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State Dept. review completed Approvecoelea g 2(092/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00050001001000007-0 A T TI UNTRY 1\PERS -- LA=N AMERI A Argentina ? The Bahamas Barbados Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Jamaica Mexico Netherlands Antilles Panama Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved ForaeleP 260fdi " FttK-OIF7AO-rO 00100100007-0 BRIEFING PAPER NARCOTICS COUNTRY PAPER ARGENTINA I. Illicit Druq_ Problem The narcotics problem in Argentina is not so much one of consumption or cultivation but rather the use of Argentine territory as a transshipment point for hard narcotics des- tined for the United States. Heroin, from European points, and cocaine, from the Andean area of.South America, is smuggled into Argentina and then onward to the United States directly or through intermediate countries. There is no known illicit cultiva- tion of opium or coca in Argentina, but cocaine may be pro- duced in the country from smuggled coca paste. Marijuana is not believed to be produced on a commercial basis in the country and consumption, while on the increase, does not appear to be on the scale of usage in the United States. Cocaine is more abused in Argentina than heroin. II. Drug Control Efforts The establishment in January of a new Cabinet-level coordination committee to deal with narcotics underlines the recognition by the national authorities of the growing problem. The commission is designed to operate under the Ministry of Social Welfare and deal with problems of prevention, education, re- habilitation, and law enforcement. Few drug seizures have been made in Argentina. The GOA has proposed a bilateral USG/GOA commission on narcotics and has expressed interest in similar cooperation with some of its neighbors. The GOA has agreed to co-sponsor our proposed amendments to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. On January 21, the United States and Argentina signed a new Extradition Treaty which, for the first time, will oer- mit extradition for narcotics offenses. The Treaty is exu?ected to be submitted to the Senate for ratification in the near future. III. US Programs Ranking USG officials have discussed with GOA Cabinet officials on a number of occasions our determination to eliminate narcotic smuggling into the United States and our Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved ForQplease 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-0005200100100007-0 ARGENTINA desire for close cooperation with Argentina. In 1970 a BNDD office was established in Buenos Aires and is-being expanded to six agents. The unit has established contacts with local law enforcement agencies with a view to co- operating in the apprehension of narcotics traffickers in Argentina and/or the United States. The BNDD agents have provided the Federal Police and Customs authorities. A number of bilateral and multilateral actions in- volving US and Argentine cooperation are currently under intensive review. 3/72 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved ForAjolease 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052 P00100100007-0 ARGENTINA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q: Has the Argentine Government cooperated with the United States on narcotics matters? A: We are pleased with the cooperation being provided by the Argentine authorities. This includes coordination with the district offic+-e of the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs in Buenos Aires. Q: Is there any involvement of Argentine officials in the narcotics traffic? A: We are not aware of any involvement. Q: What is the United States doing to extradite fugitives from Argentina who are accused of violations of US narcotics laws? A: In January of this year the Secretary and the Argentine Ambassador signed a new extradition treaty to replace the existing 1896 Treaty. When the treaty is rati- fied it will provide for narcotics offense extradition, which is not provided for under the 1896 Treaty. Q: Does the United States provide AID assistance to Argentina? A: Although a small labor training program continues to function, the bilateral AID program in Argentina was effec- tively terminated during FY 1971. 3/72 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved For,ielease ROQ310N~7-i: P#-REPU-EAO@?? ~'~00100007-0 BRIEFING PAPER NARCOTICS COUNTRY PAPER 1.' ILLICIT DRUG PROBLEM THE BAHAMAS The principal drug problem in the Bahamas is the illegal use of marijuana by both American tourists visiting the Bahamas, who apparently bring in their own supplies, and local youth who have been using marijuana in growing numbers. The use of hard drugs, such as heroin or cocaine, is not a signi- ficant problem. Although the Bahama Islands are being used as transit points for marijuana smuggling, only one case of cocaine smuggling has been detected and there have been no known instances of heroin smuggling., 2. DRUG CONTROL EFFORTS The Royal Bahamas Police Force includes'a very active narcotics section. There is excellent communication between concerned US government agencies, particularly the BNDD's Miami office and the US Bureau of Customs, and Bahamian law enforcement and customs officials. There are no formal bilateral U.S. programs existing in the narcotics field which directly involve the Bahamas. We are encouraging the Bahamian Government to send selected Bahamian Customs officials to the US for training which would include exposure to US narcotics and drug control methods. 3/72 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved For4el4E 2Oe2/O kt rCtA-RDP70;00Q5W00100100007-0 E3RIEFING PAPER NARCOTICS COUNTRY PAPER BARBADOS 1. ILLICIT DRUG PROBLEM Both drug abuse and trafficking in narcotics and dangerous drugs appear to be minor problems in Barbados and are mainly associated with young foreign tourists. Most arrests are for the possession of marijuana which has been brought in by tourists and seamen. Despite rumors to the contrary, there is no evidence that mari- juana is being grown locally. Neither is there evidence of traffic in or production of harder drugs. 