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25X1A --Allproved-ForRelease.CIA;RQP.7,7419.43.-ZR9.90,1q90-09,V7 CONFIDENTIAL INTERNAL USE ONLY This publication contains clippings from the domestic and foreign press for YOUR BACKGROUND INFORMATION. Further use of selected items would rarely be advisable. 20 August 1976 NO. 15 PAGE GOVERNMENT AFFAIRS 1 GENERAL 14 EASTERN EUROPE 25 WEST EUROPE 26 NEAR EAST 30 AFRICA 32 EAST ASIA 34 LATIN AMERICA 36 DESTROY AFTER BACKGROUNDER HAS SERVED ITS PURPOSE OR WITHIN 60 DAYS CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 THE DETROIT NEWS 1 AUGUST 1976 f I, 'zit ? First in a series ,By COL. R.D. HEINL JR. (uSmC-Rei.) ? NewtMthury Atalyst ? WASHINGTON ? At its best, the CIA 'can listen to Soviet Party Chairman Leo- nid Brezhnev's conversation as he rides to -work, snatch secrets from three miles i deep in the ocean and accurately forecast flUSSIIC development seven years ahead. , At its worst it provided .information I which led to the fiasco Invasion at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba, was surprised to learn of I the fall from power of Sovtel Premier ? Nikita Khrushcher and was unaware of the 196S Russian military action in Czechoslovakia The need for a na Huila! mielltgence service was brought home to U.S. leaders Dec 7. 1941, when Japanese planes swung low over the Hawaiian Islands and sank ' most of the Pacific fleet in less than two hours For the United States, it was Pearl liar- ; ;bot that dramatically focused-American 'Iattention on the need for a unified national 1;intethgence service capable of .putting i facts together, analye ing them and in- forming those who could at on them Before World War It, we had Army intelligence. naval intelleencc and diplo- matic mtelhaence We also were begin- ' mg to brea fi:Tan codes dui nobody ; was getting II tuetther The Central Intelligence Agency. (CIA) is under attack from those who would ban spying News military analyst D. Hein! Jr. (USAIC- Ret.) explores the case for the CIA in an exclusive four-part series. ; All the information which could have anticapeted Pearl Harbor was in Washineton bat it was ell over town in peaaw bits and piece:, with nobody to put the puzzle e to- gether: Seperately. the fragments were useless. ; After Pearl Harbor. Americane.were determined never to be surprised again Within a few months, under Frank- lin Roosevelt's leadership. we had the OSS (Office of. Strategic Services!. our first national intelligence agency which. in 1947, became a permaneet part of the U.S. got- ernment under the title of CIA. During the 27 years which followed -- uotil December. 1974 ? the CIA quickly rose to primacy as the world's highest-quality national intelligence agency It pioneered the modern rinalyncal techniques of academic intelli- gence, of technological intelligence, of surveillance from space. Its organization never W4S penetrated by a hostile "mole" (a countei spy who works hie way inside an opposing intelligence ;name.% as so vividly depicted by John Le Carry in his beet-selling "Tinker. Tailor, Soldier, Spy"). ? ? In those good yeare. the saccesaes of American intelh- gence were legendary ? P,y breaking Jepan'e codes in 1942.. the U.S. Navy smashed the Jeoaniise fleet in Midway, avenged Pearl Heftier. and zeroed the ;exile: wer around. . ? In 1953, Mob:I:rimed Messedegh. trans demagogic pi er)ier. was en the yeige of overthrowing r.1% shah and jeinme Iran with the Seviet tereen. WiihiT1 a period of weeks, in cooi-diriation with Britain's tamed Special int& Iigeace Service ("SIS", o- the Cl toppled Mos- sadeh, restorc.3 the shah u rev er, and, pulled out its men without a ripple. thus saving tree for the Free ! W)rld. ? In the fall of tee2. American intelligence ? in a conflu- ence of researce. enelvsis. photo-reconnaissanc.c. and ; agent reports ? witted Russian nuclear missiles being Approved For Reledie installed in Cuba. ? or nearly a decade Col Oleg Penkovsky. a top Krem- lin intelligence officer, served as an agent of the CIA ar.d played a key rile during the Cuban missile crisis. a American intelligence gave seven yeare' warning on ; development ot .loscow's anti-ballistic missile system I and reported the :genie and design of the Soviet navy's new aircraft carriers two years before the first was ; ; launched CIA also pinpointe'd eight new types of Russian ?1 ICBM's and assessed their size and capabilities three to ' four years before each became operational. ? American communications, satellites have listened to Moscow convereations of Chairman Brezhnev while he was driving to work in his own limousine. ? Working at unprecedented ocean depths of ?17.000 feet. the CIA salvaged portions of a sunken Russian nuclear submarine and would have finished the job by retrieving her cryptographie secrets, but for national exposure of the project by syndicated columnist Jack Anderson last year The foregoing are but sample' ? successes which be- came Pnown, contrasted in the many which still must remain seeret ; but they illustrate the positive things which can emerge for the side which ? enjoys- superior intelligence ?Ve:Yamalt.1.01021/, Despite this record of brilliant Succ-ess a'nd high'per- ,formance..the CIA nonetheless has its detractors. Sey- mour Hersh, the New York Times reporter whose 1974 ,! Charges of "massive" CIA domestic spying triggered the ; intelligence community's past IS-month ordeal in Con- gress and- the media, is quite candid. In 1975, on the David Susskind program. lkrsh called for abolition of all :intelligence activities. ' The bad patches of intelligence over the years, the ; stumbles and slips which have accompanied the dazzling hits, show clearly the woes which could ensue if Hersh and like-minded foes of Intelligence had their way and the United States shut its eyes to the world. ; to The Berlin Wall stands to this day as a monument to , Western failure to anticipate and forestall the physical division of Germany. ; ? If Western intelligence had divined and penetrated the 1944 bomb attempt to assassinate Hitler, the -plot well ;i might have succeeded, the?mar could have.e:nded a year; ; earlier with Russia's armies halted in Poland.;;.' . a . ? The Bay of Pigs fiasco (a failure, to be sure, of deci- sions as well as intelligence).still .represents our most Iserious hemispheric humiliation; and a U.S; setback out- ; reached only by.Vietnam. ?- le In 1964, the CIA, and thus-the 'Whitellouse, was taken by surprise when Khreshchey felt. ? In 196S, when Russian tanks and paratroopers overran Czechoslovakia, the first news . President Johnson. had ; was when Soviet Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin came to I the White House and told bun. I a ln 1973, both our own CIA. and Israel's legendary Mos- ' sad. Tel Aviv's highly eecret intelligence service, failed. to read the signals of the Arabs' devastating Yom Kippur male tight. . - ? I The. above ? like the suCcesses recited ? are only I illustrations, but they demonstrate what can happen I when a great power suffers intelligence failures. If there is any concise answer to the question, -Why intelligence?" one need. only look g - b 1.1a *01 16 1'" - 20011E008 i1CIA-RDP77-00432R0 0 . 3_ THE DETROIT NEWS 2 AUGUST .1976 -Approved-For-Relepse-2001/08/08-: CIA-RDP77-00432R000400390003-2 IA fres ? Second of four parts . By COL. R. D HEINL JR. liSMC-Ret.; . .Nevra Military Analyst WASHINGTON ? American intelli- gence has to woe with 27 hostile spy serv? ? ices fully deployed within the United States and ranged against :the CIA ? throughout the world ? ? Russia s KGB and its military cousin. the Soviet armed forces' GRU, are big ? brothers to a dangerous array of smaller ? intelligence services including those of East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary. Romania, Bulgaria and ? larg- est: among Russia's satellite spy opera- tions ? Cuba ? ' Besides these are the4 extensive net-. works of China, North Korea, Libya, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and other Arab nations Nominally neu- tral, the intelligence operations of India .and Yugoslavia eat, he counted on to help the KGB when they can In Langley, Va., at the secluded head- quarters of CIA, stands a modest statue of Nathan Hale, America's first intelligence officer, who gave his life in the Revolu- tion. ? Similarly, yet in glaring contrast. KGB 'headquarters.? located in the heart ef ? downtown Moscow ? dominates Dzerz- 'hinski Square, named for the mighty ' Leninist spyinaster. Feliks Dzerzhinski, ; whose giant statue, like that of Hale, eerves as a signpost for the agency he ? founded ?? Inside the seven-story yellow building are the offices of Yuri Andropov. 62, number to George Bush who today heads CIA Andropov's agency, direct de edendant of Lenin's Cheka and the czars' Okhrana, combines the functions of for- eign intelligence with those of an internal secret police Although Intounst guides in Moscow deny it exists, the KGB head- quarters on Lubyanka Street also houses ? the dread Lubyanka prison first made famous by Solzhenitsyn in his novel, "The First Circle." With a budget that cannot be guessed, An- dropov has more than 500,000 subordinates, the preponderacce of whom are committed to inter- nal security. He has enough intelligence opera- tives, however, so that, by commonly accepted estimates, upward of 50 percent of all Soviet representatives abroad are members of the KGB. . ? 'sets-, .??: - ? .? ? tie . (The FBI stated recently that "over 40 per- cent"?of all Soviet officials permanently as- signed in this county. and 25 percent of all Rus- sian excharee students here, have been identified as spies. ? e. . ? ? ..-?? ? ????? ? ' - (Since 19-50, 2.ccoi-ding to intelligence sourcei, some 400 Russians have been expelled from offi- cial posts in 40 countries for spying. During the last decade, U.S. records show more than 800 attempts by KGB agents to enlist American citi-? zens as Russian agents). , : ? ?dent?h..e. ?-? ? ?.? ? The Russian-Embassy on Washington's 16th Street has more than 200 staff members ard more antennas than the Pentagon. Backing. up the Soviets' Washington team are' nearly 250 P.ussiares inflitrated into the UN Secretariat and. nearly len more in the Soviet Mission to the UN. Locatedshort distance from the UN, behind a brownstore front on East 67th Street, is the headetearters of cop4sc;vai pi,ifeffas , General de late igencia), the KGB s .Western Hemisphere surrogate and largest and most modem intelligence service in the hemisphere . . except our OA. -- -tee ? s ?:?;? des ? ?.- Vilai/e the DGI's operations and makeup hith- erto have been little known, it now is emerging ? as a main focus of Kremlin-directed subversion, terrorism and espionage directly aimed at the i United States. ? ? . The DGI in recent years. has funded and trained a range of groups including Weather- men, SDS, Black Panthers, American Indian subversives, "FLQ" Quebec separatists in Canada and especially Puerto Rican revolution- aries.' s t ? ? . ? .? 't.Under intensive Russian tutelage,. the DGI, nearly 4,000,strong, is headed by Jose Mendes Cominches and is, in turn, effectively corn- mended by Gen. Viktor Semenov, chief KGB officer in Cuba. ?? , ' : , ? ?_ - With such enemies abroad, it would be sur- prising if American intelligence did not have tenacious foes imbedded inside our free society.. ? ? More precisely, ever since December,_ 1974, When New York-Times reporter Seymour Hersh charged (and largely failed to prove) that the CIA was engaged in "massive, illegal" domestic espionage, the U.S. intellige.ce community has :been under siege ? described by CIA 'defenders as"McCarthyisrn of the left" ?from an articu- late, loosely affiliated cabal of hostile Ameri- cans whose orchestrated theme, in'the words of one of them, is that ."the CIA must be abol- ished."... : ? . - ? The above objective, voiced- over BBC-TV, was stated by Philip Agee, for 12 years a CIA? officerewho now lives abroad for fear of prose- cution because of his intentional betrayal of CIA people and operations in Latin America and elsewhere. t ?? ,. ? , --Besides Agee, whom the CIA bluntly calls ??defecter;" the anti-CIA coalition includes a few other ex-intelligence officers, ex-government officials, congressmen, journalists, radical law- yers and a miscellaneous anti-establishmentar- ian fringe that, in general, cpposes not only the? CIA but the U.S. policies and purpose; it serves. Attacks from these quarters, in tern, are sup- ported by a range of groups including the American Civil Liberties Union, assortetranti- military radical-revisionist "think tanks" and, particularly, one cell, calline, itself "Fifth Es- tate," expressly devoted to exposing the CIA wherever possible. ? ? . (The deadly quality of "Fifth Estate's" programs may be measured by the fact that it was they,. through their quarterly bulletin, Counter-Spy, who fingered Richard S. Welch,' the CIA station chief murdered in Athens by, Communist terrorists last December). ? ? Short of abolishing the CIA, the agency's attackers demand full disclosure of all informa- tion, however sensitive, whether it embarrasses, the United States abroad, destroys the agency orexposes its people to mortal harm. . lithe CIA': lengthy track record of achieve- ments were not deeply secret, it presumably would not bow under such virulent attack which closely coincides with the goals and objectives 'of the 27 foreign intelligence services arrayed against it. ?_ ?? When, in earlier times, American secrets were endangered (though nothing like today) through politically motivated by media and Congress claiming the highest motives, Presiient Truman snappeori: "it' matters not whether our secrets are be- trayed on the front page of a U.S.. twee:leper or through the oi,ecations of enemy spies. In eithe.- aiggp.tifiditithFC' 81A124. ISPYY-Os0"431?52Risd.ohal ? a pin trA4 k,.`A, Li U WASHINGTON posT 8 AUG l'37 PARADE ? AUGUST 8, 1976 Broadening the CM ? For years it was held that the Central Intelligence Agency was an elitist organization staffed al- most completely by Ivy Leaguers, especially in its upper echelons. Under Allen W. Dulles, Prince- ton '14, it was reported that 18 of the top 20 intelligence staffers were old Princetonians. In addi- tion. to William Colby, class of '40, who was a recent director, and Frederick M. Janney, class of '41, director of personnel, there are about 70 Princeton alumni in the employ of the CIA. There are also a goodly number of Yale and Harvard alumni. But in recent years the agency has at- tempted to broaden its recruiting spectrum. Last year it hired 400 em- ployees from 150 different col- leges and universities. This sum- mer its 50 interns repiesent 35 different institutions. "We do not concentrate our re- cruiting on Ivy League cam- puses," reports an agency spokes- man. "Just look at where our employment offices are located: Austin, Boston, Denver, Los An- geles, Pittsburgh, Portland (Oreg.), Washington, D.C., Phila- delphia, New York, arid other cities." During World War II when the Office of Strategic Services, the CIA precursor, was organized by the late Wild Bill Donovan, most of its men came from the Ivy League. Today the trend is more democratic, although the CIA top rung is still heavy with ivy Leaguers. Incumbent CIA direc- tor George Bush is an old Yalie. ? 2 100390003-2 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390603-2 DETROIT NEWS 3 AUGUST 1976 , dirt tricks fail stir rest. of. wori Third of four parts By COL. R.D. HEINL JR. (1.:SMC-Ret.) News Military Analyst WASHINGTON ? American citizens have been shaken by the last year's pa- rade of U.S. intelligence secrets in public but hardly anyone else in the world has been surprised by the disclosures of spying. The reason is simple enough: In the words of the old song, "Everybody's doing ?i Not just the Russian KGB "had guys" ? arid their friends in surrogate intelligence ; services but almost every significant non- Communist country has a powerful na- tional intelligence agency. These .are , backed in one way or another by effective internal security and counterespionage services and, in practically every case but the United States, by tough official secrets laws. FBI "black bag" break-ins to steal codes from foreign embassies, CIA assas- sination studies, foreign destabilization and minor domestic surveillance ? all ; these and numerous other intelligence dirty tricks fall within the rules of the game as it is played, not only by our enemies but by our friends. ? Here is a rundown on intelligence services tun by some other non-Communist countries. - Ever since the 16th century, when Sir Francis Walsing- ham recruited young scholars from Cambridge and Ox- ford to spy for Queen Elizabeth in the courts of France :and Spain ? and in Rome, Britain has ranged its intelligence services in the first line of defense beside the pound and the British fleet. ? .. . ? British intrigue, bribery, blackmail, abduction and subversion have overthrown governments, rulers, politi- cal parties and statesmen and destroyed careers and reputations.. ? ? That our own CIA should dabble a bit in similar mat- ters should come as no surprise: When the United States finally entered the game in earnest during World War II, the model for our OSS (Office of Strategic Services) was Britain's famed SIS (Secret Intelligence Service, or "MI- , 6,.). - ? ? Much of the glamor. of' MI-6 is oWing, to a long, cozy relationship with the British press, which has never felt any inconsistency in serving national intelligence pur- poses abroad, and with the literary world: Among SIS alumni are Graham Greene, John Le Carre (real name, David Cornwell), Ian Fleming and Compton MacKenzie. . ? Today, Britain has three functionally ccmpartmented intelligence services. MI-6 handles all foreign intelli- gence; unlike the CIA, its "C," or director, answers directly to the foreign office, which must clear all SIS operations. For large-scale dirty tricks, especially aicy paramilitary operations required by the intelligence community, the British army maintains a force called Special Air Service Regiment or "SAS." The original, pre-Vietnam crncepr and training of the U.S. Special Forces was based on the SAS. ? ..? ?? ? . ' Catching spies and protecting official secrets, whether at home or abroad, is the job of MI-6's "rival firm," designated "MI-5." Irr, domestic cases, MI-5 (Which comes under the home secretary) does the digging but Scotland Yard's Special Branch actually makes the pinch. ? ? = ? ? ? In a tradition largely fostered by Charles de Gaulle, the French intelligence services have a long record of -mur- .der, kidnaping, blackmail, large-scale traffic with organ- ized crime and internal political intrigue. ? _ ? . ? France has at least four different groups to do the jobs we expect of the CIA and FBI, as well as many we do not. ? The nearest French equivalent to the CIA has theacro- nym, "SDECE." Its Washington headquarters may be seen in a tree-shaded mansion in the 2100 block of Wyoming Avenue. The SDECE works. jointly for the de- fense and interior ministries. The Directorate ? of Territorial Surveillances (DST) takes care of counterintelligence inside France, burgles foreign embassies and taps their phones and not infre- quently spies on the press. DST comes under the interior minister. . ? - For 'really dirty tricks, the French have the Civil- Ac- ' tion Service, known widely as "Les Barbotizes" (false beards). It was the Barbouzes, for example, who pulled ? off the 1965 kidnap-murder of Moroccan opposition leader' ' Ittehdi Ben Barka. - ?? ,. .,.? . ? The largest Western intelligence service other than the . CIA is West Germany's END. The END, which concen- trates almost exclusively on Russia and eastern Europe, Is backed up in spy-catching by the.FBI-like Office for Protection of the Constitution. e ? ;?? ? ?,?? The END, however, is frequently. swamped ?situated as it is in the front lines of European intelligence -.? by the massive Soviet and East German spy services whose anti-Western and anti-NATO operations are reportedly coordinated from the "Karlshorst Compound" in a heavily guarded suburb of East Berlin. West Germany, in many ways, is the spy center of Eu- rope. It is a divided country on the brink of the East-West chasm and it is the base for 2e0,000 U.S. troops with a major nuclear arsenal. It is inherently vulnerable to penetration from East Germany. ? Among a wide range of other non-Communist . t intelli- gence services, three are of special interest: South Afri- ca's effective, ruthless Bureau of State Security (BOSS), which combines central intelligence and internal security. with a judicious mix of dirty tricks elsewhere in Africa; Israel's superb and hypersecret "Mossad," which enjoys ?close links with the CIA; and Sweden's?tightly run serv- ice which benefits from one of the .toughest official secrets laws in the world. Recently, a Swedish journalist was sent to prison even for reporting in print that the Swedish service existed. ? ? One notable difference between all the foreign agencies mentioned (except MOSSAD) and our CIA is , despite their prowess ? the fact that every one, at one time or another, has suffered serious penetration by the KGB, something that has not yet happened to the CIA. Two of the top officials in Britain's MI-6, defector Kim Philby and George Blake, were Russian double agents. Philby was next in line to become the "C" of MI-6. ? As of 1968, a qualified intelligence source recently esti- mated, France's SDECE, was "Sc percent penetrated" by the KGB. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Approved For Release 2001/G8/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 DETROIT NEWS 4 AUGUST 1976 By COL. R. D. HEINL Jr. ; QUSMORtt.i Vacs Military Analyst WASHINGTON ? A quarter-century has passed since the State Department and the U.S. Foreign Service were under furious and deadly attack by the late Sen. Joseph McCarthy, R-Wis. Two decades were required to rebuild American diplomacy and some of the McCarthyite wounds may not be healed in our time. For the last 18 months ? under similar onslaughts from the left ? the U.S.: intelli- gence community has been in gravedan- ger of being Crippled, dismembered or 'even dismantled, at a time when the United States probably has more urgent requirements for intelligence than at any tune in our history. . Five committees or subcommittees or Congress and a White House commission, egged on by post-Watergate media, outdid themselves in disclosing state secrets. The political atmosphere was hyped up by impending elections in which some of the CIA's principal inquisitors (such as Sen. Frank Church, D-Idaho, were avowedly seeking national exposure and . national office. ? A Washington magazine, Counter-Spy, ; was established for the sole purpose of be- traying American intelligence abroad. (The Counter-Spy program quickly found its mark: Richard S. Welch, the CIA station chief murdered in Athens by Communist terrorists, was fingered by punter-Spy and its backers, a group call- mg itself Fifth Estate, largely financed by writer Norman Mailer.) At the height of the CIA e4osures mainly by the Church and Pike commit- tees of the Senate and House ?.a veteran intelli- gence officer told a re- porter: . "If the (Russian) KGB had SOO agents working full ttme to neutralize the CIA on a crash basis, they could- n't achieve the results .for the Kremlin that the Church and Pike committees have accomplished." The Pike Committee, in the House was headed by Rep. Otis Pike, D-N.Y. --? William E. Colby, former CIA director, said: "The KGB is still running to catch up." ? .. Now with the storm .abating, with the contents of anailtrasecret House re- port on intelligence pub- lished in New York's Vil- lage Voice, with the Church Committee having put out six 'thick volumes totaling more than' 5,000 pages of intelligence da tatand with: President Ford having reor- ganized the intelligence community with a 35-page closely printed directive, it is time to ask what damage has been done. One _who believes.. the damage has been "shatter- Ars im a ine- is James Angleton, for 31 years the CIA's chief of counterespionage until he was asked to resign at the height of last year's anti- CIA frenzy. Quiet-spoken, almost academic in man-, ner, Angleton is nonetheless "Our files have been . raided," he told a reporter. "Our agents exposed and .our officials humiliated. _ ? "The question I ask the executive and the intelli- gence authority is: 'Why did you permit it to hap- pen?' The question I. ask Congress is: 'Why did you make it happen and why did you want it to happen?." .. Other intelligence veter- ans who have also retired under pressure or in frus- tration ask the same.ques- tions and wince as they try to assess the damage. Coun- terintelligence,: they say, using Ang,leton's adjective, has been "shattered." . So it should be that: ? Angleton and his three top .deputies, representing 120 years of combined coun- terespionage, have been forced out. 6 Foreign cooperation, once lavished on the CIA because the world knew the agency could keep a secret, has shrunk to a trickle as other . intelligence services have seen'their? disclosures pa- ? raded by a U.S. Congress which has leaked every cov- ert project reported by the CIA this past year. 6 For the same reason that foreign sources have dried e upAmericans at home and abroad who have quietly THE WASHINGTON POST ,August 18, 1976 air worked to help the national intelligence service and clammed up after being ex- posed by Congress or the media. . ? ? Despite official denial or minimazation, those in the best position to know say the leakage of the last IS months has been, in the words of ene, "enormous." To quote Angleton again: "The Church committee was a McCarthyite hearing in which the denigration of. the intelligence community was its goal. Church ex- posed to the KGB and other Soviet, bloc intelligence services the personnel and methods of the American intelligence community." (One who differs with Angleton:was Sen. Richard Schweiker, -recently tapped by Ronald Reagan aa his vice-presidential candidate. Schweiker called the Church hearings and disclosures "proof of our greatness as a nation.") ? Able personnel have been forced out ? not merely Angleton and his team. CIA Director Colby (with whom Angleton bitterly differed} in the end was sacked by President Ford in what most observers felt was an act of ritual sacrifice of an incumbent.. . . . Will the newly created machinery for executive and congressional oversight of intelligence activities work and,- above all, can Congress keep intelligence secrets? ? - Here the answer seems obscure at best. Eleanor Culver, Former CIA Aide Eleanor Kiimain Culver, 47, a for- mer employee of the Central Triton. gerice Agency, died of cancer Sunday at Washington Adventist Hospital. Born in Wellesley, Mass., she was a graduate of Wellesley College. She joined the CIA as a secretary shortly after coming to this area in HD. Mrs. Culver, who was the wife of Robert G. Culver, a Burtonsville bust- 4 As matters now stand, seven committees of Con- gress totaling 29 senators and more than 20 represen- tative have the claim to hear CIA and other intelli- gence disclosures. On Con- gress's track record to date, observers are pessimistic. . Another cause tor pessi- mism is that one obvious end-product of the ordeal of intelligence ? firm legal -protection against the dis- closure of its secrets ?.has so far failed to ma terialice. Every other Western na- tion, ? including Britain, whose Official Secrets Act is tolighest of all. has ade- quate laws againt espionage and to protect its intelli- gence services against exposure. The United States has neither and Congress so far shows little dtspesition to act mi Mr. Ford's recom- mendations to proviJe the same statutory shields for intelligence information that the law has long pro- vided for tax and census data, cotton futures, grand jury proceedings and the prahana communications of doctors, lawyers and re- porters. Does this mean the United States disregards and has no need for intelli- gence? Never, say those who know best. In the words of one, "Having intelligence is always better than having no intelligence at all. The alternative to acting with knowledge is acting in igno- rance." nessman, left the CIA in the late 1950s. At that time, site was a Near East security control officer. . She had been a volunteer worker for a number of philanthropic organi- zations in the Laurel area, and was a member of St. Mary's Catholic Church in Laurel. In addition to her husband, she Is 'survived by two children, Joseph Ken- neth and Mary Christine, all of the home, 16002 Kenny Rd., Laurel; two sisters, Catherine Cotter, of Wellesley,. anci Airs. David Foss, of Portland, Maine, and two brothers, John Kit- main, of Wellesley, and William main, of t iidovcr, Mass. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 ? BALTIMORE SUN 20 Aug. 19 76' CIA Reply Sir: Your August 6 editorial, "Tip of a CIA Iceberg," demands comment. It is not my purpose to extend discussion, if that is the word, of factual matters covered by the Commission on Central Intel- ligence Agency Activities within the United States, (Rockefeller Commission), and by the exten- sive studies and findings of the Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental.Operations. Hundreds of pages of testi- mony and conclusions are avail- able to those who wish to dis- tinguish between evidence and suspicion, between reality and allegation, between malfeasance and sensationalism. As a result of the Senate Se- Ject Committee proceedings, the Congress has taken steps to en- hance its capacity for detailed and comprehensive oversight of the national foreign intelligence community. . Executive Order 11905 of the President provides detailed 'directives for the conduct of for- eign intelligence activities. Thus, there is no question that the Central Intelligence Agency and other components of the in- telligence community are re- sponsive to the direction of the elected Chief Executive and ful- ly, accountable to the elected representatives in Congress. I do not presume to comment on your editorial views. I find it necessary, however, to state 'that the accusations of develop- ing techniques for "curbing dos; inestic dissent and securing ide- ological conformity" are shock- ing, offensive, and objectionable. Eternal vigilance of the free ? press as a safeguard of our free- dom is one thing; unfounded im- putation to the government of monstrous motives and criminal designs on a national scale is quite another. Responsible ed- itorial opinion can hardly go too far in the exercise of the former, it is recklessly at odds with the ? fundamental concepts of liberty when it indulges in the latter. - Andrew T. Falkiewica, ? Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence. - Washington. SOO BALT INDRE SUN 6 August 1976 Tip of a CIA Iceberg Revelations about the CIA's use of extremely dangerous hallucinogenic drugs?most of them even now classified as experimental?on unwit- ting and unwilling subjects in the 1950s and 1960s is frightening enough. What is even more frightening is the probability that this drug re- search was no more than the tip of an iceberg of CIA activity that proceeded apace despite its self-evident potential for compromising acade- mic social science research in the United States. What prompted the recent freedom-of-infor- mation suit that secured the CIA files was the earlier Rockefeller commission report on the CIA, which described the drug programs briefly and then mentioned, almost casually, that these programs were but a small part of a much broader program of "controlling human behav- ior' Indeed that seems to have been the case. The newly released files indicate that the CIA used a variety of front organizations to finance academic social scientists, and thus was in- vOlVed in a far broader range of psychologically oriented research than just drugs, from elec- troshock to psychological assessments of sub- jects who were unaware they were being as- sessed. According to a spokesman for the Center for National Security, which brought the suit, "some of the biggest names in academic social science research were involved, usually un- THE WASHINGTON POST August 16. 