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December 22, 1974
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Approved For Release 2001fI ONBD I.IRDP77-00432R000100340001-9 INTERNAL USE ONLY This publication contains clippings from the domestic and foreign press for YOUR BACKGROUND INFORMATION. Further use of selected items would rarely be advisable. No. 21 27 DECEMBER 1974 GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS Destroy after backgrounder has served its purpose or within 60 days. . CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100340001-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100340001-9 - 22 December 1974 Ce 1. A 0 SGACAUNST' ANTI TIA~ EIR DISSIDEN TS IN N1. f FILES ON .CITIZENS lrns Reportedly Got 41 e Surveillance Data in Charter Violation By SEYMOUR M. HERSH Special to Tie New York Times WASHINGTON, Dec. 21-The Central Intelligence Agency, di- rectly violating its charter, con- ducted. a massive illegal do- mestic intelligence operation during the Nixon' Administra- tion against the antiwar move- ment and other dissident !groups in the United States, according to well-placed Gov- ernm3nt sources. An extensive investigation by The New York Times has estab- lished that intelligence files on. at least 10,000 American citi- zens were maintained by a special unit of the C.I.A. that Iwas reporting directly to Rich- ; and Helms, then the Director of Central Intelligence and now the Ambassador to Iran. In addition, the sources said, accheck of the C.I.A.'s domestic rii'es? ordered last year by Mr. :Izains's successor, James R. : thlesinger, produced evidence at'dozens of other illegal activi- ties by members of the C,I.A. inside the United States, be- ginning in the nineteen-fifties, including break-ins, wiretap- ping and the surreptitious in- spection of mail. A Different Category Mr. Schlesinger was suc- ceeded at the C.I.A. by William. E. Colby in late 1973. ? Those alleged operations, while also prohibited by law, were not targeted at dissident American citizens, the sources said, but were a different cate. gory of domestic activities that were secretly carried out as part of operations. aimed at suspected foreign intelligence agents operating in the United States. Under the 1947 act setting up the C.I.A., the agency was forbidden to have "police sub- poena, law enforcement powers or internal security functions" inside the United States. Those responsibilities fall to the F.B.I., which maintains, a special in- ternal security unit to deal with foreign intelligence threats. Mr. Helms, who left the C. I. A. in February, 1973, for his new post in Teheran, could not be reached despite tele- phone calls there yesterday and today. Network of Informants Charles Cline, a duty officer at the American Embassy in Teheran, said today that a note informing Mr. Helms of the re- quest by The Times for com- ment had been delivered to Mr. Helms's quarters this morning. By late evening Mr. Helms had not returned the call. "This is explosive, it could destroy the agency," one offi- cial with access to details of the alleged domestic spying on dissidents said in an interview. He described the program as, similar in intent to the Army domestic surveillance programs that were censured by Congress four years ago. `M- sere was no excuse for what _ the agency did," the source said. "What you had was an insulated secret police agency not under internal quus- ti6Tr ?r, audit." The disclosure of alleged! illdgal-'C.I.A. activities is the! first- confirmation of rumorsi that -have - been circulating in Washington for some time. Ai number of mysterious . bur-! glaries and incidents have comet to light since the break-in at' Democratic party headquarters in the Watergate complex on June 17, 1972. Thoughout the public hear-, ings and courtroom testimony on Watergate, Mr. Helms and other high-level officials in- sisted that the C.I.A. had been "duped" into its Watergate Involvement by the White House. As part of. its alleged effort against dissident Americans in the late nineteen-sixties and early nineteen-seventies, the sources said, the C.I.A. author- ized agents to follow,and pho- tograph participants in antiwar and other demonstrations. The C.I.A. also set up a network of informants who were ordered to penetrate antiwar groups, the sources said. flea.. . But he was described by an associate as extremely con- cerned and disturbed by what he discovered at the C.I.A. upon replacing Mr. Helms. . "He found himself in a cess- pool," the associate said.. "He! was having a grenade blowing! up in his face every time he' urned around." The Ellsberg Affair } Mr. Schlesinger was at the C.I.A. when the first word of the agency's involvement in the September, 1971, burglary of the office of Dr. Daniel Ells- berg's psychiatrist by the White House security force known as the "plumbers" became known. It was Mr. Schlesinger who also discovered and turned over to the Justice Department a` series of letters written to Mr. Helms 'by James"W. Mc- Cord Jr., one . of the original Watergate. defendants and a former C.I.A: security official. The letters, which told of White House involvement in the Wa- tergate burglary,-had been de- posited in. an agency office. The associate said one result of . Mr. Schlesinger's inquiries into Watergate and the domes- tic aspects of the C.I.A. opera- tions was his executive edict: ordering a halt, to all question- able counterintelligence opera-! tions inside the United States.! :During his short stay at the, C.LA., Mr. Schlesinger also initiated a 10 per cent employe cutback. Because of his actions, the associate said, security officials at the agency decided to increase the number of his personal bodyguards. It could not be learned whether that action was taken after a threat. Many past and present C.I.A. men acknowledged that Mr. Schlesinger's reforms were- ;harder to bear because he was an outsider. Mr. Colby, these men said, while continuing the same basic programs initiated by his pre- ,timessor, was viewed by some inten,ar, cntlcs as "the saving force" at the agency because ,as a former high-ranking offi- Icial himself in the . C.I.A.'s clandestine services, he had the respect and power to ensure that the alleged illegal domestic programs would cease. Some sources also reported that there 'was widespread paper shredding at the agency shortly after Mr. Schlesinger began to crack down on the C.l.A.'s operations. . Asked about that, however,' - Government officials said that they could "guarantee" that the war member of Congress was C.I.A., similarly refused to di,- domestic iintelligence files were c ApprrffF rtKP6fePJ`1*fY0W08 : E7F 'F'1;'orcl's selection . of .an..Attorney . General. Edward Levi, is not the only, person. to restore the -tattered fabric' of law in this country. But he would be an ex. 'ceptional 'choice,' for this President end this time, and' to back away now would 'be' =one -more :surrender., 'fo 'unreason.'i) .. ?. . NEW YORK TIMES 24 December 1974 FORD BIDS COLBY REPORT QUICKLY ON C.IA DOSSIERS Account of Allegations About Domestic Spying Will Go Through Security Panel CONGRESS HEARINGS SET Chairmen of 3 Committees Planning Broad Inquiries as Protests Grow By SEYMOUR M. HERSH Speaai to The New York Times WASHINGTON, Dec. 23 ' - President Ford today ordered- William E. Colby, the Director of Central Intelligence, to re- port "within a matter of days" on the published allegations of illegal C.I.A. spying on Ameri- can citizens. Mr. Ford's call for an investi- gation, announced by Ron Nes- sen, the White-,House press secretary, at Vail, Colo., where the President is vacationing, came amid heightened ' Con- gressional concern and protest over the alleged domestic spy- ing, initially reported yesterday in The New York Times. Extensive hearings into the C.I.A. soon after `the new Con- gress convenes next month were announced by Senator John J. Sparkman, who will be- come chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee; Senator John C. Stennis, chair- man of the Senate Armed Serv- ices Committee, and Represent- ative Lucien N. Nedzi, chair- man of the Intelligence sub- committee of the House Armed Services Committee. Through Security. Council Mr. Nessen said the President ,had ordered Mr. Colby to sub- mit his report through the Na- tional Security Council, headed by Secretary of State Kissinger. "The purpose is to find out ;exactly what did happen," the press aide said. Asked about the future of Richard helms, the former Director of Central Intelligence? who is now Ambassador to 'Iran, Mr. Nessen cautioned newsmen to "put in perspec. ative what we have here." "We have a newspaper ac- count of past activities of the C.I.A.," he said. "That's all we have. We need to avoid hardening these activities into fact. Pending this [Mr. Colby's] report, it seems that to make this kind of judgment is' pre- mature." Violations Alleged The Times reported yesterday that, according to well-placed Government sources, the C.I.A. had violated its charter by mounting a massive intelligence' operation during the Nixon Ad- ministration against the antiwar movement and other dissident groups in the United States. Intelligence files on at least 10,000 American citizens were compiled, the sources said. Mr. Nessen also said that Mr. Colby informed the President last week of the pending arti- cle. Asked why Mr. Ford did not immediately demand a re- port from Mr. Colby upon learning of the allegations, the press aide said he was unable to provide any further informa- tion. - Asked why the White House was asking the C.I.A., in effect, to investigate itself, Mr. Nessen did not respond directly, but repeated only that President Ford had initiated the investi- gation. Mr. Nessen's comments cul- minated a confusing day for the dispersed Ford. Administration, which seemed to be unprepared for the reactions to the reports. of alleged illegal spying. News agencies initially re- ported today that the Justice Department had begun an in- quiry into the C.I.A., and later accounts said that Mr. Ford had told Secretary Kissinger to make the study. The confusion was finally resolved by a high-level Kis- singer aide; who told a news- man tonight that "what hap- pened is that the President has asked Colby to give him a re- port and Henry asked Colby to submit it to the President through the N.S.C. [National Security Council]." Earlier, the State Department announced' that Mr. Kissinger had asked Mr. Helms, who served as director from 1966 ;until 1973, for a separate report on the allegations. Mr. Helms has made no pub- lic comment on the published reports, but Robert Anderson, the State Department's spokes- man, told newsmen that the envoy would return to testify before any Congressional com- mittee seeking his appearance. There weer no immediate plans for his return pending such a request, the spokesman added,) Denies Kissinger Role Mr. Anderson said he could "confidently say" that Mr. Kis- singer had no knowledge of, any illegal domestic spying by the C.I.A. ' Asked whether'Mr. Kissinger should have known, as national security adviser, of such activi-i ties, he said, "I'd assume he'd j see projects done by the C.I.A.' that concerned national secu- rity affairs," I The C.I.A. officially remained silent. "We're not talking about that story," one agency officer told a caller. The most pointed congres-1 sional reaction to the allega-f tions of C.I.A. spying camel from Senator Sparkman, Demo-I crnt of Alnhama "I have been shocked by the' revelations regarding C.I.A. ac-i tivities in the United States,"; Mr. Sparkman said in a state ment. "This is a domestic mat-' ter but there have been other; operations of the C.I.A. in for eign fields that have disturbed the members of the Foreign Re- lations Committee." - To Summon Helms His hearings, he said, will concentrate on the C.I.A.'s for-i eign activities but, nonetheless,: Mr. Helms will be summoned; to testify "since many of the things being brought to light occurred while he was the head of the C.I.A." Senator Stennis, Democrat of Mississippi, said his panel also would conduct thorough inves tigation into the C.I.A. In a statement-issued from, this home in De Kalb, Miss.,` lMr. Stennis said the inquiry? would be "aimed at determin-, ing whether the agency is pres- ently operating within the let- ter and spirit of the 1947 basic; charter creating the organiza- tion." That charter bars any domestic activity by the C.I.A. Representative Nedzi, Demo- crat of Michigan, said the hear- ing would begin soon as the new. Congress was organized. He said his investigation would be conducted "in a mea. sured, comprehensive manner, letting the chips fall where they may." He urged Americans not to make "hasty judgments," adding that "some have already assumed the allegations and im-. plications to be facts." It was unclear tonight] 'whether the confusion over who] was investigating what in the Ford Administration was the result of official or press mis- , understandings. Participation Denied Earlier today a news agency quoted Laurence H. Silberman, the acting Attorney General, as saying he had been in touch with Mr. Colby and "the matter 'is under review." Justice De- partment officials . later said that Mr. Silverman had not meant to suggest that the de= partment was planning to par- ticipate in the review. In a similar misunderstand- ing, State Department officials later emphatically refuted re- ports from the White House press briefing in Vail saying that President Ford had author- ized Secretary Kissinger to conduct the inquiry into the C.I.A. They said that Mr. Kiss- inger, who is scheduled to be- gin a vacation in. a few days, ,would be involved only to the extent of relaying the report through the National Security Council to the President. At his news briefing, Mr. Nes- sen was unable to say whether Mr. Ford had been in telephone contact today with either Mr. Kissinger or Mr., Colby about the matter. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100340001-9 A pproved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100340001-9 l WASHINW.UN POS 24 December 1974 ~J K 0 By Murrey Marder Washington Post Staff Writer A presidential inquiry was ordered yesterday into allegations that the Central Intelligence Agency conduct- ed illegal domestic surveillance especially during the Nixon administration. In addition, up to four congression- al investigations. were proposed on the same charges. President Ford, who is vacationing at Vail, Colo., di- rected Secretary of State- Henry A. Kissinger to produce !! gence files on. at least 10,000; a report "in a matter of days"' Americans were maintained! on the allegations. Kissinger's L by the CIA in a special unit, inquiry will be conducted in and that the CIA conducted his dual role as presidential ! 1 surveillance of . groups carn- national security adviser and s ;head of the National Security tCouncil staff. 4 'Kissinger, aides said, has f asked Richard M. Helms, now l amba.sador to Iran, to report United States. h t e th th t arges e c a n c ton er on Under CIA's charter, the Helms' tenure as director of agency is forbidden to conduct the CIA from 1966 to 1973. police and internal security Liam E. Colby, the current CIA' operations in the United director also will submit a re- States, with that responsibility port for this inquiry. assigned to the Federal Bu-' Investigations into the alle- reau of Investigation. gations of illegal CIA activi- The accusations about mas- ties were announced by Chair- sive CIA surveillance of anti- man John C. Stennis of the war demonstrators were new. Senate Armed Services The charges of CIA break-ins Committee: by Sen. John and other . domestic surveil- Sparkman (D-Ala.), due to be- 'lance activities beyond its con- come chairman of the Senate gressionally authorized juris- Foreign Relations Committee diction have been raised be- in the new Congress in Janu- fore in many forms, but never ary, and by Rep. Lucien N. have been subjected to ex- Nedzi (D-Mich.), chairman of tensive public investigation. the House Armed Services [One CIA official, James' subcommittee on intelligence. Angleton, head of the agency's In addition, Rep. Thomas E. counter - intelligence division, Morgan (D-Pa.) chairman of intends to resign, not because the House Foreign Affairs tee, said he has of anysense of guilt, but be- Commit Commitee consultations about a cause he wishes to spare the started possible onsul a by his about a agency further controversy, an possiblcom- e source told the As-! sociated Press.] A sharp attack on the an- The multiplicity of investiga- nouncement t h a t Kissinger tions discussed y e s t e r d a y will conduct an inquiry into the CIA c a in c from Rrp. ! seemed likely to break the in-- Mass.), who repeatedly h a s charged that congressional monitoring of the CIA is to. tally ineffective. 11. .. President Ford's move (similarly) is a self-protective recoursenot likely to produce results or to lead to adequate oversight of the CIA," liar- ;rington said. He called for a select committee of the House to conduct the inquiry. This surge of projected in- ?vestigations followed changes published by The New York Times on Sunday that intelli,- Vietnam. In addition, apart from antiwar surveillance, the CIA was charged with illegal; break-ins, wiretapping and other surveillance in the headed off a public airing of !CIA operations in the twilight, !zone between covert foreign' and domestic activities. Informed sources acknowl- edged yesterday that this ,could lead to embarrassing dis-I closures of past CIA opera-, ti?ons in this country which i could raise questions of ille- gality. Some sources main. tained, however, that the alle- gations that the CIA was en- gaged in massive operations against antiwar groups in this country are considerably ex- aggerated. In either case, the agency's operations now seem likely to face' exceptional chal, lenge. White House press secretary Ron Nessen said yesterday! that "the President is trying to find out what happened, if anything." Nessen repeated, as Presi- dent Ford said on Sunday in Vail, that CIA Director Colby informed the President on Sunday that "nothing compar- able" to what was alleged as improper CIA operations is now under way, and that the President told Colby he would not tolerate any activities of that kind in his administra-I tion. However, Nessen disclosed yesterday that Colby had in- formed the President several days ago, prior to the publica- ion of the charges by The New York Times, that the Times was contemplating such a story. Nessen said he was uncertain when Mr. Ford receivrd that notification, and Ne6a9ii did not spell out the Presicient'e reaction to Colby's informs- Lion. Nessen did not expleta why no presidential inquiry Nessen denied a report yes-1 terday that the Juetlw t'dpart- ment is also they CIA's operations. "There is no :role for Justice at the mo- ment," Nessen said; "it is not involved in any way." Sen. William Proxmire (D-Wis.) on Sunday had called for the res- ignation of Helms and for a Justice Department investiga- tion. The question of Secretary Kissinger's awareness of any alleged CIA domestic spying operations during his years at the White House. also came up yesterday. The secretary "doesn't know anything about this," said State Department spokesman Rob., ert Anderson. He said "the. secretary has never seen anyl survey -of American citizens by the Central intelligence Agency, and he doesn't know if any such surveys exist." Anderson's comments ap- peared to be limited to dis- claiming any knowledge by Kissinger of CIA operations involving antiwar activists. It was not clear whether the denial also covered knowledge of all extralegal operations by the CIA in domestic activities. According to one source, any covert CIA operations, such as break-ins, conducted inside the United States, re- quire approval at the National Security Council level, ether by the President or by his special assistant for national! security affairs. Another source said domes- tic spying by the CIA long predates the Vietnam war con- troversy in this country and! the Nixon and Johnson admin- istrations, and supposedly was authorized only if there was a national security factor in- 10 vowing a foreign country. Other sources said the foreign link often. was tenuous or non- lexistent. Anderson said Kissinger will ask Helms to return from Iran if "a duly constituted congres- sional committee" wants him, to testify, but that at present! there are no plans for Helms' return. Although the White House spoke of a Kissinger report in "a matter of days," Kissinge - has been scheduled to leav Washington on Thursday fe a vacation in Puerto Rico,' t return on Jan. 2 or 3. The swiftness with whit congressional committee chall men acted to plan CIA inver tigattons illustrated the big s?nrsitivity that has been del eloping, in the wake of th Watergate scandals, to charge of 'v ,adequate congressiona supervision of the CIA. Fa yet :?s bills have been intrt du;.ed - and pigeonholed - t broaden this supervision, nos limited to a few senior men .hers of the Senate and Hous Armed Services and Appropr. ations committees who hav met infrequently and hav been protective of the CIA. ; Sen. Stennis said his con mittee will conduct "an jr depth investigation" soon alto Congress reconvenes to deter mine whether the CIA is oV erating "within the letter an+ the. spirit" of its 1947 charter Stennis emphasized that.. strong and effective CIA is es. sential for national securit- but that its power "does no include the operation of 2 domestic intelligence system.' "It is my firm belief," sai( Stennis, "that Mr. Colby, the present director, has beet faithful in observing the basic charter in operating strictly within the law." Stennis saic that last summer he supportei an unsuccessful amendment tc specify that the CIA's jurisdie tion was limited to foreign op, erations. Rep. Nedzi said that whal he has been told confidentially about the CIA "does not square with the article.' in The New York Times contain. ing allegations against the. agency. He said that in hear. ings he plans by his House in. telligence subcommittee, "I personally will make every ef? fort to assure that the public will have ample opportunity to judge the accuracy of the alle.- gations and the wider impli? cations without favor and with- out sensationalism." He cau- tioned against "hasty judg-11 ments .. . Chairman 'Morgan of the House Foreign Affairs Com- mittee said he is "greatly dis turbed" by the accusations be- cause "the, CIA's responsibili- ties lie strictly overseas." He said that while the House Armed Services Committee has primary jurisdiction over the CIA in the House, his coin-- mittee "will have jurisdiction, over foreign policy-related ac- tivities of the CIA in the nee Approved For. Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100340001-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RD.P77-00432R0001?0340001-9 ij W 1-4 %4 ~A &A %Z. U4 iv It continues to mystify us why the community itself. 1,a ;- n f h or ood reason astral Intelligence Agency, whose ^There is g P pt n t e ectiveness depends on the subtlety --- -- ies out its purview of the Federal Bureau of h i i t carr c vy with wh rd sav tal mission, manages to get involved Investigation, besides the simple mat- blic controversy after anoth- ter of observing the law. The CIA has one pu L r. Well, there go our superspies its hands full carrying out its foreign- .. _ _ - ?? - _-- .~__.1 ..... .,.: al. Amnriran ages because some of them apparent- interests under attack almost every- task the thi F s or uish between their place in the world. di tin l s g d not c~u meone else's Chalk up CIA needs a flexibility and a freedom d s k o an or . notber' propaganda coup for the from day-to-day public accountability m- ld co IA's foreign adversaries and domes- that, if suffered at home,.cou c critics', whether or not subsequent promise the constitutional rights of !?TA .....,.lr in_ erio blishes t i s us a on es ivestigat eedson the part of the agency. volves undramatic information-gath- l so en- Last weekend's report by The New Bring and analysis, the agency a e-scale domestic- clandestine operations that, f lar k Ti g mes o or s ntelligence activity by the CIA - again, cannot be countenanced on the _ _ m - TAT t .-- ?he ..1aer tion iol i v. ....... ...o-.....~ -- -- aa n v pnarently 947 congressional-charter - calls for authority to enforce federal law in this rnal i t i n e nst searching inquiry into what the ages- country, and to guard aga has been up to and what is needed subversion. ht track in the fu-. Admittedly there are "gray areas," i h i g e r t on t keep 'where the CIA's foreign counter-intel- roduced facts are il U , p more nt ire, t a final judgment ligence and the FBI's domestic-- ..411 ttem t p a no e on the allegations. But the claim that intelligence activities might overlap- . nn at least 10,E Americans, and en- nections and vice versa. But this vert i il c o aged in T~.oualega: ? ----- - - perations in this country, deserves volvement in the investigation of in in ru se s int ....?-- - y t c en gee SALVJt to be fol- testers and black extremists. There This ess f C i , . ongr on o ress are hints that the paranoia of the tive action if needed d b , y correc o~ is in the interest of American freedom . Nixon White I-louse was at work, as i f on act as well as the health :of the intelligence well as presidential dissatis NEW YORK TIMES 24 December 1974 unguarded Intelligence Yet another -conspiracy under the Nixon Administra- tion to defy the law and infringe upon the constitutional rights of American citizens has now sprung into the open. The domestic intelligence gathering operation of the Central Intelligence Agency, the maintenance of secret files on several thousand American citizens sus- pected of political dissidence were flatly illegal activities; there is no alternative now to invoking appropriate legal procedures against the officials responsible. The basic rationale for the C.I.A. as an independent. Intelligence organization is not at issue; it is unfortunate that a valuable, even essential, institution has been cast under a cloud by the misguided zeal of those inside and outside the agency who thought nothing of twisting and. misusing an important national asset. It is reassuring to hear from President Ford and the Wesent director of Central Intellgience, William E. Colby, Oat all such domestic surveillance activities have been g,qrminated; more to the point is how they could have been permitted in the,first place when Federal statutes so clearly bar the C.I.A. from internal security functions. In defending the C.I.A. against recent months of criti- cism arising from unwise but not illegal covert activities abroad, Mr. Colby has persuasively argued that the agency was simply carrying out the duly issued policy directives of the National Security Council. It will be with the FBI of J. Edgar Hoover and a breakdown of CIA-FBI cooperation. The Nixon crowd managed to involve the CIA peripherally ' in Watergate, sought greater participation in the coverup and perhaps succeeded in otherwise diverting the CIA from its legitimate field. The