2. DRUG CONTROL EFFORTS The major problem facing the local police is keeping out foreign drugs. Therefore, the police,must be trained in proper methods of identification, detection, and control,, To improve their capabilities in these areas, Barbados police officials have been cooperating in training activities with both British and Canadian authorities. 3. U.S. PROGRAMS Since drug abuse is a minor problem in Barbados, there are no U. S. programs there. However, we are thinking in terms of providing training assistance to Barbados.-to improve efforts aimed at preventing the illegal importation of narcotic drugs and marijuana. We are also examining the feasibility of assisting in the establishment of a regional specialized drug abuse laboratory in the Eastern Caribbean. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved For.&de se 2&2T/ f~~l] f D 8T0`bd5 Q00100100007-0 BRIEFING PAPER NARCOTICS COUNTRY PAPER 1. ILLICIT DRUG PROBLEM Domestic consumption of processed drugs is minimal and is not viewed as a serious threat in Bolivia. However, the production and'consumption of coca are widespread. It is not illegal to produce, sell, transport, or chew the coca leaf. The habit of coca chewing is deeply ingrained in Indian life and any effective attempt to cut off the supply could lead to serious social disruption. The narcotics problem in Bolivia from the US point of view is the transfor- mation of coca into cocaine for export abroad. It is illegal in Bolivia to process or extract alkaloid cocaine from the coca leaf. The cocaine factories in Bolivia are unsophisticated .and require little knowledge, time, space, or resources to establish or operate. 2. DRUG CONTROL EFFORTS Since 1963 Bolivian police have discovered and closed some 72 illegal cocaine factories within the country. The Bolivian Government recently has reorganized and expanded its narcotics police brigade. It has increased its efforts to curtail the illicit international trafficking of narcotics, in cooperation with BNDD and Interpol. The Bolivian Government also has under- taken experiments in the cultivation and processing of tea plantations as a possible substitute for cocaine cultivation. 3. US DRUG CONTROL PROGRAiviS Through the AID Office of the Public Safety Program (which provides two advisers in Bolivia) Bolivian police officers have been trained in narcotics detection and enforcement. The US has also donated five radio-equipped vehicles to the Bolivian narcotic,,- bureau in order to strengthen its capability to seek out and destroy illegal cocaine factories. Periodic visits by BNli agents provide continuing bilateral contact and cooperation. Because of acute budget limitations the Bolivians have recuest.ed increased assistance from the US in order to reinforce further their narcotics law enforcement efforts and we are contemplating a program of expanded assistance and training to the Bolivians in thi? field. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 3/72 Approved For$elease 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052$000100100007-0 BOLIVIA QUESTION: How extensive is the traffic of cocaine,from Bolivia to the US? AJSWTR: 'T'here are no reliable figures on the amount of illegal cocaine smuggled out of Bolivia. According to some estimates the amount may be several thousand pounds a year, most of which it is;assumed, finds its way into US markets. QUESTION: Why do not the Bolivians eradicate coca culti- vation in accordance with the International Narcotics Control Board Agreement? 2U-4SWEK; Coca cultivation is relatively easy in Bolivia and it is an important source of revenue for thousands of small family farmers engaged in its production. The habit of coca chewing is deeply engrained in Indian life and any effective attempt to cut off the supply could lead to serious social disruption. Neverthieless, the Bolivians have undertaken some experimenta- tion in the cultivation and processing of tea as a possible substitute for cocaine cultivation. 3/72 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved For !-dA-1R5PF8-0_005F~RJ001 00100007-0 E3RIEFINNG PAPER NARCOTICS COUNTRY PAPER 1. ILLICIT DRUG PROBLEM The principal Brazilian concern is the significant and growing drug abuse problem particularly in the major cities of Rio and Sao Paulo. The GOB is very worried about this menace and intends to take vigorous steps to attempt to reduce the danger. The growing use of marijuana and amphetamines is the principal problem. In addition, there is some use of cocaine and heroin but the extent of this usage requires further investigation. Marijuana is grown in various parts of Brazil but the type preferred most by users is grown in Paraguay. The primary source of amphetamines is, of course, the United States. On December 1, 1971 a new Brazilian law designed to strengthen enforcement procedures, stiffen penalties for drug traffickers and provide treatment for re- habilitation of addicts went into effect. Despite this legal basis for action, more remains to be done. Brazil's borders are extensive and difficult to control. Brazilian security and police forces, while anxious to suppress the drug traffic, have little experience or training with modern control techniques. Treatment centers for addicts are few and inadequate. Better information on the true extent of drug movement and use in Brazil and present and potential use of Brazil as a transit point to the United States is the first required step for successful drug control efforts. 