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September 7, 1973
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Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R0001002300-01-1 CONFIDENTIAL NEWS, VIEWS and ISSUES INTERNAL USE ONLY This publication contains clippings from the domestic and foreign press for YOUR BACKGROUND INFORMATION. Further use of selected items would rarely be advisable. 44 25 SEPTEMBER 1973 GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS GENERAL EASTERN EUROPE WESTERN HEMISPHERE 25 29 CONFODENVAL, Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 ? Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 ' it4611140110=4ftg-is, 4 ,v4?:**4.m.-4, , ? rn n G V lig ._ al Affaik WASHINGTON STAR-NEWS Washington, D. C, Friday, September 7, 1973 01 y _ The Office of National Estimates, which CIA Director William E. Colby Is abolishing in a White House-ordered shakeup, is to. be replaced by a less structured group of intelli- gence analysts who will in- dividually prepare intelli- gence estimates under new guidelines. Despite an effort by the CIA leadership in recent weeks to deny that a radical shakeup of the intelligence evaluation procedure has already been decided upon, the Star-News has learned: o That Colby decided more than two months ago to abolish the elite 10-man Board of National Esti- mates which for more than 20 years carried collective responsibility for preparing objective intelligence esti- mates. The decision Was discussed among high- ranking CIA officials late in June and revealed at a sub- sequent meeting of the high- level U.S. Intelligence Board, but has not been announced to the agency rank and file or to the con- gressional oversight com- mittees. ? That the board's distinc- tive and prestigious prod- uct, the SO or more National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs)it prepared annually, will now be prepared by. individual researchers in a loosely defined group with the new designation: Na- tional Intelligence Officials. (Nb). ? That NIEs henceforth will be altered to meet long- standing Nixon administra- tion dissatisfaction with the calibrated and scholarly product of the board and its 20-man staff, which togeth- er formed the Office of Na- tional Estimates. Colby is said to have ordered the MOs to make their assess- ments brief, to the point and factual. To give the new ME for- mat an added air of mei.' sion, Colby has reportedly ordered the abolition of the long-standing verbal scale of certainty which used ,such hedge words as "ap- parent," "Possible." "prob- able" and "almost certain." evamps lie Ho INSTEAD, Colby has or- dered a numerical scale of certainty from 1 to 10. The FBI has for many years graded informants citillopr In reports on a T-for-trust- worthiness scale on which? T-10 indicates total confi- dence and T-1 indicates almost no reliability. Authoritatives sources in the intelligence community have misgivings about these changes, warning that the substitution of individual analysts for the collective product of the old system could rob future NIEs of Objectivity. These same sources scoff at the new numerical grad- ing system, calling it a "cosmetic way to achieve a false sense of precision." Despite the frequently reported complaint of White House policy makers that NIEs were too verbose and took too long to read, intelli- gence sources familiar with the estimating process point out that estimates deliber- ately written at greater length in the Nixon adminis- tration because Henry A. Kissinger wanted them that way. EVIDENTLY distrusting BNE output from the start, Kissinger passed the word that he wanted NIEs to in- clude a detailed exposition of the evidence and a clear development of the analyti- cal argument as well as the detailed summary of con- clusions the NIEs had pre- viously set forth. The administration dis- trust of the existing analyti- cal function seems to be the basic motivation behind the abolition of the ENE and its staff, despite ' the fear voiced by knowledgeable observers that "the inde- pendence and objectivity of the national estimates are threatened by the abolition of this office." In an internal bulletin circulated in the CIA and to some congressmen a few days after the Star-News first reported last month that the ONE would be abol- ished, the CIA leadership declared that "the goal is to conserve resources and maintain efficiency by combining the production of NIEs with certain other agency and Intelligence SI gg g .4 ? -3 51: I : ' CIA Unit in S keup body that had a unique and symbolic reputation for ob- jectivity. It is understood some BNE members and ONE staffers will continue to analyze under the new title of National Intelligence Official. Others are to be assigned to a newly created Office of Political Re- search, reportedly to be headed by Ramsey For- bush, a former member of the BNE. WHILE THE new struc- ture at CIA clearly reflects White House wishes, the details are understood to be Colby's alone. He is espe- cially credited with the guidelines calling for nu- merical rather than verbal grading and the decision to remove the estimating func- tion from collective to indi- vidual responsibility. According to one inside source, Colby has shown himself to be as much a stickler for form in his own arrangements as he was in setting his precision guide- lines for writing estimates. Until he was finally sworn in as CIA director this week, he continued to oper- ate from small offices in the. CIA headquarters and did not move into the director's big suite until the formali- ties were observed. He also continued to park his car in a remote spot in the vast agency parking lots until Tuesday, when his title became official. tolby's creation of MOs In place of the ONE struc- ture is not intended to take, the CIA's analyzing func- tion across the line that di- vides prediction and assess- ment from policy making, informed sources stressed. IT IS UNDERSTOOD that the analyses which are now beginning to come from the NIOs assiduously avoid pol- icy proposals?thereby ful- filling for the moment the CIA leadership's pledge in its recent bulletin that "the objectivity of NIEs .will be sustained." For the longer runs, the relationship of the intelli- ence community to U.S. foi- eign policy will not be clear until Kissinger has settled into his new position as sec- retary of State. At present, he still dominates foreign policy from the White House, in his capacity as head of the 120-man Nation- al Security Council staff. But the stature and role of the revamped CIA in the second Nixon administra- tion will not become firm until Kissinger develops a modus operandi for his new dual role as secretary of State as well as National Security Council director. A key unanswered question is whether he will continue to rely on his own NSC crew or, by depending more on crt- reer bureaucrats at State, come to depend more on the product of Colby's newly reorganized system of pro- ducing intelligence esti- mates. ? OSWALD JOHN- STON and JEREAIIAH O'LEARY. gekia0S08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 the decision is to remove a 1 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 LONDON TINES 6 September 1973 The cold warrior in the hot seat of the CIA Mr William Egan Colby could be mis- garnet at least know that one of their taken for one of the thousands of own is again in charge, but his welcome Middle-aged bureaucrats who drive has not apparently been unanimous. into Washington from the outer One reason is that he was regarded in suburbs each morning to shuffle the past as a cold war warrior, perhaps papers in government departments such because of his Catholic background. as Agriculture, Transportation, and Another but related reason can be Health, Education and Welfare. A explained by the functions of the agency superior bureaucrat (Princeton and the and its organization. I Columbia Law School) who has culti- The CIA was established by the vated the anonymity of his kind: National Security Act of 1947. Its major glasses, short back and sides, and sack functions are to coordinate the intelli- gence activities of the several govern- n1 suit. ent departments and agencies ; to ad- He is a family man and a devout Catholic, who once was chairman of the vise the National Security Council in matters concerning such intelligence Boy Scouts in Springfield, Maryland. activities; and evaluate intelligence He would probably still be chairman relating to the national security. except that over the years he served in Much of this is done by the Directo- Stockholm, Rome and twice in Saigon, rate of Intelligence which, in spite of where in the diplomatic lists he was its name, is mainly staffed by scholarly described as a first secretary. types from the better universities. Work- In fact, he was the station chief of the Central Intelligence Agency in the jog mainlywith information publicly available they produce the reports on first two capitals. In Saigon he event- which policy is formulated and presiden- tially became director of the pacification tial decisions taken. They are respected programme. On Tuesday, he emerged by their opposite numbers in London, from his anonymity briefly to go to and Moscow, in spite of the occasional the White House, where he was sworn envious sneer about their size and in as Director of the CIA. budget. Mr Colby is very different from two In my experience, these analysts tend of his predecessors, the late Allen to be broadminded and liberal. They do Dulles and Mr Richard Helms. not 4o in for holy wars against the corn- Mr Dulles was outgoing, liked to have munist Anti-Christ. They believe that reporters into his Georgetown home for reconnaissance satellites and other elec- a drink, and was a conStant party-goer. tronic devices are more efficient in Mr Helms was also frequently seen on policing the Russian and Chinese the diplomatic cocktail circuit. No grey nuclear armouries than spies and spooks anonymity for them, but they had one .siv,ith questionable foreign backgrounds. thing in common with the new director. They have a distaste for the dirty tricks They had all been in charge of the of the Directorate of Operations. agency's Directorate of Operations. It is The dirty tricks are official work of usually known as the Department of Dirty Tricks because this is the branch course. General authority has been given, even if the wording is somewhat responsible for espionage and covert oblique. The United States Government political operations. These are known Othreganization Manual gives it as follows: to have included the attempted invason tions agencyac d "performs such other func- of Cuba and the deposing of foreign duties related to intelligence rulers unfortunate enough to have been affecting the national security as the regarded in Washington as ideologically National Security Coiancil may from unsound. time to time direct ". Mr Colby is a real professional, a life- Nevertheless, the collective brains of time intelligence man who began his the agency have long thought that dirty career during World War II in the Office tricks were old hat, and when ? Mr of Strategic Services. Then he practised Schlesinger was director an effort was what he afterwards directed. For made to reduce such covert operations. instance, his official biography states Mr Colby might well reverse this that just before the end of the war he pa rocess, or at least so it is felt at was parachuted into Norway to sabotage ngley. the railway system. Another reason why his appointment The thousands who work at the agency's headquarters in Langley. Vir- is not universally popular is that Mr Colby has been a man with two faces in more ways than one. Pacification in Vietnam looked an ideal job for a Boy Scout in that it was supposed to be a do-gooding organization providing roads and schools after they had been demolished by the 1152s, hut it also ran the Phoenix programme. This was devised to disrupt and destroy the infrastructure of the Viet- - cone, the extraordinary underground organization which provided the guerril- las with food and support. According to Mr Colby's testimony given in 1971 'before the House Foreign Operations and Government Information Sub- committee, 20,587 Vietcong were killed when he was in charge in Phoenix. It is alleged that many were murdered and others tortured. The allegations have been denied of course. Mr Robert Knitter, who ran Phoenix before Mr Colby, testified that the vast majority were killed in open combat. When asked how many were killed during interrogation, he replied, " I would say relatively few. It must have been way under the 10 per cent figure. The number killed by torture would he very, very little." Mr Colby, when testifying before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, said, "I would not want to testify that nobody was killed wrongly or executed in this kind of a programme. I think it probably happened, unfortunately ". Yet one witness, Mr tenon Osborn, a former intelligence agent, told the House subcommittee that some Viet- cong suspects captured by Phoenix operatives were interrogated in helicop- ters. Lesser fry were pushed out to persuade more important suspects to talk. He also described with horrifying detail the various methods of torture practised on the ground. The truth. will probably never ? be known. Certainly no Peers Commission has been convened to inquire into charges and oblique admissions indicatI .ing that in comparison My Lai was bu an unfortunate incident. But the que tion now is whether Mr Colby is th right man to direct intelligence ()per tions upon which presidential decision of far reaching consequences will b taken. Approved For Release 2001/08/07 2 CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 Louis Heren Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 WASHINGTON POST 9 Seplember 1973 Nixon Zeroes In on CIA Unit. Loss of Objectivity Feared in Upheaval By Laurence Stern Waahlnaton Pest Staff Wrtter 1 In abolishing the Central Intelligence Agency's Office of National Estimates, the. Nixon . administration exc.. 'euted a bearer of often un- 'welcome tidings. That fact is central 'to the quiet upheaval in the na- tional intelligence bbreauc-? racy that is being carried. out under White House prodding by the CIA'S new director, William E. Colby:. Because of the heavy coat- ing of official secrecy that surrounds the issues and the', personalities it is unlikely that the merits a theintelli- gence reorganization will 'ever be thrashed ont in pub- lie or subjected to full con- gressional review. Yet it could, in the ?pin-. jinn of some senior intelli- gence professionals, pro- foundly affect the quality and objectivity of the gov- ernment's judgments on a wide range of strategie. 'questions: Soviet military. "capacity, disarmament pal- 'icy, U.S. intervention in "third world" crises, deter- Mining whether certain gov- ernments will stand or fall. - t On matters such as these ,the Office of National Esti- mates has over the past 20 years delivered its judg- ments to four Presidents In formal papers? anony- 'mously and with little ap- \parent controversy until the later years of the Vietnam !war and the accession of the. Nixon administration. ' Since 1969, hoWever, a ,widening breach MS opened ,between the CIA's team of 'professional evaluators and , :the White House national! 'security staff commanded by Henry A. Kissinger, the President's national security 'adviser; , On strategic military, questions, such as Soviet missile and antiballistic mis- sile technology, there have' 'also been abrasive differ- ences between the CIA ana- lysts and Pentagon represen- tatives on the interagency, team that produces the na- ; tional estimates. Kissinger is reported by 41uthoritative White House sources to have found the CIA's National Intelligence Eatimates "deplorable" In style and content. They were also sharply at diver- tgenee from the policies purl :stied by the Nixon adminia- ;tration. hem: Early in 1070 the CIA provided the Pgpsimved ? WtlkieWMLIt20101#08107 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 one of the stories on the ? -House with an estimate that expressed grave pessimism over the prospects for long- term survival of the Lon Nol government in Cambo- dia. Nevertheless the admin- istration steadily increased- military aid to Lon.-Nel and the President was to pro; flounce the Cambodian ef- Ott as "the Nixon Doctrine 'in its purest form." Item: Shortly after the outbreak Of Pakistani army hostilities in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) in Marcli 1971 the CIA produced a na- tional estimate warning tint. India would be drawn into the war, that Pakistan 'would be dismembered and that Soviet influence in 'the subcontinent would be greatly enhanced. ("The 'White House later com- plainel that the estimate didn't have enough zing and 'Impact," said one CIA evalu- :ator. "We wondered if they' read it.") Item: In 1969 and 1970 the: C1A:s strategic ? 9nalysts were far more conservative than Pentagon eValuatori in their reading of Soviet ABM and MIRV (multiple inde- pendently targetable re-eta- 'try vehicle) .capability. Tent Pentagon assessments' Of Soviet MIRV develop- ment tend to support the; 'more conservative appraisal.; - White House sources - stress that the dissatisfac-,4, ,tion with, the intelligence products of the CIA stertv,: .med mainly from,their "mushiness," their inoncliv Sive style and the sense that, the agency was trying to im- pose policy on the President, :through its control' of intelli-! gence data and evaluations. ' CIA analysts familiar with, the national estimating', process say it was at Kis- singer's insistence that the reports, grew longer and more detailed. Kissinger, ,they said, wanted them to' include the arguments and justifications In the formal estimates. During the turbulent in- terregnum of .lames R. Schlesinger's five-monthi term as CIA director this year the Office of National Estimates became one of the chief targets of a broad house-cleaning reiriew. (The other was the CIA's Clan- destine Service. otherwise :known as the Department of, Dirty Trick's.) .cocktail grapevine, an-i flounced to several members of, the Board, of, .National. ,Estimates: "This,looks like re-, igentlemen's club arid I'm no gentfeman:" But it was 'not until aftetq Schlesinger's departure to-; the Pentagon that Colby, 'reached the decision to 'phase out the board, even. though he has yet to ac- knowledge that he has abol- ished the office.' Its demise was most Clearly sighaled by the de-. 'narture of John Huizenga: chairman of the ? Board of, .:National Estimates, who left, ,the agency early in the sum-, mer on a basis that was/"not' voluntary." lluizenga's departure was; described by 'the CIA's pub..' the information office as nor:A. ;mal-.and volun ary. rettre- !tnent et age 60. It was not,: ;according , to a thoritativo CIA sources. The new national.. esti- mates, setup envisions vt" much smaller staff of anti-.. lysts from various agencies, in the Washington intelli- gence community. -(The pre-' vious estimating ,body num--. bered 40 to 45 staff and I board members.) Rather than 'produc'ing collective product reflecting,, the judgment of the corri--.1 bined staff, the new empha." sis will be on individual as- sessments by. intelligence :specialists. r Some senior, Intelligencev.; :officials are fearful that the new system ,*ill dilute the: objectivity of' the national! :estimates.' Specialists', ? they, argue, will tend to reflect, the institutional biases ofi .their, own agencies, parbiOu'l.: ,jarly the military. c, Under the , previdus syst tern differences were thrashed out before the draftittg of a formal esti- Mate. Dissenters registered their opposition in foot-, :fietes, 'which were passed" _Wong to. the, White House ,With the main body of the. '.teport. One former member of ?the nationfil estimatet team expressed the underlying ,concern of those who oppose. ,the change: ..? "They're selling out to the ,Pentagon and.Defense Intel. iiigebee? Age,hey. If the CIA: ?? :made. any.. contribution to, - ?the -intelligenee 'community it was that its intelligence tenalysts had no axes to :? grind; no military hardware "programs and ho 'policies to't it was the CIA's influence; over the intelligence inter-, ? pretation that irritated. Kis-% singer and possibly other' White House inhabitents. Onet; administration official de? scribed the' CIA papers as, ,"homogenized" and com.1: plained that the objections ' of other intelligence ageri- ? 'cies were submerged , in ,fuzzy prose. ? . E'i?e'n some CIA loyalista! 'concede that there was some, ,justice to Schlesinger's cism that the 20-year-old Of- fice of National Estimates,. 'had become stale and tn- grpwn-.-in .effect a gentle-- man's club?and needed an' infusion of new blood. , "Same of the staff people had been there since the ,?'Year One." said a former '.memhei4 of the estimate* ..staff. "But . the bash, strue- ture was sound and inde- pendent. People .respected 'each other's integrity and' .1eIt',? free to disagree., We ,Weren't beholden to special ititerests." ? is !: Colby, in a reeent bulletin to CIA employees, assured them that the "indepen.. dence and objectivity" Of the national estimates would he preserved. In the same but letin, he said that no dect sion had hoe n reached tc abolish 'the office. "That was hil absurd no. tier." reflected one senior intelligence official. "Every- one concerned knew that the Office of, Estimates had at ready liett! a bollshed.'! 3 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 ? NEW YORK TIMES 20 September 1973 C.I.A. Will Abolish Estimates System, Form a New Board By DAVID BINDER By The Amor%MN) Press? WASHINGTON, Sept. 19 The Central Intelligence Agency is planning to abolish the .15- year-old system of turning out what it calls national intelli- gence estimates, sometimes as many as 50 a year. The estimates on critical is- 'sues facing United States pol- icy-makers drew on contribu- tions from as many as seven intelligence-gathering agencies and sometimes from outside ex- perts. They were drafted by the 'staff of the 10-member Board of national estimates, consist- ing of both "generalists" and specialists, and put Into final form by the board. ' The new Director of Central Intelligence, William Colby, himself a career professional, decided that this system of analysis and assessment no longer suits the needs of the White House, his main cus- tomer, or the intelligence com- munity. In place of the board Mr. Colby intends to appoint about 10 problem-oriented, specialists to be known as national intel- ligence officers. He is doing his selecting from abotit 50 candidatesl the bulk in the C.I.A. but some in other in- telligence agencies and some outside the intelligence profes- 'sion. They will be empowered to range throughout the Intelli- gence-gathering agencies and into the academic world to pull . together assessments of current issues. They will act as Mr. Colby's staff officers. Som are to focus on obvious problem areas like the Soviet Union, China,. Europe and the Middle East. Others will be assigned to issues like control of strategic arms and econom- ics. At the moment no na- tional intelligence officer will be assigned to Africa: should an African problem hecomesuf- ficlently critical Mr. Colby .would assign an officer to it. . He has emphasized that the .estimative process is not be- ing abolished by his reform. Rathtr,, it is being reorgan- ized .to enable his officers to draw more fully on intelligence expertise that has developed outside the big C.I.A. corn- pound:? WASHINGTON l'OST 21 SPplembP.r 1973 CIA Seeking to Eliminate , 100 Pages of Upcoming Book By Laurence Stern Warner is negotiating the straining order in U.S. District terms of publication with Court in Alexandria in April, Wulf, but said that details 1972, to prohibit Marchetti could not be disclosed. "There from circulating an outline of the book to publishers. A trial was held in camera, and attorneys for the authors Invoked the defense employed in the Pentagon Papers ease: Washington Post Staff Writer The Central Intelligence ? Agency is seeking to expunge 100 pages of a 530-page book profiling the agency's opera- tions in the United States and abroad, attorneys for the au- thors said yesterday. The book, "The CIA and the definitely are security prob- lems," the CIA spokesman said. Marchetti insisted yesterday that "there is nothing in this book that would jeopardize Cult of Intelligence," was writ- the national security of my ten by former CIA analyst country. There is nothiog in Victor Marchetti and John the book that would jeopard- Marks, a former State Depart- ize the lives of any agents, and irrevocable injury to the ment intelligence officer and sink any ships or give away United States. U.S. Senate aide. It is to be any codes." The court held with the published by Knopf. Among the subjects with CIA's argument that it could Melvin * Wulf, Chief Amen- which the book deals are the enforce the oath of secrecy can Civil Liberties Union at- CIA's role in the 1970 Chilean that was a condition to Mar- torney on the case, said he election, the disbursement of chetti's employment by the was informed by a CIA offi- CIA funds to a. number of agency, a decision that was ap- cial yesterday that the agency world leaders, alleged misuse pealed. ?acting under a court injunc- of the CIA director's contin- The federal appellate court tion?would seek to eliminate gency funds and internal U.S. found that the agency had a hourly a iifth of the manu- operations of the CIA. right to delete classified mate- Script. - This is the first time, ac- rial from the book after a re- Wulf identified the CIA offi- cording to lawyers in the case, view prior to submission of cial as John Warner, the agen- that a government agency has the manuscript to its pub- cy's general counsel, exercised prior restraint over Usher. The Supreme Court de- A spokesman for the agency a book under a court order. dined to take jurisdiction of acknowledged yesterday that The CIA., obtained a re- the matter. NEW YORK TIMM 17 September 1973 Between Coups, Employes of C.I.A. that censorship could be justi- fied only if it could be shown that there might be immediate Learn to Knit, Bowl and Play Softball By DAVID BINDER Special to The New York Times LANGLEY. Va., Sept. 16? When they are not stealing secrets or considering coups d'etat, employes of the Cen- tral Intelligence Agency in- dulge in such innocent pas- times as learning to knit, repair cars, bowl, play soft- ball, collect , coins and. fly .small planes. These are among the popu- lar endeavors sponsored by the Employe Activities Asso- ciation of the C.I.A., which also maintains a credit union and an insurance agency for its spies and other employes. Knitting classes, according to the bulletin board an- nouncement, areleld Wednes- days and Fridays at noon. For those with more martial inclinations, there are karate' classes and training in rifle and pistol shooting. The C.I.A. softball league features teams calling themselves the Lollipops, the Cardinals and the ,Charlie Browns. In the basement there is a rubber-covered track for jog- gers, a favorite of the former director,. Richard Helms. In his day, the track rules pre- scribed: "Never talk to the director while' he it doing his laps and never pass the director' while he is doing Approved F801311Mcg. 91-inlingin7 ? -- With a degree of pride, agency officials display their art, the work of the C.I.A. Fine Arts Commission, which has hung huge abstracts in corridors wide enough to play soccer. The ends of the corridors have been "color- coordinated" by the commis- sion, with tints ranging from cool to warm and warm to cool. The fine arts people have arranged for enormous pho- tographic blowups of maps of the C.I.A.'s favorite for- eign cities?London, Lenin- grad, Paris and Rome?past- ed up on the elevator shafts. ' Courtyard Flowers ,? They also watch over the ?agency's exquisite courtyard ilower bed and its handsome stands of trees. The grounds outside are called "the cam- pus." Like factory workers, C.I.A. employes eat early and practice temperance, try- ing to get to the in,- house Rendezvous Cafe before the noon rush. The strongest drink is iced tea and the serve- yourself meals cost S1.80. A vititor asking for an explanation of the 40-foot- wide corridors and the IS dijas-W419172MIAel5PRIVriel to the 14-year-old building is told that the agency leader- ship wanted "airiness" in- stead of a close atmosphere. Whatever the motivation, the effect has been to cause the agency's employes to walk three and four abreast ? when they move around the building. ? Certain undercover habits persist, as in the C.I.A. car: pool. If you want a ride to or from Langley. you fill in a card with all the particulars of office extension number? ? time and place, but only your first name or nickname and the request: "Call Fred." C.I.A. people also' indulge heavily in jargon, from the boss on down. They talk of "wiring diagrams" when they mean "organjzational plans" and "patterti'M response" in- stead of "straight answer." But the new boss, and old C.I.A. man named William Colby ? his car-pool request, would read, "Call William"?, has also picked up some cur-, rent pop phraseology. He was recently heard saying. "I haven't g,o,t any hang-upti?sabout , ? ? ? . The C.I.A. also tends tia use abbreviations and shorthand. The institution's house sym- phony orchestra is referred o, OfffiViVanich'" Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R00010023D001-1 NEW YORK TILLS 21 September 1973 C.I.A .,Will Seek to Excise Parts ,of Book by Ex-Aide I By JOHN M. CREWDSON spew to The New York Imes WASHINGTON, Sept. 20 intended to write both the book and a magazine article on in- telligence operations, it secured an injunction, based on a draft of the article and an outline for the book that prohibited him from 'presenting his writ- ings to a publisher without al- lowing the agency to review the contents. The Government maintained In its argument for the injunc- tion that the agency was en- titled to such prior ?review un- der an employment agreement signed by Mr. Marchetti in whic he agreed not to disclose classi- fied information obtained by reason of his employment with the agency. The injunction, which stpu- lates that fiction, as well' as non-fiction materials written by Mr. Marchetti must be sub- mitted for review, was upheld by a ,Federal appeals court de- i The Central Intelligence Agency has told the American Civil Liberties Union that it will op- , pose the publication of about 100 pages of allegedly classified material contained in an ac- count by a former C.I.A. of- ficial of the agency's internal workings. Melvin L. Wulf, legal direc- tor for the A.C.L.U. in New 'York City, said today that he had been notified by the agen- cy that officials there planned to excise "near to a hundred pages" from a 530-page manu- script by his client, Victor L. Marchetti, a former assistant to the C.I.A.'s deputy director. Mr. Wulf submitted the man- uscript to the intelligence agen- cy for review on Aug. 27, un- der the terms of a Federal court order handed down a year ago. That occasion marked "the cison in August of last year. first time in the history of the The court also maintained United States," according to that the issue was not one of Mr. Wulf, that an anthor had Mr. ?Marchetti's First Amend- been required by judicial order ment tights of free speech, as to submit a manuscript to the Mr. Wulf has argued, but Government for prior ceitsor. rather one involving the terms of the contract that Mr. ship. Marchetti entered into with the Security Peril Denied agency "by accepting employ- Both Mr. Wulf and Mr. Mar- *lent WitIt the C.I.A. and by chetti, who are the only two individuals outside the C.I.A. to have seen the manuscript in Its entirety, said that they be- lieved it contained nothing that would jeopardize the national ,security. But a knowledgeable Govern- ment official described some of the material in an outline for the Marchetti book, tentatively titled "The Cult of Intelli- genve," as dangerous, and said that, if had allowed ? Its publication, it "would have ' blown us out of the water in a lot of places?identities, oper- Mr. Wulf said that he ex- ' pec ted to receive from the next week a letter de- tailing the passages to which the agency objected. He said that he and Mr. Marchetti would ; then meet with representatives of the Alfred A. Knopf Com- pany, the prospective publish- er, to decide on their response. Mr. Marchetti said in a tele- phone interview that although 'he wanted to wait until he knew precisely which passages .the agency was focusing on. , "my feeling is to fight back as hard as we can to publish." ' Mr Wulf said that he antici- mated the possibility of going "back to court Rol try again to raise the generic question of their power to do this." Mr. ;Marchetti added that if the courts upheld the C.I.A.'s op- position to the material it was possible that he "would go to jail before I would permit them to quash the book.' Employment Agreement When the C.I.A. discovered last year that Mr. Spriskveni signing a secrecy agreement!' The Supreme Court later de- clined to hear an appeal of the appellate decision, which' stipulated that Mr. Marchetti: could seek judicial review of any disapproval of a manu- script, or, portions of one by the CIA. Mr Marchetti, who spent 14' years with the C.I.A. before retiring in 1969, has previously published one novel. "The Rope Dancer," which concerns the activities of a fictional "na- tional intelligence agency," and an article, in the April 3, 1972, issue of The Nation magazine that was critical of some of the agency's activities. He said today that he was currently working on a second novel that was based on a "purely fictional" insane asylu operated by the ageacy were wayward or "burned-out" op- eratives were sent to recover. Although Mr. Marchetti submitted "The Rope Dancer" to the C.I.A. for review, an- other former agency employe, E. Howard Hunt Jr., wrote several dozen novels under different pseudonyms, during his service with the agency, many of which dealt with the exploits of fictional intelli- gence operatives. A knowledgeable source said yesterday that Hunt, who pleaded guilty in January to charges of bugging the Dem- ocratic party's Watergate of- fices, was never required. to submit his works for revfew because the agency was un- aware that they were being published. ' THE ST. LOUIS POST DISPATCH 5 Sept 1973. WASHINGTON POST 17 September 1973 Ptloynihan Decision Ambassador Daniel Moy- nihan Said that a report he . has turned down an Offer to 'become a top assistant to Secretary of State-designate Henry lkissinger were ? "premature." Quoting authoritative American sources in New Delhi, where he is ambassa- dor, the Associated Press said he had declined the of- fer because- he prefers to ' stay in India to work for im- proved relations between New Delhi and Washington. : Al' reported that Moyni- ' han cabled and telephoned his wife in New Delhi to tell her "not to start packing." it quoted an embassy source as saying, "He's going to re- turn to New Delhi and con- . tinue as ambassador." In Washington, where he is home for consultations, 'Moynihan confirmed the .message to his wife, but Said: "I .have to make the .decision this week and I haven't =de it yet.' Proper Use of CIA William Colby, who was sworn in as director of the Central Intelligence Agency, is faced with the difficult. job Of rebuilding the image of the organi- zation. That image has been tar- nished by the agency's association with the people involved in the Water- gate and Ellsberg break-ins. There has always been a faction op posed to the CIA, and the recent con- troversy has again raised Ihe ques- tion of tlw agency's proper functions in the foreign affairs of this country. What does the Cl: Contribute? Does our government need intelligence, se- cret or otherwise? The answer to the first question is that the agency has two missjons: to carry on espionage and ceunterespion- a gc work overseas and to provide the President with objective estimates of foreign events and situations. The answer to the second question Is "yes." A classic example of the value of intelligence is the Cuban mis- sile crisis. Without a specialist on So- Viet crates who could ittrIle what was inside the boxes on the dcuks ol Soviet freighters going to Cuba. e:xnerts Soviet launching sites. previous 1%2 For R&Iii4e2151:14 ?Aro C1At-i l7h7I004flQ001 00230001-1 nary-technical data from a top-level agent in Moscow and some leads pro- vided by agents inside Cuba, Presi- dent Kennedy probably would not have been able to take preventive ac? tion before the Soviet missiles be- came operational. _I tarry tfif zke....on former agent for trj-M".:-.7.,i11,: Office of Strategic Services, writing in 11w I its AlnIticS Times, mitkes tit, valid Point that while the CIA cannot claim perlee- tiem, the chief dill lenity involving in- telligencx has been the failure of poli- cy?makers to make better use of the inforM at ion they are given. Rositzlec sees the Vietnam war as