building "There was nothing taken out of either one," he said. Cork said police later picked up a suspect in a purse -theft and, when they showed him the two reports, the sus- pect said he broke in search- ing for narcotics. No charges were filed, however, and the 'suspect was prosecuted for parole violation on the purse theft, Cork said. `'It was possibly that there were two separate break-ins that weekend," Cork said. He noted the physician's office is on the first floor and Dr. Fielding's is on the second floor of the business building Defense attorneys said that a cleaning woman may have seen Liddy and Hunt in the psychiatrist's office taking photographs, Dr. Fielding could not be reached for comment yester. day. testimony, he said that ho *lSad ..met with Mr. Ehrlichman, first, on April 5 in San Clemente, Calif.; and then again two days psychiatric profile of Ellsberg" - were still in the White House offices of Mr. Young and Mr. Krogh, that he himself had not I been involved in the investiga- tion for more than a year, and that he had collected a news- lpaper clipping file on the case .that was turned over to "the President's files" and is now apparently in the "archives." The President's former top adviser for domestic affairs re= portedly admitted in the F.BI. interview that he had seen pre- .vious bureau investigative re- ,ports on Dr. l;ilsberg's wife, Patricia, and on Neil Sheehan, The New York Times reporter who first disclosed the Penta- gon papers on June 13, 1971, ? in The Times. There were several other de- velopments: (Budge Byrne castigated the Government for the slowness with which it is conducting the investigation that he has' or- dered into the Watergate-Penta- gon papers link. 9The judge also asked the :'defense to submit by tomorrow 'legal precedents and citations for both a mistrial and 'a dis- rmissal-to be added to the mo- tion the defense filed yesterday for a dismissal. Undoubtedly a key disclosure .today was the one .made by -the judge of his meetings with later in Santa Monica. The judge said' ed at the secom meeting, "that I would not con- sider nor I would not in any way discuss the position of di- rector of the F.B.I. while this case was pending." He did not say that the job was either directly offered to him or di- rectly declined by him. The judge also said, In an- swer to a question from Leo- nard 1. Weinglass, a defense counsel, that on April Fool's Day he attended a dinner party at the home of Paul Ziffrin, a Democratic ~ National Commit- teeman from California, at which Henry A. Kissinger, a Nixon aide, was' also a guest, along with "about 100 people." He did not discuss the case nor a possible Federal job with Mr. Kissinger, the judge said. Outside of court, Mr. Wein- glass raised the question of a "second meeting with Mr. Erh- lichman, who evidcntally know that he was to be involved in this case." "We now have apparently a meeting by an official of the White House, an adviser to the President who evidently knew that his name was a bout to be implicated In this case, meet- ing with the presiding judge of~ ffering him a vry10 v errunent positioon, . . Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 d then following the meeting ,up with a second meeting," Mr. Winglass said. Weinglass Reaction "The judge evidently said :'ae discouraged any discussion the first time," Mr. Weinglass said. "But the judge then physically went to a second meeting." On Monday the Judge said that the met with Mr. Ehrlichman once About "another assignment" in 'the Government and that they ,were In contact a second time. He did not at that time men- tion the F.B.I. and he left it vague as to whether the sec- ond occasion was a meethng or a telephone conversation.'-: During that first meeting he was Introduced to the Presi- dent; he said on Monda . "Even if he [the judge( was all the time refusing to talk to them until the trial was over, that's (the meetings) enough of a taint of this case to end the trial," Mr. Wein- glass said, adding that ? if a member of the defense staff had made similar gestures td the judge "we would all In flail," If this 'case cannot be dis- missed with these facts now, then I don't know what the law books mean when they talk about the possibility of a taint of the trial, 'of a ~compro- anise of a' judge, of undermin- ing the public's confidence that the judge that is trying a'case''. did not have contact with either side," he went on, "There's nev- er been a case 'where the ex- tent of the contact and the de- liberateness of the contact from the White House has risen to the risen to the level we now have, in this trial."' Mr. Weinglass said that when the judge asked today for legal precedents for. a ;mistrial or a dismissal, "he is asking us if it ever happened before in the his- tory .of America, that the judge has met with a, representative of the White House who is im- plicated in the trial" `Never Happened Before' "My answer to the judge is that we have no [legal] authori- ties; it's never happened before. There are no cases. This. is the first one,", the defense attorney said.. f Ile was' asking,. he said, for an immediate dismissal, and then for a hearing "if the,gov. ernment received evidence by breaking" Into the office of Dr. Ellsberg's-doctor. ,,..,.. soviets Silent do Bugging' Case The Watergate affair. Illustrates, In Soviet eyes, many of the things the Moscow press has said about Ameri- can politics - and it has said plenty. ,Moscow newspapers have described '.American clectiolis as taking place "in an atmosphere of bribery and corrup- tion, blackmail and violence," as well as "police terror." The Mafia and Tammany Hall have. been linked by the 'Soviet press with the Rockefeller millions and with the military-industrial complex to present to Russian readers a thoroughly cor- rupt system In which the meanest and .most despicable tricks are habitually ,used to win elections. But that was before the age of Nixon summitry. The remarkable thing about the Watergate affair itself Is that It gets hardly any attention in the Soviet press. The official Soviet news agency Tass made only one reference to it in the crowded weeks before Mr. Nixon's ac- knowledgement of White House In- volvement. Even this was only a pass. ing mention, In a two-paragraph report t on the withdrawal of L. Patrick Gray's nomination as FBI Director. Tass still has not mentioned Mr. Nixon's statement of last Tuesday nor any of thg subsequent Watergate de- velopments. The Soviet press was obviously o1_ dered to say nothing that might dis- turb Mr. Nixon or.- the new spirit of concord between Moscow and Wash- ington. But while the Kremlin can cen- sor the press, it could hardly afford to deprive itself of informed comment on the political significance of the affair. The Soviet ambassador in Washing- ton is sure to have sent home an analy- sis of the foreign policy implications of the \Vaiergate affair, as every other ambassador in Washington must have done. This is what they are here for. Embassy analysts In Washington would probably conclude that it may be some time before all White House staff members are cleared of any con- nection with the Watergate. They would note that this administration has come to rely increasingly on a few ley members of the White House staff In getting its policies carried out. The would argue that men who .-have been touched by the breath of scandal, even remotely or innocently, will find it difficult to influence Con- gress or the bureaucracy, both of which have been offering increasing resistance to White House innovations. The economy is in deep trouble. In Vi- etnam, "peace with honor" appears to be'crumbling. And now Watergate. This analysis would lead foreign ob- servers td conclude that the Nikon ad- ministration will be looking for some quick and impressive successes in for. eign policy, to be crowned by the visit which Soviet party secretary :Leonid Brezhnev is to make to Washington in ,June. Could this he used to divert pub. lic , attention from the domestic malaise? Summits make good televi- sion. International agreements make a good presidential image. Everybody is In favor of. peace. But at what price? Moscow could 'reason that Mr..Nixon, in ,his hour of need, may be more susceptible to pres- sure on the whole range of issues now tinder negotiation between the ? Krem- lin and the White House-from the Alideast to strategic arms limitation, from trade to the emigration of Soviet Jews. The Kremlin hardliners always took a dim view of the concessions Brezh- nev made to Nixon to save'last year's Moscow summit. In their view, the bombing and mining of North Vietnam on the very eve of the summit was a slap in the face-and they were forced to turn the other cheek. They would now press Brezhnev to exact his re- venge, and to collect: a high price for the return visit to Washington-or to call it off. Anatoly Dobrynin, the Soviet ambas- sador in Washington, would certainly assess all the opportunities for diplo- matic gain in his dispatch to Moscow, about the Watergate affair. But if Do- brynin is really as wise as Henry Isis:' singer believes, he would also warn hiss Kremlin masters against pushing Mr.. Nixon into a corner. He would tell them that this admin- istration has still 3'fz years to go and' that, whatever happens in domestic po litics, the President retains cot sidern, ble powers in the foreign policy field. He would remind the Kremlin that last year Mr. Nixon rescued Brezhnev from, a major domestic crisis with a huge shipment of grain, at some political cost to himself. He might point out that the Kremlin now had the opportu- nity to reciprocate-and to earn much credit for the future-so long as the' hardliners did not push for a quick profit. Since last year's pre-summit deal- ings, the White House and the Kremlin, have been helping each other not only' to carry out the grand design for a "generation of peace," but also to keep' their respective enemies at hay. These arrangements were worked out largely, between Kissinger and Dobrynin, often in the face of opposition from some of the other forces close to the centers of power in both countries. The two master diplomats will, no: doubt, try to preserve the grand design from too much damage. They deserve to succeed, but the blind forces of'poli- ticas do not always support deserving; causes. they were to perform, I wart; 'that material."' The judge 'said that he hat' "received nothing of the fruits of the investigation" conductet by Liddy and Hunt, nor did ht receive the results of and "other improper acts per. formed" by the Government. Judge Byrne said he was stil waiting, for Instance, for tht inventory of Hunt's safe at tht white house. Mr. Nissen said that what the judge was ordering wai ,,not a matter of snapping .fingers" and getting the investi gation completed. "It's a matter of time," tht Judge retorted. "If at the time the evidence in this case It, completed-I'm left with sit facts, I'm going to have to do side what steps have to bi taken. I don't want to have t1 wait until all the evidene' After this exchange, Harr, Rowen, former president of thi Rand Corporation, continues his testimony as a Governmen rebuttal witness before the jury < Dr. Ellsberg and Mr, Russt are charged with six counts of espionage, six counts of thef and one count of conspiracy, WASHINGTON POST" Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 In 'Washington, 'the 'Whitt House was asked to comment on the' propriety of the offer' to Judge . Byrne. Ronald L. Ziegler, the White House press ,secretary, said he could not comment on matters before the ,court, a stand' he has taken previously. Meanwhile, the investigation into that. incident and other Government operations~? in in- vestigating this case was mov- 'In# much too slowly, the judge said in court. ,. Before the turnover of the new. Ehrlichman material to- day, David R..Nissen, the chief prosecutor, turned over as part of the court-ordered investiba- tion a copy of an article in the Los Angeles, Times in which Dr. Ellsberg, refused to name his psychiatrist. --Leonard B. Boudin, a defense attorney,' told: the judge that this turnover "was a parody of an investigation." Judge Byrne then said, 'Mr. Nissen, 'as to the investigation Mr. Nissen, I want [all the] material that the Government now has, id its`-possession; what Was told to Liddy and Hunt; If t there Was an investigation' Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 WASHINGTON POST 25 April 1973 sed to Lau ar Tactics By Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein - , washlntton Post Staff Writers President Nixon's re-election committee conducted a.'? campaign last May to give a distorted view of the Ameri- can public's response to the mining of Haiphong harbor,;'. lit has been learned. I The campaign included paying for telegrams to be sent to the White House and the placing of a deceptive,'appar-i ,ently illegal, $4,400 ad in the New York Times on May 17. On May 10, White House Press Secretary Ronald L." The ad in the New York' Times, entitled "The People vs. The New York Times," ,criticized a Times editorial ,-opposing the mining. The ad ,was signed by 10 people and gave the appearance of rep- resenting citizen support of the President's controversial 'decision. Phillip Joanou, the former executive vice president of 'the November Group, which handled the ?Nixod commit- ?tee's advertising, said yes- ;.terday that the ad was paid 'for with 44 $100 bills sent .from the Nixon committee 'in Washington. ' The Times editorial, had termed the President's ac-' tion in mining the harbors 'as "counter to the will and conscience of a large seg- :ment of the_ American pea .Ple." The advertisement, covering nearly half a page, .cited polls showing that any- where from 59 to 78 per cent' of the people supported the President. ; "Who can you believe ,The New York Times or the, American eo le?" the ad p p - Ziogler"said that telegrams, letters and telephone calls;, yertisement asked. were running 5 or.6 to 1 in support of the President's ac-' Joanou said yesterday Lion and cited them as an indication of "substantial sup " that the November Group, which was set up exclusively port" of the mining in Congress and among voters. to handle Nixon advertising, One former Nixon campaign official said yesterday that spent more than $6 million the Committee for the Re-election of the President was' 'for ads during the 1972 pres- idential campaign. "totally mobilized for the biggest piece of deception-we ~ "But The New York Times: never do anything honestly. Imagine, the President send-. ;ad is the only one I can re-' ,Ing himself telegrams, patting himself on the back." ,call, in which we made it' Another former Nixon campaign official told' a reporter `look like a citizens' effort,'11 Joanou said. 