Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 11, 2016
Document Release Date: 
August 4, 1998
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
March 1, 1955
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6.pdf3.75 MB
Approved For Release 1999/08/24: -02646 Facts about INTERNATIONAL C OMMUNIST FRONT ORGANI-SATIONS Revised Ed March, 195 c) 4:415 5' C"A TEES IS A REPRODUCTION OF A FREE NATION PUBLICATION Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 C 0 NTENTS Page The Organisations 'Defined 3 The World Peace Council 4 The 'World Federation of Trade Unions 10 The World Federation of Democratic Youth 20 The International Union of Students 25 The Women's International Democratic Federation 30 The International Federation of Resistance Fighters 34 The International Association of Democratic Layers 36 The World Federation of Scientific Workers . 40 The World Federation of Teachers' Unions 42 Committee for the Promotion of International Trade 45 The World Congress of Doctors 47 The International Organisation of Journalists 49 The International- Broadcasting Organisation 51 -1- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 APPENDICES I. World Peace Council Page 53 II. World Federation of Trade Unions 56 III. World Federation of Democratic Youth . . . . ....... 59 IV. International Union of Students 61 V. Women's International Democratic Federation 61 VI. International Federation of Resistance Fighters 63 VII. International Association of Democratic Lawyers 64 VIII. World Federation of Scientific Workers ? ? ? . ....... 66 IX. World Federation of Teachers' Unions 67 x. XI. Committee for the Promotion of International Trade 68 World Congress of Doctors 72 XII. International Organisation of Journalists 72 XIII. International Broadcasting Organisation. . . . . 73 XIV. Official Publications of Communist Front Organisations . . 73 XV. Pri,ncipal Communist Front Conferences 75 -2- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 THE ORGANISATIONS DEFINED What are international Communist front oraanisations? They are organisations designed to act as instruments of Communist policy, without overt participation by the Soviet Government, the Com- munist Party of the Soviet Union, or any other Communist parties. They are front organisations in the sense that their real purposes are masked behind a non-political fa9ade of social ideals which are generally ac- ceptable to progressive public opinion. These tactics have been widely adopted and developed by Communists since 1945. The Soviet trade union newspaper, a,a, stated on November 4, 1950: "The Bolshevik Party has had to change its tactics, its methods of combat, to shift from legal forms to illegal ones, to compromise, to make agreements with other parties, other movements, to dodge, to retreat in order to advance more successfUlly later. Lenin teaches the Communist parties skilfully to utilise these diversified tac- tical forms, proceeding from the concrete circumstances of the class struggle in every country, from the concrete situation." In this regard, a typical example. of Lenin's teaching is the follow- ing: "We must be able to withstand all this jbourgeois' oppositiop7, to agree to any sacrifice, and even--if need be--to resort to all sorts of stratagems, manoeuvres, illegal methods, evasions and suberfuges . . " (Len, Left-wing Communism, an Infantile Dik- order page 597, in The Essentials 21: Lenin, English edition, vol. II, Lawrence and Wishart, 1947.) Lenin was here referring particularly to Communist penetration Of the trade unions; but he constantly emphasised that such tactics were of gen- eral application. "Every sacrifice must be made, the greatest obstacles must be overcome, in order to carry on agitation and propaganda systematic- ally, perserveringly, persistently and patiently, precisely in those institutions, societies and associations--even the most reactionary-- to which proletarian or semi-proletarian masses belong." (Led:L=Ang Communism, aa Infantile Disorder, page 596, in Ihg. Essentials pl. Lenin., vol. II, Lawrence and Wishart, 1947.) What are the front oraanisations called? As their names indicate, they are divided into various groups and pro- fessions: 1. The World Peace Council (WPC): -3- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 1-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 2. The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU); 3. The World Federation of Democratic Youth (WPM); 4. The International Union of Students (IUS); 5. The Women's International Democratic Federation OTDF); 6. The International Federation of Resistance Fighters (FIR); 7. The International Federation of Democratic Layers (IADL); 8. The World Federation of Scientific Workers ('SW); 9. The World Federation of Teachers' Unions (FI); 10. The Committee for the Promotion of International Trade (CPIT); 11. The World Congress of Doctors (WCD); 12. The International Organisation of Journalists'(I0J); 13. The International Broadcasting Organisation (OIR). Each of these international bodies has working uhder it a network of national committees covering most parts of the world. These in turn con? trol their affiliated local branches. THE WORLD PEACE COUNCIL The World Peace Council comes first because it it the most universal of the front organisations. It is linked with, and supported by,. the others. What was its origin? Following closely on the formation of the Cominform in September, 1947--the battle?cry of which is "For a Lasting Peace, for a People's Democracy!"--a World Congress of Intellectuals for Pe*ce was organised at Wroclaw, Poland. This set up a continuing organisition called the "International Liaison Committee of Intellectuals." In April, 1949, it called the First World Peace Congress in Paris wheie the "World Committee of Partisans of Peace" was founded. At the Second World Peace Congress, held in Warsaw in November, 1950, thiO committee was renamed the World Peace Council and headquarters were-established in -4- 4 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Paris. When expelled in 1951 it moved to Prague; in 1954 it transferred itself to Vienna. What is the composition of the WPC? The Council consists of 447 members, drawn from all over the world. Although only 80 come from behind the Iron Curtain, the great majority of the rest are Communists or fellow-travellers. New. members are contin- ually added. The Council meets at least once a year, if possible out- side the Iron Curtain, in order to adopt resolutions and launch appeals. The preparation of these, with all the other organisational work, is the task of the Executive Bureau, consisting of 49 merlers (11 of whom are officers). The President, Joliot-Curie, and the General Secretary, Laffitte, are both Communists, as are most of the other officers. (See Appendix 1.) New members of the Council or the Bureau are selected by the Bureau from nominations sent in by the National Peace Committees set up by the WPC in each country. These in turn have, in the major countries, organ- ised a network of subsidiary bodies?factory peace committees, village peace committees, committces for artists, musicians, scientists end so on. How is the WPC ;.inked with other front bodies? The more important organisations, namely the World Federation of Trade Unions, the Wom.en's International Democratic Federation, the International Association of Democratic Lawyers and the World Federa- tion of Scientific Workers, have representatives on the Executive Bureau of the WPC. Two others, the World Federation of Democratic Youth and the International Federation of Resistance Fighters, are represented on the Council. Who really- runs the WPC? A Cominform resolution dated November 29, 1949, contained this di- rective: "The struggle for a stable and lasting peace, for the organi- sation and consolidation of the forces of peace against the forces of war, should now become the pivot of the entire activity of the Communist parties and democratic organisations." * What is its policy? Details of this appeared in the Cominform journal, Ear. I Lasting, Peace, lor a People's Demoeracy:, on December 8, 1950, addressed to the * For "democratic" read "front." ?5? Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 1-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 world Commnnist Press: "It will give 'special attention' to the activities of the various peace committees, publicising and supporting their work. "It will ruthlessly expose the warmongers, the iwgressive foreign policy and reactionary home policy of the United States, the criminal war waged by the United States against Korea and its aggressive adven- tures against the Chinese People's Republic. "It will expose the policy of transforming the United Nations into a tool for carrying out the aggressive plans of American imperialism. "It will depict the strengthening of the democr4tic anti-imperial- ist camp headed by the Soviet Union and the consistent and tenacious struggle of this camp in defence of peace. "It will expose the imperialist propaganda of chauvinism, race hatred and national enmity, isolate the imperialist lormongers End fight for friendship between the peoples of their countrie4 and the peoples of the Soviet Union and the Peoples' Democracies. "It will devote more attention to the growth of -;the National Libera- tion Movement in colonial and dependent countries. "It will realise that all these activities are indissolubly linked with stepping up propaganda of MarxIsm-Ieninism and the tireless strug- gle against reactionary ideology." How is the WPC's policy disuised? By enrolling well-meaning peace-lovers from all Palks of life, the WPC endeavours. (so far without success) to camouflage the Communist hand within the velvet glove of peace. On the occasion of the Peace Congress held in Vienna in December 1952, the Cominform issued;this directive: "The popular movement in defence of peace is non-party demo- cratic movement. . . . Hence, the opportunity arises of extending to the maximum the mass base of the peace movement, of drawing people into it, irrespective of social status, political convictions, religious and philosophical views. . . . While pteparing for the congress, the fighters for peace are, vigorously-and indefatigably, exposing the warmongers, the enemies of mankind. . The peace partisans are carrying to the masses the truth about the genuine peace policy of the Soviet Union and the Peoples Democracies; they are exposing the pharisaical peace camouflage of the Anglo- American aggressors. . . The Communist and demOcratic parties are devoting their cadres, their organising experIence and their newspapers to the task of preparing for the congress." How does the WC work? From its headquarters in Vienna the Secretariat sends "bulletins" and directives to all the National Peace Committees. The Secretariat was in Paris until April, 1951, when it was expelled, for subversive activi- ties. After some years in Prague it moved in 1954 to Vienna, under the protection of the Soviet occupation forces, and to the:great annoyance of ?6? Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78M2646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 the Austrian Government, whose permission had neither been sought nor given. The Minister of the Interior, Herr Graf, protested strongly and added: "A sharp watch will be kept on the World Peace Council, for it has nothing to do with peace. Vienna is becoming more and more firmly established as the headquarters of Cominform organisations plotting to undermine the free West." (Reuter, April 25, 1954.) Regional Groupings. Following a series of organisational resolutions at the Berlin meet- ing of the WPC in February, 1951, three regional organisations were set up. (1) Committee for the Peaceful Solution of the German Problem. This originated from a conference in Paris of Peace Partisans from France, Germany and neighbouring countries. Regular meetings have been held, and it has led the fight against German rearmament, the European Defence Community (EDC), and the London-Paris Agreements. (2) Peace Liaison Committee of the Asian and Pacific Regions. This was launched at an Asian and Pacific Peace Conference held in Peking in October, 1952. It keeps the various Peace Committees of this region in line with Soviet and Chinese policy. In particular it cam- paigns against Japanese rearmament and American "intervention" in Asia. (3) The Nordic Peace Conference. This was held in Oslo in November, 1952, and a permanent Secretariat was set up. It campaigns against NATO and German rearmament. Specialised Bodies. The following directive appeared in the Coninform journal in November, 1949: "Particular attention should be devoted to bringing together into the movement of the supporters of peace the trade unions, women's, youth, co-operative, sports, cultural and educational, religious and other or- ganisations, as well as scientists, writers, journalists, workers in the cultural field, parliamentary leaders who are in favour of peace and against war." In fulfilment of this directive, the Peace Movement broadened its scope by launching many new activities. (1) Culture. In 1951 the WPC set up a Cultural Commission to organ- ise exhibitions, anniversary celebrations and exchange visits. At the same time it encouraged the National Peace Committees to set up a wide variety of committees for artists, writers, and so on. (2) Youth and Sport. It has always taken an interest in youth and sport, co-operating with the World Federation of Democratic Youth in its youth festivals and "World Games," held every two years. (3) Trade. It organised an "International Economic Conference" for ?7? Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 1-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 businessmen in Moscow in April, 1952, which later developed into a new front organisation, the "Committee for the Promotion of International Trade" (see page 45). (4) Doctors. It organised a "World Congress of Doltors" in Vienna in May, 1953. This has also since become a permanent organisation (see page 47). Congresam. The highlight of the WPC's propaganda activities has been the three World Peace Congresses: 1. Paris and Prague, April, 1949. 2. Warsaw, November, 1950. 3. Vienna, December, 1952. At each a large number of delegates (there were 2,000 in Vienna) were assembled at great expense from all over the world to listen to prepared speeches and to pass long resolutions, virtually without discus- sion. For months before and after each congress every,Connunist propa- ganda medium throughout the world gave it first priority. By 1952 the Communist and propagandist nature of the WPC had become obvious and an unsuccessful attempt was made, by means of a specially formed "International Initiating Committee," to disguide the true spon- sorship of the Vienna Congress. A new attempt at camouflage equally unsuccessful, was made in June, 1954, when a smaller gathering was held in Stockholm wider the title "Meeting for the Relaxation of International Tension.": At this plans were laid for an Asian Peace Conference to be held in Delhi in April, 1955. A further congress is planned for Helsinki in May: 1955, under the title "World Peace Assembly." Campaigns. The WPC has launched a series of campaigns, usually lasting many months and involving the world-wide collection of signatures in support of a simple appeal. (1) Stockholm Aupeal. The first, and most famous, appeal was launched at a meeting in Stockholm in March, 1950. It demanded the ban- ning of atonic weapons and millions of signatures were claimed in support. (2) Warsaw Appeal. A second campaign was launched from Warsaw in November, 1950, calling for the immediate convening of a Five-Power Confer- -8- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78L02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 ence to settle current problems, including the Korean War. Though 600 mil- lion signatures were claimed, most of them came from Iron Curtain coun- tries. (3) Germ Warfare. It was the WIC, at its Bureau meeting in Oslo in March, 1952, which launched the notorious "germ warfare" campaign. Aided by the International Association of Democratic Lawyers, the Women's In- ternational Democratic Federation and the World Federation of Scientific Workers, the WPC flooded the world with the grave accusation that the Americans in Korea had committeed terrible atrocities, including the use of bacteriological warfare. No independent confirmation of these charges has ever been produced, and they were finally exposed as a gigantic hoax by returning prisoners of war who admitted signing "confessions" under duress. (4) "Negotiate Now" Campaign. This was launched by the Vienne Con- gress in 1952 and renewed thc appeal for a Five-Power Conference. When negotiations finally took place in Geneva in 1954 the WPC claimed the credit. But in fact they took place because, for the first time, the Russians agreed to meet the West. Finances. No details of the WPC finances are eVer.published, end it seems clear that the considerable expenses which its activities must entail can be met only by large subsidies from Russia, her satellites, and/or China. A World Peace Fund was started in 1951 with the object of attracting money from national organisations, but nothing more has been heard of it. Peace Prizes. The WPC decided in 1949 to award three International Peace Prizes annually worth 16,000 each. Three winners each year have not been an- nounced, but Charlie Chaplin and Shostakovich received them in 1954. These prizes are distinct from the Stalin Peace Prizes, worth t9,000, of which 10 are awarded annually by the Soviet Government. Most members of the WPC Bureau have now been rewarded with one of the latter. Contradictions. While the WPC has taken a leading part in demanding in the West an end to defence preparations, particularly any form of collective security, in Communist countries it exhorts the people to work harder in building up armaments "for the defence of peace." Prace, official journal of the Czechoslovak trade unions, contained this revealing statement on March 28, 1952: . . a strike in a capitalist country is a very effective way of fighting for peace, since it aims at paralysing war production and the transport of arms. But here it is a question of building - ? Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 1-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 up the greatest possible strength in the shortest possible time. . . . To put the arms of outstanding quality which we produce into the hands of the defenders of peace, into the hands ot our People's Army, that is an act of peace." Is the WPC asacifist body? NO. Few genuine pacifists have been deceived by the WPP, which is clearly designed to present Soviet policy, however aggfessive it may be, as "peace-loving". For those who confuse the Communist-run "Peace" Movement with pacifism, however, the Soviet Ministry oi Defence has, in a pamphlet published on March 20, 1954, issued the following timely clar- ificationl "Whilst carrying on a struggle for peace Communisfs are not, however, pacifists who sigh for peace and limit themselves to piopaganda for peace. They consider that in order to remove the inevitabilitf of wars, it is necessary to destroy imperialism. Communists link the cause of peace with the cause of the victory of the proletarian revol4tion, considering that the surest means of doing awny with wars and of eitablishing perma- nent, just peace is the overthrow of the power of the imperialistic bourgeoisie. "The bourgeois-pacifist attitude towards war which i stresses the 'horrors' of -war and inculcates hatred of all wars is alien to us. Com- munists are against imperialistic wars as being counted-revolutionary wars, ITIt they are in favour of liberating, anti-imperialist, revolu- tionary wars." (iht rilitarisQtiorl dg the Count,ries 211 the NorthAtlantic Bloc by V. Cheprakov. THE WORLD FEDERATION OF TRADE UNIONS What does the 'World Federation of Trade Ur4,ons p*port to be? The preamble to its Constitution defines the WFTU jas an internation- al trade union body which purports to "organise and unt:te within its ranks the trade unions of the whole world irrespective iof considerations of race, nationality, religious or political opinion," and to take all necessary measures to promote "the social and economic 14011-being of the workers." Does the WFTU actually represent "the trade unions of to whole world"? It does not. It claims a total membership of 8U.7 million workers in 64 countries. Of this number, however, more than 64.million are at- tributed to Communist countries. Here are the details, all the figures -10- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 being those claimed by the WFTU: USSR ? ? ? ? ? ? 