a tragic esample of that. Ile points out that, "It was an CMCI1SiVe. CIA study in the mid-'60s that first convinced the Secretary of Defense that the Vietnamese war would he a long one and that it conkd not be won on the battle! ield." There is a place in the order of things for an intelligence gathering organization such as the CIA, it is up to Colby and the policy-mal:ers to Nyhoin he reperts to mike mire that thn gathered is used prop- Approved For Release 201108107 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 WASHINGTON POST 1 17 September 1973 1. Sen. Stennis Seeks fo Restrict CIA By Judy Nicol Washinoton Post Staff Writer Sen. John C. Stennis, chair- man of the Senate Armed Services Committee, said yes- terday that he hopes to hold hearings aimed at further re- stricting the Central Intelli- gence Agency's involvetnent In domestic affairs. "The main- thing is to limit (CIA) operations, domestic op- erations," said Stennis on Face the Nation, a CBS inter- view program. , ? ' "I totally disapprove" oftdo- mestic political intelligence operations by the CIA, said the Mississippi Democrat who Is chairman of the Central In- telligence Subcommittee of his Armed Services Commit- tee. He said he was told in June, 1972, by ?Richard M. Helms, then CIA director, that the CIA had no involvement in hb Watergate burglary. He said Helms, now ambassador to Iran, "came to my office a very "few days thereafter and assured me they did not have anything to do with planning jor anything in connection with , that break-in" (of the Demo- cratic National Committee of- 11i affecting tional security as the National, Securiy Council may from time to time direct.' Stennis, speaking' of 'the Watergate scandals that un- folded as he was convelescing from gunshot wounds received in a January robbery, said, "As an American citizen I'm asharneci of it." The senator said that he had attended a recent hearing at the U.S. Court of Appealr, on President Nixon's refusal t.; tutn over tapes of conversa- tions relating . to the Water- gate matter. If the-Suprerne Court \rules that Mr. Nixon should turn over the Watergate tapes and 'the President refuses, Stennis said, "I think it would be the most grave situation that's arisen maybe in a hundred 'Years." , In an ABC broadcast yester- day, Sen. Howard Hughes (I). Iowa) said that the American; people "shoula not be afraid of the impeachment probess. I"To be afraid to use (the im- peachment , power) would fisces in the Watergate office building.) , Helms could not be reached for comment yesterday. Helms' successor, William E. Colby, has acknowledged that the CIA had erred in prepar- lng a pOchiatric profile of Pentagon Papers defendant Daniel EllSberg and in provid- ing cameras, tape recorders and disguises to White House aides E. Howard Hunt Jr. and G. Gordon Liddy. /Liddy and Hunt were later convicted' Iin the Watergate break-in. The CIA's charter, the 1947 National Security Act,- says "the agency shall have no po- lice, subpoena, law-enforce- ment powers or internal secu- rity functions" in the Upied States. / But the 1947 statute con- tai,ns' a loophole which has' served as a charter for special foreign and 'domestic ?pert- tions. It says that the agency shall "perform such other functions and duties related to THE WASHINGTON POST neschlY?SePt? nell Cu ans Aren't By Jack Anderson The four Cubans who were caught insitie the Watergate in the crime that has rocked the nation have written some poignant letters from prison. Although they were recruited to do the dirty work and then were abandoned behind bars, their letters aren't bitter. "All things considered," wrote Bernard Barker to his daughter, Maria Elena Moffett, "we are all pretty damn lucky people." Another Watergate prisoner, Frank Sturgis, wrote to his wife Janet: "I've been thinking of you constantly and dream of you always. Keep your chin up baby. Things will somehow work out." The letters were shown to us by friends of the four. Although Barker and Sturgis were reluc- tant to let the world read their personal sentiments, they gave us permission to quote from the letters. Barker, for instance, called upon Watergate ringleader E. Howard Hunt inside the White House and came away with the impression that the Watergate break-in and the earlier Los Angeles burglary were na- tional security assignments. Af- terwards, the Cubans wound up In prison while those who plot- ted the Watergate crimes re- mained free. Domestic' Role e gence the mt.! itter Yet on Father's Day, Barker wrote to his daughter and her husband: "If you are lucky and wise, you will be of those se- lected few that will know real happiness in life. Your mother and I have it, and you two have it now and should have it more than us because you don't ar- gue the way we do." Again on Aug. 24, he wrote to his daughter in Spanish: "I have always been proud of you, but now I walk around with a special smile on my lips since now it also includes your hus- band. . ." He concluded the letter with this rueful apology: "Well, my love, receive all the love from your problematic progenitor, a relic of a problematic genera- tion that has been unable to give more than what it has and that can only distribute its problems." Sturgis wrote hopefully to his wife about a visit from Sen. Lo- well P. Weicker Jr. (R,-Conn.), one of the Senate Watergate committee members. "I think he wants to help us somehow. to- hope so! He may come back to see us again," wrote Sturgis. He explained to the Senator, Sturgis told his wife, how "the CIA trains men to infiltrate in- dustries past their security guard and if caught say noth- hug because someone will make contact and ball us out and if ver anything happens, it is common knowledge that your family will be taken care of. ' "No one spoke to us about that, but our chief was Howard (Hunt)?ex-CIA official and White House aide. We thought it was gov: operation and it may still be one." The Senator "feels that the three of us took orders from Ma- cho (Barker) and thinks Macho is holding back, "related Stur- gis. "We three do not know if that is so but the Sen. has an idea that he may know some- thing on that order." Hunt was taken away to tes- tify on Aug. 16. Reported Stur- gis to his wife: "Howard has not returned as yet. Everybody thinks he is talking his butt off. If he is, he can only help us and not hurt us." But Sturgis wound up cheerfully: "We still may win this yet. Keep the faith, honey! I Igve you always." Footnote: Perhaps the most fascinating reference was to columnist William Buckley. "I don't know if I told you before," Sturgis wrote to his wife, "but William F. Buckley used to work for CIA and I don't know if he still does. When he found out that Howard (Hunt) was going to work in the White House, he told Howard it was good that he could be so close to the Presi- dent but Howard told him that mean we would be placing in the hands of this President and all future Presidents an implied power that they could do anything they wanted to in defiance of the law and the courts . . with inpunity, with immunity," Hughes said on ABC's Issues and Answer program. "If the facts indicate that- the President is In violation of the law, or if the President is refusing to obey the direct or- ders of the Supreme Court, then not-to use (impeachment) would be a failure of the sys- tem entirely," said Hughes. A third Democratic senator, in remarks prepared for delivr' ery in the.Senate today, called ,for a Comtnission on the Of- fice of the Presidency to. ex- amine the institution. Sen. Walter F. Mondale (D. Mimi.) said "the American [people seem to ?have gone be... yond simple respect for the of- fice of the Presidency. . .In- stead we have begun to create a monarchy out of an office in- tended to be the bulwark of democracy." ate rgate he was there to take orders and not to influence anyone. Tna was a good answer! I'm noif clear whether this is what How ard or Buckley really said!!' Reached for comment, Buckle frankly admitted he was a... "deep cover agent" for the CIA', from July, 1951 to March, 1952, but said he had not worked for them since. He declined to say what his CIA role was. Reluctant Regulator?When Charles King Mallory, a young New Orleans lawyer, was named as the Interior Depart- ment's power resources chief, Interior's publicity mill ground out a press release praising him for his dedication to "pub- lic utility . . . securities regula- .tion (and) antitrust" activities. The implication was clear :that the administration at last ;had found a consumer advocate to ride herd on the energy mog- uls. In fact, the new deputy as- sistant secretary is not a con- ,sumer lawyer at all but one who represented Louisiana Power and Light which is charged ht. consumer suits with antitrust violations and conspiring against consumers. Although several of Mallory's other clients were also lined up against the consumers, Malloryl assured us that his publicity men "had no intention to mis.0- lead" in their handout on him. ? I= WW1 Feature knidleitie ' 6 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 ? Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 WA SIII NG TON POST 3 8 Se I) I onibe r 1 97 3 Xlunt. Asks Plea Shift ; By Timothy S. Robinson Washirieton Post Staff Writer Attorneys for convicted Watergate co- conspirator E. Howard Hunt asked a fed- cral judge ? yesterday to allow Hunt to ; withdraw his guilty plea and to dismiss charges against him because,' among , other reasons, Hunt thought that top. White House officials had approved the Watergate bitrglary. ; Hunt's lawyers told Judge John J. Sirica in a long written motion that Hunt: bellied plan and participated in the bur- glary because he had been led to believe, the mission was approved by the White House "pursuant to the President's power to protect the national security." ; Hunt's motion traced the origin of the Watergate break-in back to the formation of the White House "plumbers" unit by "President Nixon to investigate leaks of classified information, and the subsequent approval ;of "Gemstone," a large-scale ;intelligence and counter-intelligence pro- gram. Hunt specifically accused G. Gordon Liddy, who participated in both groups, of leading him to believe the Watergate break-in was a legitimate act. "Defendant was led by Mr. Liddy to believe that program (Gemstone) was re- quired by the Attorney, General, John N. , Mitchell, and that it was approved also by Messrs. Liddy; Jeb Stuart IVIagruder,' ' a former White House aide; John W. ,Dean III, counsel to the President, and Charles W. Colson, special counsel to the President," the motion stated. Liddy was convicted in the Watergate break-in and has refused to talk about its origins to any government body. Magruder has pleaded guilty to, participating- in a cover-up of the scope of the eriginal break-in; Dean and ? Mitchell face possible indict- ment by a grand juryinves- tigating that cover-up; and Colson is reptirtedly under investigation by a second Watergate-related grand jury here. 'As another reason for changing his guilty plea,l " Hunt's lawyers cited alleged government misconduct "in the White House and down through the executive office of the ,President and the De- partment of Justice. "The investigation and prosecution of this case were replete with deliberate obstruction of justice, de- struction and withholding of evidence, perjury and subor- dination of perjury?all by responsible government offi- cials," Hunt's attorneys said. Hunt had pleaded guilty to charges of conspiracy, burglary and wiretapping at the beginning of the Water- gate break-in trial last Janu- ary. His motion yesterday to vacate his plea follows by three days a similar attempt by four Miamians who pleaded guilty in the same trial to change their pleas to innocent. , The four Miamians had claimed that their pleas were entered because they felt they were under proved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 sure to do so from Hunt "high. officials of the execu- tive branch of government." They had claimed they had participated in the Water- gate break-in because they had been told it was a legiti- mate government intelli- gence operation. In explaining Hunt's claim of two "valid defenses", to the charges against him, in the break-in, his lawyers,? . headed by Sidney S. Sachs, Said in yesterday's motion: . "The first is that his acts were lawful because they were performed pursuant to. the President's ? power ,to protect the national secu- rity. "The second, assuming (for the sake of argument) that the acts were not law- ful, is that he was justified in believing they were law- ful." .Hunt was "coerced into abandoning these defenses," the motion claimed, because the government "unconstitu- tionally deprived him of evi- 'dence to support them." Testimony to back him up concerning much of that evi- dence, Hunt claims, has since been unearthed by subsequent grand jury in- vestigations, testimony be- fore the Senate Watergate committee and depositions in civil suits growing out of the Watergate scandal. Yesterday's motion con- tained a summary of such evidence in the case to show "that the investigation and prosecution of this case were contaminated by mis- conduct by many responsi- ble White House and law en- forcement officials." Hunt pointed specifically to the destruction of materi- als from his White House safe by acting FBI Director L. Patrick Gray III; failure of the White House to dis- close that President Nixon had taped conversations in the White House, and in- stances of perjury by gov- ernment officials before the original Watergate grand jury and in the trial. Hunt's attorneys sup- ported their claims that his announced defenses are va- lid by relying on the Presi- dent's constitutional powers to "preserve, protect and de- fend the Constitution of the United States. ? "On this authority, the Watergate entry can be strongly defended as a valid exercise of the President's national security power. . "The Watengate entry, a part of the Gemstone pro- gram, was based on a report by (an undisclosed) govern- ment agency (transmitted to 'Hunt by Liddy) that foreign. governments were supplying funds to the Democratic Party campaign," the mot- ion stated. Even if the acts were ille- gal, Hunt's lawyers claim their client "cannot be con- victed for acts committed within the scope of his em- ployment at the direction of high government officials." (The President's "consti- tutional powers" were also cited in another case Involv- ing Hunt. John D. Ehrlich- man, former top domestic adviser to the President, told the Senate Watergate committee in July that the Hunt-directed break-in at the office of the psychiatrist of Pentagon Papers defend- ant Daniel Ellsberg was, "within the President's in- herent powers as spelled out by federal law." ("I think it is clearly understood that the Presi- dent has the constitutional power to prevent the be- trayal of national security secrets, as I understand he does, and that is well under- stood by the American pub. lie," Ehrlichman told .the committee.) , The motion referred often to alleged government mis- conduct in the case as a rea- son all charges against Hunt should be dismissed. "Surely in the history of this country there has been no case in which the govern- ment more outrageously has perverted the administra- tion of justice and sub- verted the Constitution," AC- cording to the motion. To illustrate what the. attorneys claimed was "the depth to which the corrup- tion penetrated the govern-. meat," the motion named 11 top government officials al- legedly involved. In .addition to Colson, Mit- chell, Gray, Magruder, Dean and Elirlichman, the motion listed former White House chief of staff H. R. (Bob) 'Haldeman, former Com- merce Secretary and Nixon fund-raiser Maurice H. Stans, and former White House aides Egli Krogh Jr., David R. Young and Fred- erick C. LaRue. Ironically, Hunt's attor- neys cited the decision of Federal Judge W. Matthew Byrne in dismissing charges against Ellsberg as a reason the charges against Hunt should be dismissed. The, -break-in at the office of Ells- ? berg's psychiatrist was one example of "government misconduct" in that case. "The constitutional princi- ple which protected Dr. Ells- berg applies as well to (Hunt)," his attornes said. Meanwhile yesterday af- ternoon, coeon ipirators Bernard Barker ad Euge- nio Martinex app dared be- fore the federal grand jury that is investigating federal violation connected with the Ellsberg break-in and other Watergate-related issues. Their attorney, Daniel Schultz, said Special Water. gate Prosecutor Archibald Cox had informed him the two men faced probable in- dictment in connection with the break-in and they wanted to appear before that group before it acted. One source termed their appearance a "mere plea," in hopes the grand jury would not indict them in the case. Schultz would say only that they wanted to tell the grand jury "what Mr. Cot apparently doesn't under- stand." The grand jury is ex- pected to return its indict- ments in about. a week, sources said yesterday. An earlier return was expected, but an early draft of the in- dictment was ordered rev- ritten by Cox, the sources said. 7 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 WASHINGTON STAR-NEWS Washington, 0. C., Friday, September 7, 1973 Colson Talked t About Ellsb By Martha Angle Star-Nem Staff Writer A day after the Supreme Court gave .the go-ahead for publication of the Pen- itagon Papers in 1971, former White House aide Charles W. Colson sounded ? . out E. Howard Hunt Jr. on "nailing" Daniel Ellsberg, according to docu- ments in the hands of Senate investiga- tors. 1 A transcript of a Colson-Hunt tele- phone call on July 1, 1971, a day after , , the high court's ruling, shows that Col- son asked whether "we should go down the line to nail the guy (Ellsberg) cold," and Hunt replied affirmatively. ' At Colson's recommendation, Hunt was hired as a White House consultant', 'less than a week later and former presi- idential adviser John D. Ehrlichman' asked the CIA to help him. Three months later, Hunt participated in the break-in at the office of Ellsberg's psy- chiatrist in California. COLSON yesterday admitted he tape recorded his July 1, 1971, conversation with Hunt and sent a transcript of it to 'former White House chief of staff H. R. Haldeman the following day. "The more I think about Howard Hunt's background, politics, disposition. and experience, the more I think it would be worth your time to meet him," Colson said in a cover memo to Heide- man on July 2. "If you want to get a feel of his atti- tude, I transcribed a conversation with him yesterday on it. Needless to say, I did not even approach what we had been talking about, but merely sounded out his own ideas," Colson told Halde- man. Colson yesterday said that what he and Haldeman had been "talking about",; 'was the possibility.of hiring; ,Hunt "to come onto the.i. White House Staff to coordi- nate research on the Penta- gon Papers and serve as li- aison with the Hill." '? COLSON repeated earlier denials that he had any advance knowledge of plans for a break-in at Ellsberg's psychiatrist's office, saying he learned of that burglary "sometime after it occurred ?I can't pin down the date." In his July 1 call to Hunt, ;Colson said, "we were trying to figure out how to recoup lost political ground" in regard to the ;Pentagon Papers cast. ' In the conversation, tot- son asked Hunt his opinion of the government's prose- cution of Ellsberg in regard to the theft of the Pentagon Papers and the possibility that a conspiracy was in- volved-'-"the bureaucrats conspiring against the Pres- ident." HUNT REPLIED that "when I first heard about this I assumed that Mort Halperin was responsible . . "the transcript shows. ,! Morton S. Halperin, a' former National Security 'Council consultant now ati the Brookings Institution was one of 17 NSC officials 'and newsmen subjected to 'presidentially ordered wire- taps between 1969 and 1971. The disclosure that Ms- berg, a friend of Halperin had been overheard on Hal- perin's telephone was one factor which led to a dismis- sal this past May of the case . against- Ellsberg. In the phone conversation with Hunt, Colson suggested the Pentagon Papers affair "could go one of two ways. Ellsberg could be turned into a martyr ot the new lett e- he probably will be any- 'way ? or it could become another Alger Hiss case, t where the guy is exposed, . other people were operating :with 'him, and this may be the way to really carry it out. We might be able to put this 'bastard into a helluva situation and discredit the new left." Hunt replied that "it would be a marvelous way if we could do it,' but of course you've got the (New York) Times, the : (Washington) Post and the (Christian Science) Monitor and all sorts of things." "THEY'VE GOT to print the news, you know, if this thing really turns into a sensational case," Colson said. "Well you of course, y,ou're in a much better spot to see how the administra- tion stands to gain from it," Hunt said, "and at this point I would be willing. to set aside my personal yep for vengeance to mak sure that the administration profits from this." Colson went on to ask Hunt whether "you think that with the right re- sources employed that this thing could be turned into a major public case against' Ellsberg and co-conspira- tors," the transcript shows. Hunt responded that he, thought this was possible "with the proper re- sources.' Colson said, "I think the resources are there" and asked Hunt 'whether "your answer would be we should go down the line to nail the guy Cold," ' "Go down the line to nail the guy cold, yes," Hunt replied. COLSON went on to sug- gest there was "profit to us in nailing any sonofabitch who would steal a secret document of the govern- ment and publish, it or would conspire to steal it.' ne.tald Hunt .the case "won't be tried in the court" but "in the newspa- pers" and added, "so it's going to take some? re- sourceful engineering . ." , Hunt said, "I want to see the guy hung if it can be done to the advantage of the administration." "I think it can be done," Colson replied. "I think there are ways to de it and I don't think this guy is oper- ating alone." Hunt: "Well of course he Isn't 'operating atone. He's got a, congeries of people 'who are supporting him, aiding and abetting him,. there's no question about it." Colson: "But I'm not so sure it doesn't go deeper than that." ' Hunt: "Oh really? You're' thinking of like (Dem- ocratic Chairman Law- . rence) O'Brien or. " ? COLSON: "Oh no, I'm thinking of the enemy. . ." Hunt: "The real enemy. Well of course, they stand to profit more, the most, no question about it. You've got codes and policy making apparatus stripped bare for public examination; all that sort of thing. "Supposing we could get a look at these documents from inside the Kremlin or Peking.' Former CIA Direc- tor Richard Helms could be retired forthwith and you'd cut down 90 percent of our expenditures across, the river. . ." Colson: "I think there is a fertile field here and I just thought I'd try it out on you to see what you thought of It." AFTER some more con- versation, Colson told Hunt that "I'll be back to you" and promised to visit him soon to dine on "fine stone crabs" which. Hunt offered to share. Colson yesterday said he had tape-recorded the tele- phone call witle Hunt "for. the benefit of Bob Halde- man. . . I thought it would give a good measure of the man (Hunt)." Colson said that on the basis of the transcript, Haldeman told him to Out Hunt in touch with Ehrlich- man and "if Ehrlichman likes him, go ahead and hire . him." He said Ehrlichman inter- viewed Hunt on July 7, 1971, the same day Gen. Robert . E. Cushman, former deputy director of the CIA, has tes- tified that he received a call from Ehrlichman asking the CIA to help Hunt in his work for the White House. Later that month ? on July 23, 1971 ? Hunt visited the CIA and Cushman au- therized the agency's tech- nical services division to provide him fake identifica- tion, a wig and a voice-al- tering device, Cushman told the Senate Watergate. Committee. WHILE at the White House, Hunt was part of the "plumbers" unit headed by Egil Krogh. David R. Young and G. Gordon Liddy: (who, like Hunt, was later,. convicted in the Watergate, case) were other members. of the team. ? An Aug. 11, 1971 memo: previously introduced in the, hearing record showed that, Ehrlichman specifically; approved a recommenda- tion by Young and Krogh. "that a covert operation be, undertaken ? to examine all the medical files still held by Ellsberg's psychoanalyst covering the two-year peri- od in which he was undergo- ing analysis." Underneath his approval, Ehrlichman scribbled, "if done under your assurance that it is not traceable." DURING his Se-nate testi- .mony seven weeks ago, ,Ehrlichman denied that the "covert operation" he ap- proved was e .break-in, as- serting that he 'learned of the burglary bf Ellsberg's 'psychia trist's 'office only' after it occurred. ? But Ehrlichman, Krogh, 'wereand Liddy this week were indicted by a Los An- geles County grand jury. Hunt had testified before the grand jury in regard to the September, 1971 break- in after receiving immunity from prosecution in that case. Colson is expected to be questioned about his July 1,' 1971, conversation with Hunt ? and his memo to Haldeman the following day ?when he testifies before the Senate Watergate Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 Committee later this month. ? SOURCES said the tr6- script of that call, and the accompanying memo, were turned over to the commit- tee investigators on July 31 by a former Colson secre- tary. They have not thus far been introduced into the public hearing record. "This is the latest in a long and steady stream of ' leaks by the Senate Water- gate Committee," Colson charged yesterday. "I'm not surprised but. I continue to be disappointed in their utter lack of judi- ciousness in handling mate- rial provided them by wit- nesses. "Maybe it's time they ti- died up their own store," he said., NEW YORK TIMES 16 September 1973 'BURN BAGS' USED BY MARY AGENCIES Shredder Also Destroy Tons of Classified 'Material WASHINGTON, Sept. 15(AP) ?Special "burn bags" and shredders regularly consume tons of outdated classified ma- terial and other documents con- sidered sensitive in this secur- ity-conscious capital. , The classified papers may contain military, technical or security- information. Also de- destroyed are drafts, memoran- &Ms, messages, message re- ? } ponses, studies, reports and (just about any other stack of ! paper an official regards as sen- sitive. L Patrick Gray 3d, former incting director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, said ? :he was unaware his office had ?fa "bum basket." He .told the 'Senate Watergate committee ? .that he burned some Watergate- :related material last December k!With the Christmas trash at his borne in Stonington, Conn. At the F.B.I. Headquarters, *here all messages are regard- led as confidential, all paper trash is collected in special "burn bags" from white-rim- med waste-baskets for burning by security men. The super- !market-size paper bags are , marked with red diagonal stripes and the words, "Classi- 'fled Burn." 900,000 Burn Bags ! The General Services Admin- / istration says it spent $31,000 for 900,000 official bum bags ?! last year in the capital. The ;bags are -also used to collect itmaterial for shredders. ; The Defense Department, the -Atomic Energy Commission and ? ',the National Aeronautics and Space Adminstartion are among r, agencies with specific proce- dures for destroying material. On occasion, a NASAAml. suit and tie can be seen WEI liASIIINGTON POST 8 September 1971 Soviets Tie Watergate v oes, To U.S. Foreign Policy Foes' By Robert G. Kaiser Washington Post Foreign Service MOSCOW, Sept. 7?Soviet political lecturers are telling their audiences that President Nixon's troubles over Water- gate were caused by reaction- ary influences opposed to Mr. Nixon's foreign policy. A lecturer in Moscow- said recently that "election cam-I paigns in the West often?un- fortunately?Involve many; dirty activities," and that this was well understood in the Western countries. "It was not I by chance," he added, that "some circles" in the pnited States decided to make a big Issue of last year's dirty 'activi- ties. ble, and thus earned the direct 'combination of forces repre- support of the Soviet Union. senting "the military-indus- Senior Soviet leaders have trial complex"; politicians anti taken a similar position in comentators who "made a liv- conversations with visiungt ing on the cold war" and Americans in recent weeks. hated 'to see it end; elements Political lecturers are a key of the press, and "Zionist cir- element in the official Soviet cies." Zionists have now be- system of political education., come the world's leading reac- Millions of citizens hear lee; tionaries in all Soviet props- turers at their places of work, ganda. study or residence. Lecturers "Seventy-five per cent of the are often used to convey in. means of inass communication formation about subjects con- [in the U.S.] are' under the sidered too sensitive for the control, directly or indirectly, open press, which is read by of Zionist circles and Jews," foreigners and regarded as of- he lecturer claimed. ficial. He quoted Israeli Prime The press has handled the Minister Golda Meir as saying ! Watergate affair with 'extreme that Watergate had weakened care, never publishing any- Mr. Nixon, as if to show that thing that reflected badly on Mrs. Meir approved. The lecturer also warned The lecturer quoted Mr. President Nixon, and never re- Nixon as saying: "They hs-. I ally explaining what the crisis tened in on people's telephone was all about. calls under Eisenhower, they listened in under Johnson, they listened in under Kennedy, so why do they pick on me now?" The answer, the lecturer, suggested, was obvious. "We always knew that pow- erful circles would oppose any Improvements in America's re- lations with the Soviet Union," he added. The implication of this line appears to be that. Mr. Nixon personally made detente possi- Urban Arlington stoking reams of papers into an air-jet spurred incinerator used by several Federal agencies. The Richards C omp a n y, which owns the incinerator, has burn contracts with the Fed- eral Aviation Administration, the Federal Home Loan Bank Board and the Agriculture De- partment's Foreign Agricultural Service, as well as with NASA. Corporate Customers Several banks, ? the Interna- tional- Business Machines Cor- poration and the telephone company also use the facility, a company spokesman said. The Secret Service destroys White House information. How- ever, John Murray, a Secret Service spokesman, says: "So far as how, or what, or when, We won't comment." Among the material destroy- ed, by the Justice Department are rough, drafts of Federal suits, which may be modified before reaching court, and busi- ness information used in anti- trust suits. Because of environmental re- strictions on burhing, several agency officials say the Govern- ment leans toward shredders. Two New York companies are on the G.S.A.-approved contractors list. They offer shredders at prices raneine efrfro 0E6'422081 /fMa shredders can chew up a ton and a quarter of paper an hour. The lecturer here did not of- fer any explanation either, but he made it clear that members of his audience should be syne pathetic to Mr. Nixon, and not to his critics. The lecturer also disclosed that polls showed 25 per cent' of the American public favor- , ing Mr. Nixon's retirement or' removal from office, a fact that at least gives Soviet citi- zens an idea of the seriousness of the affair. The lecturer described the President's oPponents as a that "there are people in the United States who would like to have a new war tomorrow? people who make arms for the arms race, and earn profits from it." Even if this line is only propaganda, there is little doubt that-the Soviets are baf- fled by Watergate. From the mighty to the masses, they have expressed bewilderment to Americans here. In a coun- try where respect for author- ity is axiomatic, many ask how Americans could treat their President so badly, : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 9 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 REGISTa, Springfield, 30 August 1973 A Hy Chris Dettro Convicted Watcrhiweer Jame.: McCord said Wednos: day he thinks :1:11-tila CII "can priwide mieful Witt% mat inn'' In the Senate Select Committee on IVatergate if she is Called to test ifv. Merord spoke to about 1.0f/0 Sangamon Stali., versity students and the general public packed into the SSU cafeteria Wednes- day nitit alter spending most of the afternoon talking informally ?vith i4tidonts at both the downtown and lake campuses of the university. The lormer Air Force. FBI and ("Lk man said that he first mel the wife of the former attorney general m the fall of 1971 and found her "outspoken and with a great deal of inte4rity. She is an easy person to ;teal with." he said. McCord was in charge of security for the Mitchell,: alter Mareli. 1972, when Mitchell resigned the attorney general's post to head the Committee to lb,- elect I he ()resilient (CREEP). for which Me('ord was chief of secitrity. Ile said Mrs. Mitchell's latest phone call to UPI's !felon Thomas in which she said she had seen 0 book of polit leaf espionage plans prvpared by White !louse Chief of Stall It. It. If:adman and President Nixon is "a major develop- ment which inav lead to more facts coorerning the Watergate ca,.e." Martha Mitchell has asked to testify hi.lore the Ervin Committee in executive Se:l- sion, and 'McCord said. "I hope she 1,,ists that onportuni. 0'. She somethille to contribute and I hell 'vi' her." r11c('ord. repeated his pre- %nous IttIiit. !hill he does not believe Ifichard Nixon. II. It. Itoideinati John Er. lichmanit out Martha's hit i? band John, km Ile said that Haldeman. Erlielinvin and Mitchel; 'have lied ' lotore tho ?Viit? create Con:notice and atil \silting to ho sued tor statement. In tact, I'm rani, 0 ,A A ,411 Li V 'fa 144 a er intriested in a civil suit mm this subwet." Ile said he believes Nixon was not telling all he know in his teli,vision appearances on the Watergate affair and said that his comment about the lune 17. 1972 break-in at Democratic National !dead- quarter's !wing the plan of "a few overmdous individuals" is "a spacious answer." McCord admitted that the five men arrested inside the Washington hotel. of which he was one, were indeed 'overzeakos.limvever. ?rhe b;2st wireman in the timothy." us he was termed by one of those \vim testified beforo the Ervin Committee, repeated his belief that Nix. nti not only participaCed the enyerup lint also anthor- ',zed the break-in itself. "I believe' Nixon author- lied the operation and he rdwintrsly authorized I ho covet-Lin," he said. "this statements have been to the contrary but I don't believe Part of this opinion is based on information he said fie was told. by another bug- ging conspirator. G. Gordon, Liddy. laddy, however, is not talking: and ?vont verify what hi., told :OcCord. Liddy fold him. MCC1,R1 :411111. that Mitchell and fowler White I loose Counsel .1ohn I /ran liii apfiroycil t he break-in plans. slet'oril said he dots,-;. not Ircl Mitchell aid Dean would improve the pkois withiml the l'ia'Sidellt.S CO11. kiloW ho',' tiwy ?per- -ate,'? he said. Ile still has lopes, he said, not only that Gordon Liddy will talk, but that the four Cobans arested inside the howl tiornaril Harker. Frank Sturgis. Engonio Mar. tines/ and Virellia Gonialez ? ?nit! rea,,pear Judge John Sint t :Inri U.11110 fin?y ply;olod nih v 11!). 01,?:??Ule -PIC\ ill it .Olod iiittt 11114kr .4!,11,?:,.: and pf fr,nti,,:; (it 1?111.1... N11.1'1/;41 "'Filet/ 11,111 1110 Sit 1111 in,elves dur- ing the hist weehs of the " Ile said he, does believe IJ" ;',1?d ge:2 "h gr..1 0:,1111 the committee testimony of Jeb Magruder and "the substance of John Dean's testimony" in which he im- plicated Nixon. "Dean may. be wrong on a few dates," he said. YOU Mirja be the only col- leo audience to hear me." said the balding burglar in reterence to U.S. Judge Sun- Co's decision on the Presi- dential tapes Wednesday. Sirica said he was going to reconsider letting NIcCord and former CHEEP staffer bit Smart Mintriater stump the country to kit their side of the Watergate btisiness. Iceord said that Special Watergate Prosecutor Archi- bald Cox "interposed an oliWction" to his and Magru- der's speaking engagements to Siriea. '1 think he felt Iliat our talking may in seine. way prejudice those persons %vim 111:11' be indicted in the In- hint'.'' he said. Ile cited the "two million words of testi- mony that have been heard on national television" dur- ing Senate Committee hear- ings and said ''l ean't see how my talking in Spring. held. Illinois will prejudice a airy in Washington. D.C. Mine is a minute cont rum- tout and I can't Si'.' how I'll alive( their rijits." he said. McCord has already spo- ken to some 20 civic and church group:: and is pre- pared to speak at about 40 additional colleges and uni- versities :Iner SSlj. I he said all hut one of his scheduled appearances are outside lle'olso pointed out th:11 the seven senators the I.VatcreAte ioirmittee .ind !mile ot !twit skill aro nit ihirg speeehe:;, slmou fee for the ii;' 5;t will go to- ?..e,(1 paving off the sill to stoihdOd in legal lees he ex- fflefe ATV .7111 ll er ports to accumnlate by next spring. The convicted coespiratori praised the CIA. -iIit. which he worked for '20 years. and? said an attempt to blame Ow Watergate nperat con en thi? rl.1 was instrionental in his (tel Plvadimt guilty an?I eveo- litany sending a NI:H:11.23. 