1916 knowingly" through grants from the CIA front organizations. It is probably safe to say that Most of these researchers pursued their work with the hope of helping humanity. But although the CIA says its main interest was defensive, to counter psycho- logical techniques it feared the Russians were developing, there is no doubt that the techniques also had, and have, frightening potentials for curbing domestic dissent and securing ideologi- cal conformity. The range of drugs tried, from aphrodisiacs to "truth serums" and what the agency called "recruitment pills," suggests the vicious potential. The agency's unscrupulous use of the techniques on unsuspecting and invol- untary subjects leaves little room for confi- dence that the agency's ethical standards would forever have prevented use of the techniques on the general population for political purposes. Details apparently will be scarce. Hard as it is to believe, in 1973, the then CIA director, Richard M. Helms, ordered many records of the psychological programs destroyed. Mr. Helins's order deserves to be added promptly to the al- ready-burdensome agenda of the Senate's new intelligence committee. The nation is entitled to as full an accounting as can possibly be assem- bled?not only of the programs themselves but of the destruction of the files as well. World Vision Denies CIA Connection ? The charge made by an unnamed source in a story published August 9 that World Vision used street-boys cared for in our humanitarian pro- grams in Saigon as information-col- lecters for the CIA is absolutely. without foundation in fact and is categorically denied. ? Journalistic fairness demanded a statement from World Vision in the context of the original story. The re- porter, Brian Eads, admits he knew we had an office in Bangkok, yet he .never contacted that office. Your own editorial office could easily have talked to our international' headquarters in California. Let me state it without equivocation: World Vision has never gathered informa- tion for the CIA or any other intellig- ence agency. World Vision is an in- ternational Christian humanitarian organization, incorporated in the United States in 1950. We began our- humanitarian and Christian minis- try in South Vietnam, in 1960, and for 15 years we cared for thousands of orphans; built hundreds of homes for refugees, and worked closely with the evangelical church of that country. Nearly 80 per cent of our present 'budget of VA-million comes from many thousands of American contri- butors and that the average gift to our ministries is $19.58. In March, 1976,! wrote an open let- ter to President Ford regarding the alleged use of Christian organiza- tions and missionaries by the CIA. I said, in part: ?Ile gospel of Jesus Christ is above cultures, above gov- ernments and above foreign policy. It must forever remain so. I urge you, Mr. President, to uphold the doctrine of church/state separation and to remove the cloud from our overseas missionary enterprises by directing the CIA to refrain from in- volving persons in Christian voca- tions in its intelligence activities." I simply ask you if those sound like the words of an organization which would allow homeless child- ren for whom it has provided love, a home and an education to be used as spies? STANLEY MOONEYHA1VI, President, World Vision International. Monrovia, Calif. Editor's Note:. We regret that a statement from. World Vision was not included in The. Post's original story. Approved For Release 201/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Approved For Release 2001/08108 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 , NEWS WEEK 23 August 1976 THE MAFA: A Swm n the Bay At 71, Mafia lieutenant John Rossetti .claimed to be living the life of a retiree on the south Florida gold coast. Last month, wearing his customary tailor- made trousers and shirt, he left his sis- ter's borne in Ft. Lauderdale presumably for a routine round of golf. He never showed up. Last week?ten days after he disappeared?two fishermen thought they saw human limbs protruding from holes in a 55-gallon drum floating in Biscayne Bay. It was Rossetti: strangled, stabbed in the stomach and stuffed in a barrel wrapped with chains. Only a par- tial fingerprint enabled the FBI to iden- tify his badly decomposed body. His death carried all the signs of an old- fashioned gangland rub-out and ordinar- ily would have attracted only limited interest. But Rossetti was no run-of-the- mob thug. He had once worked on the side for the CIA?which recruited him to try to assassinate Fidel Castro?and he had spent several evenings with Judith Campbell Exner at about the same time that Exner was allegedly spending some of her nights on the road with President John F. Kennedy. Those links?and the fact that Rossetti recently had been talk- ing about them to a Senate committee? again raised puzzling questions about the mobster's life and touched off demands fora full Congressional investigation into his death. Rosselli's role as a handmaiden to the CIA was detailed last summer when he testified before Sen. Frank Church's Se- lect Committee on Intelligence. Accord- ing to Rossetti, he was contacted in 1960 THE NEW YORK TIMES 14 August 1976 Levi Orden ?10 :loStarianffriquiry O Ros2ili Murder 117 Tho Anwelateti Pres3 WASHINGTON, Aug. 13-- Attorney General Edward H. Le?rl today ordered the Federal , Bureau of Investigation to try to determine whether John Ro- selli, the crime figure, was mur- dered as a result of his Senatel committee testimony on assas-1 simition plots of the Central Intelligence Agency against Prime Minister Fidel Castro of Cuba. I Mr. Levi was responding to: requests from Senate ,Intelli- gence Committee members that. the Justice Department take charge of the' investigation. A Justice Department spokes- man, Robert Havel, said ? that Mr. Levi told the bureau "to investigate whether the Roselli homicide was the result of his testimony before the committee or to prevent future testimony. before a committee-- of Con- tress." ? ? ? Mr. Roselli' s body was found last weekend in an oil drum. by Howard Hughes operative Robert Ma- llen, an ex-FBI agent, and asked to use his underworld ties to kill Castro with poison pills that could be slipped into Castro's. food. Rossetti oversaw that on-and-off project until it was scnibbed by the CIA in 1963. Chicago-based mob figure NIonio Salvatore (Sam) Giancana, Rosset ti's boss, was also recruited for the assassina- tion effort; he was mysteriously kil led last year, days before he \'as to appear as a Senate witness. Earlier this year, Rossetti also talked to Sen. Richard Schweiker's subcommittee, which was probing possi- ble connections between the Castro plot and the Kennedy assassination. Rossetti was cooperating with the gov- ernment as he tried to fend off deportation proceedings that threatened to end a long and flamboyant career. He entered the country illegally at age 6, changed his name from Filippo Sacco after a youthful narcotics arrest and. joined the Capone mob in Chicago. In the '30s he became a well-known West Coast gambler with widespread contacts in the movie indus- try, and in 19-13 he was convicted for a studio shakedown scheme. Later, still under the control of the Chicago mob, Rossetti went to Las Vegas to supervise the Mafia's gambling interests?which included casinos in Batista's Cuba. It was during that period that Rossetti was intro- duced to party girl Judith Campbell, whose men friends also included Gian- cana as well as JFK. That odd quadrangle, extending into the time of the in ti-Castro plot, was also investigated, inconclusive- ly, by the Senate committee last year. Despite the pattern of overlapping intrigue in which Rossetti N'as involved, law-enforcement sources last week dis- counted the notion that the CIA had any floating in Biscayne Bay off the Florida coast. Mr. Roselli had testified about his-role in a C.I.A. plan . to use organized crime figures! to kill Mr. Castro. The. plan was never carried out. ? Mr. Havel said Mr. Levi had authorized the buread to enter the case under a Federal stat- ute that makes it a- crime to obstruct proceedings; before. Government agencies- and Con-. :gressional committees.. .The statute sets a. maximum penal- ty of _five years in prison, and. a $5,000 fine: The ? bureau -director,Y?Clar ence M.. Kelley, .said Wednes- day that department officials: had advised him that there waS, no Federal jurisdiction, in the case. Murder ? is not usually- a Federal crime. ? ? But Mr. Havel said Mr. Levi had now. decided that there was a basis for ? entering the case. Mr. Levi reached' the de- cision after ? "communicating with ? the people up on the 6 part in his death or that of Ciancalia7-1 don't think the spooks did it," said one Federal investigator. "Rut I don't think they*IC sorry it happened." Bosse) li had had a series of three meetings in early June with molisters on the West Coast, and most official sources accepted the killings for. what they seemed , to be, classic underworld executions carried out fur a classic underworld reason: talking too much. The logic was that anyone willing to talk to authorities about Castro might be willing to discuss other mob-related activities as well. Giancatia, in fact, had already appeared before a Federal grand jury'in Chicago when he was shot. Still, Sen. Howard Baker of the.intelli- gence committee said last week he would ask the CIA and F131 for informa- tion on the Rossetti murder and that he would urge the panel to investigate any links between Rosseili's amid Giancana's kill- ings. "There appears to be d connection," Baker said. "Both agreed to testify on the same subject. Both were involved in the same assassination opera- tion." At the end of the week, both the Justice Department and the FBI received a green light from U.S. Attorney Gener- al Edward Levi to enter the case (it is a Federal crime to do harm to a Congressional witness). But even so, it remained to be seen whether the mystery of John li's death would ever be satisfactorily solved. --DENNIS A. WILLIAMS with ANDREW JAFFE in Miami and ANTHONY MARRO in Washinuton [Capitol] Hitt t6 deterMine what Rosellt had toid ? the ? commit- tee," Mr: Havel said. He did not elaborate.. The Federal investigation, Mr. Havel Continued, "is to be undertaken with close coopera- tion and coordination with the authorities" in Dade County, Fla., which. has jurisdiction over the Biscayne Bay area. In his instructions to the bureau, .Mr..?-Levi ? emphasized "that Dade County has the principal responsibility ? for the investigation," the spokesman said: ; . Meanwhile; a lawyer for Mr. Roselli today discounted the possibility of: a connection be- tween his client's death. and reported recent meetings be- tween- his client and West Coast crime figures. Mr. Roselli at one time was known as the West Coast lieu- tenant of the Chicago mobster Sam Giancana, who was. also involved in the C.I.A. assas- sination plots against Mr. Castro. Mr. Giancana was murderd in June 1975. shortly before he was to testify before- the Sen- ate investigators. BALTIMORE SUN 10 August 1976 Colby says IA did kill obsters Miami (API ? The Central Intelliobente Agency, which en- listed john Roselli and Sam (Momo) Giancana, two mobs- ters, in a plot to kill Fidel Cas- tro, played no part in their gangland-style deaths, the agency's former head said yes- terday. "I can guarantee you that the CIA had absolutely nothing to do with their deaths." Wil- liam E. Coiby, a former direc- tor of the agency, said in an in- terview with WTOP television in Was'iington. Mr. Colby acknowledged that the agency had used the underworld figures in an un- realized assassination scheme against the Cuban premier in 1061. He was not in charge of the agency at the time. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 - ? Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 WASHINGTON POST 1 (\lir 1976 ho Killed John Roselli? ? y ^ ?,WE'RE GOING TO tell you a little story now. Once there was a President who was murdered. ? His brother was murdered too. A long time after they died some very strange facts came to light. It turned ? out that while they were running the government, the government was trying to get two Mafia mobsters to arrange the murder of someone else?the head of a small, hostile neighbor state. It also turned out that ' one brother?the one who was President?appar- ently had a girlfriend who was the girlfriend as well of the mobsters. And one of the mobsters, whose nickname was Momo, was prominent on the list of criminals the President's brother was trying to put in jail. The story may sound complicated, but life is com- plicated, arid the complications in this case got even more so. For when a committee of the Congress -wanted the two mobsters to come and tell them some- thing about all this, only one of thein?the one -named Johnny? came. The. other one, Momo, was murdered in his house a week before they wanted him to testify. Johnny, however, told his story to one committee in the Congress and then came back?qui- etly?to tell some more things to another committee ? which was in fact looking into the murder of the President. Then Johnny went to Florida. Then no one could find him. Then some fishermen found him. Dead. In an oil drum. But we haven't 'told you the strangest part of all yet, the part you're really not going to believe. It is that when the great national political community of solons, scribes, policemen, spies and managers of the general- wellbeing heard about poor Johnny, they said: "Oh, my goodness," Some of them went farther, of course. They said: "Fancy that!" But most of them didn't say anything at all except: "Yawn." Forgive us for lapsing into storybookese. We do it for a reason which is that the simple unadorned facts of the John and Robert Kennedy-Fidel Castro-CIA- Mafia-Momo Giancana-Johnny Roselli-Judith Exner- Church Committee-Schweiker Committee saga need to be put forward in stark outline for their magni- tude to be understood. Is it really, as the sophisticated wisdom goes, "paranoid" on our part to brood about the suggestive and possibly monstrous interconnec- tions between all these facts and to wonder why they are not the object of intense press and. government scrutiny? What accounts for the general indifference In high places? What accounts for the eagerness with which we all seem to accept that familiar tipoff that we shall be hearing no more about the latest crime? i.e., the pronouncement that Mr. Roselli's dispatch to an oil drum and Beyond had "all the earmarks of a gangland slaying." Those ? are the good old "ear- marks" we only hear about when it is next to certain that we shall hear nothing more. The supposition of course is that the Gang which runs gangland has its reasons and its methods and that, disagreeable as these may be, they really lie out- side the proper realm of public concern because they amount to a system of justice which 1) only affects those dumb enough to get involved in it in the first .place and 2) tends only to punish those who have committed what the rest of us would regard as hei, nous crimes anyway. Not that these are things people say?they're things people .can be expected to as- sume. But we think in this case the assumptions have even less validity than they would have on a clear day, which isn't much. And that is because if we know anything, we know that the Mafia operations in which Messers. Giancana and Roselli figured had be- come intertwined with the operations of the United States government. Never mind that the decisions of the 'early 1960s which made this so may rank among the most abominable decisions ever taken in the U.S. government. The plain fact is that, given the provoca- tive and suggestive history of the two men, it is not possible for either Congress or the Executive Branch to look the other way or to complaisantly accept the earmarks-of-a-gangland-slaying bromide. After Mr. Giancana was killed, the Church Commit- tee inquired of the FBI whether its proposed meeting with him had figured in his murder. The FBI re- ported that it had no evidence to this effect. The then-director of the CIA, William Colby, felt obliged to state that the CIA had had nothing to do with the murder?and Mr. Colby likewise pronounced the other day that he was certain the CIA had not done in Mr. Roselli. The mere fact that the questions, to which these were meant to be the answers, had been raised tells us, anyway, that much more in the way of inquiry is wanted. The newly formed Senate Select Committee on Intelligence has now asked the Justice Department to make an investigation of Mr. Roselli's death. We think the Department should comply and that the investigation; despite FBI Director Clarence Kelley's disclaimer of jurisdiction, should have the Attorney General's ,personal attention. Such atten- tion is needed because of the elaborate and not en- tirely. reassuring history of relationships between the FBI and the CIA and the various participants in the whole sorry saga. We-are not suggesting that any agency of government?or even any of those agen- cy's fringe retainers ?were the murderers. We are suggesting that there is an overlay of potentially em- barrassing information sufficiently pervasive to keep an awful lot of people from wanting to have this thing aired. We also think that the Select Committee should reserve the right to pursue the matter. Con- gress, after all, can hardly be expected to sit idly by while its witnesses are being done in. Nor do we see how the public in general and the political establish- ment in particular can turn their attention away un- til we are all satisfied that a much greater effort has been made by the government?which means both the Executive Branch and the Congress?to discover what elements were at play in this series of appalling crimes and scandals. f7 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 -11;r7- Approved For Release 2001/06/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 3A LT I MORE SUN 17 Aug. 1976 The Roselli Murder Attorney General Edward H. Levi was cor- rent to order the Federal Bureau of Investiga- tion to r..00k into the recent gangland-style slay- 'ng of John Roselli. He should assign this case a igh priority, even take personal charge. He should also insist that there be a fuller probe than heretofore into the possibly related 1975 gangland-style slaying of Sam Giancana. But the matter can't end there. The Senate Select Committee on Intelligence should also conduct a full-scale investigation. Such unusual fact-finding is called for be- cause it is possible that these two murders were carried out to prevent law enforcement agen- cies and the American people from learning the truth about an alliance of organized crime and the Central Intelligence Agency and perhaps the White House, itself, to assassinate Cuba's Fidel Castro. IIt is known that such plans were at least discussed during the Kennedy administration. It Thursday, Augass' 12, 1976 has even been suggested that President Kenne- dy's death was somehow related to this activity. Thus it is even possible that the murders were meant to keep secret the truth about that shat- tering event. So far pursuit of this sordid business has been left mostly to those who like sensation for sen- sation's sake, or who do not have anything like the resources to find the truth. As a result ru- mors of the most outrageous sort fly to and fro. You can blame that on the quality of work done by the Warren Commission and the self-limited work done by the Senate committee. This situa- tion is complicated by the present low regard the FBI is held in, and by the self-interest the CIA has in the case. Unless Mr. Levi and the members of the Senate Select Committee fully involve themselves in this investigation, the public is going to wonder if it is really as thor- ough and objective as it ought to be. The Washington Star aile ? . )urea Eilave not taken the tour of the new FBI Building; Inge:lawn in the basement, my son has a bullet-riddled target from a tour in the old ones if remember how our guide ? raffled off the amounts .of information the FBI has in its files, and 'the efficiency with which it can retrieve that information. Information is no good, after all, without retriev- ability. lit is no use having material if you can't use it; and you can't use it if you caref.: find it, fast. . New The . Freedom Of iinforeration Act has made it the FBI's duty to reveal Rs files have to say a'aer you and me, fellow citiaees..The FBI, you see, was r": 91; i'lterested only in ceiminels, but in anyone who might become a crimi- nal ? in everyone. And it mr,en, Ic expensive lengths gathering the weirdest bits of trivia about the strangest .kinds of people. So now we are told, by the FBI and other federal departments, that it is just ;too hard to find what is in the files. The FBI . has denied that it had files which later turned up ? and then said Its retriev- ability .was poor. It has dragged its feet, asked for more money, acquired a im-month backlog of re- suesto, of Intimi It has even been suggest- ed that it is unpatriotic for citizens to ask that the Bu- reau or the CIA obey the law. After all, how can they do their job if we keep pes- tering them with requests for information? ?I thought bureaus of investigation were sup- posed to specialize in infor- mation. But the FBI was a bureau of intimidation, of propaganda, of infiltration, of provocation ? as much as, or more than, one of investigation. Admittedly, it is expen- sive to retrieve information from files that were not set up for legal use in prosecu- tion or criminal investiga- tion but for political purposes. A CIA official even claims that it can cost $150 just to make sure a person is not in their files. But it costs a great deal more to gather that infor- mation ? to hire the in- formers and equip them; to tap and bug and steal and break in. That was the true misuse of funds and time and manpower. The "ex- pense" in legal arid moral terms is not measurable. The Bureau was not even supposed to be an active prosecuting agency in the legal sense, just an accumu- lator of information usable by prosecutors. But it be- came an activist group in ation criminal activities, setting up crimes, aiding and abet- ting them, and actually committing them. I hope everyone who thinks the FBI or CIA may have snooped on him or her asks for all files affecting him or her. It will recall both depart- ments to their real task. Snoops need to be reminded that what they gather can be seen by those they are spying on. Such reports are often wrong, misleading, biased, prejudiced, vicious. The departments have used this as an excuse to sit on "raw files" ? which means that error, stored up for official scrutiny, cannot be corrected by the innocent. In asking for your files, be persistent. One standard dodge, I am told, is to send back a request asking, in ef- fect: Who are you? That is a delay in itself. One of those who got the request was a very well- known writer. A college sophomore working in the research department of a good magazine could have ? found out anything about him in 30 seconds. But we must be patient with our federal investigators. They are not very good at their real job. It has been such a long time since they did it. 8 MANCHESTER GUARDIAN ' 30 July 1976 IN. THE BEGINNING was the word and the word was CIA inspired: As cold war hotted up (to mix a metaphor) a quarter of a cen- tury back the American Government secretly chan- nelled almost limitless resources into Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty so they could channel anti- Soviet thoughts to the peo- ples of Eastern Europe. For decades Washington indignantly denied that those stations ? supposedly -financed by the contributions of individual freedom lovers in the United States ? were really bankrolled and con- trolled by the CIA. Three years back Nixon- did a U-turn. adthitted the CIA connection, and put the ? whole- busi4ess on a new foot- ing. Now the stations ares pro- perly financed by Congres- sional grant and supervised by David Abshire. who resigped as Henry Kissinger's number two to become unpaid chairman of the official, but supposedly inde- pendent. Board for Interna- tional Broadcasting. Alishire, who was in town this week for very private talks with the Beeb and our Foreign Office, is one of those high-powered Americans who move easily between acade- mia and politics. Ho runs Georgetown University's Centre for Strategic and Inte- rnational Studies (probably the most powerful think tank in the business) and remains an active Republican. He is the long-shot can- didate for K issinger's - post if ? and they are big ifs ? Ford remains President and Henry. K fulfils his threat (promise?) to retire at the end of this year. "Things have changed a great deal since we were' covertly financed," Abshire ? said firmly when I met him yesterday. Ltke how ? 'Well, we would no longer say any- thing inconsistent with the declared foreign policy of the US.' And :viral . does that -mean " For a start we would never encourage any belief that a revolt in East -Eutone or the Soviet rnion would produce a situation in hich the West would inter- vene." ? Anierica had moved away from the clays of " roll hack " and'' He wouldn't tie or distort at the Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-j iequeSt Of the State'DePart-? _, ment either, Abshire insists. - Now, says Ahshire, the con- - centration is on fact and on .violations of human rights "the more brutal the facts, the less emotional the appoaL" Since Helsinki and detente the Russians have inceased their stringent and vicious" ? attacks on all ,Western stations . broadcast- ing behind the Iron Curtain. . "They say.,, Radio;,' Free Europe and Radio Liberation are .still CIA controlled ? - it's a lie and they know ?it.". It oasts the Russians S300 millions a year to jam RFE.. and RL and Abshire admits. with a wry grin that jamming is "rather effective ? espe- cially in the centre or cities." Even so, RFE reaches 30 mu- lion East Europeans and RL 40 million'Russians a montiu. L i.k e Mrs Thatcher, Ahshire is ? worried about growing Soviet arms expendi- ture. "Granted they are an empire ? the largest imperial set-up in history. They are now moving,* for global reach on the high seas. They are seeking power far, in excess of their legitimate defence needs. It bothers me deeply.", ? , On the basis of that ana- lysis Abshire sees a great future . for ? his stations., "Home 'public . ? opinion in Russia is in my opinion now crucial. So it is our job to ?get the real story on increas-., lag Soviet arms expenditure through to the people. The free flow 'of information tates against totalitarianism." ? And that in turn persuades. him that the Soviet onslaught on the two stations is only - -just begining. "They are trying to develop this thing Into a post-Helsinki doctrine ? ?all broadcasting not con- trolled on a direct 'govern-.,' . ment .to government basis is subversive and .hinders. peace." . Abshire's response, not stir- prisingly, . is to beef ? up. Western broadcasting to the .Soviet block. "America spend $100 billions a year. on- _ defence ? primarily to deter! the few .who rule Russia. It ? is, ama7ing that so little is being done to reach the. ? minds or the many ordinary., people who are beginning to, influence policy."._ Be is ? a great advocate of the Beeb's respected world service (" in bad need of modernisation : most of its . equipment Is more than 2f) years old "). and the official US Voice of Arnertea pooling, technical, resources f" Nobody wants any kind of coordination of program- ming") with him to latmea a ntassive new ideological onslooght on the Communist world. It would be amazing if he . not raised such issues in London this week. Amazing. to if ? they did not look att.rictive- to those increa- singly evon omy-conscious men at/ Bush floosie,. SCIENCE 6 AUGUST 1976 New CIA Research, Anyone? Mathematica Inc.. one of thc 'nation's hest known private .think tanks, hits become guinea pig for attempts by the Central Intellieence Agency (CIA) to conduct -open- research and resuscitate its languishing relations with , the American academic community. Normally. CIA's outside research con-. tracts ha e been kept secret. ' For 2 years. Mathtech.- a-subsidiary of the--corpOration', has operated a small consulting group, called the Analytic Support Center, on the outskirts Washington for the CIA. And althoue.h those close to the work of .the center are enthusiastic about its activities. perhaps the most interesting !thing about the S600.00d-per-year effort is that the fact or its existerite is public knowledge. The Analytic Support Center develops methodoloey for problems of stra-.. tegic interest: for example, it might model likely coalitions. in :t multirfarty political system. Into such models CIA can then feed the vast amount or information it collects on such problems, in the hope of 'improving on its , individualistic, ad hoc, methods of :in:slyzing them. "Our job is not to con- duct the analysis. It's to develop and test the methodology." says Norman An, Mathtech's president. ? . . :Moreover, the center is meant .to be a link between intellectuals and the ! CIA. The center sponsors university-type seminars at CIA headquarters (which may be attractive partly because the center's private status enables ' it to pay three times the $100-per-day mandatory government consulting wage). Thomas C. Schelling, professor of political economy at Harvard, "eho participated. in one such seminar, says he finds such arrangements ?'all right so long as everyone who works for them knows who they're workinp, for. The Mathematica people told Me straight away that it was for CIA." But the experiment with open research has not been totally sticcessful. When word of the impending CIA contract reached other parts of ISlathema- tica. its social scientists objected strongly. Isiathematica Policy Research (MPR) does more than half of the corporatiOn's S ness. Milt's reputation as a social science' research oreanization is based on hs ability to unusually high rates of response in questioning' poor people such as eltetto dwellers and welfare mothers. The fear was that such people would slam the door in interviewers' faces if Mathematica had a CIA con- nection. ? The dispute was supposedly settled when the CIA contract was let, in No- vember 1974, by making MPR and Mathtech into separate subsidiaries with different governing boards. I-low:ever. some MPR staffers are still uneasy, with the arrangement, altholigh none ean cite an actual instance where a survey has actually been hurt by knowledge of Mathernatica's CIA contract. A CIA spokesman denied that the ASC contract signals a new policy of openness in obtaining outside advice. While some contracts have been un-. ? classified. most of the agency's. dealings with the academie community re- main secret. The CIA has research' contracts in approsinestely a dozen colleges and universities; in nearly all cases, only the investieator and a "se- nior responsible official" of the university?usually the president?know that CIA is sponsoring the research. Moreover. according to Carl Duckett, who until recently was CIA's Iona-term chief of research, there arc some. projects that university records will show the money as corning from ;moth- er government agency. such as the Department of Defense or the Depart- ment of State. Duckett says that. while CIA usually Deis perrnission for a proposed proj- ect from a university official,. in keeping with a NO presidential order bar- ring covert campus research. there are esce.ptions. He says that. as of carly this year. he knew of one university f.eseareher, who represents ?the hest brainpower in the United States." who had asked CIA not to tell his superi- ors that the agency supported him. for fear that he would he fired. The CIA agreed. Sr, after 2 years of criticism and ins estigation. the aeeney now al- , lows an oscasional public glimpse of its cleating,. svith intellect's:Os :tntl schol- ars. But it is still a long s?.ety from 'tooting ttp such dealings to the sun- shine.- ;toast! SnAt.i.r.v Approved For Release 2001/08/08 :9CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 ' .