Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 11, 2016
Document Release Date: 
February 11, 1998
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
December 1, 1959
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9.pdf3.48 MB
Sanitized Appmwed rasp Raisoes-1-GIA Rig 1278 0894 6148M 4 801 e +S t r 25X1C10b 25X1A2 COMMUNISM TRAINING OF FOREIGN COMMUNISTS IN SOVIET AND CHINESE PARTY SCHOOLS Distributed December 1959 pproved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 TRAINING OF FOREIGN COMMUNISTS IN SOVIET AND CHINESE PARTY SCHOOLS Sanitized -A ME-30.99 .,-L., P7 7O.99."1: 1=14~?{caa 1 x A G ja-ZASri C.tU-ti 4c. f" ~j ~+.e,.e tKc Sanitized - App oved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 II Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 I. INTRODUCTION II. THE CPSU PROGRAM A. Development of the Postwar CPSU Training Program Program to 1953 Program from 1953 to 1956 Program from 1956 to Date B. Participants in the Current CPSU Program European CP's Latin American CP's Other CP's C. Selection and Caliber of Trainees for CPSU Establishment European CP's Latin American CP's Other CP's D. CPSU Schools and Courses Separate School for Brazilians (1953-1957) WFTU Training School (1953-1955) Possible Experimental School (1955?-1956?) The Higher Party School III. THE CCP PROGRAM A. Emergence of a CCP Training Program B. Program for CP Japan Temporary School at Yungnien (1953-1954) School in Peiping (1954-1957) 39 44 59 59 Japanese Trainees in the Summer of 1958 C. Program for CP Australia D. Program for Latin American CP's The 1958 Course -GGzF_fftstory Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 The Armed-Struggle of the Masses The 1959 Course E. CCP Short-Term Seminars and Courses F. Evidence of Other Programs Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 1~BBrloved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 II. THE CPSU PROGRAM A. Development of the Postwar CPSU Training Program 1. From the end of World War II until the death of Stalin (March 1953), the CPSU program for training Commu- nists from Free World CP's was very limited. About 1953 the program began to expand and to enter what appears to have been a period of experimentation. This period lasted until about 1956. The current CPSU program may be said to stem from that date. Since 1956 an increasing number of Free World CP's have participated in what is evidently a planned and regulated program that is still expanding. Program to 1953 2. In the years immediately after the war the majority of trainees from Free World CP's are believed to have been either Communists resident in the USSR during the war who delayed their return home in order to complete some training, or exiles from their own countries who enrolled in CPSU training schools to occupy themselves as well as prepare themselves against the day when they could return home. 3. There is evidence that by the early 1950's Communists from at least a few Free World CP' s were going to the USSR for training. Although the CPSU had apparently begun Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 to expand its training program for foreign Communists, these efforts appeared tentative and haphazard. In the case of a few CP's, one to three months of training were reportedly given during visits of some individual party members to the USSR -- but without prior arrangements or planning. In the case of a very few parties, there is evidence that a small number of party members may have gone to the USSR specifically to receive training, to last, in some cases, for as long as five years. Yet several parties had no knowledge of any CPSU program at that time. Generally speaking, the CPSU training program in the early 1950's appeared to have little planning behind the selection of the foreign Communists involved, or in the scope and nature of the training. Program from 1953 to 1956 4. During the period from 1953 to 1956 the training program expanded further and the CPSU is known to have established at least three separate training institutions which were attended by Communists from Free World CP's. These institutions appear to have been experimental, however, and preliminary to the subsequent emergence of the CPSU's Higher Party School* as the focal point of foreign Communist training. During this period, foreign Communists attended not only the three separate institutions which are known, but also the Higher Party School. In 1953, *See Section D. , paragraph 23 et seq. page 5 Para 5 (insert new park) Only in the case of one Party is thew firm evidence that a program of some consequence was under way during this period. In 1953 a Latin American CP sent students to the first of three courses in the USSR which were held exclusively for Communists from this party. Occurring during the period from June 1953 until Sine 1957, these three courses were of six months, fifteen months and two years duration. It is estimated that approximately one hundred members of this CP may have been involved in this prog am. The school for this one CP was entirely apart from any other OPSU training establishment, although it was administered by the Higher Party School. While it is possible that separate establishments existed for other nationality groups, no evidence has ever been discovered which would indicate a similar program of such remarkable scope for any other Free World party during that period . Insofar as can be determined, Communists from this CP have not attended a special separate CPSU establishment since the end of their third course in the spring of 1957. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 construction of new buildings for the Higher Party School was undertaken. Although many more foreign CP's participated in the CPSU's training program during this period, their participation still appeared to be haphazard and limited, with little evidence that a planned program had yet emerged. (. 5. Only in the case of one Party is there firm evidence that a program of some consequence was under way during this period. In 1953 the Brazilian CP sent students to the first of three courses in the USSR which were held exclusively for Brazilian Communists. Occurring during the period from June 1953 until June 1957, these three courses were of six months, fifteen months and two years duration. It is estimated that approximately one hundred Brazilian Communists may have been involved in this program. The school for Brazilian Communists was entirely apart from any other CPSU training establishment, although it was administered by the Higher Party School. While it is possible that separate establishments existed for other nationality groups, no evidence has ever been discovered which would indicate a similar program of such remarkable scope for any other Free World party during that period. Insofar as can be determined, Brazilian Com- munistsAhave not attended a special separate CPSU estab- lishment since the end of their third course in the spring of 1957. 6. In 1953 the CPSU also organized -- under the auspices of the WFTU -- the WFTU Central School for Trade Union Cadres located in Budapest. During its existence from mid-1953 until mid-1955 this school offered six courses, each of about three months duration. During this period the school was attended by a total of 157 students, with a regional breakdown showing 84 from Latin America, 43 from the Middle East, ZZ from Africa and 8 from Southeast Asia. While some of the students were not Communists, the great majority were Party members drawn from Communist labor activities. The first four courses were characterized by a marked theoret- ical emphasis -- attributed to the Soviets -- which proved beyond the capacity of most students. The last two courses were then changed to reflect more practical instruction in trade union problems. It is quite possible that this ex- perience may have contributed to a CPSU decision to con- centrate party instruction for foreign Communists at the CPSU's own Higher Party School, or at least in the USSR. 7. In 1955 yet another CPSU training establishment was in existence which enrolled foreign Communists as well as Soviet students. Located near Moscow, this school may have opened for the first time in 1955 on an experi- mental basis. This is suggested by the evidence that in 1955 the physical facilities of the school were very poor, the language problems inadequately solved, and Soviet efforts to establish military discipline (i. e. reveilles, parades, marching to classes, etc.) had to be given up in the face of student opposition. The course began in September 1955 and ended in the spring of 1956. The student body numbered about one hundred, and in addition to Soviet students included foreign Communists "from many different countries." Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 first senten on page (now sentence) A Scandinavian CP is the only Free World party identified as having students at this school in 1955-1956. is not known whether the school continued to operate after that course, but available evidence suggests that by the fall of 1956 the majority of trainees from Free World parties began to be enrolled in the Higher Party School on a more or less regular basis. 9. During the period from 1953 to 1956, there was evidently a gradual increase in the number of trainees from Free World parties who attended the Higher Party School of the CPSU, either for full courses or for special lectures lasting but a few months. A source who attended some lectures at the Higher Party School for a few months in mid-1955 identified numerous foreign Communists at these lectures. He estimated that one thousand foreign students were then attending the Higher Party School, but that most of these came from Bloc parties. However, he also identified students from the CP's of Bolivia, Cuba, El Salvador, Finland, Guatemala, Italy, Paraguay, Spain., Sweden, Syria, and Venezuela. Although the source thought that the students from the Free World parties were enrolled in a two-year course at the Higher Party School, this cannot be confirmed. It is probable that some were enrolled in a long-term course (of one, two or three years), but some may only have been attending special lectures covering a few months. 9. In the case of several CP's, there is evidence during this period that members may have attended lectures at the Higher Party School for only a few months. In addition, a few of the graduates of the WFTU school went to Moscow from Budapest and received additional short-term training, possibly at the Higher Party School. In 1955 one WFTU graduate was reliably reported to have gone to Moscow where he spent "forty-two days taking examinations in what he had learned." Since this is an excessive time to take examinations in a course which lasted but a few months, it is probable that he attended a CPSU school. Another WFTU graduate was reported to have gone on to Moscow where he took a course lasting three months. Program from 1956 to date 10. In 1956 the expanding CPSU training program appears to have entered a new stage, with the entire program showing a planning and organization not evident before. The current program may be said to stem from 1956. Since then, an increasing number of foreign CP's have sent trainees to the USSR, often sending a new group to replace other Party members who have completed a course. Reports of training given to Free World Communists have increasingly pinpointed the Higher Party School as the training estab- lishment involved. In this connection a CC/CPSU decree of 26 June 1956 may be cited: "To establish in the Higher Party School attached to the Central Committee CPSU a special faculty for the training of (Party) workers assigned for instruction by communist and workers' parties of foreign countries. To retain for the special faculty the current curriculum, based on a three-year course of training, giving the rectorate of the school the right in case of need to introduce partial changes related to the composition of the students and in accordance with the wishes of the Communist parties of individual countries." FRR"OL Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 The same decree shortened to two years the length of the course for Soviet students. 11. From 1956 to date, it is known that selected. foreign CP's usually have been invited well in advance to send trainees to the USSR. The CPSU generally assigns student quotas (or slots) to the CP's invited to participate. While some CP's send trainees regularly to the Higher Party School, participation by others appears irregular, with these CP's -- either by choice or because no CPSU invitation is forthcoming -- sending trainees only every few years. The continuing expansion of the training program is underscored by the fact that in each year since 1956, a new CP has been identified as sending Party members for the first time to receive CPSU training. Yet it is known that some CP's have not yet been invited to participate. In the case of at least one CP, the CPSU invitation was. declined because it was felt that the training offered was not suited to the problems of the CP concerned. 