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Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 84TH CONGRESS 2d Session DOCUMENT 1 No. 117 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA What It Is How It Works A HANDBOOK FOR AMERICANS SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY, UNITED STATES SENATE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1956 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman ESTES KEFA VER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin OLIN D. JOAN TON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota THOMAS C. H NNINGS, JR., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana JOHN L. McCL ELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah PRICE DANIE , Texas EVERETT MCKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois JOSEPH C. O' AHONEY, Wyoming HERMAN WELKER, Idaho MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland SUBCOMMITTEE To INVESTIGATE THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman OLIN D. JOHN TON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana JOHN L. McCL LLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah THOMAS C. II NNINGS, JR., Missouri HERMAN WELKER, Idaho PRICE DANIE , Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland J. G. SOURWINE, Chief Counsel RICHARD ARENS and ALVA C. CARPENTER, Associate Counsel BENJAMIN MANDEL, Director of Research Approved For Rele4se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 S. Con. Res. 62 Agreed to April 23, 1956 EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Begun and the City of Washington on Tuesday, the third day of January, one thousand nine hundred and fifty-six Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives concurring), That the pamphlet entitled "A Handbook for Americans", prepared for the use of the Subcommittee on Internal Security of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, be printed, as a Senate document. SEC. 2. There shall be printed seventy-five thousand additional copies of such Senate document for the use of the Subcommittee on Internal Security of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Attest : FELTON M. JOHNSTON, Secretary of the Senate. RALPH R. ROBERTS, Clerk of the House of Representatives. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 CONTENTS Page Foreword -------------------------------------------- ------ v Moscow inspired and dominated------------------------------------- 1 Political party or conspiracy---------------------------------------- 8 Military aspect---------------------------------------------------- 8 Discipline------------------------------------------------------- 9 - Authority at the top----------------------------------------------- 9 Exclusive membership---------------------------------------------- 10 Professional revolutionists------------------------------------------ 10 Importance of theory -------------------------------------------- 11 A full-time organization------------------------------------ ------ 12 Supersensitivity on organization matters----------------------------- 12 Desire to control or destroy other organizations----------------------- 12 Deception as a method--------------------------------------------- 13 Always on the offensive=------------------------------------------- 13 Planning ahead---------------------------------------------------- 14 Red elite--------------------------------------------------------- 14 Individual responsibility-------------------------------------------- 15 Control by blackmail---------------------------------------------- 15 Atmosphere of distrust--------------------------------------------- 15 A divisive party--------------------------------------------------- 15 Attitude toward the Government and American institutions------------ 16 The end justifies the means----------------------------------------- 16 Conformance to pattern-------------------------------------------- 17 Revolutionary minority-------------------------------------------- 17 Organization of the Communist Party, USA-------------------------- 18 Communist hierarchy---------------------------------------------- 18 Conspiracy at work------------------------------------------------ 19 Moscow representative--------------------------------------------- 20 Moscow, the seat of power------------------------------------------ 21 Communist Party membership-------------------------------------- 22 Official questionnaires---------------------------------------------- 25 Dues------------------------------------------------------------- 29 Mailing lists------------------------------------------------------- 29 Evidence of party membership-------------------------------------- 30 Fellow travelers--------------------------------------------------- - 32 How to judge a fellow traveler-------------------------------------- 33 Extent of Communist Party membership----------------------------- 34 Communist Party membership by States----------------------------- 34 Changes in the volume of membership of CPUSA---------------------- 35 Popular vote, 1948, for President------------------------------------ 36 Presidential election returns by States for Communist Party candidates-- 37 How to measure Communist influence-------------------------------- 37 Resignations and ex-Communists------------------------------------ 38 Recruiting-------------------------------------------------------- 42 What makes a Communist tick?------------------------------------- 43 Communist clubs-------------------------------------------------- 50 The shop clubs, Red spearhead-------------------------------------- 50 Community clubs-------------------------------------------------- 54 Section committee------------------------------------------------- 57 District or State organizations-------------------------------------- 58 Communist chain of command-------------------------------------- 59 National committee------------------------------------------------ 59 Disciplinary procedure--------------------------------------------- 60 Leadership cult---------------------------------------------------- 61 Spirit of prevailing fear--------------------------------------------- 62 Communist Party, USA as a puppet--------------------------------- 64 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-009158000600140037-0 VI CONTENTS Soviet writers w as Political ? I Party, USA-- Articles publish leaders of for( Soviet Embassy Alexander Bitte Underground ac Methods of eva Trial and hearii Communist froi List of most tyl Within the labo_ List of unions v (fairs, theoretical monthly magazine of the Communist tivity ---------------------------------------------- g technique----------------------------------------- t organizations-------------------------------------- ical sponsors of front organizations-------------------- ith Communist leadership strongly entrenched---------- 68 73 73 77 82 86 90 94 07 101 101 Approved For Rele se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 The average American is unaware of the amount of misinformation about the Communist Party, USA, which appears in the public press, in books and in the utterances of public speakers. In part, this mis- information is consciously planted by members of the party using wa ys and means calculated to have the greatest effect in poisoning the channels of American public opinion. In part, it is due to our ig- norance of the problem-the problem of the existence in our midst of a mass conspiratorial organization controlled by a foreign power. The Communist problem is unique in our history. The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee presents this study of The Communist Party, USA-What It Is-How It Works as a con- venient handbook for Americans in an effort to counteract current misinformation regarding the Communist movement. This study seeks only to touch the high spots without going into a detailed analy- sis of Communist activity in the labor movement, among Negroes, women, youth, foreign language groups, and in front organizations. It endeavors to differentiate the Communist Party from bona fide political parties in the United States. We earnestly believe that, given a more accurate knowledge of the Communist conspiracy, fewer Americans will fall victim to its wiles. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA What It Is-How It Works Founded in September 1919, the Communist Party of the United States of America is an organization unique in American history. It is not a true political party and differs fundamentally from all political parties in this country. It is in fact a Russian-inspired, Moscow- dominated anti-American, quasi-military conspiracy against our Government, our ideals, and our freedoms. After testimony running over a period of more than 1 year. from numerous qualified witnesses, the Subversive Activities Control Board found, on April 20, 1953, that the Communist Party of the United States is "substantially directed, dominated, and controlled by the Soviet Union." This finding was based upon the evidence before the Subversive Activities Control Board. It was undergirded by the report of the House Committee on Un-American Activities on The Communist Party of the United States as an agent of a Foreign Power, published in 1947. The counts supporting this finding follow: 1. The Communist Party, USA, traces its origin to two conventions, held simultaneously in Chicago from September 1 to 7, 1919, of the Communist Party of America and the Communist Labor Party. Both conventions were held in response to an invitation issued by Gregory Zinoviev, then president of the executive committee of the Communist International with headquarters in Moscow, and first published in this country on July 7, 1919, in the Novy Mir, a Russian newspaper published in New York City. Zinoviev was, at that time, a member of the executive body of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and Chairman of the Petrograd Soviet. In obedience to instructions from Zinoviev, the two parties he had called into con- vention merged into the United Communist Party of America in May 1921. 2. Among the "twenty-one points" of admission to the Communist International, adopted in 1920 and accepted by the American party, was No. 14 to the effect that- Each party desirous of affiliating with the Communist International should be obliged to render every possible assistance to the Soviet Republics in their struggle against all counterrevolutionary forces. The Communist parties should carry on a precise and definite propaganda to induce the workers to refuse to transport any kind of military equipment intended for fighting against the Soviet Republics, and should also by legal and illegal means carry on a propaganda amongst the troops sent against the workers republics. * * * Since that time, paramount allegiance to the Soviet Union has been a fundamental tenet of the Communist Party, USA, as shown by the Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 2 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA books recom ended for party study such as: Problems of Leninism and Foundati ns of Leninism, both by Joseph Stalin; History of the Communist P rty of the Soviet Union; Lenin's Works, and by party oaths of loyal y such as the following of 1935 for new members: "I pledge myself to rally the masses to defend the Soviet Union, the land of victorious social sm I pledge myself to remain at all times a vigilant and firm defender of the eninist line of the party, the only line that insures the triumph of Soviet Power in the United States" (The Communist Party-A Manual on Organization, b J. Peters). At the Seventh World Congress of the Communist International held in the s mmer of 1935, attended by Earl Browder, William Z. Foster, Gil Green, John Williamson, Jack Stachel, William Schneider- man, James . Ford, Robert Minor, Samuel Darcy and Martha Stone, all top ight American Communist leaders at the time, an oath was taken b the assembled delegates assuring "Comrade Stalin, leader, teacher, and friend of the proletariat and oppressed of the whole world" that "the Communists will always and everywhere be faithful to the end and to the great and invincible banner of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin" and that "Under this banner, Communism will triumph throughout the world." The Daily Worker and Political Affairs (formerly the Communist), both official publications of the Communist Party, USA, have, since their inceptio America, ado In his His William Z. F tions: Comm (1919, 1920, 1 American La 1022, 1923, 1 1927, 1928, 1 , consistently defended the Soviet Union without a n to date. ction 1, of the Constitution of the Communist Party of is organization shall be the Communist Party of America, Section t International. ory of the Communist Party of the United States, nist Labor Party_(1919); Communist Party of America or Alliance (1921); Workers Party of America (1921, 29); Communist Party, USA (1930, 1932, 1934, 1936, given. decided: by cancel and national * * * The Subversi the Respondent Communist I dium of its E publicly appr ng the continuity of the organization under the titles tion in November 1940, the Communist Party, U. S. A., munist Party of the U.S.A., in Convention assembled, does here- iissolve its organizational affiliation to the Communist Inter- or the specific purpose of removing itself from the terms of the Act. * * * e Activities Control Board found,' however, that did not alter in any substantive way the relationship between (CPUSA) and the Communist International. * * * ,n the Soviet Union was our ally in World War II, the .ternational was dissolved on the initiative of the Presi- ecutive Committee. The Communist Party, U. S. A., ved this decision. In September 1947 a conference of uropean Communist parties established the Information >mmunist and Workers' Parties (Cominform). The nine leading E Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 3 American party hailed the establishment of the Information Bureau as a much-needed center of cooperation, but did not affiliate in view of the Voorhis Act and other legislation (statement of national board, CPUSA, in Political Affairs, December 1947). The Subversive Ac- tivities Control Board found' that- the Communist Information Bureau represents what the Communists consider the best possible substitute at the present time for the Communist International and that Respondent's support of the Information Bureau * * * and its non- deviation from the line of the Bureau, are done for the purpose and with the aim of advancing the objectives of the world Communist movement. The main reports at the founding meeting of the Cominform were presented by A. Zhdanov, then a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, secretary of its Central Com- mittee and a colonel-general in the Red army, and by Georgi M. Malenkov, then general secretary of the CPSU and Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union. 3. The current constitution of the Communist Party, U. S. A., adopted in 1945, amended in 1948 and reaffirmed in 1950, states in its preamble: The Communist Party of the United States is a political party of the American working class, basing itself upon the principles of scientific socialism, Marxism- Leninism. In his address to the Supreme Soviet of the U. S. S. R. on August 8, 1953, Mr. Malenkov indicated how closely Marxism-Leninism is officially identified with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Soviet Government itself, when he declared: The Communist Party and the Soviet Government know where and how to lead the people, because they are guided by the scientific theory of social development- Marxism-Leninism * * * The Soviet state and the Communist Party equip the people on the basis of the teaching of Marx-Engels-Lenin-Stalin with a profound knowledge of the objective laws of the development of society, the laws of the construction of communism, and thereby give them a, clear prospect of the con- structive activity of the Soviet people. 4. The Communist International with headquarters in Moscow sent representatives to the American Communist Party who wielded un- questioned authority. The Subversive Activities Control Board found that- A preponderance of the evidence clearly shows that representatives of the CPSU were in the United States and that through them respondent [CPUSA] received directives and instructions. (Report, p. 61). These representatives included: G. Valetski (Valetsky), 1922; Joseph Pogany, alias John Schwartz, alias John Pepper, alias John Swift, 1922-29; Boris Reinstein, 1922; S. Gussev, alias P. Green, alias Drapkin, 1925; Y. Sirola, alias Miller, 1926, 1927; Arthur Ewert, alias Braun, alias Brown, alias Berger, 1927: Harry Pollitt, 1929; Philip Dengel, 1929; B. Mikhailov, alias George Williams, 1929, 1930; Gerhard Eisler, alias Hans Berger, alias Edwards, 1931, 1932 and 1940- 45; Carl E. Johnson, alias Scott, alias Jensen, alias Jenson, 1921, 1922; Petersen, 1925, 1926; Marcus, alias M. Jenks, 1928; F. Marini, alias Mario Alpi, alias Fred Brown, 1938-48; William Rust, 1927; Willi Muenzenberg, 1934; Louis Gibarti, also known as Dobos, 1927, 1928 and 1934; Raymond Guyot, 1938; Yusefovich; Paul Merker, alias Wagner. 5. From March 1, 1919, to August 21, 1935, the Communist Inter- national held seven congresses in Moscow. From 40 to 50 leaders of T Report, p. 19. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 time. As a member of t Communist Party attended these meetings from time to arance before the House Committee on Un-American In his app Activities, on of the Comm The Commu Gitlow, Israe William F. 6. Membe official posts Leonard Em 1936; Schach American do Bosse, alias munist Inter from 1920 to News. 7. Leading Communist countries. I Spain, 1936- and Latin A Joseph Zack tevideo, 1926 Intelligence, 8. Leading lished article later the Co International For a Lastin I. Amter, 9. The M Moscow hav paid, to Ame posts by the Carl Reeve, Nowell, Beat M. Wicks, M 10. The Communist Party, USA, has, since its birth, recognized the Communist Party of the Soviet Union as its model and leading party. In his book, Toward Soviet America, published in 1932, William Z. Foster, presently party chairman, has said: The Communist Party of the United States * * * is the American section of the Communist International * * * The Communist International is a disci- plined world pa ty * * * Its leading party, by virtue of its great revolutionary experience, is t 4e Russian Communist Party (pp. 258, 259). September 29, 1939, William Z. Foster, present chairman nist Party, USA, testified that he had visited the Soviet ist International maintained American representatives ween congresses. Included among them were Benjamin Amter, Max Bedacht Robert Minor, Louis J. Engdahl, Harrison George, H. M. Wicks, William W. Weinstone, unne, Clarence Hathaway, John J. Ballam, J. Peters, aard, John Little. of the American Communist Party were assigned to in the Communist apparatus in Moscow, notably: Mins, editor for the Marx-Lenin Institute prior to o Epstein, editor of the Emes until his death in 1945; oughs, English language announcer for the Anglo- artment of the Moscow radio until October 1945; A. G. lfred J. Brooks, informational specialist for the Com- ational; Joseph Kowalski, head of a Soviet penitentiary 1923; Anna Louise Strong, editor of the Moscow Daily members of the American party were assigned by the nternational to posts as CI representatives in other eluded in this group were: Earl Browder, China, 1927, 0;- Philip Aronberg, China; Harry M. Wicks, Germany erica, 1926; William F. Dunne, France and Germany; ornfeder, Latin America, 1932; Harrison George, Mon- Charles Krumbein, Great Britain and China, 1930; Spain, '1936-39; Nicholas Dozenberg-Soviet Military umania, etc., 1927-39. members of the Communist Party, USA, have pub- in official organs of the Communist International and Press Correspondence, the Communist International, Peace, For a People's Democracy. Among such con- been A. B. Magil, Carl Reeve William L. Patterson, ax Bedacht, Earl Browder, William Z. Foster. rx-Lenin Institute and other Communist schools in given special revolutionary training, with all expenses ican Communists who were later assigned to important harles Krumbein, Joseph Zack Kornfeder, Wiliam Odell ice Siskind, Clarence Hathaway, Morris Childs, Harry Approved For Rele4se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 5 In his History of the Communist Party of the United States, published in 1952, William Z: Foster maintains his thesis: Lenin was also the architect and chief organizer of the great Russian Commu- nist Party * * * It is incomparably the most highly developed political organi- zation in the history of mankind * * * (p. 151). In the Daily Worker of March 5, 1939, the following cabled editorial from the Moscow Pravda is reprinted: The Communist Party of the Soviet Union always was and always will be a model, an example for the Communist Parties of all countries. At its meeting on December 3-5, 1938, the National Committee of the Communist Party, USA, members were given the following instructions in regard to the History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union: It wil be the task and duty of the membership and organizations of the Com- munist Party in the coming months to organize and carry through the distribution of the minimum of 100,000 copies of this book. Testifying before the House Committee on Un-American Activities on September 8, 1939, Benjamin Gitlow, Communist candidate for Vice President in 1924 and 1928, a former member of the Political Committee of the Communist Party, USA, and of the executive committee of the Communist International, described the relationship between the Russian Communist Party and the Communist Inter- national with which the CPUSA was affiliated, as follows: Whereas the American party * * * had to carry out decisions of the Com- munist International explicitly, the Russian party was given a privileged position The Russian party was permitted not only to review all decisions of the Com- munist International, but, if necessary, to take it up in its political committee and to change these decisions * * * and that decision [of the Russian party] becomes binding upon the parties of the Communist International. Another important fact to bear in mind is that * * * the rules governing the Communist International provide that whenever a party sends representatives to the Communist International, or delegates to the congresses of the Communist International, those delegates cannot be instructed * * * The only party that has the right to instruct its delegates to the Communist International and to make these instructions binding on the delegates is the Russian Communist Party * * * In other words they have built the Communist International organization in such a way that the Russians under no circumstances can lose control of the Communist International The Subversive Activities Control Board has found, on the basis of the evidence, that- All of the heads of the Comintern that are identified in the record have been leading members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. (Report, p. 11.) Alexander Bittelman, a founder and leading member of the national board of the CPUSA, has stated, in his pamphlet Milestones in the History of the Communist Party: The Communist International and its model party-the Communist Party of the Soviet Union-headed by Comrade Stalin, gave us the guidance that helped the American Communists to find the way to the masses and to the posi- tion of vanguard (p. 8). * * * The leading role of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union needs neither explanation nor apology. A Party that has opened up the epoch of the world revolution, and that is successfully building a classless society on one-sixth of the earth, is cheerfully recognized and followed as the leading Party of the world (p. 21). 11. From its very inception, the Communist Party, USA, has re- ceived instructions and directives from Moscow, the headquarters of Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 C) THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA the Communi t International, on such important matters as the following: (a) Merger of the Communist Party of America and the Communi t Labor Party (1920). (b) Combining legal and illegal work (1922). (c) Campaign in behalf of political prisoners (1923). (d) Est blishment of the Daily Worker (1923). (e) Establishment of the Workers Party of America as the legal bran h of the Communist Party (1923). (f) Merger of Proletarian Party of America with the Workers Party of merica (1923). (g) Pra sing achievements of the party (1923, 1924). (h) Att tude toward the LaFollette movement (1924). (i) Fus ng together the foreign language sections of the party (19 5). (j) Reorganization of the party on a shop nuclei basis (1925). (k) Trade union activity (1925). (1) Sending of an American trade union delegation to the U. S. S. R. (1925). (m) Removal of Daily Worker and party headquarters from Chicago t Now York (1926). (n) Attitude of the American party toward the Nicaraguan situation 1928). (o) Celebration of international holidays (1928). (p) Permission to hold a national convention (1928). (q) International Red Day campaign (1929). (r) Trade Union Unity Convention (1929). (s) Gas onia campaign (1929). (t) Work among the miners (1929). ('u) All- merica Anti-Imperialist League (1929). (v) Liquidation of party factions (1929). (w) Recall of the executive secretary of the CPUSA (1929). (x) Changes in the party secretariat (1929). (y) Address containing instructions from the Communist Inter- national d rectly to the members of the CPUSA (1929). (z) Cablegram of instructions from the Young Communist Interna.tio al to the Young Communist League of the USA (1929). (aa) Cr ticism of issues of the Daily Worker (1933). (bb) Formation of a third party (1935). 12. The official literature of the Communist Party, USA (Daily Worker, Politi al Affairs, etc.), has paralleled the line of Soviet publi- cations (Pravd , Izvestia, New Times, etc.) from the foundation of the party to d to. This parallelism has been maintained throughout all fluctuations in Soviet policy: for and against the League of Na- tions, for and against cooperation with the democracies against Fascist aggression, for and against peaceful coexistence, etc. Ameri- can Communis publications have even reprinted articles from these Soviet publicat ons for the guidance of their readers. The Subversive Activities Con of Board has held that: 7. Respondent in the Soviet Uni members the corr 8. The press in Bureau are major the Soviet Union has established a press in the United States patterned after that )n which operates as a means of setting forth for Respondent's pct line as laid down by the Soviet Union; the Soviet Union and the journal of the Communist Information communication means whereby directives and instructions of are issued to Respondent * * * Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 7 The Attorney General, in his petition to the Subversive Activities Control Board, has stated: Throughout its existence the Communist Party never knowingly has deviated from the views and policies of the government and Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Communist International, the Communist Information Bureau and other leaders of the world Communist movement. Whenever such views and policies have conflicted with the position taken by the Government of the United States, the Communist Party has opposed the position of the United States (Report, p. 79). 13. The Attorney General, in his petition to the Subversive Ac- tivities Control Board, has further stated: The Communist Party regularly reports and has reported to the government and Communist Party of the Soviet Union and to the Communist International and the Communist Information Bureau * * * (Report, p. 89) Such reports were printed in official organs of the Communist Inter- national and the Cominform such as the International Press Corre- spondence, For a Lasting Peace, For a People's Democracy, etc. CPUSA leaders William Z. Foster and Alexander Bittelman submitted such reports in 1926, Benjamin Gitlow in 1927, 1928, and 1929, and Earl Browder, in 1932. 14. The Communist Party, USA, has accepted the statutes set down by the Communist International in Moscow. The Communist Party-a Manual of Organization by J. Peters, formerly CPUSA rep- resentative in that city and former head of the Communist under- ground in the United States, states that he has depended, for the material in the manual, upon the "resolutions and decisions on the question of organization adopted by the Second Organizational Con- ference of the Communist International." The Second Congress of the Communist International held in 1920 decided that- All the parties and organizations comprising the Communist International bear the name of the Communist Party of the given country (section of the Communist International). In line with this decision, the American party designated itself as a "section of the Communist International" until the party's disaffilia- tion to circumvent the Voorhis Act in 1940. Article 3, section 1, of the constitution of the Workers (Commu- nist) Party declared that a membership requirement is acceptance of- the program and statutes of the Communist International and of the Workers (Communist) Party * * * 15. Point 15 of the Conditions of Admission to the Communist International, adopted in 1920 and accepted by the American Com- munist Party, was the provision that- the program of each party belonging to the Communist International should be confirmed by the next congress of the Communist International or its Executive Committee. 16. At conventions of the CPUSA, fraternal greetings were ex- changed between the American party and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The Subversive Activities Control Board notes such interchanges at CPUSA conventions in 1921, 1927, 1929, and 1950 (Report, pp. 95-98). 17. In his petition to the Subversive Activities Control Board the Attorney General held as follows as to the disciplinary power to which the CPUSA is subordinated: Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00.915R000600140037-0 se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 This disciplin the expulsion Jay Lovestone Bertram D. Since the C branch of the conspiratorial The Russia of the intern V. I. Lenin, principles upo therefore base rights to free Widespread di find no legal o sinations of g an attempted that Lenin en of violent ove Is To Be Do organization, Today the Sian sect figh seeking world American Go Party, USA, conspiratorial flow logically By way of they may mak of government constituted ag democratic pr UNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ciplinary power of the Soviet Government, the Communist iet Union, the Communist International and the Communist au * * * (Report, p. 99). ry - power has been sufficiently strong to bring about of two executive secretaries of the CPUSA, namely and Earl Browder, members of the party's executive as Ludwig Lore, James P. Cannon, William F. Dunne, lfe, Benjamin Gitlow, and Joseph Zack Kornfeder, as ections of the organization. POLITICAL PARTY OR CONSPIRACY mmunist Party, USA, is in fact simply the American -Russian Communist Party, it follows faithfully the Communist Party, the focal point and radiating center tional Communist movement, owes its inception to is guiding genius on matters of organization. The which the Communist movement was founded were primarily upon his experience with the czarist regime e labor and socialist movements were illegal and the om of speech, press and assembly were nonexistent. content of the laboring classes and the peasantry could vernment officials and even of the Czar, were not un- in's own brother was executed as a Result of one such ssassination. In this atmosphere it is understandable isaged an organization adapted to the specific purpose brow of his own government. Necessarily, therefore, was conspiratorial. In his authoritative work What e, published in February 1902, in reference to party enin laid down the principle that- ssential a condition of an organization of this kind that all other must be made to conform with it. ommunist movement is no longer an insignificant Rus- ing against czarism, but an international movement conquest and more specifically the destruction of the rnment as its chief obstacle. Hence the Communist s an organic part of that movement dedicated to the guise. The other characteristics of the movement rom this basic conception. ontrast, American political parties, despite criticisms of public policy, are fundamentally loyal to our form and conform to its laws. They rely upon the duly ncies of our Government and the operation of our cesses for the correction of grievances. American p means within full faith. Th Approved For Rele litical parties carry on their activities by peaceful he confines of our legal structure in which they have Communist Party looks upon our Government as its se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 9 enemy which it seeks to overthrow by forceful means. Hence, it is organized along quasi-military lines. The program of the Com- munist International adopted at its sixth congress in 1928, endorsed by the CPUSA, and never since repudiated or superseded, has made this plain by calling for- a combination of strikes and armed demonstrations and finally, the general strike co-jointly with armed insurrection against the state power of the bourgoisie (i. e. capitalists). The latter form of struggle, which is the supreme form, must be conducted according to rules of military science * * ~. Writing on Lenin's Conception of the Party, in the January 1934 issue of the Communist, official theoretical organ of the Communist Party, USA, F. Brown, alias Alpi, a well-known representative of the Communist International, emphasizes this point. He holds up a modern army as "a good example of organization" which "knows how to impart a single will to millions of people." Our traditional political parties are loose organizations operating under a very fluid and flexible discipline. Members and leaders will differ sharply with each other and still remain within the same organ- ization. Lenin conceived the Communist Party, however, as an organiza- tion which- will be able to fulfill its duty only if it will be organized in the most centralized manner, if it will be governed by an iron discipline, bordering on military dis- cipline * * * (Conditions for Affiliation to the Comintern). "Why do the Communists attach so much importance to discipline?" asks J. Peters in his authoritative pamphlet The Communist Party- A Manual on Organization, and he answers this question as follows: Because without discipline there is no unity of will, no unity of action. * * * The class war is bitter. The enemy is powerful. * * * In order to combat and defeat this powerful enemy, the army of the proletariat must have a highly skilled, trained General Staff [the Communist Party], which is united in action and has one will. Again Peters pointedly asks, "How can the Army fight against the army of the enemy if every soldier in the Army is allowed to question and even disobey orders of his superior officers?" The Communist Party, USA, has therefore not hesitated to expel even its highest officials for actual or suspected deviation from the official line of Moscow. In Russia and other Communist countries such deviation- ists have been shot. Communist leaders have frequently referred. to the party with pride as monolithic. AUTHORITY AT THE. TOP Political parties as we know them are highly responsive to the sentiment of their constituents and of the American people as a whole. They encourage independence and initiative. They are essentially democratic in their approach to the rank and file o# party membership. Initiative and pressure come from below. In conformance with its military character and objectives, the Communist Party is organized from the top down. It is essentially undemocratic. The flow of its directives and strategy proceeds from 70329 ?-i 0--2 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-009?15R000600140037-0 Approved For Rele 10 THE COI se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 /IUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA its highly cen alized leadership in the Russian Communist Party by way of the C minform to the similarly centralized leadership within the national board of the Communist Party, USA, and then on down to the lower 1 els of the organization. As J. Peters has pointed out to his fellow embers of the Communist Party, USA, in his Manual on Organization, "all lower Party organizations are subordinated to the higher bodies." The Programme of the Communist International is quoted from Petitioners Exhibit 125 by the Subversive Activities Control Board to show that he Communist Parties are organized on the basis of democratic centralism: The Communist International and its Sections are built up on the basis of democratic centr lism, the fundamental principles of which are: (a) Election of all leading comm ttees of the Party * * *; (b) periodical reports by leading Party committees tot eir constituents; (c) decisions of superior Party committees to be obligatory for subordinate committees, strict Party discipline and prompt exe- cution of the dec sions of the Communist International, of its leading committees and of the leadin Party centres. Party question may be discussed by the members of the Party and by Party organizations until such time as a decision is taken upon them by the competent Party committees. After a decision has been taken by the Congress of the Com- munist International, by the Congress of the respective Sections, or by leading committees of the Comintern, and of its various Sections; these decisions must be unreservedly carried out even if a Section of the Party membership or of the local Party organizati ns are in disagreement with it. (p. 56). In his work entitled "One Step Forward, Two Steps Back," pub- lished in 1904 Lenin ridiculed political parties which "proceed from the bottom up ards" and stressed the superiority of a party which "strives to pro eed from the top downwards, insisting on the exten- sion of the rights and authority of the centre over the parts." In a debate with Lenin as early as 1904 Leon Trotsky outlined with remarkable foresight the type of organization which Lenin envisaged. In Lenin's sch me the party takes the place of the working class. The party organization displaces the party. The Central Committee displaces the arty organization, and finally the Dictator displaces the Central Committee. EXCLUSIVE MEMBERSHIP Membership in our traditional political parties is easily obtainable and comparati ely unrestricted. This is not true of the Communist Party, which i highly exclusive and restricted to those who pass its rigid membership requirements. In What Is To Be Done? Lenin outlined his conception of the exclusiveness o the Communist Party, which has been a standard guide for Communists throughout the world. He declared that- the more narrow we make the membership of this organization, allowing only such persons to be members who are engaged in revolution as a profession and who have been professionally trained in the art of combatting the political police, the more difficult it will be to "catch" the organization. * * *. PROFESSIONAL REVOLUTIONISTS A member of an American political party, as a rule, has many other interests, including his club, his church, his work, his friends, and his family. Communists, on the other hand, are expected to be profes- sional revolutionists who, as Lenin announced in his paper, the Iskra Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 11 (Spark) in December 1900, No. 1, "shall devote to the revolution not only their spare evenings, but the whole of their lives." Few Americans realize what this means since no bona fide political party would dare to make such demands upon its members. Speaking for the Communist Party, USA, in his Manual on Organization, J. Peters explains: A professional revolutionist is ready to go whenever and wherever the Party sends him. Today he may be working in a mine, organizing the Party; the trade L unions, leading struggles; tomorrow, if the Party so decides, he may be in a steel mill; the day after tomorrow, he may be a leader and organizer of the unemployed * * * From these comrades the Party demands everything. They accept Party assignments-the matter of family associations and other personal problems are considered, but are not decisive. If the class struggle demands it, he will leave his family for months, even years * * *. Our task is to make every Party member a professional revolutionist in this sense. IMPORTANCE OF THEORY None of our American political parties is so fanatically bound by dogma as is the Communist Party, which is devoted to the theories of Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism. Briefly this dogma is based upon the following false conceptions: 1. That all phases of American life, industry, education, reli- gion, politics, the press, radio and films, even family life, are dominated primarily by an irreconcilable class struggle between the capitalists and the workers. 2. That our system of free capitalist enterprise (which has produced for the American people the highest living standards in the world), has actually outlived its usefulness and must be de- stroyed. 3. That the system of communism (with its slave labor camps, low living standards, and one-party dictatorship over every phase of human life) is superior to and must take the place of our sys- tem of free enterprise, thus abolishing the class struggle for all time. 4. That American democracy is not a government of, by, and for the American people but a capitalist dictatorship, which must be destroyed. 5. That this change to communism and a classless society can be brought about only by the violent overthrow of the capitalist system and our form of government. 6. That the Communist Party is destined to carry out this historic mission. 7. That Communists owe their highest and unreserved loyalty to the Soviet Union, where the Communist system has been finally established. For tactical reasons these conceptions may be slightly modified by the ruling hierarchy or disguised to avoid legal prosecution, but the basic principles remain the same and are returned to when a temporary emergency has passed. Thus, the Communist Party, USA, advocated cooperation with the capitalists and with American democracy when Russia faced destruction from Adolph Hitler, only to return to its former hostility to capitalism when the war was over and Hitler was destroyed. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Rele se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 12 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA This chain of dogma is the frame of reference by which the Com- munist interpre s the world around him and maps out his behavior. It provides hi with a clear perspective of his present and future battles. It indicates the goal toward which he is striving and which justifies every means from treason to murder. It offers a powerful politic ),l myth inspiring Communists with fanatical zeal. American poi tical parties are usually active during election cam- paigns. Their primary function is to elect this or that candidate to office. Between campaigns activity is at a low ebb. The Communist Party functions at all times of the year, every day of the week, an at all hours of the day. It is a full-time organization which is not re tricted to election campaigns. It persistently seeks to permeate c ery phase of American life for its own subversive purpose. Com unist agents may be found wherever and whenever there is an opportunity for Communist propaganda or the promotion of civil strife, whether it be the factory, the union, the church, the school, or then ighborhood. SUP RSENSITIVITY ON ORGANIZATION MATTERS No political arty in this country ever was so supremely conscious of the mechanics of organization as is the Communist Party. This is a demonstration of its quasi-military character. Like an army, it pays marked a tention to what makes the wheels go round and to organizational echniques. The Communist International has pub- lished considerable literature dealing specifically with party organiza- tion. From time to time the party has published special organs, known as the Party Organizer and later as Contact, as well as pamphlets and articles, dealing with purely organizational problems and intended only for the eyes of party members. Every convention and meeting o the national committee of the Communist Party is devoted in some part to organizational questions. Voluminous mate- rial and directi es on such matters have been sent to this country from Moscow for the use of the American Party. In 1935 the party published its Manual on Organization by J. Peters, after he had spent years of stud in Moscow. Every Communist unit and front organization h s its organizational director, a post peculiar to this type of organiz tion. Our political parties respect other organizations and, as a rule, make little effo t to interfere with their internal affairs or to control them. Traditi nal political parties do not generally penetrate other political parties. The reverse is true in the case of the Communist Party. Communists look upon all organizations not under their control as instrumentalities of the enemy, of the ruling class. This holds true for the Government, the unions, civic and professional organizations, fraternal organizations, women's groups, youth groups, religious groups, and ev n political parties. In warfare it is standard practice Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 13 to penetrate enemy territory and dislocate its machinery or capture its strongholds. The Communist Party, while it safeguards its own ranks against penetration, does not hesitate to infiltrate other organizations. In a letter to a comrade written in September 1902, dealing with organizational problems, Lenin called for an organization which "must be conspiratorial internally" and "ramified externally" with "feelers" stretched far and widespread. As such an organization the Communist Party alternates its strategy between a soft policy toward those whom it considers currently useful and a policy of militant opposition toward those whom it considers as current obstacles. - Fully aware that if it appeared openly in its true guise as a bridge- head of a hostile, foreign dictatorship, the Communist Party, USA, would attract little support, its methods are based primarily upon deception. This approach is inherent in the Communist movement and was laid down by Lenin in his work "Left-Wing" Communism: An Infantile Disorder, first printed in Russia in April 1920, in which he declares: It is necessary to agree to any and every sacrifice, and even-if need be-to resort to all sorts of devices, manoeuvres, and illegal methods, to evasion and subterfuge. * * * Hence the Communist Party, pro-Soviet always, nevertheless calls itself the party of Jefferson, Jackson, and Lincoln. It operates behind the scenes of the Progressive Party and the American Labor Party. Its members resort to aliases and deny their affiliation. It builds up numerous front organizations with attractive labels to ensnare the unwary in its various campaigns. Its leaders do not hesitate to deceive their own members as to the party's real nature and purpose. Well-intentioned but naive individuals are constantly deploring the fact that Communists rudely reject their amicable advances for good will and cooperation. They are wont to blame themselves or our own national policy for lack of response to their friendly overtures. They do not understand that the Communist Party, USA, looks upon itself as being in the nature of a reconnaissance and commando force operating in enemy territory in behalf of the Soviet fatherland. In accordance with this concept, just as in the case of an actual military detachment of a hostile, foreign foe based upon American soil, correct military strategy would call for a constant offensive against us, so the Communist Party stays constantly on the offensive against all who refuse to do its bidding. This approach is clearly outlined by Lenin in his Works, volume VI, page 291: The defensive is the death of every armed uprising; it is lost before it measures itself with its enemies. Surprise your antagonists while their forces are scattering, prepare new successes, however small, but daily; * * * in the words of Danton, the greatest master of revolutionary policy yet known, de l'audace, de l'audace, encore de l'audacel (audacity, audacity, more audacity). Unaware of the philosophy behind Communist tactics, unsophisti- cated and softhearted liberals are sometimes stunned by the barrage Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Rele se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 14 THE COM UNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA of invective which greets their well-meant advances. They are un- mindful of Leni 's effort to arouse among his followers a "passion for political denun iation," a field in which he was a master. This will explain why a C mmunist always seems to carry a chip on his shoulder. This note of elligerence is echoed by J. Peters in the Communist Party, USA, Manual on Organization where he indicates that the party- Unit as a whole ai workers in the str The party ope' against us." et or town as fearless fighters * * *. ates on the theory that "He who is not with us, is Within the C from the smalls echelons of the sometimes men- circumstance. aster of the part their passion foi For example, of the revolutio kept "on ice" ft gram of the Co in 1928 stands activities of the based. In the menace, it woul need for a diligc opponents. Despite the ff has established imbued with its extends down t lated by Commi The Party- said Lenin in his is the highest form the other forms of "We Commul 1924, "are peopl We are those wl gist, the army o this army." Although the out the world, to itself as "the guard of the w characterized as of tens of centum the earth." ommunist Party, USA, every step is planned in detail ,st club or unit in the United States to the highest international Communist apparatus in Moscow- bhs or years in advance. Nothing is left to whim or In part this is a reflection of the quasi-military char- by. In part it is a carryover from the Russians and planning. a number of Communist leaders now in the forefront nary movement in the Far East were educated and t years in Moscow until the right moment. The pro- mmunist International adopted by its sixth congress today as a definitive guide upon which present-day Communist movement in all parts of the world are ,urrent struggle of democracy against the Communist d be suicidal to overlook this basic fact. Hence the ant study of standard Communist literature by all its ct that it has brought misery and slavery wherever it is power, no American political party is as fervently mission as is the Communist Party. This conceit its rank-and-file members, encouraged and stimu- nist leaders throughout the world. "Left-Wing" Communism: An Infantile Disorder- . of the class organization of the proletariat; it should lead all proletarian organizations. lists," declared Joseph Stalin at Lenin's funeral in e of a special mould. We are made of special material. o comprise the army of the great proletarian strate- I Lenin. There is nothing higher than belonging to Communists have been repudiated by labor through- lommunist Party literature is replete with references leader and organizer of the proletariat," "the van- orking class," even reaching the point where it is "the most complete bearer of the great achievements ?ies of the rise of the human mind and its mastery of Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 15 By and large American political parties are loose organizations in which individual accountability is at a minimum. The Communist Party member, on the other hand, is never a free agent. He is held strictly responsible for his acts by his party superiors. This is a continuing process which places every party member and leader on the anxious seat at all times. As Lenin pointed out in his work What Is To Be Done? in Feb- ruary 1902, reprinted and accepted as mandatory by all Communist Parties ever since, party members- are keenly alive to their responsibility, knowing from experience that in order to get rid of an undesirable member, an organization of true revolutionaries will stop at nothing. He stressed the fact that such an organization "punishes with merciless severity every abuse of duty by a comrade. * * *" Penalties im- posed have run all the way from censure or expulsion to murder. Outside of the Communist movement, especially in naive liberal circles, there is a prevailing illusion that Communist discipline is primarily based upon high idealism and conviction. However, the chief conspirators in the Kremlin are not so impractical as to rely upon such fortuitous and changing factors. They have too much at stake. Therefore a much more reliable instrument is employed, namely, blackmail. With the aid of extensive files continuously augmented, showing every personal foible and misstep, every devi- ation from the party line, the threat of compromise or exposure affords an alternative means of insuring obedience. The Communist Party is permeated with an atmosphere of distrust toward every individual party member. Hence members and leaders are subject to a process of continuous checkup, totally at variance with procedure in our political parties. This is done through annual or more frequent registrations, internal purges and demands for reports. Members are expected to attend classes regularly and to keep abreast of official party literature in order to guard against any possible defection from the current party line. A DIVISIVE PARTY Wherever the Communist Party makes its appearance, it serves as a force for division and friction, following the theory of divide and rule. Thus it seeks to alienate the United States from its potential allies. Internally it thrives upon promoting clashes: Between em- ployer and employee, landlord and tenant, white and Negro, native- born and foreigner, Catholic, Protestant and Jew; between the American people and their Government, and within every non- Communist organization. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Rele 16 "THE COMM Political part sharply with ea current adminiE Democratic and ment as it is Party. Running like very inception form of governn among the fun( munist Internat the violent overthi erty, the destructi bottom-parliamei nicipal, etc. In a similar CPUSA, has wr Capitalist govel ments * * * In ments established se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 JNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA RD THE GOVERNMENT AND AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS ies as we know them in American life may differ ch other. The party not in office may criticize the ,tration unsparingly. But fundamentally both the Republican Parties are loyal to our form of Govern- ,resently constituted. Not so with the Communist a red thread through Communist teachings from the )f the movement is the note of total hostility to our lent. For example, the following points are included [amental tasks of the Second Congress of the Com- ional delivered July 4, 1920: ow of the bourgeoisie lcapitalist], the confiscation of its prop- on of the whole of the bourgeois state apparatus from top to .itary, judicial, military, bureaucratic, administrative, mu- vein, William Z. Foster, present chairman of the itten in his book, Toward Soviet America: , ?nments have nothing in common with proletarian govern- the revolutionary struggle they are smashed and Soviet govern- * * *" (p, 271). M. J. O1gin, a former member of the central executive committee of the CPUSA and an editor of the (Communist) Freiheit, stated succinctly in his book, Why Communism, the exact purpose of the Communists in entering legislative bodies. He said, "We go to the law-making institutions, not to tinker them up for the benefit of the capitalists, but to be a monkey wrench in their machinery * * *" As shown by experience in countries which are under the heel of a Communist dictatorship, the Communists display the same implacable hostility toward all non-Communist parties and institutions. Thus, William Z. Fos er's pledge in regard to what he envisages under the dictatorship of the proletariat in the United States cannot be lightly dismissed. In his work, Toward Soviet America, he declared: Under the die Progressive, Socia alone as the Part organizations, tha of commerce, emp and such fraternal etc (p 275). Our Americas Nevertheless tI erally recognize scruples. They to the class stj According to ti only that whit] means out dei "Moral", actor the new, Comn youth, "Our in class struggle." ;atorship all the capitalist parties- Republican, Democratic, .ist, etc.-will be liquidated, the Communist Party functioning p of the toiling masses. Likewise, will be dissolved all other t are political props of the bourgeois rule, including chambers oyers associations, rotary clubs, American Legion, Y. M. C. A., orders as the Masons, Odd Fellows, Elks, Knights of Columbus, i political parties may clash over issues or public office. ere is a certain code of ethics, of loyalty which is gen- d and adhered to. The Communists have no such believe that ethics should be completely subordinated -uggle, that is to say to the Communist movement. io Soviet Short Philosophical Dictionary, " `Moral' is i facilitates the destruction of the old world," which aocratic world and particularly the United States. ling to this conception, "is only that which strengthens iunist regime." Again, Lenin has said to Communist :)rality is entirely subordinated to the interests of the Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST.PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 17 Specifically this means that Communists consider themselves justi- fled in violating any and every ethical code in the interest of what they consider a "higher" cause. Having been defeated by a legiti- mate major-ty vote they will refuse to recognize it and press their original contention. Having been expelled from an organization, they will try to penetrate through other channels. Solemn agree- ments are, to them, merely scraps of paper. Political parties as we know them vary in character from State to State and from country to country. The Communist Party conforms strictly to pattern with some slight variations for purposes of local camouflage. Those who understand the main outline and underlying principles of the party in one country or locality, who are familiar with the party line from Communist publications, can readily understand and follow the identical pattern of the party as it appears everywhere, and even predict it. REVOLUTIONARY MINORITY It is impossible to understand the nature and activities of the Communist Party, USA, without appreciating the fact that it is primarily a revolutionary minority seeking to perpetrate the over- throw of the Nation by insurrectionary means directed at the most sensitive and strategic strongholds of our Government. In other words the Communists do not accept as final or decisive the verdict of the peaceful ballot based upon majorities and public persuasion. They rely rather upon forceful means beyond the purview of our legal election machinery. This has been dealt with in some detail in the House Committee on Un-American Activities report on The Com- munist Party of the United States as an Advocate of Overthrow of Government by Force and Violence, and the report of the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee giving "documentary proof that the Communist Party, USA, teaches and advocates the overthrow and destruction of the United States Government by force and violence." In his collected works, Russian Edition, volume XIV, part 2, page 270, Lenin formulated this strategic approach in his thesis on insur- rection, which has been emphasized by Joseph Stalin, which reads in part as follows: Accumulate a preponderance of forces at the decisive place, at the decisive moment. * * * Try to take the enemy by surprise. In his Foundations of Leninism, Stalin presented the same thought from a somewhat different angle when he called upon the Commu- nists- to locate at any given moment that single link in the chain of events which if seized upon will enable us to control the whole chain and prepare the ground for the achievement of strategic success. Given a highly interdependent civilization vulnerable to physical dis- location at many points, given the tremendous power of modern science at the disposal of subversive forces and given the numerous frictions prevalent in any democratic society, one can readily conceive the potentialities for the creation of chaos inherent in a group which is constantly probing for our weak spots and endeavoring to capitalize upon them with the maximum destructive effect. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Rele se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 18 THE COMM LTNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ORGANIZATION OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY, USA COMMUNIST HIERARCHY The basic organization of the Communist Party is the club or branch. This may be based on a territorial limitation, for instance embracing a community or rural area, or may be limited to employees of a large industrial plant or of a single industry within a city or town. Each club is controlled by an executive committee or bureau consist- ing of the chief officers. A group of clubs or branches in a given area is in turn contr lied by a section committee. The next higher body is the State co mittee or a district committee including two or more States, above w ich is the national committee of the party. In recent days the party organization has been subdivided into smaller con- spiratorial groups. A reading of t e Communist Party constitution will not disclose the structure of the party as it actually functions. Such documents are drawn up for public consumption and disguise and not for real practice. A conspiracy could not well be expected to publish its code of procedure which has grow up and become ingrained in the organization as a matter of usage rather than statute. For example, he Communist Party constitution, in order to give the party a sembla ce of democracy, declares that "The highest body of the state organ ation is the State Convention." And further, "The highest authori y of the Party is the National Convention." Since State and Nati na] conventions are held every 2 years or less often, it is manifest that the party is not and cannot be run from day to day by convent ons. The conventions are merely rubber stamps for decisions of a s all core of policymakers including a Moscow repre- sentative operating behind the scenes. We shall pre ent below the various stages in the structure of the party as found in J. Peters' The Communist Party-a Manual on Organization, published in July 1935, as compared with the present streamlined version from the constitution of the Communist Party of the United Sates of America, published in September 1945, both of which are co sciously misleading: PETERS' MANUAL, 139 Unit Bureau Unit Membership Meeting Section Bureau Section Committee Section Convention District Bureau District Committee District Convention Political Bureau Central Committee (Secretariat not mentioned) Central Committee National Convention Political Secretari t o, the Communist International Presidium of th Communist Inter- national Executive Committee of the Communist International World Congress of the Communist International CONSTITUTION, 1945 Club Executive Committee Club Membership Meeting Not mentioned Not mentioned Not-mentioned State or District Board State or District Committee State or District Convention National Board (Secretariat not mentioned) National Committee National Convention Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 19 One must not be misled by the formal outward structure of the party, behind which a publicly unacknowledged but nonetheless actual network operates. For example, a section committee can send its representative to any subordinate club with power to determine decisions of the club or its executive committee. Similarly the secretariat of the national committee can send its representative with overriding powers to any unit of the party. In the same manner the Moscow headquarters of the Communist movement sends representa- tives like Gerhard Eisler who have undisputed say over the decisions of the national committee and the staff of the national office in its day-to-day activity. These practices are not even mentioned in the party's constitution. On October 13, 1952, the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee heard the testimony of John Lautner, former member of the National Review Commission of the Communist Party, U. S. A., and head of its New York State Review Commission. This particular feature of the Communist Party finds no parallel in political parties. According to Mr. Lautner, this body's principal function was- to safeguard party discipline, to vigilantly seek out and ferret out any anti-party elements in the ranks of the party, to carry out investigations and to propose for expulsion or any form of discipline party members who don't toe the line. After the indictments of certain party leaders, the "three system" of conspiratorial organization was adopted, which is described by Lautner, who was assigned to carry out phases of this reorganization, as follows: The party leadership appointed the top coordinating committee, ' The top coordinating committee consisted of three people. * * * One was head of the three. He was the political person in the group. * * * The other was the organizational person and the third one was the union mass-organization person. Now, these three people were assigned, each one of them, to appoint three other persons below him on the next level. * * * So he appoints his one, two, three P's. * * * 0 does the same thing. * * * [NOTE.-O stands for organizer, P for polit- ical organizer and T for trade union organizer.) P does not know 0 or T on the lower levels He knows only the three persons that he appointed. 0 does not know the P's and T's on the lower levels. He only knows his O's. So, here you have a situation where one party leader knows his two associates in his triangle, and the three that he appointed below. All in all, a party member wouldn't. know more than six party members in the party, up and down. * * * To my own personal knowledge there was the top coordinating committee; that 3, the next level was 9, and the third level, 27; the fourth level, St, and the fifth level, 243. * * * Speaking before the subcommittee of the House Committee on Appropriations on December 9, 1953, J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation described the current organization of the Communist Party in the following terms: No longer are Communist Party membership cards issued; maintenance of membership records are forbidden; contacts of rank and file members are limited from 3'to 5-the basic club unit. Most of the local headquarters have been dis- continued and party records have been destroyed. No evening meetings are permitted in headquarters without staff members present. Conventions and large meetings are held to the absolute minimum. The use of the telephone and telegraph is avoided. No contact is had with families or friends; contacts between functionaries are arranged through frequently changed intermediaries; false drivers licenses have Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 20 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA been obtained; assumed names have been adopted; modification of physical ap- pearance has been effected, such as dyeing hair and eyebrows * * *. They have removed conspicuous means of personal indentification such as moles; they have effecte a new manner of walking, have changed their dress standards, have avoided old habits and even have avoided old vices, and have avoided appear- ance in public pla es where their recognition would be probable. They communicate through couriers and avoid the use of written communica- tions. They hav instituted loyalty tests for all prospective underground per- sonnel. They ro ate the underground personnel to avoid detection * * *. They appear outside of hideouts only at night * * *. They use different automobiles, and the cars frequently are registered in fictitious names and not na es of party members; the license plates are frequently changed. They have use extreme precautions in regard to surveillance, making rapid and frequent cha ges of conveyances, entering and leaving subways and buses just before the doors close, and doubling back on their course. The keyston of the Communist Party hierarchy within the United States is the m presentative of the Communist International or its present equiva ent, the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parti s, otherwise known as the Cominform. The statutes of the Communist International adopted at its sixth congress in the summer of 192 formally authorize the sending of such representatives to. affiliated Communist Parties. Although the Communist Inter- national was a legedly dissolved in May 1943, witnesses before the Committee on Un-American Activities have disclosed in terms of their experience that these statutes are still fully operative in actual fact although n t openly acknowledged. Article III, s ction 22 of these statutes declares that- The E. C. C. I (Executive Committee of the Communist International) and its Presidium have the right to send their representatives to the various Sections of the Communist International. Such representatives receive their instructions from the E. C. C. I. or from its Presidium, and are responsible to them for their activities. Repre entatives of the E. C. C. I. have the right to participate in meetings of the central Party bodies as well as of the local organizations of the Sections to which they are sent * * * They may * * * speak in opposition to the Central Committee of the given Section * * * if the line of the Central Committee in question diverges from the instructions of the E. C. C. I. * * * The E. C. C. I. Mid its Presidium also have the right to send instructors to the various Sections o the Communist International. Appearing o September 8, 1939, before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Benjamin Gitlow, former member of the executive committee of the Communist International, former member of the political committee of the Communist Party, USA, and one time its candidate for Vice President of the United States, described the powers of these representatives or "reps" as they are familiarly called: A representative of the Communist International to the United States during his stay in the United States was the boss of the party * * * He automatically became a member of all the leading committees of the party in the United States and participated in its deliberations and enjoyed a vote on matters that were voted upon * * * all he had to do was to impose his power and mandate as a C. I. representative, and then his view would prevail. Generally, American Communists never would take a position in opposition to the representative of the Communist I ernational. Seven years 1 ter on November 22, 1946, Louis F. Budenz, former managing editor of the Daily Worker and a member of the national committee of t e Communist Party, USA, confirmed this picture Approved For Rele se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 21 when he described the activities of Gerhard Eisler, alias Hans Berger, alias Edwards. The latter had been introduced to Budenz by Eugene Dennis, former general secretary of the party, as the "equivalent to a representative of the Communist International." Mr. Budenz de- clared that- the official representative of the Communist International is the chief communica- tion officer who brings the line of the party over, who knows it, and who, in addition to that, is vested with a certain authority to intervene in party affairs if he judges that necessary. Mr. Budenz was notified by Dennis that he would "occasionally re- ceive instructions and communications from this Hans Berger," alias for Gerhard Eisler. Budenz described how Eisler (Berger) verbally flayed Daily Worker Editor Clarence Hathaway "for almost half an hour." In the Communist of May 1944, leading theoretical organ of the Communist Party, USA, Eisler (Berger) publicly castigated William Z. Foster, then chairman of the party. In neither case did these American Communist chieftains dare to reply. In the November 1943 issue of the Communist, "Hans Berger" wrote an article entitled "Remarks on the Discussion Concerning the Dissolution of the Communist International," the purpose of which was to inform American Communists that "internationalism still lives." In The Communist of November 1942, Eisler, posing as an American, explained the significance of "Twenty-five Years of Soviet Power." He was for some time the brains behind Joseph Starobin, foreign editor of the Daily Worker, whom he employed as his mouth- piece. This will give some idea of the tremendous power wielded over the American Communist Party by its Moscow-anointed com- missar. Others who have served in this capacity in the past include: G. Valetsky; Joseph Pogany, alias John Schwartz, alias John Pepper, alias John Swift; Boris Reinstein; S. Gussev, alias P. Green, alias Drabkin; Y. Sirola, alias Miller; Arthur Ewert, alias Braun, alias Brown, alias Berger; Harry Pollitt; Philip Dengel; B. Mikhailov, alias George Williams; Carl E. Johnson, alias Scott, alias Jensen; ------ Petersen; _ _ _ - Marcus, alias M. Jenks; F. Marini, alias Mario Alpi, alias Fred Brown; William Rust; Willi Muenzenberg; Louis Gibarti; Raissa Irene Browder; Raymond Guyot; Boris Isakov, alias Boris Williams. At times two or more such commissars will be here simultaneously, each being assigned to some special task or campaign. There is method in Moscow's designation of foreign commissars for the American party as revealed by Jacob Golos, in charge of under- ground activities, in an interview with Louis F. Budenz in his bio- graphical work Men Without Faces; "An American might be a Comintern man in such countries as China and the Philippines," declared Golos. "He will never yield to any homesickness for those lands, nor will he think of his family there in a moment of weakness." He added, however, that "for this country the C. I. (Comintern) man and the C. I. agents under him will always be non-Americans--and noncitizens if at all possible." MOSCOW, THE SEAT OF POWER . In describing the Communist hierarchy from the lowest club to the very pinnacle of power, we have endeavored to deal with the realities Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Rele se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 22 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA of this farfiu conspiracy as disclosed by individuals formerly enmeshed therein, rather than to take seriously the current official version of Communist organization which is foisted upon those gullible and ignorant enough to give it credence. Illuminating detail is found in the testimony of Joseph Zack Kornfeder, former member of the central executive committee of the Communist Pa ty, USA, a former member of the Anglo-American secretariat of t e Communist International, later its representative in Colombia an Venezuela. He testified before the House Committee on Un-American Activi- ties on August , 1949, in regard to a dispute in the American party between the p o-Stalinist faction headed by William Z. Foster and the anti-Stalini t faction headed by Jay Lovestone. This dispute occurred long go, in 1928. Nevertheless, the pattern of behavior which it reveal is important in helping us understand a structure which has not changed fundamentally since then. We quote from Mr. Kornfeder' testimony: The reason why Stalin, as well as Molotov and other leaders of the Russian Communist Party spent that much time on this faction fight in the United States, was because Stalin, considering this country of utmost importance in the total scheme of strateg , wanted to retain a reliable base by securing control, absolute control, for his faction of the Communist Party of the United States * * *. Stalin personally directed all the major phases of the fight against the then majority of the A erican Communist Party, led by Jay Lovestone * * *. In the windup of that fight, he and Molotov even participated as members of the commission that tried Lovestone and other members of the central committee of the American Communist Party siding with Lovestone * * *. The speech was made at the Presidium on May 14, 1929. In volume X of the hearings of the Committee on Un-American Activities (pp. 112 to 7124) are printed two speeches made by Stalin on May 6 and 4, 1929, and in which he actively intervened in the affairs of the American Communist Party to the point of presenting an ultimatum t the American delegation. He declared that- If the comrades o the American delegation accept our terms-good and well; if they don't, so much the worse for them. Then Stalin recommended that Comrades Lovestone and Bittelman, leaders of the American party, "must be recalled and placed at the disposal of the omintern." Subsequent to this meeting, Lovestone was summarily expelled from his post as executive secretary of the Communist Party, USA, and the rival faction was installed in the leadership, despite the fact that his voting strength had represented over 90 percent of the party membership in a previous convention. Bittelman was shifted out of the United States to duties abroad. Those who seek open statutory justification for Stalin's relationship toward the Co munist Party, USA, are chasing a will-o'-the-wisp. In any conspiracy, the real source of power is not inherent in any statutes. Since the elimination of the recalcitrant faction in 1929, Stalin's power o er the Communist Party in America was sufficiently secure and unchallenged, as to make it unnecessary for him to openly intervene. Fro that time on, his intervention has been more covert, operating behind a screen of agents completely submissive to his Approved For Rele4se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For R@4wXw20NA 8I27 TOWRD W8M9'1R0'O66O014037-0 It may well be asked how Joseph Stalin was in a position to keep track of the activities of his Communist satellites in the United States. According to Mr. Kornfeder, Stalin maintained a personal secretariat, each member of which was assigned to a specific area. At the time Mr. Kornfeder was in Moscow, affairs in America were under the supervision of one B. Mikhailov, the secretary on American affairs, who visited the United States in 1930 under the name of George Williams, to take charge of the purge of Lovestoneites. In 1933 Helena Stasova was Stalin's secretary for German questions. According to Mr. Kornfeder, this streamlined body of secretaries outmoded the cumbersome machinery of the Communist International and thus enabled Stalin to exercise more complete and direct control over his international Red network. The details of this mechanism will not be found in any public Com- munist pronouncement either here or abroad. The subordination of the CPUSA to Stalin personally is, however, implicit in the telegrar;b signed in behalf of its national committee by William Z. Foster as chairman, and Eugene Dennis as general secretary of the Communist Party, USA, on the occasion of the 70th birthday of Joseph Stalin and published in the Daily Worker as recently as December 21, 1949, from which we quote in part: DEAR COMRADE STALIN: On your 70th birthday the National Committee of the Communist Party, USA * * * sends you heartiest congratulations and warmest greetings * * * Like the Communists * * * in all lands. we hail your more than 50 years of sterling leadership * * *. According to this telegram, victory in World War II was ascribable not to the joint efforts of the Allies and particularly the United States, but rather to the guidance of the "Great Bolshevik Party, built by you and Comrade Lenin, and, since Lenin's death, continuing under ;your leadership to guide itself by the principles of Marxism-Leninism which you have safeguarded and enriched." The telegram closes with the wish "Long life to you, Comrade Stalin, and to your great and enduring contributions to world peace, democracy, and Socialism." Accustomed as we are to the methods employed by our traditional political parties with openly acknowledged membership, membership records and books, we Americans might expect to find documentary proof of such membership in the case of Communists. Naively unaware of the conspiratorial nature of the Communist Party, we might demand the production of a party membership card or other documentary evidence before we will believe that an individual is a Communist. Thus we might contribute to our own confusion, accentuated by the consistent denial of party membership on the part of those charged. The Communist Party, USA, has progressively streamlined its membership records to the point where no membership cards are issued at the present time. Dues records are maintained in code, with each member assigned a number, in accordance with the following form: Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approv%d F 14 20/=2'F~ vRt P 4YD9 X000600140037-0 1------------------------ 2------------------------ S------------------------ 4------------------------ 5------------------------ 6------------------------ 7------------------------ 3------------------------ 9------------------------ 10----------------------- On every oce or before gran such lists exist. of Los Angeles to a Federal gra maintains an ex keeping system, that the party's On January 1 the expulsion o John Lautner, a member of the New York State review commission of the Communist Party. Printing his photo- graph, the announcement said that "Lautner himself is an enemy agent of long standing." In March 195 Matthew Cvetic appeared as a witness before the Committee on n-American Activities, having served as undercover agent for the F I within the Communist Party in Pittsburgh for a number of years. Immediately following his appearance before the committee, he Daily Worker published, on March 3, 1950, a digest of three documents purporting to show that Cvetic had assaulted his wife's sister "with force and violence." The documents included (1) the indictment, (2) a court order directing him to make financial restitution to the alleged victim in this case, and (3) the decision to nolle ross the case. Testifying on eptember 30, 1939, Joseph Zack Kornfeder, former member of the c ntral executive committee of the Communist Party and at one time n charge of its trade-union activity, declared: I was once asked to supply an engineer, a chemist, who would personally have qualifications capable, and let us say, talk to other engineers higher in the pro- fession than himsel , in this instance, specifically, certain engineers of du Pont. I was asked to do tat by Max Bedacht, who was then in charge of this phase of their secret activity Well, I recommended a certain individual. A former member of the Communist Party, a writer, has told in a letter of his exp rience in checking on the record of a former Com- munist Party m mber, in connection with a certain article he was writing for a Communist magazine in 1939. The writer was called to the New York office of Charles Dirba, then head of the control com- mission or disciplinary board of the party. We publish a few signifi- cant excerpts fro this letter: June July Sept. FO-.t. Sion before congressional committees, in the courts embership lists. In fact they have claimed that no ere sentenced to jail for refusal to disclose sueh lists d_jury._ Nevertheless all-signs point not only to the son that the party could not maintain a sound book- ncluding records of dues payments, without accurate individual party member. It must be remembered n and by Communist headquarters in Moscow. , 1950, for example, the Daily Worker announced the Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 25 I told him of this story about --- having been a Communist. He produced a book of some kind-it looked, as I recall it, like a large ledger-and began looking through it. Finally, he came on what was, apparently, a note about----. It said, as 1 remember it, that. --- had been a Communist in some city in Texas several years ago. Thus it would appear that the national headquarters of the Com- munist Party was in possession of membership lists for Texas. There is every reason to believe that such records are still maintained, in secret, of course, and that copies are forwarded to Communist head- quarters in Moscow. Since the Communist Party, USA, is part of a. world organization operating under central direction and everywhere in accordance with a uniform pattern, the testimony of Igor Gouzenko, former civilian employee at the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa, is significant. We quote from page 38 of the report of the Canadian Royal Commission, pub- lished June 27, 1946, referring to biographical data dealing with Sam Carr, national organizer of the Communist (Labour-Progressive) Party of Canada: A. On every Communist there is a file at the Comintern in Moscow; for every Communist in the whole-world there is a file at the Comintern at Moscow. Q. The Comintern was supposed to have been abolished before 1945? A. Supposed to be abolished in 1943. but it is not so. * * * According to Gouzenko, the registration card kept in the 1945 .dossier in the Soviet Embassy on Sam Carr, stated after the mimeo- graphed heading "Biographical Data," the following typed entry, in Russian: "Detailed biographical information is available in the Centre in the Comintern." In his biographical study, This Is My Story, Louis F. Budenz, former managing editor of the Daily Worker and former member of the national committee of the Communist Party, described in detail the party's method of keeping individual records: Records are kept of each member in any kind of key post, just as they would be for those engaged by any other espionage system. When a member takes up a new post, he must file a complete new biography. This is checked for new data and also to observe if it differs from the ones previously filed. In his biography he is required to list his relatives, where they were born and now live, their occu- pation, and his relations with them. His entire personal and labor history must be given-previous marriages if any, his children and his arrests * * * Ile must also give a complete accounting of his financial resources, the average salary he has received throughout his working life, any bonds or other property he ever owned, and what he aow owns, if anything. * * * His Party record must be given in detail (p. 235). With this information in its hands, the party is in a position to blackmail any possible recalcitrant and to exercise highly potent means of personal pressure. OFFICIAL QUESTIONNAIRES Communists have been most vociferous in condemnation of what they term Government prying in connection with loyalty investiga- tions. Below we present a questionnaire which party functionaries were required to fill out in 1946. If any Government agency in this country would dare to infringe on the privacy of its citizens to such a degree, it would be denounced from coast to coast by the leftwing press as violative of civil liberties. But so far as we know no Com- munist, nor any civil liberities advocate, has ever protested against 70330?