19/3 letter to Sirica which. touched off a valid investiga-. lion of the events surround-. ing Watergate. Ile said the CIA most tremendous people ill govermnent, very hielhuali- ber .1).?ople."- and that the agency "is extremely highly supervised, despite publie opinion and Ilw opinion of some Senate subcommittees. It is very closely supervised by the President." he said. lie also has goiid words for CHEEP. - Whin) he was hired as security chief in Sept !sit, thew Wore pc:??? ? 0,1 ;hr. Sluff. O.);,14?? :?? over from the White House. he said. "It grew ? to 200 to 409 people." he said, "and they were a delightful. Ideas- ant gimp to work with. Most ill them very yilintg.. clean. cut and very dedicated." 10 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000160230061-1 NEWSWEEK 10 Sept. 1973 A Plumber's Works Everybody knows E. Howard I twit Jr., the Watergate "plumber" and ex- CIA agent, but how about Howard Hunt the novelist? The 51-year-old Hunt has written 47 books, mostly spy thrillers published under such psendonyins as Itobert Dietrich, David St. John and Cor- don Davis. While I hint is serving out a 35-year sentence for? conspiracy at Dan- bury prison, many of his books are being republished. Ile has Written nothing dur- ing his first five months in jail (aml is not even allowed a typewriter), but seven- teen of Isis spy series?featuring steely CIA agent Peter Ward or Commie-crip- pling accountant Steve Bentley?are be- ing rushed into paperback reissue. In addition, two new I Innt books are coin- ing out this fall; and I flint has yet an- other to sell, "Mosccnv Calling." The two new books are a revealing package. THE BERLIN ENDING (310 pages. Putnam. $6.95) is a sexpionage roman a He/ I hint wrote between the Watergate break-in and the death of his wife in an air crash. It follows ex-CIA agent Neal Thoipe's efforts to save the daughter of a treacherous West German foreign min- ister, one of several seemingly non-Coin-. munist world muckamucks secretly in thrall to isfoscow. The fidional identity of the blackguard minister was tipped off by Ihmt, who sent his editor a news photo of Willy Brandt and Leonid Brezli- . ney inscribed: "I icre's the dirty dog and his master." Bitter: I hint's other new book is non- fiction?at least ostensibly?I:ivy us THIS DAV (235 pages. Arlington. $7.95). Origi- nally written in 1967 "in a mood of nos- talgic bitterness," it narrates his CIA role its the "needless failure" of die Bay of Pigs. I hill describes bow he made a se- cret trip to (?:astrn's grim new Cuba aml returned to recommend to the CIA that Castro be liquidated. Ile refutes the Kennedy Administration line that the CIA had laingled the job by counting on a popular ;prising inside Cuba that nes.- er happened. No revolt was plaolicd or expected, insists flout. Instead,. the CIA was sandbagged at the last minute by the White House's cancellation of air support and forced to shoulder blame that, declares Ilunt, should fall on the Pentagon planners who picked the disas- trous site. The book is expectably full of colorful anecdotes. CIA planners wanted to use Cozumel island's airstrip as a refueling base for their limited-range 11-26's. But the Mexican Air Force officer in charge demanded a non?egotiable bribe of four air-conditioned Thunderbird converti- bles. Irked at his "brazen venality," the CIA looked elsewhere, in vain. And two familiar characters also appear as antit Castroites in I hint's story: Watergate burglars Bernard Barker and Frank Mo- rita, alias Frank Sturgis. Books by writer Ihnit raise intriguing questions ;dung agent limit. A penciled phone number Thorpe carelessly leaves in his apartment almost leads to a Soviet triumph. I limes White I liaise plume number and initials, found iii Barker's ad- dress book, linked the Nixon Adminis- tration to the scandal and proved Hunt's undoing. In one of Hunt's Peter Ward adventures, he describes an unnoticeable metal plate CIA burglars use to secure a forced door. !hint's own Watergate op- eratives used glaringly apparent black tape. And in an early novel, "Bimini Bun," the Alan Ladd-like hero is "Ilank Sturgis"?surely the ancestor of "Frank Sturgis." Several characters in "The Berlin End- ing" are revealing Ihint surrogates. Cer- tainly danger-addict(, romance-ridden Thorpe, who thinks the CIA has gone soft but who handles women like price- less china dolls, is Hunt's voung-buvk ?ision of himself, lint whose resigned, aching loneliness is that piethred in ail- ing, aging, ex-CIA chief Alton Ilegester? Ile gazes sadly at his dead wife's por- trait, eulogizes the "crystalline figures" of spydom's pre-"floisam" days, munnurs ruefully: "Peace, wliat crimes are etnn- milled in thy itaine"?and "I'm a dinosaur, a species alniost extinct." And cold that Soviet agent's bitter anxiety overibecom- ing a "burned-out Is to he discarded and forgotten" be empathy front the man blocked from promotion in the CIA who joined a Washington I'll lirin and then signed on at the White !louse to ping leaks? One of Hunt's 'first endeavors CI. re was to study Imp on the mysterie, rounding Chappaquiddick. Then the op- erative used to State Department cover assignments donned his red wig to nudge ITT's Dita Beard into recanting her ?anno. Ile doctored cal des purporting to show President Kennedy's complicity in Ngo Dinh Diem's assassination. Fate: Nov, suffering from ulcers, 23 pounds lighter, a chained. and manacled Hunt has left Danbury prison nineteen ones to testify (he is due to appear later this month before the Ervin conunittee). Ile is likely to go down as the Willy Lo- man of the spy business, a dedicated hireling hanging in there in a changing world. What Tommy his books !wing in, he declares, goes to lawyers. II is four children at the big, brick house in Poto- mac', NId., called "Witches 1st:tint," are parentless, though good friend William F. Buckley Jr. is acting as "a sort of god- father." I hint recently complained bitter- ly that the Watergate "leg men" drew long sentences, while the "prime conspir- ators" arc still free. And he even hinted he suspects betrayal by a double agent in his ranks on that fateful June 17 night. More poignantly, he says that his wife thought the original ending of "Ending" ?in which the good guys, our guys, win ?was "too pat." Out the way to the airpmt with the fabled $10,000, she told flaunt: ''The evildoers of the world me not al- . ways punished. Sona times the s.o.b. gets away with it and the ?good People doll).- Ilunt says lie was just finishing up the new, more pessimistic close to the novel when his son told him of his wife's fatal plane crash. Ile subtitled the book: "A Novel of Discovery." ?s. K. OBEROECK MOSCOW, Idaho 6 Auguat 1973 New Impetus for CIA_Review Senate confirmation of the . involvement in Cambodia, with the appointment of William E. Colby to CIA again active. The fear expressed head the Central Intelligence Agency by Sen. Harold E. Hughes of Iowa gives new emphasis to familiar prior to Colby's confirmation - that as questions. Colby has aptly been CIA chief "he might acquiesce in described as "the epitome of the another secret war" - is not covert man": his experience has been unfounded, largely in this aspect. of CIA This and other possibilities for activities, rather than in the agency's operations on a burid scale routine intelligence-gathering , argue for legislative surveillance of operations. With such a man at the the CIA's funding and activities. Such helm, the need for continuing, surveillance: a considerable step effective congressional review of the beyond the present far from stringent, CIA is more urgent that ever, oversight, would be 'desirable in Colby is said to- have played an any case. It becomes all the more important role in the planning and desirable now that a man of Colby's execution of what virtually amounted bent - a competent professional, but to a CIA-operated secret war in Laos one oriented toward clandestine in- in the 1960s. Now there are hints of volvement in other nations' affairs - AgiptitiVer keleesen2WA1 IO8S07 : igtARER7daga4pRO001002001-1 11 Approved For Release 2001/08/0 HERALD, Cincinnati 1.Septeuber 1973 L( f '4)r War: Is Jim Rotonda, spokesman for the National Caucus of Labor Committees (NCLC) and U. S. LAO,' 'Party ca rulida t Inc ft,la y - or of Newark today made the following statement on recent developments in Newark: "Events in Newark prove all of what the NCLC predicted in Its pamphlet, 'Papa Doc Baraka: Fascism in Newark,' :and all of what 11.S. Labor Party can- didates have been saying for weeks in their c a in pa igns around the count;:y. The Central Intelligence Ag- ency (CIA), working through its two FO-.Z:erh'fascist operatives, Imainu Baraka (Leroi Jones) and Assemblyman Anthony lin- periale, have moved in the last week to immediately end the ad- ministration (if Newark Mayor Kenneth Gilemn. The.move . is part of :in attempted CIA plan to establish fascist rule in New- ark by the time of the scheduled June, 1974 mayoral election. The forced move to dump Gibson indicated that the CIA plans to accelerate the take- over process. This acceleration is a direct result of the U.S. La bor Party's national cam- paign to expose and destroy WASHINGTON POST 16 Sept. 1973 Tr% Ely /4cc- pe) 4. 11,1 r,r1; (I Ei'.N P77-00432R000100230001-1 i?yifioson Out Baraka's organization, to drive this fascist apparatus out of Newark. ? 'Gibson has proven worth- less to the capitalists. Ile has been incapable of implementing the real union-busting and aus- terity programs which employ- ers need to run a bankrupt city like Newark in a depression, and he has refused to cooperate fully with the CIA's choice for the next rulers of Newark, Baraka and Imperiale. The CIA has ordered that Gibson be (lumped so that he and his few friends don't get in the way of ipraka's strike - breaking and union- busting, or most importantly, in the way of the CIA - ma nary(' race riot that Baraka and lin- periale have been told totiment in order to bring the lascist movement to power in this city. "Gibson has been aggravated by Baraka's charge that he is a 'inippc.t of Prudential,' and by the jeers of .13araka hench- man, Councitman Dennis West- brooks (also known as Mjumba) ? that he was incapable of break- ing, the Newark sanitationnien's union. In response. the Mayor allowed a phony liaraka demon- stration On Aug. 1 5, to turn arrison Planned To Link General To JFK Slayng By Iris Kelso si?????ini in Me W1101111C:011 Ewa federal court here. The account of how Garri? son developed his theory that Callen masterminded the Kennedy assassi nal hin is said by some to suggesi the way GasTison developed his vase aninst New Orle? ails businessman Clay Shaw, whom he did charge. Aceording to thr tape Garrison talked with Per.-ai- ing Gervais, his former chief investiitattir and close !..t friend, almm the cats,11 pry N'arrh 9. 1971. Garrison had Izotien Cahell's name from "Who's Whoill the Snot It arid Southwest.- Ito Ntas pre. pared to tharze I;e11. Cabe!! if he eonid e.?;anti,i, ilia, 1-n, hell had ;wen te \pw NEW ()RLEANS--New Orleans District At Jim Garrison. as late as March 1971, was in?eparim: to accuse another person of conspiring to assassinate President John Kennedy. Garrison's intended de- fendant this time was the late Air Force Gen. Charles Calla, former deputy (I let- tar of tilt- Central Intelli? .?...ionuy anti brother of Kati Cattell Earl Catlett, 'who later became a erin? cressinati, was 111:1 1);II. las at the Inn(' of the iiSS;0?? striation. The Cabell story is bronchi out iti tape record. Ines introduced in Gart?i? son's pinball briber% trial in 12 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 into a confrontation between members and sympathizers of Baraka's Committee for Unified Newark (CFUN) and over sixty white riot cops. The demon- stration ostensibly demanded the 'accountability' of Newark's sanitationmen, accountability to Baraka. It was actually designod to provide a cover for Jim Nance, head of Baraka front group, the Federation of Afro- American Police Officers, by provoking the w:lite cops into arresting and roughing him up in the presence of witnesses and the press. As is well- known in Newark, Nance was one of Baraka's early fascist recruits and Once held the post tion of 'security,' head goon in Baraka 's organization, a per- fed candidate for director of the future Baraka controlled black police force, split from a white force controlled by linperiale. 'Barak-a, through his mouth- piece Westbrooks, is using these contrived 'atrocities' to, call for the resignation of Gib- son and Gibson's sidekick, Po- lice Director Edward Kerr, The black fascist is now making demands that the police and service employees ot the South ans any time ,around the date of the assassination. Nov. 22, 1963. Gervais. at the time of the conversation, had gone to Garrison's home to deliver $1,000 the federal govern- ment says was a pinhall brib- ery payment. Gervais. who thcn was ?yfirki" with the government, Ivor(' a voice transmitter tinder his coat. Garrison's iniagination was triggered when he learned Gen. Cabell was former Mayor Cabell's brother. Gar- rison's theory was that the CIA was behind the assassi- nation and that the Dallas city government and pout-' department cooperated in it. He thought the assassina- tion mias masterminded mut of New Orleaiis. Ile Wanted Gervai,;)o cheek the records at ",; motel in New Orleans to learn if Ceti. Cahill had been there around Novem- ber 1963. .In the tape, Garrison's wore could he heard sayin, "If I tan out him in the Fontainebleau Motel, then I've got cnouh to grah him by the , "OK." Gertais com- mented. Garrison: "No?a the at er;L:e guy, .me dap't want to hear an'' rnrn't? and Central Wards of Newark be made accountable tEl the 'community -- accountably to 111111. f!.,irakti used the sante demand to destroy the Newark Teachers Union (NIT). 'lite Labor Committees have known for months that the CIA has been working for more than five years to build the apar- atuS capable of turning Newark into the first urban American- fascist stronghold. Labor Committee members are exposing the dottiest ie. polo - ical organizing activities of the CIA and its frontmen in a na- tional anti-lharaka educational and t)ropaganda campaign. At this moment the deadly !rand of 'accountability' -?-? Baraka's favorite union-busting tactic-- is twing exposed on the floor of the national convention of the American Federation (if Teach- ers(A FT) in Washington D.C. by NCLC, NU-WI?) and RIM organi znrs. The NCLC will con- tinue to expose every actual or threatened capitol:thou to such faseist tactics among the union- ized, the unorganized, and the unemployed, and, with each ex- posure, build forces to remove these CIA front opera! ions I coin American cities branch and root. when he .finds out that the Number Two man in the CIA is the brother of the mayor of Dallas." Later Garrison said. "Waif till the country finds out hat---1 been yelling CIA, wail till they find init that the Number Two man in this ('l.? is the man in ehart;r of the Bay of Pigs and , the brother of the mayor of 1)al- las." Gen. Cahell was deputy director of the CIA 11111i I his resit:nal ion effect ti. 31, ? 1952. Ills twot her, formi?i? Pep. Cabc11, sa?-s the gen? cral was -the et:MONT" of the Ray of Ph,:s nocrApith Garrison fare0 the liossi? hility that t;en, just lint .haVr' I .:isi-red at the FontaitiehIer ii around the a zwr-:?inat ion date. In that rose, lie said, lin wttultl Iii'itig opOH' Gi?oci?al's name at some time when hi' had a 011,11'11u, in it 1.'10- '11,11111 Shot.; Or PI :I ',TWI' I; lIlt ('S Ii unit' in the tapes that Gervais ever rtiecked the motel record.... Cahill's name was net PI' MPH' TIV.11:? \V? hittl< lit ( I 1*--.171.S. ?sk ay. Ile li-td lin defendant., Gem Cabe)! had died in 1970 .?several InoilthS before Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 The Washington Merry.Go4tomid THE WASHINGTON POST Thursday, Sept. 13, 193 Asian Guerrillas Offer Opium By Jack Anderson The colorful Shan guerrillas have offered to sell the United States most of the Southeast Asian opium crop and to wage war on any other opium con- voys that may try to operate in the area. In exchange, they want $12 million in hard cash and a U.S. promise to help them 'win autonomy from Burma. This astonishing proposal was made in writing by two top Shan leaders who sent an emis? sary down from the hills te 'meet clandestinely In Sangkok with Rep, Lester Wolff (D-N.y.). As chairman of e House narcot- ics subcommittee, Wolff la the House's leading expert on Burma-Thailand-Laos opium production. HA wet In Bangkok last month one survey with five other congressmen. The signed Shan offer to de- stroy up to 400 tons of high- grade Asiatt oplem, combined with the U.S.-sponsored Crack- down on Turkish opium, theo- retically could wipe nut 75 per cent of the supply of heroin on America's streets, And $12 mil- lion admittedly Would be eheaper than trying to stop the smuggling operation the hard Way. As Wolff recounts his dra- matic encounter In Bangkok, the Shan emissary, On MOM- Men, arranged by letter and tel- ephone td meet With him in hotel lobby away from his cori- fum* al colleagues. A tel' owcup meeting was held la a pack aft 4 twilling Bengal* street. ? The Englishman handed him the two-page propoial signed by Gen. Law Hain Han and Boon Tai, the two rebel leaders, who also sent, as evidence of good faith a handwritten list of Ill recent opium shipments by mule, backpack and trucks with in the vast Shan state area. . Skeptical at first but eager to explore the offer, Wolff invited American diplomatic, narcotics and CIA officials in Thailand to a meeting where he laid out the strange Shan proposal. ? At this private session, the authorities confirmed that the Englishman was an authentic Shan contact and that some of the hendwritten reports of opium convoys agreed pre- cisely with their own secret in- formation. Our own sources re- port that both the State Depart- ment and CIA had also been ap- proached by the Shan insuri gents but that the negotiations had been aborted by Washing- ton. Wolff left it to the American officials in Bangkok to pursue the offer but asked for quick progress report, fearing the unorthodox Shan gambit might become snarled in red tape and bureaucratic timidity. When Wolff reached Hong Kong four days later, he was called by his Shan contact, who reported nothing whatsoever was being done about the Shan otter. At our request, Wolff has now agreed to show us the proposal in hopes this might stir at least preliminary talks on the feesI- Witty of buying up the Shan opium prop. After all, the United States has subsidized Turkish opium farmers with $35 million. .a year so they would stop growing the lethal stuff. The United States also secretly paid $1 million to Chinese traf- fickers and others in Thailand for contraband opium, which was burned. (A secret CIA re- port claims, however, that the U.S. authorities were deceived and really burned cheap fodder covered with opium) Wolff's document, typed be- neath the crossed swords let- terhead of the Shan State Army, is titled "Proposals to Termi- nate the Opium Trade in Shan State." It beg mm "The Shan State Army and Its einem will invite. . ,the United States Narcotics Bureau, or any similar body, to visit the opium areas of Shan State and to transmit Information about opium (moven on their own wireless. "The S.S.A. and Its allies will ensure thet all opium Con- trolled by their armies is burnt under international sunerV1- sion. The opium will he sold at a pried to be negotiated later, but the basis. 4 should be the Thal border price." At present, this would amount to roughly $18 million Sot 400 tons of opium. In return loll. these "tempo- rary measures," the Shen ar- mies want a "permanent saki- tion" based on political self-de- terminetion for the Shuns afid agricultural assistance from the United States to "replace opium with other crops." U this is finally accomplished, prom- ise the Shan leaders, they will "filloW helicopters under inter- national aupervision to search out and destroy any opium fields that still remain." In Wolff's view, the advantage of destroying 400 tons of opium far outweighs the ruffling of of- ficial Burmese feathers. which direct dealings with the Shams would cause. Our own CIA sources confirm that the Shan State Army is a tremendous factor in the South- east Asian drug traffic. One se- cret repo by the CIA's Basic and Geogi..,-hic Intelligence Office asserts. 'The Shan State Army, the tars ' of several forces that have fighting for Shan independel.-, from Burma . . . is also volved in the opium business.' Another .CIA document tells of caravans of "up to 600 horses and donkeys and 300 to 400 men carrying in excess of 16 tons" moving out of the Shan State. Classified CIA and Jus- tice Department documents say 400 tons of the 700 to 750 tons of nnititn produced in Southeast Asia come from Burma, much of It from regions controlled or near the Shan State armies. Wolff, while reluctant to leave Coogresi during the wind-up of the '1973 session, is willing to serve as an emissary to' the Shan generals if it will help get negotiations going. Al, though he la unwilling to vouch for the Shan generals' ability tai deliver on their proposals, he feels they fit least warrant seri., eus talk. "go far," he told us; "the U.S, government.seems?thr more eager to wipe out instil.; gents than to wipe out the he 4 Din trade." , ?1913, United Feature Syndicate ' Gervais. Gervais, who probably knew Garrison better than Any other por.vm. was no. torinusly indifferent to Gar- rison's assassination theo- ries, In anothyr tape Gervais told a pinball operator, -Clay Shaw bad no more to do with that bull? than you did. Garrison rte.% thme4ht he was 20iIIL! Io link(' Infn- self a hit: mao mit of that pile of ? --?" Earl Cahill. livin Dai? las since his retirement .from C.otr4ress, ha .l heard that it was him. rat.t?r than his brother chAlliprai/eld ? Garrison hoped to link lo the assassination. At any rate. wa.; not disturbed. Of Gorrison, he said, -That zto is nuttier than a fruitcake.- The story of Garrison's in- terest in Gen. (MN-di could be important in NeW Orle- ans. Althetiji Clay Shaw was arc:Mimi of he assasst- nat ion cl'inspinii? Inany'vi,ti'r, SIM 1111k Gar- riSeti -had corl!'thint:... III the tont: run the Cabell story rould be mere si,4n.:fi? cant than the 41:1et-noir:W5 cliarc.e that G.irrison was 2ttilty of taldm,.. payoffs Fofirlaienahsalellonos8/07 : CIPAIDP77-00432R000100230001-1 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 INQUIRER, Philadelphia ? 3 September 1973 ''. 111 it) it ? ? Ctil Part of "the ?serious fallout from the 'Watergate investiga- tion, in "the" ' judgment of the American 'people, is that the reputations of both the FBI and the:CIA have been "dam- agediy ??? By 52-36 percent the public feels the FBI was used to its detriment in a coven!) of the Watergate affair, while a 46-33 percent plurality ..feels, the same way about the CIA. In the hearings, testimony was given that L. Patrick Gray 3d, former acting head of the. FBI, burned papers that later might have been ev- idence, allegedly on instruc- tion from Presidential aide John Ehrlichman. In the case of the CIA, sev- eral Men who were caught in the Watergate break-in were former CIA employes, and E. Howard lint, a Watergate operative, had borrowed, dis- guises and a camera from the CIA, for which he had worked for a number of years.. High-ranking CIA officials have suggested under oath that they felt the White House tried to involve tha CIA in the TIME 24 Sept. 1973 . The Multiple Agent In the cramped. seedy Mice that the Hearst Newspapers maintain for their London correspondent. Seymour Freid- in sits among some of the mementos of a long and prolific career. There is a ci- tation from the Overseas Press Club for distinguished foreign reporting. There is an autographed picture of his friend. Senator Henry Jackson. To his credit arc four books. doiens of magazine ar- ticles, countless newspaper stories and columns going back to World War None of these. however, earned Freidin the attention he has received since Jack Anderson recently named him as an agent paid by the Republicans to spy on Democratic presidential candidates in 1968 and 1972. Freidin disagrees with the label, but acknowledges the activity. Actually, he was the original "Chapman's friend." the code name that Nixon Campaign Aide Murray C'hotiner gave to two paid informants who traveled with the !kiln- piney and Maio\ ern press parties. The material they delivered was pretty tame. Freidin and the woman who succeeded him as the second Chapman's friend, Lucianne Cummings Goldberg. report- ed the candidate's latest spaeches. ac- tivities and statements to Chotiner, Freidin added some anal!.sis of his own. John Mitchell called the material -junk." and it appears that nothing real- ly confidential or damaeine %las sent, Goldberg's name surfaced first. She is a freelancer on the fringes of Wash- ington journalism, and her participatiop LL r (Idttet ( \OA. T-n eifATII J a Vi" .r(31. 4 ? ? ? 9 3.11fTeS 'EMU 61101.1. V It (11'717 S v..31 ' cowry!). On Aug. 18-19, the Harris Survey conducted in-person interviews among a cross-sec- tion of 1,536 households na- tionwide, asking about those alleged Whi:e House effoi is to use the CIA and FBI. Fifty- six ? permit felt there had been an attempt to get the agencies to cover up the 'Wa- tergate affair. Twenty percent felt, that that was not the case, Former CIA director Rich- ard helms not only related in his testimony that he tesiled inferences that the CIA take some responsibility for Water- gate and the payments made to the defendants, but he de- nied vehemently that the CIA had any direct or indirect in- volvement in the burglarizing of Democratic headquarters or the subsequent coverup. ..Nonetheles.o in the public's mind, the notion persists quite strongly that somehow the CIA was involved in the Wa- tergate. Forty-five percent felt that the CIA was involved in the Watergate affair. and other il- legal domestic *spying activi- ties, while 24 percent that it was not. ? This public suspicion, that somehow the CIA was in- volved in Watergate and .other illegal domestic spying, is a serious charge, because such lack of public confidence could prove harmful to future CIA activities. Even more se- rious, however, is the fact that under the law authorizing its existence, the CIA is spe- cifically prohibited from en- gaging in domestic investiga- tory operations of any kind. Helms did admit raider questioning that the CIA un- dertook to dray,' "a psychiat- ric profile" of Daniel Ells- berg, the defendant in the Pentagon Papers case, the only time in its history it had done so. However, the CIA de- nied vigorously that it had in the caper was dismissed as a had joke. But Freidin. 56. though never in the top stratum of his trade, is clearly in a dif- ferent league from Goldberg. He marched into Prague with Patton and later served as foreign editor of the New York Herald Tribune, lie is also a Dem- ocrat. Why did he become involved in so tawdry an episode? Double Agent. The money was one factor. Freidin says that he was paid $30,000 plus $10.000 for expenses last year and a lesser amount in 1968. Actu- ally, Freidin says, he was a double agent or maybe even a triple one. lie told the Humphrey people in 1968 and the Mc- Govern staff last year that he was work- ing on a campaign book. While feeding information to the Republicans, he "-as really trying to gather material for an "inside- book about internal friction in the G.O.P. camp. Ile sees no distinction between what he did and the ploy used by Joe McGinniss 1968. McGinniss worked as a Republican campaign staff- er while secretly doing ressarch for The Selling of the Presiden,i 1966. a tough and witty itttock on Richard Nixon and some of his aides. "If I had brought it off." Freidin says ruefully. "everyone would be calling me a big hero." The distinction between McGinniss and Freidin, of course, is that MeGin- niss was not taking money front one party to spy on the other. It was not thz first time that Freidin had accepted pay while trading information. Freidin. like some other correspondents ot crseas. be- came friendly with (TA agents in trou- ble spots around the world. While coy- any knowledge and any errection with the break-in to- P.:11Sherg'e psychiatrist's of- fice, No proof has been of- fer cd that the CIA had any in- volvement .in that affair. Public doubts about both the CIA and FBI persist and likely will for some time, even though the Serrate corn;. mittee's inquiry into their pos- sible roles has been con- cluded. Based on those doubts, the Public believed, S2 percent to 36 percent, that the FBI has been daMaged, and' 46 to 33 percent that the 'CIA has been damaged. Across the board, among every major subsegment of the American public, even in- cluding people who voted for Presidant Nixon last Novem- ber, at least a plurality feels the reputations of both the CIA and. the FBI have been. damaged. Both have always prided themselves in being above partisan and political considerations. ering the Soviet takeovers in Eastern Europe in the 1940s. Freidin? was often debriefed by CIA men and got leads front them in return. Occasionally, he says, he accepted CIA money?"so little that it was laughable." To Freidin. a staunch cold warrior like many of his colleagues there, the relationship was all part of the fight against Communism. Ile dealt with the CIA. he claims. "because it was the right thing. I never told them any- thing that I wouldn't print." In 1966 the I lerald Tribune folded, and soon the cold war began' to fad'e as a big, continuing story. 1-reidin found . himself adrift, his expertise devalued, the demand for his byline sinking. It is a common situation for aging yurnalists who have committed themselves to one subject or cause. "I wanted to do a Nutt( on the States,- he recalls. "but iny pro,- lam was how 1 could get an angle. 1 went to the 1968 conventions. and at the Republican Convention 1 met Murray Chotiner- C'hapman's friend as soon born. Freidin got no hook at all out of the 1968 ca mixt! ii In 1972, he says. he knew "something fishy was going on" amona the Republicans. but he was un- aware of the Watergate secrets. After that stoi y broke, he realiied that any "inside?. book he might do Vh ould be val- ueless. So he quit befoie the election and signe.d on with Hearst Now: with his ne?% notoriety. he clain is to have a 11(1111- her of offers to rite his inside book: he feels in demand aglin.Thi, week he will be back in New Y if I Icarst cd dors share that 14 Approved For Release 2001/08/07: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 ? Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 WASHINGTON POST 30 August 1973 Kelley Acts to Improve F I Efficiency By Susanna McBee about 10 aeents. lasting three or four sion under a new name and days in-liferent parts of the country. Washington Post Staff Writer designate someone to head- It will include sessions on media Clarence M. Kelley, the new director relations, handling mail from the pub- ' it by Sept. 15. of the FBI, disclosed yesterday the lie, better communications between* In describing his new ap- steps he is taking to improve the., headquarters and field offices, use of pointeeS for press relations agency's efficiency, investigative tech- computers for assignment of cases, and the management study, niques and relations with the public, analysis of office production, and de- the director stressed their Veloping files on how criminals ope-, professional background. In an interview with The Washington Post, Kelley said, "I want improve- rate. Ellingsworth was a re- Kelley also disclosed that he is porter and photographer for Ment.' I don't know if we need majorthe Kansas City Star for bringing special agents in chanees, to get it: but I want to find charge of branch offices to seven years before becom. out from an objective point of view Washington?t h re e at a ing media liaison officer for how we do things." time?each week for confer. the Kansas City 'police de-. Accordingly, he said, he has askedences with him. partment in June, 1969. two law enforcement experts "to look "I'm garnering from them Reed. Who has a law de. over our operations and see whethergree, has headed Florida's a list of things they feel are we need to streamline them." problems." he said. "One of 100-member equivalent of They are William L. Reed, 37, exec- . the greatest problems is the FBI since November, ? utivc director of the Florida Depart- communications. For in. 1967. Coleman, who has a ment of Law Enforcement in Talla-stance, an agent down south master's degree in sociology, hassee, and John C. Coleman, 50, 4 may be asked by a reporter was a Los Angeles.police of- training director at the Regional Cen, , up north about something (leer and an administrative ter for Criminal Justice in Kansas that's going on here, and the aide there to former Police City, Mo.. where Kelley was police agent won't know what's Chief Thomas Reddin. Colts chief for 12 years before taking over happening here. Or some man retired from the force the FBI on July 9. field office may develop a in 1967, after 20 years of The director also said he was hiring good technique in traihing service. As training director his former press offices. in Kansas police or laboratory aides. at the Kansas City center City,. William 1). Eilinesworth. 33, to and other offices may not since 1970, he supervised work in the Flips press services officeknow about it. training of state and local here. " police officers. Reed and Coleman, who will be Kelley stressed that his Asked about FBI morale, executive assistants to Kelley, are policy will be one of ? au Kelley replied, "Frankly, I due. to begin their review nest Tues. open door with the press, have not encountered any , day. Ellingsworth, who will he an He said he wants "a policy real morale problem-within administrative assistant, is expected of giving the local people the organization. I do en. to . tart Oet. 1. (special agents in Charge of. counter reports that citizens local offices) wide latitude feel there is a morale prob. None of the three is a former 1.1;1 in dealing with the media." lens, and that affects how :lei-ea, a Met. that Inlets( cause le scot. During the manaeement the Willie reacts to this Fill. ment amone sone. eldrimers. one training sessions. discus- "1 want to 'Tatum full 50155e5' said, "The bureau is an inbred sions on media relations confidence in the bureau I organization. some :seems eet very may include press represent- think the conficiente is upset whets people are 1.?'01.1:2/1t. in (EOM at ives who could "relate the outside." ? what is desirable to them." Lhere, but it's in a state of However, Kelley, himself an FBI Kelley said, "We should 'give Suspension." Ile said the 20; agent for 21 . years, h..s apparently , the agents an outline of 1111t1 employees, incivility.: 8, moved quickly to consolidate internal what they can and cannot 600 special agents, still have support for the innovations he hopes talk about. For instance. ''great spirit and defile& to make, they can't talk about invest i? tees" Ile noted at the start of the inter- itations now under way." view that he has"a ciiflcri'nt,?5y (.4 Later. Deputy Attorney The FBI cruel also re- General-designate William man:It:Mg" the bureau from that of vealed that he is tuiine to D. Hackett:haus at'reed with. Eth!,ar Hoover. tvho died gist yei,r. "reinstilute- the old Crime Kelley's asse,:sment of Ins- Ifoover's 4f1-year tcoure, the Research Division. which reau morale. Itueltelshatts, bureau's policies and proceiltite.; ly chaueed, was split up by I.. Patrick who steep(' e,; direr- Gray Ill, who scrved as act. tor ei the VW 41f4f.61' ( re- -11,.trare ails Hoover 11:1(1 his way of i iii,.:: 1..ii dit.?,,,. r?1. ?,;041,.,, ;,railea. seid ha thinke the maniezement, I have mire," Kelley st a:?eill..? -hare a.ccelitod ' Kit. ilt:. "thin. is pariicireitory 11n11.1.;4.- a ..,. car atter Hoover died./ melts. I rely e,ttite heartiy on 'he stair. 'Else division handled il-y' for roeornmeorlat ion s " Press and eon,"rt ,sionat : e- Tho tout,,10 Prnl'IPM. It',' The !tea- airecior. soi.,i ae is lattneti- lations as will ;Is ?-? cell sl.d. st-imili'd *fri'in the tael int' a in 'la 'einem; ir.iii". a : p,',.: ti ii ii '. 40 ''1 ? l',Iiid,?r,, .. till -illorl' V.:i, .41, ..I for II' c .. I) 0 e i a I a 0,1:- it (.1:.: -..., cr v'; ii r o ))..0)irt? :Irrgi '41i ;.!t 1 t.., till, II"'. ill ' a .1' ""?)a? !hi' iti., :0.) oilli C...: 1111111,?11i:l.t. UR' oppr,,.. 