12. There is considerable variation in the length of time a foreign Communist may receive CPSU training. At the Higher Party School, a one year course appears very common for the Free World trainees, but training for two years is also frequent, and some trainees may stay for three and even four years at this school. Some short- term training of a few months duration also continues to be given. 13. Once a foreign CP has accepted a CPSU invitation to send trainees to the USSR, the Party's selections are cleared with the CPSU whenever possible. When feasible, a Soviet diplomatic establishment will communicate names and biographic data on the trainees to Moscow. Often these diplomatic establishments will assist in making travel Sanitized -Approved For Release : IA-RDn 1nn17nn11-a arrangements, obtaining necessary documentation, and financing the travel of the foreign Party trainees, It is suspected that the CPSU finances all travel of foreign trainees to and from the USSR. It is also known that trainees receive allowances while at the school, and in some cases, it is known that the families of trainees receive monthly payments on which to live while the trainee is away. 14. The CPSU program of training Free World Communists is administered by the Foreign Section (or International Department) of the central Party apparatus. Personnel of this section negotiate with the foreign CP's concerning participation in the program, allocate numbers of training slots, advise concerning the caliber of trainees, and generally administer the enrollment of the foreign trainees in CPSU establishments. Special arrangements for the foreign trainees, including guides and advisors, are handled by the Foreign Section. Correspondence with the foreign CP concerning the progress of the trainees is another function of the Foreign Section. On some occasions, foreign area specialists from the Foreign Section give special lectures and hold seminars for groups of trainees from given foreign areas. 15. In 1957 the Higher Party School was expanding its facilities. Additional buildings were being acquired, several blocks away from the main school complex. At least one new building was completed for the school's use. Improvements were being made in dormitories, mess facilities, etc. In 1958 an official of the CPSU's Foreign Section told a visiting foreign Communist in Moscow that the CPSU was planning a further expansion in its program of training foreign Communists. He stated that the Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 CPSU had thus far only offered courses at its cadre school to very select foreign Communist leaders. It now planned a new school which would be for Party leaders from all areas in the world. 16. At the present time, it is estimated roughly that 300 Free World CP trainees per year are enrolled in regular courses at the CPSU's Higher Party School. Estimating an average cost (including travel) of $2, 000, this Soviet training program for Free World Communists would represent an estimated outlay of $600, 000 per annum. B. Participants in the Current CPSU Program 1. In most Free World countries it is very difficult to obtain reliable information concerning a CP's partici- pation in the CPSU's training program. Even in some cases where there is firm evidence that a CP is sending trainees to the USSR, it has not been possible to determine the number of trainees being sent. In most CP's this is a carefully guarded secret. Often knowledge is limited to the national leadership. In some CP's where there is a more general awareness of the program among Party members the Party has directed that this matter must be treated with "maximum discretion." In the case of illegal CP's, travel by Party members to the USSR must be clandestine. Even members of legal CP's may travel to the USSR without proper documentation, or take steps to hide their long stay in the Soviet Union. At the Higher Party School itself, nationality groups are generally kept separate and students use cover names -- factors which further complicate the identification of trainees in the current program. 2. A student at the Higher Party School during 1957-1958 has estimated that there were about 1500 students enrolled at that time. Of these, about 700 were Soviet. The remaining Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915BIIQ1100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 800 foreign students included Free World as well as Bloc trainees with the specific exception of the Chinese. (If CPSU training of Chinese Communists is taking place at all, it is probably given in a separate estab- lishment.) While this source was able to identify several specific national groups at the Higher Party School, in other cases he could only state his general impression. For example, he stated that Asiatics were strongly represented but he was unable to identify the countries they were from. 25X1X6 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 pages 12-16 paras 3-14 European CP's 3. Since 1956 there has been reliable evidence that at least eleven European CPts (all free World parties). have been, or are currently, involved in the CPSU training program. In the following cases, the number of trainees sent each year has averaged from about five to twenty. CP# 1 sent trainees to the Higher Party School in 1955, 1956, 1957 and 1958. No information is yet available concerning participation in the 1959-1960 course. CP # 2 sent trainees to the Higher Party School in 1957 and again in 1958, both times for one year courses. In 1959, another group of trainees was sent to the USSR, reportedly to attend a four-month course. No information is yet available concerning participation in the 1959-1960 course at the Higher Party School. C? # 3 is not known to have sent any trainees to the USSR prior to 1959. In 1959, a group was sent to the USSR on a study trip of a 4ew months duration. One report has claimed that the group would attend a party course, but it is hot known whether an actual course is involved. No participation has yet been noted in longer, regular courses. OP # 4 sent trainees to the USSR in 1956 (probably to the Higher Party School) and is known to have had trainees in the 1957-1958 course at the Higher Party School. No Sanitised - Appr ed For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 CF # 5 probably sends trainees to the Higher Party School each year, but firm evidence is available only on the 1957-1958 course. CP # 6 sent trainees in 1956 and again in 1957 to the Higher Party School. It probably sends a group each year. CF # 7 is known to send trainees to the Higher Party School, probably on a regular basis, but the 1957-1958 tsurse is the only one known to have been attended by trainees from this CP. There is, however, reliable evidence that this CP sends some trainees for longer periods of time than one year. CP # 8 apparently sent no trainees to the USSR prior to 1959. However, this CP is known to have scheduled a group for the 1959-1960 course at the Higher Party School. CP # 9 sent trainees to a one-year course in the USSR in 1958 (probably at the Higher Party School). This was apparently this CP's first participation in the CPSU program. In 1959, a group of trainees was again sent to the USSR, re- portedly for a three-month course. No information is yet available about participation in the 1959-1960 course at the Higher Party School. CP # 10 sent trainees to the 1957-1958 course at the Higher Party School. It probably sends a group each year. CP # 11 sent trainees to the 1957-1958 course at the Higher Party School. No further information is available. pages 16-20 parse 15-23 4. Information on the participation of Latin American CP % in the CPSU training program has been more difficult to obtain than in the case of the European CP's. In patt, this is due to the fact that several Latin American CP's are illegal and must operate clandestinely. In addition, trainees for OPSU schooling have sometimes been drawn from Party members living in exile in other countries. Available information indicates, however, that some Latin American CP's have not yet participated in the OPSU program, and those which have sent trainees have -- with the exception of the special case mentioned on page~5,Paragraph 5 -- generally sent fewer v*bSrt Qf tr?i4ep than have the European OP's. Within the last year the CPSU has increased the number of "slots" available to CP's at least in Central America, and it is possible that participation of Latin American OP's in the CPSU program is increasing generally. (See also the section on the expanding COP training program for Latin American Communists.) 5. In the case of six Latin American OP's there is reliable evidence of participation in the CPSU's current program. OP /1 1 sent trainees to the special CPSU establishment mentioned previously and which was organized for its exclusive use during 1953-1957. There has been no evidence that trainees have been sent to the USSR since that time. In early 1959, however, this OP was reliably reported to be considering sending another group to the USSR. OP # 2 sent trainees to the USSR for the first time in 1959. The trainees were scheduled for a two-year course] probably Lt the Higher Party School). Sanitized -Appr~red For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 i Sanitized - Appr red For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 OP # 3 has evidently sent trainees to the USSR for several years? This practice has apparently been prompted in part by the Party's known desire to have always some Party leaders in reseave outside the countrt. Trainees are known to have been in the USSR in 1958. CP # 4 sent trainees to the USSR for the first time in 1956. The trainees attended the Higher Party School and were scheduled for a one-year course. In 1957 another trainee was sent for a three-year stay. In 1958 at least two additional trainees were scheduled for the Higher Party School; one of these was to stay for three years. CP # 5 was reliably reported to have received training slots from the CPSU in 1958`and again in 1959. CP # 6 sent a trainee in 1958 to a two-year course at the Higher Party School. This was the first training slot made available to this CP. In 1959 another trainee was scheduled to go to a two- year course at the Higher Party School. 6. In the case of two other Latin American CP %, the most tecent evidence relates to 1956 and 1957; there is no information on their participation in the CPSU program since those dates. Some short-term three training has been indicated in the case of %w other Latin American CPts. ved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Other CP's 1 2/4: In only a few other cases is there definite knowledge of the CP's which are participating in the CPSU's current program. The "Asiatics" identified in the 1957-195 8 course at the Higher Party School might have come from the Far East, Southeast Asia, or some areas of the Middle East. There is no reliable evidence concerning CPSU training of African Communists, though numerous reports -- many of which are obvious fabrications -- allege that such training takes place. (Many reports allege also that Africans are receiving Party training in Prague, but there has been no reliable information received on this subject.) i Sanitized - App pages 2041 pares 25-27 (note that pars 24 stays the same) (pares 25.k/ all re-written as follows) (under pare 24 which becomes tarp 'f) OP # 1 was seeking one Party member in the spring of 1958 to send to a one year "cadre" course in the USSR. This was apparently the first time this OP had received a regular *taining slot, although some short-term training in the USSR was given to some Party members in late 1956. OP # 2 had at least two trainees in the 1957-1958 course at the Higher Party School. CP # 3 also had trainees in the 1957-1958 course at the Higher Party School. pages 21-,22 pares ved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 European CP's 2. The selection process thich is known to be followed in one CP for attendance at the one-year course at the Higher Party Schools probably reflects the general procedure followed in many European CP's. (a) A'District Secretariat of the Party may propose the candidacy of a Party member; (b) this proposal is passed to a Regional Secretariat of the Party; (c) if the Regional Secretariat passes favorably on the candidacy, it forwards its approval to the Party's Central Committee; (d) if the Central Committee approves, it then undertakes "consultation with Moscow." Moscow subsequently advises the Party whether it "accepts" the proposed trainee. (This communication with Moscow is evidently handled by the Soviet Embassy in this country.) (e) The accepted candidate, along with others from his Party region, is then called before a panel of his egional Secretariat. Here, he is informed officially that his selection as been approved and learns of his obligations to the Party in return. In at least some cases, trainees from this CP have had to agree to full- ime employment with the Party following their return from Moscow. 