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-I-Approved For Rerease 2001/28/O8A :IA C RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 CONFIDENTIAL INTERNAL USE ONLY This publication contains clippings from the domestic and foreign press for YOUR BACKGROUND INFORMATION. Further use of selected items would rarely be advisable. 9 JULY 1976 NO. 12 GOVERNMENT AFFAIRS GENERAL 'EASTERN EUROPE )!JEST EUROPE NEAR EAST AFRICA EAST ASIA LATIN AMERICA PAGE 1 21 ,24 26 30 33 36 38 DESTROY AFTER BACKGROUNDER HAS SERVED ITS PURPOSE OR WITHIN 60 DAYS CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 -.Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 COLUMBIA TODAY June 1976 Columbia Law Symposium addresses the question: Can our freedom survive defense by the CIA and Fr31? "If. publicity has become a necessary part of the cure, the disease must be pretty deep .and serious." said Telford Taylor Columbia's Nash Pro- fessor of Law. "It is deep," commented Columbia Professor of Government Roger ? Hits- man, who was an assistant secretary of . state during the Kennedy Administra- tion, "and the cost to us has been enormous. Absolutely enormous. Not in money terms but in wasting one of the -great assets we once had: the re- spect for our integrity and goals and methods." ? ? "We have adopted the worst tactics of ?the Russians," agreed Frederick . A.O. Schwarz. Jr., who is the chief counsel for the Senate Select Commit- tee to Study Governmental Operations With Respect to Intelligence Activities. "Our government, in the belief that it was defending freedom, used the tac- tics of totalitarianism: unfair tactics, vicious tactics, tactics that are wholly outside the best traditions of the United States." . ? ? "The excuse for such operations has been that our national security re- quired ? these acts," said - Paul C. Warnke, '48L, who was Assistant Sec- retary of Defense for International Af- fairs under President Johnson. "I ? would suggest that this is a flimsy ex- cuse. It suggests a degree of danger to our national security that does not ex- ist." The CIA and the FBI: Is the uproar over their tactics justified? How has the scandal affected the ? United States? What should we do to prevent future scandals? ? ? These were some ?of the ?issues con- sidered by the men quoted. above as they participated in a panel discussion held this spring as part of Columbia Law ? Symposium. an annual event ? . sponsored ?by The . Columbia Law School Alumni Association. Professor Taylor, who moderated the discussion, introduced the other speakers, noting "their broad range of .experience in the intelligence world." Hilsman offers some praise. "This is a- world of sovereign nation states," Professor Hilsman pointed. out. "We don't have a world 'govern- Ment. Until we .do. each -nation must look to itself for its own security, and intelligence is part of that: ? - "And as intelligence, agencies got' the CIA isn't a bad one. It has central- ized. our foreign intelligence gather- ing. It has done some simply marvel- ous jobs in technical fields?satellite photography ? and the U-2, for. exam- ple. ? "I remember Chester Bowles once saying: 'Thank God for the U-2.. It showed us the Russians weren't as strong as we had suspected they might be.' If it hadn't been for the p-2, our defense budget in the Cold War would have probably been twice what it actu- ally was. "But the CIA's most important con- tribution has been the perfectly legiti- ? mate, perfectly overt, analysis of thou- sands and 'thousands of periodical publications. This has been very well done. "Ali the armed services start their planning with the National Intelli- gence Estimates, prepared under CIA chairmanship. Consider what .the last 20 years would have been like if, in ad- dition to the interservice rivalry we have had, each of the services would have started with its own intelligence estimates. Consider what it would have been like if Air Force planning had been based on intelligence docu- ments dictated by Curtis UM ayl- Warnke agrees: "Good . intelli- gence serves a number of very effective purposes. Certainly the .national Intel- ligence estimates have preVeoted gross miscalculations or. the part of our de- fense planners. ? "And if we did not have this, tre- mendous late:hie:nee capability: we would tint have faith in the enforce- ability of dis:irmantent "Even intelligence on the part of (lie other sick c:t11 be basically good for us. During the-Six .Day War in 1967. the Soviets were collecting, data that ena- bled them to recognize the falsity of Kino, repurts that the Unit- ed States was participatidg in the ale -attack," A case for Covert action? -As tond as it is a World of stow:reign mt.- tions, there is a theoretical case for co- -yen political action." said Professor Hilsmann ' "For example. if von believe that World War II could have been. avoid- ed by the assassination of Hitler. then You have to admit that assassination is theoretically acceptable. I do not hap- pen to believe that the removal of one man would do it. "If you believe that it would have been possible to remove the Nazi Party . in the mid-30s by encouraging zt coup ? by the German General Staff, then co- vert political action Must also be theo- retically acceptable. I have grave doubts that even that would have been possible, though I concede the theo- retical point. -My own knowledge of covert polit- ical action is that it is of marginal' value?that it has never worked ex- cept when the event probably would have happened anyway. ? -For example, Allen Dulles used to take great credit for the removal of Mossadcgh and the establishment of the Shah of Iran. My guess is that the change would have occurred even if the CIA had never existed. -The covert actions in Chile were also marginal...and petty. What did the CIA do? They subsidized a news- paper. Does anyone really believe that one little newspaper caused the events in Chile? I don't. They subsidized the truckers strike. Did that make the dif- ference between a strike and ? no strike? I don't believe so. Everything I know about covert political action comes to that. The CIA takes credit for something- that; by and large. I think would have happened anyway." without CIA intervention." ?. Undeserved blame. Mr. Warnke pointed out. ? that "covert activities have sometimes ?led to our bent'!, ; blamed for things we have not done.- . "For example," he elaborated. "some Soviet officials now try to de- feed the 1968 Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia on the grounds that they were entitled to counter Amen- can subversion there?the same sort of subversion that we later carried cat in Chile. It is an excuse that in my Opinion is without basis. "But in the court of wotld opinion. we are i n. a sort of pot and kettle situa- ? tion. Covert activities have weakened our ability to influence world affairs, and have seriously eroded the credibil- ity and good will that the United States has been able to assemble over the years." And in the U.S.: -The Iloilo threat to liberty iit this coot:try has been the Flit:* said Mr. Sclos are. -I:or 3() or -IQ Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 VC:ITS. the FBI succeeded in coovine- ing the American public that it was pure...that it was doing the right thing. "And in the area of pursuing crimi- nals. the Bureau has done, generally ? speaking. a good job. It is when it has crossed the line from surveillaoce oh. criminals to. surveillance of dissent- ers?and to -its. subsequent actions against dissenters?that it has gone beyond what this country can tolerate under its Constitution. The Bureau has spent far too much money on dissent as opposed to its appropriate activities against crime. Even today. after certain cut- backs, it spends more than twice as much money on informers in the polit- ical community as it spends on in- formers in organized crime. This is a misallocation of resources. And under the.Constitution it shouldn't be doing this at all. "In the early 1970s. the f3ureati cov- ered all black student groups in col- leges across the United States. Every" single person who belonged to such a group was under surveillance aid had a tile created on him or her, regardless of whether or not that person?or that group?had participated in violent ac- tivities. 'The main violations of America's standards have occurred as part of the FBI's action programs, where they seek, as they put it, to 'neutralize,dis- credit, and disrupt' political groups: ? -The targets of such activities have tanned from the famous, such as Mar- tin Luther King. to the.obscure. The King case is well known. Equally sad for our country have been the many, many people who were ordinary pro- testors?or who just associated with dissenters. -One case that, particularly sticks in my mind involved 'a 30-year-old worn- an in Illinois whose husband was ac- tive in the civil rights movement. The Bureau decided to write a fake letter to her, complaining about the hus- band's sexual relations with peeple in the mowement_ Totally false. And then you see in the tiles of a federal government agency the notation: 'We have had the great effect of breaking UI) the people's marriage.' -Many, many Americans were at- tacked in this way?secretly and false- ly." Sharing the blame. The panelists indicated that responsibility for the il- legalities committed by their agents does not rest solely with the CIA and FBI. "The principal culprits have been the policymakers," said Prof essor Hilsman. n1 want to, kedge this by say-- ;lig that Wynn give a very ubk group of people a lot of money. a secrecy and a very narrow responsibility. they 4 .are going to come up with ideas. And they are going to advocate and press for their projects. Ken nedy. for example, found him- self under enormous pressure from Dulles and others to proceed .with the Cuban invasion. That does not excuse him. Ile could have avoided it. 7.'So I am. not saying that ,the CIA doesift press Presidents. .Generally. . speaking. however, it is the other Way, around. It has been the policymakers who have demanded- that the Agency .clo something that it was either reluc- tant t?. do or not very enthusiastic about doing?or maybe enthusiastic about doing but not legally allowed to do. The people responsible for the Chile business. were ?Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger. It wasn't the Agency. Richard Nixon said. 'do something about this situation: And they d id." .1?,1r. Schwarz mentioned- that Con- gress also -played a- very negative role" in the intelligence picture. "Congress knew what the FBI was doing to Martin Luther King?and . did nothing about it," Mr. Schwarz declared. -Congress also axissed the Smith Act_ which has led to the Bu- reau 's justification of most 'surveil- lance activities. Congressional oversight. One remedy considered by the panelists is the _creation of a Congressional over- sight committee to monitor the activi- ties of .U.S. intelligence agencies. (The Senate Select Committee on Intelli- czence recommended the creation. of ?such a committee in its report issued in late April.) "We need to return to the system of checks and balances planned by the Founding Fathers.". said Mr. Schwarz. "When people can operate in secrecy, when they are subjected to. the kinds of pressures that agents have been subjected to.. and when they be- lieve action is required, they will tend to operate against liberty: it's too easy. It's too hard to remember the re- straints that are placed on power. "We let the idea of secrecy. and the increasing power of the Executive. in- sulate from Congress and the Ameri- can public?and the courts?the na- ture of the programs conducted in their name." Professor Hilsman was skeptical: "Congressional committees, like regu- latory agencies, get captured by the people they are supposed to oversee. I'm afraid that such a committee would become a powerful advocate and defender--and protector?of the agency." Mr. Warae also felt that "Con- gressional oversight committees would not be a really effective answer.' "I'm also very skeptical of sugges- tions such as advanced clearance of proposed covert action by a Congres- sional committee," he continued. "To the extent that a Congressional com- mittee shares the responsibility, it tends to take on the face of the rcgu- 1. agency. - ? "Also, past experience with pre- clearance has not really-been a happy one. Pre-clearance of covert activities smacks too much to me of a yonkin Gulf resolution, in which. the 'Execu- tive comes to ,the Congress, secures ,a blank check, and then cashes it for a far greater amount ? than the Congress contemplated at the time the ? Execu- tive presented it." Banning covert activities. Some people who have !testified before Con- gressional groups investigating CIA and FBI misdeeds have advotated" that covert activities be banned entire- ly. Others Maintain that such activi- tiesi are justified n cCrtain cases. Mc- , George Bundy. for example. has sug- gested that covert activities would be acceptable to counter international terrorism or nuclear threats. -I think I would preserve some sort of a covert action capability." said Mr. Warnke, "but I would do it on an ad 'hoc basis. I think there should be a presumption against it?a strong pre- sumption. Only the most compelling of considerations ought to lead to the ? permission of:covert activities. "But there is no justification, under any circumstances, for covert police or covert programs. Even is there is some justification for everyone not knowing how the government is trying to do something, everyone should know what his government is trying to do. Policies ought to be overt. "This was demonstrated in connec- -tion with the Angolan debate. where .at one point it was contemplated that we provide overt aid. And Secretary of State Kissinger, in a press conference, said no, we couldn't give overt aid be- cause that would bring about .a num- ber of political and diplomatic prob- lems. "If we can't justify a program as part of an overt policy, there is no jus- tification for doing it covertly..' Professor Hilsman suggested `legis- lation that flatly says 'no covert ac- ? lions of any kind can be taken by the FBI and CIA.' "I would also contemplate a 'law ? limiting the terni of the director of the so the-person couldn't build up ? power?as J. Edgar Hoover did." Warnke considers Ford's pro- posals. In February of this year. Ger- ald Ford announced new guidelines for 'U.S. intelligence agencies. His Ex- ecutive order bans the use of assassi- nation and sets some limits?consid- ered ambigtious by critics of the plan-----on the surveilkwee of U.S. citi- zen?;. A three?man.Connuittee cii Por- ei:.;r: Intelligcoec, headed by the C!:'\. director, will sup.s,:rviNe all foreign hi- Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 telligence activities. under the direc- tion of the National Security Couneil. President Ford's plan also estab- ? lishes an Operations .Advisory Group, composed of .top Administration offi- cials, that will review and vote on all proposed coven operations. ? Mr. Warnke is "not at all sanguine about the effectiveness of the Execu- tive order. First of all, a problem de- velops When you try to legislate against . just certain things. The things that are ? not legislated against acquire a degree ? of sanction that perhaps they did not have before. ? "This is the problem that exists as a result of the War Powers Resolution ? passed in late 1973. That legislation 'gave the President, for the first time, the explicit ability to conduct a war for ? a limited period of time, subject to Congressional veto. Prior to passage of the resolution, I think a good argu- ? ment could have been made that the ? President had no such power at all: So, while purporting to restrict Execu- tive power, it in fact expanded the Ex- ecutive's action capability. ? "I think there should continue to be an executive interdepartmental com- mittee to review intelligence agency ? .proposals and make recommenda- tions to the President. This sort of .committee can work?but not if the National Security Adviser is also the Secretary of State. "I also think there should be an overall intelligence czar?one who would not have direct operational re- sponsibilities in any one of the agen- cies. Theoretically, that has been the role of the director of Central Intelli- gence, but because he has an individu- al agency affiliation, be has sometimes been in the position of a competitor rather than an overseer." Legislating against leaks. Mr. Warnke also had some comments about the threat to intelligence opera- tions of leaks: "I don't think the disclosures are seriously interfering with our intelli- gence gathering. Even the disclosures of names of agents abrimd, though ob- viously reprehensible and of extreme ' danger to the ? -individuals involved, does not really interfere with the core of our intelligence-gathering apparit- tus. ?It doesn't seem to me that the kind .of legislation that has been pro- posed?to make it unlawful to leak in- formation that you lawfully have in your possession?is ever going to be. effective. "In many instances. !cak zu e offi- cially inspired. I remember one leak that greatly troubled President John- son. He even went so far as io have tile P131 investigate lily own little shop. And eventually, it was proven that President Johnson had leaked the in- formation ?vhile talking to a Ni.m. York Times reporter. "Some recent leaks of material . gathered by Congressional investiga- tors may have been done to show the unreliability of Congress. "Leaks are often designed to effect a particular purpose.. Back in 1968,. someone?subsequent investigation- indicated that four separate sources were involved?leaked the fact that General Westmoreland had requested an additional 206,000 troops be sent to Vietnam. There were those who felt that the President would not be able to turn down the request once it was made public. Others obviously leaked it because they hoped public furor would prevent the request from being granted." Law is the key. "The purpose of all the remedies,? summarized Mr. Schwarz, "is not simply to protect American liberties at home but to re- store the good name of the United States, so that once more it can be the last and best hope of mankind----which it basically still can be, but not if it' operates in the way it has far tod often in the past. "Law is the key. We have departed from the law in the intelligence com- munity, which. has often justified its actions on the grounds of 'the greater THE NEW YORK TIMES good.' the higher goad.' and 'national seetnity; " Warnke believes that national - security is ?a flimsy excuse." suggeSte lug a degree of danger that does ? not ? exist. . ? ? "There aren't very many threats to our security,' he said. "The basic threat. is the threat of .Soviet Military. power. We aren't really in trouble as - far as domestic insurrection is con- cerned. The Communist Party in the United States represents as. trivial a menace as the mind of man could de- - vise. And I don't believe we are seri- ously threatened by changes over. . seas.' alterations in foreign govern- ? meats. "To avoid future abuses, we must get away froth the idea that we are a besieged outpost of freedom in a hos-. tile world. We have friendly neighbors' on both sides, and an ocean to the east and an ocean to the west. "This doesn't mean that we can af- ford to become Fortress America .or to be isolationists. It doesn't mean that we should forfeit our role in the world. "But we should recognize that that role can be played usefully ? ? only through the exercise of our traditional American tolerance and by observing the civil liberties of both the United ? States and the rest of the world." aa 26 June 1976 BUSH ys jJf Ilater, the Senate Select cern- said in a report that the C.I.A mittee on Intelligence Activitie? DROPS NEWSMEN:intended to continue its em? ployrnent of 25 part-time jour. nalists. These part-time news- men were not covered in Mr. Refuses to Supply Names to Bush's February pledge, the re- Press Council Aides , port added. ? A C.I.A. spokesman refused tocomment on the Senate re- pert yesterday Cr to explain the seeming descrepancy between Mr. Bushs's statement and the report's disclosures. He said By DEIRDRE CARMODY The Central Intelligence. Agency is ending its associa- tion with all part-time corre- spondents affiliated. with Amen-'ht it was not agency policy can news agencies abroad and to "endorse or reject a report will no longer hire them as by a Senate Committee." agents, George Bush, Director The report ? aroused reaction of Central Intelligence, has told from news organizations. When representatives of the National,the C.I.A. refused to name the individuals involved, news executives noted that the C.I.A. Mr. Bush and three of his was casting doubt on the opera- assistants met Thursday ? withtions of all news organizations 'William A. Rusher, a memberiabroad without giving them an of the council and publisher of: opportunity of defending them the National Review, and Ned;?seines against any charge of Schnumnati, the council's asso-1 ciate director, at the C.I.A.1 headquarters in McLean, Va.! The meetings were held at the request of the council, a volun- tary group that monitors the, performance of ? the nationa1! press, to clarify the position on the employment of: 1. :journalists. I C.I.A. Refuses Comment i ? The C.I.A.'s use of the part-1 !time correspondents produced !a ControIrsy. Mr. Bush issue(' ;a statement in February saying that the altsncy would end any !existing relationships aN.- I would discontinue the practice inf hiring full-time or part-tion iiournalists ? But two month' NEW YORK TIMES. 30 June A976 corruption of their news re Lack of Definition Noted IMr. Bush reiterated to the: National News Council repre- sentatives his refusal to di- vulge the names of individua1s1 who were Working for or hat.t 'worked for the C.I.A. Mr.; .Schnurman said, however, that: C.LA. officialshadi ; the agency was "terminatinei old arrangements in an orderly,,, fashion and phasing them out.", They refused to discuss how many journalists were involved. One of the principal matters ! of confusion has been the exact ` definition. of what the C.I.A. means by a part-time corre- -4pondent, or stringer. The lgency officials said that any lews executives, including pub- eishers; stringers for American tews organizations, foreign na- lonals working as newsmen for kmerican news organization; ?ad free lance writers would be :onsidered journalists. ? ?tive and government I. "WhiLa the information did I come from former C.I.A. - ' agents, further investigation ? An nrt:cie in The N.?..w Yorkby The Times has led it to Times on Ap.,i; 2, 1:376, str:ted c?mciude that none of its that according to foirner su:trtes are ah!c to Flip-ply C.I.A. agents a recipe:fen of C.I.A. f av ors in the eariy posfwar period was' atsu- taro rein riki, a:lett: :4 aese conitnuinc4itions execu-? 3 suff nf icient elaborate d taik ?to ;Hilly, in the vN ,U1 01-0 editarr, 7Chr, New York 'ri.nee, fee- :ippresstr:ri 121;: hi -its art:it:Lt. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 2ngcreg Zimtg Sat., June 26, 1976. ? Foe Claims Intelligence Officers Are Used Mainly to Recruit Others BY WILLIAM TROMBLEY Times Staff Writer SANTA BARBARA?A leading critic of the U.S. Central Intelligente Agency said Friday that the CIA 'has "one or two or perhaps several secret agents" on eath of more than 100 American campuses. ? Morton H. Halperin, a former member of the National Security Council, said his information was based on descriptions he has received of secret portions of the recent report of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Activities, chaired by ? Sen. Frank Church (D-Ida.). Halperin told the American Assn. of University Professors, meeting at UC Santa Barbara, that the CIA agents are administrators, faculty members and teaching graduate stu- dents who "basically are recruiters." "They try to spet students or facul- ty members who might be useful" to the CIA by gathering 'information at international academic conferences and the like, according to Halperin. They also "look for other recruit- ers," he said, "either. Americans or foreigners, people who will go back to their countries and be spies for the CIA." Halperin named no institutions .but said, "I assume it's concentrated in ? universities where there are a large number of. foreigners" as students or visiting faculty members. Campus agents generally are known only to the CIA and to them- selves but occasionally their identi- WASHINGTON STAR 1 Jul_ 1.976 av671:7151(13, Editor g.l.aired Bribiri LONDON (AP) ? The editor of an American magazine that has named dozens of alleged CIA agents around the world was barred from Britain last night, the Home Office reported. A spokesman said Home Secretary Roy Jenkins ordered the ban on Perry Douglas Fellwock of Counter-Spy magazine be- cause his presence in Brit- ain would "not be condu- cive to the public good." Fellwock writes under the name Winslow Pecin The Home Office said Fellwock arrived from West Berlin last night at London's Heathrow Airport, and immigration officials sent him back. The editor was reported on at spenaing tour. , ties are known ? to one or more col- lege officals, Halperin said. Some ? are paid and others ? work "out of patriotism," he stated. ? ; *Once a recruiter spots a potential CIA agent he send the -name to the agency, which conducts a security check, according to Halperin. Halperin also stated, as did the Church committee, that some scho- larly research has been secretly funded by the CIA. ? The Church committee's report, re- leased in late April, said generally that hundreds of professors, adminis- trators and graduate students, as well as officials of private founda- tions, have had 6Iandestine ties with the CIA, the FBI and other U.S. 'in- telligence gathering agencies. However, specific descriptions of -these ties were-deleted from the final report at the request of the CIA. Halperin said his speech Friday was the first detailing of just how the CIA works on campuses. He said his information came from "the secret version of the Church re- ,port" but said he had not eeen the de- leted material himself and would not say where he got the information. ? "I am confident that what I am :saying is true but I cannot tell you 'where I got it," Halperin told repor- ters after the meeting. , Halperin has devoted considerable time and energy in recent months to attacking the CIA for its undercover 'ties to journalists, academics and oth- ers in American life. He has filed suit against' Secretary d 'of State Henry A. Kissinger and for- Iner government officials because, he ? contends, his telephone was tapped ? for a 21-month period from 1969 to 1.971.? ? ? . CIA ties with academic figures were defended at Friday's meeting by Cordon D. Baldwin; profes.sor of constitutional law at the University of Wisconsin and former counselor on international law for the State De- partment. Baldwin argued that "foreign intel- ligence gathering is vital to clua corn- mon good" and said that "in a majori- ty of cases. . . there was no wrong." He said if the CIA had received More academic input d'we might all have profited." He suggested that there is little dif-, ference between a Jaw firm asking a faculty member to recommend a new employe and the CIA asking special campus agents to identify possible re- , cruits. ? ? Halperin 'replied that scholars should have the right to publish un-. der CIA auspices if they wish but should acknowledge the source of their support. ? He also said CIA agents on campus should identify themselves so their students arid colleagues would know .with whom they are dealing. And he proposed that names of possible recruits should not be sub- mitted to the CIA without permission of the individuals and that security checks should not be carried out without their approval. THE NEW YORK TIMES. FRIDAY, JUNE 2S, 1976 Soybe rgs Soar on Rumor of a C.I.A. Crop Studyl . By ELIZABETH 161.FOWLER Tho Central Intelligence! Agency gat into the action yes- terday on the Chicago Board of Trade :indirectly and unwit- tingly, and soybean's soared the: daily limit. July beans closed at $6.3514; bushel, up the 26-cents;a?' bushel limit after an early- morning rumor that the C.I.A. had estimated Soviet grain out-; put at 175 million tons, lower flan the recent Agriculture De- partment estimate of 190 nut- lion tons. The Soviet Union had aimed at 205 million tons he-, fore drought began to hurt its' crops. The C.I.A. rumor, whi.Th was denied, was tnough to sea:a the, market tiP under strong local: baying by Chicago prolession-? ais. As prices rose, buy onion: were acthated 15 commission - house accounts held ler tile! ,imaiter spetenfai ors. The .1/2gri:.:illture Departine,it's; supply and ninil.:nd estimiitv... - !stied cainer in ill,- v.:ertk stknuiatted interest 'in 'soybeans; a result, Soviet orders of grain?! ! and soybean meal. The depart-:from this country were high.' ment cut the soybean c.arryover! Corn prices moved up despite! estimate to 2G0 million busliels,reports of good rainfall inl. at the end of this crop year. on Aug. 31 from its earlier!VrOwing areas. Wheat prices' red-lotion-of .a carryover of 230' also rose, possibly because the! million bushels. !rains have delayed some har-1 Trading throughout the ses- slot, was hectic because of the; rumor and the lower carryover estimate, and traders Teportedt a standing-room-only gallery of. visitors watching the activity.' One trader commented: "It was kind of !hilarious, but we a.-e; all worn out," Report Denied by C.I.A. After the close, the firafty denied that it had made an estimate of a 175 Ion Soviet crop and added triet' it was coordintting its esti-'' te; ?v,th the Department of' Agriculture. 1 cis! ',Tar the C. IA. Way TIV.' GOVerlirrLit agency to in- late iy tbai' Soviet ? we/did bo? (itrivn no tilt.v wt: re a year ago. As vesllng. which means that! farmers have reduced sales ofl wheat. A rumor that a fungus might! have hurt some of the Alabamai cotton crop was a factor behind' a sharp cotton price rise. 'July cotton, the current.' deliver; niontn in which noi daily firnit applies, jumped to; 83.90, up mare than 6 cents al i.asum.. Other moniiis were ii pi :he 2 cents a -.0und limit ori; the New York Cotton Ex- change. Mill consumption has; also been heavy. Volume on the New York! Cotton eychange has hetn so; I.t :iv; :hat yes:. erday toe opon-1 iruding was delavCd, I :et' hours so C)tti ciders 4 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 ?.? Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 REGISTER, Des Moines 12 June 1976 ?? -BySILBERT CRAN BERG V V V---. ? Central Intelligence Agency Director George Bush refused to answer when he was asked, during his appearance as American Society of Newspaper Editors luncheon speaker Apr. a, whether the CIA maintains "relationships" wittrjour- nalists working for foreign news media. Bush said a response would reveal intelligence "sources and methods." The question Bush ducked was answeredr two weeks later ? ? by the Senate Intelligence Committee. The committee reported that the CIA maintains ties to a number of persons ? associated with-thSrin'al organizations and "a network of several hundred foreign individuals around the world who provide intelligence for the CIA and at times attempt to influence foreign opinion through the use of covert propa- ganda. These individuals provide the CIA with direct access to a large number of foreign newspapers and periodicals, scores of press services and news agencies, radio and televi- sion stations, commercial book publishers, and other foreign media outlets." ? ? The statement is italicized in the committee's report. A footnote explains that italicized material "has been substan- .tially abridged at the request of the executive agencies." Even cropped and touched up, the picture of the CIA that emerges is of an agency ready, willing and able to employ a large-scale covert propaganda apparatus to pollute the news media.. _ . - . ? v . v And not only the foreign media. A former CIA official told the Senate committee: 'There is no way in this increasingly small world of ours of- insulating information that one puts out overseas and confining it to the area to where one puts it out.... If you plant an article in some paper overseas ... there is no way of guaranteeing that it is not going to be, picked up and published by the Associated Press in this coun- try." - The CIA's propaganda activities include the use of "black propaganda" ? propaganda- that appears to originate from an unfriendly source. Because U.S. policy makers could be misled by these phony stories, "senior U.S. officials" are informed of their true source. But as the Senate Committee noted, "no mechanism exists to protect the U.S. public and the Congress from fallout from black propaganda or Any other propaganda." : ?s??Russian and other foreign intelligence agencies employ , similar covert propaganda- tactics. Does -the KGB have American newsmen on its payroll planting stories in the U.S. i news media? Conceivably it does, though a Senate commit- ?, tee staff member who is familiar with the Clads covert prop- aganda operation said he doubted that the Russians are planting stories in this country directly through U.S. news- men, because the number and variety of U.S. media outlets would make it difficult to have an impact...He added that the Russians unquestionably have an extensive covert propagan- da apparatus abroad. An appendix to the Senate committee report, which appar-? . eat's' was contributed by the CIA, describes a KGB depart- ? ment that specializes in "covert action and deception,? ? including the use of "disinformation.".. ? - . . - Soviet ''disinformation" and other covert foreign intelli- ? gence propaganda are as likely to be picked up and relayed to the American public as is the CIA's brand of false and ? misleading stories. - ?? n " ?- ? The Senate corrunitteereconernerided that the CIsk be pro- -hibited by statute from subSidiaing the distribution. of mate- rial "within the United States" unless the source is publicly. attributed attributed to the CIA. Although the committee. expressed _concern that domestic fallout from the CIA's covert media ? operations abroad was "manipulating or incidentally rills- - ? leading the American public," it refused to urge that.the CIA 'quit its overseas covert propaganda program. The con-unit- ? lee's attitude apparently-La that since everybody is doing it, ? r the CIA should, too. If the CIA and thecommittee have their way,. editors . . he forced to continue to wonder whether they are printing CIA 'or KGB propagailda whenever they reprint articles - ? from foreign publications. _ - - ? - - - . F The CIA should quit planting false and misleading stories ; :abroad, not Idea to protect Americans from propaganda fall- 'out, but to protect all readers from misinformation. This !government should not deliberately.deceive foreign readers ; - ;any more than, it should deceive its own people.. -._ '.? . ? ? Any unilateral disavowal by this country of "black propa- ?? :::ganda" and similar' media dirty tricks would leave readers .;here and abroad still subject. to the covert propaganda t.' activities of foreign intelligence agencies.. If pollution of at communicationa is to-be eliminated,, all of the polluters will ; have to be curbed. .": IS:- ,a:- -.--e -"-- ? -- --- ? - ; 1 Pollution of the. oceans has been recognized as a world- wide problem requiring an international conveation to abate ?,. dumping of pollutants into the seaeWorldwide pollution ne-- ? ; the channels- of !communiaation by. intelligence agencies ? merits thesame kind, of-international attack:- --d-? -- d - ;d'h ? . A conventinn in which nationsag-ee..te place nonegovern-, ? mental Media.: bff ?limits to surreptitious manipulation by ' intelligence, agencies May sound utopian, but thea who1 deliberately foul the publications we read are to less a men- ? ace than those who foul the seas.. ???., , i. ?? ..-..? _ - ' - - ' v; .. The U.S. media should be taking the lead in exploring the ? possibility -of developing such an international anti-media pollution ordinance. CHRISTIAN SCIENCE .MONITOR.. ?? 30 June 1976 1 . ? ri;:ortidar bear k # e. ?. Hurray for enterprising lourmilists ? espe- d3Ily one in Mi:?,scir,v. ,A.ifr.A1 Friendly Jr., - Now"et(''S resi&nt f'Orrf,?:',;,..)i."2.t11 there, tee:s he ha..; :,,z!Lublcret; ir orezis filed ,173 Liter'Ir? t;aZetie, Whiat ce,'?