41. 1?1. ? Ili,. FBI'. 1,..i,.. rik .,1! ,,,t' ,,''. or v. I:1 ....IN.,' :,;()M COM I I.% . 1. k1 -.;X,V, 10. It," he added. The pliw?ratti, v.iiiiih he bores to Kelivy is kootvii to fci'l in Ot?iolici? iii' Niovi!Ilivi*. \t ill hi, li:al those functions should condueti d in six sessions, each Nt ith he coordinated. Ile said Ito . hopes to recreate the divi- Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 1.5 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 ,Tuesday, Sept. 18,1973 THE WASHINGTON POST Multinationals criticized Before , By Anthony Astrachan ' tal information could have He said Waehinaton Poet Foreign Service UNITED NATIONS?A an international effect ' (J ]\71)anei that prying out Vi- equivalent to the way Amer. number of witnesses, among lean consumers forced auto- tors, and Irving S. Shapiro, Ing products and processes them Ralph Nader, made makers to recall cars. He vice chairman of Du Pont, regardless of real consumer broadside attacks on MID- urged the United Nations to for instance, both supported need and by tapping poten- , national corporations before send questionnaires to all an equivalent to the General tial markets in as many host a U.N. study group last states and to the more than Agreement on Tariffs and countries as possible. Both Week. 200 multinationals that have Trade' (GATT) that would home and host countries en. But the radical of Amen- annual sales of more than $1 "harmonize" national pe. courage this, he said, with can consumer advocates was billion. Deles on investment, taxes, research and export subsid- , not radical enough in his Nader suggested 13 ques- pollution control and the les, tax concessions and the proposals for controlling the tions, among them wholik like to insure their own eco- two men from opposite and other resources in each Tehe executives insisted, He questioned the validity giant firms, in the view of owns what land, mineral nomic growth. poles?a Dutch spokesman country, the amount . cof however, that their compa- of that growth, however, for international capitalism taxes paid in each countor, nies already contributed to saying that, the multina- and a Chilean who think? wage and benefit levels by *economic and technological tional corporation "is the Multinationals are hurting country and environmental most efficient instrument so the underdeveloped world, pollution data. He also development and the health far developed by capitalism The paradox was typical urged that the United Na. and welfare of the countries, to siphon off resources from of the difficulties that char- tions investigate and publi. where they operate. where they are most tn., acterize any attempt to cize abuses by the multina- Osvaldo Sunkel, a distill- gently needed, but where study, let alone regulate, tionals alleged by "nationa guished Chilean social (mien- there are no commercially' multinational corporations.? or peoples." tist, disagreed. "I get scared, profitable possibilities, to , companies which now prod- Nader gave second prior- really scared," he said, 'where they are least neces- uce at least $330 billion a Ity to individual and collee- "when I hear such individu- Sary, but where the most , year in countries other than tive action by countries to ale speak of social responsi- commercially profitable pos- their home states. impose conditions on the en- bWty. Who has appointed a sibilities exist." Nader was one of 14 wit- try of foreign capital. Such small group of individuals In the process, he said, nesses before a U.N. panel conditions can and do work, to decide the fate of 'so "we get new -products and :of "eminent persons" that is -according to two witnesses many?" processes, but not the capae. ?making a year-long study of Sunkel charged that the ity to develop new products who preceded Nader. basic U.N. report "as unable the impact of the multine. Jose Campillo Saenz, a! to see the forest for the and processes." tionals in the hope that it Sunkel said Thursday that will produce new ideas on Mexican official, described trees." The forest which he the government of the late thought deserved more at- how to make these giant, his country's new regule: President Salvador Allende tention was the way multi- companies fit into a system tions on foreign investment, of Chile "may have had nationals concentrate so that was not designed for including a limit of 49 per much power that they not many failings and commit. them because it was based on nation-states. cent or less by foreign cora- only change economies but ted many errors, but nobody. Nader accused the multi- panics in Mexican corpora- transform social structures can deny that it attempted' nationals of disrupting the tions and rules for the trans- and cultures as welt He to redress this economic and world monetary system by fer of technology. .. called the aggregate of mul- social structure by funda-, shifting funds among their Ernst Keller, the Swiss tinationals the "dynamic mentally democratic means." subsidiaries in different' president of ADELA, an In- kernel" of a new "transna- Allende was unable to get countries, exploiting the la- vestment company head; Donal capitalistic system." the international help that bee and "perverting the po- quartered in Peru but Sunkel quoted the U.N. re. Sunkel thought his effort Mies" of developing nations, owned by 240 shareholders port charge that multinel deserved, and his expert- shifting industrial pollution in 23 countries, said that his tionals follow policies which meat ended in "a cats- from their home countries, company accepts a minority do not suit the interest of ei- strophic collapse of its eco- to other states and running holding, creates new enter- ther home or host countries nomic and political sys- "snakepit" mining opera- prises rather than buying and are in effect transna- tams," he added. tions in Asia, Africa and existing ones, sells out to tional. He went much fur- He drew the conclusion America. local interests after recover- ther than the report, how- that "it is not possible to try tag its initial Investment ever, and said these policies to restructure relations of - His list of abuses was dra- and tries to develop indige- are designed to insure the dependence between under- matic, but his proposed solu- nous savings, personnel and survival and growth of a developed countries and the Dons were not. Many ,of management. transnational segment of transnational capitalist aye- them Were . anticipated in Some of the U.N. panel the world economy: tem in a peaceful way." members expressed regret This segment, he said, is The U.N. group is charged the U.N. report on that Nader had not been oligoRolistic?tending to-, with finding just such which the current study is present the first day of thepeaceful ways to restructure ward syncentration in the. based. That prompted Sicco hearings to engage in a face- a system that now seems Mansholt of the Nether- to-face debate with the five hands of a few companies, a against the under- lands, a former head of the executives of American cor- The few men who deter- developed states. Rs mem- European Econoinic Coin- porations who testified then. mine the policies of this bers did not all share Sunk- In fact, the executives munity's Executive-Commis- transnational segment may el's pessimism. But his testi- tended to support most of ideas were not strong the ideas on regulation that mony was moving because Mon, to tell Nader that his carry national passports, - the U.N. study had its on. Sunkel added, but they have Nader later' endorsed, al- enough.gins in charges by Allende though they differed with transnational functions and Nader gave highest prior- that the International Tele- Dy on enforcement proce- transnational cultures and ity to collecting information hi phone and Telegraph Com- cures and denied that multi- ideologies. These were Corn- about the multinationals. pany had intervened in Chi- nationals commit the kind among the forces he saw Their power, he said, de- lean politics. of sins he charged them transforming societies and pends heavily on their abil- After three days of public with. . cultures around the world. ity to conceal or disguise hearings and five days of h Mur Thomas A. Murphy, vice Sunkel claimeda the their resources and their act- l that closed meetings here, th chairman of multinationals keep them- tions. hf General M k group will hold public meet 16 selves growing by innovat- Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00,432R000100230001-1 ings in Geneva in October and la further session in ,New york in March. Its 18 members do not represent their nations but serve as in. dividuals. The chairman is L. K. Jha, former Indian anf; bassador in Washington. THE ECONOMIST SEPTEMBER 1, 1973 The churches WASHINGTON POST 7 SEP 1973 Senate Funds null? lauvolpe , Asloeleted Press . The Senate yesterday' passed a hilt to authorize con- tinued federal financing of Ra- dio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. : The 76 to 10 vote sent Ore to the House. The blind eye starts to open FROM OUR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT Geneva The World Council of Churches, which has for years maintaiped a tight-lipped silence about political and religious 'per- secution in the communist countries, took a first, hesitant, half-step towards condemning it this week. The council's 120-strong central committee, meeting at its headquarters in Geneva, was debating a document on violence and social justice which had been prepared by a study group and was about to be circulated to the council's 267 Protestant and Orthodox member- churches throughout the world for "study, reflection and action." This document referred to a number of "violent and oppressive" situations in southern Africa, the United States. Latin America, Israel and Northern Ireland, but breathed not a word about the communist world or the former colonial countries' of Asia and Africa. This made a number of senior western churchmen deeply unhappy. How can we talk about injustice in south- ern Africa if we go on, year after year, ignoring injustice in Russia? So argued a Norwegian bishop, amid much nodding of heads. But at a special meeting on Sunday speaker after speaker from Russia and the other cast European countries got up to protest against what they called cold- war propaganda; ill their countries, they explained, there was no injustice, no oppression and, no. not even a ruling group to oppress anybody. In a voice choking with emotion, the Rumanian Orthodox patriarch kept repeating how good the state was to the church. After that there was quite a bit of behind-the- scenes lobbying, allegedly accompanied by hints that churches from the commun- ist countries might have to pull out of the council if it publicly criticised their gov- ernments. In the end an extremely mild dig at post revolutionary governments which impose "unduly restrictive mea- sures on their citizenry" was dropped. together with a mention of conflicts in Asia and Africa, from an official gloss which was to accompany the document. Nevertheless. the cast Europeans did not have it all their own way. At the plenary session on Wednesday some speakers tried to reinstate the omitted paragraph. The attempt failed, but a substantial minority, _abltained,,ipch some senior figuresIFffiEVRildWu In approving a S50.2 million iauthorization for this year, the !Senate turned down, 56 to 29, an amendment by Sen. J. W. Fulbright (D-Ark.) to reduce ithe federal contribution to the two radio networks in future of Churches, thereby demonstrating in equal measure reluctance to embarrass their 'east European brethren and deter- mination to keep the issue of human rights in the communist world on the agenda. At the request of a Scottish churchman the council's secretary- general, Mr Philip Potter, gave a per- sonal assurance that the issue would be pursued further. There is to be a special WCC meeting on human rights in Austria next year, and the council's ,officers swear that there will be no shirking of the communist issue there. Well, one swallow does not make a summer. Nor, unfortunately, does one, albeit sincere, attempt at political even- handedness restore to the World Coun- cil the credibility which it started to lose a few years ago through its ever deeper and, in the view of its critics, ever more reckless intervention in social and politi- cal issues at the exPense of its more traditional religious concerns. One of those critics, the representative of the Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople, Archbishop Athenagoras, warned the council that if social and political issues were to become its sole concern it risked becoming merely "the insinificant voice of a secularised movement". For the present this is the voice of a minority, whose views tend to be dis- missed as those of stick-in-the-mud backwoodsmen. But moderation may fight its way back. The decision on Mon- day to give a small grant of $100,000 a year for five years to help Portuguese deserters in Europe and Africa?but the money has yet to be raised?was cer tainly a political decision. It is likely to cause controversy in the churches in Europe and the United States, even though great pains were taken to more sent this help for deserters as merely a continuation of the WCC's traditional refugee relief policy. But the fact remains that, to the disappointment of some of its leading activists, the council's docu- ment on violence and non-violence shrank back from endorsing a "just revolution". This was a rolief to a visiting delega- tion of English-speaking churches from South Africa. which had come to plead for a more constructive approach. The idea of setting up a development agency under the council's auspices, into which the churches could put funds they do not want to invest in companies dealing with South Africa. Rhodesia, Angola or Mozambique, is another indication of a more constructive trend, although it will meet fearful practical difficulties in its execution. There is a sound of pennies easiraftRA$018ROMIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 years to 50 per cet t of their operating expenses. Fulbright called the net- works. long financed secretly through ? the Central. gence Agency, "simply a rem- mint of the Cold War." He failed, 69 to 17, an an earlier motion to send the bill hack to the Senate Foreign Relations. Committee to consider com- bining the operations of Ra- dio. Free Europe and Radio Liberty with the government- operated Voice of America. Sen. Charles H. Percy (R- Ill.) said the networks, broad- casting news of international events and internal affairs? to the Soviet Union and .Eastern ? Europe. have long since aban- doned ctild war tactics. He saki they promote pres- sure for change within the I communist countries and con- tribute to international de- tente through exchange of in- formation. Fulbright placed in the Con- gressional llecord a list of 'cor- porate and individual contrib. utors of $500 or more to the two networks over the years since they began operating in the early 1930s. Percy said noncovernment contributions totaled $1.4 mil- lion in 1971 and $1.1 million last year. Sen. Jacob K. ;Wits, (R. N.Y.) said corporations, foun- dations and individuals should be encouraged to contribute more, but to force the net- works to get half of their nancing from nongovermnent sources would cripple their op- crations. The hill would eMablish new Board for International' Broadcasting to seek out contributions for the two net-. !works and oversee their opera- tions. 17 Approved For Release 2061/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 NEW YORK SENATE CONFIDE KISSINGER, 78 TO 7 Nation's First Oeign-Born Secretary of State Will Take the Oath Today By BERNARD GWERTZMAN Spode! to The New York Times WASHINGTON, Sept. 21 ? Henry A. Kissinger, who emi- grated with his family to the United States 35 years ago to escape Nazi persecution, was Confirmed by the Senate today as the next Secretary of State. 'he vote was 78 to 7. Tomorrow morning at the White House, Chief Justice Warren E. Burger will admin- ister the oath of offiCe to Mr. Kissinger, the first naturalized citizen and the first Jew to hold the senior Cabinet position. Sen. Jacob K. Javits, Repube lican of New York, said in the two-hour Senate debate that preceded the vote that Mr. Kis- singer's nomination was "a miracle of American history." "He has proved not only to America but to the whole world that this still Is an open socie- ty," Sen. Charles McC. Mathias Jr., Republican of Maryland, said, praising the 5U-year-old, former Harvard professor who joined the Nixon Administra- tion in 1969 as the President's adviser for national security. He will retain that post along with his new assignment. One of those voting against r. Kissinger's confirmation' was Sen. Jesse A. Helms, Re- publican of North Carolina, al monservative who said he had, .".considerable doubt about Mei Kissinger's policies, particularly his role in improving relations with Russia and China. The Senator strongly criticized the United States' wheat deal with the Soviet Union. "I greatly fear that his other Much-lauded agreements will also end up with the ? Soviet taking us for a ride," he said. "The issue is one of competence and I have concluded that Dr. Iissinger has failed the test." The other six Senators who voted against the confirmation were liberals whose opposition to certain Administration poli- cies is well known. They were James Abourezk, ?Democtat of South Dakota; Floyd K. Haskell, Democrat of Colorado; Harold, E. Hughes. Democrat of Iowa; George McGovern, Demotrat of -South Dakota; Gaylord Nelson, Democrat of Wisconsin. and Lowell P. Weicker Jr., Repub- lican of Connecticut. Senator J. W. Fulbright, Democrat of Arkansas and chairman of the Foreign Re- belong Committee, which cleared the nomination, opened the debate. He recommended Mr. Kissinger's confirmation lind at the same time decried :the rising number of American voices opposed to improved lelations with the Soviet Union. "I am very fearful we are moving backward to a revival of the cold war." Senator Fulbright said. "There are in- creasing indications that de- tente appears to be breaking down." He referred specifically to the efforts led by Senator Henry M. Jackson, Democrat of Washington, to block the Administration's plan to ex- tend normal trade preferences to the Russians until the Kremlin allowed unrestricted emigration of Jews and others. Mr. Fuibright said that "we are now approving a new Secretary of State, but if we are predisposed agaipst the policies he stands for, we will end up with a revival of the same cold war of the nineteen. fifties." The problems of how to deal with the Soviet Union figured prominently in Mr. Kissinger's three days of open hearings with the Foreign Relations Committee. Mr. Kissinger stressed that white he person- ally found some Soviet policies ',repugnant, he felt it was in the best interests of' both the American and Russian peoples 'to continue to seek ways of i.elaxing international tensions, without linking such moves to changes in either country's do- friestic system. t Some Have Reservations ' Some Senators, like Edmund S. IVieskie, Democrat of Maine, voted for Mr. Kissinger bet cited reservations about his policies.' Mr. Muskie was crit- ical of the Administration't Vietnam and India policies and about the wiretapping in which he said Mr. Kissinger had been ."cleared of any taint of Water- gate-reltted misdeeds." r Tapp' ig of the phones of four newsmti and 13 officials from ?1969 to 1171 was the most con- Iroversial issue raised during the two ?eeks the Foreign Re- lations Cc mmittee spent in con- sidering tie Kissinger nomina- tion. His ro apparently was lim- Ited to si pplying the Federal. Bureau Investigation with' names e /3fficials who had ac- cess to et :ret national-security informatio that had appeared in the pia ;s. These individuals were the put under F.B.I. surveillant e. The col mittee found that al- though ti ) practices involved In the v i etapping were open to critici m, Mr. Kissinger's role In thi wiretapping ,vas no reason to )ar his coffin tation.. Both Id. Weicker aid Mr.: Nelson, I awever, citel the' wiretappi) : in their Sfieches today as major reas sr% for their vot i against th con- firmation. ' I Senator .bourezk stair: "We know en. eh about D. Kis- singer to ; ow that he h, capa- 1 ble of deceiving the Congress and the public.' Senator Hughes said that de- spite Mr. Kissinger's "luminous intellectual powers,". he be- lieved that the nominee was "guided by a philosophy that Is inimical to the long-range cause of world peace and incon- sistent with the moral purpose of our nation." ' Senator McGovern, the only member of the 17-man Foreign Relations Committee to oppose the confirmation, said that he was voting against the Admin- istration's over-all foreign pol- icy. The new Secretary of State plans to go to New York Sea- day night and to address the United Nations General Assem- bly Monday morning. He will remain in New York until Wednesday night to meet with foreign officials attending the session. He will not be able to confer with State Department officials until Thursday, when he plans to outline his ideas for increas- ing the efficiency and raising the morale of the department's 6,000 employes here and the 6,000 abroad. BALTIMORE SUN 10 September 1973 Mr. Kissinger has pledged to fill all major personal vacancies within twp months, and some announcements are expected to be made soon. As an interim measure, he has recalled Robert J. McCloskey. Ambassador to Cyprus, to serve as his press spokesman for about a month. Mr. Mc- Closkey had served as spokes. man for both Secretary of State Dean Rusk and Mr. Kissinger's predecessor, Wil- liam P. Rogers. , In private conversations, Mr. Kissinger has stressed his desire to fill most key jobs with regular foreign-service officers and not to bring many of his National Security Coun- cil staff members over to Foggy Bottom with him. He will maintain an office at the White House, where he will wear his hat of national security adviser to the Presi- dent and chairman of various interagency committees. A crucial matter, Mr. singer 'has 'has said, It to bring. the State Department more active- ly into the policy-making ield and to promote the' best men ,in the department to positions of importance. 3 Turkish parties to call for removal of opium ban Ankara, Turkey la?Turkey's ban on opium production is becoming an issue in the came .paign fort the October 14 gen- eral election. All three major parties intend to mention the possibility of lifting it in their platforms, sources said yester- day.' , Sulleyman Demirel, former premier, and chairman of the conservative Justice party, which has a good chance of returning to power in October, has implied that his party will point out at least the need for a review ci Turkey's opium policy. The Rei ublican, People's party, the s 'eond largest politi- cal organiz ion, has already announced I will consider re- sumption o poppy cultivation providing tl ire are "sufficient controls to eliminate inten- tional conceil." The centr st Reliance 'arty ialso is exp.( cted to comt out against the 1 sn. Turkey ba vied opium 'mill- vation In J me, 1971, Inder heavy presstre from the Unit- -ed States, VI ch claimed that 180 per cent oi the heroin re ich- 18 ing U.S. addicts Originated in Turkey's poppy fields. The politically unpopular de- cision came from the Army. backed government of Nihat Erim, a former premier, after, Turkey's military commanders ousted Mr. Demirel's govern- ment 'March 12, 1971. Mr. Erim said at the time that Turkey banned the crop I "to soothe" the United States, but gave no guarantee not to rescinr: it If the economic loss to the farmers could not be cornpeo;ated. - ? Succeeding governments have a tstired continuation of I the ix u but the issue has re- mainec controversial. Ill NOTON POST 3 9 S(` 1 prnho r it Charge .40SCOW?Literaturnaya ti zeta, a magazine of the' e %let Writers' Union, c ; led for an "end to provoe- ye activities" of Radio berty and Radio Free Eu- )pe, according to the Soviet 3 revs agency Tass. Soviet jamming of broad. c sts from the British Itmadeasting Corp., the 1' 'lee of America and the est German radio were ui Med recently in a move In, t ;rpreted In the West as a esture toward detente, 1 c)73 Approved For Reease 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 NEW YORK TIMES 8 September 1973 'Si R U1ITZ FINDS r`BIJIINEW ON GRAIN By LINDA CHARLTON swim to rat paas York limo ? WASHINGTON. Sept. 7? Treasury Secretary George P. .8hulz became the first high Ad- ministration official today to acknowledge that' the United States was "burned" in last Year's Soviet wheat deal. He :said that it would not 'happen Mr. Shultz's comments came in the course Of a newl confer- 'once at the White House. He was asked, with reference to an allegation .that "it seems now. Ithat the price-of a loaf of bread in Moscow in cheaper than it Is in the Safeway here," whether there had been "any miscalcu- lation on the -.import of this [Soviet] deal on American ag- riculture." ? In the 'course of his lengthy reply, Mr. Shultz conceded: "I think it is a fair statement that they [the Soviet Union] were very sharp in their buying practices, and I think that we should follow the adage [that] if we are burned the first time, why, maybe they did it, but if we get burned twice, that is our fault and we shouldn't have that happen." The Soviet Union, at that time desperate for grain be- cause of domestic crop failures, purchased 440 million bushels of United States grain last sum- mer for more than $1-billion. The Nixon Administration pre- viously granted ? the Soviet Union $730-million in credits, making possible the grain sale. Export subsidies amounting to $300-million were also paid by the Nixon Administration to allow the grain companies to sell for prices lower than those prevailing on the domestic mar- ket. This sale, which included about one-quarter of the total United States wheat crop, re- sulted in domestic shortages of feed grains and wheat. Earlier in the day. Senatori Walter D. Huddleston said he had information indicating that! some of the wheat purchased here by the Soviet Union wasi being resold in Italy at fall higher prices. The Kentucky Democrat, who also made a statement on the floor of the Senate this afternoon, said he based his allegations on,, an article in the Rome newspaper El Tempo. Carroll G. Brunthaver, the Assistant Secretary of Agricul- tore, said in a telephone inter- view that a check by the de- partment had shown that the cargo in question had been shipped in Cialveston. Tex., last month and purchased a Swtss Igrain dealer. The Soviet Union. " 'tr. Brunt- Approved NEW YORK TIMES 9 September 1973 Third World's Trumps By C. L. Sulzberger FOREIGN AFFAIRS ? The so-called Third World is edging ? gradually into its own and it is hard to imagine that its lack of cohesion, or leadership inexperience can indef- initely obscure this new political fact.. Such is the main implication . of the past week's meeting in Algiersof some -sixty chiefs of state or government from countries in underprivileged Asia, Africa and South America. ; The tricontinentai group is non- 'aligned in a military or ideological sense although its penchant is gen- erally toward varying forms of social- ? ism. Usually it is referred to as "devel- oping," a word with innuendos of backwardness or poverty that is kn.% precise when applied to Yugoslavia or 'to Kuwait and Libya. , When the ? organization of this international club out of colonialism's .ashes was first pressed by Tito, Nehru ,and Nasser, it seemed too vague and inchoate a dream to promise signifi- 'cant reality. But Marshal Tito, only survivor of the initial prime movers, .can rightly regard the Algiers con- ference with optimism, despite bicker- ing, because a changes on the inter- national horizon. During the three years since the group last met at Lusaka, Zambia, the superpower blocs assembled around Washington and Moscow have for- sworn war and moved perceptibly toward detente. This, without grow- ing militarily stronger, the Third World ais relatively less menaced by possible threats. With the fAing of major armed conflict as a prospect, the potential 'importance of the U.N. grows. And, :regardless of its internal quarrels, the Third World represents a decisive :majority in U.N. membership. If it can ever make up its collective mind on 'particular issues, its voice 'will be ? Moreover, as the arms ascendancy -of the superpowers and the great powers assumes reduced political sig- nificance, Third World lands find they are able to act more boldly without ,fear of neo-colonialist pressures. Thus ? 'Atte have recently seen expropriations, , nationalizations and extrusion of for- eign bases with little effective protest by countries whose interests were ,disadvantaged. Finally, the nonbloc of underdevel- oped nations has learned that the technologically advanced and privi- leged sector' of the international community con'ilins deep-seated weak- .nesses thal can be exploited if the : Third World ever manages to coor- dinate Its latent assets. Industrialized America, West Europe haver said, was "in no way in- volved," and he criticized Sen- ator Huddleston'a statement as "loaded" and "just another example of hearsay." A spokesman for Senator Huddleston, who sent letters to bah the General Accounting Office and the Department of Agriculture asking for an in- F tiers Viletelt es*Ai Piti 8 1ff e? and Japan are all in the Initial throes of an energy crisis. They need masses of fuel to sustain their scheduled grovrth during the years becfore new sources of power can be' harnessed. Tee main contempA.rary sources of this are in such lands aa Saudi Arabia and Iran (not representea at Algiers), Kuwait, Libya and Algetka, rich in petroleum and natural gas. Furthermore, the industrialize? na- tions are being racked by a long. enduring monetary, crisis not likely to be cured by this month's Woriat Bank meeting in Nairobi. The crisis has '.-;aen magnified by huge amounts of Al ab oil funds banging about from bank to bank in an understandable effort to profit from instability. The Soviet bloc is relatively un- affected by both these crises due to its rigidly controlled production, 'its' lesser reliance on external fuels, and its tight, artificial currency system. China, which relies minimally on for- eign trade, is untouched. - The lesson to be drawn is that the ? transideological grouping at Algiers possesses key frumps to be played in the coming decade's power game. Already Arab statesmen forecast de- liberate slowdowns in fuel production and curtailment in sales to customers who, like the U.S.A., openly favor Israel in the Palestine dispute. There isn't any doubt that, If the Algiers Club manages to coordinate its actions with nonmembers, such as Saudi Arabia, there will be diplomatic repercussions abroad ? above all in Washington. President Nixon's careful language at his latest press conference confirmed this. American policy must recognize the changing pattern of the global kaleido- scope. The attempt tor arrange a pen-' tagonal diplomatic balance?the U.S.A., West Europe, Russia, Japan, China? perforce gives added impetus to crea- tion of another force of Immense : importance, the Third World, pushed together by its exclusion. - One obvious deduction to be drawn . is that the United States must revise the philosophy of its foreign aid pro-' gram. Henceforth it should take into account the 'tremendous wealth pos- sessed by the nations which met at Algiers and should encourage them to assist themselves' and their fellows more generously. From now on Washington should - try to channel help to the under- privileged only in the form of educa- ' tion and technology. The surplus ? money that once was ours Is rapidly? becoming theirs, would investigate the matter further. ? Mr. Shultz, during the course of his 38-minute news confer- ence, was also asked about ex- port controls. He said: -We have been wattling this situation very carefully teld we think we have a ver) good probability of not having to itn- additional export lantrols . uts. aaaa. a s tat no930001-1 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 WASHINGTON POST 26 August 1973 ? By David M. Goldberg Asericlated Preen After 25 years, there once. more are card-carrying Com- munists in the United 'States. After years of meeting In secret for fear of. exposure; of being called before con- gressional committees. of , suspecting that each new party recruit works for the FBI, American communism Is', as the official line puts it, ? "showing the face of the ? Party.". ? The membership cards, being issued for the first time since 1948,, are the proof that the Communists no longer think they would else hest off if nobody' knew 'Who they were. . The reason for the Com- ' munist coming out appears to be the fact that the thaw in international ? relations has convinced most Ameri- cans that the Communist .Conspiracy?so .much. taken ar. Thaw C rrying for granted a decade or two ? ago--is no longer on the verge of overthrowing the United States. In the words of that period, few people now appear to be looking for Reds under their beds. "You don't see the anti- Communists out with plac- ards the way you did 10 or 15 years ago," says FL L. (13111) Richardson, a Califor- nia state senator, author, ra- dio commentator and one- time member of the John Birth Society. "Maybe they're working within the Republican Party, or have quit to join the American Independent Party. Or maybe they've just thrown up their hands and said 'I'm going to enjoy myself before they come marching down the street.'" Like the cards. "The younger people wanted them, They're proud to be , Communists," ? says Gus Hall, the party's general sec- retary. The signs of the thaw are often more symbolic than anything else, but the sym- bols are the tangible evi- dence of a public mood. For example: ? Joe L. Matthews, na- tional commander of the al- ways staunchly anti-Commu- nist American Legion, vis- ited the Soviet Union and Poland last winter. When he returned, he wrote an arti- cle in the legion's magazine that was frankly glowing in its praise of veterans' facili- t ties in the two countries. The legion has merged its h ? Americanism division wit the 'division on children and youth, an the Americanism staff has been sharply re, duced from a decade ago. 0 The Subversive Activi ties Control Board had been phased out and the House Un-American Activities Com mittee has been turned Into the House Internal Security Committee. The reconsti- tuted committee hasn't held a hearing on communism in more than two years. ' 0 Th Security Division of the Justice De- partment has been merged Into a smaller department. "I don't think communiim has been treated as a threat recently," says former As- sistant Attorney General A. William Olson, the last di- ' rector of the division. 0 The Communists them- selves see a noticeable dif- ference in the way they're- greeted when they travel and make speeches, al- th h ' go about 25,000 votes in the 13 states where he was on the ballot --hardly demonstrates Mas- sive support, 6 In California, where anti-Communist sentiment is still stronger than - most places, the state senate com- mittee on un-Amercian ac- tivities was downgraded two years ago to a subcommittee on civil disorders. The impe- tus for the move came from James Mills, the senate pres- ident pro tempore, after he found his name in the com- mittee's files for having at- tended a meeting called by the International Long- shoremen's and, Warehouse- men's Union. But even in Southern Cal- ifornia, where the John Birch Society has American Opinion, Libraries scattered every few miles, there seems to he a lack of inter- est among the populace in what the Birch society sim- ply calls "The Conspiracy." "I don't know how you measure sentiment, but I'm certainly not being asked to- speak about communism the way I was 10 years ago," says Richardson. Just about everyone who talks about the change in at- titude sees its tangible ori- gins in the events of the past decade: the war in Viet- nam, the decision to normal- ize relations with mainland china, and the accords with he Soviet Union. But many people who ave lived through the 'Oa a evwes U. S. In h and '50s, when every candi- date for public office was ' hound to pay at least lip service to his opposition to communism, sense that the ? reasons are more subtle.' Arid the consensus is that the clearest of those reasnns is a new generation that has grown up ueencumbered by the attitudes of their parents; that tile attitudes of the parents themselves have been changed by events, and .that more peo- ple know more and fear less about commupism. ' Dennie Carpenter *nee S from NeWport Beach, Calif.. One Of the wealthiest'. conk. rhunities: :in staunchly cOn.