3. U.S. PROGRAMS In mid-February our proposed plan for cooperation twith the GOB in narcotics control was approved and is presently being discussed by Embassy representatives Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved Forjaelease 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-000524Q0010010R(?L with GOB officials. The essential feature of the plan is a cooperative effort by both countries to seek ways of preventing drug traffickers from using Brazil as a transit point for shipment of hard drugs to the United States and our help to Brazilian officials to improve their own capabilities for reducing their own internal drug problem. r There is every reason to believe that U.S. and Brazilian objectives in drug control will complement each other and we can expect a full measure of cooperation in helping us with our drug problem to the extent that we are interested and helpful in providing assistance for the control of Brazil's drug problem. A BNDD representative, now in training, will shortly be assigned to Brazil and should increase our Country Team's capability for working in this difficult field. It is too early to determine what joint projects will arise from our common effort to solve a common problem, but it is highly likely that significant training costs for Brazilians in the U.S. and possibly some additional costs for further technical assistance in Brazil, will be incurred in FY 73. 3/72 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved For 1 s&' b'2T 7N~5I1 bF 8T090 ?R 00100100007-0 BRIEFING PAPER NARCOTICS COUNTRY PAPER Illicit Drug Problem The principal illicit drug problems in Chile are illicit cocaine production and trafficking. In addi- tion, Chile is an increasingly important transit point for heroin shipments from Europe to the U.S. The abuse problem involves principally marihuana. Domestic consumption of heroin is almost non-existent, while the use of amphetamines is relatively recent but apparently growing. Drug Control Efforts The principal drug control effort is channeled through the Chilean police. These efforts are also being pursued through the cooperation of the Chilean police and the BNDD. Chile has been an active participant in international meetings on drug matters. U.S. Drug_Control Pro rams U.S. efforts are for the most part still in preliminary stages. BNDD agents have for some time been going in and out of Chile, are working with the relevant Chilean organization, and are responding to that organization's request for training. Plans for additional U.S. efforts include additional training both in Chile and the U.S. in laboratory and advanced enforcement techniques, some commodity assistance (laboratory equipment), and an educa- tional public information program. 3/72 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved For$elease 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052p00100100007-0 Questions and Answers Q. Has there been any alteration in cooperation between United States and Chilean authorities as a result of the change iq: administration there? A. If anything, that cooperation has grown as we have increased our efforts and the Chilean police have in recent months requested training. As I have noted, we are responding to those requests. Q. Does it bother you to be cooperating with police under a Marxist government? A. Drug abuse is not an ideological or political problem, and we do not approach it on that basis. 3/72 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 [DEPARTMENT OF STATE Approved For$elease 200j9( JjJ 3Pd?,~OP? 00100100007-0 1. ILLICIT DRUG PROF311 M Marijuana, the coca leaf and other lesser drugs are consumyd in Colombia; consumption of hard dructs -- heroin and cocaine -- appears not to be signific,-,nt at this time. The consumption problem is not critical by U.S. standards. Sizeable quantities of marijuana are produced in Colombia and shipped to the United States. The coca leaf is also groan in Colombia. Opium and heroin are apparently not produced in Colombia. There is some refining of cocaine, pro- bably of an inferior quality. Cocaine from other Latin Pxrerican countries and heroin, probably mostly from Europe, are transshipped in Colombia enroute to the United States. 2. DRUG CO ]TROL EFFORTSThe Colombian govermmnt is making efforts to counter smuggling both into and out of the countxv and to get a handle on drug abuse within Colombia. The government has been cooperative with inter- national efforts to reduce drug trafficking: The Colombian security services have rrut recently to discuss coordination of enforcement. The Ministry of Health has established a working group consisting of various medical and social scientists. The group's initial assign- ment includes (1) a diagnostic study of the dimensions of the problem in Colombia, (2) the design of an education and prevention campaign and (3) a rehabilitation program. 3. U.S. PrC_GT mS Through the AID public safety program, Colombians are being train in narcotics la;: enforcement at the International Police AcadeW. Merry bers of the public safety staff in Coiorrbia have been ~~oorking with the various Colombian agencies concerned with narcotics; and both they and the consular officers have been providing excellent intellicrence to the U. S. A BNDD agent began a permanent assignment in Colombia in March 1972. In addition, the Colombian Mission has proposed that a full-time narcotics specialist be assigned to Colombia to provide technical assist- ance to the National Police, L"?S (PA-u.nistrative Department of Security) , the Armed Forces and Custom. 3/72 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved For4elease 2002/05/17: CIA-RDP78-000522000100100007-0 COLOMBIA QUESTION : What happened to the form-r Colombian vice consul who was arrested and indicted in New York in October' 1970 on charges of s; rrggling $5 million vorth of cocaine in?o the United States? 7NSWCR: Jose Alvaro Corboda Bojassen, who had been ronoved from his official position several months earlier, juzrped bail and fled the country. The United States requested his extradition, but Colombia has not yet cor~,pleted all the legal processes prerequisite to a decision on his extradition. Nevertheless, though absent, he was tried and convicted on two counts on 1'&_pril 16, 1971, and given two concurrent sentences of 10 years each. ,. 