-tected .;111 ttit defense, presumably., is a public statement by CIA chief George Bush that the has no coitnections with any full-time jcalinalists. Since both the ::;oviet nie(.tia and the Soviet 4'01111S take orders urn the? iirebilin, it is Mitty possible 4/1r.-;Viic3a1ly %vizi get We.stiwn- 5;yle pistice. hut he .1.1.a,; serwl upon au ing,J- ilioGs way to tweak the tad of tie. 'Russian boa,- 1i reaass qe.W3rner,,,, wilf,eh to sf,.e AT;12_?411.14* i;rowiS, a Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R0001003900069 CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR 30 June 1976 Wiretap bill astir in COngre Passage likely unless election intrudes By Robert P. Hey Staff correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor ? Washington If, election-year politics do not intrude, Con- gress appears poised to approve this session a ?proposal' that would prohibit_ government's. spying ituliscriminantly on Americans by wiree? tapping or other electronic meanso 2 But that is a big'"ift" several congressional sources say, noting that historically Congress becomes preoccupied with politica by early smninerin a presidential year. ? Nonetheless, Sen. Charles McC. Mathias Jr.: ? (R) of Md., one of the proposal's prime spon- sors, tells this newspaper hes rates. as ?"very good" its chances of becoming law this year. Re notes that President Ford ?who with At. NEW YORK TIMES 2 JUL 1975 tomey General Edward Levi proposed the bill ? has indicated he will sign it. And he notes members' of Congress are now strongly self- motivated to approve it. There now is "proof," he says, that under recent administrations members of Congress themselves were wiretapped without court ap- proval. "What more do you need?" Had the current proposal been law, it would have made illegal or prevented entirely many of the questionable wiretaps by federal in- telligence agencies over the past 30 years. Approval required The hill also would have made illegal the bugging by government agencies of such di- verse targets as the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., members of Congress, members of the National Security Council, and several journalists. The proposal would require the FBI, CIA, and other federal intelligence agencies to ob- tain inter court approval before wiretapping persons within the U.S. for national security reasons. To obtain that approved, the govern-- mit would have to ossavinee judge that there was reasonable cause to believe the per- son it proposed to bug was acting a's a foreign agent, and was engaged in "clandestine in- telligence activities." .The proposal has been approved by the Sen- ate Judiciary Committee and is being probed in beatings this week by the Senate Select Burglaries, Lies . . ? Just as the impact of the revelations Of intelligence abdeas had begun to fade, Americans have been provided with two jolting reminders that the issues are far from resolved. A subcommittee of the Senate Select Commit- tee on Intelligence Activities has' reported that the Cen- tral Intelligence Agency and the Federal Bureau of Inves- tigation had been 'derelict in meeting their responsibilities - to. the Warren Commission. Almost simultaneously, it. ? was reported that the Department of Justice had begun' a majoteineestigation into burglaries 'undertaken by the F.B.I. since 1971, when, say Director Clarence M. Kelley and other officials, they thought such activities had ceased. Though' the lapses in the Kennedy -investigation and the burglaries riciw, under, investigation occurred years apart, they are disturbingly similar. From all appear- ances, the C.I.A. withheld 'information from ,the Warren Commission because it did .not want to reveal its. .?dssassina.6.on program against Premier Castro, while the withheld information about Lee Harvey Oswald because it wished to avoid embarrassment. In the severities, the F.B.I. had a national security. ? mission to ferret out the Weathermen 'and other targets on the New Left. Contrary to. assurances given by .F.B.I. spokesmen to the Senate committee that 'all relevant evidence had been turned over, many secret files were not even reviewed by the bureau, presumably to protect the integrity of the burglary program. In all of these cases the intelligence bureaucracies proceeded on the assumption that they had some purpose higher than both the missions and limits imposed by the appropriate authorities. Yet, to keep their secrets from Congress, their have attempted to cloak themselves in the presumption of regularity and responsibility., .. The agencies cannot have it beth ways. The only way for them to operate in a free society is to be responsive to 'higher authorities and the tem: The fact that the Department ai justice is conducting a broad. investigatiou iotn the burglaries is a hopefel same:, but the effort will be in vain i only. low-level egeent are 6 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Committee on Intelligence. Sponsors estimate it will be ready for-consideration by the rutin Senate next month. The situation is similar. in ? . the House, where committees are else consid- ering it at this time, Compromise legislation' The legislation represents a compromise be- tween broader; more stringent proposals to protect Americans' privacy ? which sponsors have failed to enact into law in recent years -- and the desires of many in government not to hamper the legitimate intelligence-gathering requirements of government. The bill has some opponents, including Sen. John V. Tiinney (D) of California, who says it would permit too much government snooping on American citizens who have broken no law. Nonetheless, Senators Mathias, Edward M. Kennedy, and others hold that it is ? as the ,Marylander told this newspaper ? "a step for- ward" in protecting Americans' privacy. But 'Senator Mathias, like others, concedes it is not his "ideal." He ultimately wants what he ? has been proposing vainly for two years: a law that would require court orders before govern- ment agencies use what he calls "the many forms of governmental surveillance ? in- cluding mail opening; the entry of homes; the inspection of bank, credit, and medical records; as well as the use of bugs and wire- held to account for the F.B.I.'s lawlessness while superior officers, ultimately responsible for the program, go free. . and Oversight However effective criminal sanctions may be, they are only one of the Means of curbing intelligence community abuses. Aggressive Congressional oversight and careful legislation are two. others. The Senate's capacity ad to utilize those tools is being tested this week as the n.?-W , Senate Intelligence Committee, exereisingdts concurrent ? jurisdiction with the Judiciary Committee, marks up. the peoposecl Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. This measure would impose for the first time a require- ? rnent that Warrants be 'obtained from the Federal courts .prior :to installation of 'national security Wiretaps. Though its purpose is commendable; the bill as now written has. severe shortcomings. Among its-more 'glaring defects is. the fact that it permits electronic Surveillance even if no evidence has .been presented that a crime has been or is about to -he committed.: Moreover, key terms and phrases used in the act are so broad that they do not effectively limit intrusive intelligence activities. ? "In approving the bill over the lone opposition of Sena- tor,Tunney of California, the Judiciary Committee gave the intelligence community the benefit of doubts, as if nothing had been learned during the past half denade.. The revelations of F.B.I. burglaries during the course 'of the Socialist thenkers Party lawsuit against it and even tiering the Intelligence Committee investigation should impel the new Senate 'committee to examine the issues more closely than did Judiciary. ? There is an even 'more sobering lesson for Congress. The Socialist Workers Party lawsuit is prying out .of the F.B.I. files information that was in existence but was 'withheld from both of the committees expressly charged With investigating intelligence abuses. Against that background of rrynican and iiresponsi- . bility, 'the legielation now More the Intelligence Com- mittee does not appear to us to nrovide the prot,,cticIl which the citizens Of this nztion have learned so pa fully they must have. The new intelligence teems-genes 'vol 'nave to make substantial Irrtnr:vin-c:3 ill.tb ii' the cUrnrrtittee is to metn.itJ iirzt Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390008-9 THE CHRISTIAN CENTURY 2 June 1976 ' The Intelligence Lies My Linde Told Me The subversive activities of the FBI, CIA and Department of Defense have seriously undermined the security of the Republic, within and without. JANET KARSTEN LARSON + ONCE UPON A TIME there was the frank and 'fearless liar ? but sooner or later the facts would out, and make an end of him. Now we have the 'bureaucrat, mumbling and amnesiac; the master of plausible denials and institutionalized cover-up; the limited investigation and the interpretive memo; the document-shredders, the secrecy-stampers, the propaganda machinists. And it. is no longer so easy to find them out. It took 15 months and $3 million for the Senate Select Committee on intelligence to unearth some of the things our roasters of deceit were not telling us about ? and to frame legal rem- edies for keeping our intelligence establishment more nearly honest and law-abiding in the future. Now that the Senate panel chaired by Frank Church has released its censored final report, we ; can assess the findings of the most extended peek in our history into the baroque machinations of U.S. intelligence. Although the initial waves of outrage have subsided; our unhappy right to know has burdened us with large responsibilities for the fu- ture. Without strong public pressure, the Congress May be unable to sustain a critical posture toward the executive branch with its insistent claim that national security requires public trust in secret power. The House has already retreated, turning around from its aggressive inquiry into the spy establishment to compliant, worried investigation of itself. Nonetheless, what this pat year's massive con- gressional effort has taught us we cannot afford to forget: that more than any House leak or Senate revelation, the subversive activities. of the FBI, CIA and Department of Defense have seriously under- mined the security of the Republic, within and Without. 2 I "This is a report that probably should never have been written," declares Senator Barry Goldwater in dissent from the Senate panel's final report. It has indeed caused "severe embarrassment" to the na- tion, as he laments, for the Senate investigation has - laid before the public the -elements of a terrible irony:. that acts which are illegal and unethical for citizens to engage in at home are condoned, -even aggressively pursued, by American law-enforcement officers and secret agents both at home and abroad. Thus while FBI's COINTELPP-0 prying violated the civil liberties of Americans unjustly suspected of subversion, the CIA was conspiring to overthrow governments abroad, fix their elections, and assassi- Dr- Larson is .assi.->tong editor of The Christian Century. nate their leaders. While the FBI claimed it was,. hunting out terrorists and preventing violent acts,. both CIA and FBI were inciting groups to violence, here and overseas. The FBI tried to smear student activists by linking drug use. with "Red Chinese" narcotics plots to "weaken" our youth; the CIA and ? the army, meanwhile, were secretly spending mil- ? lions for LSD experiments on unsuspectingpersonse ? several of whom died, and shredding the evidence afterward. Responding to threats real and imagined ?and the report documents both kinds of dangers ? we adopted methods "more ruthless than the enemy," as a major lnaos policy statement advised, and our adversaries became ourselves. No communist plot could have succeeded so well to undermine American values and institutions. Even more disturbing than the now-familiar horror stories about what government agents have done to protect America are all the report's examples of how little was done to protect us from them. The Senate Select Committee concluded that our system of checks and balances has failed to curb secret power. . Six Presidents from Franklin Roosevelt to Richard ? Nixon, other top-level officials,. and particularly the. attorneys general "virtually abdicated their constitu- tional responsibility to oversee and set standards for intelligence activity." Second. Congress has exer- cised lax oversight, bowing to the will of the execu- tive, and framed such vague, inadequate laws that the intelligence .agencies have filled in almost, at whim the blank checks at their disposal. Although the Constitution requires disclosure of how public monies are spent. Congress has never asserted its right to know the extent of the financial empire which intelligence commands. Third, the judiciary has been reluctant to inter- vene, even where laws have dearly been broken. As the ACLU's Christine Marwick writes, for years the justice Departmentslit:Omised. the CIA that there would be no prosecutions for CIA illegalities ? if- a trial would threaten to reveal classified infor- mation. And since virtually all information about an orzanization created for clandestine activities is secret, there were no pror.ectitions for illegal programs. As Committt,t. observed, the CJA was not out of control, it was "utterly responsive to the instruc- tions of the Preideitt.'' It simply appeared to she naIve outsider to be out of control because it was, in fact, beyond the Law ["Reforming the Intelligence .Agencies," Priari pies (March 1976), p. !;]. In the intelligence "flap" as in Watergate, it b-a5 been the fourth Estzic ? the press ? that has 'played the ITIoit vigilant watchdog role, despite the CIA's Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 and the FBI's devious efforts to co-opt .or discredit the media. ? During its investigations the Senate panel probed. hard to find evidence of respect for law in the daily operations of intelligence. Certainly, honest and laudable officials are mentioned in the report. But an overwhelming number of cases turned up habit- ual, even institutionalized, disregard for -law.: Re-. pe-atedly inspectors general warned about "potential flap activities" --not crimes. FBI memos 'acknowl- edged illegality bot authorized bugs and black-bag jobs anyway because they were "invaluable tech- niques" "necessary" for protecting the nation. The head of the FBI's Intelligence Division testified that he never heard anyone raise legal or ethical ques- tions: "We never .gave any thought to this line of reasoning, becanse we were just naturally prag- matic." How persistently officials maneuvered to. elude the requirements of law is well documented in the report: 9 Although COINTELPRO came to light in 1971 ?with its disregard of First Amendment free- doms and its massive violations of .federal and state statutes against mail and wire fraud, incitement to violence; extortion, and sending obscene material through the mail? the Justice Department did, not look into the program until 1474, and even then it. uncovered no crimes. Its report, only mildly alarmed, was based on misleading FBI-prepared "short sum- maries" of COINTEL. incidents_ That same, year Justice also issued sweeping authorizations for more COINTEL-type FIII investigations of "subversives," potential civil disorders and "potential crimes." . 0 When President Johnson's I-Ptatzenbach Commis- sion told federal agencies to halt covert financial relationships with "U.S. educational and private voluntary organizations which operate abroad," CIA sent out a field circular stressing stringent secrecy to. ? prevent more exposes. "In simple terms," the circu- lar said, "we are now in a.different ballgame. Some ? of the basic ground rules have changed." Among the CIA's clever ruses was to shift the covert "ballgame" from institutions to the individuals within them. If CIA no longer funds the National Student Associa- tion, it uses exchange students (some hold govern- ment grants) t6 collect intelligence overseas. Even today the CIA is using "several hundred American 'academics" to provide lead, make introductions for intelligence purposes, and write propaganda "theme material." Some are used "operationally," and at most of the iostitutions involved, no one knows of the CIX link except the atfent-prolessor. The CIA was not the only agile partner in this little dance of `reform." Katzenbach testified that his commission was (in the report's words) "de- signed by President Johnson . _ to head olf a full- scale Congressional investigation." 0 In the past :congressional oversight has all too often been no more sharp-eyed than Edward V. Long's hearings in 1966 on electronic surveillance_ The senator allowed FBi agents to write Ilia press release stating that the subcommittee had "con- ducted exhanative research- and was now "fully satisfied" that .the FBI had not abused its hugging authority. The "exhaustive" peek was a 9o-rnintite briefing from the FBI Which failed to disclose the bureau's most serious misdeeds. Wrote one bureau official to the associate director afterward: "We have neutralized the threat of being embarrassed by the Long Subconimittee...." ? While the existing intelligence charters are rag: it. can hardly be argued. that the officials who se tematically broke the law did- not know what they were -doing. A /957 CIA memo called its drug experiments "unethical and illegal" six years before they , were halted. While . former CIA Director William Colby was publicly taking the line that the President has constitutional pms-er to conduct covert operations, Colby himself had approved an internal CIA .study which found that, prior to the 1974 Foreign Assistance Act,. there were no legal or constitutional grounds for covert action without the advance approval of Congress. From .1969 on, CIA Director Helms sent Warnings to the White House :that- CHAOS ? the domestic spying scheme which canie perilously close to giVing us a secret "thought police" ? had gone beyond the CIA charter. "I need not emphasize how extremely sensitive this makes the paper," Helms wrote in a study of "Restless' Youth." The program ? which was mandated to find proof that foreign elements supported the American peace .Movement (any kind of support, even "en- couragement,""casual contacts" or "mu: eal inter- est") ? was not halted until March 1974. To compound the problem of, questionable. legal authority, only recently did Congress become fully aware that a "secret charter" existed for the nation's cloak-and-daggering ? the accumulated classified executive orders issued over the years. While Amer- icans Could debate the overt reform proposals in President Ford's February order (see March to Century 'editorial, p. 211), we may never know the full content_of Executive Order z 1905, which mere- , ly'hints that "in some instances detailed implemen- tation of the Executive Order will be contained in classified documents." On national television Ford said that .he trusted the American people to elect honest Presidents who would not 'abuse the powers ? of secrecy, and in his message to Congress he proclaimed that his plan for reform "places respon- sibility and accountability on indiViduals, not insti- tutions.", Long before the exposure of *the CIA began, Richard Helms likewise maintained that the country had to "take it on faith that we, .too, are honorable men." Yet the Ainerican system is one not of persons but of laws. And in such a system, as justice Louis Brandeis wrote in )928, the "existence of the government will be imperilled if, it fails to observe the law scrupulously, ... If the government becomes a lawbreaker, it breeds contempt for law; it invites every man to become a law unto 'himself; it in- vines anarchy- (Olmstead ? v. 177,1ited States). In COINTELPRO, the Senate report found, "the bu- reau secretly took the law into its own hands," and the consequence was anarchy. If. the FBI's own agents did not directly carry out murder plots, the bureau intensified the climate of violence in which black. leaders were slain just :as the C.I.A set the stage for the kidnapping and then. the shooting of General Ren?chneider in Chile and the bloody 8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 - Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : C1A-RDP77-00432R0001003900.06-9 .oveithrow.of Salvador Allende three years later . ? ? II Within.- this .-.atmosphere of deceit Which ? _ destine work seems to require, the. FBI still Ma-. niptilates.? the American media and ?the ,CIA fuels an international propaganda machine ?.most like- . the biggest covert operation of them all. Al- though for years the CIA has assured the media that. .? it was planting no informers an their news teams, Until February of this year CIA was. using 50 .unnamed ',American joiirrialistS and!, media em- ?? ployees for covert purposes. The CIA director pledged in. February that the agency "will .not enter into any paid or contractual relationship with any ! or part-time news ?correspondent ? ac- ? credited by any U.S. news service, .newspaper, period- ical,. radio or television network or station." But the s new policy permits the continuing? perhaps now ? expanding ? use of at. least two dozen journalists who are free-lance, unaccredited, unpaid, or rewarded by ?: ? CIA "briefings" in lieu of money as well as the use :of American news executives who have been impor- tant "media assets" in the past. .? ? t On May no George Bush issued a further opinion ! that ? the CIA "should not- be precluded" from 'using part-time journalists who want, to cooperate with the agency. The CIA continues its 'refusal to give out names of its media "assets" ? especially not to American. editors 'who want to clean house. In 'world news media the CIA is also using "several ? ?hundred foreign individuals around the world" who "provide the CIA with direct access to a large number .of foreign newspapers and periodicals, scores of press - services and news agencies, radio and, television sta- tions, commercial book publishers, and other foreign media outlets" (italics in the Senate report indicate agency censoring). In the past the CIA has main- tained two "proprietary news services" in Europe, one of which served 'Ito U.S. newspapers, as well as regularly planting stories in the foreign press and frequently using Reuters, the well-respected: news service which is considered fair .game because it is ? British-based. Because propaganda is . aimed first at the ? intangible ? the shaping of perceptions ? its effects ? ? are hard to measure, especially when it comes from ? invisible sources. . "The most important weapon of - Strategic propaganda'', is the book, as one former. Clandestine Service officer testified. CIA has been in the book business for several ?decades: before 1967 . ,it "sponsored,- subsidized or produced over ?n000 ? books," many of which were put out by CIA-backed. e- cultural organizations whose subsidy was "more - -: often than not" unknown to the writer. The Criss- 'commissioned Penhovskiy Papers ? (Doubleday, 1965) was a commercial success; the publisher never, knew of the CIA link.. When Penkovskiy was serial- ? ized in: the ! Washington Post .and go other U.S.: newspapers, the Russians denounced the hook as the . "coarse fraud" it was, ? and, notes former Moscow ? . correspondent. Stephen S. Rosenfeld, they retaliated by closing the Post's' Moscow bureau for two years. In :967 ? a year of 200 CIA ? books, among them. translations of MachiavelIi's The Prince into Swahili and T. S. Eliot's works into Russian ?the CIA : pledged it would no longer "publish boOks, -maga- zines and newspapers. in the United States," That Same year, however, . art agency order announced that "fallout in the United States; from a foreign ,publication which- we support ?inevitable: and ,consequently permissible." The CIA's leap in tailor- ? atiogic was elucidated by testimony from E. Froward Hunt, in charge of the CIA's U.S. publisher con- tacts in the late iofios, who said that .domestic fallout. "may . not" (in the -report's words) "hasie been unintentional." The Senate report quotes a September -1 970 cablie summary during CIA's propaganda program in Chile to suggest that the agency regularly expected "fallout": ? Sao Paulo, Tegucigalpa, Buenos Aires, Lima, Montevideo, Bogota, Mexico City report continued replay of Chile theine materials.. Items also carried in New York, Times, Washington Post. Propagarida ac- tivities. continue to generate good coverage of Chile developments al'ong our theme guidance.. Domestic fallout is "permissible" not only. because it iS inevitable but also because* it is 'desirable? especially where the selective release. of "facts" or the currency of agency-favored ideas serves an ideo- logical line or stratagem. To some it May seem accept- able, if distasteful, for propagandists :hired by our !government to tell lies in order to protect American democracy. Yet the implication is that our govern- ment and way of life have a monopoly on truth ? an attitude characteristic of totalitarian state's, not one embodied in traditional American values. If Senate- approved treaties affirm our respect for the Sovereign- ty of other nations, we cannot permit our govern- ment's undercover agents to mount attacks ? military or -verbal ? that threaten the right to self4leterminaT tion, no matter how misguided we may judge other nations to be. . Like most other questionable Secret designs recent- ly made public, propaganda is justified as counter- weight to-enemy propagandizing. Yet as the Senate :report simply pins it: "The strongest defense a free 'country has from propaganda of any kind, is a free and !vigorous press that expresses diverse points of view" ;? withotit its 'credibility being jNapardized by our own covert propagandists: There are a number of ;Stories in the Senate report which dbcument an inge- nious system :by -which propaganda is made to look like the real thing: CIA's dOmestic "plants" can legit- imize "news" reprinted abroad, while domestic fail- Out gives credibility Iasi stories planted initially in the. . foreign press. Besides polluting the free flow of ideas, : manipulations such ;as these are nothirig? less than ! subversive: they undermine the United States and its institutions ? universities, :the pretS, charitable ! groups, foundations and ,he churches-- by exploit- ing the legitimacy they may inherently possess, in .order to gain for insidicius designs credibility which the CIA would not otherwise be able to command. When the Church panel found that the FBI too had been using "friendly" reporters at least througn Ng, the burean insisted that if names were pub- lished the reporters might "dry up" is sources of information ? thus implying that the practice going. on. Under Hoover the FE-ds press liaison was Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA9pP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 the 'head of the Crime Records .Division, who dis- seminated to the bureau's "press friends" informa- tion to discredit. the FBI's critics and targets and to disrupt their activities. The. most massive FBI prop- aganda effort is now vcll known: the?. vicious campaign to take Martin Luther King "off his . pedestal". by . planting derogatory articles in the media, peddling secret tapes to journalists (such as Ben Bradlee when he was Newsweek's Washington bureau chief), and sending threat letters .to King ? and his wife, Coretta. The bureau's specialty in covert propaganda has been forged poison-pen let- ters, such as those sent to sow fear and hate among rival black groups so that their members might be provoked ? and some were? to kill each other off_ Hoover's propagandists aimed also at influencing foreign policy during the Vietnam years ?leading policy-makers to believe that antiwar sentiment as communist-inspired and thus did not be tak- en seriously. ?Hoover asked for and got reports that: judged communist -influence in the civil rights movement "vitally important" even though his. bu- reau had found it an "obvious failure." Neverthe- less, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was hounded for 25 years, despite an early report noting the NAACP's "strong tenden- cy" to "steer clear of communist activities." (In all, the FBI conducted more than a half-million investi- gations of alleged "subversives," yet was not able to prosecute a single individual or grout') for. planning or advocating overthrow of the g.overnment.) The most recent instance of an overt propagama campaign has been the CIA's public-relations.effott - to discredit its critics in the congressional inquiries. In December when CIA's Athens station. chief, Rich- ard Welch, was ambushed outside his home- and killed ? after his name, .along with those of other agents, had. appeared in the offbeat -magazine Conn- per-Spy ? the CIA at last unleashed its secret weapon: the public hero.' According to Daniel Schorr's Journal of those clays '("My 17 Months on the Cl: Watch," Rolling Stone , [April 8], p. (F), the plane carrying Welch's body was tinted to touch down at Andrews Air Force Base ' for live. TV coverage on the morning news shows; the funeral and civilian Welch's special burial in Arlington National Cemetery ? with 'full military honors and the same caisson that carried the body of President Kennedy ? was elaborately orchestrated to impress upon Congress and the press the dire consequences of their reckless probes and leaks. Blaming Welch's death on the press was grossly tin- ' fair; and there are several good reasons to believe ? that Welch's "cover" may already have worn dan- gerously thin before his name was published. Fot one, his residence had been the home of the former Athens CIA chief; for another, counterspies could find good clues of our agents' identities in the State Department's own Foreign Service Liv (which ceased publication in March) and its Biographic :Register (now published only on a restricted hasis in order to protect State's employees abroad, according to the department's policy statement ? which- mentioned Welch's death). When Daniel !,;charr of. CBS ,leaked die secret House intelligence report to the flnice in February, accusations grew louder that Congress could not be trusted with oversight. The people believed.. Writing in the New York -Review of Books (April 1), I. F. Stone made an astonish- ingly persuasive case for the bizarre possibility that the CIA leaked the House report to an unwitting 'Schorr ? a-rnasterstrOke which channeled public an- ger toward a virulent "secrety backlash." "It used to .be that a person could live isolated from the world's problems," muses the "Peanuts" character Lucy, playing psychiatrist. "Then it got to be that we all knew everything that was going on. The problem now," she tells poor Snoopy, "is that we know everything about everything except what's going on.. That's why you feel nervous. . . . Five cents, please!" _Given the clandestine community's past record, now only . tough legal restraints and con- gressional oversight -- as well as genuinely indepen- dent review, at the executive level and a. special prosecutor for intelligence cases ? can assure that intelligence ? will serve us. Otherwise, the Amer- ican people will be short more than a nickel, we'll still be nervous, and we still won't know what is -going on. The Senate Select Committee asked fOr a new oversight panel to draft omnibus legislation to recast the N'ational Security Act of 1947 and frame explicit intelligence charters. Two initial "reform" efforts ? President Ford's February executive order and At- torney General Edward Levi's April FBI guidelines on domestic investigations?are ,not yet embodied in law. While many of the Church committee's 1 Sa recommendations enn ust oversight responsibilities to agency types. cabinet officers, and President's men who have been untrustworthy in the past, the Church plan taken as a whole attempts, to put our check-and-balance system into better working order not to tie the hands of intelligence but to enable it to serve a democratic society's needs with- out undermining its cherished principles.. Some of the Church committee's key points of reform are these: 0 The CIA, the National Security Agency, and the clandestine arms of the Department of Defense must stay out of the domestic arena. Only the FBI should conduct domestic security investigations which are aimed at acts that violate federal laws. Under restric- tions which some senators. believe are not stringent enough, "preventive intelligence investigations" are allowed. in order to .head off terrotist plots or counteract the designs of Itostile foreign agents. Current bureau plat:tie-es suggest that new laws, recommended by the panel, most be enacted to prevent COINTELPRO red ttx: the FBI still has 2 half-million domestic intelligence files and has bud- geted for the cm-rent fiscal year $7 million to pay domestic sc.:cut ity informants ? twice that, spent for informants ag-;:inst..4.0rganized crime. In remarks appended to al' Senate's domestic report. Senator- Philip A. l-but wart Is that laws should no: be framcd for times n nalional calm. hot 'for the next periods of soeial tormnit and paf?sidwate dis!.ent, when the- curre'nt i.Ln uiee has faded :nv.1 thci,;c Pow Cr Tiniy tempnd to investigate dicr cities in !he-- it:1;1w :;N Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 ' Approved For Release-2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R0001003900b6-9 ? A "comprehensive civil remedies statute" should be enacted to give American citizens clear claim for. ?: litigation against the government. The Justice De- ? partment is making efforts to notify COINTELPRO victims, and under the Freedom of Information Aci Citizens may succeed in finding out about intelligence activity directed against them (a local ACLU office can help). ? The. CIA must get out of the covert publishing business in the' U.S. While the "operational" use of ? American academics would not be banned, top uni- versity officials Must be informed of CIA use. Laws. arc also recommended to prohibit the operational use of missionaries and media personnel. (In Feb- ? ruary the CIA announced it had "no secret paid or contractual relationships" with U.S. clergy, but said ? it would "continue to welcome information" from voluntary clergy-in for man ts. Even, when requested by the churches, former CIA Director Colby had re- fused to halt the use of missionaries; the CIA under George Bush still insists that there is no "impropri? ety" in its Clergy and media use. The Senate report tells of a Third World pastor-agent who carried out covert-action projects, developed CIA ."assets,". and passed its propaganda to the local press. He or ,she. was Only one of 21 similarly cooperative clergy.) O Covert activities, the Church panel says, should be ?'employed only by the CIA and only when "required by _extraordinary circumstances to deal With grave threats to national security" a definition that . would drastically. curtail CIA's past habits. Going 'beyond President Ford's- proposal, the senators ? would ban all political assassinations, fixing of dem- ocratic elections, and covert support for foreign police that systematically violate human rights. O The senators have asked that the FBI director be limited to an eight-year term, and they have chart- ed myriad bureaucratic changes to improve intel- ?- ligence effectiveness and to create "paper trails" of accountability. Building on *Ford's plan for strengthening the role of the Director of Central Intelligence, the Church committee would have the DCI prepare the budget and allocate resources for the ntire clandestine community. ,His post should ? be separated from that of CIA head in order to avoid a conflict of interest. 