'yesterday that the Haiphong mining campaign "put the i , Asked for comment yes-I 11 entire staff in overdrive for two weeks . . . the work in. 'terday,DeVan L. Shumway,' eluded petition drives, organizing rallies, bringing people, a spokesman for the Nixon in buses to Washington, organizing calls to the White, committee said: "There was House, getting voters to call their congressmen." a campaign to organize sup- port, not to deceive. From, "We felt the Haiphong decision could make or break what I knew it was a legiti- the President," the official said. ;mate effort, and the polls Apparently among the participants in the drive were at' show that a majority of the least two of the Watergate conspirators, Frank Sturgis people supported the Presi- and, Bernard Barker. The two men, according to sources dent. g On ,fan. 29? 1073, at the In Miami, showed up uninvited at a Cuban exile meeting 'Watergate trial, Robert C: In May and attempted to take over plans for organizing a Odle, the administrative offi- demonstration there in support of the mining. Sturgis cer of the Nixon re-election later told a Washington Post reporter that he drove the committee, testified that the plead truck In a convoy that participated in the demonstra- !committee had undertaken to 'tion. promote public support for At least $8,400 In cash campaign funds, mostly in $100 the Haiphong mining deci- ,bills, was spent on the drive, The Washington Post has sion. He was not asked fol learned. This. expenditure has not been reported to the low-up questions on details! of how the drive was con General Accounting Office as required by law. ducted. Government sources said yesterday that the GAO is ex- The cash' fund that fir pected to release a report this week citing the re-election nanced the Haiphong cam- committee's failure to disclose these expenses as an appar- paign also supplied approxi= ent violation of the law. (The GAQ, the Investigative arm mately $750 that was paid of Congress, forwards its findings to the. Justice Depart- to Theodore Brill, the head ment where a decision on whether to prosecute is made.) of the Republican organiza- The expenditures were authorized by Jeb Stuart Ma- tion at George Washington gruder, who was deputy Nixon campaign manager under University. Brill received the money to disrupt and John N. Mitchell at the time, according to government spy on antiwar demonstra- sources. Magruder reportedly has told prosecutors that he, tors camping in front of the along with former Attorney. General Mitchell and press-' White House last year, ac- dehtial counsel John W. Dean Ili, had approved the bug- cording to reliable sources. ging of the Democrats' Watergate headquarters. This fund consisted of Last October, The Washington Post reported that the ' about $13,000, the sources 'Watergate bugging was only one incident in a campaign :aid, and about $3,300 of it of political sabotage and undercover activities conceived was given convicted in the White House that included the placement of de- Watergate conspirator G. Gordon Liddy for other ex- ceptive and misleading advertisements and bogus polit- pionage activities. fial special counsel Charles cal - o- me $13000 came from a ?h0 organized Approved For Release 2001/2 /07chASIA>RClRa~7ft9>i UIt 0011 1 ~e~s committee" Watergate bugging and had that placed them. Nixon Fund a fluctuating balance of $350,000 to $700,000. The original cash fund was kept 'in the office safe of former Commerce Secretary Maur- Ice H. Stans, the chief Nix- on fund-raiser. President Nixon's May 8, 1972, order to mine the en- trance to North Vietnam's .harbors was regarded at the time as the riskiest interna- tional action he ever took in the Vietnamese war. It was a direct challenge to Soviet shipping 'on which North Vietnam was heavily depend- ' ent for its war supplies. The U.S. action came at an ex- tremely sensitive point in' American-Soviet relations, just two weeks before Presi- dent Nixon's scheduled sum- mit conference in Moscow. After several days of high international suspense, the Soviet Union decided to,! swallow the affront and to ,proceed with the summit meeting. President Nixon !subsequently publicly ridi- culed those who expressed' doubt that his mining gam-. ble would succeed. During' the Johnson administration, 'U.S. military leaders repeat edly proposed a similar min- ing order, only to he re- buffed on grounds that the (international consequences ,posed too great a risk, President Nixon and his" 'present White House chief'- of staff, H. R. Haldeman, `were both officially cited by a California court in 1064' ? for having personally ap.' ~~proved a similarly deceptive -and -illegal-campaign tac?' + tic In Mr. Nixon's 1962 cam- paign for governor there., In that case, a dummy, committee purporting to- represent California Demo- crats mailed literature to Democratic voters 'that in- cluded attacks on Mr. Nix- on's opponent, incumbent Gov. Pat Brown. Although the mailing said, "This Is not a plea for any eanddate," a San Franciso County Su- perior Court Judge ruled that its "paramount purpose was to obtain from reg- istered Democrats votes and money for the campaign of Richard M. Nixon." The court held that "Mr. Nixon and Mr. Haldeman approved the plan and proj.' ect ... and agreed that the Nixon campaign committee would finance the project." During the 1970 mid-term elections, the' White House was responsible for another deceptive advertising cam- paign, this one aimed at Democratic senatorial candi- dates who were attacked In newspaper advertisements supposedly placed by an In. dependent citizens commit-' tee. The advertisements, re- pudiated by many of the Re- publican candidates they were Intended to aid, were conceived by then presiden-. Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 dent reported that there was no sense oe shock over Watergate in Eastern Europe, where hid- den microphones and phone taps are not uncommon. The, Yugoslav press has been re- porting the developments but without dramatizing events or using them for, propaganda. Last week at the Serbian Communist Party conference, a delegate sa'd privately he was concerned that damage to Mr. Nixon's prestige and authority might erode the President's ability to push ahead with pol- icies favored in Eastern Europe. For the same reason, appar- ently, the Soviet press has avoided anything critical of Mr. Nixon. A brief Tass item on Patrick Gray's resignation was published in Moscow. The So- viet media treads lightly on personal affairs affecting other chiefs of state -- with the ex- ception of South Africa, Israel, Portugal and a few other coun- tries.' The Russian leaders. have staked a lot on personal rela- t?ons with, Mr. Nixon and do not want the President's Water- gate embarrassment to rub off on them. Fascination In Britain signed, but the Government re- mained in power. ' After last night's television appearance of Mr. Nixon, some Britons felt compassion for him as ' they watched his nervous wince serve as a smile. How- ever, many viewers were per- plexed: One Londoner, who sat up to watch Mr. Nixon, said: "I just can't see how a man can accept full responsibility and in the next heath absolve himself of bla:ie. Is he trying to fool all the people all the time?" New Blow Is Seen British officials and dipld- mats in London felt 'that America's reputations In Europe had suffered again just as It was beginning to recover from a low point over the bombing of Hanoi last December. The Times of London will say tomorrow:, "The rest of the world needs to have a strong and effective President of the United States to deal with. Despite Watergate, the world accepts Mr. Nixon as such a President." It said that "even if he has behaved worse than we believe and hope, it would be inhuman not to feel a spark of sympathy for the President." The paper castigated the President's "second-rate sub- ordinates," the "half men" with their "Pepsodent smiles and their football ethics," but ob- served there were plenty of such men in London too. In Israel, anything that hurts Mr. Nixon is seen as a po- tential threat to Israel's In- terests. Israeli officials are concerned about what Watergate could do to the, President's influence in Congress, which must approve the arms credits and financial aid to Israel. However, they expressed doubt that the scandal would affect any basic changes In American policy toward Israel and the other Middle Eastern The British have been fas- cinated by Watergate, and it has been reported extensively by teh press and television. The public sees events an an unfold- ing drama that matches, and to some extent parallels, the Pro- fumo affair here 10 years ago. In that case, too, speculation was rife that the involvement of the War Minister, John Pro- BMW IMF SUN ,26 April 1973 Watergate probe held real democracy 11 1,1110 Rio de Janeiro Bureau of The Sun ' I Rio de Janeiro-The Water- racy, not in a nominal one, thei gate scandal has reached all, constitutional principles are the way to Brazil, where the leader of the tolerated opposi- tion party has used it to needle obliquely this country's mili- tary dictatorship on the differ- ence 'between a "real demo- cracy and a nominal one." the president of the republic' himself." In the Watergate case, he said, the United States Con- gress "took an overt and rigor- ous defense of the privacy and the inviolability of the homes president of the Brazilian i and of the institutions." Dem vratic Movement, said, re-1 "The Congress investigates, ferri.ig to Watergate, "It has) revealed that in a real democ- I summons personalities and suspects," Mr. Guimaraes con. tinued. "There is an acute cri- sis in the relations between the legislature and the executive in the United States. "What was the attitude of the government's party, the Republican? It stood with the Congress against the spying in the homes, the buildings, In Ithe mail." NEW YORK TIMES 2 May 1973 atergat?e ?Appe rs to J-I ave Damaged U. S. Abroad By JOSEPH COLLINS' . cratic government. Now they no great public exictement special to The Nev York Times wonder about Washington. about Watergate in West Ger- LONDON, May. 1--The Wa-I On a lower level, one Japa- many, although the newspapers the uestion have been raisin " g q I guess politics tergato scandal appears to have nese observed, are dirty everywhere,' And of what would happen should United States abroad, but, at the 'same time many see ii; as a demonstration of the basic hon- esty of a system that can ex- pose skulduggery in high places. Public Interest in Water- . gate has intensified virtually Athenian, asked what he throughout the world, but there thought about Watergate con- , was no indication that It wouldifessed ignorance. When" told and defense policies, of abiding interest to European govern- ments, are dealt with at tech- nical levels, officials in London ,observed privately. that cynicism is reflected in Mr. Nixon himself become in- many parts of Europe too. volved. The most important For instance in Greece, where thing to the Germans seems there have been no .newspapers to be that Mr. Nixon is the man for three days during the Ortho- they presumably will have to dox Easter holiday, the state- deal with for the next three run radio has carried nothing years. , , . An ' From Belgrade a correspon- critical of President Nixon about the bugging attempt and sequence of events he observed: "So it happens elsewhere too." Italy, in the midst of a wire- tapping scandal of her own with political and international overtones, the press has drawn parallels that make Washington took cleaner than Rome. Differing Views In Rome Many Italian newspapers, in- cluding the Communist ones, point out that American news- papers, the judiciary branch and the Congress forced the Watergate affair Into the open, whereas much of the Italian scandal ? remains cloaked in mystery. The Italian scandal involves the widespread wiretapping. it is speculated the president of the republic had his telephone bugged. Some 30 telephone company employes and private investigators have been Ar- rested. Nobody has been told who is behind all this, and there is scant chance that it will ever be known publicly. Ii Tempo of Rome, conserva- tive and pro-American, said edi- torially today' that Watergate was "a ? proof of democracy." On the other hand, II Sole 24 Ore, a Milan daily, said: "All foreign offices in the world are not evaluating the risks of negotiating and concluding ac- cords with an (United States) executive branch that has been so badly devalued." However, Italian officials do not see the likelihood of Watergate's af- Todayy, May Day, is a public holiday in most . European countries and newspapers do not publish. However, Water- gate has had a great deal of radio and television coverage. The British Broadcasting Cor- poration, in a rare program change, kept its television go- ing until after 2:30 A.M. to carry President Nixon's speech liv from Washington and then had a panel of comment on it. The French television gave ex- cerpts from the telecast today. Japanese Are Doubtful From Tokyo, It was reported ,that Japanese seem sorry to see Mr. Nixon In trouble. Watergate has most certainly diluted Jap- anese confidence In America, reports said. ' Japanese displeasure with 'Mr. Nixon goes back'.ty July, 1971, when he announced, with- out advising the Japanese Gov- ernment ahead of time, that he planned to visit ' China. That became known as the "Nixon shock." , Watergate appears to have Increased Japanese skepticism about the United States. Be- .cause the Japanese were ruled tended to look to the United fecting American foreign policy. States as a model for demo-' A report from Bonn indicates Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 .Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 NEW YORK TIMES 28 April 1973 APER ABOUT DIEM AMONG 'AUNT DATA By JOHN M. CREWDSON Special to The New York Times WASHINGTON, April 27-A document purporting to be a 10-year-old State Department cable dealing with American policy toward former South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem was in the possession of E. Howard Hunt Jr., the con- victed Watergate conspirator, in the Summer of 1971. The document, dated three days before ? Mr. Diem was killed In a 1963 coup d'etat. takes the form of an instruction from high officials of the Ken- nedy Administration to Henry. Cabot Lodge, the United States Ambassador in Saigon at the time, that President Diem should not be given political asylum once he was deposed. It was not known whether the document was authentic or not. Dean Rusk, the Secretary' of State under the Kennedy and Johnson Administrations, said In a telephone interview today's that the document had never existed. Mr. Lodge said in a similar Interview that he had never received such a message. The New York Times reported today that John W. Dean 3d, President Nixon's counsel, had accused Hunt of fabricating dip-~ lomatic cables "relating to Pres- ident Kennedy's complicity inj Diem's assassination" while working as a White House con- sultant 1971 and 1972. The documents were re- portedly discovered in a safe in the Executive Office Build-1 Ing quarters used by Httnt, who pleaded guilty in January to conspiracy in. the Watergate case. The safe was emptied two days after the June 17, Watergate break-in on orders from Mr. Dean. . The Presidential lawyer has since said that he gave two file folders containing the alleged- ly false material to L. Patrick Gray 3d, then the acting direc- tor of the Federal Bureau of Investigation; According to Mr. Gray, who resigned from his post today, Mr. Dean told him that the papers, although not materially related to t e Watergate case, constituted "political dynamite. Mr. Gray has said that he did; not examine the documents, but' instead destroyed them. The Times obtained today, the text of one of the docu- ments in Hunt's possession dur?' ling the late summer of 1971. The source of the text was William G. Lambert, a former investigative reporter for Life magazine, which is no longer published. Mr. Lambert, who said he had senn but did not possess the original document, refused to Identify his source, although the would not deny that it was NEW YORK TIMES 2. May 1973 .Colson-Knew"-Hunt Wrote Fake Cable. Mr. Lambert did say, how. ... speclaito The NAwYorkSimea, ever, that Mr. Colson had ladi- WASHINGTON, May 1 --- cared subtiy-so subtly that Mr. Charles W. Colson, former see-. Lambert did not get the mes- cial counsel to President Nixon, has confirmed that "four months before the Watergate burglary he discovered that one of the conspirators, E. Howard Hunt Jr., a friend he had recommend- ed for a White House job, had written a fake cable implicat- ing President Kennedy in the assassination of South Viet- nam's President Diem. According to William' Lam- bert, formerly a reporter for Life magazine, who interviewed Mr.. Colson over the weekend, Mr. Colson-made the discovery ,in February, 1972, but did not 'disclose the fabrication until 'the weekend interview, j, Mr. Colson, reached at his flaw office here this afternoon said that he would have no comment other than to say that he had great respect for Mr. :Lambert as a journalist. He said that he saw nothing to be gained from adding to the con- troversy. Asked why he had not taken ,steps to dismiss Mr. Hunt or .warned superiors about him, Mr. 'Colson repeated tl~at h had no comment. Mr. Lambert, an Investigative reported who spent most of 1972 trying to confirm Mr: Hunt's fake document for a 'Life article, said today that Mr. Colson had never-told him di- rectly that the cable was a fraud, type message sent to Mr. Lodge on Oct. 29, 1963. It Is now known whether the document in qustion re- mained in Hunt's. possession until the time of the Water- gate break-in last year, or whether it was among the papers destroyed by Mr. Gray. The alleged cable, which car- ries six signatures, including that of McGeorge Bundy, in 1963 a special assistant to President Kennedy for national security affairs, reads as fol- lows: "At highest level meeting today, decision reluctantly made that neither you or ' Harkins [Gen. Paul D. Harkins, then commander of United States forces in Vietnam] should in- tervene in behalf of Diem or Nhu [Ngo Dihn Nhu, President !Diem's brother] in event they seek asylum. "This based on two principal ,considerations: Granting asylum or otherwise protecting the brothers certain to alienate if not enrage generals. Of near equal importance is our re- luctance see Diem depart SVN (South Vietnam only to re- establish himself in another country where he would be ;country capable of establishing "I suspect," Mr. Lambert speculated, "that he didn't want to tell anybody that a guy that he had recommended for other a sensitive job was fabricating sources for a story on documents." the murder of.Ngo Dinh Diem by Vietnamese generals in Oc- tober, ?1963. At a meeting at Mr. Colson's house .in suburban Virginia' over the weekend, Mr. Lambert said today, Mr. Colson satis- fied-him that he-had honestly tried to steer Mr. Lambert off a story on the fake cable. u Mr. Lambert was never con- lvinced that the cable was gen- uine, and Life never published anything about it. As late as Sunday, however, 'Mr. Colson still denied that he knew the cable was a fake. Fi- nally,in a telephone conversa- tion yesterday, Mr. Lambert ,said, he pressed Mr.. Colson into admitting that he had ;known for more than a year that Hunt had manufactured the language that seemed to (make the assassination of Diem an order from President Ken- inedy. Mr. Lambert, who says that he still regards Mr. Colson as a friend and a valuable source, conceded today that Mr. Col. son had taken adequate pre- caution, to keep the story out of public print. But he did do yet understand why Mr. Col- son had not told him openly future success of Vietnam ef- forts depends upon displace- ment Nhu and Diem. In effect) they have brought this stage] upon . themselves and their' ultimate fate is now Vietnamese affair. "Hardly underscore extreme sensitivity this message, but authorize you at your discretion show Harkins such portions as necessary insure his compli- ance." Mr. Bundy, who since 1966 has been president of the Ford Foundation, said in a telephone interview that the purported cable was "the crudest kind of forgery." Mr. Lodge, when told of the alleged message, laughed and replied that although he had never received it, "I would have remembered it had I got- ten it." ; Hunt,?reached at the District of Columbia Jail through his lawyer, Wiliam P. Bittman, said he would have no comment on either the authenticity of the document or Mr. Dean's alle- gations. Mr. Lambert, however, said ,that he was not convinced that the cable was a forgery." The original source of the informa- government in exile and de-, ment believed [it] to be pouncing you and USG (United authentic," he said by tele- 'cessful coup deserve clean slate` ..Mr. Lambert said he had been in SVN. which they likely' told that the cable had been 'achieve by making sure neither sent to Vietnam on Oct. 29,1 brother survives. All of us here 3963. over two of the three) realize this Instruction places ( exictina communications However, The Times has established that Hunt was in tact Mr. Lambert's source for. to be a state. Departmenir'~ Icya wLr /n7p~Pgplarleranqcoa? . In the aftermath of Water-I gate, Mr. Colson has repeatedly, acknowledged that during the; summer of 1971, when the, White House was looking for someone to find and plug the. leaks by which the to-called, Pentagon papers had come to light, he personally proposed Mr. Hunt for the job. In a subsequent White HousO, assignment, during the fall of, 1971, Mr.: Hunt is understood; to have undertaken the task of reviewing diplomatic cables, and "other classified documents on the early stages of the Viet; nam war, apparently in an ef- fort to establish that the secdi' of the conflict were planted' in the Kennedy and, Johnson' Administrations. According `to Mr. 'Lambert' Mr. Colson emphatically denied tahat he was supervising Mr:' Hunt in this project. Mr. Colson also told Mr. Lambert that hC' had never seen the fake docu-' ment that Mr. Hunt composed' and mingled with the genuind, records. It is still unclear, Mr. tam-' bert says, who Mr. Hunt wasi working for at this peridd, and' whether anyone ?but Mr. Hunts and Mr. Lambert ever saw it. trailed by the Central intelli. gence Agency. The third system, controlled by the Defense Department, was not used, he- said. He sug- gested that the Pentagon had; never known of the cable's existence-hence Its absence from the Pentagon papers," A secret Defense Department study of the Vietnam war, leaked to the press in 1972. The Pentagon papers show that President Kennedy knew of and approved plans for the coup against President Diem by a group of South Vietnamese generals. In fact, the American mission in Saigon maintained secret contact with the generals for weks efore the coup on Nov. 1. 1963, and kept the White House Informed of each de- velopment. There was no suggestion in the Pentagon papers that any- one in the American diplomatic or military commands knew in advance that President Diem would be killed, or advocated his murder. However, at a news confer- ence on Sept. 20, 1971, Presi- dent Nixon. said in answer to a question, ". . I would remind all concerned that the way we got into Vietnam was through overthrowing Diem and the complicity In the murder of Mr. Nixon made the remark after the time that Mr. Lambert h had first seen the docu. S p question. Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 BALTIMORE SUN 2 May 1973 An*alisis eafflam" -_ Speech left Nixon stuck in Watergate By PPTFK J. KUMPA waahtnpto> Bureau of The Sun, Washington -- President Nixon failed to pull himself' completely out of the Water- gate bog with big televised explanation Monday night. Mr. Nixon did not go far enough to detail what he knew of the bugging and political. espionage scandal that has swept out of the White House his two close political, assoei- ?ates, H. R. (Bob) Haldemall and John D. Ehrdichman.' There were too many gaps and no new information provi- ded by the President to expect any quick restoration of.confi- dence in him by politically minded Washington. ? - ' As evidence, when the Sen- ate voted initially yesterday to get a special prosecutor for the case outside of the now-suspect executive branch, not a Repub- lican voiced objection. . Some private Republican congressional comments on the President's speech did..-not match their mild public state-, ments of approval. "It gave me nausea," was one ,sucl comment. "A dreadful speech," was another. If the address was long on emotion and short on facts, if was because Mr. Nixon's tare get was not Washington buti the hinterlands not so well' in- formed on the' details, He. seemed to be talking specifl., tally to the "new majority" of voters who Ave ghim his land-' ;;fide last fall. Thin was a required eudl' ence. Mr. Nixon's credibility was eroding. National polls showed that more than 40- per cent of the voters believed. the President knew about the WaW ergato bugging ?in'advance.. When his : integrity 'and 'his political life were threatened two decades ago because of .a private $18,000J, und. raised by.; California admirers, Mr. Nixon gave his now-famous "Check.- ers" speech to the nation. It kept him on the GOP ticket with President Eisenhower. His Monday night perform- ance was reminiscent of the 1952 thriller. Listen to this con; temporary account from Life magazine: ' ' ' ,it was all ? 'there:' the Quaker conviction that inno-' cence is the strongest shield; the earnest, rather awkward, rather stagy manner and method of the boy debater; the trained lawyer pleading a case; the sincere patriot;, the somewhat jaded politician pull- ing out the . organ stops of sentimentality . , ." The response was different this time. There was no quick ignition of the country's emotions to back up a beleaguered candi- date. Then switchboards of newspapers across the land were inundated with calls. Women wept publicly over the ideal family and the little dog. Politicians, who, doubted Mr. Nixon were deluged with angry' telegrams. In all, about two million letters and telegrams backed him up. Many of the same` 1952 tech- niques were used to gain sup- port on the Watergate affair, There were the emotional, sen- timental appeals about God, country, Christmas Eve and little children living In peace. Roughly. 