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September 1, 1956
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Approved For Release 1999/ "DP78-02771 R000200230002-0 OF RADII? FREE OPE September 1956 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0 Approved For Release 1999/ "1 4.,_..C~A-RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0 CRITICISM OF RADIO FREE EUROPE Contents 1. summary A. RFE' s Overemphasis on Propaganda B. Unreliability of RFE Broadcasts C. Tone Counterproduc t ire ne s s E. Communist Orientation of RFE F. FEP Balloon Leaflets Survey of Material Examined III. Views of US and Foreign Officials W. US' Newspaper Correspondents V. Views of the Satellite Audience VI. PEP Balloon Leaflets l7 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 CIA-RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0 Approved For Release 1999/08/ P78-02771 R000200230002-0 CZSM OF RADIO FREE EUROPE expressed by US and foreign officials, US news' Radio Free &urope (M) and Free Europe Press The following is a. a ry of the major Grit correspondents, and native listeners (satellite defectors, ais le al. travelers, and individuals behind the Iron urtain . Information is dated late 1955-1956. Qv Propagan 1. News Information vs. Propaganda three groups do not explicitly define what they & eke on individuals, to information on border conditions. Correspondents and listeners agree that propaganda is remphaetsed in programming and that more news and factual ormation is desirable. US officials do not advance ng r :n is from news commentary, exhortations to revolt propaganda." From the material examined, Its views on the relative merits of news and propaganda. Their criticis focuses on the exaggeration and manner of presen- tation of Rl propaganda, not on the faet that propaganda is programed. 20 n to e s of Propaganda The opinions of correspondents and listeners on types of propaganda show considerable uniformity. Commentary geared to news is welcomed and recommended, although some opinion in both groups holds that even this kind of propa- ganda is apathetically received, One official comment supports this view. ropaanda on liberation and propaganda inflaming feel- ings or inciting to action are deplored, Attacks on I di- viduale also are deplored but for different reasons depend- ing upon the respondent group. Correspondents report that individuals are sometimes 4n juatly attacked. Listeners do Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0 Approved For Release 1999/0 -- -'~? P78-02771 R000200230002-0 not mettian mistaken accu ations, but instead disapprove the undesirOle consequences which impel the individuals attacked to greater loyalty to the regime and to greater erity toward the population. opinions conveyed by correspondents and listeners dif- rc paganda advising the population how to respond ti.ons in their homelands. Correspondents report ,t the coca .population resents such advice. Though men- oned only twice listeners, both reactions to such were favorabe. Despite the fact they tend to dis- urage prcipa, nda, correspondents and defectors alike recommend pro sing some kind of propaganda such as ant ,-ei e a ticks, or more information to persuade the population of U3 strength vis-a-vis the Soviet bloc. scab The alleged unreliability or inaccuracy of RFE broad- Ea is asserted by all three groups but in contexts e to estimates ' o the situation and its potentialities, description of existing conditions, to statements of simple facts, or even to incorrect pronunciation. For each there are isolated examplea of criticism. In only e did a US official define what he iftant by inaccuracy in his reference to RFEme assertion concerning the disin- tegration of a satellite Co unist 'Party. 'Examples of this type of error are not directly corroborated by correspondents and listeners, but seem Implied in some of their more general criticism. Listeners also charge that emigre broadcasters are out of touch with the realities. What specific items of information or judgment occasioned statements by listeners that RFE is inaccurate or false are not indicated in avail- able material. Correspondents speak of events and self- criticism on the part of the satellite regimes having out- run M's ability to keep pace. The VOA -and the BBC are often held by correspondents and defectors alike to be more 'objective' and "accurate" althou not as opular as M. Available reports do not indicate how seriously or slightly RFE is thought to offend on this score of inaccuracy. Although none of the corre pon,dent_s stated that R]E was objective, some detectors asserted they found ' s news objective and accurate. Whatever the extent of the imputed inaccuracy and the validity of the criticism, what emerges is a measure of Approved For Release 1999/08/24.,..C P78-02771 R000200230002-0 Approved For Release 199W'.