-J6-3 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Relese 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 26 THE CO MUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA this Commu American cif tionnaire the which each I ist questionnaire as an invasion of the privacy of an izen. Through such methods as this compulsory ques- arty member can be put by the Communist conspiracy. NEW YORK STATE REVIEW COMMISSION COMMUNIST PARTY, U. S. A. assured that safeguarded.. Below you will find a questionnaire to be used as a guide in )graphy. Please be advised that the Commission wants a detailed ment from you, one that will enable it to know you as well as you Please use as much paper as necessary (on one side only) and be his document will be treated in strict confidence and properly 1. PERSONAL $ACKGROUND- Your name nd all pseudonyms and nicknames ever used in the Party or other- Date of birt ; place of birth (city, county & State); Names and ates of birthplace and occupation and political affiliation of your parents; same or your brothers and sisters; Your own tr We or occupation; place of employment, all occupations and places of employmen for the past ten years. Your wife's aiden name (or your husband's first name), the date and plane of his or her birt , occupation and place of employment; Name your hildren and give information as to their ages and date and place of present emp oyment. Are you a ve eran of any wars, such as World War I, II, Spain and foreign wars. 2. EDUCATION Describe yo r formal education; public school, high school and college; Name the schools and indicate the years of attendance and degrees received; Describe yo r Party education; what schools attended and courses studied; Give a sum ary of your self-study, naming the Marxist books you have covered. 3. COMMUNIST PARTY- Give the dat and place (city, county, section, club) of your joining the Party; By whom recruited; his present whereabouts and political and social back- Describe yo r Party activities, stating all functions held in branches, sections, counties, etc., iving dates and locating the organizations by county, city, and Name all con entions and conferences you have attended as delegate or observer (state which) and all subcommittees you have served on. Name all your recruits. into the Party, giving their present whereabouts and functions, as Well as their social and occupational background. State whether they are at present in the Party and if they dropped out, why?. Name your elatives and close friends who are or were members of the Party; give their wbe eabouts and present organizational functions and activities. Describe you present function or post in the Party, how long held; discuss any other assignme is that you may feel better fitted for, what would you want to Have you ever had any personal or political difficulties in the Party? Were you ever invol ed in disciplinary action-where, when and give the disposition of the case. Name all the mass organizations you are or have ever been a member of (trade unions, other political parties, education, economic and social mass organizations) ; Give dates, posts and activities in each; Describe the struggles you have participated in (strikes, - lockouts, mass and Party demonstrations, etc.) Approved For Rele4se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 27 Were you ever arrested; where, when, on what charges, give the disposition of the case or cases. If you are at present, a full time functionary in a mass organization, describe your post and functions. UOPWA/1 1. Book No------------ 2. Age------------- 3. Occupation ------------- 4. What kind of company or organization do you work for? ------------------- 5. What kind of work do you want to do?. --------------------------------- 6. What kinds of work have you done in the past? _________________________._ 7. Do you work nights?---------- 8. If so, what nights? -----------------._ ------------------------------------------------------------------- 9. Are there any peculiarities in connection with your work, such as long travel- ing time or lots of overtime? ________________________________________._ 10. Marital status______________ 11. If unemployed housewife, what free time have you during the day? __________________________________________._ 12. Number of children ---------- 13. Ages ------------ 14. What schools do they attend?---------------------------------------------------?- 15. Do you belong to a parents' or a parent-teachers' organization? ___________._ 16. Name of organization------------------------------------------------- 17. If not a member, has your children's school such an organization?------------ 18. If a member, are you active?______________ 19. Have you any special function?--------------------------------------------------------- 20. Have you any personal problems which restrict activity, such as ill health, in- valids in the family, etc? ___________________________________________._ 21. What are your skills, hobbies, interests, etc.?___________________________._ 22. Can you type? ---------- 23. Have you a typewriter at home?----------- 24. Can you drive a car? ---------- - 25. Have you a driver's license? ________._ 26. Have you a car?________ 27. Can you operate a mimeograph machine?---.- 28. Are you going to school at present?__________ 29. If so, what schools or school? ------------------------------------------------------------ 30. What are you studying? ----------------------------------------------- 31. If going to school at night, what nights? _______________________________._ 32. How many nights a week do you need for study? _______________________._ 33. What formal education have you had in the past?________________________ (High school, college, special courses.) ------------------------------------------------------------------- 34. Is your apartment suitable and available for occasional parties?------------- 35. Available for parties?---------- 36. Available for meetings, classes?_ _ _ _ _. _ 37. Are you a veteran?-------- 38. Service (branch of) --------------------- 39 - ---------------------------- 40. Decorations, etc_____________-____-._ 41. Do you belong to a vet organization? ------------ 42. Name of organiza- tion-------------------- 43. Where and when does it meet? ----------- 44. Are you active? -------- 45. Attend meetings regularly? _______________.._ ------------------------------------------------------------------ Occasionally?________________ 46. Have you any special function in the organization? _____________________.- 47. Are you interested in vet housing work? _______________________________._ 48. How long in the service?__________ 49. How long overseas?__________ ._ 50. When did you join the Party?------------ 51. If a former member of the Y. C. L., when?------------------Where?--------------------------- 52. State activities in Y. C. L--------------------------------------- - ---------------------------------------------------------------- 53. Present work in the Party (rank-and-file activity, special functions or offices) 54. Past work in the Party: ------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------------------------------- ---------------------------- - ------------------------ -- --------------------------------------- ----------------------------- ---------------------------- - ---------------------------- ------------------------------ ----------------------------- ------------------------------ ------------------------------ ----------------------------- Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 28 THE Co MUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 55. Are you 'lling and able to work as an open Communist in the neighbor- hood?--.---- 56. If not, why not.----------------------------------------------------- 57. Are you known as a Communist anywhere outside of the Party? (In your union, o the job, among your friends, etc.) --------------------------- 58. Do you red the Daily Worker regularly?_________ Sometimes?__________ 59. Do you red the Worker regularly?------- Sometimes?------- 60. Have you a su scription to either or both?------ 61. If not, where do you buy the pape ? (what newsstand) --------------------------------------- 62. If you don t subscribe, why not?_______________________________________ 63. Do you red Political Affairs regularly? ------ Sometimes?-------------- 64. Have you sub to P. A.? ------ 65. What other Communist periodicals do you read regularly? ------------------------------------------------- Sometimes? ------------------------------------------------------- 66. Do you red current C. P. pamphlets?_______ Few or many?_____________ 67. What other papers and periodicals do you read?_________________________ ------------- --------------------------------------------- 68. What Mar ist courses have you had?___________________________________ 69. What Ma xist courses are now? (Give full details) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ you taking ------- --------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------- 70. What basi Marxist literature have you read? (Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin) State whether you've read all or part of the given work_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ------------------------------------------------------------------ 71. Do you want to attend a club or section class or study circle? ------------- 72. What kind of course are you interested in?______________________________ 73. What nigh s have you free on which to attend a class?____________________ 74. Interested daytime or weekend class?________________________________ 75. What kind of branch or section work are you interested in doing?__________ (Press, canvassing, education, literature, research, leaflets, etc.) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ------------------------------------------------------------------ 76. Do you think you can function better working as an open Communist in the neighbor ood or working in a mass organization?______________________ 77. If a new m tuber, who recruited you? (First name only, and club) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ------- ---------------------------------------------------------- 78. Can you make a regular donation to the sustaining fund? (25? a month and up) ------------------------ - --- 79. Amount?--------------- Where (Jeff. Sub ject Lengtbofcourse School club or When Teacher county, etc.) --- ----------- ---- -------------------- -------------------- -------------------- -------------------- -------------------- -------------------- -------------------- -------------------- -------------------- ------ -:------: - ------- ------ - ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- -------- ------- ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- --------?-?--- -------- -- ---- ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ---------------? ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- Organiza 1on Active Attend Function (rank and file When Expect you Known as member? meetings? specific funs- to join joined Communist tion) Union------------ ----------- - -- -------------- - A. L. P. (American Ci h Labor Party) ---------- ------------ -------------- --- ---------- ------ ---------- ------------ ------------ vil Rig ts Congr Consumer and Tena ss------------ nt Council--- ---------- ---------- ------------ ------------ -------------- -------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- -- ------------ Veterans Housing onference----- ---------- ------------ -------------- ---------- -------- ---------- ------------ ------------ Good Neighbor Cou ncil ----------- ---------- ------------ -------------- ---------- ---------- ------------ American Youth f Democracy A. Y. D.) ------ ----- ------- ---------- ------------ -------------- ---------- ---------- ------------ PAC (Natio Political Action C nal Citizens ommittee)---- ---------- ------------ -------------- ---------- ---------- ------------ YC PAC (Young C itizens Politi- cal Action Comm ttee------ - --- - ?-? Win the Peace---- ---------- 80. If you hay been a member of any of these organizations for more than three months, tate past activity and function_______________________________ -------- --------------------------------------------------------- Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY'OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 29 81. If you have belonged to any of these or other organizations in the past, state when, where, activities and positions. Also why you dropped out________ ------------------------------------------------------------------ 82. How often do the organizations you belong to meet and usually what nights? (List individually)-------------------------------------------------- 83. Altogether, about how many nights a week or month do you spend on meet- ings and activities in each of these organizations?_______________________ ------------------------------------------------------------------ DUES Beginning with its constitution adopted May 27-31, 1938, and thereafter, the CPUSA no longer publishes a table of membership dues. The 1945 constitution simply says "Initiation fees and dues shall be paid according to rates fixed by the National Convention," while giving no figures. This is done in the interest of secrecy for fear that a publicly announced table may give a clue from which an accurate estimate of party membership may be calculated. The Party Voice, volume 1, No. 5, August 1953, published by the New York State Communist Party, shows that on July 1, 1953, the Na- tional Committee of the Communist Party, USA, instituted the fol- lowing monthly dues schedule:. Unemployed and youth-------------------------------------------- $0. 15 Housewives------------------------------------------------------- .50 Members earning up to $40 weekly__________________________________ . 50 Members earning $41-$60 weekly____________________________________ 1.25 Members earning $61-$80 weekly____________________________________ 2.50 Members earning $81-$100 weekly ------------------------------------ 3. 00 Members earning over $100 weekly__________________________________ 10. GO MAILING LISTS The extent and interlocking character of mailing lists maintained by the Communist network is disclosed by the fact that those whose names appear on mailing lists of one front organization, suddenly and without solicitation receive mail from another. An envelope sent out by the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship has used the stencil of the Voice of Freedom Committee. The New York World Telegram of January 17, 1946, described how a housewife from Wyckoff, N. J., solicited literature from the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties and thereafter began receiving under the same stencilled address unrequested printed matter from the National Citizens Political Action Committee, the National Council of Ameri- can-Soviet Friendship, Inc., and the Committee for a Democratic Policy Toward China. On August 9, 1949, Mr. Blair Seese, a mem- ber of local 601 of the Communist-dominated United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America, which has been expelled from the CIO because of this domination, testified before the Commit- tee on Un-American Activities on the party's access to mailing lists, as follows: Mr TAVENNEB. What about the Communist Party literature; do you receive it yourself through the mail? Mr. SEESE. I have and I still do at times. Mr. TAVENNER. Do other members of the union also receive it? Mr. SEESE. I know other members in the local who have Communist literature mailed to their homes. * * * Mr TAVENNER, What explanation is there for members of the union who are not members of the Communist Party receiving this literature? Mr. SEESE. I have no explanation for it other than the fact that it seems evi- dent that by some means the membership lists of the stewards' council are avail- Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Relese 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 30 THE CO MUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA able to the Coi union member literature. Under these Party would The Coma and husband ounce of ava.' sible losses. bers are con( munist Part, must know i where he is n with approva Not only to exactly who is taught, where begins to be try so as to remedy The simph suffice for pr porated in ti serve as a fru An excellei to be found ii SEC. 5. In dr. ot'any other o; objective of su court, shall con, (1) Has been lists, records, cc (2) Has mad loans, or in any (3) Has mad4 whatsoever; (4) H as exec (5) Has bete nmunist Party, because if there are errors in the addresses of any s, the same errors are made in sending out the Communist circumstances it is inconceivable that the Communist not maintain a roster of its own members. iunist Party is most scrupulous in the way it checks upon s its forces to insure the maximum utilization of every Liable cooperation and support and to guard against pos- For this purpose rigorous registrations of all party mem- lucted regularly. As J. Peters indicated in The Com- T-A Manual on Organization, "The party leadership is forces, must be able to assign each one to the place lost suitable and most needed." In this respect he cites l Lenin's counsel to the party leadership : advise * * * but really conduct the orchestra, one must know playing first or second fiddle, and where, what instrument he was nd how, where and why he plays out of tune (when the music ing to the ear), and what changes should be made in the orchestra the dissonance * * * evidentiary test of a Communist Party card will not oof of membership. Nor will the legal fictions incor- ie official Constitution of the Communist Party, USA, itful guide. Lt guide to determine Communist Party membership is 1 section 5 of the Communist Control Act of 1954: termining membership or participation in the Communist Party ?ganization defined in this Act, or knowledge of the purpsoe or ;h party or organization, the jury, under instructions from the rider evidence, if presented, as to whether the accused person: listed to his knowledge as a member in any book or any of the rrespondence, or any other document of the organization; financial contribution to the organization in dues, assessments, other form; himself subject to the discipline of the organization in any form ted orders, plans, or directives of any kind of the organization; as an agent, courier, messenger, correspondent, organizer, or in any other capacity in behalf of the organization; (6) Has conf rred with officers or other members of the organization in behalf of any plan or a terprise of the organization sed, counseled or in any other way imparted information, sug- endations to officers or members of the organization or to any of the objectives of the organization; ated by word, action, conduct, writing, or in any other way a rry out in any manner and to any degree the plans, designs, rposes of the organization; ny other way participated in the activities, planning, actions, rposes of the organization; objectives, or p (13) Has in l i) rnas been accepted to his knowledge as an officer or member of the organi- zation or as one to becalled upon for services by other officers or members of the organization; (8) Has writ en, spoken or in any other way communicated by signal, sema- phore, sign, or i any other form of communication orders, directives, or plans of the organizatio ; (9) Has prepared documents, pamphlets, leaflets, books, or any other type of publication in behalf of the objectives and purposes of the organization; (10) Has mai ed, shipped, circulated, distributed, delivered, or in any other way sent or delivered to. others material or propaganda of any kind in behalf of the organization; (11) Has adv gestions, recom one else in behal (12) Has indi willingness to c Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 . THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 31 (14) The enumeration of the above subjects of evidence on membership or participation in the Communist Party or any other organization as above de- fined, shall not limit the inquiry into and consideration of any other subject of evidence on membership and participation as herein stated. For an intelligent appraisal of the forces at work in. behalf of the Communist movement in the United States, it is necessary to under- stand the various categories involved, to appreciate the shade of differ- ence between categories and to deal with them accordingly, recogniz- ing, however, that each category constitutes a definite security risk operating in the interests of a foreign power. It should also be re- membered that these categories are not static, that party members are shifted from one to another like pawns on the Red chessboard. The following would constitute a rough classification of these categories: 1. Open party members.-This would include individuals whom the party has found it expedient to designate publicly as party members, such as party officials, candidates for public office, official representa- tives and writers for the Communist press. The existence of this group is essential to maintain the fiction that the Communist Party, USA, is an open "political party of the American working class." The party has been compared to an iceberg with one-third above the water and two-thirds submerged. Though these proportions are not accurate, the open party members constitute its visible portion. Since the submerged sector is considered more important, members of the open party can be commandeered at any time in the service of the underground. The testimony of Louis F. Budenz, Whittaker Chambers, and Elizabeth Bentley has shown that men like Jack Stachel, Max Bedacht, and J. Peters functioned simultaneously in both the open and the underground apparatus. Well-known party members will suddenly disappear from public view to be engulfed by the underground, whose orders have distinct priority. 2. Semiconcealed party members. -Most party members are known as such to their fellow members in the party club, union, front organ- ization, or place of employment. Within the party they operate under one or more aliases, making no avowal of party membership publicly. This type of membership can be established by a member- ship card of former days or record, evidence of payment of dues, attendance at closed meetings, association with Communists in party enterprises or campaigns, soliciting new members or appearing in any other official capacity representing the party. 3. Members at large.-Party members who occupy important posi- tions in government or organizations where knowledge of their affi].i- ation would be an obstacle to party purposes, are made members at large. They do not attend 'Communist Party meetings and are contacted solely by an emissary assigned to receive dues, distribute literature and directives. 4. Members of the underground apparatus.-For reasons of secrecy it may at times be necessary to withdraw an individual entirely from any contact with the open Communist Party. Whittaker Chambers, Elizabeth Bentley, and John Sherman, for example, were withdrawn from the open party to work in the underground. Other members of the Communist underground apparatus may never have been members of the legal party. An individual assigned for this purpose may even submit a public resignation under the direction of his party superiors. On the other hand, a member of this apparatus may be a purely technical assistant with no trace of party sympathy Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Rele 32 THE CO or even knov he is working An operati responsibility arm of the S( as the Soviet Supreme Eco Soviet agenc, domestic Con 5. Nonpart inadvisable q ample, a persi with the part or carry out party's wishes who depends may be a poli without the ' compulsion n 6. Commui distinguished munist discil Communists candidates, si for the party of individual sponsored by doing organii the Commun is supporting one or more such non-Con Boyer, a wea. as having "w and in which closely with ( dues." A mi as follows: Gives full in formula of RD: RDX is an nished inforn for the produ 1. Fellow t fellow travel( supports one indirect and munist Party distinct type: (a) Cons6 who affiliate, knowledge o: Approved For Rele,, se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 ledge of the true nature of the organization for which ve active in the United States may have no direct to the CPUSA. He may be linked with some special oviet Government and be directly responsible to it, such Military Intelligence, the Soviet Foreign Office, or the nomic Council. In each case his responsibilities to the T have complete priority over any consideration of the munist Party. y Communists.-Certain sympathetic persons find it r inexpedient to join the Communist Party. For ex- )n of great wealth or prominence may be in full sympathy y, but he may be unwilling or unable to attend meetings all Communist duties. But he agrees to abide by the and submit to its discipline. He may be a businessman upon the Soviet Government for commercial favors. He tician or a union official who could not be elected to office ,otes controlled by the Communist bloc. In some cases tay be employed to whip the individual into line. 'ist Party supporters.-There are other individuals to be from the above group who are in no sense under Com- dine, but who voluntarily and knowingly support the in one or more ways such as voting for Communist gning of Communist election petitions, donating money or its press, supporting campaigns in behalf of the party known Communists, supporting organizations openly the Communist Party, defense of Communist legal cases, rational and political favors for the party, or writing for ist press. In each case the subject is fully aware that he the Communist Party or one or more of its members or of its directly espoused activities. The usefulness of nmunists is demonstrated by the example of Raymond [thy and noted Canadian chemist, who described himself orked in organizations in which there were Communists I knew there were Communists, and I have worked very .,ommunists, but I have never held a party card nor paid ,morandum found in the Soviet. Embassy cites his services formation on explosives and chemical plants. * * * (Gave the explosive perfected in England in 1942. He also fur- iation regarding the pilot plant at Grand Mere, Quebec, ction of uranium. ^avelers.-As differentiated from the above categories, a r may be defined as an individual who from time to time or more organizations or campaigns operating under the usually unpublicized initiative and control of the Com- or its representatives. Here we must point out three lus fellow travelers.-A conscious fellow traveler is one with or supports one or more of these groups with full its character. For the most part, such persons are ise 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 33 motivated by a definite sympathy for the Soviet Union or the Com- munist Party or both. Here again we must differentiate between two groups under this heading: (i) Consistent fellow travelers.-Among those who support or affiliate with such organizations or campaigns are those who on no occasion take issue with the Communist Party or its auxiliary organizations. They have a consistent record of such affiliations or sympathy throughout all changes of the party line, and despite the fact that such organizations have been publicly exposed as communistic. (ii) Unreliable fellow travelers.-Occasionally there is defection among the fellow travelers who support the Communist Party or its auxiliary organizations. This may be due to disillusion- ment as to the real nature of the Soviet regime or antagonism toward such actions as the Stalin-Hitler Pact or disgust with Communist methods in a particular organization. The sincerity and depth of the individual's conversion may be measured by the individual's subsequent behavior. If he supports no pro- Communist organizations or campaigns subsequent to his first break, it may be assumed that this break is sincere and thorough. If, however, his name is to be found supporting such organizations or campaigns at a later date, it may be properly concluded that his break was neither genuine nor substantial. (b) Unwitting fellow travelers. -It would be only fair to indicate that individuals have supported Communist-inspired organizations in the belief that such organizations were accomplishing some meritorious, social purpose. They may have had not the faintest notion as to the organization's Communist character, they may even be anti-Commu- nist. In other words, they may be outright dupes. Such nam s are not usually found in organizations of an outright Communist character. Nevertheless, the Communists welcome their financial and moral support. The Communists are perfectly frank in admitting the usefulness of the fellow traveler. F. Brown, an agent of the Communist In- ternational who operated in the United States in the 1930's, who was also known as Alpi and Marini, has testified to that fact in the Daily Worker of August 25, 1937, page 2, where he declares: It is no exaggeration to state that besides the 55,000 Communist members, there are today tens of thousands of individuals who are active in every field of the progressive movement, carrying out the line of the Party in practice. They work shoulder to shoulder with the Party members, follow the Party line through our press-Daily Worker, Sunday Worker, language press, through the mass activities of the Party-mass meetings, lectures, and all struggles in which the Communists are in the forefront. * * * We must point out: First, that their actual work is appreciated by the Party; second, that we consider their work Communist work and want them to continue it. HOW TO JUDGE A FELLOW TRAVELER It is possible to set up definite standards for judging a fellow traveler's devotion to the Communist Party and the Soviet Union, which must be taken into consideration in judging his loyalty to the United States. This scale is not hard and fast. It cannot be applied mechanically. It must be utilized intelligently with an eye to the history of the period our current relations with the Soviet Union, the age of the individual at the time of his affiliations, and possible changes in his views. It should be recognized that an individual who has passed through certain experiences with Communist organi- Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Rele~se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 -34 THE C0 UNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA nations and w can be of coiii tions. To ad, fellow traveler of such indivii desert their ro in mind in jud 1. The organizati 2. The organiza ci individual party's cc up front 1 3. The 4. The setup. 5. Hise of their C 6. His strictest 7. His 8. His Union, t: Communi 9. His l ho has been thoroughly and completely disillusioned, 3iderable value in counteracting Communist machina- ~pt an attitude of "once a fellow traveler, always a ," is to place an obstacle in the path of the reeducation duals and to make it undesirable for an individual to ,nks. The following points should, therefore, be kept ging a fellow traveler. number of his associations with Communist-controlled ons. importance of the post or posts he occupied in these ons. (The Communists commonly limit such posts to .s who are either party members or who possess the )nfidence, though sometimes "big names" are pushed is protective coloration.) extent of his activity. importance of such organizations in the Communist adherence to these organizations despite public exposure ommunist character. standing in the Communist press, which operates under vlioscow and party censorship. standing in Communist organizations. public statements and writings regarding the Soviet he Communist Party, individual Communists and st-initiated campaigns and organizations. Dersonal associations with Communists or sympathizers. E TENT OF COMMUNIST PARTY MEMBERSHIP The latest estimate of Communist Party membership by the Fed- eral Bureau of Investigation is about 22,663. The most recent break- down by States is based upon a membership of 31,608 in 1951, as drawn up by he FBI. Communist Party membership by States, 1951 Alabama------ ------------- 96 New Jersey ------------------ 1,070 Arizona-------- ------------- 136 New Mexico--------- ------- 22 Arkansas______ _____________ 20 New York ------------------- 15,458 California----- ------------- 4,295 North Carolina --------------- 95 Colorado------ ------------- 72 North Dakota ---------------- . 52 Connecticut___ _____________ 580 Ohio ------------------ ----- 1,290 Delaware______ _____________ 22 Oklahoma ------------------- 83 Florida-------- ------------- 135 Oregon ---------------------- 125 Georgia------- ------------- 51 Pennsylvania ---------------- 1,441 Idaho--------- ------------- 60 Rhode Island ---------------- 54 Illinois________ _____________ 1,596 South Carolina --------------- 15 Indiana_______ _____________ 475 South Dakota ---------------- 38 Iowa__________ _____________ 25 Tennessee------------------- 21 Kansas-------- ------------- 12 Texas----------------------- 196 Kentucky----- ------------- 71 Utah----------------------- 67 Louisiana_____ _____________ 50 Vermont -------------------- 25 Maine --------- ------------- 25 Virginia--------------------- 53 Maryland___ -- ------------- 250 Washington ----------------- 350 Massachusetts_ -- -------------- 759 West Virginia ---------------- 96 Michigan_____ _____________ 450 Wisconsin ------------------- 420 Minnesota------ --- --------- 701 Wyoming-------------- ------------------- 2 Mississippi____ _____________ 1 Puerto Rico------------------ 96 Missouri------- ------------- 362 Washington, D. C------------ 60 Montana ------- ------------- 82 Hawaii---------------------- 36 Nebraska ----- ------------- 25 Alaska ---------------------- 25 Nevada - 15 ------- New Hampshire ----------- - ------------- 52 Total ----------------- 31, 608 Approved For Rele se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 35 To show the growth of the party, it is interesting to add here a review of the total party membership over a period of years as given by Earl Browder, its general secretary until 1945, in his pamphlet Where Do We Go From Here? under the pseudonym Americus. His references are undoubtedly to open party members. Mr. Browder's figures would show that the party membership had increased over 6X times from the depression year of 1932 to 1945. At beginning of the year of- Total membership At beginning of the year of-Con. Total membership 1930------------------- 7,500 1935------------------- 30,000 1931------------------- 8,339 1936------------------- 40,000 1932------------------- 12,936 1938------------------- 75,000 1933------------------- 16,814 1944------------------- 1 66,000 1934------------------- 24,500 1945------------------- 80,000 Including 13,000 In the Armed Forces. Election returns for 1928, 1932, 1936, and 1940 show how many voters actually supported the Communist Party presidential candi- dates, except in the States where the party was not admitted on the ballot. In 1932 this figure was approximately seven times the party membership figures as given by Browder. In 1940, during the highly unpopular Stalin-Hitler pact, it closely approximated the party membership figure, on a one-vote-per-party-member basis. The Progressive Party backing Henry A. Wallace was publicly supported by the Communist Party. In this connection the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee received on October 7, 1954, the testimony of Matthew Cvetic, a former FBI informant who had worked his way into the Communist Party of western Pennsylvania, becoming a member of its organizational, educational, and finance committees as well as its nationality, political, and trade-union coin- missions. We quote him in part: Now, we were directed, in a directive which was read to us in the Communist Party headquarters, based on the Communist International of 1935, where all Communist Parties in the world were ordered to set up in the various countries, and this included the American Communist Party-a coalition party of Commu- nists and Progressives * * * The primary steps which were taken during the years after 1945 to consummate this objective-and this was as early as the last part of 1945, in a report which was given by William Z. Foster, the then national chairman of the Communist Party in which he stressed that one of the big objec- tives of the Communist Party is the setting up of a coalition party in the United States * * * And as a result of this report of William Z. Foster, subsequently an organization known as the Progressive Party of the United States was organ- ized on a national basis. I was a member of the organizational committee of the Communist Party, and as a member of this committee I was one of the eight ranking members of the Communist Party for the western Pennsylvania district. The Progressive Party, which later you will recall, in the 1948 campaign, had presidential candidates, was set up by the organizational committee and also the political commission of the Communist party. I myself sat in dozens of meetings where we set up the Progressive Party * * * The personnel that moved around within the frame- work of the Progressive Party in key positions were assigned out of the Communist Party office * * * In other words, it was controlled by planted, key Communist agents, who had absolute control of the Progressive Party * * * I attended meetings in Communist Party headquarters where we discussed candidates who would be put up for office in the Progressive Party. And the final determining factor of who the candidates would be was decided right in the headquarters of the Communist Party * * * Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 36 THE CON4MUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA I recall very ividly sitting in several meetings in Communist Party head- quarters * * * and I recall why the decision to support Henry Wallace and Glen Taylor. was ma e. That was because they were two men who were willing to work with the C mmunist Party in this coalition party * * * And, too, when we had on 2 or 3 occasions meetings in Pittsburgh, Pennsyl- vania, at which Henry Wallace and Glen Taylor spoke, the fund-raising ac- tivities and the ticket-sales activities in connection with these meetings were directed right o t of the headquarters of the Communist Party * * * On the same day, John Lautner, a former member of the review commission o the CPUSA, testified regarding the party's efforts to "break out from its isolation" by, forming the Progressive Party, and he declared: It enabled the Communist Party to reach into ranks, into sections, of the Ameri- to which they could never have reached before, and it opened can population up all kinds of now possibilities for the Communist Party throughout the country and enabled the movement, in t was not necessa dates, Wallace Party. arty to carry on a Communist ideological campaign in the labor Le trade-union movement * * * In addition to that, because it y for the Communist Party to put forth its own national candi- ,nd Taylor served that very same purpose for the Communist In the light o the above, it is interesting to note the distribution of the popular vote for Wallace in 1948, totaling 1,137,957. Popular vote, 1948, for President Source: Compile by the United Press from official and unofficial returns (as of Dec. 1, 1048) 1 Wallace, Progressive Wallace, Progressive Alabama----------- --------------- 1, 522 Nevada----------------------------- 1,400 Arizona -------------- --------------- 3,310 New Ilampshire____________________ 1, 970 751 New Jersey------------------------- 42,683 190, 381 New Mexico________________________ 1, 037 6,115 New York -------------------------- 601,167 Connecticut --------- 13, 713 North Carolina--------------------- 3, 915 Delaware ------------ 1, 050 North Dakota---------------------- 8, 220 Florida______________ 11,683 Ohio-------------------------------- 37, 596 Georgia______________ -------------- 1,636 Oklahoma-------------------------- -------------- Idaho---------------- -------------- 4,972 Oregon -------------- --------------- 14,661 Illinois_______________ -------------- -------------- Pennsylvania----------------------- 65,161 Indiana______________ 9,649 Rhode Island------------------- 2, 587 Iowa----------------- 12, 125 South Carolina_____________________ 154 Kansas -------------- 4, 603 South Dakota ----------------------- 2,801 Kentucky------------ 1, 567 Tennessee--------------------------- 1, 861 Louisiana ------------ 3, 035 Texas------------------------------- 3, 764 Maine_______________ 1, 884 Utah-------------------------------- 2, 679 Maryland 983 1 Vermont------ --------------------- 1, 279 ____________ Massachusetts_______ 157 4 , - V irginia----------------------------- 1, 863 Michigan____________ -------------- 38, 955 Washington_________________________ 29, 745 Minnesota___________ -------------- 27,866 West Virginia_______________________ 3,311 Mississippi---------- -------------- 225 Wisconsin-------------------------- 26,282 Missouri ------_______ 31998 Wyoming --------------------------- 931 Montana____________ 6, 641 -------------- Total vote-------------------- 1,137,957 Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Presidential election returns by States for Communist party candidates 37 Alabama ----------------------------------------------- ............ 