0 The central clement in the Church ? plan is a ? powerful, well-informed Senate oversight committee with rotating membership, budgetary authority, leg-. islative powers, and the 'right to receive advance notice of all ':significant" covert operations. How- ever the Senate's oversight apparatus will actually function ?and that will be subj ecnto some senatorial political machinations ? it is. well to keep in mind Senator Mike NIansfield's general warning against "a ? committee cloaked with only apparent importance, - in the end so impotent that it would itself be- come a creature if not an active conspirator within ?, the community over which it must exert scrutiny." ..Iv.. In an age of proliferating nuclear, powers, it ? would be -naive to propose that we have no need for intelligence services. It would be equally na? to trust the c/andestine establishment as the sole, SeCiet guardian of our national security. The Senate panel has attempted to steer carefully between these twin naivetes. It has envisioned comprehensive, if cau- tious, reform which we clearly, need: yet for a num- ber of reasons, it is altogether possible that we could get soniethiiig considerably less. ? First there is the nature of the Senate inquiry itself. Avoiding the House committee's adversary style and appearance of leakiness, the Senate panel strove *to be a tightlipped model for future over- sight. The committee held most of its hearings. in secret and worked closely with the administration, even deleting at its request2.00 pages fiorsi'? the published text. Nantes arc frequently. missing, and; like the full House, the Senate panel voted at the last minute not to reveal the total intelligence budget. The, concessions made to secrecy seem to have undermined the impact of the report ?and even helped those forces which oppose strong over- sight. Three panel members? Senators Walter F. Mondale, Philip A. Hart and Gary Hart ?have warned that the report is 'diluted" in important. respects, and-that the secrecy stamp has caused some of the report's "most important implications Ito be] either lost or obscured in vague language." In mid-May, however, the committee mounted an effective 'media strategy by steadily , releasing a stream of t5 supplementary reports, which made the nightly news with graphic tales of abuse for several weeks. The strategy forced the directors of CIA and IRS to reply, and finally ?after all this time? wrung A down-in-the-mouth public apology from. Clarence Kelley, the FBI head who has been under pressure from the ranks of bureau faithful not to confess Hoover's wrongdoing. While drama was needed to heat the debate up again, zeal for reform is likely to cool as the refinements of law are worked out in the coming yeas. - The times are also against reform. After the mazive losses of Vietnam and 'Watergate, the intelli- gence debate is set at a historic juncture for U.S. international, leadership and trust in American institutions at httme. It is commonly realized that political agreement about covert operations has. dis- integrated. During oversight debate earlier this year, former CIA head. John McCone urged that the cold- war -conSensus. be rebuilt. World events, national politics ?and covert propaganda somewhere? seem already to be moving the United States toward a 'os version of that old consensus, in spite of lessons learned. This emerging climate of opinion could block the overhaul of intelligence agencies ? without which, in Nelson Rockefeller's \cords, we would be "a sitting duck in a World of loaded shot- . guns." In times that tolerate such cold-war rhetoric (and . a gargantuan new defense budget), security and rut- tional-security have become common themes for an election year in which an ailing economy has further - weakened a progressive national spirit.' Carnpailn language everywhere betrays fears of the loss ()}7 American omnipotence?or rather that delusion of superpower, in the view of Frank Church, which dis- patches squads of. covert agents to police the world. In this climate the intelligence -flap" is a nou- issue. While big-government fears fuel the presi- dential campaigns, the cal menace of Big Brother Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 . government provokes from the major candidates nary a whisper. The perennial, inanities of our national politicking are in part responsible:for this omission. The intelligence., issue is far too complex and abstract to lend itself to sloganeering and head- line-length promises. -We have beard more campaign yawp about abortion ? an. important issue but one with which Presidents have little to do ? than about where each hopeful stands on civil-liberties issues' such as Senate lull One. Where would each candi- date.draw the line on covert activities? How weidd ? he see his role as chief of the most awesome. system of clandestine power in the world? Although intelligence reform is fundamenially a law-and-order issue which ought to appeal to con- servative voters, this cautious election year augurs ill for reform in two additional ways. The widespread . reaction against the tofios makes it hard for many to sympathize. with the victims of those years ? with the 'single exception of Martin Luther King. The candi dates know this. They are not about to champion the Socialist Workers Party,. slain Black Panthers and New Left activists ?.although these are only the most outrageously maligned of the multitude spied upon, which included such sterling citizens as Eleanor Roosevelt and thousands of ordinary, tax7. return-filing Americans. We are still, it seems,. unwittingly suffering from the deceits of COIN-i. TELPRO propaganda. It becomes 'difficult toi picture those years other than the way we perceived them then ? and in the collective consciousness of the electorate, it was all so long ago. The test of vigilance which faces the American public comes in the year of our bicentennial when most of all we should, in the words of Torn Paine, "refresh our patriotism by reference to first princi- ples." Yet the congressional probing of intelligence was inevitably' anticlimactic after Watergate's daily drama; and the audience, given to ephemeral in- .- tensities, soon got tired of the show. There are other reasons too why our vigilance has flagged. In a New Republic interview with Oriana FaIlaci, Congress- man Otis Pike speaks about why House members have not rushed. out to read the guarded copies of the intelligence report they had voted to keep to themselves: Oh, they think it is better not to know. There are too many things that embarrass Americans in that report. You see, this country went through an awful trauma with Watergate. But, ?even then; all they were asked to believe was that their President had been a bad person. In this new situation they are asked much more; they are asked to believe that their country has been evil. And nobody wants to believe that. . . . was one of [those who believed. the government]. It took this investigation to con- vince me that I had always been told lies, to make me realize that 1 was tired of being told lies. [April 3, 1976, p. to]. Perhaps it is hard to feel some personal animus toward typical bureau mumblings that defend the indefensible, like Clarence Kelley's apology for the FBI ("Power abused perhaps can be explained anti. possibly even be excused, but only when the ex- planation is truthful, contrite, and is accompanied by a well-defined plan to prevent a recurrence"). In the broadest of human terms it is no unique indict- ment that the average American citizen finds it bard to care very much about what the CIA has done. All of us like a personal world? we revel in gossip., in the Nixon of the bedroom and the White .,House chapel. 'We want persons behind the evil events of our times. The congressional inquiries did not raise up new national heroes or villains. As the psychologist Ernest Becker has 'tvritten, for the sensitive soul the impersonality of evil the central fact of the contemporary world ? is unbear- able: it is, as he says, too much to believe. What has begun to seepinto public consciousness is that the horror of the CIA? and in the end, all of intelli- gence, "theirs" or "ours" ? is its impersonality, ex- pressed in its bland, emotionless, mind-deadening -prose. 'We know that its faceless agents are "out there" ? though we do not know quite where even. now ? on missions that sacrifice 'persons to ideology, human relationships to "contacts" and "assets," hearts and minds to the gears of the propaganda -machine. If the horror of CIA is its abstract imper- sonality, that is also its impenetrable advantage: for we cannot act against what is vastly beyond our power to see and believe. Legal issues are abstract,, and as the framing of ' new intelligence laws goes en through the rest of the year, most Americans -will probably not be able to keep up with. all the detail. The danger of partial, compromised reform is that it might create nothing more than a framework of loopholes ? a set-op for CIA's vanishing acts_ If Americans do not .press, for stringent intelligence laws in the emerging cold -way clirnate of Congress and country, even the news that-, reform has' been done could turn out to be the biggest lie yet that my Uncle Sam told ore. ? The Washington Star Soturday, June 26,14;76 OA and Newsmen: A 'Cleaner Break NEW YORK ? The National Ncws Counell said Ye..- terday it had received assurances that the CIA will' not hire reporters "affiliated in any way" with Ame;cican news orgo.nizations, and that it was drOpping those al- ready on the payroll. The news council said CIA officials, including direc- tor George hush, toid them in a three-hour meeting, Thursday that the prohibition included news execa.. dives, stringers for Aniert::::1 news organizations, and freelance 'A/64...7.s "who could be interpreted in any manner asbeinr.g journalists." Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 CHICAGO TRIBUNE 28 June 1976 1500 Wiedricti - Soviet spies ?b re deep into U S. SOVIET BLOC spies have tried to re- cruit executive branch personnel of the American government as well as con- . gressional staff members in Washington.' They have devoted special attention to Capitol Hill staffers with easy access to secret inforrnaticn, as well as code ? clerks, secretaries, and typists across whose desks intelligence vital to the Communist dream of world domination might flow. They have hustled eide cross sec- tion of other American citizens in the hope of developing undercover traitors err double agents ad they have even attempted to-influence the United States policy decisions by seeking to compro- mise informants at the highest levels.. THESE ARE SOME .4f the facts about Soviet spy operations in the United States by the two Russian intelligence agencies?the KGB and the GRU?that lie buried within the pages of the 12-vol- ume,report ,of the Senate Intelligence Committee , chaired by Sen. Frank Church ED., Ida.) , They -tick out a warning about the ? Soviet threat to the national security of this country with the subdued ferocity of a time homli. ? But they have been largely ignored by the media, possibly because . they are buried between more controversial chap- ters bulging with critical appraisals of the American intelligence community. . In short, the Church committee did its job by inquiring into both American in-; telligence operations and the Soviet spy , , it as remis in failing t o dramatize the apparatus in/North America. However, w menace posed to our national security by the U.S.S.R. and its network of espio- nage agents here. i ; I ACCORDING Ti) the Senate report, about a third of the 10,000 personnel 'f countries where there are U.S. installa- tions of where American citizens live. "Another objective is the recruitment and cultivation of 'agents of influence' or agents who can influence political events or decisions," the Senate report declared. - . ' ? "Soviet intelligence also mounts tech- nical operations against U.S.- installa- tions and personnel. ? -- ! "Planting of microphones and instalIa- , tion of telephone taps is done on a' mas- sive scale in the U.S.S.R. and Soviet-ori- ented countries. The Soviets" are more selective in the West, but they .do .on- duct such operations, : "The primary targets are the offices_ and residences of U.S.- ambassadors, senior foreign personnel, CIA officers, .and defense attaches." The committee. reported there have been rare instances where the FBI has had reason to suspect that contacts be- tween congressmen-or high level execu- tive- branch officials with_ their Soviet counterparts might have involved the unauthorized [and presumably i unwit- ting] disclosure of confidential nforma- tion. And, it reported, , the FBI reported continued Soviet efforts "to penetrate" the American political system or devel- THE CHICAGO TRIBIEIF, 29 June 1976 Bob Wiednch op "an agent of influence hi American polities" or attempt to "influence the U.S. polity meking strticture." THOSE. ARE ANCY words for trea- son by extortion or possible duplicity, but they nevertheless sound a macabre note for a nation that has just finished emasculating substantial segments of its own intelligence gathering apparatus.. Evidently, the FBI and CIA have em, joyed some success in positively identi- fying some of the KGB and GRU spies who pervade the American landscape. The so called "illegals" are another problem not so expeditiously countered. ? The illegal is a highly trained espio- nage specialist who has been slipped into the U. S. with' a phony identity. Some have, been trained in scientific. or technical fields to give them easy access to employment in sensitive areas. , Detection of such individuals presents a serious problem to the FBI because once they enter the United States seith either true or fraudulent identification. they become lost among the swamis of legitimate emigres that. have been arriv- ing here in increasing numbers. - In 19721 there were fewer than 550 Soviet immigrants to this county. In ? 1974, the number rose to 4,000. "Relatively undetected," the FBI -told the Church committee. "they [the i1le- gals1 are able to maintain contact with the foreign control by means of secret writing, microdots. and npen signate in conventional communications which are not susceptible to discovery through'cone ? ventional investigative measures?' Hang around, We'll report more about this tomorrow. oviet svies aier even at a.funera ? ' currently!3ssigned to Soviet installations , 1 ? ?. r abroad are actually members of theI KGB, the Russian civilian spy organiza- 1 UNLIKE . THE ANtErtecoed boon- , gence services, Soviet spies knew no re- :tion, or the military espionage group i straints. Even the dead are not left i known es the GRU. g ? . e.. mi unturned in. the "?constant Communist Rigid Kremlin control of Soviet trade,; for information. - business, and media agencies provides ? i Witness-what occurred at the funeral ' added ctiver for RG13 and GRU agents. : I ? ? : of Richard Wekh, the CIA station chief, And the FBI? has identified scores of assassinated last December in Athens a '? ether Soviet spies planted . behind the ' 1 m t onth aft Serhis name had appeared on facade of the United Nations adrninistra- ? : Jit of alleged CIA operative s published s the International Atomic Energy .tive structure and such UN auxilliarie ' s ? a .' in a Greek.. English language newspaper. a' Agency and the International Telecom-.. ; As his. reinainS were being 'lowered rnunizations Union. I, into a grave L:a Arlington National Don't be content, however, to settle ; Cemetery,. two Eas. t Euroefean diplomats ? for that mensure nf the Soviet spy pres- ; were discovered hiding among members ? ence in the United States. - !of the press corps and snapping pictures' As the Church cominithei so accurate- i of CIA officials present to pay their It ly pointed out, many of the Russian in- , respects. to a murdered colleagiu?.. ' ? . etelligence Officers are alse? responsible The two diplomats mernberi (4. a for many iriformants who carry out the host of. Soviet setcllit; personne! thplo- wishes and objectives of their Soviet . matically - accreditr-A ? to the Unitei reaseers. .? . ? . ?. States hut actually functioning as secret ?A 'MAIN 'otieleCTIVE uf the Soviet ? ' espionage agents for their Kremlin rnas- *pies is the recruiting of turncoatg both ' . ters, were doing 'their thing?h!entitying Th the United Statee and in those foreign CEA agents. ' ? - MEANWHILE; ON Capitol/ Hill. time- gressional inquicies were takipg the: IBI and CIA to task for having done their thing while sometimes un tech- ? niques abhorrent in. a free, democratic society. ? The Welch'incident,,along with a wealth of other ? facts-about the. Mviec spy al)- . paratus in the United States, is contained: in the 12-volume report of the Senate In-: telligence? Committee. that explored the reputed excess ee of .Arnericar . intelligence. last yearoChairman of the committee was Sen. Frank Church Ida.). he- ? The material is there to be .read if onet has the time-and patience to find it. ' Our only criticism is that the commite? tee failed to 'give the data the same prom -- 'pence afforded the indiscretions of the- 'American , intelligence community when it disclosed its findinge last April. . ? Then the American people might have. been provided a more hala-nced perspective from which to judge the actinee of the FBI and CIA. 'TUE EAST EUROPEAN F pies f5 jt td M the Welch fun.erat were conducting the kiwi of operation that requires, the U. S. tO maintain .a strong counterespionage Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 structure. ? Officials say there are so many Soviet and Soviet' bloc agents operating here they .are literally tripping over one an-, other while performing their duties be- hind a variety of facades. The photographs were being taken for a very special purpose?the harassment of U. S. intelligence agents by publishing their namee and pictures at a later date to end their usefulness as spies. - It is only one of scores of techniques employed by Communist agents here to disrupt American efforts to keep them from stealing U. S. secrets. Because this is a free society practic- ing detente with a traditional enemy, our frontier' "ave been further opened to the eticree.* --tents of the: two Soviet - pinnag:. organizations, the KGB and GRU, :the civilian and military equiva- lenti?Of our own services. . .. ACCORDING TO-THE Church commit- tee, the number of Soviets in this country has, tripled: since. 1e50 and still is ine creasing:7:: ? A: counterintelligence *specialist told the:committee that the opening of .deep water ports to Russian ships in 1972 gave Soviet-, intelligence "virtually complete THE CHICAGO, TRIBUNE ' 30 June 197 Bob }Vied rich ? geographit access. to the United States.' ??? In 1974 alone; more than 200 Soviet ,ships with more. than 13,000 officers and filen aboard called at 40 deep water ports in the U. S. And each crew mem- ber was a potential spy with a practi- cally, unlimited license :to steal vital information or to contact spies already in residence here. - Although the. committeereport avoids going into specific detail, it strongly hints at. the measures to which American intelligence agencies must resort in at- tempting to protect a storehouse of U. S. information.. It is a secret and *sophisticated war in which the stakes are high?the na- tional security. of this_ country. And to achieVe this goal, the intern- are constantly striving to penetrate the Soviet services with infil- trators as the-best way of finding out if their own ranks have been penetrated.. "Conducting counterespionage ? ?w ith Penetration can be like shooting fish in a barrel,": a veteran CIA operative told coramittee investigators. ."Conducting counterespionage without the act of pene- tration is like fighting in the dark.' - ? ? . . e? ..? - ? ,D ,, , .. reasons k-i. THE 'UNITED STATES remains the prime target of the Soviet intellig,entie ? services, detente notwithstanding... : The U.S.S.R. carries out espioene. , and covert action operations on a lei ge ? scale against this nation, because it con- . siders it its "mainenemy." . And, to achieve . these objectives both in the U.S. and abroad, Russia utilizes not only the talents of its two spy agen- cies ? the KGB and the GRU'?- but the intelligence and security services of its Iron Curtain satellites. I?IAIN TARGETS of the Soviet assault, ' on the national security of the 'United States are federal gevernment officials, Youth, journalist, tied trade. organiza- tions, and the business, scientific, and political communities. . ? The Kremlin has upgraded Red Chine. to almost the same status of the U.S. as an espionage target since Soviet-Sino re- lations soured. However, the United States remains the priority target of the KGB and CRU, so Soviet spies view detente with - mixed emotions. ? For while it has afforded them greeter opportunities to plumb the U.S. toeiaury -of national security secrets, it has also enhanced the American capability as a counterintelligence threat by (:pening doors or. both' sides of the Atlantic.. The above are, amoog cii.-t1 in , the final report of Ow S-nate genre Committee' chairtnl by Sun. I.'rank Church ED., Idaho!, which explored 14 Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9' Charges the American intelligence corn' ? raunity had exceeded its Mandate. The committee also investigated the :threat posed to the United States by the , Soviet spy apparatus. It failed, however, to give equal emphasis to the depreda- , tions of the KGB and its sister services : when it unleashed its criticism of the CIA and FBI last April. Nonetheless, ? there are shocking con- clusions to be felled in .the chapters of the Senate report dealing with the Soviet intrusion here if one will take the time to root them out. "The espionage activities of the Soviet Union and other Communist nations di- rected against the United States are ex- tensive and relentless," the committee found. ? ? - e And, to carry . out such operations . against the U.S. awl other Western coun- tries, the Kremlin maintains a clandes- tine establishment estimated to total 10,- 000 personnel by the CIA. In addition, it supplements-this flying phalanx of professional spies with the resources of its T,,:ast European stooges and is said by the ? CIA to effectively control Fidel Castro's Cuban intelligence service, the DGI. "According to the CIA, counterparts of the liGlt and Cali in Eastern Euro- pean countries serve in varying degrees .as extensions of the Soviet anti-United States intelligence collection and covert action operations,- the Church commit- tea noted. ? It said eight of the Communist Satel- lites ? Poland, Czechoslovakia, Ifungo- IN the Soviet intelligence services, the CIA and FBI ? have found the recruitment of a so-called -agent-in- place. as the most effective means of gaining an. earloft within the KGB and, GRU.. ?-? e-e ? e 'Stated simply,?*that means buying' :off or otherwise -corrupting or ,comprprnis- ing a highly placed and venal member . of the oppoeitione.--- ..t ' . ? An -operation like ? that can ? be. ex-' ? tremely fruitful, the- .committee. because the turncoat is already trusted within the.Sovieteservice and "his. ac- cess to-documents . may. be unques- tioned." "Jack E. Dunlap, who worked at and spied; on the National Security Ageney in the 19t30s, is a well known example if a- Soviet agent-in-place within the U. S. intelligence service," the commit- tee reported. "His handler was a Soviet ? Air Force attache at the Soviet Em- bassy in Washington. - ; -pz course, a single penetration can be worth an intelligence gold mine, as were Kim Philby for .the Soviet Union and Col. Oleg Penkpvsky for the United States." ? ry, Bulgaria, and East Germany ? have Soviet intelligence advisers permanently stationed at their headquarters and the Russians have total access to. all the data they develop. "The CIA knows of operations against U.S. citizens and installations carried out by Eastern Europe intelligence serv- ices under Soviet guidance," the report declared. . I Only the Romanians, Yugoslavians, and Albanians maintain a- degree of in- dependence from the Soviet intelligence services:, ? Using its own agents and. those of Eu- ropean satellites is not the Kremlin's only bag, the committee reported: ??? ? .; The Foreign Tourists Department of the KGB' works heed at -recruiting as traitors. the . increasing numbers of 'American and other foreign tourists vis- iting the U.S.S.R. "through a large in- formant network" :Operating in hotels, restaurants; at campsites, .eand even service stations.? . The GRU is no slouch either. Besides conducting electronic eavesdropping on the communicationS -of strategic ground and air forces ,of the U.S. and its West .European and Far Eastern allies, it also listens' in on what the Red Chinese are saying. And covert units stationed at. Soviet embassies and trade missions intercept all manner of electronic communica- tions,..inclucling. coded messages and tel- ephone calls. ? : Another of its duties is to train Afri- cans, Arabs,. Asians, and Latin Amen- - cans in the fine arti of organizing under- ground nets and insurgent movements in their countries.... . ? The training is carried out at camps and bases in the Soviet Union and, ac- cording to the report, the Central- Com- mittee of the Communist Party Selects the inflivichril students and political groups to be trained in subversion and terrorism. BASED ON infoztmation compiled by American intelligence, the corn- 4 ? Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 ' ? mittee report drew a fascinating sketch of the organizational structure of the Russian espionage network directed at America. The First Department of the First Chief Directorate of the KGB, the civil- ian Soviet agency, is charged with U.S. ? and Canadian operations. ? "Traditionally, the numerical designa- tion 'First' has been assigned to the ? department that operates against the 'main enemy' of the U.S.S.R.," the com- ? mittee reported: "The United States has been that ene- ? my since World War H; but the Peo- ple's Republic of China has since been ? elevated almost to this status by current attitudes if not by formal organization." WASHINGTON POST 7 JUL 1976 'Friendly's .Suit ? .moscow ? The Soviet ?weekly Literary Gazette, in its third attack in six weeks- ?? against three U.S. corres, :pondents, said its editors were "quite happy" that Al- ?',fred Friendly Jr. of News- week had filed a libel suit in the Moscow courts as a . result of the charge? that he worked for the CIA. - ? "The editorial board has at its disposal such mater- ials... that we are certain will provide the basis not only for the public condem- nation of the gentleman, but also for criminal punish- ? ment provided under Soviet law," it said. Friendly said it looked like an attempt to ? delay his suit. , - WASHINGTON POST 20 . JUNE 1976 TRIBUNE, Scranton 2 June 1976 Dallas Postscripts ? Some students of American history, and various writers who researched and wrote on the subject, never accepted the general ac:count of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, that it merely was the act of a ? disgruntled actor, John Wilkes Booth. Instead, theories were offered of conspiracies of one kind or another, including plots put together by Lincoln's political rivals and even people high in his administration. Now, more than a decade after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, it seems likely that dissatisfaction will persist far into the future over the shooting down of the President in Dallas. Calls are heard for a reopening of the investigation, for reviews of the work of the Warren Commission and for deep examination of the conclusions that Lee Harvey Oswald alone conceived and carried out the assassination. . Pennsylvania's U.S. Sen. Richard "Schweiker has become strongly identified in uncertainties and misgiving about the investigation of the assassination, particularly- on the point of whether the Warren Commission was given all of the data it should have received from the Central Intelligence Agency and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Now a flat accusation is made that the CIA and FBI did hide facts. A Senate committee that investigated intelligence agencies said the commission did not consider the possibility That .Fidel Castro arranged the assassination because the CIA didn't tell the panel about purported U.S. plans to kill Castro. There are, of course, previous reports . that the late J. Edgar Hoover, FBI director, never told the commission that the FBI destroyed a threatening note Oswald sent to Dallas agents before the assassination and. did not disclose 17 agents were disciplined for failing to recognize Oswald as a security threat. All this has led the Senate committee to note "the possibility exists" of a deliberate cover-up 'by senior officials of both the CIA and FBI. Since the Warren Commission report was issued, there have been careful considerations of it and tests of many of its points, most of which have been resolved by the reviewers in favor of the commission. Even the Senate committee now accusing the CIA and FBI of not being fully candid says it has no evidence to overturn .the. finding of the conclusion that Oswald alone killed. President Kennedy. It seems reasonable, however, that many will agree with Senator Schweiker that "there is no reason to have faith" in the Warren Commission's "picture of the Kennedy assassination.'" On that score there always has been doubt and it very well will linger. ....??.,.?(. ? 1311Z..1-11- TrfE" ' 1zA TiC ? LI g 7 OF A 11,EitA0 CRACY ' THZ OaASTITLITIoNAL Car4J04Tioisi 11.4 PqtLAIDELPHiA,Iz'A., thl 1787. 44,e..7.- /tee _5-4-:.s-sio,v_5?- k//rIv Sew/we/es 0/v si4? RV,F,2 MO JA.4.='07,,7:44,4770A/ 4/A/ r/ TNE Cb.v.srirUrroAl H,40 Ce:441,,,..,,c-nsp, AND ie,tF"--L1_5..5-D A1,44ee PeietIC liez,CO.S? Or' reYeE coAivENT/CW ? ? - 15 Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 ? ' Approved For Release 2001/08/083: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 NEW REPUBLIC & 10 July 1976 Un likely Assassin Once again the "Cuban Connection" has been raised to explain the assassination of President John Kennedy. But this time it carries the imprimatur of the United States Senate. Senator Richard Schweiker released last -week the report of the CIA subcommittee that investigated the Lillie of President -Kennedy. The report is 106 pages long and deals with many of the current theories held by assassination buffs. I cannot deal with all of these, but want to shed some light on one rased by Schweiker. Although the report comes to no clear conclusion, it does cite testimony, memos andmaterial that raise the possibility that Castro might have ordered Kennedy's death in retaliation for CIA attempts on his life. I do not want to defend or criticize the Schweiker report nor the various theories. I do want to put forth what Fidel Castro said about these theories. To my knowledge, in the fast two years Castro has spoken five times about the assassination of President Kennedy? in July and September 1974, again in May and August 1975, and recently in April of this year when he proclaimed in a public speech in Havana that he had nething to do with the killing of President Kennedy. But his personal and private conversations during the 1974 and 1975 meetings are far more interesting and comprehenive, and reveal in greater detail his own thoughts and feelings: not only in the words but in the style and mood- of the conversations. In July 1974 Frank Mankiewicz and I spent four days with Castro, including 13 hours of formal interviewing in Castro's office, making a television documentary for CBS. During this interview and in private conver- sations, we talked with Castro about Kennedy and the :assassination. We asked Castro point-blank whether John Kennedy was killed in retaliation for an 'attempt on his own life. Castro paused, reflected, puffed on his cigar and gave a clear and detailed answer?in part as follows: "I have not read this in any serious American publication . there are so many imponderables behind President Kennedy's assassination that it would be a good thing if this were known someday. I .have heard that there are certain deruments that will not be published until after 100 years and I ask myself why. What secrets snrround the Kennedy assassination that these papers cannot be published? . . We have never believed in carrying out this type of activity of assassination of adversaries .... and our own background proves it . .. we fought a war. . . we were not trying to kill Batista. It would have been easier to kill Batista than to have .fought the Moncada. Why? Because we do. not believe that the system is abolished by liquidating leaders, and it was the system that we opposed . it went against our political ideas to organize any type of personal attack against Kennedy .. we understood what the implications were, and we were concerned about the possibility that an attempt would be made to blame Cuba for what had happened, but this was not what concerned us most. In reality, we were disgusted, because, all hone!) we were in conflict with Kennedy politically, w h.,d nothing against him personally, and there was 110 reason to wish him personal harm." In addition, Castro made a not her private point?one he repeated to Senator James Abourezk in August Approved For Release 2001/08/08: 1975. "Wewould have been foolish tobarm Kennedy,". Castro said, "because Kennedy was thinking of changing his policy. toward . Cuba. Kennedy's negotiators werein Cuba at the time Of the assassina- tion." Castro was referring to a November 1903 visit by French journalist Jean Daniel who, before he traveled. to Cuba, was personally asked by ['resident Kennedy to transmit messages to Castro. Castro described the. .meeting to me: 'As I was listeningtoei;erything Daniel was telling me about his conversation with Kennedy, the news broke over the radio that an attempt had been carried out against Kennedy's life. In reality, I tell you personally, and I _think 1 speak for ? all my 'fellow revolutionariese4We'Ml.felt a reaction of pain, of great displeasure . . it was really such a shame, such a tragic ending to Kennedy's life." As indicated in his discussions of July 1974, Castro has-been sensitive to the fact that some people might want to make .a connection between the Kennedy assassination and Cuba as a? result of activity in the "Fair Play for Cuba Committee" and Oswald's applica- tion for a visa to Cuba. As. Senator McGovern remembers the conversation, Castro "expressed dis- may over a possible association and wasfrightened at ? the prospect of circumstantial evidence." In - that ? conversation Castro said, "My God, if that [the Nisa application] had gone through, it would have looked terrible." In his conversation with me, Castro went into further detail: "It is very interesting that this man? Oswald?who was 'involved in the ? assassination, 'traveled to Mexico a few months prior to the. assassination and applied for a permit at the. Cuban Embassy to travel to Cuba, and he Was not given the permit. We had no idea who he was. But I asked myself why would a man who committed :such art act try to . come here. Sometime:, we ask ourselves if someone did not wish to involve Cub i in this, because Pm under the impression that Kennedy's assassination was organized by reactionaries in the United States, and that it was all a result of conspiracy. "What I can say is that he asked permission to travel to Cuba. Now, imagine that by coincidence he had been granted this permit, tht he had visited Cuba for a few days, then returned to the United States and killed Kennedy. That would have been material for provoca- tion . In a later conversation with Saul Landau., Castro added, "Luckily the bureaucratic process prevailed and our consular officer routinely denied Oswald's visa. We had never heard of him." A look at the historical context seems to indicate that what Castro said has the ring of truth. Why would Castro kill Kennedy at the very moment that Kennedy. had clearly indicated to personal messengers in Cuba on ? November 22 that the US wanted to start a new dialogue? At no time under Castro's rule has Cuba been accused of assassinating or plotting to assassinate its adversaries. 