3/12 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 BRIEF=ING PAPER Approved For elease 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052P00100100007-0 NARCOTICS COUNTRY PAPER 1. ILLICIT DRUG PROBLEM-2 Understanding and concern about the nature and extent of the narcotics problem in Ecuador is of fairly recent origin and therefore little precise information is available. The widest form of illegal drug use is that of marijuana, which is grown locally in coastal areas and is readily available through- out the country. The use of hard drugs, previously confined to small numbers of opium users, is growing with cocaine being produced in clandestine laboratories in Guayaquil. Coca has been grown and used in its natural state for many years in Ecuador, so that the raw material for cocaine production is available. Cultivations of opium poppies have been discovered in the mountainous areas of the Sierra, but opium production appears to be a new stage of the drug problem. Finally, it is widely known that shipments of hard narcotics from other countries pass through Guayaquil on their way to the United States. The extent of these transshipments is not known. Ecuador passed a new Drug Control Law in late 1970. This action marked the beginning of a much more vigorous Ecuadorean effort in the field of drug control. The Law established a National Department of Narcotics Control in the Ministry of Public Health and charged the new department with wide responsi- bilities, including strict accounting controls on licit drugs in chemical plants and pharmacies, prevention programs, investi- gation of drug abuse, supervision of police activities in enforce- ment and rehabilitation of addicts. Much emphasis has been given to control of licit drugs and public education to prevent drug abuse. A small-scale rehabilitation program has been started, primarily for the benefit of the handful of registered addicts. Ecuador has subscribed to most of the international con- ventions related to drug control, including the 1953 Protocol for Limiting and Regulating the Cultivation of the Poppy Plant, the Production of International and Wholesale Trade in, and Use Of Opium, and also the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved ForRelease 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052, p00100100007-0 -2- . ECUADOR 3. U.S. PROGRAMS The United States and Ecuador have agreed to cooperate in the field of drug control. Our two governments exchanged diplomatic notes to this effect in November 1971. Two BNDD personnel were ass-i.gned to Ecuador on February 1, 1972 to enhance this cooperation. The Country Team, including the BNDD personnel, are,-currently engaged in detailed planning of an action program designed to assist the National Department of Narcotics Control to upgrade and expand its activites. The program will include training, equipment, and technical guidance, and primary emphasis placed on curtailing the flow of illicit drugs through Ecuador to the United States. 3/72 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 `)EPARTMENT OF TTAB Approved For,J,elease 2002/05/17: CIA-RDD7$-00000100100007-0 BRIEFING PAPER NARCOTICS COUNTRY PAPER GUYANA 1. ILLICIT DRUG PROBLEM No serious illicit-drug problem exists in Guyana. The country neither produces narcotics nor contributes (via transshipment) to the international drug traffic. Law enforcement is adequate, crop substitution is unnecessary and narcotics treatment is not a serious problem as there are virtually no addicts in the country. Marijuana use is traditional but limited to a small segment of the East Indian community. 2. DRUG CONTROL EFFORTS In the absence of a serious narcotics problem, Guyana's drug control efforts are directed toward preventing one from developing. The Guyanese government is aware of the growing international traffic in narcotics and enforcement of narcotics laws is relatively strict. 3. U. S. PROGRAMS We have no U. S. programs since no serious drug problem exists in Guyana. Our Embassy at Georgetown continues to keep the Guyanese government informed on international narcotics matters and is in close touch with appropriate GOG officials regarding Guyana's support for multi-lateral efforts at suppressing the narcotics traffic. 3/72 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved For. $e4ige'2O32P08/77r tI D QOO ,p00100100007-0 BRIEFING PAPER NARCOTICS COUNTRY PAPER JAMAICA 1. ILLICIT DRUG PROBLEM The principal drug abuse problem in Jamaica involves production, use and export of marijuana. U0S. and Jamaican estimates of marijuana exports range between 250,000 and 600,000 pounds per year to the U.S. Jamaica is the world's second largest supplier of marijuana. 2. DRUG CONTROL EFFORTS As yet, police have no narcotics unit, Jamaican Customs has no investigative unit,-coastal defense is limited, laboratory services are minimal, drug laws outdated, unenforceable and inadequate. Information from U.S. BNDD and Customs shows increased use of Jamaica as narcotics entry point from Latin America. 3. U. S. PROGRAMS The U.S. with the assistance of U.S. agencies such as BNDD and Customs is using the USAID Public Safety Program in Jamaica for the purpose of drug control. The USAID Public Safety Program works with the local constabulary and Customs officials to reduce the flow of marijuana and hard drugs to the U.S. Cooperation from the Jamaican Government has been excellent,and we are examining with the Jamaicans specific measures through which more effective narcotic control activities kcan be implemented. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 3/72 Approved For$eeease,~6bii i l:TCIRkDF48T-dbd5 00100100007-0 BRIEFING PAPER MEXICO 1. Illicit Drug Problem About 10 percent of the heroin consumed in the United States is produced from opium poppies grown clandestinely in Mexico, and some 90 percent of the high quality marijuana.used in the United States is grown in and imported from Mexico. In addition Mexico, with increasing importance, continues to be used as a transshipment point for narcotics produced in other parts of the world, notably Europe. Despite the efforts of the Mexican Government, the quantity of illegal substances reaching the United States has drastically increased in recent years. 