new allegations raise serious questions about the lead- ership of former CIA Director'Richard Helms, now ambassador to Iran. If an investigation proves it necessary, Helms should be called back to ex- plain his role. The objective of future investiga- tions should not be to destroy the CIA, which has performed much of its func- tion ably and is more than ever needed in these hazardous and complicated times. The aim should be to strengthen the CIA's effectiveness by keeping it on target. Better congressional over- sight would be a valuable safeguard, as well as a White House sensitive to the proper use of the CIA and deter- mined to' prevent misuse. President Ford promises the latter. In the process of eliminating any ambiguities about the CIA's lawful functions and assuring adherence to clear jurisdictional rules, the agency should benefit. At 'the least, it should get some blessed relief from the re- peated controversies that rob it of public and congressional support.. important now to learn whether this domestic surveil- lance ' program-unwise and illegal-was also initiated by the N.S.C. or the Nixon White House or, alternatively, grew up from the independent unchecked initiative of the agency's own Counterintelligence Department, most secret' and impenetrable branch of sheltered bureaucracy. Defenders of the intelligence community argue that domestic surveillance is permissible when clearly related to foreign. intelligence purposes. A more concrete attempt at justification arises from the decision in 1970 of J. Edgar Hoover, late director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, to cut off working relations with the C.I.A. Since the agency could no longer rely on the F.B.I., the body legally charged with internal security, it was pushed into its own domestic surveillance, so the argument goes. Professional rivalries are endemic among secret services; but this particular feud, stretching back even to the predecessor organization of C.I.A., has had deplorable implications for national security. This illegal surveillance operation and the failure to institute legal proceedings until after its public dis- closure suggest an intolerable breakdown of institutional checks and balances. For many years this newspaper- among others-has urged closer oversight by Congress of the intelligence community. But the first responsi- bility for preventing any further misuse of power must rest with the C.I.A. and other elements of the intelli- gence community, if they wish to continue receiving the trust absolutely required for the conduct of their mission. Approved For Release_2001/08/08 ; CIA-RDP77-00432R000100340001-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 CIA-RDP77-00432R000100340001-9 WASHINGTON POST 24 DEC 1971i. The C1iisis A ?,~ NOTHER JOURNALISTIC FLARE burst over the .t Central Intelligence Agency Sunday, briefly illumi- nating a dark corner of its activities barely glimpsed before. In the early Nixon years, the New.York Times reported, the CIA collected information on 10,000 or more American citizens who had some part in the anti- war and'other "dissident" rrioveruents. It did this despite a ban * in its legislative charter on "police, subpoena, law-enforcement powers, or internal-security functions." That ban was enacted precisely to block such use of a ? . .secret foreign-intelligence agency as a secret domestic police force. Coming hard on renewed public. agitation over. the agency's conduct of subversion in Chile, the new allegations have created .the most serious crisis.-in the CL4's 27 years.- - .In1969-70, it seems, President Nixon asked the CIA e eged spying and for to investigate whether. foreign, elements were behind improved general "oversight" of CIA. We have little the Vietnam war protests. Whatever Mr. Nixon's pur confidence in an investigation by either the Senate or poses in askin the ti g ques on, it was a legitimate one for ' . the . House committees which are supposed- to oversee a f r i i t l . o gn- e n e ligence agency to try to' answer. The = answer apparently was No..I3ut the matter did not end: - there. Somehow, the CIA undertook .(or intensified)- a reported program, apparently With MrColby's approval. However tortured the legal route may seem, we urge that it he explored. It holds high promise of disclosure of many hidden and' hard-to-find aspects of any sur- veillance program. Fear of prosecution. deserves to be fear of publicity to deter those. public officials who might be-tempted to spy on their fellow citizens. It should hardly be necesary to repeat, after Watergate, that officials must obey the law. We-presume that the initial quick look which Dir. Ford has ordered Henry-. Kissinger to take- in Dr.. Kissinger's capacity as White House national security advisor - will reaffirm this fundamental point. In the Congress, fresh appeals have been made for a specific investigation of - th all the CIA; their record; in so far as they have done any- thing at all, is one" of protecting the interests of the CIA rather than those of the. public. ~ - campaign of -surveillance, of American citizens. . They were not suspected of being foreign agents; or if, they. In fact, yesterday d 'number of congressional commit sere, the FBI should have been called. "We do not tar- tee. chairmen announced their intent to' delve into the get on American citizens," then-CIA director Richard'- new charges. But a'broader'apprmch is essential. The need is not. only to `get to th bottom of whatever hap- Helms said in a public speech on April 14,. 197E Ac- cording to the story in the Times, the surveillance pro `pened a few years ago but to translate concern over gram apparently was then in full swing: if that is in this particular episode into a solid institutional remedy fact the case, then 'Mr. Helms not only- violated the - -"a or all of the" perceived inadequacies of the CIA. The :egalstion governing CIA's activities but then lied group to take on- this task must be at once detached about it as well from the Executive (that rules out the President's Fox- It is said that .James R Schlesinger, briefly CIA's eign Intelligence Ad;~isory Board), expert and authorita- dirertor in 1973, uncovered the tracks of the program tive; a bipartisan select committee of the Congress -the anti-war movement was already dead of natural might be the best approach. Sen. Howard H. Baker Jr. causes. Dir. Schlesinger, now Secretary bf. Defense, and has proposed one such committee to survey CIA prac- his successor at CIA, William E. Colby, are also said fisting aaw the board to assure it is consistent with ex- to have found and stopped certain other questionable g law., domestic activities, including some touching Watergate. .An ' everi more satisfactory route lies in a seconc( On Sunday; President Ford reported Mr.. .Colby -. had proposal by Sen. Mike Mansfield (D-Mont.) and Sen. told him that "nothing comparable. to what was stated Charles McC. Mathias (R-Md.) for a select committee. in the ITimesi article was: going on over. there." Added It would assess the past record and future role of Mr. Ford: "I told him that under no?'circumstances American intelligence. On the premise that the 19-17 would I tolerate any such activities under this admini- law, which, brought the CIA into being was drafted ~tration." Then assurances area of course; beside. the under the shadow of cold-war circumstances that i ^ . The sec:c v which allows the CIA to conduct ll greatly changed, it would draft a new law cU:La;e, legal operations makes its formal denials meaningless. with new circumstances, domestic and foreign alike. The same secrecy makes it possible for the CIA. to en- Any lingering doubt as to the need for just such a basic cage in domestic spying in the future, with or Without and comprehensive procedure has been erased by the the President's knowledge or consent. new reports of domestic spying and by the govern. The Justice Department is already "reviewing" the ment's apparent inability to explain these reports away. 12 Approved For Re-Tedse 2001/08/08 :CFA=RDP77-00432.R00fl-1-00340.001-9 _ ..._.-. hpproved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100340001-9 BALTIMORE SUN 24 December 1974 We Don't Want ;.Senator William Proxmire is certainly correct for a prompt investigation of the latest charges against the Central Intelligence Agency. Those charges are serious and disturbing in the extreme. The CIA is accused (apparently by present and former CIA officials and by Federal Bureau of Investigation officials) of gathering information on private United States citizens. This intelligence gathering often involved violating the constitutional righU.of citizens. Even if it had not, it is wrong and illegal for the CIA to engage in such activity. That is sedret police stuff. When the CIA was created in 19 Congress took great pains to circumscribe the agnty. It was authorized to gather intelligence in for,);agn countries only. "We don't want a Gestapo," a cobgressman warned during the 1947 debate. ave we ended up with one? According to the allga4ons, the CIA compiled dossiers on thousands ofYeitizens, including members of Congress, that ag ts' deemed to be "dissidents." These were for the?most part members of anti-war groups, but some others who expressed political objections to one--or another Nixon administration policy also se to have been put under surveillance. All of this activity involving America citizens is said to have started in 1969, under Nixon, but there are also charges that the CIA operated illegally in this country prior to that by doing counter-intelligence wo 1c involving foreign na nals. a Gestapo Senator Proxmire wants the Justice Department to investigate these charges. It should begin at once. If illegal acts have been committed by officials, those officials should be charged and prosecuted to, the limit of the law. That would clearly demonstrate to the CIA, to other U.S. intelligence agencies that might believe they are somehow beyond the law, and to the American public that there is not going to be a Gestapo here, that it can't happen here. In addi- tion to a Justice Department investigation, there also ought to be a thorough airing of these charges .by the Congress. And we don't mean by the Senate Armed Services Committee's CIA Oversight sub- committee, either. That "watchdog" has been sleep- ing in the sun for 20 years, as one member, Senator Stuart Symington, has complained. A broader based investigating committee is called for, perhaps a spe- cial, short term committee like the Ervin panel of Watergate fame. Whether or not such a committee is decided on, and whether or not the charges now before the publ- ic.prove true, there is still a need for a permanent real congressional watchdog for the CIA and other intelligence gathering operations. The potential for abuse-the potential for a Gestapo-is too great to leave oversight to the sort of coziness that, to Congress' shame, has prevailed. If Congress won't protect the rights of citizens from arrogant bureauc- racies, who will? WASHINGTON STAR 24. DEC 1974. Approved For Release 2001/08/081 CIA-RDP77-00432R000100340001-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100340001-9 NEW YORK TIMES 25 December 1974 5 DISAVOWS 1LU6Ab' SPY11'G BY THE GIA.INUS 'alteged Domestic Operation Under His Stewardship Is 'Categorically Denied' N C Y AIDE. DISSENTS,' Angleton, Who- is Resigning His Post, Is Said to Agree By SEYMOUR. M. HERSR ' Special 'to The New York Tfinea WASHINGTON, Dec. 24-The; Si:ate Department 'said todayi that Richard Helms, former Di- rector of Central Intelligence! and now the Ambassador W !Gan, had categorically denied ta the C.I.A. conducted any 4~"ega1" domestic spying un- i r his leadership- - But James Angleton, who is ~,?igning as chief of the Coun-' ,A:Hatelligence Department and c lw has been publicly linked to t spying, was quoted today, 'as saying that he agreed with `wme of the allegations that %yew York Times. There is "something to it," r. Angleton told United Press Diternational. His resignation, effective at tt ie end of the month, became ,';Mown last, night. Meantime, . Representative ,Lucien N. Nedzi, chairman of the Intelligence subcommittee of the House Armed Services Committee, said in a television i:Aerview this morning, "There's been an overstepping of Controversy Grow$ 'You might call it illegalities ickarter," Mr. Nedzi, Democrat ~of Michigan, said. The denial from Mr. Helms was reported by Robert Ander- {s :n; State Department spokes- man, as controversy continued ,,So grow over the domestic spy- ing allegations. _ The spokesman said that Mr. ti'eims, who he said had left Iran on a prearranged home; leave that will bring him to Washington early next month, had telegraphed his denial in response, to Secretary of State' singer's request for a report. ,i Mr. Anderson, quoting from the telegram, said, "Ambasssa. dm- Helms has. categorically, With Some Allegations denied that under his steward ship the C.I.A. conducted illegal' domestic operations. against anti-war activists or dissidents, or that any unit to do such was created under him as director.". Mr. Anderson said that he had no further information.' . The press spokesman also announced that Secretary Kis- singer was expected to receive a report on the alleged domes- tic spying from William E. Col by, the current Director of Cen- tral Intelligence, and would for- ward it to President Ford, who is on vacation at Vail, Colo. Mr. Ford ordered yesterday that the report be made "within a mat- ter of days." Massive Operation A State Department official said this evening, that