406 679 609 Arizona----------------------------- ------------------ 184 406 ------------ ------------ Arkansas-------------------------------------------- -- 317 175 164 California-------------------------------------------- - 216 1,023 10, 10,877 13,586 Colorado ----------------------------------------------- 675 ------------ 497 378 Connecticut-------------------------------------------- 730 ------------ 1,193 1, 091 Dolaware------ ------------------------------ ------------ 133 52 ------------ Florida-------`----------------------------------------- 3, 704 --------- ------------ -- ------ Georgia------------------------------------------------ Idaho 64 ------------ 23 491 ------------ ------------ -- -- ---------276 nlinols------------------------------------------------- 3S1 15, 582 ------------ ------------ Indiana ------------------------------------------------ -------- 2 187 090 1 Iowa--------------------------------------------------- 328 , 559 , 506 -------1,524 Kansas------------------------------------------------- 320 ------------ Kentucky---------------------------------------------- 293 272 204 ------------ Louisiana---------------------------------------------- Maine------------------------------------------------- ------------ ------------ 162 --------257 ---------411 Maryland---------------------------------------------- 636 1,031 915 1, 274 Massachusetts----------------------------------------- 2,464 4,821 2,930 3,806 Michigan---------------------------------------------- 2,881 9, 318 3,384 2,834 Minnesota--------------------------------------------- 4,853 6, 101 2,574 2,711 Mississippi--------------------------------------------- ------------ -------- ------------ ------------ Missouri----------------------------------------------- ------------ 568 417 Montana----------------------------------------------- 563 1,775 385 489 Nebraska---------------------------------------------- ------------ ------------ ------------ Nevada------------------------------------------------ -------- -------- --- ------------ New Hampshire--------------------------------------- 173 264 193 ------------ New Iersoy-------------------------------------------- 1, 257 2,015 1,590 8,814 New Mexico------------------------------------------- 158 135 43 ------------ Now York --------------------------------------------- 10, 884 27, 956 35, 609 ------------ - - - - --------------- North Carolina ------------ -------- 11 - - - ----------------- - - - North Dakota ------------------------------------------ 936 830 360 -------- - 545 Ohio--------------------------------------------------- 2, 386 7, 231 6, 251 ------------ Oklahoma---------------------------------------------- ------ ------------ -------- - --------- -- Oregon------------------------------------------------- 1,094 1,681 164 191 Pennsy.vania------------------------------------------ 4,726 6, 658 4, 4,060 4,519 Rhode Island----------------------------------------- 283 546 411 239 South Carolina- - - ------------------- -------- ------------ ------------ ------------ - ----------------- - th D kota S 232 364 a ou ------------------------------------------ 2 4 19 -------- ------------ Tennessee---------------------------------------------- Texas-------------------------------------------------- 111 209 3 207 3 253 ---------212 Utah--------------------------------------------------- 47 947 280 191 Vermont----------------------------------------------- 195 405 411 Virginia------------------------------------------------ 173 86 98 71 Washington-------------------------------------------- 1,541 2,972 1,907 2,626 West Virginia ------------------------------------------ Wisconsin------------------------------------------ 401 1.528 444 3,112 ------2,167 ------------ 2,394 Wyoming ---------------------------------------------- 180 91 ------------ Communist influence cannot be estimated properly merely by comparing its votes or membership with those of political parties. Those who declare that the Communist Party is no menace because its membership and voting strength constitute only a fraction of a percent of the total membership and voting strength of major political parties are deluding themselves and others. This approach is the root cause of a mistaken policy which has already done considerable harm and which may bring even more disastrous results. The simplicity of this approach is born of sheer ignorance of the .problem. Each party member or sympathizer must be evaluated in terms of his political, social, and economic weight and influence and the fact that he has the backing of a major foreign power. The collective influence of this group cannot be judged as a mere arithmetical sum of members and sympathizers, since one arm of this conspiracy lends support to and supplements the other in a highly synchronized manner. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Rele se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 38 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA We must keep his in mind in estimating the influence of this tightly organized, coordinated, and aggressive group and its combined effect upon an amorphous, comparatively unorganized mass of people who are, for the mot part, blissfully unaware that they are being worked upon by a conscious, conspiratorial group with a clear-cut policy. We must reme ber that in a highly sensitive and articulated society like ours, it is ~riot difficult to cause havoc by a strategic dislocation. Communists make a practice of seeking out such points of vantage. Thus a part member or sympathizer may be an official of a labor union with thousands of members which can tie up a given com- munity or ind try. He may be an unpublicized Government official who prepares memoranda on policy affecting the entire Nation. He may be an atomic scientist with access to highly secret information vital to oursecurity. He may be a writer, a preacher, or a radio commentator with a vast audience. He may be a script writer whose film or radio essage, voiced by a popular star, reaches millions. He may be a actor whose popularity is exploited by the party to sponsor its fro at organizations and public appeals. He may be an artist with a mass following in the art world. He may be the descend- ant of some well-known family tracing its ancestry to the days of the American Revolution, whose name adds glamour to Communist enterprises. H may be the leader of a tenants league or a community organization, e may be the idol of a racial or foreign language group. In each case the individual's influence radiates to ever-widening circles with an effect similar to that of a stone thrown into a pool. Government individuals clai Under no circ face value. P they are cony known and pr members who maining under membership is strictly a pons agencies are sometimesi confronted with cases in which instances should such a statement be accepted at its ~rty members have been known to use this device when need that their previous Communist affiliations are g of non-Communist affidavits, the party will instruct are trade-union officials to formally resign while re- party discipline. It should be remembered that party not looked upon as a possession of the individual, but ssion of the party, to give, withhold, or retract. The party does not from the good The attitud national from that post, but t Certain test plete and deci of the individu recognize any voluntary resignation. Those who fall graces of the organization are expelled. of the world Communist organization toward resigna- in section 30 of the Statutes of the Communist Inter- hich we quote in part: Leading posts in the Party do not belong to the occupant of the Communist International as a whole. * * * may be made to determine the legitimacy and sin- nation. No one of them should be considered as com- ive. They should be judged in terms of the pattern l's pro-Communist or anti-Communist behavior since The following questions may properly be asked in each resignation: Does the individual have a carbon Approved For Rele~se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 39 copy of his resignation? What was the real motive of the resigna- tion? Was he or the Communist Party or one or more of its con- trolled organizations in a position to benefit thereby? What was the attitude of the Communist press toward the action? Do his views, writings, readings, associations, and general attitude indicate that he is still loyal to the party line or that he has, in fact, repudiated it? Can he corroborate this claimed repudiation of the party with written evidence or the statements of known anti-Communists? The iridi- vidual's record with the FBI since his resignation is, of course, im- portant. A test of the individual's sincerity is his willingness to ex- pose his associates in the ranks of the Communist conspiracy and its methods of operations. Unwillingness to do this may indicate some remnants of loyalty to the party. At the same time, it should be made clear by Government agencies that such information is looked upon as a valuable contribution to the security of the country and not, as the Communists would have it regarded, as an act of petty talebearing. There are definite cases on record where withdrawals from the party are apparently under party instructions. A number of known Com- munist union leaders have signed non-Communist affidavits in order to be in a position to avail themselves of the machinery of the Na- tional Labor Relations Board. During World War II, known Com- munists, who were members of the Armed Forces, were allegedly given a leave of absence in order to make them eligible for commissions. This did not prevent them from faithfully following the Communist Party line and from holding official positions in the Communist Party after the close of the war. Such instructed withdrawals are clearly suspect. Effective countermeasures against the worldwide Communist con- spiracy require an intelligent attitude toward the ex-Communists both here and abroad. In the event of actual armed conflict with the Soviet Union, psychological warfare will play an important part in determining victory. We must know how to win over the forces of . a possible enemy. We must develop skill in handling those we have succeeded in disaffecting. In a sense, our handling of the ex- Communists in this country gives us valuable preliminary training which should be highly useful in the event of an actual conflict. policy of once-a-Communist-always-a-Communist would be disastrous. Given a dictatorship, guarded by its ruthless secret police, with its 15 million slave laborers, with its 100 million peasants groaning under the yoke of collectivization, with low living standards and general dissatisfaction, there is every reason to believe that the proper type of psychological warfare could do much to disaffect Communist forces, to shorten a war, and save many lives. A wrong approach would retard the process of disaffection and strengthen the hand of the Communists. It must be remembered in this connection, that by using unsound methods the Nazis repelled millions of Russians who deserted in the last war, and thus solidified the forces of the Red army. Within our own borders it is estimated that it takes from 10 to 20 investigators to keep 1 subject under constant surveillance. With a party membership of 22,663, and at least 10 times that number of sym- pathizers, it would take a secret police of close to a million to maintain a constant surveillance of this group. This is utterly contrary to our democratic traditions and would mean the setting up of an enormous Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Rele se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 40 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA American Gestapo or MVD. Within the limits of its resources, the FBI is, of course, doing a magnificent job. Nevertheless, it must be recognized at in combating a conspiratorial organization includ- ing, directly or indirectly, at times, within its orbit, more than half a million individ als and at the same time exerting its efforts against crime of every onceivable type, the FBI is confronted with a stupen- dous task. H nce the necessity of relying upon all available informa- tion which can be obtained from ex-Communists. It is someti es asked, "How do we know the reformed Communists have actually reformed? How do we know that they are not secret agents of Joseph Stalin?" Such questions may be based upon sheer ignorance of the problem coupled with a desire to disguise that ignorance by t e assumption of an attitude of apparent supercaution without any sp cific foundation. They may be based upon a stubborn unwillingness t face hard and unpleasant facts. On the other hand, they may bete result of a Communist plant intended to cast doubt upon those wh can best expose them. From the Communist view- point it is ex ellent strategy to confuse opponents and discredit most effective witnesses. This shallow skepticism toward ex- Communists is o.netimes found in circles which have been consistently apologetic and defensive toward the Communists. The answer to the above questions, of course, is that intelligence and commons nso are required in dealing with both Communists and ex-Communists. There is no substitute or short cut. The fact of the matter is that in judicial and deportation cases thus far, including the c ses of Alger Hiss, Harry Bridges, the 11 Communists leaders, Harold Christoffel, and many others, the testimony of ex-Communist has demonstrated a high level of credibility under rigorous cross- xamination and investigation. Those who o not understand the Communist underworld are apt to misunderstand all that is involved in turning against the Com- munist Party. It is not nearly so simple as repudiating a political party: As indicated above, Communist headquarters maintain an elaborate dossier on eac individual party member to be used as a club against any possible d fection. Widely circulated smear campaigns directed against anyone who attacks the party or its constituents serve as a powerful de errent. Those who have earned their livelihood by grace of the C mmunist machine, in a Communist-front organization or.through one of its unions or publications, arc immediately penalized by this vast apparatus. The history of the international Communist movement is replete with cases in w ich dissidents have been assassinated or have mysteri- ously disappe red. Former Soviet Intelligence Chief Walter G. Krivitsky was found shot in a Washington hotel in the early forties. George W. Alberts, an opponent of Communists in the maritime field, was found dead on board the steamship Point. Lobos in 1941, beaten with blunt instruments and hacked with knives. Juliet Stuart Poyntz, a leading New York Communist, suddenly vanished without a trace in the late thirties. Laura Law, who was threatening an expose of the party in he State of Washington, mysteriously disappeared. The purging and liquidation. of leading Communists is a common occurrence in countries behind the Iron Curtain and in the Soviet Union. It thus takes some courage for an ex-Communist to defy Approved For Rele~se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 41 this nefarious machine. Under the circumstances, ex-Communists might be expected to prefer obscurity and safety. What is the motive which impels an ex-Communist to testify in court or before a congressional committee in spite of the risks which he knowingly takes? It is simple to ascribe it to a mere desire for publicity; and this may be true in the rare case of a Matusow. But it is also possible that a person who has been disillusioned with Com- munist claims and who is fully convinced that this movement is dangerously antisocial and anti-American might be moved by a desire to safeguard his country from what he now realizes to be a real and pressing danger, having now determined to crusade as devotedly for his country as he once did for a movement which misled and deceived him. Experience has indicated this is the actual motivation in the cases of most former Communists who have given testimony against the party. Some will ask, "How can you believe an ex-Communist who admittedly has resorted to lies and deceit and who has been willing to ally himself with a movement which demands outright disloyalty to the United States in behalf of the Soviet dictatorship and which condones every crime from treason to murder in support of its efforts?" To answer this question properly, it is necessary to understand the processes by which the Communist moral code is built up. In this connection we wish to quote as this point the report of the Canadian Royal Commission of June 27, 1946, which dealt with Communist espionage cases, in which individuals were conditioned by a series of study courses. In view of the highly coordinated and disciplined character of the international Communist movement, this practice must be viewed as typical: As the courses of study in the "cells" undermine gradually the loyalty of the young man or woman who joins them, it is necessary to say something as to the content of the courses pursued in them, as that is reflected by the evidence? The curriculum includes the study of political and phiosophic works, some of them far from superficial, selected to develop in the students an essentially critical attitude toward Western democratic society. This phase of the preparation also includes a series of discussions on current affairs, designed to further a critical attitude toward the ideals of democratic society. But this curriculum would appear in reality to be designed not to promote social reform where it might be required, but to weaken the loyalty of the group member toward his or her own society as such. Linked with these studies at all stages, moreover, goes an organized indoctrina- tion calculated to create in the mind of the study-group member an essentially uncritical acceptance at its face value of the propaganda of a foreign state. Accordingly, the study-groups are encouraged to subscribe to Communist books and periodicals * * * as well as selected books on Russia. In some cases the effect of these study courses seems to be a gradual develop- ment of a sense of divided loyalties, or in extreme cases of a transferred loyalty. Thus it seems to happen that through these study-groups some adherents, who begin by feeling that Canadian society is not democratic or not equalitarian enough for their taste, are gradually led to transfer a part or most of their loyalties to another country, apparently without reference to whether that other country is in actual fact more or less democratic or equalitarian than Canada. Indeed, a sense of internationalism seems in many cases to play a definite role in one stage of the courses. In these cases the anadian sympathiser is first encouraged to. develop a sense of loyalty, not directly to a foreign state, but to what he conceives to be an international ideal. This subjective internationalism is then usually linked almost inextricably through the indoctrination courses and the intensive exposure to the propaganda of a particular foreign state, with the current conception of the national interests of that foreign state and with the current doctrines and policies of Communist Parties throughout the world. * 76329o-56-4 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 42 THE COMM NIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA A further object ve, pursued through the study-group. is gradually to inculcate in the secret memb rship of the Communist Party a habit of complete obedience to the dictates of se for members and officials of the Party hierarchy. This is apparently accomplished through a constant emphasis, in the indoctrination courses, on the imp rtance of organization as such, and by the gradual creation, in the mind of the new adherent or sympathiser, of an overriding moral sense of "loyalty to the Par y". This "loyalty to the Party" in due course takes the place in the member's in nd of the earlier loyalty to certain principles professed by the Party propaganda. * * The indoctrination courses in the study groups are apparently calculated not only to inculcate a high degree of "loyalty to the Party" and "obedience to the Party," but to instill in the mind of the adherent the view that loyalty and obedi- ence to the leadership of this organization takes precedence over his loyalty to Canada, entitles him to disregard his oaths of allegiance and secrecy, and thus destroys his integri y as a citizen. * * * (pp. 72-75). to alty to the S soldier to justify enemy's defeat. fectly honest, m men. Hence it repudiated his simultaneously Failure to un to make full use may result in co , the Communist is indoctrinated with a standard of killing an enemy, spying and lying to accomplish the Nevertheless, this individual soldier may be a per- ral and upright citizen in his dealings with his fellow is conceivable that once he has fully and sincerely ommunist moral code the individual could and would epudiate the type of behavior which it justified. of his inside knowledge of the Communist conspiracy No political p rty in the country is as aggressive in recruiting new members as is the Communist Party, nor as systematic. J. Peters in his Manual on 0 ?ganization lays down the principle that "Continuous daily recruiting is the basic task of every Unit and each individual member of the arty." Recruiting is compulsory with each party member, who is expected to fulfill his shay of the quota assigned to his club or section in regular Party Recruiting Campaigns. These campaigns are usually concen- trated upon workers in the basic industries, upon Negroes, whom the party considers as useful, explosive tinder in promoting social friction and upon influential people in various walks of life. Each party member i expected to keep a list of prospects whom he is ex- pected to cultiv to systematically, under specific party direction. In her pamphlet he Communist Party and You, Betty Gannett, Assistant Organi ation Secretary of the CPUSA, makes the following suggestions: a Communist must constantly help to educate his fellow workers, through the sale and distribution of Communist literature, securing subscriptions for the Communist press, e dividual discussions, and through influencing the most mili- tant workers to join the Communist Party * * * * * * make new friends, especially in your shop, your union, your organiza- tion, or the neighb rhood in which you live. You will find that our Communist press our hundreds f popular pamphlets, will help you bring them nearer to our. Party. Use this m terial constantly-it is your best aid. It is also true that the party has a tremendous turnover as converts become disillusioned and drop out. Hence the importance of at- tracting new gul ibles. Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 43 The following account of the recruiting of an American Communist is to be found in Life for January 5, 1948: He joined the party in 1935, when he was 20 years old. It wasn't simple, like joining the Democratic party or the Elks. It was the reward for three years of work, study and obedience to discipline * * * It began when he was still a high-school student in Chicago as social pleasure and what he thought then to be intellectual adventure * * * There were parties, picnics, beach suppers, all with songs and laughter, discussions and admiring girls * * * Of course there was another side to all this. There were tasks, little ones at first, more important ones later. He distributed literature at mass meetings, walked in a hunger march, and it was rather fun, even a little exciting. He did not notice that he was being watched by the older men, watched for ability and obedience * * * Soon he was attending the Workers' School three evenings a week. One or two evenings he worked on party activities-wrapping newspapers at the print shop, attending mass meetings, picketing the mass meetings of other organizations * * * After three months of the Workers' School he could spot a "supporter," a "diversionist" or a "dissenter" in a conversation on the weather * * * He had his membership in the party * * * WHAT MAKES A COMMUNIST TICK? The question is often asked, "What makes an individual join the Communist Party in the first place?" No single answer will suffice. In each case there may be a different motive or a mixture of motives. In some cases they are the result of normal psychological factors. Sometimes there are distinctly abnormal features involved. It is necessary to understand these motives and factors if we are success- fully to deal with the problem. A trite explanation offered by the ill-informed is that communism is a product of inequalities under our social system. Hence, these people argue, if we will alleviate these conditions, we will never have to worry about communism. Since it is manifestly impossible to devise a social system in which everybody will be satisfied, this would mean'that we should meekly fold our arms and accept communism in our midst as a necessary evil for which we ourselves are chiefly to blame. In the second place, this approach overlooks the fact that millions of dollars spent on cleverly devised Communist propaganda is bound to have some effect in any society, no matter how relatively contented, especially when supplemented by the activities of thousands of ardent zealots. The misery theory of communism runs contrary to the actual facts in our country. New York State, for example, has approximately 50 percent of the total Communist Party membership and leads the country. Yet it is second in terms of per capita income as well as per capita school expenditures. California is second with approximately 16 percent of the total party membership and yet it is fourth in terms of per capita income and seventh in terms of per capita school ex- penditures. Similarly, Illinois is third in membership standing with approximately 5 percent and yet it is sixth in per capita income and third in terms of money spent for schools. Conversely, Mississippi is lowest in the scale of Communist Party membership but is also lowest in per capita income. The misery theory of communism does not jibe with these figures nor with the fact that such wealthy persons as Frederick Vanderbilt Field, and prominent members of the Hollywood film colony, have been found to be members of the Communist Party. Indeed the misery theory of communism is exactly what the Communists would have us believe, in order to mislead us. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Rele se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 44 THE COM IST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA A corollary o this theory is that workers are attracted to the Communist Pa ty in the hope of improving their lot economically. Despite Russia s claim to be a workers' republic, the Communist movement, by its disruptive tactics and support of Soviet slave labor camps, has aroused the deepest hostility of labor. Labor has, there- fore, expressed ittle desire to migrate to the so-called workers' Para- dise. Both the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Orga izations are today bitterly fighting the Communists. In his report t the plenary session of the national committee of the CPUSA held o March 23-25, 1950, Henry Winston, organizational secretary, deplored the party's "central weakness in the fight to win the workers" and declared that in its effort to win support for Henry A. Wallace's Progressive Party the union "rank-and-file generally" did not respond. He emphasized the fact that "the coalition tactic our Party worked cut beginning with the 1948 convention was not fully unfolded in the hops." Thus the Communist Party has little ground for the label of "proletarian." It would seem, on the contrary, that a large percentage of the party consists of mis. ion-minded intellectuals who have constituted them- selves the expo ents of the interest of labor, which wants no part of William Bledsoe, former editor of the Screen Guild Magazine in Hollywood, has brilliantly described the reactions of wealthy movie stars and writes in his article entitled "Revolution Came to Holly- wood," which appeared in the February 1940 issue of the American Mercury. Thee cases are by no means typical of the industry at the present time. I saw Social Co sciousness quicken and come to a boil in actors, writers, and directors whose names rival Rinso and Camels as household words. I followed the insurrection mass meeting by mass meeting, cocktail party by cocktail party, until many a Big Name was more or less secretly enrolled in the Communist Party or tagging along solemnly in one of the "front" leagues and committees * * * But on the who .e Hollywood is a city of unhappy successful people. And that, it seemed to me, as the basis for communism with two butlers and a swimming Actors, writers, directors and Hollywoodians on the fringes of the movie busi- ness joined Party "fractions" which met in Beverly Hills, Bel Air and Brent- One famous cells to hear the Party line * * *. . omedian wrote an article for the Screen Guild Maga- the actor or wri in the chains of the question " answered, "If t servitude, it ha Screenwriter February 1937 begins" at 5:30. Then we can list you-a mild hypn _ Living as the munist myth o er, like the truckdriver, is a proletarian slave writhing s the Middle Class in the Middle?" to- which he e middle class wants to get rid of its white collar of better get its picket lines in order." said that for those enlisted in the good cause, "life She declared: do in an unreal world of images, some of them envy the laborer for his contact with reality. The Coin- Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 45 reality. For them the Soviet "paradise" is that reality, in which at last they have a personal and contributory stake. The special May Day issue of the Daily Worker for April 30, 1950, demonstrated the type of middle class professionals attracted by the Communist Party. This issue carried paid greetings from: A group of Queens' dentists A group of Manhattan physicians A group of Bronx dentists A group of college teachers Manhattan dentists A progressive Doctor of Chiropractic White Collar Section, CPUSA Cultural Division, N. Y. State Communist Party Progressive Playwrights A group of librarians According to John Williamson, then organizational secretary of the Communist Party of the United States of America, writing in Political Affairs for February 1946, "71% of the Party in New York City consists of white collar workers, professionals and housewives." Ina number df cases it will be found that the party is a refuge for certain psychologically maladjusted individuals. A nurse at a neuro- logical clinic in New York affirmed some years ago that she recom- mended joining the Communist Party for some of her maladjusted patients who needed some outlet for their nervous energy and she added that the prescription had brought good results in some instances. In Masses and Mainstream, a Communist monthly magazine, for November 1949, Francis H. Bartlett, a psychiatrist, explains "how capitalism causes neuroses" and he advises involving "the neurotic individual in a cooperative effort with us to understand and root out the individualistic goals to which he clings." In the same issue of Masses and Mainstream, Joseph Wortis, another psychiatrist who has since invoked the fifth amendment in refusing to answer inquiry regarding his Communist Party member- ship, describes how "progressive" psychoanalysts deliver public lectures "on the psychological consequences of capitalism" which "leaves many in the audience frightened and palpitating, with no alternative but to place themselves and their families at the disposal of the already overtaxed facilities of the lecturer." A recent example is the case of Mrs. Jean Murray, a former Com- munist, charged with trying to blackmail prosecution witnesses in the trial of Harry Bridges. She was sent for psychiatric examination by Federal Judge Louis B. Goodman in San Francisco after she attacked the court attendants, screaming, "Workers arise. Prepare yourself for the revolution." Maladjusted individuals feel themselves isolated. Communist theory places the blame for such maladjustments upon society rather than the individual which is a comforting thought for the individual concerned. Mr. Bartlett holds out the following promise to those who would join in the "struggle against capitalism." In this process, the barriers between individuals are broken down; people develop closer bonds with each other; they identify themselves with broader and broader. segments of humanity; they lose the sense of isolation and develop feelings of solidarity. * * * In short, their lives, in spite of capitalism and against it, begin to acquire significance and direction. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Rele se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 46 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Joseph North, a feature writer for the Daily Worker of May 3, 1950, describes another case of a "gifted writer * * * a Communist," who told Nort "she was being psychoanalyzed." "I have been having trouble in a group where I belong," she said. She brought her troubles to her psychoanalyst and his advice was to leave the group, she said, becaus it "deflates my ego." She reported no such negative reaction from h r membership in the Communist Party. The neurotic erson is baffled by the complexities of modern society. The Marxist-Leninist formula offers a readymade answer to all questions. The Communist is firmly convinced that in place of the "old bourgeois society, with its classes and class antagonisms," he possesses the key to utopia "in which the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all" (Marx). Psychiatrists admit that the problems of the adolescent border closely upon the se of the neurotic. They are similar in many respects. The adolescent ends to rebel against the domination of his parents and adults generally. He is seeking a medium through which to declare his personal ind pendence. In a sense he is maladjusted. The Com- munist movem t, for its own insidious purpose, offers him a circle in which he belie es he will be taken seriously. It will publish his articles in a yo th magazine. It will offer him an audience for his artistic talents. It will make him an executive secretary of some front organization an give him authority he has never had before. He, therefore, accep s its discipline voluntarily, even enthusiastically. More than that. By dint of his acceptance of the Marxist-Leninist dogma, he sud enly feels himself superior to his parents and the adult world aro nd him. He now has all the answers. It gives him a certain confidence and sense of assurance. One young Communist even went so fa as to write an article entitled "My Father Is a Liar" in the New Ma ses some years ago. In 1940 a group of young Com- munists booed resident Roosevelt on the White House lawn, the first time in ou history that such a disrespectful act was committed against an Am rican President. Unfortunately our school system has not fully e uipped our young men and women to see through Communist sop istry and trickery. The Commu ist movement offers attractive bait to those who crave companio ship and excitement. It offers relief from boredom. One issue of tl e Daily Worker, for example, in its "What's On?" column invited its readers to- Films, discussion, Folk dancing Welcome home pai Vote Your Own Fi Saturday Night Fi Negro-White Unit Artists ball People's drama the Spring frolic Once an indi himself psychok social contacts, l world which is h more impenetral he has become i of information a ty for Mike Gold m Club m Club Cultural Festival Maritime shindig Jefferson theater workshop May Day workshop dance Soviet film Pre-May Day social Balalaika Symphonic Orchestra One hour of social theater Chinese cultural cabaret vidual enters the Communist Party, he separates igically from life outside the party, from his former is family, and his business associates. He lives in a ermetically sealed off from the outside by a more and )le iron curtain of continuous indoctrination to which addicted to the exclusion of all other outside sources nd thought. He relies upon party literature, schools, Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Z. and spokesmen for his views and information. He attends prc Communist plays. If he attends a concert or a social function, it it. one given as a benefit for the Daily Worker or some other Communist cause. It is a satisfying experience for certain types of people. In this closed circle the Communist hears the same Communist cliches reiterated over and over again with never a doubting word. It is like listening to familiar music. He meets the same or similar people wherever he goes, all moving in the same Communist rut. Here he can be sure of approbation and sympathy, since he is always among his ideological kinfolk. He is never isolated. Added to all this is the excitement of picket lines, strikes, mass meetings, parades, demonstrations, tiffs with the police, and arrests. An active Communist will sometimes attend several meetings a day. In other words, there is not a dull moment. There is no doubt that the Communist network holds an attraction for. adventurous spirits who thrive on the conspiratorial atmosphere within the party, the secret meetings, the resort to aliases, the para- phernalia of illegality and opposition to constituted authority. Those who have a tendency to rebel against tradition and conven- tion-the Bohemians and the nonconformists of all stripes, are naturally attracted to the Communist movement. By its repudiation of so-called capitalist ethics and moral standards, the party provides a welcome philosophical sanction for the lunatic fringe. According to Communist theory, the family, as we know it, is an institution designed to protect and extend property rights, which are anathema to the Reds. By branding our Government as capitalistic, Com- munist philosophy justifies any breach or defiance of governmental authority. There are timid souls, persons with a distinct inferiority complex who are inspired to boldness when they become part of an aggressive group. The wolf who is a coward singly becomes a scourge as part of a pack. Psychologists refer to these people aptly as ambitious cowards. A Communist writer, who is himself a temperamental coward, will find considerable delight and satisfaction in writing in the columns of the (Communist) Daily Worker resounding and defiant tirades against the monopolists and those in high places in the Government. The party is, in a sense, a vehicle for anyone with an ax to grind, for anyone who has become embittered either by some unfortunate personal or emotional experience, a victim of some serious physical ailment or handicap, a second-rate artist, a lawyer without clients, a 'doctor without patients, a writer without an outlet, or a preacher without a parish, whose personal ego is soothed by the thought that it is all the fault of the capitalist system. He finds, in the party, an instrument to vent his spleen against the imagined source of injury, as well as a receptive audience. It is often asked why a Communist who is most vehement before an agency of the American Government in defense of civil rights, will. meekly submit, without debate or protest, to the slightest whim of a Soviet dictator or the Communist Party, USA, even though it may mean a complete repudiation of his most sacred principles. Thus the Communist who had, for years, denounced nazism and all its works, reconciled himself overnight to the Stalin-Hitler Pact, and for him nazism became merely a "matter of taste." Similarly those Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 48 THE COM UNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA who fumed aga the hand of J. I tary of the Co during the pert, against Nazi G In certain lil movement is tl while to present the highest ech( Political Affair: General Secrets believe that the He [Browder] h point that his we policies and writit the general meml; fallibility and unc of petty-bourgeoi stantly poured ul Browder had large He habitually byr Committee, also, listened to Browd impress the policy none in the Nation hardly better than ment of Browder': inst capitalism and Wall Street became willing to shake . Morgan, as soon as Earl Browder, then general secre- mmunist Party, gave such party heresy his blessing, )d when Russia was desperately seeking a united front ermany. )eral circles, there is an illusion that the Communist Le very epitome of democracy. It is, therefore, worth- at this point a description of inner party democracy in dons of the party, by William Z. Foster, its chairman, in for September 1945. Although the regime of former try Earl Browder is referred to, there is no reason to atmosphere has been changed under his successors : ad grown almost into a dictator. His authority reached such a )rd had become virtually unchallengeable in our Party. His igs finally were accepted almost uncritically by the leaders and ership. Browder created around himself an atmosphere of in- hallengeable authority. All this was accentuated by the deluge adulation, praisemongering and heroworship that was con- )on him by our leadership and our members * * * Comrade ly liquidated the political functions of the Party's leading bodies. ,assed the National Board in policy making * * * The National had gradually lost all real political power. It assembled; it er's proposals; it affirmed them; it dispersed to the districts to on the membership. Of genuine political discussion there was al Committee. Similarly, our recent National Conventions were the National Committee meetings-with their formal endorse- s reports, no political discussions. * * * Why does a freeborn American accept such humiliating and despotic authority? In he first place, the Communist has been taught that the end justifies an means, that the interests of the so-called First Social- ist Republic, to which he has voluntarily dedicated himself, are para- mount and just fy any and every sacrifice. He willingly submits to a discipline of his own choice regardless of where it may lead, surrender- ing all right to ndependent judgment. Why does a an like Frederick Vanderbilt Field, scion of a million- aire family, jot the Communist Party? His case is not an isolated one. It not infrequently happens that such an individual, who is the heir of unearned millions, suffers from a severe guilt complex. He feels his life o idleness is unproductive. Keenly sensitive to the plight of the underdog, he throws in his lot with the Communist Party to salve his conscience, believing that the party is the champion of the underprivileged He takes the party's word for it, making no attempt to investigate f r himself such Communist institutions as slave labor camps, the secret police and the real plight of the common people be- hind the Iron C rtain. In fact, he is so grateful to the party for the spiritual relief i offers that lie will furiously resent the efforts of any- one who tries to et him straight with the truth about the Soviet Union and communisiri generally. It is not essentially correct to look upon Communists as ordinary criminals. Str gely enough, they may commit the most heinous crimes, all the w y from treason to murder, in the firm belief that they are thereby furt ering the interests of humanity. They may be pur- suing the highes motives based upon the warped and erroneous con- science which Communist doctrine has inculcated. Thus they will justify the utmost ruthlessness, the Communist purge trials, the use of forced confessions and the forced collectivization of millions of peasants, resulti g in widespread famine and starvation. The favo- Approved For Rele*se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 49 rite cold-blooded apology is "You must break the eggs if you would have an omelette," the omelette in this case being socialism. The Communist, in other words, considers himself a soldier in the inter- national Communist army defending the interests of international communism and the Soviet Union which, in his eyes, morally justifies the taking of life, spying, and all the activities of war. Hence all anti-Communist programs must have in mind a twofold objective. (1) The first objective must be the reeducation of Communists through methods of persuasion and experience in order to reincorporate them into the ranks of sane and constructive citizens. It must be recognized that this is difficult since we are confronted in many cases with hard- bitten bigots. Nevertheless, it should be attempted, since it is far more desirable to have a sophisticated, well-informed, and loyal citizen who can contribute his knowledge and experience to the fight against communism than one who is dedicated to defiance of the American Government. (2) The second objective must be to invoke the full penalty of the law against recalcitrants both as a deterrent and as a means of the reeducation of those not responsive to objective number one. Communist faith often invokes the fervor of a new religion. The party member feels lie is a member of an elite group, who are privileged to live in a circle which is the germ of the new world of tomorrow. The nonparty infidels, he thinks, are living in outer darkness in a world which is decadent and doomed. For