'During the fighting in the mountains there was never a reported Castro attempt on Batista's life. And lastly, why tvcmid a small country like Cuba. attempt the assassination of the President of 0-is-1.Jnited States, when discovery and proof of that act would have meant certain and clear ? action and probably destruction of Cdstro't; Cittb,t? ..;Ktrby Pries is a free-lance writer in Washiinoon. (I(A-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 7Aes ? Approved For Release 2001/08/08? CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 THE 'WASHINGTON POST Thursday, July 8,1976 A25 Anti-Spy agazine -- Staff Split: By Cynthia Kadonaga. s ? Washington Post Mat t Writer. Political and Personal bick- ering has split the staff of, Counter-Spy, a magazine the Central Intelligence Agency partially blamed for the mar- . der of an Athens agency of- ficial last December. Although the magazine's. office is closed and four, of: Its seven staff members have. resigned, those who remain. said the magazine will con-' tinue to be published by a new staff: ? The magazine gained na- tional attention after former CIA Director William E. Col- by said it Contributed to the assassination of Athens sta- tion chief Richard S. Welch. Counter-Spy had listed. Welch as a CIA official in its winter issue, and the in- formation later was pub- lished in an English-language Athens newspaper. Those who reject Colby's accusation point out that Welch lived in an Athens house traditionally reserved for the top CIA official. He was not operating under ? cover. ? . According to Harvey Kahn, ? a former Counter-Spy staff member, the split resulted partly from differences over how the staff should be or- ganized. "Some people, like me, be- lieved that a collective was still viable," he said in ? a phone conversation. "But other people wanted to aban- don the collective process and go into a more tradi- tional, less democratic orga- ? nization. Instead of going ? through a power struggle, we decided to quit." - .? Both current and former members said that personal- ity clashes also contributed to the split. One member re- portedly accused other . members of being police ' agents, anticommunists, sex- ists and liberals. s Some former ? members gave other reasons for leav- ing, but Julie Brooks, who has not resigned, said in an Interview that political and personal disagreements had ? been 1Prevalent" before the break. - ? Ellen Ray, a current mem- ber, said in a phone conver- sation that she is "positive about the reorganization." ' Kahn said that although he hoped, the magazine would continue, he thought the new, staff probably WASHINGTON STAR 25 JUNE 1916 Charles Bartlett The Schweiker disclosures The fresh disclosures on President Kennedy's assas- sination by Sen. Richard Schweiker, R-Pa., raise ? intriguing questions but they do not, as he suggests, vitiate the findings of .the Warren Commission. Schweiker's claim that his probings leave the na- tion with no further cause to have faith in the Warren. Commission Commission is an exaggera- tion. The senator has, it is true, found a gap in the commission's inquiry and he has somewhat laborious- ly woven a tapestry of as- sorted facts that point to . Fidel Castro as the man be- hind Lee Harvey Oswald. ,..Kennedy assassination buffs-will be stimulated to new frenzies by Schweik-e er's discovery that the com- mission did not prod the CIA or the FBI into exten- sive inquiries on the Cuban angle. There was more con- cern with Oswald's links to Russia than with his friend- liness toward Castro. One member, former Sen. John Sherman Cooper, is quoted as saying that he doesn't re- call any deep discussions of the Castro angle. It is clearer now than it was then, even to members of the commission, that Cas- tro had some cause to con-- ? sider retaliatory measures against the American Presi- dent. Richard Helms, then CIA director of operations, could have made the situa- tion clearer by informing the commission that the, agency had take." serious ; ? would have the same per- sonality clashes .and disa- greements over organization as the old staff. Counter-Spy is funded ' partly by Fifth Estate, a group of writers, former ; CIA agents and former Viet- nam war protesters. Author Norman Mailer founded Fifth estate, a *tax-exempt -organization, in 1973; and has provided souse o.f its .funding. steps, with presidential backing, to bump off Cas- tro. But as Helms testified later, no one asked him about it and the agency had 'lots of license in those days to keep its secrets, to itself.. But. ? But. President Kennedy had not hidden his anxiety to see Castro out of the way. In his Miami speech four days before his death, he talked of Castro's -small band of conspirators as the only obstacle to good Cuban-American relations. "Once this barrier is re- Moved," he declared, "we will be ready and anxious to work with the Cuban peo- ple." These words could have-prompted the commis- sion to consider Castro's reaction_ - However, Schweiker seems to be stretching his case when he links the assassination to the CIA ne- gotiations with AMLASII, a high Cuban official who was entreating U.S. support for a coup d'etat. Agency offi- cials refused to give AM- LASH the weapons he want- ed or to have any part of his assassination plans until al- most ? the same hour the President was shot. This sad irony makes it hard to believe that Dallas was a retaliation for the AMLASH ?dealings. Similarly, Schweiker's case gains interest but little added weight from his fascinating description of J. Edgar. Hoover's dog-in-the- manger dealings with the Warren Commission. Hoov- , TrIE WASHINGTON STAR 26 June 1976 er's inclination to put the FBI's reputation ahead of its (lurk to work closely with the commission does not seem as surprising now as it might have in 1964. The country has learned a lot about the kinds of gimes Hoover played. But the FBI and CIA spared no efforts to estab- lish the range of Oswald' contacts, and nothing in the Schweiker findings ties him any closer to Cuban intelli- gence. He brawled on the street and talked on the radio in behalf of Castro in New Orleans. He did not hide from his wife his frus- trated attempt to reach Havana.' This is not the behavior pattern of ,a man tapped bra secret mission. Schweiker has turned up some question marks. It would be interesting to learn more about the two men who slipped into Mexi- co and flew to Cuba soon ?after the assassination. ? Perhaps More scrutiny should be given to Castro's unusual interview with an American reporter three months before the assassi- nation. He warned then that American leaders would be in danger if they assisted any attempt to do away with Cuban leaders. ? But the grim episode should not be stirred into ? another formal investiga- tion unless there is new information which flatly re-. futes the conclusions by the Warren Commission. The Schweiker disclosures do not justify another ingeiry. A Lawsuit in Moscow ? An :American newsmagazine correspondent has taken on a Soviet newsmagazine which called him a CIA agent. In a gutsy move believed to be the first of its kind, Alfred Friendly Jr. of Newsweek filed suit in Moscow demanding that the Soviet weekly Literatur- , nya Gazeta retract the charge. A doubtless surprised judge accepted the complaint and set a hearing date for next Friday. "I can't let a smear like that stand,- Friendly explained to a correspondent for The New ? York Times, which also had one of its men in Moscow- identified as a CIA spook. An Associated Press corre- ? spondent also made the Gazeta's list, and all of them ? vigorously denied any CIA association. The thinking among Kremlinolog,ists is that the attack by the offi- cial Soviet magazine was either: A) retaliation for re- cent charges in the American press that some Russian ? journalists here are KGB agents, or B) a warning to Sovictseitizens to keep shy of American correspond- ? ents. 17 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved-For Release 2001/08/08---: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 - VIRGINIAN-PILOT, Norfolk ?25 June 1976 9. he - Cuban Connectioni . The report of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Activities on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy lends official substance to . suspicions that are widespread. ? The 106-page report says that the Central Intelligence. Agency and the Federal Bureau of Investigation with- held information material to the War- ren Commission's investigation of the killing of President Kennedy in Dallas in 19'63. Both the CIA and, then FBI gave a greater priority to bureaucratic face-saving than to the pursuit of the truth. Both the CIA and the FBI were con- cerned with keeping the Warren Com- mission's investigation focused narrowly on Lee Harvey Oswald (who was killed by Jack Ruby in the Dallas jail, a murder millions saw on televi- Sian) and closing the case quickly. Just four days after the assassina- tion, Attorney General Nicholas Katz- enbach sent a memo to the White House saying: "The public must be satisfied that Osviald was the assassin; that he did not have confederates who are still at large; and that the evidence was such that he would have been convicted at Furthermore, the Attorney General said that speculation about the mo- tives of Oswald "ought to be cut off, ? a - THE PHI LP.D ELPHIA 27 June 1976. ? and we should have some basis for re- . butting thought that this was a Com- munist conspiracy or (as the Iron Curtain press is saying) a right-wing? conspiracy to blame it on the Commu- nists." Specifically3 the report says that CIA - Director Allen W. Dulles never told ? the Warren Commission of the CIA's involvement in assassination plots against Cuba's Fidel Castro. It details extensively the CIA's scheming to as- sassinate the Cuban Premier and notes the fears, ignored at higher levels in Washington, "that Castro would retal- iate in some way." Also the report says that Director J. Edgar Hoover was fearful that the FBI might be criticized for failing to inves- tigate Lee Harvey Oswald thoroughly. Mr. Hoover viewed the Warren Com- mission as an adversary body, the re- port says, and concealed from its . members the disciplinary action he. took against 17 FBI personnel in the investigation's mishandling. ? (Some were not disciplined until the Warren Commission's work was completed in 1964.) In sum, the Warren Commission's finding that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in killing President Kennedy was reached upon the basis nfincom- plete information and facts pertinent to the probe were kept secret. Second-. A;diew JFK. probe is jusli'fi ,?.. Sp;eaking- at a news conference on. the release of the fifth and final re- port of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Activities, Sen. Rich- ard _S_ Schweiker of Pennsylvania ac- cused the CIA and the FBI of a "cov- er-up" and declared that "there is no longer -any reasbn to have faith" in the Warren Commission's picture of the aS8assination of President John F. Kennedy. We -think Sen. Schweiker overstates the case. The Warren Commission, it will be recall "cl, had concluded that Lee Har- vey.0swald, acting alone, had killed President Kennedy. The Senate Select Committee rep6rt, in which Sen. Schweiker played an important role, concludes that there is no evidence "sufficient to justify a conclusion that a conspiracy to assassinate President Kennedy." ThiSh is not to say, though, that there is nothing to justify a new in- vestigation of the tragedy, called for by Sea. ?Schweiker. For there is evi- _ ? guessing the Warren Report has be- come a national pastime virtually. The Senate committee stops short of suggesting that Oswald was part of a plot. The existing evidence is not "sufficient to justify a conclusion that there was a conspiracy to assassinate President Kennedy," the report says. Nevertheless, it notes that important leads were not pursued at the time and it hints strongly that there was a Cuban connection that might be cor- roborated by a new probe. It may not be possible to establish the truth at this time.,But the Warren Commission's findings are disbelieved widely and may be completely discred- ited by the Senate Select Committee's report. After he left the White House President Lyndon Johnson said that he thought President Kennedy was the victim of a Cuban plot. Senator Rich- ard Schweiker, the Pennsylvania Re- publican who has been demanding that the investigation be reopened, says that there are "important new leads" to be pursued, some still secret. Senators Frank Church (D.-Idaho), the chairman of the Select Committee. and Gary Hart (D-Colo.), who pre- pared the report with Senator Schwei- ker, wants a new probe too. Nothing less will be acceptable to a cynicak, public. dence, as the Senate intelligence panel reports, that the CIA and the FBI not only failed to investigate thoroughly but did in fact cover up crucial information from the investi- gation and the Warren Commission. The CIA, it is now known, was at the time of -the assassination and in the months before actively working on plans to do away with Cuban -Pre- mier Fidel Castro, and Castro knew quite a bit about what the CIA was up to. Yet the late Allen W. Dulles, CIA director, though himself a member of the Wan-en Commission, did not in- form his fellow members -of the CIA plots. And, as the committee report declares, -senior CIA .officials "di- rected their subordinates to conduct an investigation without- telling them of these vital facts:: As for the FBI, the late Director J. Edgar .Hoover within:31d vital informa- tion, including the fact that Oswald had sent a threatening note to the FBI's Dallas office?and that some- one in that office destroyed the note two hours after Kennedy was killed. A-s the put it, "The F131 conducted its investintion in an. atmosphere of concern that it would be criticized and its reputation tarn- ished." ? We doubt that a new investigation ?. .would change the central findings .of the Warren Commission. We doubt that any investigation will satisfy the assassination buffs who are con- Vinced that the lack of evidence is it- self evidence of a conspiracy. A new investigation might, how- I ever, satisfy- reasonable citizens that all that can be done is being done to tie in the loose ends and fix the ec- sponsibility for the failure of IL S. in- vestigating agencies to follow through on the most -niportant job they over; had. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9i ; WASHINGTON POST 1.5 JUN 1976 William S. Cohen Toward Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Intelligence Oversight BULLETIN, Providence 11 June 1976 ? This is not a happy hour in Washing- ton. The hot breath of scandal bangs like summer smog over Congress. ? Charges of one member's private profit from his public office and another's personal gratification at public expense have electrified the House Ethics Com- mittee into life, and this is as it should be; congressional abuse of power and public funds is a serious matter that cannot be permitted to go unchecked. But an additional tragedy of the cur- rent controversy is that the balance of this session is likely to be spent attack: ? lug or defending congressional honor The writer is a Republican repri; - sent ative from Maine. ? - ? . while our larger accomplishments are obscured and our major tasks go unfin- ished. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the matter of congressional Ov- ersight of our hydra-headed intelli. gence community. One accomplishment which should not go unnoticed was the Senate's over- whelming Vote to establish a strong. new oversight committee; this was no ? small accomplishment because it came. over .the strong opposition of commit.; tee chairmen who supposedly had been scrutinizing the intelligence agencies over the years. The Senate leadership fashioned a compromise that gained: the grudging support of a good many. . conservatives as well as most Senate' moderates and liberals: It is by . no: i means perfect in its structure or. corn- ? position. Nonetheless, the new Senate. committee is not designed to be a paper tiger, toothless and eager to purr con- tentedly in the cozy executive lap. ? . The committee has exclusive' jurii- -diction over the CIA, formerly the sole preserve of the Armed. Services Com- mittee. It will share authority: with. Armed Services over the huge defense intelligence establishment, including, ? DIA and the National Security Agency.. Similarly it will be able to scrutinize ? the intelligence activities of the FBIesa, major source of past abuses. It will, in addition, share jurisdiction over, the' State Department's small hut important" Bureau of Intelligence and Research with the Senate Foreign Relations Coro-. mittee. But the new Committee's most pow, ,erful tool will lie not simply in its power to look over the agencies' shwa- ders, but rather in its power of thee purse. The new zomin'atee has the power to authorize apprcpeiatiore of- funds foe the intelligence agen.eies, a. 'powerthat it shares with other corrinit-... tees for all but the CIA. Tho ,cower to atzthortzo &orrice veith It the rower and ? 'the obligation to know the ageneles`' as the CIA done its job? 'Yet another report on the Central intelli- gence Agency has issued forth from the staff of the Senate Intelligence Committee, and in some respects this one goes more to the heart of the whole matter than any of its predecessors. ? ? : This study, a history of the CIA and its deals not with dramatic wrong- doing or secret weapons but with the basic question: how well has the agency done its principal job? If this job is to provide presidents with top-notch data on what is happening around the . world, the agency. (says this account) has fallen short. -? Because of the anti-Communist climate that prevailed when the CIA was formed, the study says, the agency focused much of. its effort on combating Soviet influence. This led naturally to a concentration on Covert operations, says the report; intelli- - gence gathering and analysis were given less attention than they deserved. . ? - Moreover, the agency has tended to devote much time to preparing a daily intelligence summary while its much more. important long-term assessments (known as. national intelligence estimates) often have gone- unread by presidents. Top-ranking policymakers, in short, too often have not paid .close scrutiny to the intelligence data' that has been offered. ? . purposes and pursuits. The Senate 'Ma': achieved a responsible balance bee. tween the need for intelligence activity. .and the need for congressional oyes- . ? Sight and restraint. . But while the "other body' his: proved itself capable of action, we in Reuse are in woeful disarray. Our attempts at investigating the intelli- gence agencies have been marred by. 'Wholesale leaks and internecine squab- - bles. This unhappy fact was all too of- ten noted by our Senate colleagues when the posiibiLity of a joint House- Senate intelligence committee was un- der consideration. The fact thut the Senate decided so decisively to go it alone is, regrettably, largely of our own What the Senate has producedls greet merit, but it is too little by half.. The mechanics of the legislative end budgPtary pmeee,s cee; for a pa,filtiel: committee in the House of Eepresenta: thres. With re3ponsibili1y for the intel Ilgence community pessine, through the prism of several coney:laves in Vile- iloune, no singZe eerar.iiitee can meRe a- lUdgereentonZhe- bL.,f.:;.::;:d eingto entity.eep>;!.11(.;i:),L.; 12:13 can-. 11.1111ei:f,i;,:_?-5k7_71cv:, 011! t.r.). ba re vieve4r; by n eeree7e..i miMee in the Si:71,7:V% Tzrec.tea For all its. dry, social-science phraseology, this most recent appraisal of the CIA' may be the most alarming. For its message is that the intelligence function has been distorted by bureaucratic infighting and that even when the CIA does its own job well, men at the top are not inclined to pay dose attention. "Senior policymakers Must ac- tively utilize the intelligence capabilities at their disposal," says the study: the Director of Central Intelligence "must be constantly informed, must press for access, must vigorously sell his product and must antici- pate future demands." - This is a sound formula as far as it goes; but it provides no remedy for the situation in which a President simply ignores what the CIA tries to tell him. As Former CIA Director William E. Colby recently ob- served, somewhat ruefully, you can provide the. President with plenty of data, "but you can't rub his nose in it." Despite the spotlight on the agency's 'doings in the past 18 months, little has been done toward a major redirection_ The Senate now has a so-called "oversight" committee, but the House refused even this small step. All the new laws, all the internal housecleaning, all the congressional "over.- Sight" ? none of this by itself will restore the CIA to effective performance of its major mission. The agency needs to keep its policy analysis function at the forefront of its concern, and its director needs to make every effort to see that CIA's long-term estimates get the President's attention. will, In resolving legislative differences ? with the House, go to conference with ? seveaal different House cominnteesn Never has the need for a .new .House committee on intelligence been more obvious. Yet fl intelligence-oversight bills have been introduced in the House and none has reached the.floon. - - The time for us to act in the House of Representatives is now. We should es- tablish a committee of the House that vioulti have similar respeasibilities and- powers to the one recently set on by the Senate. Most importantly, it should be mandated to wort an* with the Senate in- the delicate area of :its re- sponsities. Perhapa .it fs not vain to hope that as memories of the fease etarts and leaks of the past year;iti.. to fade and the new House coinie-iii:..tee pi:TA/es ie. con work responsibly in the atiaVioelel interest, tha ultimate goal can aclieved: a joint congressional cola-- - mitteo on intelligence patterned along. the line, of the Joint,747,nergy Commit- tee whicie 1.33 worked so well. lIeeriveiile, if vie cae-. 'Acep our eyes on tho;i:erieVil Cf refeete, pesters whet c70 c:r9e?ny tr.:5)0751 of dust te.,:.`..017.-1:eeeer."-eee of an: rt?Lt:.;;%: irae own c'0,11:Z.--.7:, :Or t4t?, eCiMUISC gC,S,d. ? Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 PrOVedRir'Release 2001/08T08 : CIAADP77-00432R00010039000679 TIMES, Chattanooga 26 June 1976 Unintelligent The truest -statement in the Senate In- telligence Committee's final report on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. is contained inits. concluding paragraph. Its work, the committee acknowledged, "undoubtedly . will stir controversy . . . Conspiracy theories. and theorists abound and the public remains unsatisfied.. Regrettably, this report will not put the. matter to rest. Not since- the shots were fired on that sunny November afternoon in Dallas, end- ing the life of the young ? President, and not even after high level Warren Com- mission report ? was issued months later* after an exhaustive investigation, has .there- been consensual agreement in this country on the events leading up to and in- cluding the tragic occurrence. The Warren Commission came to the conclusion that Lee Harvey Oswald, ? a misfit with a background of Communist and Cuban anti-American associations, acted alone in the assassination. The Senate committee does not refute that finding. Instead, it emphasizes "it has not uncovered any evidence sufficient tO:justify a -conclusion there was a con- spiracy. . ." , Yet it compiled instance after instance -Jr failures within the CentlIatilatalligence Agency and the Federal -13-tiFeau of In- veatigatian to follow up on obvious leads involving Oswald during their own probes - of the crime, and to inform the Watren Commission of the existence of such in- NEW YORK TIMES 7 JUL 1976 SUIT IS WELCOMED BY SOVIET WEEKLY MOSCOW, July 6 (Reuters)? The editors of a Soviet weekly newspper said today that they were 'quite happy" that an American correspondent here had filed a libel suit over its allegation that he worked for the Central Intelligence Agemcy. For the third time in six weeks, the weeky Literatumaya Gazeta ? attacked thelournalist, Alfred Friendly of NewSweek magazine, and two Of his col- leagues, Christopher Wren of The New York Times and George Krinsky of The Ass6- dated Press., The latest article, made avail- able in advance of publication tomorrow, renamed directly to Mr. Friendly's action. ? "We are quite. happy with this abrupt step because the about the work of the News- week correspondent which, we are certain, will provide a basis -not Only for the public cott-i demnation of that gentlernan,1 ibut also for the criminal pun-1 ishment envisaged by Soviet' I i ,low, ' t said. r Intelligence formation as they possessed- about the. as- sumed killer who himself was shot to death two days later.. This leads to the damning- conclusion, . based on evidence gathered by the commit- tee, that the process by .which the intelli- gence agencies arrived at the reports they . gave the Warren 'Commission was :im-' ?peached by their own actions or inactions. Their inquiries were "deficient and? facts which might have substantially affect- ed the course of the investigation were not provided" the commission, the committee. report said. ? . ? ? 'Concern with Public reputation, prob- ? lems of coordination between agencies, - possible bureaucratic failure acid embar- rassment, and the extreme. cornpartmen- . tation of knowledge of sensitive operations may have ? contributed to these shortcom- ings," it found. . ? What seems most probable at this point is that neither the committee's report nor any other that may follow is likely to pin down without the shadow of a doubt every detail that lay behind the Kennedy as- sassination: The good, if any, in this con- - firmed. raking . over old coals - will be .changes in programs and methods ? for the better, we hope ? of the nation's in- telligence agencies. ?Since this can be ac- complished on the basis of what already is known and what already has begun, we . believe the time has come to cease-lacerat- ing old wounds and revitalizing old doubts. THE WASHINGTONIAN July 1976' HOTLINE spootova;ch: David Phillips, a clandestine operative for the CIA for almost 25 years, chief- ly intatio America; is finishing the most tinging rebuttal yet to agency critics: His book, The Night Watchman. is on Athc- - ncum's full list, and editor Chuck Corn says. "It's tough. and Dave comes down hard on Phillip Agee and the like." Agee worked under Phillips, and A gee's CIA Diary, pub- fished in 1975.-accused the agency of broad misconduct in Latin nations. Phillips left the. agency last year to form the AssOciatioo or Retired Intelli- gence. Ott icers. intended as zr counierforec to CIA critics. He lives in soburb-an Potomac. zo WASHINGTON POST' . 8 jUL. 197S ? N.Y. Bar Seeking Intelligence Probe '?, NEW YORK. July (UPI)---: The Civil Rights Committee of the Association of the. Bar of the City of New York - today released a report urg- ing appointment of a tempo- - rary special prosecutor to investigate possible, crimes 'committed .by employees of federal intelligence agen- cies. . At a. news- conference at: ? the bar's headquarters,. George M. Rosen, chairman of the committee, Said there was evidence that, over a long period of time, senior officials in the CIA and .FEI were involved in activities which violated statutory law and the constitutional rights of American citizens.- Among these, he said, were the use of wiretaps and infiltration of such g,anizations of the 'Southern Christian Leadership Con. 101-C Tic C. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 WASHINGTON POST 8 JUL 1S7O George F. Will Terrorists, Bullies and Seniespect Israel has given the western world mirth, it ishinlikely that he was joshing remedial instruction in how to deal , when be said, plaintively, of the Israeli with bullies. The Canadian govern- rescue attack on his airport "I did all I ment, as though to the manner born,- could to help Israel, and Israel replied ? has been acting the bully. ? by doing me harm." Israel responded with lethal boldness ? Actually Amin may have pioneeered to the kidnapping of Jews by Pal- , a new dimension in lawlessness by cast- ing Uganda, a sovereign state, in the role of collaborator in, and perhaps in- stigator of, an act of international ter- rorism. According to the freed hos- tages, Amin embraced the leader of the hijacking gang; some terrorists were waiting to join the hijackers in Uganda; Amin's soldiers helped the terrorists guard the hostages, and even gave the terrorists weapons. ' United Nations Secretary General. Kurt Waldheim has. weighed in with the Olympics, has suddenly decided that Taiwan's athletes will not be al- one of his predictably "even-banded" lowed to compete under the name "Re- - estinian terrorists. By killing the terror-j: ? 1sts in the sanctuary provided by Ugan-.: da'S.President Idl Amin, larael demon-s;.. . strated that there are no safe havens,' . for terrorists. ? . . , Communist China, a good customer for Canadian wheat, did not want Can- ada even to admit athletes from- Tai- wan. The government of Prime Minis- ter Trudeau has met Peking halfway. Canada, which is the "host country" for:' homilies deploring terrorism and those public of China," and will not be al- " who resist it. He criticizes Israel for ,vio- ? lowed to fly their national flag or play lating Uganda's sovereignity. It is, per. their national anthem. When Canada haps, too much to hope that Amin will sion of the 1976 olinOwlydgmeolpesblecsyfo, r ssoCplanada thing that hastens the decomposition of yompesi -c ttahkeeu. t.bNe ma. iswtteelr cot the U.N d the eBsuat nymaeis- ? pwrasornvyisinedg that It11;?svs rules,which forbid. such political dis- ? true of the Olyrapics. The Olympics are crimination. Canada was asked, and to sport what the U.N. is to govern. gave specific assurances about 4 accept- ing the Republic of China, the name recognized by the International Olym- ' pie Committee. - Uganda's Amin having taken no trou- ble to conceal the fact (indeed, having meat a parody and, increasingly, a plaything of the world's lopsided ma- jority of dictatorships. The Canadian government, having shown it mettle by dealing sternly with Taiwan's 51 athletes, offered as an "ex-: - been clever to the point of precocity at planation" the fact that Canada recog- ' advertising the fact), it is no secret that nizes Communist China. Such comport- he is not a statesman of advanced de- ment. Is becoming Trudeau's trade-. sign. . sign. And it is unlikely that he has a ca- , mark. He chose to visit Cuba during Cy- pacity for mordant satire. So although ' ba's expedition to Angola, and naissed , he is a large man with a large sense of no chance to abase himself before Cas- WASHDIGTON POST 8 JUL 1976 Israeli Raid . _ Stirs Dispute On Hijacking -By Murrey Marder : Wa.shington Pest Staff Writer ? A major dispute veer -. world law's impOtente in coping with hijacking is de.: veloping over the Israeli commando- raid . into Uganda. Ford admintstra- ? Ilan officials said Yesterday. The United States is, in a-- ? dilemma over exactly what legal tack it. will take in the upcoming ? U.N. ? Security ? _Council debate, ;American 'officials acknowledged.. ? President ?-Fotat's-..decision' 'Sunday to' Send -4 quick, Rife, Sage of congratulations to Ise. raeli Prune ..Minister . Yite ?71-41e Rabin.forAbeespeetoettie ? ler -rescue of hostages held in Uganda is arousing sec- ond thoughts among some .administration officials be- eause of its. international le- gal and political irnplica- tionc, it was learned. ? This does net mean that .American officials are any less delighted in retrospect by the success of the dra- matic Israeli rescue. But in several depart- meats of, government, offi- cials admit they are debet- lag whether the United States' official, public 'action may rebound against it -la- the long run, especially in Africa. The State Department overwhelmingly does not share these second thoughts, one administration source said yeeterday. The Presi- dent's meesage was ? sent with a recommendation by Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger, And wan. report- tro, praising the dictator for his "In- tense rapport with the Cuban people." ? The International Olympic -Commit- tee has protested Canada's decision; But it hastened to add that, although it deplores the injection of politics into the Olympics, it will not? contemplate withdrawing its sanction df the Mon- treal games. That would be a jerk on- the leash that Canada would under- stand.. , ? In response to Canada's decision, the U.S. Olympic Committee made simper- ing sounds, threatening to withdraw '-from the games if the IOC withdrew its sanction of the games. But the IOC said - that it has never "even suggested psi- , tely it would take such action." ? In 1980 the "host country" will be the Soviet Union, which undoubtedly will 'edit the list of competitors. Will it ban Israel? Will it invite the Palestine Lib- eration Organization to send a team? ? Will this draw more than unhappy words from the U.S.? Such words were the only U.S. response when the IOC, at ,Moscow's behest, banned Radio Free Europe from covering the winter Olympics in February. Speaking to his nation about the Na- /is, Churchill growled: "What kind of people do they think we are?" It is easy to imagine what kind of people the Fe king government thinks the Ottawa. politicians are. r Israelis may be the only people in the. West who still understand that it is dan- ? gerous to be hated but doubly danger-. ous to be despised. If Israel's policy of prickly self-respect is contagious, peo- ple who say that the West will preserve Israel may have things backward_ edly written in the State De- partment Inside the State Depart, tient, however, as in other agencies, legal experts are. now researching? the law to determine just bow the United States will proceed .in the upcoming Security Council debate new post- pored to Friday, a spokes-. ?'man ? U.S. officials - have two? kinds of questions to decide, . they acknowledge. One is whether a precedent has been -set for lime cf major . force to counter an aerial hi- ? leek-frig or other act of ter- rorism. Another narrower . question for the United . States is. wjlethei' its law was violated by Israel's use ..of American-built military. C-130 aircreft far the.reseue .mission. Te n le el ly; the lett c.r question it, somewhat Mud- ma to. the cliepute over ? -whether Turkey violated U.S. law by using American . weapons for its invasion of Cyprus in 1974. That contro- versy brought a congres- sional cutoff of 115. arms to Turkey, a dispute still not ? fully untangled. There is .virtually rio like., Ilhood of a repetition of that reprisal action in the ease of Israel, in any event. The Is- raeli raid has been bailed -by most Americans, including the presidential candidates. The larger question of in- ? ternational action against. hijacking or terrorism, hew- ever, now looms with greater passion than ever. In the process, the United States' own related uni!et-- ? era! actions are bound to he recalled. The.v include tila alnyagticz incident of .7clay, 1975, when he..? Unic.?.d. States seat its planes, trenps. and eleal to recover a shie'e crew oeiz.ed. by Cambodie., 21 Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 :Approved For'Release 2001/08108 :CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 ; and the November, 1970, un- successful U.S. commando raid -at Sontay, in North Vi- etnam, which failed in an at- tempt to rescue American prisoners of the Vietnam war. In explaining the U.S: view on Israel's latest ac- tion, Kissinger said in Chi- cago on Tuesday, and a spokesman yesterday re- peated that: "Clearly, the [Israeli] at tack on an airport [Entebbe Airport, in Uganda] is an unprecedented act. But, equally, the hijacking of air- liners, the holding of a hun- axed innocent people for ransom in a situation where the host government, at a ITASHINGTON POST JUN,. 