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October 30, 2002
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August 15, 1957
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Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-02820A 0 00010054-8 PROGRAM THURSDAY, AUGUST 15, 1957 9:00-9:30 REGISTRATION DINKELSPIEL LOBBY 9:30-12:00 SESSION I (S) DINKELSPIEL AUDITORIUM CHAIRMAN: F. E. TERMAN THE RESEARCH PROGRAM INTRODUCTION F. E. TERMAN TRANSISTOR RESEARCH J. G. LINVILL NETWORK THEORY W. W. HARMAN HIGH-POWER TUBES AND MICROWAVE DEVICES M. CHODOROW TRAVELING-WAVE TUBES AND GENERAL MICROWAVE AMPLIFIERS D. A. WATKINS SYSTEMS TECHNIQUES W. R. RAMBO RADIO STUDIES OF THE IONOSPHERE 0. G. VILLARD, JR. RESEARCH'OF GENERAL INTEREST: STANFORD PARTICIPATION IN THE I.G.Y. 0. G. VILLARD, JR. 1:30-2:50 SESSION II A RADIO STUDIES OF THE l IONOSPHERE I SESSION II B (C) TRAVELING-WAVE AMPLIFIERS AND OSCILLATORS 2:50-3:10 RECESS 3:10-4:30 SESSION III A (S) SYSTEMS TECHNIQUES I. (CLASSIFIED RESEARCH) REHEARSAL HALL SESSION III B RADIO STUDIES OF THE IONOSPHERE II 6:00 STEAK FRY AT ADOBE CREEK LODGE TRANSPORTATION AVAILABLE AT 5:30 AT WILBUR HALL AND AT DINKEL$PIEL AUDITORIUM. Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved FAelafe 2002/11/13: CIA'-RDP78-028 00 QO10054-8 FRIDAY, AUGUST116, 1957 ICI 9:30-10;40 SESSION IV A TRANSISTOR RESEARCH REHEARSAL HALL SESSION IV B (C) MICROWAVE DEVICES AUDITORIUM 11:00-12:10 SESSION V A NETWORK AND SYSTEM THEORY REHEARSAL HALL SESSION V B HIGH-POWER TRAVELING-WAVE TUBES AND KLYSTRONS AUDITORIUM 1:30-2:45 SESSION VI A (S) SYSTEMS TECHNIQUES II EXPERIMENTAL ECM EQUIPMENT AND DEVICES REHEARSALL HALL SESSION VI B MICROWAVE ELECTRONICS AUDITORIUM 2:45-3:15 RECESS 3:1.5- TOURS AND INDIVIDUAL CONFERENCES BY ARRANGEMENT FOR TOURS MEET AT STEPS IN FRONT OF DINKELSPIEL AUDITORIUMS FOR DETAILS OF TOURS, SEE P. 75 NOTE: ALL SESSIONS A MEET DOWNSTAIRS IN THE REHEARSAL HALL: ALL SESSIONS B IN THE MAIN AUDITORIUM. Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA',-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 PAGE(S) 4f - ~y ~p dm.c.~ S,d~ m~JS?p ~FiQ~~ MISSING Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Ruse 2002/11/13: CIA-RDP78-0282 AOj 00010054-8 .SESSION II B TRAVELING-WAVE AMPLIFIERS AND OSCILLATORS 13 47 SESSION V A NETWORK AND SYSTEM THEORY 57 SESSION V B HIGH-POWER TRAVELING-WAVE TUBES AND KLYSTRONS 65 TOUR OF LABORATORY FACILITIES 75 DEMONSTRATIONS AND DISPLAYS 76 SENIOR STAFF STANFORD ELECTRONICS LABORATORIES 79 SENIOR STAFF: MICROWAVE LABORATORY 80 SERVICE SPONSORED CONTRACTS AT STANFORD LIST OF CURRENT PROJECTS PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING TECHNICAL REPORTS LIST OF REPORTS ISSUED SINCE JUNE 30, 1956 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 CIA-RDP78-02820A0,00010054-8 %,Oe *MW SESSION II A 30-2:50) (Rehearsal Hall,) BESEARCH STUDIES OF THE IONOSPHERE I (Unclassified) CHAIRMAN: A. M. PETERSON 1.. Radar Studies of 15th-Magnitude Meteors (AF19(604)2193; P. B. Gallagher and V. R. Eshleman) The particles responsible for the brightest and the faintest vis- ual meteors (-10 to +5 visual mag- nitude) have masses in the ratio of 106 to 1. Still smaller particles can be studied by radio-echo tech- niques. Past radar studies of small meteors have been limited by system sensitivity to about the +10th mag- nitude; i.e., to trails created by particles having masses equal to or greater than 1/100 the mass .of those particles which create the faintest meteors observable by. eye.. A radar system permitting studies of meteors down to the 15th mani- tu,!..e has now been constructed. it features a 23-i,'c broad-side array of 96 four-element Yagi antennas arranged in the form of two parallel rows of antennas several wavelengths apart. Each row is approximately 2000. feetlon..The array generates a fan- shaped radiation pattern that has a lobe structure in the meridian plane, and has a measured half- power beam width of 1.5 degrees. The theoretical gain of the antenna is 30 db. This antenna is fed from a 90-kw peak-power transmitter through a T-Pt arrangement,allowing the same antenna to be used for transmitting and receiving. The following data have been ob- tained for the very small meteors with this equipment.: the distribu- tion of echo rates and amplitudes; diurnal echo-rate variation; day- to-day echo rate variation; and