~ P78-02771 R000200230002-0 agreement by all three groups on some undefined kind and degree of unreliability and inaccuracy of RFE broadcasts, but specifics are either lacking or not comparable. All three groups express the opinion that "strident" some of RFE4a propaganda has an undesirable tone (the term used by representatives of all groups). This charge applies presumably to the "inflammatory type of propaganda men- tioned or implied by all groups. 1i. Counterproductiveness US of `ieial.s mean by counterproductivefess that RFE and information activities carried aa-Aa d th p e pr aces . ,Li Regime protests to US diplo- urisdiction ir th . j e n tender matte missions are accompanies by direct or indirect restric- tion of the missions' own information programs. E. Comunit Orientation of A number of articles contain accusations that H:E employs Communists among its emigres and disseminates pro-Communist Sudeten anti-Ma campaign, and can .one occasion to a named Czech exile. This charge is not voiced by US officials or the listener group. F. F? Moon Leaflets The almost total lack of data on correspondents' opinions and specific leaflets precludes any accurate comparison of l~P balloon leaflets. However, according to the scanty W,L data available, the ineffectiveness imputed to balloon propa- ganda by correspondents citing Western officials is not supported by the defectors, the majority of whom believe it effective. Sulzbe `ger reported that the Ten Demands thprn cal at h . s - E" r 1 f VVL.i.s data though one defector mentioned th e vident fret is not e, they were ineffective, another that they were "intresting," t d still another stated. he Was irrppressa . Oth ments by the correspondent group such as the co m er physical hazards involved and Communist regime criticism find neither corroboration nor contradiction among defectors. 3 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0 Sure of Material Examined, Cr ticis t of RFE by US officials is represented In the opinions expressed by diplomatic mission chiefs and other officials in ?gland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Rumania. This criticism has been supplemented by comments occasion- al l,y 'volunteered by members of friendly embassies. The ` icial con ent eeined is of limited value for the pres. ent study because of the small number of opinions reported, nature and the lack of specific and illustra- 4-ve supporting data. '3 and foreign officials do not make cl ar? what the basi=s of their oriticism is. In the mater available, criticism of R; seems to be based partly on Communist reime reaction, and partly on their estimates of the mood and receptiveness of the captive po ulation.s to western and R broadca,..ats an well as on talks with eatel- lite residents. On one occasion cri.tictsm was based on an e ration of E. scripts measured against the situation judged to exist in the country in question. The sample of criticism by US correspondents also is relatively small and lacking in homogeneity. It comprises nine individual. evaluations (including one British), of which four are publ.i,shed, and five were given privately to M. Ot the four published, two are extensive criti( RFE, and the others contain passing or indirect references to sans of Communist Poland speaking to Western sources have been included for a comparleon of their opinions with others. One was by a correspondent of the T buns lei du, the other was by a group of Polish writer traveling in the West. Ito Included In this study is the criticism of which appeared In the articles concerning Communist infil- tration of RE and the allegedly pro-Communist propaganda broadcast by TFE employees. The sources of Information for S correspondents are mainly residents of the satellites (often from "all walks of life' and to all appearances a random selection) and the views of American and friendly diplomats. For the listener group sample, a total of '78 reports were analyzed in the survey of satellite audience critiels and reactions to RFE broadcasts. All reports are recent, ha in. been published in 1956, although in a few cages the information was acquired during the latter part of 1955. Approved For Release 1999/08/24: ,PIA-RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0 Approved For Release 1999/08/ 61 R"CR78-02771 R000200230002-0 fire satellites contributed comments. The broken down geographically, shows that 26 yes were Czech nationals, 16 Hungarian. 16 Polish., anct ( Rumanian. Comments were received from travelers, and individuals still residing in a satellite country. Thirty-three of the sources were not described in sufficient detail to be assigned to one of the four categories. Of the total of identifiable sources, 29 were defectors, 6 satellite residents, 5 legal emigrants,,. and legal travelers. Sources came from all walks of life including peasants, factory workers, students, teachers and other professional people, businessmen and artists. Wide variations in intelli- gence, educational background, and social and economic levels oZ' sources were encountered. Sources varied also in age but the largest number were young adults. That this is the group to which RFE appeals most strongly is suggested by the fact that a number of sources stated that while R was their own preference, their parents preferred the BBC, a choice influenced by their wartime listening. No significant differences were evident in the reports types of sources. Although certain groups commeited on specific programs broadcast only to their area, the type similar for all-national grouPa. The limited - i aitedA size `of - the t and the lack of biographic data concerning the sources has made it impossible to break the reports down in- to any useful sub-divisione. 