3. In the case of this CP, it is not clear whether each regional rkanization of the Party has a quota, but it is possible that this is so. n most of the European CF's mentioned in Section B., the known trainees ame from various parts of the country. In the case of two CP's, the party headquarters sent circulars to regional Party organizations asking em to propose candidates. On the other hand, in another Party the centr eadership is believed to have chosen the trainees with little or no consultation with regional organizations. The leadership reportedly sougi placate Party criticism with assurances that selections would be made om various parts of the country. Sanitized -Appr fired For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 C. Selection and Caliber of Trainees for CPSU Establishment 1. Methods of selecting trainees for participation in the CPSU's current training program can vary in different CP's. Some variations are evidently due. to the difference in the number of the trainees which can be sent, whether a CP sends trainees each year, and the conditions under which a CP must operate. The geographic distance from the USSR may also play a part. 2. The selection process followed in the&ustrian CPJor attendance at the one-year course at the Higher Party School, probably reflects the general procedure 4. The circular sent out by one of the Western European OP's provided details concerning the type of Party members who should be proposed as trainees to attend the CPSU's Higher Party School. In this particular case one important requirement was that all trainees must be able to be away from their country for four years. Other requirements for selection were: (followin& changes only made in rest of para on page 23) under a. (1) change to read) (1) should hold a regional-level position in the Party or in a mass organization; (under a. (3) change to read) (3) social origin: proletarian Sanitized -Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 5. It is evident, however, that similar require- ments are not necessarily followed by other European CP's in selecting trainees. The trainees from other European parties may be older, often in the mid-to-late 30's and sometimes in the early 40's (though these are more rare). Trainees need not be unmarried, and sometimes husbands and wives have received CPSU training together at the Higher Party School. It is true, however, that family difficulties and employment problems may affect the selection of a trainee. Not all of,the i,nown European trainees have held positions on the 25X1X6 While some have come from regional and/or provincial levels as well as from the central party apparatus, they may also be district and city officials (very often district secretaries), district and city functionaries in youth and labor work, party journalists, etc. It is clear that emphasis is generally on loyal and active party functionaries who may be expected to rise in the party, improve the effective- ness of their respective party units, and constitute an elite cadre which the party leadership can count on, both currently and to assume the leadership in the future. Sanitized -Approved For R"RMM170011-9 The regional Party organizations were also told in this circular that for any suggested candidate, they must teturn a full biography and political statement compiled by the Secretariat. It is likely that these are forwarded eventually to Moscow. (It should be noted that this CF also selects members to attend the University of Moscow and has requirements concerning their selection. The mater Party difference in these requirements is that for the Higher Party School, the trainees should hold regional-level positions in the Party or in a mass organization; for the University of Moscow, the? need b$ only Party members or members of the Party's youth organization.) Sanitized - Appr4lred For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 6. In the case of Latin American CP's (and possibly many other non-European Free World parties), the allocation of Soviet training slots and the selection of trainees appears to take place on a more ad hoc basis than is the case in the European CP's. It is possible that better programming is now under way, but participation by the Latin American CP' s in the CPSU training program must continue to be influenced by the fact that many of these CP's are in an illegal or circumscribed status and 25X1X6 25X1X6 it i. Sanitized - Appr, ved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 , pages 25-26 (in pars, 6, opening pars. is OK down to line 11, the last sentence which should be changed to read:) .....The following example of the CP of country X may illustrate many of the problems and procedures necessary in the case of several other Latin American parties. In November 1957, while a representative of OP X was in Moscow, the CPSU invited the CP to send one trainee to the Higher Party School. The CPSU asked for a "bell leader" and agreed to pay all expenses, including transportation. It was agreed that the travel and training would be clandestine, with knowledge limited to the leadership of CP X. OP X established a communication channel to the CPSU via certain members of CP Y resident in country Z sW ' who were contact men for the Soviet Embassy in country Z. Secretary General and the National Organizer of CP X select a member to receive the training.i$ecretary General subsequently obtained the approval of CP X's top leadership. Q-I'tepresentative of CP X visits country Z. Through a CP Y intermediary, he is put in touch with a Soviet Embassy official, and he gives the official data on the selected trainee to forward to Moscow. The trainee begins to create his cover story to explain his absence to family and friends. His cover story is that he is going to Country Z to obtain a better job. He will correspond with his wife through a country Z channel. His letters must show a country Z postmark and return address. Since his passport will expire before his return, he will turn this matter over to the Soviets so that they can prepare a false passport for him to use on his return trip. He will discuss with the Soviets how much of his pay at the school should be allotted to and sent. his wife via country Z. CP X receives a telegram from country Z state that the trainee should leave for country Z. Trainee leaves for count Z. He carries credentials 6a&1 for th ontae mati"* CJ and also in order to establish his identity with the Soviet Embassy official. ,a a-U ecti l ft4 ?; Al rai4ee leaves, for the USSR iB~=^ He travels via Europe. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 7. Evidence suggests that many of the Latin American trainees scheduled for GPSU training are hand- picked by a very few top party officials, although these leaders may obtain the approval of their CP's top body. In the current CPSU program, the Latin American trainees have, in general, appeared to come from a higher party level than have the known trainees of the European CP's. Full Central Committee members are often selected and on a few occasions even Secre- tary Generals. This is no doubt due largely to the fact that fewer training slots are available. Another factor may be the generally lower level of local party schools in the Latin American area. The party schools of the European CP's are generally much more elaborate and of a higher caliber than those which the Latin American CP's have been able to establish. Often, European CP's have picked trainees for the USSR schools only after these individuals have completed their own party training courses. Whereas the European CP's appear to be concentrating on the selection of future party leaders for CPSU training, the Latin American CP's have appeared to concentrate more on the trai ping of current leaders. 8. Since the identification of specific trainees from other geographic areas has been very difficult to establish, only a tentative and general conclusion can be made con- cerning the caliber of trainees being selected. It appears that both high-level as well as young party members are involved1 Possibly this is determined essentially by the number of training slots available, and this number, in turn, may be determined by the CPSU's priority interest in a given party. Sanitized - Approved For Release : -9 Sanitized -Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R0011100170011-9 +/M T'+Tl tt?VKTT f1/1T D. CPSU Schools and Courses 1. As indicated in Section A, there is knowledge concerning at least three different Party schools in the USSR which have enrolled Free World Communists* since 1953. In addition, a WFTU training school was located in Budapest. Of these schools, only the Higher Party School, is today known to be receiving Free Worl r trainees. f:It is possible, however, that a very few may cater to trainees from 25X1X6 short-term training which has been indicated in the case of certain foreign trainees has dealt with specialized subjects, such as trade union tactics; this training may be patterned after the old WFTU courses. The CPSU school which in 1955 appeared to be opening for the first time had in its curricula certain subjects which are not known to be taught currently in the regular courses at the Higher Party School. As will be discussed, however, certain special lectures at the Higher Party School may today cover some of these particular subjects. No school similar to this 1955 school is known today. 2. Although there is reliable evidence that the CPSU plans a further expansion of its training program, and a CPSU spokesman has mentioned a new school for *This paper does not include data 'on the Academy of Social Sciences, the leading CPSU establishment for the training of Party theoreticians. There is reliable evidence that Bloc CP trainees have studied at this institution but there is no reliable evidence that Free World Communistshave enrolled there. L Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 dilil~ Party leaders from all areas of the world, it is probable that in the foreseeable future CPSU training of Free World Communists will continue to be based on the programs which have been identified in the last few Separate School for Bra$ fans (1953-1957) 3. This school was located about fifty-six kilometers north of Moscow near a suburb known as Pushkino. The school was set up on a pre-Revolutionary estate of the Governor of Moscow and in 1953 was known overtly as a rest home of the Ministry of Health. It appears likely that this school is the same as the "rest home" at Pushkin which various sources during the 19401s reported to be a disguised training school for foreign Communists. During the war years at Pushkin, foreign Communists were instructed in underground work, partisan warfare, sabotage and intelligence -- in addition to receiving political Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01 1100170011-9 5. The Pushkin school was administered by the Higher Party School and, like it, was under the direction of the CPSU's Central Committee. The regular teaching staff was made up entirely of professors from the Higher Party School. According to a reliable source, the courses studied Pushkino duplicated courses being given to othe foreign trainees who were enrolled 25X1X6 25X1X6 6. The second course for the ommunists included a total of 1800 hours of study The various subjects were: Political Indoctrination (42 hours) (an introductory course which covered in an elementary fashion the tenets of Marxism) Russian History (120 hours) (both pre-Revolutionary and Soviet) Economic Geography (120 hours) History of the CPSU (200 hours) Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIAERDP78-00915R001100170011-9 International Relations (120 hours) (particularly relations of the Soviet Union with other nations) Political Economics (200 hours) (Marxist economic theory and economic history) (the derivation and development of dialectic materialism and its transition into Marx- Engels -Lenin-Stalin eonomic philosophy) The remaining hours of study were devoted to the Russian 25X1X6 language and occasional guest lectures. A major emphasis at Pushkino was the study of Russian; it took place from the beginning of the course until the end. las 25X1X6 7. There were notable differences between the second and third courses. Some of the changes were evidently the result of Soviet efforts to improve the course (efforts which may have been prompted in part by criticisms voiced by some of the students). Other changes occurred immediately after Khrushchev's anti-Stalin speech in February 1956. Since much of the course had been based on the writings of Stalin, the de-Stalinization campaign resulted in numerous changes in the school courses and texts. Changes in the third course included: Philosophy: much more emphasis was given to the history of philosophy, from ancient Greece to Russian social democratic theories. All Stalinist interpretations were dropped. Dialectic study was more thorough. History of the CPSU: since the second course had drawn completely from the official Stalinist text, this course was completely revised. Lenin's version, covering the period until 1924, was used. For the period after 1924, hastily drawn up revisions of parts of the Stalinist manual were utilized. Political Economics: since the second course had been based on a manual published under Stalin and filled with references to Stalinist economic doctrine, a revised version was necessary. In this, Stalin's name and his writings were not mentioned. In the third course, this subject was much more emphasized and expanded to include Das Kapital, not studied in the second course. Political Indoctrination: this was elim- inated entirely in the third course. Sanitized -Approved Fo 0170011-9 NNL History of the Labor Movement: this was much more emphasized and better organized than in the second course. Structure of the CPSU: this was virtually eliminated and replaced by a series of lectures on the actual experiences of old-time Bolshevik revolutionaries. This was designed to acquaint the students with actual Communist practice in Russia prior to the Revolution. In addition, there was even greater emphasis on the study of the Russian language. The courses in Economic Geography, Russian History and International Relations werermre or less the same. 8. To illustrate something of the subjects covered in the above courses, some of the subjects studied in the History of the Labor Movement may be cited. The following is a partial listing only. The Industrial Worker Movement (in several different countries and at different times. This was treated in considerable detail.) Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 Industrial Worker Movement and Liberation of China Struggle for Unity in the International Industrial Worker Movement Establishment of the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) Characteristics of the International Communist Movement after World War II 9. The Pushkino school had a different Rector for each of the two courses taught there. About twenty-seven professors from the Higher Party School constituted the teaching staff. About four interpreters were assigned to translate the lectures. The administrative director of the course, SINVALOBOV, who visited the school periodically and did not participate personally in the running of the school, was identified as a staff member of the CPSU central party apparatus who was responsible for the training of Communists from several Latin American countries. A few other staff members of the central party apparatus gave special lectures. Personnel of the school who have been identified are: Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 fnu SIVVALOBOV (or SIBOLOVOV)* - administrative director of the course. fnu KORYANOV* - taught International Relations as a frequent guest lecturer. He also was a staff member of the central party apparatus. His specialty was the US and the Americas. He was identified as a very important person in this field, having responsibility for liaison with the American CP's. SINVALOBOV (or SIBOLOVOV) was one of several specialists working under him. KORYANOV held special seminars concerning future activities of the 25X1X6 ERMOLAYEV M. DANILEVICH - both described a working under KORYANOV on Latin American CP matters fnu KOSTOMAREV fnu ANISIMOV - both of whom taught the Russian language *These individuals were probably A. SIVOLOBOV and V. M. KORIONOV, both subsequently identified in the CPSU's Foreign Section. KORIONOV has since been reported on the editorial staff of Problems of Peace and Socialism, the international Communist journal. SIVOLOBOV was later reported to be one of two individuals responsible for liaison with all Latin American CP's, evidently having assumed part of KORIONOV's work. Sanitized -Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-OS 100170011-9 Nina NIKOLAYEVNA - taught Russian history fnu MOROZOV- director of the course in Political Economy. Other professors were under him. fnu YESEM (or YESSIM) - one ofdprofessors of philosophy Aleksey MENEYEV (or MINEYEV) Rita LNU fnu PIVOVAROV fnu PEREZ - these four were interpreters. PEREZ was a nationalized Soviet, a former Spaniard. rest of Para 6 OK Para 7.8 are OK Para 9 - page 35 under KORYANOV, change last sentence to ....seminars concerning future activities of the Latin American OP. Para 10. The student governing body at Pushkino was a "burg" made up of about five higher-ranking students. The "burn" was responsible for discipline, reviewing the progress of the students, and criticizing each student's achievements. Security measures at the school were adequate but not strict; many of the trainees were already well versed in security practices. The students made some trips to Moscow on Sundays, but generally were not allowed much freedom. The confinement and condescending attitude of the Soviets occasioned periodic flares of resentment among the students. All students used an alias while in the USSR, by which they were known at the school, and Soviet identity documents were in the alias. All students received 300 rubles per month. Periodically, ranking members of this Latin American OP visiting in the Soviet Union would visit the school and brief the students on happenings at home in their country and in the OP. These visitors would also carry messages back on behalf of the students. ....Communists from the Iatin American OP, ...... 25X1X6 Separate School for One Latin American CP (1953-3.957) para 4. Party training of Communists from this OP began at Pushkino about October 1953. The first course for these Communists (about thirteen in number) had begun in June 1953 in the vicinity of Moscow (possibly at the Higher Party School). Only the second and third courses were held at Pushkino. Over forty-two trainees attended the second course from October 1953 until December 1954. About fifty-one students were enrolled in the third course which was held from June 1955 until June 1957. During this entire period, the Pushkino school was used exclusively for the training of Communists from this one CP. The CPSU program of training members of this CP on# such a large scale was reportedly undertaken for the following reasons: (a) some years before, the CP had failed in an effort to harass the government, thereby demonstrating a need for more and better trained cadres; (b) yet, more recently, economic unrest and strikes in the country had suggested the time was ripe for another OP effort; and (c) the CP overstated its capacities and the "refolutionary" situation in the country to the CPSU. These factors contributed to a Soviet miscalculation concerning the future of this OP and led to the unusual and large training program instigated in 1953. 25X1X6 Para 5, line 6 ) at Pushkino duplicated....... 25X1X6 pars. 6. ved For Release: tl 0011-9 WFTU Training School (1953-1955) 11, For purposes of this paper, discussion of the WFTU training school in Budapest will be limited largely to the actual courses which were taught there. As mentioned in Section A, the courses became more practical during the last two of the six courses given. It should also be remembered that each of the WFTU courses was only about three months in duration. 12. Before the courses were modified, lectures at the WFTU school included at least the following subjects. There is a similarity to some of the courses taught at Pushkino. Labor Unions and the State (origin, functions and forms of the State, etc.) several lectures on Political Economy (formation of capital, historic role of capitalism, etc.) Historical and Dialectical Materialism Marxist Philosophical Materialism Rise of the Labor Unions in Russia Methods of Struggle for Strikes (general rules, political and economic strikes) Workers' Movement and National and Colonial Problem Structure of Union Organization and Preparation of Union Cadres Congresses of the WFTU Histories of Significant Labor Movements Imperialism (characteristics, place in history, etc.) 13. After the courses were modified to provide more practical instruction, the following topics were taught. Problems of Practical Trade Union Work Trade Union Structure and Democracy The Work of the Masses in their Places of Work The Workers' Demands Sanitized -Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001'100170011-9 Forms of Struggle and Particularly of Unity International Trade Union Work Political Economy and Trade Union History 14. It is evident that most of the philosophical and political courses were eliminated, and are today taught at the Higher Party School. Because there is no known central WFTU training school in practical trade union subjects, some Soviet training of foreign Communists in this field may occur periodically under the auspices of the USSR's All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions. This could account for some of the short-term training indicated in the case of certain foreign Communists in the USSR. Possible Experimental School (1955? - 1956?) 15. In 1955 a Soviet training establishment was located "not very far" from Moscow in an area of villages. Students were transported by automobile from Moscow. For the 1955-1956 course (the only one about which any information is available), the total number of students was one hundred, including Soviet students. While the foreign students were reported to come "from many different countries", it is obvious that they must have been a small group in view of the total student body. Since many of the foreign students knew German, and because the course in the history of the working class movement reportedly stressed Western Europe and Scandinavia, it seems likely that the majority if not all -- of the foreign students may have been Western Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 European. Communists are the only nationality group which has been identified. 16. A peculiar characteristic of this school was the involvement of the Soviet military. This fact, as well as the courses taught, suggests that the school was a joint effort of the Party and the armed forces, possibly involving also personnel from the intelligence services. Military instructors and teachers were detailed to the school and lived in a separate establishment from the civilian teachers. Sometimes the military personnel appeared in uniform (ranks reported were from captain up to colonel) but more often they wore civilian clothes. Substitutions in both the military and civilian faculty occurred during the school year. Sanitized App 25X1X6 Communists from one Scandinavian country are the only nationality group which has been identified. pars 17. Another peculiarity of this school was the apparent Soviet effort to bring together Soviet foreign area specialists and Communists from the pertinent foreign areas. It is !mown, for example, that in the dormitory group of a Scandinavian Bommunist there were three young Soviet students who were specialists on the country of that foreign trainee. They had studied the language and "conditions" of his country, reportedly at the University of Moscow. These Soviet students were very interested in "improving" their knowledge of that country through conversations with the foreign trainee. It is amusing to note that the foreign trainee found the Soviet students unable to believe anything he stated about actual conditions in his country, and their opinions on life and politics in his country were completely out of touch with reality. Sanitized - Appr~Ved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 18. The following courses were taught at this school. Subjects 1-3 and 9 were taught by civilian teachers. Subjects 10 and 11 were taught by military instructors, and subjects 4-8 were taught alternately by civilian and military teachers. (1) Russian language (2) History of Russia and the Soviet Union (3) Basic Marxism-Leninism (4) History of the CPSU (5) History of the International Working-Class Movement (particularly history of the Communist movement in Western Europe and Scandinavia, including Communist resistance during World War II) (6) Information on Recent and Current Political Situations and Developments (7) "Revolutionary Strategy and Tactics" (including "demonstration techniques", "strikes", 'barricade construction", and "street fighting". These lessons were reportedly carried out on a theoretical basis rather than with practical exercises. ) (8) "Obstruction and Sabotage" (including organization of "obstructive actions among industrial workers", "sabotage methods to be used against factories, railroads, harbor establish- ments, means of communication", etc.) (10) "Intelligence and Counter-Intelligence Service" (including gathering of secret information, "secret methods of work", "connections with superiors", "recruitment of andconnections with sub-agents and informants", "detection of hostile elements", etc.) (11) "Penetration of the Armed Forces of a Capitalist Country" (including secret propaganda and agitation, cell organization, intelligence activity, etc. ) school was simply to produce better-trained Communists who might -- depending on individual circumstances -- Para 19. It is not clear what the CPSU intended to accomplish teaching this combination of subjects, particularly the last While it might be expected that these foreign students were sit for intelligence work o,P, some Party activity, this did occur in one known case of a Scandinavian Communist. Although he employed in a Soviet establishment in his country after his return, a reliable source has stated that he has not engaged in intelligence activity, has not functioned as a special CPSU contact for withi. his OF, and has not become more active in his Party. Possibly one purpose......