the apostles and prophets of religion he substitutes Marx, Lenin, and Stalin. However, the Communist places himself on a higher pedestal than would a mere religious convert. Communist theory has a certain superficial logic which makes an appeal to the intellectual. Thus in many cases individuals are recruited for the party through Communist Party schools and theoretical works. Frequently emotional and ideal- istic factors tend to blur the mental processes and to obliterate sound standards of judgment which the same individual will unhesitatingly apply in some other intellectual field in which he may be an expert. The Communist zealot is never as critical toward Communist theory or practice as he would normally be in his studies or in industry. Lest it be assumed that individuals join the Communist Party solely because of certain psychological aberrations, for idealistic reasons or because of the party's intellectual appeal, it should be realized that the organization is in a position to offer attractive material benefits. There are businessmen who are completely dependent for contracts upon the good graces of the Soviet Government. Communist lawyers, accountants, and insurance men draw generous incomes from their services to Communist unions, front organizations, or individual Communists or sympathizers. Certain columnists, writers, musicians, actors, and artists find it extremely profitable to cater to leftwing intellectual and artistic circles. The Communist patronage machine, with its wide ramifications, is extremely solicitous of its faithful followers. Communist-front organizations and unions offer a source of jobs which are restricted to those who pay unquestioning hornaie to the party line. There are members of the Communist Party who suffer from intense inner qualms about the correctness of the party line and about its practices behind the Iron Curtain such as the maintenance of slave labor camps, Soviet imperialism, anti-Semitism, the regimentation of Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Rele 50 THE COM intellectuals an, they do not ha a break, which of the pressur: completely dep ciates for his in himself from no upon the very i being cast out He fears the vi him as a "rene, bering the mys intelligence offi Stuart Poyntz, without a trac( possible liquids: or front organii been known wh had become dia swallow his pri se 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 UNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA i the suppression of civil rights. But in many cases ve the spiritual and moral courage required to make may sound fantastic to those who have no realization ,s to which a member is subject. Having become indent upon his Communist surroundings and asso- ental, spiritual and social sustenance, having isolated n-Communist influences, friends and reading, he looks hought of a break as a personal tragedy. He dreads of the holy of holies, the temple of Soviet worship. lification and slander which will be directed against ade" by the Communist smear apparatus. Remem- ,erious case of Gen. Walter Krivitsky, former Soviet -er found dead in a Washington hotel, and Juliet who disappeared from the streets of New York City he stands in mortal terror of physical assault or cion. If he is employed through a Communist union ration, it may mean the loss of his job. Cases have are the party has threatened with exposure those who effected. It is much easier for the weak character to .e and his principles and just go along. The nature o ante with the ci During the perii being glorified f our war effort ii legions, Commu of participants made the Unite versive activitie leaders subjecte into groups of fi are of two types f Communist organization fluctuates in strict accor.d- irrent political -climate in which the party finds itself. )d when Russia was our ally, when the Red army was bnd the Communist Party was frantically supporting i order to save the "Soviet Fatherland" from Hitler's nist clubs met openly, sometimes numbering hundreds in cities like New York. Today when Russia has d States the chief target of its "cold war" and sub- s, when the Communist Party is under fire and its d to jail sentences, these clubs have been subdivided ?om 3 to 5, meeting secretly usually in homes. They the shop club and the community club. The shop clu is peculiar to the Communist Party and specially suited to its subversive and conspiratorial purposes. No other political party i this country has adopted this form of organization. It is a direct importation from the experience of the Russian Com- munist Party. Lenin, the pa ty's chief authority on matters of organization, long ago pointed out for Communists throughout the world that "Every factory is our s ronghold." Prior to 1926, the American party was built on the basis of national language federations. Speaking before the sessions of die Enlarged Executive Committee of the Communist International h ld in Moscow in April 1925, Gregory Zinoviev, chairman of that body, specifically instructed the Workers (Com- munist) Party, as it was then called, to fuse the national sections into a real unite party." A directive letter was sent to the American party by the C mmunist International in which the party was given until December , 1925, to reorganize its two most important districts, Approved For Releose 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 51 New York and Chicago. It was pointed out that "The factory nucleus is the best organizational method of uniting comrades belong- ing to different nationalities" and that "the work of properly organiz- ing the party will be best accomplished by the organization of factory nuclei." For the guidance of American Communists, Moscow dis- patched a special instructor named Marcus, who wrote a pamphlet "The Communist Nucleus, What It Is-How It Works" under the pseudonym of M. Jenks. From time to time, the party's internal and confidential organ carried additional detailed instruction from spe- cialists of the Russian Communist Party. To supplement this, J. Peters (deported to Communist Hungary in 1949) was sent to Moscow in the early thirties where he received extensive training as a result of which he wrote the authoritative "The Communist Party-A Manual on Organization." Today the shop nucleus is more eupho- niously called the shop club. The Communist International has given clear directives to the American Communist Party to concentrate upon large industrial plants. It has even indicated what specific industries should be made the target. For example, the Party Organizer of February 1933 declared: The Communist International in January 1931 raised for our Party the need of concentrating on the most decisive industries (mine, steel, textile, auto, marine) in the five largest districts * * * (p? 5). The same issue of the Party Organizer even pinpointed the cities selected, including Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Detroit, and Chicago, so that the party might "firmly root itself in the decisive industries." Since that time, these objectives have been broadened considerably to include more key industrial cities. In Political Affairs for May 1950, Henry Winston presents his report to the plenary meeting of the national committee of the Communist Party, USA, in which he points up the necessity for a maximum regis- tration of party members in the: following basic industries: Auto, electrical, steel, coal, rubber, and railroad. What is the purpose of this concentration upon key industries? Again we must turn to the Communist International for a clear and forthright reply. Its resolution on imperialist war adopted at its sixth congress in the summer of 1928 is still the basic line today. Presented as the "main task in the struggle against imperialist war before it breaks out" is the following: Factory and trade union activity must be concentrated primarily in the industries which serve-the mobilization for and conduct of war, like the metal industry, the chemical industry, and transport * * *. Side by side with other revolutionary mass actions (demonstrations, strikes in munitions works, transport strikes, etc.) the general strike * * * is an extremely important weapon * * *. The thirteenth plenum of the executive committee of the Communist International in December 1933 summed it up most succinctly when it called upon affiliated Communist parties to "concentrate their forces in each country, at the vital parts of the war machine of im- perialism." In Communist jargon, all countries which are anti- Communist are labeled as "imperialist." Despite the fact that workers as a group find communism repulsive, it must be remembered that the Communist Party makes it an active practice to colonize key industrial plants with aggressive, often college- trained Communists who have been thoroughly indoctrinated and rep- Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 52 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA pared in party training schools. The presence of one such trouble- maker in a large establishment can be the source of considerable turmoil. Operating secretly within a given plant to avoid detection, the party member receives every possible outside aid through what is known as "concentration," defined by J. Peters as the ultilization of "all avail- able forces and organizations to penetrate the selected factory." Distribution of the Daily Worker, of leaflets, open air meetings at the factory gate, are all handled by party members on the outside, house- wives, students, etc. Leading party members are assigned to advise those who are inside. Front organizations supplement their efforts. J. Peters, signing himself J. P., stressed the importance of this task in the Party Organizer for February 1933, as follows: That District and Section Committees must consider their first political responsi- bility to those units which are concentrated on the important plants. This means that all the problems, in the concentration work, must be taken up in the respect- tive committee, a clear line of policy developed * * * comrades should be assigned to help the units to carry on the work. * * It is incumbent upon the Communists operating inside the plant to exploit "even the most elementary grievances in the shop" and develop "partial struggles around these demands." These struggles, strikes, etc. are not to be limited to the particular plant but must be broadened to involve other plants and to involve the workers in conflict with the police and the government generally. The Communist cell also functions as a source of information for Soviet military intelligence. In the same issue of the Party Organizer, F. B. or Fred Brown, alias for Alpi, an agent of the Communist Inter- national, is most specific on this point: An immediate task for the shop nuclei, for individual Party members working in shops, metal plants, chemical factories, shipyards on the waterfront, is to keep their eyes open and see what is being shipped, what steps are being taken by the bosses for the transformation of the industry into a war industry. * * * Real efforts must be-made to stop the shipment of ammunition. It is of more than passing significance in this connection that the man who was promoted to the small ruling secretariat position of national secretary of the Communist Party, USA, is none other than Gus Hall, alias for Arva Mike Halberg, Arvo Gust Halberg, Arvo Kustaa Halberg, Gasper Hall, John Hollberg, and John Howell. He has been convicted under the Smith Act. According to sworn testi- mony before the city solicitor of Warren, Ohio, in 1.937, he was the leader of a bombing squad which obtained dynamite and nitroglycerin and which was assigned by Hall to blow up and destroy property of the Republic Steel Corp., the homes of nonstriking workers, railroad property including tracks and bridges, huge tanks of highly volatile benzol, a municipal dam controlling water supply and the municipal electric light plant (hearings before the Special Committee on Un- American Activities, November 4, 1938). The selection of Gus Hall as one of the top leaders of the party is extremely significant. Meetings of the shop club are called secretly-never by written communication and usually by word of mouth. Even phone calls are avoided. Meetings may be held in homes or in the local office of a Communist-controlled union or sympathetic organization. If a meeting room is rented, it is not hired in the name of the party. The work is divided up among the chairman, the financial secretary in Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 53 charge of dues, the organizational director in charge of recruiting and meeting arrangements, the press director in charge of Daily Worker sales and distribution as well as other Communist literature, educa- tional director in charge of study classes and propaganda meetings. As a rule, these meetings are held in the evening, once every week or two. No minutes are kept, and financial records are kept in code. Directives are presented orally from the next higher body by a. per- sonal representative. For conspiratorial purposes, it may be neces- sary to divide up the members in a very large plant, into separate clubs by departments. For some time, the CPUSA published a confidential organ called the Party Organizer, later known as Contact, which was devoted to giving guidance to party members on matters of organization. Al- though this magazine is no longer published, its advice is currently relevant with the exception that it is now issued orally instead of in writing. The March-April 1932 issue of the Party Organizer, in describing correspondent C. B.'s experiences in the Bethlehem Steel mill at Sparrows Point, Md., declares: Grievances of the workers are sparks that can be developed into roaring flames of strike if they are carefully handled. The question is what to do with this little spark * * * Revolutionary workers have the task of developing the grievance to the highest level. A study is made of the nature of the alleged "grievance," the de- partments and workers affected. A leaflet is distributed dealing with the "grievance." The correspondent continues: . The pay line on Monday will be especially "hot" first because of the grievance itself; second because of the receipt of the leaflet; third, if our comrades par- ticipate in the conversation and raise the agitation to a higher level, there are great possibilities for singling out good prospects for a grievance group, even to the extent of bringing workers right from the pay line to their own home or bringing them to a designated place that was mentioned for this occasion where several capable comrades would be on hand to speak to workers recruited in this manner. * * * This account was followed by another signed by J. B. who described the party's activity against a new boss in the Fisher Body plant: Immediately after this situation was reported a very small leaflet on this matter was issued. This leaflet was distributed in this particular department in various places such as machines, lockers, and all other spots where the worker could easily see them. At lunch time one party comrade started to discuss the leaflet and he urged that a grievance committee should be organized. The com- mittee went to the superintendent demanding that the boss be removed. * * * ? When the whistle blew, none of the workers returned to work. * * * The activity of the shop club is not limited to the exploitation of minor grievances but is consciously integrated into current Commu- nist international policy. During World War II these shop clubs were allegedly dissolved as a token gesture from our Soviet allies. Today Communist parties throughout the world are emphasizing, as their chief issue at the present time, the drive to immobilize the dem- ocratic countries through a peace offensive. Literature distributed is slanted to give the impression that the United States is controlled by warmongers while the Soviet Union is referred to as "peace loving." The party is quite flexible in its organizational forms. In some cases, industry clubs are formed including members from a given industry represented in a certain area, concentrating upon local factories and union activities. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 54 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA The bulk of the party membership is to be found in the community clubs. These clubs serve a number of essential functions: (1) as a local political dynamo contact and sparking point to stimulate activity in local front organizations, unions, mass organizations, and neio-hborhoods generally; (2) as a support and aid to nearby shop c1u s; (3) as a channel for intelligence information for officials at the party center. These clubs usually operate under some protective cover. In determining the size of the community club, the party is caught on the horns of a dilemma. On the one hand, if it would attract public attention and support, it must hold public meetings and encourage large attendance. On the other hand, it is compelled to resort to conspiratorial secrecy by the fact that its activities in the present period increasingly demand defiance of the law, outright dis- loyalty to the United States and sacrificial loyalty to the Soviet Union, thus arousing the ire of the public and subjecting it more and more to stern punitive legal measures. The party has definitely chosen the second alternative especially since 1945, dividing the community clubs into small groups of about five. Public meetings are held under the auspices of some convenient front organization not under the party. In his Communist Party--A Manual on Organization, J. Peters has indicated the type of issues to be exploited by street or town units, including unemployment relief, the high cost of living, sanitary conditions, sales tax, civil rights, police brutality, injunctions. Ile adds: Another important task of.the Street and Town Unit is to help the Shop Units in its territory and near to it * * * for example, systematic sale of the Daily Worker in front of the factory; or systematic holding of shop-gate meetings; dis- tribution of leaflets or shop papers from the outside. The Street Unit can also help the Shop Unit do open work around the factory, in the streetcar and bus stations. * * * The Street Unit supports actively and takes part in the strike struggles of the factory workers, and also mobilizes the neighborhood for sup- port, furnishing reserves for the picket lines, conducting demonstrations, collecting strike relief, etc. Again by way of illustration, we cite an article in Contact for Sep- tember tember 1947 by Oleta Yates, chairman of the San Francisco County of the Communist Party: Clubs must think in terms of moving people-ten, twenty, one hundred or five hundred-in protest delegations, picket lines, demonstrations or other forms of struggle. The Daily Worker of April 26, 1950, cited, as an emulatory example for its Communist readers the fact that "20 men and women were found guilty of `disorderly conduct' last week on a charge that grew out of a demonstration at the 44 Stanton St. Welfare Department center three weeks ago." A representative list of Communist community clubs in the city of New York as shown in the Daily Worker in the middle 1940's follows: Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA .55 Bedford Club Begun Club (Mt. Eden) Bronx Blvd. Club Bryant Club (Tremont) Burnside Youth Club Cacchione Club Cacchione (Mc$sholu) Club Carver Youth Club Castle Hill Club (Parkehester) Club Anderson Club Barker Club Levin Club Lincoln (Hunts Pt.) Club 1 (Burnside) Club 3 Club 4 Club 6 Club 8 Club 10 Dennis Club (Mt. Eden) Elder Club (Parkchester) Elder Tenants Club (Parkchester) Elizabeth Stanton Club Fisher Club (Parkchester) Foster Club (Mt. Eden) Flynn Club (So. Bronx) Fordham Housewives Club Gunhill Club Haywood Club (Parkchester) Hewitt Club (So. Bronx) Italian C Club (Parkchester) Jackson Club (So. Bronx) Joe Brodsky Club Joe Smith Club Joe York Club (W. Bronx Youth) Julius Fuchik (Pk. All. Youth) Club Lucy Parsons Club Melrose Club (Morrisania) Melrose Youth Club New Youth Club N. Pelham 1 Club (Allerton) N. Pelham 2 Club (Allerton) N. Williamsbridge Club Olgin Club (Mt. Eden) Olgin Club (Tremont) 180th Club (Tremont) Prospect Youth Club Ruthenburg B Club Shakespeare Club Simpson Club Sojourner Truth Club (E. Bronx Youth) Solidarity Youth Club Tom Paine Club Upper Stadium Club Van Cortlandt (Mosholu) Club Vanguard Youth Club Vets Club West Farms 2 Youth Club Albermarle Club (So. Flatbush) Avenue 0 Club Avenue U Club Banner Club (Brighton) Bay 29th St. Club BROOKLTN-continued Bensonhurst Club (Bath Beach) Beverly Club (So. Flatbush) Bore, Hall Youth Club Brodsky Club (Midwood) Brownsville Club Brownsville Youth A Club Buck Lazar Club Cacchione Club (Bedford) Cacchione Club (Crown Hts.) Cacchione Club (Midwood) Carver Club Club C (12 A. D.) Club C (24 A. D.) Club 1 Club 3 (Bakers) Club 5 Club 338 Coney Island Club Dahill Club Ditmas Club. (So. Flatbush) Douglass Club (E. N. Y.) East Flatbush Club Eastern District Club Farragut Club (Flatbush) Flynn Club (Bath Beach) Fort Greene Club Fort Hamilton Club Foster Club (Bath Beach) Freedom Club (Bath Beach) Fulton Club (6 A. D.) Cannes Club (11 A. D.) Gleason Club Greenpoint Club (Williamsburgh) Gung-Ho Club Halsey Club Harry Barnett Youth Club Highway Club (Bath Beach) Hinsdale Club J. Smith Club Joe Stember Youth Club John Brown Club John Brown Youth Club Kings Highway 1 Club Kings Highway 2 Club Kingston Club (Bedford) Krumbein Club (Bath Beach) Krumb, in Club (Bedford) Krumbein Club (Crown Hts.) Krumbein Club (11 A. D.) Krumbein Club (Kings Hwy.) La Pasionara Club L'Enero Club Lewis Club Longshore Club Lower 16th Club Luigi Gallo Club Madison Club Maugel Club Mendy Club Mendy Club (Kings Hwy.) Mendy Youth Club Middle 16th Club Mike Ludlow Club Neptune Club New Lots Youth Club New Utrecht Club (Bath Beach) Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 56 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BROOKLYN-continued Oceana Club Paine Club Parkville Club Parkway Club (Bedford) Perlman Club (11 A. D.) Plaza Club (Boro Hall) Project Club (6 A. D.) Restaurant Workers Club Riverside Club (Boro Hall) 79th St. Club (Bath Beach) Stillwell Club (Coney Island) Stone Ave. Club Tompkins Club 20th Ave. Club (Bath Beach) Ulmer Club (Bath Beach) Weiness Club Williamsburgh Youth Club Willie Milton Youth Club Winthrop Club MANHATTAN Audubon North Club Audubon South Club B. Entin Club Brodsky Club (5 A. D.) Brodsky Club (8 A. D.) Cacchione Club (Lower Manhattan East) Chain Corrugated Club Claudia Jones Club Club Bennett Club Betances Club Brodsky (Dist.) Club Carlson Club Forward Club Galileo Club Glumac Club Gramsci Club Isham Club Larkin Club Maltezos Club A (Grand Central Section) Club B Club C Club D-1 Club D-2 Club D-3 Club D-4 Club 1 (Lower Manhattan West) Club 2 (Lower Manhattan West) Club 2 (7 A. D. West) Club 3 (Lower Manhattan West) Club 3 (Lower West Side) Club 3A Club 4 (Lincoln Sq.) Club 4 (Lower Manhattan West) Club 4 (Printers) Club 5 (Lower Manhattan West) Club 5 (7 A. D.) Club 5A Club 6 Club 6 (Lower Manhattan West) Club ON Club 6S Club 7 (Fur) Club 7 (Lower Manhattan West) Club 7A MANHATTAN-Continued Club 8 (Lower Manhattan West) Club 10 Club 21 Chelsea Club 42 (Food) Club 66 (Garment) Club 89 Columbus Hill Club Crawford Club Cutters Club Czech Club Drieser Club (5 A. D.) Dry Goods Club Dyckman Club East Harlem Youth Club Emil Aine Club 15th St. Club (Lower Chelsea) 52d St. Club (Lincoln Sq.) First E. D. Club Freedom Club Garibaldi Club (Lower Manhattan East) Garment Youth Club Greek Adult Club Harriet Tubman Club Hillside Club (Inwood) Hispano Club J. Connolly Club (Wash. Hts.) Jesus Menendez Club Joe Hill Club (Forbes) La Pasionara Club (Lincoln Sq.) La Pasionara Club (10 A. D.) Larkin Club (5 A D.) Lowell Club Mooney Club (5 A. D.) Mothers Club 143d St Club (13 A. D.) Puerto Rican Club Railroad Club Railroad Club (Lincoln Sq.) Ray Friedlander Youth Club Sacco-Vanzetti I Club Sacco-Vanzetti 3 Club Sacco-Vanzetti 4 Club Sacco-Vanzetti 6 Club Sacco-Vanzetti 7 Club Sacco-Vanzetti 8 Club Shirt (Amalgamated) Club 16th St. Club Slipper (Shoe) Club Stripers (Fur) Club Stuyvesant I Club Stuyvesant 2 Club Stuyvesant 3 Club Stuyvesant 4 Club Stuyvesant 5 Club Stuyvesant 6 Club Stuyvesant 7 Club Stuyvesant 8 Club Thompson Club (10 A. D.) Togliatti Club (8 A. D.) Village North Club Village South Club Village Youth Club Washington Hts. Youth Club West Midtown I Club West Midtown 2 Club Youth Club Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For ReARas QppA/ c - P7A ,q%1 9 2609140037-0 QUEENS Astoria Youth Club John Williamson Club Arverne Club Juniper Valley Club Auto Club Long Island City Club Bayside Club L'Unita Club Club M-2 Maspeth Club ? Club M-3 Mets Club Club M-4 Middle Village Club Corona Youth Club Railroad Club County School Club Rego Vets Club Far Rockaway M Club Sid Foelek Club Freedom Club Sugar Club Hamills Club (Rockaway) Queensbridge Club Hillcrest Club Willie Milton Club (Hollis) Hollis Club Woodside Club Joe Hill Club The section committee, headed by the section organizer or chairman, supervises and directs the work of the shop and community clubs in it given area. This is done through meetings of the club chairmen and through section representatives sent to the meetings of the various clubs. Its officials parallel those in the clubs: chairman, organiza- tional secretary, educational director, press director, financial secretary, etc., who work on a volunteer basis. Specimen sections in New York City include the following with addresses as of 1946: Tompkins Square Lower Manhattan Lower West Side, 430 Sixth Ave., Phone GR 5-9696 Jefferson 201 W. 72d St., TR 4-9362 Unity ~Ilenter, 2744 Broadway, PH 9-9483 Chelsea, 269 W. 25th St., CH 4-1688 East Midtown Lower East Side 324 Second Ave. Hank Forbes, X01 Second Ave., GR 5-9036 Yorkville, 350 E. 81st St. Lower Heights, 493 W. 145th St. Washington Heights Food Workers 11 A. D. 7th A. D. West Lower West Side, 430 Sixth Ave., GR 5-9896 7th A. D. East Waterfront, 269 W. 25th St. CH 4-1947 Italian, 273 Bleecker St., Cil 2-9436 East Side (Olgin), 154 Clinton St. West Side, 73 W. 99th St. Harlem East Harlem, 171 E. 116 St., ED 4-2918 Lower Harlem, 1549 Madison Ave., SA 2-7559 Bath Beach, 2166 86th St., ES 2-7277 Boro Park, 4903 12th Ave. Crown Heights, 289 Utica Ave., PR 3-9597 Fort Greene, 190 Tompkins Ave., EV 4-7183 Bedford-Stuyvesant, 1239 Atlantic Ave., ST 3-9589 6th A. D., 190 Tompkins Ave., EV 4- 7183 Brighton Beach, 3200 Coney Island Ave., DE 6-9814 Eastern Parkway, 1188 President St., RP 3-9736 Industrial, 260 Fulton St., MA 5-9094 24th A. D., 806 Sutter Ave. Bensonhurst, 7309 20th Ave. Kings Highway, 1212 Kings Highway, DE 9-9518 Brownsville 375 Saratoga Ave. East New York, 806 Sutter Ave. 12th A. D., 305 Church Ave. Waterfront, 5306 4th Ave., GE 9-9734 Boro Hall, 260 Fulton St., MA 5-9094 Coney Island, 3228 Mermaid Ave. Flatbush 848 Flatbush Ave. Williamsburg, 190 Tompkins Ave., EV 4-7183 Midwood Kings Metal Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915ROO0600140037-0 Approves for Wga 2000/08/27: CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 IST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA QU ENS Rego, Astoria, 3047 Steinway Ave. North Shore, 9912 N. Boulevard Sunnyside, 4614 Queens Blvd. Prospect, 1301 .Boston Road Morrisania, 1 E. 167 St., JE 8-1445 Fordham, 9 W. Burnside Ave., FO 4-8780 Kingsbridge, 20 E. Kingsbridge Rd. Allerton, 2700 Olinville Ave., OL 5-8837 Mt. Eden, 125 E. 170th St., JE 6-8815 Hunts Point, 891 Freeman St., DA 9-7956 Tremont, 807 E. Tremont Ave., TR Mosholu, 3092 Hull Ave., OL 5-9315 8-7731 Parkchester, 1590 Westchester Ave., TI 2-4805 According to J. Peters' Manual, "The Section is made up of a num- ber of Shop, Street or Town Units in a given territory," under the lead of the section committee. The size of the territory of the sections, the members of the section committee and the section organizer or chairman, are all subject to the decision of the next higher committee, is e., the district committee or State committee. Here again decisive authority emanates from the top. The section committee usually consists of from 9 to 11 members. DISTRICT OR STATE ORGANIZATIONS The district covers a portion of the country (a, part of 1 or 1, 2 and sometimes 3 States, depending upon the industries, on the size of the membership, etc.). Thus it will be noted that district 2 covers all of the State of New York, while district 1 includes Maine, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island. Pennsylvania, on the other hand, is divided up between district 3 including eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware, and district 5 including western Penn- sylvania, the coal and steel centers. In an effort to befog the public mind, the Communist Party consti- tution declares that- The highest body of the state organization is the State Convention, which shall convene at least once every two years. As a matter of fact, Communist conventions are perfunctory affairs with little decisive power. In a fulltime conspiracy it is manifest that day-to-day decisions could not be left to a biennial convention. Actual power resides at all times in a small secretariat of 3 or 5 within the district or State committee, which may be overruled at any time by a representative of the national committee or the Communist International (now the Cominform). In its turn the district or State committee and its officials are subject to approval by the national committee. It usually consists of from 15 to 19 members. The following chart gives the chain of Communist command from the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to the smallest Communist unit in the United States. It attempts to summarize the opinions of numerous former members of the Commu- nist Party of the United States and the Soviet Union as to the structure of the international Communist movement. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For R~ 9 q aF(; tr f n -00910 80006001 0037-0 AMERICA 5U Commissions COMMUNIST CHAIN OF COMMAND Organisation Women Control & Review Youth Labor Agrarian A it,& Prop. Colonial Information Bureau of Communist and Workers Parties (Cominform`?Buchares National Officers.CPUS Org. secy. Labor secy. Leg, dir. Commission chairmen District (state) Officers,CPUSA Chairman, Labor secy. Soviet Foreign Office International Front Organizations International Union of Students World Federation of Trade Unions Women's International Democratic Fed. World Federation of Democratic Youth-- Association of Democratic Lawyers Assoo1cc`tiation, of Democratic Journalists Anrld Pl~aiicnra .c1ohT a S. ientjflI Workers secretariat Communist Party U.S.A. National oard, C;F,L:fi;A; 1 American Front Organizati ens Congress of American Woven Labor Youth LeaFue National Lawyers Cuild- Peace Information Center Pat tonal labor Peace Conf. ,onf. on Peaceful Alternative: Civil Rirhts Congress Ar.Con, for Prct. Of For.Born Council on African Affairs Com.for .i Dem.Far Eosterr. P )rgan Veteri Wome iza- ans lion 11 NJ .onn is Colol Mo. D out out Section i_ Officers Chairman, Ex. secv, Org. secy., Educ. dir., Indust. sec;, Press dir., etc. Cluh Officers Chairman, Organizer, Org. secy, Fduc. dir., Indust. secy. Press dir., etc. 15hop or Community Club ~ureg Wash ational lities State Front g,unizations The national committee which is elected by the national convention in accordance with a slate previously submitted by the party leaders subject to the approval of current Moscow representative, usually consists of from 30 to 35 members. All its members are not made Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approvo FEE c s~p /;Zp'&} , , PaT8TQQ%t5RO00600140037-0 public. According to the party constitution, this committee "or- ganizes and supervises its various departments and committees; guides and directs all the political and organizational work of the Party; elects or removes editors of its press who work under its leadership and guidance; organizes and directs all undertakings of importance to the entire Party- administers the national treasury." The national committee meets about every 4 months, its members being distributed as organizers in the various districts throughout the country. The national committee elects a national board of about 11 which is resi- dent in New York City, and meets about once a week. The national board in turn selects a secretariat of 3 to 5 including the chairman, the executive secretary and other members of the national head- quarters staff, who run the party from day to day.. In each case it should be remembered that recommendations for each post come from the top down, the highest echelons being subject to recommendation and approval from Moscow itself. There are no rival candidates or contests for office. The actual functioning of the national committee and its smaller, ruling national board or politburo (a term copied straight from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union) is not in accordance with any prescribed constitutional procedure. It is totally at variance with routine practices in other political parties or in fact in traditional American organizations in general. It is even extremely doubtful whether the rank and file Communist Party member has the vaguest notion of what is going on in the upper circles of his organization. We shall try to give a true picture of the "broadest inner democracy" of which the party boasts. DISCIPLINARY PROCEDURE Because of its quasi-military and conspiratorial character, the Communist Party, USA, pays considerable attention to the matter of discipline. The national convention elects a national review commission, formerly known as the control commission, which is strictly limited to "tested" members of the party who have been active for at least 5 years. What the party constitution does not say, however, is that members of this commission are closely interlocked with the under- ground apparatus of the party and with Soviet military intelligence. Because of this in some instances it commands greater authority than the national committee itself. Among those who have been members of this commission in the past are Charles Dirba, alias Moore; K. Radzi; Jacob Mindel; Charles Krumbein, former Comintern emissary jailed for passport fraud, and Jacob Golos, revealed in testimony by Elizabeth Bentley and Whittaker Chambers as the head of an underground ring of the Communist Party. Current practice has been not to reveal the names of the members of the review commission. This commission has charge of all disciplinary procedure throughout the party, and is entrusted with the custody of the party's secret records. What matters are the subject of disciplinary action according to the party constitution? One count is "conduct or action detrimental to the working class." Considering itself as the "political party of the American working class," it remains for the party officials to Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For 7s$~Q5~040037-0 interpret this highly elastic category of offenses. The opinions of responsible labor officials are not asked. Another offense is conduct or action detrimental "to the interests of the Party," another vague classification. Punishable also is any violation of the decisions of party committees. Under these broad categories of party offenses the civil rights of party members are extremely tenuous. In his book, From Bryan to Stalin, William Z. Foster, party chairman, describes the expulsion of members of the central executive or national committee for a variety of reasons utterly foreign to the American political scene. Salutsky, Lore, and Askeli were expelled in 1923-24 as "centrists." J. P. Cannon and others were expelled in 1928 as "Trotskyites." Jay Lovestone was expelled in 1929 for "right opportunist tendencies of a semi-Social Democratic character" and because he violated a decision of the Comintern. Earl Browder's expulsion of February 5, 1946, was based on charges of "factional activity," attacks on the leadership of the French Communist Party, and "revisionism of Marxism," and "obstructive passivity." The penalties which may be invoked for these offenses are (1) Private censure; (2) public censure; (3) removal from committees; (4) removal from all responsible work; (5) expulsion from the party. We might add a category of self-censure. In 1929 after the expulsion of fay Lovestone as general secretary of the party, and in 1945 after similar action against Earl Browder as general secretary, party leaders has- tened to admit their errors in support of these leaders and to publicly repudiate them. LEADERSHIP CULT In order to insure unquestioning obedience to its mandates, the international Communist.movement inculcates complete subservience to its "leader." Thus Joseph Stalin was referred to in such superlative terms as "the leader of progressive humanity," "the great defender of peace," "great successor in the cause of the immortal Lenin," the "unifier of peoples," "the great military leader of modern times," "greatest strategist of our era," "symbol of heroism and glory," and so on. On a smaller scale the same atmosphere of slavish adulation per- meates the national committee of the Communist Party, USA. Tes- timony to this effect comes from William Z. Foster, himself, the party's chairman. In his article in Political Affairs for September 1945 Foster states frankly : With his great personal prestige and his excessive degree of authority, Browder's word had become practically the law in our Party * * * He had grown almost into a dictator. His authority reached such a point that his word had become virtually unchallengeable in our Party. His policies and writings finally were accepted almost uncritically by the leaders and the general membership. Browder created around himself an atmosphere of infallibility and unchallengeable author- ity. All this was accentuated by the deluge of petty-bourgeois adulation, praise- mongering and hero-worship that was constantly poured upon him by our leader- ship and our members * * *. Constantly grasping for more power, Comrade Browder had largely liquidated the political functions of the Party's leading bodies. He habitually by-passed the National Board in policy making * * *. The National Committee, also had gradually lost all real political power. It assembled; it listened to Browder's proposals; it affirmed them; and it dispersed to the districts to impress the policy upon the membership. Of genuine political discussion there was none whatever in the National Committee. Similarly, our recent National Conventions were hardly better than the National Committee Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approves FgrlIg%g4W~? (;W-PA7&s(o, ,lAgg90600I40037-0 meetings-with their formal endorsement of Browder's reports, no political discussions and no self-critical examination of the leadership * * *. In this stifling bureaucratic atmosphere * * * political thinking itself was hamstrung. Comrade Browder, basing himself upon the high 'prestige which he enjoyed among the Party membership, made policy pretty much as he saw fit. Of course, Foster strives to create the impression that Earl Browder was individually at fault for this state of affairs. Nowhere does he admit that the atmosphere he describes is typical. The fact remains that although Browder was general secretary from 1930 to 1945 with the knowledge and approval of his Moscow superiors, Foster, who had been loud in praise of Browder's "insight and vision," hailing him as the "heroic leader of the people," did not dare to change his tune publicly until 1945 after the French Communist leader, Jacques Duclos, had damned Browder in the name of the interna- tional Communist hierarchy. Following the ejection of Browder, Foster was quick to pay his homage to his successor, Eugene Dennis, quoting him with deepest respect. Dennis, according to Foster in the Daily Worker of May 15, 1950, "symbolizes the just cause of peace, democracy, and socialism" and is singled out as "the foremost leader of our party." The truth is that the same Communist leaders who are the per- sonification of defiance before congressional committees and the courts of the land, who pour a steady stream of vilification upon representatives of the American Government, are paralyzed with fear before the emissaries of the Soviet dictatorship. In the September 1945 issue of Political Affairs, Foster openly admitted that the chairman of the party would have faced expulsion had he made public his letter to the national committee of January 1944 in which he dared to take issue with Browder, then the current Moscow favorite. In the Communist of April 1944 Foster's views were openly castigated before the entire party by Gerhard Eisler, an alien. Foster submitted meekly and without protest, simply because Eisler possessed the blessing of Moscow. It is indeed hard to reconcile the rebellious fire-eater of the Daily Worker and of congressional committees' hearing, with the submis- sive Mr. Foster before his Moscow superiors. aking in Foster's presence before the American commission of the Executive Com- mittee of the Communist International on May 6, 1929, Joseph Stalin was unsparing in his castigation of his American Gauleiter. We quote his speech in part: The Foster Group wants to display its loyalty to the CPSU (Communist Party of the Soviet Union) and proclaims itself as "Stalinites." Good and well. * * * The Foster Group wants to demonstrate its closeness to the Comin- tern. * * * Good and well. * * * Let the Muscovites know how we Americans can play on the Exchange. * * * But Comrades, the Comintern is not an Ex- change. The Comintern is the holy of holies of the working class. The Comintern must, therefore, not be taken for an exchange. * * * It is characteristic that in writing to his friends Comrade Foster refers to that conversation as something mysterious, as something about which one must not speak aloud. * * * What could there be so mysterious in my conversations with Comrade Foster? * * * What did Foster speak to me about? He complained of the factionalism and unprincipled character of Comrade Lovestone's group. * '* * I admitted that Comrade Lovestone's group is guilty of these digressions. * * * From this, Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-009158000600140037-0 THE OMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Comrade Foster comes to the strange conclusions that I sympathize with the [Foster] Minority group. * * * Is it not clear that that which Comrade Foster WISHES, seems to him to be REALITY? How did Mr. Foster, a free-born American, react to this humili- ating dressing down from a foreign potentate? There is no trace of any reply to this tirade by Mr. Foster. His attitude toward Joseph Stalin was, however, clearly expressed in answer to a Government question in connection with the trial of the 11 Communist leaders and was published in a special supplement to the Worker of September 25, 1949. He was asked whether he was present and joined in the fol- lowing greeting to Joseph Stalin at the Seventh World Congress of the Communist International in Moscow in July 1935: To Comrade Stalin, Leader, Teacher, and friend of the proletariat and oppressed of the whole world * * * we address ourselves to you, Comrade Stalin, our leader, * * * to you, beloved leader of the whole international proletariat and of the oppressed with warmest greeting. * * * The peoples of the world * * * are turning more and more towards the U. S. S. R., fixing on you, Comrade Stalin, the leader of the toilers in all countries, a gaze full of hope and love. * * * You have taught and are teaching us Communists the Bolshevik art of uniting unshake- able fidelity to principles with closest contact with the masses. * * * The 7th World Congress of the Communist International * * * assures you, Comrade Stalin, that the Communists will always and everywhere be faithful to the end to the great and invincible banner of Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin. He replied: I was not present at this particular demonstration but I joined in the spirit of it and endorsed it. * * * I thought such a man deserved the ovation that he got. In fact this bootlicking servility runs in a never-varying thread through all of Foster's utterances after Stalin took over power. It is worth noting by way of contrast, that Foster has repeatedly denounced the chosen heads of his own country as imperialists and warmongers. Here is a choice sample, from the Daily Worker of January 12, 1948, page 3: One of the outstanding traits of President Truman as a political leader is his demagogy. He is a reactionary who covers up his sinister policies with fair words; he cold-bloodedly indulges in glittering promises to the masses, which he has not the slightest intention of fulfilling. * * * Preparations for war and the aggressive pushing of big business imperialism, all hidden under words of angelic peace-this was the heart of President Truman's report. And a sinister heart it was. * * * In his standard work, the History of the Communist Party of the United States, William Z. Foster has this to say: * * * When one set of capitalist demagogues-Truman, Taft, etc.