25X1X6 u The reports surveyed Include interview 25X1X6 here were no substantial differences in the kind of criticism contained In the "intelligence reports" from that appearing in , RP interviews. For these reasons all reports have been considered without reference to origin or type of source. The vlidity of the criticism expressed by US officials, correspondents, and listeners is subject to Qualification, The views of US officials may sometimes be colored by the various objectives which they seek to achieve. Their objectives also Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0 Approved For Release 1999/QA/2C,-..C R000200230002-0 may be partially vitiated by the repercussions cau ed by o Some correspondents are superficially informed on 1 t enor tives and modus operandi of Communist vsi?s. s Ivvi rk ' opinions May be influenced by occ ,Oioned simply by their being outside tie Iron Curtain, The very fact of their detection often classes them as unusual, atypical group whose attitudes and Opinions n Curtain. Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0 Approved For Release I 999/08^ c'?f"R 78-02771 R000200230002-0 Views of US and Foreign Ofd': US officials have criticized RFE for its counterpro- d`1.1ctiVene ,t, unreliability, and for use of a strident or Inappropriate tone in its propaganda. Foreign officials have expressed the opinion that RYE is ineffective. The criticism of US officials is unanimous in chars. tert jng, RPE propaganda as counterproductive, a term which means that RFE negates the liberalization develop- ments taking place, or hampers Embassy informational or propaganda activities (presumably USIS dis aya, exchange of publications, US visitors, and the like). Irritated arid. antagonized by R broadcasts (and/or balloon leaflets), the regimes in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Rumania register strong, complaints with the US missions and, place restrictions on their informational activities. officials of US and foreign missions emphasize that harassment of the regime is not necessarily a measure of successful program sing. .The.. recurrent criticism that RIME is unreliable means or outdated. Available information offers the following Ingle example: An envoy studied several I scripts and ited three instances in which lYt s description of a par- ticular situation differed from that of the Embassy. The Communist Party of the country was described as being in a state of "hysteria" and "disintegration," a character- ization ser?pt a arronous is cited as describing a situation (allegedly " .tort' but ins: throwing the government. In addition, the official also uses these eaami les to demonstrate the discrepancy between RYE propaganda quid nee and practice. In two inmtsnces, US officials suggest that the strident tone of RYE propaganda broadcasts is inappropriate and un- desirable. One US official reported that the embassies of friendly powers regard as useless. British Embassy officials are said to compare R; in one instance to the London Daily Mir, implying that F' is unreliable and sensation. 1ch seemed unwarranted by the facts. An RYE a revolt and another as containing Inflame tive slogans urging action toward over- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0 Approved For Release I 999/08/ a , , 78-02771 R000200230002-0 IV. US Newspaper Correspondents the nine evaluations b correspondents containing criticism of RM, five are extensive: One b Sulzberger (published in the New York Times, 1k May 1956), two by Sy faurgin (unpub1T Ee , oneTheodore Andrica of the Cle '; nd esthe (unpub hed), and one by Joseph { eehsberg (published in x u.rd - 1,7venin Post-,, 23 July 1956). Two additional pub s e comments a.rrief and indirect in their criticism Raymond of the New York TIM, and John Freeman of the Newtatesran and 9ar). -The remaining two of the vamp o nine are-'? e unpublished remarks by MacCormac of theme York Times and Russell Jones of the All correspondents but ; 1eohsberg believe that BYE has a significant number of listeners,., This agreement; suggests that these correspondents do not hold the view that RPE is ineffective for lack of an audience, e.heberg's remark that most people don't listen to them /VOA and RF _._ any more," seems an exaggeration of the view found in The reports of some correspondents and officials that there is decreasing interest in American propaganda broadcasts. from commentary clearly keyed to the news, the correspondents seem to