(rest of Para is OK) Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 F eventually put their special training to some good use. There is some evidence that while the students were at the school discussions were going on between the CPSU and the foreign CP's involved concerning the future employment of the students. Possibly the majority of the foreign students were fairly low-level CP members. 20. Other evidence about this school suggests that it may have been launched in an abrupt fashion and probably for the first time in 1955. As mentioned in Section A, initial Soviet efforts to establish a purely military discipline had to be given up in the face of almost unanimous opposition by the foreign students. Because many of the foreign students had little knowledge of the Russian language, German textbooks were finally used in some of the courses since some teachers also knew German. The physical facilities of the school were described from "very bad" to "beneath all criticism." Poor food, a broken heating system, totally inadequate sanitary facilities, etc. , put many students in the hospital. The leadership of the school was worried about the frequent cases of illness but ascribed them to the "softness" of the foreigners. 21. No instructors at this school have been identified. The school area was regarded as "restricted" by the local population of neighboring villages. Students, in turn, were for- bidden to fraternize with the local people. They did go on hikes and other excursions, and went to Moscow several times on sight-seeing trips. Sometimes artists from Moscow gave performances at the school. 22. Reports were made regularly on the students' progress, general attitude and behavior. According to one report, the Foreign Section (or International Department) of the CPSU sent these progress reports, in summary form, to the Central Committee of the CP's concerned. The Higher Party School (Vysshayaarartiynaya shkola) 23. The main address of the CC/CPSU's Higher Party School Is No. 6 Miusskaya Square, Moscow D-47. The school was founded in 1939, although it actually stems from previous CPSU institutions, particularly the Communist University irneni Sverdlov and the Higher Propaganda School. In 1946 a CC CPSU resolution provided for the reorganization of the entire network of CPSU teaching establishments, and the Higher Party School was attached directly to the CC/CPSU. Presumably the school falls under the CC otdel (section or department) for Science, Higher Educational Institutions and Schools -- but the section for Agitation and Propaganda must be involved to a considerable extent in the school program. The Foreign Section of the CC/CPSU is concerned with the allocation of slots, and the selection and training of Free World Communists at the Higher Party School. 24. As far as the training of CPSU members at the Higher Party School is concerned, in 1958 a CPSU publication stated: "The basic task of the Higher Party School is the Marxist training of leading cadres of the republic and oblast link from among Party members who have had a higher, mainly technical, education and sufficient experience in Party work. The need for the organization of this profile of the work of the Higher Party School is caused by the fact that in recent years there have come into Party and Soviet work many Communists with higher specialized education but who do not have adequate knowledge in the field of Marxist-Leninist theory and economics.... As far as the foreign Communist trainees at the Higher Party School are concerned, this school is the CPSU's special "cadre" school which "leading members" of other CP's may attend. 25. Courses given at the Higher Party School fall into two major categories: long-term training of one to four years, and short-term training covering possibly a period of a few months. As mentioned in Part II, Section A, paragraph 10, a CPSU resolution in 1956 changed the regular course for Soviet students from three years to two years. The school year, for both Soviets and foreign trainees, begins in September. Many foreign Communists stay only one year, although a two-year course is also frequent (particularly for Latin American trainees) and some foreign trainees may stay for as long as four years. Both Soviet and foreign Communists may attend special lectures arranged by the Higher Party School, consisting either of a few special lectures or covering a three to four months period of study. 26. Information is available concerning the one-year course attended by Free World Communists at the Higher Party School in 1957-1958. The regular curriculum included Sanitized - Approved For Release : 9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 Philosophy, Dialectical and Historical Materialism (180 hours) History of the CPSU (180 hours) Party Structure (90 hours) International Workers' Movement (110 hours) Foreign Policy (of USSR) (50 hours) In addition, prominent guest lecturers might talk on a variety of subjects, particularly their experiences during the Revolution. 27. Class notes taken by a foreign Communist who attended the Higher Party School in 1957-1958 provide detailed information about some of the above subjects. Topics covered in two of these subjects will illustrate some- thing of the scope and nature. Party Structure 1. Marxism-Leninism background a. Historical necessity for the Party b. Development of Marxist ideas concerning a proletarian Party by Lenin c. Organizational foundations of the Party Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 d. The Party as the ruling and guiding force in the struggle for Communism 2. Statutes of the Party -- the embodiment of organizational foundations, the norms of Party life and the principles of management a. Significance of Party statutes and the Party program in the Party's life b. Characteristics of Party statutes c. The 8th Congress (1919) and the 19th Congress (1952) d. Definition of Party statutes 3. Party membership, management and admission to the Party a. Significance of composition of the Party for its life and activity b. Measures for improvement of "qualifi- cations"; composition at various time periods c. Tasks of Party organization at time of/ admission into the Party under present circumstances 4. Democratic centralism as foundation of organizational Party structure 5. Organizational structure of the Party History of the CPSU (the following is a greatly abbreviated listing) Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 1. History of the Party as a science -- periods and main sectors in the CPSU's history 2. Workers Movement and the spread of Marxism in Russia 3. Three periods of world history a. Paris Commune (1848-1871) b. Eve of Russian revolution (1872-1904) c. Russian revolution (1905- ) 4. Struggle for the creation of a Marxist party in Russia 7. Development of the revolution in 1905 (Party Congress, Provisional Government, October strike, December armed uprising, etc.) B. The Bolshevik Party during 1907-1910 (Political and economic situation in the country, situation of the Social Democratic Party, struggle of the Bolsheviks for the strengthening of the illegal Party, etc. ) OWL Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01 100170011 -9 12. Change of tactics of the Bolshevik Party in 1917. 14. Preparation and execution of the Armed October Insurrection (2nd Soviet Congress, reasons for victory, historical significance of victory) 15. Struggle of the CPSU and the subsequent strengthening of the USSR 17. Smashing foreign interventionists and the internal counter-revolution 18. International significance of the October Revolution 19. Leading part of the Party in the Dictatorship of the Proletariat 20. CPSU during reconstruction of the "peoples economy" 21. Lenin's plan for construction of Socialism and Communism 22. CPSU struggle for industrialization and collectivization Sanitized - Approved For Release : Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 23. CPSU during the Patriotic War (1941-1945) 24. CPSU struggle for the rehabilitation of the economy, for the rise of culture and industry 25. 20th Congress of the GPSU 26. The historical way traveled by the GPSU 28. The foregoing will illustrate that the regular training given to foreign Communists at the Higher Party School is essentially theoretical and ideological. Although this data relates to the one-year course, it is believed that foreign Communists who take two, three or even four years of training there continue to receive much the same sort of schooling. With more time, however, the foreign Commu- nists undoubtedly receive more training in the Russian language and it is believed that certain courses, such as Party journalism, may be added. 29. Some information is available concerning the short-term training lectures given at the Higher Party School. In 1955, some Free World Communists are known to have attended the Higher Party School only from April to July. They were apparently in classes attended by other foreign trainees who were enrolled in regular, long-term courses. But the short-term trainees in this case were taking individual study under the tutorship and direction of specific professors from the faculty of Political Economy. In 1957, it is known that some foreign Communists, not otherwise enrolled at the Higher Party School, attended two special lectures given there. These lectures concerned "Guerrilla Operations under Conditions of Modern Warfare," in OP "study groups" which have gone to the USSR. While these study groups are undoubtedly exposed to various OPSU components for observation and briefing purposes, they may also attend special lectures organized for them at the Higher Party School. and were given by a Major General who had been in charge of guerrilla warfare operations in the Ukraine during World War II. A source who attended these lectures has described the main points as follows: b. differences between US and Soviet utilization of guerrillas; c. guerrilla warfare is part of over-all military strategy; d. main problems of guerrilla warfare: effective command, training, communications, supplies and operational terrain; 30. Available evidence suggests that while the Higher Party School does provide lectures for foreign trainees on such specialized subjects as guerrilla warfare, such lectures are probably few in number and the bulk of the short- term training relates to the regular ideological and theoret- ical subjects. Possibly -- though this is as yet only speculation -- there may emerge a greater current use of short-term training for Free World Communists. This isytrgested by Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDQ78-00915R001100170011-9 31. The current rector of the Higher Party School is believed to be N. R. MITRONOV, who was appointed to this position in 1946 and who was last identified in this job in 1958. Several sources have identified some of the other staff members of the school(in addition to those professors listed in paragraph 9 above at the special school for:~)? I.D. PUSAKOV - deputy rector (1958) fnu YEREMIN - administrative chief (1958) M.P. LARYONOV - dean (1958) fnu SPIRIN - party secretary of the school 1. IVASHIN - chair of international relations (1957) A.D. MAKAROV - a department head, probably for philosophy (1958) S.P. SAMARSKIY - instructor, probably for foreign policy (1958) fnu KOZLOV - an individual with this name was identified as deputy director prior to 1956; an individual with this name was identified as a pro- fessor on the economics faculty prior to 1957 Sanitized -Approved For Rel 0011-9 fnu KANAKOV - professor, economics faculty (prior 1957) fnu ZHUKOVSKIY - professor, economics faculty (prior 1957) M. P. BOROBEVA - instructor, political economy (1958) M. P. RABOVA - instructor, past history of CPSU 4958) fnu KARGALTSEVA - instructor, recent history of CPSU (1958) L.A. SHEVERDA - instructor, international workers movement (1958) fnu KALINICHEV - instructor, international relations (1958) fnu BE CHIN fnu BELOV fnu LEONOV fnu LEONTIYEV fnu TOKMALAYEV instructors, specialties unknown (prior 1956) Sanitized - Approved For Release : 19 32. All the main buildings of the Higher Party School -- six in number at the beginning of 1958 -- are located at the Miusskaya Square address. There is at least one additional building belonging to the school on Leningradskoe Shosse, about fifteen minutes away; some two hundred students live there. he school is expanding further, with other. buildings being acquired in nearby locations. At the Miusskaya Square address, one new building, twelve stories high, was completed in December 1957. The school complex at Miusskaya Square contains living quarters, classrooms, and a large canteen where "very good and very inexpensive food" is available. The students, however, do not have to eat at the canteen. 