40 per cent of the speech ? was devoted to this sort of political public relations, difficult to tie up with what a- top Republican leader called a "grubby" scandal. Mr. Nixon had no shortage of public- emotion-except; strangely, on, the revelations of the mushrooming meadow of .political dirty tricks that dwarf his own 1952 fund affair. . The President affirmed that he was "appalled" by the bug- ging of Democratic headquar- ters and "shocked" to. learn that employees of his re-elec- tion committee- were among the guilty.,, ; This anger, however, was not communicated to the pub-, lie for month after month by his efficient White House press office.. He let it go by then as, a."third-rate burglary." So much more is left out of Mr. Nixon's account. His close. associate and a former attorney general, John'. N. Mitchell, conferred with. him as Mr. Mitchell left office two weeks after ,the Demo-. cratic bugging affair. .Now Mr.. Mitchell admits'that'on three, ;'different occasions in early-1 1972 he discussed 'but vetoed such plans. ? Surely, the top law officer in the land should have informed the President about such a "senseless, illegal action." Mr. Nixon reported nothing about, it. Nor did Mr. Nixon mention anything about the loose bun- dles of cash used to finance soMe of the Republican espio- nage. The General Accounting Office has already made four public reports on the illegality of the GOP financing. Disclosed grand jury testi- mony identified the White House chief of staff for holding one of the "secret" GOP funds. Mr. Nixon merely ex- pressed his confidence, in Mr. mire,, Haldeman. ? Mr. Nixon Is an experienced investigator, one of the best in Washington. Though he has taken charge of the Watergate probe since March,' he chose not to reveal details. And if he were ndignant, he chose not to shr ,i it. While the President accepted' "responsibility" for Watergate, he did not take the blame for it. There is a difference. ? Virtually in the same minute as he said it would' be "cow- ardly" to "blame" subordi- nates delegated with the run- ning of his campaign, he added that he "will do everything in my power to insure that the guilty are brought to justice." For his part, Mr.. Nixon gave a plea of ignorahce of events that transpired. HC was too busy in foreign affairs,' he said, and for the first time in his career he did not run his own campaign. A scapegoat seems already to have been picked out. Not a kind word is said about his former counsel, John W. Dean 3d, yet even after Important new evidence was supposed to! have been discovered in March, the White House was backing Mr. Dean. . Mr. Nixon has gained time for himself. He must get a new staff, one that he can show he can run and not a group that runs him and hides illegalities from him. Only then-and If a new and vigorous prosecution can show that he had no knowledge and played no role in the Water- gate affair-can confidence be restored lit the White House. Monday night was only phase one for the Watergate and.Mr. Nixon. Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R00010015000-0 WASHINGTON POST 2 May 1973 No W h rewash aft the 'White il ous'e? Is seeing the difference between the apparent and the 4. ' health-- (one) of my closest friends and most triinh i tend to do what I can do to speed truth's discovery." Mr. Ehrlichman's resignation as "evidence of any wrong- rF'rom the letter of resignation submitted to the Presi- ' w dent on Monday, by his assistant, John D. Ehrlichman. doing," he said, would be "both unfair and unfounded.i1 is confidence in the ultimate prevalence of truth; I in- ,been my privilege to know." To see his acceptance of Well, it is never easy sifting out the apparent. and the real, and we share Mr. Ithrlichman's view that we must all try harder In this respect. But we have markedly less confidence In the contribution Mr. Ehrlichman can 'make to this endeavor as a consequence of the latest, and perhaps most shattering turn of events in.the sor- did tale of Watergate and the related allegations of cor- ruption which are now enveloping, and seeming almost to overwhelm, the Nixon administration. And we have rather less confidence, too, in the contribution to truth made by the President on Monday night. We had in- "tended today to return for a further, closer examination 4of the President's Watergate address. But that can wait. ,, or much of what the President had to say about justice and law enforcement and respect for our governmental land judicial processes would seem to have been pretty t'thoroughly mooted-perhaps even shredded-by the an- 4'liouncement made yesterday in open court by the judge 1in the Daniel Ellsberg trial. , . You will recall that the judge in that proceeding ear- lier made public an allegation that the notorious bur- ,glary team of G. Gordon Liddy and Howard Hunt, al- ,ready jailed for the Watergate break-in, had practiced ;their investigatory skills on the offices of Mr. Ellsberg's 4)'sychiatrist. Yesterday, the judge reported in open curt some further details. On the basis of this report, we in- vite you to consider the following sequence of events: 4 This past Friday (the judge disclosed) Mr. Ehrlichman mold FBI investigators that In 1971 President Nixon had personally ordered an independent investigation of 'Mr. )Ellsberg. In response to the President's request, Mr. Ehr= lchman said he himself engaged, for this purpose, the services of Mr. Liddy and Mr. Hunt.. While he denied ,that he instructed them to break and enter, he admit- tted that he learned, after the fact, that they had done just that. That was on Friday. On Monday this same Mr. Ehrlich- `-an resigned from his job as the President's top White House man for domestic affairs, denying his involvement in the Watergate, proclaiming his honesty and profess- ' ing to have had his usefulness impaired by "repeated 'rumor, unfounded charges or Implications and whatever helse the media carries." - ,,,,,And this, of course, is the same impression we were g, the President on Monday; in a statement in the omorning and iii, his apeech that night, he gave Mr. Ehr- That was Monday, when three days earlier, according to an FBI report, Mr. Ehrlichman was apparently Implicat- ing himself in setting In motion a sequence of events that allegedly lead to a burglary. We most emphatically do not wish to jump to any of the assumptions that the President warned against; we merely note the unmistake- able evidence cited by a federal judge from a report of an FBI interview: that Mr. Ehrlichman, by his own ad- mission, knew at the very least of a previous crime which bore directly upon the break-in at the Watergate: He knew that Mr. Liddy and Mr. Hunt,were available for,, and inclined toward, this sort of work on behalf of the government, Would not this have aroused a suspicion or two in the mind of an intelligent, honest, prudent man when the news broke of the Liddy-Hunt connection with the Watergate? Wouldn't a close friend and trusted aide, even assuming he had not the faintest connection with Watergate, have wondered whether this wasn't some-` thing the President ought to know about? At this point, we merely. ask. The answers to these and a great many other questions, we would guess, will be a long time coming out. The most it seems safe to say for now,; a mere 24 hours after the President's sup- posedly definitive declaration on these matters, is that a large part of what Mr. Nixon said on Monday must already be considered-if we may borrow a phrase from Mr. Nixon's White House-inoperative, both as to its content and its desired effect. For Mr. Nixon either knew or he did not know'of Mr. Ehrlichman's interview with the FBI on Friday. So we have a simple choice; either his own investigation into the facts, for which be has' made such large and reassuring claims, was hopelessly incomplete, or he deliberately suppressed this evidence of appalling behavior when he gave his final vote of confidence to 'Mr. Ehrljchman. If the President is serious about his yearning to put the Watergate scandals and all the rest behind him and to move on to the building of "structures for peace", i and to other things, it should be more, apparent than ever before that he must first- rebuild a structure of government at home that will sustain public trust and bear the weight of the work he wishes to do at home and abroad. He can best-begin, in our view, by accept- ing 'the advice of the Senate, and proceeding without further temporizing to place the investigation and prose- cution of the Watergate and related cases in the hands of a detached and Independent special prosecutor. Approved For Release 2001/08/07: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 xiA?C1GXAI, ~i-Z,,f4pproved For Release'2001/08/07: CIA- WM 2 W100150001-0 ~,shay1973 4.M/ayy1973 . ?. and EIlsbizrg 1111'S? Mitchell Tells .The trial of Daniel Ellsberg in Los Angeles is grinding at last to its end, and, indeed, just in time: For the big- name indictments and trials arising out of Watergate seem about to commence. But no one so far as I know has pointed out how intimately connected the two events are. In a recent column James Reston viewed Watergate as traceable to the atmosphere of "suspicion" pervading the Nixon White House, but "suspicion" is hardly the right word. It is * too psychological to do justice to the reality, and it does not raise the question of the extent to which that "atmosphere" was justified. Reston simply assumes that it was not, As a matter of fact, Watergate, like Ellsberg's copying and disclosure of the Pentagon papers, is an episode in a kind of civil war that has been going on in this country for the past seven or eight years, and which doubtless has roots.that go much further back than that. Both Ellsberg and the Watergate operatives behaved as if they were dealing not merely with political oppo- nents but with enemies. The Watergate operatives, it is clear, did not view the McGovern campaign as just j, / American campaign. It was not at all, in their an effort to put a plausible alternative' government in office. They viewed the McGovernites as profoundly hostile 'and they used against them the clan- destine tactics usually reserved for actual warfare. But this, though a blunder and'a breach of the law, was no mere aberration. We have recently had in this country, in effect, two governments-the ordinary, official govern- ment, elected by the people, in which the balance of forces now favors the White House; but also, opposed to this, not a "loyal opposition" in the old sense, but a kind of counter-government. This counter-government denies the legitimacy of the actual government, and employs every means at its coin- mand---legal and illegal-to frustrate its policies. The counter-government, as in the case of Ellsberg, demands the right to declassify secret documents on its own say-so. To a man like Tom Wicker, who is a sort of Ron Ziegler of the counter-government, Ellsberg and Russo are heroes. The counter-government celebrates the feats of demonstrators who, when they don't like a law, simply go ahead and break it.. In its demand for amnesty, and in the visits of its emissaries to Hanoi, and so on, the counter-government asserts its claim to have a different foreign policy from that of the regular government. The agents of the counter-government, operating in- side the official government, provide a steady stream of leaks and disclosures of all kinds to trusted allies in. the press. Henry Kissinger can advise Nixon one afternoon that we ought to "tilt" in favor of Pakistan, and lie can read about it the next morning in Jack Anderson's column. The counter-government has its own journalists, and even its own clergy: the Berrigans, Groppi, and so on. It has-its lawyers-Ramsey Clark, Boudin, Kunstler- and its scientists. The counter-government is of course connected with the counterculture in its varied manifestations. And the counterculture, in turn, represents an explicit rejection of the usual norms of American behavior and style. The McGovern movement of course was not in fact an ordinary American phenomenon, the recognizable candidacy of a Truman or a Humphrey. It represented the political apogee, so far, of the counterculture and the little on - ate,' gate By Stephen Isaacs Washington Post Staff Writer NEW YORK, May 3 - Mrs. Mitchell brought her Martha Mitchell, who has told numerous telephone friends that she can tell a great deal about the Water- gate case, testified about the case today and, according to, lawyers questioning , her,' told almost nothing. Her deposition was taken in the $6.4-million damage' suit filed by the Den:aa- cratic Party against vr_lous ,principals In the Watergate case. Her appearance was requested by attorneys for' James W. McCord Jr., the one-time security chief for the Committee to Re-Elect .the President. ? According to attorneys ;present at the deposition, ,Mrs: - Mitchell's testimony ,was more amusing than il- luminating. She was asked a series of questions, for instance, as to whether she had conver-; ?sations after the arrest of the Watergate intruders on .June 17, 1972, with such Re- r.publican Party figures as ?Frederick LaRue, Charles' Colson, John Ehrlichman, H. R. Haldeman,. John Dean,. and so forth. To each name, she would answer, "No." Her testimony took sev ,eral `hours, filled with brief questions and long, 'ram- bling answers?most' of them relating to her, claims that she was imprisoned by Mc- `Cord's agents for three days "in California, the lawyers 'said. At the outset of the ques- ?ttoning, Mrs. Mitchell in- voked her rights In terms of not answering questions In connection with her hus- band, former Attorney Gen- eral John N. Mitchell. Occasionally, she would mention her husband brief- Aly, as for instance when she told the attorneys that, after she had belatedly learned of the Watergate arrests, she told her husband that she wanted them both out of the. campaign. An observer quoted Mrs. Mitchell's husband answer ,as, "'Darling, hold on for a few more months and then I'll take you back to New York.' " taking. Customarily, a per- son giving a deposition swears to the truth of their testimony to a notary pub. lic. Asked by reporters if she believed her husband to he involved in the scandal, Mrs. Mitchell said: "I trust he- had nothing to do with it. I pray to God he had nothing to do with' the dirty business. He has always assured me he has hot been involved." She also said the whole. scandal is "a pretty dirty business." Much of her deposition comprised her telling how much she disliked the body. guards that McCord had {arranged for her. On one occasion at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel here, she said one of the body- guards walked into her suite, which was. filled with dignitaries, took off his shoes and socks and walked around barefoot. She referred to the guards several times as "kooks" and "creeps." Mrs. Mitchell said she dis- liked McCord and thought he might even be a "double agent," the attorneys said, and particularly disliked his spending an , afternoon in their Watergate apartment with electronic equipment; looking for any possible bug- ging devices. She repeated her often- told story, which has been dented .just, as often, that she was Imprisoned in a California 'Motel after the Watergate break-in, h e r phones ripped from the wall. After her deposition was nearly over, one of the at- torneys reminded her that she had told the press that she wanted to tell her story to the Senate committee headed by Sen. Sam J. Irvin Jr. (D-N.C.). "Mrs. Mitchell," the at- torney is said to have asked, "have you told ds today everything that you were intending to