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January 2, 1975
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25X1A Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R0001003513=-5 NEWS, VIEWS and ISSUES INTERNAL USE ONLY This publication contains clippings from the domestic and foreign press for YOUR BACKGROUND INFORMATION. Further use of selected items would rarely be advisable. No. 1 3 January 1975 GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS Destroy after backgrounder has served its purpose or within 60 days. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004-5 - Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004'-5 M-Sh'INGTON STAR O2 January 1975 T.3 elde-77- ?7. ? Colic:earning the current fuss &out Eve Central Intelligence rrencr, a few observations: I. There was never a clear- er distiretiori between what ale lawyers call malum pro- Lbitrizzr, and malum in Se. The !farmer 'describes something pear are not permitted under fee lava to do for reasons de- eded taraan by the legislature, tar; not necessarily connected laNiquestions of good or evil. An emanple is stopping for a zed /igira. If you are in the mid- Le of a alesert, and come to a, cross, ruad, and easily estab--' t-hat there is absolutely no -traffic onming in on the right, or on the left, you are never- theless earpeered to stand rantionraas until the light-turns green. a-lt if you proceeded, ar,aciluae:at confident that no oze weeeld be hurt by your taing s), you would be corn- raheing a maluiri prohibiturn, far vel-r.Lth the traffic cop hid- e:se bend the Coca Cola sign eaaild ..aarm up and give you a tizet.Eatt no one could seri- ously. aucu -e you of having aitlied anybody's life or limb. cetntrast, a malwri in se rt.-.1.74 rase crossing the light for S'a'ke of. a few seconds' WASHINGTON STAR 02 January 1975 11 ! advantage notwithstanding that there were pedestrians and other cars exercising their right of way. What might then result is an accident; a death, even. In all the thousands of words devoted to the accusations levelled by Seymour Hersh in the New York Times (Hersh' discovered My Lai a few years ago), there is nowhere evident any substantive evil allegedly committed by the CIA. That is to say, everybody is saying: The CIA performed certain acts (bugging, infiltration, col- lecting data) that, under the law, should have been per- formed only by the FBI., Therefore let us have a com- plete investigation of the CIA, and so on. It remains to be asked: if what the CIA allegedly did would have been legal if per- formed . by the FBI, then, shouldn't the furore be limited to the kind of furore appropri- ate to, say, the Department of Agriculture's doing something that really should have been done by the Department of the Interior? 2. Where are the broken bodies? Under the law, a Fcr-a:lert civil libertarians, the head- EU: Stf1.17.7-: emerging from the Ica- week V! the cr....a year which Most affected the freedom of Americans wasn't ? 'itrolving- the Cehtralittelli- ? se ,::..gency. It was the news. that ? :..e ateain?for the second time in 11 rtectits--someone acting out a bizarre .and pnaentially violent fantasy, on an impula? had invaded the White House No databt New York Times reporter Sernciae Hersh's story of alleged CIA darnesate surveillance activities will be even priority attention by the Ford administration and several Czphol Hill .0.-imrniztees in the months to-come. And. the cions-and-dagger specter of an. in- cipient CIA police state is sure to be raised., with renewed vigor, befare vari- ens potitical and editorial audiences. YET? DESPITE all the alarms we ketir abaut government-inspired in- fringements on individual liberty, for most Americans any recent loss of rights zald privileges we once, took for granted hasn't resulted from an un- assertion of police authority. On the contrary, it has derived from a breakdown in respect for law and insti- Approved For Release federal organization is enti- tled, under rigidly prescribed circumstances, to tap a tele- phone, or to infiltrate an organization. Question: where is the trail of palpably inno- cent people whose rights were trampled upon? It used to somewhat discon- cert the more inflamed critics of Sen. Joseph McCarthy that it was not possible instantly to point to the carnage caused by him in the State Department: that is, not all that many peo- ple were actually dismissed from their jobs during the dread reign of terror. By the same token, I should hope that the accusers would come forth and show us not merely that the CIA had al- legedly violated a legislative protocol, but that the CIA had interfered with the practical 'liberties of genuinely patriotic dissenters who had no ties whatever to any foreign government. 3. The answer is that it is" largely an ideological fuss. The CIA is the hobgoblin of very little minds today. There are many reasons why this is e Lawl S tutions, to the extent that the lawless are inspired to act upon impulses which, in another era, might have been re- strained.. ITEM: There was a day in the not- too-distant past when an American citi- zen could go to an airport, buy a ticket and board a plane, with no more incon- venience suffered than that brought on by a slow-moving ticket agent. No more. We've lost that freedom. Surrendered it, if not happily, at least willingly. A federal agency enforces new, restrictive regulations governing entry to commercial aircraft. Not be- cause the agency sought or wanted that authority. Yet it has it. Why? ITEM: Remember when a citizen who came to visit a senator or congressman in the Nation's Capital could enter a Capitol Hill office building without hav- ing to submit to a police inspection of a briefcase or purse? No more. Oh, the inspecting officers etre pate enough, and the examination the so, not least of them that there are many American, and many of them in positians of influence, who a) do ttot like America very much; and b) have no particular quarrel with America's enemies, or with those who practice a way of life alien to American tradi- tions. Frank Mankiewicz, princi- pal adviser to Sen. George McGovern, can come back from Cuba and praise Fidel Castro for doing far less for Cuba than Adolph Hider did for Germany. Penthouse magazine? a jour- nal substantially oriented for the kinky set, is tatting out full-page ads on a CIA expose in which it is charged by the author that the current direc- tor of the CIA is better equip- ped to superintend Himmier's concentration camps than American security. They are ganging up on the CIA: because they don't be- lieve, many of them, that - America oughf to be- in the- business of defending people,. here or abroad, from such blessings as Castro has brought to Cuba, or Mao Tse- rung to China. is cursory. But with that search, some- thing undesirable, if necessary, has entered into the relationship between Americans and those who represeat them in Washington. Indeed, our most important publlie buildings?in certain metropolitan areas, even private buildings?are no longer places where free men and women can go about their business- without search or interference. Why? THE ANSWER to these questions lt.P.; nothing to do with the CIA, the FBI or any other law enforcement authority's willful intrusion into our lives. There are, you see, other tyrannies than those imposed by a police state. There is also the tyranny that comes to pass when some men act out their bi- zarre and potentially violent fantasies; to the end that in a country where pnoe the White House lawn was open to the public there is now a need for an even more forbidding fence to separate the people's house and people's president from the people. 2001/08/08 :,(CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004-5 NEWSDAY 24 DEC 1974 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004-5 IA Serves a PreidentiaI Master The CIA should be more -accountable to- Cohgress, an perienced journalist says, ,but .if it has exceeded its author- ity, the President, not the ageney, should be held responsible.; By Michael "Bornrian The first time I visited CIA headquarters many years ago, I was so preoccupied with staring in every corner for a spy that I, absent-mindedly put a lighted pipe in my topcoat pocket and forgot_ about it. Ten minutes later, while I was deeply engrossed in _conversa- tion with a CIA official, a young secretary poked her head in thedoor and said: "Mr. Dorman, I hate to inter- rupt you, but your coat is on fire." Actually, only the pocket was on fire?but the blaze could have-spread to Lord knows what secret files if we I had not quickly thrown ? the coat on the floor and -stomped on-it: For years, I continued to wear the-coat? _minus .the pocket. lining?on the theory that it made a, fascinating conversation piece. I have visited the CIA many times since then, and I am continually reminded that I remain one of a relative handful of journalists who do so on a regularbasis. ? Yet., it see-ms, every, clown. who owns or can borrow a typewriter is now making the CIA his pet whipping boy. I do not intend here or anywhere else to issue a blanket defense of the "agency," as many in Washington call it. I believe the 'CIA is subject to valid 'critieism. But am appalled by the uninformed and demagogic attacks that descend on the agency every few years and nOw.appear to be reaching an all-time crescendo. Only Sunday, the New York Times revealed that the CIA allegedly compiled dossiers on 10,000 Americans who opposed U.S. participation in the Vietnam war. The Times account quoted "well-placed government sources"- as saying that a special unit, reporting directly to former- CIA Director Richard Helms, conducted a massive domestic intelligence- operation during the 1960s and: early 1970s in violation of the CIA charter. The opera- tion was said to have included break-ins, -wiretapping I and the surreptitious inspection of mail'. To put these events in perspective, we need to exam:: me the origins of the CIA. During World War II, the U.S. limped along ?with a jerry-built intelligence opera- tion. The fabled Office of Strategic Services, generally called the preleccesor of the CIA, was not really a na- tional intelligence-gathering agency. Numerous civilian and military agencies ran their own spy operations with little central coordination. The National Security Agency, the legal supervisor of the CIA; and the CIA were created hy the National Security Act of 1947. It is .from this law and the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949 that the CIA draws-its mandate. `11.e CIA was empowered to "talviee the National Se- cerity Council in matters involving such intelligence ac- - ti.ities . . . to correlate and evaluate intelligence relat- ing to the national security and previdc for the apprcpriate dissemination of sueh intelligence within the govern-tutu using; where appropriate, existing agen- cies and facilities . . . and to perforin SUCII other func- tions and duties related to intelligence afirc!ing the no- tiGnal security as. the National Security Council inc:y front time to time direct" (emphasis added). The italicized provision has been the most trouble- some for the CIA. But it must be considered in the light ; of certain prohibitions ? placed - by Congress in the 1947 ! Jaw. The CIA is barred from exercising "police, subpena, law-enforcement or internal-security functions." In other words,. the CIA, unlike, the. FBI, cannot compel an. American citizen or even an alien to do anything. A CIA agent cannot make an arrest, cannot legally conduct wiretapping or other surveillance activities within the ?U.-S. or even investigate radical groups within the country. That is the law. Whether it is obeyed to the letter is questionable. The Watergate affair clearly demonstrated violations of the spirit and letter of the 1947 law. And while the CIA may have had legitimate functions in Chile before the fall of President Allende, that role surely did not include protecting ITT investments at the expense of corrupting the Chilean political process. - On Dec. 13, (before the story in the Times), I con- ? .ducted a lengthy' interview with William Colby, the cur- rent CIA director. We discussed in de-tail the overlap between legitimate CIA operations abroad and domestic threats to the national security. Many such threats origi- nate in foreign countries, Colby said, but pose 'difficult intelligence and law enforcement -problems within the ' U.S. He contended that cloee cooperation among CIA, other intelligence agencies and the FBI prevented abuses of the CIA charter while preserving national. se- . curity. He conceded that; there had been some abuses in past years, but contended that they had been magnified by critics of the CIA. - -- In my opinion, the CIA often is blamed for the sins of other government agencies. Thus, members of the an- tiwar movement who found themselves barrassed by government agents often railed against the CIA when the .appropriate target of their criticism should have been the State and Justice Departments, the White; House, the FBI, the Secret Service or the Internal Reve- nue Service. In only rare cases, as far as I have been able to discern, were CIA employes involved in such harassment. It is norteheless clear that any CIA surveillance en-I eration within this country is connary to the agency's .charter. If the revelations in the Times are indeed tree,, the CIA was acting illegally and should not have done' so. But, for example, a CIA agent. keeping tabs en a. Communist official abroad might properly fi-tes' a re-port, on a meeting between the offit ml and a prominent nrei- war activist like Jane Fonda. That recort Would not nee- Essarily constitute a violation of Miss Fonda's constitu- tional rights. The accountability cf the CIA hinges on the role of the National Security Council. Although the National Security Cauneil is treated by 'law as a distinct govern- ment entity, it actually tenetions as a branch of the White House. It is composcd of the President, the vice I,residcnt, ;he secretary of state, the secret3ry of defce._e and the d;rector of the Offe of Emergency Piannin.,-. in additien, the I'resident may appoint other tneicheni, :torn -:;:e i.ith-cribinet. There is also a profes- shiree; laaniett Pre-:dent's special re,eisaant for Da:it:nal security. ? Thus it ;s obvioua that the CIA is direfaly accounta- ble to the President and his aides. While CIA must re- port to Congress on some of its expenditures and poli- cies, the executive branch clearly controls the agency. I view as sheer balderdash the commonly held theory ,a that the CIA is a law unto itself?currying on all man- Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004-5 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R00010035000415 ? rer cf secret missions and even small wars without the knowledge or consent of the White House. Anyone who truly believes that knows little about how the federal bu- reaucracy e.