35,000,000 Communist China ? ? ? ? ? ? 11,000,000 Satellite States . . ? ? ? ? 18,400,000 Total ? ? . . ? ? 64,400,000 This means that 80 per, cent, of the WFTU's claimed membership is behind the Iron Curtain. In the non-Communist world, on the other hand, the WFTU claims only 16,000,000 members--a relatively modest total, ex- plained by the fact that the vast majority of the unions in countries not included in the above list belong to the WFTU's non-Communist rival, the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) which has a total membership of 54.6 million in 75 countries. The WFTU's membership claims rear primarily to the countries of the Soviet bloc. To what extent can these claims be taken seriously? To a very limited extent, for four reasons: (i) The unions in question are not trade unions in the generally accepted sense. They are productivity-boosting agencies of the Govern- ment--not protectors of workers' rights--and membership is virtually compulsory, being in most cases a necessary qualification for social insurance benefit. (ii) The WFTU enjoys a complete monopoly behind the Iron Curtain. There is no question of any competition from the ICFTU because it is ruthlessly suppressed. (iii) Under these conditions, the WFTU's membership can be in- creased at will. Thus, even if the figures were accurate, they would mean very little. (iv) In any event, it is impossible to assess their accuracy. The few statistics published are misleading and cannot be checked. How much sumort does the WFTU gommand in countries outside the Soviet bloc? In Western Europe, apart from France and Italy, the WFTU claims only 152,000 members. This figure is only slightly exaggerated, but the WFTU's success is limited in the free world because most of the trade unions are in the hands of Social Democrats who support the ICFTU. -11- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 -6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 In France and Italy, the WFTUIs claims are fantaStic. According to the statistics of elections to factory committees Ithe most reliable check) the actual WFTU membership is: French CGT ? ? 1,250,000 (Figure claimed/ 5,100,000) Italian CGIL ? ? 3,500,000 (Figure claimed 5,000,000) 1 a total of 4,750,000, as compared with the 10,100,000 Iclaimed. The WFTU thus has at most 4,902,000 members in Western Europe, :1,1hereas the ICFTU has 23,476,785 registered members (including 1,000,00q in France and 2,278,897 in Italy). In the British Commonwealth and Empire, the WFTUIclaims 1,331,000 members (800,000 in India) as against the ICFTUis registered member- ship of 4,780,167 (2,162,936 in India). In the Far East, apart from Communist China, the WFTU claims 5,188,000 members (2,260,000 in Indonesia and 1,529,000 in Japan) as against the ICFTU's registered membership of 3,342,271 (none in Indo- nesia and 1,854,860 in Japan). How did the WFTU originate? It was founded on British initiative, despite thd failure of earlier attempts to establish a world-wide trade uniori organisation On November 3, 1943, the General Council of the 4ritish Trades Union Congress (TUC) issued invitations to 71 trade union organisa- tions in 31 countries to appoint delegates to a world trade union conference. This was held in London, in February, 1945. It reas- sembled in Paris in October, 1945, when the draft conatitution was approved and the WFTU came into existence. How is the WFTU organised? There are 14 officers?President, .Secretary-Geneal, and 12 Vice- Presidents. These officers comprise the Executive Buifeau, which is, for all practical purposes, the controlling body. The Executive Committee consists of the Bureau, our Secretaries (see page 57) end 18 other members, together with 36 aubstitutes. The Secretariat, operating from WFTU headquarter d in Vienna, consists of the Secretary-General and the four Secretaries. The latter are in charge of the following departments.; (a) Natidnal centres, Press and Information; (3) Economic and Social; (c) Trade Union Internationals; (d) Colonies End under-developed territories. Co-ordination in various parts of the world is entrusted to a number of Regional Liaison Bureaux. Nominally supreme within the WFTU is the World Tr'ade Union Congress, composed of delegates from all affiliated organisatioris, which meets every four years. -12- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Intermediate between Congress and the executive organs of the WFTU is the General Council, which consists of 93 members and 85 substitutes. From an executive point of view, the relative importance of these various bodies may be inferred from the number of sessions held by each since the WFTU was founded: Executive Bureau ? ? ? ? 26 Executive Committee ? ? 11 General Council . ? ? ? ? 7 Congress . ? ? ? . ? ? 3 Communists in Control. Membership details, already analysed, reveal the overwhelming pre- ponderance of the Communist unions in the WFTU. To-day this is matched by complete Communist control of the organisation, despite the fact that the WFTU was founded as an all-embracing non-political body. How did the Communists Rain control? 1. By demanding, as the price of their initial co-operation, the appoirtment of their nominee to the key position of Secretary-General. This was Louis Saillant (France), a member of the Bureau of the WPC and formerly Secretary-General of the CGT, which is now Communist-dominated. Saillant has always claimed that he is not, and never has been, a Com- munist; but he has never deviated from the strict Party line on any policy issue. 2. By ensuring that the full-time Secretary-General, directing the Secretariat, would control the WFTU organisation, even in opposition to the holder of the honorary position of President. The Western unions nominated the first President, Sir Walter (now Lord) Citrine, who was succeeded in 1947 by Mr. Arthur Deakin. Both wer40 delegates of the British TUC. 3. By filling the salaried posts with Communists or Communist sympathisers. The task was accomplished by Saillant, who early obtained "reliable" assistants. For complete controL, howeVer, it was necessary to capture the elective offices also. How was this done? The foundation was laid by manipulation of membership figures. Here is a description of the process, quoted from an official statement by re- presentatives of the TUC, the American Congress of Industrial Organisa- tions (CIO), and the Confederation of. Free Trade Unions of the Nether- lands (NVV): "The organisations which refused to participate in this first confer- ence, and to adhere to the WFTU in October, 1945, were extremely few in numbr. Caught in the general enthusiasm and in the hope, of establishing mutual confidence, the great experiment began. "However, from the beginning, some uneasiness was felt within -13- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 11-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 those trade union movements with long experience in international col- laboration. It was noted, for example, that a stream of newly-created organisations in economically backward countries, which used to count membership in tens of thousands, were announcing membership figures, which there were no means of checking, in the neighbourhood of a million. These paper figures threatened to submerge those organisations with long experience, well-established reputations, meitberships and tra ditions." (TUC pamphlet, XI= Trade Unions Leave /ha March, 1949). Control of the elective offices of the WFTU was cirried a stage further by Soviet Russia's conquest of the satellite States of Central and Eastern Europe. Soviet domination meant 'Communist capture of the national centres of trade union movements which had previously been either neutral or pro-Western. The process was completed in 1949, when China joined the Soviet bloc. Mr. Arthur Deakin, as President figures to show how control was of the WFTU, gave the following captured: Communist Non-Commlinist Executive Bureau, 1945 4 5 1948 6 3 Executive Committee, 1945 11 11 1948 14 8 General Council, 1945 26 38 1948 34 30 To what extent is Communist control reflected in the Dr sent composition of the Executive Bureau of the WFTU? Of the 14 members of the Bureau, seven are known COmmunists (four of those being from countries in the Soviet bloc); five ari delegates of Communist-controlled unions or splinter-groups; and twoare of unknown or undeclared affiliations. (Names and credentials are listed at Appen- dix II.) When did the free trade unions of the non-Communist worid break away from the WFTU? The break occurred in Paris on January 19, 1949, when, during a meeting of the Executive Bureau of the WFTU, the three non-Communist representatives announced the withdrawal of their respective organisa- tions--viz., the British Trades Union Congress (TUC), the American Congress of Industrial Organisations (CIO) and the Confederation of Free Trade Unions of the Netherlands (NVV). -14- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78.02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Why did the free unions break away? Their decision was explained in the TUC pamphlet, Frce Trade Unions Leave the WFTU. The foreword, signed by James Carey (CIO), Arthur Deakin-T-TU7,?Evert Kupers (NVV), and Vincent Tewson (TUC), stated the main cause of friction: "To those national centres which are Communist-dominated it was im- portant that the Federation should be an instrument for the world-wide dissemination of their propaganda. Many of them had little or no exper- ience of international trade union work and the part which should be played in the essential industrial, social and economic functions of a 'World Trade Union International. Their concentions were determined by political ideology. "On the other hand there were those national centres with a long experience of trade union work in the international field. From exper- ience they demanded that the Federation should be sound structurally and administratively, that it should represent world trade union opinion fairly, and that it should fulfil trade union objectives. Those who struggled for these essentials did so in the face of constant mis- representation and abuse. "It became impossible to continue on the faulty basis end lack of goodwill which we had constantly striven to remedy. "According to our mandate, we sought a recommendation to national centres in favour of a suspension of activities which would give time for wiser counsels to prevail. This also proved to be impossible. "We now direct the attention of the free trade union movements of the world to the facts ctntain_il in this statement and would urge their consideration of their Qyn position in the WFTU. now completely domin- ated by Communist organisations. which are themselves controlled by the Kremlin and the Cominform." After breaking away from the WFTU, the non-communist trade unions formed their own organisation, the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU), which endeavours to restrict itself to trade union activities and to concentrate upon social and economic problems. What was the 'other evidence given by the free trade unions in support of their decision to leave the FTU? The following points were emphasised. ( Page references are to Free Trade Unions Leave the WFTU.) 1. Propaganda. The WFTU's official organ, World Trade Union Move- ment, was misused to promote Communist points of view. "The nations of the Western Hemisphere and their Governments have been presented in the Bulletins as 'war-mongers' and 'servile instruments of the capitalist monopolies and trusts' . . . Never has a word of criticism of Soviet Russia or its leaders been tolerated." (pp. 12-13.) This conduct disre- garded the initial warning by Sir Walter Citrine (TUC). Addressing the -15- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Paris Congress of the WFTU, in October, 1945, he said.: "If once we get into the maze of politics . . . this International will perish. It will split, because the different conceptions of political aspiration, desire, method and policy, are so wide that they would divide !us." 2. Bad Faith. Kuznetsov (USSR) Chairman of thebIll-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, writing in Trud on November 16, 1947, demanded that the WFTU should get rid of its "reformist" leaders. (pp. 8-(1) This was a reference to the principal representatives of tte non-Communist unions, "reformist" being a Communist term of politic#1 abuse. As a member of the Executive Bureau of the WFTU, Kuznetsovwas, in fact, de- manding the dismissal of his own colleagues. 3. International Trade Secretariats. The International Trade Secre- tariats (ITSs) are designed to bring together the workers organisations in different countries according to trades or industries. To ensure that they would preserve their long traditions of indapendence, the TUC supported the demand of the ITSs that they should work with, but not under, the WFTU. But the Comraulists wanted them under complete control. "/,greement was reached in the early stages on the principle of full auton- omy of the ITSs in their special trade activities within the WFTU. In attempting to work out the orecise regulations which would apply, the or- ganisations vitally concerned with this matter found themselves faced with endless negotiations, protracted over a period of three years. Dur- ing this period, the various concessions made by the WFTU fell short of the original understanding. This breach of faith undermined the confi- dence of the ITSs in the WFTU. It must be said clear4r that responsibil- ity for the delay which has occurred, lying as it does at the door of the Soviet trade unions, confirms other evidence that they were not so much concerned with the establishment and operation of the World Feder- ation as a trade union international as they were with its political potentialities." (p.7.) Today the ITSs work in close co-operation with the ICFTU, whilst fully maintaining their autonomy. The WFTU set up rival Trade Depart- ments (or Trade Union Internationals) of its own. 4. Marshall Plan. The "conclusive evidence" that it was impossible to work with the Communist elements in the WFTU was "the concerted aggres- sion of all their forces, directed by the Cominform, since November, 1947, against the 'reformist' trade union organisations which were striving to reconstruct their countries' economy with the aid of the American people." The Marshall Plan was "described by the Communist spokasmen in the Bur- eau as 'a'devilish scheme of Wall Street to enslave the free countries of Europe"--although one of the WFTU's main objects was Ito make the full- est contribution to the economic recovery of the war-stricken countries.? The Communist delegates "did not hide their hostility *) the Marshall Plan" and their propaganda "left no doubt about the manner in which they were to fight and sabotage every effort that would be ,Made in Europe to -16- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 relieve the distress of the people and put their countries on a sound ec- onomic basis." (pp. 10-11) Does ITTU propaganda show definite bias in favour of Marxist ideology and Soviet policy? As regards ideology, every effort is made to avoid explicit state- ments--but not always successfully. The words "Communist" and "Commun- ism" are never used; but the concept of class war, for example often ap- pears in a modified form, designed to make a special appeal to Social Democrats. In April, 1953, for example, the Executive Bureau declared: "W speak different languages, but we have common interests, for we are class brothers." As regards Soviet policy in general, the WFTU's approval and admir- ation have been frequently expressed. The following are typical quota- tions from the official handbook, Report of Activity of the World Feder- ation of Trade Unions, tka, 1949?August, 1953. (Page references are to the Annexes.) 1. An undated resolution on national trade union centres' reports, apparently adopted by the Executive Bureau at Peking, November 11-14, 1949, advises "the working people of the Asian countries," striving for "genuine national independence," to follow the lead of "the historic ex- perience of Socialist construction in the National Republics of the Soviet Union, the remarkable success of the national liberation struggle and democratic construction in China, Northern Korea and in the Mongol- ian People's Republic." (p. 61.) 