1276 minimum, proved impotent ?to enforce any, accepted? in- ternational law, indicates that we face here a new in- ternational problem." ? , "We believe," Kissinger said, "that it is essential that some international ar- raneement be made to deal with terrorists, because it cannot be tolerated that in- nocent people become the playthings of international thugs." While reiterating that pos- ition yesterday, State De- , partment spokesman Robert. L. Funseth declined to say at this time what the Ameri- can response is to the . charge by 'Ugandan Presi- dent IdiAmin that the Is- raeli raid was international "aggression." Funseth said, "Our posi- tion on these issues will be made known during the Se- ? curity Council debate." State Department lawyers, he said, are still "working out our position" on this matter and on Israel's use of , American C-130s. ? Under 'the Foreign Mili- tary Sales Act, Funseth said; weapons supplied by the United States are to be used only "for internal security, legitimate self-defense,' and to permit the recipient to participate in regional col- lective [defense] arrange- ments and measures consist- ent with the U.N. Charter." In January, 1969, French President ? Charles de Gaulle, furious over Israel's use of French aircraft in a damaging raid on the Beirut Airport? in Lebanon, put a total embargo on French arm sales to Israel. As a re- sult, Israel became almost totally dependent on I.T.S. weapons. The real rebound poten- tial that now troubles some administration strategists is this: although many Afri- cans, as most American offi- cials, may welcome the blow to erratic Ugandan Presi- dent Amin, some U.S. ex- perts are troubled that in the long run many African blacks nevertheless will con- clude that the white nations are "pushing them around." By Marlise Simons Spools.' to ThriWashIngton Post - MEXICO CITY--The United States and Mexico doing their best to avert lee-or at least postpone until after their presidential dice- tioes---a major public quar- rel ovor the sensitive issue -of earcotics. Just last month, tempers :were running so high- that a ?top Mexican narcotics . offi: vial indicated that several *U.S. agents were about to be? expelled from Mexico for -"insolent and inept behav- ior" anti for "acting against our will and behind our backs.?. This dispute was' -:smoothed over at aa high- level meeting in Washington *two weeks ago, when the at- ttorneys *general of' the two -countries pledged coopera- :tion and President Ford ? re- -ceived the Mexican delegve -tion at the White Houk. Although both sides now 'say publicly that their dif- 7ferenees are patched up, _sources close to the Mexican :anti-drug drive fear that se- -rious problems still remain .and that new disagreements ? .are almost certain to arise.? ? "There is a lot ?of pride -and rivalry on both sides of . the border," according to ?one of these sources. ? An official in the 'ideiiican :attorney general's office 'asked, "How can we allow - American agents to ? act as police here, to arrest. Mexi- cans, to carry arms when -they shouldn't, to make re ;Connaissance flights on their own and to do undercovet .'-voek behind our hacks? - "It's rather like the situa- tion in ? France five years. age when there, was a lot of friction Mit ween the Fee,,neh end American agents .-ikach things," 22 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 ? In public, American and ?-Mexican officials stress the successes of their. six-year- old joint campaign against the narcotics traffic from Mexico to the United Slates. But in practice, effective cooperation is increasingly hampered, by growing re- .sentment and- rivalry be- tween the' narcotics agents of the. two countries... ? , In exchange for the public embraces -Washington .earlier this month, the U.S. ? ?Drug Enforcement Adminia - tration reportedly*. appeased -the Mexican delegation with. private assurances that con- troversial U.S agents threat- ened with expulsion would be replaced shortly.- There' were also reportedly Pledges of new U.S. equipment for the Mexican drug agents. . ? . In turn, Mexican federal* authorities dropped charges -against an American drug ? -agency "informant" being-- held for carrying out "illegal police actiyities" in- Guadatalara, - instead; the man, Louis- Eisner,. was de- ported to the United States two weeks ago. ? ? According to a police re- port, -Eisner had held at gun- point two 'Mexicans he be- lieved were related to drug traffic and planned to. hand them over to the authorities. The 'two Mexicans, accord- ing to the report, succeeded in getting the attention of passing patrolmen, who de- tamed Eisner. The report says Eisner, - who called himself a doctor,. confe:;-aetl ? that he had been doing undercover work ? in the Gua.'ala,lara area 'for al- most- a year. ? Far that pur- pose, the report says, he maintained contact with J;?i- sePh Catoiale,,, the distriit director in GUadalajara for the hAl, &lig agency,' Ironically, much of the ? growing rancor -stems from the reorganization .and new, ?efficiency of the latest 'Alexi- -can anti-drug ? drive, which was given strong political priority here last fall: ? Under pressure from the 'U.S. government and with, . technical assistance ft-?m DEA, Mexico launched a . campaign to destroy thou- sands of poppy fields by 'spraying them from helleop- ,ters with herbicides. The. Mexican attorney. general's office, trained an entirely new and "clean" :narcotics squad, and- once into the campaign it set off ..tremors among federal pa- lice ranks by firing six cam- tmanders, 13 ? agents and ? three federal attorneys for confidence."*. As the new Mexican cam- paign organizers .grew more confident and effective, they began to demand more con- trol over the DEA activities on their territory. close to 30 DEA men are here to do liaison work with their Mexican - counterparts. They are per- mitted CO carry guns .only when actually operating .with Mexican agents. ,*.Entrapment of - drug-sell2 'ers, not against the law in the United States. is ?forbide den by Mexican law, . Which calls ? it pro-voeation of crime. Mexican Ofricials say U.S. agents break the law /tele- when they buy drugs to Catch the sellet'es. In public, no Mexican offi- cial could admit to activities of U.S. agents on Mexican soil for fear of an outberst nationalist indignation that. clink! jeopinaCre the tele tire cam pa iene In prh'at c, though. Mexican agents are strongly irritated at tlicir American iadiettetues. ? In the border arta. Meal- -can legal authorities corn . planted, U.S.-based . agents have crossed the frontier and carried out raids on ? Mexican -territory .without rn: Mexic_o ? - ? In addition,, Mexico City has had strong.- suspicions that some of the U.S. techni- cians contracted to Service the U.S.-donated helicopters were CIA agents. Two such technicians, they ? said, re- cently worked in . the Guer- rero state for ? several months. and often went, out- on routine flights with Mexi- cans over the Sierra Madre mountains behind- Acapulco. These Mountains have- -stir-. red a great deal- of inteeest as the site of Marijuana and poppy fields ?and of MeNica's insare,,ent peasants and ? rural guerrillas.,. "We've got ? nothing -to hide in our campaign," said. ? a high anti-drug ? official ' here, a"hut if the CIA is : snooping and spying ora that is going too far." [An official of the State ? Department. which'adminiss.- ? ters the helicopter contracts under -the Foreign Assist- ance Aet, said there was "no possibility" that CIA person- nel had been involved.) . On another puha- of fric- tion, ..Mexicans ... consider highly exaggerated the DEA 'allegation- that 00 pet cent. a U.S.- heroin? now comes Mexico- Yet, the arexi- i'rlIts say. the DEA has not Nitzired -its befoemation tile type and size of U.S; sei- zures tor. *Mexican evaitio- tiun. . -The Americans have de- Iiherately. withheld infrirma- ? tion'fi,om us, white in.mox- ? leo tbey get to knOW and do :wilut they lviAnt," said at, in 'Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 telligence analyst in the at- torney general's office. .. . After U.S. press attacks on Mexican Corruption and inefficiency, Itexicens are reeponeli nee -Drugs is dirty business," said a Mexican narcotics agent recently, "and there is plenty of dirty business. among the American agents here also." The "dirty busi- ness" ranged from "simple things like. two American flares being arrested for drunkenness in Acapulco to serious cases Of fraud!' He refused to disclose any de- tails . about fraud, and said the incident's had; always been ceVered up .6.'among, colleagues." .Although U.S: officiale. say:the results cif such anti: drug programs* as the., aee seutt on the poppy fields are. eot yet visible through a : eortage on the American ? !racket, drug prices here are, In Guerrero state,, for ex-, antple, around Acapulco, an ounce of crude opium that would fetch S30 last fall watt up to $242 in March, half- way through the campaign, ? and now costs Last year ?an ounce of. marijuana was going for. : S1.65 in the mountains be-- hind Acapulco: this 'month. . the price is up to S.5.50. . Now that the, first cam- paign. is over, Mexico has. published the balance sheet, for the first six months: ? 13,500 acres of poppy fields and more than 17,000 acres of marijuana fields de- - stroyed. pounds of crude. opium. 473 pounds of heroin land 33U pounds of, cocaine _ ? li . : ?2;550.personse including. 75 foreigners?some : ' ? of hem Americans?arrested: . . More than :30 civilians 'ree Med .th drug. traffic were rilled, in the Sits months, nine by police and others in euds between rival hands, vhile traffickers 'shot . and illed four Mexican agents-. Last month three agents ied when their reconnais- ance plane crashed tin* the ist. Two of the three were . merican IDEA- agents, Pilot fames - T. Lunn and agent Ralph N. Shaw. I Now that boeh.7tfeet have ade up and the Mexican rug, authorities have had a Visite House reception, DUI- ials here refuse to cone lent further on the differ- nces with the Americans. EA agents in Mexico are ot available-for -discussions ither. THE NEW YORK TIMES, WEDNESDAY, 'jrILY 7,1976 tiNevertheless. the :anti. - rug drive is moving. onto slippery .ground as a result f the recent squabbles. For everal months, officials- ere have nsaid they are ired of -Mexico - being . - tattled for U.S. inability to . olve its drug problems at .?.. . - - "Americans always need ea. 1 . capegoat for their_ drug diee sters. ' :First. was,. _the.. 'urks and the French; now 's the Mexicans," .a 'high- . ankin,g narcotics agent aid. - .. A. Mexican . diplomat re-, ntly said, "There is a ' trong senseln the govern- int that Mexico has done ore than its share. We ave been willing to use erbicides Americans don't se. We've ;spent twice as - ?nuch,emoney. and lost more ben." e.". American Power and Foreign Policy The great debate on foreign policy this election year has focused almost entirely on the Soviet-American mili- tary balance. Yet Americans will in- creasingly face a new type of foreign policy issue: National security can be endangeree by events outside the tra- ditional military sphere. . A melting of the Arctic ice cap be- cause of a three-degree rise in the earth's temperature, depletion of the earth's ozone layer, theft of plutonium by terrorist groups, ill-fated experi- ments with weather modification, 3 prolonged world population explosion ?all these could threaten our future as seriously as many occurrences that could arise in the traditional political- military realm. Moreover, the debate over the al- leged decline of American military power tells us little about our future ability to control these new issues. Power has always been an elusive concept in international affairs. Now -the nature of the resources that pro- duce power capabilities has become . more complex, and the international power hierarchy more difficult to de- termine. When a goad infantry was the crucial poi.ver resource, Europeen statesmen could calibrate the classical balance of power by counting the populations of conquered and trans- ferred territories. The industrial revo- lution complicated such calculations,. and nuclear weapons, as .a power re- source too costly to use except in an extreme situation, further weakened the relationship between power meas- ured in military resources and power in the sense of control over the out- come, of events. This is not to say that military force has become obsolete, Quite the con- trary. Military deterrence will remain a central concern of our foreign poi- By Joseph S. Nye Jr. icy. But military force is difficult to apply to many of the new interde- pendence issues on the agenda. The use of force is made more costly for major states by four conditions: risks of nuclear escalation, uncertain and possible negative effects on the achievement of economic goals, re- sistance by nationalistic populations in otherwise weak states, domestic opin- ion opposed to the human costs of the use of force. Even those 'states relatively unaf- fected by the third and fourth condi- tions, such as Communist countries, may feel some constraints from the first two. On the other hand, lesser states involved in regional rivalries, and terrorist groups, may find it easier to use force than before. The net ef- fect of these contrary changes in the role of force is to reduce hierarchy based on military power. The erosion of the international hierarchy is sometimes portrayed as a decline of American power?as though the causes lay in our aging process. Admittedly, from the perspec- tive of a policyrnaker of the 1950'.; there has been a decline. But American power in the sense of resources has not declined as dramatically as is often supposed. United States military spending was roughly a third of the world total in 1950, and after rising to slightly over half in the 1950's has returned to the earlier level. Over the same period, the American gross national product declined from -roughly a third to a quarter of the world total, but the earlier figure re? fleeted the wartime destruction of Europe and Japan, and the current. figure remains twice the size of that of the Soviet Union, three times that of Japan, and four times that of West Germany. To understand what is changing, we must distinguish power over others from power over Outcomes. What we are experiencing is not so Much an erosion of our power resources com- pared to those of other countries (al- though there has been some), but an erosion of our power to control out- comes in the international system as a whole. The main reason is that the system itself has become more complex. There are more .issues, more actors, and less hierarchy. We still have leverage over others, but we have far less leverage over the whole system. Increased military spending will not be sufficient to solve this problem. In such a world, multilateral diplomacy, often through international institu- tions will become more important be- cause much of the agenda will be concerned with organizing collective action. Our foreign policy debate should pay more attention to the problem of organizing international leadership" where there is a tight interconnection between domestic and foreign policy, and we will need to think more imagi- natively about the relations of our in- stitutions to internatienal institutions. Joseph S. Nye Jr. is professor of gov- ernment at Harvard University. This article is adapted from one that ap- peared in the periodical Foreign Policy. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved-Foti-Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 WASHINGTON POST C JU1 1,1376 ommunism's :DWARD GIER.EK; who' came to power in Poland LJ in the Wake of food-price riots six years ago, raised food prices 30 to M. per cent the :other day and was forced by worker resistance-7-the tearing up of railroad tracks and the like?to rescind them in 24. hours. It was a political humiliation for him and an economic- debacle for his country. The Poles still have to figure out how to pay for their world-priced Rus- sian oil, for their. rising imports from the West (though world recession cut the value of their ex- ports), and for the higher living standards with which the Communist Party appeased rampaging workers In WM In fact, Poland has the worst of both worlds: capitalism's cycles and socialism's constraints. Mr. Gi- erek, a non-ideological national-minded "goulash Communist," in an old Khrustichev phrase, may be. on the ropes. A more embarrassing introduction to the European Communist summit in East Berlin Could scarcely have been contrived. For .one principal reason the :Kremlin had wanted a summit was to demonstrate that communism is the wave . of Eurdpe's future. In fact, Poland's misfortunes underline the fact that communism is not a system with the answers?it is merely a system by which One clique monopolizes political power. The Russians' second reasbn. for. 'wanting the sunimit Was to have Europe's other Com- DAILY TELEGRAPH, London 28 June 1976 THE CRACK IN POLAND POLAND'S WORKERS' successful defiance of their Government's draconian price increases. came as in answer to a prayer just while Dr KISSINGER, in London, .was telling the 'West that Russia had her troubles .too. By .contrast, the news from could not have been more Inopportune to Mr BREZHNEV, preparing ? to leave for East Berlin for tornorrow's European Communist party " summit " that he has been striving for two years to bring About: No wonder the Polish Government caved in 'immediately, completely, even abjectly, without any of the shooting that took place when the Polish 'workers last went on the warpath in 1970. Mr BREZHNEV must be ,asking with some acerbity, why Mr GIERET: had to let the cat out of the bag just now. . ? . But, apart from timing, the need for sudden price in- -creases of this order mu-st have been critically urgent for the Polish Government to try to impose them :on its notoriously explosive cjdzens,- it Yaws sky high the Com- munist propsaganda line that, ?while inflation has brought the cauftahst West to the verge of coVlapse, in the Soviet countries State plannieg has achieved ? stable prices and unimpeded wonomic progress. 0114631 Polish figures claim that over the past six years wages have risen by a. total.. oblems munist parties pay tribute to them. But the Italian and French parties, among others, needing to show? their independence of Moscow to make their parlia- mentary way at home, are reinforcing the traditional Yugoslav-Romanian emphasis on home-directed na- tional communism. It is a major setback for Moscow. Gloating is foolish. Poland's travail, in particular, is no boon for the West: Hard times mean Poland will shop less abroad and perhaps turn "east"?meaning tough and narrow?in its domestic policy. The West has no reason to wish communism well, but it does have a strong long-term economic and political inter- est in the welfare and relative independence of Po- land and the other East European nations. In the fu- ture public disintegration of the European Commun- ist "movement," however, lies a considerable oppor- tunity. The more that West European Communists can be separated from Moscow and drawn toward the Western mainstream, the better off the whole At- lantic community will be. The Ford-Kissinger policy of toughness?putting pressure on West Europe's Communists to prove they're not Soviet stooges?has paid off pretty well so far: Witness Moscow's discom- fiture at the East Berlin summit. As those parties thin ? their ties to Moscow, however, they deserve some pol- itical credit for it. of 40 per cent:, white the cost Of liirifisflias 'increased by only 45 per cent owing. to a freeze on the prices of increas- ingly heavily subsidised basic foodS. What happened in reality was that high-protein foods such as meat and butter became increasingly scarce at the official prices, with the t result that more and more items had to be bought on the black market at high prices. In addition,. Poland is buying .? from the West great- quantities of modern machinery that is not available in the Illastern bloc. Prices have scared wih Western inflation. At the same time recession in the West has hit- Polish exports. The situation is similar throughout the Soviet empire., ? and also in Russia herself, where living standards are lower. Belt-tightening is going on everywhere. Mr ?GIT-5Tni:F: Will : have to enforce his drastic cuts'in -consumption :somehow. No doubt he will start by weeding out the ringleaders and 'tightening police control. But there ? Is clearly a 'Ination-wi-de mood of determined resistance. Tha present case is a clear one of the Poles' resistance to the ruining of their economy by the Russian-imposed Communist sysiem. Yct Dr 17.issINGE.n has said that the greatest risk of war lies . in a possible challenge to Russian domination by a satellite. For all Dr KISSINGER'S assurances about Western strength, Russia has a great military preponderance at the key points. The cost of this is the other reason for the economic strain on the Soviet empire. 24 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-015432R000100390006-9 WASHINGTON POST 9 JUL 1976 t Russian adzation ? ? rr HE ATTITUDE of the State Department toward J. the continuing and possibly harmful microwave - radiation that the Russians have been beaming at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow defies belief. One would think the department would have demanded long ago that this nerve-wracking threat to the health of Americans?its own employees, after all?be termi- nated. But no. The radiation has gone on for years. In the months since it became public knowledge, the de- . 'partment has pussyfooted inexcusably. The other -day, for instance, a department spokesman con- tended that radiation at the present reduced level ? ;poses "no cause for concern." He reported, however, that a $300,000?yes, $300,000?study had been com- missioned of embassy medical records. A light slap on ? the Russians' wrist was delivered. Negotiations will 'continue, it was declared. The radiation is, of course, not only a health hazard of uncertain dimensions but a-continuing affront to the national dignity of the United States. Why does the State Department take this double blow so mild- ly? What is there to negotiate? Evidently the Rus- ,sians are directing the beams at American electronics NEW YORK TIMES 8 July 1976 SOVIET DIMS BEAM ; AT, ES. EMBASSY :But Kissinger Aide Wants the Microwave Radiation Eliminated Altogether ? By -BERNARD GWERTZNIAN ?Speelai to The New Yark Times WASHINGTON, July 7?The ;United States said today that OViet,' authorities in recent )nonths had sharply reduced he level of microwave radia- :tion beamed at the ? " !Embassy in Moscow. .. But in its first detailed public ccount of the situation, the 'State Department ;nonetheless "rebuked the Russians for con- tinuing the . radiation even at the current insignificant level. -It said this showed "a lack of !concern for living and working ;conditions of our people in ;Moscow." ; -Robert L. Funseth, the de- Pertinent spokesman, said at . his regular news conference that 'as a result of official dis- cussions "the strength of the signal beamed to the embassy ".M Moscow has been greatly re- duced from previous record; ;ings, which were themselves equipment on or in the embassy building; diplomats and their families live on the lower floors. But the United States, or so it is contended without Soviet de- nial, does not try to interfere with or counter Soviet electronics equipment on the Soviet embassy build- ing in the same way here in Washington. Does the United States, which pokes its electronic beams all around the globe, fear that a strong protest against Russian radiation will elicit or legitimin other coun- tries' protests against American radiation? If this is so, then it ought to be conceded directly, so that there can be a reasoned public discussion of the whole problem as it affects foreigners as well as Americans. Meanwhile, the physical and psychological well- being of American personnel in Moscow deserve to be served by whatever measures are necessary for that purpose. In the absence of conclusive medical evidence to the contrary, it has to be assumed that the Russians are endangering the health, not to say the lives, of American citizens, and they should not be allowed to continue doing it. 'well below established United :States safety standards." . According to Mr. Funseth, the /evel ?of radiation aimed at the !,embassy was now less than two microwatts per square centime- ter. The installation of alumi- )ium screens outside the embas- sy earlier this year has further tut the level to less than one' anicrowatt, he said. The New York Times reported !Isn May 2 that the level late 4ast year had gone as high as ;8 microwatts. ? American industrial safety "standards, Mr. Funseth said, p? ermit as much as 10,000 'microwatts 'per square centime- :ter; The Soviet Union's stricter -'indusbial standards ; permit ecualy 10 microwatts. s'; Mr. Funseth, while providing s steanical details, refused . to ieurnment on why the Soviet :Won was beatrung the rays, 0 -practice that officials have began about 16 years ago. ; viet officials have justified -tie beams as necessary to cur- tall American electronic listen- ling devices on the roof of upper. tioers of the ernbessy building, ;situated on Tchaikovsky Street! :hadowntown Moscow. :American officials have pri-; inately conceded that these de- 'vices exist to monitor Soviet et'atilo and telephone trans?nis- :siting, They have also said tint: monitoring effort was being' limpaired by the jamming( waves. 1 What has irritated America:11 ;officials was that the Soviet {Embassy. on 16th Street in !downtown Washington also carries out similar interceptions of radio and phone conversa- tions but has not been subject to the countermeasures because of concern for Americans work- ing in the area. The beaming of radiation against the embassy in Moscow was known only to a few, American officials until last February when Ambassador Walter J. Stoessel Jr. briefed his staff on the situation. News of the briefing Was leaked to the press. The briefing was held because State Department medical offi- cers Jeered that the radiation might post a health hazard over the long run, either to the eyes or to the genetic or nervous system. !Officials have stressed that there was as yet no evidence that the microwaves had been responsible for any illnesses, past or present. ! Microwaves are unlike X-rays t and are net ionized. X-rays in' excessive amounts can cause !cancer, but no connection has been made between mi- crowaves and cancer. ; The decision to release infor- mation on the embassy situa- tion came after news reports that two young children of em- bassy employees had been sent to the United States for exami- nation of unusual blood sam- ples; one has since returned to Moscow. Mr. Fun.sten said the discus- eons with the Russians were aimed at ending the microwave signals. "Frankly, we regret that the Soviets have failed to turn off the transmissions completely, and thereby, in our judgment, demonstrating a lack of con- cern for the living and Working conditions of our people in Moscow," he said. 1 The spokesman was asked ;why the Russians were being rebuked if in fact they had cut ;the level below the risk level and he said the continued beams caused a psychological! ,problem. He also said no concessions were made to the Russians in return for their reduction in' beans. The microwaves are said to come from across the street from the embassy. There are said to be ;two such beams aimed at the embassy. Mr. Funseth said the State Department had signed a con- tract with Johns Hopkins Uni- versity to conduct a survey to' see whether there has ever; been any correlation between' the microwaves and the health of past and present embassy' employees. 25 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved Fo-r-Retease 2001/08/08- :--CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 WASHINGTON POST 9 RR 12-5 Rowland Evans and Robert Novak NATO's Tragic Confrontation A Turkish government vessel"' equipped with new seismic devices for underwater oil exploration is about to leave its berth near 'Istanbul for "re- search" in northern Aegean waters claimed ? by Greece?a disaster-prone vcyage that dramatizes the tragic dec- line of the Western Alliance. Passage of this ship, recently rechris- tened Sim-lie, will add another bitter chapter in the hostility between Athens and Ankara once the Unified center of NATO's eastern flank. Far worse, pre- cautionary measures being taken by both sides against possible Greek inter- ferente with the ship point to a real. threat of shooting inside the disputed waters.. - Thus; the Sisrnic's scheduled sailing ?deiayed s.everal weeks partly because of Washington's ardent persuasion?is now to coincide with Aegean Sea naval ' exercises planned by both Greece and ? Turkey. The Aegean Sea, with massed Greek islands stretching close along- side the Turkish coast, will then be a le- thal cockpit. This dangerous confrontation poses further risks to the diminished .integ- rity of Western defenses against the So- viet Union, the new power in the east-. ern Mediterranean. Nevertheless, the U.S. is virtually powerless to do any- thing but counsel delay in the ship's. sailing. The remote possibility that the Sismic could indeed trigger a shooting war between Greece and Turkey finds Washington fully as impotent as it has been for 15 months of Lebanon's tragic civil war. Furthermore, as we have reported, U.S. powerlessness to influence events WASHINGTON POST , 9 JUL 1976 Arm The Army has managed ts units along the NATO front so poorly that their in- ability to go to war in a burry has been impaired, Sen. Hubert H. Humphrey .(D-Minn) said yesterday in releasing portions of a new General Accounting Claire survey of military readiness in Europe. The GAO found that one ;unit of the T.J.S. is.: Armored pivision had no keys for on locking its ammunition stor- age bunkers, said Humphrey in citing one example of What he called 'serious mis- mansigement and inefflcien bs,y in our. European forces." ? anywhere in the eastern Mediterra- nean basin raises other difficult ques- tions. such aF homeporting facilities for the U.S. 6th fleet and even shore leave stations for American sailors. The pending Turk-Greek confronta- tion would come in Aegean Sea waters claimed by both countries in One of .the world's most bitter disputes over terri- torial waters today. Greece, claiming that its close-to:Turkey. islands have their own continental shelf, has threat- ened to blow up Turkish ships seeking underwater oil there. ? Turkey. which perceives the fabled ? Greek Isles as "floating" islands with no continental shelf of their own, claims the disputed waters lie over the Turk- ish continental shelf, to which Turkey has sovereign rights. Behind Ankara's decision to chal- lenge Greek claims in the Aegean Sea. lies an ever-worsening dispute with the U.S. It began with the 1974 Turkish in- vasion of Cyprus in reaction to the at- tempted takeover there by the then Greek military dictatorship. Ever since, the Ford administration has been pleading with the Democratic Congress ?most receptive to the Greek lobby? to lift the arms embargo and thus end one-sided punishment of Turkey. That effort now turns en the fate in Congress of the four-year, $1. billion U.S.-Turkish aid agreement signed March 26. The agreement would re- store U.S. rights to intelligence bases, aimed at the Soviet Union, that Turkey closed last July: The Turkish government has been in- formed by the administration that Con- . gress will approve the agreement this . He added that the admin- istration had dipped into the NATO reserve to obtain tanks and other armored 'vehicles :to sell to foreign nations. The reserve was "substantially reduced be- le mni 1973 and l75" and ims not heen restored. Hum- phive:v said. The GAO found many ar- mored units on the NATO line short of key nersentlill: and experience. said I runt- pin-cy in commenting on the le9t);1, dated June But this la& of readiness is not, ol ways brottOtt to corn- nutacl:ar's attention bet"itise the .reporting requireini,ra:i year. In fact, as of today there is no chance of that. Democrats want to wait for a new - Democratic administration; Republi-_ cans perceive political misery in voting for Turkey just before the election. That the $1 billion agreement now seems dead for this year is extremely hard for the Turkish government to swallow. Contradicting the honeyed talk in Washington when the agree- ment was signed, this means _Turkey's eligibility to buy U.S. arms is limited to only $125 million in each of the next two years. The resulting sense of betrayal now becoming manifest is likely to make Turkey even more adventurous in con- fronting Greece over the Aegean Sea. Unable to see progress in its bitter struggle with Washington, Ankara is not held back by U.S. admonitions. When the Greek government pri- vately urged the U.S. and NATO to dis- suade Turkey from using the Sismic in disputed waters, it stated flatly the ship "will be sunk" if it shows up. U.S. per- suasion delayed the Sismic's departure for two weeks, but it is now expected to sail in mid-July. Some diplomats here believe the sail- ing will trigger not torpedoes but only a dangerous game of chicken. Realists disagree. "The hotheads on both sides are spoiling for a fight," one diplomat told' us. "And if it starts in the Aegean it could spread overnight to the border in Thrace." There the two NATO allies face each other with imposing military power, and there the U.S. could no more halt hostilities than it can end civil war in Lebanon. . Ma, VIM EnterprIxes, Tim eak in Figh aye "have been relaxed to the -point where 'units can al- most always report them- selves as. combat ready," Huinphrey' said. Humphrey's office said be asked for the report a year ace. Senate aides said the Pen- tagon would release only a small portion of the C.A.O. study to the public. Part .of the released report said that the Army "is actively and posii ivel:. pursuin5,? ninny of the problem8 the GAO at Humphrey asked for .the sludYin his ? capacity As chaicnian of the Joint Eco- nonue Committee ot Con- gross and of the Foreign As- sistance Subcommittee of the Senate Foreign Committee. Now that the report is in hand. Humphrey said he has asked the chairman of the Senate Foreign ? Relations Committee to call Pentagon .and State Department offi- cials to appear before the committee to answer ques- tions on i7eadiness.? lietilariznz that the Unilcd States is spemling, p:)out. 549 billion annually to 1:ct.n up our end of the NATO raft- un-s taiitinee." lioniporey said "what is neecind us rut bigtzer Midgets, but brtter management." 26 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved Forpelease'200-1/08/08:: CIA-RDP77-00432R0001-00-390006-9 CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR 2 JULY 1976 West German intelligence agencies: how coordinated? By David 3Intch ? Staff correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor Bonn It can be argued Guenther Guillaume; the East German spy, ? whose arrest led to Chancellor Willy Brandt's resignation, did ? one big favor for West Germany. The political stir caused by Mr. Guillaume's penetration of ? the Brandt chancellery made it?possible to strengthen and coordinate the control over the government's three in- telligence agencies. ' "The great change that was needed was more coordina- tion," said Manfred Schueler, Chancellor Helmut Schmidt's right-band man in the chancellery, "and the post-Gienaurne climate enabled us to make that change." ? The problem of controlling intelligence agencies is different in West Germany than it is in the United States. There are ? several reasons why. . One is That the government here is in effect a "committee" of Parliament, whereas in the U.S. administration and Con- gress are separated formally by the Constitution. This tends to make investigations by Congress tougher than are parliamentary investigations here. Another reason is that the most prominent problems here for the intelligence agencies are spying and terrorism, whereas in the U.S. the most prominent problem has been po- litical. And West Germany as a "middle power" does not put the same resources into intelligence gathering as must the U.S. as a super power. BND Until 1968 %Vest Germiny's "CIA" ? the federal information agency (BND for Bundesnachrichtendienst) ? was under the almost autonomous control of Gen. Richard Gehlem. Ile was a THE NATION .3 ..July 1976 KILLING IT TO SAVE IT TraZ ?%LS* IN II AVIAN DEmocnAcr REP. MICHAEL 3. HA !RICINGT02,1 Washington ? Indications are that the United States has been covertly intervening in the Italian political process during these past weeks and months, as the official American attitude toward possible Communist gains in the current elections there has approached hysteria. The position .of the ad- ministration toward the political crisis in Italy, demon- strates the difficulty of breaking our old habits of arro- gance about the democratic processes of other nations. The corruption of postwar Italian politics by American official and nonofficial institutions has been pervasive. We now know that the great multinational corporations, most of them American, have made substantial puments to Italian politicians and parties. Lockheed's largesse Michael Barrington represents the Kth Pistrirt In Masi-richt:- - setts and was formerly a awrnher of the Hoare Select C'otn- lovestigate intelligettre operations. . 