-orks. I amnot, imagine any President, secre- tary of state, secretary of defense or special assistant for national security affairs-being so trusting of a govern- rr.ent agency as to allow that to happen. . I have dealt closely with CIA officers?not only headquarters officials but field operatives?for two dec- ades. I have tramped many a muddy boondock with agents who asked little except that the tweed-jacketed? executives back at headquarters try to -understand the problems of field work_ is the main, I have found CIA cfficers at all levels to be intelligent, dedicated public servants. They are no different, in most respects, from other civil servants. They have homes, wives, husbands, children, mortgages, gardens and hobbies. _ _ Nonetheless, We. need a new look at the CIA. The President's virtual unilateral control over CIA and other intelligence agencies should he. limited. Obviously, any tinkering should not prevent the governmentfrom mov- ing with dispatch in an emergency. But there ts no rea- son, for example, why Congress could not be represented in some manner on the National Security Council. Nor is there any reason whe the appropriate congressional WASHINGTON STAR 01 January 1975 in his well-appointed Mos- cc:: office on the third floor of the gray stone building at 2 Dzerzhinsky Square, Junf Vledimirovich Andropov will be having himself a good laneh as he reads the news direnatc'nes about the problems of the Central Intelligence. ? Agency. trendropov, a tall, scholarly 6C-rear-old, is chairman of the Kanitet Gosudarstvennoy Besapasnasti, the Committee foe State SI- -unity, rhe Russian ceenterpart of the CIA and FBI. Andropov, who distin- gu.'ir'ned himself as Soviet affetassador to Budapest by pretrsling over the liquidation ' of fee Hungarian revolution of 1955,, is a far more powerful Ma7 than was either the late J. Telger Hoover or any of the six men who have directed the CIL since its creation in 1947. 2Z RUSSIAN superspy, wire took over the direction of the KGL in 1967 (a year after Rtzhard Helms, now American ambassador in Teheran, 'be- come CIA director), in 1973 be- came the iirst head of the se- 3 cret police since Lavrenti Beria to be elected to the all- powerful 17-member Politburo that runs the Soviet Union. As KGB chief, Andropov di- rects the activities of an estimated 90,000 staff officers (a figure that dwarfs the per- sonnel strength of the entire Western intelligence communi- ty). One of the primary tasks of Special Service II of the KGB's First Directorate is the penetration of Western intelli- gence agencies. ANDROPOV'S predecessors succeeded brilliantly in the case of Kim Philby, who until his defection to the Soviet Union in 1963 had been a Sovi- et agent for 30 years, and for some years theBritish intelli- gence service's top liaison man with the CIA. Insofar as is publicly known, there has never been anything comparable in the CIA to the Philby affair, no top-level penetration of the agency by a KGB agent. / And the man who since 1954 has been charged with the re- sponsibility of preventing the Russians from insinuating NEW YeRIC TIMES 29 Decether 1974 Close Survey of C.I.A. Opposa by Goldwater PHOENTX, An:., Dec. (AP) --Congress will be making "a big mistan" if it undertakes too strong an investigation of the Centrlill Intelligence Agen- cy for anged domestic spy- ing, Senator Barry coldwater, Republim, of Arizona, said cnrnjuecs should- not exercise more public supersision oyer intelligence matters. The Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic En- erzy, for example, conducts ?many public hearings that do rot reselt in disclosure . of vital government secrets. While some congressional hearings on CIA are public, far tco mane others are conducted behind cicsed doors_ As a reseit, many members of Congress who do net serve on the CIA cversight cernmittees are denied information to which they are entitled. The American public, as well, is kept in the dark about too much CIA business. ? It is just such secrecy that contributes to the mys- tique surrounding CIA?to the agency's .detriment. We. tweet become more realistic about our intelligence agen- cies. They should not become bogeymen. But they have. And the time is at hand to remedy that situation by snaking necessary reforms- and, equally: important, by edjusting cur perceptions. Michael Dorman, a Dix Hills resident, is the au- thor el "The infernal !ianey-Making ..1fachize," -a beeek about Robert Vesco scheduled for pit..blica- tia early aext year. He is now at =if:2 on a politica! biography of George Wallace.. ? ???-1 LEI,) agents into the CIA is 57-year- old James Angleton. Angle- ton's resignation from the CIA ? and those of three of his top aides ? became effective yes- terday, in the wake of charges that the counterintelligence chief directed the illegal sur- veillance of more than 10,000 Americans under the Nixon administration. Angleton, an accomplished botanist, the friend of poets, and 'a Yale graduate, has been portrayed by certain former CIA officers as an unrelenting Cold Warrior who saw Communists under every bed. But that, after all, was his job. And it is not one that is likely to make its holder very popu- lar with his colleagues. ANGLETON, who is said to have kept a hand-written list of the holders of the 50 CIA posts the KGB would most like to penetrate (and to have kept their holders under surveil- lance), is reported to have asked the FBI in the late 1960s to conduct an investigation of ,a handful of CIA officials of whom he was suspicious, in- .cluding two men still with the -agency. The FBI probe, ac- today: ? Mr. Goldwater, holding his annual news conference from his home, said that he had no knowledge of domestic spying but that the C.I.A. should be allowed to keep "domestic subversives" under surveillance. "I don't think . anybody could say we don't have some people who wouldn't want to overthrow the Government," cording to an informant of the New York Times' Seymour Hersh, was little more than a perfunctory whitewash. In his 1971 novel, .?.The Rope-Dancer," Victor- Mar- chetti, a former CIA official, described "Frank Welling- ton," the fictional head of the agency's counterintelligence branch, as an anti-Communist fanatic who had never com- pletely recovered from a nervous breakdown. Is "Frank Wellington" James, Angleton and, if so, is Marchetti's por- trayal of him anywhere near accurate? BOT HELMS and Angleton deny that they were involved in any illegal domestic spying. If they were not, who was? Or was anyone? At this. point in time, as someone once put it, nothing is certain. Except that Yuri AU- dropov anel all the gang at 2 Dzerzhinsky Square must be beside themselves with glee: When this thing has run its course, there may not be enough left of the CIA to make it worth the-KGB's time to penetrate it. he said. "It would want to know more about the back- ground of people like Daniel .'Ellsberg and what's behind them." He also said that he could .not support Vice President 'Rockefeller for the Republi- can Presidential nomination .in 1976, but "would be active in support" of Gov. Ronald Reagan of California. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004-5 10-1-SUAY inc 1971+ Approved For'Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004-5 flj i (PCD ACV .11 13" rrearlaaaa-A If the Central' Intelligence .Agency really has accumulated .files on more than. 10,000 American citizens, there are two - obvious questions to be answered: (1) How was the CIA able to violate with such im- punity the federal. charter that specifically prcfnibits it from domestic spying? .(2) Why did the agency choose to break .the law rather than turn the cases over to the -Federal Bureau of Investigation, which has the statutory .responsibility .for domestic counter-intelligence? There's only one way to get the answers to these questions: The congressional com- mittees that are supposed to oversee the CIA's opera. tions must demand them from Richard ? Helms, who was director of the agency during the time when the illegal spying was allegedly 'undertaken on grand scale, and from other present and. former CIA and FBI officials who 'can throw some light on the tensions between ? those two bureaucracies. And as Michael ,Dornian Suggests on today's op-ed pope. the congressional hearing's should be: as public as possible. It's not enough for President Ford to ask Henry Kissinger to investigate and re- port back to him in a few. days. In the first .oalace, that kind of haste world only guar- antee a skin-deep probe rather than the "penetrating investigati011" 1017.ner CIA Director John McCone has .Called for. In the second, Kissinger himself has been so closely involved with CIA operations?for instance, the findermining of the Allbnde government in Chile?and intelli- gence-gathering techniques of questionable legality?for instance, the wiretaps on several of his subordinatesthat no in- vestigation of his would bc convincing. AdrnTttedly the. Senate and House Armed Services subcommittees responsible for looking over the CIA's shoulder have seldom exhibited any dc.sire to know more than the agency desires to tell them. In fact, the s,lhcoMmi I tee chi irman?Senator John Sennis and Representative Lucien Nedzi?were apparently briefed on the 4 domestic-spying operation ?last year by CIA Director William Colby, and there's no evidence .that they revealed it. even to ether subcommittee members, much less to the public. But now the chairmen have no choice in the -matter; unless they show some determination to clip the agency's wings when. it gets out of hand, the 94th Oangreas is apt to turn the job over to ?sorriebody else. . ? NO doubt a Democratic Congress can -extract .sorrie partisan advantage from bringing the CIA under more ? effective .control, especially in view of the agency's role .in the. Watergate horrors. But the ' .matter goes far beyond partisanship.. HelniShimself was named CIA director by President Johnson, and there have bcen hints that the agency conducted illegal domestic operations almost routinely in the Eisenhower years under its original director, the late Allen Dulles. The congressional .investigators should range freely over the links between the CIA and the FBI. Domestic spying by the CIA becomes more comprehensible if J. Edgar Hoover's animosity made it impos- sible for the FBI to follow up the lends it got from the agency?hut of course the remedy for that is better ervision Of the bureau, not broader rower for the. CIA. When. the agency was established in 147, Congress deliberritely excluded it, from internal-security matters becat?-e it didn't want to create a gestapo or KGB- type apparatus. A con;,,,ressional hivetiga- tion is needed now to find out just far - far off its reservation the CIA has stroycd. But the real question is. not. how and the agency came to C.o things it ought have left. to the FBI; whether ------ things can justifiably. &P i'at io'eo open society. It does us no geoci to rote.a break-ins, ...virctaps, surveillance by the CIA if ei ::;-ovenm:cnt cin t.:,; to t1,-/, bycl-,:?. vie the vr_;licies m,v3r. In short, those who invcstioal a the CIA should have one eye on its and the :..,ther on the Bill of I-Ur:Its. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004-5 Approved For Release 001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004i5 WASHINGTON POST 28 December 1971+ LG 0 _ JL11.:ZeRIS Unit its IALTe Kissinger Asks President to Order Probe By William Greider Washington Post Staff Writer Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger and others have urged President Ford to appoint a citizens com- mission to investigate the accusations -of illegal domes- tic spying facing the Cen- tral Intelligence A gen c y, administration sources said yesterday. The sources said Kissinger discussed the idea with the President and Whita House chief of staff Donald Rums- feld by telephone earlier this week, before a 50-page report by CIA Director William E. Colby was sent to the Presi- dent, who is vacationing in Vail, Colo. . In Colorado yesterday, a presidential press aide de- clined to comment on the re- port that Mr. Ford is consi- dering such a step as an an: swer to public controversy over the CIA's domestic ac- ' tivities. According to one source, the idea was pushed by Kissinger and others wbthin the admin- istration and outside the gov- ernment in the hope that such a forum would stem public controversy and provide a re- view of the allegations of CIA spying in a "rational, unemo- tional and careful manner." If the President makes such a move, it is not expected to deter the various congres- sional committees which al- ready have announced plans to investigate the charges, the source said. Rep. Lucien Nedzi (D-Mich.), chairman of the House Armed Services ? sub- committee which oversees the ?intelligence agency, said yes- , terday he intends to proceed! with his own hearings, in open session. "We have our own responsi- I bilities to pursue," Nedzi said, "and I don't see how that would be affected by an inde- pendent commission." Meanwhile, a leading con- gressional critic of the CIA, Rep. Michael J. Harrington (D- Mass.), filed a lawsuit against the government yesterday in U.S. District Court here, action" against foreign govern:. ments are both illegal activi- ties under the agency's origi- nal charter. "How many times can the CIA violate the law before corrective action is taken?" Harrington asked. According to an administra- tion source, publication of the Colby report to President Ford "will cause some hell" with foreign governments, though he would not elaborate on why. The White House has ;aid Mr. Ford is considering whether to make any or all of the CIA report public. "There is no reason for Jerry Ford to cover anything up," the source said, implying that any controversial epi- sodes described in Colby's re- port pre-date Mr. Ford's ten- ure in office. Nedzi, who had been briefed previously on CIA domestic activities of questionable legality, also em- phasized that the episodes in question date from a prior time and said he has been as- sured that they have been dis- continued. "In all probability, the Na- tional Security Council has been aware" of the CIA's domestic surveillance activi- ties," Nedzi said yesterday. The council, which reports directly to the President, has been headed by Kissinger since 1969. In a telephone interview, ,Nedzi told the Associated Press he based his statement on the fact that the security council "generally oversees those activities [of the CIA] that are not routine." Nedzi said he presumes he was given the same informa- tion that is contained in the ,report sent to President Ford. Administration sources: would not discuss which pri-i vate citizens might be ap- pointed to the inquiry, but ac- knowledged that the commis- sion approach would not en- tirely stem public ,skepticism about CIA activities. "I think if it got the right people on it to establish the facts," one well placed source' said, "it is less likely to be driven by-the spirit of the mo- ment than congressional inves- tigations would he." Rep. Harrington's lawsuit names CIA Director Colby, Kissinger and Treasury Secre- tary William E. Simon. as de- fendants, and seeks an injunc- tion prohibiting any further "covert action" against foreign governments. Kissinger is held responsible as national security affairs adviser to the- President and chairman of the 40 Committee, which clears CIA actions. Simon is named charging 'that the CIA's do2 as dispenser of federal funds mestic spying and its APPlicVed For Release 2001/08/085 NEW YORK TIMES 28 December 1974 A Suit to Curb C.I.A. Activities Announced by Rep. Harrington ,By DAVID BINDER Special to The Nrx York Times WASHINGTON, , Dec. 27? Named as defendants in the Representative Michael J. Har-I suit are William E. Colby, thel rington filed a suit today in Central Intelligence Director, Federal District Court here to Secretary of State Kissinger in? force the Central Intelligence his capacity as national security Agency to halt covert interven- adviser to ? the President, and tion in foreign countries and Treasury Secretary William E. domestic surveillance activities. Simon, for allegedly providing The Massachusetts Democrat lunvouchered funds to the told reporters that he had agency. brought the court action "to Mr. Hh?rington said that the force the C.I.A. to obey its charter"?that is, the National suit would cost him "nothing,' Security Act of 1947. 'directly." Michael Krinsky, an He added that under his in- assistant to the law firm, said terpretation of the law, the that the fees for the suit would ' be absorbed by the firm and agency had . overstepped the would amount to no more than rules ? by covert operations " abroad and by "involvement in several hundred dollars."- the Watergate affair and the Mr. Harrington, who has activities of the White House been a sharp critic of CIA. plumbers." activities over the last year, Mr. Harrington submitted said "The failure of Congress" reports published by The New to provide adequate legislative oversight was "an ,incentive" York Times during the last ? week concerning alleged C.I.A. for his suit. " domestic espionage operations It's my belief that the CIA. as further indication of "illegal has systematically violated its charter in the foreign field." activities" by the agency. Meanwhile, in Vail, Colo., he said. His suit lists 65 points Ron Nessen, the White House of alleged C.I.A. "violations," the press secretary, said that Presi- including its involvement in dent Ford was reading a 50 abortive 1961 invasion of Cuba, - the 1954 overthrow of the page report on allegations that Guatemalan Government and the C.I.A. participated in illegal domestic spying during the support of a rebellion in Indo- Nixonnesia in 1958. ' Administration. Mr. Harrington, who is a Mr. Harrington said that he lawyer, said that he hoped the had asked the New York law court action would at the very firm of Rabinowitz, Boudin & Standard to prepare his suit as least bring about a binding in- a result of "revelations" last terpretation of the. 1947 statute . September that the C.I.A. had regulating the C.I.A. engaged in actions against the Chilean Government of Dr. Salvador Allende Gossens. The Allende Government was over- thrown by a military junta in 1973. to the agency. Harrington cited as illegal a long list of known activities by the CIA, ranging from its se- cret intervention against the government of Chile to its in- volvement in the Watergate affair and its cooperation with the White House "plumbers" who committed a burglary during the Nixon administra- tion. The lawsuit argues that the 1947 National Security Act limits the CIA to foreign ac- tivities "relating to intelli- gence" but does not permit paramilitary assaults like the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in 1961 or financing a coup against the premier of Iran in 1953 or a variety of other di- rect actions which the CIA has taken against foreign govern- ments over the last 25 years. Harrington said Congress had made "a dismal record" of supervising these secret activi- ties, though 'he is also advocat- ing congressional action to OlitkaRDPWFLOG402R000401) for oversight of the CIA. Agency officials have ar- gued in the past that their le- ? gal authorization for covert operations is contained in a blanket directive in 1947 which sans the CIA should -perform such other functions and duties related to, intelli- gence affecting the national seeuri,ty as the National Secu- rity Council may from time to time direct." Harrington told a press con- ference yesterday that this , language is ambiguous at best and, in his judgment, does not permit secret investigations because it includes the words, "relating to intelligence.- [Sen: Barry M. Goldwater: (R-Ariz.), in his annual news, .conference at his hilltop home! 'in Phoenix, said Congress willi be making a "big mistake" if , it undertakes too strong an in- vestigation of the CIA. He said the agency should be al- lowed to keep "domestic sub- .versives" under surveillance.] 350004-5-- Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000 00350004-5 lEISEINGTON STAR 27t DEC 1974- 3 311 p s tone: The CgAfr ; The Watergate break-in of Zane 1972 arid the subsequent investigations arising from it point to a degree of CIA in- volvement in domestic affairs shocking to many Americans. Items: 0 All but one-of those involved in the beak-in had been CIA ,operatives, career or contract, at one time or another. Top CIA officials, at the re- quest of the White House, pro- vided the "plumbers" group with technical assistance. (0 CIA. Director Richard Helms, who was close to re- tirement and might have been expected to stay on at the agency he had directed since 1966, was suddenly replaced and: appointed ambassador to liran in?February 1973. tb On June 23 of the same year, ?transcripts of the White House tapes reveal President Nixon remarking to H. R. Haldeman: "Well, we've protected Helms from one hell of a lot of things." tO One or the first acts of Nelms' successor, James R Schlesinger (now secretary of defense) was to initiate a 10. percent cutback in CIA per- sonnel. Now Seymour Hersh, who revealed the My Lai mas- sacre, asserts (quoting un- named "sources") that the CHICAGO TRIBUNE 27 DEC 19711. " ? The C - IA it.5 P CIA has directly violated its charter by conducting "a mas- sive illegal domestic intelli- gence operation" against anti war protesters and other (Bosh- dent groups during the Nikon administration. Hersh, writing in the Dec. 22 editions of the New York Times, seems to finger James Angleton, head of the CIA's Counterintelligence Department, as the master- mind " of an operation that produced files on "at least 10,000 American citizens." Angleton announced his resig- nation Tuesday "in the interest of the agency." IN A 1971 "novel" called "The Rope-Dancer," Victor Marchetti, a former CIA offi- cial (another of whose books is quoted from in Hersh's arti- cle), portrays the fictional character who holds Angle- ton's job as a half-mad para- noid. The CIA's present director, William Colby, who took over from Schlesinger in September of last year, has told President Ford that "nothing compara- ble" to the allegations in Hersh's article had taken place. Because the Central Intelli- gence Agency is vital to the national security of the United States, one naturally would prefer to believe Colby. Nor 'Mate war ? Charges that the central Intelligence Agency carried out illegal spying oper- ations against American citizens may he a shock. They? cannot exactly be !called a surprise. This has always been the recognized, built-in risk of having government agencies like the CIA, where power is necessarily combined -Ith secrecy. The combination does not easily-conform with laws or stiles, not even its own. - ? - There is no choice now but tb estab- lish the facts, in full and without cos- metics, about the CIA's past domestic operations. We believe the best way to db that is to set up a special congres- sional committee to investigate them? one that will include, but will not be limited to, members of the House -and Senate Armed Services committees who have regularly dealt- with the CIA in the past. Those committees have pretty well demonstrated their inability to act as efficient watchdogs over its opera- tions: .. No doubt there will, be. strong .objec- tions to such an inquiry. We will be told that our counterintelligence system will be compromised and the United States left: virtually defenseless if the Amerie 6 can one discount the view of a retired CIA official, Ray S. Cline, that Helms would have had, more sense than to have allowed himself to become in- volved in any illegal activity. (Cline, who left the agency in 1969 to become head of the State Department's Depart- ment of Intelligence and Re- search, has no particular rea- son to love Helms, who in 1966 edged him out for the director- ship of the CIA)- / BUT THE allegations published by Hersh in the Times, unsubstantiated as they were, were so serious that there was no way of avoiding an investigation of the CIA by the National Se- curity Council headed by Secretary of State Henry Kis- singer. One thing is essential: that the investigation should be searching enough to reveal the truth but sufficiently dis- creet not to compromise the crucial work abroad in which the CIA is legitimately involv- ed. Because there are gray areas in which the jurisdiction of the CIA and that of the FBI appear to overlap (for in- stance, the CIA apparently may legally tail a suspected foreign intelligence agent in the United States but must call on the FBI to arrest him), one can public finds ? out too much about what the CIA has been doing. Two things, we think, need tO be said. ? e s ? First, we've heard it before: ?? It seemed to a guiding principle of the Nixon administration?almost its only one?that the public is better . off not knowing what its leaders are. doing; that patriotism means not asking too' many questions. The last two. years have been a massive disproof of that doctrine, and it -cannot be made to sound convinding_ now. If Watergate proved anything, it proved that the more we know shout our government the saf- e we?aid it-ese e. . -Second, the charges. Concern CIA op- erations during the Nixon administration and before. Investigating them does not mean that every detail of the agency's present workings must be exposed. [They have been greatly changed under the two men who succeeded Richard. Helms - as director of Central Intelli- gence.] The point is not to cripple the CIA .but to keep it from crippling us; and to do that, the. American public will have to know exactly .what happened to this agency?why the seemingly iron- clad rules against spying on U. S. citi- zens turned so soft and porous that they could be set aside almost atwill. deduces that there may indeed have been violations; of the CIA's charter. I.Vhethez these violations have been as "mas- sive" as Hersh's sources al- lege?or whether they betray a studied policy of illegality ? is another matter. ONE SUSPECTS that when Schlesinger (who unlike Helms and Colby was not a ca- reer CIA man) took over the agency*, he discovered that certain CIA officers had over- stepped the bounds of 11.4,7ality. And one deduces that most of those guilty of such impropri- eties were among that 10 per- cent discharged or prerstatizely retired .. by Schlesinger for "budgetary or technological reasons." In other words, this observ- er is of the view that there was some fire beneath Hersh's smoke, but that Schlesinger and Colby almost certainty have extinguished it and disci- plined those who lemonitingly, unwittingly or untie's. White House pressure violated their trust. All of us will be the kisera an investigation of the illegel acts of a few individnals =s al- lowed to destroy thet-ti:ective.