the Colby, report had been submitted to Mr. Kissinger at the close of the working day and would be sent to Vail on the' next White House courier flight. The Times reported Sunday.: that, according to well-placed Government sources, the C.I.A.. had violated its charter by. mounting a massive, illegal in- telligence operation during the Nixon Administration against. the antiwar movement and oth- er dissident groups. in the 'Unit-, States. Intelligence files on; at 'least 10,000 American citi- zens were complied, the sources said. Well-informed sources. said that Mr. Colby met with Mr. Angleton last Friday and. requested that he end his 31-I year intelligence career. In a telephone interview this; morning, Mr. Angleton, whol said that he had not slept the{ previous night, accused The; Times of "helping out the; K.G.B. [Soviet intelligence and internal security service] a great deal" by publishing his name and title in its Sunday dispatch. "You've done them a great favor," he said. Mr. Angleton did not deny, however, that he had been named and identified by a Brit- ish counterspy, Kim Philby, in "My Silent War," a book pub- lished in 1968 after he defected to the Soviet Union. Asked about alleged wrong- doing, Mr. Angleton said, "I've got problems." He explained his domestic activities this way: "A mansion has many rooms, and there were many thing going on during the period of the [antiwar] bombings. I'm not privy to who struck John." Mr. Angleton, who had been in charge of rooting out foreign espionage agents in the United States, later permitted news- men from three television net- works to interview him. Asked for reasons for the re- signations, he was quoted as saying: "Police state. . Soviet bloc . . fragmentation ... ' I haad a son in -the infantry In Vietnam. Went from private to corporal." Asked whether his son had been wounded, he reportedly said, No. I think -he's O.K." A number of present and for- mer C.I.A. officials expressed pleasure at the resignation of Mr. Angleton. Mr. Nedzi's televised inter- view marked the first public confirmation that any domestic wrongdoing had been commit- ted by the C.I.A. . A Question Remains "But the question of whether there's any ground for criminal prosecution still remains," Mr. Nedzi added. "I'm not aware of anything in the statute which set up the agent that provides for criminal sanctions." Mr. Nedzi, who is known to have discussed the domestic syping allegations last week with iMr. Colby, said "The infor- mation which. was given me does not square. with the infor- mation that has appeared in the allegations and the wider impli- cations of the stories that are circulating presently." There was some' "overstep- ping of bounds," Mr. Nedzi said, "but it,certainly wasn't of the dimension that we're led to believe when we draw the in- tendd implications,- as I se it, of what has appeared in the newspapers and._in, the media." He said that he planned to call Mr. Colby to testify at hearings into the CJ.A.'s al- leged domestic activities. Additional hearings were an- nounced today by Senator Ed- mund S..Muskie,, gdemocrat of Maine, whose Senate Govern- ment Operations Subcommittee met earlier this month to har testimony about revamping Congressional oversight of the C.I.A. Mr. Muskie said that he planned to initiate discussions early next week with Senator John C. Stennis, Democrat of Mississippi, chairman of the Senate Armed Services Com- mittee, to determine whether his subcommitte could shar access to classified intelligence material], which traditionally .has been supplied only to the Stennis panel. "There's really'nothing in the Senate rules that excludes oth- er committees from access to this information," the Senator said. Special Prosecutor Urged A call for the appointment of former Attorney General Elliot L. Richardson as a special in-I dependent prosecutor to inves tigate the C.I.A. spying charges was made today by Representa- tive Paul Findley,.Republican of. Illinois, who is a member of the House Foreign Affairs Commit- tee lit a letter to President. Ford, Mr. Findey said that neither denial of the charges by present and former C.I.A. officials nor an internal inquiry by the ex- ecutive branch would dispel doubts about the agency's do- mestic activities, "So tainted has the' C.I.A. be- come that nothing will suffice short of a full-scale investiga- tion and criminal prosecutions .where they are warranted," he said. . . He praised Mr. Richardson, who was recently named Am- bassador to England by Mr. Ford, for his "reputation for strict adherence to the laws and his unwillingness to back on a public commitment." Mr. Richardson resigned as Attorney General rather than carry out an order from Presi- dent Nixon to dismiss the first Watergate special_ prosecutor, Archibald Cox. . An' Admission 'Reported Daniel Schorr, a correspond-' ent for CBS News, reported to-i night that during a four-houri conversation with reporters Mr. Angleton "admitted keeping files on Americans like Blackf Panthers and antiwar demon- strators, but only after they'd contacted agents abroad." Mr. Angleton denied, accord-1 ing to Mr. Schorr, any specific; C.I.A. wiretapping or break-ins,; "but indicated the F.B.I. was, asked to conduct some to help i protect C.I.A. sources and methods. Approved-For Release 2001/08/08 CIA-RDP77-00432R000100340001-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R0001003i40001-9 WASHINGTON POST 25 December 19711. H.611m8 Rejects Charges glade about the CIA controversy, a spokesman said. No information was avail- able on the contents of Colby's report, nor would officials say whether it concurred with Helms' published denial. Despite Kissinger's dealings with Colby and Helms, State. Department spokesman Rob- ert Anderson said reports that Kissinger is conducting an in. quiry into the CIA charges are the result of "a misunder- standing." Kissinger "has not been asked nor is he conduct= ing an investigation of public Agar?ffit CIA allegations against the CIA, said Anderson. By Murrey harder Washington Post Staff Writer' Richard M. Helms "cate- gorically denied" yesterday that the Central Intelligence Agency under his direction from 1966 to 1973 "conduct- ed illegal domestic opera. tions" against opponents of the war in Vietnam. Helms, who has been U.S. ambassador to Iran since early 1973, also denied that "any unit" to conduct such activi- ties was ever created while, he was head of the CIA. That swec ing disclaimer by Helms of published charges that the CIA illegally engaged in domestic spying on war. critics during the Nixon ad- ministration was made public, without amplification, and without definitions of Helms? terminology. The Helms state- ment was issued by the State, Department in response to an inquiry to Helms from Secre- tary of State Henry A. Kis- singer. Helms was unavailable for any further explanation. The Helms denial' coincided with comments from the for- mer head of CIA counterintel- ligence. James Angleton, who has suddenly resigned, effec- tive Dec. 31, that published reports of CIA domestic oper- ations have been exaggerated;. but there is "something to it. Angleton, who said he re-. signed from the CIA because' his usefulness has been de stroyed by the controversy,; was quoted by United Press, International as also saying, "I; Chink there should be a full iii 'restigation." The State Department said Secretary Kissinger received. the report yesterday from the present CIA director, William 1. Colby, which President Ford ordered after the publi- cation of accusations that the' CIA breached its authority by conducting covert operations inside the United States. Kis? singer met with Colby late yesterday afternoon at the State Department, and offi- cials said Colby's report will, go out "on the next courier plane" to Mr. Ford at his Vail, Colo., vacation headquarters. Kissinger spoke to the Pres- Ident by telephone yesterday Kissinger is only acting on the President's instructions- "to transmit a report on these allegations prepared by MMr. Colby," said Anderson, in Kis. singer's additional capacity:. as assistant to the President for national security affairs. Despite that narrow def- inition of Kissinger's r o l e in, the ricocheting controversy, Anderson Baia Kissinger "earnestly hopes that judgments on these alle- gations will be suspended" un- til President Ford studies Col- by's report and decides if "further steps may be needed." State Department officials said they were not in a posi- tion to amplify Helms' denial which they made public yes-. terday, because, they said, it, was the substance of what they received from him in the Iranian capital of Teheran. Helms, they said, was re- sponding to charges initially published by" The New York Times on Sunday, which said that the CIA during the Nixon administration kept files on at least 10,000 Americans in a special unit and conducted surveillance of antiwar groups. The CIA, the account said, also engaged in domestic break-ins and wiretapping in the United States, although that also is legally beyond its jurisdiction. The latter charge has been aired before. Spokesman Anderson at the State . Department said, "Ambassador Helms has cate-, gorically denied that under his stewardship the CIA con- ducted illegal domestic opera- tions against antiwar activists or dissidents or that any unit to do so was created under him as director." Anderson said he was un- able to explain further how Helms was defining "illegal" or "domestic" or "operations." CIA officials regularly main-' tain that none of their opera. tions are ever carried out without prior official author-. ity. : Helms left his Teheran post yesterday, Anderson said, un- der arrangements made "last, October" for him to take leave at this time, and is scheduled to be in Washington about Jan. 2 or Jan. 3. That would be when Kissinger plans to re- turn to Washington from a va- cation in Puerto Rico, which is4 scheduled to begin on Thurs-! day. Anderson said Helms now is' "spending the holiday with relatives" in Europe. At the American embassy in Te- heran, a spokesman said yes- terday that Helms was una- vailable and his presentI v0hercabouts are ',classified." Sen. Edmund S. %-Iuskie (D- :Maine), chairman of a Senate !Government Operations sub- ploring more effective con- , gressional review of the CIA land the FBI, said yesterday: "Denials simply are notj enough. We have to know the i scope . of their activities, so we can judge for ourselves; whether they exceeded their' mandate and authority under the law. The legislation deny- ing. them [the CIA] domestic jurisdiction is clear on its face." Muskie said that the limited congressional review of the CIA's operations, and "the pressures generated within the last two days," require "vigorous" inquiry to produce "active congressional over- sight" of CIA operations. Sev- eral other committees earlier announced plans to investi- gate the current charges. Rep. Lucien N. Nedzi (D. Mich.), chairman of the House j Armed Services subcommittee i WASHINGTON POST 25 December 1974 on investigations, said yester-' day on the CBS Morning News TV show that his committee has discussed with CIA Direc- tor Colby the "overstepping of bounds" by the agency. Information was conveyed I to me," said Nedzi, "which sug. gested the overstepping of bounds, but it certainly wasn,t of the dimension ... of what has appeared in the newspapers .. " 1 1 Nedzi said he thinks it "can be conceded - any large bureaucracy i. there'sI .been an overstepping of bounds, some improprieties. but I want to emphasize that the information I have does not square, as I said,. with the information that is! being. circulated at the pres.j' ent time." Asked what he meant by I ' "improprieties," Nedzi said,' "you might call it illegalities in terms of - of exceeding i their charter." Nedzi said the! CIA "shouldn't be active in! .the United States, but the! question of whether there is any grounds for criminal! prosecution still remains. I'm not aware of anything in the l statutes" establishing. the! I CIA "that provides for . . . criminal sanctions." Nedzi said "it's my intent to hold a very thorough hear- ing, to make all of this infer-j mation public so that the pub-I lie can have an opportunity to' judge what precisely took .place." Accused CAA '. isdamus Spy Role By Ronald Kessler Washington Post Staff Writer James Angleton, the Cen- tral Intelligence Agency's counterintelligence chief, said last night he has no personal knowledge of al- leged CIA domestic spying activities but could not say that they have not existed. Angleton was named in Sunday's New York Times as having been overseer of a "massive, illegal" domes- tic intelligence operation by the CIA against antiwar ac- tivists and. other dissidents. The newspaper said the op- eration, which it said took place during the -Nixon ad- ministration, involved estab- .lishment of intelligence files on at least 10,000 Americans. In addition, the Times cit- ed "evidence" of other "il- legal" activities, beginning in the 1950s. that included break-ins, wiretaps, and sur- reptitious inspection of mail. In a rambling telephone conversation of more than a half an hour from his of- ed from the agency effective Dec. 31 but would not say. why or whether it was his own decision. He said he has sent his family to another part of the country because of fears for their personal safety, and he launched a personal attack on Seymour M, Hersh, who wrote the Times article. Referring to what he- called a 'masochistic" tend- ency in U.S. society, Angle- ton, 57, predicted the coun- tries under the influence of the Soviet Union would be- come more powerful than, the United States over the.