2. An "appeal to the latin-American proletariat," issued by the WFTU's South American Trade Union Conference, March-April, 1950, states that "the policy of the lackeys of American imperialism . . . will be defeated in the cnd if the proletariat unites and organises . . . en- couraged by the glorious example oi the workers of the USSR, China and Eastern Europe, already freed from imperialism, if the proletariat knows how to unite at each work-place, in each country, and on the continent as a whole, while strengthening its links with the invincible WFTU." (p. 82) 3. A resolution "on the fight for peace and against the remilitar- isation of Germany and Japan," adopted by the Executive Bureau at Vienna, July 2-6, 1951, "records the fact that the bloc of imperialist States is intensifying and speeding up its preparations for another World war . . . Government circles in the United States, Britain and France have sabot- aged the calling of a conference of Foreign Ministers of the four Great Powers . . In the front ranks of the peace movement are the peoples of the Soviet Union, the Peoples' Democracies, and the Chinese People's Republic . . ." (pp. 168-169.) -17- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 1-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 4. A resolution "on the decisions of the World_Corigress of the Peo- ples for Peace Lthe 1952 Vienna Congress of the wg/ and the role of the trade unions in their application," adopted by the Exedutive Committee at Vienna, February 28, 1953, "acclaims the continuous action of the peoples oL the Soviet Union, Peeple's China, the German Democratic Republic LSoviet Zone of Germany/ and the Peoples' Democracies for the maintenance of world peace and for friendship between the peoples." (p. 226.) What further evidence is derived from the.WFTU's activities? On January 26, 1951, the French Ministry of the Interior ordbred the disbolution of the Paris headquarters of three Communidt front organise- tions--the WFTU, the World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY) and the Women's International Democratic Federation (WIDF). The WFTU headquarters were then transferred to the Soviet sector of Vienna. According to the London Times of January 27, 19511 "The order was issued in accordance with a decree law of 1939 empow- ering the Minister of the Interior to withdraw authoridation for the ex- istence of all foreign organisations if he judged it nOcessary. A for- eign organisation is described in the law as one whicheither has its heedouarters abroad, or, having headquarters in France, is in fact con- trolled by foreigners. "It is officially stated that the three organisations concerned nave carried out activities in complete contradiction of the aims stated in their statutes. They have been prominent indtruments of Communist 'peace' propaganda and have been used as infOrmation services of the Cominform. Although the precise nature of thei# fifth column activity has not been revealed, this seems to have become more promin- ent in the last three months." What are the nrincipal working organisations of tha WFTU by means of which its policies are implemented? They are: 1. Affiliated unions and national centres. As mentioned above, these exist in 64 countries, 2. The Regional Liaison Bureaux: There is one fOr Asia and Austral- asia- in Pekingi and the Communist-dominated. Latin Amekican Confederation of Labour (CTAL) in Mexico has been recognised by the WFTU as the Liaison Bureau for Latin America. Two more have been proposed (for Africa and for the Middle East) but are not yet working. The fun4tions of these bureaux are to recruit memTmrs, to wage propaganda, en 4 generally to pro- mote close contact between the WFTU and the trade uniois of the "colonial and dependent" countries. -18- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 3. --b?aaa-Al2-Teatr- (TU1s). These are intended to provide international links between work- ers in particular industries, and thus to act as the WFTU's counter to the International Trade Secretariats ( ITSs), which aro associated with the ICFTU. The full list of the 11 existing Trade Departments is given in Ap- pendix II. A new one (called the "Public and Allied Employees TUI") is due to be inaugurated at a conference in Vienna in April, 1955. This will broaden the existing Trade Department for postal, telegraph, tele- phone, radio and television workers, by adding "municipal, hospital, Civil Service and all allied workers," and the new TUI will then have almost the status of a "professional" Trade Department, which at present only the Teachers (VISE) can claim. VISE is dealth with in a separate section, because it is so different from the other TUIs (see page 42.) The other Trade Departments all deal with particular industries. The most important is that of the Transport Workers, with its Vienna headquarters. That of the Metal and Engineering Workers, also based on Vienna, demands attention because it has many connections with the armaments industry, particularly in France and Italy. The Miners' TUI is also important in France, and the recently reoraanised TUI for Chemical, Oil and Glassware Workers (Budapest) ha a obvious potential- ities. The Agricultural and Forestry Workers' TUT, which works from Some, is especially Concerned with under-developed countries. What tasks are entrusted by the IrIFTU to ihe TUIs? These were laid down as follows in a resolution adopted at the Budapest meeting of the TUIs, in May, 1950: To approach trade unions outside the WFTU and to recruit their de- fecting rank-and-file members. To devote greater attention to propaganda fgr the campaign of the (Communist-controlled) World Peace Council, and arainst "imperialist war preparations, aided by renegade trade union. leaders." This programme closely followed. the Oominform resolution of Novem- ber, 1949, which emphasised the importance of "drawing unorganised workers into the trade unions and into the active struggle for peace." According to the WFTU's official Report gf Activity, already cited, the TUIs are to focus their work on "a constant struggle towards inter- national unity on the occupational level". They have "exposed, and con- tinue to expose, the consequences of rearmament on wages and the standard of living . . . "The TUIs from their inception have done tireless work against the -19- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 1-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 worsening of the living and working conditions of the working peoples, who have been hard hit by the consequences of 'American aid,' rearma- ment, the Atlantic Pact, the Marshall Plan, the Schuman Plan, Truman's Point IV, etc." Within the WFTU framework, the activity of the TUI0 "has been di- rected against the specific aspects of imperialism's policy of enslave- ment and war--the Marshall Plan, the Schuman Plan, the transport and agricultural pools . . . "Great help has been giwn in developing the activity of the TUIs by the national grade union/ centres of the Peeples' Democracies, the USSR, Italy, China and France.." (Report, main text, pp. 019, 121, 123, 130.) TEE WORLD FEDERATION OF DEMOCRATIC YOUT How did the WFDY originate, and why did it lose thi support of the non-Communist organisations? The WFDY was founded in November, 1945, at the Worla Youth Conference in London convened by the Communist-controlled World YouP1 Council. It was widely supported at first, because it claimed to be tion-political and because it aspired to be all-embracing. cies: 1'1;r fll; =tolo'sl-tb; itlieltel-MInttbM:TeirlTgeriThert- ceeded to form their own organisation, the World Assemblir of Youth (WAY). A further disruption occurred in January, 1950, when (following Tito's break with the Cominform) the Executive Committee of the expelled the Yugoslav "People's Youth" organisation. The executive resolution described the Yugoslav youth leaders as "traitors to the cause of /peace and democracy, and deserters into the camp of the imperialist warmonger." , These strictures echoed the Moscow broadcasts to mak International Youth Day on November 10, 1949. One radio commentator spoke of "the criminal Tito clique striving to educate Yugoslav youth in the spirit of Fascist ideology" and thus "serving the interests of he American imperialists." Another commentator spoke of "Judas Tito ,and his agents," who were training young Yugoslays in a spirit of "hatred for the USSR, the Peoples' Democracies and the democratic youth movement throughout the world." What are the avowed aims of the WFDY? As set forth in its Constitution, these are admirable. Indeed, they -20- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 might seem appropriate to any organisation claiming to further the inter- ests of youth on an international scale. The WFDY's avowed aims include the promotion of: International understanding and co-operation; freedom of speech, press, religion and assembly; rights of youth, especially in re- gard to standards of living and conditions of employment. The general objective is stated to be co-operation in economic, edu- cational, cultural and social activities. What arc the real aims of the WFDY? As demonstrated in practice, these are almost entirely political and consistently pro-Communist. The following immediate tasks were mentioned in a Manifesto to the "Young People of All Countries" issued by the WFDY's Budapest Congress in September, 1949: Condemnation of the war-like preparations of big capitalists, headed by the American imperialists. Attacks on the Marshall Plan end the North Ptlantic Treaty. Allegations of the violation of democratic freedom in all countries oppressed by the imperialists, including the United States. A call to youth organisations to "render utmost support to the young democrats of India, Viet-Nam, Burma, Malaya, Indonesia and other colon- ial and dependent countries in the struggle for peace and the indepen- dence of their peoples." An appeal to youth to support the "invincible army" of peace parti- sans, "headed by the mighty Soviet Union, which made a decisive contribu- tien to the defeat of Fascism." A call .for unity of international youth within the WFDY, and a con- demnation of the forces seeking to split this unity. The Soviet delegate to the congress, Mikhailov, explained that the "splitters" were the Catholic students' organisations, the International Union of Socialist Youth (IUSY), and the newly-formed WAY--in fact, all the non-Communist bodies. Thus the WFDY's attitude towards WAY corres- ponds exactly to that of the WFTU towards the ICFTU. To what extent is it_possible to verify the membershio claims of the WFDY? These are almost certainly inflated, but no direct check is possible. This is largely due to the Soviet bloc's unwillingness to disclose the -21- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 necessary statistics. The WFDY admits any youth organisation, national or international, if two-thirds of its members are under 30 years of ate. Evidently the term "youth" is loosely interpreted. In 1945, following its foundation conference, the WFDY claimed a total affiliated membership of 30 million. In 1950, despite the resigna- tions of the non-Communist organisations, the claim had risen by more than 100 per cent. to 70 million in 74 countries. SUbsequent claims were: August, 1951: 72 million in 84 countritia February, 1953: 75 " 87 " ' 1953: 83 July, to 90 November, 1953: 83 92 August, 1954: 85 97 II But the WFDY has a relatively small membership in the non-Commun- ist countries, which all belong to WAY. The bulk of the WFDY' s claimed membership is from the Soviet 1212a, as the following afficial announce- ments prove: Shelepin, Secretary of the Central Comnittee of the Komsomol: "Dur- ing the period under review, the Komsomol 2Soviet Youth organisation/ has increased two-fold and by March 1, 1954, it had in ita ranks 18,825,327 people united in 431,000 primary organisations" (Pratda, March 20, 1954). Mikhailov, addressing the 19th Congress of the COmmunist Party of the Soviet Union, in October, 1952, said that 19 million school-children were members of the Pioneer organisations. The Ltx China News AaencV stat6d on May 5, 1954, that the All-China New Democratic Youth League numbered 12 million. On 4une 2, 1954 the same agency reported that Communist China's Young Pioneers numbered eight million. These figures total more than 57,800,000. They do not include the other bodies affiliated to the WFDY--e.g., the youth organisations in the European satellites end the various subsidiary organisations in Communist China (of which there are 108). It is safe to assert, therefore, that the Soviet Wag. as a whole accounts for more than 60 million (or 70 per cent.) ofj/DFY's claimed membership of 85 million. So much for the WFDY's pretance to be fully representative of youth on a world-wide basis. WFDY oreamised. is the focal conte of Communifl control? There are four statutory bodies. Nominally the highest is the Con- -22- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 grass, which consists of national delegations representing all affiliated organisations. So far, it has met only twice since the founding session in 1945. The Council is composed of one representative from each affiliated organisation, with a maximum of eight from any one country. It meets every year, usually behind the Iron Curtain. Communist Executive Power. The Executive Committee, elected from the Council, consists of 23 officials (the President, the Secretary-General, seven Vice-Presidents, 13 Secretaries, and the Treasurer) and 23 ordinary members. Of these 46, 16 are either known Communists or representatives of Soviet bloc countries. (Fames and credentials of the officials will be found at Appendix III.) The Executive Committee meets once or twice a year to transact business end to issue statements and resolutions, mainly on political issues. The Secretariat of the WFDY is in Budapest. In 1951 it was ex- pelled from Paris for subversive activities, together with two other front organisations--the WFTU and the Women's International Democratic Federation (WIDF). In what manner does the UFDY express Soviet Communist policy and Droner:An- d.0 The WFDY pursues its real aims by working in close co-operation with other Communist front organisations. This is a deliberate policy, openly proclaimed in 1950, when the WFDY's official bulletin, World Youth, stated: "The democratic youth of the world are confident that the American imperialists will not be able to start a war if the peoples of the world unite in one front against the warmongers and if they rally to the banners of the World Federation of Trade Unions, the Women's International Demo- cratic Federation and the World Federation of Democratic Youth." Supeort for "Peace". Similarly, the WFDY has taken part in many joint activities with the Communist-dominated World Peace Council. According to the Cominform jour- nal of June 9, 1950: "The MFDY cnd the organizations affiliated to it more and more per- sistently place the struggle for peace in the forefront of their activities, pointing out to youth that, in view of the criminal manifestations of the warmongers, the struggle for democracy, for the national independence of peoples, for a bettor life, is bound up with the struggle for peace." -23- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 An Executive Committee resolution, passed at the Oslo meeting in July, 1952, declared that it was the "duty of the young generation actively to participate in the struggle to attain tte aims set forth by the World Peace Council." The WFDY has obeyed the injunction. The policy discussions of its Council have been frequently devoted to the campaigns of the WPC. Its Congress resolutions have followed similar lines. ' Festivals The WFDY's closest links, however, have been with the International Union of Students, the latter being an associate meMber of the former. Together they have organised many special activitie40 such as confer- ences on a regional basis (e.g., the South-east Asian Youth Conference at Calcutta in 1948), annual "world youth days" and "world youth weeks", and, above all, the elaborately publicised Festivali, of Youth and Stu- dents. All four festivals have been held behind the't Iron Curtain. The fifth will be in Warsaw in August, 1955. The festivals are the greatest of the WFDY's undertakings. In each case the programme includes tableaux, concerts, folk dancing, discussion groups, cultural competitions, sports events, and torchlight processions. In keeping with the policy of "united action," Which is now common to all Communist front organisations, the WFDY sparep no effort in per- suading non-Communists to attend. Outside the Soviet bloc, all arrange- ments are in the hands of national "youth festival committees," which try to conceal the connection with the WFDY and the IDS?or with the Communist Party. Anti-Colonial Campaigp. At the South-east Asian Youth Conference in Callutta in February, 1948, organised jointly by the WFD/ and the IUS, Febtuary 21 was chosen to be celebrated annually as the "International Day qf Solidarity with Youth and Students Fighting Against Colonisation." Each year appeals are issued and demonstrations organised in support of that, "oppressed" youth of colonial countries. What is the true ourpose of the WFDY's activities? Apart from the indoctrination of young people on Soviet-Communist lines, the main object is to recruit future members of the Communist Par- ty. This was clearly stated in the Cominform journal of Mr_rch 28, 19521 "Working youth constitutes that inexhaustible reserve which replen- ishes the ranks of the Communist and Workers' parties; The Communist and Workers' parties demand from all their organisations and from each Party member more work among youth." -24- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 But work to what end? Jacques Denis, French Communist Secretary- General of the WFDY, stated at Bucharest in 1951: "The sixth anniversary of the WFDY will be celebrated with an even more powerful intensification of the struggle to overthrow the aggressive plans of the Anglo-American imperialists." THE INTERNATIONAL UNION OF STUDENTS What does the International Union of Students claim to be? It claims to be what it was originally intended to be, in accordance with its Constitution--i.e., "the representative organisation of the dem- ocratic students of the whole world who work for progress." Its avowed aims include the following: "To secure for all young people the right and possibility of prim- ary, secondary and higher education, regardless of sex, economic circum, stances, social standing, political conviction, religion, colour or race. "To promote among students . . . the love of freedom and democracy. "To provide the means of co-operation between actively democratic, nationally representative student organisations. "To assist the students of colonial, semi-colonial and dependent countries to attain their full social, economic and educational develop- ment: to this end to render to the students and peoples of these coun- tries all possible assistance in their struggle for freedom and inde- pendence." To organise international student congresses, travel and exchange, relief work, and sport, and to extend "financial and other assistance to such non-partisan, non-sectional, fully representative student organ- isations as are in need of it." (INS Constitution, Sections III and IV.) The INS Constitution rightly emphasises the need for a truly repre- sentative organisation, composed of representative bodies. To what extend does the INS truly represent "the democratic students of the whole world"? It represents the Soviet bloc end little else. Hembership claims. Following are the details of membership claimed: -25- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 -6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 1946: 1,500,000 students of 1948: 3,000,000 " 1950: 5,000,000 n 1952: 5,250,000 n 1953: 6,000,000 n 43 unions in 38 countries 59 tt 55 tI, 85 " 71 86 " 72 86 " 72 At the Council meeting in August, 1954, the Secretary-General only claimed "over five million" members. Only 48 unions frail 46 countries were represented by full delegates. But another 78 organisations sent observers. Against these claims must be set the fact that, since 1947, many student unions of non-Communist countries have left the ICS in protest against its policies--e.g., its refusal to oppose the persecution of non-Communist students after the Czech putsch, and its expulsion of the Yugoslav delegates after Titols dispute with the Cominform. To-day there remain as full members of the IUS only four student unions outside the Soviet orbit which could be describeoras national and representative. They are from: Bolivia, Burma, Finland; and Japan. Finland is anxious to change to "associate membership." Fourteen Disaffiliations. The following 14 have disaffiliated or have reversed previous decis- ions to affiliate: Switzerland, Netherlands, Denmark; Israel, Sweden, jlorway; Canada, United States, France, Australia, New Zealand, Scotland; Brazil and South Africa. The National Union of Students of England, Wales and Northern Ireland (generally known as the British NUS) has refused to continue full member- ship. The non-Communist unions, having resigned from theJUS, are reunited in their own organisation, the Co-ordinating Secretariat of National Un- ions of Students (COSEC). Apart from the exceptions al*eady noted, COSEC speaks for all the fully representative student organisations out- side the SoViet bloc (including those who maintain assoCiate membership with the IUS). By what method does the IUS seelt to convey the impressiCn that it is still pupported by many non-Communist student unions? In additicn to the "unity" campaign which is not characteristic of all Communist-controlled international organisations, the method is to falsify the status and credentials of delegates. At the Warsaw Congress of the IUS, August 27-September 3, 1953, for example, the British NUS was -26- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 represented by three official observers. They reported as follows: "The Contrast between what the IUS said the composition of the Con- gress was going to be and what in actual fact it was, is very marked. . . The IUS lists organiaations in 68 countries as members of the IUS; those from the following countries only could be said to be nationally renre- sentative: "Albania, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Burma, Communist China, Czecho- slovakia, Ecuador, Finland, Gold Coast, Germany (Soviet Zone), Guatemala, Hungary, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, Mongolia, Nepal, Panama, Poland, Rumania, USSR." In all, about 21 unions, 11 of them from Communist countries. "The IUS leaders must now realise the extend to which they have lost support outside the areas of Communist influence. This probably accounts for the general invitation they extended to all student organisations, 'members and non-members of IUS' to participate in the Congress and there- by conceal the partisan character of its actual membership. . . . The IUS claimed, and the East European press and radio tried to give the im- pression, that 'the Parliament of the Students of the World' had assem- bled in Warsaw. We believe this claim to be quite unjustifiable." (Third, World Student Congress a IUS.