particle velocities. Over most of the measured ampli- tude range, the number of echoes of amplitude greater than A is in- versely proportional to A. (This variation also applies to the larger meteors which have been studied in the past). However, for the very small measured echoes, there are sometimes fewer and sometimes more echoes than the number given by this simple law. During the early morning hours, when the total rate is at its daily peals, the number is great- er, while for the rest of the day the number is less. The ratio of the diurnal maximum to diurnal minimum rate of echo detection is as high as 100 to.l, as compared to less than 10 to 1 for larger meteors detected with less directive antennas... The maxi- mum rate (:greater than 6000 echoes per hour) occurs in the morning, as would be expected for this north .directed antenna beam. However, the duration of the morning peak of activity is unusually short., being less than two hours. Day-to-day echo rates for the same time of day vary by more than two to one. There is a preliminary indication of an approximately monthly variation of the maximum echo rate. Velocities of the very small meteors have been measured from the Fresnel diffraction fluctuation of the echo.,. However, these pat- terns are unusually irregular, making accurate velocity determina-? - 5 - Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-028 OA0 300010054-cIA- 2 tions very difficult. Measurements of the character- istics of very small meteors should provide new knowledge of (1) the number-mass distribution of inter- planetary dust, (2) the distribu- tion in space of this material, (3) the total amount of ionization created by meteors, and its role in ionospheric-scatter and meteor- burst propagation, (4) the physi- cal nature of meteoric particles, and (5) the possible correlation of the rate of influx of meteoric mat- erial with world-wide rainfall sta- tistics. It is now apparent that the meteor size spectrum extends to smaller particles than can be de- tected with the present equipment. It is hoped that a more powerful transmitter can be obtained in order to extend the radar studies to these smaller particles. 2. The Initial Radius of Meteoric Ionization Trails (Task 24D; L. A. Manning) When a meteor passes through the lower E-region, it produces to the first order a line distribution of ionization in its path. It has been usual to compute the strength of meteoric echoes by assuming diffu- sion, with a fixed coefficient of diffusion, from this initial line distribution, although sometimes it has been thought that the ioni- zation is distributed initially with a radius of one electronic mean-free-path length. However, more careful study shows that when the trail is first formed, the neu- tral and ionized atoms of meteoric material are moving with about 100 times thermal velocity. Diffusion of the trail is thus very rapid at first. Kinetic-theory calculations indicate that this rapid initial diffusion causes the trail to ex- pand to a radius of about 14 times the mean-free-path length before the diffusing particles reach equili- brium temperature.Because neutral and ionized atoms differ in colli- sion cross-sections and hence in free-path length, it can be said that there will be two meteor trails created--the neutral 'atom trail' and the 'ion trail.' The atom trail is about five times the size of the ion trail. Calculation of the returned sig- nal from an ionization trail, tak- ing into account the finite parti- cle velocity, shows that the tran- sient expansion is so rapid that the signal may correctly be com- puted on the assumption that the ionization is formed instantan- eously at an initial radius of 14 ionic mean-free-paths. At the high- er meteor heights and radio fre- quencies, initial radius is the limiting factor in meteor detecta- bility. It is predicted from the above theory that a rather sharp reduction in observed echo rate should occur at a frequency of roughly 100 megacycles; this drop- off is in fact observed in practice. The attenuation which produces this change in rate increases with in- creasing frequency, up to about 50 db for under-dense trails at UHF. This signal-strength reduction is multiplicative with that occurring when the normal diffusion,-decay time-constant is small compared with the time required for the meteoric particle to cross the first Fresnel zone, At the usual observing fre- quencies, the maximum height of de- tection is sharply limited by the Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved Ftorr Release 2002/11/13: CIA-RDP78-02820 0Q, 00010054-8 IIA-3 rapid increase of initial radius with height.. Detectability of the less-densely ionized over-dense trails is affected at the same heights and frequencies as for under-dense trails. 