tell, the. Ervin committee?" Mrs. Mitchell's answer was affirmative. counter-government. With some reason, the Watergate operatives perceived the McGovernites as alien and hos- tile, as enemies. Just as Ellsberg, for his part, came to view the govern- ment as "criminal." When an Elisberg appears, and is lionized, the Liddys and the McCords are just around the corner.. -J. HART (King Features Syndicate). /0 Approved For Release 20018%07 CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R00010615000'i-0 WASHINGTON POST May 1973 Robert C. Maynard Lessons of We have it now on no less an author- ity than the President of the United States that a "vigorous free press" serves the useful function of investi-I gating and reporting to the people on the performance of their government. Mr. Nixon's declaration on that point, Monday evening Is an example of the, several civics lessons on the free press, and government made available to us, Courtesy of the Watergate conspiracy. I am not certain that the full Import., The writer is the Ombudsman of The Washington Post: In this capacity he monitors news and editorial operations and offers in this space his own views on the performance of the news media in general and of this newspaper in particular. Watergate Nizer reminded his Interviewer, 'John Hart, that it was just 20 years' ago that this country went through a terrible agony which destroyed lives through innuendo and unproved alle+ gation without benefit of a forum where the truth and falsehood could contend fairly. NizCr's point, although perhaps stated too simply to reflect the com. plexities of Watergate, extracts a valu- able lesson from McCarthyism. Mc-. Carthy was cunning in setting the con- text of suspicion, thus making shreds of facts seem like monuments of truth. ,In such an atmosphere, reputations' were wrecked by dark deeds done in' corners-by whispers, hints, Innuen-, dos. Investigative reporting, has surely just experienced its finest' hour in .American history. Now that so much Is 'known, there is a danger of much fool-. ishness being peddled and purchased by reporters trying to keep pace with the unraveling scandal. As In the time of McCarthy, when serious charges are in the air It fre- quently becomes convenient for potenj tial targets to blame each other, seek- ing to immunize themselves by shift-' jag the spotlight elsewhere. There Is: some evidence that this Is occurring in. the Watergate case. What is already` one of history's nastier political inci-, dents Is taking on ever more sordid as-, pects. So It Is just another 'of the lessons for Journalists and their audiences to, be aware of; in times of dramatic dis. closure, the mass media can becomes overwhelmed by the drama-and irre. sponsible in the bargain. Those very' same news organizations that all but ignored Watergate eight months ago, are among the first today to pass alongi some of the flimsiest of allegations and make lead stories of them. There is yet another civics lesson which relates to the business of jour- nalism and the public, and it' Is per- haps the one over which we should want to ponder the longest. It is the matter of those robust denials which issued forth from the austere setting' of 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue,p and which since have been declared "Inoperative." , ) ;' Having re-read the denials from.: June to April, I am struck by the ques= ,tion of credibility. At,a, time when the ' of these lessons has become apparent: to us yet, but at least two seem to have . manifested themselves recently. It is clear, first of all, as Watergate re- minds us again, that a free press must be prepared to take a lot of abuse 'from politicians when the going gets: rough. Also, once the quarry seemp to be. nailed and falling, the forest awakens with excited chatter, some of It truth, some of It foolishness and some of it ,dangerous. It Is not just that journalists must ,"pursue the courage of their convict tions," as Attorney General Klein dienst urged two vigorous Watergate reporters a day before the White 'House coverup began coming unstuck In earnest. It Is also important to be mindful of the need for zeal to be tem- pered with judgment, now that so many disclosures are tumbling all around town. Two examples of that zeal will ans. ,flee for now. On several occasions in the last several days, major news organ- izations have featured prominent dec- larations that Watergate principals have conceded to their "friends" their role In some Watergate-connected .wrongdoing. John Mitchell was re- ported to have told .'friends" of his prior knowledge of the plan to wire- tape Democratic headquarters-al- though, of course, Mitchell also added that he wouldn't have any part of It. In the same vein, and of the same ilk ,of reporting, is the anticipation of in.' dictments by grand juries in various places. Some newsgatherers have reached the point of actually saying that some principal in the affair is about to be indicted, without more than a passing reference to a source. On this last point, Louis Nizer, the author of "The Implosion Conspir. acy" about the Rosenberg case and an. other book of recollections about his legal practice, "My Life In Court," ex.-, presseda sensible caution recently on the CBS Morning News t press, by Vice President Agnew's own' recent concession, was being :"abrasively" attacked, when it was be- ing characterized repeatedly as irre- sponsible, the administration put it to. the. public to choose to believe the ipress or the government. Now, con- sider what the press conveyed to the public from associates of the White House: Clark MacGregor (Oct. 16): "The Washington Post has maliciously sought to give the appearance of a di- rect connection between the White House and the Watergate ... a charge The Post knows, and a half dozen in- vestigations have found, to be false." Ronald Ziegler (Oct. 16): "1 will not dignify with comment stories based on hearsay, character assassination, innu-' endo or guilt by association ... the President is concerned about the tech- niques being applied ... In the stories' themselves." Sen. Robert Dole (Oct. 16): "Like the desperate politicians whose fortunes they seek to save, The Washington, Post is conducting itself by journalis- tic standards that would cause mass resignations on principle from the Quicksilver Times." Charles W. Colson (Nov, 11): "The charge of subverting the whole politi- ' cal process .. Is fantasy, a work of 'fiction rivaling only 'Gone With the Wind' In circulation and 'Portnoy's Complaint' for indecency ... the trag- edy of The Post's handling of the Watergate affair Is that the net impact was probably to erode somewhat pub- lic confidence in the institutions of government, and it also eroded ... the confidence of a lot of fairminded per-. ,sons in the objective reporting of The Washington Post." John Mitchell: "All that crap! You're putting it In the paper? It's all been denied ... Good Christ., That's the most sickening thing I've ever heard." Now Mr. Ziegler has apologized to The Washington Post, and various offi- cials of the newspaper have accepted the apology. Somehow, an apology to one newspaper by one dissembler misses the point. The point is that the news media were being used to carry bold-faced lies to the American people. The civics lesson is that in this instance truth de- feated falsehood, for which we can all be grateful, as long as we aren't com- placent in the belief that it always will. If, the sorry saga of Watergate does nothing else, it ought to etch that lesson into our collective conscious- ness for all time. In this, Jefferson and George Mason, Madison and the rest of the -framers of the Bill of Rights have had their faith renewed, even while the Inheritors of 'the legacy of their design tarnished .that trust elsewhere. Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-R[3877-00432R000100150001-0 Approved For Release, 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 YORK TIMES BALTIMORE SUN 3 May 1973 2 May 1975-'.---, Contrasts on May - Day UnkindCuts o? There he was, Leonid I. Brezhnev, standing By ,William Safire !atop Lenin's red granite tomb, receiving the WASHINGTON, May 21-"Bu't yes- Lenin Peace Prize:'-priiclaiming' the success of *rrdvy," a Shakespeare buff wrote me -hs detente policies, flexing Soviet arms and re- f:ftcr President Nixon's Watergate a :speech, the word of Nixon might eIving the May Day homage due a Communist have stood against 'the world; now 4011ough s whose position had just, Consolidated visibly. "ies his credibility there, and none so No. 2 alphabetically on the Political Bu- poor to do it reverence." reau, the Soviet press dutifully made Mr. Brezhnev Mr. Nixon is no Julius Caesar, a No. I in publishing the newly revised list of mem- funeral oration is quite premature, 3)ers; it lavished. praise on the 'party secretary and the r l A t ... -_ m f M o e o n o of:ld arc to either S ir A R p o gnew or new epub- lican John Connally. (The President probably casts Senator' Charles Percy, who drafted the Senate resolution calling for a special prosecutor, as Brutus-"Et tu, Chuck?") Let's examine the criticism of the Presidents speech: 1. ? He didn't point the finger of guilt at anybody. There Is an Alice. In -Wonderland quality to this charge, reminiscent of the edict of the Queen of Hearts: "Sen- tence first, verdict afterwards." The slime people who jumped all over the President's reference to murderer Charles Manson as guilty before the accused man had been convicted are now disappointed that the President Is not actively interfering in the judi- dal process. Anybody who wants the President to prejudice the case with pre-judgments is asking, in effect, for Y.ion to obstruct justice-which is what large part of the case is all about. Ali, but could he not have fired his closest aides with a greater show ?'l displeasure? Yes. In these off- with-.heir-heads days, compassion for fail- trigs Is taken as a sign of weakness 'or complicity, and the President could il.wo picked up a few points by slam aping the door behind his departing irends. But a fond farewell is rot a ;x:tc of confidence. He didn't grovel enough. Mr. Nixon has been on a six-year winning streak, and his opponents feel t ey are entitled to what the New Republic's John Osborne calls "fero= pious satisfaction with the plight of a resident whom most of us have al- ways distrusted." The President, on television, only took off his right arm, Haldeman, and sthcn took off his left arm, Ehrlichman. Mo praised the people who broke the ae and included, loud and clear, "a The Politburo shuffle, a far different phenome- )ion, from the current White House upheaval, $rought the ouster of two conservative opponents and the elevation of three men important to the Brezhnev design: ? Andrei Gromyko, foreign min- ister; Andrei Grechko, defense minister, and Yuri Audropov, head of the internal security police, the KGB. All are chiefs of institutions in the Soviet ower structure . and, as such, presumably will p in position to. give Mr. Brezhnev substantive lsupport as he travels west-to Bonn in a couple of Weeks, to the United States in late 'June or early July. Having put down the ' Cold Warriors and the )card-liners who fear contamination by the non- xommunist world, Mr. 'Brezhnev will be able to negotiate in his visits from an apparently solid political base at' home. This is not an Inconsider- able asset for a politician whose agriculture 'has failed, whose economy has lagged, whose people ,are impatient for consumer goods and who Is in he market for western credits and technology on avast scale. It is also not an inconsiderable asset picture of his family and the American flag to his right, a bust of Lincoln to his left, a flag pin in,his lapel. Con- sider, however, the reaction if he had done it the other way: "In an awkward attempt 'to change his Image, Nixon turned his family photo to the wall, removed the flag and the bust of Lin- coln from behind his desk end, for the first time in years, appeared on tele- vision without the familiar pin of an American flag in his lapel. The 'new,' new Nixon; designed to appeal to his ,detractors, fooled nobody." 4. He parodied himself with that I Won't-take-the-easy-way stuff. This criticism is valid. One day the President will say, "I could have taken the easy way, and frankly it looked pretty good, so I did," and 21 million Americans, regardless of party, will reach out and clasp him to their bosoms.. But a double standard might be pointed out here. When John F. Ken- nedy publicly took responsibility for the Bay of Pigs fiasco, the reaction was, "He's bravely, taking the blame for something not his fault." When Mr. Nixon accepted ultimate responsi- bility for the Watergate atrocity, 'the reaction of critics seems to be, "He's .trying in his devious way to make us think he's bravely taking the blame ,for something not his fault." 5. He spoke too soon. This concern is voiced by some of the President's supporters, who believe the .should have waited until all the for a man who will be dealing with an Americah President whose domestic political ? position' is in such disarray that his authority In foreign ?.affairs could be undercut, The contrast between May Day in Moscow and the morning after the Watergate speech in Wash-: ington is hardly reassuring in terms of interna- tional policy. European security talks in ' Hel sinki and the mutual troop-cutback bargaining in Vienna are reaching a point where formal nego- tiations may begin; SALT II is proceeding; efforts are being made to reshape the Atlantic relation- ships; world trade and monetary negotiations are' scheduled; , .T:,panese-American relations remain a problem; most urgently, the Indochina cease- fire a ,,cord is tattered and in need of stitching by the big powers. ' Even in the best of circumstances, these would be weighty matters requiring the best, efforts and the closest attention of the President. As ' Mr. Nixon stated in his Watergate address: "There is vital work to be done toward our goal of a struc- ture of lasting peace in the world, work that can-: not wait, work that I must do," To this end, he is, sending Henry A. Kissinger .to Moscow Friday to. prepare for the Brezhnev visit and, possibly, to seek Soviet help in shoring up the cease-fire agree ment. Mr. Kissinger, as he indicated a week ago, will have reduced leverage in Moscow because of Watergate. Whether this weakness will persist into.the Nixon-Brezhnev talks will depend largely on White House effectiveness in dealing with the Watergate scandal. But If it does persist, the' presidency will have been weakened at a crucial juncture in world affairs. damaging facts were laid bare: Since the situation will get worse before it gets better, he might have avoided a mistake in tone by taking action silently, later presenting to the public not his anguish but his anger. But a President must step up to a crisis. It might have been better to wait until the worst was over, but a leader cannot always wait for the "best" time. He spoke when he had to, and performed as much surgery as he .decided was necessary. 