--Report of the Official Obser- vers of the British NUS, September , 1953.) Associate membership. The British National Union of Students, together with the student unions of Israel and South Africa, agreed in 1954, after considerable hesi- tation, to accept "associate membership" of the IUS for the purpose of co-operation in cultural, sporting and travel activities only. In this capacity they sent observers to the 1954 Council meeting in Moscow. No change in tactics. According to the NUS report of this meeting (Manchester Guardian, November 1, 1954), the tactics of the IUS in 1954 have not changed: their membership claims are still false. Of the 46 countries which sent delegates to the Council only 18 were nationally representative, and this gave the benefit of the doubt to Bolivia and Burma. Apart from the 18, all the others represented minority groups. Of the 50 countries which sent observers, only 16 were nationally representative. Most of the five million students claimed came from the Soviet Union or China. The lat- ter claimed nearly three and a-half million members. Bower thus rests firmly in Communist hands. The report also critised the lack of information about the IUS 's finances, over which the delegates had absolutely no control. Speaking of the hoped-for change of line in the IUS, the report regretted that: ". . . It requires an apparent change of international policy on -27- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 1-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 the part of the USSR before the. IUS will change its own tactics. . . . The Council leaves no doubt that basically the IU has not changed, that the one-sided partisan political nature of tile ITS remains." The only difference was that it was now more subtle in its ways. How is the ITS ed and controlled? The organisation is such that control remains comjletely in the hands of Communists. Nominally the highest statutory body is the World Students' Congress. It has met only twice since the foundation congress ofithe ITS in 1946. Between congresses, executive authority is supposfd to be exercised by the Council, which meets at least once a year. So tar, like the Con- gress, it has always net behind the Iron Curtain. The Council elects the Executive Committee, consiiting of a Presi- dent, Secretary-General, Treasurer, and four Vice-Prenldents, together with six Secretaries and eight ordinary members. Prague Headeuarters. In practice, the work of thc ITS is done by the officers from the Secretariat in Prague. (Names and credentials will belfound at Appendix IV.) Theoretically independent, but in fact a departmett of the IUS, is the "Bureau of Students Fighting Against Colonialism." i One of its main tasks is to -raise "solidarity funds" to enable colonial students to study in the USSR and in the satellite countries and tt attend ITS func- tions. A similar status is enjoyed by International Student Relief, the IUS rump of. World Student Belief (TSR), founded in 1946. Pie growing polit- ical partisanship of WSR compelled the non-Communist *dents to resign in 1950, when they formed their own organisation, the liorld University Service. In what ways does the ITS co-operate with other Communist front ormnisa- tions? The ITS collaborates closely with the World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY), of which it is an "autonomous associate tember" with a place in the Executive Committee. The greatest joint efforts of the ITS and the WFDY are the mass "Festivals of Youth and Students" (See under WFDY above.) The official ITS periodical, Mbrld Student News, gives ample publi- city to the campaign of the Communist-controlled World Peace Council, -28- Approved For Release 1999108124: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 printing its resolutions in full and reporting its conferences in special supplerwnts. In addition, Kula Student News devotes considerable space not only to the WFDY but also to other front organisations?particularly the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) and the Women's International Democratic Federation (WIDF). Now are Communist nolicies reflected in the ',propaganda of the INS? The standard INS line is to glorify students conditions in Soviet bloc countries end to "expose" the contrasted situation in capitalist and colonial countries. In 1950, for example, the IFS published a special pamphlet, U.S. Education in Crisis, alleging that "the depressed state of education" was "clearly similar to the general economic crisis in the United States as a. whole, for which the banks and monopolies seek war as their only solution." "21 Unforgettable Days." This pamphlet was followed by another, Twenty-ono Unforgettable Days iu the Soviet =nu, eulogising "that true democracy in schools and universities" which was described as "already a living reality in the USSR," nn 6 declaring that "the life and conditions of the Soviet youth and. students, proud of the leading role of their country in the world struggle for peace, help to show the way to a brighter future for all student youth." Another IUS pamphlet, Colonial Education, attacked the Western powers, especially Britain, for "oppressing" colonial peoples and "denying" them education. Yet another, by contrast, hailed the rebels of countries like Greece, Burma and Indonesia?and_ the students assisting them?as fighters seeking "to prevent their countries from becoming military bases in a world war, which the warmongers try strenuously to foment." This being the general theme, it is hardly surprising if the INS has echoed the Cominform on such topics as United Nations action in Korea, "peaceful co-existence," germ warfare allegations, anti-colonialism (ir- respective of progress towards self-government) and reduction of Arma- ments (in the West only). The IUS leaders, taking their cue from the WFTU, have denounced the non-Communist organisations as "splitters of unity." In fact, the unity of the IUS was wrecked by statements such as the following, made by Shelepin (USSR), then a Vice-President of the DS, addressing the Prague Congress in 1950: "The Anglo-American imperialists, in order to achieve world domina- tion, to prolong their existence and further their enrichment, are prepar- ing to unleash a new bloody shambles, especially against the Soviet Union and the Peoples' Democracies." -29- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 -6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 THE WOMEN'S INTERNAZPNAL DEMOCRATIC FEDERAT;ON How did this organigation originate. and by whom is it controlled? The WIDF was founded in November, 1945, at a confernce in Paris, on the initiative of the Communist-controlled Union ft-A: FeMmes Fran9aises. Delegates from 40 countries attended, but most were from organisations un, der Communist influence or domination. Unlike other Communist front organisations--the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU), the International Union of Students (IUs), and the World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY)--the WIDF his not been dis- rupted by resignations. This is because non-Communist bodies have never been affiliated. 1hat is the framework of the ? Nominally the highest statutory authority in the WXDF is its Con- gress. So far it has not onlY twice since the foundatiOn conference in 1945, and its main function is to approve - -without criticism-the mea- sures taken by the Executive Committee. National organisations are represented on the Council, which has met only five times so far, although it is supposed to meet annually. Each country represented on the Council selects one representative to act with the others in electing the Executive Committee. Executive Bureau Supreme. The Executive Bureau is in practice supreme. It eonsists of 18 mem, beTs--s President, a Secretary-General, her deputy, and 15 Vice-Presidents. All the members of the Executive Bureau are either Communists or Commun- ist sympathisers. The avowed Communists include Mme. Valliant-Couturier, who was Secretary-General until late 1954, when she became a Vice-Presi- dent; and Galina Goroshkova, the Russian Deputy Secretary-General. Four of the officers from countries outside the Soviet tIna-are not only men- hers of the Communist-controlled World Peace Council, but also Stalin Peace Prize winners. These include the President. (Names and credentials of the officers will be found at Appendix V.) To what extent cap its membershin claims be verified? ? As in the case of many front organisations, it is almost impossible to assess the true significance of the enormous figures claimed. In 1945, the year of its foundation, the WIDF announced a total mem- bership of 80 million; in 1951 the claim was 91 millien; in February, 1954, it was 140 million. The number of countries has not always been reported, but in 1954 it was given as 65. -30- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Even assuming the 140 million claim to be substantiated?which it never has been, in terms of verifiable affiliated membership?it is clear that the bulk of the total is derived from the Soviet bloc. France and Italy are the only Western countries where the WIDF has any strength. What are the avowed aims of the WIDF? According to the Charter of the WIDF, its aims are, to all appear- ances, so broad and non-partisan as to be unexceptionable. They include: (1) World-wide co-ordination of women's democratic organisations. (2) International cooperation in the political, economic and cultural fields, in the interests of world peace. (3) Equal rights for women, with special reference to equal pay. (4) Safeguarding of public health, especially in regard to children's welfare. These are recognised feminist objectives, which could be achieved by support of the existing non-political organisations such as the Interna- tional Council of Women and the International Alliance of Women. But the real motive of the WIDF leadership is the furtherance of Communist poli- cies. How are Soviet-Communist policies reflected in the activities of the WIDF? The WIDF works in close co-opus:ation with other Communist front organ- isations. In 1949, for example, it sponsored the first World Peace Con- gress (Paris and Prague), working with the Communist-controlled "Inter- national Liaison Committee of Intellectuals for Peace." In April, 1952, in Vienna, it held an International Conference for the Defence of Chil- dren, the original co-sponsor being the WFDY. In July, 1952, the Execu- tive Committee of the WIDF, meeting in Bucharest, appealed for closer collaboration with the WFTU and also for the support of all women for the Vienna Congress of the World Peace Council, held in December, 1952. Eubbort for "Peace" Campaign. The WIDF gives first priority to the campaigns of the WPC. This is now characteristic of most front organisations; but the Communists attach particular importance to the emotional appeal to women. As the Cominform journal stated on March 19, 19511 "Women comprise one-half of mankind, and in the international organ- ised peace front they are a powerful force . . . The success of the world- wide movement for peace depends, in greet measure, on the active partici- pation of women." -31- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 1-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Again, on March 7, 1952, the Cominform journal reVealed the Party line on the combined activities of the WIDF and the Wit: "The_Communist and Workers' parties in all countries highly eval- uate &ie./ the militant activity of women and their selfless struggle for peace, end in the future will do everything to farther the struggle to foil the machinations of the warmongers and to draw all women into the Pcace Movement." Commission to Korea. The WIDF has shown special interest in Korea. As in the case of colonial issues, its views have been indistinguishable from the Communist Party line. In Decenber, 1951, for example, the Executive Committee urged all national organisations to "expose the attempts of the American aggressors and their henchmen to conceal, behind hypocritical talk about peace, their criminal actions aimed at unleashing another war." This initiative resulted from the visit to North korea by a women's commission of 22, in May, 1951, "to acquaint itself with the atrocities committed by the aggressors." The commission was ostehsibly non-partisan, as the British and Danish members did not belong to th:i WIDF; but the visit was at the invitation of the North Korean Miniss*y of Culture and Propaganda. 4 report was sent by the commission to all governitients, to the news- papers, and to many women's organisations. It also fotmed the basis of a protest by the WIDF to the United Nations. "Germ 'Warfare" Campaign. In 1952, the WIDF played a prominent part in the !'germ warfare" cam- paign, following allegations by Mrs. Monica Felton--no e a Vice-President of the WIDF, President of the British National Assemblk of Women, and a Stalin Peace Prize winner The Secretary-General (at that time a French Corvianist) published an open letter to the women of America, protesting on bohelf of the WIDF against the "atrocities" in Korea. She accused the United States Forces of "deliberately spreading deadly diseases among the Korean and Chinese peoples." She did not mention the fact that the Communists had never permitted a neutral commission to investigate the germ warfare allegations. Nor did she point out that the only "investigations" allowed were by the In- ternational Association of Democratic Lawyers, the WPC and the WIDF? all of than Communist front organisations. -32- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 In 1951 a subsidiary to the WIDF was sot up, called the "Internation? al Committee for the 'Defence of the Rightn of Children." After some dif? ficulties, this committee organised, on behalf of the WIDF, an "Inter? national Conference for the Defence of Children" in Vienna in April, 1952. A similar gathering is planned for the summer of 1955, also in Europe. It will be called "Conference of Mothers for the Defence of their Child? ren." As with the 1952 conference, the main purpose will be to make pro? paganda against the West. The themes will be the suffering of children in Korea, Indo?China, Malaya, Kenya, etc., due to the ravages of the "imperialist aggressors"; the lowering of children's living standards (in the West only) owing to the burden of "war preparations"; and the neglect of children. in the "dependent and semi?dependent" countries, due to "colonial exploitation." The moral? End wars, war preparations (in the West only) and "colonialism." What is the true significance of Internationa Women's Dy? The WIDF makes a special feature of its annual celebrations of In? ternational Women's Day, .on March 8, and Comunist leaders generally make propaganda statements to mark the occasion, although Women's Day was instituted by Socialists, not Communists. A typical example is the manifesto of March 8, 1952, issued by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union: "International Women's Day is observed by working women of the whole world under the slogan of increased struggles for peace, against the war which is being prepared by the Anglo?American imperialists . . Working women of all countries demand the prohibition of the atomic weapon, a reduction in armaments, the conclusion of a Peace Pact. They protest against the bloody aggression of A-erican imperialists in Korea." Recruiting for Communist Partv. In Britain, most of the organisational work for the WIDF and for the International Women's Day celebrations is done by the National Assembly of Women, a subsidiary front organisation with more than 200 local commit? tees. Most of the delegates to the Assembly's congresses of 1953 and 1954 were non?Communists, genuinely interested in world peace and women's rights. They would have been astonished to learn that they were regarded as poten? tial recruits for the Communist Party. But this was revealed by the Com? munist journal World News and Views on March 22, 1953. Referring to the National Assembly of women, it stated: "The rising movement among the women demonstrates that for our women cadres nothing can be more important then to become mass leaders of the women; that we need to pay special attention to these comrades and help them to develop, and that not only do we need many more women mem? bers, but that they are there for the asking, fresh militant fighters who are already playing an active part in the movement and who must and can be won for membership of the Communist Party." -33- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 1-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RESISTANCE tIGFTERS The Internationa Fed'r tion ? Re ist t e h crc. of Victim and Prisoners of Faacism FIR was founded in Vitnna in June, 1951. to broaden the base of g previous organisaiion, the Inter- national Federation of Former Polltical Prisonera (FIAPP)4 which had been inaugurated in Warsaw in February.; 1946. The total membership claimed by the FIAPP in Jung, 1950, was 10 mil- lion in 17 countries together with Trieste and the "glvornments in exile" of " Free Greece" and "Republican Spain." Nine of these countries are of the Soviet bloc: Albania, Belo-Russia, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia!, Soviet Zone of Germany, Poland, Rumania, the Ukraine and the USSR. The remaining members consist of groups which are'l either Communist or Communist-controlled. They are from: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Nether- lands, and Norway. Yugoslavia was expelled in April, 1950. By the definition "victims Fascism" membership is confined to Europe. Organisation and Activititg. Headquarters of FIR 6re in Vienna, hav- ing moved from Warsaw in June, 1952. Details of the organisational structure are lacking, but it is known that the Bureau has met at least four times and the Exicutive Committee twice since the FIR was established. There are 17 officers--a President, a Secretary-Gtneral, 10 Vice-Pres- idents, and five Secretaries. Only four of these are trom Soviet lalaa countries; but seven of the others, including the President and the Secre- tary-General, are known Communists. (For nemes and crtidentials, see Ap- pendix VI.) Congresses were held by the FIAPP, but there place is now mostly taken by "international rallies" of former political Oisoners and former members of resistance movements. In addition, the FIR:organises various demonstrations (e.g., the annual International Week of Struggle against Fascism, September 7-14) and it celebrates the anniver4aries of liberation from the principal concentration camps of Nazi Germany. A big international rally was held in Vienna from :November 24-27, 1954, to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the city's liberation. This was followed by a Congress of the FIR, also in Vienna. -34- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Avowed Aims. The FIR developed from the IIAPP With the object of taking "a greater contribution to the campaign against war preparations and the fight for peace." Specifically, its overt aims are: (1) To fight actively for the total suppression of Fascism. (2) To struggle in all countries for the punishment of all war criminals. (3) To maintain close co-operation With the "progressive" groups of