3. Oblique Meteoric Echoes From Over-dense Trails (Task 24D; L. A. Manning) It is now well known that for under-dense meteoric ionization trails, i.e., those with line den- sities less than-about 1014 elec- trons per meter, the echo duration at a given frequency is proportion- al to the square of the secant of the forward-scatter angle. The re- sulting large increases in the dur- ation with obliquity of the path for under-dense-trail echoes are of great importance in the practical application of meteoric echoes in communication circuits. Experimental studies of echo durations from over- dense trails (line densities greater than 1014 electrons per meter) on oblique paths have shown, however, that the same increase in duration with obliquity is not observed. In the present study, the ray paths in an over-dense Gaussian trail have been computed by the method of geo- metrical optics. Both the dependence ,of duration on obliquity, and the polar scattering diagram versus echo duration have been computed. (For simplicity, it is assumed the incident ray is perpendicular to the meteoric path or radiant). It is found that no simple power se- cant law of duration applies. No increase in duration relative to the duration at back-scatter occurs over an oblique path unless the transmitted ray is deviated from the forward direction by less than ninety degrees. For smaller devia- tions, the duration does increase, but if the results are force-fitted to a secant law, the required ex- ponent is generally less than one- half. It is found also that for durations greater than those pos- sible at back-scatter, a peak in the polar scattering diagram occurs in the most nearly backward direc- tion. There is also a peak in the original wave direction. 4. Some Characteristics of Radio Communication Via Meteor Ioniza- tion Trails (AF19(604)2193; V. R. Eshleman and R. F. Mlodnosky) The intermittent vhf signal pro- pagated over long ranges (up to 2000,kw) byreflections from meteor ionization trails makes possible an important new technique for radio communication. In this-'meteor- burst' communication technique,the required transmitter power and an- tenna size are considerably less than for communication via the. con- tinuous vhf scatter signal sup- ported by smaller meteors and other scattering sources in the lower ionosphere. The wavelength depen- dence of the information capacity of meteor-burst propagation is ap- proximately X2.7, which may becom- pared with approximately X4'7 for continuous communication. It may be said that. the terminal equipment is better matched to the propaga- tion medium when provision is made to send and receive information intermittently. As a result it should be feasible to use consi- derably shorter wavelengths for meteor-burst communication than can - 9 - Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For. Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-02 AQW00010054-8 IIA-4 Nftpo~ be used for continuous ionospheric- scatter communication, thereby in- creasing the number of channels available for long-range communi- cation and reducing the self and mutual interference now encountered in the lower vhf band. The directivity of radio re- flections from meteor trails, and the distribution of trail orienta- tions (radiants), control the di- rectional properties of meteor pro- pagation.. The gross features of these directional properties for an east-west path in northern tem- perate latitudes are such that, for maximum number of meteor re- flections, the antennas at the transmitter and receiver should be pointed north of the great-circle bearing for the hours centered on 0600,. and south of this bearing for the hours centered on 1800.. The op- timum off-path angle may be as great as 200. For a north-south path, the beams should be pointed west of the path at night, and east of the path during the day. These gross features appear to repeat each day. In addition, short-term fluctuations in the radiant