- ? servative Orange County, ; He .gerved in the FBI fromf 1954 to iS58, and then ,,Ot - - :Into politics. Ile user' to he chairman, of the California' ? Republican Central.CoMmit:: ? tee and is now chairman of the California Senate's new civil disorders subcornmit- tee. Carpenter feels strongly ? that communism is still a threat. But he feels just as strongly that hatred of corn- munism must be eliminated as a political and social re- flex. "Its not time to say, 'That Problem is over'," Carpen- ter says. "But to be honest with yourself in this coun- try, you can't hate someone who's different politically from yourself as long as he's not trying to overthrow the government. That's what this country is all about. "We fought the Cold War for so long that its very dif- ficult to sustain it. It's hard to hate continually for a long time." Ey most political stand- mt pa Co be fo sp No for ing at nists difficulty for me'to accept the concept that we had bet- ter do something. I saw hoW in the .3Qs nothing had been done to stop Hitler and I related the same way to Vi- etnam. I thought we had Munich all over again." By 1961,, Clifford was los- ing his faith. In 1968, he was apPointeci Secretary of De- fense and was, by most ae-, counts, a key figure in turn- frig around the buildup of' troops in Vietnam. ? Now be says: "I think it ? was a misjudgment of cone- ' - munisim World War II was ? a bad' example. What ' we thought at the time was a 'inaisive plan on the part of teie- Soviet Union and China ? to take over the world just , wasn't there." 1..n a 11 v from the left, comes: the testimony of Leonard Boudin, whose law practice was partielly dedi- ? cated during the 1950s 'lode. fending accused Communists before congressional commit- tees and dureng the 1960s to ? defending more 'diverse radi- ate'. His latest well-known client was Daniel Ellsberg. Boudin sees the war as the turning point In the chenge of attitude. But 'like Clifford, he thinks the change in generations played a inajor role. "The focal point was oppo- sition to the war," he. says. "But it also resulted from youth unencumbered by the fears of older people." There is also broad agree- ment that additional inform- ?ation about communism has helped change the public at- titude about it. That is, the left, the center and most of the- right agree that the more people know about the ? subject the less they fear it. ; Alger Hiss has been one *Mho' of the fear of cone- inism. A former State De- rtment officer, he was tivicted,'of perjury 'after ing accused of espionage r the Soviet Union and ent 44 months In prison. w 68, he's been out of jail 20 yeers and sells print- supplies in New York y. = 'People were scared of mmumsts because they arcls, Clark Clifford's back- ground would be considered - more liberal than Carpen- ters. But Clifford mateied Politically during a period of intense anti-communIsm and he atteesed three Pres', dents on how to contain it. Now, at the age of 69, he has some doubts about the Co ? "I am a product of the ha Cold War," he lays, reach- go ing with his long fingers e nis over the desk in his comfort-, tai able Washington law office eta to toy with paperweighte D given him by Harry S. Tru- man, John F. Kennedy, and tin co d never met one. I had ict to Ail to meet a Comm- t"? says Hiss, who main- ns his innocence and is I appealing his case. , prints Carpenter,. who Tries from one of the na- n's most conservative Mies, agrees with the .1).riYonisue. . know," he says, "a Lyndon B John 20 Approved For Release 2001/08/07.: CIA-R6F77-00432R000100230001-1 ? "When Vietnam came lonfl, there was :never any PAU Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 lot of people from my area have gone to Russia. They see what it's like over there, and they come back liking our system that much bet- ter. But they also see the people over there, and they see them as humans. I think leaving things to people is often a lot better than leav- ing them to governments." ? Fred Kuszmaul, the Amer- ican Legion's Americanism chairman, gives the same angle a reverse twist. "Let's face it," he says. "The country can only bene- fit from the Brezhnev visit. The more the Russians can see that's in this country, the better off we are." One indicator of , the change is the 1971 hearing into communism by the ; House Internal Security ;Committee. ? , . During the three decades of its existence, HUAC hear- ings often were nationally watched dramas. They fea- 'lured flamboyant committee chairmen on center stage with apostate ex-Commu- nists as witnesses for What had all the earmarks of a prosecution. The foils were a parade of prominent and not-so-prominent people ae- &vied of Communist affilia- tion. As often as not, they took the Fifth Amendment, an action interpreted by committee members and staff as an admission of; guilt. ? But the 1971 hearings were sedate and held in rel- ative privacy. The key wit- ness was Charles Fitzpa- trick, a New York school- teacher who joined the ? party for the FBI and spent' more than 12 years as a Communist. "Fitzpatrick? Let me see. don't even think I at- tended those hearings," says Rep. Claude Pepper (1Fla.). Pepper spent 12 years in the U.S. Senate until he was de- feated in 1950 by an oppo- nent who, among other' things', used Pepper's pro- New Deal outlook to link' him with communism in a campaign brochure called, "The Red Record of Claude Pepper." ? Now Pepper is on the committee with three other liberal Democrats. He re- members how the focus changed. "A few years ago." he re- calls, "Speaker McCormack , called me and said, 'Claude, I'm going to put you on that committee.'? "I said, 'No, net me; t don't like anything they do.' But he said, 'The House will not abolish it and I want to see that it's no longer a 'witch-hunting committee. I want everything done le- gally and correctly.'" The Fitzpatrick testimony was done legally and correct- ly. So legally and correctly, in fact, that a good part of his testimony was given over to identifying as Com- munists people who had tmade no atttempts to cover their party membership. Even'the John Birch Soci- ? ety, the country's most mili- tant and most publicized anti-Communist organiza- tion, has broadened its focus beyond exposing Commu- ? nists. Charles R. (Chuck) Arm- our, the society's West Coast governor, says anti-commu- nism is "alive and well and kicking ... and growing." But Armour, who runs a staff of 56 full-time employ- ees from a yellow brick building in the fashionable Los Angeles suburb of San Marino, says ? anti-commu- nism might not be the right term for what the society. does. "The John Birch Society," he says, "has expanded from CHRISTIAN SCIENCE ICNITOR 18 September 1973 'A country in need of praise' The Saturday Review and World magazines have joined forces in a :new biweekly whose first issue offers a valuable reminder: America is "a country in need ,of praise." This phrase is the title of an article drawn from a forthcom- ing book, "Coping," by Daniel P. Moynihan, Ambassador to India and former assistant to the Presi- dent for urban affairs. Without, mentioning Watergate, Mr. Moy- nihan writes: "Relentless emphasis on social failure and corruption is no way to summon social energies that are needed to set things right. . . . To recognize and acknowledge suc- cess, however modest, is fun- damental to the practice of gov- ernment. It is a first principle of leadership in a democracy, where loyalty must, be directed more to institutions than to individuals." As one example of success, Mr. Moynihan cites the virtual dis- appearance of the dual school system in the South during a surge of desegregation in 1970 that placed Southern schools ahead of Northern schools in this respect. "The administration in office, which had worked to bring about the end of the dual school system, did not especially want to take 'credit' for it, while its opposition did not in the least want to give it 'credit.' . . . Almost immediately thereafter the issue of school bus- ing arose in Northern cities. If only it had done so in the context of a widely acknowledged success in the South, might not public atti- tudes have been differeht?" Whatever one's answ/v to that Question, such succeeses should be 21 being just anti-Communist to looking at a conspiracy in the world to control man and his environment through world government." What's the soureo of the? conspiracy, a visitor asks Armour, a former insurance broker who joined the soci- ety in 1961. "The evidence today is there in overtures from the Soviet Union ?and the Red Chinese government in Pe- king and the effort to put an amalgamated government in the world," he replies. Does that mean the United States government? "Draw your oe'n conclu- sions," he replies. "It menns the so-called capitalists, the media and people in high 'places." The area around Armour% office still looks like ig# concerned,,? ,C11 But conservatives like Dm Richardson and Dennis Car- penter, who still think the* is a threat, see little public interest in it. And a reeett poll showed that; while the cOuntry is still very mu4 against communism, th feeling isn't deep enough to Make communiMi the day- to-day concern it oneO Was. acknowledged. One may disagree with Mr. Moynihan's view of solving some urban problems through a kind of "benign ne- glect" (though he doesn't resur- rect that albatross phrase here). But his emphasis on admitting success as well as failure is par- ticularly important now as the nation's confidence in itself is . challenged on Various frontS. This is not to advocate slipping into the old complacency but to realize that things are, really not so bad that it's not worth trying to improve them. As Mr. Moynihan concludes, "American society would do better to pay somewhat more attention to its successes, for it needs the reserves of morale that this kind of awareness brings." Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 WALL STREET JOURNAL 11 September 1973 Image Problems? If Your Copy Machine Doesn't Work, Maybe It Has Been Sabotaged Office-Copier -Makers Deny it, but Dirty Tricks Are Reported ,to Be a Problem Fighting for a Market Share JOHN EMSIIWILLEI: Mug Ncportcr cf nit: WALL Silt ria Jori;NAr, SAN FRANCISCO?The scene was a Califor- nia meeting of branch sales managers of SCM Corp., presided over by a regional sales chief. The discussion turned to how competitors such as Xerox Corp. and Sperry Rand Corp. wero making inroads. into SCNt's office-copier busi- ness. The scn managers decided that one solu- tion to competitive problems was sabotage. They discussed tampering with competitive machines in hopes of creating service prob- lems. On a Sperry Rand copier, for example, they were told, "We could turn the roll of paper around . . . which would cause it to one participant recalls. Xerox machines required another tactic. If a salesman could "drop something in the toner tray, you could pretty 'Nvell score the drum on it," the partici- pant. says, That was the testimony of r.obert WethIng- ton, a former scn branch manager, at a re- cent trial in Sall Francisco Seperior Court. Ile said he attended meetings In San Fran- cisco rind Los Aligvie3 while working for SCM in the late 1960s. SCM flatly denies that sabotage of competi- tors' products was ever discussed, much lees advocated, nt company meetings. But two court decisions have gone against the company and certain of its salesmen accused of sabo- tage. In the more recent case here, a jtaLre re- duced it jury award against SCM from lion to $1:;0,uo0, causing the plaiinitf t domain] a new trial. 313sterions :%lalhinctioes uorporate denials, it's clear from talks with :?alesnten for SCM and other copier mantiletelesers, and with independent copier dealers, that dirty trirke have been a real if seldonedi .ceescd problem in the year offier?copier indm.try, even Mot:eh?ea seine :teert -they may me,. he on ti;e'dv,:'Ino. ''I've 14?01,:i! 1.1'I'ViCen11`11 \HO IlaV1` they emmeitted ?17.-1 ? : ?i? r in I? ly., ti. i , ;,: tho ?:,111)? 15v:itt ono or 1,1 ; 111,11 11.0.0! Or :,11 it ihelli::CiVe3; /r10:4 manufactur- ers also maintain their own sales forces for di- rect sale or lease to customers.) Mr. Moody soya he believes these tales or sabotage he- eatiee "more than U11C I'd install a machine and come bath a few hoers later to find it reel- functi,enea. I'd look ineide and find a wire die- cenneeted end, after tali,ing to the customer, find out one Of cumpelitors had been around in the interim.". . Mr. Wethington. who now has hi S own cop- ier business, told the :4,111 Franci,co court ho Personally tampered with competitors' p -el- ects more than once. The aim wels to "ei ese service," he said, adding "if the machine hi; a 22 lot of service calls, then you are in a very good position to come back with your equipment." Outright sabotage isn't always necessary, says a salesman for a sinaller manufacturer of copiers. For example, he explains, some cus- tomers who use his company's machine buy their paper from competitors. When the ma- chine breaks down, he "takes a.couple of extra hours" to repair it. "Then," he sayse'il'll give the customer a bill for .$100. When he sees it ho usually blows his Stack." The salesman ex- plains that it's the "off-brand" paper that's causing the problem, and he offers to cancel the bill if the customer Will switch his paper or- ders to the salesman. "It works a lot Of the time," the salesman says. Anyone with some dc??ring-do and expertise, salesmen say, runs little risk of discovery in sabotaging a competitor. A former SCM em- ploye tells how he often and successfully has done it: "1 get permission to go back to the put?chasing department of a large company that. uses a competitor's machines," he says. On the way through the offices, he says, he will simply stop at a few machines, "puts. off their backs, and mess them up." No one ever.both- ers him. "If you act like you're supposed to be working on the machine," he rays, "thud nro few people who are going to ask you what you are doing." Looking Om Other 1Vay Just how widespread such practices' are, and how high in the corporate hierarchy knowl- edge of theni may go, is uncertain. Major cop- ier makers deny that sabotage has been A. nroblem. A spokesman for Xerox Corp., the Oiltgest, says Xerox never has heard of coin- pet (till's' tampering with Xerox machines. And, he says, "we have very clear guidelines forbid- ding anyone in the company (rem verbally crit- icizing-, much less tampering with, a competi- tor's eqeipment." A former SCM employe :;1:1'S that corporate officers never were nt any of the saholape meeting.; he attended but he says Itc in rerldin mit leant a few high offieiale knew what wan leippeninee "I know a ?mole of vice i c;:idvnli of the company personally," he says. "And Cloy knew z..0.otage was (11.,ctificki and that f.alesinen N?,?ero doine it. They Just chone to turn end look the other way." 1:eureve at other come:inks say tied Heller officials may net have ordered edlesmen to ?anntil salietcee ut thee :it I'Me man ray.: Ilya w tii t, wor11,.(1 for Apcco p., coi,ier lii tour:lc- :11: or, rc;:ieual :ales is111r.g 1,1%11101 Vall:CS would "bilk about it in a Joking way, !saying, for instance, that SCM had screwed ii!1 one of our machines and intintatink we might. do the same to them when we got a chance." If eunie copier selespien may be tempted to thotage, its because their busine:s is 110T0y t'0111pl'ililye. Though Xerox, with some Cl'; of 'domestic ISICS, doininatos tho noultet, of other firms, large and email, are all fightine? for a share. "In this business the end Justifies the means," the former SCM salesman says. "Either you get your sales quota or you get ? pinir pink slip." Inlevn a Rug SCM's troubles in the San Francisco case trace back to 1968, when Copico, a local dealer, installed a coin-operated Olivetti machine in the San Francisco Public Library on a trial ! - basis. Almost from the start things went wrong. Lent and gummy coins jammed the machine: a mysterious puncture in its two- andaohalf-gallon tank spread Mk all over a li? brary nig. Library employes testifieri they began to notice that trouble started after visits by two SCM salesmen who laid been ian r!rvicing scn inncl.ine in the library. Then ene day the two men s' 're caught leaning over ic Oil- Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R00010023D001-1 vetti'machine with their hands in it. They claimed they were only studying the lens mounting. I3ut the library called Copico, and Copico called the police. It was Copico whose $1 million jury award was reduced by a judge; Copico rejected the lowered award, and a new trial has been.. scheduled as a result. Evidence at the .original trial suggested that higher officials of SCM had Instructed salesmen to sabotage the competi- tion. Allen Kline, a former SCM salesman, tes- tified he MI:ended a I.965 meeting in Atlanta where .regional sales managers gave instruc- !Ions on tampering. (The company I lenles such tnitirectinea were given.) After the trial, Air. Kline would say only that. "SCM Is a big coin- . pany, and I'm only an individual. I don't want to rub salt into their wounds." Earlier, in a la68 entitrust suit In fedaral court in 'Baltimore, a judge found SCM sales- men guilty of "tampering (with) and misrepre- senting" paper and supplies sold by Advanced Business Systems & Supply Co., a Baltimore- based dealer. SCM appealed the verdict to the U.S. Court of Appeals, which modified sonic) of the find- ings but didn't change the findings of fact con- cerning tampering. An SCM spokesman says the company tried to appeal to the Supreme Court but was turned down. The trial court said that SCM saleamen would run off a witisfartory copy using :;?,.!M paper on an SCM machine. Next they %you'd try competitive paper (in this cane manufactured by Nashua Corp. of Nashua, N.H.) in the ma- chine. I tut they would set ita lens shutter ro that no paper could have made satisfactory coplem mid, the court found, then blame the Nasinia paper for the. poor copies to pernuade the customer to buy SCM paper. A big part of their profit In electrostatic ma., chines that use chemically treated paper, in- dustry sources say, comes from contracts for the paper end other %implies. "You can almost give the machine away," a former salesman says, "if you can get the customer to buy your paper and supplies." After the Baltimore case, the Federal Trade Commission filed a complaint charging SCM with, among other things, "maladjusting or tampering with owned and/or leased SCM elec- trostatic copying machines when non-SCM copying supplies are used." Shortly thereafter, the company entered into a consent agreement with the FTC in which it promised to refrain from such practices without admitting having used them in the past,. SCM says the Baltimore and San Francisco cases "have been distorted and blown out of proportion," Even if the facts ? are correct, an SCM spokesman says, "it is mystifying how ? Unauthorized and uncondoned acts of individual: salesmen can be attributed to the company." ' Xerox, the industry leader, generally ap- pears to have avoided sabotage tactics. Until recently, Xerox was the only major company whose machtnes used conventional bond paper, which Xerox customers can obtain directly from paper companies. Competition has been much more intense in the market for chemi- cally treated paper that most other machines used. Dirty Tricks Waning? Though Xerox Insists it has a strict policy even against knotking the competition, at least one dealer thinks some Xerox employee may have tampered with some of his machines. "I've had a coin-operated Olivetti machine in this Safeway for years," says the dealer, Fer- nando Velez, president of SO' Copy Co. Inc. "Then recently Xerox puts one in next to mine, and mine starts to go haywire." In another Safeway store where Xerox Installed a copier, he says. "somebody actually got into my ma- chine and screwed up the electronic circuitry. And to do that you have to know the business." "None of our people have ever heard of Velez, and as far as we know he has never made a complaint to us," a Xerox spokesman responds. "If we were ever convinced that an employe of ours was involved In anything like that he would be fired on the spot." No formal tampering complaints have been niade against Xerox. But the Federal Trade Commission has complained that the company maintains its position in the copier industry in other ways. In December, the FTC filed an antitrust suit that charged Xerox with monopo- lizing the copier business by requiring custom- ers to lease instead of letting them buy Xeraix machines and by using discriminatory pricing practices, among other things. Xerox has called the complaint "Ill.founded and Without merit." There are sonic in the Industry who believe sabotage has delined In the past two or three years, partly because of SCM's troubles and partly became the trend to machines using Plain paper has dulled the cut-throat coinpeti- tion to supply chemically treated paper. 131g. ger, more sophisticated and more expensive, the plain-paper machines also require a greater investment to produce and market so that "you can't afford to get caught pulling these kinds of stunts," says Mr. Moody, the dealer in Hayward. But, he adds, "I worry sometimes the same things could happen in the bond-paper market as happened in the electro- static one. I just hope we have become more sophisUcatefi than that." 23. Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR 13 September 1973 Opium fogs U.S.-Turk ,rela'uons Life terms, polities. raise a dilemma By Sam Cohen Special to The Christian Science Monitor Istanbul, Turkey The United States is caught in a ? harsh dilemma here over drug traf- ficking. 1 .1' On one hand the U.S. has urged Turkey to clamp down on opium production and trafficking. On the other, American officials are concerned at the severity of punish- ment handed out tO individual U.S. citizens convicted of drug offenses here. They are embarrassed by the long prison sentences; especially when American intervention on be- half, of' convicted persons would ap- pear inconsistent with the goal of clamping down on the drug market. The situation is Complicated by the current campaign for next month's Turkish elections. All the major par- ties contesting' the election have promised to at least reconsider the ' two-year-old ban on opium production a ban prompted by American pressure and compensated for by American dollars. . Cultivation favored The opposition Republican Peoples Party has announced readiness to' WASHINGTON POST 17 September 1973 resume poppy cultivation with effec- tive control on illicit trading. The majority Justice Party has also pledged to reconsider the ban. Smaller patties have promised to lift It, Various politicians are taking ad- vantage of the election campaign to criticize the ban, which 'they see as product of American intervention. They maintain that Turkish farmers. have suffered from the ban and say American aid for compensation and crop substitution has been in- adequate, making some of Turkey's estimated 100,000 poppy farmers even, poorer. American diplomats here are wor- ried about this criticism and the real possibility that the next Parliament may pass a law allowing farmers to cultivate poppies again. Faces punishment Meanwhile, another American has become a victim of Turkey's harsh punishment for drug offenders. An Istanbul criminal court has just sen- tenced 26-year-old William James Hayes of Long Island, N.Y., to 30 years imprisonment for attempting to smuggle two kilograms of hashish out of Turkey. A university dropout,' Hayes was arrested August, 1970, at Istanbul airport, tried, and sentenced to four years jail for possessing drugs. ' With good conduct reducing his term, Hayes would have been freed last July from Istanbul's Sagmacilar. ? prison if the Ankara appeals court had not insisted twice that he should , be punished for smuggling. This un- . der Turkish law is a grave crime without discrimination of drug quan- tity or quality. Recently the appeals court gave its final verdict for Hayes: life imprison- ment. Under Turkish Wits, a local criminal court must respect an ap- peals court's final verdict. ? No alternative So, although the Istanbul court fudge who previously tried Hayes was convinced he tried to take the drug home for his own use and not for commercial purposes, the judge em- phasized in Monday's hearing that his , court could do nothing but abide with .the Ankara appeal court's ruling. The judge was able to turn life imprison- ment into 30 years jail for Hayes's good conduct. Diplomatic activity between Wash- ington and Ankara has sought ways to ensure Hayes's early release. But this presents serious problems. The Turks are sensitive about any intervention in their system of jus-. lice; and it is hard for American authorities, who have insisted on Turkey's crackdown on the drug trade, to ask for leniency. However, intensive lobbying In New York and Washington has led to several high-level representations. More are expected now that the 30- - year sentence is final. Hayes's main1 hope, like other Americans and foreigners jailed for drug offenses here, is the possibility of a general amnesty on Turkey's 50th anniversary next October. This would be the task of the new Parliament to be elected Oct. 14, and will take several weeks or months until passed. All major parties seem prepared to approve an amnesty bill, although differences already exist among them regarding its extent Hayes's sen- tence, for instance, may be reduced 10 or 15 years under an amnesty. His remaining years also may be reduced one-third for good conduct, blft he would still have several years to spend in jail. Full Funding for Radii) Free Europe The Senate voted 76 to 10 to authorize the full $50 imillion,requested by the administration for Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, which broadcast useful and otherwise unobtainable information to East Europe and the Soviet Union respectively. But ,the Senate Ap- propriations Committee then knocked out $10 million. Given the stations' tottering financial condition, this wll probably destroy them, unless the funds are restored in an amendment due to be made on ,the Senate floor today. The movement to cut the money, and thereby 'to virtually assure the stations will go off the air, was led by Sen. John Pastore (D-R.I.), the. very gentleman Instrumental in putting yesterday's Redskins game on on the air. What a pity his devotion to public aceess 24 to the airwaves is limited to broadcasts on these shores. Opponents of the two radio stations used to argue ? that they were "cold war relics" which undermined East-West detente. Henry Kissinger nailed this one last week in his testimony that the two. stations have "not incerfered with detente," President Nixon has repeat- ,edlyNtirged their continuation and full funding. Sena- -tors might further consider that today in Geneva there opens the brass-tacks phase of the Conference on Euro- pean Security and ?Cooperation. Its most important agen- da item calls for a freer East-West flow of people and ideas. For the Senate to cut and condemn two principal channels of communication, on the opening day of a conference 'devoted toi expanding such communication, would be destructive as well as absurd, Approved For. Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 , Approved For Release 2001/68/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000160230061-1 NW YORK TIMM 16 September 1973 SOVIET DENOUNCES NESTE SUPPORT OF ITS DISSIDENTS Calls Them 'Tiny Bunch of Intellectuals' and Affirms its Information Curbs By THEODORE SHABAD awl., to The New Tort Times MOSCOW, Sept. 15?The So- viet Union today denounced Western expressions of support for a "tiny bunch of intel- lectuals" and warned that "no one is allowed to violate the principles of our democracy." In the first official response su to protests over Moscow's gi drive against dissidents, the Communist party daily Pravda also ruled out any unrestricted flow of information that would "legalize anti-Communist prop- aganda" within the Soviet Union. The detailed Soviet rebuttal reflected continuing opposition to Western attempts to link easier human contacts with the political and economic relations sought by the Kremlin. The issue will be debated at the second phase of the European security parley opening Tues- day in Geneva. Response to 2d Charge The Soviet statement also appeared to respond to concern among some Soviet liberal in- tellectuals that international re- laxation of tension was being hindered by the harassment of the physicist Andrei D. Sa- kharov and other advocates of !eta greater public disclosure andi inter jority of members in both houses, the amendments would link freedom of emigration for Soviet citizens to any extension of trade benefits by the United States. The linkage has been op- posed by the Nixon Administra- tion as an obstacle to its Soviet policy, as well as by members of the American business cam- munity intent on expanding trade with the Soviet Union. I Alluding to this opposition, ''Mr. Sakharov expressed the hope that Congress "will find the strength to rise above tem- porary partisan considerations ' of commercialism and prestige." 1 , The issue is scheduled to come to a; vote this coming week in the House Ways , and Means Committee, which has been discussing the trade bill. Mr. Sakharov described as deliberate obfuscation the re- ported attempts of some oppo- nents of the amendment to ggest that its passage would ye rise to outbursts of anti- Semitism in the Soviet Union, and hinder the emigration ofl Jews. "It Is as if the emigration is- sue affected only Jews," Mr. Sakharov said, adding that there were thousands of non- Jews who wanted to exercise their right, under the 1948 Uni- versal Declaration of Human Rights, to choose the country where they wantto live. Soviet citizens do not have the in- herent right to emigrate, and the expression of such a desire is often greeted as a virtual act of treason. A group of Moscow Jews, who have been frustrated in their attempts to emigrate,. charged today that officials of the Nixon Administration had urged them to cease their pub- lic campaign and had assured them that diplomacy would be more effective in resolving their problems. Diplomacy Is Rejected Alluding to apparent efforts by Henry A. Kissinger, the Sec. ry of State-designate, to cede quietly on behalf of e Jews, the latest statement broader human rights in the sas?jd: ,Soviet Union.4. Mr. Sakharov meanwhile, effec seemingly undeterred by a two-; ried week campaign of personal de- itZscl? nunciation, addressed an open toget !letter to the United States Con- with igress, urging members to stand firm on the controversial Jack.; s I son amendment, the probl The 'amendment, to the Ad ministration's comprehensive trade bill, is named for one of its sponsors, Henry M. Jackson, Democrat of Washington. A similar amendment has been submitted in the House of Rep- resentitives. Already endorsed by a ma. We have little faith in the tiveness of lists being car- by advocates of 'quiet macy' across the ocean to ow, and then back again her with assurances but out any concrete results. e are convinced that only methods of open public gle can help resolve the em, which touches above all on the lofty principles of the rights of man.' The statement also accused Steven Lazarus, Deputy Assist- ant Secretary of Commerce for East-West Trade, of having put pressure ono Moscow Jews dur- ing a visit to Moscow in Feb- ruary to desist from putiil pro- test lest they endanger t I e Ad- ministrationo's trade.bill "Careful not to comp mise 2s ? - - 'himself by a direct meeting with us," the statement said, ,"he let us know through an intermediaintermediarywhat, in his view, , our behavior should be." 1 According to the Moscow Jews, Mr. Lazarus urged them to appeal to Jewish organiza- tions in the 'United States to drop their support for the Jackson amendment. Adoption of the amendment Mr. Lazarus IS reported to have said, would mean the end of Soviet-Amer- ican trade expansion and would therefore expose Soviet Jews to revenge by the Kremlin. 1 The statement was signed byi i12 scientists and engineers whol have been barred from emigrat-, ing on vaguely defined grounds; of national security. They in- cluded Veniamin G. Levich, 'corresponding member of the !Academy of Sciences, Aleksandr !Y. Lerner, computer specialist, and Mark Y. Azbel and Alek- sandr Y. Voronel, physicists. Mr. Azbel and Mr. Voronel were among six scientists who staged NEW YORK TIMES 11 September 1973 Warning to Moscow, More than any other group of men and women, scien- tists live with the terrifying knowledge of humanity's precarious balance on the edge of self-destruction. An awareness of awesome risks, together with their own responsibility in creating them, leads scientists at times to reach across national boundaries to appeal to the conscience of men of power: It was in such a moment of humane solidarity that the National Academy, of Sciences reached out to its Soviet counterpart in a warning that the arrest or further harassment of Andrei D. Sakharov, the eminent Soviet physicist, might jeopar- dize the future of American-Soviet scientific cooperation, Academician Sakharov, father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb but also a prime mover for the nuclear test ban, has come to be a symbol of lonely courage in the battle against the new upsurge of repression in Moscow. He has courageously told his countrymen: "Intellectual freedom is essential to human society ? freedom to obtain and distribute information, freedom for open- minded and unfearing debate, and freedom from pressure by officialdom and prejudice." Just such pressure is now being brought to bear on Academician Sakharov with such organized force that even the members of the Soviet Academy of .Sciences, with a few honorable abstentions, have surrendered to the Kremlin and. attacked their colleague. This new line of persecution, along with the stepped- up Soviet campaign of terror against all dissent and recent incidents of organized anti-Semitism, is being pressed at the very time when American and Soviet officialdom extol the mutual benefits of the new spirit of 4etente and cooperation. The Soviet people, who ..stana to derive great personal benefits from trade with the United States, must conclude that the American Government is giving tacit approval to what can only be considered as neo-Stalinism. A succession of Cabinet. level American delegations to Moscow, coinciding with the new terror inevitably reinforces this impression. American scientists have now made it clear that they cannot in good conscience cooperate with those who stifle dissent and suppress intellectual freedom. Would that the United States Government, as reptesented by President Nixon and Secretary-designate Kissinger, had a comparable sense of moral purpose. a two-week hunger strike in June. C.I.A. Is Accused Today's Pravda article attrib- uted Western expressions of sympathy for dissident intellec- tuals to a well-organized cam- paign planned by "experienced people from the Central Intelli. gence Agency and by special- ists in the art of shaping public opinion." Mike Mansfield, the Senate majority leader, was widely quoted in the article in support of the Soviet point of view as having said that the North At- lantic Treaty Organization and radio stations beaming broad- casts into the Soviet Union represented remnants of the cold war that should be elim- inated.? The newspaper also praised David Rockefeller, chairman of Chase Manhattan Bank, for hav- ing warned that it would be a mistake to use the prospects of expanded trade as Iv-it...rage against the Soviet Union. Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 WASHINGTON POST ;1 12 September 1973 The Requirements of Detente , 'The very difficult question of what is to be the sub- stance of Soviet-American "detente" is passing from a "debating phase to a political phase. A significant num- her of Americans now appear to believe it is? neither detirable, possible nor safe to improve relations with ? the. Soviet Union unless the Kremlin liberalizes some of its domestic policies. So the National Academy of , Sciences has just conditioned its support of further , scientific exchanges on an end to Kremlin harassment of physicist-libertarian Andrei Sakharov. House Ways and Means Chairman Wilbur Mills (D-Ark.) says he will risist expanded East-West trade "if the price is to be , pal(' in the martyrdom" of Sakharov, Nobel laureate Alexander Solzhenitsyn and other noted dissenters. Con-; , giessional consent for expanded trade has already been linked to Soviet consent for freer emigration, especially eniigration of Jews. As the excitement of summitry wore off, people were ? bdund to start examining the stuff of detente, the more sn,as the inflationary impact of last year's Soviet grain purchases came to be felt. Distracted perhaps by Water- gate, Mr. Nixon has given no evidence that he has coped with .the issue himself, as he should have. For it is a plain fact that, though he made his first-term break- throughs largely alone and in secret, their consolidation , requires public support. He needs the support of ? scientists to expand exchange, and of Congress to ? broaden trade. Meanwhile, the situation on the Soviet side has not been static. The Soviet government, eager to 'reap the benefits of detente without cost to its ,do- inestic grip, has intensified its crackdown on dissenters; they in turn have reached out for foreign support. The sharper the foreign protests, the more determined some in;the Kremlin become to ignore them. Those Soviet leaders who had doubts about detente all along are ,no doubt arguing now that the current American "inter- ference" in Soviet affairs proves their original point. tie attitudes of American critics require closer scanning. Some Americans who now speak for Soviet human rights may well do so because they never "trust- eethe Russians." Others may be making political hay. Still others, particularly American Jews, see an op- portunity and feel an obligation to help their co-reli- gionists. Scientists and intellectuals have an interest in their Soviet counterparts. Whether or not one sympa- , thfies with any of these attitudes, the fact remains that there is a substantial and growing constituency vfhich ex- Peas political and economic progress to be accompanied br.,progress in opening up Soviet society. It is a funds. mefital American tenet to 'equate trustworthiness and openness. It is deeply disturbing that the Kremlin is 26 not subject to the same checks on the arbitrary use of power that operate on democratic governments, however imperfectly. It is offensive to find the Soviet state deny- ing human values and it cannot avoid raising doubts about holy reliable a partner it will be in joint political and economic enterprises. A form of "interference" in Soviet affairs is a natural consequence of this concern. But our own self-interest is involved as well. And that is what makes the problem so difficult for us.. Secretary of State-designide Henry Kissinger last Fri- day pronounced himself personally "disappointed" and "dismayed" by the recent reports of oppression from Russia. "Yet," he went on, "we have as a country to ask ourselves the question of whether it should be the prin- cipal goal of American foreign policy to transform the domestic structure of societies with which we deal or whether the principal exercise of our foreign policy, should be toward affecting the foreigil policy of those societies. This way of posing the issue is entirely con- sistent with Dr. Kissinger's view that foreign policy is essentally global strategy and that domestic considers.' tions and pressures should not be allowed to impinge on'. it. Moreover, he is surely well positioned to understand the never-absent risk that the Kremlin majority cur- rently supporting a detente policy could crumble. The appropriate approach to the issue he poses, how- ever, is not merely to caution 'those concerned with hu- man rights. That is not only questionable politics but questionable diplomacy. The appropriate approach is to go on to caution the Soviet leadership that it is simply not possible to mold the necessary public support for a detente policy in the United States while the Kremlin continues acting as it does with respect to human rights.: The real problem, we suspect, is not so much that the Soviet Union practices domestic policies repugnant to many Americans. The problem is that at a time of East- West promise when many Americans had expected a softening effect on Soviet internal policies, the Kremlin seems to be going backwards. It is this sense of disap- , pointment, of betrayal, which energizes many critics of Soviet performance on human rights. The remedy, then, is not a "transformation of the Soviet domestic struct- ure" but some reasonable amount of evidence of positive changes---some movement in the right direction, rather than the other way around. Such evidence would almost certainly loosen the knot now tightening around certain aspects of Soviet-American detente. President Nixon has no more compelling piece of International business than,' to set the Soviet leadership straight on what, as a practi- cal political matter as well as a question of principle, detene requires 4 it is to achieve a necessary measure of support in this country. Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 Approved For Release 2001/P8/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000160230001-1 NEW YORK TIMES 9 September 1973 First, Human D?nte By Henry M. Jackson WASHINGTON?Since the Moscow summit of May 1972, it has become iashionable to contrast the "crudity' and "blimtness" of earlier Soviet re ,gimes with the "subtlety" and "sophis tication" of Mr. Brezhnev and his associates. But there is nothing subtle about 'the latest wave of show trials staged confessions and harassment in the Soviet Union. It is evident that the supposed "relaxation of tensions" in international affairs is not yet ac- companied by a corresponding relaxa- tion, of Soviet internal controls. In 1937, Thomas Mann, then in exile in Switzerland, was informed by the University of Bonn that "the faculty finds itself obliged to strike your name ? off its roll of honorary doctors." In his written reply, Mann asked the Nazi Government he had fled: ? "Why isolation, world hostility, law- lessness, intellectual interdict, cultural darkness, and every 'other evil? Why not rather Germany's voluntary return to the European system, her reconcili- ation with Europe, with all the inward accompaniments of freedom, justice, well-being and human decency, and a jubilant welcome from the rest of the world? Why not? Only because a re- gime which in word and deed denies . the rights of man, which wants above all else to remain in power, would stultify itself and be abolished if, since It cannot make war, it actually made .Peace." In 1969, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn wrote to the Secretariat of the Soviet Writers Union after being informed that it had expelled him: "Your' clumsy articles fall apart; your vacant minds stir feebly?but : you have no arguments. What would 'you do without 'enemies'? You could not live without 'enemies': hatred, a ' hatred no better than. racial hatred, ' has become your sterile atmosphere. But in this way a sense of our single, common humanity is lost and its doom !, Is accelerated. Should the Antarctic ; ice melt tomorrow, we would all be. come a sea of drowning humanity, and c. into whose heads would you then b ! drilling your concepts of 'clas struggle'?" ? The, message of these two grea writers is the same: A regime that denies the rights of man can neve . .be reconciled to membership in the . community of civilized nations. The question today is cwhether re- cent East-West developments' have in , fact increased the chances the Soviet Union will' decide to become a mem- ber of the community of civilized na- tions. I am bound to say that I share . the apprehensions of those who remain doubtful. But this much is certain: How we design and implement the emerging policy of detente, the weight we assign to human rights in the de- velopment of relations with the Com- munist nations, and, the depth of our own commitment to individual liberty . will prove decisive e from the fact that whatever other s liberties may be denied?speech, press, religion, employment?any and all of these can be restored- by emigration to free countries of the West. Of r human rights; free emigration is first ? . among equals. Moreover, emigration has a special international character , that necessarily places it in the context of international relations?for the state that ? wishes to receive emigrants has at least as much of a stake in free . emigration as the state from which they come. Significantly, the economy of the Soviet Union is in desperate straits, and we have been asked to extend to Russia the benefits of our markets on a most-favored-nation basis, of our capital at preferential rates, and of our superlative technology. There are those who argue that we must make these trade concessions in?the interest . of promoting detente but that we ought not to attach conditions that would, at the same time, promote hu- man rights in the Soviet Union. This is the argument of the Kremlin. It is also, I am pleased to say, an argument that we in the Congress have clearly rejected. The. overwhelming support for my East-West Trade and Freedom of Emigration amendment ?77 co.. sponsors in the Senate and over 280 in the House?to make these benefits conditional on free emigration is, in my view, not only the best hope for the survival and freedom of many ? brave people, it is a sound and proper way to approach the potential detente. 0 This is the point that Andrei Sak- harov communicated to us during his brave and outspoken press interview last month. "Detente," Sakharov said, "has to take place with simultaneous ' liquidation of isolation." Detente with- out democratization, would be "very dangerous . . . that would be culti5 ? vation and encouragement of closed - countries, where everything that hap- pens 'goes unseen by foreign eyes be- hind a mask OA hides its real face. No one should dream of having such a neighbor, and especially if this neigh- bor is armed to the teeth." Thus, without an increasing measure of individual liberty in the Communist world there can be no genuine detente, there can be no rear movement toward a more peaceful world. If we permit form to substitute for substance, if we are content only with ."atmos- ? pherics," we will fail to keep the peace. Of all the human rights contained In the universal declaration of the United Nations, none is More funda- mental than that in Article 13?the right to free emigration. And as we assess the developing d?nte, se basic measure of progress will be its impact 'on the free movement of people. The Importance of free emigration stems 1;',\sPINGTON l'OST 11 Sep i onilusr 1973 Scientists' Protest on Sakharo'v Hit United Press InternIttional Health, Education and Wel- fare Secretary Caspar W. Weinberger, clearly rebuking the National Academy of Sciences, yesterday urged U.S. scientists to support joint projects with their Soviet counterparts instead of "firing brickbats through the daily Those who insist that the pace and development of detente should reflect progress in the area of human rights are often accused of opposition to detente itself. Nothing could be fur- ther from the truth. The argument Is not between the proponents and de- tractors of detente, but between those who recognize that a genuine era of international accommodation mutt be based on progress toward individual liberty and those who choose to pre-' tend otherwise. Henry M. Jackson, Democratic Senator frbm Washington, is a member of the .Armed Services Committee. press." 1 Weinberger spoke at a news conference after his return from a 16-day tour of health facilities in th1 e Soviet Union and Poland... ' On Sunday, Dr. Philip Hand- ler, president of the National Academy, warned the presi- dent of the Soviet Academy of Sciences that American scien- tists might refuse to take part in joint research and scientific exchanges if Soviet authorities! continued harassing physicist] Andrei D. Sakharov. Weinberger declared thati Soviet-American scientific co- I 27 operation was of "enormous value to mankind in general" and should transcend what he described as an internal So- viet affair. "I can certainly appreciate that there are some practices going on fin the Soviet Union] which are certainly not sub- ject to, nor do they have. my approval," Weinberger said. "None of these things con- stitute endorsement of the in- ternal affairs of any govern- ment," he said. "But it is bet- ter to have dialogue than sim- ply standing off firing brick- bats through tin daily press " Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR 13 September 1973 i Soviet dissidents/U.S. politics ' The Solzhenitsyn-Sakharov af- fair in the Soviet Union is fast escalating into a major inter- national incident. The two Soviet dissidents, one a Nobel-winning novelist and the other a major nuclear physicist, have become symbols of the fight to exercise the rights of free thought and expression within the Soviet system. Their personal sit- uation is grim. They are under, savage, concerted official attack. Novelist Solzhenitsyn has raised the possibility, of his ,dis- appearance or murder. Scientist Sakharov speaks about mind. changing drugs forced upon dis- 'sidents placed in asylums in the Soviet crackdown. Solzhenitsyn and Sakharov are pressing their cause with great heat, calculating that the more aware the outside world is of their plight the more difficult it will be for the Soviet authorities to do them in. This week, for instance, Solzhenitsyn proposed that Sakha- rov be awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize ? even though the deadline for nominations was Feb. 1. Also, the two men have been summoning Western news- men in defiance of Soviet author- ities and making their case. The men are eloquent, earnest, and incisive thinkers. Sol- zhenitsyn's statement to the Nobel committee reasoned that, with detente, the world threat was not so much aggression between na- tions as repressive violence within national borders. He was thus carrying further the recent star- tling warning of Sakharov that the West must be aware of making it easier for Moscow to tromp down on civil liberties by lessening the Soviet Union's economic and mili- tary worries. The West has been hearing this message. The National Academy of Scien- ces last weekend warned that American scientific cooperation with the Soviet Union was being threatened by harassment of Dr. Sakharov. Members of the World Psy- chiatric Association are threat- ening to boycott a conference scheduled to be held in the Soviet Union next .month. They are con- sidering pressing for inspection of ? ,mental hospitals to which political dissidents are sent. Chancellor Willy Brandt of West Germany last week indicated con- cern for the embattled dissidents. Sweden's Foreign Minister Kris- ter Wickman and Austria's Chan- Approved cellor Bruno Kreisky likewise have declared support for Sakha- rov and Solzhenitsyn. Repression of the dissidents is affecting Communist organiza- tions outside the Soviet Union. Reports from Paris indicate dis- may and embarrassment among French Communists. The Solzhenitsyn-Sakharov af- fair is nettlesome to Washington. ? The escalating impact of the issue is swiftly reaching into American political life. ? Last weekend Rep. Wilbur Mills, the most essential man in Congress to the White House on trade and economic matters? said he would oppose freeing up trade with the Soviets "if the price is to be paid in. the martyrdom" of dissidents. WA Sill NGTON POST 15 September 1973 Tont Braden The Mills statement is a re- markable sign of how deeply the dissidents issue could penetrate American politics. Mr. Mills, from Arkansas, is no starry-eyed, Eastern 'Establishment liberal. He has been no great spokesman for civil rights. He hasn't built his political career on foreign affairs. , He is a domestically oriented poli- tician, and an astute one. Representative Mills no doubt sees a political danger in passing trade legislation, expanding trade with the Soviet Union, if such a move can be attacked as aiding internal Soviet repression. This new development, this political liability for American officials in the Sakharov-Solzhenitsyn case, should be read by the Soviet Union for its possible impact on Amer- ican trade and detente policy. Already the liberal elements in , the American press are. calling Washington's attitude on the dis- sidents "ostrichlike." With Rep- resentative Mills indicating middle America's growing con- cern, silence on the subject in the White House will be ever harder to maintain. Kissinger and Sakharov Henry Kissinger thought long and hard about what to say to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee about, Russian physicist Andrei D. Sakharov. What he said may have made sense from our stand point, but from the stand point of Sakharov, Alexander Solzhenitsyn ?and others among Rus- sia's dissident intellectuals, Kissinger's words must have read like a death sentence. In brave public announcements from Moscow, the dissidents had been plead- ing for a different kind of statement, one which insisted on respect for hu- man rights as a prerequisite for de- tente. Instead, Kissinger gave them a pat on the head. Was he right or wrong? Consider the dilemma which Kis- singer sees. Consider also that if he sees it correctly, it is not only his di- lemma but yours and mine. Here it is: The way to take a strong line on the Russian intellectuals is to suggest that U. S. trade and economic aid will be withheld unless the Russians cease persecuting these men. If the United, States takes this line, the Russians might retaliate. Tha way they might retaliate is to take a similarly strong line on the disarmament talks. In Kissinger's view, thliN is a clear and present danger. The Soviet Union wants economic aid. Only the United States can grant it. The United States wants a freeze on the arms race. Only the Soviet Union can grant it. If that's a fair trade, should Sakharov and the others stand in the way? ? Kissinger tried to sidestep the dilemma: "I am dismayed by the condi- tions Sakharov reports. Yet we have as a country to ask ourselves a question: Whether it should be the principal goal of American foreign policy to transform the domestic structure of so- cieties with which we deal ... ? ? It's a good question. But it amounts 28 For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 to telling Sakharov, Solzhenitsyn and the others that, as far as we are Con- cerned, the Soviet Union has a license to hang them. Kissinger's statement must have come with particular irony for Sakha- rov. His book, "Progress, Co-existence rind Intelle2tual Freedom" was pub- lished in ,this country with the follow- ing blurb on the dust jacket: "A deeply moving testimony to the free- dom of the human spirit.--Prof. Henry Kissinger." There is an enormous gap between those words and the words of Secretary. of State-designate Henry Kissinger before the Foreign Relations Committee: "I cannot recommend that an entire foreign policy be made de- pendent on that particular aspect (human rights) of the domestic struc? ture of the Soviet Union." Is this the gap between the mind of an academician who doesn't know the facts and a responsible official who does? It's hard to make a judgment. A lot of people In Washington who ought to know think the Russian economy is in such terrible shape that the united. States can demand almost anything it wants. Kissinger doesn't agree. And Kissinger ought to know, even more than they. At the very least, Kissinger ought to be subjected to a little heat on this subject. "We have in the past," he told the Foreign Relations Committee, "successfully pointed out to the Soviet' leaders the Unfortunate impact that some of their policies have on otit opinion." - This was an obvious reference to his own successful plea ?for the lifting of Immigration restrictions on Soviet Jews. Perhaps he intends to make a similar personal plea for the Russian intellectuals. His feet should be held to the fire. ? -A 0 1911 ?,os Amities Times Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 ? se In is NEW YORK TINFS 12 September 1973 U.S. UNSURPRISED BY COUP IN CHILE By DAVID BINDER 1 A Simla! to Teo New York TIMES I WASHINGTON, Sept. 11? United States officials were not ilsurprised by the Chilean armed iforces' revolt today, but they declined to comment for the record, to avoid even a hint of ,commitment to the overthrow of President Salvador Allende Gossens or invlovement in it. f ; According to information from the United States Embas- sy in Santiago, none of the 2,800 American citizens in. Chile appeared to have beenl harmed in the rising, a State Department official reported. The embassy lies directly oppo- site the presidential palace, where Dr. Allende held out for a time this morning, and the official said the embassy build- ing .had been nicked by small- arms fire. Of the American residents of Chile about 2,300 live in and around Santiago, and half of those are United States Gov- ernment employes and their ? dependents. The rest are mainly ' 'businessmen, students and mis- sionaries. i The United States Govern- !ment?which had a record of interfering in Chilean politics, principally with money, before be. Allende came to power in l970?has maintained the posi- tion of a disinterested bystander since then, except for protests against his expropriation policy. U.S. Investment Plummeted The expropriations, principally of United States-owned copper mines and International Tele- phone and Telegraph Installa- tions, have reduced United States investments from $750 million just before Dr. Allende came to power to under $70: million today. Reports of the coup caused copper futures to rise by 3 cents to 78.40 cents on the New York Mercantile Exchange, but au American official warned against the idea that a new regime might restore national- ized property. "They haven't got any money 'anyway," he explained, "and all 'parties support nationalization.! So any Anaconda shareholder' who thinks he is going to gett 1 his money back is going to be; ' disappointed." The central element in Wash- ington's attempt to be even- handed toward the Chilean de- velopments is military aid and cooperation. Four United States Navy ves- sels had been headed for Chile today from Peru as part of joint hemisphere naval maneuvers; they were redirected from Chil- ean ports as soon as news of the revolt came, the State De- partment said. ? U.S. Aid Has Continued , The United States, which provided $1.7-billion in econom- ic and military aid to chile from 19461 through 1970, dm- tinues to give assistance, in both fields. In fiscal 1973 United States credits for Chilean military pur- chases and training totaled $12.4-million, while economic aid, including school lunches, amounted to about $3-million. Six months ago the economic and military credits were justi- fied by Washington as "an im- portant means of demonstrat- ing our continuing interest in the well-being of the Chilean population and of maintaining long-standing and friendly rela- tions between the U.S. armed forces and their Chilean coun- terparts." It is noted here that the Al- lende Government welcomed the military aid and rejected offers of Soviet arms. "We have no vital interest ini Chile," a Washington analyst observed. Privately, however, the Nixon Administration is' distressed that Chile, with a long record of democratic con- stitutional practice, proved un- able to resolve the current crisis by parliamentary means. Military interference has been absent from Chilean politics since 1932. Officials here ex- pect the military leaders to try to restore at least some parlia- mentary rule soon. "There is no Nasser, no colonel in the Chilean armed forces," another analyst remarked. In conversations three weeks ago United States diplomatic and intelligence analyst pre- dieted that a military coup would occur soon because of increasing nervousness in the armed services over the expan- sion of groups of armed factory workers in bases around Santi- ago. In the proclamation by the military junta that seized power ,today, the factory groups were cited as a reason for the revolt. 29 NEW YORK TINES 13 September 1973 U.S. HOPES CHILE KEEPS DEMOCRACY Studies Recognition of New Aegime?Denies Any Role in the Military Coup Spectate The New riork Tim ea WASHINGTON, Sept. 12?The State Department expressed a hope today for a resumption of democratic government in Chile after the coup a' etat yesterday by the armed forces in San., tiago. The United States is study- ing the ,question of recognizing the new military regime, a State Department spokesman said, adding that the Nixon Ad- ministration was in no hurry. At a noon news briefing, Mr. Hare said that the United States approach toward diplo- matic recognition had been changing in recent times, with Washington now maintaining relations even though a govern- ment might be in turmoil, as Is the case with Chile. Both Mr. Hare and Gerald L; Warren, a White House spokes- man, said it was "inappropri- ate" for the United States Gov- ernment to ocomment on a sit- uation viewed here as an "In- ternal" Chilean affair. Otherwise, Administration of- ficials spent most of the day, denying charges that the United States was involved in the over- throw of Chile's President, Dr. Salvador Allende Gossens, who killed himself yesterday, ac- cording to the Chilean junta.,1 Denials in Washington ' The charges were made in the capitals of several Commu- nist countries and were also voiced in this country and in Latin America by liberal and leftist supporters of Dr. Al- lende's socialist administration. Denials that the United States Central Intelligence Agency was involved in the coup came from Mr. Warren and Mr. Hare. Asked whether the United States wished a resumption of a democratic government in Chile Mr. Hare responded Mr. Hare and a spokesman for the Defense Department also rejected suggestions that four United States Navy ships had been ordered to halt a trip to Chile?and, with that, any Implication of prior knowledge of the coup. The Pentagon spokesman said that the American vessels? three destroyers and, a subma- rine?left lb Bay, Peru, on schedule between 6 A. M. and 9 A. M. yesterday to continue a tour around Latin America. The ships, he said, were headed for Valparaiso, 1,500 miles to the south, to join Chilean Navy . vessels in an antisubmarine exercise that was announced a month ago. After news of the Santiago uprising was broadcast a little later in the morning the Ameri- can ships were ordered to stay away from Chile, the spokes- man stressed. Denial on Ambassador The State Department also denied assertions voiced by numerous. Americans 'with Chilean connections thatUnited States Ambassado Na- thaniel Davis, had been in- volved in the coup. The pser- tions were based on a belief that Mr. Davis had made a sud- den trip 'to Washington and the returned to Santiago in time to be there during the rising. The State Department said that Mr. Davis ' arrived here Friday, having been asked Aug, 29 by the Secretary of State- designate, Henry A. Kissinger, to return for consultationes along with other United States envoys. Mr. Davis saw Mr. Kissinger Saturday and flew back to Santiago that after- noon. A matter-of concern to Al- lende sympathizers in - the Hemisphere appeared to be the fate of thousands of political exiles from Brazil, Argentina and other Latin-America coun- tries who had been granted asylum by Chile's leftist coali- tion Government. Reports from Santiago indi- cated that these exiles were being rounded up by the mili- tary junta and threatened with imprisonment or worse. Message From Kennedy , On hearing these reports, Senator Edward M. Kennedy, Democrat of Massachusetts, sent a message to Prince Se, druddin Aga Khan, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, In Geneva, appealing for his intervention on behalf of "10,000 political refugees" to insure their safety. Representative John J. Moak. Icy, also a Massachusetts Democrat, introduced a bill ih the House of Representatives today that would authorize a select committee to investigate "with sweeping subpeona powers" whether there was United States involvement in the coup. Several hundred protesters demonstrated against the Nir on Administration in front of the White House this after- noon. Their leaflets laid blame for the coup on President Nix- on, on Mr. Kissinger, and on ' United States companies that. had' big investments in Chile before Dr. Allende came to' power three years ago. The leaflets said: "Allende died to save democracy. The U.S. killed both." ------- - Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1; NEW YORK TINES lit September 1973 U.S. Expected Chile Coup But Decided Not to Act ? By BERNARD GWERTZMAN Sprats! to The New York Times WASHINGTON, Sept. 13?Administration officials said today that President Nixon had received numerous reports In the last year of an impending military coup in Chile, and h.#ci decided against taking' "And a's a member of the' any action that would either Cabinet, with access to sensl- encourage or discourage the live intelligence information, 1' ,overthrow of ,the Government know what I am talking about.,", of President Salvador Allende he said. Paul J. Hare, the State De-i Gossens. - partment spokesman, said thati The White House and the Washington had been informed 'State Department both sought that a coup wouhld take place in Latin America that the Unit. oconcuSrreg 8. Washingtonen was coup to asiunp. formed by the embassy of a tio. counter a view widely held ed States knew in advance of report of a coup on Sept. 18. the plans for Tuesday's coup Finally, around midnight , on which resulted in Mr. Allende's Sept. 10, the embassy "did re- death. They also denied again ceive reports that Sept. 11 was that the United States was to be the date and this, as you in- know, turned out to be car- volved. red,' Mr. Hare said. "The Administration had "It was the hest-advertised ,been receiving rumors of un- coup in history," a senior offi- rest in the Chilean military for cial said. more than one year," Gerald L. "There was absolutely no way of knowing beforehand," Warren, the White ' House Mr. Hare said, "that on any of spokesman, said. "Sometimes these dates, including the Sept they mentioned specific dates 11 date, a coup attempt would and sometimes they did not." be made. Mr Hare said that no effort Instructions to Embassy Mr. Warren said that "aside from these rumors, the Presi- dent had no advance knowledge of any specific plan for a coup." ."Our embassy had instruc- tions in the event that any elements in Chile came to them with any plans for an uprising not to have anything to do with It," Mr. Warren said. "And these instructions were fol- lowed carefully." The Administration, which made no comment yesterday about the coup, seemed nettled by a spate of articles that ap- peared in the United States and overseas today. The articles suggested some kind of Ameri- can involvement in the over- throw of Dr. Allende, who was second in Latin America only to Premier Fidel Castro of Cuba in criticism of the United States. Of particular concern to the Administration was the receipt by the embassy in Santiago had of a report that the coup would take place on the day it did. The White House and State Department said that this re- port, one of several in the same vein, did not reach the desks of responsible officials until after the coup was actually been under way a few hours. At the United Nations, John A. Scall, the United States dele- gate, held a news conference to say that "anyone who alleges that the United States or any of its agencies participated in this coup directly or indirectly does not speak the truth." WASHINGTON POST 13 September 1973 U.S. as Informed f Junta's Plans efore die Coup see- By Dan Morgan washineton Post Staff Writer The U.S.'government learned of the military 'coup in Chile the night in- fore it happened, but pol- icy makers in Washington at "the highest level" de- cided on a hands-oft policy tafter evaluating the infor- mation, an administration official revealed yesterday. This description of events leading. to the overthrdw of Chilean President Salvador Allende was given by a State Department official in a closed briefing for senators as the Nixon administration sought to dispel speculation of possible ,U.S. complicity in the ouster of the Marxist government. ; Jack Kubisch, assistant was made to contact the A1-1' ,retary of state and U.S. Co- ende Government about the coup ,rumors or to meet with; military men to discouragei them from carrying out the; coup Mr. Hare also repeated 'de- nials that an American task' force of four ships had been; ordered before Sept. 11 to turn ? around without entering Chilean; waters for a scheduled joint exercise. The task :force was told on Sept. 10 of rumors of a coup that day, a State Department official said, but when it did not occur, the ships set out the next day from Peru, only to be turned around at midmorning, after the coup began. The Ambassador's Trip Mr. Hare also sought to deny that the coup had any special connection with the two-day visit to Washington last week- end of Nathaniel Davis, the Ambassador to Chile. He repeated that Mr. Davis had been summoned to Wash-, the actions in Santiago. ington at the end of August by The Nixon Administration'e Secretary of State-designate attitude toward Dr. Allende lordinator for the Alliance for ;Progress, told, members of the ;Western Hemisphere Subcom- mittee of the Senate Foreign ;Relations Committee that there had been "no involvement by the U.S. government, U.S, cor. The military takeover imme? porations, agencies or citizens," diately posed a potential cm, sources -reported. barrassment, because Amen- Sen. Gale W. McGee (D. can disapproval of the Marx- be issued at the highest level ;to quash any possible suspl; cions and rumors. According to the informa- tion that Kubisch gave the sub- committee, a Chilean: officer had mentioned to an Ameri- can officer in 'Chile that a coup was brewing. One source said that the tip came "not more than 14 to 16 hours be. fore?maybe as little as 10." The information was then passed on Jo "the highest level" in Washington and a de- cision was made to keep hands off, the source said, adding that this meant that President Nixon 'was notified. Appar- ently, the information was not conveyed to the Chilean re- gime. State Department sources said last night that the information received by the embassy officer was in the context of numerous rumors and hints of a coup in recent months. They said that the first action taken by the United Slates after leerning that the coup had begun was to order four naval vessels en route from Peru for exercises1 to keep out of Chilean ports. Wyo.) said committee mem- 1st-led regime Is well known, hers had told Kubisch that al and because charges of U.S. statement to that effect should connivance against the regime were raised last spring before oonce Latin-American countries a Senate subcommittee inves. .responded favorably to the tigating the role of U.S. corpo- junta, Washington would too. rations there. Chilean Embassy: No One Quit At that time, there was The Chilean Embassy here testimony that the Interna- said through a spokesman, tional Telephone and 'Tele.' Patricio Rodriguez,/ that, d; graph Co. had offered to help embassy officers were e'" the CIA prevent the election, reer diplomats" and theret of Allende. Later, tompany; barred from making any c officials testified, the CIA ap-, ments about the governm preached ITT about waging iil change. He said that nobody \ P the embassy had resigned ov campaign of economic sabo- tage against Chile. , Questioned yesterday about possible CIA involvement in the coup, White House deputy press secretary Gerald L. War- ren denied that the agency had been involved. The State Department also strongly de- nied U.S. involvement. Henry A. Kissinger aloong with other Ambassadors for a discus- sion of State Department policy and problems. "The purpose of the visit was not to report on any coup at- tempt," Mr. Hare said. "He re- turned to Chile immediately after seeing the Secretary of State-designate because of the tense situation there and the was always cool and this did not change on his death. After refieeing to comment about his 'any suicide, or to issue: any condolences yesterday, Mr. Hare said: "/ do want to ex- press regret over the loss of life in Chile, particularly , of the Chief of State, President Al- lende." The Administration resisted desirability of having an Am- all efforts to persuade it to corn- bassador in the country during! meat on the morality of the this period." coup, in which a democratically The embassy in Santiago has elected government was over- been sent a note by the new thrown. One official said that Military junta, asking that dip- -we wil lahve to work with the lomatic relations be continued, generals and it makes no sense State Department officials said, to issue some moral statement " ? They said they expected that ab d out emocrac Y? 30 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 I Nevertheless, critics of the 'Nixon administration's policy in South America blamed the United States yesterday for helping create the conditions: In which military Interventiofl! became an everettronger lihood. i Joseph Collins of the Insti- tute for Policy Studies said, ;"The tactics were economic ,chaos." Collins said that Chile Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 had become "the first victim of the Nixon-Kissinger low- profile strategy," In which credits are withheld while 1 military assistance continues to pro-American armed forces. Military assistance to the. Chilean regime continued throughout the three-year prds- hiency of Allende. However, de: elopment loans were halt1 ed. Collins said U.S. companies had put pressure on their Sub- sidiaries and on foreign asso-, elates not to sell vitally need- ed equipment and spare parts to Chile. ?Metals here who were in I touch with the situation in Santiago expressed the scope and speed of the ! coup. They also painted a plc- ,ture of relative calm in Chile, with only "some shooting" go- ing on sporadically. There were Other reports of widespread f fighting. ? BUENOS AIRES, Sept. 16? Thousands of Argenine youths marched through this capital tonight in protest against the military coup d'etat in Chile end "Yankee imperialism." The march was called by 21 political youth movements, in- cluding Communists, Socialists, Peronists and moderates, who temporarily put aside their dif- ? ferences. The marchers carried por- traits of President Salvador Al- ? lende Gossens, who died in the coup, and Chilean and Argen- tine flags. They also chanted anti-Ameri- can slogans. Allende didn't com- mit suicide: the Yankees killed him," one chant ran. Many of the youths criticized the "lukewarm" attitude of the Argentine Government toward the developments in Chile. The . Government has declared three days of national mourning for ? President Allende and most of the leading political figures have denounced the coup. The Peronist-dominated Gen- eral Workers Confederation has called for a nationwide work stoppage to mark President Al- lende's death, but only for 15 minutes. NEVI YORK TIMES 17 September 1973 ARGENTINA YOUTHS. . PROTEST CHILE COUP Special to The New York Times ? NEW YORK TIMPZ 15 September 1973 CHILE'S JUNTA SAYS ?IT KEPT U.S, IN DARK By DAVID BINDER Spedal to The New York Time, WASHINGTON, Sept. 14? Chile's ruling four-man junta has informed Washington that it deliberately kept its plans for a coup on Tuesday to itself to prevent any possibility of United States involvement in the overthrow of President Salvador Allende Gossens, ac- cording to a Cabinet-level of- ficial of the Nixon Administra- tion. Aarepresentative of the junta made this statement yesterday to Ambassador Nathaniel Davis, the official said. The official said that the Chilean representative Wed the word "deliberate" in describing why the coup plotters had not Informed ? American diplomats beforehand. According to the official, tips that the coup was pending? a dozen such tips culminating In a warning Monday night? were made to United States diplomats in Santiago by lower-level Chilean military officers who were not directly involved in the plans. Administration Pleased The Administration, which has denied having had any prior knowledge of the plans for the coup last Tuesday, was clearly pleased by the junta message. The Nixon Administration had been under heavy fire abroad and at home from 'Allende sympathizers who charged that he was overthrown with American assistance. The Administration has taken pains to counter the allegations and the report of the junta note is the latest example of that effort. At the State Department it was nOted that the final warn- ing of the coup passed on Mon- day night to a United States diplomat in Santiago was con- sidered so routine lay the em- bassy that it was sent as an ordinary telegram. "Had it been urgent," a State Department specialist on Latin America remarked, "it would have been marked niact"?the abbreviation for "night action.' The telegram was said to have turned up first in the morning file of Arnold M. Isaacs, the Chile desk officer, at 8 A.M. Tuesday. At that time the coup in ,Santiago had been under ways for almost him hours. At 8:45 A.M. the State De- partment's operations room re- ceived an urgent cable from the' embassy in Santiago saying that the coup had begun and only then, it was said, did the night telegram take on signifi- cance for Mr. Isaacs and the other department officers con- cerned with Chile. The information sent by the Junta representative appears to have been the first direct con- tact between the new rulers in Chile and the United States Government. ' 31 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 WASHINGTON POST 16 Septetther 1973 I Aid Used As Choke On Allende By Laurence Stern . 