trade unionists, women, young people, and so on. The last item clearly refers to the other front organisations, whose campaigns and conferences are publicised by the FIR. Policy in General. The policy of the FIR is dominated by support for the campaign of the Communist-dominated WPC and denunciation of the "imperialist aggressors," the "Anglo-American warmongers." The following examples show that the FIR is a highly selective body of "resisters," not at all concerned with those victims of Fascism who have suffered equally under Communism--e.g., former inmates of Fascist con- centration camps, like Petkov, whom the Bulgarian Communists executed. At an Auschwitz rally, organised by FIAPP in January, 1951, it was alleged that the "mass murders" in Korea were the handiwork of the new supermen of Wall Street, "who had far outdone Hitler in cruelty." In February, 1953, the Bureau of the FIR called upon all members to "popularise on the widest possible scale the resolution of the Vienna Peace Congress" convened by the WPC. German Rearmament. By exploiting anti-Nazi opinions, the FIR has campaigned (strictly on Soviet lines) against the European Defence Com munity and German rearmament. At the Bureau's meeting in February, 1953, for example, the FIR stated that it was "the supreme duty" of members to intensify their fight against ratification of EDC, because the American leaders *want to reconstruct an aggressive German Army, to use it as a means of aggression and oppression." The 1954 Congress continued the attack by denouncing the London and Paris Agreements. Bacteriological Warfare. The FIR has supported the Communist cam- paign falsely accusing the U.N. of waging "germ war" in Korea. In March, 1952, the Secretariat declared that all who used germ war- fare "should be brought before the tribunal of the people, and punished as ferocious enemies of the human race.", (l'Humanit6, March 31, 1952.) At the Buchenwald rally, in April, 1952, the delegates protested "against the criminal use of bacteriological weapons in Korea by the Amer- -35- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 1-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 ican interventionists," and called on "patriots of all: countries to fight indefatigably for the freedom and independence of their peoples." (Soviet Tess Agency, April 15, 1952.) THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF DEMOCRATIC LAWYERS The International Association of Democr4ic Lawyers (IADL) was founded in Paris in October, 1946, at an internaq.onal congress of iuriSts arranFed by the French National Judic+ry Movement-- an oraanisation under Communist influence. Among the 250 delegates from 24 countries were numbers of distingui- shed lawyers not connected in any way with Communist o'r pro-Soviet groups. Membership. Unlike other front organisations, the IADL does not publicise its membership claims. No aggregate figures are available; but it appears that 26 countries are represented--i.e., by members of various national associations of "progressivd'lawyers. In 1949 there were several resignations by non-CoMmunist lawyers, including the first President (Professor Cassin, France), who opposed the suggestion that the IADL should send an official delegation to the Paris Congress of the World Peace Council. Some of the non-Communist main- bars remained, however, hoping to influence the policyof the pro-Soviet majority. Yugoslavia was expelled from the IADL at its fourth congress, held in Rome, October 28-31, 1949, after TitO's break with the Cominform. Organisation. Headquarters were in Paris until Juiy 29, 1950, when the French Government expelled the IADL. At -present, the Secretariat operates from Belgium and some of the organisational wOk is done in Poland. The policy-making body of the IADL is its Congres$, which has met four times since 1946. The Congress elects the officers, each affiliate having one vote. There is also a Council, which has met five time It consists of one member from each of the 26 national organisations, together with co- opted members. The chief executive authority is vested in the Bureau, consisting of the 13 officers?President, Secretary-General, Treasury Six Vice-Presi- dents and four Secretaries. Seven of the officers areT.6unists or re- presentatives of Soviet bloc countries. The key position of Secretary- General is held by a French Communist. (Names and crddentials of the -36- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 officers will be found at Appendix VII.) Like other front organisations, the IADL tries to conceal its true nature in order to attract non-Communist support. For example, the Inter- national Conference for the Defence of Democratic Liberties, held in Vienna, January 4-7, 1954, was organised by the IADL under the camouflage of an "International Initiating Committee." This was headed by three lawyers selected as non-members of the IADL. One of then, however, is the Chairman of the Haldane Society, which is affiliated to the IADL, and another is the son of a Vice-President of the IAD', (See Appendix VII.) Avowed ilms. The general, overt aims of the IADL ARE: (1) To develop mutual understanding among the lawyers of the world. (2) To achieve the punishment of war criminals and the destruction of Fascism. To support the aims of the United Nations, especially through common action for the defence of democratic liberties. To co-operate with other groups to ensure respect for the, rule of law in international relations and "the establishment of a durable peace." (3) (4) Such aims, in themselves, would command the approval of all truly dem- ocratic lawyers. The difficulty arises over the IADLIs interpretation of (a) the essentials of a "durable peace," and (b) the obligations and loy- .alties involved' in the maintenance of international law. Actual Policy. Resolutions adopted at IADL congresses have been con- sistently in favour of the Soviet-Oommunist standpoint on a wide range of international questions. As early as the third congress, in 1948, the IADL was accepted as an organisation of the Soviet "democratic camp." This was clearly indicated in an article in Izvestiva, on September 19, 1948. Reporting the fourth congress, held in Rome, October 28-31, 1949, the British Communist Daily Forlser stated on November 7, 1949: "The Fourth Congress of the IADL has adopted an appeal to all dem- ocratic lawyers of the world to unite and strengthen their efforts for the defence of peace and security of the nations. The appeal states that law must be made to serve the great cause of progress and liberty and must serve as a weapon in the struggle for peace and democracy. "Lawyers must do everything to ensure both the triumph of demo- cratic principles in their own countries and respect for legality in international relations. The appeal notes that the forces interested in unleashing another war are again preparing war and conducting war propa- ganda, and concludes by calling on lawyers to struggle for the defence of human rights, for genuinely democratic legislation and the trade union movement." ?37? Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Peace and'Iovalties. As a body including speciOlists in international law, the IADL has been allotted an important role in! the campaign of the World Peace Council. fhe line was clearly indicated at the Budapest Iteeting of the IADL Council, April 14-17, 1950. The main resolution declared that, as an aggressive war was the gravest of premeditated crimed at international law, everyone had the right to refuse to be implicated. 4mphasis was laid upon "the priority of an indivudualls international oblig4tion over the duty of obedience to the State of which the individual wad a citizen." This should be interpreted in the light of the IPeace Laws" enacted by the satellite States, on the basis of decisions reached by the Warsaw Congress of the WPC in November, 1950. The IADL Council was in session in Warsaw during that congress. It passed a resolutn that these WPC decisions were "entirely in accordance with the princ4ples of international law." "Germ Warfare" Allegations. The IADL has joined;; with other front organisations in accusing American forces of many vioiations of interna- tional law during the Korean War. The Commission of Enquiry of the IADL, set up in;1952, claimed to be entirely impartial. It consisted of eight lawyers frOm different coun- tries, including Poland and Communist China. The lawyers were selected by the IADL itself. (Names and qualifications are listet at Appendix VII). The eight lawyers arrived in Korea on March 3, 3452. They found them- selves "faced with the unexpected task of inVestigating a most serious al- legation that the American forces in Korea were usingbacteriological weapons against the army and civil population." Their investigations convinced them that the facis, "verified with all the rigour of judicial discipline," constituted "an act of aggression committed by the United States, an act of genocide and a particularly odious crime against humanity." (Reports2114 Investigetions la Erg gaa China, March-Auril4 1952, published by the IADL, Brussels, 1952.) This document naturally led to considerable controversy. Members of the commission were at pains to deny that they were waging Communist pro- paganda. Yet on March 2, 1952, before their enquiry hp.d begun, the Soviet Tass agency reported: "The commission was sent to Korea in accordance wtth the decision of the IADL to investigate And establish the crimes committed by interven- tionists in Korea in violation of all international agi-eements." On March 1E, 1952, the commission sent a telegnamito the President of the IADL, stating that it had gathered "indisputablt" evidence of germ warfare. But, without awaiting such evidence, the othtr front organisa- -38- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 tions had already protested to the United Nations--the WFTU, the WPC and the WFSW, on March 8, and the WIDF end the IDS on March 10. Legalistic Propaganda. The International Conference for the Defence of Democratic Liberties, held in Vienna in January, 1954, provided maw, ex- amples of the IADL's legalistic propaganda. The agenda was, to all ap- pearances, entirely academic. It concerned "problems arising from dis- crimination in questiens of equality before the law" and from "attacks on the freedom of individuals and on the legislative guarantees of this freedom." Nevertheless, the speakers contrived to assail "capitalist methods of suppressing trade union," the "degradation and restriction of civil liberties in the capitalist countries," the "onslaught on democratic rights and freedom in Western Germany," and the "invasions of national sover- eignty" by the United States' forces in Britain:, France, Italy, "end other sovereign countires." All references to judicial process and civil rights in the USSR and the satellite States were flattering to the point of eulogy--although one of the six reports adopted by the conference condemned "police violence, both moral and physical . . . directed towards obtaining confessions." It is interesting to note that the Soviet delegation was led by Zeydin, one of the prosecutors of teria. Clearly, the special function of the IADL is to denounce the slight- est violation of human rights in the non-Communist countries, whilst denying that any such violations ever occur behind the Iron Curtain. The Vienna conference decided that the "International Initiating Committee" should continue in being as the " Committee of the Internation- al Lawyers' Conference for the Defence of Democratic Rights." The ob- ject of this manoeuvre is obviously to disguise the activities of the too-notorious IADL. Commission on Karlsruhe Trial. In 1954 the IADL set up an International Commission of Lawyers to "examine the Karlsruhe suit against the organi- sers of the Referendum against the remilitarisation of Western Germany." The referendum had been organised by the West German Communist Party and was declared illegal. The Commission (whose members are given in Appendix VII) met in Paris on November 4, 1954, and reached the unanimous con- clusion that the Karlsruhe trial was a "trial of opinion, worthy of . . . Hitler and Mussolini." ?39? Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 1-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 TEE WORLD FEDERATION OF SCIENTIFIC WOR*RS Founded in London in July, 1946, on the initiative of the British Association of Scientific Workers. the World Federation of Scien- tific ? Workers (WSFW) in September. 1953, elaimeda total of 136,000 affilj.ated members from 15 countries. ? The largest affiliations are from Britain, the Upited States, France, China, USSR and Denmark. Membership is open to scientist al organisations, or to individual scientists in countries whore no national body exists. Organisation. The headquarters of the WFSW are in LoiCon. The statutory policy-making body is the Assembly, which has met thrae times since 194(). Between Assemblies there are meetings of an Executive Council of 22. Most of the work, however, is done by the Bureau, conaisting of the 10 officers--President, Secretary-General, Treasurer; four Vice-Presidents, and three Secretaries. Of these officers four are frdm Soviet bloc countries (including two from Communist China), four others are Communist sympathisers, and the President is a Communist. (Name's and credentials of the officers will be found at Appendix VIII.) Avowed Aims. As set forth in Article 2 of its Constitution, the avowed aims of the WFSW are excellent. They include: (1) "The fullest utilisation of science in promoting peace and the welfare of mankind." (2) "International co-operation in science and technology . . . through close collaboration with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation" (UNESCO). "Freedom and co-ordination of scientific work both nationally and internationally." (3) (4) "Closer integration between the natural and social .sciences." In nursuing these aims, the WSW has maintained close relations not only with UNESCO but also with two of the major Communist front organise- ticns--the WPC and the WFTU. At its first Assembly, for example, it wel- comed the formation of the WPC (then called "InternatiOnal Liaison Com- mittee of Intellectuals"). In 1949 the WFSW and the WFTU issued a joint statement on negotiations "for joint activity in those fields in which they have a common ground." Both the WFSW and the WPC are closely (though not formally) connected with the British "Science for Peace" Committee, set up in London in Janu- ary, 1952. PolicyLin General. The WFSW has consistently followed the Party line of -40- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Soviet-Communist propaganda. It has repeatedly protested against the "victimisation" of scientists in the United States; it has never mentioned their persecution and liqui- dation in the USSR. It has criticised the refusal of visas to some of its members travel- ling to meetings in Western Europe, but it has never complained that only a few trusted scientists in Soviet Russia and the satellite countries are permitted beyond the Iron Curtain. "Germ Warfare" Allevations. The WFSW has helped to spread the Communists' germ warfare allegations. In 1952 it assisted the WPC to set up an "Inter- national Scientific Commission," which visited China and North Korea to investigate. The Commission was, to all appearances, non-partisan, consisting of one hand-picked scientist from each of six countries: Brazil, Britain, France, Italy, Sweden and the USSR. But it was formed at the insistence of the Chinese Vice-Chairman of the WPC (Kuo Mo-jo) and it was organised by a Chinese physicist (Dr Tsien San-tsiang). Yet the Commission claimed to be "impartial and independent." Its report stated that it had been sent because the World Health Organisa- tion and the International Red Cross Committee (whose offers to investi- gate had been rejected) were not considered "sufficiently free from pol- itical influence to be capable of instituting an unbiassed enquiry in the field." Not surprisingly, the commission concluded that "bacteriological weapons" had been used against "the peoples of Korea end China:" A truly scientific body would have realised the unscientific nature of the "evidence" or at least right have demanded a really impartial and ob- jective investigation. Obiectivity Denounced. The WFSW has never questioned the Communist dogma that scientific objectivity is a "bourgeois deviation." In February, 1952, for example, the WFSW's Czechoslovak affiliate organised a confer- ence at Brno. One of the speakers, General Hruska, said: "It is essential that Marxism-Leninism should penetrate into every branch of science. . . A particularlz strow attack must be delivered on cosmopolitanism, which . . . leads Lpeopla/ . . , to look up to monstrous American or French imperialism. An attack must also be launched on the deliberately misleading reactionary hypothesis of the 'non-political' nature of science and its position 'above party.' The fight against cosmopolitanism must be stepped up and an end put to scientific object- ivism." (Reported by PraRue Radio, February 26, 1952.) At the same conference, Kopecky, Czechoslovak Minister of Information, said: -41- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 "All real intellectuals, all real artists and sc4entists . . . are actively on our side, especially in the fight for peaqe against the imper- ialist warmongers." (Reported by Prague Radio, February 27, 1952.) THE WORLD FEDERATION OF TEACHERS' uNiOps The World Federation of Teachers' Unions. or F6d4iration Internation- ale Svmdicale de l'Enseignement (FISE) was foundep in 1946, and re...constituted as one of the trade Departments of the WFTU in Febru- ary. 1949. Because the initials of its English 4tle are "WFTU" it is known try the initials of its .French title to aVoid confusion. The FISE is the only professional organisation incorporated in the WFTU so far. There are two reasons for this: (a) although teachers are often regarded as Civil Servants,. they have long been Oganised in their own national unions; (b) according to an article in. thi WFTU journal, World Trade Union Movement, June 1-15, 1953, the chiefiaim of the FISE is to achieve "the unity of teachers within the workink class." The author of the article was present Secretary-General of the FISE. Membership. The FISE claims a total membership of foui million in 27 countries. Ten of these countries are in the Soviet 14oc,, which ac- counts for the bulk of the total. In the USSR, for example there are nearly two mil1ion teachers and instructors in elementary and secondary echools, special technical schools, and higher educational establishments (Izvesti.u, June 's.20, 1953). Accord- ing to the best available estimates, there are more than 500,000 teachers in the European satellites. For Communist China no reliable figure is available. It is clear, however, that the Soviet bloc hust account for at least 75 per cent. of the total in question. Comita d'Entept2. Between 1946 and 1949, when .FISE openly joined the WFTU fold, its officers tried hard to recruit non-Communist teachers' or- ganisations from the West. When this failed, FISE tried another tactic. It persuaded the two leading non-Communist bodies--the International Fed- eration of Teachers' Associations (IFTA) and the Fdrion Internationale des Frofesseurs ;12 pEnselznement Secondaire Official IPESCO) to form a Cot A d'Entente or Joint Committee of International teachersJ Federa- tions. This still meets at regular intervals to discuss questions of practical co-operation between teachers of East and West. Its last meet- ing, held in Moscow in August, 1954, approved a Teachere Charter. As FISE was outnumbered by two to one in the discussions, the Charter, like most of the Comit6 d'Ententels work, is non-polemical. ' Rival Confederation. While maintaining the slender bri4ge of the Comit6 d'Entente, the. non-Communist associations set up their own "umbrella" -42- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP781702646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 organisation. At Copenhagen, in August, 1952, the IFTA and the FIPESO together with the World Organisation of the Teaching Profession?but without the FISE--founded a. new, comprehensive association, the World Confederation of Organisations of the Teaching Profession (WCOTP). The new confederation has a total of three million members, drawn from every country outside the Soviet 1.212e.. Membership is open to any national teachers' association which refrains from "partisan politics or religious controversy." So far, no Communist-controlled bodies have joined the WCOTP, although the FISE has made certain gestures of co-op- eration, in accordance with the unity-theme of Soviet-Communist propa- ganda. Organisation. Headquarters of the FISE were in Paris until November 1951, With the WFTU, the FISE then moved to Vienna, having been expelled by the French Government for subversive activities. The statutory policy-making body of the FISE is the World Teachers' Congress which has met six times so far, including three congresses held before the reconstitution in 1949. There is also an Administrative Com- mittee which has met seven times since 1949, usually behind the Iron Curtain. For all practical purposes, however, the FISE is directed by its six officers?President, Secretary-General, and four Vice-Presidcnts. Both President and Secretary-General are officials of the French teachers' union affiliated to the Communist-dominated CGT. Three Vice-Presidents are Communists. .