mean by the term propaganda one or more of the following: any form of affirmation of the idea of liberation; incitation or exhortation to resistance (passive, active, or sabotage); advice on how to deal with various recurrent situations or conditions under Communism, collective farms, price changes, rationing); and attacks on individuals. On the issue of the desirability of propaganda compared with news and information in broadcasts, almost all, the correspondents feel that RFE (and/or VOA) broadcasts should. carry more news and less propaganda (as defined above). However, Raymond (in the New York Times, 15 January 1956), ttemptin to evaluate VOA an "'E propaganda on the issue of ltberaion, states that people do listen to the broad- cast and collect the leaflets sent across the Iron Curtain boundaries. ourgin concedes that the propaganda tone of the ' e Accuse" pro ram, which he finds irritates the vtment and inte lectuala (the latter call it childish), deli td the lain " plain people the most." Approved For Release I 999/08/2 k , DP78-02771 R000200230002-0 4DP78-027718000200230002-0 Approved For Release I 999 Q _ With these exceptions, all correspondents express the opinion that more news and less propaganda is desired by the satellite audiences. They recommend that primary e haste in broadcasts be placed on news, followed by a entifi.c and technical Information, cultural entertain- ment, and jazz programs. The correspondents feel that the least desirable forms propaganda are the attacks on regime personalities propaganda Dourgin, Andrica, Freeman). They object to attacks on regime personalities because they feel it is petty or that people are mistakenly accused. Objections to liberation propaganda are alleged disappointment in past promises, and a consequent disbelief and cynical dis- missal of hopes currently voiced, by propaganda. In the (Sulzberger Bourgin, Andrica, Wechaberg) and liberation* se of liberation propa.a.nda, Raymond presented both favor- i ence reception. ,e and unfavorable aud Similarly judged are the propaganda exhortation advice on action such as resistance or response to con- ions (Sulzberger, Bourgin, Andrica). The reason advanced the lack of effectiveness of this aspect of propaganda kt the home audience feels it knows conditions better than the emigres broadcasting such advice, and that it there- fore insults the intelligence of the listeners and occasions resentment. With the exception of those mentioned above; not all correspondent named the specific aspects of propaganda they thought undesirable. All., however, feel that "propa- andao is more or less undesirable. None of the corre- spondents find approval for such propaganda among those whom they interviewed (with the exception of Raymond and l ourgin noted above). On. the desirability of propaganda in the form of com- mentary on the news, a similar unanimity does not prevail. Though some reiterate the belief that the satellite audience is.not interested in political commentary or political affairs generally,. a smaller number recommend it. Newspaper articles dealin generally with liberation or the satellite populations views of liberation without c.fic reference to R have been disregarded in this is not possible to infer that such discussions are intended as criticism of R" since the idea of libera ti.aan is not held exclusively by 111PE; also, It has not been determined how significant a role the liberation theme plays in E output. Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0 Approved For Release 1999/08/2.1 $-02771 R000200230002-0 On the Issue of RFE unreliabtlitys only two correspond- ants noted that American propaganda is "wrong's or "1ate.11 zberger reiterated this charge in his l4 May column (without distinguishing VOA and ). Jones, considered sympathetic to I i, remarked briefly .that Hun ariane had told him that evene are moving so i`ast that Ham. is not able to keep u ...' The comments of the Polish writers support this observation. fechsberg cited Czechs as sayings "The radio people seem to think we've become a nation of tools.... We knew of the workers' riots in Ostrava and Pilsen long before the radio broadcasts.' In addition, the view that the American radio and the emigre broadcasters have list touch with the realities behind the Iron Curtain also has been expressed by Sulzberger, Bourgin, Andrica, and Wechsberg. Such a variety of reactions to broadcast programming encountered among those interviewed by the corre- spondent tat no pattern of audience preference emerges. Some say more entertainment is wanted; others say less or no entertainment. Intellectuals allegedly are irritated by the "We Accuse" program; the plain people are "delighted" by it. Economic statistics are ridiculous" and of interest only to "mathematics professors" {Sulzberger); yet ~-.echsberg finds that information on America s strength is generally wanted. No single program can be expected to be universally popular, and all will be criticized by one group of listeners or another. In the case