2. Drug Control Efforts The Mexican Government is a party to the United Nations Single Narcotics Convention, and has annually undertaken programs of eradication of marijuana and opium poppies. The 1970-71 Mexican eradication pro- gram was the most comprehensive in history, and utilized some 10,000 army troops plus about 300 Federal Judicial Police, operating in 13 states. Our interest in a successful Mexican program is vital. As early as 1961 the United States offered assistance to the Mexican Government for its narcotics control program. Since the conversion of the friction produced by "Operation Intercept" into the productive spirit of "Operation Cooperation," the United States and Mexico have held several informal consultative meetings on narcotics and a comprehensive set of recommendations for improved cooperation has been adopted and implemented. Spearheading the joint efforts have been the Attorneys General and Deputy Attorneys General of the two countries, who estab- lished a cordial working rapport. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 MEXICO Approved For_gelease 2002/05/17: CIA-RDP78-0005~y0O'1001-00007-0 2. For its part the Mexican Government, in addition to the eradication efforts described above, has enacted legislative changes in the Mexican Sanitary Code which provide a legal basis for applying to hallucinogens the same procedures of prohibition, and control, and the same legal sanctions, as those which apply to narcotics. The changes also provide the legal basis for the control of other psycho- tropic substances. By means of specific provisions in the new Agrarian Reform Law, the Mexican Govern- ment has established penalties, including the confiscation of land and livestock, for persons who permit or induce the planting of opium poppy and marijuana. In control efforts, the Mexican narcotics authorities, often acting in liaison with our own narcotics agents, have markedly increased the number and importance of seizures. Inspection procedures at the border and in the interior have been tightened and the Mexican Government is en- gaged in a program of continuous narcotics infor- mation exchange with the United States. In addition, the Mexican authorities are studying the implementation of a system to monitor suspicious aircraft and water traffic in their territory. 3. U. S. PROGRAMS One important feature of this cooperation was an assistance grant of $1 million from the United States to finance material used in the Mexican eradication programs. As a result of this grant, in 1970 Mexico took possession of five helicopters and three light aircraft to be used in detection and eradication work. At their March 19, 1971 meeting in Washington, the two Attorneys General agreed that the United States would make up to $200,000 of the unused grant funds available on a matching basis to the Mexican Government for the purchase of three additional Bell helicopters. These aircraft were turned over to Mexico early in August 1971. In addition, the United States Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs and the Mexican Federal Judicial Police have begun a series of joint training seminars. The most recent, Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved For Release 2002/05/17: CIA-RDP78-000524Q0016694Wr-0 in January this year, involved a group of 152 Mexican enforcement agents. In October 1971 the United. States, Mexican, and Canadian Deputy Attorneys General held a tripartite meeting in Washington.'at which accomplishments were reviewed and problems underlined. The Mexican Government remains short of trained personnel and equipment to use in the anti-narcotics effort, and a material and technical. assistance package amounting to about $2-3 million has been proposed. With these-additional funds for training, communications equipment, vehicles, and aircraft, the Mexican authorities should be able-to mount an even more successful effort. 3/72 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved For felease 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-0005?4000100Agt0 QUESTTONS AND 'ANSWERS 1. Q. How effective has "Operation Cooperation" been in gaining the support of the Mexican Government? A. Since the initiation of "Operation Coopera- tion" and the establishment of cordial relations between the Attorneys General, the atmosphere.of cooperation within the Mexican Government has been outstanding. Q. A. The greatest Mexican need in the area of narcotics control is for more and better trained personnel, and for material to support them. We.currently conduct train- ing seminars with Mexican.narcotics enforcement personnel. .In view of the Mexican Government's will- ingness to cooperate, what more can we do to assist them in carrying out an effective control program? 3. Q. Has any effort been made to improve de- tection methods along our border with Mexico? A. Border inspection procedures are fairly adequate and effective but private aircraft and water traffic continue to bulk large as the carriers of illicit narcotics. We must, together with the Mexican authorities, devise an agreed-upon system for the rapid reporting and identification of suspect aircraft and watercraft. 4. Q. How effective have the Mexican efforts been to control the production of, and traffic in, drugs? A.' In October 1971 the Mexican Government reported the following cumulative results of the Mexican drug control. effort, dating from the October 1969=initiation of "Operation Cooperation:" Over 11,000 separate planting areas of poppies containing over 313 million plants have been destroyed. In addition, officials confiscated over 180 pounds of cocaine,. and 25 pounds of morphine. About 120 tons of marijuana have been collected and/or destroyed. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 3/72 Approved For Rel y ,R?11~5 7~ ~CI~- P7g3O 544900100100007-0 BRIEFING PAPER NARCOTICS COUNTRY PAPER NETHERLANDS ANTILLES 1. ILLICIT DRUG PROBLEM We believe that the Netherlands Antilles are becoming a major transit point for the shipment of heroin and cocaine to the US. Hard evidence is difficult to obtain, but there are growing indications that a considerable volume of narcotics is being transferred from ship to ship in the busy ports of Curacao and Aruba where more than 6,000 ships from Europe and South America call annually. Antillean police also suspect that narcotics are being shipped through the airport on St. Maarten island, a free port without customs controls. The drug problem in the.Antilles is confined to transshipment. Although marijuana use is becoming widespread in the Antilles, the islands neither produce nor consume hard drugs. 