(For names and credentials, see Eppendix IX.) Avowed Aims. According to a resolution adopted at its Warsaw conference in August, 1949, the overt aims of the FISE include: (1) Establishment of universal free education, in a democratic spirit, of all children, irrespective of creed, nationality, or pecuniary sit- uation. (2) Boycott of text-books propagating ideas.of militarism, imperialism and racial domination. (3) Opposition to military drill and corporal punishment. (4) Training of teachers in a democratic spirit, and their inclusion in the active struggle against reaction and towards progress, peace, and democracy. (5) Emancipation from Church influence. Policy in General. The FIST.; maintains many links with other front organisa- tions. Since its reconstitution in 1949, it has worked in close co-opera- tion with the WFTU, the WFDY,-the WIDE, and, most significantly, with the WPC. -43- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 1-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 The real objective of the FISE, as stated in the puthoritative art- icle in World Trade Union UOmement already cited, is to cure the teach- ing profession of its bourgeois outlook and to weld it. into the vanguard of the proletariat. Thus the Communists hope, through,. the indoctrination of teachers: radically to influence the outlook of the next generation. At the same time, the article adds, the FISE seek 0 a broad unity of all teachers "regardless of religiout beliefs or politiCal convictions." This reference to religion should be compared with the last of the avowed aims listed above. Educational Standards. Discussion of educational problems by the FISE is almost invariably coloured by Soviet-Communist propagailda. In August, 1951, for example, the Administrative Committee: meeti*g at Erfurt, ltated: "The answers to the great questions of education an be supplied only by the Soviet Union and the People's Democracies; in c*pitalist countries, only the working class can supply such an answer. EduCational methods must therefore be based on the great experience of the MSR." Reports by the Secretary-General of the FISE compgre educational pro- gress on either side of the Iron Curtain--always to thl detriment of "capitalist, colonial and semi-colonial" countries. The Western democra- cies are often accused of hate propaganda and persecutiion of teachers; but conditions in the Soviet Union and its satellites are never described except in terms of glowing admiration. "Peace" CamDain. The FISE has given great prominence!. to the theme of "imperialist oppression" and the colonial struggle for freedom. Its main exertions, however, have been in support of the WPC camepaign. At Sofia, in February, 1951, the Executive issued an "Appeal to the Teachers, Pro- fessors end Scientists of the World." It read: in part, as follows; "U.S. imperialism: stained with the blood of Korean women, is trying to spread war all over the world and to throw mankind Oft? its flames . . . The struggle for the cause of peace is a cause fpr all honest people in the world, irrespective of their party affiliWon, profession religion or colour . . . Be ardent propagandists of the. 4orld Peace Council appeal! . . . Unite in a strong front against the enemies of man- kind--the inciters of a new war Demand a reduction in war expenditure, a reduction in armaments: demand in increase in financial support by the State for the needs of the people end their children for the needs of national education!" At the Vienna Conference of the FISE, July 21-25, 1953, a Teachers' Charter was adopted. Though non-polemical in its wordilg, it was defined as an "international programme for struggle." The accolpanying appeal to 1 teachers throughout the world was directed against "armments and war preparations," involving "the destruction of education 4nd culture." During the conference the educational standards of colonial and semi- 11.111111.11111111111111111111111111?111110114MMINNIMIIIIIIIIIIMMINIMIMIIIIIIIIIMIIMINIMIMPJ Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 colonial countries" were condemned as "intolerably low" because of the ruthless drive for maximum profits end the war drive of the imperialist Powers." COMMITTEE FOR TEE PROMOTION OF IKTERIATIOPAL TRADE The Committee for the Promotion of International Trade (CPIT) is a product of the World Peace Council. It was conceived by the %rid Peace Council at its meeting in East Berlin in February. 1951, when it was decided to oranise? an I ternational Economic Conference Zheld in Moscow in _ril An "International Initiating Committee," set up by the World Peace Council Bureau to prepare for the conference, held meetings in October, 1951, and February, 1952, both in Copenhagen. The Moscow conference was attended by businessmen from most countries, many of whom did not realise that its purpose was political rather than economic. Its main decision was to set up a continuing international or- ganisation (under a French member of the WPC, Robert Chambeiron) called the "Committee for the Promotion of International Trade." (for list of members see Appendix X.) Aims. The declared purpose of the Committee was "to aid . . . in expand- ing trade between countries on a basis of equality and with due regard to the needs of industrialisation of underdeveloped countries." The immediate tasks of the CPIT were explained by Chambeiron in the Soviet Irmi Times; No. 22, of 1952. They were: (1) To publicise the Moscow Conference. (2) To assist the formation of national committees everywhere. (3) To consider the holding of a second economic conference. But the main purpose of the organisation was clearly stated in a re- solution adopted by the Bureau of the CPIT, meeting in Vienna on April 30, 1954. This said: "The work of the Committee should concentrate on explaining to public opinion the necessity for removing the various embargoes, discriminations and other obstacles to the development of trade between all countries." (CPIT Bulletin No. 8, June, 1954.) This was amplified by Chambeiron in the December, 1954, issue of the CPIT Bulletin (No. 13), which stated: "When one speaks of discrimination, reference is usually made to -45- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 1-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 the measures taken in the application of the Aierican Battle Act (so-called strategic products) or to the Unite4 Nations General AnseMbly's Resolution which covers more particilarly trade with China. This, of course, is the most IstriHng; form of discrimin- ation, a fern which in the past was only applidd in time of war, but which to-day arouses considerable irritati4n in business circles because it violates international righis and the constitu, tiers of many countries." The writer went on to point out that there word many other obstacles to trade with the East, such as visa difficulties, Zack of participation by 'Western countries in Eastern trade fairs, the inadequacy of East-West trade agreements and discrimination over credit facilities. He also at- tacked the Western system of export licences, which; he claimed, mili- tated against trade with the East. The raison dietre of the CPIT is thus made perfectly clear. It is to persuade bUsinessmen that the strategic embargoed and other trade con- tols instituted by Western governments for their own protection (mostly during the Korean crisis) are both wrong and foolish. They are exhorted to bring pressure on their governments to remove sudh controls. The aims of the CPIT are, therefore, primarily political, and not economic. Most important of all, these aims ere major objectiles of current Soviet and Chinese policy. British Government' View. The British Foreign Secretary, Sir Anthony Edell, answering a question in the House of Commons on November 8, 1954, denounded the British branch of the CPIT in these words: "The British Council for the Promotion of International Trade is a Communist front organisatidn. I welcome this opportunity to reiterate the advice which Her Majesty's Government have given and are giving to British firms not to associalte themselves directly or indirectly with the activities of this body." (liansara, November 8, 1954.) Publicity. The Communist press all over, the world has publicised the Moscow Conference, and the activities of the CPIT. The CPIT Secretariat publishes a monthly Bul1en in French and Eng- lish, edited by Robert Chambeiron and printed by G1& bus, the Soviet-con- trolled printing house in Vienna. National Committees also produce re- gular extracts of press articles on East-West trade.' National Committees. National committees (or councils) for the Promotion of International Trade have now been set up in most 'Countries (see Appen- dix X). They are particularly active in Italy and France, and, more re- cently, Japan. The Chinese are taking a leading part in this front organ- isation, and have established a special office in'Ea'St Berlin to organise Sino-European trade. -46- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Second Economic Conference. After the Moscow Economic Conference plans were made to hold a second Conference early in 1953. After many attempts had failed through "organisational difficulties," plans have been announced for another to take place in Peking from May 10-18, 1955. (Vienne Handels- blatt, Dec. 22, 1954). Later reports indicate, however, that this attempt has also run into difficulties and the conference has had to be postponed. Othereti.. Ai-art from the meetings of national organisations, there have also been regular meetings of the International Committee. Special sessions }lave been held in Leipzig during the September fair. A joint meeting of officials of the British, French, Belgian and Italian Commit- tees was held in Brussels in February, 1953. In addition the Bureau, an inner circle which makes all the decisions, meets regularly in Vienna. The Secretariat was moved to Vienna from Paris in 1953. Finance. National Committees arc financed by charging commission on the business they help to conclude. A proportion of this is handed over to the international. CPIT to cover expenses. When contracts run into millions of pounds, quite a smell commission can yield considerable sums; no ac- counts of how this is disposed of have yet appeared. TP17, WORLD CONGRESS OF DOCTORS The World Congress of Doctors for the Study of Present-day Living Conditions, to give it itp full title, was finally established as an independent front organisation in 1954, when it set lin a Permanent Secretariat in Vienna under Dr. F. Scholl. General Secretary.. The project was first mooted at the Second World Peace Congress, in Warsaw in November, 1950, when 61 doctor-delegates formed an "Internation- al Union of Doctors for Peace." The next step was a resolution of the World Peace Council, meeting in East Berlin in February, 1951. This read: "In pursuance of the decisions of the Second World Peace Congress concerning cultural relations, the World Peace Council instructs the Bureau to render every support in organising a conference of doctors proposed by well-known medical men in France and Italy. This conference will be held in Italy in the current year and will be de- voted to the problem of struggle against the pernicious influence. of war preparations on the protection of the health of the popular masses." Organisation. National committees were then set up, under the =gpla of the "Peace" movement, to prepare for the conference. Examples are the Union Nationale Ala Mdecins pour Paiz in France, the "Medical Association for the Prevention of War," in Britain, and the "Doctors' Anti-Warfare League" in Denmark. Membership is open to any members of the medical pro- fession. These national committees were co-ordinated by an International -47- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 1-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Preparatory Committee, which later became the International Secretariat of the World Congress of Doctors. It moved from Rome to Vienna in April, 1953. (Its members are listed in Appendix XI.) First Congress. After many vicissitudes the projected Congress was final- ly held in Vienna from. May 23-25, 1953. It was origintaly planned for October, 1951, in Montecatini, Italy, bit had to be postponed twice through organisational difficulties and a third time because the Italian Govern- ment refused permission. Attempts were then made, withbut sUccess, to hold it in Denmark, and so eventually it had to rely on Vienna, where such meetings can function under Soviet protection. As expected the Congress concentrated on the effects of war and war preparations on health and living conditions; in partichlar it discussed the medical consequences of atomic war and the influence of war on tuber- culosis end mental illness. It also considered the conditions in under- developed countries. Seqend Congress Planned. It was decided that a second bongress should be held in the latter half of 1955. The International Secretariat, meet- ingin Vienna in June, 1954, expressed the desire that this conference should meet in September, 1955, preferably in either Coienhagen or London, to discuss the "influence of living and working conditiens on health." No further details have appeared about this end the orgiAnisers may have run into difficulties about the choice of location. It was also decided to set up a Permanent Secretariat and to change the name of the Inter- national Secretariat to "International Committee." Publications. An Editorial Board, assisted by a Scient4ic Committee, has been set up to produce, starting in 1955, a ?medical quarterly entitled Living Conditions'Luca Healt1--111 International Medical journal. This will contain information on all WCD activities, camouflItged with articles, reviews, abstracts end references on straight medical sibjects. The WCD is financed by grants from national cormittees and it will also receive the proceeds from sales of the projected j4urnal. Atomic Commission. One of the most important tasks of the WCD is to make propaganda against nuclear weapons and particularll against recent tests (in the ?rest only, of course). For this purpose 4 special Commission is being sent to Japan at the invitation of certain Janimese doctors. It will no doubt produce a report for consideration at the ;September Congress. The Commission's visit was to have culminated- in an "International Medical Conference on Radioactivity" in Tokyo from February 15-8. But this was later postponed, at least until the late spring. Approved For For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION OF JOURNALISTS The International Organisation of Journalists (IOJ) was founded in Cpoenhacen in. Juno 194k. It headnuarters were 1n London until June, 1947, when thev were transferred to Prague Membership claims made by the IOJ can be proved to be inflated. Ac- cording to the Czech News Agency of January 20, 19542 the Secretary-Gen- eral of the IOJ (ma telegram to the United Nations) stated that the IOJ was "a broad international organisation, the members of which are the unions of journalists or individual journalists" in 35 countries. The inclusion of "individual journalists" is typical of Communist front organisations. It opens the door to many forms of false represen- tation, and it disposes of any suggestion that the IOJ is an international organisation in the accepted sensc--j..., consisting of nationally re- presentative 'unions. The national associations of nine of the "countries" claimed as mem- bers in the telegram to the United Nations had resigned from the IOJ by the end of 1949. The countries are: Australia, Austria, Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, and United States. Although their national unions are L2i represented in the IOJ, the countries concerned are exploited for reasons of prestige by individuals, or by splinter groups of Communists, as in the case of Finland. Of the claimed total of 35 countries, the Soviet bloc itself accounts for 12: USSR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Albania, Soviet Zone of Germany, Communist China, Mongolia, North Korea, and North Viet-Nam. It follows that the Soviet lags. and the fictitious countries command a substantial majority of 21 to 14. Yugoslavia was expelled in September, 1950. Orvanisation. The statutory policy-making body is its Congress,. which has met three times. The Executive Committee has met four times since 1946; the Bureau only once. Of the seven officers, four (including the Secretary-General) are from Communist countries. The President is himself the Secretary-General of the French journalists' union affiliated to the Communist-dominated CGT. (For names and credentials, see Appendix XII.) -49- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Avowed Aime. The ICJ claims that its aims and tasksInclude: (1) Maintenance of world peace. (2) Opposition to war propaganda. (3) Strengthening of international friendship "by fres, truthful and hon- est information." (4) Defence of the freedom of the press and of the rights of journalists. "Branch Office of Cominform." In September, 1949, Mr: A. Kenyon (Britain), then President of the ICJ, resigned because the headquArters of the organ- isation had become "in effect, a branch office of the Vominform." At the same time, the British National Union of Journalists (NUJ) withdrew from the ICJ. Eight others followed, as mentioned above. Policy. The IOJ has consistently followed Communist policies. In December, 1953, for example, the I03's monthly bulletin, al Demo- cratic Journalist, reported the WFTU Congress at Vienna (Cctober,1953), and declared that "the role of democratic journalists pf all countries is to give the widest possible publicity to the resolutions of the Vienna Congress . . to turn the attention of all people to this great event of the international movement . . . to concentrate greater attention on the activities of the WFTU and its various organisations." In January, 1954, the leading article in Ih.Q Dem4ratic Journalist was contributed by David Zaslavsky, a well-known Soviet journalist. He accused the "capitalist newspapers" of corrupting the Souls of the people, their pens and their thoughts. Ho described in glowint terms the Com- munist and satellite press, "developing in the countries which are lead- ing the struggle for independence from imperialism." Zaslavsky