- next five years. Asked if the CIA had en- gaged in domestic spying activities, he said, "I can't respond to this because 1 do not know." In response to this same question at a later point, he said, "Any informa- tion we have on a U.S. c'iti- zen is passed to the 'FBI on a daily basis. It's up to the FBI to determine it it's fice at CIA headquarters, ' In a third response to the Angleton said he has resign. 'question Angleton refer Approved For Release 2001/b%/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100340001-9 . Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100340001-9 WASHINGTON POST NEW YORK TIMES 26 December 1971+ 26 December 1974 ring' to the CIA, said, "It's 'broken up in many depart- ments. I'm not going to be an authority on this matter." He added, "Surveillance is . not' in my department.". "Although he said he has not studied the Times arti- cle, Angleton specifically, denied what he calls its "pri- mary" allegations concern- ing his role at the agency. He said no domestic surveil= lance was conducted in his' department, and he said no" congressmen were snooped: upon by anyone at the CIA. "The idea that the agen-. cy conducted surveillance of-: congressmen is false,"' ,the- 31-year veteran of the CIA said. , . -The Times reported that] at least one avowedly anti- war congressman had been under CIA surveillance, and ."other members of Congress were said to be included in I the CIA's dossier on dis- "As far as Seymour Hersh, I. think he's getting $75,000 or $175,000 for a book. I don't know what his purpose ih:..." Calling Hersh a "son-of-a- Angleton said the ?ttlitzer Pri7,,-winning re- ,,?p,,rter had awakened.him at 2 a.m. -to ask him about a story that had appeared ink The Washington Post. - "I find Hersh's prose offensive to the ear and his speech I won't go into how I find that." Angleton said that when he leaves the agency, "I will examine his article and see how much money he'll make and consider legal action." .Asked if he was referring to a libel suit, Angleton said his remark had been facetious. Saying he had thought his .comments had been off the record, Angleton said, "A, Western intelligence serv- ice has no hope of competing with police states. The op- position has 27 different serv- ices in the Soviet bloc ham- mering against the U.S." In the next four or five years, he said, "there will be a change of power in which we will back down or sur-. render" to the Soviets. IA Aide hai'ifies Etesignatia 111 "United Press Internationn: James Angleton said :'.'ster- day he was "asked by ' gher authorities" to resign Cen- tral Intelligence Agency coun- tetintelligence chief. He telephoned UPI in'','ash- ington last night and s d he Nyould like to get some zings "straightened out" from'.2revi- ous talks Tuesday and 4 ;ter- day. "My resignation was luc- taut," he said. "I was no ush- ed: The point I'm mak : ? is that the story [in Tht. :3ew YYork Times] was highly xag- ~gprated and as far as I'i con- cetned I had no knowle,'ie of ajiy activities of such 1:, the agency but I can't spt t for the agency." -He said he did no ecall saying Tuesday that did he knowledge of 1 eged illegal CIA domestic at ities. 'Why then, he was as, , did he' resign if he insis he t}?asn't "pushed." `,`Let's put it this wa An- leton said. "I was at I by higher authorities.' The allegations o CIA domestic activities in ling surveillance of as mans t 10,- 000 Americans were m I by 'hhe New York Times' o un- d'ay and President Ford ,ter- ed. Secretary of State I my 4.. Kissinger on Mont , to make a report "within, oat tPr of days." Earlier yesterday, Ar.'. ton suggested that UPI ? in touch with former FBI ent tm Papich in New i ?: ico about domestic espiona ac tvities. "'Sam knows," said ;-j *1e- tQn. - j?apich, now executive i ec- tpr of New Mexico's (t ;an- i~ed Crime Prevention ni- mission and an FBI age', or 30 years, told UPI in 1 tt- querque that moves were ,)t ttr destroy the FBI and C "What is taking, pla, , s lading to a complete c c iv and destruction of our it gence service operations, :'a- i9ich said. He said he did not. bi e 'e former Director Richar. 1. . elms had the CIA unde t e illegal spying activities ag n ;t antiwar activists in this (''i ,- try. i "I support Helms corny It, - IV -because I think the al. tions are absolutely fe _2 't said Papich. Helms has dc the allegations. "What is appearing it 1 e press concerning the CIA r. t? 'the 'FBI is a bonanza fo; I Soviet intelligence age v " Papich said. "They are lilt- r. their chops watching us I ,dress ourselves, observ while we destroy ourselve t L A: MAN FEARS FADING OF VALUES Angleton Ouoted, as Saying People No Longer Appear to Place Nation First WASHINGTON, Dec. 25 (AP) i-For 31 of his 57 years, James Angleton protected-the Central Intelligence Agency's secrets and agents from prying foreign powers; and now he worries that the values that guided him have passed out of fashion. After allegations that the agency's counterintelligence ef- forts also included illegal domestic espionage, he has re- signed with a denial that he was in any way involved in the alleged domestic surveillance. Here is a portrait of Mr. An- gleton drawn from people who know him: He joined the Office of Strategic Services, the precur- ? sor of the C.I.A.. in World War II. He had entered Harvard Law School after graduating from Yale right before Lhe war, but the, outbreak of hostilities cut short his legal education, and he was never to return to academic life. For much of his career, he matched wits with the intel ligence of uther coun- tries that were trying to spy on the United States just as the C.I.A. was spying on them. He served as head of counterintel- )igence since 1954. Suspicious of Soviet Out of this experience came a fundamental suspicion of the Soviet Union and particularly of the K.G.B., the Soviet ver- sion of the C.I.A. 'Mr. Angleton, according to a' person who knows him, was obsessed with the K.G.B. and its espionage potential. He was quick to spot its operatives pos- ing as Soviet diplomats, and he kept posted on contacts be- tween K.G.B. agents and repre- sentatives of other countries. He became known as a hard- line cold warrior. Recently he was quoted as saying that the Communist world . had not changed its goal of world dom- ination, despite detente. His speech is lacd with ref- erences to military balances of power and what he perceives as foreign threats to democracy and the security of the United States. "When we went into the [in- telligence) business, we thought of the country first," he was re- cently quoted by a friend as saying. "But things have changed now. People want their mortgages earlier, and personal security seems more important than service to the country." Reflecting on his long career,. he indicated an awareness that his view of the world was not necessarily shared by large seg- ments of society. He told an ac- quaintance that his intelligence work was "a 31-year associa- tion in the cause of national se- curity, which people no longer consider important." I. He is known to have strong feelings about each of the six C.I.A. directors he served un- der. The late Allen W. Dulles was his favorite because of the talent that Mr. Dulles recruited for the agency. John A. McCone, Mr. Dulles's successor, was a "great man," Mr: Angleton was quoted as saying. Richard Helms, the former director who has been linked to the C.I.A.'s alleged domestic espionage, also ranks high with him. William E. Colby, the current chief, and "Adm. William Rad- burn, who served briefly in the mid-nineteen sixties, are given lower ratings. Mr, Angleton's greatest enthusiasm is reserved for James R. Schlesinger, the'direc- tor for four months in 1972 and now Secretary of Defense. He is said to admire, Mr. Schlesinger's intellect and view of foreign powers. "No one in the Cabinet more truly understands the perils that this country faces in terms of the balance of forces," Mr. Angleton reportedly said. "Schlesinger is the shield for this country." Mr. Angleton once edited a poetry magazine in college,. and a friend says that he was on personal terms with Ezra Pound, T. S.. Eliot and E. E. Cummings. Mr. Angleton's resignation was announced Monday at a meeting of C.I.A. officials. His superiors praised his record and said that his resignation was not connected with the allega tions of domestic espionage. Mr. Angleton, a six-footer, with a professorial stoop, made' a few remarks. He talked of his good wishes for the agency's future, and of duty, country, ethics and the law. 16 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 CIA-RDP77-00432R000100340001-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R00010034OG01-9 NEW YORK TIMES 26 December 1974 CLIFFORD fAVORB A SPECIAL INQUIRY 14 INTO C.I.A. `SPYING'! Declares Investigation bye Regular Congress Panel Would Not Be Effective Special to The New York Times WASHINGTON, Dec. 25- Clark M. Clifford, the former ,Secretary of Defense who helped .to draft the 1947 legislation, setting up the Central Intelli- gence Agency, urged Congress today to form a special com- mittee to investigate the pub- lished charges of domestic spy- ing by that agency. -"Previous investigations into the C.I.A. by ordinary [Senate and House Armed Services] Committees haven't gotten very far," said Mr. Clifford, who served in President Johnson's Cabinet. "The seriousness of this is such that I would recom- mend a full and exhaustive in- vestigation by a special com-j " -Thus far, the chairmen, of; four panels - including the House and Senate Armed Serv-j ;ices Intelligence Subcommit- tees-have announced plans for full inquiries next year stemming from a report in The New York' Times last Sunday that the C.I.A. had allegedly mounted a massive and illegal ing the Nixon Administration. 50-Page Report Due In Vail, Colo., where Presi- dent Ford is skiing and work- ing, he told newsmen this tomorrow a 50-page report oni from William E. Colby, the Cen- tral Intelligence Director. Mr. Ford said that the document, which is being relayed to him by Secretary of State Kissinger, would be thoroughly studied be- fore the White House com- mented on it. Ron Nessen, the White House press secretary, said that the document included several ap- pendixes, but would not elabo- rate. In Teheran, Iran, officials at the United States Embassy said that Ambassador Richard Helms, who was the agency's director when the alleged spy- ing took place, had left the, country for an undisclosed des- Anation in Europe. The State Department said yesterday that NEW YORK TIMES 26 December 1974 Excerpts From '47 Law Creating C.I.A. Specialto The New York Times WASHINGTON; Dec. 25- Following is an excerpt from the 1947 law that created the Central Intelligence Agency, Title- 50, Section 403 of the United Slates Code: ? 403. Central Intelligence Agency There is established under the National Security Council a Central Intelligence Agency with a Director of Central Intelligence, who shall be the head thereof. The director shall be appointed by the President, by and with the ad- vice and consent of the Sen- ate, from among the commis- sioned officers of the armed services or from among individuals in civilian life.... 0 Powers and Duties (d) For the purpose .of coordinating the intelligence activities of the several Gov- ernment departments and Mr. Helms' trip, characterized) as a prearranged home leave? would return him to Washing- ton early next month. A Dental by Helms A "categorical denial" by Mr. Helms of the -domestic spying charges was relayed to newsmen yesterday by the State Department. The New. York Times, quot- ing well-placed . Government sources, reported, Sunday alle- gations that. the C.I.A. had 'violated its charter by con- ducting massive, illegal Intel- ligence operations aimed at antiwar activities and other American dissidents inside the United States. Intelligence files on at least 10,000 American citizens were compiled, the sources said. - Two days later, James Angle- ton, director of the C.I.A.'s !counterintelligence division and 'one of the officials singled out in The Times's article, resigned after 31 years of Government intelligence work. In a telephone interview, Mr. Clifford said that he had never been briefed on any domestic activities by the C.I.A. during his service from 1961 to 1968 as a member and later chair- man of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board. The board was set up by President Kennedy, after the, failure of the Bay of Pigs opera-: tion in Cuba in 1961, to provide' high-level outside review of secret intelligence operations. "What they [the C.I.A.] did was just never mentioned to us during their briefings," Mr. Clifford said. "These fellows [at the C.I.A.] obviously were oper- -ating with the greatest degree of secrecy." "I can tell you " he added agencies in the interest of national security, it shall be the duty of the agency, under the direction of the National Security Council- (1) To advise the National Security Council in matters concerning such intelligence activities of the Government departments and agencies as relate to national security; (2) To make recommenda- tions to the National Security Council for the coordination of such intelligence activities of the departments and agen- cies of the Government as relate to the national secu- rity; (3) To correlate and evalu- ate intelligence relating to the national security, and provide for the appropriate dissemination of such intel- ligence within the Govern- ment using where appropri- ate existing agencies and facilities: Provided, That the Agency shall have no police, subpena, law - enforcement did at their peril. If J. Edgar Hoover had heard of it, he would have come in blasting. It would have caused quite a snarl." Even before the drafting of the 1947 National Security Act -setting up the C.I.A. began, Mr. Clifford recalled, Mr. Hoover laid 'the lawdown: the F.B.I. was to be the sole. agency of the Government to handle mat- ters inside the continental United States." At the time, Mr. Clifford, now the senior partner in a Washington law firm, was a lawyer on the White House staff of President Truman. It took careful negotiations inside the Truman Administra- tion, Mr. Clifford said, to achieve a consensus on the powers of the new C.I.A. "We very carefully carved out their functions," he recalled, to re- strict C.I.A. operations inside the United States. Since then, he added, he knew of no secret White House [directives that would give the powers, or internal-security functions: Provided further, That the departments and other agencies of the Govern- ment shall continue to col, lect, evaluate. correlate, and disseminate departmental- in- telligence: And provided fur- ther, That the Director of Central Intelligence shall be responsible for protecting in- telligence sources and meth- ods from. unauthorized dis- closure; (4) To perform, for' the benefit of the existing intel- ligence agencies, such addi- tional services of common concern as the National Secu- rity Council determines can be more efficiently accom- plished centrally; - (5) To perform such other functions and duties related to intelligence affecting ' the national security as the- Na- tional Security Council may from time to time direct',' !C.I.A. any operational power in the United States, even in. 