6. He was emotional. That he was. Mr. Nixon's Watergate ,speech was not an activities report or n legal brief. Described In his opening line as coming "from my heart," it was a reach by a man, neither a hollow man nor a plastic man, for a people's trust, centered on his pledge to be "worthy of that trust,' later "worthy of their hopes" and finally, to reporters 'afterward, "worthy of your trust." We should not feign surprise or take offense at the display of sincere emo- tion from a man, deeply wounded but determined not to quit, whose greatest ambition now is to prove himself "worthy." It, because he permitted zealotry to grow in his own backyard, this Presi- dent Is zealously pronounced unworthy to fulfill his dream of building a stable world peace, then that-for him and for all the rest of us-would he in Marc Antony's words, "the most un- kindest cut of all.-- ESSA Y vigorous free press." He promised "1, will do everything in my power to Insure that the guilty are brougtt to Justice and that such abuses are purged from our political processes...:' But to his old enemies he fell short of a really satisfying self-immolation, Ilve and in flaming color, right before the nation's eyes. The reason for his restraint, had to do with his decision that he would go on being President. Presidents do not grovel; Presidents, if they are to continue in authority, pick up the pieces and go on. Nobody Votes for Mayor Culpa. 3. He wrapped himself in the flag. Critics were angered by the accoutre- .tflents of his television appearance: a Approved Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100.150001-0 WASHINGTON POST 2 May 1973 Joseph Alsop ixon's Speech: A- Clean Cut',, But tate Anyone can see the President cannot series of men to whom- he had given need watching. On the basis of the hope to come out of the Watergate total confidence. . . known facts, John Dean III ought to horror smelling like a rose. But after The depth of his resentment can be have been disbarred before he became the events of Monday, a bet is hereof- seen in the way he dealt with John the President's counsel. He strikes one fered that the President will not be. Mitchell after the real Watergate story, as the kind of man who might try to smelling like a skunk cabbage, either. began to emerge before the grand get his own back, by seek? Z'.14 to impli= No doubt this will disappoint a few. jury. This was when . Mitchell was cate the -President. But Dow. will not The het is also conditional on substan- called to the White House on April 15. do this, if he has a decent 1.:1yer of tiation of a recent, far too little no- Mitchell was not allowed to -see the ? his own. And Dean will not matter , ticed summation of the Watergate evi- President. He was given the dire news much, anyway, if Jack Anderson's ver- 'tience by Jack Anderson, that Fero- by a man he hates, John Ehrlichman. sion of what happened is generals sus- t'ious investigator-reporter. Anderson This is not the way any president ban- tanned by other evidence. '-has certainly shown no signs of a soft dies a man who has been his closest' These are the reasons, finally, that :Spot for Richard M. Nixon. He has fur- intimate, unless a catastrophic loss of the President should finally emerge' ther seemed to have complete access faith has already occurred. from ? the Watergate horror without to the grand jury testimo y in the smelling like a skunk cabbage. This e Such, them,, are the tentative of course that although he may Watergate case. With this knowledge, on which one may judge the he knowledg be somewhat damaged, he will still be be wrote the other day: political effects of the Watergate hor? "President Nixon had no advance Two aspects of the horror are a relatively intact President, with knowledge of the Watergate break-in ror. bound to hurt the President perma-' more than enough political authority and bugging'] ??nently, although far from fatally. He to discharge the dreadful responsibili- When the Watergate story was bro- cannot get rid of the responsibility for ties that the modern presidency im- ken by The Washington Post, it must hiring and trusting the people respon- poses. ,therefore have astonished the Presi-' sible for the horror. He also waited far Barring the most passionate Nixon- dent as much as it astonished most too long to make the clean cut that haters--a minority sect at best-this is people. It was then campaign time. It obviously necessary; and in this the final outcome that most people in Would be carrying faith in human na- was waiting period, the horror was made ? the country have been hoping for. Al- waiting too far, to. suppose the candidate- ' even more horrible.,. . . most all Americans have enough coin-. President did not then want his subor- mon sense to see the terrible danger of as tar as L was pv. No u" r s President will now turn upon him, and with a president who has been politi- Al~ Preslden ent the e , last 40 yeoars will seek to Implicate him from mo- crippled call . y woul would have wanted less. But once again, if Jack Anderson is fives of revenge. Every last one of Hence President Nixon can in fact, correct, the President had no knowl- them Was looking forward to'the most ; count on being given the benefit of the, edge whatever of the kind of shocking ? glittering rewards In private 'life. Now, doubt by most people in this country- cover-up measures that were taken by however, that delightful prospect has now that he has finally made the deep, some of those closest to him, allegedly paled and vanished. For some, the out- ? clean cut that the Watergate horror Including former Attorney General look is also hideously dark, since ac- always demanded. Thank God he has John Mitchell. Judging , by all the. tual crimes have undoubtedly been done so, and pray God it produces the known evidence, the President was committed. result here forecast. Otherwise, we shall persistently, flagrantly and arrogantly Looking over the line-up, however, all suffer. lied to about this matter, by a whole .'there Is only one man' Who ,seems to ?1973. Loa Aneotee Times BALTIMORE SUN 3 May 1973 Notes and Comment Their Days Are Numbered So Rosencrantz and Guilden- stern-we mean, Ehrlichman and Haldeman-are dead, figura- tively , speaking. We have searched the papers in vain. for a kind word about them. ,They have been chucked to the dogs and every politician in Christendom seems to be happy. 'One reason is plain. These two . non-politicians never played by the rules of politics. They, skirts, and brought out a new, shielded President Nixon from ! edition of the Manual. There are the advice of senators and gover-,' a lot of new merit badges today nors in a manner. that many.. that they didn't have when Hans senators and governors found de- and Fritz were in brown short meaning. pants: Automotive Safety, Com-. Well, we've taken our fair ? munications, Electronics, Public share of pot shots at Hans and Speaking. Salesmanship are just Fritz, as they are called around ; a few. Electronics? Communica- ? Washington, but at this point tions? Hmmm. . a . we'd like to say a very small word in their defense. Like the. ' foolish courtiers in Hamlet, they There is a lot of difference probably thought they were doing between doing the best thing and the best thing. the right thing. We guess that (And like those two, they met , . sums up' the problem of this or those nifty Presidential calen- Haldeman and Erlichman were ` dars? The President revealed both Eagle Scouts, and we hope; this .their existence the other night. name. doesn't The give the Scouts Scouts have a had bad ; ..their 'said that 'when he was inau- enough troubles lately as it is.'As As. `gusted, last January, he gave the nation became more urban each member of his Cabinet and and sophisticated, scouting had White House staff a [our-year less of ansal. Last ear the calendar, covering the period of app Y y his secdnd term, with each date' changed the name from Boy ,:numbered: January 20 was 1,461, Scouts to S outs d c , encourage Cub January 21 was 1.460. etc. Now it Scout Dan Mothers to ..,...,... i n _ n - -- a nulls i culp- ents, their days were numbered wrong. . We don't' just mean Haldeman and Ehrlichman, for whom last Monday was not Day 1,361, as President Nixon pointed out it was for himself, but Day 0. The real confusion is for Elliot Rich- ardson. He got a calendar as Sec- retary of Defense designate. But now he is Attorney General des- ignate. Does he get two calen- dars? And if he changes jobs again, does he get three? Rich- . ardson seems to be the record holder for number of Cabinet chairs held in the shortest period of time. In a span of five months he will have been Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare, Defense, and Attorney General. m Guilty or Innocent, as they say, Ehrlichman and Haldeman seem certain of a place in history as notorious characters. The more we think of them, the more they remind us of Shakespeare's hap- less pair, and especially of what dramatist Tom Stoppard said of them in explaining why he wrote a play about them a few years ago: "Rosencrantz and Guilden- stern were the two most expend- able people of all time. Their very facelessness makes them dramatic ..." I tragic end.) Approve' eo?rle. CIAS?DP77-00432R000100150001-0 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 3 May, 1973 a .0 . By John Allan May America, he points out, gets a free ride. It is given immunity from disciplines that have to be obeyed by other nations. Pressure to adopt a new monetary system not based on a corrupting American deficit now will measur- ably increase, London financial ex-' perts judge. As to defense, some people are saying that Watergate' has greatly advanced the time when European defense will need to be totally restruc- tured. It is felt likely here that congres- sional influence from now on will be used to accelerate the reduction In the level of American ground forces in Europe. The extent of that influence vis a vie the President may be crucial another Watergate imponderable. Britons hope, as the London Times ,also says, that Americans at this stage will not forget that Mr. Nixon has been a major president in world affairs. And that the outside world "needs to have a strong and effective ware' president of the United States to deal with." And as an average. Briton re- marked, "I hope the average Amer- ican will also realize that because of the wealth, strength, and size of his country he is a very Important person too to the outside world." In addition, some observers hero see the reaction of a section of the American press and public to (hg,' crisis in the. administration is almost as alarming as the nature of the cris1:3 itself. fhe London Times points to the wild piling of charge upon charge and suspicion upon suspicion and re- marks, "The hysteria has Indeed mounted with the facts." For the same reason, however, people overseas also find some cause for comfort In the story. The very nature of the democratic process ensures that the poison can be purged. In an authoritarian regime it may linger damagingly In the system. The Christian Science Monitor London It Is inconceivable that U.S. foreign policy will not be affected by Water- gate, it is said here. Henry A. Kissinger recently out- lined 'a plan for a new Atlantic Charter, This seems to have attracted more notice abroad than at home. Most people here, however, seem to agree with the judgment of the liberal Guardian newspaper that the time now is not auspicious to pursue this project. "Nixon would be wise to let the dust settle," it says. Even international monetary re- form will be Influenced. An increasing number of Europeans agree with the view voiced recently in America by Herman Kahn that the American payments deficit as the basis of the international system has a corrupting effect. the ; Watergate Coveru By lack Anderson The astonishing story can now be told how the Water- gate coverup suddenly tore apart at the stitches. Our sources declare categor- ically that President Nixon l had no advance knowledge of the Watergate ? break-in and bugging. From the first, for- mer Attorney General John Mitchell and White House counsel John Dean also swore to him that they had no part in the illegal operation. It was well known around the White House, however, that, Jeb Stuart Magruder was,, neck- deep in the scandal. As No. 2 man on the. cam- paign committee, he directed the activities of Watergate ringleader G. Gordon Liddy. Liddy submitted regular re- ports to Magruder on the bug- ging operation under the code name, "Gemstone." Magruder also arranged for Liddy to draw cash out of the c3mmit- tee's safe. After the arrest cf the Watergate wiretappers, an agi- tated Liddy immediately tried to contact Magruder in Cali- fornia. Liddy demanded to use the White House security net- work so he could speak on a secure phone. Unable to get through to Magruder's hotel, Liddy left a message for Ma- gruder to call him from a pay phone. When the call ? came through, Liddy reported what had happened and received in- >lo Ws>tslitilt>wgto>ta MerryOGo-1toaa>atd .,. ,. THE WASHINGTON POST Thursday, April 26,1973 .. ~ structions to destroy all In- criminating evidence. Finally, Magruder directed Liddy to report" at once to Attorney General Richard Kleindienst. Liddy located Kleindienst at the Burning Tree golf course and