27 top intelligence man under Hitler who later found favor with the U.S. Army. And his post-war intelligence work was made ? official by a Cabinet decree by Chancellor Conrad Adenauer in 1955. Mr. Gehlen retired in 1968. - During the Guillaume investigation in 1974 it was found that the BND had built unauthorized files on people in West Ger- many, including some journalists. Never set up under law, the BNB continues to exist by goy- ? sernment decree. But there is a measure of consensus That with new leadership and other control measures, the agency is in band. Another key intelligence agency is the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, comparable to the FBI. It watches over internal security, and it has a good record of de- tecting and apprehending spies and of finding wanted terror- ists. Gentleman's agreement ? . ? ? Then there is an intelligence agency for the military. The control over these last two agencies exist both in, Parliament and in the chancellery. These two agencies report to a differ- ent committee in Parliament. They are coordinated through.. two government ministries. Parliament's main control arm is what can loosely be trans- lated as a board of trustees. This exists under a gentleman's agreement between the chancellery and Parliament. It consists of members from all parties in Parliament, meets regularly, and can question activities. Birt it has no le- gal basis to "demand" answers. The Chancellery has perhaps the key watchdog function ? it must coordinate all three agencies. It was lack of coordination that permitted Mr. Guillaume to rise so high, since there were files on him and suspicions about him for years. But no one put it all together until after he had reached the chancellery. In 1974 Mr. Schueler, on orders from Mr. Schmidt, increased from 6 to 20 the chancellery's "intelligence watchdogs" and sought to make sure jealousies and rivalries between the agen- cies do not supercede security needs. This was the "great change" Mr. Sclueler said was necessary. A great deal of mutual trust goes into the West German sys- tem of managing the intelligence agencies. The Guillaume af- fair di?not politicize the question as much as Watergate did in the U.S. ? A parliamentary committee on constitutional reform may make recommendations to formalize some present relation- ships. But this is not a leading public topic now in West Ger- many. evidently included an Italian Premier in the 19605 who Was bribed to further the sale of fourteen Hercules C-130 cargo planes. Since the three men who wer,; Premie-r in that period are now President, Premier and Foreign Minister, the identification of "antelope Cobbler," as Lockheed called him, will necessarily have a major ifripact on the Italian Government. In addition, Exxon paid between $46 million and $49 million- to Italian ' political parties in 1963-72: Mobil. Oil payments to Italian parties. averaged S500,000 a year from 1970 to 1973; and British Petroleum and Shell Oil paid 56.6 million to the parties between 1969 and 1973 (the fact that the British Government owns 70 per cent of B.P. ' stock has been of some embarrassment in London); At the same time that the multinational corporations were Making those large payoffs,. the CIA was mtpplying - Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA7RDP77-00432R000100390006-8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08' : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 official U.S. dollars to the same parties. According to the final report of the House Select. Committee- on 'Intelli- gence, the agency gave $75 million to Italian parties and politicians between 1948 and .1972. Of this sum, $10 million was spent in the 1972 parliamentary elections. .The evidence is thar4ain. in 1976 OA .moneys helped finance the campaigns of anti-Communist candidates and parties. Indeed, The New York Times reported in January that on December. 8, 1975, President Ford approved a $6 million CIA expenditure for anticipated Italian elections. ? This latest CIA installment in Italy, must be. seen ; in the context of official U.S. reaCtion to?Italian develop-1 merits. Ever since. Harry Truman decided it necessary to "scare hell out of the. American people" to get public support for aid to Greece and Turkey after World War public hysteria by Secretaries of State has become. a - routine feature of the . foreign policy process. ? The in- cumbent Secretary of Stan:I:is no exception. The prospect of Communist participation in the Italian Government has trignered Kissinger's world-historical pessimism about:. the struggle between Western civilization and Communist: "barbarism." At a London convocation of our nrnbast sadots to Europe last December (a few days after Preeident Ford approved the $6 million) Kissinger defined the issue as a threat to our values rather than our tangible, economic and strategic interests: The Western alliance has always had an importance beyond military solidarity. The 'United States would be alone: and isolated in a world in which we had no rela- tions by values to other countries. If the, United States were to become an "island in its own values," he felt we "could probably survive this ? situation, but only through the use of a ruthless balance of power policy." .Such n policy would, presumably re- place the benign search for world order that has pre- vailed under Mr. Kissinger's leadership. The process by which the United States could become an island of virtue is a strikingly familiar one. Mr. Kissinger went on to say: ? I believe that the advent, of communism in major European countries is likely to produce a sequence. of events in which other European countries will also be tempted to move 'in the same direction. In other words, United States policy is guided by a belief in the moral superiority of American values and the conviction that our allies will fall like dominoes if the Italian Communist Party participates in the next Italian Cabinet. The formula for American foreign policy ? remains the, time-honored cold-war response: scare hell out of the American people and use theCIA to give our friends a secret advantage. . The administration's response to The New York Tirne.s's revelation of the authorized $6 million covert action money was to deny the story while attacking Congress for leaking it. Director Colby said the CIA had "not spent a nickel in Italy" in that period and the. White House issued a soeerreent that the President was "angry" and that the leak "undermines our 'capability to carry out our foreign policy," Colby's denial was true only because the director's contingency fund from which the expenditure was to be drawn had been emptied by the Angola operation, and the agency had a temporary cash flow problem. Presurnalily the $6 million--nod in all likelihood more?has been spent since January. Nor has the private %,:ctor been inactive in this Italian election. In May, immethitely after the Italian parlia- ment was dissolved, John Coanally of Texas founded ? AMBOILial a group called ? the. "Citizens Alliance for Mediterranean Freedom" to "raise ? American consciousness .about the ? deteriorating situation in 'southern Europe, the iMiddle East, and northern Africa," and to Warn. the Italians "not to 'become beguiled by the unfulfilled promises of communism." The, group has been funded out of money 'raised by a "Texas Salute to John Connally" 'dinner, held last stimmer to celebrate his acquittal on charges of bribery. The organization is hoping to alert the public in both the United. States and Italy to the dire con- sequences of the "loss of Italy," and "encourage :the peoples of the Mediterranean nations in their efforts to . preserve their freedom." Connally concedes that this "probably is meddling" in another country's internal af- fairs but, he says., "I don't think we should be criticized for doing just that. We meddled in them [sic) thirty years t ago." The Connally. group bar a like concern for the "future of freedom:" in Spain, Portugal, Greece, Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Israel and Libya. It is impossible to know whether, or in what degree, the Connally organization and its activities have been coordinated with US. foreign policy or intelligence of- ficials. Connally, -however, is a member of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, a body of private citizens that is supposed 'togive the-President indepenad- ent, objective advice about .foreign intelligence opera- tions. Connally says be sees to confliet between his PFIAB job and his pedtiti6it as chairman of the "Citizens Alliance"; but, especially since President Ford's reorgani- zation in February of the intelligence agencies assigned to PFIAB a new and peesumably more powerful responsi- bility to _keep the agencies in line, it is clearly improper and alarming that Connally shrin.d sponsor private inter- vention in Italian domestic politics and endorse "med- dling" as a proper course for Americans. It is ironic that, during our Bicentennial celebration, and during a Presidential election of our, own, this coun- try should once again interfere With the free democratic processes of a friendly country. It calls to mind the Vietnamese village, of Bentre, which the U.S. Army found it had to destroy in order to save'. We- cannot save Italian democracy by destroying it, and nothinn is . more destructive to: democrady than secret corruption_ Also, we. cannot preserve or promote our political system and its values by denying them. The essence of the democratic process is that the people, through free exercise of the vote, can turn out the. top political leadership, and that such leadership will keep faith with the people, by going quietly, in the hope of renaininn the voters' confidence. As Woodrow Wilson observed, non- intervention in the internal ffairs .of other countries is a corollary of democracy. The two are inseparable in theory and in practice. . Nowhere is this more evident than in Italy where much of the difficulty in which the Christian Democatic Party finds itself stems from widespread evidence of its corruption. 'We contribute little to the revitalization of non-Communist forces in Italy when we contribute no corruption by CIA clandestine support or by tolerating American corporate bribery of foreign officials. As one self-described "dyed-in-the-wool pro-American" Christian Democratic politician pit it after The New York Times revelations in January. "If been planning a trip to the United States, t would cancel it for fear people would think 1 was just another 'bought' politician." To me it seem,: elementary that tile best way to support denim:racy in Italy is to bust it. if iett,wing or right- wing groups do attempt the dismantlement of demo:retie institutions there, we will be in no position to objeto 28 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 I A t _ 'Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390.006-9 if we have also violated them and tolerated their viola- tion by American private groups and corporations. As a result of my deep concern about the dainage that can be done to democracy. by the policies of this administra- tion I introduced a "resolution of inquiry" in the House of Representatives on lune 11. This resolution would require the administration. to answer a number of ques- tions about U.S. 'policy toward Italy: are U.S. funds I being channeled to any Italian party or pOlitician? Are ' U.S. funds subsidizing -Italian media outlets? Are U.S. ? Embassy personnel involved in any such transactions? There is one point above all which is paramount in 1 this foreign policy ? debete: the American public will not. ? WASIVIGTON POST. Sunday, June 27, 1976 Joseph Kraft The FaHou Of Italy's Elections ROME?At Communist Party heads , quarters here in Rome the ether day I had successive appointments with an old party militant, Giancarlo Pajettas and a young economist, Luciano Berea. "Ask Berea," Pajetta said as I left his office, "if he has become minister of fi- nance yet." That confident little gag announces the true results of the Italian elections last week The Communists won big? rse big that they are virtually sure to en- ter the government sooner or later, thils Posing problems, and presenting opportunities, for -the U.S. and its NATO allies. ? The size of the Communist win can . best be gauged by measuring it against the celebrated comeback of the Chris- tian Democrats. With 38.7 per cent of the vote for parliament, the Demo- ChaistianS made a gain of 32 per cent over the regional elections last Year, while standing just where they were in the 1972 legislative elections. ? 'In contrast, the Communists, with 34.4 per cent of the vote, registered a gain of 2.5 per cent over the 1975 elec- tions, and 7.3 per cent over the 1272 eh edit:nes. The 7.3 per cent gain was the biggest they ever made between one parliament and another and brought them to a. new high in national elec-. long -support any foreign policy -that is made and carded out in secret, andel? foreign policy that cannot stand up , to publicscrutiny can be successful.. Obviously there can ! be no public debate or Scrutiny without information. The policy toward Italy, its assumptions and presumptions, have, enormous significance for the future of this COD WIT'S relation to Western Europe.. To call for disclosure, and ? open debate is not a? prurient desire to expose state ? secrets, as the administration would have us believe. It . is to 'affirm the most fundamental features of our democ- ? racy. We cannot long remain free and. democratic our- selves, let alone help the Italians to be. free, by denying - democracy at home and abroad. tions. They gained 48 seats in the National Assembly, as against a loss of ? one by the Demo-Christians. They, added to their fiefdoms large areas south of Rome which they had never held be- fore. Around Naples, for instance, they. won 41 per cent of the vote as against 28 per cent in 1972. ? Of course, the Demo-Christians, as the largest party, will take the lead in farming a government?probably with- out the Communists, but with the Sca ciannts and three smaller parties. The -Socialists will not joinehowever, unless; there is first a dialegue with the Cora- menists and agreement on a program of urgent action. The Communists are in excellent pos- ture for such a dialogue. In the. past few years, under General Secretary En; rico Berlinguer, they have junked a load of ideological baggage, and come across as the defenders the Italian lower middle class, which is the majori- ty, not of the proletariat which is a small minority. ? Their plans for urgent action center around a program for arresting infla- tion. They would limit the government deficit by putting a ceiling on govern- ment spending. They would. cut beth jobs and payments in government pro- grams and enterprises (many of them now Demo-Christian fiefs) the better to. acquire money for investment in agri- culture, housing and transport. That is plainly an appealing and sen- sible program. If the Demo-Christiann accept it, the Communists will almost ? surely enter power to help in the exte? cution. If it is refused, the Communists will he in position to win the next elec- tion. Put whit about the U.S. and its allies who have fought the Italian Cointraut- ? ists so herd for foreign policy reasons? Well, there is a tenipoiary breathing space after the election?which Is a piece of luck. - For the Italian Communists have come more than halfway toward the ac- cepted canons of the West. They have shown a willingness to abide by demo- cratic rules. They have turned their backs on expropriation of property. They have criticized Soviet domina- tion in Eastern Europe and. the Com- munist effort to take over Portugal. Until assured last week that their prin. ? ciples of independence would not be compromised, they resisted Russia's call for an International meeting of Communist parties. Finally, in a pre-- electoral development which went al- 'most unnoticed in the U.S., Berlinguete *practically acknowledged that the Ital.- Ian Communists depended upon NATO protection against Soviet pressure Nobody .can be sure that these are not merely tactical changes made for electorial purposes. The more so as the Italian Communists have voted against defense budgets, and supported Russia in most international confrontations with the U.S. But clearly the present breathing spell provides an occasion for review- ing the automatic NATO hostility to- ward the Italian Communists. If they continue ? to show an aptitude for change in such matters as defense and foreign policy, then the. Italian Conn nrunists should be taken up with a vengeance. For it is in the highest Western interest to nurture and pro- tect an Italian party which can foster a kind of Euro-communisra that is as spilt off from Moscow as Chinese commun- ism. 1518,711214EnterAiEso,lize; ? Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 WASHOGTON POST 6 JUL 1976 tplortiat9 s Death Cloaked in Secrecy Britons Question Whether Iranian Ambassador Committed Suicide By Bernard D Nossiter It'ash:,15ton Po t Foreign Seryiee LONDON-04 -the night of June 4, an Iranian diplo- . mat ?noticed that the lights were on in the Kensington home of Mohammed Reza Amirteymour the newly re- - called ambaSsadore Since Amirteyritour- had said lie was going -away for the weekend, perhaps his last in England, the puzzled diplomat rang the doorbell. There was no reply. The dip- lomat went around to the back, peered through a kit - ellen window and saw two feet. ? Ile called the policeman on duty at the embassy near- by, and the officer forced open the kitchen window. On the floor, staring lite- ? lessly at the ceiling, was the body of the 53-year-old Amir- teymour. The embassy's first sccre- ? tary, Mortez Kakhi, told re- porters the next day: ,.? "Ile died from thatural causes. The doctbr ' who ex- amined him and the police are also satisfied."? , This was untrue. t. . British and Iranian authori- ties have now disclosed that ?Ambassador Amirteymour took his own life. A note in Persian is said to have ? been found by the dead man's body, addressed to his daughter and. begging her ? forgiveness, e In the weeks that have passed, however, at least some hitclligence sources here are not Wholly con- vinced that Amirteymour was a suicide. The fact that the Iranians declined to let .a British coroner conduct a WASHEIGTON POST 1 JUL 1976 Rowland Evans and Robert Novak ? ? . ? .1 post-mortem has left a cloud Shah Mohammed Reza t of suspicion.;. Pahlevi or the empress. An extraerdinary veil of ' "I would rule out any pos- secrecy has been cast over the whole affair. The British look on Iran as a multibil- lion-dollar customer for everything from arms to new towns, from Concordes to machine tools. London does not want to cross Teh- ran for the soundest of com- mercial reasons. ? First Secretary Kalthi's false statement has not in- creased confidence in the handling of enc., ease. The new ambassador, Parviz Cambran Radji, who arrived the very day Amirtcyrnour died, said in an interview that he has rebuked Kakhi for his tale-telling. ? ? Why should Amirteymour, a distinguished diplomat who had represented lran in Moscow before coming to London,. commit suicide on the eve of his recall? Several sources suggested that he feared he was going home to disgrace. He is said to have been, in the words of one well-placed aide, "a compulsive gambler" who had run up debts of perhaps $175,n00 In the clubs here. - In addition, Amirteymour Is thought to have offended Empress Farah' when she came here In April to open the World. of Islam festival. The precise nature of the of- fense is not known, but she Is said to have been disturb- ed by his arrangements. Radji, the new ambassador, will talk only of "rumors' to explain Amirteymour's pos- sin:0 "disgrace." But he denies ? that his predecessor. had got- teaninto- the bad books of sibility of a political reason" ? or "his majasty's displeasure," Radji said, "because I know . it would not be true," ? ? There iS no doubt Radji, t whose posting here began with . %the tragedy, is well enough ' connected to keow the shah's mind. Ile has the prized Lon- -don embassy at the tender age of 40 and previously lie had been key adviser to Premier Amir Abbas Hoveydn. Radii said he had an interview with ? the empress jiist before .he left. :Oh the British side, only the policeman on duty at the embassy, the police surgeon , he called, who ?certified the . death, and an officer from the coroner's office appear to . have looked .at -the ? corpse. , Scotland Yard has been order- ed to tell the:" press as little as possible and stress that the Criminal Investigation Divi- - sion was not called in. ? . The CID, ? however, could not be called in once dipice:- matic immunity was claimed. Radji made the claim as soon as the coroner's man suggested an .autopay.. . Radji, who was summoned to see the body on the fatal night, said that -there was no. ? ? blood or sign Of struggle, and that the only evidence of pills was a bottle of antibiotic- rape how, the putativc. suicide killed himself remains a mystery. Why did Radji claim dip- , lomatic immunity, thereby .preventing any determination of death? . ? - He did it, he said, out of 'consideration for his collea- gue's ? ? ? According to the ambassa- dor, a cable was sent to the Foreign Ministry in Tehran, which queried the dead man's aged ? Intim'. The' ministry cabled Radii that the father had refuSed permission for an autopsy and asked that the corpse be seat home, the am- bassador said. Even if Amirteymour had re- turned alive, his future was uncertain. Ambassador Radji said that his eminent prede- cessor did not have a new assigment at the time he died. The ? many question marks around this- affair have led some intelligence officials here to think that the dread- ed SAVAK, or state security and intelligence organiza- tion, had a hind in it. SAVAK agents operate-from the embassy in London, as the Sunday Times disclosed two years ago. , ? This is hardly surprising, since SAVAK was reorganized and trained by the CIA nearly 20 years ago,- and the CIA invariably has sizable station complements at major em- bassies. If Amirteymour was marked for death, why was he killed in London, on the eve of his return? Would it not have been easier to dispose of him ill Tehran? Ills death there, how-ever, might have aroused unpleasant talk. At any rale, he does seem to have died en Iranian soil, his Kensington house, which is diplomatic- ally immune from the in- quiries of a coronet- or Scotland Yard. "; A dangerous bet-minute bitch in plans to evacuate Anacriaana from Bei- rut 10 days ago resulted directly from elforta by the Paleetine Saineratiors entatztatioa (FLO) to sandbag Washing. ,vacu ins.-Typ ? too Into tiSiT112, its pewee toaecompiish the key 'LO 3r taxa of deer:late the Beirut airport. With the PLO- and the U. S. communi- cating inedireelly throe:nen the Tarnish embassy in Denton the PLC's ai.tetent to use the evacuation as a cover t6 en- hance its military position finally failed. But the mere fact So blatant an attempt was made shows tow far U. S. influence in the Middle Eztstr-parricit. larly Inside war-torn Lebanon?has de-tinned in the past year. The PLO's plot to strongarre a world superpower, understandable In terms of its deaperate need for medical and Otb.'01" 5Upplie3 for beseteett neirun con- tained these eimpie elements: By declaring the overiaed route leom Beirut to La:ocean-1s eiesafe? the ?tate could izece the Amerieens to entao,e? the a e? route es the onh vy to eee eltt of It eneute That ',Mild 30 Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 ' Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390066-9 from Washington on the Syrian govern- ment to let the airport (dosed by Syrian troops) open for the evacuation. Having then opened the airport on behalf of fleeing Americans, the PLO believed that the Syrians would not dare close it to medical supplies desper- ately needed by hundreds of gravely. ? wounded Palestinian Arabs. This plan required the U.S. to brush aside major contradictions. Even though the British and the French had sent land convoys safely to Damascus on the four days immediately preced- ing the planned June 20 American exo- dus, the PLO quietly notified the Bri- tish embassy in Beirut to inform the U. S. that the route had suddenly become ? unsafe. Yet, on that very day, June 20, non-Arab civilians made their way with utter safety through the war-littered ? region surrounding Beirut, up the mountain passes and into Damascus. Thus, the White House reacted with Immediate suspicion to this PLO play for U.S. pressure on Syria for air, evacu- ation. Even before the land-route op- tion was closed off, President Ford had been criticized for using the evacuation to promote himself as presidential cri- sis-manager on the eve of the impor- tant Iowa Republican state convention. Such criticism was deepened by the WASHINGTON STAR 2 7 JUN 1976 1 PLO THE NEW IMAGE By Jeremiah O'Leary . Washington Star Staff Writer. It has become a fact of life in the Middle East arena that the Palestine Liberation Organization has gained acceptance and status with the United States that is normally ac- corded only to nation-states. ? . "What else would you say about the PLO after it joined forces with the American Navy to stage an am- phibious and military operation such as the evacuation of foreign refugees across the beach in Lebanon last week?" asked a knowledgeable U.S. official. "We don't recognize the PLO de jure but we sure as hell have de facto dealings with it." Its new standing, another Amen- ? can policy-makertsaid, is generally. - parallel to what the Israelis did in their war for independence and inter- national recognition that ended in "?The Israelis made themselves a fact and a reality that could not be - ignored when they fought six Arab nations, won their battle and finally, were admitted to the United Na- tions," he said. "Before that, the ? Israelis were ? as the PLO is today ? a collection of armed guerrillas like the Paimach, the Irgun Zvai Leumi and the Stern Gang and not a nation at all." , . , U.S. OFFICIALS, who did not wish to be identified, say the relatively new role of the PLO as a moderate - ? force compared with the splinter ?rejectionist-front Palestinian groups . almost certainly carries with it a quid pro quo for the United States. . "Let's face it,' said tine informed .official,.!.?tney.are.actin responsiWy., , all-night White House meetings to find a new evacuation route (just after the overland evacuation of British and French nationals had worked without any trouble). Angered though they were by the PLO's sudden warning, Mr. Ford and his top military advisers could not prove the PLO was wrong and dared not risk finding out. So, to avoid playing the obvious PLO game and taking to the air, Mr. Ford or- dered evacuation by sea. Washington was determined to force the issue with the PLO, privately sending word through foreign embassies that a U.S. Marine assault battalion would be put on the ground in Lebanon if needed to safeguard the short land route from Beirut's Riviera Hotel to the docks. Only then, threatened with U.S. force, did the embattled PLO admit it had lost the game to impose its will on Washington's crisis diplomacy. With the admission came fast and complete cooperation. ' What is so disturbing about this sequ- ence of events is its lessons for wider U. SI interests in the Middle East, as well as the immediate future course of this nation's diplomacy in Lebanon. The truth is that Washington has now be- come spectator to passions unleashed by the Mideast's bloodiest civil war in and cooperatively with the U.S. in the Lebanese chaos and this is a bill that will come due and will have to be paid." Exactly what price tag the PLO has put on its services is one of Wash- ington's most closely held secrets. The price that seems most likely is some form of official U.S. recognition that the PLO exists. Further, it ap- pears possible that Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger or his successor will adopt the policy that the PLO merits a place at any Middle East peace conference. If all this seems unreal, coming a relatively short time after PLO lead- er Yassir Arafat appeared at the United Nations wearing a pistol hol- ster and after years of American refusal to deal with the PLO on any terms, it is undeniable that the PLO - is reaching a crossroads in its rela- tions with the United States. In the iew of many, the PLO has come closer than any other entity to organized and responsible conduct in strife- torn Lebanon.. OFFICIAL pronounce- anents from officials from TPresident Ford and Kissin- her on down continue the _fiction that Washington has no dealings with the largest group of Palestinians, the .PLO. While it may be true that there are no direct dealings, there are indirect dealings aplenty. Kissinger has said that the evacuation 'last weekend, something less than a dramatic affair as it turned out. was .11,7- ranged with the PLO 31 thraugh third-party inter- generations. The U.S. has been unable even to tell the truth publicly about its private sup- port for Syria's intervention in that civil war (first to help the PLO, then to save the beleaguered Christian Arab minority). Nor has the U.S. been able to impede the breakup of Arab unity, par- ticularly between Syria and Egypt, that followed the second-stage Israeli with- drawal from Sinai and severely threat- ens Mideast settlement prospects. Some experts here trace the tragedy of Lebanon's civil war directly back to U.S. refusal to insist that Israel start long-overdue negotiations with the Pal- estinians?or with Jordan?over the 1s: west bank of the Jordar River two years ago. Instead the U.S. al- lowed Israel to make a second-stage Sinai withdrawal agreement with ? Egypt, leaving the Palestinian prob- lems both on the west bank and in Le- banon ripe for exploding. Washington's inability 10 days ago to arrange a simple evacuation of its own citizens without being sandbagged by the relatively puny PLO is stark testi- mony to the truth. As of today, the U. S. seems' to have no hand left to play in the bloody Middle East. o neki Enterpriguane. .mediaries ? such as cer- tain unnamed Arab nations ? and the British. The evacuation could .not ,have been attempted at all "without thern consent and ''help of the PLO. Further- more, the PLO now report- ' edly has custody of the .; rejectionist front terrorists .,who 'murdered Ambassador. 1 Francis E. Meloy Jr. and teconomic adviser Robert 0. ? Waring. The PLO says it ar- ',rested the killers and in- -tends to hand them over for, -punishment to the small Arab League peace force; ',slowly assembling in Leba- ? "non. , ? For many years, the PLO and other Palestinian guer- rilla organizations stung Lebanon and Jordan, where ?; they had taken refuge after the 1948 Israeli war of inde- -penclence.. Every raid ',across the Lebanese bor- der, brought swift retalia- ? ztion from the Israelis. The ?Black September movement ;of fight-to-the-death Pales- ,:tinian radicals came into "being when the Palestinians ,attempted to conquer Jor- dan's King Hussein in head- ..on battle in 1970. But now the equations ? have shifted dramatically. '',The PLO is in tight with moderate 5.:gyptiatvPresi- dent Anwar Sadat, once . abominated because he made two Separate disea- gagement deals with Israel. The orgarti7ation is on good terms with the Syrian re- Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 gime of President. Hake - Assad. The PLO has always been dependent on the con- servative Arab peninsula oil states of Saudi Arabia and the various sheikdoms for financial and political support. Now it is Syria which is at ideological sword's point with its fellow Baathist re- gime ? in rejectionist Iraq'. The Iraqis, Libyans and. Algerians, who. are the ? hardliners against Israel, are essentially irrelevant to the Palestinians' raison d 'etre: an independent state of their own in territo- ry now occupied or included. in the U.S.-supported nation of Israel_ Most analysts say there is nothing the rejectionists ? ? can do to give the Palestin- ians a homeland. That deci- sien essentially depends on Israel, which is insisting it will never tolerate an incle- pea tient Palestinian state on its borders. In turn, Is- rael is utterly dependent on the United States and only Washington, by pressure and persuasion, can cause Israel to change its mind NEW YORK TIMES ? 29 June 1976 about permitting existence of a new nation of Pales- tine. KISSINGER often has said that Israel has no obli- gation to accept a Palestin- ian state so long as the PLO insists on the total destruc- tion of Israel. Ile has been less clear on what the U.S. view would be if the PLO abandons that all-or-noth- ing policy and indicates it would settle for a state of its own on the West Bank- Gaza lands. Indeed, the United States and Israel acknowledge that there can be no peace in the Middle East until the aspirations of the Palestin- ians have been met in some way. Lebanon, a U.S. official pointed out, has become to all intents and purposes a Palestinian state with the disappearance of all gov- ernment there and with the PLO the strongest of the Moslem Arab factions. And whether by design or mere- ly because everyone is too busy at fratricidal warfare in Lebanon, the Israeli- Lebanese border has sel- IQ A TyppAvitio Id. i epartmen t last week over any 111. 1 It V increase n American technoi- logy to Israel's adversaries. EAST JET SA LEI The Israelis made a major effort to oppose the sale earlier in the year, of six C-130's to Craft Meant for Egypt ArelFEeTtAadnmdinrl,sotnraatiepniedngoet htz5; stehri . Going to. Iraq and Syria I any additional military equip- ment to Egypt this year. ' I Air Defense Sale to Taiwan By BERNARD GWERTZMAN I A Congressional source said _ speen to The NewYcszt Tirn ;he had been told that. Lockheed WASHINGTON; June 28 "oeiplanned to sell two L-100's to The State Department has given !Syria and two to Iraq, with tentative approval to the Lock-lan option to seil two More to heed Aircraft Corporation for mach country,' making a total the sale to Syria and Iraq of!ef eight civilian versions of the C-130 In another development, a military transports already ap-iState Deportment official said proved for sale to Egypt, 0-f-ithat approval had been given ficials said today. ? . ifor the sale by the Hughes Air- A State Department officiancraft Corporation of a $34 mil- insisted that any sale of the lion air-defense system to the planes, designated L-100s,;Chinese Nationalist Govern- would be strict!' 'commercial imerit on Taiwaa. Of the S34 mil- and that because the L-100s;lion, a third would. ge financed were designed differently from through United States Govern the C-130's, they would be less flient-backed foreign .military useful militarily. , ? 'credits and the rest would be Despite the Governmenestarranged directly between Tai- efforts to minimize the rnili-!wan and th Hughes concern. tary significance of such a sale,,! The official said the sale was Israeli Embassy officials reg- 'consistent with. American poi- istered their concern with the!icy of helping Taiwan defend ? --??? ? 