of the Polish writers, the r bona Ludu cor- respondent stated that RFE news is too objectlye nS"Mt Its effectiveness would be enhanced by giving "political comment" on the news, since not everyone can draw his own " ns. This view may be a reflection of his profee-- ional outlook as a Communist propagandist committed by doctrine and conviction to the necessity of propaganda and not merely news reporting. He also asserts that the greatest importance is attached by Polish newspaper editors to moni- toring R 'E. recommends that R pursue the objective of out its "real causes- and solutions."" However, he cautions inst commentaries "claaaaityirg various personalities. st This may be a reference to the rr=,e Accuse" program to which Western correspondents found adverse reaction in some quarters The other Polish writers indirectly support his recon ndation on liberalization news and commentary by c 10 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0 Approved For Release 1999/08/2 .r 8-027718000200230002-0 R material for being outdated. They indicate that criticism of the domestic soene currently is so prolific in Polish media that FF,, in its criticism of conditions in Poland, is in danger of losing its previously large audience. They praise Rd2 for its effectiveness in convincing the Communists that Poland cannot be :aealed off from infor- mation from the hest and for its "vital" role in countering Communist propaganda. They warn against an " tant1- extern radio propaganda" campaign of deception carried out among foreign diplomats and touring journalists in zi"arsaw by Com- munists pretending to be spokesmen of the apposition. They also strongly emphasize the desire of Pales for information, and caution against propaganda on the internal situation without the inclusion of new information or cross-reporting. The accusation that R is promoting Communist causee and is Infiltrated by Communists appeared in four news- pa or reports at the end, of May and the beginning of Tune 195 , Most were news reports traceable to a West German Sudeten anti- ',E campaign. They were largely restricted t hi t o c n, he public accusation made by the chairman of the Sudeten German Expellees Association, Dr. Rudolf Lodgan on Auen. The only comment at the time sup-port" ,.(., the allegation was by columnist Ray Tucker in the Oroville, California r . . later, 22 June 1956, who quoted from the rri.tinga o eran eroutka described as head of the NF Czech desk, apparently to ?tprove`t Peroutkars Communist leanings, All other artlQles reported the t a or in discussing growing % est German concern with ' P , activity on sovereign German territory. Two Other articles,, independent of the Von Auen episode, supported the charge concerning RPL+s pro-Communism. John B. Crane's col=n., 21 March 1956, in the Fort Wayne, Indiana e s-$enti. 1, accorupanied by an editorial in the same vein, aeev*n-ced to accept charges made by a Jiri Brads, Boa Czech refugee journalist, that RFE Is infiltrated by Communists and that R "preaches Socialism." Twelve additional newspaper articles dating from December 955 to July 1956 made little of the infiltration charge, erasing Instead West German official or 1 (refugee ?" tical party) hoatil1ty toward fl . There is no evident ' .nation in thews articles to report R1 in an unfavorable ht. Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0 Approved For Release 199 P78-02771 R000200230002-0 in late 1955, official US despatches from the American Embassy and UI> in Bonn and the American Consulate General in Munich detail the political maneuverings of the Sudeten Oerman refugees to gain a measure of control or influence in R FE, but contain no references that could construed as discrediting RFE. Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-R.DP78-02771 R000200230002-0 Approved For Release 1999/08/2 _ P78-02771 R000200230002-0 V. Views of the Satellite Audience definitive Conclusions c b d an e rawn from the avail- able material concerning the reactions of the satellite population to f"E broadcasts because of the limited number Of reports and the fact that the sources cannot be con- eeidered typical of the population as a whole. eXaminatjo.n of available reports indicates that RP has3ess, an a tenalve listening audience behind the Iron Curtain. All sources stated =that members of their family, acquaint- ances, and fellow workers did likewise. audiences appear to i l nc ude both city and rural dwellers, although the more effective tiori jamming of city recap- proba,bl had some dete rrent effect. The majority Of s urces stated that R 'E ro p grams are subject to almost co atintta 7; mming, although most of them said that they managed to hear programs in which they were interested despite the interference. That jamming is less effective in r1ra , areas is confirmed by several listeners and by the fact that agricultural programs were singled out by at least four sources as particularly enjoyable. The criticism most frequently expressed by the satellite audience is that