-? ? .;? -? United States is not to protect democracy in Europe. It's to 'support friends ,of the United ,States, including the same kind of people that Lockheed was supporting in Japan and in ,Italy?not friends of democracy, but -right- wingers verging on fascism. ; Question. Mr. Colby, are you saying that operatives who were involved in illegal activities ? should be let off the hook, but if one of the :operatives leaks information beforehand, making Ian assassination not a reality, then that person ' would be thrown in prison? Colby. I think the question is really, should the !CIA keep secret something that was wrong? I think President Ford has stressed several times that he will not allow secrecy to be used to keep .secret something that was wrong, meaning illegal. If it is wrong, meaning a wrong policy, it can be discussed behind closed. doors with the committees of the Congress representing the American people. f Stapleton. Of course, it's interesting that you say we should not allow secrecy to hide some- thing wrong. The only problem is, we have to . find out about it 'first before we can know 'whether secrecy has been used,to hide something :illegal. That's the difficulty with that formula. On the question of assassination, take the CIA's role in the murder of Patrice Lumurnha. I .1 don't think that qoestion has been explored ? ade.quately. It's simply not true that the people the CIA targeted for assassination somehow managed to survive. Because Patrice Lumurnba . did not. Colby. Patrice Lurrennba was killed by totally separate forces in Africa. It had nothing to do with any group the CIA was in touch with. Stapleton. How do we know? Ccaiby. I do know: [Laughter.] Question. Would each of the speakers comment on the Daniel Schorr matter? S:cpicion. I think what we're seeing in the attack on Daniei Schorr is an attempt' by the intelligence agencies to intimidate critics of their activities. As information has come out through people like Daniel Ellsberg and Daniel Schorr in the past few yeries, there has been an increasing arenese in United States that the govern- ment has been carrying out pcbcies which the people of this country have not been asked to atipeove and have act approved. The answer or the intelligence agencies is not to onen tle.?ir file:, toeespend to 012 rellIC.StS for infermation about their activrties. Inetead they try to create a hyeteria olarit the threat of lost scievei:s and damage to our "intelligence capabili- tics." ? I think 'Daniel Schoi,r should be defended, and Approved For Release 2 whoever leaked the information should be defended as someone who was doing an impor- tant- and immeasurably valuable service to the American people. Co/by. I, of couree, have already 'publicly defended Daniel Schorr. But I think the people who gave him the information should he pun- ished. Question. Mn Stapleton, do you think the KGB doer a better .frib in protecting the interests of Russia than the CIA? Stepieton. I don't know, the KGB may be more or lees efficient than the CIA. It. isn't a matter of concern to me particularly. I think as Americans wehavea prolth-tm to deal with. Our government ? ?1 :y.??11??; ??4 the !I.\. who i?. liavizta an inimical effect on the rights of people in this country and around the world. And that's the problem we have to deal with. - Question. Mr. Colby, are you in favor of ending all spying activities against the Socialist Work- ers party? And what is the CIA doing to protect us from the Democratic and Republican parties? [Sustained laughter and applause.] ? Colby. I can assure you the CIA wasn't doing anything to protect you from either the Demo- cratic or the Republican party in the United ; States, and I'm pretty sure that it hasn't done anything since I left. Now, on the second part of the question. I wouldn't give any party an absolute carte blanche. I would look at the question of whether .there is any foreign support or manipulation, and I would say that it is reasonable for the CIA to ' look at whether this is happening. Within the United States that's the FBI's job. Outside the United States that's the CIA's?job. f Stapleton. Well, there's obviously a dual standard being used here because there are certain institutions that operate overseas, like ; Gulf Oil, that engage in political activities in the United States and that aren't subject to surveil- lance and infiltration by the CIA and the FBI. So some become a target and some don't. And I don't think the criterion is foreign links. The CIA and FM target those people whose activities are inimical to the interests of the rulers of this country. Question. Mr. Colby, what's the status of the files on domestic dissidents being held by the CIA? Colby: The president of the Senate and the speaker of the House wrote' me a letter asking me that I destroy nothing.. I've directed my people to comply with that letter, but. I also said that I hoped we would have the biggest bonfire I knew of as soon as that letter of restriction was lifted. ? Stapleton. I assure you that officials of the CIA and FBI w wild like to have a hin bonfire of all thy files we haven't seen, and they're :toiro: to fry. JIT,Id_organize it as soon as posmible. 001/08/4k1A-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 ' -Approved For Release--2001108/08 : CIA-RDP7-7-00432R000100390003-2? ? Question. When should the CIA overthrow foreign governments? Colby. In the first place, there is a perfectly practical matter. You don't oVerthrow a foreign government, you help somebody in that country who wants to overthrow the government do it. [Laughter.] I think that's an important fact, because there's an image that somehow you just pull a string in Washington and?hang!?it ? goes. That's not true. The second answer is when. I think it should be used sparingly. I think there are situations, however, where a force in a country indicates it will turn the country into a force hostile to the United States, that you can perhaps avoid a more serious ' problem later by operating through some assist- ance to friends. It's not an ideological urge to go over there and ? remake the world in our image. It is a matter of the direct interests of the people of the United States. Stapleton. This is precisely the point I was trying to make earlier, that the CIA and its 'defenders continue to claim the right, to try to 'overthrow governments. ? And that's a very important point Mr. Colby !made about how they don't-try to create images of the United States around the. world. That's completely true. ? They don't try to establish conetitutionol freedoms around the world. They don't try to establish a bill of rights in Brazil or Uruguay or Greece or Chile. The CIA is trying to support people it feels are "friends" of the United States, people like ST . LOUIS POST-DISPATCH 29 July 1976 Above The Law? In recommending that CIA officials not be prosecuted for their participation in a 20-year program of illegal mail opening, Justice Department attorneys have advanced a shock- ing supporting rationale. Their argument is that, because there was "a continuum of presidential authority" for the program, under which nearly 250,000 letters were opened, lesser officials should not be held accountable. Translated into plain English, what this means is that if a series of presidents approved the violation of laws against mail tampering, then the law should not be enforced. Actually, the Senate Intelligence Committee, 'after long study, said there was no documenta- ry evidence that any president during the two decades in question (1953-1973) had ever Chiang Kai-shek, Pinochet, and the rest. Question. I am an _Iranian and 1 and other Iranians think that the CIA laid a it to do with the coup in Iran in 1953. I would like to know if Mr. Colby will support our right to look at CIA files and see for ourselves who'. the CIA has done to our country and why we don't hare any 'deno,rrotii? n'hy fee I.,r:?? ? ? s :JP; ,? L? ? I dictatorship. [Sustained applause.] Colby. The Freedom of Information Act gives a citizen of the United States an opportunity to ? go to the government and get hold of government doeornents, with a few exceptions outlined in the act. I do not believe that the CIA shoUld be responsive to every foreigner who comes to the front door and asks for a look at his files. [Applause.] Question. For Mr. Colby: what is subversion, '.foreign and domestic? ; Colby. I think the word subversion, there are quite a number of different definitions of it?no :very precise ones. It basically means working underneath to pull out from under the structure, the, things that hold something up, to penetrate it, infiltrate it, and so forth. That's the general meaning but I don't have a pat answer for that question. Stapleton. It's a very good point that subver- sion is not a very precise term. It's used by the FBI, for example, to target people for harassment whom the FBI considers "subversive." And . there's no telling what they mean. It just means they want to get you. authorized the CIA to open letters and, photograph their contents. Yet the Justice Department lawyers offered no explanation of their conclusion to the contrary. In this case ? as in the case of their recommendation that no CIA personnel be prosecuted for involvement in assassination plots ? the Government lawyers seem to be saying that the CIA should be above the law. That position is an untenable one. No agency, even if buttressed by presidential authoriza- tion, should be allowed to set aside the Constitution and federal statutes enacted un- der it. Nor should individual federal agents. feel free to ignore the law in the future on grounds that they are acting on orders from above. That extraordinarily permissive view, plainly embodied in the Justice Department recommendation, should be rejected by Attor- ney Genera: Edward Levi. 12 ? Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 LONDON TIMES 13 Aug. 1976 -Join the club . . have been invited to meet yet 'anOther. American .author who' " admits" to having been an agent?no, a "deep cover agent"?for the Central Intel- ligence Agency. His name As ,Charlas' McCatry and he has :written a novel which .suggests Oat- President ? . Kennedy:. ,was ,killed as revenge for the death of President Diem of South Vietnam a few weeks earlier. ' It seems to me that to have ' been a CIA agent is nowadays ,almost ? a.. prerequisite . for: 'literary success,' and I feel that 'I Should try to join the club if 'my career irt to flourish.. It, strikes me, though, that I might. well have worked, for the 'CIA. without knowing' it, assuming my?cover was sufficiently deep... I have, after all, been ? toz-most ,of the exotic parts of the world where such -? agents operate. Maybe they have used me sub- liminally, 'and I. should:men.; tion as. much on.. my book.. Jackets.. , ..? -:;Trying to -entice me -to riteei-. -McCarry, his publicity agent ..writes:- "He is an excellent -Stibject for interview,. being A :civilised, humorous and under.. standing person with - a good; turn be phrase. Coming front 'an old-established American, :familk he 'has none of the off; putting brashness ? sometimes associated with Americans." Thank heavens heavens for that. Come to think of it, I expect that is why , the. CIA never called on. mc.?, -Too. brash. Too .putting.. ."?.!. The drought situation is so bad that "we could be fac!ug .a drought situation by Octo- ber" said Mr Kenneth hoherts the authoriWs chid executive, ' ? 3-esterday. e?. saii yesterday's.1::Heiln Telcgralth. OL.1, THE WASHINGTON POST 11 August 1976 ? Daniel Schorr on tghts or Reporters By John, P. illacKelaie , ATLANTA?Suspended CBS news- man Daniel Schorr appealed pester- 'day' for "an unofficial First. Amend- inent", that would protect reporters' free press rights when reporters clash .with their employers. Schorr. in limbo with CBS News ?since leaking a secret House Intelli- gence .Committee. report. to The Village Voice six months ago, called on "large press enterprises" not to discipline re- porters if they. go "outside normal Channels" t6 have information pub- lished in another medium: . Be spoke at a. luncheon meeting of the Individual Rights and Responsibil- ities section Of the American. Bar As. ,sociation, which is holding its annual convention here. On advice of his own legal counsel?and with many legal questions With his employer and- the .11onse committee still unresolved? Schorr declined to. say whether he consulted his CBS superiors before ar- ranging for the Voice to 'publish long -excerpts *of the, text of the commit- tee's report on abu s e s. by United States intelligence. agencies. "It has been istenishing," Sehorr. 'said, "how often I meet with impor- tant persons in- the .news establish-. ment, completely ready to argue such matters as the professional necessity of acting in the face of a House reso-, lutiOn, the growing -"difficulty- of re- porting in the face of A secrecy back- lash, the issues of disclosure versus national security and privacy?and find myself having instead to argue about the propriety of acting on my own and who owns the information I' : collect. 'When' did freedom of tt:e press evolve into a franchise to be exercised through large press enterprises?" Schorr asked. "What has happened to the basic concept of freedom of ex- pression as a freedom for every American?" Schorr admitted that his questions were "more complicated than they sound," since, even reporters can waive their rights of free expression if they sign a contract giving a pub- )isher or broadcaster control over the WaY they use their talents. Yet, he said, the questions should be raised and considered. ? "If government should not ? control news," Schorr suggested,-. "then per- . -;13 haps-no- one-should: The First Amend- ment says only that Congress' shall make no law abridging the freedom of the press and speech. Perhaps it is time for some unofficial First Amend- ment that says. no economic enter- prise shall Make rules-abridging indi- vidual freedoms of speech and press. 'Phold that the basic purpose of the First 'Amendment is to -.promote the broadest dissemination of legitimate information through all channels--; and ,not only established, authorized channels. I would suggest that -the First Amendment is not only the news establishment's First Amendment but it is every journalist's and every American's. individual right and, what's ? more,' individual responsibil- ity?". . In the beginning, Schorr noted, the First Amendment was aimed at pro- tecting pamphleteers like Thomas Paine and handpress publishers in the tradition of John Peter Zenger. More recently it required "the great news ? empires?The Washington Post-News--- week- Company. 'the Nes' York and Los-Angeles Times companies, Time Inc., yes, and CBS?to stand up to the - Nixon administration and vindicate the First Amendment Schorr did make one disclosure: Contrary to the recent testimony Rep. James Stanton (D-Ohio). Schorr said he never. -told Stanton that the CIA was the source of his contraband copy of the House committee report 'He said , that only CBS News in- quired whether Stanton had been cor- rect...If other news organizations had called, Schorr said, they, would have been told that he recalled no such conversation with the congressman. But any more discussion about sources might. give the House Ethics Committee, which has been investigat- ing the leak. -an erroneous expecta- tion about the usefulness of summon- ing journalists" as witnesses, Schorr said. Etc repeated that he will not di- vulge his source and hopes the Ethics Committee will remain "on its side of the constitutional Great Divide" by not calling him to the witness stand. The audience, composed of the ABA's minority of lawyers whose con- cern is chiefly civil rights and civil liberties, applauded Schorr warmly, apparently as much for his televised Watergate coverage as for his untele- vised- fight with CBS and Congi ess. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 do, Approved For Release 2001108108 -: C1A-RDP77-00432R00040039000-3-2----- U.S. NEWS & WORLD REPORT, June 28, 9978 HAT E *DORM'S 440, V kw.DERING Interview With Brian Crozier, ritish Authority - Assassins live in a world apart, their goals perplexing to most people. To learn about the motives of violence, Robin Knight of U.S. News & World Report talked with an expert. At LONDON 0, Mr. Crozier, what did the terrorists in Lebanon stand to gain from murdering the U.S. Ambassador? A Normal criteria do not apply when assessing "gains" or "losses" in a terrorist action of this kind. From the terrorist standpoint, a number of advantages result from the murder of an 'American ambassador in a Lebanon-type situation: One is symbolic. In the eyes of Marxist terrorists especially, the representative of the United States stands as a symbol of the "main citadel of capitalism and imperialism." To remove him is considered a legitimate act of war. In exactly the same way, the British Ambassador to Uru- guay, Sir Geoffrey Jackson, was kidnaped by the Tuparnaros for no personal reason but because he stood for something labeled "imperialism." There is also what might be termed the muscle-flexing aspect. The terrorist group responsible for this particular outrage demonstrated its capacity and will to act as it did. Finally, there's a more general spin-off. The leftist side in Lebanon is believed to be largely financed by Libya, which has a big arms pact with the Soviet Union. The Syrians who intervened, I believe genuinely, with the aim of separating the combatants are also heavily armed by the Russians. To ambush and murder the American Ambassador, his econom- ic adviser and his Moslem chauffeur in these circumstances is to divert attention to another alleged "enemy" even though the United States is not a party to this conflict. 0, Will the murders set off another wave of terrorism? A Not necessarily?this is a local incident. Nevertheless? and unfortunate though it is that innocent people should be endangered?it must be said that American representatives in trouble spots will continue to be at risk. Any successful terrorist action of this kind, even lithe culprits are punished, 'must add to the risks of emulation elsewhere. O. Do Arab states actively support world terrorism? A Yes, indeed. The main centers in the Middle East are in Lebanon, largely because of the weakness of that state, and Syria. The Syrians have backed terrorism in a deliberate way. They're mostly concerned with the Palestinians, but they have trained others?Turks, for example. Iraq is involved, too. The present Libyan regime is also in the game of exporting terrorism. Indeed, Muammar Qadhafi has publicly boasted of his aid to the IRA [Irish Republican Army] and to armed organizations as far afield as the Philippines. O. President Ford has demanded that the assassins in Lebanon be brought to justice. Yet few terrorists are ever tried for their crimes. Why is that? A You have to distinguish between terrorism inside _a__ _ country and transnational terrorism. In Northern Ireland, for - example, many terrorists have been brought to trial. But although many have been tried, not all have been sentenced. Approved For Release 2001/080 ICA GA1 e. The reason is terrorism itself, which intimidates witnesses and prevents convictions. O. But the gang who attacked the meeting of the Organi- zation of Petroleum Exporting Countries in Vienna has not been returned by Algeria to stand trial in Austria, has it? A No, and there's a good reason for that. Some countries consider themselves revolutionary, and some regimes are themselves the end result of terrorist campaigns. This is true of the Algerian Government, which achieved independence as recently as 1962 after a revolutionary war in which terrorism played a major part. This means that the Algerians are extremely reluctant to betray, as they see it, their revolutionary ideals by handing over terrorists who claim to be working for revolutionary causes. a Have you developed a psychological profile of a typical terrorist? A Many terrorist groups have ideological or psychological bonds?such as the common rejection of existing society. And there's also a great impatience among young terrorists to change the system of government overnight. This, more than anything else, distinguishes terrorists even from politi- cal extremists, who prefer not to resort to violence. To all this you must add a desire for publicity, an innate flamboyance and a complete contempt for human life. Their motivation is always that "we're going to change everything, and it doesn't matter how we do it." By the time they become terrorists, I think they have gone beyond the point where they are open to argument. What goes on in the mind of the extremists is more important than any objective reality. Basically, they want to make people conform to their views,-force them into obedience. That's why they tend to terrorize their own side. In many of the revolutionary situations I've studied, the terrorists have killed far more of their supporters than the so-called enemy. O. Are terrorists for hire as killers or kidnaPers?. A Yes, there are terrorist mercenaries?there's no ques- tion about that. The Palestinian Black September group, for instance, has carried out murders, abductions and even drug running in return for money, in some cases paid out by Middle East governments. 0. How do terrorist groups recruit new members? A It depends on the situation. If you have a racial, ethnic or religious group that believes itself to be an oppressed minority, it is likely to resort to terrorism. It will attract members if it is successful and can show that in a given situation it is stronger than the authori- ties. It also means that those who belong to the same minority who don't want to co-operate may be coerced into doing so out of fear of reprisal. And some people get involved out of a conviction that there is no other way but violence. a Are some terrorists in it just for the notoriety? A In the last few years, a "Bonnie and Clyde" mentality has emerged, as with the Japanese Red Army and the Baader-Meinhof gang in Germany. What may start as a Marxist movement rapidly becomes a group of youngish people enjoying the thrills of terrorizing cities, defying authority and living dangerously. In fact, terrorism can become a way of life. But this is a relatively new phenomenon. Terrorism of this kind?which seems mindless and nihilistic to normal people?should be distinguished from terrorism as a phase in the lengthy process known as "revolutionary war." This begins with the creation of a clandestine subversive apparatus, goes on to terrorism and?at least in theory?ends in a final offensive that topples a regime. I say "in theory.' because in practice the process is rarely completed. The very few examples include Algeria and Indo-China--and both : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 ? 771 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390603-2 were "colonial" situations. ? Do terrorist gangs pool their funds and expertise? A Not to any great extent. Mostly each group has its own funding organization which secures money by ordinary crimes like bank holdups or kidnaping prominent business- men and extorting very large ransoms. They keep whatever they grab for themselves. However, there is a great deal of information exchanged on the technological side. Any new technique that becomes available is readily handed on. And there may also be common training schemes. For instance, there have been links between the IRA and the Basque [separatist] ETA movement in Spain, and also between the IRA and some Palestinian groups. And in an Arab training camp devoted to Palestinians, there will cer- tainly be a proportion of other nationalities. Similarly, in Cuba they've trained Africans in guerrilla. warfare techniques. Q How about weapons? Are these pooled? A The truth is the supply of arms is not really a problem for terrorists: There are so many of them around today. And some terrorist groups are now enormously rich because of their successful criminal activities. So if they're not given weapons, they can easily buy them. There is, however, an enormous traffic in arms, particular- ly Russian. It's sometimes hard to say whether these Russian arms are deliberately provided to terrorists or not, because of successful clandestine techniques. In some cases, however, we know the Russians have definitely given weapons, training and money to certain groups. Soviet arms, for instance, have gone to both the Marxist and non-Marxist wings of the IRA. Q How much is known about the possible involvement of the Soviet Union? A We have built up a reasonably complete picture in recent years. We now know, for instance, that the Russians have courses in terrorism for two distinct streams of candi- dates: those from nonruling Communist parties and those from "national-liberation movements" in "third world" countries. BALTIMORE SUN 10 August 1976 ? A notorious example is the terrorist known as "the Jackal" [Bich Ramirez Sanchez], a Venezuelan who is reputed -to have led the 1975 attack on OPEC headquarters in Vienna. He was trained in Russia as a sharpshooter. Then there were the two Syrians jailed in Holland for plotting to hijack a train transporting Soviet Jews?who admitted they had been trained in a camp outside Moscow. Q Are these people actually Soviet agents? A I can't prove it, but I don't believe the Russians have any control over a man like the Jackal. They seem content to turn such people loose and to support or train terrorist groups that owe no allegiance to Moscow, merely as a destabilizing device against non-Communist societies. Fundamentally, however, they're more interested in train- ing Communists in the techniques of violence in case such skills are needed. For example, they've trained many Spanish Communists in their techniques. Although these courses ended when the Spanish Communist Party took its distance from Moscow, the Russians then arranged for similar courses to be made available to the Spaniards in Rumania. Q Is there any international answer to terrorism?co- operation by governments, for example? A I must say there are no immediate prospects of getting, a universally recognized definition of terrorism and the proper measures to deal with it. Until we do that, common action is very difficult. Anybody who has followed the debates on terrorism in the United Nations can see immediately what the problem is: Most governments now simply refuse to recognize that what the Palestinians do is terrorism. Unless it is possible to penalize countries harboring terror- ists and to achieve some kind of unanimity in the treatment of terrorists, we shall remain a long way from stamping out terrorism. O. Would terrorists be deterred if they knew no one would give them asylum? A All but the most fanatical probably would be. The problem is that if there is a single government that refuses to bring terrorists to trial or to extradite them to their countries of origin to stand trial, then terrorism can go on. Argentina Rejoins the Latin Nuclear Race , Buenos Aires. ? Argentina's decision to dust off dormant nuclear plans is reviving interest in the race with Brazil to be the first country developing nuclear weapons on the U.S. southern flank. The race worries the U.S. as neither South American nation signed.the nonproliferation treaty. Although Argentina is currently :ahead, the smart money is being bet on Bra- zil. The International Institute for Strategic Studies in London predicts Brazilian nuclear weapons testing within eight years while Ar-. gentina will need about 10 years. Argentina inaugurated its first .nuclear power plant in 1974. Brazil's first plant is scheduled to open next year. But under the previous corrupt and debt-ridden Peronist government, Argentine plans stagnated for lack .of money, which also caused a disas- trous brain drain. Meanwhile, Brazil's mili- tary government cut heavily into the lead. Last year it signed a $10-billion agreement with West Germany for a crash program to buy reactors, technology and training. Since coming to power March 24, a deter- mined Argentine military government pledged to revive atomic plans and lure back scientists once the economy is stabilized: But this determination is not expected to be By AGOSTINO BONO enough. Brazil has the momentum and the stronger economic and industrial might. The public reason for the nuclear plants is generation of needed electrical energy in both countries. The bomb threat arises be- cause the processing of nuclear energy pro- duces plutonium, the key ingredient for nu- clear weapons. Argentina is already be- lieved to have about 200 pounds of pluton- ium, and 33 pounds are needed for a bomb. When Argentina started producing nucle- ar energy, "it opened the door to obtaining an atomic bomb," explained Argentine phy- sicist Jorge Sabato. "When Brazil possesses its uranium enrichment plant, it will also have the pertinent technology to explode a nuclear bomb." Argentina and Brazil officially deny mili- tary plans for the atom, yet strongly hint at weapons development. ? Brazilian General Reynaldo Mello de Al- meida, commander of the powerful first ar- my, praised the agreement with West Ger- many. The treaty "will put us in the condi- tion to avoid whatever type of pressures from other countries possessing nuclear arms and energy," he said. The disclaimers sound unconvincing to the U.S. Rhode Island Senator John Pastore criticized West Germany for placing a nucle- ar threat on the southern flank of the U.S., equating this with Soviet missiles in Cuba. The State Department tried to head off the West German-Brazilian treaty, saying it was lax on safeguards against military use. United States opposition is viewed equal- ly skeptically in Latin America. Latin sources say the .real reasons for Washing- ton's concern are economic and political self-interest. Politically, the U.S. wants a freeze to protect its hemispheric nuclear su- premacy, many Latins argue. Economically, the U.S. is said to be angry because its com- panies have been losing out in the contracts. Brazil signed with the West Germans, and Argentina is buying from Canada and France. The U.S. also "wishes to assure access to Brazil's uranium," complained Brazilian Congressman Lysaneas Maciei. The Wt German deal gives them special rights over $5.1 billion worth of Brazilian uranium. Bra- zil and Argentina are believed to have some of the world's richest uranium deposits, and as both nations increase their nuclear capac- ities, less uranium will be available for U.S. purchase, one Latin argument holds. Mr. Bono is an American free-lance correspondent covering Latin America. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CI3X5-RoP77-00432R000100390003-2 Approvetl-For-Re1ease-2901108108-: CIA-RDP00432R0004-00390001.2? "Tia] I The New York Times Magazine/July 18.1976 Is America's no-negotiating policy a deterrent or an invitation to murder? y judigh 2fiHer. WASHINGTON. Rockets rip through the United States Embassy in Beirut... , An American military adviser is gunned tlown on a street in Teheran.... In Khartoum, two American diplomats held hostage by Palestinian terrorists are riddled with machine gun bullets after demands for political concessions are not met. . . Caskets containing the bodies of an American Ambassador and his economic coun- selor are received in Washington by President Ford to a 19-gun salute. . ? . Although the biggest headlines in the rising incidence of international terrorism have gone to Arab actions against Israeli nationals, such as the slaying of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Olympics in Munich and the abduction and dramatic rescue of the passengers of an Air France jet two weeks ago, American Government missions abroad have also been a primary target. In the 77 episodes from 1968 to 1975 in which hostages were held for ran- som, the victims included about 30 American offi- cials, six of whom were killed. And for nearly six years now, Washington has adhered to a policy of "no concessions" to the terrorists. It will not accede to demands put forward as a condition for the hostages' release, it will not negotiate such terms, and it will not put pressure on other Govern- ments to yield. In the Interests of deterring future terrorism, America hangs tough. ut now this rigid policy has come under fire. Critics within the State Department and elsewhere are calling for a more flexible approach?one that would permit negotiations with terrorists and, under certain circumstances, aceniescence to de- mands for money and political concessions to save American lives. This debate over the deterrent value of. the hard-line policy has until recently been shielded from public view, but now the critics have begun to express their views more vociferously and publicly. The Israeli rescue of 103 hijacking hostages and crew members from Entebbe Airport in Uganda has called attention to the agonizing decisions that confront American policy makers when American hostages are involved. Fortunately, terrorism is still an insignificant form of violence in terms of numbers. Between 1968 and mid-I975, only 250 people were killed in terrorist episodes?less than the annual homicide rate of any major American city. But terrorism cannot be measured by statistics. It is violence in its most pernicious form; its vic- tims are the innocent; it is unpredictable. And its impact is all the greater because it makes one's own Government seem either helpless or heartless ?unable to protect its citizens or callous in the remedies its employs. The United States has chosen the hard-line ap- proach well aware of its limitations and liabilities. State Department proponents of this policy know, for instance, that it is likely to make Washington seem indifferent to the safety of Foreign Service officials and American citizens abroad. The Ford Administration, nonetheless, is deeply committed Judith Miller is the Washington correspondent of The Progressive. to the hard line, and the American response to terrorism is not likely to change so long as Henry Kissinger remains Secretary of State. But unrest within the State Department over the current stance is growing; there is little ground for hope that acts of terrorism involving Americans will sub- side in the near future, and the whole dilemma is likely to come up for reassessment by the next Administration. 