'Washington PO/it Staff Writer The swift toppling of the Allende government , in a military coup last week has ' :inevitably touched off spec- Ulation ,about American in- Neros Analysis volvement in the upheaval in Chile. From the White House, from the State Department and even from the Central Intelligence Agency there have been stolid denials of U.S. intervention in the Chi- lean crisis. "Involvement." in the pop- ular imagination, suggests- Marine landings, cloak-and- dagger operatives, gunboats and paramilitary espionage, teams. There has been no evidohee. as yet, that any In another action the' junta sent a "circular diplomatic note" to a number of foreign embassies in Santiago, includ- ing the United States Embassy, saying that it had taken charge in Chile and considered itself the new Government. The note also stated that the junta was prepared to meet Chile's inter- national obligations and ex- pressed the desire to maintain diplomatic relations. The one-page noted was signed by Adm. Ismael Hudrta in his capacity as Foreign Min- ister. Regarded as Invitation A United States Government official described this as "a customary act" by a ner Gov- ernment, and could be regarded as an invitation but not a re- quest to establish relations. The circular note was dis- closed by Paul J. Hare, the State. Department spokesman, at his noon press briefing. The Nixon Administration .was described by a high-rank- ing official as being in no hurry to open formal relations wit)} the Santiago junta. Washington wants to wait until the situation is more stable in Chile and until Latin American and other foreign governments have ? formerly taken up relations with the junta. "The United States Govern- ment is so big and so powerful that our actions becoriae that much more significant," the of- ficial said. "Therefore we will try te . make taking up rela- tions not significant in' the timing, to glide in, so to speak ?not the first and not the last?so that no one can infer a special meaning. ? such operations were car- ried out under U.S. auspices in Chile. ? ? .Nonetheless since its inau- guration in 1970, the Marxist government of the late Sal- vector Allende has been the target of economic policies that have squeezed the frag- He Chilean economy to the! choking point. These policies were con-- ceived in an atmosphere of, economic Strife between the' Allende government and a group of large U.S. corpora- tions whose Chilean hold- ings were nationalized un- der the terms of Allende' socialist platform. The instruments for carry; lag out the sustained pro- gram of economic pressure against Allende were the U.S. fdreign aid program, the Inter-American Develop- ment Bank, the U.S. Export. Import Bank, the World Bank and also private U.S. banking institutions. Allende himself, in a speech to the U.N. General ? Assembly last Dec. 4, com- plained that from the day of his election, "we have felt the effects of a large?scale external pressure against us,, which tried to prevent the inauguration of a govern- ment freely elected by the people and has tried to bring it down ever since." The effect, he said, has been "to cut us off from the world, to strangle our econ- omy and paralyze trade in our principal export, copper, and to deprive us of access to sources of international financing." The U.S. economic hard line against Chile was adopted in mid-1971 when the question of eompensation for expropriated American properties - was still in doubt.. The expropriation of the major' U.S. copper compa- nies was voted unanimonsly by the Chilean legislatur right, left and cent rfln July, 1071. It was not u the following October that the decision on terms: of compensation was ma d e. During this period of uncer- tainty the h ard economic line was already being ap- plied against the Chilean government. One of the first actions under the new policy was the denial by the Export-Im- port Bank of a request for $21 million in credit to fi- nance purchase of three Boeing passenger jets by the Chilean government air- lines, LAN-Chile. The credit position of the airline, ac- cording to a U.S. official ? " "It is unequivocally clear Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1. NE d YORK TIMES 16 September 1973 that the United States gov- ernment and all elements of ,the United States govern- ment were not?repeat not? involved," ?State Department Briefing, Sept. 12, 1973. "A more realistic hope among those who want to block Allende is that a ,swiftly deteriorating economy (. . . will touch off a wave of ? violence, resulting in a mili- tary coup." ITT Memorandum, Sept. 17. 1970. 6100fflerecareenamar? millar with the negotiations, was excellent at the time. In August, 1971, the Ex?Im Bank notified Chile that it would no longer be eligible for loans and that loan guar- antees would be terminated to U.S. commercial banks :and exporters doing busi- ness with Chile. The bank also cut off disbursements of direct loans that had been previously negotiated by the Frei government, which preceded Allende's. Meanwhile, in the Inter- American Development Bank, a $30 million loan ap- plication for development of a petrochemical center was stalled after the U.S. direc- tor protested plans to send a technical mission to Chile to evaluate the request. The mission never left.. IADB financing for Chile came to a virtual standstill in 1971 and thereafter, with the exception of two loans of $7 million and $4.6 mil- lion to the Catholic and Aus- tral universities. Because the United States contributes the lion's share of the Inter-American Bank's development fund kitty, it exercises a virtual veto over loan requests. The World. Bank pattern was much the same. In Au. 'gust, 1971, the World Bank was scheduled to send a pro- ject appraisal mission to Chile to evaluate prospects for a fruit-processing facility as part of the agrarian re- form program. The mission, according to an authorita-. tive government source, was' canceled in response to State Department ?Wee- tions. Early in 1972 the private banks followed the lead of the International lending organizations. Chile's short- term credit float plummeted from $220 million in 1971 to $35 million in 1972. There were allegations that Chile, under the Al. lende administration, had become too grave a credit risk for development lend- ing. Nonetheless, in 1971 the United States granted a $5 million line of ?credit to the Chilean military for pur- chase of C-130 four-engine transports and in December, 1072, extended an additional $10 million in credit for mil- itary activities in 1973. Chile, one of the heaviest beneficiaries of U.S. aid pro- grams in the world during the 1960s, was reduced to $15 million in loans from the Agency for ,Interna tional Development in 1970 and has been granted noth- ing since. The cut-off in AID credit further darkened the prospects for the Allende government to pay off obli- gations incurred under prior governments. , Credit, standards have been variably applied to Latin American countries seeking U.S. and interna- tional financing. Bolivia was granted $30 minion in AID financing after the coup of conservative Hugo Banzer In August, 1971, even though the economy was a stiam- bles. Brazil qualified for i $50 million development loan program within six weeks after a military junta ousted the Goulart government in 1964?also at a time when the country's economy was In severe disarray. U.S. government credibil- ity, in professing its non-in- volvement in the Chilean change of government, may tend to be undermined by* the disclosures of the ITT case. In ,Senate testimony last March and in prior press revelations, represent- atives of the International Telephone and Telegraph Corp. and the Central Intel. ligence Agency acknowl- edged that they sought to promote economic chaos in Chile, first to block Al- lende's election and then to bring about his downfall. ITT at the time was in the midst of negotiating expro- priation terms for its Chil- ean telephone company (Chiltelco). While the Chil- telco case was being negoti- ated, ITT officials were counseling Nixon adminis- tration officials to take a hard line of economic repri- sal against Chile, particular- ly through international lend- ing organizations and com- merical banks. Whatever might have been the administration's motives, its turning of the economic tourniquet against the Allende government fig- ured importantly hi its downfall. There was no need for direct American involve- ment in the military coup. The Chilean Tragedy Two theories were bound to surface in the aftermath of the military take-over in Chile and the suspicion-laden death of President Allende. One was that the United -States was responsible for the coup; the other was that the tragic fall of Dr. Allende proves it is impossible any- where ta build a socialist-system by democratic means , and machinery. To accept either theory is to overlook ,the principal cause of Chile's disaster and its meaning for the future. In light of the disclosure last year of schemes by the Central Intelligence Agency, and the International Tele- phone and Telegraph Corporation to block Dr. Allende's election in 1970 or to bring down his Government, Washington's denials of involvement in last week's coup Inevitably have encountered worldwide skepticism, enhanced by recollections of the boorish behavior of this Administration toward the Allende regime and its successful effort to block sources of credit for Chile with international lending agencies. However, nothing so far uncovered indicates that the Nixon Administration seriously considered the bizarre C.I.A. and proposals; and there ,is absolutely no evidence whatsoever of American complicity' in the coup. In short, on the known record, Washington had only the most peripheral responsibility in the downfall of Dr. Allende. To pretend otherwise is simply to obscure the basic reasons for the Chilean tragedy. Dr. Allende's experiment failed because his Popular Unity coalition, dominated by Socialists and Commu- nists, persisted with an effort to fasten on Chile a drastic socialist system fiercely opposed by. well over half the population. He won in 1970 with only 36.3 per cent ,of the vote?a mere 39,000 votes more than the total for the conservative runner-up. In congressional elections early this "ear, Popular t'r.i:y won only 44 per cent. Yet, in deciance of a Congress dominated by the oppo- sition, often in disregard of the courts, and in the face of economic chaos and raging inflation, the regime con- tinued to "requisition" enterprises, large and small. These actions polarized Chile as never before, provoking all-out opposition not merely from the rich or 'a fascist fringe but from the middleclass that makes up half the population and that saw itself facing destruction. If Dr. Allende had moved more deliberately; if he had paused for consolidation after nationalizing Chile's basic industries and had delineated reasonable boundaries for his socialist program, he probably would have completed his term with considerable measure?of success. A more moderate approach would have split the opposing Chris- tian Democratic party, many of whose members favored his initial policies. But Dr. Allende was never-able to rein In the more extreme elements of his unruly coalition. The Allende Government did substantially improve the lot of Chileans on the lowest rungs of the economic ladder. It gave many workers and peasants a greater sense of national participation than ever before. These ,re gains the military rulers promised in their first corn- s muniqu6 to preserve?a pledge they will find it dan- gerous to neglect. They are gains that could, however, have been achieved at far less over-all cost and without the disastrous polarization of Chilean society. The traditionally non-pot tical armed forces intervened not primarily because of Elr. Allende's socialism but out of fear that a polarized Chile was lunging toward civil war. What cannot be clea? for some time is whether-the violent destruction of an elected Government, albeit a minority one, will' make .hat ultimate catastrophe less likely or even more prob hie. 32 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 THE NEW YORK TIMES, TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18, 1973 Cuba, in U. N., Says Nixon Instigated Chilean Coup By KATHLEEN TELTSCH Special to The New York Times UNITED NATIONS, N. Y., Sept. 17 ? Cuba today accused President Nixon of having in- stigated the coup in Chile last week in which the Marxist Government of President Sal- vador Allende Gossens was overthrown. The accusations were made at a meeting of the Security Council at which a newly, named representative of the Chilean junta, in turn, displayed photographs and documents that he said showed Cuba's blatant interference in Chile's affairs. ' The charges and counter- charges were made at a tumul- tUous Council meeting inter- rupted at one point by anti- Castro demonstrators in the gallery, who jumped to their feet scattering leaflets and shouting "What about Cuba?" Cuba had requested an ur- gent meeting of the Council, in a letter protesting that the Chilean military forces that carried out the coup had shot up the Cuban Embassy and shelled a Cuban merchant vessel. Angry U.S. Response ' The Cuban delegate? Raul Alarcon Quesada, lashed out at the military junta, accusing it of murdering Allende support- ers and torturing political pris- oners. He then turned to the United States. "It it not difficult to know where the main responsibility lies," the Cuban delegate said. "The trail of blood, spilled in Chile leads directly to the dark dens of the Central Intelligence Agency and the Pentagon. "If the fascist military junta has bloody hands, Nixon and his collaborators are guilty of instigating and masterminding the events in Chile." The new Chilean delegate, Ratil Bazan, told the council that the Cuban Embassy in Santiago had been turned into an arsenal and that the em- bassy staff of 100 was busy training guerrillas in sabotage. iHe said that Havana's aim was the complete radicalization of the Allende Government. The sweeping accusations by Cuba drew an angry response from John A. Scali, the United States representative, who said the Cuban delegate had "de- scended to a new low, even for those who wallow in such words as normal talk." "In this hemisphere, we know well how often Cuba at- tacks others for what it is doing itself, such as subversion and bloody violence," Mr. Scali said in a written statement dis- tributed outside the hall as the debate continued. . Both in his statement and later in the Council, Mr. Scali protested that Mr. Alarcon had NEW YORK TIMES 15 September 1973 /Tito Hints That U.S..Is to Bi 'By RAYMOND H. ANDERSON Special to The New York Times . , BELGRADE, Yugoslavia, Sept. 14 ? President Tito charged in: an angry speech today that imperialist reaction ?an apparent allusion to the United States?had instigated "hireling generals"' to over-, tries be included in decisions throw and merder President affecting their interests. Salvador Allende Gossens of "We have lost one of the Chile. ? most faithful members of the nonaligned movement," he con- Speaking at a rally In the tinued. "We have lost Chile. eastern Croatian town of Osi- .As a result of international re- jek, the 81-year-old Yugoslav leader said that equal dangers of hostile ' intrigue confronted Yugoslavia-and other small non aligned countries. . Yugoslavia must be alert, he said, to apprehend agents and spies infiltrating into the coun- try to foment disunity among the six republics of the Yugo- slav federation. Marshal Tito, frequently otio in- terrupted the Chilean devel- punmake a speech. He evidently felt moved to do so out of emo? that he had not intended tb terrupted by cheers, remarked , ? The official press agency. Tanyug. delayed five hours be- fore , reporting the speech al- though .it had been broadcast live on radio. Marshal Tito implied that the violent overthrow of Presi- dent Allende's leftist coalition had demonstrated the urgency of unity among the nonaligned countries. He reiterated approv- al of improved relations be- tween the United States and the Soviet Union, but he de- manded that nonaligned coun- Action and imperialism, the 'legitimate Government has ,been overthrown and a great man, a great comrade, Presi- dent Allende, has been mur- dered by hireling generals." While Marshal Tito refrained from naming the United States in his denunciation of imperial- ism, Tanyug explicity accused ,the United States last Wednes- day of having created eco- nomic chaos In Chile by with. ;holding credits, manipulatitjg copper prices and instigating strikes and disorders. ----- Soviet Accuses 'Imperialism' MOSCOW, Sept. 14 (Reuters) ?Soviet commentators charged today that "international im- perialism" had been behind the military coup in Chile, but did not mention the United violated a pledge that he would stick to the specific issues on 'which he had asked for a Coun- cil meeting. That pledge, Mr. Scali said, had been conveyed through the Council President, Lazar Mojsov of Yugoslavia. ? Castro Accuses U.S. By BERNARD WEINRAUB special to The New York Times NEW DELHI, Sept. 17?Pre- mier Fidel Castro said today that the military take-over of Chile was a fascist coup spurred by the United States. The Cuban leader, arriving after a trip to Hanoi, de- nounced the United States and said the new Chilean junta would meet stern resistance. "I think the people of Chile will not accept this oppression by military dictatorship easily and will continue to resist," he told newsmen at the airport. Speaking SpanisW4ind using an interpreter, Mr. ?Castro, in reply to a question .about the possible United States role in he Coup d'etat, ,remarked: "The United States is father of the creature." During Mr. Castro's brief stopover he was welcomed by dozens of diplomats and senior Indian officials, including Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. He said that the United States, while it was "blockad- ing" international loans for President Allende, maintained a close relationship with the ame in Chilei States by name. A commentator. in the Com- munist party newspaper, Pravda, charged "foreign pro- tection" stood behind the "Chilean oligarchy that un- leashed bloody terror" in Chile. The Government newspaper, Iz- -"imperialistic circles." vestia, also blamed unidentified) Italy's Reaction Strong By PAUL HOFMANN special to The New York Time? ? ROME, Sept. I4?The hived of the coup in Chile has been strong in Italy largely because some groups here have faVored the formation of a-' coalition .including the Communists that would be similar to the deposed Allende Government. Auch a coalition has been suggefted by the large Italian ,Communist party, the left-wing Chilean armed foices, which staged the coup. The overthrow of Dr. Allende has been widely denounced by Indian officials, Including Mrs. Gandhi. Although the officials have stopped short of con- demning the United States, Mrs. Gandhi has warned India against the danger of outsiders seeking to subvert the nation. Her remarks, made Saturday at a meeting of the New Con- gress party's policy-making All India Congress Committee, re- ferred to "outside influences" responsible for the coup in Chile and for the "murder" of Dr. Allende. The United States Embassy declined to comment on the speech, but there was general feeling within and outside that the attack was aimed at. the United States. What made it puzzling was that the Prime Minister and Ambassador Daniel P. Moynihan agreed ;privately last spring that the United States and India should blunt public . outbursts against each other. Mr. Moynihan is in Washington for meetings with President Nixon and Henry A. Kissinger. American officials are wait- ing to see if Mrs. Gandhi's re- marks foreshadowed a new spate of harsh attacks or if they are an isolated interlude provoked by the downfall of Dr. Allende. a popular figure among Indian leftists. Socialists and some left-wing factions in the Christian Demo- cratic party of Premier Mari- ano Rumor. The Christian Democrats head a center-left coalition that includes Social Democrats, Republicans and Socialists. . The Christian Democratic party, ltaly's strongest, is showing uneasiness over the strategy of Chile's Christian Democrats, who opposed Presi- dent Allende. The two partied have had frequent contacts, and former President Eduardo Frei .Montalva, the ? leader of the Chilean Christian Demo- crats, attended the national convention of the Italian party last June. This week, the Italian party condemned the military coup that overthrew President Al- lende, asserting that it was dif- ficult to understand how Chilean Christian Democrats could expect an early return to iconstitutional and democratic Imethods. Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : RA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR 17 September 1973 Latin Ai erka By James Nelson Goodsell Latin America correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor Buenos Aires In much of Latin America, the United States is being assigned the villain's role in the military rebellion against Chilean President Salvador Allende Gossens. The Latin American reaction against the United? States seems based less on fact than on deep-seated suspicion flavored by history. And in the emotional aftermath of Dr. Allende's death, Washington has added to the furor through what seems to be a lapse on the part of the State Department. On Wednesday a State"Department official asserted that Washington had known about? Tuesday's rebellion 48 hours before it began. The decision was made not to Inform Dr. Allende, a State Depart- ment spokesman said, because it might have been construed as inter- vention in Chile's internal affairs. Reverberations All of this stirred reverberations in Latin America, where not only the Marxists, but also the democrats are mourning Doctor Allende. From Mexico to Argentina, the flags are at half staff, newspapers are full of eulogies to Dr. Allende as a democratic martyr, and protest marches have linked Dr. Allende's passing to the United States. Latin America detect el no mourning for Dr. Allende in Washington. Many ,share the view of former Argentine dictator Juan Domingo Peron that "there was dancing in the halls of the NEW YORK TIMES 12 September 1973 oin, State Department" when the tanks rolled against La Moneda, the Chilean White House Tuesday morning. ? Newspapers as far apart as Buenos Aires and Caracas view with suspi- cion the, lightning weekend visit of Nathaniel Davis, United States Am- bassador to Chile, to Washington. More than coincidence And they find it more than ceinci- dental that the United States and Chilean Navies have scheduled joint exercises in" the South Pacific this week. Despite denials of any United States Involvement whatsoever, the United *States automatically comes under suspicion when a government hostile to it falls in Latin Amerca. Official U.S. policy is one of low profile. But Latin Americans have a long memory ? Guatemala in 1954, Bay of Pigs 1961, and Dominican Republic 1965. Many Latin Americans find it im- possible to believe there was no government involvement in the Inter- national Telephone and Telegraph plotting against Dr. Allende in 1970. Why statement This suspicion was only reinforced by the State Department's claim that it had advance knowledge of the coup and that it chose not to inform Dr. Allende. Why would the United States make so provocative a statement if it really was as innocent as it claims, Latin American commentators are asking. One of the sad facts of life in Latin Tragedy in Chile Any military coup is a tragedy, representing a break- down, of 'civilian authority and usually the collapse of government by consent. It is especially tragic for Chile, where sturdy democratic machinery had functioned for many years and the armed forces had a strong tradition of keeping to their barracks. In a country as bitterly divided as Chile has been during President Allende's three years in office, it will require tremendous skill and tact by the military chiefs now to avert widespread civil strife. No Chilean party or faction can escape some responsi- bility for this disaster, but Dr. Allende himself must bear a heavy share. Even when the dangers of polariza- tion had become unmistakably evident, he persisted in pushing a program of pervasive socialism for which he had no popular mandate. His political coalition--espe- daily his own Socialist party?pursued this goal by 34 r tt America Is that United States denials ? of meddling in Latin American affairs have lost their credibility. And now many Latin Americans are prepared to , believe the worst about a possible,Unned States role in Chile. [The first two governments to rec- ognize, the Chilean regime were two of Latin America's right-wing military . governments, Reuter reported from Buenos Aires. Brazil, Uruguay? ? [The right-wing military rulers of Brazil and Uruguay officially an- nounced recognition of the Chilean military government Thursday night. [In Montevideo, the scene of an army coup early this year, Urugua- yan riot police dispersed students demonstrating against the Chilean coup as the Uruguayan Government announced its recognition. [In Argentina, meanwhile, the Per; onist government decreed three days of Official mourning for President Allende in line with Mexico, Vene- zuela, and the Dominican Republic. Flags were also at half-mast in Cuba. [In Caracas, the Latin American Labor Confederation (CLT) con- demned the coup and accused "impe- rialist powers" of involvement, in a reference,to allegations in other cen- ters that the United States was behind it. [Peruvian President Juan Velasco Alvarado who heads 'a left-wing mili- tary government sent a message of "deepest sympathies" to President Allende's widow.] dubious means, including attempts to bypass both Con- gress and the courts. Dr. Allende might have prevailed had, he been able or willing to consolidate his considerable gains for, social- ism and to offer genuine cooperation in the Congress to the opposition Christian Democrats, Chile's largest' party. Instead, the tactics of his coalition induced the moderate Christian Democrats to join the right wing National party in opposition and obstruction. As the crisis deepened last week, Dr. Allende rejected a com- promise overture from former President Eduardo Frei, the-.Christian Democratic leader. While there is no evidence that the Nixon Administra- tion seriously considered the maneuvers against Dr. Allende suggested in 1970 by the C.I.A. or the Inter- national Telephone and Telegraph Corporation, it is essential that Washington meticulously keep hands off the present crisis, which only Chileans can resolve. There must be no grounds whatsoever for even a sus- picion of outside intervention. Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 S. WASH IN G"PON STAR 19 September 1973 CARL T. ROWAN Chile Is It is conceivable that U.S. military attaches and CIA operatives in Santiago had 'nothing to do with the mili- tary coup in Chile, or the death of Marxist President Salvador Allende. But all the propaganda resources , the United States can mus- ter will not convince many Latin Americans. "I can't prove it, but I firmly believe it," the old Argentine leader Juan Pe- ? ron said when asked if the United States had over- thrown Allende. "I know all about this process. I believe it could not have been other- wise," he added. That pretty well sums up the suspicions of the over- whelming majority of Latin Americans, whatever their ideology. There has simply been too much testimony in ?the U.S. Senate, too much media publicity about CIA and ITT schemes to crush Allende, for such suspicions not to exist. ? Another reason why U.S. or elease 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R0,00100230001-1 ur Tragedy as Well denials of involvement evoke skepticism in Lath, America and even here: The maze of lies and con- ver-ups .revealed in the Watergate hearings has created a climate in which the tendency everywhere is to expect the worst of this government and believe none of its denials. That is why this first Chi- lean coup since 1931 could become almost as big a tragedy for the United States as for Chile itself. Somewhere in the ,U.S. government there May be gleeful handshaking over the demise of Allende, who was, in fact, a demagogue who brazenly ordered Cin- derella and Sleeping Beauty rewritten so as to give chil- dren Marxist indoctrina- tion. He was a constant headache for U.S. leaders.' Some Americans surely are proud that arms we poured into Chile made it possible for the military to topple; him. WASHINGTON POST 18 September 1973 .? A But only a fool will over- look the fact that Allende was not the creator of the basic problems the United States faces; he was just a symbol of new awakenings in Latin America with which this country has been loath to deal. It was not just a litany of the leftists when Allende shouted to the United Na- tions that Latin America remains poor and underde- veloped because it is ex- ploited by huge U.S. corpo- rations which make phony pretenses of "investing" in Latin American countries. ' On a recent trip to Latin America I heard that same charge, spoken with angry passion, from the lips of presidents and foreign min- isters who are Christians and capitalists and in no way inclined to commu- nism. Contempt for the multina- tional corporations already was at unprecedented levels hi many countries, and a lot of these firms will suffer in the wave of resentment over the Chilean Coup. No matter how innocent and uninvolved U.S. offi- cials may have been, it will- be clear to almost everyone that the coup-makers can retain power only with U.S. arms. Every 'intelligent La- tino will look to see how much the junta relies on the loans and grants that the United States denied Al- lende. Whatever the short-term advantages-of "ridding" Latin America Df its first elected Marxist ruler, we cannot ignore the fact that the Chilean coup pumped a lot of new anti-U.S. venom into the hemisphere. As a long-range matter it is sad to ponder?except for those who believe that there is nothing to. worry about because, whenever U.S. In- terests are seriously threat- ened, there will always be a few armed friends ready to stage another coup. Chilean Aftermath The new jUnta in Chile has arrested thousands of of- ficials and supporters of the deposed Allende govern- ment, as well as additional thousands of. foreign exiles whom tlie late President had let into the country. Some among these "foreign extremists," as the generals call them, are faced with the cruel prospect of being re- turned to the regimes they fled. Soldiers are preventing others from talking asylum in foreign embassies in Santiago. Summary executions have been reported, on t an undeterminded scale. For a group supposedly reluctant to take power, the junta seems to be acting ? with a considerable degree of harshness and arbitrar- Bess. Arriving in Mexico City, President Allende's widow - asked the United Nations to take steps to "prevent re- prisals." The Secretary General mumbled; the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees issued a statement asking that foreign refugees in Chile not be repatriated against their will. The United States government has been unable to muster even a mask of concern. All too typically, the State Department's Latin chief lunched the day after the coup with representatives of American firms doing business in Chile, but he could find no time at all through the week to receive a delegation alarmed by possible junta violations of human rights. In Chile, while the junta tries to restore order, it has closed the congress (which was dominated, by the way, by the opposition to Allende), interdicted the politi- cal parties, and announced plans to write a new con- stitution Incorporating "necessary changes." These would evidently restrict the channels of political ex- pression open to the Allende constituency. There is no question but that some of those supporting the late Presi- dent worked outside the law. But to deny a political voice to a substantial part of the population, in the most `? politicized country of Latin America,' is a virtual recipe for further violence. Chile's lively political tradition makes it an unlikely place to implant for long a military- technocratic government of the sort familiar elsewhere in the hemisphere., If the generals are serious about re- turning their country to its democratic heritage?and we do not minimize the difficulty of that task?they should so indicate. Cuba; now being cited by the junta as the fount of many of Chile's woes, complained in the Security Coun- cil yesterday that its Santiago embassy and a Cuban merchant ship at sea had been attacked by the Chilean Military. The United States has traditionally championed the privileges of diplomatic immunity but on this oc- cason, apparently as a gesture to the new Chilean lead- ership, it resisted the calling of the council session. The 28th General Assembly opens today. If 'Secretary of State-designate Henry Kissinger attends, he will find himself in an atmosphere dominated by the coup In Chile and by a widespread feeling that the United States welcomed the coup, if it did not encourage it. In'Such an ? atmopshere it will not be easy to explain that the United States respects the small states of the world and hopes to keep up good relations with them, 35 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 LONDON OBSERVER 16 Sept. 1973 Tu f r t assy Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 LONDON OBSERVER 16 Sept. 1973 by JO BERESFORO . THE bloodless struggle for the Chilean Embassy in ,London's ? Devonshire Street continued this weekend. The junta's nominee as Am- bassador, Rear-Admiral Oscar Buzeta, told me today that the present Ambassador, Senor Alvaro Bunster, has no business at the Embassy any more. Nobodyp will obey him. He does not represent any Govern- ment of Chile. Every action and attitude that Bunster takes is not recognised by the Govern- ment of Chile. Unless the British Govern- ment decides to recognise the regime in Chile, the battle will continue. On Friday Admiral Buzeta, the Naval Attache, left his office in Piccadilly to take over the Embassy a few hundred yards westwards in Devonshire Street. Ile told the staff that he was the new Charg?'Affaires and that -the Ambassador, Sr Alvaro Bunster, had been dismissed from his post. ? Sr Bunster has made no attempt to reoccupy his office. But he has asked the Foreign Office to ensure that he is able to carry out his diplomatic func- tions, and his residence in Eaton Place is now guarded day and night by two policemen.. So far, the Foreign Office has ,declined to ? comment on the ?situation in the embassy, and has asked 'Sr Bunster to go, to the Foreign Office tomorrow ;morning for discussions. Admiral Buzeta told Tim OBSERVER yesterday, 'I intend to go to the Embassy on Monday 'morning after briefly visiting my old office. But Sr Bunster can come and use his old, office if he wants to.' Sr Bunster, *however, claimed yesterday that the Naval Attache had prevented him from using telephone or telex services at the Embassy or from communicat- ing with the stall. 