rushed off to consult him, Powell Moore, the campaign press chief, asked to go along. They called Kleindienst into a back room and confided that the burglary-bugging squad, caught red-handed in- side Democratic headquar- ters, was headed by the Presi- dent's campaign security chief. Coldly, Kleindlenst picked up a telephone and reached Assistant Attorney General Henry Petersen. "Henry," in- structed Kleindienst, "I want to be sure that these people are treated as any other per- son would be treated who is arrested under those circum- stances." The , chastened Liddy re- turned to campaign headquar- ters and began stuffing his files into a small shredder, which chewed them up too slowly to suit him. So he hus- tled upstairs with arms full of documents and ran them through a larger shredder. Over at the White House, meanwhile, Dean ordered two aides to clean out the files of Watergate conspirator E. How- ard Hunt. Eight cardboard car- tons of papers were sneaked out of the White House and stored in a warehouse. They were later returned to the White House, and most of the documents were selectively destroyed. Dean was ordered by the President to find out whether any White House people were involved in . the Watergate crimes. Contrary to the im- pression given out by the White House, Dean never submitted a written report. Our sources state' flatly that Dean used his authority to ob- struct the FBI and to keep in- criminating evidence away from the Justice Department. He even ordered Hunt out of the country. White House aide Charles Poison,. according to one source, exploded: "Do you want to make the Whte House an accessory, to a fugitive .from justice?" Cover-up Begins' One of the President's clos- est advisers, John Ehrlichman, wanted to put out a statement acknowledging Magruder's role in the Watergate conspir. acy. This was vigorously op- posed. by Clark MacGregor who succeeded Mitchell as campaign chairman. A few presidential advisers, including Ehrlichman and Col- son, warned the President in February that the Watergate decisions must have been ap- proved by Mitchell and Dean, Mr. Nixon replied that both had denied any involvement and asked for proof. By mid-March, the Presi- dent's faith in Dean began to waver. He ordered Dean to Camp David to write a belated Failed report on his Watergate inves- tigation. After a few days at the presidential retreat, Dean reported back to the President that he simply couldn't write 'a report. Angrily, Mr. Nixon took Dean off the Watergate case. Colson, meanwhile, took a lie-detector test to prove his own innocence. Dean was furi- ous. "Now we're all going to have to take one,' he grumped. Colson' and Ehrlichman also put together information that (1) Dean had advance know- ledge of the Watergate bug- ging; (2) Dean had ordered Hunt out of the country; and (3) Dean. had authorized pay- ments to the Watergate de- fendants to keep their mouths shut. On Friday, April 13, Ehrlichman confronted Dean with the charges. That night, Dean put to- gether some documents he had been saving, which indi- cated both H.R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman had knowl- edge of the Watergate cov- erup. Next day, Dean took the documents to Assistant U.S. Attorney Earl Silbert and made accusations against Haldeman, Ehlichman, Mitch- ell and Magruder. In return, Dean asked for immunity. . Silbert refused to grant Im- munity. Instead, he called in Magruder and confronted him with Dean's revelations., This broke down Magruder who also confessed his role In the conspiracy. () 1973. United Nature Syndicato Approved For Release 2001/08/07 CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000106150001-0 WASHINGTON POST President Nixon said, in his television address . on , Nixon's speech on television for themselves, they, cannot Monday evening, that he has had to'spend too much time ',have catch the, urgent anxiety in his words:, lately on the internal scandals of his administration. "I They have seen the reaction from leading members of must now turn my full attention once again to the larger Congress.' It would be impossible for any experienced duties of this office," he observed, after announcing that. -,,;,'politician to have spent this week in Washington and Ike-was turning the Investigation of the scandals over to '.r still believe that Mr. Nixon's troubles are merely the his subordinate, the Attorney General-designate, Mr.. kind of customary domestic irritations that other gov- Richardson. "There is vital work to be clone toward our' :ernments Can ignore. goal of a lasting structure of peace in the world-work it has now begun to dawn; on our German visitors that. that cannot wait. Work that I must do." As soon as the Mr. Nixon's trade bill Is in grave jeopardy. Any Con following morning, he pointed out, he was to confer at 'e'gress, in any year, finds it difficult to vote for a trade the White House with, Chancellor Brandt of West Ger- bill that is opposed by the labor movement. The only many. 1 o way that any President ever gets trade legislation en- It must be a very strong temptation for Mr, Nixon, ' ' acted is by climbing up on his white horse and .talking .in this bitter time, -to retreat to the decorous and sere- about the greater, national interest.. Mr. Nixon's white monious world of foreign affairs. But that would be an' t,'. ,horse is currently not in service. It is, to use the famil- exc~.edingly dangerous retreat-dangerous for Mr. Nixon'.' iar term, inoperative. If the trade bill does not move and more dangerous for the country. A democratic'gov- forward rapidly, the whole policy toward Europe, will' . ` ernment's foreign policy can never be any stronger or decline into stagnation. Perhaps the magnitude of this sounder than that government's staandifig' at home and its'' ', ' possibility was not evident to the German governne ;t' support among its own people. home.'Pretending that foreign policy is, separate orilica. As long as Mr. Brandt and his colleagues remained from the administration's standing at home is a luxury In Bonn, they knew the Watergate case only as a thin no longer available to Mr. Nixon. He spoke on Monday trickle of newspaper stories and perhaps occasional low- ' of the "larger duties" of his office, and the "vital work keyed diplomatic reporting. At a distance of several' to be done," as though politics abroad were obviously thousand miles, it is easy to dismiss the whole affair as nobler and more important than politics at home. To the the', kind of routine embarrassment that is a normal contrary, the largest duty of the President's office' this hazard of political life. The European press, over the week is to re-establish some degree of its traditional winter, has not made much of the affair. moral authority in the eyes of the American people. The But now, having spent the past few days in Washing- , most vital work to be done in the White House, In this ton, the Brandt party cannot have missed the true and unhappy season, is to regain the administration's sadly desperate significance of the scandals. Having seen Mr. damaged capacity to speak for the American nation. NEW YORK TIMES 2 May 1973 Broken Confidence The Watergate scandal has become a crisis of preslj dential authority. In his Addres4 to the nation MondAk evening, President Nixon tried but failed to resolve that crisis. The whole trend of future events remains In doubt. Although he has dismissed three of his senior aides .and formally accepted responsibility for whatever mis; deeds may have been committed without his knowledge, Mr. Nixon basically has conceded nothing except what events have wrenched from him. In making those mini. mum moves, he has at the same time played down the, seriousness of the scandals and tried to blur responslJ bility for them. He praised H. R. Haldeman And John D. Ehrlichman, ,who resigned under pressure, aA"*two of the finest pub' r Ali'. 1V Lion's 'Larger L'utles' know-that it'can be very easy under the Intensive pres- sures of a campaign for even well-intentioned people to fall Into shady tactics, to rationalize this on the grounds that what IS at stake is of such importance to the nation that the end justifies the means. And both of our great parties have been guilty of such tactics," But these excuses and words of praise come after Mr. Ehrlichman had already told the Federal Bureau of Inves- tigation that It was he who assigned two of the men later convicted in the Watergate trial to investigate Daniel Ellsberg. When he learned that they had burglar- ized the files of Mr. EilSberg's psychiatrist, Mr. Ehrlich. man, although he is a member of the bar, took no action. He merely told them not to do it again. That took place not during the heat of a hard-fought political campaign but in September, 1971. Mr. Ehrlich- man's complacent acceptance of such criminAl behavior is on a par with former lttorne G e I M' I Ii' e t n ra e J c ie s par- lic Servants it has been my privilage to know,". adding: ticipation without-public disclosure, much less denuncia- "I greatly regret their departure." (ion, in conferences early in 1972 to discuss the illegal the President VA p bit l tFitor g1`~ ee rod/~~ n1 PN-OO488RflD010iM45D ade ,tie National Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 Committee. Mr. Nixon may find it easy to understand such attitudes on the part of high officials. Most citizens 'Lion offered:by Senator Percy; Republican of Illinois; calling for nomination of a distinguished special prosecu' tor from outside the executive branch and for his con- the Senate. Representative John Anderson, Republican of Illinois, has, introduced a similar resolution in the House, which' also deserves prompt approval. it is significant and encouraging that members -of the' President's own party in Congress have taken the lead in urging this essential action. Finally, however, the ball returns to President Nixon. It is up to him to recognize that, important as are inter- national negotiations, inflation and other public prob, lems, What matters now is the breakdown of public con-' fidence in' his Administration. lie cannot cope with specific problems on a business-as-usual basis as if Watergate were a minor diversion. It was neither a caper nor an isolated event; it vas proof that something Is radically wrong in the central relationships of this Administration. Mr. Nixon's task is to focus on repairing confidence by developing new relationships with his staff and Cabinet, with Congress and with the people'' Nothing else can be accomplished, until the President begins ,to put these relationships on the right basis the basis of candor, lawfulness, mutual respect and sound constitutional, practice in. the conduct of the public's business, Even more dismaying is the planned obstruction of' justice in the Watergate case by senior Administratiof officials, as reported in the news bolumns of this news paper today. When an atmosphere of criminality prevails in the highest levels of the Administration, .it is impose sible to know what other public business may be tainted with fraud. Under these circumstances, Mr. Nixon cannot plausi bly say that In some vague way both parties and all of America are to blame. He cannot assort that Watergate ."has claimed far too much of my time and my attention" and that he now intends to busy himself with other matters. He cannot play a game of musical chairs Inside his Administration and declare that moving about a few insiders Is sufficient to restore public confidende. Such acts and attitudes are an affront to the public. , - ?' The full facts on this monstrous interference with the political process are unlikely ever to come out until' prosecution is rembved from dontrbl by this Administra- tion. The Senate has pointed the way the White. House must follow. it has approved without, dissent a ;esolu. NEW YORK TIMES 3 May 1973 - enate Duty... In the crisis brought about by the Watergate scav i& s.. ! the. Senate has three vitally important duties to dis- .charge. They are to help find the truth, to evaluate the harm done and to correct the weaknesses which have, been exposed to the extent that laws can remedy them.' The Senate acted to perform the first of those duties, when it approved the resolution offered by Senator Percy, Republican of Illinois, calling upon the President; to name a special prosecutor from outside the executive, branch to take charge of the Watergate Investigation.. As Is the unadmirable custom in the Senate of doing most of its business by the rule of unanimous consent,` the resolution was ca fled up and-when no one objected--- was passed, although only four members were present on the floor. Senator Curtis, Republican of Nebraska,' tried yesterday. to soften the impact of the Senate's. action by belated protests. His ex post facto grumbling is significant only because he Is a stalwart supporter of the White House and his complaints reflect the angry opposition of President Nixon. At a Cabinet meeting Tuesday the President reportedly excoriated Senator Percy and insisted that the decision about a special prosecutor he left with Attorney General-designate 'Richardson. - Mr. Nixon makes a. deep error, however, if he attributes ,.to Senator Percy's Presidential ambitions a demand which actually arises from the ranks of his own party. The Percy resolution was co-sponsored by ten Republicans 'Including Barry Goldwater and Robert Dole, the formet G.O.P. national chai -man, and had the tacit support of the party's Senate leadership. Like its counterpart, the Anderson resolution in the House of Representatives, it articulates a sentiment expressed by Republicans of every ideological viewpoint around the country as well as in Congress. In any event, from the standpoint of timing, the deci- sion on a special prosecutor cannot be delayed until Mr. Richardson takes office. His confirmation hearing Is a week away and his actual assumption of office may be much more distant. Since critical decisions have to be made about the fast-developing Watergate investiga- tion, it is essential that such a prosecutor totally free of 'association with this Administration be appointed at once. # R F In the separate task of evaluating the harm that has been done, the Senate select committee chaired by Sena- tor Ervin, Democrat of North Carolina, has an Important long-range duty` to perform. Many of the nefarious activities in connection with the 1972 interference with the electoral process may be improper but not Illegal, or only of marginal importance in a criminal trial. With- out trespassing on the domain of the courts or the rights of the accused, the committee is best positioned to pull together the whole story in all its ramifications. Last year's inquiry by the Senate Judiciary Committee into the connections between the Nixon campaign organi- zation's fund raising and the settlement of the I.T.T. antitrust case was handicapped by lack of knowledge of the pervasiveness of the whole interlocking conspiracy. The same White House cast of characters involved in Watergate played important roles in that murky affair, .including convicted Watergate conspirator E. Howard !Hunt Jr., who interviewed Mrs. Dita Beard, the elusive I.T.T. lobbyist, on behalf of the white House. He also 'showed up in the Ellsberg case, which we discuss below. -What is clearly needed is a comprehensive investigation by the Ervin committee of the activities of the Justice Department and the White House staff. f With , regard to remedial action, the financing of political campaigns is the place to begin. Last year'.