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March 29, 1976
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Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R00010040000tB CONFIDENTIAL NEWS, VIEWS and ISSUES INTERNAL USE ONLY This publication contains clippings from the domestic and foreign press for YOUR BACKGROUND INFORMATION. Further use of selected items would rarely be advisable. 16 APRIL 1976 NO . 7 PAGE GOVERNMENT AFFAIRS 1 GENERAL 27 EAST EUROPE 36 WEST EUROPE 38 NEAR EAST 41 AFRICA 42 EAST ASIA 44 LAT IN AMERICA 47 DESTROY AFTER BACKGROUNDER HAS SERVED ITS PURPOSE OR WITHIN 60 DAYS CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8. The New Leader March 29, 1976 m?itscs BY RAY ALAN ercenary Press ien BERNARD D. NOSSITER, London correspondent of the Washington .Post, brought into the open a sub- ject journalists sometimes mutter about in quiet bars but rarely dis- cuss in print. First, he reported that a "British" features agency, Forum World Features, had been run by the CIA for nine years. This drew an angry denial from the agency's director, Right-wing publicist Brian Crozier. ("I have never had the mis- fortune of meeting Bernard D. Nos- siter," Crozier declared frostily, "and I hope I may be spared it."). People in the know said Nossiter was right; and in due course the New York Times revealed that, ac- cording to authoritative sources, Forum had been designed as a con- duit for secret payments to foreign journalists working for the CIA. Nossiter subsequently disclosed that Crozier's new employer, the London-based Institute for the Study of Conflict, was also the crea- ture of an undercover service?Bri- tish this time. Continental newsmen took this up and concluded that the ISC is CIA-controlled but drops hints that it is run by the British Secret Intelligence Service so as to keep away inquisitive British report- ers and members of Parliament. December Nossiter wrote that "a remarkable number of British journalists" are reputed to work for the SIS. This was firmly denied, of course?as firmly as a devaluation rumor two days before a change of ? parity. In mid-February the Lon- don Times reported that operatives of British military intelligence in Northern Ireland had been issued phoney press cards and were posing as newsmen. The next day this was officially confirmed. Phoney press cards are not a new invention. A curio in my possession is a press card issued by a British ? official organization in a Mediter- ranian country declaring its bearer to be the correspondent of a lead- ing Scottish newspaper: The young man to whom it was issued had nev- er written a newspaper article in his life and did not even know the name of the editor of the paper he iwas supposed to represent. There was unhealthily close col- laboration between a few genuine pressmen and British brass in the 'Near East at one time. Well-in- formed Arabs used to identify as "Whitehall cavalry" some who reg- ularly broadcast a "commentary" ea five-minute talk following the news) in the BBC World Service. The World Service is government- financed and, overtly and legitim- ately, used to plug Whitehall's views. . Its "commentaries" are now few- er and less propagandist than they 'once were; but up to a few years ago the journalists who read them were carefully briefed, had close connections with officialdom, and were viewed with some distrust by the politically sophisticated when they popped up in Mideastern capi- tals. Frequently, it must be admitted, the distrust was justified; and, sim- ply by keeping tabs on such visit- ing firemen and their contacts, Arab security services rand probably the NEW YORK Tn.= 6 April 1976 Schorr to Receive 'Award ? By National Headliner Club ATLANTIC CITY, April 5 (AP)---Daniel Schorr's report on the Central Intelligence Agency for his CBS radio network is among the winners of this year's National Headliner Club achievement awards. The winners, announced here yesterday, were selected from more than 1,000 entries in var- ious categories for daily news- papers, photography, television and radio. The prizes will be presented, Saturday at the 42d annual awards dinner. Id addition to the public service award to CBS and Mr. Schorr. A radio network achievement award, for out- standing documentary by a ra- dio network, was awarded to the ABC network, New York, ter "Scenes From A War." 1 Russians) were able to learn a lot. Personally, I am not shocked by the newsman with honest convic- tions who passes on useful informa- tion to_an organization he _believes to. be doing good. work wether it be a labor union, Amnesty Inter- national or the SPCA. The people who debase journalism are the mer- cenaries who intrigue and ingratiate in order to sway editorial policy, dis- credit more conscientious colleagues, and carve out private zones of in- fluence, the better to serve their covert paymasters. If they are for- eign correspondents, the suspicions they arouse eventually create diffi- culties for other newsmen they don't even know?just as the use of false press cards in Ireland is bound to endanger the lives of genuine re- porters there. The CIA has announced that it will discontinue using American journalists as agents. One wonders why it bothered. It has no means of convincing skeptical Europeans and others that it is keeping its word. And its announcement may simply persuade some witchhunters that, say, British or Australian newsmen have been recruited to fill the gap (Australians are especially suspect in Europe because of rumors that the CIA has, in effect, taken over the Australian intelligence service). Sadly, some newsmen in sensitive areas may now feel it advisable to display a little anti-American bias to ward off suspicion. /IDT YORK TIMES -15 April 1276 HERSH GETS AWARD;; FOR C.I.A. ARTICLES Special to The New York Times ?I WASHINGTON, April 14? Seymour M. Hersh of The New; York Times received the $5,000-! rew Pearson Award today for "general excellence in investri; gative reporting." . . The award in honor of the late Washington columnist went to Mr. Hersh because of his articles exposing domestic. spying by the Central Intelli- gence Agency and American ef-' forts to "destabilize" the Chi=.' lean Government of President iSalvador Allende Gossens. The award was made at a, luncheon at the National Press Club and was presented to Mr,. Hersh by Luvie Moore Pearson,: widow of the columnist. A special award went to- Maxine Chef .-e, society col,- umnist for .ne Washington Post, for her articles disclosing. that United States officials and members of Congress had it, legally kept gifts given to theme In their official capacity by for- eign officials. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 NEW YORK TIMES, MONDAY, APRIL 12, 1976 Link of Kennedy Friend To Mafia Is Still a Puzzle ' By NICHO The disclosure last December! that President Kennedy and two major Mafia figures main- tained close friendships with the same woman ? Judith Campbell ? has puzzled many private citizens, disturbed somei law enforcement officials andl aroused extensive speculation! in and out of Government. The speculation has been *stimulated because the two 'Mafia figures, John Roselli and Sam Giancana, maintained the relationships with Mrs. Camp- .bell at the very time she said she was having an. affair with the President. And both men Lad been involved in the Cen- tral Intelligence Agency's abor- tive plots to assassinate: Prime Minister Fidel Castro of tut the Senate Select Com-; tatittee on Intelligence, which! investigated the C.I.A. plots, re- ferred only briefly to Mrs. Campbell's relationships, devot- ' 111g Slightly more than a page to them in .its 349-page report last December. The report did k tot identify Mrs. Campbell OV.)w Mrs. Judith Exner) by berm or sex, and left a number Of questions unanswered. ? Among them were whether Mrs. Campbell used her Tele- tiOnship with Mr. Kennedy to benefit the Mafia, and whether the President learned as a re- sult of the Campbell friendship , that the C.I.A. was working with the Mafia-on a plot to kill 1,Mr. Castro. ' ' thterviews and Findings During the last two months, The New York Times, in inter-' views with the current and, former Justice Department of-; ficials, participants in the! C.I.A. plots and underWorld: figures, has examined these questions , and found the following: (ISeveral recommendations' were made within the Justice Department in 1962 for a thorough investigation of Mrs. Campbell's Mafia ties, but no! inquiry was ever conducted. ;When high Justice officials learned about her friendship with President Kennedy in early 1962, they looked upon ito as a "domestic matter," as one of them put it, and merly passed information on her to the White House. ? 191Sam Giancana?who was slain last June ? and John Roselli boasted to fellow gang- sters about sharing the affec- tions of a woman who was see- ing the President, but they do not appear to have benefited LAS GAGE ? further from their knowledge of Mrs. Campbell's friendship with Mr. Kennedy. qWhile the Senate cennmittee found no evidence that Pres- ident Kennedy knew about the C.I.A.-Mafia plots to kill Mr. Castro, the possibility appears, ,high to some former Justice officials that Robert F. Kenne- dy, then the Attorney General, told his brother about the plots in view- of what he learned about the relationships of Mr. Giancana, Mr. Roselli and Mrs. Campbell in 1962 and early 1963. 45When the Senate commit- tee investigated Mrs. Camp- bell's friendships, not only did the committee not call Frank Sinatra, who introduced Mrs. Campbell both to President Kennedy and to Mr. Giancana, but other key individuals were merely interviewed rather than questioned under oath, even though a deeper inquiry might have produced information af- fecting the committee's conclu- sion that President Kennedy did not know about the C.I.A.- Mafia plots against Mr. Castro. Staying Out of Sight A spokesman for the com- mittee, Spencer Davis, said that the panel's mandate was to de- termine whether Mrs. Camp- bell was involved in an intelli- gence operation and not to conduct a broad investigation of her Mafia ties. -"We found that she was not engaged in intelligence and that was that." he said. A close friend of the two Mafia figures said that Mrs. Campbell's initial contact with the Mafia was with Mr. Roselli, who was born in Italy, immi- grated to Boston as a child, joined the Mafia in Chicago and later became involved in labor racketeering in Los An- geles. Mr. Roselli, who has been staying out of sight since Mr. Giancana was slain last year, has told friends that he first! met Mrs. Campbell in 1951? ;he was then Judith Immoor? I when she was 17 years old; and "hanging around the stu- dios" in Hollywood. Mr. Roselli, who had served three years 'n Federal prison for' extorting oney from the studios, was ;lien associated with an inde- aendent production company. Miss Immoor had ambitions of becoming an actress. Mr. Roselli stopped seeing her when she married William i Campbell, an actor, a short time later, according to the friend of the two Mafia leaders. The couple was divorced in 1958, and a year later she began to date Mr. Sinatra, she said in the outline for a book she plans to write. Mrs. Camp- bell said that she ended her affair with the singer because their tastes in sex differed, but continued to travel with the Sinatra crowd. In reply to this assertion, ,Mr. Sinatra issued this state- !ment: "Hell hath no fury like la hustler with a literary agent." Mrs. Campbell said in the outline that Mr. Sinatra intro- duced her to John F. Kennedy on Feb. 7, 1960, in. Las Vegas, Nev., and they made plans to meet in early March in New York, where they began to have an affair. After her New York meeting with Mr. Kennedy, according to the outline, she accepted an invitation to meet Mr. Sina- tra in Miami Beach, where he was performing at the Fontaine- bleau Hotel, and the entertain-; er introduced her there to Mr. Giancana. Five months later Mr. Gian- cana and Mr. Roselli became, involved with the C.I.A. in plots' to kill Fidel Castro?recruiting Cuban agents who might be I persuaded to poison Mr. Cas- tro's food?but apparently they did - not tell Mrs. Campbell about them. Mafia , members traditionally do not confide in their women and Mr. Giancana and Mr. Roselli made no excep- tien with Mrs. Campbell, ac-; cording to the close friend of! , both men. 1 His contention is supported by participants in the plots, including Robert Maheu, who has acknowledged bringing together the Mafia and the C.I.A. Mrs. Campbell said in her book ciutline that she had "no knowledge of C.I.A. in- volvement with the Mafia." The close friend of Mr. Gian- cana and Mr. Roselli said that, at that time, Mrs. Campbell was one of about 20 women, some of them well-known ac- tresses, who were in the Sina- tra crowd and were introduced to the entertainer's friends in public life and in the under- world. ' . . , "The difference with Judy ' Was that she was pushy and reckless," the friend said. "She'd go to Johnny's place and call everyone she knew from his phone, or she'd call Sam at his home and at the Armory Lounge in Chicago, , where he hung out. So the Feds picked up her tracks. "The other girls were careful. , They didn't call Sam or Johnny ; because they knew their phones were tapped. And they didn't call the White House, for God's sake!" The Federal Bureau of Inves- tigation first picked up Judith Campbell through electronic surveillance of Mr.. Roselli in early 1961, according to Justice ,Department sources. , The F.B.I. checked out her long-distance calls over the next two years and found that she was in frequent contact with Mr. Roselli, Mr. Giancana and Mr. Sinatra. For example, Government records show that during one four-week -period, from June 8 to July 5, 1962, Mrs. Campbell called Mr. Giancana . 23 times at his Chicago home and 37 times at the Armory Lounge from her Los Angeles residence at 8401 Fountain Avenue. Dur- ing the same period, she called ilMr. Sinatra 16 times at the Cal-Neva Lodge in Lake Tahoe, Nev., which he then owned. Seven months before these , calls, in November 1961, the F.B.I. found out that Mrs. Camp- bell had made two phone calls to the White House. They were 2 followed by a third call 'early! the following February. (The; Senate committee found White; House records showing that Mrs. Campbell had called a total of 70 times, but initially the F.B.I. knew of only three On Feb. 27, 1962, J. Edgar then- director of the 'F.B.I., sent a memorandum -to Attorney General Kennedy and to Kenneth O'Donnell, then spe- cial assistant to President Ken- nedy, saying that an investiga- tion of Mr. Roselli disclosed that he had been in touch with a Judith Campbell. The memo also said that Mrs. Campbell was maintaining a relationship with Sam Giancana. "a prom- inent Chicago underworld fig-, ure," and that Mrs. Campbell! had made calls to the White House from her home in Los Angeles. , ' It is not known how Robert Kennedy reacted to the memo- randum, but a high official in the Justice Department at that time said that his staff did not take it very seriously. ? "By that time a lot of stories were coming out of the Secret Service about the President's interest in women," one former official said. "We looked on it as a domestic matter and, as 1 recall, the whole thing was referred to Carmine Belli- no, who handled personal stuff for the President." Kennedy-Hoover Lunch Another former Justice De- partment official also said that the matter was referred to Mr. Bellino, who was then a special consultant to the President. But 'Mr. Bellino said in an interview that he never heard of Mrs. Campbell until the recent ar- ticles in the press about her. ? "The ? only personal matter I ever handled for the President was once when Jackie was spending too much money and he asked me to find out where it was all going," Mr. Bellino said. ? The contradiction between the former Justice Department officials' recollections and Mr. Bellino's statement was never confronted by the Senate com- mittee. The Justice officials who recall the matter being ,turned over to Mr. Bellino were not questioned under oath by the c'ommittee, but merely in- terviewed by staff members, whom they did not tell about Mr. Bellino. Mr. Bellino, too, was never questioned under oath, but wasl merely interviewed at the com- mittee's offices. On March 22, less than al month after the Hoover memo! was sent, President Kennedy and Mr. Hoover had lunch together, the Senate com- mittee's report said. "According to White House logs," the re- port added, "the last telephone contact between the White House and the President's friend [Mrs. Campbell) occurred a few hours after the lunch- eon." However, Mrs. Campbell said In her book outline that her relationship with the President continued for several months after that. In the months following Mr. Hoover's memorandum of Feb. 27, the Justice Department Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 'Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005.-8 'received further. information from the F.B.I. about Mrs. Campbell's close relationships with Mr. Giancana, Mr. Roselli- and Mr. Sinatra. The information was included in a series of reports prepared by Dougald McMillan, a Justice Department attorney studying the involvement of Mr. Sinatra with Mafia figures. -Mr. McMillan is still with the department and refused to discuss the matter, but former Justice officials who saw the reports said that they strongly recommended that Mrs. Camp- bell's relationships with the Mafia and with Mr. Sinatra be investigated. Testimony Urged They said that one of the reports urged that Mrs. Camp- bell be brought before a Federal grand jury, given immunity from prosecution and com- pelled to testify under oath about her Mafia contacts. , No action was taken on any of, the recommendations by the Justice Department Several of- ficials who were asked about them said they did not remem- ber reports specifically men- tioning Mrs. Campbell. . But they said they did re- member that several reports on Mr. Sinatra were prepared at the time, and it was in some of those reports that the recommendations about Mrs. Campbell were included. The Sinatra reports ap- parently were seen by Attorney General Kennedy, because ev- erything about Mr. Sinatra de- veloped by the department was sent up to him at his request, according to William G. Hund- ley, former chief of the depart- ment's Organized Crime Sec- tion. Thus Attorney General Kennedy presumably saw ev- erything included in the reports about Mrs. Campbell. Robert Kennedy learned on Feb. 27, 1962, in the memoran- dum from Mr. Hoover, that a woman was calling the White House who had a relationship with Mr. Giancana, one of the top Mafia bosses in the country and a main target of his depart- . ent. - Involved in Plots Just 10 weeks later, on May 7, 1962, according to the Senate fil committee's report, he was in- formed in a conference with C.I.A. officials that their agen- cy had been involved with Mr. Giancana in plots to assassinate Prime Minister Castro. In view of these two discov-ii eries and what Robert Kennedy" later learned about Mrs. Camp- bell in the Sinatra reports, some of Mr. Kennedy's former associates at the Justice De- partment believe that he told the President what he knew about Mr. Giancana, the C.I.A. plots and Mrs. Campbell. "He had to; he told Jack everything," one of the former associates said. But others feel that he did not inform President Kennedy., I "Any man would tell hiss brother, one would suppose,'1 said Herbert J. Miller, who was head of the Justice Depart- ment's Criminal Division under Attorney General Kennedy. "But you must remember that the C.T.A. lied to Bobby and told him the plots against Cu- NEW YORK TIMES. TUESDAY: 4 PPW 73, 797S 2 Mafiosi Linked to C.I.A. Treated Leniently by U. S. By Few organized-crime leaders have ever been pursued as vig- orously by the Justice Depart- ment as was Sam Giancana in the early 1960's, according to official records. The late Mafia boss of Chicago was followed constantly, jailed for contempt and finally driven irrto self- exile in Mexico. , But the records show that on three occasions when Tederal officials had Mr. Giancana in a tight spot, they let-him out of it. They blocked his indictment on wiretap charges, declined to cross-examine him about his Mafia activities when they had the chance, and turned down an opportunity to send him back to jail. The account of this unusual handling of a Mafia boss emerged from a two-month in- vestigation by The New York Times of Mr. Giancana and John Roselli, another Mafia figure, focusing on the treat- ment they received from the Government after they partici- pated in Central Intelligence Agency plots to assassinate Prime Minister Fidel Castro of I Cuba. , The Times investigation was begun after it was disclosed that the. Senate Select Commit- tee on Intelligence had uncov- NICHOLAS GAGE ered evidence that the tiro Mafia leaders and President Kennedy had a close friendship with the same woman, Judith Campbell, in 1961 and 1962. The investigation included in- terviews with present and for- mer Government .officials, per- sons who participated in the C.I.A. plots, underworld figures, and a long-time friend of Mr. Giancana and Mr. Roselli. The Senate select committee disclosed that both Mr. Gian- cana and Mr. Roselli escaped prosecution on wiretap charges through the C.I.A.'s interven- tion in 1962. But The Times investigation found that the two men received generous treatment from the Federal au- thorities in other instances as well, and that, while Mr. Rosel- li tried to use his C.I.A. con- nections when he got into legal trouble, Mr. Giancana appar- ently did not. Bizarre Liaison tio had been terminated.' So there was no compelling need to tell the President." That the C.I.A. lied to Robert Kennedy about ending the as- sassination plots against Mr. Castro was confirmed in the committee' S report through testimony from former C.I.A. officials. Even if President Kennedy learned everything Ills brother knew about Mrs. Campbell and her Mafia friends, however; there is no evidence available to indicate that his relationship with her benefited them. Wiretaps on Mr. Giancana and Mr. Roselli, as well as underworld informants who were close to them, confirm that they boasted about their relationship with Mrs. Camp- bell. But neither of these sources 'offer any indication that the two Mafia figures received any benefits from the Govern- ment as a result of what they knew about her, as they did for their involvement with the C.I.A., which once intervened to block their indictment on wiretap charges. The Times Investigation found no law-enforcement offi- cial who investigated Mr. Gian- cana and Mr. Roselli who could offer any evidence that they used the knowledge of Mrs. Campbell's friendship with President Kennedy to their ad- vantage. i The investigation also un- covered new details of the bi- zarre liaison between the C.I.A. and the Mafia that were not in the report that the Senate com- mittee issued last November. In an interview in Las Vegas, Nev., Robert A. Maheu, who has said he brought the C.I.A. and the Mafia together, re- called that in 1959 he met Mr. Roselli in Las Vegas, where he looked' after the interests of the Chicago Mafia leaders. After that meeting, Mr. Ma- heu and Mr. Roselli became friends and when Mr. Roselli's travels took him to Washing- ton he would sometimes be in- vited to parties at Mr. Maheu's home irr Virginia. Mr. Maheu was then bead of a detective agency in Washing- ton (he later went to work for Howard R. Hughes, the indus- trialist) that received a $500- a-month retainer from the C.I.A., and Mr. Roselli would often meet C.I.A. agents at the Maheu parties. Mr. Maheu said that, when C.I.A. officials wanted to enlist the aid of the Mafia in the Castro assassination plot in 1960, they asked him to act as the intermediary. In an appearance before the Senate select committee. Mr. Maheu testified that Mr. Rosel- Ii was initially reluctant to , take part in the assassination I plot, but was eventually won I over by an appeal to his patri-1 otisrn. Mr. Roselli then recom- mended that Mr. Giancana, old friend of his, be brought Into the plot because of his excellent contacts in Cuba, where he had had extensive gambling interests before Mr. Castro assumed power after the collapse of Fulgencio Batista's government in 1959. Acccording to the long-time friend and confidant of Mr. Giancana, the Chicago Mafia boss was also reluctant to join the plot, and felt all along that the assassination .? attempt 3 would not succeed. "You can't hit an entrenched leader like Castro," he quoted Mr. Giancana as having told him, "but all they [the C.I.A.] want from me is some names' in Havana, so how can I turn them down?" ? Mr. Roselli, Mr. Giancana and Mr. Maheu went to Miami Beach in the late summer of 1960 to plan the assassination attempt, according to Mr. Ma- heu, and the three men stayed there for several months, with their headquarters hr the Fon- tainebleau Hotel. ? Unhappy Over Separation ? During that period Mr. Gian- cana's spirits were very low, according to both Mr. Maheu and the long-time confidant. He was unhappy at being sep- arated from his girlfriend Phyl- lis McGuire, the singer, who, he believed, was seeing other men during his absence from Las Vegas. "Sam was crazy in love with Phyllis at that time," Mr. Ma- heu recalled, "and threatened to drop everything and fly to Las Vegas to check up on her." In an effort to keep him in Miami, Mr. Maheu said, he hired a private detective agency to shadow Miss Mc- Guire, and one of its agents was arrested by the Las Vegas authorities while trying to tap the telephone of the entertainer Dan Rowan's hotel room. Mr. Maheu contended, in his inter- view with The Times, that he did not ask the detective agen- cy to tap Mr. Rowan's hotel, phone, but only to follow Miss McGuire. "The wiretap was stupid any- way," he said, 'because Rowan wasn't going to be talking on the phone while making love." The arrest of the private detective led to an estrange- ment between Mr. Maheu and Mr. Giancana, and nearly dis- rupted the assassination plot. The apprehended detective told , the authorities that he was workin'g for Mr. Maheu; Mr. Maheu then told the Federal Bureau of Investigation that he was involved in a C.I.A. opera- tion. "Sam was furious at Maheu for spilling the beans to the F.B.I. about the plot," Mr. Gi- ancana's confidant said. "He thought Bob should have been a stand-up guy and taken the rap himself." The F.B.I. wanted to prose- cute Mr. Maheu, Mr. Giancana and Mr. Roselli on wiretapping charges, but the C.I.A. eventu- ally intervened with the Justice Department and arranged to have the charges dropped, ac- cording to the Senate commit- tee's report. But by then the C.I.A. was so fed up with Mr. Maheu and Mr. Giarrcana that they dropped them from the : Castro assassination project, retaining only Mr. Roselli for new efforts against Mr. Castro in what was later referred to as "phase two" of the unsuc- cessful plot. Herbert J. Miller, who was ' then the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Justice Department's Criminal Divi- sion said that the decision not to prosecute Mr. Maheu and Mr. Giancana for wiretapping was made reluctantly. "We weren't happy about it, but we felt we had to do it for Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 the national interest," he said' in an interview. It has been speculated that Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, knowing that Mr. Giancana and Mr. Roselli could embarrass the Kennedy Admin- istration with their story of the CIA. plot, told his men to go easy on the two Mafia leaders. But the opposite happened, ac- cording to William G. Hundley, chief of the Organized Crime Section under Mr. Kennedy. 