32 ? dom been more tranquil. The whole Lebanese civil war, in several other ways, has represented a foreign policy disaster for thefl Sovi- et Union and a triumph for the U.S-Israeli allies even if the causes of the interne- cine strife were self-gener- ated within hapless Lebanon with no instigation from Washington or Jerusa- lem. AMERICAN diplomats -are quick to point out that almost every Soviet initia- tive in the Middle East in the past two Arab-Israeli wars has been an expensive debacle for Moscow. They paint a picture of Moscow's clients raining Russian weaponry on one another, their fellow Arabs, and paying little heed to the Soviet presence on their side except to draw up new shopping lists for arms. It may be no wonder, then, that the PLO may be casting around for a better relationship with the United States in the hope that Washington may be able to itself ender the mutual security tpact between the two. govern- ments. The sale of the electronic air- defense equipment comes at a time when the United States is gradually phasing out its own military presence on Tai- wan, consistent with commit- ments made to the Peking Government in the Shanghai Communiqu?f February 1972. Last week the State Depart- ment said that the last Ameri- can military advisers on Matsu and Quemoy, the Nationalist- held islands off the China mainland, had been withdrawn. There had been one officer and two enlisted men on each island. A department official said that at the moment about 2,100 American military men were still on Taiwan, most of them doing communications and in- telligence work. Of that num- ber, about 60 were assigned to the Military Assistance Group. Political ALpect Stressed The possible sale of 1-100's to Syria and Iraq was viewed by State Department officials as more politically than miii- tarily significant. Both Middle Eastern min.: tries have relied. almost exclu- sively on the Soviet Union for their aircraft, but recently the Syrians have been seeking to expand their contacts with Western countries. The United States recently praised the Syrians for theirl efforts to bring at nut a ha tH ? anced political solution in Ieb-, anon and has begun a modesti ? get for them by negotiation the homeland that they have never been able to win with Soviet arms. Some U.S. policy makers believe the Israelis see the diaphanous American-PLO connection growing more substantial and more work- able. The Israelis are understandably suspicious, alarmed and wary, but Is- rael is in a weak position to defy its only important sup- porter. If the PLO and the United States find that they can work together over the long haul, no one in the State Department would be surprised if this administra- tion or the next one comes forth with an offer Israel cannot afford to refuse. Should this relationship prosper, the assessment is that one day Washington can propose that the PLO be represented at the Gene- va peace conference, along with Syria, Egypt, Jordan and the Soviet Union, or some other negotiating forum. This could happen sooner rather than later if the PLO gives up its dedica- tion to Israel's destruction. program of about 5100 snillioni in economic aid, some of itl food assistance to Syria. Ties with Iraq are minimal. Diplomatic relations werel broken off following the June 1967 war, when most Arab countries severed relations with the United States for aid- ing Israel in the war. ? A Civilian HercOles The L-100 was developed in the mid-1960's as the civilian equivalent of the highly suc- cessful type of the C-130, known as the Hercules, a main- stay in the Vietnam war. It is a heavy transport with four !turboprop engines. The plane under discussion ,with the Syrians and Iraqis is the L-100-30, which is 15, feet longer than the, C-130. The State Department off!. f,cial said the L-10-0 is less ma- ineuVerable than the C-130, !lacks a rear door to allow 'drops of Military equipment by parachute and lacks doors for paratroops. It also has been designed primarily for cargo and has electronic equipment such as radios and radar for ordinary commercial flying, not military missions. A Lockheed official in. Wash- ington said today that the talk. with. Syria a and Iraq were still tentative and no contracts had been signed. Ile said the cerlt: iwould run to about $6 rniAion ito SIO million each for an L-100. The State Department would have to approve fric Onr license tor the L-1005, hut :Congressional apprnval would jnot be necessary. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 - Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 WASHINGTON POST 1 JUL 1976 , By Jonathan C. Randal Washingtcni Post Foreign Service KINSHASA?One winter morning a European resi? dent of Kinshasd awoke to find his Zairean cook jump- . mg up and down with joy. "The president is through ?there's been . a. , coup ? d'etat," the servant exulted, . will havea enough to eat." The . servant proved ; wrong. The Shots he heard . and took for, a revolution in .; fact were fired 'by troops searching for common crimi- .. nes who had escaped from . a Kinshasa prison. . 2 But his. reaction Within the privacy- of his employ-. er's house?and the average citizen's indifference in pub- lic?typified a mood. ? More than 10 years after he seized power?much to the relief of his fellow-citi- zens, who were sickened by- the former Belgian Congo's first years of almost-constant civil war?President Mobutu Sese Seko is an' increasingly lonely and discredited figure. . His strongest card is his. t. lingering reputation as the man who ended the chaos. of; those early years of irides pendence. A common attitude is that summed up . by, a disen- chanted, if resigned, taxi . driver who said: "We might . as well keep him because the next man almost 'cer- tainly won't be any better?' - That, too, seems a view a shared by the Ford- tration, which appears to Shore up an old ally who recently returned to the fold after disastrous radical eco- - nomic measures, apparently' lnspired by official trips' to to North Korea and China,. . .Mobutte.s ,falling -.popular- ity is -a -functien of the nor- mal .attrition of power .eoue ; Pledawith- a major political ? and military setback?his ? ? disastrous intervention in . ',Angola?and the economic mess born ofiteglect, falling copper priceu and wastefui. prestige expenditures. In a speech in May. Alo- butu. wept .e long way eieavz ward confessing to the coun- try's gradual, but unmistaka- ble decline since independ- ..ence in 1960. . "Let's make an effort- to get away from the mentality that we used to have during- the colonial period," he ex- horted his fellow-citizens. -"We are an independent pet); pie. Forget aboutthe golden days that you used to have during the Belgian presence here." ' Zaireans cannot 'he blamed for indulging in nos- talgic ? selective memory. Once the' must prosperous colony in black Africa, the country has now gone back to a subsistence economy in many regions. Mobutu completed the. ef- fect of natural neglect by forcing out the- Greek, Por- tuguese and Pakistani trad- ers who kept the Wish Mar-, keting and distribution sYs- tern functioning. Farmers no longer can get their produce to market over , washed-out roads and are no , longer able to buy text- iles, kerosene, and other ? staples. Farmers have either stopped planting for want of .incentives or have taken to smuggling . their produce, abroad. Coffee,. tea, gold and: diamonds are among Zaire's . riches that nave -show up as .exp arts for- neighboring countries: - ? The telephone service in. Kinshasa has become so pre- carious. . that the govern- ment's inner circle commu-? aiicateS With each other by . walkie-talkie, . the -ultimate status symbol. Private firms' shortwave radios have ? re-., placed the telephone, , tele- gram and telex as the ? only sure communication systems in a country- as large. as the United States past oi ? the . ? Mobutu has-taken to blaming ?others for his ? trou- bles. The civil ' service .has undoubtedly undergone a ? steady erosion. "In what ? ere other country in the world 'have you seen the whole . population in business,'! he complained. "Some work for. the government and . still - run a shop and don't pay taxes." , ? "Everybody . saying prices have gone up. What is Motubu doing? The roads arc in bad shape. What's Motubu doing? Not -enough buses in town? Don't look at .Mobutu because Mobutu is working 24 hones a day," he said. So difficult has it become : for average Zaireans to make ends meet?inflation is running well over 30 per cent annually and Mobutu himself admits that 90 per cent , of . imported goods never get outside the capital ?that they are no longer satisfied with confessions, catalogues of shortcomings and exhortations promising instant change s "Everyone wants to 'buy a Mercedes overnight," he la- mented. ? 'If you want to steal, steal a little in a nice way," he in- structed his listeners. "But if you steal too much to be- cattle rich overnight, you'll soon be caught." Mobiltu. known as . "the president-founder" of the 'country's only political party, or more simply as "The Guide," has yet to in- clude these quotations in his Mao-like thoughts. published in the government-con- trolled press. But there is an acute awareness in .Zaire that Mo- butu has surrounded' him- -self with men from north- western Equator Province who are involved in many. of the juiciest, if questionable, government-run offices and projects.. South African goods?cs- p.ecially foodstuffs?are reg- - ulariy flown in aboard alt- places belonging to a Zaire state trading ceinpany. No ,. Zaire official seems ember- ;33 rassed by such overt trading . with a -country Zaire criti- cizeslor its apartheid policy or by the fact that identical.. fruit and vegetables not so many years. ago were avail- able in ample' supply front the Zaire's own Kivu area. e. Diplomats are convinced that Smith Africa purposely ? offers Zaire cheap credit and advantageous -exchanae. rates?no small asset foe a - recently devalued currency. . - .i ? Wth the Benguela . Rail: road across Angola still out. of Order and the Moiambie que line cut, Zaire now ships-much of its copper ex- ports through Rhodesia to ,South African ports. Mobutu often complains about his fate, but.he has no intention of .quitting. "I've been in the front lines for 16 years and that's where I. enjoy being," he confided in: a recent interview. Now that the United States shows sign of helping him out, he seems in better" spirits, especially since - Zaire's massive government and government-guaranteed foreign debt was recently rolled over by Western erect= itor nations. The United States seenis' . determined to place its faith in Mobutu's 55,000-man- army, just as it did in the ? last decade. That army proved unable to' end the re-, hellion in the 1960s without help from white mercenare ies and Belgian paratroop- ers transported in U.S. Air force planes. ? And in the Angola show- down the Zaire 'army aban doned massive amounts of arms, ammunition and other , material in its headlong , flight.from the battlefield. The apparent U.S. govern-?' =tit calculation is. that a' contented army will help keep Mobutu in power untll Zaire experience.; better days. Approved For Release '2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100A-0006-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 WASHINGTON STAR 2 7 JU'V 1975 William F. Buckley The U.N.'s double standard .on violence in Africa The figures are not all in on South Afri- ca, and it may be that, like the figures in- volving the rioting Mexican students of 1968, they won't ever be complete. But the last count showed that all of two white pen- pie .were killed, and that therefore the rest of the casualties (133 again, at last count) were black. It is not yet clear how many of these were black policemen; not clear how many of them, were people killed by black and white policemen; and not clear how many were blacks killed by rioting blacks. That there were many of these is neither a) doubted; nor b) commented upon. Even though many newspapers featured, on page one, a picture of an automobile over- turned by the rioters, not-so-neatly decapi- tating the (black) driver, who was not a policeman. In short, although 'the disruption was ignited by resistance to a white order (that the local schools teach Afrikaans to the black natives), the principal victims were blacks. Not Only blacks killed and wound- ed, but black enterprises burned, black hospitals and libraries destroyed. It isn't expected that much that is sensi- ble should come out of the United Nations, and on this occasion the Security .Council .didn't let us down. The Council passed, unanimously, a vote deploring the use of force in South Africa. This was done with the usual animadversions on apartheid, which are entirely deserved in any moral frame, but with an undistributed middle, between a) deploring apartheid, and b) de- ploring the use of force to stop rioters from killing non-rioters. One wonders what the South African po- lice were supposed to do under the circum- stances? Commit hara kin? Seal off Sowetho and permit its inhabitants to treat each other like Cambodians? What did we -- finally ? do in Watts? In order to restore the law, one uses force. Ptesident Eisenhower was willing to send paratroopers to enforce the law in Little Rock, Arkansas; and an entire armored division was ordered to stand by at the tithe of a major demonstration in Washing- ton against the Vietnam War. To denounce South Africa for using force to stop the rioting is to do the kind of thing the United Nations is very best at: bringing discredit on itself by its hypocrisy and surrealism. It made no difference whatever to the Security Council that the charter of the United Nations specifically forbids intervention ? which in the United Nations means, actually, official commen- tary ? in the internal affairs of sovereign states. It is a curious and unintended com- mentary on white South Africa that its sins are thought worth denouncing, while those of black Africans are not. The easiest deduction is that when Amin kills a few thousand of his fellow citizens, or when one tribe sets out to eliminate another tribe, it isn't worth the attention of the Se- curity Council, but that when the South African government acts to enforce its own (dismaying) laws, it is time for inter- national indignation. A week before the South African Resolu- tion, Mr. Leo Anderson, a Chicago resi- dent, was returning home with his wife and children and was stopped at the en- trance to a tunnel in a black section fo the city and ordered by a gang of young ruf- fians to pay ten dollars for the privilege of going through. The driver declined, and started forward. Whereupon a young black materialized with a pistol, shot the driver twice, wounding him, and his wife once, killing her. Driver after driver went by, noticed the bloody chaos, but did nothing, and it was 30 minutes before help arrived. The widower, interviewed in the hospi- tal, told a reporter that he harbors no ra- cial resentment whatever against the kill- er. "It was a set of rotten people who were there at the time. They happened to be black. There are rotten whites too." Just so. But it will be a long time before the Security Council finds any rotten blacks, and it has not even, on this occa- sion, found any rotten whites. It is no safer to deduce the brutality of those who en- force the law in South Africa from their use of force than it is to deduce the injus- tice of American society from the fact of riots at Watts: no safer than to assume that blacks are evil because of a particular act of ugliness in Chicago. As is almost always the case, an individ- ual spoke more wisdom, and showed more compassion, than an officially constituted tribunal. Mr. Leo Anderson should conduct seminars for the benefit of the ambassa- hors to the United Nations. Thiimicry. July 1, 19'6 THE W.A.SHINGION POST By Ernest Vpikman ? NEW YOIZIC?The African term is "ri:wacha." It bas compleN incanint and is id- moo uh.:.ransiatable, but. an ittIltraxilelte Englisti cquiv- alcut wuuldi be. '?\.*,,, 34. Approved time." "tt, is tunch more compli- rated than that," says I. N. Chitunda. "tn fact; it has varied nu:intim:4s: time i,J np, rice, the sun is now, tiinc t get t..)-!-?anti work; 'Lite wurct ve,.;^.iIN For Release 2001/08/08 portant to the Auguliitts, t cry Clittumla is acutcly aware tic is ;...1 bimitel 1, ;-;?- rtuitniu..7, Li S. repiesentat 0,.c the Uniao LIQ 11. : CIA-RDP77-00432R0001 gala, known more familiarly as 'uNin. uNITA was4,110. of. the two We.ityrnbacked factiobs d cleated ny the 'Marxist faction in An 4ot:1's civil way following r. ihassive infusion of Cuban troop.; aid :Soviet \Ve3pDm. From his small ';\;,!,, alsorimeist ;., bt;:i. to drum op Amcri e a n support In UNITA's continuin1 gie. a hil.:?iid-rtm vat' ;zttti.t,Oon (21,iiiin troops zditi a!1 00390006-9 ? *Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 But Americans have forgot- - ten about UNITA: Chitunda finds almost no interest !n ? Congress or elsewhere. Al- most daily lie prepares com- muniques and other mater- ial based on information ? snuggled out from UNITA.' ? held areas in the southern ? part of Angola. But there. , ? seems to be no inteeest in ? the material.. At the heigh?: ? of. the civil war earlier this ? year, C It it mit d a traveled ? . around the United States talking to various groups about UNITA.- Now he hard! . lY travels at all. . "Yes, it is clear that the Americans have forgotten us." Chitunda admits. "As- ., far as they are concerned. the :war in :Angola is over. In fact, however we (UNITA) have simply changed from positional warfare: to guer- rilla warfare."? Although the organization fervently believes it even- tually will win back Angola '"from the, Communists," as ? members say, UNITA to -the * - outside world is moye, sym- bolic than real. Chituncia is . still officially, listed as hay- lug observer status , at the United Nations, but the l?Iarist faction now control- ling Angola has applied for U.N. membership and it is almost, certain that Chitun- " da's status will be revoked. And what will become of UNITA then? "True, it ap- ? Pears we will not have - much," says Chitunda. "But in fact we have a great deal. We have the support of most of the Angolan people,," we have the -Will, we know we are right . . . ve have some leftover arms, and I 401 you e vill defeat the "- Cubans:" Time Marxist poptilar mere- ment that' rules-the country ?the MPLA?admits it , has severe. problems and has ,hinted that the guerrilla at- ? 'tacks are hurting. ? The MPLA was one of three movements that fought against the Portuguese when Angola was a colony. After the 1974 revolution, in Pot- tugal, Angola was given in- dependence and the MPLA; UNITA and another pro- wester faction, the National . ? Front for .the Liberation of Angola (FNLA), were joined in an uneasy coalition gov- erment. Both the Soviet Union and-the United States . intervened by supporting competing,f a cti ens with arms ad money. The U.S. covert operation was halted by ? Congress and the Popu- ? lar movement later over- whelmed. its opponents -with ? Cuban help. Its armies shatte'red, UNITA retreated into the Angolan. interior sever al months ago. "I have men- I tioned KW:it:ha," says cat. I. innda, "and it is what keeps us going." (e) 191% New3d6y. Inc WASHINGTON STAR 22 JUN 1976_ Crosby S. Noyes South African riots The bloody race riots in the black suburbs of Johan- nesburg have radically changed the perspective in the situation-in South Africa and pretty well knocked Secretary of State Henry Kissinger's newly con- structed African policy into a cocked hat. The perspective and the policy were based on a number of assumptions. The first was that the major problem and danger spot in southern Africa was Rhode- sia, where the white su- premacist government of Prime Minister Ian Smith faces the virtual certainty of a disastrous war with black African guerrillas bent on establishing African., rule. The only hope of averting the war ? and the possible extinction of Rhodesia's white population ? is a very rapid transition to majority rule through ne- gotiations with the black nationalist leaders. The concessions made so far, by the Smith regime toward easing racial restrictions in Rhodesia are universally considered to be too little and tot, -late to save the situation. The policy of the Ford administration has been to line up unequivocally be. hind rapid transition to black rule in Rhodesia. In the course of his recent trip to Africa, Mr. Kissinger made it clear that the re- gime in Salisbury could count on no help from the United States in its confron- tatien with the African 35 liberation movement. "On the contrary," the secre- tary said, "Rhodesia will face our unrelenting opposi- tion until a negotiated set- tlement is achieved." So far as South Africa was concerned, the per- spective was altogether dif- ferent. There, the white minority regime was believed to be in firm control and the black population relatively passive ? an impression that the government in Pretoria eagerly encour- aged. South Africa, further- more, is a considerable military power, with mod- ern equipment and an army of 50,000 men, backed by some 200,000 reservists. In cpntrast to Rhodesia, South African whites are hardly colonialists, having settled the country more than 300 years ago, long be- fore most of the black popu- lation arrived. Although South Africa's policies of apartheid are condemned by all the liber- al democracies, including the United States, the coun- try's strategic importance to the major shipping routes from the Middle East has argued against intensive pressure for political and social change at a faster pace than the white South Africans themselves are willing to accept. Indeed, Mr. Kissinger has been counting on the cooperation of the South Africans in coping with the problem of Rhodesia. In his meeting with South African Prime Minister John Vor- ster in West Gen'tiany this week, the secretary had hoped to enlist the aid Of Rhodesia's only major ally in bringing pressure to bear on Ian Smith's beleaguered regime, and there was at least some reason to hOpe that Mr. Vorster was pre- pared to be helpful. The riots starting Outside of Johannesburg have changed all that. Explosive pressures ? directly relat- ed to South Africa's repres- sive race laws ? have now been dramatically demon- strated; ? the internal vulnerability of the govern- ment in the face of a rising tide of black nationalism throughout the continent has now been starkly re- vealed. It would be comforting to believe that the result of the explosion would be a height- ened consciousness on the part of the South African authorities of the need for fundamental change and a speedup of essential re- forms. Unfortunately, the contrary is more probable: That the riots will rest* in more repression, the devel- Opment of a siege complex in white-ruled southern Africa, an end to efforts at accommodation and the en- couragement of violence on the part of black Africans as the only means of achiev- ing legitimate political goals. ? It also represents a sting- ing setback for the emerg- ing African policy of Henri Kissinger. And a singularly indigestible can of worms for a new American admin- istration to inherit. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08': CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 WASHINGTON POST 1 JUL 1976 -411) gilerOnesixeia the Marshalls, charged that . . the exclusion of Marshallese employees from U.S. facil- ities on Kwajalein Atoll constitutes, "racial discrim- ination comparable only to apartheid in South Africa." Allen maintains that early this year, during a. spinal meningitis epidemic at the atoll that left 12 persons dead and two children with permanent brain ? damage, the American doctors on the base 21,1e miles away did not assist the lone ?Marshallese health officer because of the policy of segregated facil- ities., ? Another petitioner, High Chief lbedul, from the Palau district, protested a multi-billion dollar, project launched by an American firm to 'turn that island. into ? ? a large ? port that would serve as an oil transship- ment: ?processing and stor- age depot. , Another group of Palau- ans, who favor' the port, is expected to appear here' nescial to The Washington Post UNITED NATIONS, June? :14--The United States came under a wide-ranging attack in the Trusteeship Council here today for its admints- iration of ?the last remaining U.N. trust territory the 2,000 Pacific Islands called Micronesia. The Americans Wore in the awkward position of ad- vocating that one 'group of islands in the .strategic trust territory, the Marianas, be allowed to separate from the rest and become an Ameri- can commonwealth, while .o pposing independence sought by other island groups, the Marshall and Palau districts, A delegation. of Marshall islanders , asked the U.N. council to endOrse their bid for a separate negotiation with the United States, lead- ing to eventual indepen- dence. George Allen, an Ameri- can lawyer now living in ' NEW YORK TIMES 6 JUL. 1978 Taiwan Issue To the Editor: In his June 21 Op-Ed article, .Allen S. Whiting overstates the intenaity of Peking's irritation with the U.S. on the Taiwan issue and underestimates the obstacles to any serious Chinese move toward the U.S.S.R. On the Taiwan. ? issue, the Times editorial of June 17 t, ("The China Knot") was much closer, to the mark, but the editors could .have added that Peking's attitude may also be conditioned by. fear that the Nationalists might turn elsewhere for protection, namely to the U.S.S.R., if cast adrift by the U.S. Peking's main concern abet? the U.S. today is precisely the question raised by Auwalian Prime Minister Fraser last week with Hua Kno-feng. Fraser wondered if the U.S. now has the necessary cohesion and will to ? provide an effective counter to the . outward thrust of Soviet power in Asia, the Indian; Ocean e,m1 other ..regions of concern. No doubt, Hua 'replied that those- were 'exactly ids own sentiments since hardly a day passes thelle?timilar concerns are not -expressed directly or indirectly in olic to appeal for'separate status for their district.? - Running counter to this separatist trend, which has been stimulated by econom- iii potential but is grounded In the cultural and language 'differences among the. vari- ous Wand groups., was an appeal from Roger Baldwin,. of the International League for Human Rights,' for the maintenance of Micronesian unity. Baldwin .and two 'col- leagues charged . that the United States was seeking the separation of the Mari- anas from the rest of Micro- nesia in a "divide and rule".. tactic that is "colonial" in. nature. ? ? Council members are the United States, Britain, France, the Soviet .Union and China. Both the U.S. administra- tion and the representatives from the Caroline island districts of Micronesia, which contain the majority of the 114;000 Population but have :less ?economie potential than :Peking. ? ? ? The points at issue in the Sino- -Soviet dispute still relate to basic Chinese values and interests. They have to do with China's determination to pursue its own read to building ?socialism, to assert its own strategy for world revolution and to establish. what the Chinese consider their proper role as a self-reliant nation playing an important and independent role in world affairs. Any meaningful rap- prochement with the U.S.S.R.. would necessitate serious compromise of these values, unless, of course, the U.S.S.R. itself had undergone a basic change in its values and aspirations. And surely a turn toward the U.S.S.R.. would not be the way to speed. the U.S. departure from Taiwan. ?Rut if the. alarmists are right and ? Oa, consensus in Peking on the proper direction of China's basic interests is so fragile that it could be torn apart alter Mao's death, this is all the more reaenn to approach the deliaate process of normalization of reiatiana with caution. To bolcl out the profuse of mu- pco'tunt 'results from this or that Pc,flit=Y leitiative is to risk eventual disillu .the Marianas, Palau and the Marshalls, are seeking to have th rrusteethip Coun- cil accept the separation of . the Marianas, but reaffirm ? the principle of territorial. unity .for the rest. ? ? e The United States 'maia- tains major bases in the Ma- . rianas; which would be. pro- tected under the common- wealth status. U.S. officials described as "vital and 'over- riding the interest in retain- ing the missile range on Kwajelin. The Marshallese, repre- sented here today by a Ha- waii-educated local official named Anton deBrum, .ar- gued that the. "myth of Mi- cronesian unity represents, in feet an attempt to colon- ize the Marshalls." The U.S. plan, he said, would leave control over Marshallese af- fairs in the hands of the ma- jority of .Caroline Islanders. When pressed by the Brit- ish and ? French representa- tives about the depths of Marshallese commitment to independence, de-Brum re- plied that he could envision a continuing relationship with. the United States----if the price for the bases was right?but only if it involved 1 a status separate from the rest of Micronesia. . . sionment and to jeopardize the possible gradual development' of a mutually beneficial relationship.. JAMES C. GRAHAM Potomac, Md., June 24, 1976 The writer is a former irtember of the Board of National Estimates, C.I.A. 0 ASIAWEEK, Hong Kong 25 June 1976 SOOTHSAYERS The China Experts One of the problems that bedevil Taiwan's diplomatic strategists is the difficulty in keeping up to date on what Washing-tor is thinking and doing about China. Thus, with the third "Sino- American Conference on Mainland China" in Taipei last. Week (the others were held in 1971 and 1974), it was hoped ? that the airing of opinion by some leading U.S. Sinologists would procide a few clues. In the event, the loca!s wound up even more mystified then twee: the guests not only disagreed with much of what Taiwan's own China-watchers had to say, but managed to pour scorn or, one anotiter as wir.,11. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : C A.RDP77-00432R0001003900d6-9 That diversity of outlook is the price Taipei has had to pay for its recent success in opening contacts with a wider range of American opinion leaders, rather than shunning all but staunch anti- communists. But if the academic visitors offered no peeps into the rinds of American policymakers, the Nationalists still had cause to consider the conference a success. For one thing, it attracted some 40 American scholars ? including some leading liberals ? and during formal sessions and informal encounters, the hosts had opportunity aplenty to press a central point: that American "derecognition" of Taiwan, for the purpose of placating Peking, was both unnecessary and undesirable. Among the guests were Jerome Cohen and Ezra Vogel of Harvard, Robert Scalapino of Berkeley, Ralph Clough of the Brookings Institution and Ray Cline of Washington's Georgetown University. In seeking closer relations with such ? scholars, reports ASIAWEEK'S P.L. Hsia, Taiwan hoped to impress upon them the seriousness of its own mainland- watchers' scholarship and thus eliminate the tendency of many foreign analysts to dismiss the locals as mere propagandists. But while many of the American participants seemed suitably awed by the fact-gathering capacity of their Taiwan counterparts, they had scant praise for much of the analysis (a sentiment that ? was fully reciprocated). Most notably, the local scholars predicted that after Chairman Mao Tse-tung's death there would be such a fierce "crisis of succession" that central political author- ity would yield to a number of regional power centres ? a sort of "new warlordism." Few of the Americans (agreed with that conclusion. The conference's liveliest session came on the last day when Thomas Robinson, associate professor of political science at Washington U., stood. up to advocate early U.S. recognition of Peking via the "Japanese formula" of reducing Amer- ican representation in Taipei to unofficial level. If full relations were still not consummated when Mao died, he argued, Washington might risk the emergence of a moderate Peking leadership intent on ? settling differences with Moscow. At such a point, declared Robinson (who joked that he'd been advised to wear a bullet-proof vest to the meeting), Amer - ice's bargaining position would be badly weakened, especially since the U.S. would require Peking's support to help offset the growing strehgth of the Soviet Union. The chief spokesman for the opposite viewpoint was Georgetown's Cline, a onetime boss of the State Department's Intelligence & Research Bureau and a frequent critic of Kissingerie.n foreign policy. Contending that Peking needs the U.S. much more than vice-versa, Cline saw no compelling reason for Washing- ton to abrogate its defence treaty and jettison diplomatic relations with old ally Taiwan. The U.S., he said, should offer to open an embassy in Peking without ? closing the one in Taipei. If Peking accepts, he said, that will be fine; if not, ? that will be their problem. WASHINGTON POST 8 JUL 176 Twelve Christian Workers Released ries John Saar Washington Post Foreign Service SEOUL, July 7?South Ko- rean police repeatedly punched and threatened Christiar. ministers and lay workers when they refused ;to falsely confess that their church community organiza- tion was Communist-influ- -?enced, It was alleged here today. ? The charges of police bre- , .;--tality were made by mem- - tiers of the Seoul Metropoli- tan Community Organize- tion soon after the release yesterday a the last three of twelve persons held for a six-week investigation.-- - ? Police gave no explana- tion for the original arrests or for the unexpected re- lease of nine staffers of the organization last Saturday and the group's chairman, the Rev. Park Hyung-Kyu, with two others late last night -.Justice Minister Whang San Duk said in an inter- view that the prosecution was suspended to ?protect the freedom of religion and in consideration of the 12 prisoners' social status. He said they had "deeply re- pented of their past errors." Whang said he had not re- ceived any report of police violence, and did -not believe it had happened. He -prom- ised to investigate the charges. ?, The Rev. Park has been jailed three times since 1972 when he founded the com- munity% organization to bring medical aid and a sense of self-worth to Seoul's slum dwellers. Well-informed sources here say the decision to halt the prosecution was influ- enced by an unusually strong effort on behalf of the eleven men and one woman by U.S. Ambassador Richard Sneider. An embassy spokesman declined to comment on U.S. intervention in the case. In the past, the embassy has re- fused to disclose any efforts liege once to encourage the Seoul gote , ernment to respect human -rights on the ground that publicity would reduce the mission's effectiveness. Sneider, who has been ac- cused of not exerting maxi mum persuasion in earlier cases, "fairly banged the ta- ble on this one," a nondiplo- matic source said. Since ? late 197Z when -' - Park seized wide powers via 1 martial law, political opposi- tion has been discouraged, and opponents of the gov- ernment have been arrested frequently. People who have been released from prison have frequently -charged that they were mistreated by their jailers. - - - ? Sources say there was also a bitter. interdepartmental struggle over the case be- tween .Korea's two largest law enforcement agencies, the Korean Central Intelli- gence Agency IKCIA) and the national police The KCIA has conducted daily surveillance of the group's activities, and agency offi- cials reportedly were out- raged when the police claimed to have evidence of pro Communist eictivities go- ing on under their noses. The KCIA, which has fre- quently questioned and re- leased workers of the -Chris- tian action group, won out when the public prosecutor's office ordered the police to . relinquish the case. Another factor in the po- lice failure to release the prisoners, according to these well-placed sourees, was an inability to obtain evidence for a credible conviction. Senior leaders of the Protes- tant churches in Korea vig- orously criticized the arrests in meetings with police offi- cials and the minister of home affairs, Kim CM Yul. A resolution adopted by the Human Rights Commission of the - Korean National Council Of Churches 37 rutalit "rejected the government's implied charges of Commu- nist conspiracy as ground- less," accused the govern- ment of misunderstanding the church's true mission, and interpreted the arrests as "an attack... against the church as a whole." "There's not a church ? member in Korea who would believe they were Communists," an American ? missionary comented. ? Of the twelve people held and then released, six have told friends they were beaten up, three of them se- verely. They said they were punched by as many as three detectives at a time when they refused to iden- tify the group's spiritual and organizational head, the Rev. Park, 53, as a Commit- - nista Lee Chul Yong, a commu- nity organizer, said he was kept bound hand and foot for three weeks ? and was gagged with filthy floor rags when he sang hymns. lie was not given food for two i? days at one point. ? Before they were; re- leased, all the detainees were required to sign forms promising not to disclose de- , tails of their treatment. They, remained silent until all ? 