2. DRUG CONTROL EFFORTS The Antillean government is aware of the magnitude of the narcotics problem and is taking steps to tighten controls over drug traffic, but inadequate customs procedures, insuf- ficient numbers of trained personnel and still undeveloped intelligence capabilities complicate efforts at solving the problem. At present, the government has only two full-time narcotics officers and there are plans to expand this small force. A drug information clearing house has been establishe' to aid law enforcement efforts and our Consul General in Curacao believes that the Antillean government would be .,receptive to joint action proposals'from the USG to take further steps to suppress the drug traffic. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved For?aelease 2002/05/17: CIA-RDP78-OOA 91A'Q7DO00' AI'ILLES -2.- 3. U. S. PROGRAMS We have no programs to aid the Antillean Government combat the narcotics traffic but ww;e are exploring ways to increase cooperation, including specifically training in the U.S. for Antillean customs officials,. police and medical personnel: The Latin American Inter-Agency Narcotics Control Committee has asked our Consul General to provide additional data on drug seizures and related questions and the Antilles have been included on the itinerary of the inter-agency survey team. 3/72 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 DEPARTMENT OF STA-'- Approved ForZelease 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00051000100100007-0 BRIEFING PAPER NARCOTICS COUNTRY PAPER PANAMA 1. ILLICIT DRUG PROBLEM Because of its geographic location and role as a trans- portation crossroad?, Panama has traditionally served as a transshipment point for contraband. Contraband from the US goes through Panama to Central and South America. In recent years international narcotics traffickers have increasingly used Panan ?s established contraband infrastructure as a transshipment point in smuggling narcotics into the US. There is no production of coca plants or opium poppy in Panama, but there is some production of marijuana. Drug abuse among Panamanians is not a significant problem. Among Americans in the Canal Zone, drug consumption, especially of marijuana, is reportedly slightly higher than it is in the Continental US; however, the use of narcotics by US servicemen in Panama is low in relation to such usage elsewhere. The Panamanian press charges that the Canal Zone is the source of narcotics brought into the Republic. 2. DRUG CONTROL EFFORTS The Panamanians have publicly stated that they wish to cooperate fully with the US in eliminating the flow of illicit drugs through Panama. For this purpose they invited BNDD Director John Ingersoll to Panama last September. The Pana- manian National Guard has cooperated with US Canal Zone authorities in countering drug traffic between the Zone and the Republic. The National Guard and Panamanian Customs officials have cooperated with US agencies in training pro- grams. The National Guard has set up a narcotics enforcement unit of approximately ten men and has arrested a number of people on narcotics charges in recent months. The penalty under Panamanian law for the sale, possession, or use of illegal drugs, including marijuana, is a maximum of three years imprisonment, mandatory for second offenders. ."Other Panamanian drug control actions include the recent burn of approximately 110,000 pounds of marijuana which was being illegally cultivated in 198 separate fields in Panama. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved For, Release 2002/05/17: CIA-RDP78-00052001001000QJA9,,,JIA An estimated 75% of this crop would have been destined for US consumers and would have had a street value of $10-15 million. The Panamanian Government is sponsoring seminars on drug hazards at the University of Panama. Panama is co- sponsoring US-supported amendments to toughen the Single Convention on Narcotics Drugs. 3. U.S. PROGRAMS A two-man liaison office was established by the I3NDD in 1970 as the result of an agreement with the Government of Panama; this office was expanded to three men in 1971. During 1971 BNDD Director, John Ingersoll, visited Panama twice to discuss cooperative narcotics control arrangements with high level Panamanian officials. As a result of these visits a program of cooperation was agreed upon. The Public Safety Division of AID, the BNDD and the Bureau of Customs .have cooperated in training Panamanian officials. Canal Zone authorities are making strenuous efforts to deal with drug abuse in areas of education, therapy, recreation, administration and law enforcement. 3/72 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 QUESTION: Approved For le se 2ed6/0 1 7 : ,k- bp~k- Oo 66?Z0b&10f6iO r-c6Dtics smug- gled into the US? ANSWER: Panama is not a source of "hard drugs," although it does grow some marijuana. It is one of several transshipment points in Latin America from which illicit=drugs are smuggled to the US. QUESTION: How serious is the illicit drug problem in Panama? ANSWER: Drug abuse is not considered a serious problem among Panamanians. With respect to the Canal Zone, we have been informed by the Defense Department that the use of narcotics and dangerous drugs by US servicemen in Panama is low in comparison to usage by US soldiers elsewhere. The use of drugs by US civilian youth in the Canal Zone is estimated to be about the same as in the US. QUESTION: What are Canal Zone officials doing to control drug abuse and traffic? ANSWER: Canal Zone authorities are cooperating closely with the Panamanian National Guard and have a many- faceted education and therapy program to remove the motives and the ignorance behind drug abuse, and to deal with the problem through medical treatment as,well as law'enforcement. QUE9'9TION: What are the Panamanian officials doing about drug traffic and drug abuse? ANSWER: The Panamanian Government has made public its deter- mination to stamp out the narcotics traffic and its Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Appro\" -~;r$eMsses2d1/ . 