distri- bution have been noted, thesefluc- tuations being due to heretofore undetected meteor showers of very short duration. It appears that the information capacity of meteor- burst and ionospheric-scatter sys- tems could be markedly increased by varying the bearings of the anten- na beams according to the known di- urnal variations in meteor radiants. In addition, it may be possible to put to use the short-term fluctua- tions in the radiant distribution by means of a radar which can con- tinuously monitor the changing ra- diant distribution, and 'instan- taneously predict' the optimum an- tenna bearings for the communica- tion circuit. It appears important to extend the studies of meteor radiants to smaller meteors. This could be done with a more powerful transmitter and a larger rotating antenna than was used in otaining the above re- sults. Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved F Relea a 2002/11/13: CIA-RDP78-02820 -0 00010054-8 SESSION II B (1:30-2:50) (Auditorium) TRAVELING-WAVE AMPLIFIERS AND OSCILLATORS (UNCLASSIFIED) CHAIRMAN: G. WADE 1. A Study of the Wide band Kilowatt Amplifier Problem at S-band and Higher Frequencies. (Project 490B-84(U). D. A. Dunn, R. P. Lagerstrom, W. R. Luebke, P. A. Brennan) A satisfactory traveling-wave. amplifier with bandwidth greater than 50% and pulsed power output greater than one kilowatt can be built at frequencies below about 4000 Mc.using conventional design techniques. At these frequencies and with these bandwidth and power capabilities, tubes with at least a 10% duty cycle, and probably c-w tubes as well, are possible. For frequencies at and above X-band, a new approach is required if the tube, including focusing structure, .is to have a reasonable size and weight and if a reasonably high average-power. capability is to be provided. Several aspects of this problem are under study, including new slow- wave circuits for 50% or greater bandwidth, and depressed-collector operation of traveling-wave tubes. The conventional single-helix circuit, which could provide the desired bandwidth if scaled down to X-band size, would be limited in power output because. of reduced heat dissipation and reduced beam cross section and would require a very high magnetic field, and a heavy'solenoid. The use of over- sized helices,on the other hand,is restricted by the threat of back- ward-wave oscillations near wave- lengths of twice the helix circum- ference. An 'ultimate' circuit would have a much larger diameter than present circuits, no backward-wave interaction difficulties, and would be all-metal. No circuit is pre- sently known with these attributes and with a 50% bandwidth. However, from the present studies it appears that new circuits may be developed which are substantially better than the single helix in these respects. A number of alternatives will be discussed including some bifilar he.lices with straps and other dis- continuities introduced in order to provide support, cooling, and suppression of backward-wave oscil- lations. The possibility of improving ef- #iciency by means of amulti-segment depressed-voltage collector per- mits a considerable increase in the freedom of design in this type of tube. Such a collector would col- lect the entire beam at a very low voltage when there is no r-f input and would split the beam between two or more segments at different voltages when r-f input is supplied. In a low-du:ty-cycle application, the tube could be operated with a c-w beam and be ready to amplify at all times, and yet the power-supply drain would be low. Some preliminary calculations have been made for a proposed two-segment collector in- volving both longitudinal and trans- verse electric fields together with the usual longitudinal magnetic focusing fields The results of these calculations indicate that Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282QA.WO 00010054-8 \..i V I IB- 2 the beam efficiency can be appreci- ably increased using electrode ge.- ometr$es that would not substanti- ally increase the mechanical com- plexity of the tube. Experimental work on an X-band one-kilowatt amplifier incorporat- ing some of these ideas is in pro- gress and will be discussed. 