- ness of an institudern eeat has served this country well and is fundamental to its national se- curity. After that, we'll have to face a still tougher 'question: Whether any rules will be permanentlybinding on an agethe cy.whose specialty, after all, is to opeo- ate beyond. them. ? ... ? ? ? The New York Times started the up-.i roar Sunday by printing allegations that . the in. flat violation of its own charter; had conducted massive surveil- lance against members -of antiwar and other dissident groups during tha?Nixon administration. It said that aespecial, .counterintelligence unit,- reporting die. .rectly to Mr. Helms, had compiled files .on at. least 10,000 American, citizens. Ile appears that the spying did not begin with Mr.. Nixon: Document i lathe CIA's files. indicate that hundreds of other il- legal operations were carried out in the United States beginning in the 1950s. There has been a commendable hurry to investigate these findings. President Ford. requested and got , a detailed re- port front CIA Director William E. Cot-- by. The chairmen of. four congressional panels, including the armed services committees of both . chambers, an- nounced plans for full inquiries when the new Congress convenes. ? A flurry of activity, however, is not enough. Nor is it sufficient to launch more investirietions by panels that failed to . tern up el:piing ;:i th '1)7 '1 he task now is eta only to ihnd out hew that happened, but how to make` abs.o- iutely certain it e411 never happen again. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004-5 _ Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004=5 WASHINGTON STAR 27 December 1974 rk? The 0 By Frank Getlein It is possible, to be sure, that the New York Times made up out of whole cloth the story about the Central Intelligence Agen- cy's undertaking to spy upon and collect dossiers on some 10,000 Americans suspect- ed of having opinions on the American War Against the Indochinese different from those of the White House. The Times would have done this, in the view of moderate right-wing kooks, for the same reason the Times printed every word it did print ablaut the crimes of the Nixon administration?namely, to sell papers. Alternatively, the Times might have done this for the same reason it printed the Pentagon Papers, in the view of all-out right-wing kooks ? namely that the Times, Idle most of the American press and broadcast-news organizations, is in the pay of the Kremlin and out to destroy the United States. On the other band, it is just faintly con- ceivable that what the Times printed about the CIA's assault upon the Republic is true and that former CIA director Richard Helms is a dangerous criminal who should he hauled home, perhaps in irons, to stand IMMEDIATE DENIALS were apparently ? issued by all snurees. But examination re- veals the immediate denials to have been a hot more immediate than denials; to have been, in fact, not denials at all. Current CIA director William Colby, for example, assured President Ford, who in tern assured the nation, that nothing at all lane the things destribed in the Times arti- efe is g-oing, on at the agency now. That's fine, but that's not the issue. The cans:inera is not what is happeninginow, but eitat itappe.ned then. Similarly, Helms himself, after fleeing from his post as ambassador to Iran to a European hideaway, issued a statement as- serting that nothing illegal was done. Again, fine, but the important point is that he did not deny the spying, only the illegality of .any possible spying that may have taken place. LIKEWISE, James Aiigleton, director of minter-intelligence activities, resigned from his post not in protest against the lies of the Times, but to spare the agency fur- ther trouble, a reason strangely recollective of Nixon's resigning because he had lost his political base in Congress rather than be- cause he faced impeachment, trial, convic- tion, ousting from office and possibly-jail. In short, there hasn't been any denial at all that the events the Times asserts took place did take place. The Helms denial of their illegality is something else again and presf.nts to the nation a question that can only be decided by the nation, not by spooks in cellar corridors out at Langley, not even by history professors on holiday dabbling in the intoxications of power ApprOved For Releas? 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004-5 The question is, do we want a society hi', which the thoughts, conversations, mail communications and travels of the citizens are subject to the surveillance of a secret police and spy organization? Or, on the other hand, do we want to abol- ish the CIA? It may come down to that before the investigation of the matter is over ? assum- ing, that is, that an honest investigation is conducted, and not one by the agency out- self, by its presumed master, Henry Kissin- ger, or by the compliant congressional committees it has hoodwinked so routinely for years. IF INVESTIGATION reveals that none Of the alleged acts took place, that's fine, and, the government and individuals affected can take appropriate legal action against, the Times. If the investigation re- veals that all those acts did take place, and pro- ceeds to legal actions against Helms et al, begin- ning with citations of con- tempt of Congress, that's fine, too. LONDON TIMES 23 December 19714. But if the investigation discovers that such acts did indeed take place but that they were "justified" by the agency's own inter- pretation of its mission ? in short, that the agency had to destroy the Repub- lic in order to save the Republic ? then the na- tion will have no choice but to decide the question stated above. For years now, the standard defense of all the :dubious activities of the.. agency abroad has been- that in this' wicked world we have to be as wicked as everyone else and we are lucky to have the self- sacrificing agency spooks available to do our wick-' edness for us. In short, we can't afford not to have the CIA. ' The question now may become: Can we afford to have it? Congress investigatio CIA seems inevitable From Our Own Correspondent Washington, Dec 22 Spokesmen for the Central Intelligence Agency said today that the massive exposure by The New York Times this morn- ing of "illegal" CIA counter- intelligence activities inside the United States during the Nixon years might bring an official response tomorrow. They would give no further comment, but all the signs are that a thorough investigation of the CIA is now inevitable in the new Congress. The newspaper, in a lona article by Mr Seymour Hersh, accused the CIA of violating the 1947 law which established the agency and directed it to keep its dirty tricks abroad. Ex- plicitly, the CIA has no police or internal. security functions. Counter-intelligence inside the United States is officially the province of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ? . The article reports that Dr James Schlesinger, when briefly head of the CIA last year before moving on to the Pentagon, put an end to its illegal activities and dismissed some of the staff. It added that the Justice Depart. ment might now be asked to determine whether there should be prosecutions. Mr Hersh reports that the special operations branch of the agency's counter-intelligence department conducted surveil- lance of some 10,000 opponents of the Vietnam war during the Nixon years. There were said to be computerized files on them. ' He quotes unnamed sources, stating that the CIA even re- cruited informants and pene- trated dissident organizations. In addition the CIA, starting back in the 1950s, conducted of break-ins, buggings and mail in- terception operations, princip- ally against foreign intelligence connexions here. This; is the private fief of the FBI and its officials, unnamed, were stated to be indignant at this usurpation. Mr Hersh raises difficult questions about the role of Mr Richard Helms, the CIA direc- tor for most of the period, who is now Ambassador to Iran. He reports the suggestion that the White House tapes convey an awareness by President Nixon- of what was going on. Mr Hersh names Mr James Angleton, head of the highly secret CIA counter-intelligence department, as the man :respon- sible for the direction' of the, surveillance, and Mr Richard Ober, now at the White House, as the liaison .man with' Mr.' Helms. ? . There is surprise here that Mr Hersh managed to get Mr' Angleton to talk on the tele- phone, and somewhat indis- creetly at that. He is quoted as denying the CIA had ever operated purely domestically, and he apparently suggested, as did many other CIA sources quoted in the article, that anti- war activity here was directed by foreign subversion. For instance, Mr Angleton is said to have claimed that the CIA obtained through an American agent in Moscow intelligence on the bombings perpetrated here during the high tide of anti-war activity. Mr Angleton, it ig stated, then added : " It came from Moscow. Our source there is still active, and still productive ?the opposition still doesn't know." BALTIMORE Approved For Release SUN 28 December 1974 A ? na ysis 2001/08/08 : CLAAN7f9M32R000100350004-5 27 December 19714 Food data will decide 'new C I controversy Wascrigton?Even with most of the:relevant details still se- ' eret,t,the course of the latest controversy over the Central Intelligence Agency is begin- ,hing to emerge. Something of a consensus of intelligence specialists and ?powerful members of Congress ? suggests three basic conclu- sions. That there will be hear- ings in Congress is certain. :The question is whether they vitt be coordinated or scat- .. 1 tered among several commit- tees. ? There is a fair possibility, by no means a certainty, of legis- lation attempting to define more clearly what the agency , !tan do within the United States. All efforts to control by legisla- - the agency's activities 'abroad will fail. * What happens within those ?general outlines will he deter- mined in great measure by the seriousness of the details con- tained in a 50-page report now in the hands of President Ford. ! From his vacation home at ' Vail, Colo., Mr. Ford has said he may release all or portions ? of the report. , Most recent debate ' The most recent debate over ?the agency began last week- end It opened with publication of charges that the agency had -conducted a massive campaign of illegal domestic activity, in- t-eluding burglary, during the administration of former Presi- -dent Nixon. The initial reports also said the agency maintains files of 10,000 names, including anti-war dissidents in the United States. The two points, usually treated together in the controversy, are not directly related. Specialists in intelligence say -there is no question that the agency maintains extensive computeri7ed files of foreign nationals and Americans who have had even peripheral con- tact with them. "These are reference and information files, not action files, one re- marked. "I don't think most Ameri- ;cans, on reflection, would want lit any other way." The names come from many sources, the ispecialist said, including agents and embassies abroad. lAt home the sources may be By HENRY L TREWITITT Washington Bureau of The Sun as diverse as the FBI and commercial publications. The question of direct CIA activity within the United States is another 'matter. Un- der the National Security Act, which created the CIA in 1947, the agency is denied police and law enforcement functions, subpoena power, and any role in internal security. The cur- rent controversy turns on that Ilast proscription. ' "Many people think the CIA is forbidden to operate domest- ically, period," says a former intelligence officer. "That's just not so. If it happens that . an American agent is following a known or suspected foreign agent, he doesn't stop follow- ing at the water's edge. He may continue surveillance in co-operation with the FBI, but it is the FBI with the