-discredit themselves, capitalism knows how to raise up another set-Eisenhower, Kefauver. etc.-to keep bourgeois illusions alive among the toiling masses (p. 468). In his testimony before the Committee on Un-American Activities on November 26, 1946, Louis F. Budenz furnished another example of the paralyzing fear which pervades the upper strata of the CPUSA. The incident involved Gerhard Eisler, alias Edwards, and Clarence Hathaway, then editor of the Daily Worker, a member of the party's top political committee or national board. Budenz, who in late 1945 was managing editor of the paper, described what took place at an editorial board meeting he attended: I came into that meeting of the editorial board of the Daily Worker * when lo and behold to my surprise in walked Mr. Edwards; he did not even introduce himself to the editorial board, but in he walked and proceeded to flay Hathaway for almost an hour, declaring him to be unfit to be editor of the Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approve F q tpje I pPAq d?TIrEIr FA ;%g9AIA990600140037-0 Daily Worker, that he was more interested in his picture on the front page than "he is in running the paper" as it should be run, politically. And I was amazed at this because of Hathaway's position, as represented by the daily press at that time, as one of the big three running the party. But Edwards came in, and Edwards was the representative of the Communist International, and he flayed Hathaway, and Hathaway did not do anything but sit there with a silly grin and had to take this trouncing. That was an education to me. Mr. Budenz continued his testimony with the case of Harry Gannes, late foreign editor of the Daily Worker: He was about to be convicted of false passports when he died of a brain tumor. His death was hastened by fear and worry. I worked in the same office with him at the time and know that most of his trouble was not fear of America, nor fear of an American prison, but fear of people back of hi :m in the Communist conspiratorial apparatus. He feared he would have to divulge some of the shadowy figures with whom he worked for the Kremlin. No party official, no matter how high his status, was apparently exempt from this fear complex. Mr. Budenz declared in his testi- mony, "I have seen Earl Browder look like he was struck with a most intense fright on more than one occasion, and Jack Stachel looks as though somebody was chasing him all the time." It would seem, therefore, that whereas the lower layers of the party might be motivated primarily by ideological devotion, its higher echelons are driven by an overpowering fear of a far-reaching conspiratorial network from which they cannot extricate themselves even if they desire to do so--a cold-blooded machine which is merciless toward even the slightest infringement of its drastic ukases. COMMUNIST PARTY, USA, AS A PUPPET Despite the fact that the party constitution specifies the national convention as "the highest authority of the Party", actual practice discloses that the seat of real authority lies neither with the convention nor with the national committee which it supposedly elects, but with Moscow. The House Committee on Un-American Activities entered into considerable detail on this point in its report on The Communist Party of the United States as an Agent of a Foreign Power, published in 1947 as House Report No. 209. We elaborate this point by an examination of party behavior since November 1.6, 1940, when the CPUSA disaffiliated from the Communist International "for the specific purpose of removing itself from the terms of the so- called Voorhis Act" (H. R. 10094) and subsequent to the alleged dis- solution of the Communist International on May 30, 1943. Political Affairs, formerly known as The Communist, is the official theoretical organ of the CPUSA. Its editorial board includes such topflight members of the national committee as V. J. Jerome, Abner W. Berry, Alexander Bittelinan, Jack Stachel and Max Weiss. It is published under the supervision of the national committee for the purpose of supplying the members of the party with political directives for the coming month. It is, therefore, of the highest significance that the issues of this authoritative magazine contain in almost every issue articles on the outstanding current issues by prominent writers for the Communist press of the U. S. S. R. Thus the CPUSA graphically demonstrates to its members the truth of the statement which appears in the Daily Worker of March 5, 1939, that- The Communist Party of the Soviet Union always was and always will be a model, an example for the Communist parties of all countries. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R0.00600140037-0 Approved For ~F fAWR, ,Pj,@A P0j5jNQQ?0Q6V0037-0 SOVIET WRITERS WHOSE ARTICLES HAVE APPEARED IN THE COMMUNIST, LATER KNOWN AS POLITICAL AFFAIRS, THEORETICAL MONTHLY MAGAZINE OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY, USA. 1940 Ackerman, A.-Lenin at the Second World Congress of the Communist Inter- national, 936-949, October. Chekalin, M.-The Renaissance of Nationalities and the Consolidation of Nations in the U. S. S. R., 356-375, April. Fuernberg, F.-A Brilliant Manual of Bolshevik Tactics, 749-762, August. Kosiachenko, G.-The Basic Principle of Socialism, 1038-1044, November. Lande, C. G.-Dynamic Changes in the Population of the Soviet Union, 1031- 1037, November. Lenin, V. I.-On the World Imperialist War, 516-517, June; The United States of Europe Slogan, 17-20, January. Mendelsohn, L.-On Lenin's Classic Work, "Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism," 173-179, February. Mitin, M.-The Power of Stalinist Prediction, 141-148, February. Stalin, Joseph-How Does Social-Democracy Understand the National Question? 716-728, August. Yaroslavsky, Emilian-On Bourgeois and Bourgeois-Democratic Revolutions, 1941 Gorodetsky, E.-The Patriotic War of 1918 Against the German Invaders of the Ukraine, 1091-1107, December. Kedrov, B.-Review of "Dialectics of Nature," by Frederick Engels, 834-838, September. Kursanov, George-Space and Time-Forms of the Existence of Matter, 377- 384, April; 458-467, May; 568-576, June; 652-656, July. Lenin, V. I.-Imperialism and the Split in the Socialist Movement, 151-164, February; The Pamphlet by Junius, 883-887, October. Stalin, Joseph-Victory Will Be Ours, 673-677, August. 1942 Alexandrov, Gregory-Delay in Initiating the Second Front May Spell Disaster, 599-601, August. Molotov, V. M.=Speech on the Occasion of the Signing of the Soviet-British Mutual Assistance Treaty, 575-576, July. Stalin, Joseph-Order of the Day on May Day, 1942, 402-407, June; On the Anti- Hitler Coalition of the United Nations, 494-496, July; Letter to Henry Cassidy on Second Front, 957, November; The U. S. S. R. and the Anglo-Soviet, American Fighting Alliance, 963-972, December; Order of the Day to the Red Army and the Soviet People on the Occasion of the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary of the October Revolution 972-992, December. Letter to Associated Press Repre- sentative Henry C. Cassidy, November 14, 1942, 974-975, December. Tolchenov, M.-Five Years of the Sino-Japanese War, 640-643, August. 1943 Alexandrov, G.-The Great Patriotic War and the Social Sciences, 47-50, Janu- Bragin, Mikhail-The Great Battle of Stalingrad, 222-228, March. Malinin, N.-On the Discussion of War Aims and Post-War Problems, 720-724, August. Manuilsky, Dmitri-The Glorious Victories of the Red Army, 975-979, November, Mitin, M.-Marx and Engels on Reactionary Prussianism, 83-87, January. Osipov, M.-Italy at the Crossroads, 58-61, January. Popovich, Albert-What About Yugoslavia? 274-284, March. Potemkin Vladimir-The Soviet Union's Struggle for Peace in the Period Before World War II, 917-921, October. Shvernik, N.-World Labor and the Second Front, 874-880, October. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 App roveFor pft1~# Qq $ 7 - sP7,A;q ,9Afflgg0600140037-0 1943-Continued Stalin, Joseph-Reminiscences of Lenin, 4-9, January; Order of the Day on the Occasion of the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Red Army, 292-296, April; May Day Order of the Day, 572-576, June; letter to Harold King on the Dissolution of the Communist International, 671, July; Speed the Day of Victory, 1071-1081, December. Tolchenov, M.-The Time Factor in Coalition Warfare, 1002-1004, November. Yndin, L.-On the 73rd Anniversary of Lenin's Birth, 562-563, June. 1944 Galaktionov, M.-On the Eve of the Invasion of Europe; Greater Vigilance Against Vacillators and Enemies of Teheran, 291-295, April; Some Features of Modern Warfare, 773-777, September. Gavrilov E.-Hungary's Occupation by Hitler, 461-464, May. Gayev, V.-The Plan for Post-War Employment, 737-744, August. Gromyko, Andrei-Speech at Dumbarton Oaks Conference, 957-959, October. Malinin, N.-An International Security Organization, 988-1000, November. Molotov, Vyacheslav M.-Report to Supreme Soviet of the USSR, 223-231, March. Smirnova, Zinaida-Lenin and the Soviet People's Patriotic War, 163-166, February. Tarle, Eugene-Poland and the Coming Stage of the War, 167-169, February. Tolchenov, Col. M.-Germany's Military Situation, 586-593, July. Trainin, A.-Certain Lessons of Versailles, 1015-1017, November; The Strategy of "Mercy," 1073-1077, December. Varga, Eugene-Plans for Currency Stabilization, 282-283, March. Zhukov, A.-Japanese-German Relations During the Second World War, 284- 287, March. 1945 Baltisky, N.-Patriotism, 947-958, October. Galaktionov, Major-General M.-The Danger of Aggression in the Light of the History of War, 151-157, February. Lenin, V. I.-Frederick Engels, 1018-1025, November. Linetsky, V.-International Cartels and Their Agents, 704-?709, August. Melnikov, D.-The Vatican and Problems of Postwar Settlement, 1037-1045, November. Molotov, V. M.-Speech at United Nations Conference, 566-570, June; Address to Moscow Soviet, USSR 1136-1149, December. Nikolayev, M.-France an I the San Francisco Conference, 448-452, May. Omelchenko, K.-Trade Unions and the State, 739-747, August. Smirnov, I.-Lenin and Democracy, 368-371, April. Sokolov, A.-Democracy, 518-526, June. Stalin, Joseph-Victory Speech, 563, June; Statement on Polish-Soviet Treaty, 572-573, June; Letter on the Polish Issue, 574, June. Tumanov, P.-The Constitution of the USSR-Guarantee of Democracy, 56-59, January. 1946 Kalinin, M. I.-On the Mastery of Marxist-Leninist Theory, 597-601, July. Lenin, V. I.-The Three Sources and Three Component Parts of Marxism, 219- 223, March. Leontiev, A.-The Origin and Character of the Second World War, 940-953, October. Mirski, Michal-Poland Today, 893-903, October. Mitrovich, Stephane-Fundamental Remarks on the Question of Trieste, 502-525, June. Molotov, V. M.-The New Postwar Tasks of the USSR, 331-338, April. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For.F R7s?.xQ99A5BAQQq00j40037-0 1947 Ivanov, S.-The Social-Democratic Parties and Labor Unity, October, 936-949. Lyapin, A. P.-On the Gradual Transition from Socialism to Communism, July, 632-649. Stalin, Joseph-Stalin's Reply to Professor Razin, May, 415-417. Varga, Eugene-The Approach of an Economic Crisis in the Capitalist World, March, 264-268. Zhdanov, A. A.-On the International Situation, December 1947, 1000-1111. 1948 Bliumin, I. G.-The Economic Teaching of Keynes, July, 638-661. Gladkov, I.-On Changes in the Economy of Capitalism as a Result of the Second World War (A Critique of Eugene Varga's Changes in Capitalist Economy Resulting from the Second World War), February 181-191. Lenin, V. I.-Differences in the European Labor Movement, January, 14-18. Molotov, V. M.-Statement to the Council of Foreign Ministers (Dec. 12, 1947), January, 44-50. Olkowicz, I.-The United Working-Class Front-Basis of the Polish Peoples Democracy, March, 251-258. Vlatavsky, Geminder, B.-Background of the Struggle Against Reaction in Czechoslovakia, April, 298-303. Zhdanov, A. A.-On the History of Philosophy, April, 344-366. 1949 Communist Party of the Soviet Union-CPSU Co-Workers of Georgi Dimitrov Pay Tribute to His Memory, August, 4-6. Kuzminov, I.-The Crisis Character of the Economic Development of the U. S. in the Postwar Period, May, 54-70. Kuznetsov, Vassili-The Struggle to Fulfill the Tasks of the WFTU, March, 20-33. Laptev, I.-The Triumph of Mitchurin Biological Science, February, 47-61. Leontyev A.-Cosmopolitanism and Internationalism, July, 58-66. Slansky Rudolph-The Titoites-Servants of Imperialism, October, 59-64. Varga hugene-Against Reformist Tendencies in Works on Imperialism, Dec., 74-6. 1950 Molotov V. M.-Address to Electors, June, 32-45, Stalin, Joseph-Concerning Marxism in Linguistics, September, 37-60; The National Question and Leninism, Nov., 60-69; On the Perspectives of the Revolution in China, Dec., 25-36. Suslov, M.-Defense of Peace and the Struggle Against the Warmongers, Jan- uary, 30-50. 1951 Alexandrov, G.-A New Outstanding Contribution to the Treasury of Marxism- Leninism, June, 70-83? July, 65-73. Friss, Istvan-Wages in ti.e Society of Socialist Construction, May, 78-88; June, 84-96. Malik, Jacob-An Historic Call for Peace, July, 22-27. Seleznev, I. A.-Stalin on the War Danger and the Possibility of Averting It. December, 16-32. Stalin, Joseph-Interview with Pravda Correspondent, April, 10-14; Concerning the Atomic Weapon, October, 4-5. 1952 Alpatov, M.-On the Transition from the Ancient World to the Middle Ages, July, 45-59. Malenkov, G. M.-Report of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to XIX Party Congress, October, 6-17. Pervukhin, M. G.-The 35th Anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolu- tion, November, 1-17. Sobolev, A.-People's Democracy as a Form of Political Organization of Society, May 11-29. Stalin, Joseph-Speech at the XIX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, October, 3-5. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approv F xffpjl q>_ PA I?T~EC ~A7As0og9 990600140037-0 1953 Kammari, M. (with F. Konstantinoff) -Science and Superstructure, February 51-65. Lenin, V. I.-Preface to "Letters to Sorge", November, 61--65. Malenkov, Georgi M.-The Stalin Heritage, April, 11-14. (Stalin, Joseph)-Reader's Guide. to Economic Problems of Socialism in the U. S. S. R. by Joseph Stalin, June, 66-96. 1954 Malenkov, G. M.-The 1954 State Budget of the U. S. S. It., June 22. Stalin, Joseph-Criticism and Self-Criticism, March, 9. Ossip Piatnitsky, former head of the organization department of the Communist International, declared at the thirteenth plenum of the executive committee of the CI in December 1933 that, "The Com- munist International is united by the Executive Committee of the Comintern into a single, world, centralized party." In order to emphasize the status of the Communist Party, USA, as a constituent part of a disciplined world party, Political Affairs (formerly The Communist) has published from time to time since 1940,. articles by the foremost leaders of foreign Communist parties. ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN POLITICAL AFFAIRS (THE COMMUNIST) BY WRITERS AND LEADERS OF FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 1940 Buck, Tim-The Crisis of Imperialism and the Future of Canada, 1093-1112, December. Cantos, Gregorio-The Spanish People Fight On, 656-669, July. Communist Parties of France, Great Britain and Germany-Joint Manifesto, 180-185, February. Communist Party of Great Bri't-ain-The people Can Save Themselves Only by Their Own Action, 1125-1131, December. Dutt, It. Palme-The British Communist Party Leads the Struggle Against the Imperialist War, 927-935, October. Florin, Wilhelm-Ernst Thaehnann as Leader of the Communist Party of Germany, 149-160, February. Lo B. T.-American Policy in the Far East and the Roosevelt Regime, 554-564, June. Roca, Blas-The Cuban People and the New Constitution, 916-926, October; Forging the People's Victory in Cuba, 133-140, February. Ulbricht W.-Anti-Capitalist Sentiment in Germany, 41-48, January. Vedral, fan-Soviet Socialist Republics in the Baltic, 1007-1019, November. 1941 Buck, Tim-The National Front in Canada, 1011-1028, November. Communist Party of Chile-Program of Action for the Victory of the Chilean People's Front, 452-457, May. Communist Party of Great Britain-The War and the Colonial Peoples, 1029- 1031 November. Diaz, Jose-With All Possible Clarity, 802-804, September. Doran Auguste-Colombia Faces the Imperialist Offensive, 619-622, July. Mao Ise-tung-The Communists and China's Three People's Principles, 238-256, March. Marty, Andre-The New Rape of Indo-China, 64-82, January. Smeral, B.-The Most Important Lessons of the Paris Commune, 436-442, May. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For FMM9/k?70F7A99P5jM000037-0 1942 Berger, Hans-From Leipzig to Riom, 270-276, April; Earl Browder and Ernst Thaelmann, 307-309, May; On the Third Anniversary of the Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact, 610-619, August; Mr. Hoover and "The Problems of Lasting Peace," 751-766, September; Our Nation discovers the Soviet Union, 886-893, November. Buck, Tim-National Unity for Total War, 903-910, November. Communist Party of Argentina, Central Committee-For the Fulfillment of the Rio Pledges, 363-373, May. Communist Party of China, Central Committee-For Victory and Reconstruction of World Peace, 748-760 September. Dimitroff, Georgi-Tom Mooney: One of America's Finest Sons, 198, April. Dutt, R. Palme-Strategy for Victory, 721-731, September. Ercoli, M.-In the Name of the Italian People, 81-91, January. Fischer, Ernst-The People's Front of Yesterday-The National Freedom Front of Today and Tomorrow, 841-848, October. Hans, B.-The Second Front and the German People, 374-379, May. Merker, Paul-The Free Germans to the German People, 1051-1056, December. "Pravda"-A Historic State in the Struggles of the Freedom-Loving Peoples, 491-493, July; Three Years of War, 816-818, October. Urizar I.-Jose Dias: His Exemplary Life and Work, 349-359, May; Spain and the Second Front, 553-568, July. 1943 Berger, Hans-The Nazi "Peace" Offensive, 266-273, March; The Provocation of the Polish Reactionaries, 513-526, June; The National Committee for a Free Germany and Its Significance, 806-815, September; Remarks on the Discussion Concerning the dissolution of the Communist International, 1018-1029, November. Buck, Tim-Canada Needs a Party of Communists, 725-741, August. Burns, Emile-Labour Party and Communist Party, the Case for Affiliation, 361-369 April. Campos, Pedro Albizu-Reply to Communist Party, USA, Greetings, 660--61, Communist Party of Great Britain-On the Beveridge Proposals, 168-174, February; Tasks of the British Unions for Victory, 753-756, August; For Unity and Victory 957-960, October. Communist Party of India, Central Committee-Solve India's National Crisis Through National Unity, 377-383, April. Communist Party of Ireland-Ireland's Way Forward, 285-288, March. Dimitroff, Georgi-Statement on Behalf of the Presidium on the Executive Committee of the Communist International on the Approval by the Comintern Sections of the Proposal to Dissolve the Communist International, 672, July. Dutt, R. Palme-British Labor and the War, 62-72 January. Ercole, M.-The Crisis in Fascist Upper Circles in Italy, 505-512, June. Izvestia-On. the Eve of the Moscow Conference, 972-974, November. Locascio Antonio-After the Downfall of Mussolini, 816-823, September. Marty, Andre-France's Hour Has Struck, 114-125, February. Milano, Libertad (Radio Station)-An Appeal to the People of Italy, 181-184, February. Mota, C.-Notes on Brazil, 852-863, September. Pravda-Hitler's Polish Partners, 396-398, May; The Anglo-Soviet Treaty of Alliance, 662-664, July; On the Anniversary of the Soviet-American Agreement, 665-667, July. Roca, Blas-The Communists of Cuba and the Cabinet, 761-768, August. Rust, William-The British Labour Party Conference, 757-760, August. Sverma, Jan-Problems of the National-Liberation Struggle in Czechoslovakia, 370-376, April. 1944 Berger, Hans-Concerning a Charge of Betrayal, 431-439 May; A Company Union of Nations?: a review of Walter Lippmann s "U. 9. War Aims," Dum- barton Oaks Conference, 911-918, October. Buck, Tim-Canada's Choice: Unity or Chaos, 369-381 April. Chen Pai-Ta-Critique of Chiang Kai-shek's Book: " china's Destiny," 21-62, January. Duclos, Jacques-Communist Participation in the French National Committee of Liberation, 363-365, April; The Source of Communist Courage, 919-929, October. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approve Fgtpd1PPA/d?7 EC;r7,0,9AM20600140037-0 1944-Continued Izvestia-The Teheran Decisions Promise Mankind a :Durable Peace, 9-12, January; The Most Important Stage in the Development of Friendship between the USSR and Czechoslovakia, 170-173, February; The Armistice Agreement with Romania, 937-940, October. Marty, Andre-Communist Participation in the Provisional Government of French Republic, 632-645, July. Pravda-Armistice Agreement with Finland, 1052-1055, November. Roca, Dias-The Cuban Elections, 723-736, August. Rochet Waldeck-A New French Democracy, 366-368, April. Soviet information Bureau-Three Years of the Soviet Patriotic War, 681-685, August. Togliatti, Palmiro (Ercoli)-The Political Situation in Italy, 1087-1102, Decem- ber. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics-Declaration on Soviet-Polish Relations, 190-191 February; Soviet Statement on Poland, 191-192, February. Zamudio, V G.-Toward a National Uprising Against Franco and the Falange, 1111-1123, December. 1945 Chou En-lai-The Tide Must Be Turned in China, 539-550, June. Communist Party of China-Statement of the National Committee, 959-960, October. Communist Party of Greece-Historic Lessons of the Struggles in Greece (Reso- lution of the National Committee), 902-912, October. Duclos, Jacques-On the Dissolution of the Communist Party of the United States, 656-672, July. Dutt, R. Palme-Indian Letters of a Communist Soldier (Review of "British Soldier in India," by Clive Branson), 1054-1056, November. Fajon, Etienne-The Communists and Nationalization, 1128-1135, December. Ibarruri, Dolores-A National Coalition for Spain, 1045-1047, November. Mao Tse-tung-China Needs Democracy and Unity, 28-30, January; The Mission of the Chinese Communists, 1048-1052, November. New China News Agency-A Refutation of Chiang Kai-shek's March 1st Speech, 551-557, June. Pollitt, Harry-The British General Election and Its Lesson for the Future, 835- 842, September. Prestes, Luis Carlos-Letter to Wm. Z. Foster, 913-917, October. Rudnitsky, K.-Poland After Liberation, 731-738, August. Sharkey, L. L.-Australian Communists Reject Browder's Revisionism, 1026- 1036, November. Thorez, Maurice-Organizational Problems of the French Communist Party, 710-716 August. Union of goviet Socialist Republics-Declaration of the Soviet Government Void- ing its Five Year Non-Aggression Pact with Japan, 473, May- Text of Soviet- Polish Treaty, 570-572, June- Declaration by the Soviet dovernment of a State of War with Japan, 864, ?eptember. War and the Working Class, editorial on the New Situation in Poland-and the Old Delusions, 423-429, May. 1946 Berger, Hans-The German Labor Movement Since V-E Day, 640-651, July. Bolshevik The--On the Ideological-Political Work of the Party Organizations under 1 resent-Day Conditions, 110-120, February; The Activating Force of Marxist-Leninist Theory, 541-548, June. Buck, Tim-The Postwar Role of Canadian Imperialism, 89-96, January. Communist Party of Palestine-The Anti-Imperialist Struggle in Palestine: Resolution of the Ninth Congress, 266-281, March. Communist Party of Spain, Central Committee-Manifesto of the Communist Party of Spain, 1016-1024, November. Dimitrov, Georgi-The Communists and the Fatherland Front, 696-703, August. Izvestia-The Iranian Situation, 327-330, April. Pieck, Wilhelm-The Co-Responsibility of the German Working Class, 149-155, February. Popular Socialist Party of Cuba-Postwar conditions and the Struggle of the Cuban People, 174-190, February. Vilner, Meir-Arab-Jewish Unity for the Solution of Palestine's Problems, 561- 566, June. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For R 4 7dFC~} - ~ T~ 1o F ggAqO1J0037-0 1947 Kardelj, Edward-Notes on Some Questions of International Development, June, 531-554. Merker, Paul-The Development of the New German Trade Union, November, April, 359-367. Mine, Hilary-Poland's Economy and Socialism, October, 902-909. Thorez, Maurice-For the Republic, For National Independence!, December, 1120-1140. 1948 Bierut, Boleslaw-For An End to the Nationalist Deviation in the Polish Work- ers' Party, November, 991-1005. Communist Information Bureau-See Information Bureau of Communist and Workers Parties. Communist Party of India, Second Congress-Statement of Policy, May, 460-470; Report on Self-Criticism, May, 470-477. Ghioldi, Rodolfo-The Cultural Struggle in Argentina, April, 379-382. Information Bureau of Communist and Workers Parties-Resolution Concerning the Situation in the C. P. of Yugoslavia, August, 690-698. Rakosi, Matias-Problems of Ideological and Theoretical Work in the Com- munist Party of Hungary, July, 615-618. Soviet Information Bureau-Falsifiers of History: a Historical Note, June, 538-550. Tito, Josip Broz-The People's Front and the New Yugoslavia, January, 76-96. 1949 Communist Party of Bulgaria, Central Committee-Statement on the Demise of Georgi Dimitrov Addressed to the Party Membership and the Bulgarian People, August, 3-4. Deak, Zoltan-Treason in Clerical Garb- The Mindszenty Case, May, 39-53; The Tito-Rajk Conspiracy Against the Camp of Peace (review of Laszio Rajk and His Accomplices Before the People's Court). Dec., 87-94. For A Lasting Peace, For A People's Democracy!-Right Socialists: Enemies of Peace and Democracy, April, 67-71. Liu Shao-Chi-Internationalism and Nationalism, August, 57-76. Poland, Council of Ministers of the People's Democratic Republic of-Decree Guaranteeing Freedom of Conscience and Religion, Oct., 95-96. Roca, Blas-The Truman Plan for Development of Backward Areas, November, 58-68. 1950 Alvarez, Geronimo Arnedo-The Peron Government Follows in the Footsteps of the Oligarchy, February, 49-62. Bierut, Boleslaw-The Task of the Polish United Workers Party in the Struggle for Vigilance, February, 76-96. Gheorghiu-Dej, Gh.-Communist Party of Yugoslavia in the Power of Murderers and Spies, January, 51-65. Kim Ir-sung-To the People of Korea, August, 19-22; The Struggle of the Korean People for a United, Independent, Democratic State, August, 23-39. Liu Shao-chi-On the Party, October, 75-88. Mao Tse-tung-Oppose Liberalism in the Party, September, 61-63. Mine, Hilary-Some Problems of the People's Democracy in the Light of the Leninist Stalinist Teachings on the Dictatorship of the Proletariat, July, 87--96; August, 86-96. Togliatti, Palmiro-Italy's Youth in the Fight for Jobs, Land, Peace, September, 64-78. 1951 Andreu, Cesar-The Rising Tide of Struggle in Puerto Rico, February, 220--228. Chu Teh-On the Defeat of Chiang Kai-shek, Wall Street Puppet, August, 38-47. Communist Party of India-Draft Program of the Communist Party of India, September, 55-64. For A Lasting Peace-On the Glorious 30th Anniversary of the Communist Party of China, August, 33-37. Ibarruri, Dolores-The Struggle of the Spanish People Against Franco, November, 44-60. Mao Tse-tung-Concerning Practice, April, 28-42. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approvfl For RC P, RI~es$q(P$ T ERP j?; qP~M0060014003T=0 1951-Continued Neruda, Pablo-Festival of Youth, October, 50-51. Rochet, Waldeck-Defense of French Agriculture and the Working Farmers, 1952 Ghosh, Ajoy-The General Elections in India, March, 34-44. Joliot-Curie, Frederic-Halt Bacteriological Genocide! April, 26. Kuo Mo-jo-Protest by the Democratic Parties of China Against Bacteriological Weapons, April, 27-28. Marinello, Juan (with Blas Roca)-The March Coup d'Etat in Cuba, April 42-51. Papadopolous, N.-Wall Street's War Designs in Greece, February, 43-50. Togliatti, Palmiro-The Sole Correct Path for Mankind, January, 12-29. Wu Ch'iang-On Problems of Self-Criticism, August, 53-64. 1953 Communist Party of Bolivia, Central Committee-What Must Be Done in Bo- livia, August, 29-36. Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Central Committee-The Death of Joseph Stalin, April, 1-3. For a Lasting Peace (periodical) -Leninism-Militant Banner of Working People of the World, January, 5-9. Gottwald, Klement-The Prague Treason Trials, February, 46-50. Mao Tse-tung-A Great Friendship, April, 15-18. Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Central Committee-Recent Events and the Party's Immediate Tasks, August, 52-59. Thorez, Maurice-A New Policy for France, December, 14-17. 1954 Central Committee, C. P. of Brazil-Draft Program of the Communist Party of Brazil, July, 54. Ghosh, Ajoy-The Third Congress of the Communist Party of India, April, 53. Gomez, Alfredo-The Political Situation in Cuba, October, 49. Merischi, Vicente-Present Tasks in Argentina, March, 58. Togliatti, Palmiro-For a New Course in Italian Policy, February, 24. It should be noted that the above summary includes articles representing the viewpoint of the Korean 'Communists at a time when the United States was at war with the Korean Communist Republic. A study of'the position of the CPUSA from 1940, when it allegedly disaffiliated from the Communist International, to 1955, shows that the party was nevertheless in. full agreement with Soviet policy on the following important issues : Support of the Soviet-Nazi Pact. Support of the Soviet attack on Poland. Support of the Soviet attack on Finland. Opposition to Lend-Lease and aid to Great Britain prior to Hitler's attack on the Soviet Union. Opposition to President Roosevelt during the Stalin-Hitler Pact. For the opening of a Second Front after Hitler's attack. Support of the Anglo-So' iet-American alliance after Hitler"s attack. Endorsement of the alleged dissolution of the Communist International in 1943. Endorsement of the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers Parties (Cominform) from its formation in 1947 to date. Support of the Soviet Union and the following satellite countries: Poland, Hun- gary, Albania, Bulgaria, Rumania, Czechoslovakia. Support of Yugoslavia until its split with the Cominform and Russia in 1948. Opposition to Yugoslavia after its split with the Cominform and Russia in 1948. Support of Chiang Kai-shek from 1940 to 1943. Opposition to Chiang Kai-shek from 1943 to 1946. Support of a Chinese Coalition government in 1946. Opposition to Chiang Kai-shek from 1946 to date. Opposition to Am rican policy in Greece, Germany, Austria, Japan, Korea, etc. Opposition to the Marshall Plan. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For F /P 7oi Q}.4zRpPv7AAQ91?BM&00140037-0 Support of Henry Wallace. Opposition to the Truman Doctrine. Opposition to the North Atlantic Defense Pact. Support of recognition of Communist China and admission to the U. N. Opposition to German rearmament. Support for banning the atomic bomb. Support of such international front organizations as: World Federation of Trade Unions, World Federation of Democratic Women, World Federation of Demo- cratic Youth, World Peace Congress, International Association of Democratic Lawyers, International Association of Democratic Journalists, All-Slav Con- gress, World Federation of Scientific Workers, World Peace Congress. SOVIET EMBASSY AND THE COMMUNIST PARTY The relations between the Communist Party and the Soviet Embassy are nowhere specified in the official constitution of the party. They are highly conspiratorial and limited to a few selected individuals. With the facilities available to this subcommittee, we can only sketch the pattern of this relationship from isolated instances which cor- roborate each other. In his book, Men Without Faces, Louis F. Budenz, former managing editor of the Daily Worker, has described the mechanism as he saw it in operation as follows: Unobserved, the chosen comrades entrusted with the reception of Moscow's directives got them by hand from a courier, some apparently obscure person who in turn had received them either from the Comintern representative or directly from the Soviet consulate or embassy. During the latter part of my work in the party this was Felix Kuzman, a former member of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, who conveyed the brief directives from Gerhart Eisler to the Ninth Floor. Another courier of this type who ran between the Soviet consulate and Bittelman was the former White Russian officer Sergei Kournakoff. * * * Someone in the offices there, [at the consulate] in turn, received the orders in the diplomatic mail pouch or in code by cable. According to Budenz, those in touch with this pipeline to the Soviet Embassy included only such trusted insiders as Earl Browder, Eugene Dennis, Jack Stachel, Alexander Trachtenberg, Alexander Bittel- man, Robert William Weiner, also known as Welwel Warczower, and the representative of the Communist International, Gerhart Eisler. The majority of these or possibly all of them, were accom- plished Russian linguists. Sergei Kournakoff, mentioned above, died in Moscow on July, 5, 1949. He was the writer of numerous articles and books on Soviet military matters. His frequent contributions to the Daily Worker were carried under the pseudonym "Veteran Commander." Born in Russia 60 years ago, Alexander Bittelman, alias Ralph Barnes, alias Ascher Bittlemacher, alias Nathan William Kweit, alias Isadore Spillberg, alias Alexander Raphael, alias Z. P. Ralph, alias Raphael and Ralph, has been a member of the executive committee and its ruling political committee of the Communist Party, USA, since the party's inception. He has been a delegate to Communist International congresses in Moscow on a number of occasions. From time to time, he has been editor of the party's monthly theoretical organ, the Communist, now known as Political Affairs, to which he has been a prolific contributor. He owes his authority in the CPUSA 76329'-50--6 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approv FoHoIeIQ~OA/(8d-C~~s(~(~PP0600140037-0 not to any contact or following with the American people but primar- ily to the fact that he has always been an assiduous student of the Soviet press and a slavish follower of the Moscow line. As such he is an indispensable link between the Kremlin and the American party, a keen watchdog to insure against the slightest deviation from Soviet policy. Benjamin Gitlow, a former member of the political committee of the CPUSA, and the party's candidate for vice president, has said of Bittelman: Bittelman was * * * completely divorced from all contact with the labor movement and with American life. But he read Russian, followed the Russian Communist press minutely and tried to copy in detail everything the Bolsheviks advocated, in order to apply it to the United States. His sensitive nose was always pointed in Moscow's direction (I Confess (Dutton) p. 191). As the managing editor of the Daily Worker, Louis F. Budenz was in a position which demanded daily and hourly decisions on party policy. He described the manner in which the party's official mouth- piece was overseered by Bittelman, to whom he referred as "the chief of the small corps of politburo members who were in touch with the Comintern representatives and the Soviet consulates." The special role played by Bittelman, according to Budenz, was as "the agent entrusted by Moscow with instructing the party leaders in the precise terms to be employed in the use of Aesopian language," namely language which, for purposes of legal evasion, could be interpreted in one way for public consumption and in quite another way within the party ranks. "Many times," declared Budenz, "I heard him lecturing the Politburo on exactly what words and phrases the party declarations should contain in order to lbe Leninist and at the same time legal." The actual procedure followed in editing the Communist Daily Worker finds few parallels in the history of American journalism. It should be particularly shocking to those who hold that the Commu- nist Party represents a segment of American political opinion rather than a supine echo of Moscow. Mr. Budenz described his editorial experiences with Bittelman in 1936: Bittelman was then operating from the Hotel Albert, where the entire editorial board conferred with him almost every day. So carefully were his whereabouts and movements guarded, and so carefully did lie seek to conceal our conferences, that each meeting with him had to be arranged over an outside telephone * * * Every day at noon, Harry Gannes, then foreign editor of the Daily Worker, a veteran member of the board, would rise from his desk and leave the building. In a few minutes he would return, to state generally that he had reached "Com- rade Barnes" and that he would see us at such and such a time. At the hour set, each member of the Daily Worker editorial board would stroll over to the Hotel Albert. Singly each would enter the lobby and then go up to Bittelman's room for a hurried hour on the paper's editorial policy. Bittelman- 9 Barnes was the law and the line; particularly did he take pains to stress the exact manner in which a fundamental position should be presented (Men Without Faces by Louis F. Budenz (Harper), pp. 79, 80). It would seem that Alexander Bittelman who has frankly declared that he would not fight against the Soviet Union "in any war" because "any war against the Soviet Union would be an unjust war," has been singled out by the powers that be as the chief carrier and guardian of the sacred fire of Russian Bolshevism within the American party. He has also served as the party's official historian for the past two decades delineating in full the decisive role of the Soviet-domi- nated Communist International in every phase of the activity of the American party from its very inception. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For R I ~, oF-. Zg1q1 gA20/ ff0037-0 On the occasion of the 15th anniversary of the Communist Party of the United States in 1934, Bittelman wrote his pamphlet Fifteen Years of the Communist Party, where he outlines the origin of the American party as follows: Nineteen hundred and nineteen was the year when our Party was formed * * * Nineteen hundred and nineteen was the year when the Communist International was formed, preceding the formation of our Party by about five months. Our Party became part of it * * * But it was only through the costly experiences of the first world war, and especially the victory of the proletarian revolution in Russia under the leadership of the Bolsheviks, that the proletarian vanguard of the United States came to realize that the Bolshevik way is the only way for the liberation of the American proletariat and all the exploited and oppressed. Thus it came to pass that our Party came into existence. Throughout his works, Bittelman stresses the role of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union as a model and guide for the CPUSA. In his ommunist Party in Action, for example, he points out to members of his party: It is, of course, impossible to say which particular experience in the class struggle was decisive for your joining the Communist Party. Rather it must have been the sum of many experiences on various points of the class struggle front, among which the fight against imperialist war and for the defense of the Soviet Union had undoubtedly played a very great part in bringing you into the ranks of the Party. This is the case with many workers who join the Communist Party because it is the only Party that is following in the footsteps of Lenin. and the Bolsheviks, that is, organizing the American proletariat to follow the example of the working class of Russia led by the Communist (Bolshevik) Party (p. 4). Again in the same: pamphlet he frankly admits: These Socialist successes of the Soviet Union, achieved under the leadership of the Communist (Bolshevik) Party, have undoubtedly had a great influence in bringing you into the ranks of the American party. Now you must try to gain ,a clearer and more thorough understanding of the international role of Bolshevism and of the Bolshevik Party (p. 14). In his later work entitled "Milestones in the History of the Com- munist Party," published in 1937 on the occasion of the American party's 18th anniversary, Bittelman bluntly states: The Communist International, and its model party-the Communist Party of the Soviet Union-headed by Comrade Stalin, gave us the guidance that helped the American communists to find the way to the masses and to the posi- tion of vanguard (p. 8). In answer to those who charge that the policies of the American party are dictated by Moscow, Bittelman not only admits the in- tervention of Stalin's puppet organization, the Communist Inter- national, in the affairs of the CPUSA, but actually glories therein. "The Comintern did `interfere'," boasts Bittelman in the same pamphlet, "there can be no doubt of that. And it is fortunate that it did." He points out moreover that "the Comintern spoke to the American Party with authority and wisdom" (p. 88). He insists that the CPUSA "can derive deep satisfaction from the fact that it unfailingly received brotherly advice and guidance from the Com- munist International." And he defiantly adds that "The leading role of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the Comintern needs neither explanation nor apology" (ibid, p. 71). He goes on to voice the feeling of pride with which the American party views the fact that it is part of "a world party together 'with the glorious Party of the Soviet Union" and that this world party Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved FT%EW%%?s?9,&WN?j, ffRPAJ .APRM00600140037-0 "is daily guided by such proved leaders as Manuilsky, Kuusinen * * * Piatnitsky"-all prominent leaders of the Russian Communist Party (ibid, p. 92). Climaxing his panegyric, Bittelman declares: In the fifteen years of its existence the Comintern has grown into a true world party. It has reached the high state where all "Communist Parties are carrying out one single line of the Comintern" a sta e where all "Communist Parties are united by the Executive Committee of the communist International into a single centralized World Party * * *" (Piatnitsky, Speech at the Thirteenth Plenum of the Executive Committee of the Communist International) (ibid, p. 92) Pointing out that the existence of this "world party" of which the American party is an organic part, makes possible the formulation of a "world revolutionary strategy," he adds that "it is in Comrade Stalin, since Lenin's death, that this strategy has found the greatest formulator, interpreter, and organizer." In demonstrating the complete subservience of the American party to Moscow, Mr. Bittelman is not content to present his case in broad, general terms. He is most specific in itemizing the nature of Kremlin intervention in detail. When the American Communist movement was first founded in 1919, it consisted of two rival groups: The Communist Party of America and the Communist Labor Party of America. Bittelman describes the Comintern's role at this founding stage: The bringing together of all American revolutionary workers into one Communist Party * * * was the first of the more significant acts of advice of the Comintern * * * A unified and single Communist Party was materialized in the United States in shorter time, less painfully and wastefully, than could have been the case without the advice and assistance of the Comintern (ibid, p. 74, 75). This, according to Bittelman, is the first milestone in the history of the CPUSA. From 1919 to 1922 for example, the Communist Party, USA, was illegal. Bittelman outlines the nature of Moscow's advice and guidance in evading the law, as follows: Once more the American Communists consulted with the Communist Inter- national. This was in 1921-1922. And the correct advice came, as it was bound to * * * Illegal work, that is, revolutionary work that could not be done openly because of governmental persecution, was not abandoned but continued; the illegal work supplementing the legal, and vice versa * * * What was it that proved especially helpful for the American Communists in the Comintern advice on legal and illegal work? It was the world and Russian experience of bolshevism (ibid, p. 76). A major concern of the CPUSA is the task of boring from within the labor movement. Here again the Comintern actively intervened according to Bittelman: The next milestone in the Comintern leadership for the American Party we find on the question of trade union work * * * It was Comintern advice and guid- ance that helped the American Communists to turn full face to the building of a Left Wing in the reformist unions beginning with 1920; it was the advice of the Comintern that helped * * * formulate strike policies and tactics; it was Com- intern advice on how to revolutionize the labor movement * * *(ibid, p. 77, 97). According to Bittelman, the directives of the Communist Inter- national extended to the point of advising a policy (which is still in force) calling for the establishment of an independent Negro republic in what he called the Black Belt in the South, a step which would involve armed insurrection against the United States in which count- Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For RgMaAR ,q4 4 or -RfE7k-PA9Ps1A~%q.Pcg01, O37-0 less Negro lives would be sacrificed to the machinations of Moscow. Here are Bittelman's own words on the subject: Once more came the "outside" influence of the Comintern; and what did it say? It said that * * * in the Black Belt the full realization of this demand. (for national liberation) requires the fight for the national self-determination of the Negroes including the right of separation from the United States and the organ- zation of an independent state (ibid, p. 85). It has been pointed out that in the early 1930's the Communists advocated measures for so-called unemployment relief which were jacked up to the point where their acceptance would have meant national bankruptcy. In support of these demands embodied in the Lundeen bill, the Communists promoted hunger marches calculated to incite the unemployed against the Government. In a number of cases, State legislative chambers were occupied and vandalized and numerous instances of violence developed. Where did the inspiration for this program come from? Bittelman gives the answer: the Comintern undertook to prepare the proletarian vanguard, the Communist Party, and through it the whole working class for effective struggle against unemployment. The Communist Party, guided by the Comintern, eventually succeeded in making this demand * * * a major issue in the class struggle of the United States (ibid, p. 87). Referring to the ouster of Jay Lovestone, former general secretary of the CPUSA and his followers, Bittelman calls attention to the advice of the Comintern in * * * cleansing itself of the Lovestone oppor- tunists and the conciliators with the advice of Joseph Stalin (ibid, p. 88, 89). Thus, according to Moscow's leading apologist and spokesman with- in the American party, the Communist International with headquar- ters in Moscow, actively intervened in the affairs of the Communist Party of the United States on the following major issues: (1) the founding of the CPUSA; (2) the emergence of the CPUSA from an illegal to a legal status and the combination of legal and illegal activity; (3) policies in the American labor movement; (4) proposal for an independent Negro republic in the South; (5) activity among the unemployed; (6) the choice of leaders for the American party. Since the present is a period in which the exigencies of Soviet policy require that its American Communist henchmen maintain an attitude of active hostility toward the American Government, since it has been only a short time since American lives were actually being lost in com- bat against Communist military forces, and since the Government, in self protection, has been compelled to adopt suitable restrictive measures, the Communist Party, USA, has more and more resorted to underground methods. The party does not wait until the police crack down on its members and organizations before it initiates precautionary measures. Writing in the Communist International as early as September 1, 1931, B. Vassiliev, a Russian specialist on party organization, called upon all Communist parties to safeguard themselves against "police terror." He declared that- The question of an illegal organization must now receive the closest attention of all Communist Parties without exception in capitalist countries * * * Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915ROO0600140037-0 ApprovAd F W1GIZTT fsI AqWN?Z ,&W- 1PTT&AA ` 900600140037-0 He called for the "formation of an illegal apparatus alongside the still functioning legal Party apparatus." The application of this basic instruction means that while the Communist Party, USA is still legal, it has already built up a parallel illegal apparatus. Mr. Vassiliev further indicates that this illegal apparatus is "to take over the functions of the legal apparatus as this is liquidated as the result of police repression." We are fortunate in having available the Vassiliev directive which furnishes the basic pattern for Communist conspirative procedure which would otherwise not be available in such convenient form under present circumstances. Basing himself upon the conspiratorial experience of the Russian Communist Party, he goes into some detail. The first steps for forming an illegal party apparatus which he recom- mends are as follows: 1. Securing a building for storing the party archives. Such archives are usually entrusted to veteran party members and are invariably located outside of known party headquarters. They may be at the home or office of some wealthy party member or sympathizer located in surroundings calculated to avoid suspicion. 2. Establishment of one or more illegal printing plants for the printing of party organs in the event of their closure. These would, of course, be supplemented by auxiliary apparatus such as mimeographs, multi- graphs, etc. In addition, the instructions call for the establishment of one or more legal party organs, usually appearing under some other assumed auspices. New editors must be appointed in advance to replace those facing possible arrest. In the event of the suppression of the party paper, a complete apparatus is to be prepared for its appearance under a new name.. Funds are even to be prepared for the payment of fines and other incidental expenses. 3. Establishment of an apparatus for distributing illegal party litera- ture. 4. Selection of a definite group of leading party activists to pass into illegality. The history of the party shows innumerable cases of leaders who have suddenly disappeared from public mention in the party press for a time simultaneous with their assignment to illegal activity. This has been the case with J. Peters, Jacob Golos, Whit- taker Chambers, Earl Browder, Charles Krumbein, Emanuel Joseph- son, George Mink, Philip Aronberg, Morris Childs, and many others. 5. Preparation of addresses and houses for illegal correspondence, for secret sessions of the leading party committees and for housing the illegal party leaders and for conferences at specified hours between them and party members who are still operating on a legal basis. In this connec- tion, the homes and offices of wealthy contacts often serve as a con- venient cover. 6. Training of a minimum number of party members in the tech- niques of underground work (running an illegal printing plant, code work, the technique of personal and written contacts, the defense and pro- tection of the illegal party apparatus, etc.). For this purpose trained Russian instructors or Americans who have had training in Soviet conspiratorial schools, are usually utilized. To supplement these measures, Mr. Vassiliev gives specific instruc- tions for individual party members and organizers, which have particular force in the present hectic period: Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Rs m9lppj 7:o9 g7~s9pal; 9A?PkoI19037-0 1. No documents of an incriminating character are to be kept at the legal premises of the party, and all party members are to be warned regarding the keeping of secret or incriminating documents. 2. Certain selected party leaders engaged in special work of an illegal character are warned against visiting the legal party headquar- ters. Meetings of party leaders are not to be held at these locations. 3. In a period of semi or complete illegality, the Communist-front organizations and unions assume major importance as legal covers for party members: Moreover, party members are instructed to penetrate even nonparty and antiparty organizations in order to carry on their activity. (In recent years, for example, there has been accumulating evidence of Communist efforts to penetrate both the Democratic and Republican Parties, church organizations, conservative unions, etc.) 4. Above all, Communist activity in specific factories is to be carried on on a strictly conspiratorial basis. Members engaged in this work are cautioned: (a) To act in such a way as not to reveal their party member- ship. (Recently the party was faced with a dilemma in this connection, having urged its members to actively circulate the Stockholm peace appeal which automatically revealed the Communist forces.) (b) Meetings of factory groups must be held in strictest se- crecy, with the possible exception of the admission of reliable sympathizers at times. (c) Real names are not to be used at meetings by individual members. Vassiliev urges that "breaches of police restrictions should first of all be organized in the factories informally and directly, by attract- ing the working masses into the struggle. * * *" In other words, the individual Communist will not stick his neck out to provoke defiance of the policy, but will work behind the scenes to induce the workers in his factory to do so and take the consequences. Com- munists consider every such "breach" as an evidence of further weakening of our democratic government. J. Peters, in his authoritative Communist Party-Manual on Organization, published in 1935, gives further directives for safe- guarding the Red conspiracy: 1. Do not tell any member anything about Party members which does not concern that member. It will be remembered that many Americans viewed with skepticism the testimony of Whittaker Chambers that he was known to Alger and Priscilla Hiss simply as "Carl." It sounds utterly fantastic that they would not ask for details. The fact is, however, that any party member who is inquisitive, who asks questions, becomes an immediate object of suspicion. The party demands unquestioning obedience in the fullest sense of the term. 2. Do not discuss any Party question outside of the meeting of the Party organization * * * Stop discussing inner Party questions on the street corners or cafeterias. 3. Avoid, as much as possible, keeping membership lists with names and addresses, and if you have such lists, do not keep them in your home, or in the headquarters of the Party Unit or Section, or in your pocket. 4. Documents which are not for publication should be read only by those Party members to whom they are addressed, and should be destroyed immediately Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA after reading. Documents which need study must be carefully safeguarded. Every member who has such a document must return it after reading it to the Party committee, which destroys it immediately. These instructions on illegal activities are supplemented by a publication entitled "The Agent Provocateur in the Labour Move- ment" written by Johannes Buchner and published by the official Communist publishing house, the Workers Library Publishers, for the avowed purpose of "combating provocation and spying." This pamphlet states that the "struggle against provocation and police espionage forms a permanent and fundamental function of every Party member and of the entire Party organization." While the CPUSA plays upon every liberal sympathy in protecting its members from ouster or prosecution by the Government, it has no such scruples in dealing with suspicious persons in its own ranks. Describing those Communists guilty of "petty bourgeois prejudices and petty bourgeois muddleheadedness" who fear throwing "suspicion on a friend and a comrade" or who hesitate to "hurt his feelings," Mr. Buchner lays down this ruthless principle: Until the Communist Parties expel this petty bourgeois sentimentality and muddleheadedness energetically from their midst, they will never be able to wage an effective struggle against the agents provocateurs (p. 13). Persons under suspicion, he says, should not be trusted merely "on the alleged grounds that they possess valuable and indispensable facilities" (p. 13). Mr. Buchner advises Communists to read Our Secret War, by Thomas Marvin Johnson, which contains descriptions of various methods employed by spies for communication purposes. In some instances, he ascribes to the police procedures (for penetrat- ing into the technical apparatus to acquire information) which the party undoubtedly uses for its own purposes, such as the enlistment of "shorthand typists, technical secretaries, janitors, charwomen and servants." Detailed instructions are given as to methods employed by police officials in eliciting information and how to guard against them. Mr. Buchner advises the following methods for eluding the police: Firstly, the correct co-ordination of legal and illegal work * * *. Secondly, the drawing up and exact observance of the rules of conspiracy work, that is to say, practical measures to ensure that confidential decisions and documents, illegal persons, addresses, etc., are kept a close secret. Thirdly, exact rules for the conduct of comrades under arrest with regard to their statements in court and before the police (p. 44). He warns against excessive concentration of illegal work of the party "in the hands of a single comrade," referring particularly to "the direction of an illegal printshop, communication with organizations abroad and with underground organizations." He emphasizes that "illegal Party work calls for a strict division of functions so that the arrest of one person may not cause the dislocation of several spheres of illegal Party work" (p. 46). Buchner advises that "all symptoms of personal feelings, senti- mental considerations, or superficial friendliness" be rejected in the selection of comrades for illegal party work. Such persons must be thoroughly checked as to "moral and political personality of the com- rade concerned, his strength of character, militant experience, personal courage, his connections and social intercourse, way of life, family Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Rae 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600110037-0 MMUNIST RTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA relations, etc." Precautionary measures are urged "in any case of suspicions, serious or otherwise, even when there are no adequate proofs by which the suspicion can be corroborated" (pp. 46, 47). Buchner's pamphlet indicates that the Communists have made a scientific study of eluding police vigilance. He cites the following specific measures which incidentally provide valuable leads for our own counterespionage agencies: 1. Thorough analysis of every case of arrest, examination and comparison of all circumstances and incidents accompanying the case. 2. Increased vigilance in cases of distortion or misrepresentation of the Party line. 3. Exact analysis of the various proposals and formal motions brought forward by the suspected person over a given period of time. 4. Extreme caution towards people who display excessive curiosity, who offer themselves for the execution of confidential tasks. 5. Special attention and vigilance to be paid to * * * (cases of alcoholism, embezzlement, extravagance, sexual excesses, etc.) 6. Strict and continual financial control over all sums of money expended by the organization and over every penny of Party funds. 7. Special courses of instruction * * * in the most elementary methods of illegal work and conspiracy must be conducted in the Party schools. 8. Police agents should be unmasked, by making their names known and ;pub- lishing their photographs and descriptions of their persons in the press. 9. Direct action on the part of all the workers of the whole enterprise or of a given department so as to discover and forcibly eject all spies. 10. Every Communist Party should constantly hold in view the possibility of having to change quickly to illegal work and should take * * * preparatory measures. 11. By altering the dwelling places of various comrades, the addresses and the places of meeting after arrests (pp. 48, 49). Included in this invaluable study for the guidance of. party members' are the following rules established by a famous espionage school of the German general staff : Do not show too obvious curiosity when collecting news and doing reconnais- sance. Train your facial expression so as to appear always uninterested and indifferent. Never discuss confidential matters in a coffee-house, on the tram, or in the train. Conceal your knowledge of foreign languages; this makes it easier for you to overhear conversations. Don't leave papers, envelopes, newspapers, hotel or business bills lying about anywhere. Don't throw them in the waste paper basket either, even if they are torn in small pieces (pp. 49, 50). Always arrange meetings with people from whom you intend to learn some- thing at a great distance from your and their place of living. If possible they should have to make a railway journey of several hours to arrive at the meeting place. When tired, especially after a night journey, the client is less capable of offering resistance and is more ready to let things out. Rather learn five or six facts, even if they be insignificant ones than a hundred opinions (pp. 49, 50). Mr. Buchner's pamphlet lays down certain "rules of behavior" for Communist Party members in "executing confidential conspiratorial work:" He must always be on his guard, must never talk at random, never be guilty of carelessness; he must know how to govern himself and hold himself in check * * * He must fight systematically against all distractions and tenden- cies to lose hold over himself, against talkativeness and curiosity. He must evolve a number of strict rules of life for his daily existence and his intercourse with men and affairs (p. 50). Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved Fo THEr E UCI~IATERDPT 8-o 09M1 5RC000600140037-0 2 PARTY He is most specific in his directives for the behavior of Communist operatives: 1. Tell him who ought to know what you have to say, not he who is permitted to know it. 2. A revolutionary must not talk at random or use superfluous words. * 3. Only ask what it is your concern to know. 4. Be on your guard in telephoning and in letter-writing. * 5. Don't take unnecessary things with you. 6. Look around you. See who is following you and who is watching you. 7. Don't pose. Don't attract attention by acting the conspirator; act and behave simply. 8. Avoid all frivolity and care-free behavior. Consider every step and every action. 9. Adapt your way of life to the environment in which you belong according to the documents you carry (pp. 50, 51). METHODS OF EVASION AND DECEPTION Many Americans are inclined to minimize the resourcefulness and the cunning of the Communist fifth column. Many, having little substantial, knowledge of the nature of this conspiracy, inclined to accept the CPUSA as just another American political party, are misled by its claims. It would be well, therefore, to present an analysis of typical Communist methods of evasion and deception. Communists customarily resort to double talk and what has aptly been described as Aesopian language, in other words, language intended to give one impression to the outsider and quite another to party insiders. While they constantly assure the Soviet Union and their associates in the United States of their loyalty to the Soviet cause, they seek to give the impression to Americans that they are simultaneously loyal to this country. The 1945 constitution of the CPUSA declares that the "Communist Party carries forward [a phrase added to offset any impression of complete endorsement] the democratic traditions of Jefferson, Paine and Lincoln." The very same document declares that- The Communist Party of the United States is the political party * * * basing itself upon the principles of * * * Marxism-Leninism. which calls for the establishment of a dictatorship by force and violence in direct contradiction to the principles for which Jefferson, Paine and Lincoln stood. The preamble to the 1945 party constitution says "The Communist Party upholds the achievements of American democracy". The weasel word here is, of course, "achievements." As William Z. Foster puts it in his 23 Questions About the Communist Party, "We stand second to none in our loyalty to the American people." Since the party by its own claim represents the American people this is a pledge of loyalty to itself. The party here does not pledge itself to support the institutions of American democracy as they are today. Nor is this implied in the pledge "to defend * * * the democracy of our country." The reference to "our country" is particularly presumptuous in the light of the many previous allusions by Communist spokesmen to the "Soviet fatherland" and the party's demonstrated and undeviating loyalty to Soviet policy. In fact, in his 23 Questions, William Z. Foster openly claims that "Socialist Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Rgfl "#qJgW?aF}-P~T~'IF~QO' 0037-0 democracy, which is what prevails in the U. S. S. R., is on a higher plane than the democracy of * * * the United States." Article II of the party constitution carries the pledge to "extend the democracy of our country." This term is a common one in Com- munist literature. It is simply an admission that the "limited democ- racy" remaining in our Government according to William Z Foster, is to be "extended" and exploited to the full to further the advent of communism. Again to mislead the unwary the preamble purloins certain phrases from our own Declaration of Independence, demanding the right to "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness," calmly ignoring the known fact that the lot of millions in Communist countries is to be denied these elementary rights. Article II presents the party's purpose "to promote the best in- terests and welfare of the working class and the people of the United States." Naturally the party, self-described as the "political party of the American working class," assumes for itself the right to define what are these "best interests and welfare." The preamble declares that the party will defend the "United States Constitution and its Bill of Rights against its reactionary enemies." Since the Communists do not consider themselves as reactionaries but as progressives, this provision could not apply to their unceasing efforts to undermine and destroy the United States Constitution. How can William Z. Foster, or the party he heads, be trusted to defend the United States Constitution when he frankly states in his 23 Questions that "the Stalin Constitution of the U. S. S. R. is far and away the most democratic in the world?" Nowhere in the world has communism, or "socialism," as the Com- munists sometimes call it, been established by the freely expressed will of the majority. This has been true from the time of the Russian Revolution in 1917 to the satellite countries of the present day. In every case these actions have been applauded by the CPUSA. Never- theless in article II the CPUSA stands for the "establishment of socialism by the free choice of the majority of the American people." As a matter of fact, the Communists hold this majority in complete disrespect as indicated by their open contempt for the democratic institutions which express the will.of this majority. In order to give the impression that the CPUSA is thoroughly democratic in character, article VII declares that "the highest author- ity of the Party is the National Convention." The fact is that these conventions can be held only with Moscow's permission in accordance with the constitution of the Communist International, a procedure still in force. Those who have attended these conventions have ac- knowledged that delegates are handpicked from above and usually approve a single slate of members of the national committee without contest. These gatherings merely rubberstamp decisions previously made in the upper reaches of the Communist hierarchy. The Communist Party is torn between its desire to assure the American people that it is not affiliated with Moscow's international Communist apparatus and its determination, on the other hand, to demonstrate its affiliation and unswerving loyalty to that organiza- tion. Having openly acknowledged its affiliation with the Com- munist International for over 20 years, the CPUSA on November 16, 1940, "disaffiliated" itself "for the specific purpose of removing itself Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 TIIE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA from the terms of the so-called Voorhis Act," requiring the registra- tion of foreign agents. On May 22, 1943, the Communist Inter- national was formally dissolved as an expedient to placate Russia's allies in World War II, the action receiving the subsequent endorse- ment of the disaffiliated CPUSA. The sincerity of this move may be measured in the light of the testimony of Louis F. Budenz, former member of the national committee of the CPUSA and former man- aging editor of its official organ, the Daily Worker. Describing a meeting of the party executives with Gerhard Eisler, alias Hans Berger, representative of the Communist International, Budenz de- - clared under oath on November 22, 1946: Now, I want to get here to the dissolution of the Communist International * * * This issue (of the Communist) we were discussing was the one that discussed the Communist International. * * * And it was agreed that Mr. Berger should write this piece which he did write, in order to show our comrades that inter- national still lives * * * even with the dissolution of the Communist Inter- national. The article by Hans Berger referred to, entitled "Remarks on the Discussion Concerning the Dissolution of the Communist Inter- national," appeared in the Communist (official CPUSA theoretical organ) for November 1943. In September 1947 the information bureau of the Communist parties was established. In a statement appearing in the Daily Worker on November 3, 1947, the national board of the CPUSA formally an- nounced that the Communist Party "should not affiliate" because of the "present political situation in the United States" which was de- scribed as "anti-Communist hysteria and war incitement." It did not say that it has not affiliated. The statement acknowledged, however, that "the establishment of an Information Bureau by nine Communist Parties of Europe is of great significance." It is in this light that the statement in the preamble declaring that "the Communist Party holds as a basic principle that there is an identity of interest which serves as a common bond uniting the workers of all lands" should be judged. To mislead those who interpret this document literally, the preamble adds the assurance that the party "recognizes further that the true national interests of our country * * * require the solidarity of all freedom-loving peoples and the continued and ever-closer cooperation of the United Nations," in order to give the impression that the U. N. and not the Cominform represents that international "common bond." The fact is that there have been convincing proofs of the CPUSA's actual affiliation with the Cominform as demonstrated by- 1. Complete adherence to and endorsement of Cominform policy. 2. Printing of Cominform directives in official organs of the CPUSA, such as the monthly Political Affairs. 3. Printing of CPUSA statements of policy and reports on activity in the official Cominform organ For a Lasting Peace, For a People's Democracy. 4. Fraternal greetings and support sent by the CPUSA to con- ventions of foreign Communist parties openly affiliated with the Cominform. 5. Fraternal greetings and support sent to the CPUSA by for- eign Communist parties affiliated with the Cominform, and by the Cominform itself. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For R 9"# 9Jq?4?70Fq -. ??T2 %gggg#90%0037-0 6. Support by the CPUSA of world movements endorsed by the Cominform such as the World Federation of Trade Unions, the World Peace Congress, the Women's International Democratic Federation, the World Federation of Democratic Youth, the International Union of Students, and the World Federation of Democratic Lawyers. 7. Sale of Cominform literature by CPUSA bookshops. Public exposure of the CPUSA as a conspiracy with an under- ground, illegal apparatus, engaging in espionage and other treasonable r activities, has induced the party to incorporate into its constitution various formulations calculated to give the impression that the party is entirely legal and aboveboard. Article IV, section 10, declares that- every member is obligated to fight with all his strength against any and every effort, whether incomes from abroad or from within our country * * * to impose upon the United States the arbitrary will of any group or party or clique or con- spiracy, thereby violating the unqualified right of the majority of the people to direct the destinies of our country. This statement is honeycombed with semantic boobytraps. Since the Communists claim to represent the enlightened will of the majority of the people, they would never plead guilty to being arbitrary', to violating the will of the majority, or to representing a clique or con- spiracy. In article IX, punishment is prescribed for "conduct or action detrimental to the working class and the nation," the interpreta- tion of these terms being left to the determination of the disciplinary review commission of the CPUSA. It is as if an organization of gangsters had formally adopted a constitution describing itself as a league of honest, law-abiding Americans; or an extortion racket oper- ating under the name of Merchants Protective Society. In 1948 the House Committee on Un-American Activities published a report to show that the CPUSA is an advocate of the overthrow of the Government by force and violence. In 1952 the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee published documentary proof along this line. In 1949, 11 top leaders of the :CPUSA were convicted under the Smith Act on the charge of teaching and advocating the overthrow of our Government by force and violence. In. part, the Government's case was based upon quotations from seven Communist classics which a defendant, Carl Winter, declared are obsolete. Nevertheless these very works were recommended by Political Affairs in 1947 and. are openly sold in Communist bookshops. In a further effort to escape the incriminating force of its basic documents, article XIV of the 1945 constitution declared : The Communist Party is not responsible for any political document, policy, book, article, or any other expression of political opinion except such as are issued by authority of this and subsequent national conventions and its regularly consti- tuted leadership. In effect, this would constitute a formal repudiation of all the works of Marx, Lenin, and Stalin which are standard references for party speakers, writers, and teachers today. Its purpose is undoubtedly to invalidate this mass of evidence. When charged with advocating the overthrow of Government by force and violence, the party usually resorts to the formula used by William Z. Foster in his 23 Questions: "The danger of violence * * * always comes from the reactionary elements," who would oppose the Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approvp~ F EF s?9 ($$ , Qp .00600140037-0 revolutionary designs of the Communists. According to this logic, a pedestrian who is provoked to violence in opposing the forcible efforts of a highwayman to rob him of his possessions is primarily responsible for such violence. Experience has shown that the Communists have initiated violence in every country in which they have been active to the point of actual control as in Russia, China, and the various satel- lite states. A prize example of evasion is that furnished by William Z. Foster, chairman of the CPUSA, in answering questions as to what he would do in the event of war between the United States and the Soviet Union. These answers are, of course, typical of what may be expected of party members generally in dealing with this question, which is an acid test of their loyalty. In the early days of the Communist movement, their spokesmen were more forthright. Thus, William Z. Foster in his work Toward SovietAmerica published in 1932, predicted positively: The danger of imperialist war against the U. S. S. R. is now most acute. The capitalists clearly intend to thrust war upon the Soviet Union. * * * It is a situation that should arouse every worker * * * to rally in defense of the Soviet Union. On September 29, 1939, during the period of the Stalin-Hitler Pact, Foster appeared before the Special Committee on Un-American Activ- ities. He was asked by the chairman: In the event of war between the United States and Soviet Russia, would your allegiance be to the United States or Soviet Russia? Foster's replies run the entire gamut of evasion. We present them in part: I say it is a hypothetical question. * * * I am for the defense of the United States. * * * If the United States entered this war on an imperialist basis, I would not support it. * * * Mr. Foster again appeared on May 27, 1948, before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Again he was asked what he would do in the event of an American conflict with the Soviet Union. Here are his typical replies: * * * any war that may be developed between the United States and the Soviet Union can only be an imperialist war at the instigation of Wall Street, and we Communists are against all imperialist wars. * * * Russia would never attack America. * * * Because a socialist government is not an aggressive government. * * * [Referring to the Soviet attack on Poland:] That was just Russian land that the Polish Government had. * * * [Referring to the Soviet attack on Finland:] Finland was the tool of reactionaries of every stripe. * * * I have stated that we are not going to fight against the Soviet Union * * * [Referring to * obedience to military orders:] That would depend on the circum- stances. TRIAL AND HEARING TECHNIQUE Basing itself upon Lenin's theory that the Government consists of "special bodies of armed men, who have at their disposal prisons" and "repressive institutions of all kinds," for the oppression of the vast majority of the population, the Communist Party, USA, which looks upon our Government as the "enemy," has devised various methods for evading exposure and prosecution which have been employed from time to time before congressional committees and the courts. These methods include the following: Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Re} %qf& Q QI of R1G PIA 915PA10H 010037-0 1. Denial that the CPUSA advocates overthrow of govern- ment by force and violence (Schneiderman case, case of 11 Communist leaders, case of the "second string" 13). 2. Denial that the party is an agent of a foreign power. 3. Denial of party membership (Alger Hiss, William W. Remington). 4. Denial of legal authority to compel answers to questions regarding party affiliation (Hollywood Ten). 5. Refusal to answer questions regarding party affiliation, claiming privilege under the first amendment to the Constitu- tion guaranteeing freedom of speech. 6. Refusal to answer questions regarding party affiliation, claiming privilege under the fifth amendment on grounds of possible self-incrimination. 7. Refusal to furnish official records on grounds that such a request is beyond the legal scope of the committee or agency (Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee). 8. Charge that the agency or committee is illegally constituted. Nor has the above exhausted the Communist bag of tricks. Johannes Buchner, in his authoritative pamphlet The Agent Pro- vocateur in the Labour Movement, previously referred to, presents detailed instructions for Communist conduct before the police and in court: * * * no statement incriminating any comrade, no names, no addresses, not a single fact which could possibly be used directly or indirectly against the Party, its organs or individual members of the organization. No explanations in this respect. Absolute denial even when personally confronted with the persons and despite the evidence given by police spies and agents provocateurs. Whoever infringes, even but a little, these fundamental rules must instantly and mercilessly be ejected from the Party (p. 51). This directive furnishes a key to understanding the consistent hostility of Communist witnesses before investigating bodies and the courts. Buchner warns against getting involved in talks and discussions "even about seemingly distant topics, such as views of life, etc." Should the authorities not know for certain that the individual is a party member and have no proofs to that effect, then says Buchner: since a categorical refusal to make any statement would convict you of being a Communist, you may permit yourself a few short statements calculated to obtain credence, but only with regard to your own person. He discloses the essentially conspiratorial nature of the party by advising that "We must always conceal our plans and our ways of work from the class enemy," meaning, of course, the Government. (p. 51.) He adds later, "therefore always be on your guard, be a conspirator, carefully control yourself and others" (p. 54). Communists are cautioned to note whether they are being followed when leaving a police station or their own homes (p.24). As a rule, those charged with certain crimes before a court of law concentrate upon proving their innocence. Not so with the com- munists. They have other aims of a propaganda nature described by Mr. Buchner: A Communist must utilize a political trial to help on the revolutionary struggle. Our tactics in the public proceedings of the law court are not tactics of defense but of attack. Without clinging to legal formalities, the Communist must use the trial as a means of bringing his indictment against the dominant capitalist regime and of courageously voicing the views of his Party. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approval FinR 2O 2'7u > RO d40 00600140037-0 A study of the trial of the "first string" Communist leaders and the tactics employed by the defense will disclose that these were primarily the tactics employed, which resulted in the citation of defense lawyers for contempt. It was the motivating factor in the selection of Eugene Dennis, general secretary of the Party, to defend himself despite his lack of legal training. It is sometimes assumed that lawyers defending Communist cases are just like any other lawyers who take cases as a matter of business and who are not to be held responsible for the views of their clients. But Mr. Buchner makes it clear that lawyers in Communist cases belong in a different category. "The aid of such barristers," he de- clares, "as deprecate the importance and the function of the Party in their pleading, must be decisively rejected" (p. 52). The International Labor Defense, described by Attorney General Biddle as the "legal arm of the Communist Party," and now func- tioning as the Civil Rights Congress, published a pamphlet some years ago entitled "Under Arrest! How To Defend Yourself in Court! What To Do When Arrested and Questioned!" which gives additional pointers which are recommended for study in special classes organized for the purpose. Introducing this pamphlet, Helen Stasova, international secretary of the International Labor Defense (International Red Aid), with headquarters in Moscow, declared, "We must give directions to the workers on how to defend themselves." Symbolic of their distrust of the dignity and sanctity of our courts, the Communists do not rely upon legal defense. Believing that the courts are primarily instruments of the ruling class, the Com- munists rely primarily upon mass action to terrorize the courts to act in behalf of their defendants. Thus the pamphlet boasts that- The principal work of the International Labor Defense consists in arousing the widest mass protests, as the chief effective method with which to wrest the work- ing class militants from the bosses' clutches (p. 6). In accordance with this practice, mass picket lines were conducted around the Federal Court Building during the trial of the 11 Com- munist leaders in 1949. According to this approach, the policeman "is a servant of the boss class. * * * He is your enemy." Hence the instruction for dealing with him or his superiors : * * * you shall not give the names of your fellow workers, the names of organ.i- zations that you belong to. * * * And if you are a foreign-born worker, no information of any sort of the date you landed, the name of the boat, etc. Give your name. That is all. You should not even furnish an address (p. 9). If charged with assaulting a policeman, the defendant is advised not to deny the act but to assert "your right to defend yourself" (p. 16). "Have no faith in fake promises of the cops or district attorney," is a warning issued by this pamphlet (p. 11). Defendants are urged to demand a jury trial so as to "have much more opportunity to raise class issues" (p. 13). The key to the defiant attitude of a Communist in the courts lies in the precept laid down to "make capitalism the defendant, and yourself the prosecutor" (p. 16). In his own eyes and those of his associates, his defiance makes him a hero of the class war. Thus "the capitalist courtroom" must be used "as a forum from which Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For F *WO0/OWO? A O ` O15v bbftO %0037 the workers on trial expose before their fellow toilers the true nature of the courts-as a tool in the bosses' economic and political op- pression" (p. 29). Written in the days when the Communists had not fully adopted their present Trojan Horse tactics, the pamphlet is franker than William Z. Foster on the question of force and violence, declaring: * * * the masses of workers will be fully justified, historically and socially, in using means, including force and violence, in defense against capitalist force and violence and in a revolutionary situation, to dislodge capitalism and replace it with a classless social order. * * * (p. 17). Despite their activities as a Soviet fifth column, Communists are advised to quote the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jeffer- son, Abraham Lincoln, and Woodrow Wilson in support of their right to revolution (pp. 18, 19). Reminiscent of the procedure followed to the letter by the defense in the trial of the 11 Communist leaders in 1949, causing weeks of delay, we find the following: Before the jury panel is sworn in by the clerk, get up, and state that you challenge the entire panel of prospective jurors on the ground that it is composed of people whose social and economic interests will prejudice them against you, the de- fendant (p. 20). Characterizing the various sedition laws, criminal anarchy statutes and criminal syndicalism acts which have been adopted by various States, the pamphlet refers to them as "class laws, brazen and undis- guised, forged by the capitalist state to suppress the struggle of the masses" (p. 25). Defendants are warned against too great reliance upon attorneys since they are "limited by the technical rules of the courts" (p. 15). "No pussyfooting" is to be tolerated from attorneys. "An attorney," it is pointed out, "should be employed only for instruction and tech- nical defenses," the defendant reserving for himself the right to pre- sent "the class issues." William L. Patterson, former national secretary of the International Labor Defense and presently executive secretary of the Civil Rights Congress, hag written an illuminating article entitled "The Inter- national Labor Defense and Courtroom Technicians," for the Labor Defender of May 1933, official ILD organ. The tactics laid down then form a pattern for those followed in all recent Communist trials. The instructions laid down by this well-known Communist are most explicit : The class struggle begun on the streets or in the shop is carried into the court- room. * * * Many of the friends and even members of the ILD have seriously questioned its methods. * * * International Labor Defense lawyers are engaged to serve it chiefly on the basis of their ability as "courtroom technicians." A lawyer has to concern himself only with the juridical aspects of the ease. He is not asked to engage in the political defense of the accused, but his legal defense of the accused, because of the nature of the cases the ILD is engaged in, becomes at once political * * *. The ILD believes that only mass pressure can bring about the release of a class war prisoner; that pressure must be supplemented by legal defense. The legal defense must be of the most expert character. Every legal technicality must be used. The more far reaching the knowledge of the lawyer retained by the ILD, the more easily and effectively can the worker be shown that the guaranties of justice extended him by the ruling class are meaningless. 76329?-56- --7 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approves FG1RIa@#RDsO@9R:6D0600140037-0 COMMUNIST FRONT ORGANIZATIONS Communists speaking openly in the name of the Communist Party and frankly as disciplined agents of the Soviet Union could make very little progress in winning converts in the United States. Wherever and whenever they have secured power in any country, it has been the result of a calculated policy of deception. One of the most important instruments of Communist deception is the front organization. Without the aid of its numerous front organizations, the Communist Party would be an isolated, insignificant sect. With the aid of its network of fronts, the Communist Party can and does exercise influence far out of proportion to its actual membership. It is in a position to establish contacts not otherwise available A Communist front organization may be broadly described as an orgamnt1Qn.Iormed at the initiative of the -CommuWi Part of the United States or another__couutry or_ the communist International (Cominform) anderating under Communist- instruction for the accomplishment of one or mora_current aim s.3 The actual aim of the Communist front is not openly stated but is concealed behind a high- sounding and attractive reform objective. In exceptional cases like the American Youth Congress the Comm miss have taken- Ayer an organization originally. organized by _non-Communists and have trans- formed it inte___a Communist nt. A front can be local, national, or in' rnn. teal in~itsscope. The building of front organizations has been laid down as a primary directive by Otto Kuusinen, secretary of the Communist Inter- national, for all Communist parties in the following words uttered at the Sixth Plenum of the Executive Committee of the Communist International held in Moscow: The first part of our task is to build up, not only Communist organizations, but other organizations as well, above all mass organizations, sympathizing with our aims, and able to aid us for special purposes. * * * We-must create a whole solar system of organizations and smaller committees working actually under the influence of our Party (Communist (magazine), May 1931, pp. 409-423). The real purposes of the Communists in building a front organiza- tion are never those which are publicly stated to attract adherents. The actual objectives which we cite herewith, may be varied and may overlap in the case of any given organization. 1. As part of Soviet psychological warfare against the United States, Communist fronts seek to paralyze America's will to resist Communist aggression by idealizing Russia's aims and methods, discrediting the United States, spreading defeatism and demoralization. At the present historical juncture in world affairs, all Communist fronts serve this primary purpose. Specializing in this field, however, there have been such organizations as the American Peace Crusade, the Com- mittee for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact, the Congress of American Women, the American Youth for Democracy, and the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy. 2. Certain organizations specialize in pro-Soviet propaganda such as the magazine New World Review (formerly Soviet Russia Today), a The Subversive sec Activities Control Act of 1960 describes the Communist-front organization as follows in . 3 (4 4) ) (p : "The term 'Communist- front organization' means any organization in the United States (other than a Communist-action organization as defined in paragraph (3) of this section) which (A) is sub- stantially directed, dominated, or eonttolled by a Communist-action organization, and (B) is primarily operated for the purpose of giving aid and support to a communist-action organization, a Communist foreign government, or the world Communist movement referred to in see. 2 of this title." Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For R~ ~ oil E~ ~ 1 , 1kA0037-0 the National Council of American Soviet Friendship and the America," Russian Institute. 3. Where the Communist message cannot be carried most effectively by the Communist Party among particular groups in the population, special fronts are formed for the purpose, such as American Youth for Democracy, Labor Youth League, Congress of American Women, the National Negro Labor Council, International Workers Order (foreign-born groups), American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, and the various foreign-language papers of the Communist 4. Sometimes fronts are used to appeal to special occupational 3 groups still with the same broad general purposes in mind including, by way of example, the National Lawyers Guild, the National Coun- cil of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions, the Photo League, and Farm Research. 5. To defend the cases of Communist lawbreakers, fronts have been devised making special appeals in behalf of civil liberties and reaching out far beyond the confines of the Communist Party itself. Among these organizations are the Civil Rights Congress; Emergency Civil Liberties Committee; National Committee to Repeal the McCarran Act; Trade Union Committee for the Repeal of the Smith Act; National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case; Bridges, Robertson, Schmidt Defense Committee; Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee; the National Lawyers Guild; Spanish Refugee Appeal; and the American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born. When the Communist Party itself is under fire these fronts offer a bulwark of protection. 6. Communist dissimulation extends into the field of political par- ties forming political front organizations such as the Progressive Party and the American Labor Party. The Communists are thus enabled to present their candidates for elective office under other than a straight Communist label. 7. With an eye to religious groups, the Communists have formed religious fronts such as the Methodist Federation for Social Action, the Protestant (magazine), and the American Jewish Labor Council. 8. All Communist fronts are expected to serve as instruments of Communist espionage seeking out information and passing it through proper channels and serving as an occupational cover for espionage ; , agents while their premises serve as convenient mail drops. 9. Communist operatives on the payrolls of the various Communist fronts are given a livelihood and valuable organizing experience at the expense of sources outside of the Communist Party. Thus the International Workers Order with assets of over $1 million employed party stenographers, clerks, organizers, speakers, writers, teachers, janitors and others in connection with its 2,000 lodges. 10. dertain Communist fronts are organized for the purpose of pro- mulgating Communist ideas and misinformation into the bloodstream of public opinion. Examples of such organizations are the Allied Labor News Service, Federated Press, and the Labor Research Association. 11. Schools under patriotic and benevolent titles indoctrinate Communists and outsiders in the theory and practice of communism, train organizers and operatives, recruit new party members and sympathizers. These are no ordinary schools seeking mere culture or academic degrees. Such schools, whether open or secret, are operated Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approval F EF s' 9 P?JRE . ?L,P17 AP2M00600140037-0 by Communist Parties throughout the world under the supreme direction of Moscow under a common pattern. Schools of this type have been: Abraham Lincoln School, Chicago Michigan School of Social Science, Jefferson School of Social Science, New Detroit York Ohio School of Social Sciences, Cleveland California Labor School San Francisco Philadelphia School of Social Science Samuel Adams School, )'3oston and Art Seattle Labor School, Seattle School of Jewish Studies. New York In Canada such Communist indoctrination was conducted chiefly ?? by study groups whose operation is described by Canadian Royal Commission in its report of June 27, 1946: A further objective, pursued through the study group, is gradually to inculcate in the secret membership of the Communist Party a habit of complete obedience to the dictates of senior members and officials of the Party hierarchy. This is apparently accomplished through a constant emphasis, in the indoctrination courses, on the importance of organization as such, and by the gradual creation, in the mind of the new adherent or sympathizer, of an over-riding moral sense of "loyalty to the Party." * * * The indoctrination courses in the study groups are apparently calculated not only to inculcate a high degree of "loyalty to the Party' and "obedience to the Party," but to instill in the mind of the adherent the view that loyalty and obedi- ence to the leadership of organization takes precedence over his loyalty to Canada, entitles him to disregard his oaths of allegiance and secrecy, and thus destroys his integrity as a citizen (pp. 74, 75). 12. Communist fronts change in accordance with the current party line. Thus when the party line was stridently anti-United States in the early 1930's, the Communists launched the American League Against War and Fascism. In the face of the growing menace of Adolf Hitler in the late 1930's they projected the American League for Peace and Democracy advocating collective security with the democracies against fascism. During the Stalin-Hitler Pact (1939- 41), however they created the American Peace Mobilization which picketed the 1Vhite House against lend-lease and the defense program. After Hitler attacked the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 and Russia became an ally, this organization was transformed into tfie American People's Mobilization which supported the war effort. Immediately after World War II, the line changed again and fronts immediately blossomed out against the American defense program and against our foreign policy, such as the National Committee To Win the Peace, the American Peace Crusade, and similar organizations. 13. Front organizations enable the Communist Party to mobilize what appears to be a body of public opinion outside of the party in support of their campaigns, projects, legislation, or demands. In many cases the statement of such an organization is printed by the press without investigation. The names of leading sponsors command attention. These organizations claim to speak in the name of great masses of Americans whom they do not actually represent. Since one front organization will support another, they manage to pyramid their membership claims to fantastic proportions. 14. Front organizations serve as a valuable recruiting ground for new party members and supporters. 15. Certain fronts are formed to provoke racial friction such as the United Negro and Allied Veterans of America, Council on African Affairs, National Negro Labor Council, and others. Benjamin Gitlow, former Communist Party candidate for Vice President of the United States, former member of its politbureau, Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For Rol@@sq QA/4A(;7aF 4Wr7$r %$FN JQ0M0037-0 and a former member of the Executive Committee of the Communist International, has explained how a front organization is formed. A front organization is organized by the Communist Party in the following fashions: First, a number of sympathizers who are close to the party and whom the party knows can be depended upon to carry out party orders, are gotten together and formed into a nucleus which issues a call for the organization of a particular front organization which the party wants to establish. And generally after that is done a program is drawn up by the party, which this provisional committee adopts. Then, on the basis of this provisional program, all kinds of individuals are canvassed to become sponsors of the organization, which is rt to be launched in the very near future. A provisional secretary is appointed before the organization is launched and in every instance in our day the secre- tary who was appointed was a member of the Communist Party. * * * And as president of the organization we would put up some prominent public figure who was willing to accept the presidency of the organization, generally making sure that, if that public figure was one who would not go along with the Com- munists, he was of such a type that he would be too busy to pay attention to the affairs of the organization. * * * On the committee that would be drawn together, a sufficient number of Com- munists and Communist Party sympathizers, who would carry out party orders, was included, and out of this number a small executive committee was organized * * * which carried on the affairs of the organization, so-called, and this small executive committee, with the secretary, really ran the organization. And this small committee and the secretary are the instruments of the Communist Party, with the result that when manifestos or decisions on campaigns are made, those campaigns are ordered by the Communist Party (hearing of the Special Committee on Un-American Activities, vol. 7, pp. 4716, 4717, 4718). Various American fronts are each affiliated with a parent interna- tional front from which they receive directives, literature and other aid and to which they give unreserved and active support. Repre- sentatives of American fronts are to be found at international con- ferences of these organizations. These organizations interlock and cooperate closely. The following international Communist fronts are among those functioning at the present time: World Federation of Democratic Youth International Union of Students World Federation of Democratic Women World Peace Congress World Federation of Scientific Workers International Organization of Democratic Journalists International Association of Democratic Lawyers These operate in close harmony with the Communist-dominated World Federation of Trade Unions. Since Communist fronts have a way of changing names from time to time and from place to place, no specified list can serve as a perma- nent safeguard to insure their detection. Safety from their machina- tions can be guaranteed only through ceaseless vigilance and detailed knowledge. We, therefore, present for the guidance of the American people certain criteria which will be useful in spotting a Communist front. 1. Since Communist fronts must start with a working nucleus of party members or reliable sympathizers, and since the party depends for its continued control of these organizations upon this nucleus, the presence of certain names frequently found as sponsors and officials is often a good clue. We present herewith a list of the most active and typical sponsors of Communist fronts in the past. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approvll FrEQQ,fOW2jF; ,pt,QP-A0tMRQ00600140037-0 LIST OF MOST TYPICAL SPONSORS OF FRONT ORGANIZATIONS Adams, Josephine Truslow (teacher, Swarthmore, Pa.) Barsky, Edward K. (physician New York) Bass, Mrs. Charlotta (editor, California Eagle) Benson, Elmer (former Governor, Minnesota) Bryson, Hugh (Marine, Cooks, and Stewards Union) Burgum, Edwin Berry (teacher, New York) Carnovsky, Morris (actor) Darr, John W., Jr. (minister) Davis, Jerome (educator, New Haven Conn.) DuBois W. E. B. (author, New Yorkj Dunn, itobert W. (writer, New York) Emerson, Thomas I. (law school instructor, New Haven, Conn.) Evergood, Philip (artist) Fairchild, Henry Pratt (teacher, New York) Fast, Howard (writer, New York) Gellert Hugo (artist, New York) Gold, hen (former president, International Fur and Leather Workers Union) Gropper, William (artist, New York) Hammett, Dashiell (writer) Hathway, Marion (social worker, Pittsburgh) Havighurst, R. J. (teacher, Chicago) Hellman, Lillian (playwright) Hendley, Charles J. (teacher, New York) Hughes, Langston (poet) Hunton, Al heus W. (writer) Hutchins, Grace (writer) Imbrie, James (banker Trenton, N. J.) Jerome, V. J. (writer, kew York) Kenny, Robert W. (attorney, Los Angeles) Kent, Rockwell (artist) Kingsburg, John A. (social worker) Kirchwey, Freda (editor, Nation) Kreymborg, Alfred (poet) Lamont, Corliss (author, teacher, New York) Lainpell, Millard (writer) Lawson, John Howard (writer) Lovett, Robert Morss (teacher, Chicago) Lynd, Robert S. (teacher, writer, New York) Maltz, Albert (writer) Mann, Thomas (writer) Mather, Kirtley F. (teacher, Cambridge, Mass.) McAvoy, Clifford T. (former deputy commissioner of welfare, New York) McManus, John T. (newspaperman) McMichael, Jack R. (minister) McWilliams, Carey (writer) Miller, Clyde R. (teacher, writer, New York) Morrison, Philip (scientist) Mulzac, Hugh N. (steamship captain) Parker, Dorothy (writer) Patterson, William L. (organizer) Pauling, Linus (scientist) Pennypacker, Anna M. W. (Philadelphia, Pa.) Pope, Arthur Upham (art expert, New York) Rautenstrauch, Walter (teacher, New York) Refregier, Anton (artist) Reynolds, Bertha G. (social worker, New York) Robeson, Paul (singer) Russell, Rose (teacher, New York) Schuman Frederick L. (teacher, Williamstown, Mass.) Shapley, Barlow (astronomer) Shipler, Guy Emery (minister, New York) Shumlin, Herman (dramatic producer, New York) Spofford, William B. (minister, New York) Steel, Johannes (writer) Stefansson, Vilhajalmur (explorer) Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For R gg&, /Q,$,i 7oCJA4MW OSISN Q600Mil0037-0 Stern, Bernhard J. (teacher, New York) Stewart, Donald Ogden (writer) Stewart, Maxwell S. (writer, New York) Stone, I. F. (writer, New York) Stover, Fred W. (farmer, Iowa) Straus, Leon (furrier, New York) Struik, Dirk J. (teacher, Massachusetts) Sugar, Maurice (attorney, Detroit) Thompson, John B. (minister, Chicago) Trachtenberg, Alexander (publisher) Travis, Maurice (Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers Union) Uphaus, Willard (minister) Van Kleeck, Mary (social worker, New York) Ward, Harry F. (minister, New York) Warne, Colston E. (teacher, Amherst, Mass.) Wcltfish, Gene (anthropologist, New York) Wilkerson, Doxey A. (writer) 2. Does the organization receive publicity and promotion in such Communist publications as the Daily Worker, Daily People's World, Masses and Mainstream? 3. Does the organization hold meetings in halls or does it have its offices in premises ordinarily used by Communist organizations? 4. Is literature of the Communist Party and other front organiza- tions to be found at headquarters and at meetings? 5. Are speakers and entertainers employed who are frequently associated with other Communist fronts or with the Communist Party or its press? 6. Are facilities used in common with the Communist Party or its front organizations (printers-see printer's union label, mimeograph services, addressing, stationers, picnic grounds, accountants, real- estate agents, doctors, lawyers, artists, promotion agents, public- relations counselors, radio commentators, etc.). Accountants es- pecially can be instrumental in enabling the Communist Party to keep careful track of the organization's finances and activities. 7. Great care should be taken in determining the character of those who actually run -the organization ignoring such figureheads as the honorary chairman. What is the loyalty record of the executive secretary, of resident and functioning members of the executive com- mittee, members of the staff, the organization secretary, educational director, editor, etc.? 8. Does the organization, and especially its official organ, follow the Communist Party line on issues and campaigns publicized in the Daily Worker? Does it invariably support and defend the Soviet Union? Does it adhere to its avowed purpose or inject issues of the above character? 9. Does the organization cooperate with other fronts and with the Communist Party in election campaigns, May Day parades, peace campaigns, petitions, tag days, and other projects promoted in the Daily Worker? 10. Does the organization cooperate with Communist-controlled unions? 11. Does the organization furnish direct or indirect revenue to the Communist Party, its publications, its fronts or establishments through orders for printing, stationery, advertisements, donations, and services of various kinds? - 12. Is the organization repudiated as Communist-controlled by such outstanding organizations as the American Federation of Labor, Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approv@O Fc JgWs;q$ ? x1E ?J? g ?9A?R&00600140037-0 the American Legion, or its own former constituents? What is its history? How long has it existed? 13. Does it furnish regular financial statements issued by well- known and reliable public accountants? 14. Is the organization actually controlled by its membership or by an outside Communist clique or group? 15. Does it interchange mailing lists with the Communist Party, its front organizations, or its publications? It would be well for alert Americans to be aware of the tricks employed by Communist fronts when faced with the threat of exposure or prosecution. We list some of these which have previously been employed. 1. After lengthy and arduous investigation, the front will suddenly change its name so that the job will have to be done all over again. Front organizations change their names from time to time and are variously labeled in different cities and neighborhoods. Sometimes fronts will merge to avoid exposure or prosecution.. At times they have been known to assume a name similar to some well-known and respectable organization. An example is the Methodist Federation for Social Action which has no official connection with the Methodist Church. Another is the now defunct A. F. of L. trade-union com- mittee for unemployment insurance which was forced to desist from using this name as the result of an order secured by the American Federation of Labor before the Federal Trade Commission. By way of illustrating the various guises assumed, the following Communist fronts were active in the recent peace offensive after World War II: American Peace Appeal, American Peace Crusade, American People's Congress and Exposition for Peace, American Students Repudiate Aggression in Korea, American Youth Peace Crusade, East Harlem Women for Peace, Young People's General Assembly for Peace, Committee for Peaceful Alternatives, Maryland Committee for Peace, Minute Women for Peace, Irving Peace Theater, National Assembly Against UMT, Mid-Century Conference for Peace, Na- tional Delegates Assembly for Peace, National Committee To Win the Peace, New York Peace Institute, Peace Information Center, Veterans for Peace, World Peace Congress, etc. New names are con- stantly. cropping up. 2. e names of prominent citizens who have been duped into the organization who are usually inactive and unaware of what is going on, will be cited as proof of the organization's respectability. 3. Individuals who expose the character of Communist fronts will be threatened with libel suits, smears, physical assault, blackmail, and ouster from official positions. Legal advice is always valuable as a safeguard. 4. The organization will claim a membership which cannot be accurately verified. 5. Communist fronts, when identified as such, will immediately and vigorously deny the charge. 6. A favorite device is to arrange for the defense of the particular front by a non-Communist publication. For example, when the Southern Conference for Human Welfare was exposed as a front by the House Committee on Un-American Activities, it was defended in Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For F Ip 7aiq-tgpFv7&AQ9J? W0q#0037-0 the Harvard Law Review by Walter Gellhorn, of Columbia Law School.4 7. Ofttimes, after a Communist front has been successfully launched by a provisional committee, a new committee, will be substi- tuted to conceal the origin of the organization. 8. A favorite Communist gambit is the claim that since an individual belonged to a given front organization prior to its citation as such by the Attorney General, the individual should not be held responsible. This asks us to ignore the fact that a front organization is by definition subversive and, except in the very few cases where organizations orig- inally formed by non-Communist forces were taken over by the Com- munists thereafter, all front organizations were subversive from their inception. The important date is not when the organization was cited, for its subversive character does not date from the day of its listing by the Attorney General. 9. Recently there has developed a tendency to decry references to defunct organizations. This is unrealistic because the fact of member- ship in an organization which was subversive loses none of its eviden- tiary value when the organization goes out of existence. No informa- tion about a live and active conspirator should be considered as (lead or irrelevant. (It should be pointed out in this connection that in the early 1940's Alger Hiss was listed in congressional files as a member of the national committee of the defunct International Juridical Associa- tion. There were no other front associations for this man at the time. This Communist link was ignored by the State Department and Alger Hiss was left to conduct his nefarious activities until 1948 when Whit- taker Chambers appeared on the witness stand.) WITHIN THE LABOR MOVEMENT The CPUSA is the only party which coordinates its activity in the political field with its activity in the trade unions. In other words, while political parties place their reliance upon voting strength, the CPUSA seeks support in the field of industry through the trade unions. Every base established by the Communists in our unions is in fact a Soviet bridgehead within our own economy. A strike organized by a small Communist minority in a vital industry can have a more far-reaching effect than a vote of the majority of the popula- tion. In his book, Toward Soviet America, William Z. Foster has frankly set down some of the principles which guide the CPUSA in this process of penetration of American labor. 1. "Its principle is to make every shop a fortress for communism" (p. 254). This aim must be kept in mind in sharp contrast with that of the average American trade unionist whose primary desire is better wages and working conditions. 4 Mr. Gellhorn wrote the committee on January 17, 1956, as follows: "As author of the article in question, I specifically disclaimed the purpose 'to servo in the role of defense counsel, as it were, for the Southern Conference. He [that is, the author] is not connected with the confer- ence, has no authorization to speak for it, and has access to no special body of knowledge about its activities.' And again, at the end of the article, I stated: 'At the very outset of this discussion the author disclaimed any intent to appraise the Southern Conference for Human Welfare. What we have sought to appraise is the report of the committee which denounced the conference.' In the face of these specific statements, coupled with the whole tenor of the Harvard Law Review article, the implication of the quoted Handbook statement is clearly inexact in fact and unfair to me In effect. The fact of the matter is that neither the Southern Conference for Human Welfare nor anyone else induced my writing of the article to which refer ence is made. The article was motivated solely by my own sincere conviction that the methods of the House committee at that time (1947) deserved scholarly analysis." Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approvd F qr Me I A Y 000//08/27F : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2. "It concentrates its work upon the heavy industries and those of a war character" (ibid.). In its magazine, the Communist, for February 1934, the CPUSA, quoting a decision of the Executive Committee of the Communist international, outlines what such con-. centration entails: Communists must * * * concentrate their forces in each country, at the vital parts of the war machine of imperialism * * * Communist Parties must by all means in their power ensure the practical organization of mass action (increasing the work among railwaymen, seamen and harbor workers, preventing the shipping of arms and troops, hindering the execution of orders for belligerent countries * * *) * * * During the period of the Stalin-Hitler Pact, the Communists carried out these mandates by fomenting strikes through unions under their control in North American Aviation of California; the Allis-Chalmers of Wisconsin, engaged in important manufacturing equipment for the Navy; and in various arms and ammunition plants in Connecticut. During the Korean war, the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, also Communist controlled, conducted a strike which tied up the major part of the copper industry. 3. Joseph Zack Kornfeder (known in the Communist Party as Joseph Zack), former national trade-union secretary of the CPUSA, has testified before the House Committee on Un-American Activities' on September 30, 1939, as follows: Mr. WHITLEY. Does the Communist Party use its connections with the trade unions of the various industries for the purpose of carrying on espionage activ- ities? * * * Mr. ZACK. The Soviet Government will utilize its American organization for whatever purpose they find convenient * * * there are secret organizations that manage to pick out individuals out of the ranks of the Communist Party to use for that purpose. Mr. WHITLEY. Do you know of any specific instances in which they have used their trade-union connection to obtain industrial secrets? Mr. ZACK. Yes. While I was in charge of the Trade Union Unity League I was once asked to supply an engineer, a chemist * * * I was asked to do that by Max Bedacht, who was then in charge of this phase of their secret activity. Testimony of Rear Adm. Adolphus Staton, retired, before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee on March 2, 1954, dealt with Public Law No. 351 involving radio operators in the Communist- controlled American Communications Association during World War II. In the course of this testimony, the minutes of a meeting held in the office of Secretary of Navy Frank Knox on May 19, 1942, were incorporated into the record from which we quote relevant portions: Admiral (S. C.) Hooper then stressed the danger of Communist Party cells in the transportation and communication industries and in the armed services, and how the Communist Party was striving with all its power to establish such cells * * * The contributory effect of foreign cells in a country's system of com- munication was amply demonstrated in the fall of Norway and of France, stated Admiral Hooper, giving details of each. * * * He emphasized the particular danger of a cell among radio operators and brought out the example of the Spanish Fleet at the very start of the 1937 revolution, when some 700 officers were murdered by the Communist Party cells in the fleet because of the fact that the radio operators delivered the announcement of the Communist revolution to their comrades rather than to the responsible ship's officers. * * * Admiral Hooper further stated that * * * the American Communications Association was Communist Party controlled and the nucleus of the Communist Party cell in United States communications. * * * Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For R QMM/fa7 0A1 1RQFJA ,Q,9J JRAQ ,Q01c0037-0 Marcel Scherer, a founder, International vice president, and national organization director of the Federation of Architects, Engi- neers, Chemists, and Technicians, later business manager of local 1227 of the United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers and inter- national representative and educational director of District 4 of the UEMWA, who admitted under oath his part in organizing a local union at the atomic radiation laboratory of the University of Cali- fornia in 1942 or 1943, has been identifed in sworn testimony as a former student at the Lenin School in Moscow. Here training was given in the "science of civil warfare, revolutionary uprising," "sabo- tage," and similar matters. Sworn testimony before the House Com- mittee on Un-American Activities shows that he was in contact with Clarence Francis Hiskey and Steve Nelson, both involved in atomic espionage. 4. American workers owe a great deal to the fact that labor and management have become convinced, through long experience, of their interlocking interests and the need for cooperative and friendly relations. In his work, Toward Soviet America, Foster makes clear in the following passage that the Communists are determined to disrupt this relationship, cost what it may, that their demands can never be satisfied: The capitalists and the workers are class enemies, with mutually hostile in- terests. * * * Communist action is based upon the slogan of "Class Against Class"; that is, the working class against the capitalist class (p. 252). Stability in industry and in our society as a whole has been built up over the years through a system of collective bargaining which is an anathema to the Communists according to the First ] nternational Congress of Revolutionary and Industrial Unions in Moscow in 1921: The belief in the sanctity of collective bargaining * * * must be met with a resolute and decided resistance on the part of the revolutionary trade union move- ment. The revolutionary trade unions * * * must realize their (contracts) relative value and clearly define methods which will abolish these contracts when it proves to be profitable to the working class. 5. American labor looks upon our Government with devotion and respect. It is the object of the Communists, however, to pit the forces of labor against the American Government as indicated by Foster's statement from the same work that "the aim always is for the workers to lead and for the attack to be directed against the capitalist class and its government" (p 253). The Labor Fact Book for 1931 pub- lished by the International Publishers, a Communist publishing house, gives some idea of how this is done: The Communist Party and the Trade Union Unity League call for persistent and repeated mass violations of injunctions as the only way to compel the courts to limit the use of the injunction weapon against the workers. A campaign of mass violation was begun in New York City in October, 1930 * * * (p. 154). Clashes with the police are encouraged as exemplified by the follow- ing account from the Daily Worker of M'ay 31, 1937, pages 1 and 3: Chicago police kill 4 pickets, 100 wounded at Republic Steel. * * * Chicago Communist Party urges citywide protest denouncing the blood bath at Republic Steel plant as one of the worst police outrages in recent history. Morris Clzi'ds, secretary of the Communist Party, called all workers to join * * * in citywide protest. 6. Labor has learned to voice its demands through its chosen leaders. Employers and Government officials endeavor to establish Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approq~q 119f R * T Q W047r, tR79,oQQI%1?000600140037-0 stability in industry through negotiations with these officials. But William Z. Foster, in the name of the CPUSA, has sworn undying enmity toward these labor leaders in the following explicit terms; "They are enemies within the gates of the working class and must be treated as such. They head the labor movement only in order to behead it. They are a menace and an obstacle to all struggle by the workers. * * * They must be politically obliterated" (ibid, p. 256). 7. Although labor organizations in the United States have fraternal ties with foreign labor groups, they do not operate under foreign dis- cipline. Communists do, not possess such freedom. This has been demonstrated by William Z. Foster in his description of the Trade Union Unity League (TUUL), at one time the labor auxiliary of the CPUSA The TUUL is the American section of the Red International of Labor Unions. * * * Its relations towards the Communist Party are those of mutual support and cooperation in the struggle * * * (ibid., p. 258). The 1931 Labor Fact Book points out that "the Red International of Labor Unions was organized in July 1921 at a Moscow congress * * *" and that this international body aims "To coordinate and regulate the struggle of the working class in all countries * * *" (p. 212). As a result there have been cases of international coordination of strikes and organization of Communist-led unions in the copper, maritime, sugar, and other industries. In 1945 the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) was organ- ized with the Communists in control, replacing the Red International of Labor Unions. In his book, The History of the Communist Party of the United States, William Z. Foster points out that- The powerful unifying tendency of the WFTU was also felt In the United States" (p. 477). and that the Communists supported this movement. It was repudi- ated as Communist-dominated by both the AFL and CIO. Foster adds: The Communists also have always been indefatigable workers For trade union unity. * * * They have ever sought to link up the labor movement of the United States with that of other countries. In late years this has meant active backing of such organizations as the Latin American Confederation of Labor and the World Federation of Trade Unions (p. 561). Communist unions have, however, made no formal or open affilia- tion with the WFTU. American labor has based its demands purely on the basis of its economic and social needs with due consideration to national emer- gencies during wartime. Flowing from their international ties and discipline, Communist-dominated unions and labor groups have adapted their policies strictly to the exigencies and need of Soviet diplomacy and interests. During the period of the Stalin-Hitler Pact from 1939 to 1941, strikes were encouraged by Communist-dominated unions in vital war industries. As soon as Russia became an ally after Hitler's attack, a no-strike policy was adopted by Communist- dominated unions. Labor Fact Book 7 praised the, no-strike policy of our national trade unions during this period (p. 11.2). After the end of World War II, the Soviet Union readopted its policy of hostility toward the United States, and Communist unions in the United States reinvoked a vigorous prostrike policy. Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0 Approved For eassIO0 f9 7F:aCBPa g)45R0ik6,601Q 4003 8. Members of Communist-dominated unions have testified that the finances of these organizations are frequently siphoned off for Communist causes, front organizations, campaigns, and publications. Communist officials are placed on the union payroll. Union services are placed in the hands of Communist lawyers, accountants, printers, mimeographers, and meeting-hall managers. Unions expelled by the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1950 because they were held to be directed toward the achievement of the program and purposes of the Communist Party: United Office and Professional Workers of America; Food, Tobacco, Agricultural and Allied Workers of America; International Union of Marine Cooks and Stewards; American Communications Association; International Fur and Leather Workers Union; International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union; International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers; United Public Workers of America; United Elec- trical, Radio and Machine Workers of America; United Farm Equip- ment and Metal Workers of America; International Fishermen and Allied Workers of America. In issuing this handbook for Americans showing the operations of the Communist Party, USA, the Senate Internal Security Subcom- mittee hopes to help alert the American people to the real nature of the enemy in our midst and the insidious character of the methods em- ployed. The principles set down are intended as a guide rather than a set of hard and fast rules to be mechanically applied. We must realize that we are dealing with a movement which is constantly fluid, constantly varied and elusive. There can be no artificial substitute for constant intelligence and alertness. 0 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000600140037-0