'the case of foreign espionage 1agents. "If a secret agent comes to the United States," he said, "the C.I.A. must immediately inform the F.B.I." If the published allegations are true, he said, "it means that the C.I.A. just chose to disregard what the limits of the act were." In - a subsequent telephone interview, Maxwell D. Taylor, a retired Army general who served on the President's For- eign Intelligence Advisory Board from' 1965 until 1970, also said that he had never been informed. of any domestic C.I.A. opera- tions. "I know the statute under Which the C.I.A. operates," he said. I General Taylor did acknowl- edge that some highly secret protocols to the 1947 act had been agreed upon. Those agree- ments are known to deal with the C.I.A.'s overseas activities. Approved or ReleaseeUM/08 : CIA-RDP77 ~0432R000100340001-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100340001-9 NEW YORK TIMES 26 December 1974 deaf or? C r6a xn a C.I? AS Grew Out of Pearl Harbor By DAVID BINDER Special to The New York Times WASHINGTON, Dec. 25- American political and military leaders created the Central In- telligence Agency after World War II as a needed instrument of global power. The concept had its origin in the failure of American intel- ligence services to coordinate {signals warning of the Japanese ;attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. As early as 1944, Gen. William J. Donovan, chief of the war- time Office of Strategic Serv- ices, proposed establishment of an agency to centralize intelli- gence efforts. . Yet the real impetus came from the decision of President. Truman in 1946 that the United States must shoulder new re- bponsibility as a major world power and should counter what was seen to be a menacing ex- pansionist challenge by the So- viet Union. Mr..Truman established a Na- tional Intelligence Authority in 1946 and, under it, a Central In- telligence Group-the foreruri- rter of the C.I.A. But genuine !centralization of United States [intelligence was still 'years' away. The Central Intelligence Agency was formally chartered' under the National Security Act air - in the expectation of sparking an overthrow of the! Communist leadership in Tira-i na. Nearly all of the invaders 1 were captured. `Soon the agency was super- vising the operations of another anti-Communist force-11,000 Chinese Nationalist trnons-or the eastern frontier of Burnia. The C.I.A. was also nar?chuting spies onto the Chinese main land and the Ukraine to make contact with other anti-Com- munists. In Western countries, mainly in Italy. France and Ge.many,! the C.I.A. was secretly sponsor ing scores of anti-Communist; political parties, newspapers.! radio stations, trade unions and even student groups. The double aim was, in the. words of an old C.I.A. man, "to. prevent Communist takeovers,' such as occurred in Czechoslo- -vaicia in 1948, and where pos- sible to push the Communists! back." Efforts Are Merged But grave shortcomings had emerged in the C.I.A. attempt to conduct the clandestine' col- lection of intelligence separate- ly from activist political opera-! tions. "They tended to cross: each other up," said an agency' veteran. i To eliminate rivalries, Walter Bedell Smith, the director from 1950 to 1953, merged the clan- destine collection operations, with the 'covert operations. Mr.1 Wisner was brought over from; the State Department. This was 'the birth of what the C.I.A. called its clandestine services. In addition, Mr. Smith and his deputy, Allen W. Dulles, placed new emphasis on the analysis of intelligence and on longer range estimates of enemy potential. Mr. Smith inaugurat- ed an Office of National Esti- mates under the Harvard his- torian, William Langer. The office soon became the apex of the intelligence commu- nity, a group of 10 seasoned military men and academics whose job was to sift through masses of intelligence data and make detached judgments on) major foreign developments in terms of the national interest. In the nineteen-fifties, the] C.I.A. also developed l?rge I ,scale intelligence service indus- tries, both in purely technical The United States was al-I ready enigaged i.n sporadic un ,dercover, political operations against ,'Communist forces at the time in Germany, Greece l and Italy. But the operations were initially conducted from! the Department of State under; Frank G. 'Wisner, a former O.S.S. officer. I `Commitment' Becomes Clear "Until 1950 nothing much was accomplished," Ray S. Liine, 'a retired C.I.A. official, recalled. "It was sort of a iioundering period." But Mr. Cline, who served as C.I.A.'s Deputy Director of Intelligence from 1962 to 1964, acknowl- dged that the agency "devel- eped a commitment to political operations" overseas at the very outset. terprises. By early 1951 the C.I.A. had i Dummy Groups Set Up acquired a manpower of about It financed establishment of 5.000 and its influence was two huge radio stations-Radio rapidly spreading around the (Free Europe for broadcasts tol world and through the Wash- East Europe and Radio Libera-1 i.tgton bureaucracy. It was tion (later Radio Liberty) for' powerful transmissions to the a period of adventurism'and of Soviet Union; It set up dum- some embarrassing defeats. 'my foundations,* dummy com-' Together with Britain's secret 'panics, dummy public relations intelligence service, the C.I.A.i firms and dummy airlines. It gan a series of small inva- [gent organizations nranda lae trade arsons of Albania-by sea and byI unions-all with a view to assist in penetrating foreign listened less and less to them countries. and more and more to his mili. On the technical side, the tary advisers. ' C.I.A.- sponsored development A decline in the C.I.A.'s ac- of a whole range of reconnais- Jcess to the White House set in, ranee and monitoring equip- and its role in policy formation ment, among which was thet ;continued to wane under Pres- 'high altitude U-2 spy plane. ,'dent Nixon. The agency's Starting in 1956, the, U-2s' )product remained much the ranged with impunity over the 1same. But' its customer had Soviet Union, China and later 'changed. Vietnam and Cuba bringing I President Johnson simply did back telltale photographs of not like the gloomy assessments missile sites and other military Hof the Vietnam war outlook installations. - When Mr. Dulles succeeded given him by the agency. Pres- Mr. Smith as Director, he per- ident Nixon was determined to suaded President Eisenao?cr tr end invoi t of United accept the C.I.A. as a national States forces ces in in the Inc:ochin- service reporting directly to the' conflict and did so through con-. White House, with its estimates: sultations with the trt.cs in- being considered essential ele volved rather than with his in- merits of the policy-making telligence advisers. Mr. Nixon and his national process. was the U-2, however, that security adviser, Henry A. Kis- caused Mr. Eisenhower one of singer, continued to rely on the his greatest embarassments. technical data assembled by the One of the spy planes eras shot C.I.A., especially for the con- down over the SSoviet Union in Educt of strategic arms talks - with the Soviet leadership. But 1960 on the eve of t e ire . h ident's intended summit meet. they were hardly interested in ing with the Soviet Union's Ni- the traditional intelligence esti- kita Khrushchev. The Adminis- mates of the C.I.A. tration at first denied that the In- late 1972, Mr. Nixon and craft was a spy plane, and then Mr. Kissinger agreed on a ma- President Eisenhower acknowl- ljor reform of the. C.I.A. The edged that it was and accepted President appointed James R. responsibility for the flight.! Schlesinger to replace Richard That was the.beginning of aril Helms as director and clean out unmasking of dozens of C.I.A. the agency. operations that had been con- In his few months as director, ducted more or less in secrecy -including the 1954 toppling Mr. Schlesinger forced the re- Of a Communist - oriented `tirment-or resignation of more government in Guatemala. than 1,000 of the 15,000 C.I.A. Defect Disclosed employes. His successor, Wil- The militant anti-Communist Liam E. Colby, 'a graduate of motivation of the United States clandestine services, proceeded Government continued undimin. with a structural reform in )shed into the Kennedy Admin- 1973, abolishing the old Office istration, which allowed the of National Estimates system. C.I.A.-managed invasion ~f The structural changes were Cuba to go ahead in ? April, 11961., demoralizing for many C.T.A. Its total failure revealed a se- oldtimers. But worse still was a sinus defect in the C.I.A. strut- series of revelations throughout ture-the men responsible for 1973 and 1974 that the agency analyzing and estimating intel- had been involved in some ligence were kept in ignor^nce questionable and even criminal of plans for covert operations operations in the domestic poli- like the abortive Bay of Pigs tics of the United States. Tnese landings. included the following: This was remedied under the tiThe use of C.I.A. equipment) new Director, John A. McCone, break into former t the C. LA. Watergate head- who gate saw to it that the analysts and estimators were consulted nuarters of the Democratic par. about. covert political actions. ; ty? qThe But the Cuba invasion dis alleged ged Nixon Administration's use of C.I.A. operatives closed another disturbing trend to monitor activities of political in United States policy-making: dissidents-a task nominally the tendency to allow relatively the responsibility of the Federal modest undercover intelligence Bureau of Investigation. .operations to balloon into large 4iThe assignment of the C.I.A. b to train more than 50 American military actions. police officers, including 14 It went that way in Indochi- from New York, in clandestine na, from Vietnam to Laos and arts. Cambodia, and the C.I.A. bore All these activities were in most of the public blame. apparent violation of the "The C.I.A. should have been miss' 's original charter and doing rifle-shot operations, not mission barring it from internal security effort, full scale military operations," "We were good and secret Mr. Cline observed ruefully. and highly until Still, 'he recalled the McCone 1965," Mr. Cline remarked. years from 1962 to 1966 as "a "Now the C.I.A. is in the open period of peak performance" by . and it looks bad. the C.I.A. "I am concerned because the There were C.I.A. voices then, idea is being skillfully promot- among -the analysts, warning led that subversion is a C.I.A. against, a deeper American in- Illlinvention,', Mr. Cline cdnclud- volvement. in the Indochina) ed "whereas it is a doctrinal conflict. But President Johnson `policy of thgRussians." Approved:For'Release 2001/08/08-:-CIA-RDP77-00432R000..190340001 9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100~40001-9 CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR 26 December 1974 Tighter ren cte NEW YORK TIMES 26 December 1974 Controlling the F.Q.I." From time to time since the death of J. Edgar Hoover, .members of Congress and others have murmured quietly about the need to impose more reliable controls on the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Perhaps Congress will be .jolted out of its slumbers by the revelations about the Central Intelligence Agency's illegal intrusions into the domestic security field, coupled with some devastating observations by William C. Sullivan, formerly Number Three man in the F.B.I., on its abuses and ineptitude in handling this responsibility-'a responsibility it botched from the start. Mr. Sullivan argues that the F.B.I. was not equipped- to undertake the domestic security function when Presi- dent Roosevelt first gave it the assignment in 1939 and that no really effective or' controlled program was ever developed. As a result, the activity was