police power. "Of course, the CIA people cannot erase from their minds the Americans who enter into the picture along the way." ' But other experts assume that the report to Mr. Ford will reveal more serious facts. They believe Richard M. Helms, former director of cen- tral intelligence, may have tolerated direct violations of the , agency's mandate much as he ,briefly permitted CIA co-opera- tion in the illegal activities of the so-called White House "plumbers" in 1971. To the extent that the record shows such activities as wire- tapping and burglary carried out against dissident Ameri- cans by the CIA, the sentiment for control on Capitol Hill will be fueled. One specialist be- lieves the record will ? show some cases during ?the early Nixon administration and pos- sibly late in the administration of Lyndon B. Johnson. ?? "But I think there were few cases, certainly not on the order charged," he said. By all accounts, the successors to Mr. Helms, James R. Schlesinger, now Secretary of Defense, and ? William E. Colby, the present director, made certain there' were no continuing direct viola- tions. Sources on Capitol Hill be- lieve this outline, if it proves out in detail, may leave the congressional power structure amenable to legislation delin- iating in detail the CIA's rights at home. Critics of the agency hope also to prevent its direct Mr IForil StUII ies CIA reply to allegations of do estic 's yin From Patrick Brogan ? Washington, Dec 26 President Ford, who is on holiday in Colorado, spent this morning skiing and the after- noon studying a 50-page report an the Central Intelligence Agency. It was prepared by Mr Wil- liam Colby, the director of the CIA, under the order of Dr Kissinger, the Secretary of State, and concerns allegations that the agency investigated the activities of 10,000 Americans during the Nixon Administra- tion. If the allegations are true, this would be a gross violation of the law. The CIA was set up in 1947 and its chanter provides that it may deal only with foreign intelligence. Counter- espionage is the duty of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The allegation appeared in The New York Times on Sun- day, an embarrassing Christmas I present to the Government from I Mr Seymour Hersh, the reporter I who first revealed the My Lai massacre. There have been flat denials from various quarters in the past five days and partial confirmations from others. Mr James Angleton, the agency's director of counter- intelligence, who has been with it for 31 years, resigned yester- day, under instructions. Mr Richard Helms, who was head of the agency from 1966 to 1973 and is now Ambassador to Iran, is returning to Washington to face the storm. The State Department put out a denial from Mr Helms that he had ever authorized the gathering of domestic intelli- gence. No less than five com- mittees or sub-committees of Congress intend to' investigate the matter as soon as the new Congress assembles next month. Mr Lucien Nedzi, of Michigan, who is chairman of the House of Representatives sub-commit- tee which is meant to supervise the CIA, has admitted that he was informed of some of the details of the agency's domestic activities last summer. He has managed so far to avoid saving just what he was told, while implying that The New York Times_ has found out details which he never knew about. Mr Helms's two successors, Dr James Schlesinger, who is now Secretary of Defence, and Mr Colby have both let it be known that the CIA never en- gaged in anything illegal dur- ing their time in office but that strange things may have taken place earlier. The connexion with -Water- ? gate is obvious. Mr Nixon's first reaction to the original Watergate investigation was to use the CIA to stop the FBI from getting into "productive areas ". If it is now proved that the CIA had been in the habit of meddling in domestic affairs, then Mr Nixon's efforts in June, 1972, would seem easily explic- able. The CIA has managed to escape from the toils of Water- gate so far, but it may be about to succumb. Mr John Dean has hinted that there are other and so far unknown scandals of the Nixon Administration. It may now emerge that Mr Nixon's first attempt to set up a secret police to spy on his political opponents, before he estab- ? lished the " plumbers " in the White House, was to use the CIA. NEW YORK TIMES 2 JANUARY 1975 C.I.A.: The Best News To the Editor: If, as you claim, the C.I.A. was spy- ing on anti-war activists in the U.S., it has got to be the best news I have had all year. At least someone was out there trying to protect this country. Illegal, you say. Perhaps, but so is rioting, draft card burning, and draft dodging. At least the C.I.A. was on our side. SYLVAN S HERMAN New Providence, N. J., Dec. 27, 1974 involvement in the internal political affairs of other coun- tries?such as the undermining of the former government of Chile. That attempt, however, will encounter the total opposi- tion of the administration. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004-5 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004=5 PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER 28 DEC 1974 1-10171 war 0 agams CIA grew By WILLIAM A. RUSHER The hullabalo over alleged "ille- gal" intelligence operations by. the CIA within the United States offers connoisseurs of political propa- ganda an almost matchless.opportu- nity to watch our liberal -media "manage" the news. To understand what is really going on, you must first learn the name of the game, and then the identity of some of the principal players. Since at -least the mid-1960s, left- ist and liberal forces in the United States have, for a variety of sick reasons, been conducting a ,savage- public attack on the nation's defen- sive institutions. One assault has been aimed at the Armed. Forces (through TV smear-documentaries like "The Selling of the Pentagon," exaggera- tions of commaird responsibility for the My Lai massacre, etc). . _ Another has been directed at the domestic police establishment (through attacks on the FBI and, the National Guard), by caricatur- ing local cops as "pigs," and by condemning prison facilities. A third front has recently been . opened against the CIA, which is America's- . secret intelligence agency in the ongoing struggle against Communist aggression. At .first in.seemed that it might be pos- sible to tie the CIA to Watergate, and destroy it along with Richard Nixon; but it soon --became clear that the agency had kept its skirts depressingly clean of involvement. A second opportunity to wing the CIA came along, however, when the Chilean 'armed forces overthrew the Marxist regime of Salvador Allende last year. Worldwide Communist propaganda promptly accused the CIA -of being behind the coup.. Now we must get specific and name a few names. The chief jour- nalistic point:man fur the CIA hit is a New York Times rel-!rter namud ..Seyrnourilersh. We are not permi:ted to know en- - actty how it happened, 'out cei t-in secret testimony by CIA u(ficials before a congressional committee, concerning CIA activities in Chile, found its way into the hands of ultra-liberal Democratic Congress- man Michael Harrington' of Massa- . chusetts and thence to Hersh. - Now, it appears, newshound Hersh has found another truffle. Some faceless liberal in the vast Washing- ton bureaucracy has slipped him evidence that, during the later years of the Vietnam War, the CIA PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER ? 28 DEC 1974 ? i , U, .5 Irsay?i! r By S!,e1.. FRIEDMAN ? ? ? 1.(); 1 J:. WASHINGTON ? Rep. Lu- cien Nedzi (D., Mich.), chair- man of the special House 'Subcommittee on Intelli- gence, said Friday that ques- nionabie CIA activities within the United States have been going on almost since the agency's founding in 1947. Asked when he thought the CIA first started domestic ?surveillance,' Nedzi replied simply: "How long has the agency been in existence?" Nedzi said that he eq)ects further, disclosures of possi- ble illegal activity by the agency, but added that the loopholes in the National Se- ?curity Act make it unclear as to whether the CIA had actu- ally violated the law. . Nedzi also asserted that the National Security Cour:ell ? which, reports directly to the President ? "has been. aware of some, perhaps ail," of the questionable domestic spying. But the agency. he added, -claims that much of its do- mestic spying .has been ne- -cessary to protect its agents and sources of information here and abroad: . . ? Although Nedzi refused to discuss specific incidents, one source familiar. witn ri 0 L; v./ 1.i 4 ti?????; 4.(5 ' telligence.activities here said that the CIA often wiretap- - ped and spied on its own - agents here to protect them or to be sure that they were . ? ? - - As far as he knows. Nedzi said, the domestic activities of the CIA have not been as extensive as was alleged in a New York Times story during the weekend, but ac.l.nnnv- ledged that CIA officials whom he had questioned inif2lit not have told him all of the truth. "There is some ? indication that even the CIA dire:lors may not have ;mown whnt was going on in the compart- ments below them," Nedzi said. ? Nevertheless, Nedzi pred- icted that "as this unfolds, there will be more and more reports of incidents that are ,questionable. It is my judg- ment that some of the things done have guile beyond the bounds of impropriety." Early next year, Neilzi's subcommittee plans to begin an investigation into the do- mestic activities of the CIA. And if Nedzi gets his way, come CIA operations, for the first time, ?vill be made public, for he said he intends to open the hearings. ? ?- t i? T T7' kept -intelligence files on. anti-war activists in he United States. . Since the CIA is legally required to confine its.? activities to foreign countries and leave the U. S. to the FBI, Hersh calculates that Richard. Helms, the CIA director in those' days who is now our ambassador to Iran, can be accused of having con- ducted "illegal" activities. ? (Never mind that that anti-war activists did not observe any. equivalent limi- tations, but traveled back and forth to Hanoi, Paris and other foreign lo- cales .at will ? or, in-other words, in and out of the CIA's technical field of jurisdiction.) Now the second-wave troops are wading ashore. You will 'be haring an awful lot about "illegal" CIA ac- tivities in the U. S. on your favorite TV news show, in your favorite newsmagazine, and on the front page of your local newspaper. That's the way news is managed, you see. 9 ' "I Don't see any national security problem- in this," -Nedzii., said. -Me won't be blowing the :cover from any agent ori endangering lives. Therefore:. : the hearings should be-open." . .. CIA director William Colby has given- Secretary of State , Henry.A.- Kissinger a 50-page . report- for .President Ford on the extent:of the agency's do- ? mestic.-operations. Ford is studying- the report in Vail, . . has. received 'the same-'' information 'from Colby; .and -the-- indications that the Natidnal . Security Council was aware is signifi- cant. - Kissinger,. who has been assigned by the .President to :investigate, allegations of im- propriety, illegality, _runs the Security Council. He has himself been accused of hay- ing A role in domestic wire- tapping and spying opera- tions ordered by the Nixon White House. , According to the New York Times, the bulk of the CIA's domestic intelligence opera- tions took place during the Nixon years and was aimed primarily at groups eppesing the Vietnam War. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004-5 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004-5 NEW YORK TIMES 29 December 1974 Underground for the tOIA:. in . New Vo tk: An Ex-Agent Tells of Spying on Students ' former agent's description of ? By SEYMOUR M. HERSH life as a domestic spy "seemedi A?former agent for the Cen-, a little bit far out," But thei tral Intelligence Agency, in re- counting the details of his undercover career, says that New York City became a prime C.I.A.. domestic spying target during the late nineteen-sixties because it was considered a "big training ground" for radi- cal activities in the United, States. ? - ? 1 The agent, who spent morel than four years. in the late .npeteeti-sixties and early sev- enties spying on radical groups in New York, told The New York Times that more than 25 C.I.A. agents were assigned to the city at the height of anti- war activity at Columbia Uni- versity and elsewhere. The agents were tightly con- trolled by senior officials in the New York office _or \tl,e ra,stie Oper t' -es --. ? little-known domestic unit seti up in 1964 by the C.I.A. in more than a dozen cities across the nation, the former intelli-, gence official said:? . 4 The division's ostensible .function then was legal: to co- ordinate with the American. corporations supplying "cover",; for C.I.A. agents abroad and to laid in the interrogation of, !American travelers after their return from foreign countries. Began in 1967 The former agent's descrip- tion of life as a domestic C.I.A. 'spy was provided during a se- ries of interviews last week. The contact with The Times !came after pUbliCation last Sunday of the first account of the massive spying. The former agent said that his involvement began with ed--t of the Black Pan- ' -,. 