0 In the early 60's, terrorist incidents were rare. In 1968, however, diplomatic kidnappings and at- tempted assassinations increased markedly in num- ber. Among the victims that year were four Ameri- can officials kidnapped and killed in Latin America and two wounded. Washington dealt with each inci- dent as it occurred; there was no consistent policy. In some cases, the Government ignored the terror- ists' demands; in others, while refusing to pay ransom, Washington pressed the Governments of the countries where the abductions took place to meet the terrorists' conditions. For example, when Ambassador Charles Burke Elbrick was kidnapped in Brazil in 1969, the United States put pressure on Brazil to free 15 "political prisoners," as de- manded by the captors. Brazil reluctantly complied, and the Ambassador was re- leased, unharmed. In July 1970, Dan Mitrione, an American public-safety adviser stationed in Uruguay, was abducted by the Tupa- maros, the "urban guerrillas" then on the rampage in that country. In the developing drama (which has been fic- tionalized in the Costa- Gavras movie "State of Siege") the Uruguayan Gov- ernment rejected the Tupa- maros' offer to release Mitrione in exchange for a group of political prisoners. At this juncture. Washington's policy hardened. As one State Department official said, "We decided not to pressure the Uruguayans to meet the ter- rorists' demands. We were beginning to realize that such actions would only encourage others to use the same tactic." Efforts to rescue Mitrione were unsuccessful. His deed body was found in an aban- doned car. The number of terrorist in- cidents rose sharply in 1971, but it was not until the slaughter at the 1972 Olym- pics that the United States began to take concerted counteraction. President Nixon established a Cabinet Committee to Combat Terror- ism, composed of the Secre- taries of State, Defense, Treasury and Transportation, the Attorney General, the Ambassador to the United Nations, the directors of the C.I.A. and the F.B.I., and the President's top national-secu- rity and domestic-policy aides. .The committee appointed a Working Group of officials of these and other Government agencies. This group, meeting twice a week, began to lay down plans for coordinated action. What it boiled down to was "no concessions." On the evening of March 1, 1973, that policy was put to its first major test. In Khartoum, capital of the Sudan, eight Palestinians of the Black September terrorist faction stormed and seized the Saudi Arabian Embassy during a farewell party for the deputy chief of the Ameri- can mission, George Curtis Moore. They soon released all their prisoners except two Arab diplomats, the Belgian charge d'affaires, American Ambassador Cleo A. Noel Jr., and Moore. In exchange for the lives of these five, the Pale- stinians demanded the release of hundreds of "political prisoners" held in the Mideast and the West?including Sir- ban Sirhan, the slayer, of Approved For Releas2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 ' Robert Kennedy. The Working Group in Washington assembled an emergency task force, which set up camp in the State De- partment's Operations Center, a communications room down the hall from the office of the Secretary of State. Telex mes- sages from the embassy in Khartoum were- speeded to ?various members of the Gov- ernment by phone, pneumatic tube and a facsimile trans- mitter equipped with a scram- bler to insure secrecy. Presi- dent Nixon sent a Deputy Under Secretary of State, William Macomber Jr., to Khartoum to advise the Su- danese in their negotiations with Black September. ? It seemed to many on the task force that there was a chance of saving the hostages' Jives. A cable from the embas- sy in Khartoum said Black September had dropped all its demands except for what seemed to be its bedrock con- dition?release of 17 Palestin- ian guerrillas imprisoned by the Jordanian Government after the suppression of the Palestinian commando forces on Jordanian soil. Macomber and his entourage landed in Cairo. The publicity sur- rounding their mission ap- peared to have pleased the Palestinians. There were indi- cations that they were pre- pared to fly to Cairo with their hostages, to continue the negotiations there. - Quite suddenly, things seemed to fall apart. Black September refused to move the talks to the Egyptian capi- tal. Macomber, setting off for Khartoum, was diverted by a sandstorm. The guerrillas is- sued a "final deadline" for the release of their comrades in Jordan. The Jordanian Govern- Ment refused to comply. At a White House press conference, reporters asked President Nix- on about the Sirhan Sirhan demand. He' replied that the United States would not give in to blackmail. "We cannot do so and we will not do so," he said. "Now, as to what can be done to get these peo- ple released, Mr. Macomber is On his way there for dis- cussions; the Sudanese Gov- ernment is working on the problem . . . but we will not pay blackmail." The cables to the task force became increasingly ominous. The Palestinians, who, from all indications, were growing anxious and irritated, heard of Nixon's widely reported statement. Soon afterward, they permitted Ambassador Macomber was on his way to Khartoum from Asmara and would arrive later that evening. "That will be too late," the Ambassador said. The next morning, the Pales- tinians gave themselves up. The bodies of the two Ameri- cans and the Belgian were found .in the basement. The new American policy was given more official ex- pression by the President a few days later at a State De- partment ceremony honoring Noel and Moore. "All of us would have liked to have saved the lives of these two brave men," Nixon said. "But they knew and we knew that in the event we had paid in- ternational. blackmail, - it would have saved their lives, but it would have endangered the lives of hundreds of others all. over the world, because once the terrorist has a de- mand that is made, that is satisfied, he then is encour- aged to try it again; that that is why the position of your Government has to be one, in the interest of preserving life, of not submitting to inter- national blackmail or extor- tion any place in the world. That is our policy, and that is the policy we are going to continue to have." ? The death of the two popu- lar diplomats stunned the For- eign Service. For many in the State Department, the shock was followed by anger. Some felt the handling of the inci- dent had been bungled. Sever- al Foreign Service officers de- manded a full-scale study of the Khartoum episode instead of the routine post-mortem conducted by the Working Group. Seven months later, the Rand Corporation, the California-based "think tank," was hired to review the whole question of negotiating for the release of kidnapped diplo- mats and to make recommen- dations. Khartoum was one of some 30 cases to be examined. The project was headed by Brian Jenkins, a senior Rand analyst who had long been warning the State Department of the growing threat of terrorism. ? Last May, a draft of the re- port was issued in the form of working notes and was cir- culated for limited distribu- tion within the State Depart- ment. Those familiar with the work describe it as an anal- ysis and indictment ? of the hard-line policy. One? of the fundamental errors made in the Khartoum incident, according to the White House press conference at the time Macomber was on his way to Khartoum. "The guidance given to him [Nixon], if asked about the af- fair, was to remain noncom- mittal," Jenkins wrote. "[The] President's statement ... sug- gested that there was not much to negotiate, even when Macomber arrived. . . s [Macomber's] long flight was working as a stall, which the President's statement may have effectively torpedoed." Moreover, Jenkins added, Ma- comber was sent half-way around the globe from Wash- ington, with the result that no American in a position of authority arrived in Khartoum in ? time; sending someone closer might have made more sense. And when Macomber was dispatched, no one in Washington had a clear idea of what he was supposed to do or why he was being sent. Among ienkins's recom- mendations were that high- level Government officials re- main silent during such epi- sodes, that all official state- ments be checked with the task force set up to handle the crisis, and that all infor- mation to the press be screened. Even a biographical sketch listing a kidnapped diplomat's previous assign- ments can have a detrimental impact on his chance of sur- vival, Jenkins argued, since he may have been accredited to a Government regarded by the terrorists as their enemy. The Working Group has accepted these recommendations and revised its guidelines accord- ingly. It has also agreed with his finding that greater exper- tise and professionalism are required, and it is expanding its membership to include' psychiatrists, police special- ists and others experienced in "coercive bargaining" with terrorists: The most contro- versial section of the study, however, deals with the effi- cacy of the "no-concessions" policy. The current hard-line posi- tion, Jenkins points out, is based on the assumptions that, first, refusing to negoti- ate, pay ransom or make po- litical concessions ,deters ter- rorists from kidnapping American officials; and, sec- ond, that any deviation from such a policy would lead to a proliferation of such inci- dents. Both in his still-classi- fied study and in his public writings, Jenkins contends that the evidence to support draft report, was Nixon's "no Noel to speak by telephone these assumptions is to his embassy. Noel was tolA pti5kidtilt3r ittAting 200.11108/0,agagy_ ' RE1Fgelt Q4 r3R-(1QP I PP 17 he reasons, has many objec- tives; the wringing of conces- -sions is only one of them, and often not the most important; the terrorists may, for exam- ple, be hoping to gain publici- ty for their cause and project themselves as a force that merits recognition. One objec- tive the terrorists do not have, he argues, is mass murder. "Terrorists want a lot of peo- ple watching and a lot of peo- ple listening, not a lot of peo- ple dead," he told the House International Relations Com- mittee during hearings last summer. Their target, there- fore,. is not so much the hos- tage as the larger audience. In this sense, terrorism is theater.- A hard-line policy, while it can add to the theatri- cal effect, can do little to deter. . ? Jenkins has- considerable support for his views among other experts on the subject. Prof. Richard Falk, of Princeton University, told the same committee, "We don't have real evidence that deter- rence works." While agreeing with Jenkins that massacring large numbers of hostages does not fall within the politi- cal terrorist's plans, Falk held that in some cases the deaths of some hostages "actually serves the interest of the ter- rorist group better than would the receipt of ransom de- manded (release of prisoners, money, etc.)." Hence, he said, the hard-line policy can often play into the terrorists' hands. What really deters, accord- ing to Jenkins, is not a hard line during the crisis but determined action afterward to capture and conviot the ter- rorists. In this country, he says, there have been only 647' kidnappings for ransom, in the past 30 years?and the reason is not far to seek. "If one looks at the record of ransom payment, the ransom has almost always been paid by the family. . . '. [But] of the 647 cases, all but three have been solved. The F.E1. has a better than 90 percent capture record. The convic- tion, rate is extremely high, and the sentences are harsh." Hence the relative unpopu- larity of kidnapping for ran- som within the United States. This argument is supported by the American Foreign Service Association, the For- eign Service officers' "trade union." The association- has established a Committee on Extraordinary Dangers to ne- gotiate with the State Depart- 0039001)(42ernent on prob- Approved FarRelease-2001-108/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2- lems of terrorism, and there have been frequent- meetings with Kissinger and his top aides. The committee has several objectives. . One is better protection for the 31,000 American officials stationed overseas?and, in that regard, much has been done already. Congress has appropriated 2() million for closed - television monitoring systems, electronic alarms, ar- mored cars, extra Marine guards at American Embas- sies and other security meas- ures; and American officials? and businessmen. living abroad?are briefed on the , rudimentary precautions they; should take for their own . safety. Another dams id ? ? Is for broader medical coverage for former hos- tages and their families. But the committee's main complaint is against what Its members see as the 'State Department's un- willingness to impose strong sanctiens against .governments that harbor terrorists or allow them to go free. The Department's rec- ords on that score sub- stantiate the cosnplaint. A terrorist involved in a kidnapping has about an 80 percent chance of es- caping death or capture. For those who are caught and tried, the average sentence has been only 18 months. Of the 257 inter- national terrorists appre- hended since 11970, Hess than half were still in jail as of September 1975. In the Xhartoum case, the Black September guerril- 7ne 'entre convicted of mut-- een r`I'd sentenced by the SetTteese to life imprison- 727 ent. Soon after, how- even, ell were flown. to EjnI7t, where they are new ?living under "house nrair a brief period, the United States Ambassador to the Sudan was withdrawn and aid . was suspended. When the flap died down, normal relations were restored. "What good is a 'hang ' tough' postuee during a kidnapping," said a For- eign Service committee representative, "if the De- partment is unwilling to be firm on pressure for punishment? They're per- fectly willing 'to sacrifice us in the narrie off deter- rence, but unwilling to rock the diplomatic boat afterward." As to the 'hang-tough polley fiteeL, the Foreign Service has not taken a formal position. Some of its members support it. Others are critical of it, and added their voices to the calls for a more flex- ible policy that were heard charring a two-day conference on interna- tional terrorism spon- sored by the State Department three months ago. 0 Despite the growing criticism within and out- side the Government, the State Department clung to the hard-line approach in word and deed. In May 1973, just a few months after the Ithaia town incident, Terrance Leonhardy, United States Consul General in Guada- lajara, was kidnapped by t-wing militants, who demanded that the Mexi- can authorities release 30 Assailers and read the kidnappers' communiqu? over the air. According to a State Department offi- cial familiar with the epi- sode, the United States counseled against acqui- escence. But the Mexican Government complied. with the demands and Leonhardy was releas unharmed. In March 1974, the United States refused to comply with demands for money made by the kid- nappers of Vice Consul John Patterson, stationed in Hermosillo, Mexico. De- spite the efforts of his family to meet the de- mands, Patterson's body was found near Hermo- sillo in July. - During the crisis, Lewis Hoffacker, then head of the Cabinet Committee to Combat Terrorism, reaf- firmed the "no-conces- sions" policy in Congres- sional hearings. "Tactics vary in each crisis situa- tion," he said, "but one consistent factor should be understood by all parties concerned: The United States Govern- ment will not pay ransom to kidnappers, nor will it release prisoners to satis- fy blackmail demands. We advise other Govern- ments, individuals and companies to adopt simi- lar positions because we believe to do otherwise will multiply terrorist at- tacks." In the summer of 1975, three American students were kidnapped in Telm- a For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Approved ala. The ransom was raised by their families, and the students were released. But the Ameri- can Ambassador, W. Beverly Carter Jr., was sternly Reprimanded by Kissinger for his involve- ment in the negotiations. "It is our policy, in order to save lives and in order to avoid undue pressure on Ambassadors cli over ? the world." lessingee told reporters, "that American Ambassadors and dals not participate in negotiations on the re- ? lease off victims of terror- ists, and that terrorists know that the Unieel States will not participate in the payment of ransom and in the negotiations for it. In any individual case, this requires heart- breaking decisions . but there are impaRtaret issues of principle in- volved hese." State Department offi- cials who support that policy _insist that it does deter terrorism. They point out that other gov- ernments that have had a more flexible policy? West Germany, the Neth- erlands and Britain ? have recently toughened their positions on negoti- ations and ransom pay-' ment. They argue that kidnappings of diplomats would have increased at an even steeper rate had the United States net held firm to its position. In (the absence of international agreement on a cede of sanctions and punishment ?one men's "terrorist" is, in many instances, another man's "ffettetiom fighter"--it should he, they contend, the obliga- tion of each government to demonstrate to the ter- rorists that their tactics will be unproductive. The hard-line eperoach, these officials claim can sometimes even enhance the victim's own bargain- ing power. By way of en- ample they point to the 1974 kidnapping of Bar- bara Hutchison, of the United States Informetion Agency, by terrorists in the Dominican Republic who sought the release of imprisoned comrades. She persuaded her captors to free her by convincing them that the United States would never pres- sure the Dominican Gov- ernment to eccede to their demands cad tat killing her would be Actually, the Jenkins recommendations would retain some of the bene- fits, real or imagined, of the present posture. A flat "no-concessions" poli- cy, he says, limits, the range of possible re- sponses and stifles inno- ? vative action aimed at saving a hostage's life. Those managing these crisis situations, he con- tends, should not be forced to rule out any op- tion in advance. Nothing should be prohibited--ei- their negotiating formally, or bargaining informally or secretly, or even pay- ing ransom, if it can be arranged through third parties without publicity. In other words, the Unit- ed States could continue to espouse a hard line publicly, while becoming more flexible privately. Jenkins "smisses the objection that such a two- tier policy would readily become apparent in the era of Watergate journal- ism. Because each inci- dent is unique and com- plex, there is already a degree of ambivalence and confusion surround- ing such episodes. When Col. Edward Morgan was held hostage in eirut last year, the United States publicly refused to con- sider ransom. But ransom was ? paid?ostensibly by a group of unidentified Lebanese businessmen? and the colonel was released. While Washing- ton officials insist that the United States did not deviate from its "no-con- cessions" line, they con- cede that speculation about the source of the funds persists. The American Government, Jenkins suggests, ought to be able to capitalize on ambivalence of this kind. "To assume that private flexibility would immediately become ap- parent is to assume gross stupidity and incompe- tence in the management of such crises." There is another con- sideration that is often cited by Jenkins's sup- porters within the State Department?the difficul- ty for any government to implement a "no-coeces- sions" policy consistently and evenhandedly. The United States would not negotiate for the lives of Noel and Moore in Khar- toum, but would it refuse APproved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390603-2 to negotiate or consider ransom if the hostage were Henry Kissinger or Susan Ford? Even Israel, regarded as an exemplar of the toughest policy possible, has negotiated with ter- rorists in several particu- larly difficult hostage episodes. After an El Al jet. was hijacked to Algiers' in 1968, Israel agreed to release Arab prisoners as a gesture of "goodwill" to save the plane's crew and passen- gers. A year later, Israel exchanged two captured Syrian Air Force pilots for two Israeli hostages- of a hijacking. The Israelis were also willing to I negotiate with the Pale- stinians for captured Israeli schoolchildren in the town of Ma'alot in 1974. In that instance, deciding the negotiations would not prove fruitful, the Israelis stormed the school and one of the ter- rorists sprayed the chil- dren with bullets, result- ing in the death of 24. The raid on Entebbe Airport has renewed de- bate within the Adminis- Monday, August 16, 1976 tration. Some see the Israeli action as vindi- cating the hard-line ap- proach. Acording to this view, the Israeli "nego- tiations" were merely a shield behind which the Government planned its bold and risky mission. Others come to the op- posite conclusion. They believe the Israeli offi- cials who insist that the negotiations were serious, and they thus see the talks as a departure from Israel's usual hard-line policy. Whatever the case ?and officials here have no hard evidence to con- tradict the Israeli asser- tions of good faith?policy makers believe the Israeli response to the hijacking is not relevant to American planning and decision- making. "The option the Israelis chose," said one high-level official, "would never be possible for us." The feeling is that Israel, already a pariah to many in the United Nations, stood to lose little through such an assault, whereas the United States, as a world power, could not engage in such unorthodox action with- out suffering a tremen- dous loss of prestige. , The United States role as superpower, Adminis- tration officials, argue, also limits the retributive action that Washington can seek against nations harboring terrorists or al- lowing them to go free. While the United States may like to "punish" such nations, the officials say, broader foreign- policy interests often make the withholding of economic and military aid, or the withdrawal of an ambassador, coun- terproductive. In addi- tion, given the year-long Congressional investiga- tion of the C.I.A. and other intelligence agen- cies, formation of special squads to hunt down and capture or kill interna- tional terrorists has been ruled out as an op- tion. Finally, the United States has publicly sup- ported solutions to in- ternational terrorism throughr4the United Na- tions, and extreme uni- lateral responses such as the Entebbe mission would not be consistent THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR Lebanese rightists join secret world terrorist tasks By a staff correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor Beirut, Lebanon Lebanon's civil war has sparked plans for a clandestine, worldwide Maronite Christian ter- rorist organization, aimed at secret warfare against the Palestinian Arabs and their suppor- ters. The plans were discussed at a meeting in Bogota, Colombia, in July attended by a hand- ful of Lebanese emigres from South America, West Africa, and the United States and repre- sentatives of extremist Lebanese Christian groups. A-Source with direct knowledge of the Bo- gota meeting said the proposed organization would be activated only "if the Palestinians really get out of hand" following capture Au- gust 12 of their major stronghold in the Tel al- Zaatar refugee camp in east Beirut. Another source with less direct knowledge 'described the nascent group as "having some ,characteristics of Israel's Mossad [the Israeli secret overseas intelligence agency], the spe- .cial operations branch of the U.S. Central In-. telligence Agency, and, if you like, the former Secret Army Organization (OAS) in Algeria." .The OAS was a French settler group which hi 1960-62 tried unsuccessfully to block Algerian independence and later to assassinate French President de Gaulle. Allusions to Israeli counterterror tactics may not be empty .threats. 'Especially from Approved For 1970 to 1973, Israeli commandos tracked down and murdered confirmed or suspected Pales- tinian terrorist and guerrilla intelligence agents in such cities as Paris, Rome, Nicosia, and Cologne. This was one of the Israeli responses to Pal- estinian and international terrorism. More re- cently, such terrorism is thought by the Maro- nites here to be the work of what they call "the international Left" ? Cubans, the Japa- nese "Red Army," the gang headed by the Ve- nezuelan "Carlos" and others, all of whom the Maronites now think are fighting on the side of the Palestinians against them in Lebanon. Some, they say, were captured when the be- sieged Tel al-Zaatar camp was overrun. Al- though the Soviet KGB (secret service) has been careful to cover the tracks of any in- volvement in -the Lebanese conflict, right-wing Christian officers told this reporter their men had captured and then killed a Russian.agent or technician at Tel al-Zaatar about five weeks before its fall. He carried no identi- fication papers, but spoke fluent Hussain and with the stated American goal of achieving an in- ternational consensus. Therein lies the full painfulness of the dilem- ma, "Be more flexible, do everything possible to save our people's lives during the crisis ? and come down hard after- ward on the terrorists and those who support or tolerate their actions," say the critics of the present policy. "But we're already as flexible as we can be," reply the policy makers. "We communi- cate with the kidnappers -through third parties in every way short of nego- tiation or bargaining. We take advantage of every option we have. The in- escapable fact is that some options during and after the crisis are simply not open to us." It is also inescapable that the ter- rorists are becoming in- creasingly sophisticated, daring and innovative, and the pressure on the United States Govern- ment to match them in these attributes can only increase. only a little broken Arabic, they added. The Maronite map, it finally activated, might try to operate among Palestinian and other Arab emigres in Persian Gulf oil states, the Americas, and in West Africa. It would strike at sources of arms and money for Yas- ser Arafat's Palestine Liberation Organization, as well as at extremist splinter groups. Both leading Christian parties here, the pha- .lange controlled by Pierre Gemayel and his sons, and the national liberals of ex-president Camille Chamoun, could furnish recruits, al- though the party leaderships officially frown on terrorism outside Lebanon. An anti-Palestinian terrorist brigade might not carry an open Maronite label. It ? might carry heavy membership of more extremist Maronite groups like the Guardians of the Ce- dars and the Lebanese youth movement. On the clerical side, the League of Maronite Monks, controlled by Father Charlie' Kassis, now touring the United States to win support for the Maronite cause, would fall under suspi- cion of the leftists whether or not it were ac- tually involved. 19 Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 - Approved For Release 2001108/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2-- I'9E WASHINGTON POST August 16, 1976 IP e7u9s Cle 1 j By Joanne Omang Washington Post Foreign Service TINGO MARIA, Peru?A light spring green in color that contrasts with the dark mat of the surrounding jungle, the fields of coca bushes here roll away over the hills to the horizon in a two-tone patchwork seamed by the muddy Huallaga River. A visitor can have a sickly sweet Inca Kola at the Cafe El Gringo on the rutted main street and ask any- body?discreetly, of course?about the town's biggest indtistry, the coca leaf. ,It is raw material for the white joy- dust or cocaine, here called oro blanco, 'or white gold. The -growing American taste for it has been a financial bonanza for Tingo Maria. A few years back, everybody grew tea or coffee or bananas. Not any- 'more. "Well, the bananas would rot some- ? times before we could get them out to market, especially in the rainy season. Then disease killed the coffee crops . three or four years ago, and tea really is a lot of work for very little Money," . said a straw-hatted farmer over his beer. " Coca, on the other hand, he contin- ued, takes virtually no care, grows well on the seamy near-vertical hill- sides and brings in six crops a year. "You just strip the leaves and then poof, another crop in 58 days," he said. Much of the coca in Tingo Maria is legal. Peru, according to the govern- ment's National Coca Enterprise, is the world's largest producer, growing an official crop of 10,450 tons on 40,860 licensed acres, an area the size of the District of Columbia. The actual planting is probably about 57,000 acres, however, according to the enterprise's administrator, Ale- jandro Costa. Drug control sources es- timate the dried coca leaf production at more than double the official level ?perhaps 22,000 tons, or 70 per cent of the werld's crop. Soaked with kerosene in makeshift cement-lined pits, the dried leaves 'yield a rubbery scum or paste of about 1 per cent of their weight. The paste is treated in clandestine labora- tories in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia to become cocaine hydrochloride at half or more the weight of the paste. In other words, Peru's estimated illegal leaf production of roughly 12,000 tons alone could yield 60 tons or more of ' pure cocaine, and probably does. Vir- tually all o it goes to the United States. The crop of legal coca leaves theo- retically has another fate, although much of it probably is also made into white gold. Only 627 tons are ex- ported, 55 tons reduced to cocaine paste for Europe where it becomes no- vocaine and other anesthetics. The rest goes as leaves to U.S. companies such as 'the Stepan Chemical Co. of New Jersey, which produces non-drug flavorings for soft drinks. "How do you think Coca-Cola got its name?" asked Costa. The rest of the legal leaves are all officially accounted for as chewed or y-Dusg I made into tea by the country's 3 mil- lion native Indians, the vast majority illiterate and poverty-ridden. Bus drivers munch the leaf with lime to stay awake on long ;trips. IR poverished villagers chew coca ? in: of food to drive away hunger pains. Tired women carrying enor- mous bundles of goods to market use it to fight their fatigue. Sheperds on the high altiplano combat the cold and altitude sickness with the coca leaf's gentle stimulation. For those not' hungry or tired, the leaf often seems only to make the mouth - slightly numb:- . .. - "We have in mind the slow and gradual elimination of the habit of chewing," said Costa. "It will take massive education and a long' -time."