33. The following data concerning the Higher Party School is based on reports made by a Free World Commu- nist who attended the 1957-1958 course: On the first day of arrival, foreign trainees attended an orientation meeting with the school director and his assistant. Trainees from different Free World CP's attended in separate groups. The trainees were briefed on the use of school cover names and other school regulations. All personal documents (including passports) were turned over to the school by the students; in return, each received an identity document which stated (in Russian) that the bearer, giving the true name but not the nation- ality, was a student at the Higher Party School. This document also bore a photograph and was intended for use, if required, outside the school itself. At the first meeting, trainees were given some money and the regular financial arrangements were explained. They, received money twice a month, on the 10th and 20th. They received 1800 rubles a month*, from which they paid for their rooms, telephone, laundry, meals, etc. Items owed the school administration were deducted from the payment due on the 2 0th. Students were told to bring any problems or difficulties to the attention of the school administra- tion or to the attention of the school's Party secretary. If something should happen at home, such as ill- ness in the family, the school administrator and Party secretary could make prompt arrangements for the student concerned to fly home. Security measures were quite strict. Students could send and receive (at a Moscow post office box) as much mail as they wished, but all mail was cen- sored. According to the Free World Communist source of this information, one always had the feeling of being watched. Individual nationality groups were generally kept isolated from each other, except for cases where more than one nationality group were taught together This sum has been confirmed by a source in another CP. It is also known that trainees are not encouraged to save anything from their allowances. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RD P 8-00915R001 0 -9 25X1X6 . Some intermingling was also permitted during recreational sports and on field trips. Students were, however, specifically warned against asking questions of fellow students, and they were also asked not to take photographs of each other. Hours of instruction were staggered to take care of the multiplicity of groups. The courses for all groups, however, were believed to be the same. Classes for all groups lasted about five hours a day, with a break of ten minutes after each hour. At the end of the formal classroom hours, students were free to do as they pleased. They were warned, how- ever, that they should not forget the purpose for which they were there, and the examinations were very strict. As a consequence, afternoons and most evenings were devoted to study, especially by the Asiatics. Any student who performed unsatisfactorily was criticized fairly but severely before his entire group. Extra hours of instruction could be requested through the school dean, and every week the faculty was available for individual consultations with students on any problems they had. A considerable amount of effort and care was devoted to the instruction, and the Party and school expended considerable effort to make things as pleasant as possible for the students. SAWOMW Sanitized -Approved For R 70011-9 re the "*" in first line at top of page-- take this out and OMIT THE FOOTNOTE at bottom of page L Since the CPSU's celebration of the 40th anniver- sary of the Revolution occurred during the school year 1957-1958, representatives from source's CP were in Moscow for the event. They visited the Higher Party School and talked with trainees from that CP on two occasions: once to brief the trainees on the talks taking place in Moscow, and again to brief them on events within their own Party. 34. Each rational or language group at the Higher Party School has one or more "advisers". They act as interpreters and guides, and render general assistance to the trainees. They are probably assigned by the Foreign Section, CPSU. Sanitized - Approved For Release 70011-x,;, re-write thes 2 pares as indicated 1. In its training of Free World Communists, the COP does not appear to have embarked on a planned program of any consequence until about 1956, although some isolated cases of training were reported earlier and Japanese Communists in China represented a special situation in the early 1950's. COP training of one Far Eastern Free World OP was reportedly inaugurated in 1956. COP seminars and conferences for visiting foreign Communists were first evidenced in 1956. Scheduled training of numbers of Latin Americans from several CP's was first arranged in 1957. 2. Although only a limited amount of information is available concerning the current CCP program, it does appear to differ in several respects from that of the OPSU. Separate training programs (somewhat on the order of the CPSU school at Pushkino) are indicated in several cases. To date, it has not been possible to pin-point clearly one COP school where trainees from different foreign geographic areas* receive Party training together or even have contact with each other. (etc. continue pare as is) Sanitized -Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 3. The CCP also appears to conduct much of its training of Free World Communists in courses of less than one year duration (often five to seven months), and to stress the practical rather than the theoretical in its training courses. In addition to the organized training courses conducted in classrooms, however, it is also evident that the CCP favors seminars or conferences which can be held within a short period of time and which can include various foreign Communists from different countries who may be visiting in China at the time. In these discussions Communists from different foreign areas are evidently brought together. 4. Like the CPSU, the CCP is prepared to finance the travel of trainees and to underwrite their expenses while in China. The CCP equivalent of the CPSU's Foreign Section -- which one source has called the CCP's Central Liaison Department -- is concerned with the program of training foreign Communists in Party schools in China. It sponsors, coordinates and supports the training program involving foreign Communists. 5. The expanding program of training Latin American Communists suggests a CCP emphasis on underdeveloped countries where the experiences of the CCP may prove to be particularly applicable. There is no information avail- able, however, concerning a CCP training program involving CP's from other underdeveloped areas. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 B. Program for CF Japan 1. Knowledge of the CCP program for training members of the Japan Zk (JCP) has derived from several sources who were in China from 1953- 1958. Some slight discrepancies in dates and school names have been noted, but, in general, the extent and nature of the CCP program is evident. 2. Most of the evidence concerning the CCP program relates to the period 1953-1957, when special separate establishrents were set up for Japanese trainees. In addition, there is some evidence that a few selected JCP members attended a regular CCP school during 1957-1958. After the first part of 1958, CCF training of JCP members was evidently curtailed as a result of the repatriation program, but there is evidence that at least some training of JCF members was continuing in the latter Dart of 1958. Temporary School at Yungnien (1963-1954) 3. In the fall of 1952, the Chinese were considering the status and repatriation of all Javanese residents in China. From these residents, it was decided to select several hundred who would take part in a training program before they were returned to Japan. The trainees were to be chosen from among all Japanese residents in various localities in China and were not bo be limited to JCP members alone. The JCP organization in China, however, was clearly in immediate charge of the program. 4. In Y arch 1953, a school for the Japanese was established in Yungnien Hsien (Hopei Province), although it was evident that Yungnien was but a temporary school site and functioned primarily as an assembly point. Students arrived in Yungnien little by little and the process of assembling was not complet it about 0 ber. The total number of students has been reported~etween 70t , with approximately 1500 being the best estimate. The JCP leadership in China widently recommended the names of prospective candidates, but at least some trainees reportedly found themselves unwillingly at Yungnien as a result of persuasion, coercion and misinformation. 5. At Yungnien, the new arrivals were instructed to use aliases. They were forbidden to discuss with each other their occupational and personal histories, and they were directed to burn all personal papers, photographs and correspondence. The students were organized into school companies- on the order of military components -- and each company had a JCP cell composed of the squad leaders, assistant squad leaders and one other Party member from each squad. Bow L., AMWc !tV wt I4.. Stl iJI 6. Officials of the school included both JOP and CCP members. Some have been identified as: TAKAK1RA Teru (JCF) - principal REN Kan (transliteration. Believed to be LIEN Kuan)(CCP) - vice principal (a ;- . - - T. ', e'Y,4 ) SHITSU (transliteration) - vice principal (in charge of education) Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 NII (transliteration) - vice principal (in charge of subsistence) SON (transliteration) - vice principal (reportedly held rank equivalent go division ccomander in the Red Army) INOUYE Hayasld (JCP) - deputy director of the Directorate of Training alias SUGIMOTO - a deputy director of training NAKAMURA Zentaro (JCP) - deputy director of the Administration TOGURA Kazuo (JCP) - worked in the Administration Office 7. Despite the fact that non Party Japanese were also enrolled in the Yungnien school, the principal's address given on the day of admission to the school is said to have included the followings This is a school to train JCP leaders of district committee amber caliber with the objective of arming the students in theories. Students are requested to realize the importance of their mission and master the basic theories of revolution. 8. The teaching was evidently not intensive at Yungnien. Studies, discussions and lectures included analysis of current news concerning Japan, other international affairs, and Marxist theories. School in Peivins (1956A1957) 9. In early 1954, the entire school was moved to a new location in a suburb of Peiping. One-source has pinpointed the location as Lianghsiang, a suburb on the western outskirts of Peiping. The school was newly built, with some construction still uncle ay as the Yungnien trainees arrived. During the three years of its existence, this school-was designated first as the Branch School of the Marx-Isnin Institute, and later was called the Branch School of the China People's University. 1a. The principal and vies prineipals were the same as those at Yungnien. One new man, however, came from Japan to assume one of the vice principalahipe. - This was one ADACHI (believed to-have been KAWADA Kenji of the JCP Central Committee). He arrived after the Sixth National Convention of the JCP in Japan, and lectured on decisions made at the convention as well as on conditions-in Ja- In mid-1956, both Principal TAKAKURA and Vice Arincipal ADACHI 1 t the sehbol, remarking that their presence was no longer necessary since the school had been placed under the leadership of the Chinese Communist govermment. LIEN Kean then became principal and YANG Fu (or YANG Pu), of the China Revolutionary Problems Research Office, was brought in and became the vice principal. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 U. The teaching staff at the Peiping school numbered over :0, of whom ten were Japanese,, four were Soviets, and the remainder Chinese. Some of the subjects studied, and the instructors in each field, have been reported as follows: Javanese volitios_ and econcmics INOUYE (JCP) Japanese labor and farmer movements NAKAMURA (JCP) Party construction AOKI (JCR) YANG Liu (CCP) Philosophy KIYODA (JCP) Political econamv KITAGAWA (JCP) SAJIKOFU (CPSU) (phonetic) KU&t'NnTSOFU- (CPSH) (phonetic) - Intra-narty conflicts - WANG Chi (CCP) History of the Chinese Revolution WANG Ch'eng (CCP) Foundation of Marxism-Leninism SHFFUTSOFU (CPSU)-(phonetic) ARIYOSHIKIN (CPSU) (phonetic) Chinese-language CHANG (CCP) CCP guest lecturers also spoke on such subjects as the Afro-.Asian eonference, the rise of cooperatives, rural problems in China, ! the problem of women in China, peace and the prohibition of atomic and hydrogen bombe, and the general theories nf-revolution,_incl?di the theses of MAO Tse-tung. Lectures were also given on the history of the CPSU, although it is not known who gave these lectures. Sanitized - Approved-For-Release :-CIA-RDP78-009-15R001100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 12. Texts used at the school consisted of published literature and material prepared by the instructors themselves. According to one source, the instructors claimed that the preparation of texts on the history of the Chinese CP required considerable work because of a lack of material and guidance; only a meager amount-of Party records were available. Works by LENIN, MAO Tse-Tung, LIU Shao-chi, and ohe KONSUTANCHIIFU (transliteration; KONSTANTINOV) were among the texts studied. 