57end the' increase of antiwar dissent during the last months of the Johnson .Administration. "And then it started to snowball from there," the former agent said. The Times, working with de- tails supplied by the former agent, was able to verify that he served as an undercover in- telligence spy, although it was impossible to check all of his information. The former C.I.A. agent in- sisted on anonymity, saying that if he was exposed lie would be forced to publicly deny any link to the agency. A high-ranking Government intelligence official with inti- mate knowledge of C.I.A. oper- ations said yesterday that the 10 official added that he was un-. able to deny any of the agent's' specific allegations, pending a check of files. The Times,. quoting well- placed sources, reported last Sunday that the C.I.A. had vio- lated its charter by conducting massive and illegal intelligence operations aimed at antiwar and other American dissidents. inside the United States. Intelli- gence files on at -least 10,0001 American citizens also were compiled, the Sources said. 1 Wiretaps and Break-ins The former intelligence agent said that he and other C.I.A. agents ha dalso participated in telephone wiretaps and break- ins in their efforts to closely monitor, the activities of radi- cals in New York. He added that the C.I.A. had supplied him with "more than 40" psy- chological assessments of radi- cal leaders during his spy 'career. IHigh-ranking. C.I.A. officials, 'including Richard Helms, the former Director of Central Intelligence and now Arabassa- dor to Iran, told Congress in the wake of the Watergate scandals that only two such assessments?done by psychia- trists working for the agency? have ever been' prepared on American citizens. "What we were trying to do,", the former C.I.A. agent said in an interview, "was to find out what the radicals were marketing and to learn if they had any new products." "They were a target company and we were like another com- pany in competition," he added. "We were interested in their executives and that's why we did the profiles, so we could learn what we'd have to offer in order tO buy them over to us." Police Function Barred The 1947 legislation setting up the C.I.A. bars the agency from any security or police function inside the United States, leaving all such activity to ,the Federal Bureau of In- vestigation.' "I knew what the charter was," the former agent said. "I'd read it, but my belief was that we were doing the same function inside the United States as the C.I.A. does out- side it." The agent said he had been recruited into the C.I.A. after graduation from college in 1965. After training in counter- intelligence techniques, his first assignment was with the Domestic Operations Division office in New York. The former agent reported that he did not have direct in- volvement in New York with ;members of the C.I.A.'s coun- 'terintelligence staff, which was headed until last wek by James Angleton. The agent said that 'the counterintelligence activi- ties were normal' conducted at higher bureaucratic and secur- ity levels than his. . . Traditional Role - Traditionally, the counterin- telligence department of the C.OI.A. has sought to neutral- ize and expose Soviet and other foreign intelligence agents sek- ing to operate against the C.I.A. in the United States and else- where in the world. The retirement of Mr. An- gleton, a veteran of 31 years of intelligence service, became known Monday, a day after The Times article was pubished. A number of well-informed C.I.A. sources subsequently confirmed that the bulk of the actual domestic spying through- out the United States was con, ducted by various offices of the Demestic Operations Divi- sion, which was initially as- signed to such tasks in the mid-nineteen-sixties as infil, trating agents into various ethnic and emigre groups in 'large cities. "When I first came to D.O.D." the former agent said, 4'it was a low-key operation. Mostly we did liaison" with, other intelligence agencies. . 'Pain in the Neck' "And then someone started noticing those kids,"- the for- mer agent said, referring to the antiwar activities. "At first -they were just a pain in the neck. The local police' and F.B.I. couldn't handle it. We had the manpower and the money." . , In the beginning,' he said, only files on student dissenters were kept, apparently as an ad- dition to the already existing dossiers on the , various for- 'eign students living in the New "The first actual [physical] Surveillance came when people like Mark Rudd' started moving around," he said. Mr. Rudd was a leader in the student demon- strations that disrupted Colum- bia University for two weeks in the spring of 1968. "We had different I.D.s for different jobs. We'd use news- paper I.D.s, or, flash_ a badge and saY we were a reporter for a magazine?it made things a lot easier." _ _. _ . There were certain necessary precautions, he added. "If some, thing happened .in New York City, you couldn't say you were an A.P. [Associated Press] or New York Times reporter. We'd usually use Newsday. Atlantic Monthly was another good cov- er?no one ever heard of it.". The former agent said that the Domestic Operations Divi- sion ordered psychological pro- files on Mr. Rudd "and others we felt were not just idealistic kids." "And theh we started won- dering where the money was coming from," he said, refer-, ring to student 'protest move- ment. "My theory and my be- lief is that much of the money. , was coming from the K.G.B. the Soviet secret intelligence agency]." One of the Domestic Opera- tions Division's first functions was to attempt to infiltrate its agents into a radical unit tar- geted for domestic spying, the former C.I.A. man said. A sec- ond major goal was to "turn somebody around"?that is, convince a member of a group to become an informer. "I could never identify my- self as a C.I.A. man," the for- mer agent said. "I always had to be a sttident or whatever I felt like at the time. You couldn't say you were a cop, because you might be talking to a cop." Monitored by Superiors The .former agent repeatedly noted during the interviews that his activities were closely monitored by his superiors, some of whom maintained a "cover" office inside a large corporate headquarters. Asked whether he ever ques- tioned his work, the former; agent replied, "Look?they [hisj superiors] were telling us, 'Keep an eye on them,' and to do that you're going to have to infringe on somebody's free-I dom." ? "We got the policy from above," 'he added, "but we all felt the same way." "These kids were directly in- volved with foreign stuff," the former agent continued. "We; always worried about drugs from Communist China, K.G.B. agents and foreign guns. That's what gave us the right to: come .in." ' In previous interviews, Unit- ed States intelligence officials have characterized all of the C.I.A.'s domestic activities as being directly related to foreign :espionage. He repeatedly quoted what he said was a "Oatch-all phrase" around the New York domestic operations office?"intelligence. is where you find it." Helms Used Phrase He said he and his colleagues first heard the phrase used by Mr. Helms on a. training film supplied by the C.I.A. head- quarters that had been shown during a staff meeting some- time in 1968. ? ? ? The former C.I.A. agent re- called being assigned to take a photograph of a young woman believed to be associated. with radical leaders. "They gave us Min.olta 101 camera," he said, "and told us where she lived and when to expect her. And we snapped some pictures from a parked car as she came by, shooting right through a win- dow." ? "We were interested in the kids who were training her and then were going to send her to other cities," he said. "It seemed that New York was a big training ground for cells in other cities.' Asked how the C.I.A.'s do- mestic espionage targets were determined, the former agent said. that it "depended on the individual" under suspicion. "If we felt that a person was working for an agency not to our liking," he said, he became Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004-5 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004t5 a suspect to be placed under surveillance. As the antiwar and other dissident movements be- came more outspoken, he add- ed, "any organization that ad- vocated overthrow of the Con- stitution became a very hot tar- get for us." By the time he left the agency in early 1972, he continued, his unit's domestic files were huge. "At the end," he said, "we were working on antiwar professors and attorneys. We'd figured out a way to log and map up the trips together. whole world." ? "We got, called when those "The goal of our operation," black students took over Cor- he said, "was to find out before- nell," he recalled. "About 12 hand what they [radicals] were going to go?it was preventa- tive. We just wanted tee find out what they were up to and pass After the bombings and other tographs. We reported to the violent disturbances allegedly yan, and I assume that the in- committed by the Weathermen, the former agent said, being an undercover agent "got scary." telligence was put together there and sent to the New York office and then on to Washing- "Before it was like a game," ton." he added, "but later, if you The former agent was less were blown [identified], you eager to discuss other activities didn't know 'what the kids that he and his colleagues would do to yon." took part in ? such as illegal He and other Undercover men bugging and break-ins. in his unit worked closely to- A lot of . outside wiretaps gether, he said, and even were were not needed, he said, be- sent . on special out-of-town cause "if you were on an infil- tration and if the phone was in your name, you could get the kids to talk on the phone and give us permission for taps." When telephone taps were needed, he said, advance au- thority was always; necessary except in emergency situations. In most cases, he said, the outside wiretaps were put in place only after an informer or infiltrator gave advance word of an important telephone contact that was pending. "If the call was booked?let's say between 10 and 11 at night at some house, you'd intercept the line for only that hour," he said. "But you had to have an inside man who knew when the call was coming." it on." 'Professors Were Great' In that regard, the former C.I.A. man said, "the profes- sors were great. They wanted to work with you." "A professor," he added, "no matter how liberal he was?he was mad. He didn't want those kids to tell them how to run his university." After the disturbances at Columbia, the former agent said, he was given an oppor- [tunity to infiltrate a local iehapter of Students for a Democratic Society. , "I had no qualms when I was asked," he recalled. "In a would join the pro-Rudd forces way I thought it was almost at the demonstration, so now a promotion. I figured that if you had people all around Rudd. or 13 of us went up there and looked around. We took some pictutps but not much happened." He told how-various mem- bers of his unit in the Domestic Operations Division, all of whom had fixed assignments, would respond to an emergen- cy:- "Suppose we had two infil- trators in the Rudd group and we got a tall saying there was trouble. We'd set up a commo [communications] van nearby, with the commo gear and some weapons." [The van also in- cluded photographs of the in- filtrators for easy spotting.] Other Activities ' "Everyone then had a differ- ent job. The back-up people I did real good, maybe I could get out of the country"?that is, an overseas agency assign- ment. "I went undercover for four and a half months," he said. Their job would be to watch in Case something went wrong so they would be able to pull out the infiltrators [who were al- ways C.I.A. men]. "The others would take pho- 'A True Situation'. In addition to telephone wire- taps, the former agent said, he and his colelagues occasionally would use sophisticated boom microphones capable of pick- ing up an outside conversation hundreds of feet away. With a laugh, the former agent noted that he had seen "The Conversation," a recent movie dealing with an elec- tronic snooping expert. "You know," he said, "I had a funny feeling that it was describing a true situation." Physical break-ins were also used by the domestic C.I.A._ agents, he said, and those, too, ? required prior approval from his superiors. The former agent was unable to say whether this supe- riors, in turn, had to seek higher authority for sach activities. , "This was a well-organized operation," he said: "I reported back to my superior regularly. There were times when he called me regularly at night."