RFF broadcasts contain too much propaganda. This comment is made specifically 29 times, more than twice the number of time that any other one criticism is ex- pressed. In addition, the same opinion is implied by a number of sources who express a desire for "more news," "straight news," or "objective news." Sources who complain about the propaganda content of the programs do not in most cases define what they mean by the term. of qualifying phrases such as "too inflammatory," ":exa use aced," "inflammatory broadcasts," "pro a td gger- irresponsible political line" suggests p that llii;sst tcten ers identify as pre a ands, rs to incite hatred and resentment against the regime. Oneas source believed that some program material was so incen.. diary in nature that some people might be aroused to active resistance against the regime as a result of listening to it. Some listeners also find the content of certain programs either dangerous or potentially so. One source stated he Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0 Approved For Release 199 78-02771 R000200230002-0 believed that rogrs calling attention to the misdemeanors or minor offic eie only served to make such officials more fanatically attached to the regime and, more severe toward anti-?Co m nists, Another said that information broadcast concerning border conditions and possible escape routes -11 Almost as many reports, however, spoke in favor of certain programs as helpful to the satellite audience. Singled out for praise were programs which gave practical advice on how to deal with the regime and Its officials. One of the most n roux affir ,tine comments which sources gave was that I broadcasts kept up morale among its satellite hearers. This was said In some cases by persons who made derogatory eoMments on specific programs or other aspects of Rl broad- a ting. A number of listeners, while disapproving "propaganda," do s that they like anti-regime broadcasts, which would seem to imply approval of unspecified types of propaganda. It does not appear that listeners who comment disapprovi ngl :y . about propaganda intend to censure the use of news commentators. Commentary programs, particularly political and military, were ntioned by 17 sources as particularly helpful and interesting. The second most frequent criticism which the satellite aey convey is often not true. Several sources expressed the conviction that the broadcaster was not sufficiently knowledgeable on events taking place within the satellite or that he had "lost touch's with the people there. Others false. A number of listeners preferred BBC or VOA on the grounds that their broadcasts were more accurate or more objective. ers,, however, are not unanimously convinced that RPE is untrustworthy. The greatest number of approving comments recorded (29) were for RPE news broadcasts, and aource stated that they believed them to be "objective," "liable," "up to date and "frank." News broadcasts were enjoyed because listeners felt that they were their best source of information about domestic developments, other Communist countries, and the international situation. Almost as many reports criticized the tone of R?R broad- s as found the content unreliable. The greatest number Approved For Release 1999/08/2414CIA-RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0 Approved For Release 1999/08/24., = P78-02771 R000200230002-0 f these coents were directed to material which listeners characterized as 11vu.1gar" or containing "rough and vulgar talk." One program was said to be "in bad taste and harm- ful." Other oGMents declared the tone of the broadcasts to be "too strident" or "too sarcastic" and decried the Use of "inaultjng epithets and. Nazi-like tone." Still other 11 r # listener's Pound the programs dr,y + and "boring" and delivered in a bad accent. Sot a eouroes, however, characterize RFE broac.caats "lively" and. "Interesting." Others comment that the rnouncer's accent and attitude Seems typical of the national audience to which he is speaking. ng on what RE should feature in its programs few sQurces Specified that they wished to~hear Tmore ~*internal . 1o d f ca new an a ew asked for forei ittil ,gn ornernaona Ziewe comments orsum rtesl wt *l asoere menioned, as abl.e, Next most frequently stated was the desire for on conditions in which recent emigres find themselves in the West; scientific and medical programs; and programs for agricultural workers. A number of sources asked for more information about life in the West, and specifically in the V SA. About an equal number asks to be spared comparisons between cohdltjons in the satellites and the high standard ` a living in America. Entertainment is mentioned as desirable by several source, especially plays, humorous programs, and jazz. Source vote consistently, however, against programs of mi-ciaasjca1a a;asjcai and folk music because they are broadcast over the regime radio and can be heard thus more leariy anditht d f wouangerrom regime informers. Religious programs please some listeners and Irritate others in about equal proportions. Listeners who object to them do so on the grounds that the practice.of religion is not forbidden in the satellites and that they feel that RPE is patronizing 1.