! He estimated that about 26,000 Peru- vians earn a living from the coca in- dustry, among them 3,000 distributor- businessmen and 18,000 producers. At the farm-income level it is a $61 mil- lion a year legal business." - - Some 2,500 of the producers live in and around Tingo Maria, Costa esti- mated. A town and district only 37 years old, with 30,000 residents, its pastel stucco and graying wood build-, pigs occupy the only flat space for miles among jutting jungle-covered mountains on the eastern slope of the Andes. The mountain skyline behind the 'town, natives like to point out, looks like a big-bellied woman lying down' and is called "the sleeping beauty." Gaily painted wooden trucks, splat- tered with mud, rattle emptily through town after unloading dozens of peas- ants at the Saturday night traveling fair. "The place is half-mafiosi," grumbled a dry-goods store manager. "They have all the money and all they buy is liquor." Dealers for the paste .arrive every so often in small private planes at the dirt airstrip, several persons related, and are wined and dined at' the few large coca plantations: ?Most of thelegat and-illegal eocg IS grown or, the same estates, enforce- ment officers said, with the illicit leaves concealed under false .produc- tion figure documents. Recently, how- ever, small, landholders created under Peru's agrarian reform have begun converting plots of two acres or so to coca, occasionally surrounding it with screens 'of other crops. "Some people changed their life- styles overnight," said Tingo Maria's 'government-appointed mayor, Jose Suito Medina. The going official rate at the farm is $1.40 a pound for d.?ied leaves, or about $1,100 per acre per year. That is well above the Peruvian per capita average income of about $600. The un- official rate, however, is $320 for an illegal pound of coca paste three times the legal price for the amount of leaves necessary to make it. The half-pound of cocaine it produces might in turn bring $13,500 hi street sales in the eastern United States, ac- cording to Washington officials. The only real evidence of now wealth is the big Ainerican-made cars that jounce incongruously through the pot- r U.S. holed dirt streets. Stores are well- stocked and high-priced, but they carry goods normal in rural Peru rather than luxury items: plastic shoes for $10, work shirts for $5. "Nobody wants to show off their money," said Rolando del Aguila, ad- ministrator of the government-run Turistas Hotel. "But the restaurants and bars are always full, and you can never get a seat on the plane to Lima." Mayor Suito lamented the tax rev- enue the government loses to the il- legal coca trade. Tinge/ Maria's legal production of 3.8 million pounds in 1975 brought in $185,000 in taxes at half a cent per pound, but the mayor said decent enforcement could in- crease the take by a third. "I'd hire professionals and pay them well, so they couldn't be bought, give them a gun and a vehicle and have them estimate production right there on the farms. That way the growers couldn't use false papers later on." He admitted that the job would be dangerous, noting that three persons have been killed here in coca-deal fights in the last year. He also agreed that elimination of illegal coca would cause suffering among the citizens. ."I'd like to eliminate it, but what' would people do then?" he asked. ."Nothing grows on the land after- ward." Drug enforcement officials question the common notion that coca drains the soil of all its nutriments. They say crop substitution is a long-range proj- ect awaiting discovery of a product re- motely similar in income. But the only real industry in Tingo Maria other than coca is the Mapresa Lumber Mill and Fibreboard Factory, which employs 250 persons at $3 a day. Around it stretch the coca fields, where ragged sharecroppers with eyes devoid of expectations tend the corps. Some of these people were among those arrested a few months ago in a Massive police raid that has grown in the retelling. Local versions now say Interpol sent 150?or was it 300?? agents disguised variously as tourists, hippies, prostitutes and businessmen into Tingo Maria to arrest more than a hundred' people. Local police, laugh- ing at the tale, said maybe two dozen people were arrested by 10 or 12 na- tional narcotics agency officers. Every- -one agrees, however, that important figures escaped, warned in advance by their local contacts. ? There are four U.S. Drug Enforce- ment Administration men attached to the American embassy in Lima, offer- ing case-solving advice and training programs to Peruvian officials. U.S. All) has supplied six vehicles, but no weapons or aircraft have been offered, embassy spokesmen said. But eliminating the coca traffic does not rank high on Peru's national agenda, and the most ambitious project is a request for a U.S.-financed aerial photo study of the extent of the prob- lem. "It's realty impossible to contfol," said Costa. Other drug enforcement officals were more graphic. "It's like trying to empty the ocean with a sand- pail," said one. 20 Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 E. EcosomisT AUGUST 14, 11.476 Pluto's children ? An act of joint self-control, please, by the world's nuclear exporters?or the spread of plutonium could produce up to 40 nuclear powers by 1985 One of the nicest things about President Amin of Uganda, Colonel Qaddafi of Libya, Mr Ian Smith of Rhodesia, the Provisional IRA and the . Baader- . Meinhof gang is that none of them has any nuclear weapons. Not yet. If, in a few years' time, an A-bomb becomes almost as normal an item in everybody's armouries as a grenade or a sub-machinegun, the con- dition of mankind will be drastically changed. How could this happen? Too easily. You?or, at least, your fairly average MIT student?can design a bomb in five weeks, using only the information that is obtainable in libraries. You need only a dozen pounds of plutonium; and all over the world there are reactors. blithely creat- ing the stuff as a mere by-product of electric power, at a rate already nearing 25 tons a year. India demonstrated two years ago just how easy it is to evade controls and use the by-product .to make a bomb. And this week Mr Kissinger admitted the "high probability " that some heavy water which. the Ameri- cans supplied to India for its nuclear power plants had been instrumental in producing the plutonium for India's 1974 nuclear explosion. This revelation, along with the American decision last month to sell still more uranium to India, was clearly one reason why Pakistan's Mr Bhutto would not be persuaded by Mr Kissinger this week not to buy a nuclear processing plant from France (see page 48). Plans arc now being considered in America and ? Britain for reducing the risk of plutonium being stolen by mixing it with uranium before stockpiling. A further idea, which the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (AC:DA) in Washington would like to pursue, is that the used fuel rods from enriched-uranium reactors should be promptly recycled in natural-Uranium ones of the Canadian type. This " tandem cycle " could reduce the rods' plutonium content to a less alarming ! level before they lose their protective radioactivity. Good, but not good enough. Sonic: potential pluton- : ium thieves may be baffled by these devices, if and , when and where they are adopted; but the pickings could still be good elsewhere, with power plants in many different countries churning out the deadly stuff and frightening quantities of it 'Being moved around. Such a world is not far away. President Ford gave warning on July 29th, when he issued the ACDA's latest annual report, that by 1985 there will probably , be nearly 40 countries whose reactors have created ; enough plutonium to make bombs, in addition to the six existing members of the " nuclear club ". The " near- ' nticlear " 40 include, by most reckonings, about 25? !States that have ratified the non-proliferation treaty, ? thus binding themselves not ,to acquire the bomb and agreeing to let all their nuclear installations be in- spected by the International Atomic Energy Agency. But there are at least a dozen countries that have not ratified the treaty' and are thought to have the option . to go nuclear by. 1985 at the latest. They include Argen- tina, Brazil, Chile, " Cuba, Egypt, Indonesia, Israel, Pakistan, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland and Turkey. , It cannot be assumed that the option is renounced for evcr merely by ratification of the NPT--because ? the nuclear nightmare. Up to now, however, the mechanism has been worked halfheartedly and hypo- critically by to many of the NPT parties?including the U.nited States, which in Lyndon Janson's day was the treaty's foremost champion. As a result, non-parties have actually been given incentives not to adhere to it. The plain meaning ignored Under the, treaty, a party should not supply nuclear equipment and material to another state unless that state lets the IAEA apply its safeguards to all of the nuclear material in its possession, "for the exclusive purpose of verification of fulfilment of its obligations assumed under this treaty ". To, the plain man, the .NPT text means, plainly, no supplies to non-parties: a highly effective device for encouraging adherence, to the treaty, as nuclear equipment and reactor fuel are still exported by only a few countries (and even France, the only non-party among the exporters, has promised to behave as if it were a party). Disastrously, the Americans led the other exporters in quibbling their way round this commitment. And now the chickens have conic home .to roost. ? ? The Germans and French have undertaken to sell, respectively to Brazil and Pakistan (which are not NPT parties), whole nuclear fuel cycles?not just reactors, but processing plants for uranium enrichment and plutonium separation; a ? virtually complete do-it- yourself kit for bomb makers. Feathers are ruffled and the roost resounds with agitated clucking. American protests at the French and German moves might, how- ever, carry more conviction if the Americans had not recently competed?unsuccessfully?against the French for a contract to supply two big reactors to South Africa not a treaty' party), and agreed to sell a big reactor to Spain (not a treaty party ). and flirted with an Indian nuclear deal. ? - At last \Tar's NPT review conference the opportunity to restore the weakened treaty to strength was thrown away. Instead the major exporters furtively formed their London club ", at whose secret meetings they have. done precious little to avert the proliferation of nuclear arms which they all profess to fear. Nor have ? they made much noticeable effort at IAEA meetings to bring about the improvement of the agency's safeguards system. At the moment an exporting state can some- times claim that, however inadequate the safeguards it writes into its .own deals may be, they art a bit tighter t bait tlw agency's. . . ? The pass has not yet been Sold outright. Given a real effort in the next year or two, including a thorough 'overhaul of the treaty's mechanism and the agency's 'safeguards system, there is still a fair chance of heading tiff the arrival of a world in which the bomb will be available to several dozen governments, some of them flickeringly unstable, and also to any terrorist gang that can snatch nuclear materials, or even whole weapons, from wherever they are worst guarded. But it looks as if the?efrort will not be made, primarily because some tif the exporting states governments will not restrain firms that are eager for profitable deals. These nuclear the treaty permits withdrawal under the: pressure of. _deals, be it noted, tend to be profitable only for the " extraordinary events ". But this does not mean thmssoncerned ; all too often, they somehow involve the NPT is useless. The treaty has created a mechanism L.0(' exporting state's taxpayers in a loss. If the pass is ivhich, if operated at ftAl3pow,. rOVitl9e8141144ighiW100V68/01V.ItlAliklifrfri66422/kbobilfintaKiSC21?' it 21 Approved For-Release 200-4108/08-: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2- NEW YORK TIMES CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR 11 August 1976 9 Ai.r, a SEES A ROLE Soviets wary IN !BINS A-BLAST of U.S. in Indian Ocean By DAVID BURNHAM satc.tai to The New York. Times ? WASHINGTON, Aug. 8?Sec- retary of State Henry A. Kis- singer has acknowledged that it is highly probable that mate- rial supplied by the United States was used by India to become the sixth nation in the world to explode a nuclear de- vice. The acknowledgment by Mr. Kissinger appeared to contra- dict State Department asser- tions in June that the material in question had not played a role in the Indian nuclear ex- plosion in 1974. Mr. Kissinger, in a letter to Senator Abraham A. Ribicoff, Democrat of Connecticut, said a "misinterpretation" of assur- ances by the Indian Govern- ment and of technical data had led the State Department to the incorrect conclusion that no United States materials were involved in the Indian test. Consequently, Mr. Kissinger said, there is "a high probabil- ity" that heavy water supplied by the United States was used by India in the reactor that produced the plutonium ,for what India calls its "peaceful nuclear explosion." The admission by Mr. Kissin- ger could affect the nuclear export policy of the United States, an area of growing diplomatic and economic im- portance as the number of na- tions using nuclear power to generate electricity increases. The Senate Government Op- erations Committee, headed by, Mr. Ribicoff, has already ap- proved legislation reorganizing the procedures under which nuclear equipment and. fuels are exported. This legislation is pending before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy and the For- eign Relations Committee. The suggestion of confusion on pol- icy in the past has increased pressure on these committees to act. The dispute over Indian use of American materials also is expected to play a key role with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which on July 20 held a hearing on a request for an export license for new Shipments of uranium to India. The licensing has been chal- lenged by a number of or- ganizations, including the Natu- ral Resources Defense Council, and the Sierra Club. In disclosing Mr. Kissinger!S, letter, Senator Ribicoff said id a statement that he was deeply, disturbed "because it. indicated that India has misused our peaceful nuclear assistance to develop its version of an atomic bomb." ? The Senator further noted that India had proceeded "with its nuclear explosion program, using plutonium de- rived from United States-sup- plied material, over the 'formal By David K. Willis Staff correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor Moscow The Soviet Union is moving quietly to shore up its own hand in the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf ? while attributing sinister mo- tives to U.S. Secretary of State Henry A. Kis- singer's visit to the area earlier this week. In a cartoon in the Aug. 10 edition of Pravda, the Soviet party newspaper, a figure in the uni- form of a U.S. general is flapping down to a landing on black eagle wings, two rockets strapped to his back and two more on his feet like witch shoes. Below is a tiny island bris- .tlitig with more rockets and with GIs. The island is labeled Diego Garcia; and the line underneath the cartoon reads: "Nesting- ground of the Pentagon." (Diego Garcia is the British-owned island out in the Indian Ocean, where ? by agreement with the British ? the U.S. is developing naval and air facilities.) The Pravda cartoon is a symptom of the growing Soviet concern with U.S. diplomatic, economic, and military efforts to strengthen American influence in the Indian Ocean, across which lie the world's key oil supply routes. The cartoon appeared just as Secretary Kis- _singee ended his visit to the Persian Gulf re- gion, which is linked with the Indian Ocean in . strategic significance. As Dr. Kissinger met with Pakistani leader Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the Russians drew loud and prolonged attention here to the fifth anni- versary of their own treaty of friendship with India. As Dr. Kissinger announced new arms and economic dealings with Iran, Moscow publi- cized its own economic aid projects there ? projects about which the Shah of Iran speaks rarely in the West, but which are growing in scope just the same. And around the edges of the Indian Ocean, the Russians are jockeying for position in both Somalia and Ethiopia, blasting U.S. plans for Diego Garcia, and warning that the U.S. is con- verting Australia into a Pentagon outpost as part of a U.S. drive to regain influence and po- sition lost with the collapse in Indo-China. Moscow's public approach to new U.S. deals with Iran is twofold: It warns that the gulf "cannot stay aloof" from "the historical pro- cess of relaxation of international tension" in objections of the United States." Mr. Ribicoff charged that "our loose nuclear dealings with India set a very danger- ous precedent and may, in fact, encourage other develop- ing nations, particularly Pak- istan, to misuse peaceful nuclear assistance for nuclear weapons purposes." He said the United States. should make it clear "we will not tolerate such abuses." the world, and quickly reiterates its own aid projects in Iran. , A recent article in the Soviet Government newspaper lzvestia claimed that the Soviet .Union was one of the largest purchasers of Ira- nian goods, and implied that Western nations were interested only in oil. Western diplomats here point out that half of the Soviet imports for the past two years has been natural gas. Moscow uses it to replace its own gas which is sold to Western Europe. Knowledgeable Russian sources say that there is talk of building Soviet grain silos in Iran, and that the Shah wants the output of the Isfahan steel mill boosted to 2 million tons a year. ?, Meanwhile, the formal Soviet reaction to new U.S. sales of military hardware to Iran and to Saudi Arabia is that Washington is trying to recoup the money it has spent on oil. ?and to control the entire region. In Pakistan, the Soviets seem to favor stable -Pakistani relations with India, and are working to increase trade. The Russians are selling the Pakistanis heavy machinery and are buying cotton fabrics, clothes, shoes, and carpets. India ties valued In India, Western observers here wonder just how far the Soviets can begin to meet In- dia's virtually inexhaustible needs. The Rus- sians value their ties with Prime Minister In- dira Gandhi, however, and are trying to ex- tract maximum propaganda advantage from them in a week of ceremony and fanfare. On the Horn of Africa, on the Indian Ocean's western flank, Moscow faces some delicate choices. The Somalis, who allow, the Russians permanent access to Berbera, may well make some move to gain control of the strategic port of Djibouti should the French pull out of their toehold there. Any such move will be stoutly resisted by the Ethiopians, the bulk of whose outside trade flows through the port. The Eth- iopians have just had their highest-ranking de- legation in Moscow since the coup of two years ? ago removing the Emperor. Moscow re- sponded with approving references' to the"young revolutionaries." ? Now the Somalis have also sent a delegation here, presumably to be reassured that they' are still first in Soviet hearts ? but also, Western sources believe, to hear some veiled Soviet chiding about the wisdom of their keeping the peace over Djibouti. If the Somalis do move. the Russians will be caught in a dilemma. Meanwhile, to the southeast, Moscow has re- acted frostily to the latest ANZUG meeting in Canberra between the U.S., Australia. and New Zealand, tying it with Diego Garcia and warning of dark U.S. designs on the entire Pacific Ocean. The other nuclear powers at present are the United States, Britain, the Soviet Union. France and China. , Heavy Water Involved The United States-supplied material in question was 21 tons of heavy water, an essen- tial ingredient for transforming Inatural uranium into plutonium. Natural uranium cannot be used as an explosive,' but small amounts of plutonium can easi- ly be fashioned into a nuclear lweapon. 22 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 ? THE NEW YORK TIMES, WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 11, 1976 Spread of Nuclear Weapons and U.S. Sales: 7 By LESLIE H. GELB Special to The New York Times WASHINGTON, Aug. 10? The disclosure that Pakistan's purchase of a nuclear reproc- essing plant from Fance would jeopardize the sale of military jet aircraft the Pakistanis want from the United States shows the increasingly close tween the prob- lems of nuclear proliferation and conventional arms sales. B1 law and by Administra- tion policy, it is now virtually established that if a country takes steps to acquire the ca- pability to build nuclear weap- ons, the United States will cut off all forms of aid except food. What is not clear is whether the Administration is prepared to sell conventional weapons that otherwise would not be sold as an inducement for a country not to develop nuclear armaments. The trade-off for American leaders is this: the probability of setting off regional conven- tional arms races and creating ,imbalances is now weighed ? against the possibility of pre- 'venting a world filled with nu-, iclear weapons. 1 So far, there is no clear-cut pattern in the way the Admin- istration has dealt with this matter in the cases of Paki- stan, Iran, South Korea and. Brazil. The weight of opinion in the Administration seems to be against selling the A-7 Corsair jet fighter-bomber to Pakistan unless the sale is the only .means of getting Pakistan to News Analysis cancel its contract to buy a French nuclear reprocessing , plant. Such a plant is used to separate plutonium from the spent fuel of a nuclear power ,plant, and the plutonium could be used to produce a nuclear weapon. Sale Would Violate U.S. Policy If the sale of A-7's were to be judged on its own merits, independent of the nuclear proliferation issue, most Ad- ministration experts would be strongly opposed to it. They argue that the A-7 is an attack aircraft and thus its sale to Pakistan would run counter to the Administration's policy of selling only defensive weapons to nations in the Asian subcon- tinent. They say that the sale would further damage Ameri- can relations with India. ? The prospective $500 million sale of about 100 aircraft is, however, important to the A-7's manufacturer. The LTV Corpo- ration officials said that with- out the sale LTV would have to shut down its A-7 production line. Administration officials said that Secretary of State Henry. A. Kissinger was inclined to deal with the Pakistani case along somewhat the same lines as he had with Iran?namely, to sell the arms if that would resolve the nuclear issue. During Mr. Kissinger's visit to Iran last weekend, Shah Mo-, hammed Riza Pahlevi reported- ly agreed not to purchase a reprocessing plant in return for getting an American guarantee of enriched uranium to fuel Trans' nuclear power plants and of the use of a multinationally controlled reprocessing facility. BALTIMORE SUN 10 August 1976 At the same time, Mr. Kissinger and the Shah announced a $40 billion trade package, including $10 billion in sales of American arms to Iran. No Denials Offered State Department officials were very reluctant to ac- knowledge that there was any link between the two matters, but they did not deny it either. As one said, "We're not about to put ourselves in a blackmail position where any country can get arms out of us by threaten- ing to buy a reprocessing plant." A Senate staff study recently questioned the sale of many weapons systems to Iran that it said could be operated only by American personnel, and the Shah is said to want to buy even more sophisticated weap- ons. In contrast with the cases of Pakistan and Iran, Administra- tion officials insisted that no promises or even hints about future arms sales had been given to South Korea in return for the Seoul Government's agreement last January to can- cel its order for a nuclear reprocessing plant from France. As one official explained: "We simply made the negative clear to them, that if they went forward with the reprocessing plant, Congress would insist on the termination of further mili- tary credit sales. And they un-' derstood this." Another official said, "That's right, but who's to say they won't come to us three years from now and start bargaining all over again." Congress recently approved a law that would ban aid to any -country that sold or re- Guns for Oil . Trade is inherently healthy. Announcements of increases, regardless of the countries in- volved, are usually good news. But the joint Iranian-American communique of Saturday roughly trebling the estimate of trade between the two countries for the six years ending in 1980 is a disquieting exception. Unlike most trade increases, it is a tribute to American weakness and not strength. The United States is stepping up its dependence on Iranian oil and paying for it with more modern weaponry than is good for Iran or the world. The arguments presented by Shah Mo- hmmed Riza Pahlevi and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger are sound in principle. Since Britain withdrew militarily from the Persian Gulf; Iran has replaced it as the paramount power and force for stability there. It is a coun- tervtfeight both to the Soviet Union on its north- ern-border and the lesser powers with Soviet arms in both the Arabian peninsula and Central Asia. Iran is a valued ally. What is frightening is the scale of armament, roughly $2 billion worth a year in seeming perpetuity. a ceived uranium enrichment fa- cilities or a reprocessing plant, that was not subject to ade-1 quate safeguards. But Adminis- tration officials noted that there were several large loop- holes in the language, including Presidential waiver authority, that still allowed for considera- ble flexibility. "In the case of; South Korea, at least," an offi- cial said, "we were not abouti to play games; the Congression- al intent was clear." I What will happen in regard to Brazil is not yet clear. Brazil has ordered an uranium enrich- ment facility from West Germa- ny, but Brazil is not as depend- ent on or desirous of American, arms as South Korea, Iran or Pakistan. Economic aid to- Brazil is so small as not to be a factor either. Thus far, the burden of thi' Administration's argument to Brazil and the other countries. has been that reprocessing fa= cilities are highly uneconomi- cal, and that it is much cheaper for a country to buy nuclear fuel from the United States than to make its own. This ar- gument seems to have carried some weight with the South Koreans and the Iranians. Whether it will continue to be persuasive is far from clear. . At this point, the overriding priority that the Administration has given to preventing the spread of nuclear weapons leads to thinking of arms sales as sweeteners. These sweeten- ers, some Administration offi- cials are coming to believe, could prove almost as trouble- some in the short run as the f, is ad cf nuclear weapons might become in the long run., ? , A staff report from the Senate foreign assist- ance Subcommittee angered the Shah by sug- gesting that Iran cannot operate the sophisticat- ed weapons it already has without American personnel. This is probably true for the time being, although the inference that Iran has lost policy independence would be untrue. Iran is no American puppet. The Shah's leadership in OPEC price-gouging is proof of that. While it is both stable and basically friendly, no one can guarantee both conditions indefinitely. Mean- while, vastly increased armaments for Iran on- ly whets the arms appetites of Iran's neighbors and near-neighbors, both Soviet and Soviet-sup- plied, provoking what it is meant to offset. Iran has bought beyond its means in the past few years, over-estimating its oil wealth. En- couraging it to continue doing so will at least re- cycle petro-dollars. The estimate of $14 billion in oil imports from Iran is a tribute to the fail- ure of American government, industry and peo- ple to achieve a genuine conservation policy. America's waste of energy is fueling Iran's de- lusions of military grandeur. Approved For Release 2001/08/081cIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Approved For Release-2001/08/08 : CIA=RDP77-00432R0001-00390001-2- LONDON TIMES 10 Aug. 1976 THE BOMBS The United States Government' is -beginning to suspect that the policy, pursued for over twenty- three years, of the. free sharing of information and materials for the peaceful uses of nuclear technology has been a dreadful mistake. This . is reflected clearly in the arguments being put to Premier Bhutto ' of Pakistan by Dr Henry Kissinger to dissuade him from buying nuclear fuel reprocessing plant from France. That would put into the hands of the Pakistanis ? the capacity to obtain supplies , plutonium needed , in the most direct form for nuclear. bomb making. The pressure on Premier Bhutto is more than a moral argument. Dr Kissinger is backed by new United States enabling legislation to deny mili- tary and economic aid to non- nuclear countries who are intent on producing nuclear weapons. Serious doubts about the unwitting sabotage of the non-' proliferation movement .began with the Indian detonation of a so-called " peaceful " nuclear do-, vice in 1974. ? In the immediate months following that explosion the 'Americans still rejected any suggestion that their. policies 'of' the 1950s and 1960s?when ? atomic reactors. were being sold to ? third world countries and thous-ands of foreign scientists. were being trained in nuclear technology and the secrets of manufacturing plutonium?con-- tributed to the spread of nuclear weapons throughout the -world. In particular there were firm denials of reports that materials supplied by the United States Atomic Energy Commis- sion had made the Indian' nuclear device possible. Written replies to questions in Congress now show this not to be true indeed the Canadians, ? who have been pilloried in the inter- national public arena for pro- viding the Indians with the basic knowledge and ingredients for their A-bomb, may in fact take. ? NEW YORK TIMES 17 Aug. 1976 ? ' C010 bo n hetoc OF THE 1980s \ . ? ? some solace front.a the 'fact that ? ? the necessary materials came from the United States. The admissionby Dr Kissinger describes -how the supply of small amounts of heavy water for a research reactor of the. Indian Atomic Energy Commis- sion ? was probably .the crucial sOurce of material which made possible the 'completion of a nuclear explosion two years ago. ? One assessment submitted recently. to President Ford lists ? the forty countries who by 1985 could have enough plutonium from electricity generating nuclear reactors to build, atomic bombs: most, of these reactors have originated from ,the United States: The group includes West Germany; Israel,' Iran, ? South Africa, Japan, Switzerland, Sweden, East Germany, Brazil, Argentina, Egypt, and Pakistan. The analysis exposed the impo- tence of the safeguards proce- dures of a .the ? international Atomic Energy Agency. ' ? The ,dilemma is not exclusive ? to the United States. The British Government has not answered honestly questions :about the supply to non-nuclear countries and non-signatories of the non- proliferation treaty of.. material for nuclear technology... Arneri, . can .officials fear the halt of uranium ?,shipments to a non- signatory country like India will Mean simply that country no longer . follow even the inadequate conditions laid down by the United States as safe- guards to prohibit the .building of a bomb with the 'materials already received. A similar argu- ment ,has been in progress about supplies of material from Britain to ? Japan a which are being negotiated in the ?400m con- tract for .the: reprocessing- of nuclear reactor .fuel at Wind- scale. ? ,Happily, Japan has recently ? signed the non- proliferation treaty ,and there- fore, avoids; further. ?.embarrass-. ? It would be easy to be cynical about the fifth summit. meeting of so-called nonaligned nations in Colombo this week. As usual, the "nonaligned" will include Fidel' Castro's Cuba and Kim 11 Sting's North Korea, =Ong other dubious claimants. The rhetoric and resolutions are likelylo be excessive, one-sided, all too familiar. The demands on the richer nations will be the same as those' made at every meeting of the poorer countries, whether they convene as the nonaligned, the, Group, of .77, '4fsnow 112) or the third world. Critics will say that the host, Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon), could have put to better use the $50 million spent just to prepare for the assembly of 4.000 delegates ,from 85 member and 25 observer nations. It might have used a $280,000 Parliamentary appropriation to provide care and housing for Colombo's army of cripples and beggars, rather than to move them temporarily out of ? sight into "rehabilitation" camps outside the capital. , ment for :the British Government. 