'cC1A P $ AOV2$,pbo470( ID6 mcnt efforts. It has created a narcotics unit in the National Guard and cooperated in providing police and customs officers for participation in narcotics control training programs. Seminars on drug abuse and identification are being conducted by the Pana- manian Government at the University of Panama. Also, the Panamanians are cooperating with the US by being co-sponsors of amendments to toughen the Single Convention on Narcotics Drugs. What is the US Government doing to assist efforts of the Panamanians and the Canal Zone Government? The Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs has established a Regional Liaison'Office in the Canal Zone, staffed by three special agents who are also accredited to the.American Embassy in Panama as attaches. Among their other duties, these agents effect liaison with the National Guard on narcotics matters. For the area of training, liaison is effected with these law enforcement agencies through the Public Safety Advisor of the AID Mission. For two years, the Public Safety Division has trained. Panamanian police officers in narcotics control. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved For ReI e 1 QAO Qr5 :~W-~RP7 OT0~5. 000100100007-0 E3RIEFING PAPER NARCOTICS COUNTRY PAPER 1. ILLICIT DRUG PROBLEM Changing world drug trafficking routes have put drugs into the local smuggli-hg pattern in Paraguay in recent years. Some of the traditional smuggling cliques with foreign ties are trafficking in narcotics and dangerous drugs, and in Paraguay they have found an advantageous warehouse, safe haven, and transfer point from which to move their merchan- dise in or through the continent. Their major advantages are: Paraguay's countless remote airstrips; its central location in South America; and the lack of criminal sanctions against drug traffickers. Drugs involved in the traffic include heroin, usually moving from Europe to the U.S. market through intermediate countries, and cocaine, moving from the Andean countries toward the U.S. or other countries. Drug abuse within Paraguay is as yet minimal, probably limited to marihuana use in the capital by a very small circle of people, and abuse of cocaine or amphetamines by even smaller groups. 2. DRUG CONTROL EFFORTS The first criminal drug legislation in Paraguay, drafted in August 1971, is now before the appropriate committee of the Paraguayan Chamber of Deputies. Enactment is expected by mid-1972. The bill contains criminal sanctions against producers and traffickers dealing in a comprehensive list of narcotics and dangerous drugs, and creates systems for control of import and sale of these drugs. Paraguay has recently signed and ratified the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, as well as the U.N. Convention on Psychotropic.Sub- stances. Also, in July 1971, Paraguay signed with Brazil a general health agreement in which provisions relating to. control of narcotics and hallucinogens were included at Paraguayan initiative. The Paraguayan Ministry of Interior lo as tentatively selected an Assistant' Secretary-level official to head a new specialized narcotics investigation unit within that Ministry. k? The U.S. is encouraging the Paraguayans to organize rapidly and train the specialized drug investigation unit within the Ministry of Interior which they envision. We expect to Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved For,$elease 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052g000100100007-0 PARAGUAY provide training for Paraguayan personnel for this unit, with training underway by mid-1972. After this unit is organized and trained, we propose to make available certain useful equipment. Following passage of the criminal drug bill now in Congress, we will be in contact with the Ministry of Health concerning possible aid which the U.S. might provide in the implementa- tion of the registration,. prescription and other control measures contained in the law. Paraguay has welcomed the establishment, in October 1971, of a two-agent office of the U.S. Bureau of_Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs in Asuncion. We will also refine and intensify our current educational efforts on drugs with the public media. Embassy efforts along these lines have and will continue to orient top Government leaders, as well as the public at large, to the drug problem in general. In May 1971, the U.S. Embassy in Asuncion formally requested the extradition of international narcotics trafficker Auguste Ricord, a French citizen previously arrested at our request pending the arrival of supporting documentation. Both in Asuncion and in Washington, the State and Justice Departments have devoted considerable effort to this case;. Although a lower court rejected the U.S. request in December 1971, the Paraguayan Solicitor General, representing the U.S., is in the process of filing an appeal. Bail has been set at over $315,000, an unprecedented high figure in Paraguay. The case itself and the accompanying publicity could make Paraguay less attractive as a transit area and safe haven. 3/72 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved For? Release 2002/05/17: CIA-RDP78-00052 O0Q 9i 0(089 0 QUESTION: Has the Paraguayan Government been cooperating with the U.S. on narcotics matters? ANSWER: We are pleased with cooperation to date. This includes the proceedings on the current U.S. request for the-extradition of narcotics trafficker Auguste Ricord, close coordination with the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs on the investiga- tion of drug movements in Paraguay, and action in the area of local laws and international agreements. QUESTION: Are officials of the Paraguayan Government involved in drug trafficking? ANSWER: There have been accusations against certain officials. In June 1971, as part.,of a Paraguayan Government investigation of drug trafficking, some officials were apparently implicated, including a former Paraguayan diplomat. QUESTION: Will the U.S. request for the extradition of Auguste Ricord be granted? When is a decision expected? ANSWER: We are hopeful that the request will he granted. We anticipate a decision by the Appeals Court before the end of April.. 