~ campaign expenditure law has helped significantly to open up political money-raising to public inspection, but much more is plainly needed to control and channel the infusion of money into politics. The Watergate ,scandals were financed in part by that tide of $100 bills which was raised in mysterious ways and spent in ;worse ways. The Senate still has a job to do in stricter regulation of this corrupting flow of money. ..White House Ethics . Coming on the heels of the Watergate revelations, blatant White House misconduct In the case of Dc, Daniel Ellsberg deepens the picture of an Administration In 40 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 moral blinders. President Nixon's inquest in '1971 for a !'warn the culprits. "not to do this again." He did not .special staff investigation into unauthorized disclosures report their crime either to the authorities or to the of Government information may not in itself have been' Federal court that was to try Dr. Ellsberg. neither. improper or unusual, but everything else about, a. -When Mr. Ehrlichman and his principal, the President the episode was. of the United States, did get in touch with that court, A report of the Federal Bureau 'of Investigation--- Ht was for a quite different purpose. That purpose, which was already at work on the subject when the'shocking under the 'circumstances, was to offer the President ordered John D. Ehrlichman to make a private judge, William Matthew Byrne Jr., the directorship of 1 study-now reveals that the former Presidential aide achose for the purpose G.'Gordon Liddy and E. Howard the F . B.I. Hunt Jr., whose method then was simple burglary, the' Judga Byrne might well be an admirable choice for same method thry used later,in the Watergate case.. To; this post, the more so since he refused to entertain the compile a "psychiatric profile" of the defendant in the otter While pfesitltng over a ca" in which the President Pentagon Papers case, these two industrious White House o clearly took intense interest. What is important is not k'Investigators broke Into the office of Dr. Ellsber 's the judge's qualifications--or even the decision he must a g now make on whether or not to dismiss the case against psychiatrist in a search for evidence of emotional insta- Dr. Ellsberg. It is rather the insensitivity, to use the .bility. As though that were not reprehensible enough :mildest possible word, of Mr. Ehrlichman and the Presi- >--especially?with the case already In the courts--Mr. dent in making such an offer in the midst of a trial' Ehrlichman, on learning of the incident, was content to already so heavy with political overtones. WASHINGTON sT r CARL T. ROWAN. 4 MaY 1973 Nixon R~i~g Evasive The eight-column headline across the Washington Post screamed, "President Ac- cepts Full Responsibility." Someone, awaking from an 'ear,ly-go-to-bed might have concluded that Richard Mil? hous Nixon had abdicated in his embarrassment over the ,seemingly endless chain of revelations in the Watergate .scandal. But no such thing. The .headline writer had simply bought some Nixon rhetoric ,without giving much thought to whether the President was !accepting what the President said he was accepting. It was vintage Nixon, circa 11952. when the President said with an air of nervous ?gallantry: the easiest 'course would be for me to blame those to whom I delegated the ( responsibility to run the cam- paign. But that would be a (cowardly thing to do. I "I will not place the blame on subordinates - on people !whose zeal exceeded their ;Judgment, and who may have ,done wrong in a cause they .deeply believed to be right. , "In any organization, the man at the top must bear the responsibility. That responsi- bility, therefore, belongs here, in this office. I accept it., , The words had a noble ring, -but the truth is that the Presi- dent was placing the blatrie on subordinates. ? . best days in the history of It was H.R. Haldeman and America," John Ehrlichman who were But the speech won't wash .going off the White House in the long run, because the payroll, their lives now platitudes and cliches did not cloaked in tragedy, not Rich- answer the questions the ard.Nixon. It was John Wes- American people are asking ley Dean III who was being about presidential knowledge pushed out of the White House' of or involvement in the dirty with a devious suggestion that money-raising tactics, the Does anyone believe that. John Dean kept Nixon, Halde- man and Ehrlichman in blind. ers for 10 months? And how, come the President never said a word about his former attor- ney general and most trusted political adviser, John Mitchell? he was the villain. It was misuse of funds for espionage This speech just won't do Richard Kteindienst who was and sabotage, or his aware- for Richard Nixon what that surrendering the job of attor- ness of the outrageous cover- Checkers speech did in 1952. ney general. And L. Patrick up that produced 10 months of Neither the President nor the Gray Ili who had left the act- evasions, lies and deception. ublic has h ar in i ppttmveckl tbR lease,20oi1 B difAArWRas7-O 9RQ1ROf161t4,Tan tT after the incredible revelation ly-nervous President categor- gate scandal. that he had destroyed docu- ically deny personal knowl-' ments taken from the office of edge of the dirty work. E. Howard Hunt, a man the Nixon did say that he FBI was Investigating for learned from news reports' suspected criminal behavior. last June 17 of the Watergate It was Jeb Stuart Magruder break-in. "I was appalled at who had bowed out of govern. ment to face possible criminal Indictment. Was Richard M. Nixon resigning? No. Was Nixon promising to pay some kind of penalty? No. Was the Presi- dent volunteering to spend part of G. Gordon Liddy's 6 to 20 years in prison? No.. Was Nixon saying that he would pay some grinding penance for this unprecedented cor- ruption of the presidential election process? No. Nixon made it clear that "for specific criminal actions by specific individuals, those who committed those actions must, of course, bear the lia- bility and pay the penalty." this senseless illegal action and I was shocked to learn that employees of the Re-- election Committee were ap- parently among those guilty,", Nixon told the nation. Well, now, if Nixon was shocked and appalled last June 17, why did he send his press secretary out to dismiss the break-in as a "third-rate burglary attempt'.' and to warn that "certain elements may try to stretch this beyond what it is?" The cover-up was off to a shameful start in those utter- ances of a press secretary speaking speciifically in be- half of the President. What, then, did the The closest Nixon came to President's' assumption of saying directly that he knew responsibility for Watergate nothing of the subsequent lies mean? Exactly nothing. it and evasions was when he was just a flourish of slick said he finally got information rhetoric. It was another, suggesting that "there had Checkers speech - minus his been an effort to conceal the little dog Checkers. facts, both from the public - Some of my journalistic col- from you - and from me." Leagues think that the But who was doing the "unsophisticated" public 'will concealing? Nixon's praise of swallow this speech whole, Haldeman and Ehrlichman` sugar-coated as it was with Its suggests that he wants to hold platitudes of patriotism like them blameless. His cold ref- "God bless America" and its erence to Dean suggests he emotional hokum like "I want would like to brand him the the next 1,361 days to be the culprit. 41 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0 WASHINGTON STAR t+ May 1973 Luce o,n By MARY ANNE DOLAN Star-News Staff Writer Recalling that she owes her fortune and "all that 1.'; ,have done fruitfully in my time" to living and working,: among journalists, Clare Boothe Luce yesterday called{ upon the nation's press to "heal" the wounds left by Wa-' tergate and "lead us out of this' painful .and dangerous',, Aiour." The Eisenhower-appointed former ambassador told b luncheon audience of nearly 1,00 members of the Ameri. can Society of Newspaper Ed',tors and their guests that; the press has "drawn a fearsome amount of blood" from i President Ninon, and "in terms of official accountability and credibility, may have destroyed the efficacy of the4 presidency," However, she added, though not "all the watchdogs ,of, the' prr'ss are joyfully licking their chops of the rich) 'blood '..., to the President's journalistic political oppo. .rents, the embarrassment, the shame that now envelops' the administration is" more than a "triumph of investigatt., live reporting." . % BECAUSE OF WATERGATE, Mrs. Luce said, seme~ journalists feel "their entire case" against President Nixon has been "vindicated",: "His conduct of the Viet-, cnam war, and the cease-fire negotiations; his challenge` of their right to publish the Pentagon papers that Ells-' berg burgled; his counter attacks, against their advo-'. cacy jeurnalism ..., his championship of 'law and order,',, and so on and so on, all the way back-to Checkers, Alger Hiss and Helen Gahagan Douglas," ^ ;t Mrs. Luce said that the "caper at the Watergate has' become and will remain a catastrophe," and that "its' inglorious beginnings give little hope for any but for an,.. Inglorious end." In the meantime, however, she urged "a responsible. ;press to try to explain to the American people what may have motivated the men who were invglved in such an? unbelievably clumsy, amateurish, incredibly stupid and, altogether counterproductive and'immoral enterprise. "THE ONLY EXPLANATION that makes sense to me ... lies in the widespread ciiinate of mutual suspicion and mistrust." she said, pointing to the "hatred that be- gan to pervade American politics over the conduct of the Vietnam war," and continuing: "By the spring and summer of 1972, each side had. come to believe that the other side was being led?by dan-' gerous fanatics. One side believed that the other was committed to a never-ending, ruinous war. The other be-' lieved that it had to deal with men committed tea ruinous, ;peace, and the radicalizing of American society. "On the evidence," Mrs. Luce concluded, "the de-: Mons of suspicion that drove Ellsberg'and Russo to bur- glary were the same demons that entered into the Water , gate burglaries." The bespectacled speaker read slowly from her notes when she asked rhetorically, "Can a responsible press, hold that In Ellsberg's betrayal of his oath of secrecy,` and his theft of. secret government documents, his politi= aterate cat ends justified the means, while in the Watergate af- fair the same ends were totally unjustified? "I think neither was justifiable," she said. AIRS. LUCE WARNED of "McCarthyism" in news- papers, declaring that unless it is "stomped jut," the "mistrust and suspicion that have divided us over the long Vietnam war, and its tragic failur', will go on end. lessly and it will make it impossil'" for either side to 'govern the country. "Is the pleasure of soaking the captain," Mrs. Luce .asked, "worth the price of sinking the ship? t "... What Watergate may have made impossible for the President to do, the press must now do - bring us together." THE 70-YEAR-OLD playwright and novelist was respectfully received by her audience, which at one point she characterized, half-laughingly, as "a blank wall and deaf ears." However, some hostility began to build in the ques- .tion-and-answer period when Mrs. Luce, dressed in black with crisp white collar and cuffs, refused to enumerate ."excesses" she had alluded to in Watergate coverage except to say: "This has brought up many interesting questions. How much space, for instance, should the press give a journalist, with a known political bias, to pursue an at- tack against a politician - in, of course, an 'advocacy' way." Shortly after that response, a'gentlemanly editor who proudly noted that he hailed from the state of Arkan- sas asked Mrs. Luce how she managed to be so good. looking and so intelligent at the same time. Mrs. Luce laughed. THE GOOD HUMOUR held out as the speaker re- sponded to a friendly challenge from the man who intro- .'duced her, former ASNE president John S. Knight, and chastised the press for becoming a "monopolistic big business." She said newspapers have "lost credibility i because of lack of competition." Knight, head of the third-largest newspaper chain in the country, said he would respond later, "though she won't listen to a word I say. But the word which everyone listened to, which echoed through the Shoreham's Regency ballroom throughout the afternoon's proceedings, was the same one Mrs. Luce said her date husband Henry had seemed to whisper to her late the night before: "I seemed to hear him saying, 'Look dear, you've got to do it, as a journalist, a Republican and as my wife: You've got to talk about Watergate.",. 1t2 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100150001-0