'On. the Other hand a comparable ? . asize contract for fuel reprocess- ing,' ' "which would yield plutonium, has been agreed between 'France and Japan. The French arc themselves not parties to the treaty and there- fore the'. same obligations do not exist. .. The Americans are turning the screw .on their customers by insisting that when fuel from nuclear reactors?the source of plutonium for bomb-making?is ready , for reprocessing it must be returned to the United States so .that it cannot be stockpiled for weapons. Advisers to the American Government feel their mistake has been in believing the argument that the technology for peaceful purposes. of nuclear development should belong to the werld, and ,could be separated from, military. application. In practice ? the idea of withholding only the secrets of the actual construction of a nuclear weapon is ? not enough. Dr Frederick director of the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, said . recently it has taken a long time lo realize that weapons ,design is not all that difficult. ? The only way to build :a barrier to prevent weapons proliferation is by controlling the availability of plutonium ? and enriched. uranium. The myth that peaceful uses and weapons technology could be separated led to the United States declassifying a plutonium-separation system liarned Purex ; small quantities of plutonium were aCtually given to foreign ,countries to assist them in their research and devel- opment nf this process. Even now , the desire to export nuclear equipment outweighs the con- cern of most . suppliers to limit nuclear proliferation. We are creating a, terrifying world for 1930s, a . ? ? And yet, much of the discussion' at Colombo will undoubtedly transcend the hypocrisies and focus on real Problems' that, in an increasingly interdependent ,world, inevitably affect the prosperity and, well-being of the 'richer as well as the poorer countries; control and pricing of raw materials; conditions of trade; the neces- 'sity for rescheduling debt service for developing coun- tries whose balance-of-payments deficits reached $40 billion' last year; the crisis confronting the World Bank's' International Development Association, mostly. because the United States, by far its biggest contributor, is now .seriously in default on its pledges.. , ?It is clearly impossible to meet all of the demands Of the deVeloping countries. But neither can the richer.; ,countries, in light 'of their own long-run interests and. their stake in international peace and stability, ignore: those demands. The rhetoric of Colombo will be heard. 'again at the United Nations General Assembly next month.. The task for the United states and other indus- _ trialized nations. is to help sort out what is ?reasonable: and give it more serious attention than in the past. ' t 24 Approved Fcir Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 too. APproved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 ? NEW YORK TIMES YITGAOuSgLAV9EXILES IN BELGIUM AFRAID Murder of Anti-Tito Activists Creates Apprehension Among the Emigres SPedal to The New York noes , BRUSSELS, AUG. 14 ? A series of murders, threats and kidnappings has created a di- / mate of fear and suspicion in the small community of anti- Tito exiles here. The discovery of the third and fourth Yugoslav murder victims in 18 months here this ?week has led most East Euro- pean emigres and the authori- ties to suspect that the violence , is possibly linked to an attempt by Yugoslavia to eradicate potential enemies to Titoist policies that could jeopardize an orderly transition after he dies. , All the victims living here have been either royalist Ser- bians or anti-Tito Communists. The most prominent was Vladi- mir Dabcevic, who had been a high-ranking member of the Tito Government but was even- 'Wally jailed for pro-Soviet ' tendencies. Following an? es- -cape he lived here until his mysterious disappearance last August in Rumania, and his re- cent trial in Belgrade when he was sentenced to a long prison term for conspiring against the Government. Delon Murder Figure Cited The targets this week were Miodrag Boskovic; a long-time :resident here who combined the 'role of antique dealer and inn- keeper with that of Serbian s-oyalist activist; and Uros Mili- icevic, a young Yugoslav who, 'was linked to the murder of the bodyguard of Alain Delon, the French film star, several ' ; years ago. The Belgian police ?are currently following various leads but are without hardI They are unsure whether thel main target was Mr. Boskovic; for political reasons of Mr. Mille !cevic who confessed to having :hired a killer to murder Mr. Delon's bodyguard, but was .ruled insane and the alleged :murderer was freed. Mr. Boskovic was the second person connected with an -exiled Serbian royalist publica- tion, Serbia Resurrected, to have been shot to death. The editor, Peter Vatic, was also slain in May 1975. Another Ser- bian restaurateur who had fought with Draja an anti-Tito leader in World War 11, was also killed in , BALTIMORE SUN 18 Aug 1976 Israel considers refusing visas Jews to Soviet (pews going to West By a Sun Staff Correspondent Jerusalem?The Israeli gov- ernment is considering a pro- posal that it refuse to give visas to the thousands of Soviet 'Jews who want to leave Russia but do not want to come to Israel, though ? such a move probably would end any chance of emi- gration for them. A second proposal under consideration would bar all in- ternational Jewish aid groups from helping Soviet Jews who do receive Israeli visas but want to go to the United States, Canada or other countries. The two measures are meant to halt the declining im- migration of Soviet Jews to Is-- rael. About half of the 1.350 Jews leaving the Soviet Union each month now choose to go to other countries. Both proposals have been se- verely criticized on moral grounds during discussions here, for an Israeli immigrant's visa generally is the only way for a Jew to leave the Soviet Union. The committee members studying the measures also have been warned that they would provide Moscow with a potential propaganda issue if they are adopted. Yet so grave is the concern here about declining immigra- tion in general?as many per- sons left Israel last year, about 20,000, as arrived?that adop- tion of one, perhaps both, is ex- pected later this month, accord- ing to sources at the Jewish Agency, which administers the immigration program. Both measures now are un- der study by an eight-man com- mittee representing Israeli gov- ernment agencies and the American organizations that made the desire of Soviet Jews to emigrate an international is- sue five years ago. The American groups are pushing the Israeli government March of last year. In one case another exile came forward and said .the Yugoslav secret police had sought to recruit him to commit the murder. All these murders have not been solved. The victims of the families And other exiles erg almost unanimous in the belief that these acts were engku:Ti-Fd by the Yugoslav -secret police and fear more attacks or reprisals. to deny immigrant visas to those Soviet Jews judged likely Ito drop out in Vienna, a decision ithat could become highly arbi- trary, according to sources close to the study committee. The Israeli preference, how- ever, would be to grant visas to most Soviet Jews wanting to emigrate but then prohibit all assistance?air fares, tempo- rary housing , resettlement al- lowances and visa sponsorship ?if they chose to go to another country, the sources said. "No one wants to be in the position of bearing the burden of keeping Jews locked inside the Soviet Union," one partici- pant in the discussions said. "The Jewish Agency does not want to become responsible for preventing as many Jews from emigrating as the KGB [Soviet secret police] has been." But Israeli officials and in- ternational Jewish assistance organizations have been unable to come up with any alternative measures to reduce the Vienna dropout rate, which grew from about 10 per cent in 1972 to a peak of 52 per cent earlier this year. , For Israel, more is involved than just the embarrassment of being rejected by the Soviet emigrants since the country still depends heavily for its growth on a steady flow of im- migrants. One way to reduce the prob- lem would be to curb the activi- ties of the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society MIAS), an Ameri- can group that virtually com- petes in Vienna, Rome, Brus- sels and other centers for Sovi- et Jews, according to Israeli of- ficials. "The scene in Vienna is un- seemly, to say the least, with all the. blatant promises the HIAS people make," one Jewish agency source said. Anti-Zionist Jewish groups also have offices in Vienna and Brussels and parts of West Germany in the past have been described as centers of anti- Tito propaganda aimed at the hundreds of thousands of Yugoslav migrant workers in Western Europe. The Yugoslav Government has also waged a major education campaign among these expatriates, who it fears could become a source of opposition upon their return Approved For Release 2001/08/68 : CIA-RDP77-00432R0 Rome and try to convince ar- riving Soviet Jews not to go to! Israel and provide assistance to those wanting to go to the Unit- ed States instead. , Supporters of the two pro- posals have argued in the often heated discussions here that the continued high rate of dropouts in Vienna endangers the whole effort to persuade Soviet au- thorities to let Jews emigrate, for it undermines the basic ra- tionale of family reunion and of return to a national homeland where Jews will be able to ex- press their identity, have access to Jewish culture and be free from anti-Semitism. They also have argued that. those allowed to leave as Isras eli immigrants but go instead to the United States possibly are depriving real immigrants of Soviet exit visas. Soviet Jews who have come to Israel attribute the high dropout rate, which has been a hotly debated matter here for several months, to the often highly critical views of Israel ? of those who -have come here and write their.families back in- the Soviet Union. "Russian Jews in Israel do.: not understand what it means to be Jewish," said Herman Branover, an engineer who em- igrated from the Soviet Union several years ago and now heads a Russian immigrant group here. "They are rootless, have too little feeling for the land and contact with the people. So the ? reason for their alienation is not that things are bad here, but that they feel they do not be- long." But disenchantment is not confined to Soviet Jews-40 per cent of American, Canadian. Australian and European Jews who come to Israel as immi- grants now leave within five, years. according to government: figures- 1003A03-2 Approved For-Release 2001-108/08 : CIA-RDP7-7-00432R0001-0039000-3-2 101; gittltfi ? Sun., August 8, 1976* ?-?-41ILILZ ? Euro e's Leftists Stress Unity as Way to chieve 'Transition to Socialism' BY BARBARA KOEPPEL ? When a battered Europe emerged from World War II a generation ago, it began re- building not just the rubble that once was ?Rotterdam, Berlin or Coventry, but also the political, economic and social order. The course of reconstruction, had been plotted in Pottsdam in 1945 with the con- tinent split into two distinct spheres of in- fluence. And although resentment flared in Barbara Koeppel, a Baltimore free-lance journalist, attended a recent meeting of Social- ist and Communist party functionaries in Lis- bon. some European quarters (France in the West, and Poland and Czechoslovakia in the East) at the superpowers' involvement in Europe's internal affairs, that basic division continued through the recovery period. Now, with reconstruction complete, the old cold war ties are strained; rumblings of "na- tional independence," and the growing power of the "left" in Southern Europe, threaten the existing order. Spanish Communist Party leader Santiago Carillo, for instance, comparing himself to Martin Luther and Moscow to Rome, says the time has come for a break with the "church" of the Communist world. This and similar urgings by other Western European Commu- nists for a new "Eurocommunism" are a di- rect challenge to Soviet influence in Eastern? Europe, where there certainly would be sym- pathetic vibrations if Communists in the West succeed in the ballot-box route to power. For the *United States and its Northern Eu- ropean partners, a move leftward is certain to be felt in the North as well as in Southern Europe. Thus, each broad alliance, in East and West, determined to resist the challenge to the "order" and to its power, seeks ways to strengthen old alignments and forge new ones where needed. The response depends on the extent of. the control. The Russians, for example, to retain what leadership they have, had little choice but to sanction the principles of independence for the various European Communist parties at their meeting last June in East Berlin. The Western powers, on the other hand, are de- termined to counter all moves from the left. Thus a group of Western Europe's Social Democratic leaders met early this year, and with only France's Francois Mitterand and Sweden's Prime Minister Olaf Palme abstain- ing, vowed a policy of noncooperation with any governments that, become Communist- controlled. More recently, as West German Chancellor I lelinut Schmidt disclosed on his visit to the United States, three other nations besides his own?the United States, France and Britain?considered denying credit to Italy if Communists are brought into the cabi- net. Now the leaders of the left in the Mediter- ranean countries, long splintered by factional disputes, reason that rapidly changing condi- tions demand that they, too, form alliances. To this end, Socialist and Communist party functionaries from Southern Europe met re- cently in Lisbon to map a strategy for what they hope will be the transition to socialism. One main theme emerged: Alliances of all sorts and at all levels are essential. With alli- ances, the left can win elections, and once in power, begin to transform the system to pro- vide benefits for all in society. Without them, the left is doomed to sideline maneuvers. In Southern Europe today, this is perhaps Amer than ever as the left inches close to power; alliances are crucial to enlarge and strengthen its constituency. Electoral success is tantalizingly close in France, where Mitter- and, the Socialist Party head and candidate for president in the 1974 elections, just missed winning by two percentage points in that election. In Italy, the Communist Party and Socialist Party together captured 44% of the vote in the June elections; in Portugal, the two parties and groups to their left polled 51% in April's parliamentary elections. Although the type a-alliances chosen will vary from country to country, the Lisbon conferees agreed that some basic coalitions must be sought. First, there must be unity of the left inside each country. Second, alliances must be forged between the parties and the mass democratic movements, and between the left and others not normally considered ,its allies. And looking to the future, there should be alliances among left governments in different countries?if and when they come to power?as well as new relationships among them and third world producers. Calls for unity of the left are nothing new. But often they have been barely disguised schemes of one party or another ,to take pow- er. Since no party would settle for the num- ber two slot, the result was a left plagued and weakened by divisions. In Portugal, for instance, the Communists and Socialists denounce each other while, as one independent Portuguese Socialist re- marked, "Right-wing groups whittle away at progressive programs passed in the last two years (such as land reform and poor people's occupation of vacant housing)." But if unity eludes the left in Portugal, some real gains are being scored in Italy, Spain and France. In France, the Communists and Socialists signed a "Common Program" in 1972, a list of Socialist goals they are publicly committed to support. Both agreed to back the other's candidates in final election, once the weaker ones are eliminated in the prima- ries. The coalition appears to .be strictly a marriage of convenience; hut a practical lead- ership knows it may be their ticket to suc- cess. In Spain, where hostilities were once so great that left-wing rivals killed each other, the various left parties now have solid work- ing alliances. The second type of coalition brings togeth- er the "old democratic institutions," (parties and unions) and the !'new' ones?town, school, workers' and neighborhood councils that are part of a mass democratic "popular'' movement mushrooming in Southern Europe today. These decentralized groups, formed at the local level, originally were nonpolitical. But as their clashes with local administrations grew, they found their grievances were tied to the political and economic system. The third type of alliance?with those not normally on the left?is not a new concept. But, as one Portuguese observed, "When the left made such pacts in the past, it was with groups themselves out of power; which ?need- ed a broader base of support. Once they re- gained power, the left was eased?or pushed ?out." The left now seems aware that it must at- tract new votes, since its traditional base, the working class, is too small for a majority. Leftist leaders sense that the time is histori- cally ripe to woo those who previously sup- ported conservative parties, but who are be- coming alienated from the system. Out of such thought emerged the "historic compromise" in Italy, devised by the Commu- nists and Socialists to attract the vote of the newly disaffected Catholic workers who had been loyal to the Christian Democrats. In the June elections, the Communists scored im- ? pressive gains after campaigning on an anti- existing government, anti-monopoly platform, and on a record of efficient administration of the cities they already control. In Spain, for all those pressing for political. social and economic reform after 40 years of dictatorship, the name of the game is coali- tions. The "opposition" consists of such un- likely partners as the Communist Party, vari- ous Socialist parties, progressive monarchists, conservatives, liberals, unions and people's or- ganizations. As one opposition member ob- served, "After we win basic rights, the alli- ance will be shaky. But for now, we are unit- ed." Another reason the left needs to reach out to those not normally its allies is to insure its own protection, to counter the pressure from those with vestedinterests in the present sys- tem. For despite some gains on the left, the fact remains that the centrist parties still have the largest following and majority sup, port. And most Europeans still fear socialism in general and the Communists in particular, partly because of past heavy-handedness by the Communists. "We must move with moderation," said Michele Achilli, an Italian Socialist, "because. we must not frighten our new constituency with changes that are too radical. This could drive them into the Mins of the right, z.',nd together they could defeat us." Portugal was cited as an example of right- ist forces coalescing after many Portuguese became convinced that the new and better life promised by revolutionary soldiers ap- peared instead to be a life of violence and di:- 26 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 -order. With Portugal as the lesson in how not to succeed, the leftists believe fledgling leftist governments still can move toward "industri- al, economic and social justice." Translated, this means building a mixed economy (both a public.and private sector) in the first phase of the transition process, while continually enlarging?but always with pop- ular support?the amount of publicly owned industries and services. And last, there is "Eurocommunism," the 'call in Western Europe today for the develop- ment of socialism, not just in one country, but for the entire region, and for national inde- pendence from all foreign interference. . The Lisbon conferees were convinced that any attempt to reduce foreign domination will threaten both superpowers. As one of the Spanish contingent observed, "Both Russia and America want to freeze the status quo to maintain their respective spheres of influence in Eastern and Western Euope. Therefore, detente was born." . . ? WASHINGTON POST 5 AUG 1976 ' They were just as convinced that there would be reprisals, particularly from the United States, if left-wing governments as- sume power. Remembering Allende's Chile, they fear that the United States would with- hold credit, boycott their exports and deny them crucial raw materials and agricultural products. And since the Lisbon conferees con- tend that no single country could withstand this pressure alone, Eurocommunism becomes for them the prescription for survival. At the same time, many European leftists think they must nurture new relationships with third-world producers of raw materials, including bilateral trade agreements by-pass- ing multinational corporations. The agree.; ments would benefit the producers, they say; , through favorable terms of trade and politi.:,' cally, too, since in these countries, the tug to- wards independence is intense. Independence, Western European style; also would mean dissolving ties with NATOV: since the goal is no alignrnents, either. with the East or West. But the leftists gathered in Lisbon agreed that too quick a rupture would mean retaliation. They suggested a *plan fer gradual disengagement, following the French and Greek models; both countries now have only formal membership, having decreased their financial support, ended participation in military maneuvers and closed bases. Given all of the difficulties and the varying conditions in different countries, is the "tran- sition to socialism" imminent in Europe? Not yet; premature to talk of it, the leftists meet- ing in Lisbon agreed. But they added that is possible to think seriously of it. "The key lies in the alliances," a Portuguese remarked, "and until now, the only successful coalitions have been among the right. , ! "A hundred years ago," he added, "Kail% Marx said that without practice, there is no theory. Perhaps the two will come together, at last." , Visa Policy uzzles Communists Italian Cases Demonstrate Complexities, Contradictions By Sari Gilbert ,awarded key positions in the Italian .,;.; , ; ? societal to The Washington Pest . Parliament and are now about to give r?::,, ROME ? Two years ago When Italo - essential parliamentary support to the new minority government formed by 'Itisolera, . a top Italian urbanologist the ruling Christian Democrats. . .with leftist sympathies, returned from . brief visit to the United States he I received a phone call from the Amen- can consulate here asking him to pay :.a call. , "While you were in the U.B.," he was told, "we received information that contrary tt, the statements on your visa application, you are a mem- ..ber of the Italian Communist Party. insolera, author of a well-known ?isttidy of ? modern Rome, and a city- , planning consultant for several Ital- :Ian towns with leftist administrations, - told the U.S. official he was not a member of the party and that how he :voted was no one's business. Although the consul he spoke with, from whom he never heard again, ,-promised to investigate further, his visa was stamped with a huge "cancelled," causing him, Insolera said, "acute embarrassment" every time he shows his passport to cross the border into Switzerland where he teaches at the University of Geneva. out of 110 visa applicants who were ; The case was never publicized and " declared ineligible during the last 18 months because of ?Communist affilia- tions were later granted waivers. . Their visas, issued after they sub- mitted a rough itinerary, did not per- mit the usual multiple entries and were generally limited to short periods. Other Communists, aware that Italy does not require visas from its Ameri- "It's the same problem we've long can visitors, have found -U.S. ques- had in Latin America, where almost timis regarding their political affilia- anyone of cultural importance has tions offensive. They note that the past or present relations with the far American law in no way restricts neo- 'left," a U.S. official said earlier this fascist party members. -year. U.S. officials here make it clear that ? To another Western diplomat, the their job is to implement the 1952 Mc- 'current U.S. visa policy, based on a Carrell Act provisions on political In- 1952 act of Congress, is "particularly eligibility. ? ' absurd" in Italy where the Commu- ? But the State-De-pertinent has some 'lists control more than a third of the discretion that has enabled it to mod- 'United States presidency is up for popular vote, , have recently,. been ify the original spirit of the law. and. ,grabs."? ? ?. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 27 The State Department is currently considering a formal request last spring .by the party's daily newspaper, Unita, to open a permanent bureau in the United States, Visa refusals in 1975 to Giorgio Napolitano, a ranking Communist leader invited to lecture by several American universities, and to the par- ty's chief international affairs expert, Sergio Segre, who had been scheduled to attend an academic conference on Italy, subjected U.S. policy to ridicule here and strengthened misconceptions among Italians as to just what that policy is. A sampling of opinion of young Communist professionals who fre- quently travel indicated that many be- lieve the U.S. policy now is the same as it was at the height of the Cold War. This belief appears, to have led many Italian Communists to forego visits or to lie on their applications. According to figures supplied by the U.S. consulate in Rome, however, 106 Is not typical. But it points up the complexities. and contradictions of current American visa policy toward Communists in a Western country like 'Italy, a U.S. ally. where 1.7 million cit- izens belong to the party and another '10 million voted for it in recent gen- ? gral elections. which could permit 'other changes in the future. According to one source, at least 10 years ago the State Department told its representatives abroad that mere membership in a communist organiza- tion was not automatically sufficient for the denial of a waiver. ? U.S. Consul General Normand Red- den said, "We have nothing against any party member with a. valid reason to visit our country." Redden speci, ..fled, however, -that. activities falling under the category . of "party busi- ness" would not be considered valid reasons for visiting and that low-level Communists would probably find it easier to et a visa than. important party leaders, would: Embassy and State Department o1fi cials have tended to be particularly ,cautious on applications of prominent , Communists such as Napolitano and Segre because the Italian. leftist press tends to interpret, such events as sig- nificant changes in American policy. When Segre finally did get a visa at the end of last year, it was for an or- ganized visit by an all-Party Italian parliamentary delegation :that had no .political implications. ? ? State Department caution is 'likely to follow the Unita application too. While newspapers from Communist ruled Soviet bloc countries already are allowed to have bureaus in the United .States, the opening of a per- manent bureau by a non-Soviet bloc Communist news Organ would be given a 'broad political Interpretation in Italy, where the Communists ap- pear well aware that U.S. "recogni- tion" could greatly enhance their legitimacy. . "In addition." said one. Western source, "the Communists seem to have a penchant for broaching things at the wrong time." He pointed out that the 1975 Napolitano visa request had come in the middle of an - Italian election campaign, while the Unita ap- plication "has been made .when .the Approved For Release 2001108108: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 SUNDAY TIMES, London 1 August 1976 Italy's Co from the Godfrey Hodgson analyses Italy's latest government. FOR THE THIRTY-NINTH time in the 33 years since the col- lapse of fascism, a new Christian Democratic prime minister has taken office in Italy. There are still no Communist ministers in the government headed by Giulio Andreotti, which was sworn in on Friday. Yet in several specific ways the events of the past 10 days, lead- ing up to the formation of the Andreotti government, do mark a historic advance in the status of the Italian Communist Party. What has happened, in a single phrase, is that the Communists have escaped from the political ghetto they have inhabited since the liberation of Italy 30 years ago. The first measure of the change that has taken place is a very simple one. For the first time, the Communists are no longer in opposition. The reason for this is that the Andreotti government?and this, too, for the first time in the 'history of the Italian Republic?was formed without a majority in parliament. The 263 Christian Democratic members elected to parliament on June 20 fall well short of a majority of the 630 members. In the past, a similar lack of a majority has not stopped succes- sive Christian Democrats from forming governments. But in each case they have lined up, before going to parliament for a vote of confidence, enough votes to be sure of winning. ? Andreotti has been unable to do this. He will, therefore, go before the Senate on Wednesday, and before the Chamber of Deputies on Monday week, to ask for the votes of confidence without which his government will oe stillborn, supported only by les own Christian Democrats. He will have to rely on the 227 Communist members of parlia- ment to abstain. While, in accordance with the traditional subtlety of Italian politics, Andreotti 'has not openly asked the Communists to abstain, and the Communists have not openly promised to do so, the fact that a government has been sworn in can be taken as proof that in his several rounds of " consultation " with Communist leader Enrico Berlinguer, Andre- otti has got the assurance he needs that the Communists will abstain. It can be taken as equally certain that the Com- munists will extract a high political price for this curious, Indirect, but vital support. Some of the details of this price were spelled out in an Interview in the Corriere della Sera 10 days ago by a Com- munist leader, Senator Gerardo Chiaromente. The Communists were asking to be consulted on a much broader range of issues than the economic programme of recovery which, everyone has agreed (or many months, can be carried out only with their ists esca e 1 g eft support and with that of their - preponderant influence in the trade unions. The Communists now want a new broom to sweep Christian Democratic appointees out of the nationalised industries; they want fascist sympathisers re- moved from the police and secret services; they want administrative reforms; - and- they want a voice in foreign policy. In a word, the price of their abstention is that -the govern- ment should take account of their views on all major issues. And whatever subtle indiree- tions may have been exchanged in the 'conversations between Andreotti and Berlinguer, this is what Andreotti must have promised to do. At first glance, it is not obvious from the electoral arithmetic why the abstention of the Communists (who won 34 per cent of the vote on June 20, -against Z8 per cent for the Christian Democrats) is neees. sary for a government to be ? formed. The 'explanation lies in the- travails of the third biggest party, the Socialist Party. In theory the abstention of the 57 Socialist members of parliament would be enough. - But the Socialist Party is deeply scarred and divided by the events of the past six months. It was they who preci- pitated the prolonged political crisis whicih led to the election, when their leader, Francesco dc? Martino, abruptly pulled out of a coalition with the Christian Democrats, then led by Aldo Moro as prime minister. The election was catastrophic for them, as -it was for the other minor parties. The Socialists had counted on winning 15 per cent of the vote: they failed to win 10 per cent. Two weeks ago, at the luxurious Midas Palace hotel on the outskirts of Rome, a palace revolution inside the central committee of the Social- ist Party overthrew de Martino and replaced him with a young; strongly anti-Communist Social- ist leader from Milan, Bettine Craxi. In time, it is quite possible that Craxi means to bring the party back into alliance with the Christian Democrats. His chief backer is the powerful Calabrian leader, Giacomo Mancini, and Mancini is known to be a close friend, across the political trenches, will Andre- otti. There is speculation that Andreotti counts on Socialist support after a special Socialist congress in the. autumn. But -for the time being, it was simply impossible for Craxl and the new leadership, with the 'rank and file of the party blam- ing their electoral collapse on more than a decade of " Centre- Left " alliance between Socialists and Christian Democrats, to be overbid by the Communists. The Socialists could pet allow a Christian Democratic govern- ment to be formed by abstaining if the Communists voted against. That is why Communist absten- tion was necessary before a government could be formed. The Socialists are not the only minor party whose weakness has proved to be a problem for the Christian Democrats. ? ? When I talked with Giovanni Galloni, one of the vice- secretaries of the Christian Democratic party, 10 days ago, 'he told me confidently that Andreotti would be able to put together a parliamentary majority: "Only a few votese, he said, "but enough." . ? Plans upset Within 48 hours the Christian. Democrat calculations were upset. First Giuse-ppe Saragat, the former President of the Republic who leads the Social Democratic party, with only 15 me in b ers -of -parliament, announced that he and his party could only at best abstain, and. certainly not support Andreotti. Within hours, the Republican Party, whose besVknown leader is Ugo LaMalfa, took the same position on behalf of its 11 members of parliament. What had happened, it is now. clear, was that all the minor parties?Socialists, Social Democrats, Republicans and. Liberals?had done so badly in' the elections that they simplyt could not afford to be seen by their -remaining supporters to be taken for granted by the Christian Democrats. ? The Communists have ins creased their influence in ano- ther practical way. They will be playing both a more important and a more -positive part in thq work of this new parliament than, in any of its six predecessors. . ? For the first time a Conte munist--Pietro Ingrao--evill be the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies. And for the first time no fewer than seven of the par.; liamentary committees -which shape and draft legislation will be chaired by Communists. ? ; The " historic compromise ') between the Marxist and ?Catlin:. lie forces in Italian life, which the Communists propose and the Christian Democrats say pub-. liely they can never accept, is not yet a reality. But the constie tution of the new parliament and the situation of the new government bring It unmista:le ,ably closer. 