12 were released, but . spoke freely to their col- leagues today. An amend- ment to the criminal codn prohibits the disclosure of critical information to a for- eign correspondent.'::. :The police, they said, made desperate efforts to r obtain or fabricate evidence. The freed prisoners said they were allowed two to four hours' sleep a night and were interrogated for up to 15 hours at a stretch. Lee, a former street crimi- nal converted by the Chris- tian group some Years ago, said he was offered "several million won," to testify that Park taught him COIT1Olii- nism. One million won equals $2,0a0, tl Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 WASHINGTON POST 6 JUL 1976 -Marquis Childs eth Major Problems So much of the news is a commodity avidpped up by the media. itself. That was true of a lot of the coverage of the ?.30 primaries reported in the old tradi- tion of "he's up, he's down," with only a fraction of the electorate concerned :enough to vote.. 'h Rut the. prize example of synthetic ,inews was President Ford's economic aernait in Puerto Rico: As image-build- iett by way of television it served his tperposes. Even as first announced, the pcseibility of any tangible achievement ,was heavily' discounted and no one therefore had reason to be disappoint- ed. ? In the choice of a site?San Juan in the full blaze of summer's heat--was an irony that must have escaped the har- ried heads of government. As they went from one air-conditioned confer- ence room, to another under the heavi- eat security on this two-day excursion, the locale meant little or nothing. Yet they might have learned some - 'thing about the problems of the Third. World from this curious island corn- hnenwealth. For Puerto Rico,. as a de- 'Pendent of the United States, is part of ta ? balancing act that threatens from :time to time to fall apart. They might lave learned, too, about the role Cuba. las played in the Puerto Rican dilem- ma. in Fidel Castro's meddling in the rela- tionship between Puerto Rico and the "United States is one of the reasons that Vie proposed reopening a year ago of 38 -the Cuban-U.S. dialogue was aborted. While this was secondary to the mas- :sive Cuban intervention in Angola? Ahem may be today as many as 15,000 'Cuban troops in that former Portu- guese colony?it was nevertheless evid- ence that Castro was continuing to try to make trouble for America in the Car- ibbean. A' Last September at a solidarity con- tress in Havana the cause. was Puerto 'Rican independence. And although its. 'importance was played down the Cu- 'ban radio beamed inflammatory speeches, many of them by Puerto RI- .can independence delegates, to the is- land commonwealth. The Cubans never miss an opporturt- -ity-to raise this issue at the United Na- tions. They are expected to do a repeat ?performance in August before what is. known as the Committee of 24 which concerns itself with de-colonization. These gestures mean little except as propaganda and as proof for Washing- ton that Castro is determined to con- tinue his trouble-making role. -Repeatedly in free elections the Puerto Ricans have voted down inde- Dendence. In the last elections in 1972 the independence parties got only 4.5 per cent of the vote, with 85 per cent of potential voters going to the polls. 'IBy any rational measurement inde- pendence would be the sheerest mad- ness. In an island heavily overpopu- lated with no energy resources, suffera dug from a severe recession caused ih. BALTIMORE SUN , 8 July 1976 Unhappy .11.8 ? Americans worry about Cuban intervention ifl-Africa and thunder about Cuba's. annoying if ineffective subversion in Puerto Rico. Yet they fail to notice revolutionary change of an otni nous 'character taking place in the Caribbean, and especially the English-speaking ,Caribbean. Prime 'Minister Forbes Burnham, ? who was thought of as Washington's man when he took power in Guyana in 1954, is moving that South American mainland state by salami slices into a Marxist-Leninist dictatorship. Prime Minister . Michael Manley appears to be heading the same way in Jamaica, under. cover of Draconian emergency responses to widespread violence and in the name of democratic socialism: ' Small as Guyana and demnica are on tc world ;calti, timy gi;int.s of hc stateleta that emergetf. from what used to be the Rritiab West Indies, A W1011'1410 theory involving tite part by the quadrupling of oil prices, cutting off the massive help provided by the United States would be a form of suicide. Given his Marxist outlook, Castro may envisage Puerto Rico as a second Angola. Cuban troops would move in to keep order. But with Cubans them- selves still rationed for many essentials, the food deficit could never be made up. The island would soon become a starving poorhouse. - As a measure of American help, out of a population of 3 million, 52 per cent, or 1,558,000, are on the food stamp pro- gram. More than 200,000 are on the fed- eral aid for families with dependent children, although the monthly pay- ment of $45 does not go far. A determinded drive to build up in- dustry and tourism has raised per cap- ita income to more than $2,000, accord- ing to a spokesman for the island. That income is the second-highest in Latin America, exceeded only by oil-rich Venezuela. With unemployment offi- daily at 17 per cent and tourism falling off, it will be a struggle to sustain such a level. Even if they had had a moment to consider it, this must all have seemed irrelevant to the heads of government. Each has his own serious political-eco- nomic problems back home and each was making sure that he got filmed by the television crew that turned up from his home base. Here were the states- men debating with their fellows about inflation and its perils together with. unemployment and the dangers if the brake is pushed down too hard on the current recovery: Puerto Rico is in a sense part of the Third World. As such it is an object les- son in the cost of sustaining living standards at anything close to the level of the industrialized nations. . c United Frhttlize Syndleate,;ne. smaller islands is not unreasonable. A aubstanti- al part of the Caribbean allied ti Coba, and ' looking internationally for help against expect- ed subversion from the 'United States on the 'Chile model, would he a dismal Bicentennial present Yet this specter is taking shape without Cuban responsibility or much American notice. The reaeons for it are indigenous and tragic. The downward soiral of Jamaica is dynamic. Poverty and joblessness breed violentie, both political and criminal, which drives tourism and investment a aiey to create greht,r deeper:a Mr. Manley seems more preoccopical with natiocal- mZ thao it. British-style democracy has eh/en way to one-party dioW:?r- shios in other former colonies, but this transfer. ruztion, if plir:.ut:d. would Injustice Ir> ,lamed? ca's own Instaa ii :1;1 ,c0rely ;,lolenec-free, two- party tradition, The oppoiiioe detrialca 1.reattra Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 *Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R00010039000t-9 party has as great a claim On Jamaican patriot- ism as the People's National. party of Mr. Man- ley. His dispute with American aluminum pro- ducers over the bauxite mines should be negoti.. -able. The violence wracking Kingston is a trage- dy for. the Jamaican people. Mr. Manley's re- sponse to it might prove to be another. Amen- :can reaction to his policies should not add fur then tragedy, which would not be many rational: American interest: WASHINGTON POST Friday, July 2, 1976 DAILY TELEGRAM, London 28 June 1976 U.S. accused of -foaling. Castro's Cuba: The Invisible Handwriting on the all A Commentary. By Nicholas von Hoffman El Presidente Geraldo Ford dropped in on Puerto Rico the other day and the first thing "he did was to tell El Jefe Supremo Fidel a' Castro, to keep ? his cotton-pickers. off that ; island. If Ronald Reagan had said it every- '. body would be yapping abdut how irresponsi- , ble hels. The Cuban threat is a geoPolitical version of the miracle of the loaves and ?thp. fishes. Here is an island nation that's about 760 1. miles. long, .50 miles thick with 8.5 'million' . people, and to listen to American officialdom - you'd think that this email gang . of stogy puffers is about to conquer the world. When '.??.:they're not subverting -.Puerto .Rico we're warning them of Panama, Angola or Rho- desia. Where do they get all the troops for these escapades? Russian volunteers.andleft- .' !a wing Hollywood starlets who. missed the charter. flight when the Venceremos. Brigade Went home to Pasadena? . No man and no country in the world is as adept at getting the. American government's goat, as ? Castro and Cuba. We. rise to the.. ? bait every time and we. do it with :such ? 'unvarying consistency that ? Castro plants a rumors of new Cuban subversions in unlikely a places at a pastime. ? Don't be surprised to e! read that Kisainger haswarned the -3,Imeimum? ' Leader of Cuban socialismto atop fomenting civil war in Lebanon. In the last few yearsosaner heads in Wash- ....ington have begun to question this ceaseless -4?? 'end pointless vendetta 'against Our Caribbean' neighbor. Why, they want to know, do we continue to try to embargo and starve the Cubans 13 yeara after their revolution? We did the Same ?with the Russians and with the Chinese only to give it up and admit we'd made idiots of ourselves.. . . Given the history of U.S.-Cuban relations, ? it's they who have every moral right to be attempting. to quarantine .us.. Cuba might he considered the first country in which the United ?States tried out what. is new -called .: -.neocolonialism, that is, having esteeeibly free and independent states which are in reality run .by on Mole:11)1e American pre-con-ea ? Cuba's weather 131 OUR VASH AMERICA twice tampered . with the weather in an effort to wreck the Cuban sugar harvest and bring ? down ? , the Communist -regime. of Dr Fidel Castro, former scientific consult- ant _ -to Pentagon claimed at the weekend. . ? Lowell Polite said the Cl A and the Pentagon had -'seeded" wind currents. that ---carry rain to Cuba in 1969 and 1970. The harvest did fail but ,it was .not clear if that was a result of the project having worked. He said he had learned of the' project front staff at the Penta- gon who were directly concerned with the operation, but the ..Pentagon yesterday denied talc- ?ing part in any such scheme, saying: We have never con- ducted weather" modification., around Cuba." A Spokesman' :said such. tactics had only been INGTON -.STAFF -7 . ? ? used once in a secret Operation, and that was in. Vietnam. There- rain was made to fall in an at- tempt to turn trails used by the Viet Cong into impassable: swamps. Mr Ponte; who is Shortly to publish, a book on weather . manipulation, said the purpose of the Cuban operation was the-. . opposite--to get the *clouds to - discharge their moisture before* they ever got to Cuba and thus to wreck the, harvest. . Ile said the idea ? was first tried out in 1969, and stepped up the. next year after Dr Castro staked his reputation on a record 10 - million ton sugar, cane harvest.. '?" The 'CIA calculated, follow- ing Castro's statements,' that , failure would demoralise his. people and make Cuban com- munism ? .appear ? a failure' throughout., the world." When , the harvest failed Dr Castro i did, as the CIA had hoped. i. offer to resign, but later clanged j his mind. Back at the turn of the' century the technique ? wasn't perfected so we sometimes left our ? ? paw prints around. Thus, the first Cuban ? Constitution (Article III) had a remarkable 'clause in its conceding ? "that' the United States. may exercise the ..right to intervene ? for the preservation of Cuban independence, ? the .maintenance of a government adequate- for the protection of life, property andindi- ? " virtual liberty, and for the discharging the obligations. with respect to Cuba imposed by . ? the Treaty of Paris ... ? The aforesaid ?Treaty of Paris ended the Spanish-American; War, and although it determined Cuba's fate ' until the coming Castro, the Cubans neither drafted it nor signed it. ? ? :Under this intervention clause, known as ? the Platt Amendment, we thrice sent troopS into the country. The worst was in 1906 when we sent a certain Charles Magoon of Ne- braska to* the governor of Cuba. The indig- ? may or it! To be ruled over by a man named Mego.on. In the America ..of 1906 or ? now, such as a Magoon should aspire to : nettling higher than saloonkeeper or alder-. ? man.' alageon- was but one ? of a succession of Americans sent to -Cuba to teach "the cheat- ing amanana' lot," as Theodore Roosevelt . .called the inhabitants of that island, how to. conduct themselVes. in a democratic and .manner. The Cubans were had ? ? pupils. They rieted'and revolted under a pro- cession of Quisling president who :Jet neap 'records for theft, peculation and diversion ? of famds front. ti public purse. The . American penetration and. domina- tion of tho Cuban economy ?Ieft the little' island it a tondition of near vassalage. ? A U.S. Department of Commaece publica- tion in 1956 imule the point. better ihnn ??etly .Marxist-Leniniat. could: "Ameriean participation. exceeds .eo per cent in the telephone mid electric eerv2ece, about 50'. . 'ear cent in. eervice radwrres nurt roughly: o5 per .eent. in raw sugar peothata Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 2:-.5.68koaripitihriva...erawatokkg 39 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 thin. The Cuban branches 'of the United States banks are entrusted with almost one-fourth of. all bank deposits . e The outlook for additional investment is also -good." (As quoted in "Revolution in Cuba," by Herbert fa Matthews, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1975). The American policy has been anything but empathetic. While playing down the actual history of the relations -between the two countries, in pane Castro. has been CHICAGO TR IBIJNE. 4 JUNE 1 976 denominated a bandit, and .in secret the scum of the Mafia were sworn into the CIA and told if their hit men scored on the, Cuban leader they could have their whorehouses back. If our Presidente should decide to return' to the Caribbean, next time he might fore- go the threats and offer El Jefe Supremo our apologies with a promise not to do it again.? 6 months of political strife T. By john Hatch 0 1976. The Washinaton Post/ Mine. Features Syndicate. Inc. ? ES see be KINGSTON,. Jamalea?"CIAga" is .a common sign chalked on in ?this City of 700,000 inhabitants long known ? * for its tropical tourist attractions but recently the target of political violence. The term is a play on the?name of Edward Seaga, leader of the opposition atlamaiaa Labor 'Party: .1.1LP] ? the" , more conservative of the island's two . major political factions, and the United States' Central Intelligence Agency. Some members of the ruling People's.* National Party 1PNI'l blame the via:- lone? in the last six months on Seaga : the CIA, for two reasons, ? First, the PNP won. four :by-elections: last yeer and has remained popular since coming to power in 1972, despite being faced with the political adversities ..? ? of oil price increases and world reces-' non. So, Seaga as opposition leader 'faces' near certain defeat at the next 'election, to be held before next Febru- ary. Second, Washington is believed to have become worried about the direc- tion. of Jamaican politics. The PNP gov- ?-ernment openly declared its objectives to be socialist and madc no secret of its ? friendship with Cuba. Thus, it is' alleged, the CIA began six .months ago to focus ? on determining the credibility of Seaga ? as an alternative to Prime Minister and PNP leader Michael Manley. IT IS SUGGESTED that Seaga, who had a reputation? for using violence in "earlier political' battles, secured money from ? the .CIA which he determined to John Hatch iz a British teacher. . TIME 28 June 1976 - JAMAICA Si journalist and ihid bullets ?uae for bullets where words failed to per- suade voters. ? This .scenario is by no means univer- sally accepted. But what is unquestioned. is that citizens have died in the last six . months in Kingston as guns have prolif- erated along with Molotov cocktails and arson. Many victims have been young members of the PNP. Military discipline has been instituted, and Manley . and ? members of his government have joined an expanded Home Guard. What alarms Jamaicans is that their country is being hit by violence of a clearly Political ? and evidently foreign ? nature. It is not aimed at ? the wealthy, nor at. the tourists who cortin-. ue to crowd .the sun-drenched beaches on the north ?coast seeking tropical de- lights. It is in the poorer parte of King- ston, .and among the political protago- nists, that the heat is felt. The allegation of CIA interference has gained credence with. the exposure of the agency's adtivities in other nations,. especially in Latin America. ? JAMAICA AND. CUBA are . natural friends. They lie only 90 miles apart and share many .common problems. At Man- ley's invitation; .Cuban engineers are building local irrigation darns in Jamai- ca and training Jamaican workers in their construction and use. ? That is the ?kind 'of mutual aid Third' World countries are increasingly seeking as an alternative to reliance on the rich incluetrial states for a transference of technology. Yet, it is generally accepted that such nations do not interfere in each other's Jamaicans, with their history of turbu- lent political pluralism, are little inter- ested in the conformity of cornea:mist-a ? and this is recognized by Cubans. h Kingdom Goes to Vkiaste7 Recently, Jamaican Prime Minister Michael Manley invited supporters at- tending the tenth annual conference of his Central Kingston constituency to. study closely a film called :Inc Rise and rf an? CIA. a British-made doeti- mentary a tpaut alieged agency opera- tions in Lar.r.i, Viet Nam and Salvador Alleride.'s Chile. "t cannot prove in a court of law that the (IA is here," Man- ley told his audience. "What I have said is that certain stranee thines are hap- pening in farnalca whieh we have not seen before." By "strange things," the Pi hue Min- ister meant random nets of violence that so farthie year have led to the death of more than MO people, mi.,stly- in the slums of West 'Kingston, ast week.. though, Peruvian Ambassador Fenian- ? Seaga and Manley. agree national de- velopment is the 'essential objective.. Seaga calls his policy nationalism; Man- ley. speaks of. .democratic socialism.; communism has. never been an issue between them. Manley's socialisin is recognized as preserving Jamaica's democratic tradie, tins of a free and critical 'press, free speech and association. The trade un- : ions are divided between the two par- ties. The police, security forces, and ju- diciary are independent. If Jamaicans became convinced their 1, free choice between the parties at the next election was being subverted .front outside, much el the Third World would be incensed. ? AT THE SAME TIME, the real alter- natives would be submerged. Seaga rep- resents the business interests cf this country and believes the national econo- my can grow only if government con- trots. are removed from all but the rural , sector.. Manley would seek to narrow the gap ! in living standards between the minority . elite and the common masses until it disappears. He says government must create new jobs, insist on a minimum wage; build houses and roads, provide 'tensions and health services, end supply 'food to the needy.- in addition to contael- Eng utilities and educational institutions. If the PNP should be defeated in the coniLrig elections, by either constitution- al or subversive means, there would he a real danger that right- and leitewing forces would engage in a death stru;azle to impose their brands of totalitarian- ism. And if they did, the chances ? for peace on this island and of trust in the West throughout the Third World would be dashed for many years to COMC. do' Rodriguez Oil va.wasstahlletl to death by burglars in his home in an upper- class section of the capital. *In a stern effort to halt vicaetice neu has been causing a death a clay in Ja- maica, I'vlal).kY's V?overilment extrenie step of declaring a 'tate of emergency. This move g,4cs the Seciirity 1-.4.-iive broad alLe L. posse I'S 1.0 1.17 Li irk ho',' and order. Sa;ki ihe prime minister: -we ha": V, a type and scale ef a.iolence our histm,y, terrorist ities 40 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390066-9 ? unknown to us which have caused fear ? and concern to every decent Jamaican ? citizen." Security forces, he insisted, had ? found evidence that terrorism was to be deliberately stepped up this week. Nighttime Sounds. The Prime Minister, announcing the state of emer- -genes,, also gave a vivid example of the kind of violence he intended to stop. On the night of May 19, Manley recalled, in what has become known as the "Or- ange Street Massacre," a gang seeking vengeance for the stabbing of one of its members set fire to a tenement house. With gunfire the gang held ?. bey and the occupants inside the burn- ing building. Fight children and three? ? adults died in the fire. . ? Even before the State of emergency, police and soldiers of the 8,000-man Se- ? curity force:had been-carrying Out night- ly cordon-and-search operations in ? Kingston under the country's weapons ? control laws (automatic life imprison- ment for anyone caught with guns, gres nades or explosive devices). A new ad- ? dition to the nighttime sights and sounds of the city is the loud whir of an irmy 'helicopter with a powerful searchlight. hovering over an area where security forces have moved in to make a sweep. ' U.S. Ambassador Sumner Gerard has protested that the CIA is not in any manner trying to upset the Jamaican government, even though Washington is less than happy about Manley's warm- ing friendship with Fidel Castro. Ge- rard's denials were reinforced last week by William H. Luers, Deputy Assistant ? Secretary of State for International Af- BALTIMORE SUN 25 June 1976 Post-Allende repression: fairs, who told a House subcommittee that allegations of U.S. interference were "totally false.- If American citizens are engaged privately in "destabilizing.' ac- tivities, Luers added, "we are prepared to cooperate fully with the governments of the area to bring them to justice." Prime Minister Manley is not total, ly. convinced. "We have not said? that destabilization in Jamaica is the result of deliberate top-level U.S. Government . he told TIME Correspondent Bernard Diederich last week. "Dr. Kis- singer has said that it is not so, and that may be so. Nonetheless, what upsets people now is that assurances were be- ing given Allende and his ambassadors up to a few weeks before this death] ?bland aesurances saying 'Of course we're not doing that'?and yet we now know it was happening." Specifically, Manley blames the vi- olence on his right-wing political ene- mies who are trying to impede Jamai- ca's path to socialism. If, in that, they do get help from American sources,- he claims, it is partly because of his friend- ship With Castro (who may visit Kings- ton in August) and partly because Ja- maica backed the pro-Soviet regime of Agostinho Neto in Angola. The U.S., ar- gues Manley, "has been resentful of any country in the Western Hemisphere that came out in support of Neto and the Cu- bans against the South Africans. They have been very bitter about it." A more plausible explanation for Jamaica's unrest is Maniey's efforts to turn the island republic into a socialist state. Even the Prime Minister's sup- porters concede that the economy is in ? a shambles. Unemployment is running at about 22rda and is particularly high among urban youth. who police say are guilty of most of the recent mur- ders. The country's foreign exchange earnings, principally from bauxite, sug- ar and tourism, are down 40 to 60% . below last year's total .of $400 million,: and reserves have dropped from more than $102 million in November to less than $38? million. Wealthy Jamaicans have illicitly exported perhaps $200 mil- lion abroad; some of the currency has been smuggled out in fake cigarettes, , fortune cookies and pork carcasses. Says. - One member of an intelligence force try- ? ing to halt the financial outflow:. 'It ? has replaced the smuggling of ganja (marijuana) to Grand Cayman; Miami and Canada." Chance of Winning. In additiOn; many wealthy Jamaicans have set up . second residences abroad. Whether they emigrate will depend on the outcome.of the next general election (probably in ? February). Manley's People's National. Party currently has 35 seats iii Parlia- ment, to .17 . for the opposition Labor Party. led by Edward Seaga. An able economist. Seaga faces the. ethnic dis- advantage of his Lebanese ancestry; he is light-skinned in an overwhelmingly black nation. Nonetheless, he stands .a goixi chance of winning if these is more violence and the economy continues to stagger. Many Jamaicans are convinced. that will be the case. In the sad words of a current hit by Ernie Smith, one of Kingston's top reggae singers, "As we fight one another fe de power and de glory, jab kingdom goes to waste." U.S. squeamishness b ffles Chile By HENRY L. TREWHITT Sun Staff Correspondent Santiago, Chile ? The words come with a rush Of puzzlement and fear that they will be misunderstood: "We thought the United States would welcome the change. ? We hoped all the Comrnunists would be killed." ? 'She toys with her Coffee cup in a Valparaiso cafe, a trim, attractive, upper mid- dle-class housewife who might be a social leader in Roland Park or Chevy Chase. Her husband, whose English is better, cringes faintly. In Santiago, Col. Gaston Zuniga Paredes, the military government's director of com- munication, echoes the first of the two thoughts. "There has been some amazement," he says, "because Chileans thought the ? United States would help after, they threw out the Communists. There has been some surprise that the United States. instead of helping, backed away." Doubtless there is more than a touch of disingenuous- ness in these attitude& at least on Colonel Zuniga's part. ? They suggest none of the corn- .pletity Cf the 'U.S.-Chilean re- lationship since Gen. Augusto Pinoehet's military, junta ? overthrew Salvador Allende, the Marxist president, in September, 1973. ?? But an element of unaf- fected naivete, or simple ideo- logical. ? ? self-righteousness, runs through the attitudes of much of Chile's' middle class ? and military government. All things considered, the United States has been remarkably forthcoming to the junta. All things in this case include the Nixon administra- ? tion's efforts ? to prevent .Allende's.election in 1970: And after his election with 36 per .cent ? of the vote, its support for the democratic opposition and its barriers, in .effect, to ? Chile in the international motley market. ? How much U.S. policy had to do with Allencle's mail and death' will be disputed for years.' For Allende, paradoxi- cally. a Marxist who partook. liberally of the good life, also naively assumed that enforced communism and ? democracy were compatible. The result predictably was hews. Never huareseed by a ' 01 ? majority, of the public or in ? Congress, he tackled capital- ism in a way that drove capitalists, technicians or anyone else who could salvage his assets out of the country. .Strikes paralyzed much' of industry. By the fall of 1973 the inflation ? rate - was ? somewhere about 500 to '600 per cent?.no one knows for ? sure?and Chile was sinking under its social, economic and political burdens. ? ? Finally ? the ? disaster brought .the military out of its historic submission to civilian rale. As so often happens, the ? .cure may be Worse than the illness. What, made the junta ? of .General Pinochet, 60, an ? instant embarrassment to the United States was its iron repreSs.ion of dissent. Pertiaps as many. as 2,500 were slaughtered during, the coup. The junta has suspended the majority parties ..of :the center, abolished those of the left, suspended ali political activity, locked up anyone vocally to the left of tt faint . rose coloration, weeded even moderate le.fti5tS out of the taiiversines and generally has - imposed on Chile an apolitical ideology of ?faire capitalism. Under Allende the techno- crats fled Chile. Under the junta Chile's abstract thinkers have fled. ' But worst of all, to the out- side world, have been the doc? - umented executions, the dis- appearances, and the. torture conducted by DINA, the Di- rector4e for National Intel- ligence .:1-the ? secret police. Operated by Col. Manuel Con, treras, DINA runs three camps. near. Santiago. It re- ports only to General Pinoch- et, and some outside analysts suspect that in the way of se- cret police everywhere it op- erates beyond even his con- trol. The abuses have 'slowly accumulated on the record. They are on the record in large part for a peculiar rea- son.. For despite its represe sten, the government still admits foreign correspond- ents who poke artnmd with some considerable freedom. Their findings, and those of several international agen- cies, rue a familiar grisly gamut. There are the persons i. Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 ? ?"?.5::". Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 arrested whose bodies are . found later, brutalized. There are the electrodes attached to genitals. There are the rapes by persons unseen from behind blindfolds. The list is undeniable. Nevertheless, Alvaro Pu- ga, a political adviser to the government, argues that none. of the major U.S. publications has been willing to listen rationally to government objectives or to its explanations. ? Basically, both Mr. Puga and Colonel Zuniga admit there have been abuses by physical mistreatment of pris- oners. In fact, Mr. Puga says, 109 police, military men or members of DINA have been punished for abuse?including ooe offender sentenced to 10 years in prison. e Basically also, they deny abuse in the general pattern tA arrests and imprisonment. In the general pattern of left- ist activities, they portray a Communist conspiracy, sup- ported by the Soviet Union, to take over Smith America. "Chile," says Colonel Zuriiga firmly, "Is the only country really fighting the Communists." Whether the colonel and his leaders really think in such simple terms is one of the frustrating questions in assessing Chile. Certainly they have been successful in sup- pressing anything resembling effective opposition. There are known Communists still on the job in Chile today?and they are resolutely silent. Punishments can be subtle. One radio editor who became too lax in self-censorship was banished to a mountain town at 12,000 feet in the Andes, an ordeal for a flatlander. He came home in the limited amnesty that honored the ar- rival of Henry A. Kissinger, the Secretary of State, earlier this month. Outsiders who specialize in Chilean affairs will attempt anonymously to shed perspec- tive on the current leadership, recognizing that perspective can be mistaken for endorsement. "These are military techni- cians, unsophisticated politi- cally, pragmatic and driven by emotional anti-Marxism," says one. "They are honest and without personal ambi- tidn in conventional terms. Their politics is utter loyalty to Chile as a state and their economics is that of William E. Simon [U.S. Treasury Secretary]. Adam Smith is alive and well in Santiago and Washington." Somewhere between 300 and 400 political prisoners are held at any given time under extralegal state of siege terms, one reports. It is these, passing through what another calls "DINA's revolving door," who are most often subject to physical mistreat- ment. About 1,500 persons are in the process of indictment and trial for recognized offenses? such as carrying or conceal- WASHDTGTON POST S JUL 19-16 Stuff nits Threatened By Marlise Simons Suede! 0 The Vishin-stan Post MEXICO CITY, -July 8? The editorial staff and man- agement of Mexico's leading newspaper walked.. off the job today, saying*their cnly alternative was ti fight it out with dissident ecuscrva- lives in the cooperative en- terprise who had occupied the plant earlier in the day. The staff feels lteedom of the press in Mexico is at stake. Excelsior, the only impor- tant independent newspaper in Mexico and one of the few remaining. in Latin America. has come under attack recently. by elements who the editor 'believes are supported by the govern. morn of President Luis Echeverria. The paper often has criticized the president. _ ? ing arms. Perhaps 2,000 more have been tried, convicted and are serving sentences for charges growing out of 'the political transition. "Theoretically," says one source, "this ties down all the corners, accounting for every- body. But in fact there is a fourth category." This is the category of those arrested but unaccounted for by DINA, which still fails in many cases to fulfill new government requirements for full account- ing, for physical examination of all prisoners by doctors, and for notification of families when a member is arrested. Some of the extralegal prisoners, an analyst says, would be a severe threat to the government by any objec- tive standards. These are assassins and bomb-throwers of militant communism, members of the Revolution- ary Left Movement. But many are victims of arbitrary judg- ment, and no outsiders, appar- ently, have a clear idea of where the lines are drawn. - The abuses and ambiguity have helped create a double standard in the appraisal of Chile by outsiders. To some on the left, Chile's repression is reprehensible, Cuba's defensi- ble. Even some Latin govern- ments with scarcely liberal governments are quick to attack Chile's record. The reasons are plain, according to a foreign diplo- mat. First of all, Allende was t widely perceived as a social democrat, not a Communist. Then the coup, 'when it came, was quite bloody. Then, the source adds, "there is simple hypocrisy along with effective Communist prcipaganda." For its Ipart the US.. is trying to walk a delicate line in its relations with Chile, . joining the pressure for politi- cal reform without cutting its strategic lines. Strategic ? interests in the area are clear, given Chile's position along the whole southern half of , .South America's west coast. ' . The U.S., one specialist reports, "is trying to move the leaders along politically. It certainly is not trying to over- throw them or to replace them. It sees no reasonable al- ternatives for the short term." That is why Mr. Kissinger's words on human rights earlier this month were so carefully framed, to avoid condemna- tion of Chile while keeping up . the pressure for reform. Pre- sumably that also is part of the reason credits to keep Chile's struggling economy ; afloat have become available. Indeed, according to one American analyst, the dual policy seems to be working as Chile's leaders feel the inter- national heat. The level of , actual mistreatment of Chileans, he asserts, "is down considerably from a year ago, though it still is not something to trumpet from the housetops." Mexico Paper Printers and others oc- cupying the plant. said they would not allow publication until editor Julio Scherer left. They sent word that they had removed vital parts of the presses to make their point. Scherer left, saying "our decision was to avoid violence or bloodshed at any cost." Early this morning, about 50 conservative members of the cooperative invaded the Excelsior plant and stopped the presses. The paper later appeared ?with a blank back. page that was. to have con- tained an editorial staff manifesto declarin g that freedom of the press was. ? being threatened.. In a later assembly of tiie cooperative, which lacked a quorum, ? the conservatives . claired that Scherer and of the prinev's top managers were fired, The entire 'management and editorial staff, filen con- ?voked their 'own assembly .with a quorum of 812 of the 1,300 members. This group called for a new and legal assembly on July 21. Until then, they said they would not produce a paper, claiming there was no guar- antee the dissenters would not sabotage its contents. A month ago, a group ap: parcntly?backed by the gov- ernment illegally ? occupied property owned by Excelsior claiming the land is !mons. 0 1 h or newspapers and television stations have earn- pair' 01$ to embarrass Excel- sior's editor by puhiisning insulting ads and picturing the land occupation as legal. 42 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100390006-9 a