-hem with such programs. Other co nts ask for more programs for women youth , , intellectuals, and programs which emphasize sports, the shortcomings of the regime, and the accomplishments of famous national heroes. Sources detailing programs they Approved For Release 1999/08/24 !'~IA-RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0 ~ Approved For Release I 999/08/ ,, RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0 not enjoy mention long talks, too much oratory, or too superior a tone. A considerable number of sources went on record as approving the variety of RPE programs and the feat that they were planned to include material for different social and intellectual levels. A number of sources spoke approvingly of RP's continuous broadcasting schedule and noted that if they missed a pro- gram because of severe jamming they could very often listen to a re-broadcaot later when the jamming was 1e5s effective. One source advocated arranging VOA and RFE schedules so that they did not conflict. 16 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0 Approved For Release 1999/000R r- 44+ 1 P78 " V1. PEP Balloon Leaflets Three articles in the ew York Times (Sidney Oruson, 30 January and February 19361 d ison Salisbury,, 12 February 1956) represent the main criticisms of Free Europe Press balloon leaflets available from ne spapere. &ulzberger1a 14 May 156 article cites a "friendly ambassa- dor in Czechoslovakia." as describing leaflets containing 10 popular demands for freedom as bein "foolish." The New York I d Tribune, 25 January 1959, cites Russian propa- ganda st pporech protests on the balloons. on.ts .first article describes a Prague exhibit of balloon propaganda, which portrays the balloons as a physical danger to air flight and to the population, some of whom are claimed In the exhibit to have been injured by the explosion of balloons. His article stresses the Communist origins of the charges. He paraphrases a Czech guide at the exhibition Ing that the pamphlets distributed have lost whatever veness they may have had. lru,eon's second article eu narizes the opinion of "many tern diplomats" that the leaflets have "long outlived whatever usefulness they may have had," and that they are "bad ropaganda" because they raise internal tension, whereas the aim ehould be to lessen Internal tension with the ulti- mate effect of loosening ties with the Soviet Union. Ad- mittin the difficulty of measuring the "ordinary Czecho- slovak a reaction to his government! s campaign against the balloons," he does cite one ,non-Communist white collar worker" to the effect that If a balloon killed a Czech, It would create more ill will than 10 years of Communist propa- ganda have done. ebury' s article also cites "some western quartera some American observers behind the Iron Curtain' as being critical of the balloon propaganda effort. Other than this attribution, Salisbury notes the coordinated., Soviet-directed campaign against the balloons. Satellite audience reaction to Free Europe Press leaflets contained in 19 of the 78 reports available on satellite audience reactions to propaganda. All reports considered are of recent (1956) date. A few sources state-dthat they had heard of the leaflets but had never seen one and had no opinion As to their effectiveness. (These sources are i ncluded in this survey.) t Approved For Release 1999/08/2417CIA-RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0 Approved For Release 1999/08/ "?' QPMP78-02771 R000200230002-0 As in the sampling of opinion concerning PF broadcasts, reports Come from defectors, legal emigrants, legal travelers, and residents of the satellite area. Geographically, only three satellites are represented: Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland, Of the 19 reports, 3 sources are Czech, 5 Hun- garian, and 3 Polish. In all, 24 opinions concerning the leaflets were expressed, sin ce core sources went on record as favoring some aspect a th e operation while being opposed to another. The majority of opinions express approval of the leaflets enerall (16 g y in favor, 8 against), Reasons which sources gave for liking the leaflets were similar to those expressed concering RFE broadcasts. Six responses stated that the leaflets kept up morale and five stated that the leaflets were desirable because they brought information otherwise unavailable to the reader. Other opinions were that they harassed the broadcasts because they were more tangible, and could be read over and passed on. Derogatory opinions were based on the fact that sources did not believe that the Iea.flete were effective (four) or considered them dangerous because possession might lead, to One). 'Other sources found hem ttt~nint e3r?eastj ngti as d " u an 18 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000200230002-0