susceptible to abuse, as when the bureau accepted,such "purely politi- cal" assignments as checking up on opponents of lend- lease for President Roosevelt and opponents of the Vietnam war for President Johnson. Moreover, micro- phones, telephone taps and other electronic devices were among the program's principal tools. Mr. Sullivan notes that their use constituted invasion of privacy and, in .some cases, violations of the Bill of Rights. Mr. Sullivan is not sure that a domestic security program is necessary for the nation, but he is quite clear that if it continued, it should be taken away from the F.B.I. During his stint as Deputy Attorney General, William Ruckelshaus was planning a searching review of its func- tions and operations, but the "Saturday night massacre" killed that plan. The undisciplined helter-skelter growth .of the F.B.I. has never been checked or seriously analyzed. If the Department of Justice does not have the heart for resurrecting Mr. Ruckelshaus' proposed review, it is up to Congress to undertake both the hard analysis and the tasks of supervision and oversight which it has neglected for so long. By Robert P. Hey ' Staff correspondent of. The Christian Science Monitor Washington Talks with key congressional sources familiar with the CIA con. troversy over alleged domestic spy-, ing make clear that: o Congressional committees al- most surely will investigate and keep tabs on CIA activity far more strin- gently than in the past. This will be so regardless of how much truth the congressional investigations find in current charges that the CIA violated the law by massive domestic spying on Americans. e The c:iarges do not square with what key members of Congress have been told about past CIA activities in briefings with present CIA officials. These briefings would indicate that the charges are overblown. But if" congressional investigations should prove the charges are largely accu- rate, several congressmen would feel. they had been deceived by the CIA and would be furious. c Despite President Ford's order that Secretary of State Henry Kis- singer investigate the charges against the CIA, congressional investigations will go forward. At least three sepa- rate ones are scheduled to begin after the new Congress convenes in mid- January. 1966-73 period involved Sources note that it was the top CIA officialdom itself which is reported to have uncovered the domestic surveil- lance and stopped it - specifically James Schlesinger, now Secretary of Defense and previously director of the CIA. In advance of the hearings, con- gressional sources generally assume that no such widespread surveillance existed either under Mr. Schlesinger or William Colby, the present CIA director. Therefore much attention is expected to be focused on CIA activi- ties during the tenure of Richard Helms, now Ambassador to Iran; he was CIA director from 1966 to 1973. .Sen. John C. Stennis, whose Armed Services Committee will hold one investigation, cites as a prime pur- pose discovering if the CIA is "oper- ating within the letter and spirit" of the 1947 law which established it. He calls the CIA a "necessary com- ponent" of the U.S. military, but warns that it "must strictly observe" the law. In joining the general forecast of Increased congressional oversight of CIA activities, one important source notes that 1974 "has been a year of more concern about the CIA, and certainly this [new charge] will greatly intensify it." . He ticks off questions that have arisen about the CIA's activities dur- ing the year: ? . CIA's loan of voice-changer, wig, and other apparatus to Watergate burgler E. Howard Hunt. Originally they were used in the burglary of the psychiatrist of Dr. Daniel Ellsberg; there is some thought in Congress that they may have been retained by Mr. Hunt and used In Watergate activi- ties. ? Unsuccessful efforts by the White House to get the CIA to lie and block aspects of the FBI's Watergate probe. ? The suggestions of Watergate committee member Sen. Howard H. Baker Jr. that the CIA was more deeply involved in the Watergate break-in than is publicly known. @_ Disclosure that the CIA was involved in trying to "destabilize" the Chilean Government of the late Presi. dent Allende. Meanwhile, James Angleton has made known his resignation as head of the, CIA's counterintelligence oper- ations, according to the Associated Press. In its story on CIA acitivities, the New York Times charged that Mr. Angleton headed illegal domestic sur- veillance efforts. But in making known his resignation, Mr. Angleton said he was leaving for the good of the CIA, not becasue of any wrongdoing on his part. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-004315000100340001-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100340001-9 WASHINGTON POST 26 December 1974 Joseph: Ie raf t ? The COlby. Case Anybody who wants to know where it's at, in..Washington these days should pay ,close attention to William Colby, the director of the Central Intelligence Agency. For Mr. Colby is the model of the modern bureaucrat. In dealing with the Congress and the press he has been openness per- sonified. - often to the disadvantage of his: colleagues and superiors in the government. His case shows that the, sensational revelations about domestic. spying,. by the CIA, while connected. with. what used to be wrong here, have nothing., to do with -what' .is presently. the trouble in Washington. Mr..:.Colby is a. symbolic figure.. n. many-ways. He is-typical of the highly professional men (Princeton .and. Co- lumbia Law School) who could have ,made. it ,in private life, but chose government after the war because it, offered. more interesting jobs. His service with the government led; to a distinct institutional loyalty. 'Mr. Colby has been with intelligence serv- iees since. World War II, and with. the CIA for -a score of years. He is totally aware..of the adengy's bureaucratic In WASHINGTON POST 15 December 1974 terest.Ifthe.word'did not'have such 6 very bad connotation, he could fairly be called an apha?atch'lk.., ' Finally, Mr. Colby has experienced firsthand two blows shattering to the American bureaucracy. He was a lead- ing figure in the Vietnam War--both out in Vietnam and here in y'S ashing- ton. He was also involved in picking' up the pieces in CIA after the agency's role in Watergate (notably the Ellsberg break-in) began to surface. In the light of that experience, Mr. Colby's record is fascinating. He has broken with the tradition which made the top intelligence man a close- mouthed bad guy who took the rap, for : his bosses. On the contrary, Mr: Colby has made himself regularly available for speeches and questioning by cony gressional committees and interested. citizens' groups, including newspaper men. In dealing with the Congress, 11ir.. Colby has not merely talked to the se- lect number of senior senators and, representatives grouped together in- an "oversight committee." He has talked to the regular committees on foreign relations, appropriations, at-, omit energy and economic policy. He has indicated that he would welcome a new oversight committee, and would accept any membership on the commit tee the Congress chose to impose. In dealing with citizens' groups, he,. does not merely talk to friends of the, CIA. He met with over a hundred jour- . nalists during his first year in office,- and spoke to the Nieman Fellows ' at Harvard. He even exposed himself to a group -which has is its. Stock-in-trade hostility to the CIA-the Center for National ' Security , Studies, which staged a program that Included an en- counter between Mr. Colby and Daniel One inevitable result of such open ness is the circulation of stories very prejudicial to officials for whom direc, tors of the CIA normally show an exaggerated respect. For example, Mr. Colby-without being obliged to-told a congressional committee a lot of things about CIA activities in Chile" which put egg all over the, faces of former drector Richard Helms, Secre- tary of State Henry Kissinger 'and eventually President-Ford. Another indirect consequence, given the tenor of the times, is that a .great many other intelligence officers are spilling the beans about past oper- ations. Such sources have combined with a notable case of journalist over- play to yield the current crop of sto- ries about CIA spying on domestic dis- sidents in the Nixon years. I do not mean to minimize such ac- tions. If what actually took place was as advertised in the New. York Times by Seymour Hersh, then there were grave violations of the laws governing, CIA operations. tt. But no one should be under the im' pression that the spirit of the Nixon presidency is still dominant in Wash ington; There is no present threat to' .individual liberties from an all-power- ful Executive. The reverse is true. The real danger is weakness at the center, bureaucrats. playing to the press and the Congress, and demoralization all along the line. So those ...ho take upon themselves to be investigators and judges of govern-i ment behavior have all the more rea-' son to he careful and responsible, to note the present as'well as the past, and to avoid the hunt for scapegoats which now seems to be shaping up, > ' 1974, Field Enterprises, z c: ;SI fflies Who Canie.- to Dinner By Dorothy McCardle - John Al. Shaheen, who plans to start publishing an afternoon newspaper in New York, possibly some time next summer, says The New York Press, as he calls it, will be a $20-million enter- prise. A slight greying man, Shaheen was here as toastmaster at the recent Vet. erans of OSS dinner at the Washing- ton Hilton. He was chairman of the William J. Donovan Award Committee, which gave the 1974 Donovan award to William J. Casey, president of the Ex- port-Import Bank. Shaheen is, himself, a veteran of the OSS in World War II and so is Casey. Casey said that American and Brit- ish counter-intelligence units had the "closest thing to a decisive clandestine impact on the war in Europe. It came not from the hundreds of anon and thousands of weapons parachuted into Europe, but from a handful of real German spies captured and turned around In England, and a couple of dozen imaginary spies in an imaginary network carrying out imaginary opera- tions within England." According to Casey, "The fact is that our side operated the entire German intelligence network in England, writ- ing their reports in London and send- ing them to the Germans by radio or with letters to Madrid or Lisbon in se- cret ink or microdot. "These fictitious reports convinced the German ,generals and finally Adolf Hitler that the Allied landings would come, not from Normandy, but near Calais, 100 miles to the North." Casey, who has been chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission, and Under Secretary of State, said that the Central Intelligence Agency, which grew from the OSS, is far more than a spy operation today. "The CIA is one of the world's -great centers of learning and scholarship, having more Ph.D.s and advanced sci- entific degrees than you are likely to find any place else," Casey said. In his speech, Casey set the record straight about that "Wild Bill" nick- name given Donovan. "Donovan's manner was deceptively mild," /said Casey, relating how Dono- van's soft voice and gentle manner had caused some people to change their opinion of Donovan. Said Casey: "Donovan came into town as 'Wild Bill' and left as Sweet William." Approved For Release 2001/0918 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100340001-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100340b01-9 NEW YORK TIMES 27 December 1974 s !VAGUE IcJ1973CIScYBiD But Denied Domestic Roid' -House Unit Linked Him to- Discussion of Plan By SEYMOUR N. HERSH Special to Tho Nev York Times WASHINGTON, Dec. 26 Richard Helms told the Sen- ate Foreign Relations-Commit- tee in 1973 that he could-not "recall" whether the Whiter House had urged the Central Intelligence Agency to engage in domestic spying because of increasing antiwar activity in 1969 and 1970. a, ahe Nelms testimony, taken at a secret Senate committee hearing on Feb. 7, 1973, camel four months before the first pub'is hed accounts of Mr Helm's participation in the so-1 called Huston plan for domestic, spying, put forward in 1970 ber, Tom Charles Huston. The plan, which called for. some [ covert operations acknowl- edged to be illegal, was never' officially put into effect by the; Helms Denial Recalled Documents made available }last July by the House Judici-, ary Committee's impeachment: inquiry showed that Mr. Helms, been an active participant in the various working sessions Ion the plan. The State Department an-' pounced Tuesday that Mr. Helms had categorically denied in a telegram from Iran, where he is United States Ambassa- dor, that the C.I.A. participated in "illegal" domestic spying while he served as its director ,from 1966 to 1973. ,from. Helms has since left his `post and is officially reported to be on a prearranged leave. In Vail, Colo., where Presi- dent. Ford is continuing his working-skiing visit, the White House announced that it was awaiting a special report on the domestic spying allega- tions. Mr. Ford, chatting with news- men before the report's arrival, indicated that he might make ,the document public. It is said to total, 50 pages with addi tional appendixes. "I wouldn't rule it out," hey said. "It will depend on the content." Ron Nessen, the White House press spokesman, later told re- porters that he did not know what would be done with the document. The Ford Administration hasi made no official denial or con-; firmation of the alleged