'Bobby Pushed Us' "I remember some of those meetings in his office," he said. "Bobby pushed to get Giancana at any cost." The F.B.I. agents followed Robert Kennedy's orders so conscientiously that Mr. Gian- cana eventually decided to take them to court. In 1963, he sued in Federal District Court in Chicago for relief from the surveillance, saying that F.B.I. agents' cars clogged the street outside his home and that the agents followed him to his favorite cocktail lounge and even to his family mausoleum. "It was something, the way those agents stuck to him," his confidant said. "When he wept to play golf, four agents played the hole behind him, and when he would miss a shot they would all boo." necaLtse Mr. Giancana brought a civil suit against the Federal Government, he had to go on the stand to testify in his complaint, leaving him- self open to cross-examination., "It was the greatest oppor- tunity the Justice Department' has had or will ever have to cross-examine a Mafia boss,"1 Edward V. Hanrahatt former United States Attorney in Chi- ,:ago, said in a telephone inter- view. But John Peter Lulinski, the Assistant United States Attor- ney selected by the Justice De- partment to handle the case, never questioned Mr. Giancarla on the stand. "There is no cross-examina- tion," he told the court. Mr. Giancana was brought toi the stand a second time during the proceedings. and the judge again gave the Government the opportunity to cross-examine Mr. Giancana. "No cross, your honor," Mr.! Lulinski said. Mr. Giancana, who had walked into the courtroom looking uncharacteristically nervous, walked out beaming after the judge ruled in his favor. Why didn't Mr. Lulinski ask Mr. Giancarra any questions? "We were told by the Justice Department not to cross-exam- ine him," said Thomas James, who assisted Mr. Lulinski on, the case. Many observers were dum- founded by the Justice Depart- ment's performance. Why had it thrown away its big chance to squeeze Mr. Giancana? To- day it is difficult to find out because both Mr. I tilinski and his superior, United States At- torney Frank McDonald, as well as Attorney General Ken- nedy are dead. Mr. James said he cculd not remember what reason the Justice Department gave for its instructions. , Mr. Hundley, 'then chief of the department's Organized Crime Section, said that he re- called that everyone in his agency was upset at what had happened in Chicago, but the case was handled by the Civil Division and not by his section. John W. Douglas, who was head of the Civil Division at the time, said he could not re-1 member the case. , Court records do not show why the Government did not cross-examine Mr. Giancana. Neither Mr. Hundley nor Mr. Miller believes that the kid- glove treatment of Mr. Gian- cana was the result of fear that he would divulge the C.I.A. plot. They say that if the Gov- ernment was afraid of this, Mr. Giancana would not have been followed so rigorously in the first place until he was driven to sue. They add that if the Government feared disclosures, the Justice Department would not have worked so hard two years later. to send Mr. Gian- cana to jail. In 1965, Mr. Giancana was brought before a grand jury and asked about his under- world activities. But, except for his name, he had no informa- tion to offer beyond citing the Fifth Amendment protection against self-incrimination. The grand jury then gave him im- munity, which meant that if he did not talk he would be held in contempt. Mr. Giancana still refused to say anything and was sent to jail for the duration of the grand jury's term. 1942 Prison Term It was the first time he had been behind bars for 23 years. In 1942, Mr. Giancana was re- leased from the Federal peni- tentiary in Leavenworth, Kan., at the end of a sentence for violations of the Prohibition laws. Mr. Giancana, who was born in 1910, served his first prison sentence when he was 15 years old. By the time he was 20, he had had 51 arrests, three of them on murder charges. (One murder case against him col- lapsed when the state's chief witness was killed.) A year after Mr. Giancana's imprisonment for contempt, the grand jury's term expired, end- ing his jail sentence. At this point, the judge who had sent Mr. Giancana to jail, the fore- man of the grand jury and United States Attorney Hanra- han all wanted Mr. Giancana brought before a new grand jury, given immunity again,1 and, if he still refused to talk sent back to jail. But Mr. Hanrahan said that the Justice Department ordered him not to give immunity to Mr. Giancarra again, and the Mafia leader was freed. "The biggest mistake I made as United States Attorney," Ilanrahan said recently, I "was going along with Justice and not trying for another contempt case against Gian- cana." Again the question arises: Was Mr. Giancana given spe- cial consideration because of his role in helping the C.I.A.? Mr. Hundley and Henry E. Petersen, his successor as chief of the Organized Crime Sec- tion, say no. Mr. Hundley said that the decision not to give' Mr. Gian'cana immunity a sec- ond time resulted from con- siderable debate within the Justice Department. At that time, he said, the present immunity statutes did not exist. The legal basis for sending Mr. Giancana to jail in 1965 was a Federal Trade Com- munication statute that said that if a witness before a Fed- eral grand jury was asked about telephone calls he was automatically given immunity. "So we were on thin legal grounds to begin with," Mr. Hundley said, "and I basically did not believe that the way to fight mobsters was to immu- nize them and put them away. It's gimmickry, no matter how,' you cut it.' Mr. Hundley, now a criminal lawyer in Washington, said that he was opposed to immu- nizing Mr. Giancana the first time. "I was against it and Hanra- han was for it," he said. "[As- sistant Attorney General] Jack Miller sided with Hanrahan and Giancana was immunized. Then Jack Miller resigned and Fred Vinson was put in charge of the Criminal Division. Fred sided with me." Special Treatment Discounted Mr. Giancana's confidant said that if Mr. Giancana re- ceived any special considera- tion from the Government, he never asked for it. He said that when Mr. Giarmana was cited for contempt in 1965, his at- torney, Edward Bennett Wil- liams, who Mr. Giancana had told about the C.I.A. plot, wanted to "tell the judge about it and get Sam off the hook," but Mr. Giancana refused to allow it. Mr. Roselli, on the other hand, did ask for consideration for his part in the C.I.A. plot On two occasions after the wiretap case, and in one he got it. In 1966, efforts were begun by the Government to deport Mr. Roselli, who was born Filip- po Saco in Italy and allegedly came to the United States il- legally as a child. The deporta- tion efforts were begun after Mr. Roselli reportedly refused to become a Federal informant i on the Mafia. Mr. Roselli got in touch with 4 Sheffield Edwards, the C.I.A. official who directed the early phase of the agency's assassi- nation plots with the Mafia, according to the Senate com- mittee's report, and Mr. Ed- wards persuaded the Justice Department to stall the depor- tation move. (It has since been revived and is proceeding in a Federal court in Florida) ? Rigged Card Games In 1967, Mr. Roselli was ar- rested for fraudulent gambling activities at the exclusive Fri- ar's Club in Beverly Hills, Calif. Along with three other men, he was convicted of cheating Tony Martin, the singer, Harry Karl, a shoe store executive, and other persons out of more than $400,000 in rigged card games. The crooked players were purportedly signaled by electronic means by an ob- server looking through a ceiling peephole. Again, Mr. Roselli tried tc use his involvement with the C.I.A. to save himself, but this time he failed. Mr. Ma.heu, who had brought Mr. Roselli and the C.I.A. to- ? gether, said that an attorney for Mr. Roselli called him and asked him to make a statement to the judge about Mr. Roselli's help to the C.I.A. "I categorically refused and ? told him I would deny the , whole thing happened," Mr. Maheu said. The Justice Department also I refused to intercede again on his behalf, but Mr. Roselli told the judge about his role with ' the C.I.A. anyway. It did him no good; he was convicted in the case and sentenced to five years in jail and a $55,000 fine. He served half his term and was then paroled. Shortly after Mr. Giancana was released from jail in 1966, he moved to Mexico?to avoid prosecution in the matter of a stolen ring, according to his long-time friend. Nine years later, back in the United States and just before he was scheduled to appear before a grand jury, he was fixing himself a snack in the early morning hours of last June 19 when someone killed him with seven .22-caliber bul- lets pumped into his neck and head. WASHINGTON POST 15 APR 1976 CIA Nantes TOKYO ? The Japan Communist Party released what it said was a list of past and present U.S. Cen- tral Intelligence AgencY agents operating in Japan. The list of 196 names, an!. nounced by a party parlia-. mentary group, included 93 "agents" now in the cowl-. try. Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005L8 :Sim., April 4:1976. ? BY NORMAN KEMPSTER Times Staff Writer WASHINGTON?Less than two months before Pres.; ident John F. Kennedy was shot to death, Lee Harvey Os- ? wald conferred in Mexico City with an agent of the Soviet KGB's assassination department, newly declassified ? CIA documents indicate. The CIA memo said that on Sept. 28, 1963, Oswald spoke with Soviet Consul Valery V. Kostikov, whom Os- wald later referred to as "Comrade Kostin." The memo said Kostikov, "who has functioned overtly as a consul in the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City since September, 1961, is also known to be a staff officer of the KGB. He is connected with the 13th, or 'liquid affairs' de- partment, whose responsibilities include assassination and sabotage." The reference to Kostikov as an officer of the assassina- tion department was in a 63-page chronology of Oswald's meetings with Soviet citizens between June 13, 1962, and the day Kennedy.was killed, Nov. 22, 1963. Also declassified was a CIA historical analysis of the 13th Department of the KGB. ? "It has long been known that the Soviet state security service (KGB) resorts to abduction and murder . . . These techniques, frequently designated as 'executive action' land known within the KGB as 'liquid affairs,' can be and ? are employed abroad as well as within the borders of the U.S.S.R.," the analysis said. ."Foreign political leaders are also potential targets of Soviet executive action operations. . . There is, however Manige4WSZNIVESEntRAMEMECW:gg;MgeMA CIA USES NAZI DOCUMENT AGAINST GERMAN AUTHOR ? From a Times Staff Writer WASHINGTON?Ever since the Warren Commission issued its report on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, the FBI and the CIA have been critical of books. challenging the commission's finding that Lee Harvey Os- wald was the lone assassin. A recently released CIA memo shows that in at least one case the agency used a captured Nazi document aS the source for derogatory information on Joachim Joes- ten, German author of a book titled, "Oswald: Assassin or,. Fall Guy?" "You will note that the attention of the German semi- ? ty organs was directed at Joesten as early as 1936," the CIA memo said. "At that time the Communist Party had. .been outlawed in Germany. . ."' The memo said that in 1937 the Gestapo had accused_ kesten of being a Communist. R.M=44.7mximatmmiammimmiommatmaMENIM no evidence proving that any Western leader has been the victim of Soviet executive action," it said. The memo on Kostikov and the paper on the 13th De; partment were given to the Warren Commission. Its pub- lished report did not indicate how much attention the matter was given by the commission. The newly declassified documents show that the CIA considered an exotic array of conspiracies linking the as- sassination to Communist governments in China and Cuba as well as to the Soviet Union. Five days after Kennedy was killed on Nov. 22, 1963; the CIA took a 3,000-word statement from a Soviet defec- tor who speculated that the Soviet KGB had helped Lee Harvey Oswald return to the United States from Russia, knowing that he was a potential killer. A week a later, the CIA station in Stockholm received a report from a man who identified himself as a Chinese diplomat in the Swedish capital. In a cable to Washington:: the Stockholm station said the diplomat reported: , "President assassinated direct orders People's Republic China. Chicoms established contact with Oswald when he . in Soviet Union. When Oswald returned States he recon- Approved ;?-?4111110111Lan Agent, CIA Data Show tacted and threatened with exposure unless he agreed work for Chicoms. Chicoms thought U.S. would attack. Cuba when it learned assassin was Cuba sympathizer. So- viets would attack U.S. Chicoms would ask for atomic weapons. Commies would win war. Chicoms would then assassinate Khrushchev and take over totally." ' The CIA documents show that the agency?like the ? Warren commission?ultimately concluded that there was no conspiracy, that Oswald acted alone in killing Kennedy. But on Nov. 27, 1963, five days after the assassination, the CIA appeared to take seriously the hypothesis of a So- viet defector who said that even if the KGB did not order Oswald to kill Kennedy, the Russian intelligence agency must have known he was the kind of person who even- tually would cause some kind of damage. ' This Russian informant?unlike another Soviet defec- tor, Yuri Ivanovich Nosenko?never has been identified. His name was removed from the CIA documents before -they were made public, which could indicate that he still is considered a reliable source of information. The defector said that Soviet responsibility in the Ken- nedy assassination might be doubted by those who believe Oswald "was a nut and properly would not be entrusted with such an operation." "However, the KGB properly knows that historically' , most assassins have been unbalanced maladjusted types," the defector said. He speculated that before Oswald was permitted to re- turn to the United States in 1962 after a three-year stay in the Soviet Union he was subjected to long lectures on the evils of "American millionaires, such as Rockefeller, Kennedy and others." "Because to make a good agent takes a long time and because Oswald was impatient .,. . the KGB decided not to make of him a good agent, but did not break relations with him and decided to use him in a more or less open way," the defector theorized. Although the Warren commiseion discounted the defec- tor's theory, as late as June 14, 1964, it sought and re- ceived a CIA analysis of Soviet brainwashing techniques. The defector's statement was included in a stack of doc- uments the CIA declassified at the request of David Belin, a Des Moines, Iowa, attorney. Belin was on the staff , of the Warren Commission and was staff director of the Rockefeller commission, which last year investigated ille- gal domestic activities of the CIA. In a telephone interview, Belin said he was convinced that release of the material "will reinforce the conclusion (of the Warren Commission) that Lee Harvey Oswald was ? the sole gunman who killed President Kennedy." He said he sought the files because "there has been such a ripoff of the intellectual community by people making false charges so far as the question of whether or not Oswald did it." Belin said he 'asked that all CIA documents relating to the Kennedy assassination be made public. However, the agency withheld many papers and heavily censored many of those that were released. Meanwhile, a Senate intelligence subcommittee headed by Sen. Richard S. Schwellier (R-Pa.) is preparing to issue a report on its investigation of relationships among the CIA, the FBI and the Warren Commission. Schweiker, who said last. year that if Oswald were alive "he would be entitled to a new trial," refused to be inter- viewed recently on grounds, according to an aide, that his , .report was nearing its final stages and he did not want t? discuss its contents. Schweiker said earlier that he was investigating the possibility that Oswald had ties to the CIA, FBI or milita-; For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 iy intelligence. He said also that he was trying to find out if Osvrald's often-expressed Marxism was a cover for a re- lationship with anti-Castro Cuban refugees. The newly released CIA documents contain no indica- tion that the agency considered conspiracies other than those involving Communists, . Belin said the Warren Commission did not find any , evidence of a Communist conspiracy. But he added that the commission was not aware of CIA-backed plots against the life of Cuban Premier Fidel Castro that have come to light recently. "I iitiestion that at this time there would be any proof that would show a conspiracy," Belin said. The newly released documents indicate that the Rocke- feller commission relied heavily on information supplied by the CIA in reaching the conclusion that Oswald and Jack Ruby, Oswald's killer, had no links with the agency. A CIA memorandum dated April 15, 1975, shows that Robert Olsen, the Rockefeller commission staff member assigned to investigate the CIA's relations with the War- ren Commission, contacted an agency official for advice on how to proceed. "I explained that much of the detail surrounding this topic is 12 years old and there are few around with de- THE WASHINGTON POST Sunday, April 11,1976 Navy. tailed knowledge," the official, whose name was withheld, wrote. "We do have the files of what we have provided the Warren Commission and there may be other material which will be of assistance." , Belin told The Tim s that the commission "investigated 'CIA files to see if there was any evidence at all of any CIA involvement with Jack Ruby or Oswald." He said the files contained no such evidence. The April 15 CIA memo was written in response to an analysis of the CIA and the Warren Commission written by Paul L Hoch,a. BC-Berkeley physicist who has made a study of the Kennedy assassination. The memo called Roth's document "very scholarly" and said Rockefeller commission member Edgar Shannon "be- lieves that the treatise is worthy of examination." However, the Rockefeller commission's report ignored most of the points raised in Hoch's paper, while concen- trating on sensational charges by comedian Dick Gregory that. Watergate conspirators E. Howard Hunt Jr. and Frank Sturgis were the Kennedy assassins. Belin said, however, that although the report concen- trated on the Gregory charges, the commission considered points that were not mentioned in the report. "Proving a negative is extremely difficult," he said. . _ ?.? By Robert E. Kessler Newsday YORK, April 10?The Navy and the Central Intelligence Agency' have been secretly training and using , dolphins in military and intelligence programs for at least a decade, accord- ing to a former Navy research scientist ,and'other source's within the govern- inent. The scientist, Michael Greenwood of 'Moorhead, Minn., says his career was ?ruined when he protested that the pro- arum here immoral and a waste of the ,taxpayers' money. le: In testimony submitted to the Sen- ,ate intelligence committee, Greenwood said that: .? Dolphins were trained to detect or ..attack enemy frogmen in a Tnogram ;known to the Navy and CIA as ,!,'Swimmer nullification" and that sev- cral were used in Vietnam. ? , ? Dolphins were taught to place elee- 'tronic monitoring devices or explosives; . on or near enemy ships. In une .in- stance in the late 1960s, a dolphin was trained at the Key West naval base to. ? enter Havana harbor with an elec- tronic device designed to measure the . efficiency of a Soviet nuclear-powered ship.. The Navy considered using dol- phins in the early 1970s to track Soviet submarines and to steal mines from Chinese waters. There was , no indica- tion whether the plan was earried out. ? The Navy and the CIA trained dol- phins in an attempt to recover an unexploded nuclear bomb that acciden- tally had been dropped by a Navy plane off the coast of Puerto Rico. ? The dolphin programs.,weie. only al small part of a large-scale effort to re:., cover Soviet items lost at sea that . eluded a mission in which Navy divers,. without the aid of dolphins, recovered a missile from a Soviet plane that sank vas in ar rat lin the Sea of Japan. A spokesman for the Senate commit- tee, which has not released a copy of Greenwood's statement, said it had not spent much time investigating the sci- entist's assertions. "We reached the conclusion that (they were) more a mil- itary matter than an intelligence mat- ter," the spokesman said. Greenwood :also gave Newsday a copy of his 15(1: 'page statement to the committee, , ' The CIA declined to comment. While the Navy has widely publicized its 'training of dolphins, whales and sea lions to recover lost U.S. rockets and mines, a spokesman denied that ma- ,rine mammals had ever been trained "! to attack people or ships or had been? used in intelligence missions. The Navy did acknowledge that it? had sent five dolphins to Vietnam in 1970 to test the animals' abilities to de- tect enemy frogmen in Camranh Bay. The results are still classified. But the Navy had no comment on the recovery of any Soviet equipment in the Sea of Japan in the late 196Cs or the loss of a nuclear weapon near Vieques Island off Puerto Rico in 1966. The outline of the various secret ; projects was confirmed, however, dur- ing a Newsday investigation in which scores a Navy and CIA personnel were interviewed. ? ? ? Although it could not be determined whether attack-trained dolphins were ever used in actual combat, dolphins , were trained at the Navy base in Key West in a joint project with the CIA, to attack swimmers, according to four separate sourCell. "We had them trained like real Ma- rines," said one source. He said frog - 6 men were paid $25 apiece' to try to penetrate waters in which dolphins were patrolling. "The divers failed every time," he said. "You really get bruised being hit by a 300-pound dolphin." The animals detected the frogmen with their natural ability to send out and receive sonar signals. Then the an- imals were trained to press an alarm buzzer floating in the water and inter- cept the swimmers. Others said the dolphins were capable of knocking the face masks off frogmen or tearing their air hoses. The animals were also trained to tow or push through the water dummy packages that weighed up to 100 pounds. The packages were the kind that could have contained explosives or spy gear, the sources said. 'Greenwood, 44, saicl'hislotiat theSe- cret Navy research base at,. Kaneol4 Bay, Hawaii, was illegally eliminated in 1971 when he requested that the dol- phin programs be reconsidered and .he refused, to release $150,000 in govern- ment funds to 'a civilian "contractor whose work he felt was Shoddy., The Navy says that Greenwood's diseharge was routine, caused' by a lack Of. pro- ject funding. The scientist, who worked 'for the Navy for 10 years, says that the maiine mammal programs were a waste .of tax- payers' money because frogmen, and underwater vehieles could hilve done the same jobs and because the training was so rushed . that the animals Were unreliable. For example, he said, .they occasionally, placed dummy practice packages on? Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-R6P77-00432R000100400005-8 5 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 lots angtitt Irimdf ? ties., hiar..23, 1976 CIA Discredits Defector's Statements About Oswald BY JACK NELSON Times Washington Bureau Chief ? t; WASHINGTON?The CIA has re- leased previously secret documents .discrediting some of a Soviet defec- tor's statements that the Warren Commission relied on in concluding that Lee Harvey Oswald had not been acting as a Soviet agent when he assassinated President Kennedy. The documents raise serious ques- tions about several statements by Yuri Ivanovich Nosenko, former KBG officer, who assured the CIA and the FBI that Oswald had never acted as an agent for the Soviet se- cret police agency. ? A CIA memo says Nosenko's ignor- ance of Oswald's . communications with the Soviet Embassy in Wash- ington "discredits his claim to com- plete knowledge of all aspects of the KGB relationship with Oswald." In addition, the memo questions Nosenko's statements that he did not. know whom Oswald had contacted at the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City two months before the assassination. The memo says the CIA learned the contact was "a KGB officer under consular cover."? ? The documents were made availa- ble to The Tines Monday after hav- ing been declassified and released earlier to David W. Belin, who had ? been a counsel to the Warren Corn- mission. Belin has called for reopen- ing of the assassination investigation.. although he has expressed con- fidence that a new inquiry would substantiate the Warren Commis- sion's conclusion: that there was no conspiracy and that that Oswald was the lone gunman who killed Kennedy and Dallas police officer J. D. 'Ilppitt o.n-Nov. 22, 1961 ? ' ',In calling for the iiew irivestiga- tiOn; Belin criticized the CIA and the FBI for .Withholding from the War- ren Commission. evidence of CIA plots to - assassinate Cuban Premier Ficlet.Castra. Some of the CIA dee- uinents released te Belin deal with a Cuban defector who told the CIA in 196,4 that Oswald might have been in contact, with Cuban intelligence agents seven weeks before he killed Ke.nnedy.. ? . :One of the theories being investi- gated by a Senate subcommittee headed by Sen. Richard S. Schweiker .(R-Pa.) is whether. Kennedy ? might haVe been killed as a result of a Com- nil:mist plot organt.zed in Cuba or the Soviet Union. There have been sug- gestions that the assassination might have been planned by Cubans who had learned of the plots: to assassi- nate Castro'. :The Warren Commission relied on statements to the FBI by Nosenko, wife, never testified before the corn- mission.' ? . ? ? , The importance the commission at- tached to.Nosenko's *statements about Oswald's relationship with the KGB is, reflected in an internal commission. memo dated June 24, 1964: . ' "Most of what Nosenko told the "FBI confirms what we already knew from other. sources and most of it. does not. involve important facts, with one extremely. significant ex- ception: ' ? - - "This exception is Nosenko's state-. ment *that Lee Harvey Oswald was never trained or used as an agent or the Soviet UnIonfor any pUrpose and' that no contact with him was made, attempted', or. contemplated after he , left the Soviet Union and returned to ? the United States. . ? 'Nosenko's opinion* on these points especially valuable because, cording to his testimony. at least, his position with the KGB was such that had there been any subversive 'rela- tionship between' the Soviet Union :and Oswald, he would have' known about it:" Nosenko defected on Feb. '4, 1964, 10 -weeks. after the Kennedy assassi- nation, when -attending a disar- mament, conference. in Switzerland. He quickly was -granted asylum in the United States arid was interrogat- ed intensively by the FBI'and the CIA. Although some CIA officials ques: tioned whether Nosenko was a bona fide defector or a double agent, their suspicions were never relayed to the. Warren Commission. ? Nosenko, who is living in the Unit- ed States under an assumed name,. still is regarded as suspect by. some U.S. intelligence-sources. ?? ? . ? Nosenko said that, When hedefeet-. .ed, he had, been a lieutenant colonel and deputy chief of the tourist de- partment of a KGB directorate Con- cerned, with internal security. ? He said he wa?. familiar .with Os- wald's visit to. the Soviet Union, had supervised the handling of his KGB . file and had reviewed the file on or-' ders of superiors immediately after .the assassination to be sure that. Os- wald had no connection. with the' KGB... Nosenka ?assured. American intel- ligence. agencies that he was com,.