-. "Those fellows overseas," he added, speaking of C.I.A. men posted in foreign countries, 'had a lot more play than we did.' Escaped Police Detection Asked how the C.I.A. men, with their vans and undercover agents, could escape detection by other police agencies in New. York City, the former agent said, "We'd bump into the F.B.I. guys, but they didn't know who we were." He and his colleagues also were under carefully ar- ranged cover, he said, and could produce identification pa- pers showing that they were employes on the current payroll of a New York corporation. One high-ranking New York City police official, asked yes- terday about the former agent's account, acknowledged that he and others in his spec- ial unit "had always assumed- that the C.I.A. had been in- volved here." The official said there were many indirect hints and clues of -the C.I.A. activity during the height of the antiwar pro- tests, "but we had nothing-. hand to go on." WASHINGTON POST 31 December 1974 "Happy New Year, .'yourself?I'm CIA!" BY Oliphant for the Denver Post Approved For Release 2001/08/08 111A-RDP77-00432R000100350004-5 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004-5 NEW YORK TIMES NEW YORK TIMES 29 December 1974 29 December 1974 RE OPEN CIA: BY COLBY irgaigence Director Asserts! He Has a Duty to Explain, in Part, Agency's Role By DAVID BINDER Special to The New York Times WASHINGTON, Dec. 28?In the 16 months since he took cflIte as Director of Central' Intelligence, William E. Colby Ites made more public appear- spoken to more reporters and testified more often before Congress than any of his prede- cessors?perhaps more than all of his predecessors put to- gether. Mr. Colby has said several tL-4,..s On the record that he be- lieves these deliberate efforts to "go public," though seem- ingly paradoxical for an espio- nage chief, constitute an essen- tiq part of his responsibility as the head of the Central Intelli- geitce Agency. ? an a- speech before the Los Arkeles World Affairs Council last summer, Mr. Colby ex- ptened his credo as follows: "Vie in the intelligence profes- sion are tware that ours must be: an intelligence effort con- dctted on American principles sr.'? that it must be more open and responsive to our public than the intelligence activities of other nations." Vietnam, Watergate Influence Privately, Mr. Colby and his press aides acknowledge that Vietnam conflict and the Watergate scandal have practi- CeiV compelled the leadership of .:the C.I.A. to take defensive, stsps by letting the public! lorto-w a bit more about the =3%76 gs of the agency. Certain sectors of public cr,z.ks.ion held the C.LA. respon- E.i11:2 for both, even though in- fluerTial figures in the agency -wsrnsd in Administration coon- involvement $arm after Mr. Colby took co=and in September, 1973, c.:?7;,:s....mme possible for reporters orall the C.I.A. headquarters ita.liangley, Va. and make ap- pernments for briefings with waxier analysts on a wide range' afforeign intelligence topics. in one such "backgrounder," of:more than 100. a C.I.A. sPe- cialist told a reporter in late Adgust, 1973, that she expected sc."1.1e sort of military coup in Cli=;le within three weeks. Thei artIllyst then listed the factors' painting toward a coup, all of which, she noted, were public knowledge. At the time of the back- &mind session, the agency's idea was to demonstrate the elzertise of its people. After the coup occurred in Chile on Sept. 11, 1973, however, the C.I.A. was accused of causing the downfall of the Government of President Salvador Allende Gcssens through actions that were not public knowledge. Mr. Colby himself began meet- 4,7; reporters for such briefing Ford Considering Special C.I.A. Pa'nel Special to The New York Times accept some form of Mr. Kissin- . - WASHINGTON, Dec. 28 ? President Ford has under con- sideration a proposal to estab- lish a public commission to in-i vestigate allegations of illegali domestic surveillance by thej Central Intelligence Agency. The proposal came from Sec- retary of State Kissinger and! 'others both inside and outside the Administration with a belief that a public forum would help halt the controversy over C.I.A. activities and lay the ground- work for a careful review of the agency's alleged .domestic spy- ing operations, according to one informed Government official. This official said the names of citiiens who would serve on a blue ribbon panel already have been discussed, and that he believed that the "people at Vail" (in Colorado where the .President is on vacation) would: s4Ssions early in the autumn of 1973. Recently he estimated that he had talked to more than 132 press representatives in one year. In addition, Mr. Colby tray- ell afield to talk with editors and reporters of the Los An- geles Times, The Chicago Sun- Tithes, The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Washing- ton-Star-News and Time and Newsweek magazines. These talks, too were on "batkground," meaning that the information* could be used, but not attributed to a specified source. Mr. Colby also gave sev- eral interviews on the record. In addition to his public speech in Los Angeles, he ad- dressed the Fund for Peace Conference devoted to C.I.A. and Covert Actions" last Sep- tember in Washington._ And' he spoke to closed groups of citi- zens interested in foreign policy. in New York and Chicago. In his Washington address entitled, "The Viwe from Lang- ley," Mr. Colby set -out some- thing of his philosophy about the C.I.A.'s work and its public image: . . 'Mere have been some "bad secrets'. concerning intelligence; their exposure by our academic, journalistic and political critics certainly is an essential part of the workings of our Constitu- tion. There have been some 'ruin-secrets' which did not need to besecret; I have undertaken a Program of bringing these into the open. But I think that reslionsible Americans realize that our country must protect some 'Good secrets'." This, he said, was the ra- tionale behind his year-long ef- fort to obtain legislation from the Congress that would im- pose strong penalties for the unauthorized disclosure of for- eign intelligence secrets, par- ticularly by former C.I.A. em- ployes. The effort was prompted in large part by publication of "The C.I.A. and the Cult of In- telligenee," Of whieh the main author was Victor Marchetti, a forimer agency employe. The C.LA. sought to obtain a cpurt injonction enforcing 225 dele- tions of classified secrets, but ger's recommendations. There was no indication here of who might be named to such a panel. ? Douglas Called a Target In another development, Time magazine contended in its latest Issue that Supreme Court Jus- tice William 0. Douglas and for- mer Representative Cornelius !Gallagher, Democrat of New Jersey, were among four politi- Ical figures who were put under :C.I.A. surveillance. Time said the others were the late Sena- tor Edward V. Long, Democrat of Missouri and Representative Claude Pepper, a Democrat who was said to have been "appar- ently suspect because of his contacts with Cuban refugees living in his Congressional dis- trict" in Florida. The Government official said Mr. Kissinger "doesn't have any NEW YORK TIMES 28 December 1974 CRITIC OF THE C.I.A. IS OUSTED BY SAIGON Special to The New York Times SAIGON, South Vietnam, Dec. 27?A Government spokesman said today that John D. Marks, co-author of the controversial best-seller, "The C.I.A. and the Cult of Intelligence," was ex- pelled from South Vietnam this morning after his name had been discovered on a blacklist maintained by the Ministry of Interior. The spokesman said that no reason for the blacklisting had been furnished by the minis- try. Apparently, he explained, there was "a slip at the air- port" when Mr. Marks arrived last Saturday, and immigration officials allowed him to enter the country. 'idea that he can head off any congressional investigation" with a public commission. "Henry's view, I think is, of course that Congress can in- vestigate as it should, but that doesn't absolve ? the Adminis- tration from investigating it- self," he said. "ObViously, if we aid noth- ing but step back and watch everybody else investigate the C.I.A. without doing something about it ourselves, that would be criticized, too. . Mr. Kissinger apparently re- layed- his views to President Ford who has with him a 50- page report on allegations of C.I.A. domestic activities from William E Colby, Director of !Central Intelligence. The White 'House has said that Mr_ Ford is considering whether to make public any or all of the report.. He. has been here before ? from 1966 to 1968?as a foreign service officer with the Ameri- can Embassy, and then again a few years ago on a visit as an aide to Senator Clifford P. Case, the New Jersey Republican. The purpose for his most re- cent visit, he said, was to do research for a magazine article. The Government spokesman said that when the Interim-Min- istry found his -name on the list of arriving passengers, an order was issued for his expulsion. Last night, policemen took him and his traveling companion, Barbara Guss, into custody. They then took them to dinner at La Cave, one of Saigon's finer French restaurants, the spokesman said, and put them aboard a flight to Bangkok, 'Thailand, this morning. U.S. NEWS & WORLD REPORT 6 JAN 1975 * * The furor over allegations that the Central Intelligence Agency spied ille- gally on Americans worries friendly foreign governments. Fear is that a congressional investigation may "blow the cover" on activities of foreign undercover agents who have supplied the CIA with leads on U. S. citizens engaged in espionage against their own country. hall 'to settle for 27 deletions. Mr. Colby indicated recently that he intended to continue his round of public appearances and his responsiveness to re- porters and members of Con- gress. He and his aides have testified 28 times before 18 congressional' committees since he -took office. But in the midst of a con- troversy during the last week over allegations that the C.I.A. had conducted large-scale spy- ing on American citizens within the country Mr. Colby has thus far. elected not to go on record. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004-5 12 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100.3500045 WASHINGTON POST 29 December 1974 CIA Spied On Douglas Time Says By Austin Scott Washington Post Staff Writer At least four U.S. public of- ficials, including Supreme Court Justice William 0. .Douglas, have been spied on by the Central Intelligence Agency, Time magazine re- ported yesterday. Rep. Claude Pepper (D-Fla.), former Rep. Cornelius Gal- lagher (D-N.J.) and the late Sen. Edward Long (H-Mo.), were the others, the magazine said. Domestic spying is illegal under the 1947 law that set up the CIA. Time said the CIA did it, however, in part be- cause the Federal Bureau of Investigation ? regularly re- fused to follow up on CIA re- quests ' for surveillance of American citizens. Time said Douglas came un- der scrutiny after he had vis- ited the Dominican Republic in the mid 1960s. Gallagher was watched because of his contacts with Dominican Re- public officials, the magazine said, Pepper ,because of his contacts with Cuban refugees in Miami, and Long because of his contacts with representa- tives of foreign companies in the United States. Time quoted an unnamed CIA official as denying the report, but the CIA. contact- ed yesterday, said it would have no comment on the Time story. ? Douglas, Pepper and Gallagher were not available for comment. A 1970 report from a special House committee that investi- gated Douglas after the then House Minority Leader Gerald R. Ford called for his im- peachment said Douglas ap- parently was cooperating with the CIA on that Dominican Republic trip. The committee declined to recommend im- peachment. Douglas had gone .to the Dominican Republic to 'set up a literacy project, the report said, and two men associated with him had some connection with the CIA. Eactly what association they had was left unclear, however, because then CIA Director Richard Helms refused to de- liver a secret memorandum bearing on the Douglas case to committee investigators. ? Helms has "categorically denied" charges by the New York Times a week ago that the CIA, under his direction from 1966 to 1973, "conducted illegal domestic operations" against opponents of the war I in. Vietnam. A report on CIA domestic '-spying was delivered to the Approv NEW YORK TIMES 29 December 1974 r. Flrns,an In a World of c lever By.DAVID WISE WASHINGTON In 1936, Richard McGarrah Helms, then a young reporter for the United Press, nianaged to interview Adolf Hitler. Over lunch, Mr. Hitler talked for three hours. When asked how he had staged the Nazi party rally at Nuremberg, Mr. Hitler replied that the dele- gates had been brought in on special trains; this, he added, was perfect practice for the railroads in case of mobilization. It was an interesting bit of intelligence for a future chief of the Central Intelligence Agency. Mr. Helms liked to recall the incident, and other details of the interview, three decades later, af- ter President Lyndon B. Johnson had named him head of America's intelligence and espionage net- work. ? ? That appointment as Director of Central Intel- . ligence. came on June 18, 1966, capping a long, career for Mr. Helms as a "black," or covert operator, for the C.I.A. The selection of. Mr. Helms appeared to symbolize the triumph of the career bureaucrat, Or professional spy, over the political appointees who have, at times, direct- ' ed the intelligence agency... ? ? Then Came Watergate Then came the C.I.A.'s entanglement in Water- gate, which raised clouds over both the agency and Mr. Helms. Under still unclear circumstances, President Nixon shipped Mr. Helms off to be Am- bassador to Iran. Now the prospect is that Mr. Helms will be questioned by Congressional in- -yeatigating committees about charges that the C.I.A. has engaged in widespread illegal activi- ties inside the United States. ? Mr. Helms had fared much better under Presi- dent JohnsOn. Several months before appointing him C.I.A. director, Mr. Johnson invited Mr. Helms to the LBJ Ranch as an overnight guest. There, an odd encountertook place; another, and unexpected guest, at dinner was Senator Eugene McCarthy, a