13. The student body was organized into classes, with each class divided.-into-eight or nine groups ( ersons in a group). Each- class had a class leader, assistant class leader and an organizer who were selected from Party members and who provided guidance in studies. Party members held cell meetings within each class; non-Party members held "discussion meetings." One source estimated that the total number of Party members-at the school was about 350-. As the school term pro- gressed, however, there were increasing demands for membership in the JCP. Indeed, one o the topics frequently discussed at the cell meetings was "recruitment of new members". 14. Self-study and discussions were given more emphasis than lectures at the school. Each lecture was followed by one to one-and- a-half days of self-study. After the self-study, discussions monitored by one-or-two assistant instructors -especially-assigned-for-each -- subject were held within each class. Examinations were held twice a year, 15. According to one source, the school received CCP direction through the CCP's Central Liaison Department. From descriptions of this deuartment it is evident that this is the CCP's equivalent of the CPSU's Foreign Section and that this CCP liaison department, like that of the CPSU, is concerned - with- the program of training foreign Communists. 16. After graduation in the spring of 1957, the Japanese trainees spent about another year in China employed-in vsriaus-occUPttions: - The majority of the graduates were believed to'.have been repatriated -between- Apriland July 1958?---There- is- no- evidence- that specific Party missions were assigned to them. The evidence does suggest that the Peiping school was - basically a training center in revolutionary activities, and that instruction was aimed at teaching the students dommunist principles and tradecraft. Chinese instructors often described CCP strategies and tactics used against the 1 ucmintang. They cited specific techniques and indidents to demonstrate how particu problems were met and solved by the CCP, and stressed the need to build a solid revolutionary base before entering into socialist programs. Enrollment in Regular CCP School (1957-1958) 17. It is believed that a handful of the JCP graduates from the Peiping school received further CCP training. There is evidence that a few of these graduates may have attended a CCP Middle-Level Party wheel in- Chungking from about-June--195-7 until July- 1958. 18. The purpose of this school has been reported to be Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 ''V- provid* cadres with actual training in the conduct of political campaigns. The training was not a theoretical review; cadres participated in actual campaigns, directing and solving problems which they would later face in their Party wort. One source has stated that, in essence, the training at this school consisted of exposing students to cheng feng (rectification), to wing to -fang the "blocming and contending" ), to tzu pao (posters), and other campaigns before they were introduced on a national scale. The training also exposed the shortceeaings of the students and eliminated those who were not qualified to carry out the programs of the Party. Japanese Trainees in the Sumer of 1958 x'Z'& 19. 'wring the seer of 1958, some were in Peiping to receive Party training. One of these trainees observed on the school grrnmds a of of Awal ve Japanese. ne presumed that they were receiving training also and that the Japanese were housed in another of the residences in the school compound. It therefore appears probable that CCP training of JCP members is a continuing program. Sanitized- Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 25X1X6 Next 6 Page(s) In Document Exempt Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 page 68- 70 C, Pros for a Far Eaatexn CF o-write entire section C., 1. According to a reliable source, in 1956 it wns announced in including one Free World CP in the Far East area that henceforth Party cadres 'heading would be sent to China ,and not -to thee USSR, -for - advanced training and practical experience. By late 1957 it was evident that an increasing- number- of-Party m estbers were visiting China for several weeks and even months. It was also apparent that they were obtaining and ex erience in China, Y. - 2. In November 1957 it was rip ( orted that Peiping was starting a school which would train about members of this CP each year; the first sixteen were reportedly-then being selected.--But in view of the 1956 information, and the program already evident for this CP, it is quests unable whether the sixteen trainees rsportedJ in Nov ether 1957 were the first such group. In early 1959 it was estimated that since 1956 more than sixty high-level members and senior cadres of this Party had gone to China for training for average periods of five months. - 3 _ A defector has stated that the-s etary-General of thin CF had been responsible for the original contact with the CCP whereby it was arranged for selected groups of Connninist cadres to go to China each year to attend indoctrination courses. a stated that he knew from personal knowledge that those who had participated in such courses returned home thonoughly indoctrinated.- had heard that the education included "field work", in the course of which the trainees were-obliged to sritnccs-some ac -as the - liquidation of a group of reactionary peasants. If they watched such things without protest, they thus identified themselves morally with such behavior and would then commit themselves to clandestine and illegal activities if necessary. In the case of other foreign trainees, --however, where there training they receive-- - - -- in China, there is no suggestion of such activity. "Field work" - in the sense of observing how- the CCP -is solving its problems - -is, however, a part of the CCP training given to foreign Communists. 4. According to another defector, the school for members of this - his- located within a - day's travel of Peiping -{method of travel- urn -- - soecified). No further dettils are available concerning the school or the courses taught. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 25X1X6 L Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 25X1X6 D. Program for Latin American CP's 1. Evidence of a planned CCP program for training Latin American Communists was first manifested during the CPSU's celebrations in Moscow in November 1957 of the 40th anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution. During meetings between various CP representatives on this occasion, the CCP invited several Latin American parties to send trainees to a special CCP course to be held for them during the summer of 1958. Necessary communications, and arrangements for transportation and finances for the trip, were to be handled by the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City (there are no Chinese Communist diplomatic estab- lishments in Latin America). Arrangements for another course for Latin American Communists -- to be held in the summer of 1959 -- were made during the visit to China of several Latin American CP leaders following their attendance at the CPSU's 21st Congress in January/Februaty 1959. The 1958 Course 2. As a result of the CCP invitation in November 1957, the first Latin American trainees for the CCP school arrived in Peiping (via Europe and Moscow) in April 1958. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized -Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 re-write page 71 completely, as follows: By the time the school term got underway in May, a total of seven trainees from -three countries were present. By the time the course was over, a total of about thirteen students from five countries had been 3. It was evident that the Chinese were disappointed that so few -- traimses attended the-school. They had expected over twenty students from -_aame-seven CP+$--to--attend. It xss also apparent that there had been some misunderstanding of the length of the school term. Some of the trainees had expected the course to last only three to four months. Instead, they found that the Chinese had planned a course lasting about seven months. 4. The Chinese made it clear that Central America had been singled out for this first school course for Latin America because, with few exceptions, the Central American parties were in poorer condition than any others in Latin America. It was made clear, however, that in subsequent courses the Chinese anticipated that all Latin American OP's ~ouuld be represeate . One CCP-spokesman--reportedly- stated that ~v courses lar to the-195t_caurse warn being Planned -for 195% but that these would ccmprise_two months of theoretical study and two months of practical application. A CCP spokesman also mentioned that one of the prime difficulties at present was the lack of linguistically trained professors that currently there were only forty qualified Spanish translator-inter- preters in all of China although more linguists were rapidly being trained. ---Sanitized -Approved-for Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 25X1X7 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 5. The school attended by the Latin American trainees was located in New Peiping on Fuhsing road. All the buildings were located behind a ten-foot wall with electri- fied wire on top. The school was a completely equipped institution with four combination residence-classrooms, gardens, garages, power plant, offices, movie theater and other facilities. All of the Latin American trainees stayed in one building. * They were told that the school grounds were built especially for that course. 6. In early August, the heat and humidity in Peiping caused the classes to be transferred to Port Dairen. All the Latin American trainees, plus their instructors and interpreters, flew to Dairen in a plane piloted by Chinese air force officers. In Dairen the trainees lived in a palace which once belonged to the brother of the Emperor of Manchuria; their classes were also held there. 7. The theoretical part of the course lasted from mid-May until mid-August, after which the emphasis was on field trips. According to a reliable source, the classes attended by the Latin American trainees covered the following main subjects. * As indicated in sectionUI B., one Latin American Commu- nist observed about twelve Japanese on the school grounds and presumed that they were housed in another of the residences in the school compound. He also observed four "Negroes" and two other persons whom he thought were Hindus. Possibly these were housed in other school residences. Presumably, all of these were trainees. There was evidently no contact at all with the Latin Americans, however. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 1TATAT TIi+i kT TTIT T TL'T !"AATT OAT CCP History 1. Historical base for founding the CCP 2. Founding of the CCP; initial activities 3. Activities during the first civil-revolutionary war (1925-27) 4. Victorious development of the expeditionary war, from the North -- treason of the bourgeoisie 5. Temporary failure of the revolution conducted by the capitulationist line of CH'EN Tu-hsiu 6. Second revolutionary war: work to restore the Party in the revolutionary aftermath (1927-1930) 7. Displacement of the peasant's war by the Agrarian R evolution 8. Aggression of the Japanese imperialists against China 9. Political line of the Party's centralized lead- ership 10. The CCP during the period of anti-Japanese resistance and for National Liberation 11. Fight of CCP to overcome great difficulties 12. Third revolutionary-civil war L Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 13. Agricultural reform (concrete antecedents) 14. Period of socialist revolution and socialist building 15. The great social revolution on the economic, political and ideological fronts, and economic construction#, during the first five-year plan (1953-1957) Problems on the Construction of the Party 1. Historical development from the experience of the CCP in the construction of the Party 2. Campaigns of correction 3. Mass line 4. Democratic centralism The Armed Struggle of the Masses Many works by MAO Tse-tung were utilized as class texts, as were CCP documents themselves. Among the latter were various documents relating to the 8th CCP Congress. 