'I cannot ac- complish my tasks as an Ambas- sador in the Embassy,' he said. ' There I now have only the rights of a . private Chilean citizen.' Admiral Buzeta, who was Director of the Naval School in Chile during the Queen's State visit in 1968 and was made Commander of the Royal Vic- torian Order, has been in London only since January. He claims that Bunster is 'making a fuss.' At the protest rally called in London today, Sir Bunster will be one of the speakers. The meeting starts at ' 2.15 at Speakers' Corner and will end with a short march to the Chilean Embassy. Other speakers will include Judith Hart. MP, for the Labour OLE: eath of a ;THE OVERTHROW of the Chilean Govern- Mient by its own armed forces and the death Mf President Salvador Allende are tragic N.vents in several dimensions. The world ' alas not seen a more patient and restrained Mead of Government than Allende. Far from' :using the power of the. State in a Marxist Dpirit against his political opponents, he =sobviously preferred negotiation to compul- ., *non. His political .opponents included sonic within his own party and coalition. Indeed, he might never have been challenged by the military if his supporters had been ? less fractious. It was his very reasonableness and lack of dramatic oversimplification, added to an elemeht of inefficiency, that made him vulnerable to the many who brought about the gradual attrition of his Government. 7-` If Allende was a man who never advocated force in politics and did not deserve to see his regime perish by, the sword, it is also a .national tragedy that Chile should have. ollapsed into civil violence and military ,rule.' Of all the States of Latin America, :Chile is the one with the oldest-established ;parliamentary. democracy. As Switzerland =has maintained a democratic society while =surrounded by neighbours often in the throes of one autocracy or another, so has ',Chile been among the best-governed and ;freest societies in its continent. -' The remarkable sight of Allende inviting ,generals to join his Government is less _extra- ordinary when it is realised that the Chilean ?Army has acquired a reputation for defend- %ing the constitution with'out involvement in (Iparty politics. Allende was appealing to ,that tradition. The military, who have over- thrown his Government, have broken it. 1. But, of course, it is the particular political ,..tharacter of Allende's Government that takes its overthrow a world-wide tragedy. ?.The world today can be divided between \ Marxist States and the rest. The chief .:..blemish of the Marxist States is their lack of freedom---of the freedom to dig- "agree publicly and to form political parties ,other than the Communist Party. It is this nnonolithic political character that has led to ,the wistful search for ' socialistn with a human face,' as the deposed Czech leader. Dubcek, called it. c- Allende showed every sign of wanting to -demonstrate that his Marxist party would ..not try to close down all other parties and =voices, if it were voted into office. Certainly, !during his brief period as leader of a rather =political parties and the mainly hostile ==weak coalition Government, he allowed all :ehilean parties and newspapers more liberty ;titian most Latin American Governments have ,done when under a comparable strain. But would he have acted more tyrannically had =,he ever commanded a clear parliamentary Anajority? It can only, be answered that i;there is no evidence =for expecting this?of Atim, at any rate. The value to the world of tuccessfully Party, Lord Brockway for Liberation (the Movement for Colonial Freedom), and John Cohen, general secretary of the Communist Party. 36 ? hope showing that Marxism can be adapted to poli- tical freedom?if it can?would have been great. It would have heartened those Com- munists who hope they can come to power through the ballot box and who ask to be trusted that they would not thereafter close down the voting process; such are many of the present French and Italian Communist leaders. The Chilean story is bound to make both them and their potential Social Demo- crat partners question whether they would be treated fairly if they gave up revolution- ary ideas for parliamentary ones. Conversely, Leftists throughout Latin America will inevitably draw the conclusion that Allende's revolutionary opposite num- bers, Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, had the better idea?while Rightists will be con- firmed in their belief that they have a divine right to use the Army to overthrow Leftists of any sort. Those who practise Marxist politics in Eastern Europe, including Yugoslavia, and are searching for a way of introducing poli- tical freedom into their closed societies, will be deeply discouraged. If alley had beereable to show that a Marxist Government was com- patible with a free parliamentary system, they could then have pressed more confi- dently for the political freedoms that ,they know must come, if their societies are ever to become something More than school-rooms for adults. It is being freely speculated that the real villain in the Allende story is the United States. Certainly, the Nixon Government viewed the arrival of the first Marxist Presi- dent on the continent of America with less than pleasure. There is plenty of evidence' of American commercial companies, fearing nationalisation, doing all they could to ham- per the regime and pressing Washington into doing more. How , much Washington did is not yet clear. But it seems mistaken to attri- bute chief blame to the US: Allende, himself never did. What is cettainly true is that neither Washington nor any Other Western capital took. much interest in helping the Allende Government to survive. Perhaps it is asking for a very far-sighted kind of self-interest to suggest that Western Governments should have seen the enormous value to themselves of treating Allende at least as well as any other Chilean Government is treated. If his success had steered some Communist Parties towards the ballot box and away from the barricades; if it had encouraged the revi- sionists and discouraged the autocrats in some Communist States of the world; if it had shown that the political repertoire of free societies is able to include Marxists without self-destruction?that, or any part of that, would have Meant a gain for the pros- pects of mankind. That a man and a Govern- ment with such potentialities should have been knocked out of the way, shifted as Dubceck was like so much rubble, is a bitter ,modern tragedy. Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 1PTD?N ?BS/gr/Fil 1 Sept. 1973 Chilean coup arrasses issinger from ANTHONY SAMPSON: Washington, 15 Sept. THE STATE DEPARTMENT here is continuing to react to ? the Chilean coup with marked embarrassment. . There is no convincing evid- ence that the United States ,.Government encouraged the overthrow of President Allende, hut there are indications that it helped to create the conditions ? that made it ine'vitable, and other Latin-American countries will not be slow to note it. It seems unlikely that the coup was assisted by 'dirty , tricks' from the Central Intelli- gence Agency.. The CIA has a long record of involvement in !' Chile, and was very active in 1964 in assisting the election of President Eduardo Frei (who may be asked to return to power by the ruling junta). But since then the CIA, while , still active, has become more cautious and sophisticated. ? Much evidence about its ? activities in Chile emerged last March in the hearings of the Senate Multinationals Com- mittee in Washington, to dis- cover the connections between the CIA and the International Telephone and Telegraph Cor- poration, which has large hold- ings in Chile. The hearings revealed that the CIA, in response to pressure from ITT, had put forward a plan for inducing economic chaos to prevent Allende coming to power, or to undermine him once in power, and the memos written at the time of his elec- tion have an ominous ring in the light of the eventual coup. ? In October 1970, for instance, .' William Broe, of the CIA, told ITT that their economic pres- sure could increase unrest and ? thus encourage military inter- vention. ? 'Bre advises to keep on the pressure,' said an ITT memoran- dum recording the conversation. This because Allende should not take office with ",complete support" and also for the weak- ening we might accomplish after he does take office?also there is always a chance some- thing might happen later.' cutting off of aid, the restriction of loan; and a drastic reduction of US purchases from Chile. The United States Treasury swiftly took a hard line to- wards credit to Chile, and en- couraged their European part- ners, for instance in the World Bank, to tin the same (in con- trast to the International Mone- tary Fund, which under French influence was much more friendly to Chile). Of course, there were plenty of sound banking reasons, too, for ending loans to. a country that was going headlong to- wards galloping inflation. But these did not prevent American loans being maintained and actually increased in one ? crucial sector in Chile. the military. It is very likely that Allende's Government would have been faced with economic chaos with- out any encouragement from the US or Europe. But what is striking from the available evi- dence is how little the US tried to reach an accommodation with Allende. a factor that may well have pushed him into a more extreme position than he first occupied. The refusal of the advanced industrial countries to tolerate the Chilean experiment was the theme of a speech on Thursday by a leading left-wing Chilean economist. Professor Sunkel, speaking to the UN Committee on Multinationals, convened as the result of the ITT revelations. The Chilean experiment has ended with a catastrophic col- lapse of its economic and politi- cal systems,' the Professor said. The conclusion for us here seems to be that it is not pos- sible to try to restructure rela- tions of dependent countries and the transnational capitalist systems in a peaceful way.' It seems clear that many people in the State Department and the CIA were hoping for a military coup to oust Allende, and there had been talk of it for some months. But certainly the violence of he coup, and the ferocity of the., unta leaders, seems now an mbarrassment, and General inochet's insistence on ex- erminating Marxism' is not in ccord with current thinking ere. Nor is the breaking off of elations between Chile and uba necessarily welcome to r Kissinger's State Depart- ent. which has been consider- g re-establishing relations with r Castro. The Chilean junta ay in the end create as many oblems for the US in the rest Latin-America as President 37 lende did. The contacts between the CIA J and ITT continued after Allende e came to power. In October 1971, P when Allende took over the t telephone company, ITT put a forward to the White House an h 18-point plan, including contact- ing the Chilean military and the r CIA, to ensure that ? everything c should be done quietly but D effectively to see that Allende m does not get through the crucial in next six months.' ?D It is not clear whether the m. plan was acted en, but? most of pr the points were achieved in the of following year, including the Al Approved F NEW 'YORK 'MSS 15 September 1973 Spun Off By the ? Whirlwind By C. L. Sulzberger, Even though history's whirlwind proved too great for him, them was something appealing about the late 'Salvador Allende who trierl, to lead Chile into Marxist Socialikt 'V par- liamentary means. ;This attempt was hampered by .extreme left revolutionary movements as well as conservative forces of the right and center. Together they pro- duced economic chaos. In the end, the President, who had never mustered a popular majority, was crushed. Allende participated in two ehllean popular-front governments each of which endured three years. The first (1938-1941) produced a new basis for collaboration between middle class and workers' parties. Allende, its Health Minister, already a Socialist, who im- mensely proud that he introduced free milk for children. The second (1970- 1973), just smashed by a military putsch, resembled its predecessor in, that neither was able to carry out its full program. Comparing these experiments, the President once said to me (Santirfgo, March 23, 1971): "That [first] popular- 'front regime was on the left of the., ' capitalistic system. But the Popular Unity Government now wants to transform the capitalistic system entirely, "At that time the leading role in the popular-front government was taken by the Radical party, representing the small bourgeoisie. Now tho leading ? role is not bourgeois at all. This time the President, myself, is a Socialist and not a radical." Allende was very much a political , animal, a small, stocky, quick-moving man with grey mustache, ruddy face, thick, heavily rimmed spectacles. He FOREIGN AFFAIRS. was unique in his effort to achieve, full revolution on a relatively slow- motion, democratic basis and it is arguable that the latter restrictions, which added left-wing impatience to right-wing rage, made his ultimate downfall inevitable. He boasted: "In thirty years' political life I never failed to do what I said I would do. It could be possible that the dynamic of events might eventually create a revolutionary party, one party of the revolution" (containing the Socialist, Communist and radical elements Which backed him). "But this is not possible for the Imminent future. After all, the Social- ists don't want to be changed and the. radicals, who in Chile have had a party for 110 years, surely won't commit suicide. pon't forget that Karl Marx foresaw a time when there would be no governments at all. But when? It or Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 IT SHINGTON POST 19 Septemlwr 1973 hasn't come yet. "The strategy of Socialism must de- pend on the realities of any country where it is attempted. To be a Socialist is obviously not the same thing as t being a Communist. There are different roads to Socialism." ? Allende insisted his credo would , never restrict basic freedoms, He said: "My word is formally engaged to respect all the fundamental rights of man. No Matter how extensive our economic and social reform, will be, wee will not only respect human rights , but actually increase them. Human rights are not merely political; they are also social and economic." He promised he would never allow any foreign power to exert influence ? over Chilean sovereignty or to estab- lish bases that could be used against the United ,States. But many of his :actions were clearly hostile to the : U.S.A. and its interesta. He never excluded the chance that violent con- Irontation might smash his program. . "Sadly, very sadly, I admit this t possibility exists," the President told ? me. "That is the lesson of history. .1 know it would come from the right 'because it has already done something ' that never before occurred in Chilean history?namely, assassinated the army commander. There have already been two attempts on my life." Nevertheless, he boasted that certain of his accomplishments were indelible. "If I were to die tomorrow," he said, "no one in Chile would ever dare to abolish the system. I instituted of giving every child free milk. No 'one would ever attempt to end our system of social security. No one would dream of taking away from illiterate citizens the right to vote which they have been legally granted." Chileans are an orderly people and less subject than most South Amer- icanes to armed coups. One may hope the junta that ousted Allende will restrain its obvious prejudices in favor of the right and will seek to incorpo- rate into any new regime some of the beneficial reforms of the old, while tempering economic socialism with social democracy. This would be a suit- able monument to the late President whose aims were revolutionary but ' whose means were intended to be moderate. ? , Chalmers M. Roberts The U.S. Integrity Gap The take-over in Chile by a military junta has demonstrated that the U.S. government in general and the Nixon administration, in particular is suffer- ing from a credibility gap. Allegations that the coup was engineered, or at least encouraged, by . Washington through the Central Intelligence Agency are being made around the world. The administration, while con- ceding that it did have some advance tips that the take-over was coming, de- nies that it had any part in the affair and, specifically, that the President had heard the reports in time to do anything about them, even if he had wished to do so. 4. 1 The CIA 'starts out with several strikes against it. per all it is well known that the agency did engineer a coup against the leftist government of Guatemala in 1954; that it had a hand in saving the Shah of Iran's throne in 1952; that it tried unsuccessfully to, topple Sukarno's government in Indonesia; that it was central to the fi- asco at the Bay of Pigs: that it has been involved in intrusions into Com- munist China; and that it conducted for years ,a secret war in Laos. Presi- dent Nixon himself recently referred, to the Iranian 'flair without mention- ing the GIA role. He finally conceded, last year, that two Americans long held by China were, in fact, CIA oper- atives. And so on. As to Chile, the CIA says its hands are clean. But it is on the public rec- ord that John McCone, the former , head of the CIA, offered a big chunk ' of money to the agency on behalf of his new employer, International Tele- phone and Telegraph, to help prevent Salvadore Allende from coming to power. So it is not likely that those who want to believe the CIA is in- volved in the anti-Allende coup will give the CIA a clean bill of health. As for those who hope, or even believe, that the CIA has learned some lessons or been reined in, it is not very easy to accept, on their face, the current CIA ' denials. Maybe they are true; but just maybe they are not. ? But it isn't.just a matter of the CIA; It's President Nixon himself. When you consider his record for dissembling, it makes you wonder about Chile. During the 1960 Kennedy-Nixon cam- paign, candidate Kennedy proposed strengthening the anti-Cast4 io forces. But candidate Nixon, who thek was the Vice President. knew about th secret Bay of Pigs plan and. te-protect the prospects of that invasion, he had to "go to the other extreme" and attack the Kennedy proposal as "dangerously irresponsible," as he himself has writ- ten. In short, he lied to cover the oper- ation. More recently. as President, Mr. Nixon secretly authorized the undis- closed bombing or Cambodia while tell- ing the public that the United States was not violating that country's neu- trality. As to Laos, he admitted Amen. can involvement only when forced to do So by a Senate investigation. In time we shall probably hear of other similar cases now still hidden. In short, Mr. Nixon's record of credi- bility hardly encourages one to accept protestations of innocence in Chile. It reminds me of Thurston the Magician who used to show you how empty his , sleeves were; he then proceeded to pull from them an amazing assortment of cards, scarves and other parapher- nalia of his trade. In the case of the Bay of Pigs Mr. Nixon, writing in his "Six Crises." never questioned the propriety or le- gality of the operation against Castro. "The covert operation had to be pro- tected at all costs," he wrote. There is nothing in the Nixon record to indicate that he has in any way altered that point of view. Indeed, the justification in the Watergate case for trying to head off an FBI investigation of the Mexican money transactions was es- sentially the same. In short, the end justifies the means whenever the end Is a matter affecting "national secur- ity." President Nixon's aversion, to put It mildly, to the Allende regime was well known. His administration kept on supplying military aid while with- holding economic help; international organizations were encouraged not to help Allende. The American ambassa- dor had just made a quick trip back to Washington and had returned to Chile prior to the takeover. Put it all to.. gether and the only conclusion one can come to, given the retord, is 'no clear conclusion ? and a reasonable doubt about any official conclusion of- fered by the government. Perhaps not directly related to Chile but part of the Nixon backdrop to his foreign policy methods is hie penchant for surprises, for the quick switch, and for secrecy. Dollar devaluation, the change in China policy, the "Nixon shocks" to Japan, the mining of Hai- phong harbor?even the switch to Phase I economic controls here at home?all testify to this style of doing business. Who can guess what he may have in mind for Latin America, where Henry Kissinger says he wants to insti- tute new policies? Integrity is perhaps the most pre- cious asset that a government can have. The sad fact is that in the post. 'World War Il decades successive ad- ministrations have eaten away at gov- ernmental integrity. One has only to recall President Roosevelt nd the se- cret Yalta agreements, President El- senhower's handling of the U-2 affair, President Kennedy's initial covert op- erations in Indochina and the panoply of evasions by President Johnson as documented in the Pentagon Papers. By the time -Mr. Nixon got into the White House, government integrity had indeed suffered. Somewhere along the line Mr. Nixon 38 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 Approved For Release 2001/08/07: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 became entranced with General Charles deGaulle's idea of the "mystique" of high office, of holding aloof from the public, of treating the public like school children in a "papa knows best" manner. He is not the first President to act this way; it teems to be a failing of those chief ex-. ecutives in particular who have been quickest to wrap themselves In the "national security" blanket. But as President, Mr. Nixon has carried it to hitherto unknown extremes. Perhaps the United States had no di- rect role in the Chilean affair; there certainly was reason enough, in inter- nal Chilean terms, for the take-over, without Judging the right or wrong of It, But this administration's credibility Is so low, who can believe Its denials? NEW YORK TINES 18 September 1973 U.N. Urged to Send Panel To Chile to. Protect Rights Apecie I to The liew 'York Ttmes Four Nobel Prize laureates urged the United Nations yes- terday to send observers to Chile to protect Chilean citi- zens and political refugees "who risk reprisals and deporta- tions." In a statement isSued at a news conference at the Church Center for the United Nations, which is across First Avenue from the United Nations head- quarters, the four said that "the United Nations must exert its prestige to save the lives and the civil liberties of all those endangered by the vio- lent overthrow of the legal Government of Chile." The aroma consisted of nr Fritz Lipmann and Edward I,. Tatum of Rockefeller Univer- sity; Prof. Salvador 1.nria of the Massachusetts Insitute of Technology and Prot taeoree Wald of Harvard. Also at the conference were Dr. Laurence Birns, a Latin America special- ist at the New School, and Mi. chael Harrington. former head of the American Socialist party. NEVI YORK TINES 18 September 1973 Agony the Americas , . By Graham Hovey in 1965 can be compared to the Soviet . occupation of Hungary in 1956 or How hollow the rhetoric that ush- Czechoslovakia in 1968). ered in the Alliance for Progress in Of course Washington would not 1961 sounds in the wake of Chile's help Dr. Allendp clamp on Chile a tragedy. draconian socialism fiercely 'opposed "This Alliance," declared the states- by a majority of Chileans. Nor would men at Punta del Este, "is established Washington influence international on the basic principle that free men lending agencies to continue except- \ working through the institution of log Chile as a good credit risk once representative democracy can best it became evident that Dr. Allende satisfy man's aspirations. . . ." could not shore up the economy or First on their list of Alliance goals: . 'curb inflation, and that his firebrands "To improve and strengthen demo- , wou1d. not let him make good his cratic institutions through application 'pledge of fair compensation for ex- of the principle of self-determination propriated enterprises. . by the people." But the ingredients for the Chilean And now, twelve years later? Well, tragedy were homegrown, not im- now we have a military junta ruling ported; here, as elsewhere, United Chile with an iron fist after delivering States influence, for better or worse, the coup de grace to South America's was marginal. As Covey T. Oliver, a ? most durable democracy. former Assistant Secretary ,of State' And over, the Andes, in the country . for Latin America, has written: ."We have the power, at one extreme, to remove almost any country from the map...but we could not, even if we wished, translate this into control over the country's routine actions." where the Alliance was born, the armed forces of Uruguay (nobody knew they existed in 1961) govern by decree through a puppet President after helping to collapse the purest democracy in the Americas. And across the Rio de la Plata estuary, the "application of the prin- ciple of self-determination by the peo- ple" seems certain on Sunday to restore the trappings of power?the substance having been returned months ago?to ivan Domingo Per6n, the ancient, ersatz Mussolini who led Argentina from prosperity to bank- ruptcy before the Army booted him out eighteen years ago. Mr. Nixon may have disclosed mere And up north, in the giant country of his thinking about the political whose elected President in 1958 paved crisis of the Americas than lid in- . the way for the Alliance for Progress tended in welcoming President Emilio with his inspired Operation Pan Amer- , G. Medici to Washington in 1971: "We lea idea, Brazil's army presides over know that as Brazil goes, so will, go a spectacular, If highly uneven, eco- the,rest of the Latin American cond. nomic development, barely giving lip' nent." service to democracy and stamping Is that it, then? Is dramatic eco- hard on dissent. One of those stamped nomic development achievable only on is that ex-President. Juscelino under military rule in a, climate of , Kubitschek. repression and censorship? Many One could go on, ad nauseam, but American businessmen involved in the point is clear; Twelve years after Latin America devoutly believe so. .the launching with high hopes of. an Or, at the other end of the spectrum, Alliance aimed first of, all at under- is a redistribution of wealth, a better pinning freedom' anddemocracy, there deal for the poorest Latins, possible. is much less freedom in the Americas. only under a Marxist dictatorship? There is more oppression, more tor- After the collapse of the Allende turn and terror, more censorship and experiment, even many American lib- rule by licit. erals say so. Why have things gone so terribly But can the American Government wrong? Why have there been mote accept such theses? Even in disillu- coups since the beginning of the Ai- sionment with the Alliance for Prog- 'lance than in any comparable period i ress and recognizing that American in the modern history of the hen- infhience will he only marginal, can sphere? And most pertinently, in light Washington be comfortable with a of worldwide accusations ll American nothing policy for a continent largely complicity in the dtfwnfall of Presi- out of control but clearly lurching dent Allende in Chile, is the United ,.,swerd revolution? States primarily to blame for this ' situation? 1-lenty A. Kissinger said that his recent call on President Echeverria in The image of this country as nith- Mexico City?his first diplomatic mis- less, pervasive practitioner of neo- sion since President Nixon nominated Imperialism simply won't wash. If him to be Secretary of State?"under- Washington had indeed turned the lines the importance we shall attach Monroe Doctrine into the Brezhney to relations with Latin America." How variety there would be no Castro tine it would be if he really meant it. regime in Cuba and a Marxist Govern- ment would never have come to power in Chile (not even Lyndon Johnson's invasion of the Dominican Republic 39 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 . The ;valid charge against the Nixon Administration on Latin: America is more one of neglect: than of imperial- ist exploitation. After the extravagant ? rhetoric and feverish'actiyity of the Alliance for Progress heyday, the low- key approach charted by the President was widely welcomed. It soon became evident, however, that behind the lower profile was no hemisphere poi-. icy at all. Graham Hovey is a member of the editorial board of The Timea. Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100230001-1 WAS1IINGTON POST 13 September 1973 Coup in Chile Chile's coup is different. Its special tragedy is that it ends Latin America's longest democratic tradition and also its most serious effort to carry out rapid social change within a framework of representative govern- 'moot. Whether thd coup will arrest the country's social and economic disintegration, or lead Chile into an in- tensified class war, cannot yet be known. The leaders of the armed forces, until now on the sidelines of poli- tics, conducted their takeover in the name of "liberat- ing Chile from the Marxist yoke," as they described the elected government of Salvador Allende. At the same time, in an evident bow to the Allende constituency, the military leaders assured the workers that their economic and social benefits "will not suffer fundamental changes." Perhaps the Chilean military can return their country in a reasonable time to its democratic heritage. The ex- perience of others is not encouraging. That is what is , so regrettable about the failure of the Allende experi- ment. It is an outcome likely to harden both Latin left and Latin right in the view that social change in a democratic context doesn't work. Mr. Allende's truly unfortunate death?by his own hand, according , to the new junta?imparts an addi- tional somber and ominous note. Many in Latin America will no doubt regard him as a martyr whose death, like that of Che Guevara, symbolizes the implacability of American "imperialism." His politics, perhaps also his myth, are bound to move to the center of Latin and inter- American politics, and to becloud objective judgment of him. It is impossible not to note, however, that his 30 earlier years in the political wilderness had ill prepared him to exercise power. He ignored the limitations of his' minority support and attempted to govern as though he wielded a majority., He lost control of many of his own supporters. His admirers can argue that he was. bequeathed a political and economic legacy that would NGTON POST I 6 Sep lombpr 1 973 have burdened any leader, but that is hardly a persua- sive defense; the job was not forced upon him. ' * On the eve of, Allende's election in 1970, Henry. Kissinger, calling him "probably a Communist," said that an "Allende' takeover" would pose "massive prob- lems for us, and for democratic forces and for pm-U.S. forces in Latin America." The CIA and ITT discussed ? ?apparently without further action?how to keep Mr. Allende from power. When Chilean moderates seemed to be looking for a satisfactory way to 'resolve thefl cop- per-nationalization disputes, the administration delivered a number of symbolic rebuffs to Mr. Allende and then proceeded to use its influence to deny him access to loans from the international development banks. The* evident results were to stiffen the Chilean position on compensation for the copper firms, tO work economic hardhip on Chile, and to aggravate political tension 'there. Meanwhile, the U.S. kept up close links.with the Chilean military. Military aid flowed; at the moment ' of the coup, four U.S. Navy ships were steaming toward Chile for joint maneuvers with Chile's navy. In denying CIA involvement in the coup yesterday, the Slate Depart- ment- did not offer regrets either for the takeover or. for Mr. Allende's death. Sobering as it is to have to ask whether American e ideological coolness and corporate influence played a ? role in the undoing of the Allende experiment; it is unavoidable. Indeed, the denouement leaves hanging the whole question of what ought to be the American policy toward the forces of economic nationalism churning much of Latin America. The issue is finquestipnahly worthy of the recall of Secretary of State-designate Kissinger before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee for a closer look at our performance in Chile and its imblications for future policy, or a separate congres- sional investigation, or both. Civil ights Group Says Arrests, Executes, Allende Amnesty International, an indePendent organization con- cerned with the welfare of po- litical prisoners, charged yes- terday that there had been widespread arrests and execu- tion's of supporters of the left- ist government of Salvador Al- !elide since ? it was overthrown by a military coup. . The statement coincided with expressions of concern by many governments and other civil rights groups over the late of Chilean and for- eign backers of Allende, who died during the coup Tuesday. A communique issued by the military junta yesterday said that it had identified 13,- 000 'foreigners who were in .Chile Illegally, and members of the new government de- scribed them' as guerrillas" and extremists." The document said the 13,- 000 included 4,178 Bolivians, 3,256 Uruguayans and 987 Cu- bans. There were also large numbers of Argentines, Brazil- ians, Colombians and Mexi- cans, the statement said, . Amnesty International said that it had "well documented evidence" that Most of the foi. eign exiles "werovmpelled to seek politicaLasylum in Chile because the military regimes in Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and other Latin American countries were systematically arresting and torturing dissi- dents." The group's statement re- peated reports, some based on clandestine radio broadcasts from Chile monitored In Ar- gentina, that many of Al- ae*ers . lende's supporters ? had been. executed. ? it said the organization had "learned from reliable sources that, members at Allende's Popular Unity coalition are being arrested. Many are be- ing executed and many thrown out of helicopters." Mario Artaza.. the Chilean . charge d'affaires in Washing- ton. denied all reports of sum- mary executions and other abuses, saying the accusations were part Of a "very well or- chestrated campaign to dis- credit the new envernemnt." Asked about the many un- confirmed reports that various ministers in Allende's govern- ment had been killed, Artaza said: "The entire Allende Cab- inet is being held in the mili- tary school In Santiago. 40 Approved For Release 2001/08/07 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100200001A