- pletely familiar with KGB surveil- lance, of Oswald when he. lived in the :So.viet Union from 1959 to June, 1962, and that the KGB considered Oswald to be "abnormal" and never considered using him as an agent. .. After Oswald returned to the Unit-,. ed States, Nosenko said, KGB head- quarters in Moscow received no further word of him until he ap-. neared at the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City. in September, 1963, and requested a visa to reenter the Soviet Union. A CIA _memo notes that Nosenko said he, did not.know whom Oswald 7 had contacted at the embassy "in& he knew of no contacts between Os- wald and Cubans or 'Representatives. of the Cuban government there or .elsewhere." This official CIA comment has in- cluded at the bottom of the memo ? page: "Independent' sources, however, re- ported on visits by Oswald to. the Cu- ban as well as Soviet embassies in Mexico City between 29 September and 3 October 1963 and on his (ap- parently overt) contact with a KGB officer under consular cover at the Soviet Embassy. ."Nosenko originally said he knew .nothing of any such contact. In Octo- ber, 1966, he revised this to say that Oswald did not have contact with the 1KGB in Mexico City: ? . ? :14. .-"Nosenko explained that he had' been sitting in the Office of Seventh Department chief, K. N. Dubas, when a cable arrived at Moscow headquar- ters from the KGB legal residency in, Mexico. The cable, which Nosenko. said he did not personally see, report- ed that Oswald had visited the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City requesting permission to return-to the U.S.S.R. and that the cable specified that Os- wald had dealt with Soviet Foreign -Ministry personnel only." In pointing out inconsistencies in ,Nosenko's statements about review- ing Oswald's KGB file, the CIA memo notes that at one :time he said he had "only 'skimmed the file"?and another time he said he had it in his posses- sion for 20 Minutes. ? ' - The CIA, which continued to queS, ten Nosenko periodically over the. next 'fewl years, noted that in Octo- ber, 1966, "He again said that he read the file and that while doing so he 'saw a picture of Oswald fcir the first time. Nosenko added that he never, mdt Oswald personally." , An assertion by Nosenko that the KGB's First Chief Directorate first ?learned of Oswald' when he applied for a reentry visit in Mexico City "is' -probably incorrect:" the CIA memo said.,, ? "The consular file turned over to the U.S. Government by, the Soviet Embassy in Washington after the as- Sassination indicated that the KGB: First Chief Directorate would have , known of Oswald as early as Feb- ruary, 1963; if not earlier. That file contained Marina Oswald's (Oswald's Russian-born wife) letter of.. Feb:,;: ruary. '1963, and a leiter of July,, 1963. from?OSwald, both of which in-, ,dicated that Oswald had earlier re-, quested permission to, return to the Soviet Union." Without regard to possible earlier correspondence. the CIA concluded: e"Oswald's request for a Soviet visa addressed to the embassy in Wash- ington in July. 1963, Would r2quire the Washington residency to report the matter to Moscow, just as Nosenko described the Mexico City.., residency later did." ? . .- ? Nosenko's ignorance of such corn- munications "discredits his claim to complete knowledge of all aspects of the KGB relationship with Oswald," th4CIit memo said.... . ? ? Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Saturday, April 3, 1976 The Washington Star tr'T: ? CIA Denies Lockheed Bribe Role The CIA denied yester- day that it was involved in any illegal payments in Japan by Lockheed Aircraft ' Corp. The denial came after reports surfaced that the CIA knew of the payments. The New Republic maga- zine said the CIA may have been aware of the payments because of its connection with an international currrency-dealing firm that served as a Lockheed conduit. ? And The New York Times reported that many details of the payments were re- ported at the time to the CIA. "The CIA has not been involved in any Lockheed bribery operations," ?said ' the agency's statement. ASKED WHETHER the CIA was aware of the ille- gal payments in Japan, the ? spokesman said the one- sentence statement was all the agency had to say and that it "gets to the heart of the matter." Lockheed has said it paid out $12 million to help pro- mote business in Japan and ? that $2 million of that went - to Japanese government officials over several years. In a copyrighted article in its April 2 issue, which also appeared in The Wash- ington Star yesterday, The New Republic says that Deak & Co. of New York, dealers in international currency, was the channel ? for about $8.2 million of the - Lockheed money. There was no comment from Deak & Co. ? The New York Times re- ported that many details of Lockheed's bribery- of Japanese politicians in the sale of its F104 fighter plane in the late 1950s were reported at the time to the Central Intelligence Agen- cy. THE TIMES quoted a former CIA official and uni- dentified Japanese sources as saying details of Lock- heed's spending an esti- mated $1.5 million to win. the fighter contract from Grumman Aircraft Corp. were sent through CIA channels from the Ameri- can embassy in Tokyo. The former official was quoted as saying the CIA station in Tokyo "was checking with headquarters every step of the way when the Lockheed thing came up. Every move.made was ROLLING STOITE 8 April 1976 approved by Washington." The Times said Mitchell Aogovin, CIA counsel, would neither confirm nor deny that the agency knew of the payments to Japa- nese officials. Author Tad Szulc said in the New Republic article that Deak and Co. "for many years has . . . served as a covert channel for worldwide financial opera- tions of the CIA" and that this is "a matter of guarded knowledge in Washington's intelligence community." "Therefore, it is more than likely that the CIA was aware all along of Lock- heed's secret activities in Japan, including the pay- ments of millions of dollars . . . to the leader of an extreme right-wing Japanese political faction and still unidentified senior Japanese officials," he wrote. Szulc quoted "well-placed American sources" as say- ing the CIA "may even have orchestrated much of Lockheed's financial opera- tions in Japan, pursuant to secret U.S. foreign policy objectives. The Lockheed payments became known last Febru- ary during hearings of a Senate committee, with much of the money alleged- ly going through Yoshio Kodama, identified as an influential power broker. The Press Establishment and the First Amendment While the press establishment gathers for the film premiere of All the President's Men?a film which 'celebrates the triumph of two crusading reporters: and of the First -Amendment=another re- porter's .'triumph" is being rewarded by a congressional inquiry " into the source of his story and by the criticism of his colleagues. Indeed, CBS newsman Dan Schorr's assignment to cover the con- gressional investigation of the ."intellioence community" was, in Schorr's own brisk turn of phrase, the "son of Watergate." ? Yet now we-witness the spectacle of the New York Times attack- ing Schorr for providing his copy of the report to a competitive New York weekly.. The Times charges that Schorr's 'release of the report was tainted by 'attempting to secure a donation to the Reporters' Committee for Freedom of the Press. Would the Times care to account for their receipts from the sale of the Pentagon - Papers leaked to them by Daniel Ellsberg? i ? .The New York Times attack would have appeared bizarre were it not joined by the pliant .executives of CBS, who quickly removed Schorr from his assignment and. finally suspended him from active .duty altogether.. Only days earlier, the Washington Post revealed secret meetings of the executives of the Times and CBS with CIA ,.director George Bush about CIA infiltration of their companies. How do. we explain these things? Bernstein and Woodward are ' rightfully celebrated and rewarded today for essentially the same kind of reportage only months ago. CBS, despite riches and power' that surpass most news organizations in America, backed off in a fashion that cannot. be blamed on. cowardice alone. The Pike report had been widely disseminated by the national press; the publication of Schorr's copy seemed almost an after- thought until Henry. Kissinger, in a fell-dress State Department press conference, went after the report and its leakers. Perhaps just a casual series of events, but to those familiar with the Nixon/Kissinger style?the furiously unleashed governmental attack coupled with an .orchestra of editorials and congressional investigation?the Watergate ways are back with us, larger than ever.?Jann.Wenner... 8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 -Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R00010040000518 WASHINGTON STAR 1 APRIL 1976 By Jerzy Oppenheirder : ? tirabuctracl,. tO -Disci luctarire Washington Star Staff Writer Like a. toddler told, to share its toys, the federal bureaucracy is kicking and screaming as it drags its feet in opening files to the public under the new Privacy Act and Free- dom of Information Act amend- ments. " But the bureaucratic tantrum, government officials maintain, is not over the intent of the disclosure laWs. Rather; they blame their growing anger and molasses-like irnpleraen--, tation on two factors ? the IC-day time limit ii7posethon the goiern- ment to respord to requests .under. freedom of information (FOI):,. and . . ? . what they perceiVe to be increasing "misuse" Of both acts by groups and individuals. ? ? Since the FOI amendments be- came effectivel4 months ago and the Privacy Act took effect last Septem- ber, federal agencies report, they have been bombarded by thousands of requests ? many of them broad in scope, obscure, sometimes even. threatening ? for information from people whose intentions, it is sus- pected, are neither serious nor honorable. Nonetheless, they must be answered:- ? . AGENCY LAWYERS and adrnin- -istrators assert that this "harass- ment" is. in part, the reason fore the, huge backlog of FOL and privacy re- quests ? more than 6,000 at the FBI alone. It is also cited in the soaring number of lawsuits against the gov- ernment because either access was denied or those requesting access re- fused to follow the administrative re- view process. As an example, a response to a re-. cent request from Rep. Bella S. Abzug, D-N.Y., who chairs the House government information and individ- ual rights subcommittee, as to what steps the FBI was taking to clear up its backlog, said in part: , "There have been instances where organizations have encouraged their members to submit requests? for records, making clear that their pur- pose is harassment and a conscious attempt primarily ?to bog the FBI down in processing requests, rather than to seek access to records. We have no way of predicting how many similar requests will be made in the ? future." The purpose of the FOI amend- ments and Privacy Act is to curb official secrec9 and open up govern- ment. Both laws go a long way to re-., quire federal agencies to disclose records. The main difference between FOI and privacy is that the Privacy Act i requires the disclosure of records on? individuals requasted by the individ- uals themselves. . CRITIC.S .INSIDE and outside of government scoff at bureaucratic. ? charges that groups or individuals are abusing the new disclosure laws. They contended in interviews that officials never have been happy withr disclosure and never will be. These critics assert that the disclo-! sure of records can be and already ? have been embarrassing to govern- ment agencies and political adminis- trations. They contend that bureau- crats will try to avoid opening-the Acres of government filing cabinets to the public a's'ttresult. The? governnient officials, how- ever, 'cite the following as examples of what they consider to be "harass- ment." ? 47 . Item: The California-based Church of Scientology, which has had a running battle with the Internal Revenue Service over loss of its tax- exempt status, for over a year has been besieging government agencieS with-broad-stroke requests for any and all files they may have -ranging from pose on the church's founder,. L. Ron Hubhard, to those on one of the church's controversial devices, the E-Meter, to State Department com- munications regarding the Caribbean comings and goings of one of its vessels, the Apollo. The church now has ac- tions now pending against the State, Defense and Transportation depart- ments, the Navy, the Coast Guard, the IRS. the Postal Service and the Drug En- forcement Administration. -Item: A Newark lawyer who pens a conservative newsletter ha's made numerous requests for information about the ac- tivities within the office Of the U.S. attorney in New Orleans. These requests, :officials said, included: !How many Italian-Ameri- cans work in the office and information about them; whether prosecutors in the office are required to wear American flag pins in their lapels; the amount of con- tributions made by the U.S: attorney to the 1968 and 1972 Nixon campaigns. Virtually every time an indictment is announced by the office, no matter hew routine, the lawyer requests information pertaining to the case. A Justice Depart- ment official contends that the lawyer is working for a Louisiana client who has a grudge against the U.S. attorney and is "looking for information to embarrass him via the disclosure Item: At the CIA, an offi- cial involved in handling FOI and privacy requests said that a good many of them- come "from people who are less than ent'nusi- astic" about the agency. Requests are often broad ? "I want everything you have on the Bay ,of Pigs." The official says that some of these requests contain threats. "I've even gotten . them at home." The threats, he said, have in- cluded some of bombings. "We have reported them to the FBI and Secret Serv- ice." , Item: ? Numerous re- quests have been received by government agencies as a result of an advertise- ment placed by a California firm that promises it can supply everything the gov- ernment has on a person for a S15 fee. Officials .believe that those responding' are "doing it for a lark, while ? those who have serious re- quests . must wait their turn." ? Item: An Alexandria ? lawyer ? one of a growing number of lawyers across the country beginning to specialize in FOI and Priva- cy Act cases ? has sent in numerous requests for iclients using a lengthy, de- tailed form that checks i dozens of government agen- icies whose files he wants searched. In an interview. the acknowledged that.some I of his clients might have I once attended a demonstra- tion of some sort and now want to see what, if any- thing, the government has on them. ? Item: It is not unusual, officials say, to get a large number of requests from a political science class whose professor assigned it to send in to see what the , government had on each studem. "In' very few cases like this," said a Justice Department official. "do we ever find anything, but the files must be searched in- volving a lot oi manpower. : It's a total waste and some- times I have a vision that that's all we'll be doing if ' things continue this way." Item: Hundreds and hun- dreds of requests come in Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 from "jailhouse 'lawyers"' who decided one day that "it would be a fun thing to, do." Said an official who handles these requests: "That's part of vhat makes the disclosure laws intoler- able." Atty. Gen. Edward H. Levi recently told a group of reporters that those kind of requests "do an injustice to .those who have legiti- mate requests. It's a very ? difficult problem. I suppose. ? the hope is that after. a ? while the 'novelty will die down." IN RECENTLY submit- ? ting to Congress the Justice Department's first annual report on the operations of the FOI amendments and the first six months under the Privacy Act, Deputy Atty. Gen. Harold R. Tyler Jr. emphasized that "the receipt of over 30,000 re- quests for access, a number far in excess of what any- p had anticipated. has traasformed this into 6 major area of departmental operations." ? Tyler said. that there- quests, which took up more than I20,000 man-hours, "demonstrate the adverse impact on the department's ability to carry out its traditional substantative missions during the past year. Moreover, the figures for the first two months of 176 offer no indication that the tide is ebbing." He called for a "critical re-examination of the many substaptative and proce- dural inconsistencies be- tween FOI and the access provisions of the Privacy Act." . The direct cost to the FBI for processing disclosure requests last year . was more than $1.6 million, a figure that does not reflect personnel not assigned fell- iime to processing re- quests, but whose services are indirectly required for consultation and classifica- tion review. ? The FBI's estimated cost fcr this year is more than $2.6 million and the project- ed cost for next year is more than $3.4 million. These figures are in stark contrast to the initial esti-. mate of the House. Govern- ment Operations Commit- tee ? $100,000 annually between fiscal 1975 and 1980 for all federal agencies. RONALD L. PLESSER, general counsel for the ? 0- Privacy Protection Study: Commission, which was ; formed by the Privacy Act, said he feels the crush on agencies, particularly- the FBI, CIA and State Depart- ment, is transitional, but acknowledged that . there- are "serious processing* dif acuities." . "After all," declared Plesser, "you are looking at three agencies which his- torically have been the paragons of secrecy and so all of a sudden after- 200 years the 'public has the right to ask them for infor- mation ? it does riot seem to me that it is unreasona- ble that there has to be a transition period. Before, they had been acting totally without accountability." ? But Plesser asserted that THE WASHINGTON POST (POTOMAC) 4 Apr11 1976 ? AVEDON SHOOTS UP WASHINGTON In the past, New York was where fashion photogra- pher Richard Avedon shot his Vogue cdvers and Washington was where he protested. But now Ave- , don, who was arrested at the Capitol while protest- ing America's involvement in Southeast Asia in : 1977, has just finished a round of picture-taking in -I Washington on assignment from Rolling Stone !magazine. His project: to photograph a Bicenten- nial series of portraits of people who have most in- fluenced America. Among those who have received the Avedon treatment: George Bush, Mike Mans- field, Frank Church, George McGovern, Eu- gene McCarthy, Ted Kennedy, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George Wallace, Katharine Graham, Carl Albert, Edmund Muskie, Hubert Humphrey and Gerald Ford. While Avedon is best known for his fashion shots the government "has to ger comtortable with the fact. that opening its files to the public is one of the things it: does like its other functions. One of the complaints I hear all the time is that this takes time, effort and money away from our mis- sion. But this is part of their mission." ? Jeff Axierad, a Justice Department Civil Division attorney who oversees the 'government's -defense of ? suits filed under the acts except for those filed against the IRS and some of the regulatory agencies ? said that litigation has soared from under 100 cases early last year to well over 300 today. CITED MOST often by governent lawyers inter- viewed about possible mis- use or harassment under. the disclosure laws was the case of the requests madf..t.; by the Church of Scientology. But Joel Kriener, the Holly, wood, Calif., attorney who represents the church and whose signature appears on some 200 requests in gov- ernment files, calls the charges "absurd:: Kriener said he files so imany requests -because they don't respond to the first.oravell have reason to believe -that agency A has files on as. We'lls.know this because agency B released sine doCuments to us, some of which dame from agency A, yet agency A will deny having documents or do nothing." . As a result of his requests and follow up suits against the government, volumes of documents -have been released. Kriener said that one such document, which he refers to as !'Folly memorandum," accused the church of "blatant criminal activity. For example, shooting people. mUrder, use of drugs, this type of thing. The docu- ment, which came from the Labor Department, at- tributed its source to the IRS." He said that other material released by gov- ernment agencies were "along the same lines, but not with as serious allega- tions. I find that as we enter litigation documents turn up, searches are found-to be incomplete. Without fail, after we file suit we get more documents. Suit:; pay off." THE LAWYER contend- ed that all of the scurrilous material found about the church in the government? records were lies and that the difficulties the church has had over the years ? deportation actions, tax problems, loss of. postal mailing permits, drug investigations ? "c-an be linked to the stuff that's in those files." As for the charges of har- assment, Kriener said, "All they're saying is that we're. making numerous requests Under the law. That's the nitty-gritty. I think they're - overprotective of them- selves and of the files and are just not ? reading the ; acts with 4 the . intent Congress wants them to be.; read." ? . . ? .? of models such as Lauren Hutton, Margaux Hem- ingway and Verushka, the 52-year-old lensman only makes his pictures pretty for fashion assignments; his portraits are more stark. Avedon waited pa- tiently one day while Frank Church struck a self- conscious pose ? a profile of himself looking up- ward. Not until Church looked back at him did Avedon click the shutter of his big, 8 x 10 Dear- dorff camera. At the CIA, national security pre- vented George Bush from wearing his custornary ID during his portrait sitting. And on the Hill, it still isn't possible for a photographer to shoot with strobe lights without throwing the entire Capitol's electrical system awry. At Carl Albert's office on a Friday?when the House is generally adjourned? Avedon's strobes annoyed legislators by setting off the bells that signal a vote on the floor. 10 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 ? Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 DALLAS MORNING NEWS 1 APRIL 1976 William Colby Ex-CIA head stgesz African clash ? ' . By ANN AT'TEFtBERRY William Colby predicted Wednesday the next clash in Africa will be be- tween the Soviet Union and African whites whom the United States "cannot and will not support." Colby, who resigned as director of the Central Intelligence Agency in January, told El Centro students the CIA was trying in Angola to support two black nationalist groups against Soviet intervention. The CIA believed a Soviet takeover "would be dangerous," Colby said. Con- gress was asked and refused to allow US. intervention when Cuba sent 12,- ? 000 soldiers into Angola last July. "Now, with that victory in the past, Castro feels he has some great mission In Africa," Colby warned. Asked if Soviet influence in Angola will have an immediate effect on the United States, Colby said the trend of world history indicates allowing the takeover in Angola to go unchallenged Indicates trouble later. GERMANY'S INITIAL expansion into Czechoslovakia in March of 1939 was no immediate problem," Colby point- ed out. Historically, the expansion emerged as one of the first .steps to World War IL Colby defended "quiet assistance to friends of America," saying assistance "where necessary and when neces- sary" can "forestall something more serious." He cited the Bay of Pigs as an exam- ple of unsuccessful assistance and the prevention of the spread of commu- -nism into Latin America as an example of successful assistance. Only 5 per cent of the CIA budget is? now spent for political and para-mili- tary operations, Colby said, compared to 40 per cent in the 1940s. The remainder goes for what Colby described as information collection and processing which has been revolu- tionized by technology. The CIA must have its secrets, Colby stressed both at a press conference and In his speech, but the public also has a right to know. ? "WE MUST not insist on total disclo- sure or total secrecy," said Colby, who believes there are plenty of checks and balances on the secrets side to prevent the CIA from overstepping its boundaries. In addition to the President, the CIA must report its secret activities to six committees of Congress. Colby said, "I think that's too many committees. One THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR 31 March 1976 Readers writs/ Vietnam The Monitor has, over the years, provided some good, informative reporting on Vietnam. But you do your reader,s a disservice by print- ing the article on "trouble spots" in Vietnam by Geoffrey Godsell. Mr. Godsell offers a lung - list. of items as gospel, giving no source -for most of this "information," Only in two places does he refer in the vaguest terms to "Amer- ican analysts" and "U.S. analysts." " I would like to call to your readers' attention that such attribution has, in the past, quite of- ten indicated that the information came from the CIA.. I Would to point out that one lesson to be drawn from the recent congres- sional. hearings is, that. the CIA has no qualms about distorting the. truth, or even outright lying and fabrication when they feel. that will .serve their political goals. ? Iyould also like to remind your readers of a lesson we should have learned from' revela- tions in the Pentagon papers and elsewhere. The CIA interest ? in such discontent as there may be in Vietnam is not simply that of an ob- server. The Pentagon- papers recounted the story of the elaborate program, ? headed by Gen, Edward Lansdale, of physical and eco- nomic sabotage. against North Vietnam in 1954. Similarly, . news reports in the late '60s re- vealed CIA Operations of espionage and sabo- In each house would be enough." Colby, who became director of the CIA in 1973 and resigned in January at the request of the President, said some Individuals and some foreign agencies have refused to help the CIA during the past year for fear of exposure. He thinks "we can go back now and rees- tablish our confidence" because those sources have been "almost. totally protected." COLBY SAID he is traveling and speaking to correct "sensational misimpressions" growing out of expo- sure of CIA involvement in areas in- cluding plots- to assassinate Cuba's Fidel Castro and Patrice Lumumba of Zaire, a neighboring nation of Angola. The plots were known outside the CIA, Colby said, but he is not sure "how high" the information went in.the po? - litical structure. i r f. -a The press and sources outside the CIA are partly to blame for leaks, but "restraints should be on people who gather intelligence," Colby said. - The CIA did not interview Lee Har- vey Oswald while he was in Russia be- cause Oswald "wasn't that interesting, and he had been in touch with other agencies." analysts' . tage against China, directed from Laos. It must also be remembered that the admin- istration has publicly shown itself as hostile as ever to' Vietnam_ It imposed a trade embargo on Vietnam; vetoed. Vietnamese entry into the United Nations. The CIA serves -these same policy goals of continued enmity toward Viet- ? twin, and we cannot-lightly dismiss the sugges- tion that the agency .may be involved in stir- "ring up trouble in that country. ? I should mention that I spent three of the past 10 years in South Vietnam (most recently in 1974); and am fluent in Vietnamese. I have visited several of the regions where Mr. God- sell's "analysts" predict trouble: I do not want to minimize the depth of misunderstanding and hatred which have been sown over the years of war (with the not inconsiderable help of U.S. propaganda). But CIA analyses of frictions ? tkere cannot he considered reliable. More than that, now that the war is over we should insist that our government help to heal : the wounds of war, not engage in activities de- ; signed to exacerbate them. Berkeley, Calif. ? John Spragens Jr. - [Editor's note: Mr. Godsell states that his sources did not include the CIA.] . WASHINGTON POST 2 5 MAR 1976 Sweden Protests Diplomat Activities STOCKHOLM, March 24 (AP) ? The Swedish Foreign Office summoned the U.S. charge d'affaires today to deliver a verbal protest against alleged spy activities by an Amer- ican diplomat who already has left the country. A spokesman said minis- try officials expressed the government's "strong dis- approval" that Bruce Hutchins, a former second secretary at the U.S. em- bassy, had been operating in Sweden as an agent for the Central Intelligence Agency. The diplomatic move followed a report in a left- ist magazine that Hutch- ins had tried to hire a Kenyan citizen, to get in- formation about African embassies in Stockholm and Swedish newsmen who covered the war in Angola. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 CHRISTIANITY AND CRISIS, 15 March 1976 teemursieoa?k "cr ? 1 Jac? Ca252r.r99 ]:EH CURRENT CONTROVERSY aboiTt whether 'rids- sionaries should or should not give information to US intelligence agencies raises once again the ? question of the split loyalties of Christians. To assess the present situation some historical recall is necessary. In the early days of the mis- sionary movement. most missionaries felt no sense of conflict between their identities as citizens of a particular nation and their roles as bearers of the universal good news. Indeed, they often tended to identify the two. For its part the Government tended to rely in part upon missionaries for information about for- eign countries. The US Foreign Service was small, .and .missionaries frequently had more extensive and better contacts. Many missionaries routinely Visited the State Department to be debriefed upon their return to their nat`i?s-e country on furlough. One example of this kind-bf relationship was the large number of foreign service personnel and journalists from a missionary background. ? Such a simple combination of roles was increas- ingly overtaken both by theological analysis and the objections of indigetrous Christians on the one? hand and by events, most notably the changing world role of the US, on the other hand. ? The turning point was World War II. It was then that the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was formed. which led to the Central Intelligence Agency fin 1917.. The OSS was the first pure intel- ligence agency ever established by the United States. This in itself was. symptomatic of our emeraence as a superpower. Finally. the end of ? World War II and the beginning of the cold war saw the trait sformat ion of US national interests into a world ideological struggle. The individual whose life symbolizes this change tor the mi,Sionars? was John Birch. (Yes, Virginia, , 'there wit? a John Birth as well as the John Birch tatiet!...i John. Birch was a Baptist missionary in China who serye?il with the US Air For C: aml later OSs lut int World War II; he was killed after the war ended by a Chinese Communist while leading a patrol of Chintoe Nationalists. Despite the fact that his death seems to have been a ink- take follo:s'ing a quarrel, he was adopted by Robert '11'elch and the i adical right as the "first martyr" of the coming world struggle. Clearly, the old easy relationship between US missionaries and their government had undergone a radical transformation, but such changes take dine to heroine apparent. Many missionaries con- tinued to snpport the old arrangement; sonte, al- ' though increasingly fewer, probably still do. An ever-larger number became critical .of US policy and tried to distance themselves from any'connee- don with it. Probably the largest number saw their role as nonpolitical and tried to be friendly with their government, but noninyolved. As US power and influence spread ::round the world, this last stance became increasingly difficult to maintain. Sc, seemingly "pure" an act as distributing relief sup- plies is inticapably political in a politicized world. Each missionary worked out whatever solution he/she could square with personal circumstances and conscience. and it would be pointless (as well ? as self-righteous., to criticize those individual deci- sions at this late date. The question remains, what are the guidelines for the future? The old arrangements are certainly dead, and good riddance. The easy assumption that mis- sionaries are there as Americans whose primary, loyalties are to their native country was always bad theology, even thoueir its fatal flaws did not show up until recent!'. The bland assumption of Presi- dent Ford and former CIA Direc'tor William Colby in thiS resnect were the attempts of drowning men to grab at anv support, as even the, new CIA Di- rector. George Bush. has realized. On the other hand, it is a current wishful mis- conception to ima,gine that missionaries can shed their national and cultural identities. Just as mis- sionaries must open themselves to understand and feel other cultures and identities, so must they retain a grasp of their own culture and identity. They must be partly at home in two worlds. Even if they switch nationalities, this dichotomy remains. Improperly handled. leads to schizophrenia; prop- erly handled. it shows how the Christian both appropriates and transcends culture. A corollary of this truth is that the final deci- sion on the relationship between ,the individual and his her goveronlent does not rest with the gov- ernment but with the individual. It is very. well, perhaps even wise and proper. to pass bills such , as that proposed by Senator Hatfield keeping the Government oft the back of missionaries, but any a:tempt to ereet an absolute all of separation brween a missionary and hislier government is as dobiou. theologically as? it is impractical. The C:liristian serving abroad is not a government agent but neither does he:she stop being a citizen of his/ her country. Legalisms won't do the trick. In terms of gov- ernment suspicion in other countries, the damage has been clone arid 1611 take some .time to repair, but thwe who are suspicious will not have their questions miraculously erased byea Government declaration that it will Lot use missionary infonna- ., tion. That's one of the best cover stoiies one could think up. This is one of those continuing tensions that Christians must always live with and that they- ! never really can get sorted out neatly. The mis- sionary giving information to the CIA, the mis- sionary leading demonstrations against the US consulate. the missionary seeking to ignore the problem?all are dealing with the problem in their 12 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 ? 'Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R00010040000g-8 own way. Interestingly enough. the person seeking to escape the question has perhaps less grasp of Christian responsibility than either of the others. Part of the furor about missionary connections with the CIA has a positive value. Part of the public shoc k vaitls? overrated by the Jturcbt: stems from the old myth of ? the superhuman mis- -sionary. floatinz serenely above the i.v..oblz:rns ol ordinary mortals. That myth dies hard, but any- thing that helps to kill it. can't be all bad- course. most missionaries were never on Govern- ment payrolls and loved the countries and the peopic where the worked far too Much to know- ingly damage them. To suppose otherwise is to substitute cartoon characters for real ? people: to TINE 22 MARCH 1916 Sovial Spying on Capild Hill Posing as diplomats, embassy offi- cials and newsmen, Soviet intelligence agents have been conducting a deter- mined effort to get classified information on Capitol Hill by bribing or compro- mising staff members in key positions. TIME has learned that in more than a dozen cases in the last decade or so the FBI has stepped in to "control" the re- lationship, fearirg a staffer might begin giving out restricted data. In some cases, the FBI has used the aide as a double agent, allowing him to pass on worth- less material while actually spying on the Soviet officials. To date, the FBI says, it has found no staffer who has given un- authorized information to the Russians. Charming Official. The Soviet KGB agents?who constitute an estimated 40% of the embassy staff in Washington ?concentrate on the Foreign Relations and Armed Services committees, which receive secret testimony and intelligence briefings. The agents apparently make no real efforts to suborn the Senators or Congressmen on the committees. "The Soviets may be a bit clumsy, but they aren't fools," says an intelligence source. "They knenv that a Congressman or a Senator is pretty much a prisoner of his staff. What he knows, the staff knows, and it's easier to get the information from The staff." The names of aides who are now double agents, or m ho have been sys- tematically wooed by the Kremlin, are being kept under tight security. But one case has been uncovered that illustrates how the Soviets work the halls of Con- gress. James Kappus, 29. a printing con- sultant in Largo, Md., became an as- sistant to Wisconsin Congressman Alvin E. O'Konski in 1967. At the time, O'Konski, who retired from Congress in 1973, was a member . of the Bouse Armed Services Committee. Kappus re- calls how he met a charming Soviet em- bassy official named Boris A. Sedov and was soon being invited to Soviet embas- sy parties. Kappus was genuinely daz- zled, "I was just a kid," says he, "two years out of Eau Claire, Wis., and there was?waiting to be introduced to the ambassador." In ways that remain a mystery to Kappus, the FM learned about his friendship with Sedov. ?Vith O'Konski's approval, the bureau began supervising Kappus' contacts with the Russian, who was actually a KGB spy. At Sedov's sug- replace unthinkingly the cardboard heroes of leiter- day with cardboard villains for today. Neither will do. In working out his/her salva- tion with diligence. the Christian must constantly try to keep a tuthersal commitment and tpartic- ular identity in some sort. of balance. The mis- sionary is an exemplar of that tension. The struggle is never easy. It is only through grace that any kind of ? harmony is ever achieved. Avcrituit J. MooaJ. This .viewpoint als1 appeared .in the February issue of New World Outlook. of which Mr. Moore is the editor. ? gestion, Kappus first wrote a story for a Soviet newspaper about .presidential candidates for the 1968 election.] le was paid only S20, but in the months that fol- lowed, Kappus received some $2,000 more for passing on unclassified in for- mation that had first been screened by the Flu. "We both knew that I had been 'compromised,' " says Kappus. "Sedov didn't talk about jt and neither did I, ? but we both understood it." Sedov began pressing Kappus for classified information. Where did O'Konski keep classified documents? Could Kappus get at them? When Kap- pus hesitated, Sedov said, 'You know, helped you out when things were tou1;11.- Kappus insists that he never did turn over any secret material to Sedov. Their relationship ended in 1970 when Kap- pus went into the Army and the Rus- sian was called home: Another Capitol Hill aide who says he worked as a double agent is Ken- neth R. Tolliver, 42, now an advertis- ing man in Greenville. Miss. In 1966, Tolliver joined the staff of Mississippi's Senator James 0. Eastland, a staunch friend of the Pentagon. Although US. intelligence sources cast doubt on some parts of his story, Tolliver says he was re- crhited by the Soviets in 1968 and?with the approval of the FBI?began provid- ing information. He also performed chores for the Russians, such as getting labor permits and Social Security cards for "illegals"?a term for spies. That same year, after learning about Tolliv- er's activities, Eastland dropped him from his staff. The former aide claims he continued to work as a double agent until 1974. In all, Tolliver says, he re- ceived nearly $20,000 from the Russians, which he turned over to the rut. Lang Harangues. In the past two years, the Soviets have substan tinny in- creased their efforts to penetrate Con- egress. They are particularly anxious to tap the committee that is expected to be created to oversee U.S. intelligence agencies, including the clA and the FBI. ? The Soviet intelligence squad on CaPitol Hill is at least 15 strong. One of the prominent members is Yuri Barsa- kov, whose cover is the iivestia News Agency. Says a Senate aide: "Barsakov is right out of central casting. He's a heavy guy with bushy eyebrows. He of- fers tips on Soviet affairs, hoping to swap 13 1. that dope for information.- Another well-known operator is Igor Bubnov, an embassy counselor, who is described by a Senate staffer as "impossible?pomp- ous and arrogant" ,and given to deliv- ering long harangues in defense of his country. Other members of the Soviet squad: Anatol!' I. Davydov, second sec- retary at the embassy; Victor F. Isakov, counselor; Vladimir A. Vikoulov, at- tachel; Vadim Kuznetsov, an embassy of- ficial; Stanislov Kondrahov, an izvestia -reporter; Ikav Zavrazhnov and Alexan- der Kokorev, both embassy secretaries: Andre Kokoshin, librarian; Anatole Mo- toy, attach?and Embassy Officials Al- exander Ereskovsky, Vladimir Trifonof, Alexander- Rozanov and Valeri Ivanov. A great deal of the Soviet effort in Congress takes place in the open?and is legal. Agents cover congressional hearings and collect reports and print- ed matter of all kinds. higher-level ? viet agents work, legitimately and pub- licly, like regular 19bbyists. trying-to sell Congressmen' and Senators the Soviet position on crucial strategic matters. Last fall, after hearing Vice Presi- dent Nelson Rockefeller discuss the sub- ject with concern, Senator Barry Gold- water told newsmen that Soviet agents had infiltrated the offices of seven Sen- ators. In the ensuing furor, 52 Congress- men endorsed a letter asking Senator Frank Church, chairman of the Select Committee on Intelligence Activities, to look into the charges. Church, in turn, asked the FBI to investigate. On Oct. 30. just two days after he got the request, FBI Director Clarence Kelley issued a report confirming that the KGB had tried to reach people who could provide sensitive information. But the report concluded there was no in- formation indicating that "Soviet KGB ? officers have infiltrated any congressio- nal staffs." On the side. Kelley gave : Church a still-secret report on Soviet at- . tivities that is said to contain material about the cases in which the bureau "doubled" (turned into double agents) the KGB's congressional contacts. Church. however, ignored the secret report. Preoccupied with his own inves- tigation of U.S. intelligence operations, he seized upon the other report from Kelley to announce that the "allega- tions" about Soviet spying had been "put to rest." His committee did met even dis- cuss the Soviet electronic "bug" that fell out of a chair in the I louse Foreign Af- fairs Comm tee room in 1973. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 AMERICA 13 March 1976 BRIAN O'CONNELL Doi g Away With Covert Activities A proposal that all secret political actions in other countries be put off-limits and that intelligence be limited to gathering data, with five possible objections and answers to them Americans have heard of the many controversial activities of the Central Intelligence Agency in recent years. Assassination plots, efforts to destabi- lize governments, secret financial aid to foreign political parties, secret arms supplies and other clandestine activi- ties have been reported. We know that such activities took place in Ecuador, Bolivia, Venezuela, Iran, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Albania, Greece, Italy, the Congo, Indonesia and Indochina. In most of these instances, the secret .activities took place in conjunction, with an attempted or actual overthrow of a government, although secrecy hides the degree of CIA influence. There are instances where the CIA used missionaries or company repre- .sentatives as funnels of support or covers for secret activities. In doing this, it helped to undermine the credi- .bility of many U. S. missionaries and company representatives not involved in such practices. The recent adulation given to,' Richard Welsh, the special ? assistant to the U. S. Ambassador to Greece who was murdered in' an am- bush, may have given due credit to a man for service to his country, but the widespread advertisement of the fact that he was the CIA office chief in Greece hurts the credibility of all our embassy staffs around the world. The Rockefeller Report docu- mented "illegal" opening of the mail of U. S. citizens and the keeping of files on domestic dissidents in direct contradiction of the CIA charter. Congressional estimates put the CIA budget in excess of $750 million. , The agency employs 15,000 people. Controller General Elmer Stats esti- mates the annual combined budget total of all U. S. intelligence agencies is about $6 billion. The combined em- ployment of these agencies is about 150,000. Most are directly involved in military intelligence gathering, but secrecy shrouds the number involved in other covert activities. News of the size and kind of CIA operations has made little impact ori the public. Few people have evaluated or passed any kind of moral judgment. Sadly, almost no comment has come from the churches. One Senator re- marked that he had almost no constit- uent response on the subject. Congres- sional committee members investigat- ing the CIA have found it to be of less and less value from a political point of view. We know that a former CIA director lied about intervention in Chile before the Senate. Foreign Rela- tions Committee in 1973, but there has been no moral outcry. There are moral issues here that we cannot sweep under the rug. Perhaps in the. wake of Watergate, we simply do not want to face any more harsh facts, but there are basic issues of truth. and .the preservation of rights that demand moral evaluation, and in some cases, condemnation. Should not all secret political ac- tion in other countries be considered immoral, and the intelligence services be limited to the mere gathering of intelligence information? The follow- ing considerations offer justification :for, or answer objections to, this prin- ciple. 1. We would. consider such secret actions of agents of other countries in ; the United States to be criminal'. If our political parties got secret foreign funding, or if paramilitary groups in the United States got outside assis- tance, or if certain segments of the American news media were supported : by secret foreign funds, or if foreign agents plotted domestic assassination attempts, Americans would be justly outraged. Should an act which is con- sidered criminal here not be consid- ered criminal in another country? 2. Such covert actions interfere with the sovereign rights of other countries. Their laws prohibit it, and no .other international law sanctions it. 3. The necessity of secrecy inevita- bly leads to lack of credibility. Offi- cials of the U. S. government admit to 14 S30 million spent secretiy for Angola and $13.4 million in Chile. (This would be comparable to $134 million spent to influence U. S. elections, for this country has 10 times as many people as Chile.) When people in other countries know that the United States has such large funds to dispense secret- ly, they are justly suspicious. Ameri- can missionaries in Latin America are now reporting back that the CIA. is being blamed for many things that go wrong. Secrecy breeds suspicion. 4. The people of the United States bear the responsibility for the actions of their government. In one of the early attempts of the U. S. bishops in 1967 to spell out principles to govern .our Vietnam involvement, they said: "All issues in the Vietnam conflict are to be kept under constant moral scru- tiny. No one can avoid personal re- sponsibility in this, for the government is moved by public opinion." The '.same principle can be applied to covert' !action. If Americans receive only "guesses" about the extent and cost of this activity, how can they make re- sponsible. judgments? ? Certain people. use. the .veil of secrecy to avoid responsibility for im- moral acts. Senator John C. Stennis ? (D., Miss.) made the following observa- tion on the floor of the Senate on Nov. 23, 1971: "You have to make up your mind that you are going to have an intelligence agency and protect it as such and shut your eyes some, and take what is corning." This is reminis- cent of Germans who knew that some- thing. was happening to the Jews, but were content to remain in ignorance of the total situation. In the same Senate debate, the late Senator Allen Ellender (D., La.), then chairman of the Senate Intelligence Subcommittee, said in re- ..sponse to Senator Alan Cranston (D., Calif.) that the five members of the committee who were supposed to monitor CIA activities neither in- quired, nor were interested in inquir- ing, about CIA activities in Laos. Other people use the veil of secrecy Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 'Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 to shirk responsibility less consciously. Perhaps they do not want to face , embarrassing situations, or they are tired of Watergate-type disclosures, or they think that dirty tricks and other t covert actions are necessary to survive in this world while letting the secrecy keep them from facing the "ends justifying the means" question. The House' of Representatives has elected to keep itself in the dark by not even requiring the total CIA budget to be reported to Congress. (It is now hidden in other items.) The Foreign Assistance Act of 1974 did stiffen the reporting requirements for clandestine overseas political opera- tions to the appropriate committees of Congress. Congressman Leo J. Ryan (D., Calif.) claims this still does not give any right of approval or disap- proval to Congress. Since the appropri- ate committees are still dominated by people who accept CIA activities un- questioningly, individual. members ..with reservations have no recourse other than press leaks that would be censured. After the Angola revelations, the Senate .overwhelmingly voted to stop further .covert aid to Angola, but still did nothing to force more disclos- ures or stop the/ process in other countries. The secrecy issue affects Americans in two ways. We must be sure that neither the elected representatives nor the people use 'secrecy to avoid moral responsibility for the acts of an agency of their government. Second, we must provide enough knowledge for the American people to make responsible moral judgments about this major' thrust of American foreign policy. 5. We must ask what may follow from intensive covert activities. The Nixon Administration could find em- ployment for E. Howard Hunt, who responded in the "plumbers trial," when asked what he had done for the last 20 years: "Oh, subversion of . prominent figures abroad, tile over- throw of governments, that sort of .thing." Lying, assassination and dis- ruptive acts were all legitimated as a means to a higher end. The objection that merits the most consideration comes from those who .claim that everyone else is doing it, .that, in fact, the Communists are doing it much more than we are. They claim that people in many parts of the world welcome our secret intervention because they know it has prevented subversion in their countries. Michael Novak sums this argument up by saying: "I prefer a war fought through ! intelligence services to a war fought. with atomic weapons used by armies." No realist can ignore the fact of large-scale and. destructive Communist , subversion. In a short-range view, this argument ; is cogent and difficult to reject. But now that these covert activities have been going on for almost 30 years, we can look at some long-range results. How many times has this policy . aligned us .with repressive, rightist gov- ernments? How many times has it succeeded, or backfired? How many times has it identified the United . States with former colonialists. like the . French in Indochina or the Portuguese in Angola? Has it helped to develo.p a climate where countries shaking off old colonial powers are drawn into the cold war of the superpowers? Has America maintained its ethical and moral leadership with this policy? . Clark M. Clifford., who helped draft the 1947 act creating the CIA, feels that its subsequent operations have impaired this ethical and moral leader- ship. This leads us back to one of the new bases of peace that recent Popes have advocated. In Pacer's in Terris; Pope John XXIII said that "first among the rules governing relations between political communities is that of truth." Truth can hardly be the first among the rules when secret actions play such a large role in international relations. Truth so often gets sub- verted in this process. Cyrus R. Vance proposes a solution in allowing such covert actions only when they would be absolutely essen- tial to the security of our nation. But suppose we took the full step .and " announced to the world that the United States would not engage in any _ further covert political action. The ? Communists would most probably try . to take advantage of the situation with their own covert activities. There are certain behavior patterns, however, that would likely be resistant to this subversion. National liberation move, ments often pride themselves on their independence, and a neW could exist in which the newly dcvel- ? FAR EASTERN ECONOMIC REVIEW 2 April 1976 oping nations would feel safer withoUt becoming dependent on one of the superpowers. Our intelligence gather- ing could still work to expose and embarrass those involved in Cominii- nist subversion, whereas, our voice is not now respected when we point to ? Communist covert action: "Your Pres- ident admits you dO the same thing." Most probably we have been hesitant to expose Communist covert actions : for fear that our own covert actions would be exposed, and our first re- sponse to increased Soviet activity in Angola was to initiate our own covert help. With such a new policy, we might also have new weapons to. resist Com-? ? munist subversion with ethical and moral leadership. Increasingly, Aineri - cans are getting an ambiguous response to their actions around the world. We are both loved and hated by many people. Nations that were formerly friendly to us now complain more about our covert activity, than about the more extensive covert activities of the Russians. Perhaps this happens because they are disappointed in us. After disclosure of CIA secret funding in Italy, one Italian said that they always expected this of the Russians, but not from the United States. Ap- parently some people have trouble reconciling these actions with our democratic ideals and past achieve- ments. Our ethical and moral leader- ship has been compromised. Looking for a new basis of peace is a radical move. In Populorum Pro, gressio, Pope Paul VI recognizes that many will consider his vision Utopian and naive. But he says that. it is his critics who are "not realistic enough." . History teaches us too well how reli- ance on force, and the mistrust and subversion of truth that flow from it, have constantly brought nations to war. Pope Paul's message has been repeated by him many times in the past 10 years. Peace?based on truth, love, justice and trust?is both "obliga- tory" and "possible." [Brian O'Connell, C. M., is an assis- tant professor of sociology at St. John's University; Jamaica, N. Y., and a member of the World Justice and Peace ? Commission of the_ Diocese' of Brooklyn. He has previously contrib- uted "New Credentials for Moralists" (2119172).j ? ? ? ? ? , ? WHERE THE SPIES ARE: The embattled American CIA is fighting back by; leaking details to the press of Soviet spy activities in the US. It is estimated that about 40% of all communist officials in the US are intelligence officers, which would mean that there would be about 380 KGB or GRU agents in the: US and that New York is the biggest Soviet spy centre in the world. Many are' attached to the UN, including identified intelligence officers such as Y. M. ? Ribakov, V. I. Bauhin, N. Y. Bogarty, V. M. Krenov, Y. I. Shcherbakov an& F. I); Serebryakov. Interestingly, the sons of three other identified KGB: officers are also working in the UN ? V. F. Zltigalov, N. N. Br Boroysky and,. V.. M. Abrushkin. : ? . . ? . 