3 Q roved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved For-elease 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-000524800100100007-0 DEPARTMENT OF STATE NARCOTICS COUNTRY PAPER . ILLICIT DRUG PROBLEM Peru is~ a major producer of coca. An estimated 90 percent of the crop is consumed locally in leaf form, primarily by the Andean Indian population. The coca is grown chiefly on small family farms because of the low value of the unprocessed leaf and the labor intensity of the cultivation. Of the estimated 10 percent of coca production not consumed locally, a large part is legally exported. Some is processed into cocaine for the illegal international market. Cocaine consumption in Peru is considered to be rela- tively small. 2. DRUG CONTROL EFFORTS Increased anti-narcotics activity by the police in Peru indicates that Peruvian officials are inter- ested in curtailing narcotics production and traffic. However, this is a difficult task particularly with respect to cocaine. Because coca is legally exported, domestic consumption provides income to some of the poorest sectors of the economy; and the habit of coca chewing is deeply ingrained in Indian life. Also, because the extraction of cocaine is relatively simple and inexpensive, clandestine laboratories which conduct first-stage refining are difficult to locate.. and eliminate in the remote areas of cultivation in the Andes. 3. U.S. PROGRAMS The U.S. is in the process of discussing with the Peruvian Government the establishment of a program for cooperation between our two countries. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved For_Zelease 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-0005WO0100100007-0 DEPARTMENT OF STATE Uruguay is believed to he a transshipment point for narcotics, but the extent of hard drugs passing through the country is unknown. In any" event its proximity to other countries in southern South America makes it a likely site for a staging area. No narcotics are produced in the country, nor is drug use a significant problem. I Illicit Drug Problem II Drug Control Efforts At many levels Uruguayan Government officials have stated their willingness to cooperate in narcotics control. One manifestation of such cooperation is the Uruguayan Govern- ment's co-sponsorship at a Geneva Conference this March of a U.S. proposal to strengthen the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. The Uruguayan police have shown a readiness to cooperate with U.S. officials on narcotics matters. They have been receptive to U.S. advice and training offers and have begun to train dogs in narcotics detection. III U.S. Programs The major U.S. objective at this time is to obtain, with the cooperation of the Uruguayan Government, improved intelligence and enforcement with regard to drug trafficking through Uruguay. This entails representations to appropriate Uruguayan officials on the existence of the drug trans- shipment problem and encouraging the adoption of stiffer penalties for narcotics traffickers. Training and equipment assistance, estimated at $7,800 in FY-1972 and $10,600 in FY-1973 is being provided as part of the AID Public Safety program. 3/72 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-000500100100007-0 DEPARTMENT OF STATE E3RIEFING .PAPER NARCOTICS COUNTRY PAPER 1. ILLICIT DRUG PROBLEM Available information does not yet show Venezuela as an important production or processing center for hard"drugs,.but a small amount of marijuana is probably grown. Geographically Venezuela lends itself as a possible transshipment point for narcotics to and from all of South and Central America, as well as the United States, Canada and Europe. 2. DRUG CONTROL EFFORTS The Venezuelan Government is making a strong effort to control its drug problem. The,-Chamber of Deputies and the Cabinet have named commissions to investigate the consumption and trafficking of drugs, and to study plans and programs designed to rehabilitate those addicted to their use. In addition, there has been increased activity by Venezuelan police which has accounted for increased arrest for use and possession of dangerous drugs. 3. U. S. ' PROGRAMS United States involvement in the Venezuelan narcotics problem has been low key in order not to overshadow local efforts. Contacts and liaison, however, have been established in order to assist interested groups. USIS has provided pertinent material to the Chamber of Deputies Special Commission and disseminated A.I.D. files on LSD and marijuana. The Public Safety Division has provided information to police officials on anti-narcotics assistance available through bilateral and multilateral channels; and representatives of the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs have been assigned to Venezuela. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0 3/72 Approved For,$elease 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052 00100100007-0 VENEZUELA Question: What is the scope of the narcotics problem in Venezuela? Answer: The extent of drug abuse in Venezuela is not too well known..' Analysis of available records from 1968-1971, however, indicate an increase in the number of narcotics arrests, i.e., 391 arrests in 1971 compared to 228 arrests in 1968. In addition, the amount of narcotics confiscated during this time also increased from 102 pounds of marijuana and 5 1/2 grams of cocaine in 1968 to 254 pounds of marijuana, 813 grams of cocaine, and 512 LSD pills in 1970. These statistics 8-hould not, however, be interpreted as an increase in the use and/or trafficking during this period, but rather as an indication of the increased emphasis being placed on the narcotics problem by the police. 3/72 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP78-00052R000100100007-0