critic of the C.I.A. Mr. McCarthy needled Mr. Helms, asking him whether he could identify the various wines on the table. Mr. Helms could not. "James Bond would have known the answers," Mr. McCarthy commented. , Mr. Helms was not amused, in part because he has tried to avoid any comparison of himself with fictional, gunstinging secret agents. Yet, of all. the directors of the C.I.A., Mr. Helms could President Thursday at his Vail, Colo., vacation retreat by Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger. Meanwhile, in Vail, White House press secretary Ron Nessen said President Ford has read the report prepared for him by CIA Director Wil- liam F. Colby and will discuss it with him and other officials in Washington before taking further action. After the meeting with Colby and others, Mr. Ford will have an announcement, the press secretary said. He would not confirm re. ports that the President would name a commission similar to the Warren Commission, tihNimitaaadlbtfien most accurately be portrayed by Sean Cannery, :the celluloid Bond. The word "dapper" springs to mind for Mr. Helms; he is 61, a tall, thin man, with sleek, black hair flecked with gray at the sides. He smokes unfiltered Chesterfields and is an easy conversationalist, civilized and trerlerme in manner. Mr. Helms comes from a comfortable, zep..1mr- middle-class background. His father, an .Alcoa sales executive; retired' early and moved to Europe, where Mr. Helms attended prep sencols in Switzerland (Le Rosey, in Gstaad) amt. Ger- many. He returned to the United States to at- tend Williams College, from which he was .grad- uated Phi Beta Kappa. During World War II he served in Eurog,e with the Office of Strategic Services (0.S.S.), predecessor. He joined the C.I.A. as a clartine operator and quickly moved up in She. Tans (now Operations) Directorate, the C.I.A.'s; (ecvert arm. When Richard M. Bissell was easel (,=.1 of the -agency after the Bay of Pigs fiaseeo, Mr. Helms became head 'of the Plans Direzeterate, sometimes known as, the C.I.A.'s "departrnaeet of dirty tricks", serving in that job for three Tears. As head of C.I.A., Mr. Helms kept a remark- ably low profile despite a series of controezersies that beset the agency during his stewarfship. Among them were the 1967 disclosures that.C.I.A. had pour( I millions, into student groups, 1.-usi- ness fronts, labor unions and other orge_niza- tions through foundation fronts; the accation that a group of Army Green Berets had 7.:silled a South Vietnamese agent on oblique ordu from the C.I.A., and the revelation that CIA. was running a secret war in Laos. During this same period Mr. Helms paimtely and repeatedly expressed his concern to Ve....f.tors about student antiwar demonstrators ham at home. The students, Mr. Helms fretted, cauld .get out of hand and threaten the estanshed order; in South America they topple goverauments. Then came Watergate, and his troubles 1-,-egan when Mr. Nixon tried to use the C.I.A. te) pre- vent the F.B.I. from looking too closely int e the Watergate break-in. There is, in particefar, a mysterious taped remark by Mr. Nixon tz a R. Haldeman: "Well, we protected Helms fra-vra one hell of a lot of things." The nature .e.2- those "things," if there were any, may now LaCOMB clearer. David Wise is co-author of /he book 'The In- visible Government." nation of President Kennedy, to look into reports the CIA has spied on American citi- zens. However, he did not deny that this was the President's intention. Nessen's comment on the President's continuing con- cern about the matter lent force to reports that the agency had violated the law establishing the CIA which banned domestic activity of all kinds. Nevertheless, Nessen urged reporters not to .3.7emp to; conclusions. Among those with the President will discuss the CIA, in addition to Colby, are Kissinger and Secretary of De- fense James R. Schlesinger. Nessen said. He ireacatetl there also would be ,,,ithers.,. but he would not name them. In urging that an one "harden into fact" .11-2,-it he called newspaper alTez:tions, Nessen said, The pti.1;ess ox finding out what is on. is under way." : CIA-RDP77-00432R0001401350004-5 WASHINGTON STAR'__Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004-5 29 DEC 1974 Crosby S. Noyes: It is perhaps a fatal case of moral blindness, but I confess to some difficulty in summon- ing up a feeling of towering indignation about the alleged activities of the Central Intelli- gence Agency. The charges are plain enough. A number of unnamed "well-placed" government sources have told the New York Times that the CIA a number of years ago carried on a domestic intelligence operation against members of the anti-war movement and other dissident groups. The Times characterizes the operations as "massive," "illegal" and in direct viola- tion of the CIA's charter. It also reports that the alleged operations have been stopped for some time. Pretty horrendous stuff. Coming on the heels of Water- gate, the Chilean episode and all kinds of stories about clandestine dirty tricks, it is exactly the kind of thing to produce the predictable Pavlo- vian reaction with any certi- fied liberal. BUT IT IS at least some- what important to be clear what it is that we are becom- ing enraged about. It goes without saying that virtually all Americans loathe and de- LOS ANGELES TIMES 27 DEC 1974. test the idea of anyone spying on them, but this is not the issue at all. The issue, quite simply, is that it was the CIA, rather than the FBI, that was doing the spying. Or rather, if the al- legations are true, both agen- cies were doing it, at perhaps some waste of the taxpayers' money. But since only the FBI has a license to spy on Ameri- can citizens in their own coun- try, the CIA was poaching on its sister intelligence agency's preserve. The reason why I can't get very exercised about all this is that, if I have to be under "surveillance" at all, it makes precious little difference to me whether the surveillor works for the. FBI or the CIA, or whether both outfits are in- volved. So far as I know, both are perfectly legal and respon- sible agencies of the American government. Again, so far as I know, the motives of one are no more or less sinister than those of the other. SINCE THE United States government has been in the spy business at home and abroad for many years and will remain so, it comes down to a simple matter of jurisdic- tion. Technically, perhaps, the Inve,sti t Guar Us? domestic operations of the CIA may have been illegal and in violation of its charter, though this is still far from clear. Logically, it is hard to under- stand that what is accepted as perfectly proper activity on the part of one agency should provoke such a wrath of moral indignation when practiced by another. If it is true that the CIA col- lected "files" on 10,000 Ameri- can citizens over the years, it is quite certain that the FBI has similar files on several hundred times that many. The only difference is that the CIA is supposed to concern itself with counter-intelligence in foreign countries and with Americans only when they are suspected of being involved with foreign intelligence operations. But in fact, of course, it is not possible to co?nipartmenta- lize international espionage into neatly separate foreign and domestic intelligence opera- tions. It is quite absurd to say that once a foreign agent enters the United States, he becomes the exclusive responsibility of the FBI, or that the moment he returns home, the CIA reas- sumes sole jurisdiction. At least a certain overlapping of effort is inevitable. And coop- a.tipg the CI Defenders of the Central Intelligence Agerity'. have develaPed a two-point rebuttal of allegations that the CIA conducted a widespread and illegal domestic intelligence operation against antiwar activists. They argue, first, that domestic spying by the agency is permissible when related to foreign intelligence purposes, and second, that the Federal of Investigation pushed the CIA into domestic intelligence when the bureau stopped cooperation with the CIA in 1970. .President Ford, relying on the assurances of Wil- liam E. Colby, the present director of Central Intel- iig'ence, says the CIA is not now conducting domes- tic-surveillance. 13-ichardlf. Helms, former director of the CIA, '"calegorically denied' that the CIA under his ten- ure conducted any illegal spying in the United States. . ? -? Secretary of State Kissinger, the President's .chief national security adviser, is reported to have 1n- formed Mr. Ford of Helms' denial and the secreta.: Ty of state is said to feel the matter closed. - Rep. Lucien N. Nedzi (D-Mich.), chairman.of .the house armed services subcommittee on intel- ligence, said that 'Information was conveyed to me, (by Director Colby) which suggested the overstep- ping of boun(1.3, certainly.wasn't of a dimen- eration between the two agen- cies has always been some- thing less than perfect IN THE CASE of certain anti-war groups, and with other violent dissidents such as the Black Panthers, a con- nection with foreign intelli- gence operations was at one time strongly suspected by both the CIA and the FBI. Both agencies did their hest to keep tabs on suspected groups and individuals. And lithe CIA at time overstepped its jmis- dictional authority, it is not clear that the duplication of ef- fort seriously infringed the rights of the people involved. In any event, it is ironic that William Colby, the present director of the CIA, is reported to be considering asking the attorney general to take legal action against the culprits in his agency. Former Atty. Gen. William Saxbe, before his resiation, held the strongly expressed view that the FBI should go out of the domestic counter-intelligence business altogether ? along with the intelligence agencies of the various armed services?and the whole business be dumped into the lap of the CIA. Which, if you come to think of it, may make more sense than the sys- tem we have at this point. sion ... of what has appeared in the newSpapers." All this is net good enough. There is no basis to doubt President Ford's sincerity, but how does he ? know the information submitted to him is accur- ate? How does Rep. Nedzi know? . . .. James Angleton, the recently resigned counterirf- telligence chief, said he quit because the agency had become involved in domestic "police-state" ac- tivities, but Angleton's disjointed elaboration of that remark, as reported in a telephone interview, -seethed to indicate a troubled man. ? ? It is reported that the current CIA director, Col- ' . by, revealed in an off-the-record talk-that an in- vestigation he ordered into CIA domestic activities: had disclosed improprieties, but Colby is said to have added, c.1 think family skeletons are best left, where they are?in the closet.i' . ? : He is mistaken. The CIA, with an annnal budget; ? of $750 million and 16,000 employes, is not a L'fami4 ?? ly.u?It is a profoundly important agency with-au- thority to carry out secret operations that affect' ? the security of this nation. As this newspaper documented nearly a year ago, congressional oversight of the CIA has been .almost totally lacking since Congress created the agency 27 years ago. What is needed now is-a spa- ? ?cial inquiry by a select committee of the Congress. 14 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004-5 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100350004?5 NEW YORK TIMES 29 December 1974 Intelligence versi ht' Is Done ith By DAVID E. ROSENBAUM ?.WASHINGTON?After the disclosure last week that the Central Intelligence Agency had spied extensively on anti- war groups and other American dissidents, there were quick expressions of outrage on Capitol Hill. , "Immediate and severe action is necessary," said Senator ?William Proxmire of Wisconsin. ' "This agency does not have good supervision or review by Congress, or poor review. It actually has no real review at all," said Senator Stuart Symington of Missouri. Four separate Congressional panels announced hearings for next year, and Senators and Representatives of both parties and various ideologies prepared to sponsor legis- lation to curb the intelligence agency. . The reaction was not surprising. It was, in fact, pre? dictable. Every time there has been an intelligence scandal over the last two decades, the response from Congress he-.; been similar. But the expressions of outrage have produced no concrete action. , Congress screamed when the 11-2 plane was shot down 'over the Soviet Union in 1960, when the C.I.A. bungled the Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961, when the agency was shown'? in 1967 to have infiltrated the National Student Association - and countless other American organizations, when the agency's unauthorized operations in Laos were disclosed in 1971 and when its role in ousting the Communist Govern- 'ment in Chile was exposed last year. More than 200 separate measures designed to make the, .C.I.A. more responsive to Congress have been introduced in the last quarter century. None has been enacted. Even the most solid supporters of the Central Intelligence Agency acknowledge that oversight procedures are cursory.. Every year, the Senate ahd House vote to allot money to the agency. But the members of Congress do not know how much money they are allocating or what it will be used for. In fact, they do not even know when they ara voting to allocate it. Nobody Really '