28 NEW YORK TIMES 18 Aug. 1976 ? NEW ROME MAYOR' IWANTS VATICAN TIE, Communist-Backed Scholar 'Stresses Preservation of i City's Cultural Heritage I By STEVEN ROBERTS Special to The New York Times Rome, Aug. 14 ? Rome's City Hall is on the Campidoglio, a magnificent public square de- signed -by Machelangelo. Across the Tiber River stands the Vati- can, home of the Sistine Chapel and other great works by the same master. "Some distance separates 1.1," said Prof. Giulio Carlo Argan, the city's new Mayor. "But the same genius should link us together." Professor Argan was chosen this week as Rome's first Com- munist-baeked Mayor, and his comments indicate the party's conciliatory approach. The Com- munists want to maintain ties to the Roman Catholic church, in part because these two pow- erful forces spring from the same soil and share the same cultural heritage. ? Before the City Council elec-1 Pons in June, the church cam- paigned strenuously against the Communists and warned that Rome under Communist rule Would become "a city without God." But the Communists led the balloting with 35.5 percent, While the Christian Democrats, who had governed the city con- tinuously since World War II, trailed with 33.1 percent. . . After weeks of negotiation the Socialists and Social Demos Crats agreed to join the Com- munists in a governing coali- tion. But since the three parties held only 39 seats in the 80- member council, they needed a promise from the three Repub- lican members to abstain from :Voting. Conciliatory Stand Taken ' Some analysts here feel that: this 'leftist front could . he al model for future goveenmentsl on the national level, but the Communists did not press their advantage. In a surprise move they agreed to name Professor Argan, who ran as an independ- ent on the Communist ,slate, father than one of their own party stalwarts. ; The outcome of the election here meant that the Commu- nists now control every major city on the Italian mainland. In mane places they have won praise for practical problem- solving instead of ideological crusades, and in an interview this week Professor Argan struck a similar note. ' As a professor of art history at the University of Rome, the new Mayor is deep- ly concrned with protecting the priceless monuments in the hestoric central city. But this, problem, he said, cannot be separated from the very mod- ens maladies afflicting the city overcrowding, noise, polite Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 ion. . . ? "Rome has spread like an oil plick, mainly because of land speculation," he asserted. "The .historic center is crushed under the weight of the new urban ptructures. They are the real dangers hovering over Rome." City Deep in Debt Yet witll all the recent build- - ing, about 600,000 of Rome's 3 million people lack adequate housing. At the same time, the City has accumulated a huge debt of about $5 billion. , Professor Argan offered no panaceas, but he did offer an 4pproach. "Sobriety, correct- ness, seriousness and applica- tion of the law perhaps will not create much excitement at first, but we are not looking for excitement," he said. "We are looking to administer con 2:ectly." The new Mayor is 67 years old, a serious man with a warm, slow smile that eventually il- luminates his whole face.. A few samples of the city's artis- tic and religious heritage hung On the walls of his office: a Rubens portrait of Saint Fran- cis, Francesco Bassano's picture of the Annunciation. :4 A Teacher for 40 Years A A native of Turin, Professor Argan has been teaching art history for more than 40 years and enjoys a high reputation among both students and schol- ars. Asked why he had taken such a demanding job as the mayoralty, at a time when most Then would be contemplating retirement, he answered: "Building speculators are the enemy of the city, and the Com- munists are the enemy of the speculators." The mayor describes himself is a friend and disciple of Lewis Mumford, the urban critic and planner, whose works, in- clude "The Culture of Cities." -711 'THE NEW YORK TIMES, WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 18, 1976' Marxist Road to Rome By C. L. Sulzberger ATLANTA ? The Italian people, whose wide variety, of genius has never included a talent for self-govern- ment since old Roman days, have now devised an extraordinary ramshackle system to help their nation out of its terrible crisis. This is no less than the formation of a government which excludes the Communist Party from all its ministries but which depends wholly upon at least tacit Communist support to get anything at all done. Only with the backing of those they openly distrust can the Christian Democrats succeed in climbing out of an abyss of inflation, unemployment, -corruption, maladministration and so- cial unrest. Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti is thus in the peculiar posi- tion of holding the Communists away while implementing an emergency plan of such a nature that he can count on those same Communists to support it. The Communists have not only escaped from the political ghetto in which the Christian Democrats had for so long sought to pen them but they have already obtained enormous pro- vincial and municipal power as well as national prestige and parliamentary influence. One of their members is president of the lower house; seven committees :in the Senate and Chamber of De- .puties have Communist chairmen. But, excluded from a cabinet relying on their support, they will get credit for its successes while escaping blame for its failures. Over thirty years the Communists have improved their electoral position' by moving steadily upward from 18.9 percent of the vote to 34.4 percent in June while the Christian Democrats slid from a high of 48.5 percent in ? 1948 to 38.7 percent this year. Enrico Berlinguer, the brilliant party leader, has been saying for months: "The Communist question can no longer be avoided. . . . The Italy of today cannot be governed without the : Italian Communist party." It seems inevitable that some of Berlinguer's ; followers will eventually be given at least secondary posts in a coalition government based upon his vaunted formula, the "historical compromise." Such a compromise, as he sees it, would unite all (except neo-Fascist) political factions in a "national" gov- ernment, avoiding an open clash be- tween right-wing and left-wing forces or the kind of left-alliance cabinet . that would surely split Italy into two' warring camps and very likely repeat the Chilean tragedy. ? There is sharp division among ' Western leaders about the conse- quences of such an inclusive coalition government. Many agree with Alek- sa ndr Sol zhenit syn, who told me during the course of a very lengthy %Tmversatinn try, ly! was convinced Italy's Communists would ape the Soviet Union's and that this "is pre- dictable in any and all Communist revolutions: one thing is said before gaining power and another thing is done afterward. "Before the [Bolshevik] revolution Lenin made many, many promises. He promised freedom of movement for everyone, an absence of censorship, peasant ownership of land, direct workers' control of industry." Sol- zhenitsyn stresses that not a single one of these pledges was honored, and concludes: "The West deceives itself by think- ing that this dictatorship stems from Russia's own past and that therefore the West is immune to the disease FOREIGN AFFAIRS 'Berlinguer is being logical when he insists his party wishes to continue Italy's membership in NATO.' because its awn heritage is different. . . I don't believe the statements of the French or Italian Communist Parties concerning their intentions. One must not forget that Lenin him- self always used golden words before coming to power. But once he came to power he showed that he had a well- organized dictatorship run by an iron fist." I have boundless admiration for Solzhenitsyn's geological courage and immense respect for his literary gifts but I think that because of his suffer- ing and his experience only with the Soviet form of communism his views are oversimplified. Personally, I have been impressed in long talks with Berlinguer and it seems to me he is being logical when he insists his party wishes at present to continue Italy's membership in NATO. Why is this logical, since NATO is patently a protective alliance aimed at only one principal adversary, the Communist Soviet Union? The reason is that Berlinguer not . only believes in developing a differ- ent form of socialism?with a demo- cratic guarantees?in his country but also recognizes the very real pos- sibility of a Soviet or pro-Soviet putsch in neighboring Yugoslavia some time after Tito's death. And Berlinguer, in 1976, just like Tito in 1948, doesn't fancy the idea of a Soviet or Soviet-puppet neighbor for the independent Italy whose inde- ? pendent future he now, in one or an- other way, is helping to plan. 29 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 MANCHESTER GUARDIAN 2 August 1976 The Guardian has been in dispute with the Indian government over , its coverage of the sub-continent since Mrs Gandhi declared the state of emergency last year. ,Brian Brooks, who has witnessed from Delhi many of the events of the past 13 months, gives his findings DR the state of the country. RESIDENTS of the old city of Delhi woke up on June 26 to 'find a strange spectacle. The Indian national flag fluttered from .many lamp posts, and the elegant trico- lour was 'found .pasted on ;walls of schools and temples. A slogan had been . scrawled on the wall of a government building barely 200 yards from Akashvani Bhavan which houses the ? government-owned' .A11 India- Radio : " Down with the ,Emergency ! We will regain. our freedom !" . Boys and girls emerged from the old city's bylanes shouting freedom slogans. By.. 10 am the protest against the. state of national emergency, a year old on that day, was over. Not more than three hundred people were arrested in the capital. Reports from Gujarat State; which was ruled by the five- party opposition United Front party, until March 31, said about -2.500 passive resisters were arrested on the first anniversary of the emer- gency. Calcutta and Bombay, the nation's two biggest cities, almost ignored the anniver- sary. Though underground sources claim that upwards of 35.000 anti-government demonstrators were arrested all over the country, qualified .observers. say that not more than. 10,000 fresh dissidents have joined the estimated ,125,000 held since June last year when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi sent the world's largest democracy to prison. Mrs Gandhi and her advisers can take little com- fort from the almost total col- lapse of the opposition's plans to mount an impressive nation-wide protest on June 26. When underground leaflets began to appear in early May urging the people. to n demonstrate your will to be free." the Government took extraordinary precau- tions to quell any possible manifestations of public anger. Some 5,000 additional policemen were moved into- the capital from the adjoin- ing states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pra- desh. And hundreds of people suspected to be organising the June 26 pro- lest were arrested all over the country. . ." All these precautions were totally unnecessary," said a prominent journalist. "Mrs Gandhi had already crushed all posSible sources of resistance. And with the arrest of George Fernandez ?only a few days before the anniversary the underground was totally finished." Mr Fer- nandez, . the -top-ranking leader .of the Socialist Party,- had evaded arrest success- fully for almost a year. It was reported that he was betrayed by a party worker from Bihar who was working both for the police -and pro- Moscow Communist Party of India (CPI). The Government had set up a special 300-man. police squad to hunt Mr Fer-1 nandez down, and a shoot-at -sight order was issued last August. The underground could operate with some effect so long as the states of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu were in the. hands of opposition parties. N o w, even clandestine leaflets are rarely to be seen. A senior official of the Government's Press Informa- tion 'Bureau told me. "We used to receive at least two leaflets a week all these months. At one stage, .as many as 400 underground sheets were being produced from Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. The Home Minister himself has admitted in Par- liament that in Delhi alone 7,000 people were arrested for producing anti-Govern- ment literature. All that is finished now. The Empress reigns supreme !" Most oflicials of the Lok Sangarsh Sainiti or People's Committtee For Struggle, which has been conducting the underground passive resistance ?movement, are In prison. One of the. dozen or ?so organisers still free told me recently in Madhya Pra- desh State that about 1,500 ? underground' workers- -have 'fled to 'Nepal. . 'Reports from Katmandu Say that the Nepalese Gov- r lernment h a s reieated 'appeals from the Indian police to arrest and extern 'members of the Indian -underground. This is not so much because King Biren- -.dra has become a lover of democracy but , because a 'sizeable- number of his own political enemies have found shelter in India. The Indian Government is believed to have told Katmandu that it, , is prepared for an " exchange" of underground political workers but the Nepalese are apparentU reluctant to forego this valua- . ble leverage. A source close to the Nepa- lese embassy said that Kat- mandu will never hand over to the Indian members of ? the Rashtriya Swayam Sangh (RSS), a Hindu right-wing body, banned by the Gandhi regime shortly after the pro- mulgation of the emergency. The Nepalese royal family .has been the traditional patrons of the RSS which regards Nepal as the only surviving Hindu monarchy in the King Birendra's father used to attend RSS ral- lies in various parts of India, causing considerable embar- rassment to the late Prime Minister Nehru. "The RSS continues to be active all over India," Brah- manand Reddy, the Indian Home Minister, said recently. ." It has even extended ittr tentacles to far-off Kerala in the south... The capacity of the RSS for violent mischief is unlimited. We must be on our guard." But observers say that Mr Reddy is deliberately exaggerating the potential"- ' ties of the RSS in order to find another excuse to con- tinue the emergency. No visitor to India can fail to be impressed by the state of law and order. Samachar, ' the new nationalised news agency and the Government's major means of disseminat- ing claims of instant pro- - gresS, said in a long survey on June 26 : " A year of emergency has hatched (sic) a new profile of India, a ? distinrt profile in discipline, dedication and hard work... Never has the nation ? appeared more stable poli- tically and viable economi- cally.... From a fate similar to the one that befell the' 30 'Fourth Republic of France, India was pulled back." The Samachar report then went on to list the " hundred .gains" ranging from land reforms to steel production' and from coal to crime con- . trot and added : "Academi- cians, intellectuals, petty officials, industrial workers, rickshaw pullers, indeed a cross sect-ion, of the natien, told Samachar, 'Let the emergency continue indefinitely !"1 ? That evening a senior reporter of Samachar said to me at the Press Club : "Did you read our survey of the results of the emefgency ? -The whole damned stuff was handed down to Lazarus (Wilfred Lazarus, the Samachar general manager) by the Press Information Bureau. Most of -the claims 'made in the Samachar survey .and other officially- inspired surveys cannot stand even elementary scrutiny. But so severe is the press censorship .that we have to-circulate, and ithe newspapers have to print. what even a school boy. -knows to be exaggerated and false." To find out whether this- Samachar man had a private grouse against the Govern-, ment, I drove to Jaunsar Bawar, some 300 miles from' Delhi. to verify claims that 16,000 \bonded agricultural workers had been freed and Provided with _alternative, jobs. All that T could gather was that only SO of them had found new jobs. Said one former serf: "I was the vir-. tual slave of a landlord for' 30 years. He paid me hardly ?25 for a whole year. But he also provided my 'family with free' food. Now. I am a free man but can't find a job." The Indian Express. the country's largest newspaper chain, reported from the south Indian state of Kar- nataka that 10 freed bonded slaves of Honganur village near the state capital "have opted for bondage again rather than enjoy the poverty, of freedom." Later, a junior official of the censor's office rang up a senior editor of the Express to give him a piece of friendly advice,. "Look," he said. "we have no desire to stifle investiga- tive journalism. But this kind Of sensation-mongering is irresponsible." When . the editor said that the report was based on authentic evi- dence. the official .sharply retorted: -ft is not enough for a report to be fraction' Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIAIRDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 ? ally accurate. It must be constructive. " Feudal bullies still rule Uttar Pradesh villages," says, a headline in New Age, official organ of the Mus- covite Communists. The CPI, which claims to he an .enthusiastic supporter of Mrs Gandhi's New Economic Pro- gramme, is making some noise about what it calls "highly exaggerated" claims by " government officials at the lower levels." About the claim that tens of thousands of acres have. been distri- buted to the landless, Mr Satyapal Deng, leader of the CPI . group in the Punjab ,stete legislature, has this to 'say: "In about three thou- sand villages, that is in a about 25 per cent-of the total number of villages in the state, not a single person has - been sanctioned any plot." Mainstream, a pro-CPI weekly, reported that in two ?.Uttar Pradesh hamlets gross illegality has been detected in land distribution under the new economic pro- gramme. It said that local ?? bosses are demanding money and liquor from Harijans (so- called Untouchables) before , allotting government land to :them.. Ironically, pro-CPI journals in India are being given some, latitude by the censors 'because the party is in favour of even stronger measures to suppress the non-Communist opposition, and New Delhi !does not wish to rub the Rus- sians on the wrong side. But a very knowledgeable MP said that during her recent trip to Moscow Mrs Gandhi complained bitterly to. Mr Brezhnev that the CPI is only trying to exploit the. emer- gency for its own ends. i Sanjay Gandhi, ? the Prime 'Minister's ambitious and authoritarian son, has openly warned the CPI "not to indulge in any dirty tricks ;at this time." , A member of the New ,Delhi bureau of Blitz, the 'mass circulation, Bombay' ?weekly edited by Kusi Karen- jia, a personal . friend of Mrs Gandhi, said : " My paper is 'a supporter ,of the emer- gency. But if we only sing the praises of the Govern- - ment, what will our readers. think of us ? Already the average Indian thinks that the Government has nationa- lised the entire press." Whatever its lapses in Other areas of administration,' the Indian Government has made news management a . 'thoroughly efficient opera- tion. Said *one editor : Mrs? ' Gandhi will order an election once she has completely sup- pressed the press. Th.2re are still some lingering dissidents in the. journalistic frater- nity." Information Minister. Vaidya Charan Shukla recently .aid in Srinagar : "We have no desire to con- trol the press." But with the ' help of sonic pro-Government. editors. popularly known as chrmehas (stoonn) he is trying to foist a " of conduct " an newspapers. In his weekly column, Mr V. K. Narasimhan, chief editor of the Indian Express and one of India's few genuinely heave editors, asked : " Is it THE NEW YORK TIMES, WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 18, 1976 Indian Paper's rndependece Threatened By HENRY KAMM Special to The New York Times CALCUTTA, India ? The Statesman, the last of India's English -language nationl dai- lies not yet completely domi- nated by the Govenment, is under intense Government pres- sure. ? A court hearing scheduled for New Delhi on Aug. 20 may put the presses of the newspaper's New Delhi edition under Gov- ernment control. The news- paper's corporate headquarters and largest edition are here. The case is another in a series of Government moves since Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's declaration of a state of emer- gency last year threatening The Statesman's independence. It involves an order by the Gov- ernment for the newspaper to show cause why its presses should not be forfeited because they served to print a recently closed monthly. The monthly, Seminar, which ceased publica- tion last month rather than ac- cept a Government order to submit itself to censorship be- fore publication, had no con- nection with The Statesman. It was printed on the newspaper's presses on a commercial basis. Neither The Statesman nor Seminar had had any warning before last month's censorship order. The order has not been violated since no issue of the magazine was printed follow- ing it. ? Nonetheless, copies of the show-cause order were present- ed individually to the retired former chief justice of India, S. R. Das, who is chairman of t? he newspaper's board of direc- tors, and to each board mem- ber. The Statesman will contest the Government order, as it has the previous moves against it. They involved attempts by the Government to gain control of the newspaper through legal moves. The first was an allegation that The Statesman ? had misused its newsprint. The sec- ond was a charge that the newspaper had wrongfully ac- quired majority control over a book-publishing concern. some years ago. The third was confis- cation of the passport of the newspaper's managing director, C. R. Irani, when he returned from a session of. the Asian Press Institute in Hong Kong. In the first two, the news- paper sought in ,the high court of the state of West Bengal to block the orders, contending that the legal moves were part of a Government design to gain control of the newspaper. The orders were issuedand the Government has not moved to have them rescinded. The Statesman believes that the Government is not prepared to fight the cases on the freedom- of-the-press issue. Statesman Stands Alone ? The newspaper's briefs al- leged, with names, dates and places, a number of Govern- ment attempts to put pressure on The Statesman to fall into line. The contentions involve harassment in systematically delaying publication of the paper through censorship ac- tions, direct demands to change news policy by the Information Minister, V.C. Shukla, and other officials, pressure on stockholders, and Government attempts to influence appoint- ments of news executives. The other Englisle-language, an accident that nowhere in the code does the word ' free- dom ' appear? " ? According to one Bombay editor, censorship has noti only become stricter each' passing day but arbitrary and absurd. He gave one recent example. Vinod Rau, the local censor, rang him up one Morning to say .that henchforth Sanjay Gandhi should, not be referred to as the -Youth Congress ?Leader, the: young man's popular designation. .hitherto., " Why ? asked the., ..editor in sheer astonishment. Has Sanjay _ceased to, young or has he. left the Con- gress ? " The genial Mr Ran,, a former editor of the Indian' Express, replied : "I do not know why ? New Delhi has issued this order. But mya suspicion is that Sanjay has now become Sc 'famous that he does not need any desig- nation.'' The Government ordered a blackout of the recent- presa, conference of Mr Jaya prakash Narayan, Mrs Gandhi's chief political adversary, ?who was freed after lour months in solitary, confinement, The conference was called to announce the formation of a United Oppo- sition Party to light the next election. if and when it is hale. But opposition poll- ticians who are still free ask built up ?when newspapers are forbidden to print a; word about', its preparatory work. Opposition MPs strongly. deny Mrs Gandhi's recent charge that elections cannot be held because " the opposi- tion is still thinking in terms of violence and chaos." Mr' Narayan is believed to have ? written a. letter to Mrs Gandhi saying that the apposition at no time believed in violent methods, and that she is only. finding new excuses to continue the. emergency. One MP said : " It is ? the' Government which believes in violence. Can torture and harassment of prisoners be justified ? George Fernan- clez's.aged mother has written to President Ahmed describ- ing how one, of her sons was. systmatically tortured in .order to ferret out informa- tion from him about George." national newspapers, which have been the most influential in the country since the coloni- al period, are The Times of India, The Hindustan ? Times, The Indian Express and The Hindu. The Statesman is alone among them in restraining its enthusiasm for Mrs. Gandhi's measures; such enthusiasm has become the uniform standard of the once highly contentious press ? The Statesman is as bound by the rules issued for the In- dian press, which prevent criti- cism of the "emergency" and its sweeping curtailment of civil rights, as are all news- papers. It does not criticize. But its regular reader's find that the paper does ? not go out of its way to praise, as the others do. Hindu Falls Into Line ? Unlike its competitors, more- over, The Statesman does not give front-page prominence to all Government actions, impor- tant or not. The Statesman's, policy is defined as accepting' Government rules on what it, must not print but reserving fort itself the decision of how to present the news it is allowed to publish. Of the other English-language, national newspapers. The.' Hindu, published in Madras, fell' into line quickly. The Times of India was in a difficult situa- tion to resist because the Gov- ernment, as a result of a pre- emergency court action for financial anomalies, .has tempo- rary control over oneethird ofl the newspaper's stock and the I high court in the state of Maha- rashtra, in Bombay, contra's another third. ? : Will elections be held at r71? Many Indiana think that Mrs Gandhi may tall a poll early next year if the economy continues to improve and inflation-control measures are successful on' a long-range basis. But with a good monsoon suddenly becoming uncertain and, prices' of essential articles going up again, there is doubt whether Varuna, the rain God, will favour Mrs Gandhi. But lea.' Indians are pre- pared to agree that the mixt .:.lection can .he free and fair. There is nearemanimity in intellectual circles from ? Kashmir in the north to , Kerala in the far south that ' the ? series of coeetitutional changes the Congress Party has rammed through Perlia- anent and ?thc strangulation of the press ?have. reduced ? democracy. to a inert carica- ture. ApprevedtPOPReleette 2001$08/0?1 CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 APproVed For RefeaS6 2001798/08 :-CIA-RDP77:06432R060-100390003--2 THE WALL STREET JOURNAL, Friday, July 30, 1976 Responsibility and Rhodesia It looks as if Mr. Kissinger's "Lusaka Statement" offering U.S. aid in toppling white-dominated Rhodesia was not just rhetoric. The Congress is now considering bills to put substance to the promises of the Secretary of State. ? Mr. Kissinger proffered Ameri- can economic aid to the "front-line" black African states to recompense them for part of their losses from boycotting Rhodesia. The Interna- tional Security Assistance Act signed into law by President Ford late last month authorized $25 mil- lion each for Zaire and Zambia and another $20 million for "other southern Africa"?a cloyingly in- nocuous way of identifying the avowedly Marxist governments of Angola and Mozambique. While the authorization has passed, the appropriation is another matter. Anti-Communists on the Hill are sticking at supplying funds to Mozambique and Angola. Unfor- tunately, their scruples will proba- bly have little effect; even if they block appropriations in the bills now under consideration, Mr. Kissinger can dip into other pockets for aid to the African Marxists. What is par- ticularly significant about the cur- rent debate on the Hill is that aid to Zaire and Zambia has been almost non-controversial. Of course, these countries are friendly to the U.S., but the earmarking of aid funds for boycott indicates that Congress has accepted Mr. Kissinger's policy of "unrelenting pressure" on Rho- desia. The other part of that pressure? repeal of the Byrd Amendment per- mitting importation of strategically important Rhodesian chrome ? is being held in abeyance until after the Republican Convention. Presi- dent Ford dare not annoy the con- servatives before the nomination. . We wonder if the administra- tion's policy is wise, regardless of one's views of what will happen in Rhodesia. If one believes that the Rhodesian system is likely to hold and will be superior to any candi- date replacement, for the inhabit- tints and-or for the West, then the U.S. has no business trying to de- stroy it. But if one agrees with the pre- Onderance of informed opinion that ? white supremacy in Rhodesia is on the verge of overthrow, then it be- htioves the United States to use its ood offices to ease the travail of transition and to try to promote a replacement regime friendly to U.S. interests. It is difficult to see how Mr. Kis- singer's policy fits into either view. The survival of the settler regime will hardly be affected by U.S. pol- icy, short of direct military inter- vention on either side. Barring ma- jor power intervention, the out- come will depend on the military competence and national will of the Rhodesians. What the U.S. aid will do is lend American moral sup- port to the effort to settle the issue by force. Thus it gives the U.S. a certain responsibility for the out- come, without giving the U.S. a means of influencing it. It is one thing, after all, to ad- vise the white Rhodesians to try to make a deal to remain as a "white tribe" under a black government, but it is a far different matter to give overt assistance to attempts to overturn them. No one, no matter how well advised, can have any credible scenario of what happens to Rhodesia when the Smith regime goes. It could be a successful Ka- tanga with a black government re- lying on white support, or another Kenya where a white community lives comfortably under a stable black government, or another. Congo or Angola. No American presures or prom- ises can assure a favorable out- come. Efforts to buy our way into new nationalist governments and thus exclude Soviet influence have rarely worked. Nor should the U.S. pretend to act as guarantor to a black government's assurances about the future of the white minor- ity, since no one can be sure any given government would be around long enough to enforce such prom- ises. The only direct American in- terest in Rhodesia is that we prefer to buy chromium there rather than from Russia. Whether we do or not will not affect the outcome, nor need it necessarily prevent our buy- ing chromium from any successor regime, which will want to export. Trying to influence the complex- ion of the next government may be a task appropriate for discreet work by our diplomats and intelligence services; we can offer mediation; but we should beware of assuming responsibility for the future of Rho- desia, lest we find ourselves cater- ers to another bloodbath. 