8. After his return home, one of the Latin American trainees wrote a special report, based on his CCP exper- iences, which was evidently intended for use by several CP's. From this covert report it has been possible to obtain additional details not only concerning various topics studied Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 under the above subjects in the course but also something of how the Latin American trainees perceived that CCP tactics had applicability in Latin America. The report itself was entitled "Impressions of the Reality of China." It discussed the following subjects: 1. Some general aspects a. CCP contributes valuable lessons b. In seizing power, it did not rely on known experiences c. Favorable and unfavorable conditions for beginning the struggle d. At first glance, the victories of CCP would not seem possible e. CCP extracts positive value from the negative f. CCP follows the principle of uninterrupted r evolution g. In less than ten years, the basis for the welfare of the Chinese people has been constructed h. CCP has known how to link the Marxist- Leninist truths with the present conditions of China Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 i. CCP extends and strengthens the camp of Socialism 3? The Communists and the Chinese people fervently hope for a universal, happy and lasting peace 2. Summary of a historical review a, "In the universe, nothing i s immutable" b. New characteristics of the society c. People are squeezed between two mountains d. Character of the struggle of 100 years e. Program and errors of the bourgeois revolu- tion of 1911 f. Strengthening the working class g. Movement of the 4th of May, 1919 3. Creation of the CCP 4. Two types of contradictions of different character 5. How to resolve contradictions 6. The working class of China Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 7. Combination of illegal with legal work 8. Combination of the secret with the overt 9. Problem of the agrarian worker from the Marxist- Leninist point of view 10. Existence and struggles of the Chinese agrarian workers 11. Agrarian reform in China 12. The cooperativization of the peasants in China 13. The People's Commune 14. Pages from the Draft Constitution of the People's Republic of China 15. Twenty articles of the first chapter of the constitution of the PRC, 9. Even during the period of the course devoted to classes, some field trips were taken. Factories, agri- cultural cooperatives, reservoirs, etc., around Peiping were visited by the trainees. When the classes were completed, field trips included shipyards, steel mills, etc., around Dairen, as well as observation trips to the cities of Changchun, Shanghai, and Canton, and to Hunan province. In Peiping, the trainees also met with high CCP officials, including CHOU En-lai who talked with them con- cerning the necessity for Communist China to establish commer- cial and diplomatic relations with the Latin American countries. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 10. Throughout their stay in China the Latin American trainees were asked many questions, by school officials as well as other CCP officials, concerning political, social, economic and cultural conditions in their respective countries. At the beginning of the school term each student was given. questionnaire involving conditions in his native country. The students were also queried concerning any Chinese militants or sympathizers who might belong to their CP's; they were asked about the location of Chinese communities in Latin American countries to which propaganda material might be sent. Some of the trainees were questioned about the intelligence services in their countries. 25X1X6 11. The school for the Latin American trainees has been described as operating under the CCPts "Department of Liaison for Latin American Relations." This evidently refers to the Latin American section o th CCPts Liaison Department. -- which iLe Japanese called the Central Liaison Department. The Latin American trainees have referred to a CCP Department in charge of Foreign Relations, but this may be the same thing. The teachers and interpreters at the school were reportedly assigned by the CCP Depart- ment of Party Education. Among the CCP personnel identified in connection with the school were (names are phonetic, corrected where possible): LIU (or LI) Tan-fu -- chief of the CCP liaison department fcr Latin America CHAO (fnu) -- chief of receptions for the Latin American liaison department CHAO Ming-h sien -- interpreter rr- 25X1X6 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 page 78, para 10, line 6 (omit "three page" in describing the questionnaire) page 78, pare 11, line 5 change this line to read:) Department - which a Japanese source called the Central Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 LI Tang-che -- interpreter (went on all trips with the trainees) CHEN (fnu) -- interpreter (chief interpreter in classrooms) YU Tu-sung -- instructor, specializing in Party organization WAN Sen -- instructor, specializing in CCP history and the Armed Struggle WU Hai-li -- instructor, specializing in the United Front ICO Fa (I Ko-fa?) -- instructor, specializing in peasant reform During a long meeting with an unidentified member of the CCP Central Committee, the trainees also met: YUAN Tu-sang (also known as "LUNA") -- interpreter YANG (fnu) -- a young Chinese who was practicing his Spanish. 12. The CCP offered no material aid to the Latin American CP's. Instead, the students were told that the main CCP effort to assist the Latin American parties would be through courses of the type which the trainees were then attending. The 1959 Course 13. During February and March 1959, representatives of several Latin American CP's traveled to China from 79 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 25X1X6 25X1X6 These CP representatives were called to a meeting with one LI, described as a member of the CCP's Department of Foreign Relations, and other officials. (It is possible that this LI may be identical with the LIU Tan-fu or LI Tan-fu who was identified during the 1958 course for Latin Americans as chief of the CCP liaison department for Latin America). The CCP officials advised the Latin American CP representatives as follows. a. The CCP had decided to prepare a four to six months course for Latin American students. b. The course would be based on the practical experiences of the Chinese Revolution. Its aim would not be to teach general Marxist-Leninist theory, because that can be learned in any country. c. The students should therefore be chosen from among leadership cadres at the national, provincial or municipal level. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 page 80, re-write as follow s Moscow after attending the CPSU's 21st Congress. Fifteen Latin American CP's are believed to have had representatives in China at this time, although Chinese overt announcements listed representatives frcn only 14. While in China, the representatives of about ten of the Iatin American CP's individually asked CCP leaders to make possible the sending of party members to dtudy under CCP direction. (etc. as written on page) Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 page 81, pare 15, re-write as follows: 15. The COP asked the OP representatives how maziy students each party would-send. Most--of the representatives estimated that-three to five trainees would be sent from each CP. At the CCP's request, each CP then presented to the Chinese an air-transportation "budget" which would reflect the cost of travel from the respective countries to Prague, where the trainees would be picked up and flown to China via Moscow. (etc. as written on page) Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-0091 5RU01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 d. The CCP would pay all costs for this training, including air transportation to China. e. The students should arrive in China by July 1959, since the course will begin about 1 August. 25X1X6 Before the Latin American representatives left China, they were given a sum in US currency with which to pay the transportation costs for each proposed student. The amounts varied, but the average was about $700 per student. 16. By June 1959 at least two of the Latin American CP's had selected their trainees for the forthcoming CCP course. Presumably the other CP's involved had done so as well. It is also known that in June one of the selected trainees was preparing reports which he would carry to the CCP. During the visit to China of the Latin American CP representatives, the CCP had requested certain reports from the various CP's and had suggested that the reports be sent to China with the trainees scheduled for the forthcoming course. The CCP requested general reports on the CP's concerned, and on the political situation in those countries. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 E. CCP Short-term Seminars and Courses 1. Several reports have indicated that foreign Communists, while visiting for a short time in China, may attend seminars or special indoctrination courses. These are apparently efforts by the CCP to indoctrinate and train foreign Communists without setting up elaborate or long-term training programs. Possibly this method of training has been utilized by the CCP because of the distance and the difficulties many foreign Communists would encounter in traveling to China for longer periods. 2. In 1956 an indoctrination course was given to foreign CP representatives in China (probably several of those who had come to attend the CCP Congress held in 1956). The "course" consisted of a series of eight conferences, in which were discussed the lessons learned by the Chinese Communists during the course of their rise to power. The individual conferences were on the following subjects: a. the characteristics of China (and of other countries) which affected the development of the Revolution and the Party; b. experiences in clandestine work; c. experiences in rural areas; the agrarian reform; d. experiences in educational work; e. experiences in the armed struggle; guerrilla warfare; Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 f. experiences in building the united front; the campaign for the rectification of the style of Party work; h. experiences regarding the transition to Socialism. 3. Much of the material on which these discussions were based was to be found in the works of MAO Tse-tung and LIU Shao-ch'i. The foreign CP delegates were instructed to read these works carefully and critically, utilizing and developing those aspects which would be applied to their own parties. 4. These conferences illustrate the "practical experiences" which the CCP prefers to teach instead of Marxist-Leninist theory. One of the discussions on clandestine work, for example, concerned the "Bases and Experiences of Legal and Illegal Activity." Under this heading, the foreign CP representatives heard discussions concerning why there is legal activity and illegal activity; legal and illegal activities according to the different historical situations; the differences between legal and illegal activity, and how one is transformed into the other; how an illegal party can utilize legal possibilities; and two points of view on the question of legal and illegal activity. Another discussion provided an example of the application of clandestine tactics in a specific historical situation: CCP experiences in clandestine work in Shanghai. 5. During 1958, several short-term courses were reportedly given to foreign Communists in China. Unlike the 1956 conferences mentioned above, it has not been possible to obtain documentary or firm evidence concerning Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 L these courses. There is no reason to doubt, however, that some courses were arranged by the CCP in order to take advantage of the visits to China by several foreign Communists. Courses reported during 1958 -- all of one to three months duration -- concerned the following subjects: a. agrarian law (presumably land reform measures); b. jurists (meaning of this is not clear, but it may concern how Communists can utilize existing laws to achieve their own purposes); c. leadership and preparation of Communist youth and students (this course was reportedly given to some foreign Communists who had been in Peiping to attend a meeting of the International Union of Students). 6. The most recently reported short-term CCP course for foreign Communists concerns a "leadership" course to be held for some Communist leaders in Peiping following the Seventh World Youth Festival held in Vienna, Austria in July/August 1959. Presumably, some foreign Communists were to travel to China from Vienna following the Festival. 7. The steadily increasing numbers of foreign Commu- nists who are traveling to Communist China will undoubtedly * It is at least possible that this "leadership" course is actually the 1959 course for the Latin American Communists. Information concerning this training to follow the Youth Festival was obtained from a Latin American source. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 page 85 omit Para 2 under F. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 be utilized by the CCP for training and indoctrination purposes. Sometimes this may take the form only of "briefings" by CCP leaders. During the February/March 1959 visit to China of Latin American CP representatives, it is known that CCP leaders, including MAO Tse-tung, briefed the CP representatives on international affairs and on the "liberation struggle" in Latin America. F. Evidence of Other Programs 1. The fact that one of the Latin American trainees at the 1958 CCP course spotted four "Negroes" and two "Hindus" on the grounds of the school compound is the most definitive evidence available that the CCP is training Free World Communists from other, as yet uniden- tified, CP's. 25X1X6 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Releas : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01100170011-9