spying! since the initial published re- port in The New York Times; on Sunday. The Times, quoting well-1 placed Government sources, said that the C.I.A. had vio lated its charter by conducting massive and illegal intelligence operations aimed at antiwar and other American dissidents inside the United States. Intel- ligence files on at least 10,000 American citizens were com- piled, the sources said. The subject of domestic, C.I.A. intelligence was raised, repeatedly during Mr. Helms's secret Senate confirmation tes- timony, timony, as the Senators focused, questions on the fact that two) of the five men arrested eight months earlier in the.Wategate break-in had some connections. Mr. Helms assured the. com mitte that the agency had not ben involved in any domestic: spying. At one point, Senator Clif- ford P. Case, New Jersey Re- publican, posed the following questions: "It has been called to my attention that ih 1969 or 1970 the White House asked that all. intelligence agencies join in the effort to learn as much as they could about the antiwa- move- ment, and during this period United States Army intelligence becamg involved and kept files on United States citizens. Do you know anything about the activities of the C.I.A. in that connection? Was it asked to be involved?" "I don't recall whether we were asked," Mr. Helms re- I sponded, "but we were not in- volved, because it seemed to me that was a clear violation of what our charter was." A moment later, he told Senator Case what he would have done if someone had re- quested the C.I.A. to become involved in dcmestic opera- tions: "I would simply go to explain to the President this didn't seem to be advisable." In his May 22, 1973, state- ment on Watergate, President. Nixon disclosed that he met with Mr. Helms and other top intelligence officials on June' 5, 1970, to discuss "the urgent need for better intelligence op-1 erations." i That report led to a series of recommendations drafted . by Mr. Huston and approved in writing by Mr. Helms and others. The recommendations called for break-ins, wiretaps and the surreptitious inter- ception of mail, acts acknowl- edged to be illegal, to meet the alleged threat from antiwar and radical groups who were said to "seek to confront all established authority and pro- voke disorder." The House Judiciary Commit- tee's documents show that on July 23, 1970, Mr. Helms re- ceived a top-secret memoran- dum on the domestic intelli? Approved { gence plan from Mr. Huston.! ported the options selected by' The memorandum called for thelthe President," he said. C.I.A. to join other Government) In its Sunday dispatch, The intelligence agencies to evalu-!Times quoted a high-level Gov- 'ate, report on and carry outlernment intelligence official as the "objectives specified"-thatlacknowledging that the C.I.A's- jt, covert actions. 1 decision to maintain domestic Five days later, the memo-Ifiles on American citizens "ob- randum was recalled because of1viously got a push at that an objection by John N. Mit- time." chell, who was then Attorney Nonetheless, Mr. Helms as- General. sured the Senators during his In an Aug. 5, 1970, leter urg-C February, 1973, testimony that ing Presidential approval of the,he believed "100 per cent" in program, also included in thelthe 1947 legislation setting up .House documents, Mr. Hustonithe C.I.A. That legislation bars said that the C.I.A. and thelthe agency from having any military intelligence agenciesipolice function inside the "all have a great stake and al United States, great interest." "All of these agencies sup- WASHINGTON POST. 27 December 1974 CIA Probe Asked for By Clifford By Ronald Kessler Washington Post Staff Writer Former Secretary of De- fense Clark M. Clifford yester- day called for creation of a congressional committee simi- lar to the one that investi- gated the Watergate scandal to probe charges that the Cen- tral Intelligence Agency en- gaged in domestic spying. Clifford, who helped draft the 1947 legislation creating the agency, said a_joint com- mittee of the House and Sen- ate, with an adequate staff, is needed to air the charges that appeared in last Sunday's New York Times. The Times alleged that the CIA had. mounted a massive, illegal domestic spying opera- tion during the Nixon adminis- tration. The activities were said to include creation of files on 10,000 antiwar dissi- dents, wiretapping, mail inter- ception and break-ins. The legislation creating the CIA makes it clear that it, may I not engage in domestic activi- I ties, Clifford said in a tele- phone interview yesterday. "There have been a series of incidents that have involved the CIA," he said. "It seems to me we should have an investi- gation in depth. The time has come for the Congress to look searchingly into the CIA in light of conditions in 1975 to see if improvements are needed in the act." The 94th Congress will convene Jan. 14. President Ford yesterday re- ceived a 50-page report on the allegations from CIA Director , William E. Colby. Ford said he would not rule out making the report public, although presi- dential spokesman Ron Hes- sen later said parts of the re- port are classified. The alleged overseer of the spying operation, James An-1 gleton, former director of the i CIA's counterintelligence divi-, Sion, was quoted yesterday by l United Press International as saying he resigned from the agency because "higher au-1 thorities" wanted him to leave. J In an earlier, Washington! Post interview, Angleton said he had been asked some time ago about his activities at the CIA by the office of Watergate Special Prosecutor Leon Jaw-. For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDR17-00432R000100340001-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R00010~340001-9 NEW YORK TIMES 27 December 1974 o LA?'s Budget Is So Secret That Even 1 ost'Mennbeih o .By DAVID E. ROSENBAUM Special to The New York Times WASHINGTON, Dec. 26-Ev- cry year, the Senate and House! vote to allot money to the Cen-' tral Intelligence Agency. But most members of Congress do. not know how much money they are allocating, or what it will he used for. In fact, they do not even known when they are voting to allocate it. It is a system that has been in place since Congress agreed, by law, 25 years ago to let the C.I.A. decide how much Con- gress and the public should know about the agency's activi- ties. And the agency's budget is one of its best-kept secrets. . To monitor the agency, the Senate and House have formed small subcommittees of senior members, most of them politi- cal conservatives, who, accord- oing to experts, rarely challenge the figures and information supplied to them by the agency. Following a report by The New York Times last weekend that the C.I.A. had allegedly mounted a massive intelligence operation against dissident groups within the United States, in direct violation of the law, Congres:._nen of both par- .ies and various ideologies and many other influential persons' have called for detailed Con-1 gressional reviews of the agen-i cy's operations. Proxmire Asks Action "Immediate and severe action is necessary," said Senator Wil?' liana Proxmire, Democrat of Wisconsin, in a statement that was echoed by many others. "The seriousness of this is such that I would recommend a full and exhaustive investiga- tion by a special committee," said Clark M. Clifford, the for- mer Secretary of Defense, who' helped to draft the original legislation that established the C.I.A. , Similar statements have been made each time there has been an intelligence scandal since the agency was created by Con- gress in 1947. Yet, Congress has beest reluc 'tant to act. More than 200 measures designed to make the C.I.A more responsive to Con- gress have been introduced in the last quarter century, buti none hive been enacted. The infrequent Congressional investigations have been held in closed sessions and have pro- duced little change in Congres- sional oversight procedures. Congress has continued to al- low the agency's budget to be camouflaged in the stated budgets of other departments and agencies, and the appropri- ations to be spread throughout a number of different appropri- ations bills. - There is not a single line item in the Federal budget or ,a single dollar figure in any appropriations bill that can he identified as applying to the intelligence agency. The prevailing view in Con- gress seems, to have been. that expressed three years ago by Congress Know Nothing About I Senator John C. Stennis, Ilcmcr surveillance activities and a? Senate Foreign Relations Com ,;crat of Mississippi, who is the special Senate committee to' j single most influential member faird House For be en study how the Senate could im- :fairs es Committee are to be i of Congress on intelligence prove its oversight of intel-' g ven ?matt.ers, more access to the information "You have to make up your ligence matters. 1 about the C.I.A. in the next mind that you are going to( The House Armed Services Congress. I have an intelligence agency and) 'Committee considered but did protect it as such and shut your not act this year on a measure eyes some and take what ist that would further define the; .coming," Senator Stennis said prohibition on C.I.A. activities; ,in a Senate floor speech. His fear and that of many tin domestic intelligence. - I other members of Congress and I The Senate Government] the intelligence community is Operations Subcommittee one reportedly that, if knowledge of Inter- Governmental Relations; X.I.A. operations become wide- ;held two days of hearings one spread in Congress, some Sena- the Senate bills earlier thin tors and Representatives may !month. They, like the House' -disclose confidential informa- "tion that could endanger the ]bill, are likely to get further .-country. hearings next year. Congress had delegated to In addition, members of the four subcommittees, two in the Senate and two in the House, .its oversight function with re- gard to the Central Intelligence Agency. The Senate and House Armed Services Committee each have intelligence subcommittees -made up of the senior members Af the full panels. The Senate subcommittee has five mem- bers, headed by Mr. Stennis. The House subcommittee has seven members, headed by Re- presentative Lucien N. Nedzi, .Democrat of Michigan. The Senate and House Ap- propriations Committees also have subcommittees dealing with funds for the intelligence agency. In both cases, the sub- committee members are the five senior members of the sub- committees that deal with de- fense appropriations. The subcommittees seldom meet. This year, the Senate Armed Services subcommittee net twice, the House Armed Services subcommittee 7 six times and the Senate Appro- priations subcommittee five times. The 'House Appropria- tions subcommittee did not re ,port a record of its meetings. Minutes of these meetings) (were not kept, and in most cases the actions taken were ,not recorded. Not only was the (public thus kept in the dark, but so were the other members of Congress. "I do not think there is a nmant in the legislative part of the. Government wiio really knows what is going on in the intel- ligence community, and I am terribly upset about it," Sena- tor Howard H. Baker Jr., Re- publican of Tennessee, told his colleagues in a speech on the Senate floor last October. Senator Baker and Senator ;Lowell P. Weicker Jr.,Republi- .can of Connecticut, introduced legislation in September that would create a 14-member Joint House-Senate Committee on Intelligence Oversight with jurisdiction over all intel- ligence-gathering activities. Other bills that were intro-j duced in the Senate this year! would establish a joint commit- tee on national security, a joint committee to study government, "It is the .duty of Congress, not the option, in a democracy, to police the vast American in- teliigence set - up," Senator =Weicker said at the Govern- ment Operations panel's hear- ings on Dec. 10. "It won't. wash," he added,' expressing a view that seems to be gaining more support in Congress, "for Congress tQ complain that it was not in- formed of some nefarious ac- tion when Congress has permit- ted itself to remain ignorant or; passive when knowledgeable." JAPAN TIMES II December 1974 `CIA Using e?urdes To Aid .ran Repression' NEW YORK' (Kyodo-Reu- ter) - A Denver lawyer who recently returned from a fact- finding trip to Iran said Mon- day he was - convinced that U.S. resources were being used through the Central In- telligence Agency (CIA) to as- sist a repressive regime. that American resources were being used through the CIA to "enhance the Shah by assist- ing him in his pattern of re- pression." Iranian jails now held an estimated 20,000 to 40,000 po- litical prisoners, he'said. Reynard is a board member William Reynard told a of the Unitarian Universalist news conference thht political Service ? Committee, which dissidents were often tortured, . was founded in 1939 . to ' rescue the majority of offenses were Czechoslovakians from the tried by military courts bar- Nazi threat and, which has red to civilian lawyers and a sponsored a number of inves- military panel decided cases tigations of alleged human on hearsay evidence prepared rights violations. by Savak, the Iranian secret With Reynard at the news police., - conference were Iranian .phar- No witnesses were allowed macologist Ebrahiem Yazdi to testify directly, he said. a n d Pulitzer Prize-winning American journalist Frances Reynard said his 10-day in- Fitzgerald, who has visited vestigation had convinced him Iran. 22 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100340001-9