concluded that "the successes of Communism are expressing themselves in the growing expansion of Communist publidations and news- papers all over the world." Unity Attempt. At the beginning of January, 1955, the ICJ announced that an "Initiating Committee" had been set up to organise, at the end of 1955, "a broad international meeting of journalists of all countries, regardless of their political or other views." The conference is to take place either in the West or in the East, whichever is more convenient. Prepar- atory committees are to be set up in all participating countries and col- lections made to finance delegates. The intention, clearly, is to follow the example of the IUS and, by a policy of "let's all get together, and let bygones be;bygones," to en- tice Western journalists back into the IOJ fold. The technique of the -50- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Initiating Committee and the national Preparatory Committees has been widely practised in other front organisations; its an is to provide sheep's clothing for the wolf. THE INTERNATIONAL BRCADCASTING ORGANISATION The International Broadcasting Oreanisation (OIR) was founded at Brussels in June], 1946?, by the broadcasting organisation_ of 28 European countries. The British Broadcasting Corpora- tion and ten other national bodies did not urticipate. The OIR now consists of the representatives of only 18 countries. With one exception (Finland) these are of the Soviet bloc. The USSR provides eight members, instead of three as in the United Nations. They are, in addition to the RSFSR, the following Union Re- publics: Ukrainian, Belo-Russian, Karel? -Finnish, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, and Moldavian. The ten other countries are: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Albania, Soviet Zone of Germany, Commtnist China, Mongolia and Finland. Rival Union. The can was Communist-dominated from the beginning. The USSR's eight votes, plus the European satellites' six, were always suf- ficient to defeat the non-Communist members. For that reason Algeria, Belgium, Egypt, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Monaco, Morocco, the Netherlands, Tunisia and the Vatican all withdrew in November, 1949. Syria and. Yugoslavia followed suit in April, 1951. Meanwhile, in February, 1950, the BBC had taken the. initiative in setting up a rival organisation, the European Broadcasting Union, with headquarters at Geneva. Members of the Union are the 13 dissidents from the OIR, plus most of the other leading non-Communist radio organisations of Europe and the Middle East. This independent union includes, as associate members, the chief broadcasting organisations of Australia, CanaZa, Japan, New Zealand and South Africa, and the Broadcasting Division of the State Department of the United States. Oreanisatiort. Headquarters of the OIR are in Prague. Few details of the organisation have been revealed outside the Soviet blaa, but it is known that at least 13 "full sessions" had been held up to December, 1954, and -51- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 that the 26th meeting of the Administrative Council Or Board of Directors took place in Prague in December, 1954. The name of the Secretary-General has never beet revealed. The other officers are all from the Soviet bloc. (For names, See Appendix XIII). Aims and Policy. The avowed aims of the OIR include hleasures to promote co-operation among its members "to help mankind in the struagle for world peace and friendship." The actual policy is to give maximum publicity to the activities of other Communist front organisations. A typical example?Was the appeal issued by the 22nd session of the Administrative Courjcil (Budapest, September, 1952), urging all broadcasting organisaticins to popularise the decisions of the Vienna Congress of the WPC when it net in December, 1952: "Preparations for a new war place upon the shoulders of the people, in those countries where American imperialism dominates, new burdens and suffering." -52- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 APPENDIX I WORLD PEACE COUNCIL (WPC) Headquarters: Vienna IV, Estate-Haus, Malwaldplatz 5. BUREAU President Professor Frederic Joliot-Ourie (France): also President of WFSW; Commun- ist; former French High Conmissioner for Atomic Energy; Stalin Peace Prize Winner. Setretarv-General Jean Laffitte (France): Member of French Communist Party Vice-Presidents Gabriel d'Arboussier (French West Africa): Former Secretary-General of Rassemblement Democratic e Africain. Professor J. D. Bernal (Britain): also Vice-President of WFSW; Stalin Peace Prize winner. General Lazara Cardenas (Mexico): former President of Mexico. Mme. Eug6nie Cotton (France): also President of WIDF; President of Communist-controlled :Union aza Femmes Francaises; active in Commun- ist organised Universit6 Nouvelle; Stalin Peace Prize winner. Alexander A. Fadeev, (USSR): Member of Central Committee of Communist Party of Soviet Union; Chairman of Praesidium of Union of Soviet Writers. Professor Leopold mi' alt (Poland): Member of Executive Committee of FSW. Kuo Ne-jo (China): Vice-Chairman of Standing Committee of National People's Congress; President of Chinese Academy of Sciences; Stalin Peace Prize-winner. Nils A. Lundkvist (Sweden): Poet and author. Pietro Wend i (Italy): General Secretary of Italian Socialist Party; former Foreign Minister; deputy; Stalin Peace Prize winner. -53- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 ?Scretaries Mme. Isabelle Blume (Belgium); expelled from Belgian Socialist Party, Ap? ril, 1951, for her Communist associations; Stalin Peace Prize winner. Gilbert de Chambrun (France): Representative in tha National Assembly of the pro?Communist Progressiste Party. Vincent Duncan?Jones (Britain): Son of a former Dean of Chichester. Panteleimon V. Gulyaev (USSR): Journalist. Li Yi?mung (China): Economist. Hon. Ivor G. S. Montagu (Britain): Communist. Member Jorge Amado (Brazil): Former Communist Deputy. EMmanuel R. M. dtAstier de la Vigerie (France): ProgressisIe Deputy; former Minister of Interior. Enrico Derlinguer (Italy): Former President of WFDY; member of Central Committee of Italian Communist Party. Laurent Casanova (France): Member of Politburo. of French Communist Party (Cultural Section). Pierre Cot (France): Member of Council of IADL: Director of Horizon; former Air Minister; Stalin Peace Prize winner; -Deputy of pre?Commun? ist Proaressiste Party. Ilya G. Ehrenburg (USSR); Author; Stalin Peace Prize ;winner. Wilhelm Fifes (W. Germany): Co?leader of fellow?travelling Band, d= Deutschen. James Endicott (Canada): Stalin Peace Prize winner. Monica Felton (Britain): Vice?Frosident of WIDF; PreSident of National Assembly of Women; Stalin Peace Prize winner. Mme. Bianca Fialho (Brazil): President of Federation of Brazilian Women; Stalin Peace 'Prize winner. Dr. Walter Friedrich (Germany): Rector of Humboldt University, East Ber? lin; President of Academy of Sciences. ; -54- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78.02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Jose Giral (Spain): Professor at National University of Mexico; former Republican Prime Minister of Spain. Nazim Hikmet (Turkey): imprisoned 1937-50 for Communist subversion. Yoshitaro Hirano -(Japan): Professor of Law; Secretary?General, Japanese Peace Committee. Dr. Joseph Hromadka (Czechoslovakia): Professor of Theology at John Huss University, Prague. Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew (India): Lawyer; prominent member of Congress Party; Stalin Peace Prize winner. Alexander E. Korneichuk (USSR): Member of Central Committee of Communist Party of Soviet Union. Professor Dharmavir D. Kosambi (India): Scientist on staff of Tata In? stitute of Fundamental Research, BombaY. Riccardo Lombardi (Italy): Deputy of Nenni Socialist Party; Minister of Transport, 1946. Mao Tun (China): Minister of Culture. Dr. Jan MUkarovsky (Czechoslovakia): Rector of Charles. University, Prague. Maria Rosa Oliver (Argentina). Professor Ikuo Oyama (Japan): Member of Japanese House Of Councillors; Chairman of pre?war "Workers' and. Peasants' Party"; Stalin Peace Prize winner. D. N. Prat, Q.C.(Britain): President of IADL; President of British Peace Committee. Louis A. Saillant(Trance): General Secretary of WFTU; Vice?President of Association France?USSR. Emilio Sereni (Italy): Senator; member of Central Committee and Director? ate of Italian Communist Party. Frederick W. Stover (USA): President of Iowa Farmers' Union. Mrs. Jessie Street (Australia). Alexei Surkov (USSR): First Secretary, Union of Soviet Writers. Antoine Tabet (Lebanon): Member of Central Committeeof Lebanese Commun? ist Party. -55- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 -6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Nikolai S. Tikhonov (USSR): A Secretary of Soviet Writes' Union William Wainwright (Britain): General Secretary of British Peace Committee. Phe ASIAN AND PACIFIC PEACE LIAISON COMMITTEE (PEIING) President Soong Ching-Ling (China): alias Mme. Sun Yat-sen; i1PC member; Stalin Peace Prize winner. faatatary-General. Liu Wing-yi (China): WPC member; WFTU Vice-President; r ralocr of CPIT. Deputy Secretary-General Rommsh Chandra (India): WPC member. INTERNATIONAL COlaaTTEE FOR TEE PEACEFUL SOLUTION ciF THE GERMAN PROBLEM (PARIS) gggretary-General Michel Bruguier (France): WPC member. 'Secretaries Johannes Dieckmann (East Germany): Speaker of People's Chamber. J. M. Domenach (France): editor of L'Esprit. Wilhelm Elf es (West Germany): Member of WPC Bureau. APPENDIX II WORLD FEDERATION OF TRADE 'UNIONS (WFTU Headquarters: Vienna I, SeilerstaettO BUREAU President Giuseppe di Vittorio (Italy): Secretary-General of Italian General Confed- eration of Labour (CGIL); member of Central Committee of Italian Com, nunist Party. -56- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Secretarv-General Louis Saillant (France): Member of WPC Bureau; former Secretary-General of French General Confederation of Labour (CGT). Vice-Presidentp Bertus Brandsen (Holland): General Secretary of EVC (Communist-led splinter group). S. A. Dange (India): Secretary-General of All-India Trade Union Congress; founder member of Indian Communist Party. A. Diallo (French West Africa): Secretary of Regional Trades Council of the (French) Sudan; member of Reassemblement D6mocratique Africain. Alain le Lap (France): Communist; Joint Secretary-General of CGT; member of WPC. Liu Ring-yi (China); Vice-President of All-China Federation of Trade Unions; member of WPC. Vicente Lombardo Toledano (Mexico): President of Latin-American Confed- eration of labour (CTAL); member of WPC. Ramiro Luchesi (Brazil): President of Workers" Confederation of Brazil. Njono (Indonesia): Secretary-General of Communist-led SOBSI (trade union centre). Lazara Pena (Cuba): Communist; Secretary-General of Cuban Confederation of Workers. Nikolai Shvernik (USSR): President of All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions; former President of Praesidium of Supreme Soviet. Josef Tesla (Czechoslovakia): President of Czechoslovak Central Trade Union Council; member of Central Committee of Czechoslovak Communist Party. Herbert Warnke (East Germany): President of FDGB (Communist trade union federation). SECRETARIAT Louis Saillant (France): Secretary-General of WFTU. Vladimir Berezin (USSR): Head of International Dept. of All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions. -57- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 -6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Luigi Grassi (Italy): Secretary in charge of WFTU Traci S Departments. Henri Jourdain (France): Member of CPIT and of Central Committee of French Communist Party. Liu Chang-sheng (China): Member of Central Committee og Chinese Communist Party; 'member of standing committee of All-China F(idoration of Trade Unions; member of WPC. TRADE DEPARTNENTS (TUISs.) ,11.icultural and Forestry Workers 7 President: Tjugito (Indonesia). Secretary-General: Ilio Bosi (Italy). Headquarters: Rome. Dpildin and Wood Workers President: Josef Kobol (Hunrary). Secretary: Arne Saarinen (Finland). Headquarters: Helsinki. Leather. Shoe and Fur Workers President: Fernand Maurice (France). Secretary-General: Jaroslav Nevald .(Czechoslovakia). Headquarters: Prague. Metal and Enrineerirm Workers President: Giovanni Roveda (Italy). Secretary-General: Marcel Bras (France). Headquarters: Vienna. Miners President: Stefan Ciolkowski (Poland) Secretary-General: Henri Turrell (France). Headquarters: Vienna. Postal, Telearaph, Telephone and Radio Wo ors President: Jaroslav Kolar (Czechoslovakia). Secretary-General: W. Baumgart (E. Germany). Headquarters: East Berlin. Approved For For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Transport. Fort and 'Fishery Workers President: Cesare Masini (Italy). Secretary-General: Andr 6 Fressinet (France). Headquarters: Vienna. Teachers (FISE) President': Henri Uallon (France). Secretary-General: Paul Delanoue (France). Headquarters: Vienna. Textile and Clothina. Workers President: Teresa Noce (Italy) Secretary-General: Irene Piwouarska (Poland). Headquarters: Warsaw. Food. Tobacco and SUpply Workers President: Maurice Simonin (France). Secretary-General: Anton Dichey (Bulgaria). Headquarters: Sofia. Chemicals, Oil and Allied Workers President: Bianchi Lima (Italy). Secretary-General: F. Boszoki (Hungary). Headquarters: Budapest. APPENDIX III WORLD FEDERATION OF DEMOCRATIC YOUTH (WFDY) Headouarters: Budapest. BenzucUtca 34 OFFICIALS President Bruno Bernini (Italy): Official of Communist Youth Federation (FGOI). Secretary-General Jacques Denis (France): Communist; member of WPC. -59- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 1-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Vice-President Flavio Bravo (Cuba): Communist; President of Nationg Executive Committee of Cuban Socialist Youth. Krishna Chandra. (India): Official of Bihar Democrati Youth Federation. Rev. Tom Colvin (Britain)! Youth Secretary of Iona 4ommunity, a Church of Scotland religious society. Doris Coppelman (USA): Member of Young People's Cenral Assembly for Peace; member of International Initiating Confertence in Defence of the Rights of Youth, 1953. Hu Yen-pang (China): Secretaiy-General of China New 4emocratic Youth League (youth Section of Communist Party) Ladislav Lis (Czechosloakia): Secretary of Czech Yeiuth Union. Alexander Shelepin (USSR): First Secretary of Centr somol; former Vice-President of IUS. Pouria Arsalan (Persia). Mihaly Biro (Hungary). Chien Li-jen (China). Committee of Km- Secretaries Luben Petrov (Bulkaria): Piero Pieralli (Italy): Deputy-Direc- tor of Communist Youth Federation (FGCI). Oskar Fischer (East Germany): mem- ber of Central Bureau of FDJ (Communist Free German Youth). Jan Kleszcz (Poland). Demosthenes Lobo (Brazil). Malcolm Nixon (Britain). Marie Morvan (France): Fran9aises. Sergei Rcmanovsky:(USSR): Deputy-Pres- ident of Anti-Fascist Youth Committee. ' Gloria Segal (USA). Joyce Stephens (4stralia). Enud Erik Svendseri (Denmark). Treasurer Secretary of Communist-controlled Union des Femmes -60- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 APPENDIX IV INTERNATIONAL UNION OF STUDENTS CEIL Headquarterif 'Prague XII. Vocelova 3 OFFICIALS N. R. Dazari (India): General Secre- tary of All-India Students' Federation. Tien Te-min (China): Chairman of All- China Students' Federation President Giovanni Berlinguer (Italy): Form- er Searetary-General of BUS. Secretary-General Jirl Pelikan (Czechoslovakia): Of- ficial of Czech Union of Youth Wiwoho Buono (Indonesia). KO Tum Sein (Burma). Vice-Presidents Arthur Pike (Australia). Lionel de Soto (Cuba). Raisa Ablova (USSR): A Secretary Konstantin.Telalov (Bulpria). Of Central Committee of E4.1a... Ademola Thomas (Nigeria). azln?.110 Treasurer Jorge Arellamo (Ecuador). Tadeusz Wegner (Poland). Secretaries APPENDIX V WOMEN'S INTERNATIONAL DEMOCRATIC FEDERATION (WIDF) Headquarters: East Berlin. Unter den Linden 13 OFFICIALS President Eng6nie Cotton (France): President of Comnunist-controlled Union dr& Femmes Francaises; Vice-President of WPC; Stalin Peace Prize winner. Secretary-General Angiola Minella (Italy): Former deputy to Secretary-General; promoted Secretary-General in 1954. Deputy. Secretary-General Galina Goroshkova (USSR). -.61- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 1-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Vice?Presidents Andrea .Andreen (Sweden): Member of Germ Warfare Investigation Commis? sion; member of WPC: Stalin Peace Prize winner. Elise Branco (Brazil): Member of WPC; Stalin Peace _Prize winner. Monica Felton (Britain): Chairman of National AsseMbly of Women; member of Bureau of WPC; Stalin Peace Prize winner. Dolores Ibarruri (Renublican Spain): Communist, worl Moscow. F. Ransom Kati (Nigeria). Rita Mantagnana (Italy): Communist Senator; member Of Directorate of Italian Communist Party; National Secretary of Union bf Italian Women; former delegate to Comintern; former wife of Palmiro Togliatti. Seza Nabaraowi (Egypt); member of WPC. Nina Popova (USSR); President Of Soviet Women's Anti;Fascist Committee; seoretary of All?Union Central Council of TradeUnions; Stalin Peace Prize winner. Tsai Chang (China): President of All?China Women's temocratic Federa? tion; member of Central Committee of Chinese Communist Party. Marie?Claude Vaillant?Couturier (France): Former Secretary?General of WIDF; member of Central Committee of French Comluniat Party. Mme. IstvAn Vass (Hungary): Secretary?General of National Federation of Hungarian Democratic Women. Lilli Waechter (West-Germany): member of commission tb North Korea, or? ganised by WIDF, 1951; expelled from German Social?Democratic Party, 1951; arrested by American authorities and releaed on bail raised by local' Communist Party, 1951. Vice?Presidencies reserved for the United States, Japan and India. -62- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78t02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 APPENDIX VI INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RESISTANCE FIGHTERS,. OF VICTIMS AND PRISONERS CF FASCISM (FIR) HeALIQuarters: Vienna II Castellezgasse 35 OFFICIALS Prepident Colonel Fr6d6ric Manhes (France): Member of Central Committee of French Communist Party. Secretary-General And/4 Leroy (France): Communist; former member of Central Committee of French Communist Party. Vice-Presidents Fritz Beyling (E. Germany): Editor of SED newspa tary-General of the German affiliate of FIR. :er in Halle; Score- Piero Caleffi (Italy). Jacques Debu-Eridel (France): Gaullist Senator. Paul Falk (W. Germany). Albert Forcinal (France): Radical deputy, former Minister. General Alexander GundorOv (USSR): President of Pan-Slav Committee, Moscow. Dr. Rudolf Steiner (Austria). Umberto Terracini (Italy): Member of Central Committee of Italian Com- munist Party; member of WPC; a Vice-President of IADL; Senator. Pierre Villon (France): Communist deputy. Jan Vodicka (Czechoslovakia): Member of Central Committee of Czecho- slovak Communist Party; Chairman of Anti-Fascist Fighters of Czecho- slovakia. -63- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Secretaries Otto Horn (Austria): leading Austrian Communist. Edward Kowalski (Poland). Fausto Kitti (Italy). Andr6 Ousoulias (France): Communist official of the TII.,FTPF (Associa- tion of ex-members of French resistance movemen-0. Luc Somerhausen (Belgium): Communist APPENDIX VII IPTEDNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF DEMOCRATIC LA*ERS (IADL) Headquarters: Brussels70 Avenue L4rand (aLp.o 234. rue du Throne) ' OFFICIALS President D. N. Pitt, Q.C. (Britain): President of British Peace Committee; mem- ber of Bureau of WPC; Chairman of the Society for Cultural Relations with the USSR; Chairman of Anglo-Rumanian Friendship Association; Stalin Peace Prize winner. Secretarv-Genera1 Joe Nordmann (France): Communist; member of Comit6 dd PatronaRe ProRres- piste de Prot Fran9ais. Vice-Presidents Henrique Flan? (Brazil): Member of Rio Court Jerzy Jodlowski (Pbland): Professor at Warsaw of Appeal. University; Deputy. Lon Lyon-Caen (France): Member of Court of Appeal and of Comit6 al katr ronaRe Progressiste al Dmit Fran9aia. Shen Chun-ju (China): President of Supreme Court. U. Terracini (Italy): Member of Central Committee of Communist Party; barrister of Court of Appeal; Vice-President of Federation of Re- sistance Fighters (FIR); member of WPC. Ye L. Zeydin (USSR): Deputy Chairman of Supreme Court Secretaries Jean Fonteyne (Belgium): Barrister, Brussels Court of .ikppeal. Istvan Kovacs (Hungary): President of Hungarian Bar Aasociation; Deputy to Secretary-General of IADL. Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78i-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Achille Lordi (Italy): Barrister of Court of Appeal; member of WPC. Hilde Neumann (East Germany): Doputy-Director of Administration of Jus- tice, Berlin. a Treasurer Iucienno Bouffioux (Belgium): Barrister of Court of Appeal. 0. IY.T.FATIONAL CONFERENCE FOR THY; DEFENCE OF DEMOCRATIC LIBERTIES (January '4-7. 1954) The "International Initiating Committee" was headed by the following three lawyers, selected as being non-members of IADL: John Elton (Britain): Chairman of Haldane Society (affiliated to IADL nnd proscribed by British Labour Party); Secretary of British section of Conference for the Peaceful Solution of the German Problem. Urard Lyon-Caen (France): Son of Professor Leon Lyon-Caen, a Vice-Pres- ident of IADL. Giusoploe Nitti (Italy): Former Independent Senator; prominent at Vienna Peace Congress, December, 1952. The Traesidium of the Conference included: Waclaw Barcikowski, President of Polish Supreme Court Professor Jan Bertuske, Dean of Faculty of Law and Vice-Rector, Charles University, Prague. Professor A. Baumgarten, President of German Academy of Law and Political Science. Professor Heinrich Brandweiner, Professor of International Law, Graz University, Austria; member of WPC. Ye L. Zeydin, Deputy Chairman of Supreme Court of USSR and a Vice-Presi- dent of IADL. C0121ISSION OF INQUIRY IN KOREA This commission was formed to investigate alleged violations of in- ternational law during the Korean War. It was composed as follows, ac- cording to the IADL pamphlet, Renorts Investigations ia Korea Lad China, March-Anril, 1952: -65- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Heinrich Brandweiner, President. Luigi Cavalieri, Advocate at Sup- reme Court Of Rome, Vice Pres. Jack Gaster, Solicitor, London. Marc Jacquier, Advocate at Court of Appeal, Paris. Ko Po-Hien, Director of Research Department of People's Institute of Foreign Affairs, Peking. Marie-Louise Mberns, Advocate, Brussels Letelba Rodigues 1e Britto,, Advocate,. Rio de Janeiro Zofie Wasilkowskae, Judge of Supreme Court, Warsaw.0 CalISSION ON KARLSRUHE TRIAL Erling Andresen (Denmark): Barrister; member of IADL1Council. Mario Berlinguer (Italy): former High Commissioner.* the punishment of Fascist crimes in Italy; member of :IADL Council. Abbe Boulier (France): former Professor of InternatiiSnal Law at the Catholic Institute, Paris; WPC member. Jacobsen (Denmark): Barrister; member of IADL Co*ncil. A. J. Loever (Switzerland): Barrister. Leon Lyon-Caen (France): Vice-President of IADL; Chairman of Commission. Joe Nordmann (France): Barrister; Secretary-General if IADL. Henri Torres (France): Gaullist Senator for the Seine departement. APPENDIX VIII WORLD FEDERATION OF SCIENTIFIC WORKERS(WFSW) Headquarters: London. 15 Half ',Toon Strelit. W. 1 OFFICIALS President Professor Frederic Joliot-Curie (France): President cif WPC; Communist, Stalin Peace Prize winner. Secretary-General J. G. Crowther (Britain): Journalist; WPC member, -66- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Vice-Presidents Professor J. D. Bernal, F.R.S. (Britain): Vice-President of WPC: Stalin Peace Prize winner. Li Tse-kwang (China). Academician Pparin (USSR): Member of WPC. Professor Cecil F. Powell (Britain): Lecturer at Bristol University; member of Executive of British Peace Council. Secretaries E. G. Edwards (Britain): Principal, Liverpool City College of Technology. Professor Malek (Czechoslovakia). U. Chang-Wang (China). Treasurer Dv. W. A. Wooster (Britain)1 Lecturer at Peterhouse, Cambridge. APPENDIX IX WORLD FEDERATION OF TFACBERS1 U;TIOT::S (FISH) Headquarters: Vienna IV. Schwindqasse 7 OFFICIALS President Henri %Ilion (France): Member of Secretariat of ErAional Federation of Education, affiliated to Communist-dominated CPT; member of. Commit- tee of Action for Relief of Henri Martin (Communist seaman imprisoned for mutiny). Secretary-General Paul Delanoue (France): Member of Secretariat of National Federation of Education. Antonio Banfi (Italy). Fan Ming (China). Vice-Presidents Cesar Godoy Urrutia (Chile): Communist Ivan Grivkov (USSR). -67- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78,02646R000400340001-6 APPENDIX X COMITTEE FOR TNE PROMOTION OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE (CPIT) Headquarters: Vienna IV. Prinz-Engenstrpse OFFICIALS President Not known. Secretary-Gen=1 Robert Chambeiron (France): also member of WPC: form r Progressiste Deputy. Not known. Antoine Allard (Belgium): Bureau members Committee Members Banker, member of WPC Paul Bastid (France): Former Minister of Trade; membei AcadAmie Chi Chao-ting (China). deputy-chairman of State Hussein Daryush (Persia): Economist. Imre Degen (Hungary): Secrtary-General of Co-operati4e Union. Josef Dobretsberger (Austria): Professor of Economics member of WPC; leader of Communist-sponsored "People's Opposition." Bank. Freire (Argentina): Engineer, adviser on industrial 'problems. Victor N. Gutierrez (Guatemala): Member of WFTU Execu:tive Committee. E. von Henke (USA).: Businessman, company president, Chicago. Laland Nirachand (India): Director Premier Automobilesiitd., Bombay. M. Iftikhar-ud-din (Pakistan): menber of WPC: Publisher of Pakistan Times; M.P. Henri Jourdain (France): WFTU secretary; former secretery-general of Metal & Engineering Workers' TUI; member of Central Committee of French Com- munist Party. -68- 4 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Khekhlov (USSR): Chariman of Tsentrosovuq. Greta Kuckhoff (E. Germany): Chairman of Deutsche Notenbana, Berlin. Professor Oscar Lange (Poland): Economist, professor at Higher School of Planning. Pierre Lebrun (France): Secretary of the Conf6d6ration G6n6rale flu Trav- ail. (Communist-dominated). Liu Ning-yi (China): Vice-President of WFTU; member of WPC. Professor D. P. Mukerjee (India): Professor of Economics, lucknow. Nan Han-chen (China): Director of People's Bank'. M. V. Nesterov (USSR): Chairman of Chamber of Commerce. Jack Perry (Britain): Director, textile firm & London export corporation; Secretary, British delegation Moscow Economic Conference. Antonio Pesenti (Italy): Former Minister of Finance; M.P.: member of Central Committee of Italian Communist Party. Otakar Pohl (Czechoslovakia): Director-General of State Bank. Joan Robinson (Britain): Professor of Economics, Cambridge; member of Initiating Committee, Moscow Economic Conference. Otto Rocha y Silva (Brazil): Industrialist, member of WPC. Sergio Steve (Italy): Professor of Economics, Parma University. S. Tedjasukmana (Indonesia): Chairman of Indonesian Central Economic Council. Oliver Vickery (USA); Industrialist; president of electrical and chemi- cal exporting firm. K. W. deVries (Holland): Professor of Economics, Amsterdam. NATIONAL COMMITTEES ARGENTINA. Comision Nacional Dro AUSTRIA. OsterreichisChes Bti-o fltr Fomento del Intercambio Mundial, den Ost. West Hand4, Prinz-Eugen- Calle Moreno 360, Buenos Aires. strasse 2, Vienna IV. President Sr. Herminio Minoli. President Professor Josef Dobretsberger. -69- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 1-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 BELGIUM. Comit6 Beige Eau Dayal- onnement du Commerce Internatioar al, 76 rue d'Assaut, Brussels. President Baron A. Allard Secretary?General J. Ippersiel. BRAZIL. Escritorio Brasileiro aa Formento de Comercio Internatiou? al, Av. Venezuela 131, 9 ander, salas 906-8, Rio de Janeiro, Distrito Federal. President Otto Rocha y Silva. CHILE. Comite de Fomento aa dc, Exterior, Exterior, Nueva York 52, Of? ficina 303, Santiago. President Clotario Blest. Secretary Gabriel Santa Cruz. CHINA. China Committee for the Pro? motion of International Trade, 89 Hsi Chiao, Ming Hsiang, Peking. President Nan Han?chen. Secretary?General Chi Chao?ting. CZECHOSLOVAKIA. Ceskoslovenskv az- odni Komitet baxIcE Rozvoie Mezirnarodniho Obchodu, 'ince 28, Rijna C.13, Prague 1. Secretary Dr. R. Kozusnik. FRANCE. Comit6 Frin%ais uo= la D6? elopoement gE gommerce Interna? tional, 8, Ruede Berri, Paris 8e. President Bernard de Pies. - Bureau ember 1 Max Brochut. GERMANY. All?Germian Committee for East?West Trade., E. Berlin GREAT BRITAIN. B4tish Council for the Promotion of Iilternational Trade, 15, Hanover Scitaare, London, W. 1. President Lord Boyd?Orr. Executive Secretarv Roland Berger. HOLLAND. Dutch Coimittee for the Pro? motion Of International Trade, N.Z. Voorburgwal 52/56, Amsterdam c. Presidint Professor K. W. delries Secretsirv Louis Ph. Polak. ,-IUNGARY. Szobetkezetet Orszaaos Szovetsege, V. 4abadsag Ter. 14, Budapest- Imre Degen. ?70? .1]esidept Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 INDIA. Indian Council of Foreign Trade, Industrial Assurance Build- ing, Churchgate, Bombay.- President Shri Murarji J. Vaidya. IRAN. Iran Committee for the Promo- tion of World Trade, c/o Senator Er. A. Matine-Daftari, Facu1t6 de Droit, Teheran. President Dr. A. Natine-Daftari. Secretary Mozarfarzadeh. ISRAEL. Israel Committee for Promo- tion of International Trade, P.O. B., 15771 Tel-Aviv. Assoziazione IrL Oneratori negli Scembi Internazionalt, Via della Maddelena 13, Rome. President Rag. Ignazio Messina. Vice-President Dr. Rag. Antonio Gianquinto. Secretary Rag. Edo Assolini. JAPAN. Japanese Association for the Promotion of East-West Trade, Tokyo. President Shozo Murata. General Secretary Kumaichi Yamamoto. KOREA (North). ComitA D.2ar Deve],7 onpement Commerce Internation7 dp. la RAnublique Ponulaire d2 Core. President Tyan Si U. MEXICO. Instituto Mexicang, paL2 21 Estudio y Fomento CoMmercio Internacional, Calzada Miramontes 303, Colonia Portales, Mexico 131 13 .F. Secretary Edmund? Valdez Garcia. -71- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 APPENDIX XI WORLD CONGRESS OF DOCTORS (OD) Headquarters: Vienna II, Wollzeile 29 OFFICIALS Secretary-General Dr. Friedrich Scholl (Austria) Dr. Assisted by a Permanent Secretor- Dr. iat of three--one Russian, one Dr. Austrian and one nominee from Dr. France, Italy or Great Britain. Dr. Dr. International Committee Dr. Dr. Dr. M. Aloisi (Italy). 101-..H. H. R. Descomps (France). Dr. Yranceschini (Italy). Dr. Fritz Gietzelt (Germany). Dr. Dr. Dr. Dr. Joseph Gillman (S. Africa). Hoff meyer (Denrark). Kochergin (USSR). Josef Lukas (Czechoslovakia). Angus McPhersot (Great Britain). Benjamin Nielsqn (Denmark). Pal Shi-ching (China). Gottfried Peschek (Austria). Friedrich Scholl (Austria). Alice Stewart (Great Britain). Sultan (The Lebanon). Mario Zipilivan (Argentina). APPENDIX XII INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION OF JOURNALISTS (ICJ) Headquarters: Prague II. Cyletalova 5 OFFICIALS President Jean Hermann (France): Editor of LibAration: Secretary-General of French Journalists' Union, affiliated to Communist-dominiated CGT. luretarv-General Jaroslav Knobloch (Czechoslovakia). lige-Presidents Dudu Geie (Senegal) Ru Chiao-mu (China): Deputy Chief of Propaganda; head of News Department. J. Kowalczyk Poland). -72- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Kaisu Mirjami?Rydberg (Finland): Communist. K. Simonov (USSR).: Editor of Literary Gazette; member of Central Commit? tee of ComMunist Party of Soviet Union; member of 'Soviet Peace Com, mittee; Deputy to Supreme Soviet. APPENDIX XIII INTERNATICUAL BROADCASTING ORGANISATION (OIR) Headquarters: Prague XVI. Liebknechtova 15 OFFICIALS President Kurt Heiss (East Germany): Chairman of East German State Committee for Vice?Presidents Frantisek Necasek .(Czechoslovakia): General Director of Czechoslovak Radio. Lodoim Purbe (Mongolia): Chairman of Radio Committee attached to Coun? cil of Ministers of Mongolian People's Republic. SecretarvGeneral Not known. APPENDIX ,XIV OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS CF COMUNIST FRONT ORGANISATIONS 1. 144 (a)- Dtrizoo monthly, published in Paris, with English, German,. Russ? ian and Spanish editions. Formerly called Dense de 1L Ealz. (b) A Press Bulletin is issued weekly, and an Information Bulletin twice monthly; by the WPC Secretariat's Information Service. (c) A booklet Lthat is the Eula Council aL Peace was published in 1954. ?73? Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 1-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 2. WFTU (7.7-17brld Trade Union Nevement: monthly, in Ehglish,j'rench, German, Russian, Spanish, Portuguese, Swedish, Rumanian, Chinese, Japanese and Hindi. Circulation officially claimed: 25,090 copies in German (half for East Germany); 10,000 in Russian' 6,500 in French; 5,500 in English (mainly for Pritain); 3,000 in SPanish. (b) Uorld Trade Union Egaal an information bulletin issued fortnightly in English, French, Russian and Spanish. (c) Numerous special pamphlets have been issued on vatious subjects. (d) Of the Trade Department's (TU1s), the Teachers' TU t (FISE) publishes Teachers of the World, a quarterly journal in sevtral languages, distributed by WFTU; and the other TUIs issue InfOmation Bulletins, usually at irregular intervals. 3. NFDY 777-Wor1d Youth: a large monthly magazine, publishedlin Prague in four- teen languages. (b) Information Bulletiro fortnightly, in English, French and Spanish.. (c) Special Bulletins for Festivals and Congresses. 4. IUS TiTT World Student News: monthly, wide circulation in!Engliah, French, Gernan, Italian, Spanish, Russian, Norwegian and Arabic. (b) IUS News Service: fortnightly, in English, FrencWand Spanish. (c) International Faculty letins: three times a year, on Agriculture, Architecture, Education e.g., ColonialEducation' Student Educatiell) and Medicine (e.g., hejiLla Student). (d) Students Against Colonialism: monthly bulletin itsued by the Bur- eau of Students Fighting against Colonialism. 5. WIDF TT-Women ps Iha World,: monthly, in English, French I Russian, Spanish, German. (b) News in Brief: published periodically by Secretariat. (c) Congress proceedings and various booklets, e.g., Vi Accuse, ,a report in twenty-one languages on alleged atrocities in !Corea. 6. FIR , (a) Resistance Ilia: every two months in French and German. (b) Service dlInformaiop da la FIR: weekly. -74- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 7. IADL (a) Information Bulletin: monthly, published from Brussels. (b) IADL REVIEW: monthly, edited by Grad Lyon-Caen and Professor Brandweiner. (e) Iaa in the Service af. Peace (Ia. Drat Lp.i la Defense da la Paix): half-yearly journai directed by D. N. Pritt. (d) Doctments relating to alleged war crimes in Korea. 8.,WFSW 7;7-Science Laa Mankind: published half-yearly. from London, Paris, Prague and Peking in English, French, Russian and Chinese. (b) Pamphlets- and special reports. 9. ?PIT 377-A Bulletin, monthly, is printed in Vienna in English and French and is distributed in 90 countries. (b) National OPITs publish their own newssheets. 10. WO Living Conditions and Health--Aa International Ne.dical journal: quarterly, planned to appear from early 1955; to be published in Vienna in several languages. 11. IOJ 2h2 Democratic Journalist: monthly, published in Prague in English, French, German, Russian and Spanish. 12. OIR T-8.7 Documentation Review: monthly. (b) Quarterly Information and Documontation Bulletin in English, French, RUS5i8M and Chinese. APPENDIX XV PRINCIPAL COMUNIST FRONT Cal,tRENCES World Peace Council (WPC) Jt World Peace Congress April, 1949 Paris and Prague 2nd World Peace Congress November, 1950 Sheffield and Warsaw 3rd Congress of the Peoples for December, 1952 Vienna Peace -75- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340 1-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Peace Conference of Asian and October, 192 and Pacific Regions Conference for the Peaceful Sol- Povember, 1,52 ution of the German Problem Latin American Cultural Congress April, 1953 Meeting for the Lessening of In- June, 1954 national Tension Peking East Berlin Santiago Stockholm World _Federation of Trade thiAm_DIETHI let World Trade Union Congress 2nd World Trade Union Cengress 3rd World Trade Union Congress October, 1945 June-July, 1949 October, 1953 Pan-African Trade Union Conference April, 1947 Trade Union Conference of Asian and Australasian Countries South American Trade Union Con- ference European Workers' Conference against German Rearmament African Workers Conference International Conference on Social Security Conference of European Made Unions against EDC November- December, 1949 March-April, 1950 March, 1951 October, 1951 March, 1953 June, 1954 Paris Milan Vienna Dakar Peking Montevideo East Berlin Bamako Vienna East Berlin World Federation of Democratic Youth (1ODY) World Youth Conference November, 1945London 2nd World Youth Congress September, 1949 Budapest 3rd World Youth Congress July, 1953 1st World Youth Festival July-August, 3.947 Prague Bucharest -76- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 2nd World Youth Festival 3rd World Youth Festival 4th World Youth Festival Latin American Youth Conference S.E. Asian Youth Conference Conference in Defence of the Rights of Youth Conference of European Youth against EDC International Gathering of Rural Youth Sentember, 1949 August, 1951 August, 1953 March, 1947 February, 1948 March, 1953 May, 1954 December, 1954 International Union of Students (his) let World Students' Congress 2nd IUS Congress 3rd IUS Congress Women's let Congress 2nd Congress 3rd Congress International International Conference for Defence of Children August, 1946 August, 1950 August- September, 1953 Democratic Federation December, 1945 December, 1948 June, 1953 April, 1952 Budapest East Berlin Bucharest Cuba Calcutta Vienna East Berlin Vienna Prague Prague Warsaw (WIDF) Paris Budapest Copenhagen Vienna International Federation of Resistance Fighters (FIR) Foundation Congress 2nd Congress Resistance Rally June, 1951 November, 1954 November, 1954 -77- Vienna Vienna Vienna Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 International Association of Democratic 4.wvers (IADL) Founding Congress 2nd Congress 3rd Congress 4th Congress 5th Congress International Conference of Law- yers in Defence of Democratic Liberties World Foundation Meeting 1st Assembly 2nd Assembly 3rd Assembly 1st Congress 2nd Congress 3rd Congress October, 1946 July, 1947 September, 194i October, 1949 April, 1951 January, 1954 Paris Brussels Prague Rome East Berlin Vienna Federation of Scientific Workes (WFSW) July, 1946 September, 1941 April, 1951 September, 1955 london Dobris (Czecho- slovakia) Paris and Prague Budapest World Federation of Teachers' Union (FISE) August, 1949 August, 1950 July, 1953 Committee for Promotion of International Warsaw Vienna Vienna ade (CPIT) International Economic Confer- ence (founding of CPIT) April, 1952 World Congress of Doctors (WOD) World Congress of Doctors May, 1953 -78- Moscow Vienna Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R000400340001-6 International Organisation of journalists (ICJ) Foundation June, 1946 Copenhagen let Congress June, 1947 Prague 2nd Congress September, 1949 Brussels 3rd Congress September, 1950 Helsinki International Broadcasting Organisation (OIR) Foundation Congress June, 1946. Brussels OIR Conference December, 1954 Prague The foregoing appendices are based upon the latest information available at the end of February, 1955. -79- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02646R00040034000 1-6