32 NEW 18 YES .T" iT97: A SOUTH AFRICA LINK TO ISRAEL GROWS Closer Relations Reported to Include the Delivery of Military Materiel By WILLIAM E. FARRELL Special to The New Y9rk Times JERUSALEM, Aug. 17 ? Is- rael's diplomatic and commer- cial ties to South Africa have increased dramatically in recent months in a strengthened rela- tionship between the two coun- tries that reportedly includes the sale of Israeli-Manufactured :military equipment. While there is little hesitance on the part of Israeli officials to discuss the growing commer- cial trade between the two na? tions, these officials are reluc- tant to discuss the military transactions. Nevertheless, in- formation has been seeping out in various quarters, including the foreign?press and the Israeli radio. These disclosures include the following: clAn Israeli radio report that -Israel is building at its Haifa shipyard two long-range gun- boats armed with sea-to-sea missiles- for the South African navy. Other accounts place the number of boats at six. The 420-ton boats cost about $6 million without armaments. With missiles the cost is esti- mated at $18 million a boat. cReports that about 50 South African naval personnel, on temporary civilian status, are training in the Tel Aviv area to man the missile boats, with the expectation that the first of the vessels will be ready in January. tlUnconfirmed reports that the sales agreement with South Africa includes delivery of up to two dozen Israeli-built Kfir jet planes. diReports that in exchange for South African raw mate- rials, including an estimated one million tbns of coal a year to buoy the Israeli steel indus- try, the Israelis would provide South Africa with advanced military electronic equipment. Israeli officials are loath to discuss the reported military aspects of the exchanges be- tween the two countries be- cause of South Africa's pariah status among many nations and particularly because of criticism expected in the United States from such quarters as the black Congressional caucus and from liberal American- Jewish groups. The Israeli Government has long opposed Prime :-Minister John Vorster's racial policies and any inquiries concerning Israel's current dealings ' with South Africa elicit a re-affirma- tion of that opposition. Mr. Vorster visited Israel in April, the first such visit by a Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Sinith AfricanPrime Minister in 24 years. During his stay, Mr. Vorster told reporters that he had discussions With Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Foreign Minister Yigal Alton dealing with "ways to expand trade, encourage investments, the setting up of joint scientific and cultural ventures and loans for the joint utilization of South African raw materials." At the time, he denied reports of an arms deal. Such reports grew .in in- tensity after Mr. Vorster had toured an Israeli missile boat at a naval base near Sharm El Sheik and after he had visited the Israeli Aircraft Industries plant near Tel Aviv, which manufactures Kfir fighter planes. Foreign Policy Justified Government officials here justify Israel's stepped-up deal- ings with South Africa in a number of ways, including: 41A contention that such deal- ings are consistent with a foreign policy that sanctions diplomacy with any nation wishing to pursue diplomatic relations with Israel. 91A pragmatic rationale based on the country's inflation rate, estimated this year at about 30 percent, and its strong need for foreign currency and raw ma- terials. (1The fact that Arab pressure forced many black African na- tions into severing diplomatic relations with Israel in 1973, including countries in which Israel had made major "good neighbor" gestures over the years. Israeli opponents of the Government's increased deal- ings with South Africa say the policy is a shortsighted one that will seriously impede Israel's efforts to restore the severed relations with black Africa. A contention that declining South Africa's offer of amity might have an adverse affect on that .country's small, gener- ally wealthy, and mostly Zion- ' ist community of 120,000 Jews. , A number of Israeli Govern- ment officials are irked by what they consider to be the special attention being given to the country's dealings with South Africa. They contend that they are being subjected to a double 'standard. Since many other countries, not necessarily en- amored to South Africas' racial policies, also have dealings there. Still oters cite Israel? relative political isolation, saying that the realities of its world posi- tion leave little leeway for lofty moral postures in light of its needs. Two members of the knesset, both of the left, ' recently addressed themselves to the Government's relations with South Africa. - ? Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 WASHINGTON STAR 11) PUG 1375 Frr E By Tony Avirgin Special to The Washington Star ? MAPUTO, Mozambique ? There is a belief throughout Africa, a legacy of the colonial past with its inevitable racism, that says black Afri- cans by their very nature can never be Commu- nists. The rulers of Mozambique are out to prove this belief wrong. They are creating a revolutionary state right on the borders of white minority-ruled Rhodesia and South Africa. Since the Mozambique Liberation Front (Freli- mo) came to power a little over a year ago, the watchword has been "aluta continua" (the strug- gle continues). Mozambique still is on a war footing, but the fight now is to achieve economic independence, crush the bourgeoisie and create a "workers' and peasants' state." LIGHT POLES on the wide boulevards in Mapu- to ? the new name for Mozambique's capital ? used to carry beer signs. Now they support color- ful banners declaring war on capitalism, imperial- ism and racism. Waiters no longer refer to customers as "sir" or "madame." Everyone now is "comrada." But the Mozambican revolution gees far deeper. The plan is to use as a model for the entire coun- try the "liberated zones," areas that Were controlled by Frelimo during the war against Portugal. They are in the north and center of the country, and Frelimo wants to spread their influ- ence to the south and to the cities. In the liberated zones people live an egalitarian, puritanical work-centered existence. Villagers till the fields for the benefit of all. Literacy and health are stressed as a part of every person's revolu- tionary duty. Progress has been made in changing the role of women from that of traditional African society. FRELIMO officials say one of their big concerns just now is maintaining the integrity of these liberated zones, that they are in danger of being "polluted" through the return of more than 50,000 refugees who had fled to Tanzania and Zambia. Radicalization and mobilization of the population outside the liberated zones is another major con- cern. The long-range plan was that this would be accomplished over a period of years as the war against Portugal spread to include the entire country. But the 1974 coup in Portugal that toppled Lis- bon's right-wing government cleared the way for a quicker end to the war. Frelimo found itself in possession of something it hadn't sought, the high- rise urban centers that Frelimo President Samora Machel recently described as "the haven of the bourgeoisie." In February. the Frelimo central committee de- clared the nationalization of all rented and aban- doned properties. The decree said compensation would go only to those who had not recovered their original investment in rent. ' OFFICIALS still are not sure exactly what they nationalized. A survey team has been going from house to house in Maputo (formerly Lourenco Marques) to determine which properties had been abandoned and which had been rented. Tenants remain, but their rent now goes to the state. Other nationalizations in the first year of inde- pendence covered all land, all schools, hospitals and clinics, as well as the banning of private prac- tice of medicine and law and of funeral parlors, which Machel said practice "commerce in death." The foundation of Frelimo's politicization cam- paign is a vast network of "groupos dinamiza- dores" (dynamizing groups) in neighborhoods, vil- lages and work places. Every citizen is encouraged to attend. The groups serve multiple functions, including the political education, implementation of party directives and such practical matters as making sure streets are kept clean. FRELIMO IS engaged in "class warfare," a struggle that inevitably will result in the aliena-. tion of previously privileged segments of the popu- lation. White residents of Mozambique were given the option of taking Mozambican or Portuguese citi- zenship. Ninety percent of the 200,000 whites left rather than accept the loss of privilege demanded by Frelimo. Observers believe about half of the 20,000 re- maining will leave eventually, but they are different from those who fled earlier, who often were outright racists and staunch anti-Commu- nists. One young man who will leave for Portugal shortly said, "I really think that what Frelimo is doing is the best thing for this country. I wanted to help but I found that I had been raised in too privi- leged a life. I found that I wasn't strong enough to change, so its best that I leave." Black opponents of Frelimo who did not flee, in- cluding several thousand former members of Portugal's colonial army, now are in "re-educa- tion" camps in the countryside. WASHINGTONPOST 3 JUL 1976 ? State' Dep a rtm en t spokesman Robert L.- Pun- - seth said yesterday that the department "categorically denies"- a,- report in The ...Washington Post yesterday that the United States,. Brit. am And Kenya are cooperat- ing to overturn the Uganda .government of President Idi Amin. Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Apiar-oved- For-Release- 2001 /08/08--: .CIA-RDP77430432ROG04003900113:2 "-- - log 2Inge1et ZEriting Thurs., August 1Z 1976 14p1p!ne: opm 44 at , ? (nig' nalism ec in More ost of OM lies With U.S. BY JACQUES LESLIE Times Staff Writer S 11ANTLA?Por many years after the Philippines was - 'granted independence in 1946, the island nation almost slavishly aped the policies of its former colonial master, the United States. During that period a leading Filipino historian warned: *We are equating America's national interest with ours .... It is. . . easy to persuade us into believing that some iaction which is best for America is actually best for us." . Philippine foreign policy was so determinedly anti-Com- Inunist, for example, that the nation did not even estab- lish diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union until two months ago. When the United States confronted the So- viet Union and Cuba in the 1962 missile crisis, the Philip' ines promptly suspended relations with Cuba. . ... : . In recent years, however, many Filipinos have begun to ille .. stion this unbending pro-Washington attitude. The as- sertion of Philippine nationalism at the expense of Ameri- can interests always was favored by a minority of Filipino ;politicians known as "nationalists." Given impetus by the ;collapse of pro-American governments in Indochina last 1year, the nationalists' objectives are becoming more and ?; tniore popular.. . President Ferdinand E. Marcos increasingly appeals to nationalist sentiment. His most dramatic move was to an- nounce more than a year ago that the United States would have to renegotiate the agreement that allowed it to operate two Major military bases here rent-free. Nego- tiations for a new bases pact have been -under way since June 15 without any firm results. ? . , A year ago, Marcos went to Peking to establish I cliplo- clemned big-power hegemony in Asia. The Philippines last trnatie relations with China, and at the same time con-. iroonth agreed on relations. with a unified Vietnam, a na- tion which 'Wa.shington refuses to recognize. . . In economic policy, the disenchantment which some Fit-, I Spinos feel toward the United States was reflected in the . lapse in 1974 of the Laurel-Langley agreement that had ' ' been in effect since Philippine independence. It was based ! on the assumption that since the Philippine economy im- mediately after independence was still dependent on the ,United States, Philippine exports would be given prefer.. i,ential treatment in America in return for lucrative term for U.S. investment in the Philippines. s . Itilanir Filipinos came to resent the benefits offered U.S. Snvestors here, and the United States did not object when .no effort was made to renew the agreement before its ex- !piration in 1974. At the same time, the Philippine Supreme Court pro yoked the ire of some U.S. investors by ruling that the 'lapse of the Laurel-Langley agreement meant that its provisions retroactively had no validity. To U.S. investors who had bought land based on Laur- el7Langley's assurance that they could never be forced tq divest, this was a telling blow. The Supreme Court deci- ' Eton required the investors to sell their land. - , Since then the Marcos government has increasingly pressured foreign investors to accept lower percentages of ownership in business. "The whole tenor here has been of a more nationalistic !application of 'economic policy," a Western economist said. Opposition politicians here are still skeptical about the depth of l?lareos' commitment to nationalist aims. "Since 'last year, when he went to Red China, he has tried to preempt all the nationalist issues, here," said an opposition Politician who asked not to be identified. "But what 'makes it very clearly superficial is that he keeps on beg- ging for foreignhivestment and leans." In 1975, the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank approved loans to the Philippines worth $200 mil- ! lion. US. economic aid in fiscal 1976 was $81 million, and American AID planners are asking Congress for a $106 million appropriation in fiscal 1977. American investment in the Philippines is estimated at $1.5 billion. Growing Phillipine preoccupation with nationalism seems to indicate a feeling that decades of cultural dotni- nation by the United States have deprived the nation of pride in its culture. Renato Constantino, professor at the University of the Philippines, wrote in a sardonic essay that the Filipino:? ? "Has shown his discriminating taste by being receptive only to American culture, selecting for avid consumption such outstanding American contributions as cowboy mo- vies, horror pictures, comics, rock and roll, soapbox der- bies, beauty contests, teen-age idiosyncrasies, advertising . , jingles, cocktail parties, and soft drinks." The depth of American inflence is apparent even in the 'countryside surrounding Manila, where the lush, green land is punctuated with Pepsi-Cola advertisements and U.S.-brand gas stations. Basketball nets, symbols of the Filipinos' favorite sport, tower over muddy fields. To be sure, some observers run counter to the nationa- listic trend by arguing that one reason for the Americans' Euccess in dominating Philippine culture is the absence of a great traditional civilization here. Before it was colo- nized by Spain and then the United States, the Philippines consisted of largely autonomous tribes which were spread over some of the nation's 7,000 islands. They left behind Irici artistic, monuments like those which have come to symbolize national greatness in other Asian countries .isuch as Indonesia and India. "Marcos is trying to create national pride," a Western diplomat said,. but Filipinos feel their lack of any great: civilization or culture." . To many observers, the key to instilling national pride ' ' is langauge. In colonial days, the Americans allowed only English to be taught in schools. English spread across the nation, which had been divided by the presence of 87 in- digenous languages. Between 30% and 40% of the people litar speak English. ,! "In exchange for a smattering of English, we yielded our souls," Prof. Constantino argued. "The stories of , George Washington and Abraham Lincoln made us forget- ; our own heritage. The American view of our history (taught in schools in the colonial period) turned our he- roes into brigands in our own eyes, distorted our vision of our future." ? ? In addition, few Filipinos teamed English perfectly, and many thus suffered from being unable to speak any lan- guage articulately. But now Tagalog, spoken by 56% of the population, is enjoying a- resurgence. Long ago de- clared the Philippines' national language. its use in uni- versities is finally challenging that of English. Some observers believe the anti-Americanism now pre- valent here reflects the negative- side- of many Filipinps' long-standing love-hate feelings for the United States. Taught. to accept. American values as their own during colonial rule, many Filipinos are anxious for acceptance and sensitive to slights from the United States. This preoccupaticin with American treatment is current- Approved For Release 2001/08A : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 BALTIMORE SUN , 3 August 1976 Thailand's Foreign Investment Lag Bangkok. The Thai government is becoming con- cerned about a drop-off in foreign invest- ment. Foreign as well as local investment began to tumble as communist forces took over the neighboring Indochina states of Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam in mid-1975. Total foreign and domestic investment in 1974 was running $450 million, 30 per cent of it foreign. In 1975, it was down to $75 mil- lion, 15 per cent of it foreign. Applications for firms enjoying tax privi- leges were submitted at a rate of about 20 a month in 1974, 10 a month in 1975, and are .now running at only 5 a month. These num- bers apply only to initial registered capital and do not account for reinvestment. Never- theless, even though better figures are hard to come by, the feeling here is that the for- eign investor is losing interest in Thailand. At a recent panel discussion at the For- eign Correspondents Club of Thailand, a group of overseas business men aired their doubts. They were unanimous in agreeing that investor confidence in Thailand was shaken by the demise of the Indochina states and the fear that Thailand would become the next domino. Japan is Thailand's leading investor, with the U.S. second. The Japanese member of the panel said that his country's investment in Thailand was down to a third of its 1974 value, while worldwide Japanese investment was about the same. He attributed this to political unrest. The panel tended to be bullish on Thai- land, maybe because the members have much at stake. The American representative played down the "investment follows the flag" concept and said he felt that the Amer- ican military withdrawal would have little effect on the American investor. "Business tends to be apolitical," he said. "The pres- ence of the troops does not affect the ability to generate a profit." ? The German member of the panel felt that the withdrawal would change invest- ment calculations. "Instead of getting your capital back in 5 years, you might want it back in 3 years," he remarked. The panel was critical of the press. Mem- bers felt that outsiders are getting a wrong , By FRANK LOMBARD Impression of the situation in Thailand. They are continuously getting strange queries from their home offices, where executives are convinced that Thailand is in a state of chaos and collapse. The blame for sensationalizing spot news stories fell on far-away editors, who lack perspective on the local situation. Examples were the recent ransacking of the Prime Minister's residence by a mob of drunken po- licemen and an incident in which 50 armed bandits, some of them policemen, held up a Bangkok-bound express train and sprayed it with automatic gunfire. Such occurrences evince little surprise among those who live in Bangkok, where chaos is normal and does not necessarily im- ply instability. All in all, Thailand's economic pulse is healthy. Inflation was 12 per cent in 1974 Banditry evinces little surprise among those who live in Bangkok, where chaos is normal and does not necessarily imply instability. and only 5 per cent in 1975. The Thai curren- cy is stable. The black market price has nev- er fluctuated more than 10 per cent from the controlled rate despite reports that some $35 million has illegally fled the country in the past year. International reserves dropped by about 20 per cent in the latter part of 1975, partly due to the American withdrawal, but they have lately turned around. Thailand - was recently granted a 100-million-Eurodol- lar loan. In the April 1976 issue of Euromoney, a banker's journal printed in London, Thai- land's investment prospects were analyzed. The magazine described the present demo- cratic Thai government as "an uneasy expe- riment." (Military governments have been the norm.) It said the government was cor- rupt and chaotic and has been insensitive to 13, reflected In the massive joublicity here being even the trial of two Filipina nurses in Michigan accused of -mur- dering five of their patients. The nurses are erten por- trayed as the innocent victims of a U.S. campaign to ma- lign the Philippines. On the other hand, a large pool of goodwill for America still exists. The high level of emigration to the United. States shows this: last year alone, there were 33,000 who emigrated. One impetus to anti-Americanism. probably has been - .Maros' four-year-old martial law regime, which has en- gendered some disillusionment with U.S. policy. g?The US. brought Filipinos up to believe in democracy," complained a professor here, "but when Marcos suspended democratic methods, the U.S. continued to support hint" 35 the needs of the rural sector, at least until recently. It characterized the Democratic party, which rules the present fairly stable coalition, as capitalist and royalist. The so- cialist opposition is weak and the Commun- ist party is banned, all of which is good news for investors. "If there is a military coup, it might en- courage foreign investment," the magazine said. "However, it will also encourage the communist insurgents and result in a longer- term shift to the left." Many observers in Bangkok feel that if Thailand is to go communist, it will probably fall from the inside. No one is really expect- ing an invasion. There are close to 10,000 armed, uniformed insurgents operating in this nation of 40 million, and there are prob- ably an equal number of unarmed cadre. Their ranks are increasing at a rate of about 10 per cent a year. On the other hand, the population is growing by 3.2 per cent a year, and the number of armed criminals far ex- ceeds the number of communists. There is no gun control, and the murder rate is 4 times that of the U.S. Communist, terrorists act on principle alone and save their bullets for the police, the army, and corrupt officials. No business man has been molested. No capital equip- ment has been damaged. Intelligence sources say the communists get their money from a Bangkok-based underground and buy their weapons on the Thai black market. Se- rial-number checks have not shown any substantial surplus American weapon move- ments from Vietnam to Thailand. Ideological and training support for Thai insurgents come from Hanoi and Peking. This is unlikely to stop, since the commun- ists 'consider it a party and not a government affair. ? The communist threat is serious but a long way from being fatal. The Thais may or may not find a solution, but in the meantime, there is money to be, made in a country where the minimum wage is $1.25 per day, corporate balance sheets can be kept from the public scrutiny and tax evasion is a na- tional sport. Mr. Lombard is an American free- lance journalist based in Bangkok. . , Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2 Approved For 1Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2--- NEW YORK TIMES 25 July 1976 Small New Countries in the Caribbean Are Starting to Follow Cuba's Example; By The Associated Press PORT OF SPAIN, Trinidad? The small emerging nations of the Caribbean are moving to the left, and the pace is accel- erating. In the years since Fidel Cas- tro introduced radical socialism to the area, eight former Brit- ish and Dutch territories there have gained full independence Six other island-states expect independence within the next decade. The new nations inherited multiparty systems of govern- ment, but left-wing politicians now either are in power in nearly all of the 14 countries, share it, or are in powerful op- position. In interviews, many of these leaders saw the Cuban model of social and economic planning as a real alternative to Ameri- can-style capitalist democracy, and as a way to solve their problems. Many leaders in the British Caribbean came to power es- pousing one form of socialism or another, usually of the mild British variety. "They were all parlor Socialists," said a West- ern diplomat disparagingly. Once in power, however, even the moderates found themselves pushed to the left. Violence In Jamaica Virtual communism has come to Guyana. and the introduction of radical socialism has been violently resisted in Jamaica. Leaders in the emerging island- states of Dominica and St. Vincent seem convinced that Marxism will be their best ideo- logical course when they gain independence soon. And common to the Caribbean today Is the trend toward the nationalization or partial take- over of America's $6 billion in business investments. Helping to polarize the polit- ical leaders are the apparently intractable social and economic problems that they believe are impervious to other than radi- cal solutions. "Capitalism has been in oper- ation in this part of the world for some time and it has failed us," Prime Minister Forbes Burnham of Guyana said in an interview. His view was echoed by others interviewed in the Caribbean, and they cited the following overriding problems: 41Unemployment ? Popula- tions have multiplied. The island of Barbados, for in- 'stance, one-fifth the size of itacksonville, Fla., has a popu- lation of 243,000 with 30 per-i icent of the work force unem-I !ployed. Similar unemployment' :figures are found among the Irest of the Caribbean's 15 mil- lion people, with high densi- ties in capitals such as King- ston, Jamaica; Port of Spain, Trinidad, and Georgetown, Guyana. Crime levels are high as a result. (IF:migration cutoff?Emigra- tion to the parent colonial: country once was a safety valve, hot Britain and the Netherlands have reduced the traffic. Canada is also slack- ening its intake, and .only the United States is continuing to absorb migrants in great num- bers, The annual quota for the Western Hemisphere is 120,000 and many of these emigrants cane from the Ca- ribbean. Jamaica, with only one half of one percent of the hemisphere's population, last year provided 10 percent of the quota-12,000 immigrants. itiDecline of plantations?The traditional sugar and banana plantation economies continue to decline because of poor world prices and the reluctance of die newly independent islanders to work in the fields. "They continue to equate hard work with slavery," said a Govern- ment official in Guyana. (Wailure of federation?The best hope for the viability of the Caribbean islands was be- lieved to be in federation. Brit- ain found that newly independ- ent Trinidad, Guyana, Barbados and Jamaica were unwilling to pull together. Federation has failed even in the tiniest is- lands. The Associated State of, St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla, with ,only 60,000 people on three .small islands, has already split into two parts and may soon split into three. A similar pat- tern is showing up in the Neth- ?erlands Antilles. Various eco- nomic federations have been attempted, but even the Carib- bean Common Market, the most hopeful indicator of economic cooperation, seems destined to fail because of traditional island rivalries. Measured against this gloomy political and economic perform- Cuba, the largest of the Carib- bean states, with nine million people. Using teohniqques of complete social planning and authoritarian control, Prime Minister Castro is reported to have thoroughly transformed Cuba, pouring 30 per-cent of the gross national product into development, and providing free nursery schools, medical care and education to university level. That Mr. Castro made these achievement' with around $2 million a day 'n Soviet aid and at the expense of free institu- tions has not dismayed his-- ribbean admirers. His example seems to be catching on, Setting the pace is Guyana, formerly, British Guiana, on the northeast shoulder of South America. Foreign business has been nationalized and the coun- try's 800,000 people have been' mobilized along Marxist-Lenin- ist lines. "Guyana will have moved into being a fairly ortho- dox Communist country in four or five years," an experienced observer there said. Guyana 'has entered a .rare period of political serenity. Cheddi Jagan, the political op- position leader and bitter Marxist opponent of Prime Minister Burnham, has worked with the Government in com- pleting the Marxist structure of the Minnesota-sized country. Manley Turned to Left I Jamaica, at the end of al chain of sparkling islands and 1,200 miles to the northeast, is one-twentieth of Guyana's size but has three times the population. A sudden turn toward radical socialism by Prime Minister Michael Man- ley after he visited Cuba last year shocked the conservative ,opposition party and led to charges of 'Communist influ-% ences in Jamaica. Tinte were; countercharges of tnvolvement; of the United States Central, Intelligence Agency. The popu- lar Mr. Manley is expected to; win the approaching. elections? and to resume ?his leftward march. In Barbados, Prime Minister: Errol Walton Barrow allowed' Angola-bound Cuban -planes to refuel there. Trinidad is the most stable! of ;the small islands, with Prime,:, Minister Eric Williams, a mod- erate, bolstered in power by, rich new finds of petroleum off,. his southwestern coast. Mr:: Williams visited Cuba last years , but has since voiced disapproval' of Mr. Castro's foreign adven-. tures. The Bahamas is another cen-`. ter of stability. The Govern- ment there has resisted over-, tures from Cuba, but has ex- pressed interest in nationaliz- ing some local industries, in-. eluding the 'gambling casinos. - A 'Golden Handshake' Surinam gained its independ- ence from the Netherlands' eight months ago, receiving a "golden handshake" in the form of a $1.7 billion aid pack- age from The Hague. Western' diplomats say the "medium- term" prospects for Surinam and its 300,000 people are ex- cellent. But they warn that there is a strong leftist trend in the powerful labor movement of this South American neigh- bor of Guyana,. and say it could eventually radicalize the. Government and endanger large American bauxite inter- ests. The five British Associated. States in the Windward and Leeward Islands yield authority in defense and foreign affairs to London, but retain full internal power. "4e. Governments are either left wing or have radical politicians in coalitions. They are expected to accept inde- pendence within the next few years. Edward Bruma, the left-wing Minister of Economics in Suri- nam, was asked what future American policy might be: "The, United States will have to learn to live with people who have different political systems. We learned to live with the atom bomb; America will have to learn to live with a Socialist Caribbean." The United States Govern- ment has told leaders in Ja- maica and Guyana that it is concerned less about their form of government than the poten- tial subversive influence of Cuba and the Soviet Union on Caribbean affairs. Local offi- cials scoff at this potential threat. THE. WASHINGTON POST 7 August 1976 ? e The Cuban Communist 'Party newspaper Granma accused the CIA and the opposition, Jamai- can' Labor Party of a "wide ranging plan of destabi- lization" against, the Jamaican government of Prime Minister Michael Manley, which has intensified con- tacts with ,Cuba. 36 Approved For Release 2001/03108: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390003-2