15 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 :.CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 GREENSBO?r.', DAILY NEWS 15 March 1976 ? BY HARVEY HARRIS Daily Maws Staff WrItar George W. Bush, director of the Cen- tral Intelligence Agency (CIA), said Sun- day that the CIA is "vital to freedom" oecause it provides the information. needed to avoid warfare, political up- heavals and major calamities around the ? world. .Bush became CIA director six weeks ago and said his speech at Guilford Courthouse National Military Park here gave him his first opportunity to defend the CLa. against outspoken critics who. recently called attention to some of the. agency's abuses and blunders. -.The CIA director was keynote speaker .for colorful ceremonies on the eve of the 195th anniversary of the Battle of Guil- ford Courthouse. He said intelligence-. gatherers similar to those in the CIA were active in the Revolutionary War and today's agents are demonstrating _the same kind of unselfish loyalty shown by soldiers so many years ago on the battlefield here. The CIA is being reorganized and an "oversight board" will assure that its agents. Will never again be involved in such abuses as planned assassinations of foreign leaders, Bush added. He said he doesn't condone abuses but the CIA put an end to these abuses before President Gerald Ford' handed down an executive order against them. "The CIA and the entire intelligence community is under control," said Bush. He added that all of his employes will follow the guidelines laid down by Ford. Bush said he made a pledge to the President, congress and senate that he would end CIA abuses and maintain the CIA as the best possible intelligence- gathering organization. ? He said some oversight, such as that planned by the congress, is necessary but it is also necessary for the public to put "some degree" of trust in the na- tion's intelligence-gathering organiza- ' tions. ' The crowd applauded loud and long when Bush said the CIA won't abandon its secrecy. "You can't conduct an intel- ligence operation in the open," he add- ed. There was more applause when he ? said "the American people don't want a ' reckless exposure" of the identities of CIA agents and what they are doing. Acknowledging public anger and doubts about CIA involvement in recer` controversies, Bush said, "When the fa ror Is over, the vast majority of Ameni cans will support the need for secrecy' in the agency's work. The CIA continues unshaken by all thi controversy and is providing "valid in. formation" so the nation's policy-makers can react wisely when foreign intrigue, buildups of arsenals and missile installa- tions and other dangerous happenings threaten the security of the free world, he added. He said the CIA has been highly suc- cessful in its struggle against hijackings, the international drug traffic, efforts of some nations to raise prices in such a way as to endanger the world's economy and to spread communism, terrorism and disruptions around the globe. The nation's "intelligence-gathering community" has been badly harmed during the past year by the investiga- tions and disclosures of the identity of some agents, said Bush. But the CIA's "successes come when it "aborts crises, . and you don't hear about them," he add- ed. ? Bush said the CIA is.conducting intel- ligence-gathering operations "not to weaken, but to strengthen our country." He said the patriotism and unselfish ser- vice of agents in this work is "unlike those recklessly disclosing the identities ! of CIA agents.2' Richard Welch's son displayed a loyal- ty and pride after his CIA agent father's I:identity was disclosed in Greece, where :the elder Welch was gunned down, "that tells much about the fiber of our country in 1976," said Bash. The CIA director said his organiza- tion's agents have impressed him with their competence and dedication. He noted that more than au? CIA agents have earned Ph.D. degrees which would enable them to earn much more money and live more comfortably. But the agents are displaying patriot- ism and service "much like the spirit of those who fought so unselfishly for our freedom 195 years ago on this battle-, field," he added. Bush was -introduced by U.S. Rep. Richardson Preyer, D-N.C., who de- scribed the battleground here- as "the .very soil on which the Revolutionary War was won" and added that this na- i 'tion "wouldn't be entering our third cen- tury of freedom without what took place here 195 years ago." Preyer, Bush and other platform per- sonalities were escorted by a colonial. garbed color guard shouldering muskets and marching to fanfare from the Allen Jay High 'School Band. Participants in- cluded the First Maryland Regiment and Ninth Virginia Regiment and the adult choir of Friendly Avenue Baptist Church in Greensboro. Gary Everhardt, a native of Lenoir who is director of the National Park Ser- vice, said observances of the Bicentenni- al such as that held at Guilford Courthouse National Military Park here were among reasons far more than 250 million visits expected this year at the nation's parks. ? Everhardt said the visitors are coming "to find answers to questions about their heritage." He said persons becoming more attached to their past are also be- coming "more involved in citizenship in today's world." ? ? The Japan Times Sunday, April 4, 1976 Paper. Exposes 81 Alleged CIA Men PARIS (Kyodo-Reuter) ? The left-wing Paris newspaper Liberation Friday published the names of 81 American diplomats in 21 African coun- tries whom it claimed were agents of the Central In- telligence Agency (CIA). The newspaper, which published the names of 44 alleged CIA agents working in Paris earlier this year, said the agency's African operations were controlled from the. French capital. It did not say how it knew the , people named were CIA agents, but it based its previous claims on a system of cross-checking diplomatic lists and internal embassy telephone directories. A U.S. Embassy spokesman here would make no comment on the report and referred callers to the CIA headquarters in Langley, Va. Liberation said the CIA had moved its African headquarters and communications center to Liberia from Ethiopia after the fall of Emperor Halle Selassie's regime. A staff of 74 maintained the information center in Liberia, it said. The other main CIA centers in Africa were In Nigeria, Ghana, 16 Kenya and Zaire, Liberation said. The agency was less active in former French colonies and the French Secret Service com- peted with the CIA in several countries, although the two services had cooperated in Angola, Liberation said. Agents worked through contacts in diplomacy, jour- nalism and aid programs and in some cases had succeeded in infiltrating governments. "The ideal prey for the CIA are Africans who go to study in the U.S.," Liberation said. "The agency contacts them and later tries to make them work for it when they return home," the newspaper added. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 1 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 THE NATION 3 April 1976 Ititettigence and. Horse Sense Three adjacent little stories, together measuring less I than a column of type in the back pages of the March 19th New York- Times. tell as much about the present climate of Opinion on the democratic "right to know" as half a dozen : learned volumes. The first one's small headline reads: Aerospace Institute Bids Newsman Quit Over Leak The "leak" in this case was a report by a journalist named Arthur Kranish, editor of Science Trends, a newsletter, of a so-called background briefing by "senior Officials of the Central Intelligence Agency." It was what is known to the hierarchical world of security as a "nonclassified briefing," but this classification seems to mean to the initiates "speak rig.evil, even if you hear it." What Kranish and his fellow members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics heard the high CIA official say was that . Israel possessed anywhere from ten to twenty nuclear weapons "available for use." The qtiestion of Israel's possession or nonpossession of a nuclear capability has been much rumored, debated, denied and generally agitated for years without any clear resolution of the mystery. Now here was a "senior official" of the CIA in a "nonclassified" session ' called a "backgrounder" saying that indeed the gossip was true. and putting a number on the Israeli nuclear arsenal. It was a very interesting, even startling, disclosure about the balance of force in the Middle East, and derived from what must be called "a qualified source." Kranish thought he should reveal this unclassified intelligence revelation, and wrote an article on it which The Washington Post published. For his professional pains, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics has told Kranish the "honorable action for you" is to resign. (Kranish is talking to his lawyer first.) The CIA has lately been going through an "open" phase. The dagger may still be poised, but the cloak is lifted, at least the hem, while Congress tries to decide what kind of controls it should try to impose on this previously' unchecked agency of Presidential intervention abroad and, even more Shockingly, at borne. The former head of CIA,. William Colby, whom President Ford fired in what seems to have been more a White House cleaning than a purge, spent his last months in a paroxysm of openness, going around posing as the outspoken manager of your friendly neighborhood spy shop. In this phase, which is not likely to INDIANA DAILY STUDENT 17 March 1976 CIA 'teach-in' may be offered Tentative plans to sponsor an April 1 "teach-in" to educate students about the CIA were discussed Monday night by the Committee to End Campus ..Complicity with the CIA. According to committee- , spokesman John Fry, senior, several professors would engage in a panel discussion and offer "concrete reasons why we should be against the CIA and .why they should be kept off campus." The committee also will set up "educational tables" on the CIA in last long, it is apparently all right for the higher spies to come in from the cold and tell all about the weaponry of. our friends abroad. They leave it to the ground rules of the groups with which they share these dangerous secrets to define a "leak" and punish the leakers. It would seem that this single revelation of an Israeli nuclear capability would be more damaging both. ta, stability in the Middle East and to.the reputation for discretion of American intelligence. agencies than ten or twenty Pike Committee reports. But the. "intelligence community" is taking .pre- cautionary measures on another front. The headline right below the Kranish "leak" story reads: U.S. Halts Two .Booklets Used to Spot C.I.A. Agents ? ! he story says that the State Department has stopped ? publication of the Foreign Service List and that when its Biographic Register appears again it will be classified "for official use only." These two listings have made it fatuously easy for even an auttutored spy to detect, behind clumsy "cover" jobs, the likely espionage functions of many cf this country's operatives abroad. The most notable recent case was that or Richard Welch, a CIA agent in Athens, mysteriously murdered after he had been identified as such and his mime had been published in various anti-U.S. intelligence publications. There was much official in- dignation at the anti:CIA groups that made known his true identity, and Welch was given what amounted to a state funeral and buried in Arlington National Cemetery. The trail he left behind him was quite clear in those official publications which have now at last been suppressed or classified. This story is not so much about the right to .knowa as it is on belated prudence and common sense on the part of the U.S. Government. Finally, and from another world, is the story headlined: Amins Lose Positions In Cairo Press Shifts It concerns two brothers who ? prospered and gained influence as newspaper publishers, in Egypt after the military threw out King Farouk. Now President Anwar el-Sadat has removed them from the newspapers they . started thirty years ago and:announced that, though they _can stay on as writers, they will be replaced as editors -by Men. with "no hatred for the Socialist Revolution." : It is not a bad idea to remind ourselves that that is how the press is handled in most of the world and that the First Amendment?still in force?is what makes such things ,difficult, if not impossible, here. residence halls. ? Fry said educating students about the CIA will be the committee's primary ? 'goal this semester. ? He told the committee the . Anti-CIA-recruiting rally last week "was very successful 'even if we did not get the files." The committee wants made public CIA-related tiles it believes the , University has. The committee will circulate a petition calling for a ban on future CIA recruitment at EU. and for the opening of files it believes the University hasalt plans to present the petition to I.U. administrators. - Fry said about 50 -persons signed the petition at. the rally last week. 17 WALL STREET JOURNAL 15 APRIL 1976 ? ? ? The Central Intelligence Agency has twice stopped assassins heading for the U.S. with orders to kill elected public officials, former Defense Secretary Melvin Laird stated. He also said the CIA once uncovered preparations by one non-Communist country to invade another, anorthe U.S. was able to bring about negotiations. Laird, a member of Ford's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, made the statements in a Reader's Digest article. ? Approved For For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 INDIANA DAILY STUDENT 15 March 1976 aper tigers, Some persons have a phenomenal knack for arranging triumphant rallies and winning debates every single time their opponents fail to show up. These courageous traits once again were displayed Wednesday by the Young Socialist Alliance (YSA) at a demonstration demanding an end to Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) recruiting and opening of University CIA .files.. YSA positions never have been distinguished for - precision or logical thought, so they should not be faulted now for the nonsense in which their latest escapade abounds. But when someone else's assassinations and misdeeds solemnly are criticized by those who appoint themselves orthodox interpreters of a doctrine described by Lenin as "unlimited power based on force and unrestricted by any laws," which has claimed in the last 50 years more human lives than all the wars preceding it together, some kind of comment - *obviously is called for. 1. The first thing which stands out is that YSA is utterly grief-stricken over, the CIA-inspired assassinations of right-wing dictators Diem and Trujillo. What it has forgotten to explain (but such lapses are entirely excusable in bereavement) is how those rulers would have fared if delivered to the tender mercies of the Socialist Workers' Party! ? To venerate all life without exception is Very altruistic and commendable, but to indict someone else for the very things one gladly should have done himself is the lowest sort of hypocrisy and cynicism that could be irrr4ed. I apologize if, as I hope, I am completely wrong. Perhaps the Trotskyites have really become so outspokenly heretical that, instead of liquidating the bourgeois ruling ? class, 'they merely 'would retire it on a comfortable ? pension. 2. The faked indignation over CIA attempts to blow a cigar in Castro's face is doubly disgusting because (a) diCtator Castro is guilty of sending thousands of Cubans to the firing squad, holding 30,000 imprisoned (according tci Amnesty International) in the most hideous conditions, and exiling half a million, and (b) the much maligned CIA, which knocks down governments as?if they were bowling pins, was so inept at it that it I was unable to accomplish the act it is being charged with. If any proof is required that Castro is alive and the fact that only last month he sent 10,000 troops tol prosp ? up a similar dictatorship in Angola ? %vitt' !enthusiastic YSA support ? serves the purpose. So, indeed, what a great loss to mankind, what an undeserved fate it would have been lithe dark plots had 'succeeded. Most Cubans undoubtedly would call the CIA tc, account in this matter, only not because it tried to liquidate Castro, but because it failed. 3. No "indictment" would be complete without accusing the CIA of civilian casualties in Vietnam. But every indictment is incomplete as long as it fails to ask ' the question how the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese still managed to win the war ? by saying the right prayers and shooting harmless blanks? Civilian casualties are an unfortunate part of every conflict. But the acid test is how a country treats it own mistakes. Every aspect of American conduct has been YSA ? victorious- . default discussed publicly (and often magnified) in this rotten I country. One of the culprits has even been court-martialed. Have the Viet Cong investigated the 1968 Hue ; massacre, in which during barely a month of ! "liberation," 10,000 persons were dumped into a :common grave, and does YSA know whether anyone has. ;been court-martialed for that? , ? 4. They make an infernal noise of the fact that they have been under CIA "surveillance." But in spite of ' CIA's machinations, the rally seems to have been held as scheduled. How many YSA rallies have been held at Moscow State University lately? The KBG, which YSA scrupulously avoids to mention, does not keep -Trotskyites under surveillance; it still treats deviationist hotheads ? and always will ? with as much compassion as its inhuman assassin showed to Leo Trotsky 40 years ago. -Yet YSA does not fail to magnify any speck in .America's eye, while iporing any beam, rto matter how obtrusive, in the eyes of the Soviet Union and other Communist countries, where it is persecuted with unparalleled ferocity. What kind of a doctrine is it'e which so completely has repressed the law of self-preservation that its followers are cheerfully paying the way for their own executioners? How is the smile act moral when done by one side, but inexusably wrong when done by another? Only an ideology of suicidal hatred, uncontrolled by reason and unlimited in scope, could suppress the first law of nature. In his brilliant study of socialism as a -historical phenomenon, Soviet academician Igor Shafarevich maintains-that it remains an ertma until it is recognized that Thanatos, the death instinct, also manifests itself in mass movements and that socialism has been its foremost incarnation. The arbitrary -outbursts of moral indignation, which never occur when the 'communists are on the defensive but always when their blows are even meekly returned, .are not really a mystery. .YSA _books and pamphlets never tire of repeating that there are no laws, no elections, no moral norms to restrain YSA, but that the' state and society which it is ? YSA's formal objective to destroy strictly are forbidden ; to-df..fend themselves. When the society which guarantees them the fundamental rights to speak mad act merely uses its intelligence agencies to keep a record of their activities, that is fascism;. but when YSA shuts down a university or seizes power by force, that is the flowering of democracy and academic freedom. So the key to all Communist morality, without :which attacks on the CIA and silence about the KGB are eternally confusing, is that whatever promotes the. !interests of Communist power, any aggression, murder or violence, is automatically progressive, humanitarian and indescribably good: but anything that impedes it ? even minimal police surveillance or a newspaper column ? is reactioriary, fascist and unspeakably bad. But the obvious truth, which only is reaffirmed with each effort to distort or deny it, is that YSA is amply benefiting from a legal order which respects the 18 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 20011081O8 : CIA-RDP77-00432R0001004000058 rights of even its vicious enemies and active destroyers to an extreme, often irrational, degree. II they are exercising a'constitutional right to disgorge their malice ? instead or sharing their leader's fate or diOng potatoes in Siberia ? the Trotskyites owe a large debt of gratitude to. all the institutions of this hateful society, and a considerable share of it must be allocated to the execrable CIA. There is no doubt that all non-academic institutions should keep but of the University. Those interested in working for General Motor's or the CIA should go to the respective personnel office and apply:But between that observation. and YSA's morally dupliciOus and factually one-sided tirade, there is no moral of logical connection.' THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER 22 March 1976 CIA propaganda To the Editor: ? The recent "private discus- ?sions" by. the CIA during which CM estimates of Israel's atomic capability were disclosed are pur: pettedly part of a new CIA policy of.s-public . disclosure and frank- . , neSs. Presumably this is at leak par- tially in response to congressional attacks on the CIA for its secret involvement in domestic and for- I eign political activity. Regretfully, however, the suspi- cious time and place of the dis- closure may only provide further evidence that the CIA is primar- ily a political tool of the incum- bent administration. The disclosure was made .to a group with little direct interest in the Middle East arms balance ? .the American Institute of Aero- naties and Astronauts: Signifi- cantly, the disclosure was made during .a strong administration 'drive to pressure Congress .into believing that huge new military armaments to Egypt will not up- set the Middle East balance 'of ? power: ? ; Increased information from the CIA about its activities is refresh-. ing; but such information should ' not be designed to be little more than administration propaganda. . MICHAEL J..KLINE ? ? Philadelphia. Their daring confrontation with an opponent who did not show up, and their heroic abstention front demanding an international inspection of the files of the most murderous intelligence organization in history, the Soviet KGB, proves once again that the Trotskyites are. the bravest people on earth. Not because there is nothing that they fear, but because there is nothing of which they are ashamed. . I Stephen Karganovic Stephen Karganovic is a first year law student who writes- "ce =tin" (this morning) weekly for the Daily Student: INDIANA DAILY STUDENT 17 IiIrch 1976 rotest s move. to It crimet The March 10 demonstration against campus complicity with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was a big step forward in building a movement to halt CIA and CIA-style crimes. It should hasten the day that the CIA recruiters pledge, "We do.not go where we are not wanted," will be applied to Angola, Chile, Iran and elsewhere throucthout the world. ? Less impressed was noted logician Stephen Karganovic, who took up half the Monday Daily Student opinion page to rant and rave about how horrible the Young Socialist Alliance i's for helping buuild the demonstration and working with the Committee to End Campus Complicity with the CIA (CECCIA). He tells us that we Trotslcyists should be "grateful" to the CIA for not having murdered us (not in the United States, at least, although the CIA's record in other countries, notably Chile and Argentina, is less generous) but "only" infiltrates and disrupts our movement. As a law student Karganovic could at least point out that such domestic surveillance supposedly is forbidden by the CIA's own charter. But he is too busy lecturing us about "hypocrisy" to allow facts to get in his way. ? With equally astounding logic, Karganovic tells us that we should show our 'gratitude" to the American government for grantingcertaini civil liberties by not fighting to expand those civil liberties and by not opposing the governments. abridgment of these -rights. . . Karganovic accusses the Trotskyist movement of a "death instinct" and charges it with "abstention" in the fight dgainst Stalinism and the KGB. Absurd! The Trotskyist movement was born out of a struggle against Stalinism and its police state terror and remains to this day its bitter opponent. Trotskyists have campaigned throughout the world against the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, in solidarity with anti-Stalinist upsurges in Eastern Europe, for freedom for all Soviet dissidents, from Solzhenitsyn to Pyotr Grigorenko and Leonid Plyusch, and foi freedom for political prisoners in Czechoslovokia, Yugoslavia, the Ukraine, China and elsewhere. We have built rallies, demonstrations, petitions drives and teach-ins in this effort. We do so. because we believe socialism and democracy are inseparable and that the anti-Stalinist revolution in the East will deal a powerful blow to capitalism in the West. ? Karganovic raises the specter of Stalinism only to white-wash the crimes of U.S. imperialism and police state agencies such as the CIA ? incidentally these crimes have been going on long before !there 'was a "Communist threar bogeyman to "save" us from. Ile doesn't like it being pointed out that the CIA is so cynical that it even murders the errant U.S. hirelings in he Third World such as. Diem and Trujillo. There isn't much horror among the thieves 19 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 INDIANA DAILY STUDENT 15 March 1976 ea ers view . ? Editor's Note: Due to the volume Of .response the issue of CIA recruitment elicited we'd like to devote the entire page today to the leader's views. Thursday's demonstration was successful in that the CIA cancelled recruitment interviews, although they reportedly interviewed students who had previously expressed an interest in CIA employment off carrptis. Freedom .to choose To the editor: ? ? On Wednesday there ? was a much publicized meeting to discuss "Getting the CIA off campus." I didn't go, and as I'm writing of Wednesday, I don't know how it turned out. However, I have something to say about it. I address my words directly to the young lady with the bullhorn, but indirectly to all like her. Miss, you and your friends claim to be in favor of liberty, justice, equality and all other nice things. Fine. So why don't you base your actions accordingly? You are opposed to the CIA, and I don't fault you for that. But isn't every other student entitled to judge for himself? You would deny the other students at I.U. their freedom to choose for themselves, Karganovic apologizes for. Where Karganovic shows his true colors is on the issue of Vietnam. He justifies the sordid record of imperialist bloodletting in Vietnam by bringing up .the alleged 1968 NLF "terrorist" massacre at Flue ? a massacre which subsequently has been shown to be the work of U.S. bombers and artillery, the real practitioners of terrorism in Vietnam..Karganovic whines about the exposure of U.S. war crimes in Indochina; "Every aspect of American conduct has been discussed publicly (and magnified) irr this rotten country.". ?"Rotten country'"? It's amusing how fast Karganovic's assessment of ' the American people changes Once they become upset over 'governmental wrongdoing. He adds, "One of the culprits has even , been court-martialed." Our Daily Student Kremlinologist hardly 'should need to he reminded that even the Soviets can produce ? scapegoats when they are needed. The real culprits, or war I criminals to be ?more exact,-.are. men like Nixon, Kissinger, Laird, ? ? McNamara and their like ?VhO walk -the streets as free men... Karganovie's justification for U.S. involvement in Vietnam ' ?during his .defense of th,1 CIA is no coincidence. It was revelations about the real nature of U.S; involvement in Vietnam which showed many Americans that the "enemy" was not some foreign power but ; here at home and headquartered. in Washington, D:C. Furthermore, the "enemy" which ?the U.S. government hides its 'secrets from turned .out to be not some foreign power (they knew about it anYway) but the American public. When the people found out. the ; real nature of the war they forced the government to pull out of . Vietnam, and U.S. imperialism lost its first war. And very few :persons, Karganovic among them; were terribly shook up when this happened. I suppose that's why he calls the United States a rotten lcountry. And that is why the public has a right to know .about the 1 CIA and other sordid police state agencies. Steve Miller ? for the Young Socialist Alliance 1 0 reenutme 'whether or not they will approve of the CIA, and to have the CIA present us it's case. You apparently do not regard your fellow students as filature and intelligent enough to judge the CIA for themselves according to it's merits, but would censor anything that agency might say in it's own defense. ? I am compelled to compare you with the man who wants to outlaw pornography. That pornography is wrong is only his personal opinion, and if it means so much to him, he should do his best to persuade people not to patronize X-rated movies; not tell them that they cannot patronize them. Similarly, no matter how sure you are that the CIA ought to be a8olished, it is not up to you to force your decision on others, but to persuade them that you are right, and let them act in accordance with their own conscience. In other words, 'our approach ought not to be "Don't let CIA speak .on campus," but "CIA is wrong because ? and ? , so please don't support them." Then let each listener choose for himself, even as you chose for yourself. - I happen to agree that the CIA is bad, but that makes no. difference; no matter how indefensible their position may appear to you or me, they are entitled to try and defend it, and we students are entitled to hear their defense if we so choose, and to agree, and even join, if we so choose. Besides, don't you know that the best way to hang a fool is to let him talk? .Mike Snyder Bloomington March 11 U.S. needs CIA To the editor: I surely. must agree with the majority of my peers on this campus that the CIA is far from perfect, and has committed acts that even in our 'existential' society we deem to be morally wrong per se. However, I find the current solution of banning CIA recruiting on the I.U. campus, to be far removed from a plausible or appropriate solution. I must also admit that OK country has a need for an organization such as the CIA. Although it is/ imperfect, it has it's positive aspects too; but alas the "bad" is always far more sensational than it's lesser remembered counterpart ? the ? "good." ? In a technological society as ours and with the vast interdependence or hostile 'countries and peoples,?a nation such as ours. demands internal security and intelligence. The . key to it is an 'organization inch as the CIA. When such an organization becomes so powerful as to abuse the power panted to it, then it's powers must be effectively checked, 20 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005.-8 `Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R00010040000-8 not eliminated. The CIA has at times borne put Lord Acton's words, "absolute power corrupts absolutely," and has shown us that all forms of power or authority need a check against that very power, so that it does not become despotic to it's ends. This is the essence of the greatness of our Republic: that authority and power is checked so hat our government does not become tyrannical by the gradual usurpation of ? power by those in power, at the expense 'Of the freedoms of the people. . The solution isn't banning CIA recruiting, but rather a reformation in Washington where the real problem lies. I would tend to feel that within the confines of our University, there are qualified individuals, who are capable of bringing the CIA the type of leadership it needs more of. Denying these people the opportunity is a greater wrong than denying the CIA their opportunity to recruit. The 1960s and 70s have shown us that our leaders have committed covert acts that again we deem wrong. Are we likewise to deny all political parties the right to seek support or .recruits on this campus? Are we to ban all legal entities that have committed wrongs from our campus, and thus closing another door to reform. Would we not in effect be banning everyone and everything. I hope not. ? Surely direct correspondence to our elected officials with regard to our views is far more effective than boisterous pamphlet passing in front of Ballantine. Perhaps though 13 cents worth of concern is too high a price to pay for better government.. Again I say let the CIA recruit on our campus, and let's press on to amore direct and efficient means of reform. Greg Shoup Bloomington - March 11 No business. at I.U. To the editor: Over the last few months exposures of massive illegal intelligence and terrorist ativity by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency have ' filled even the estabishment media. Masses of i Americans now know that: o the CIA has systematically spied on . American citizens at home, o the CIA has sponsored assassination attempts on several foreigl heads of state, ? 0 the CIA has contributed millions of ' dollars to the coffers of extreme right-wing? ! political parties all over the world in an atempt : to undermine democratic.political institutions,: 0 the CIA has organized, trained, supplied and funded right-wing terrorist armies seeking to Overthrow or prevent the advance .or progressive ? forces in ',several countries. A ; current focus of this CIA activity is southern Africa, Where ? CIA-paid mercenaries are I accorialiiee's of the . racist white-minority -these and other exposures may come as i.shocking revelations to the 'naive but to the ' bulk of the world's population they only ' confirm what was .aheady wellknown from decades of bitter experience: the CIA is. an. enormous Underground terrorist organization engaged in a world-wide struggle against every progressive fotce in the battle, of working and oppressed people ? to free themselves from domination. ? ? We also know, contrary to the claims of the liberal media, that the CIA is not out of control. According to all the evidence now available, every "illegal" CIA operation recently exposed was approved or even initiated by the Secretary of State and/or the' President. The CIA is not failing to do what it is supposed to do, it is succeeding. If we understand these facts, our analysis and our struggle must be much more far reaching than many have yet recognized. - To be sure, it would be nice to get the CIA off?campus. They have no more (and no less) business recruiting on campus and supporting and organizing academic programs with American universities than the Mafia has. And if we build this movement, there is some prospect that we can at least make it more difficult for the CIA to operate within the universities. But we must build this movement without' illusions. The CIA cannot be fundamentally reformed. Every ruling class in every class society must have secret police and terrorists at is command. There is no way to "clean-up" the CIA. (Ask yourself, what precisely would a "cleaned-up CIA do?) The CIA doesn't need to be laundered, it needs to be destroyed. And there- is only one force and one program which can accomplish this goal. The CIA will exist, dirty as ever, as : long as American capitalism. lasts: Only by joining the movement for workers' power in this country, the movement to overthrow the capitalist system and replace it with a society in ;which working people democratically control , all institutions ? only in that struggle will we : succeed. The front front lines of the struggle for workers'' ? .ipower are not at I.U. But they are nearby. In every shop, factory, mill, and office a rank and ;? file movement is growing which as its final : ivictory will destroy the CIA. . ? t Eye for an eye... Bloomington International Socialists To the editor: The protestors against the CIA on this I-campus act as if there is no threat from ;communism. I disagree. . It's my understanding that the USSR -is spending something like 40 per cent of their 1 GNP on weapons and weapons research. Moreover, they have many people starving in :rural areas while they spend enormous amounts 1 of money on such things as nuclear guided missle cruisers. I rather believe they aren't building all of this just,to logic at, but to use. I -suspect the realities of world politics dictate the use -of such tactics as financing foreign political parties, supplying insurrections, and assassinating communist . leaders. It's unfortunate, but after all, this is the ?strongest country in the world, and one can't expect us to ? stand by while our enemies advance on our weaker friends. I only wish we had the CIA in World War II, and had killed our dear friend, Adolph Hitler a few years earlier. In conelusion, it's a very naughty world, and the uot John Wayne. We must deal 21 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 with our enemies exactly as they deal with us. And if that includes blowing their heads off, by all means let's do it. Tom Black Bloomington March 11 ? Aids foreign policy. To the editor: A well functioning CIA is vital to a successful foreign policy. The correct : Assessment of the military situation in the Middle East prior to the 1967 war allowed the U.S. to act with the knowledge that the Israelis would win. It could be argued that a correct intelligence assessment might have .prevented the U.S. from becoming entangled in an .unwinnable situation in Southeast Asia. The protestors against the CIA should realize its necessity, its abuses notwithstanding. Hal Harvey Bloomington March II ; Salutes protestors To the editor: ? I want to take this opportunity to salute the efforts of ;those few brave students Ithro prevented the CIA from recruiting on campus. INDIANA DAIZY STUDITT 18 March 197 Tyranny of minority To the editor: It is with pleasure that I note that most , students can see through the absurb rhetoric of the YSA with regards to CIA recruitment on campus and on 'many Other subjects (for their position on all issues can be easily predicted and their vocabulary is identical in discussing no matter what topic beginning with "capitalist aggressor" and ending with "working class struggle.") It is; also with pleasure tharl read ; Mr. Kargonovic's column as well as several well .! written letters pointing out the hypocrisy of the YSA's support of a government with an- ? ; organization such as the KGB while condemning .the CIA. The -need for an intelligence agency, while 'very important to realize, is overshadowed by the most fundamental concept expressed which is our rit to choose whether or not to join the CIA, perhaps even in the hopes of ameliorating it. W. as supposedly free individuals, are being denied that rit. And why? ? ? One explanation offered by John Mohr in one of the most ludicrous paragraphs I have ever : had the misfortune to read, is that those who believe that they have a right to seek " employment (was 1 so mistaken, as to think that .? we did?) must submit to the "opinion of a majority or vociferous minority of students as to what is proper and fitting employment for our graduates." Perhaps Alexandre de This University must not become the supplier , of young minds' for organizations who deal daily in the breaking of laws, corruption of government officials and other immoral and heinous crimes. Even though we have successfully stopped one such organization, our work has just begun. We must rally to protect this campus from recruiters of other criminal employers. The CIA is nothing more than a tool to manipulate foreign opinion to tolerate getting ripped off by American business. We should not permit large corporations such as Dow Chemicals, IBM or that most vile rate hiker, Indiana Bell, on campus. I propose that any business who has been publicly criticized by the New York Times in the last three years be banned from campus. Let us not yield to the cries of those few people who believe, that they have a right to seek employment or who feel that employers have some sort of right to associate with our : ,students. Since when did any individual or I small group or individuals ever have the right to seek ; employment, , which in itself is not violative of the law, when it runs contrary to the opinion of a majority .or vociferous minority .of students as to what is proper and fitting employment for our graduates. John Mohr Toqueville was correct when he warned of America's potential tyranny of the majority. Even worse it appears in this case to be .a tyranny of the minority. How inappropriate it. is on the eve of our 200tli anniversary to 'suppose a view so against the foundations of Iour nation. Lauren Pinzka Bloomington March 15 ;Communist menace f ;- To the editor: This letter is in response to the Bloomington International Socialists (11.1.S.) letter of March 15.. This organization has learned Lenin's lesson well. Lenin taught that the enemy must be weakened in advance. To wait for something to happen is not the way to achieve revolution. The way must be prepared. The enemy must be softened up: weaken his will to resist, nullify his capacity fur counteraction and impair his morale. Then when the crisis comes, Communists can . march to power through the ? ranks of a demoralized enemy. The B.I.S. letter is a perfect example of how the Communists deliberately try to subvert agencies of the U.S. government. The 11.1.S. says, "The 'CIA does not need to be laundered, it needs to be destroyed." This is an obvious attempt to sow the seeds of discontent, weaken, divide and neutralize anticommunist opposition; and above all, undermine the CIA. The BIS. also states their concern for the . working people. The Communists say they are' interested in the laboring man, higher wages, 22 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005:8 ? - F6F1Te1iase 2001/08/08 : CIATRDP77-00432R000100400005-8 better working conditions and shorter hours. When in reality all the Communists want is to penetrate unions, .to remain in them and to carry on Communist work in them at all costs. Finally, the .B.I.S. would have us believe that freedom can be attained only under their system. Yet, history of ,every nation under a Communist regime demonstrates conclusively that the Communist version of freedom is only a new form of total slavery. ? During the Bicentennial year of the greatest country on earth, I feel it is the duty of . every loyal American ? Co inform themselves .about Communism, the major menace of our time. Communism is, More than an economic, political, social or philosophical doctrine. It is a way of life; a false, materialistic "religion." It !would strip man of his belief in God, his heritage of frcedom, his trust in love, justice and mercy. Stic let's get some courage and stand up to organizations like BLS., and not let them use us as pawns to achieve their goals. i ? Tom 1-lickox March 16 HE NEW YORK TIMES, SATURDAY, APRII.: 10, 1976 Job-Hungry Students Turning to C.I.A. By ROBERT LINDSEY spasm to The New York Times LOS ANGELES, April 9? Despite the recent disclosure of wrongdoing by the Central In- telligence Agency, the number of college students seeking jobs In the agency has increased 30 percent over the last year, ac- cording to C.I.A. officials. . Recruiting efforts by the agency have touched off cam- pus protests in a few cases, and some colleges still ban campus Interviews by the agency. But, for the most part, according to a check with college adminis- trators and students in 10 States, indifference and a search for work in a tight employment Market has supplanted much of the campus anti-C.I.A. senti- ment, which reached. a peak in the final years of the Vietnam War. "I'm not that thrilled with working for that organization," said Richard Mintzer of New Rochelle, N.Y., a Duke Uni- versity senior who specialized in Soviet studies. "On the other hand, there is a tight job mar- ket." Mr. Mintzer has an ap- plication for an agency job in his room, but has not decided yet whether to submit it: ' "I'd like to get a job using my skills; I know college grads who are packing groceries," said Michael Welsch, a senior who majored in Russian at Ari- zona State University. His ap- plication with the agency was turned down. . ? Victor Lindquist, director of ialacement at Northwestern University, said be thought that publicity about the agency, which sincluded several Con- gressic nal investigations and disclosures of unlawful opera- tions, had led to a "heightened interest" in intelligence work. "They've dragged the C.I.A. .activities out of the cloak- room," he said. "They've lost some of the cloak-and dagger aura. I think there's greater acceptance on the part of stu- dents pursuing a career; anyone expressing an interest in a. C.I.A. job is not going to be, ? ostracized.' . Many students and adminis- trators who were interviewed interpreted the agency's gener- ? ally improved reception on col- lege campuses as a reflection of the current job market. An- other , symptom of this, they said, is the general ebb of protest activities by the current generation of students as against those of a few years ago. F. W. M. Janney, C.I.A. direc- tor of personnel, said in a telephone interview that, while the agency is now finding it easier to conduct interviews on campuses, the interviews themselves have sometimes tended to be more difficult for the interviewers. "They I students] are asking ars a lot more searching ques- tions about our policies and about our activities, and we have had to give more answers and better answers than we have in the past," he said. ? Advertising Is Cited Dr. .Tanney agreed that the recently depressed economy and resulting poor job outlook for graduates was apparently a major factor in the increased interest in the agency, but he said it was not the only one. , The 30 percent increase ini applications, he said, is running, almost 10 percent greater than the general increase this year in applications for Civil Service jobs. "I would tend to equate the difference to the advertising that's taken place, in terms -of the coverage we've received,"' he said wryly. "They know howl to spell our name." Dr. Janney would not specify I the number of. applications thed agency had received. And, While he said the number of on-campus interviews increased this year, he added that this still lagged behind the number prior to 1968. I "Generally, we conductinter- I views on campus unless we have reason to believe it would cause some embarrassment to the university or ourselves," he said. The increase in applications has not been matched by a rise in job openings, enabling the agency to be more selective. Dr. Janney said that the-' I.:umber of new employees hired) by the agency this year would Ibe about the same as last year ?approximately 700 clerical! workers and 400 in "profes-1 sional" positions.-Of the latter, about half, of he new em- ployees Will have ? bachelor's degrees, the rest advanced degrees. - ? Without giving- details, he said that the agency's efforts to hire more persons from mi- nority groups had been moder- ately successful.: "We've bad some better luck in our effort with Hispanics," he noted,- but said that more efforts were needed in this area of recruitment. Although the overall recep- tion ofC.I.A. recruiters has improved recently, visits or projected visits by. agency rep.. resentatives resulted 'in seri- ous disruptions this year at the University of Indiana, the University of Michigan and the University of California, San Diego. With only a few; exceptions; however, the recent disclosures about the intelligence agency appear to have had little effect on recruiting. Similarly, several college placement officials said there was generally little resistance to recruiting by the National Security Agency, which has also been accused of improper spying on American citizens. Several students interviewed at Boston University said they had found it amusing that the college administration -Still dis- couraged campus interviews by the C.I.A. "The C.I.A. Is just like anoth- er business; why can't they recruit on campusr said Mi. NEW YORK TIMES 9 April 1976 C.I.A. QUERIED ON TIE TO LOCKHEED AGENT ? -WASHINGTON, April 8 (Reu- ters)?Secretary of Commerce Elliot L Richardson said today he had ? asked the Central In- telligence Agency to investi- -gate whether there -had- been any links between it and-the :DLockheed Aircraft Corpora- tion's agent in Japan,' Yoshio 'Kodama. F!! ' Mr. Richardson told the !S'enate' Banking' Conutittbe be had asked for the information -because of- ailegation4 of,* gym- 23 chael -C-araeff,' junior from Brooklyn. One of about SO Brown Uni- versity students who took an examination to join the Nation- al Security Agency said, "Basi- cally, everybody went for the same reason; it wasn't their first choice, but they wanted a job." ' Another Brown student, Ana Marie Padilla, a senior majoring in mathematics, said that she liked the idea of working at the N.S.A. "I'm not going to be out in the field assassinating people," she said. "I don't have any qualms about it; we need na- tional security, and I would be assisting in national. security.", Michael Curtin, a Brown Se- nior described by friends as a radical on some issues, com- mented: "I don't see that the, C.I.A: is intrinsically worse that a lot of other organizations. What it does is no worse than what the Chase Manhattan Bank does in other countries, 'drawing off the profits and con- trolling industrialization. If I had time, I'd protest them all." James Darling, a student of the University of Florida, said! that despite the recent publicity! he retained a "lifelong dream' to work for the agency. His big- gest concern now over the dis- closures appeared to be less ethical than 'practical. "All this publicity has hurt the C.I.A., just like it hurt Lockheed," he said. - "Personally, I wouldn't take a job with Lockheed right now,- he said. "I just don't think there's any security_ in it. And I imagine a lot of people might feel the same way about the C.I.A. . nection bttween? the C.I.A. and ?Mr. Kodama, who is a central 'figure in the inquiry under way in Japan paying out 8200 mil- lion at least 822 million of it in briges, in countries such as Japan and the Netherlands. Some of the money allegedly went to officials. Mr. Richardon said he made the request as chairman of the President's Task Force on Foreign Corporate Payments., a commission just set up to rec- ommend steps to stop pay- ments abroad to promote over- seas sales. The C.I.A. has not yet sup- plied the information. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 THE GLOBE (NORTHERN VIRGINIA) 1 APRIL 1976 ?Collage Students Are Flocking To New CIA Job Opportunities by Allan Rabinowitz - "Unique employment op- portunities. international travel, mystery, good pay. many benefits ? - all yours when working for this well established international corporation." Sound like a dream job? It's the CIA's latest recruitment pitch to college seniors and graduate students across the country. And nearly the only response from students even on campuses that were hostile during the Vietnam War years - has been to beat down the doors to get in for interviews with recruiters. ' According to CIA officials in Washington. DX. and Boston, student interest in working for the counter- intelligence agency is in- creasing. A CIA-sponsored minori- ty hiring conference, held recently in Washington. D.C.. drew more than 60 career counselors from, 23 U.S. univsrsities. All ex- penses were paid by the CIA. Representatives from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, UCLA, University of Wisconsin at Madison. Michigan State University at East Lansing and the University of California at Berkeley all came to talk. with the CIA about employ-- ment opportunities. A University of Michigan employment recruiter at the conference said the campus would not recruit for the CIA. but "encouraged the CIA to come back to cam- pus." Most of the career place- ment officials said it was their duty to provide all possible employment oppor- tunities for students. Company Pitch The CIA's pitch is simple. The agency is playing down its role in political murders. toppled governments. Mafia collaborations and domestic spying. The CIA is being bill- ed as just another govern- ment agency. Student protest have been scattered and ineffec- tual. Demonstrations at Berkeley, UCLA, University of Michigan and Michigan - State University have produced no change in cam- pus recruitment policies. TRIBUNE, Salt Lake City 24 March 1976 But . at the Univ. of California at San Diego, president Davis Saxon was forced to leave the campus by police car after anti-CIA Igroups stopped him from addressing the academic 'senate about CIA recruit- ment. Shortly after the distur- bance, the senate defeated a proposal requiring full dis- closure of CIA-university t connections,. which would have banned CIA campus. recruitment and stopped agency research by faculty members. The?-CIA, in adver- tisements; makes special pitch for Ph. D. candidates doing research: The agency - offers one of the few oppor- tunities for employment in research; 'said Robert Ginn, associate director of career. placement at Harvard, with the opportunity to publish "substantive scholarly research" throughout the in- tellectual and intelligence .community.... Ginn speculated that re- cent publicity on the CIA's activities actually helped recruitment activities- 'No Assassinalions; Former I ? ? ? By Bob Brysen ? Tribune Staff Writer _Central ency- (CIA) has neveili-een involved in assassina- ? tions because "it is not part of our ,.character," a former agent in charge of some covert operations in South Ameri- ca says. True, Milton R. Bissegger said Tues- day, some individual agents discussed' assassination of Fidel Castro and Congo ; Leader Patrice Lamumba, "But the position of most CIA men is ; that espionage is ? such a dishonest . business, only honest men can be in it. Everyone in the CIA I Iniew was highly ;?principled," he told the Rotary Club of Salt Lake meeting at Hotel Utah. Mr. Bissegger is now a West Jordan resident. He is a University of Utah ; graduate and was a CIA operations officer in Argentina. He became a member of the CIA Western Hemis- phere Divison's Covert Action Staff and monitored all covert action expendi- , -tures in Latin America. He noted that he was speaking as an individual and that he has received a change- in CIA status- to that of an 'overt' retiree. He took the step, he said, because of "all the propaganda" the CIA has been receiving. He ? noted that "many allegations about the CIA are false and others are ? distorted by the media and ppople with ! political status." - . Mr.. Bissegger said that former. SenateIntelligence Committee, Chair- man Frank Church, now a presidential candidate, said that Americans would be "shocked and amazed" at ?the committee's report on CI;XuetIvities. "The comments by Sen. Church had ' very little truth in them. I am not saying the man is a liar, but perhaps he. . had other motives besides the assassi- nations. This statement brought him a lot of propaganda and publicity." No Assasshiations The final report, he noted, said the CIA has never assassinated anyone, "There were five alleged CIA assassi- nation plots. Three ? of these involved South American leaders. I had access td the files going back to the late '50s. The. committee's report is then true,"' he said. They other plots involved- mumba...and a coup in South Vietnam. ' ? The CIA is ?-ery careful, Mr. Bisseg- ? ger said, to tlinunate "nuts" from the, 24 because "it makes the kids think about the agency." . Whatever illegal and cor- rupt CIA actions may be dis- closed, there are practical considerations - jobs and research money-- that now hold a high priority for graduating university- students. "Why should they protest?" asked Angus Thurmer. assistant to the. director of the CIA. "Jobs are very scarce these days." The CIA internship program for foreign studies has received more than 1,- 000 inquiries for 50 openings. Internship program participants, about half of whom become fulltime CIA employees, corne from a wide range of colleges, including Harvard, Yale and the Univ. of Chicago. They receive monthly salaries of between $800 and S1.000. Students accepted' into the program come from -a wide range of disciplines and usually at the top of their classes, with masters degrees or higher.. ' Copyright 1976 Pacific NEWS Service CIA Agent Asserts service. "The allegations made by the medial are preposterous. There has never been! -al case where the CIA was involved in ' the assassination of a foreign individual . or on the domestic scene either," he; ; said. ' He said agents are taught that: ! assassination is not acceptable and anyone who suggests it is subject to dismissal. . Mr. Bissegger noted that the CIA has I provided training to police departments in other countries. . He also said that the CIA spent from I , $11 to $20 million in Chile. - ' "I don't apologize for that money spent. A lot of people say we shouldn't be interfering in the domestic affairs of j another country. But we have t respon- sibility to the world for the promotion of ' the principles on which our country is I founded." Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 'Approved For Release 2001-48/08-: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 NATION 13 4ARC7 19Tri ITEM UTTP.11A!.Ayr?2- aF. 'TaVrELILLTGENCE' Faird.:92 aittegriat ECM) ft..s.rrCitgattOite: ? ROBtRT L. 130ROSAGE Gerald Ford's Second Pardon. The President's reform program for the intelligence agencies is a direct chal- lenge to the rule of law. Faced with bard evidence of illegality and abuses by the intelligence officials, Mr. Ford .has issued a blanket pardon for past crimes and a charter fer future abuses. In case anyone was confused by the President's rhetoric of reform, the Justice Department made it clear by announcing that it would not prosecute Richard Helms, the former director of the CIA, for his admitted role in a 1971 burglary. The quality of the ad- ministration's mercy is apparently not strained when it comes to official crime. When Ford pardoned the crimes of Richard Nixon, he made the error of openly admitting what he was doing (if not why he was doing it), and thus erased his early popularity in one grand act. He did not repeat the mis- take in the matter of secret agencies: he announced his second major pardon in the guise of a reform program, a cover story worth unraveling. The Restrictions: Making It All Legal. The centerpiece of the?President's program is an Executive Order which outlines new charters for the foreign intelligence agencies (the FBI is omitted from the program), along with new restrictions on their activities. To underline what he con- siders to be his inherent "constitutional responsibilities to manage . . . foreign policy," the President issued an Executive Order rather than seeking legislation. An Ex- ecutive Order has many advantages for a President. No criminal penalties attach .to violations of its provisions. Moreover, its restrictions can be charmed or rescinded by the stroke of a pen?in secret if so desired. Merely an expression of "higher orders," it may even be super- seded in practice by oral commands from the President: No.intelligence agency official is likely to tell a President that his oral orders violate his own Executive Order. Many of the restrictions in the President's order pro- hibit the agencies from engaging in activities?mail open- ing, wiretaps, tax-return intrusion?that are already against the law. In the past, these agencies apparently felt that ordinary law did not apply to them, and the inescapable implication of the order is that criminal laws apply to intelligence officials only if reaffirmed by Execu- tive Order?or more simply, that our secret agencies are governed only by higher orders. Many other clauses phrased as restrictions contain ex- ceptions that empower the agencies to do things which previously were considered abuses. For example, the 1947 law establishing the CIA specifically bans it from engaging in any domestic police, law enforcement or i internal security functions. The. CIA's massive illegal i domestic surveillance programs were the cause of the I entire review of the intelligence agencies. Yet the Presi- dent's order provides authority for the CIA to get back in the business of spying on Americans. President Ford authorizes the CIA to collect information on the "do- mestic activities of United States persons" who are "rea- sonably believed to be acting on behalf of a foreign power . or "who pose a clear threat to foreign intel- ligence agency facilities or personoel. . ." The CIA's Operation CHAOS?whereby agents infiltrated domestic organizations and spied and reported on more than 300,000 individuals and organizations?was justified within the CIA as an investigation of the "foreign con- tacts of American dissidents." The CIA's Office of Secu- rity program, which placed agents in groups like the Women's Strike for Peace and the Washington Peace Center, was justified as necessary to insure the safety of CIA buildingsi._ If this were not enough, the President's order also allows the foreign intelligence agencies to collect informa- ' tion . on the domestic activities of the following Amer- icans: "present and former employees, present and former .. contractors and their present and former employees," and any "persons in, contact with the foregoing. . . ." This group is subject to physical surveillance (tailing), if need be. For the CIA, NSA and the military agencies, even a restrictive reading of this section of the order could en- compass millions of Americans. The order also permits the NSA and CIA to intercept international communica-? (ions to or from the United States under classified proce- dures. The CIA is empowered to conduct secret scrutiny checks on "potential _sources or contacts." ' The President's order even provides the foreignintel- ligence agencies with authority for their own coiNTEL- !PRO operations. (COINTELPRO was the. FBI's pro- gram to infiltrate ? and disrupt domestic organizations, 'which included its harassment of Dr. Martin Luther ? King.) Apparently the foreign intelligence ageecizia..had felt deprived in this respect, for the President now au- thorizes them to infiltrate an organization in the United 'States "for the purpose of reporting on or influencing its -activities or members," if the organization is composed "primarily of non,United?States persons" and is "reason- ably believed" to be acting on behalf of a foreign poWer: The obvious targets are foreign student groups and emigre organizations. Secrecy: Keeping It All Covered Up. The only criminal Ilegislation called, for by the President is not directed at the of' iCials Who abuse their authority but at those who disclose such misdeeds to the public. Mr. Ford has called lupon Congress to pass criminal penalties and injunctive ? relief against official's who leak "intelligence sources or methods." Over the past decade, secrecy has often been used to cover .up illegal or unpopular activities by the executive. The intervention in Angola is a recent case in point. ; Since the cold-war consensus dissipated, information from ? courageous middle-level, bureaucrats often provided the means whereby the abuses and crimes of the intelligence agencies were exposed; ? Many of these illegalities have, of course, been Ordered ;by Presidents, including President Ford. 'Thus, it is not ?surprising that the White House now seeks official secrets legislation from the Congress. For ? months, President Ford and Henry. Kissinger have tried to change the focus of public attention from official crimes to keeping secrets. ? The cynical use of the death of CIA station chief Richard Welch and the official suppression of the House Intelli- gence Committee report have greatly helped their case. . However, the President may have overreached himself with his proposed bill. It provides criminal penalties for any bureaucrat who releases information concerning in- telligence sources and methods to "unauthorized individ- uals," including Congressional representatives. If the President gets his way, a governmental official giving information to a member of Congress could be prose- cuted as a felon. As his bill would have it, information 25 Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 2001108108r: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 could be provided to Congress only in response to a formal request-from a .sitting committee and, of course, Unless the bureaucrat had already leaked the information the committee wouldn't know what to request. . Administration spokesmen claim that ,the bill is not an "official secrets act" because it applies only tO Officials and only to intelligence sources and methods. But that is a distinction without a ? difference; intelligence sources and methods include virtually any activity of an intelli- gence agency. CIA Director William Colby once provided a sworn deposition which argued that disclosing a single gross figure for the CIA's budget (as required by the Constitution) would reveal "sources and methods." Rich- ard Nixon used the same rationale to deflect temporarily the FM's investigation of CREEP money in Mexico. . Although .the Provisions of the law apply only to gov- ernment officials, nothing would stop a prosecutor from summoning a reporter or an editor before a grand jury to be asked, upon threat of jail for contempt, to reveal his or her source. . The President's plan instructs a middle-level official faced with An illegal Order to report the abuse to "com- petent authority"?the agency's inspector .general. In the past, the inspector general system has served primarily to warn the director of any "flap material," and -to help prepare a cover story. According to the-President's order, the inspectors general are to report to the Presidentially appointed Oversight Board. But the Board is similar to the moribund PFAIB?Presidential Foreign Advisory In- telligence Board?which existed in ' blissful ignorance throughout the period of past abuses. If anyone took the President's program seriously, his first appointments to the board?three geriatric cold warriors--were sufficient to dissuade officials from using the system to avoid com- mitting illegal acts. ? Congressional Oversight: Reforming the Club. The President's recommendations .for Congressional oversight follow the same themes as his proposals for secrecy legis- lation. His primary concern is not independent Congres- sicinal monitoring, but the retention of secrets within a handful of sympathetic initiates. Thus, Mr. Ford calls for a joint committee; -he asks for repeal of the Ryan Amendment .which. now requires that the administration brief six committees on each nOW -covert action program abroad. He wants discretion as to when -he will inform the committees about what is going on in the undercover state. -Further, ,the President states that no'classitied informa- ? don given to any oversight committee may be disclosed . without Presidential approval. Ford suggests that neither an elected representative, nor a committee, nor bile house, of Congress has the constitutional power to release in- formation classified by any one of the 15,000 executive officials empowered to classify information. He would ' support the outlandish position of Mitchell Rogovin, the CIA's special counsel, that a two-thirds vote of both . houses should be necessary to declassify any information over the President's opposition. For President Ford, "successful and effective Congres- sional oversight"- depends upon the "mutual trust" be- tween the Congress and the Executive. The phrase has the hollow ring of another statement by an executive spokesman. In 1971, before the revelations of the CIA's 'programs in Chile, Angola, Iran and Italy, before the disclosure of the CIA's illegal activities at home, before we knew about the assassination plots, the underworld associations, the routine lies, perjuries and distortions? Richard Helms, then director of the CIA,.was asked how anyone could be certain the CIA was obeying the law. He replied, "the nation must ... take it on faith that we, too, are honorable men. . . ." The Missing Links. The fraudulent nature of the Presi- dent's program is even more apparent in what he failed to do. As noted above, he made no mention of any plans to prosecute intelligence officials for their past crimes. Edward Levi, the President's disappointing, compliant At- torney General, has denounced Congressional calls for a special prosecutor as an attack on the "integrity" of his department. Yet his minions---;with their integrity totally intact?have failed to indict one member of the intelli- gence agencies for perjury, for mail opening, for illegal surveillance, for illegal break-ins, for COINTELPRO ac- tivities. The obvious message is that the law did not apply to their activities. The President has also refused to notify the hundreds ! of thousands of Americans who were the targets of illegal surveillance. General Motors treats an owner of one of its defective cars better than Ford treats a target of his defective agencies. Most important, the President refused to consider any , limitation on covert interventions abroad?except for a ban on assassination ("Certainly not in peace time," he said at a press conference), previously considered murder in American law. In response to a reporter's question, CIA Director George Bush admitted that the President's program would "not bar bribery" of foreign officials abroad. Mr. Bush might have added that it also would not bar kidnapping, coups, paramilitary adventures, ex- tortion, "disinformation," and the broad range of other routine CIA foreign operations. Indeed, the Presidnt has apparently adopted the po- sition that covert action overseas?Lthe secret inter- ference in another country's internal affairs?is an in- herent power of the Presidency. This dangerous idea, discredited after the departure of Richard Nixon, has been hawked around Washington by CIA spokesmen. It would place the President's secret foreign policy above , the limits of law. Taken together, the President's actions and inactions . nave one consistent theme:? intelligence officials are re- sponsible only to higher orders from within the executive branch. The issuance of Executive Orders, restrictions ; that instruct officials not to do illegal acts, secrecy legis- lation and restrictive oversight provisions?all are de- ; signed to exempt the intelligence agencies from account- ability to law, while insuring that they will obey the President. The legal philosopher, Bernard Schwartz, once defined three fundamental elements of the rule of law: "(1) the . absence of arbitrary power; (2) the subjugation of the state and its officers to ordinary law, and (3) the recog- nition of basic principles superior to the state itself." ? With his proposals the President has set the founda- tions for exempting the covert arm of the state from the reach of ordinary law, lie is creating a dual state, one part open and governed by law; the other covert and governed by whim. In the name of reform, the Presi- dent has reconstituted a covert executive spying and para- ' military capacity for use at home or abroad. --- Robert Burosage, a Washington attorney, is director of the Center for National Security Studies. Ile is coeditor of The CIA File Grossman,).t 26 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005t8 GENERAL ;? WASHINGTON POST 2 1 MR 1976 . Mt ? I 1;.,) 44 ? c- I' ''? .. By Harry Rositzk1 e intrz 3,11. wo Contrastm ' 4 ? ? 4`;', t ' ? '? 1'1 ? t4 ,,? ? .? I OW ;THAT Mk. Ford has, banned', the ?.? ? ? : word ..."detente" .? from ,his lexicon, ? he. needs a substitute: It will be awkward, even' : ?? for the duration of the campaign, for him ' ' to talk about "the present relationship be:. ? tween the United States and the Soviet Union" or "the Soviet-American connec-,. . ? ,;?'' The thesaurus contains no good Anglo- Saxon word for "reduced tension." Nor are, the Latin roots of this tainted French word of any help. "Distension" would be ambigu- ous, "dystension" too clinical, "detention". ? is from a different root. For the moment: let let us speak of the preSent Soviet-American relationship is "X.": If tie old word is no longer fashionable ??: at least in 'part that is because we ?were: ??:', oversold or oversold ourselves into thebe lief that "detente" marked a new ? dawn.,? Mr. Ford now urges us to consider Or , tions with the Soviet Union -in, realistic.' , terms. y/hat is the reality of X? A'Prlleitlier Mr. Ford fier'Henry KiSsinger,' W.;Will 'question the basic hostility of Soviet leaders ?-, from.. Lemn to flrezhnev.,ito the capitalist werld-..:7heir beliefs that the main facts In human society are economic; that socialisails superior to capitalism as ; systemf,' for 'producing' goodS;; that coin- ' will triumph in the end?are sim- ? the reality lying beneath and behind Soviet policy decisions. The ideological, -struggle, as BrezhneV keeps reminding us, paaamount. ? ? ; ; It Is, however, with Soviet aetions?,n ,;'.' Soviet thinking, that a President or. secre-,-. ; ? tary .rof state' must deal. And here their.:": problem i's ..compounded by the 'fact that roe Soviet regime operates abroad on two ' ? ???? ft-separate, yet interlaced, levels?the official ifgpverriment level and the political action leveloboth open and covert, with the-party , vi its main stimulus. _ ';?? ; ? ? ? 'What appears to irritate ?; and confuse, :1 4.1. Kissinger is not so mueh:the recalcitrance' ' :Of Soviet behavior on the official level as1.1 the COntradictions between their actions , ? on the, two levels. It has proved far easier ? , him ,to handle the macropolitics of of-: ficial than the micropolitics of. Communist Party actions. : ') '"Under X, official Soviet diplomacy has ' been notably 'successful in" reaching a ; European settlement on its own terms: it.", Rositzke's book, Today," was ? .?-? published in 1973. He is now writing a book , on the CIA, from which he retired in 1970,.7.? ? ?''c- Germany, the ligation di' the post.q , war EurOpean frontieis created by -Soviet ' power, and 'fruitful trade and 'Capital in Vestment relations with the European Pow, erS: Moscow's military and economic aid diplomacy in the developing world has . served to extend its national influence in Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent,' the Middle East . and, spasmodically, in. Africa. It has achieved these ends without Committihg. its military forces, to fight onforeign soil:;,. , .? ? Mr. I:ords.rightly_defends,X,at the official level for its clear pluses It has created a ? ? cliMate for negotiations rather than polem- ics on such crucial issues as the limitation of strategic arms andothe mutual reduction of forces in Europe. It has diminished the, Iikelihood of a ? military confrontation in the Middle Eaet. It has apparently spelled he end of Berlin, blockades and missile ? - The principal long-term profit of X to the Russians is economic: the growing avail- billty Western technology to increase .'Soviet productivity; of Western capital that can. only help Soviet industry catch up more rapidly and of American wheat to , ,4 ^ ? :..-compensate :for the appalling inefficiency ive? .Without droughts 61 Soviet agrictil-' ereI no reciprocal advantage we can expect to get for ourselves: : It is in ironic :bot inescapable fruit Of X , that the Soviet Union is now being genet.= .1? .Ously helped by the, capitalist 'World with ? *hich it competes. If the main facts in bw. man society are economic ai we is the West are beginning:to realize', 'the ex- Iliert of ;ioods or credits 'b? the capttalist to, the communist nations can only help im- Pic;ie??tbe performance of the Serialist sys- . ',. tem. .Both Marx ? and Lenin: 'argued that::: capitalist-1i cannot grow on the domestic . market elem. The driire to external In- ? vestment that Created our multinational ? corporations now extends its benefits to Soviet production.. - ' 'Whatever Kissinger's' private view of ' this one-sided benefit, ? his public utter- tuxes 'display' an' almost panicky frus- tration with Moscow's conduct on the second, br political, level: its, open action ! :in* exploiting foreign Communist parties ???1 and its covert and open? support of indig, enol4s wars of national liberation:, , ; --It is the increasing power of foreign -Communist parties that has most 27 -bedeviled Kissinger in recent years: Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 the Marxiit coalition In 'Chile, the ',threat of a Communist revolution in Portugal, the likely. . participation of the Italian party in a coalition govern- ment. . Are these to be construed as Soviet threats to the American interest, as Soviet violations of X? s-;It is now 20 years since the 20th Congress of the Soviet Party endorsed the peaceful road to social- ism for the legal parties abroad. The Italian and French parties have since played the Western political game by the rules. Are the citizens of France or Italy not to be permitted, as Kis- singer seems to have felt about Chilean citizens, to elect Communists into their governments? If the Com- munists do win, does their success violate X? And the crucial query: will they then become automatic in- atrurrrents of Soviet political action? **, Here Kissinger must be realistic', A strong Communist Party in an ad- vanced industrial society, despite the old myth of monolithic communism, cannot be a minion of Moscow. It must, in a democratic arena, pursue Its own national interests to survive am:I prosper. It must pursue its own road, not the Soviet path. The speeches of the Italian and French party delegates to the recent Moscow Congress clearly illustrate this built-in compulsion. Once in a ?Coalition, they will be faced with the same problems that beset their Chris- tian Democrat or Gaullist colleagues, and they will stay in power?if they perform well. They will naturally in- fluence the policies of their own gov- errunents, but those will be Italian and French, not Soviet, policies. ,--Whoever runs the State Department can do nothing about this fact of life unless he wants to get back to the _ old game of matching Soviet subsidies for, the Communists with American funds for their democratic opponents. ,Whatever positive role this may have played in the past, it would now be a sorry stratagem bound to backfire': The Europeans will determine their own politics, not Washington or Mos- epw. The recent Communist threat in Portugal underlines the gap between Soviet power and the national Com- munist parties. Though harbored by the Soviet party during their long underground existence, the Portu- guese Communists broke the rules of the peaceful road by taking to the streets. The Portuguese leader, Al- varo Cunhal, almost certainly operat- ed- on the basis of his own estimate of-the situation?and failed. Would Moscow be guilty of violating X if he had succeeded. . . or the same thing happens in Spain? at the foreign party level Is a meaningless term. Ask the Italian party not to compete with the Social- and Christian Democrats for pow- v...? Expect Moscow to ask them not C4.2 HE EUROPEAN PARTIES are at best an uncertain instrument for the extension of Soviet power. In its continuing support of wars of na- tional liberation, directly or by proxy, openly or covertly, the Soviet regime 'Simply declares that X does not apply to the Third World. Korea, Vietnam and now Angola register a failure and two successes. - The initial stages of Soviet support to rebel groups are normally covert and? Until their success seems almost assured. modest. The Russians have invested in the anti-Portuguese rebels since the 1950s with money, training, indoctrination and small arms. Their investment in the Angolan MPLA paid Off 'after the Portuguese withdrew? and the more modest American and Chinese investment Was lest. - - Kissinger has objected to the So.- viet action in Angola as a violation of X. His objection is understandable but even by American rules, incor- rect. It was only when the MPLA established a de facto regime in Luanda that the Soviet government began openly supplying large-scale military aid. Theirs was an official and legally justifiable response to the request of? another regime?as ours was once in Lebanon and, more recently, in South Vietnam. Kissinger can complain that their side won and our side lost, but laments play no role in realpolitik. - - The Angolan case intrudes another complication into the game of who is to blame? The Cuban commitment of arms and men to the Angolan fight- ing cancelled the need for sending Soviet soldiers to fight in Angola?a need Moscow has avoided from Korea to, Vietnam. These wars were fought, as we like to say, by proxy. Yet no case can be made out that Moscow forced Hanoi to liberate South Viet- nam?or that Brezhnev somehow di- rected Castro to send his troops to Angola. Is Castro simply a Soviet stooge in his African adventures? The Cu- bans have intervened in Africa with arms and men for over 10 years. They now have advisers in Guinea and Somalia. And no one is in a position to say what the Cuban troops in An- gola will do next. Perhaps "liberate" Namibia? If they do, will it be Cas- tro's-decision, or a joint decision by ' Castro's African friends, or by a com- mittee meeting with Brezlinev? Pinning the blame on Moscow for the wars in black Africa is a fruit- less exercise. Shall we challenge Pe- king for its support of the Rhodesian rebels in Mozambique? 28 THE KGB naturally plays its part in these political action opera- tions, a role unaffected by X. From the Cold War to the present, the KGB has not only carried on its usual espionage, counterespionage and co- vert action work. but it has played an indispensible technical role in passing funds and communications to the parties abroad and in channel- ing Soviet support to rebel or guerrilla groups before the Soviet government gets involved. It has also readily pro- vided advice to new revolutionary regimes on how to set up their intel- ligence and security services. In the last 10 years, however, the KGB's foreign directorate has begun to perform an even more valuable service ? to advance in secret the Soviet government's open objectives on the official level. Its recruitment of "agents of influence" in Europe and the United States gives Soviet foreign policy a muscle that cannot I be matched by the West. Today, in New York, Bonn, Paris and Rome there are over 200 KGB- officers assigned to each city (a hundred were thrown out of London several years age). Many, if not most, of them are recruiting not spies but "friends." Their job is to develop per- sonal contacts within the power elites of each nation: politicians of the cen- ter and right, non-Communist labor leaders, bankers and industrialists, journalists and professors, govern- ment officials and legislators. These contacts range from secret to confidential to public. Some are on the Soviet payroll?the personal as- sistant to former West German Chan- cellor Willy Brandt, a key European negotiator on a truck-assembly plant project. Some have been bribed with business opportunities in East-West trade?a British merchant or an Ital- ian banker. Others are close enough acquaintances for a KGB officer to in- vite to an informal lunch or dinner to talk about current affairs. In many capitals, as in Washington, KGB offi- cers openly lobby among legislators on bills affecting Soviet trade. These agents of influence within the power groups of Western society give Moscow a useful covert means for affecting the attitudes and deci- sions of other governments on matters of Soviet concern. The KGB officer under diplomatic cover, socially so- phisticated, fluent in English, German, or French, can use his friends or , agents to lobby for a European Secur- ' ity Conference, to press for favorabils terms in trade or loan negotiations, to promote the investment of capital in a Soviet petrochemical project. These KGB officers, for the most part, break no laws. Neither spying nor subverting, they are beyond the Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 -Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400006-8 purview of Western security services. The lessening of East-West tensions under X not only makes their contact- work easier--and their contacts more susceptible ? but as Soviet political and economic interests in the West continue to increase under X, they will have more work to do. Here, then, at the political action level there is no X, and there can be none. Moscow will not cease subsidiz- ing foreign parties, supporting wars - of national liberation or enlarging its - reservoir of influence-agents. They are important elements in the Soviet global clout. There is no reason for , the Russians to give them up. It is this depressing fact that Kis- Singer must deal with in his public defense of X. And he must deal with another frustration: there can be no seribus tradeoffs between the X and the non-X level. It is conceivable, though most un- likely, that Washington can force concessions on Salt II negotiations by curtailing the sale of American wheat to Russia or by refusing to permit American oil companies to provide capital for a new petrochemical plant WASHINGTON POST " 14 APR 1976 in Siberia.' 'It Is' inconceivable that American concessions on Salt II, trade, or capital investment will buy off Soviet (even less, Cuban) support of the black Rhodesian independence movement. . WHAT WE HAVE today is half an X, a relaxation of tensions only in our official dealings with Moscow. Perhaps the word Mr. Ford is looking for is demitente. It is a bastard term, but ? not inapt. At least it is more realistic than X. It is a fact of history that the United States cannot match Soviet resources on the political action level. There are no parties abroad even partially devoted to our interest. We have a weak and ineffective propaganda ap- paratus and a now immobilized capa- city for covert action. We can have no agents of influence in Moscow. In this world of demitente: ? The mai wiet challenge is on the political economic front, not the military ? A larger American defense bud- get will not deter Soviet advances on the political-economic front. . Watered-Down Detente Hi By Schlesin ? ? The policy of containment, of simply reacting to Soviet initiatives, will not work any better in the future than it has in the past What we have as the basis for a more affirmative foreign policy is our enormous economic clout. If we can delineate clearly what we want in the world to assure our physical security and our national prosperity, we will be able to direct our capital invest- ments, trade and loans to building up stable and friendly societies in the countries that count for us. We are now caught up in a vast program of supplying arms to whoever wants them, and we cannot change our habits overnight, but only a radical shift in our. priorities will enable us to shape to our own advantage the world of demitente in the decades ahead. The Soviet stance in the world is hard-headed and forceful. If we can match it with our strategic vision, nei- ther Mr. Ford nor his successors will be frustrated by X, and our secretar- ies of state will no longer be impelled to whine or bluster in public speeches. ciety of Newspaper Editors, while it is "essential we have a debate," it is also . necessary to avoid confusing , the outside world about : American intentions. By Murrey Marder .-. .41? :-"We must not create the Washington Post Staff Writer , ' --- ---.2!1 impression abroad that . Former Defense Secretary.: Schlesinger's remarks 1 American foreign policy is Were-prepared for delivery. at Harvard University in the Gustav - Pollack lectures sponsored by the John F. Kennedy School of Govern- ment. The address was salted1. with critical allusions to the detente policy of Secretary : of State Henry A. Kissinger, I although the secretary was Inot named. Schlesinger and Kissinger were .graduated in I Harvard's Class of 1930. ' Schlesinger is contribut- ing advice to two presiden- tial candidates, former Cali- fornia Gov. Ronald Reagan and Sen. Henry M. Jackson , (D-Wash.). . Kissinger was on the re- ceiving \ end in Washington of critical comments yester- day from three other men whom he wryly observed are regarded as aspirants for his job. In this election year, Kis- singer told the American Sq. James R. Schlesinger Jr. said last night that U.S.- Soviet 'detente" is now so watered down as a concept that "It does not mean the continued relaxation of ten- sions." The. hopes aroused three years ago that detente meant "mutual reconcilia- tion and the gradual normal- ization of relations" have disappeared, , Schlesinger said. It is now evident, he said, that "detente means pre- cious little regarding policy rpecifies." Schlesinger said. "Soviet doctrine precludes a serious approach to mutual accommodation that satisfac- torily protects the interests, of Western civilization." If detente really amounts only to avoiding nuclear war, Schlesinger said, it differs little from "the Cold War period." . - subject to constant revi- j sion," Kissinger said. Paul C. Warnke, former assistant secretary of de- fense in the Johnson admin- istration, said earlier' in a panel discussion at the Sho- reham Americana Hotel that too much current debate tends to "poormouth" Amer- ican military capacity. Warnke said some politi- cal campaign talk has "actually succeeded in per- suading a number of our al- lies that we have become military inferior to the So- viet Union." Aspects . of Kissinger's . diplomacy were criticized by Warnke and by Zbie- gniew Brzezinski of Colum- bia University, a : foreign ' nolicy advisee to Democra- tic presidential candidate Jlinmy Carter, and by George W. Ball, former un- der secretary of state in the , Kennedy and Johnson ad- 29 ministrations. , ". Kissinger told the editors in ? his luncheon address: . "You have been conducting ? your own primary for Sec- retary of State." _During a question-and- answer period, . Kissinger defended his criticism of the dangers of' communist participation in the govern- ments of Western EureiKI, which has aroused consider- able controversy' in Europe. Kissinger said that as Secretary of State he has , an obligation to make it . , clear that "the advent of 1 communism in major Euro-- . pea n countrics is likely to 1 produce a sequence of events in which other Euro- pean ? countries would be. tempted to move in the same cPrection." "We should not delude ourselves" about what it will mean if communists enter , Western European govern- , ments. whether or not they , are dependent on Moscow, ; he said. ? In either case, Kissinger said, it would mark "a his- toric change that will have , ." long-term and serious con- sequences" for the. Western 2 alliance. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 NEW YORK TIMES, THURSDAY APRint-1976 Moscow Is Said to Modify Expectations of Detente By DAVID K. SMPLER Special to The New York Times MOSCOW, April 14?The anti- d?nte sentiments running through the American Presiden- Alai campaign have begun to stimulate shifts in the mood In Moscow. Some Soviet insiders, con- ? cerned by President Ford's re- sponsiveness to criticism from the right, are predicting a new restraint in Moscow's foreign military involvement during the coming months, particularly in southern Africa. Simultaneously, however, they see Soviet-American rela- tions entering what one well- placed Russian termed "a pe- ? riod of small deeds? where we try to hold on to what we have, but produce nothing ? bright and shining." _ ' This outlook does not reflect ; a dramatic change of policy or even a sudden pessimism, . but rather a subtle cooling of , expectations, whose tone was ' caught by a Soviet journalist the other day as he described :a book he was writing on So- viet-American affairs. He had originally planned to call it "Dialogue Develops," he said. ? But now he has chosen a new ; title: "The Limits of Detente." To some extent, the current strains between the two na- tions derive from their different definitions of d?nte and their contrasting notions of its limits. ? For the Russians, the rela- tionship has a somewhat nar- rower-justification than for the Americans. In Moscow's view, it rests on two pillars?the prevention of a nuclear holo- caust and the expansion of trade with the West. Other issues, such as the competition between the United States and the Soviet Union in Indochina, the Middle East and Africa, for example, seem to Moscow ,to lie outside the main field of detente. Therefore, the Russians have expressed no surprise at conti- nued American efforts to gain influence in the Middle East. "We assumed that the United States would not change its ?poliey and would continue pushing," one Soviet expert on foreign affairs told an Ameri- can correspondent recently. As for Washington's successes and Egypt's swing toward a pro- American position, "we're mad 'at the Arabs, not at the U.S.," he said. In the United States, howev-1 et.. detente _emerged in another context and carried a different set of expectations. The desire to improve relations with the the yearsovietUni when ca Union gained strength in foreign-policy concerns were dominated by the divisive ago- ny of the Vietnam war, and the popular American attitude toward the rapprochement was shaped by this. As Vietnam became the cen- terpiece of Americans' debate about their role in the world, the prospect of avoiding other Vietnam-style clashes became a primary justification for im- proving relations with the So- viet Union. The issue of big- power conflict in the third world, a question the Russians considered peripheral to de- tente, was integral to the Amer- ican definition. Evidently neither side fully understood the other's view un- til Soviet weaponry and Cuban troops were committed to one faction in the civil war in the former Portuguese colony of Angola. The Soviet-supported side won rather quickly. Moscow maintained its right to support "wars of national liberation." The outcry from the United States prompted So-i viet experts and even some; Western analysts to accuse lmericans of being naive in inking that detente could eliminate such competition.. 'It Would Do Everything' "You Americans tried to sell detente like detergent and claimed that it would do ever)'- thing detergent could do," one Soviet specialist on American affairs remarked several months ago. "Our Government doesn't un- derstand American society and the Ameritan system too well," a Soviet scholar said. "We thought that because America was tired of foreign involve- ments after Vietnam it, wouldn't get involved in Ango- la. That was right..- But we didn't understand that because America was tired, the reaction a American society would be stormier." Only in recent weeks do some,l Russians seem to have grasped the seriousness of the American reaction, and only lately do some experts here appear to have understood that the end of the Vietnam war and a sense of helplessness have contribut- ed to the resurgence of conser- vative elements in American politics. A few months ago Soviet officials were dismissing the American conservatives' at- tacks on detente as mere elec- tion - year propaganda that would evaporate after Nov. 2. Now they are not so sure. Notes Of Worry These days notes of worry creep in among the optimistic 30 pronouncements in the soviet 'liners in the official press now press that most Americans sup. I had increased ? license to ex- port improved relations. Last press themselves. week, Georgi A. Arbatov, direc- This license may be applied- tor of the U.S.A. Institute, the to other areas of the Govern- Kremlin think tank, wrote in Pravda: "The elections pass, but the consequences of pre-election ment bureaucracy where anti- American impulses, restrained in recent years, are now slight- ly freer to operate. That may demagogy and the concessions be one explanation for the made in the course of the elec. threats and bomb scares direct- ed against American diplomats in Moscow in retaliation for harassment of Soviet diplomats by Jewish protesters in New York. tion campaign continue to in- fluence American policy, some- times creating serious difficul- ties." "The failures in U.S. foreign policy, specifically in SoutheastExchange Negotiations Asia, have caused obvious re- On the other hand, at certain lapses into cold-war thinking 'by some of the U.S. leaders," Mr. Arbatov continued. "One can, of course, under- stand that the defeats in South- east Asia, the changes in Portu- gal, the miscalculations in the levels the relationship has a momentum that keeps count- less scientific exchanges, cul- tural programa and negotia- tions going. An agreement has just been reached to limit un- derground nuclear explosions eastern Mediterranean and the for peaceful purposes, for ex- events in Angola have caused lample, and for the first time dissatisfaction in the ruling the Russians have approved on- circles of the U.S.A.," he said, site inspection by Americans "But emotions do not remove to verify compliance. the need to establish correctly But the likelihood of conclud- the causes of political miscalcu- ing a much more important lations. And these spring in treaty limiting the deployment the first place from the fact of long-range nuclear weapons that the U.S.A. invariably took seems to have dimmed. For up the defense of unjust end this Moscow tends to blame lost causes." what it sees as President Ford's In private conversations with unwillingness to hold a firm Westerners, some Soviet offi- line against the military and cials have indicated that the his critics on the right. angry American reaction to One Soviet source said that Angola and the specter of a during Mr. Kissingees visit to swing to the right in Wash- Moscow last January, agree- ington have made the Kremlin ment on an arms treaty seemed wary of further such adven- lose. The Secretary of State tures for the moment. appeared to react favorably to One Soviet insider assessed a Kremlin proposal, but he was this shift in Moscow's posture clearly unable to get Washing- by citing an analysis by Sec- ton's approval for agreement retaty of State Henry A. Kis- then. He flew home, apparently singer that described Soviet with plans to return to Moscow foreign policy as a product of several weeks later, but he twin, often contradictory, in- fluences: a missionary zeal and never did. Doubts on Credibility a bureaucratic pragmatism. The Angola involvement grew One well-placed Russian de- out of the missionary zeal, the scribed the mood in the Krem- Russian said. Now, he ex- lin as "quiet desperation with plained, the pragmatic bureau- the Administration." He saidl that there was a feeling that, Mr. Kissinger's influence was being eroded, and he remarked: "With Ford, it is a credibility? cracy has gained ascendancy, and the Angola developments are not likely to be repeated in the near future. Some West- ern diplomats have speculated that Moscow might choose to give covert support to guerril- las in Rhodesia, for example, in an effort to mask its involve- ment. Back to Fundamentals At the same time, Moscow appears to be focOsing its definition of detente more and, well, I won't say 'crisis,' but there are doubts." He even expressed a certain nostalgia for former President Richard M. Nixon, whose poli- cies, he said, seemed firmer and less ambiguous. If Mr. Ford looks to the Kremlin like a less desirable victor next November than he more on its most fundamental seemed some months ago, then element?the avoidance of nu- Ronald Reagan, Henry Jackson clear war. ? ? land George Wallace are all "The way of life existing !anathema. in the U.S.S.R. pleases far from ? Jimmy Carter is still an un- all Americans," Mr. Arbatov known here, though some So- wrote, "while the Soviet people viet officials have thought well do not like the American way of life. D?nte does not remove this, nor can it. But it demands that despite all the differences and problems, the two powers should learn to live side by side so as not to jeopardize the existence of their own peoples and of all mankind." As the definition has nar- rowed and the tone of the relationship has begun to change, new tensions have de- veloped. One Soviet journalist observed recently that the hard- of his foreign policy state- ments. The real favorite among official circles seems to be Sen- ator Hubert H. Humphrey, who is not a declared candidate but is regarded here as a strong advocate of improving Soviet-' American relations. Moscow is watching the race closely, and Soviet specialists in foreign affairs are asking, Americans they meet' more questions than usual. One in- fluential Russian, making a somewhat wishful prediction, declared, "I'll bet it'll be Hum- phrey-Carter." Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 ? 'Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 ? The Washington Star Sunday, April 4, 1976 '.. ?? ..'.: ?'? Ll, ? ::,;'*k : ? ::',??? 4si?fr+.!.2.. i...'...-.:---r-i -- -.1.1.1,.....r r4 ;.? S. .. ... . ,. .,..?........4. -, ., ?,::':k ;.? '''l 4 I,: ? ?'106; rg I. ,;.40?tZ.i: Crosuy ? .1.Noyes-.??? : ? . ; 7. :?? ; ; , :, ' .`,, s'? ..?, -. - --:. ' ,?.???? ..**4.? -4,,, `??? :. : ',:? ?:. .1,.....,4??' l',P;;:'t i.'7'... .4,, -- er s pessimism ? -- aissing ? ?-.1. . ?. . ..',...'.1 ?.? ....-.7?:,,?::?:-.'''..t? '.1',',',? '4',.-, ,'-',', .'.'), ,-!:4,?' , . '.. ? ? . ..? :' - '.7:':', ' - :, -,f?t,% ..:....7't'.:4Z-'."._,;:;;..k .. . telegraphs,: o.ur. pune 0 ssness.--? 4 ... ,. . , ? ' :,...41::: ,',...)..:. ?? : '!"??.':.;". ,.. ,,c. f.: ? ' , ..:: ? : ' :-.. . , ' . ''' ''' '....,,", . . The:foreign policieS pursued by Secre--? % tary of ?State :Henry Kissinger have fallen. ? on hard times. And since these policies for; some...time:to come .will be those' of the,,. United States; it is not just Henry Kissin- ' ger who is in trOublez- 'q ? , : liAsran articulate-exponent in the area of: . foreign-affairs,: the-secretary remains a, '. considerable asSet :for the administration, botlyin, domestiePolitics and throughout ? the viorld-. But his prominence also assures that he will attract most of the lightning . from critics of administration foreign poli, ex. And there is no question that, as the re- sult of political circumstance, his author-' ? tias been eroded and diminished in: recent months ?-; - ? ? hii'contintfing'battles with Congress, - ,Mr: Kissinger-has been Using a strange kind of pugnacious pessimism, lavishly ,prophesying &Join if the Congress 'refuses itti shape up;.:: ? - - _ '`-`7,:??? ? '' , If, as seems likely, his new SI billion aid agreement' With Turkey is blocked, the secretary says, it "would lead to disas- troui Consequences that would last for dec-. Congressional refusal -to ga along ' with- the administration's decision to sell six C-130 military. transport planes to "Egytit, he warns; would be- a "slap in the face" for President Anwar Sadat; leading r..?to a situation of "utmost_ gravity with the most serious Consequences in the Middle ? Nct doubt there is. an element of exagger- ,ation, in some of these judgments.,' reflect- : ing a:settled:conviction that when Con- , gresi tries to: cariduceforeign policy on a-- day-rd-day basis, it will probably: make a mesi of it.' Henry' Kissinger, like most . secretaries 'of.state, is not shy about as-. setting executive authority in his awn area. ? of responsibility,7'; . - ? But: the 'underlying problem is grave enough. For the hardiact is that the Ford administration lost c6ntrol of its -foreign policy many months ago to an increasingly THE NEW YORK TIMES, MONDAY, APRIL- asSertive congressional opposition. Today- almost every aspect of this policy is under ? attack, both from the Democratic left and ? the Republican right. And, as Mr. Kissin- ,..ger himself would be the first to admit,'. effective. American action in any critical. area .of the world has become more dubi- toni as time has passed. ? '1It is one thing when it is a matter of :dealing with Turkey and Egypt. Serious as , the consequences of congressional obstruc, 1:ion in these areas may be, the pcitential for disaster is at least limited. But this is ? niit the case when the problem involves the 'Soviet Union'tand its Cuban partners-in: 'mischief.-And that, of course, is the area of Mr. Kissinger's chief concern. The concern is,entirely justified.. Ever since Watergate, the possibility of a major Russian move to take advantage of the . paralysis of the American government has ?:..been an abiding obsession in the adminis- tration. Recent developments in Angola and -elsewhere in southern Africa have. given substance to these fears. Mr. Kissin- ? ger is not exaggerating at all when he warns that further moves by the Cubans and Russians would "create the most ex- treme difficulty-for the United States."?: The problem, of course, is what to- do- ,about it. about it. The secretary, no doubt, means ? his warnings to the Russians and Cubans to be taken seriously. Yet the administra-: ,tion itself admits that an American- inter-' yention in southern Africa at this point,:: 4:even limited to. military equipment, .is out of the question. And if Congress became convinced th4t_there was a real probabil- - ity of military- action against Cuba,. it would very probably pass a law to prevent it --Mr. Kissinger himself, by his proteSta?-?II iions and warnings; is in the unhappy posi- _ tion- of advertising the weakness of the American response to the Communist threat. And that is the very last thing he ? wants to do. 12, .1976 . . Europe's Leaders Take a Gloomy View By FLORA LEWIS PARIS, April 11 ? Western Europe's leaders have settled into a state of gloom in the belief that the United States is retrenching in world affairs, a mood deepened by their own Inability to act together. This was -the mood when Common Market heads of government discussed interna- tional affairs in Luxembourg early this month, according to participants and other well- informed officials. The sense of frustration was intense, they said, not only because there are no prospects now for European unity but also because they feel that, while the might of the Soviet 4Union is growing, the United States is leaving a vacuum that Europe cannot fill. Opposition leaders and other politicians have other views. Not even all the leaders agree on what should be done, nor even on the extent of the trou- ble facing Europe. But they did agree that none of them could really do much.more than at- tend to mending domestic fences and hope for the best. America's Absence Noted Chancellor Helmut Schmidt of West Germany, for example, has decided to make a major theme of his election campaign the fact that Germany is much' better off than- its neighbors,; a strategy that effectively pre- vents him from speaking for Europe or taking a European initiative that would have a of U.S. Role chance of approval by his part? ners. The mood of the leaders may have been intensified and exag- gerated by their own inability) to act together, and by what one called the "blithering ab- sence" of America from the; world scene in this election year. This mood may dissipate' as recovery progresses and, events impose reaction. But at their meeting, ?thet nine heads of government were: "morose," an official said, as; they discussed detente. East-; West relations, Africa, the Middle East; Lebanon and other international political problems at a dinner held between two. fruitless formal sessions devot- ?1 ed to European questions. A Helpless Feeling ' The atmosphere was so bleak that one of the participants afterward exploded: "We can't even have a crisis any more. There was no blood on the walls, nothing. Just 'But you do understand, my dear friend, in my position ?' " There is general agreement that the situation?it is not called a crisis so much as a decline, a gentle, steady sub- sidence in quicksand?is more a psychological than a factual loss of ability to deal with events,,a loss of will. 31 Approved For Release 2001/08/087CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 Approved For Release 2001/08/08': CIA-RDP77-00432R000100400005-8 ZBut *hen that has been sald, what follows is never a propo- sal of what might be done. It is, these days, a recital of why it is so difficult to do anything. The European leader,' per- ception of American policy and intentions varies somewhat, but all are acutely aware that it is an election year in the United States and consider that Wash- ington will probably be unable to act, whatever happens in the world. It makes some an- gry, since they are also aware of a steady buildup of Soviet power and of Moscow's ex- panding influence in some areas, notably Africa. They are accustomed to the electorial cycle in the United States but are more worried than usual this time because they also tend to believe ?that there have been some fun- damental changes in American' attitudes, though not to the point of the "neo-isolationism,"! "eclipse," "withdrawal" ?that European newspapers have been discussing. - Watergate, Vietnam, Angola, Lebanon are the words most frequently cited when high offi- cials are asked whether they think the United States, has really shifted course. At the time of Watergate and the Communist victories in Indo- china, the tendency was to say that these traumatic events would leave the United States in a better position to go back to basics, especially to its role of leading and galvanizing the Western world. But that is no longer their perception. A few feel that when the elections are over, America will resume that role. Most say unhappily that the conclusion to be drawn is that Europe should quickly develop its own cohesion and capacity DAILY TELEGRAPH, 26 March 1976 -Nat to act, but that it cannot and will not. Africa's Fate Assessed The French, for example, have been telling their partners that the whole of Africa . is teetering, that pro - Western leaders such as President Mo-' butu Sese Seko of Zaire are complaining that they chose, "the wrong side" and wonder-I ing, in the wake of Angola, if! they should not sidle far to the! left before they are toppled by Soviet-inspired forces. Nobody argued when this assessment was presented at the dinner in .Luxenbourg, one source said, and everybody agreed that "something must be done." But when it came to issuing a joint statement on Rhodesia, which worries the leaders deeply, they could not even agree on supporting 'Britain's' demand for black majority rule within' two years and came out with a diluted, deploring communique that attracted no attention at all. r There is a great deal of pri- vate talk 'among Europeans in political power. these days, about Europe's past "ingrati- tude to America an us carp- ing. It is accompanied by as much talk about America's fail-1 ure to understand and accept that powerful countries are al- ways , criticized and. even dis- liked by those around them; But when -they are asked why. European leaders do not -voice their concern. openly.ancl --appeal to America for leader- :ship with a' promise of' support, as Britain did in the days that Produced the Marshall Plan' and: -.NATO, the invariable answer; - is, "We could never manage ,to speak together; we couldn't agree, on how to go- about it." Giscard Lacks the Power The' Europeans seem- to take- London It for granted that: it Is not possible ; now for President Valery Giscard -d'Estaing of France to take the lead because he has had to throw himself back on the Gaullists for sup- port in hopes of defeating the Socialist-Communist opposition at the 1978 parliamentary elec- tions. "The only ? ones who 'could do it, are Schmidt or Callaghan, one leader said; referring to the West German Chancellor and Britain's new Prime Minis- ter, "They won't," he went on. "They, boast of being prag- matists and rail at 'European poetry.' All they really pay attention to is their domestic politics and how' to add' up fractions of a .percent ? of the ,vote to patch their majorities ;together." ' . Optimists. among these :Men: :Whose' task it is 'to make- sions Say: "I guess we'll just float 'along for the time :being. Things are getting se bad that. .they can only get-better." The' ;pessimists 'shrug and' say:" "It's 'getting -late. Time ?to break up 'and' go home. We'll talk about it tomorrow.". That" Was the "view of the' situation. given by one official. Although they have become 'friends through-repeated;meetz ings?they see each other three times a year at European con- ferences and frequently ? meet in smaller, or larger groups else- where the leaders have reached a state 'of imtatiOn where they not infrequently mock and_ deride each other outside of their encounters. ? "Nothing but a bunch of timid mediocrities in sight," ;said an. official, including himself. Confidence Evaporates-