2. Hollow-Beam Focusing Using Rad- ial Electric and Periodic Electric or Magnetic Fields (Project 406W-84(U) and 313T-78 (U); C. C. Johnson, Y. Hiramatsu) In most conventional systems em- ploying microwave tubes, a solenoid and associated power supply are re- quired. Any focusing system which can eliminate the solenoid leads to weight reduction, compactness, and efficiency improvement. Two systems are described which achieve this end result. One system is purely electrostatic and uses radial and periodic fields to ob- tain focusing. The radial field is established by an inner rod at a voltage slightly below the beam voltage. The periodic fields are established by a series of rings surrounding the beam at voltages alternately above and below the beam voltage. The periodic fields exert an inward force, and the rad- ial field, an outward force. These forces are used to cancel space charge forces at the beam boundaries to obtain focusing. Possible r-f structures which could be incorpor- ated into this focusing scheme are numerous. For example, a bifilar helix would be employed to estab- lish the periodic fields as well as to act as the r-f structure. A monofilar helix or any other struc- ture of circular crosssection could replace the inner rod. The second system is much like the first, except that the periodic fields are magnetic instead of electrostatic. Radial fields are set up by an inner rod and an outer cylinder surrounding the beam. The periodic magnetic fields are estab- lished by a series of magnets ex- ternal to the outer cylinder which are alternately of north and south polarity. These fields are then used to cancel the space-charge forces at the inner and outer beam boundaries. The r--f structure can take the place of either the inner rod or the outer cylinder.. While this focusing'scheme requires per- iodic magnets which are not required in the previous system, it relaxes the requirement for compatability between the focusing structure and the r-f structure. These systems can focus hollow beams which are useful for low and. medium power tubes. The system employing purely electrostatic fields has been in- vestigated experimentally. A well- focused beam of micro-perveance 4 was obtained with 97 per cent trans- mission at a beam power of 15 watts. Beam trajectories have been ob- tained from the IBM 650 Computer which show the effects of 'over- focusing' and of imperfect entrance conditions. Preliminary results in- dicate that a beam can be focused despite considerable variation from optimum entrance conditions. This is in contrast to many focus- ing systems which are very critical in this respect. Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Release 2002/11/13: CIA-RDP78-02A0W00010054I1B_ 3 3. Backward-Wave Oscillator Studies (Project 403W-24(U); J. 'Gewar- towski) The backward-wave oscillator has proven to be a versatile and useful device for laboratory signal gener- ators, communications systems, and countermeasures equipment. Because of the highly nonlinear nature of the electron interact ion. process in the oscillator,acomplete theoreti- cal analysis is very complicated and to this date has not been per- formed. This work is an experimental study of the dynamic electron i,nter- action mechanism in the backward- wave oscillator. The instantaneous current and velocity of a repre- sentative portion of the electron beam reaching the collector are obtained experimentally by means of a beam analyzer. The values of current and velocity thus obtained depend upon the level of oscilla- tion, which is determined by the ratio of the actual total beam cur- rent to its value at the start of oscillation. Data have been obtained for a series of levels of oscilla- tion. In order to observe the instan- taneous current and velocity with as much accuracy as possible, the data were taken on a specially built tube scaled up in size and down in frequency. The result is .an 80-Mc tube,.twelv.e feet in length, which can be voltage tuned from 40 Mc to over 120 Mc. The tube uses a sheet beam and an interdigital line. A small hole in the collector allows a few micro- amperes of the beam to pass into the beam analyzer. Thebeam analy- zer consists of focusing lenses, a crossed d-c electric and d-c magne- tic field for velocity separation, r-f deflection plates, and finally a fluorescent screen. The r-f de- flection plates cause the unniodu- lated beam to describe an ellipti- cal path on the fluorescent screen. The crossed d-c electric and mag- netic fields are balanced so that the unmodulated beam isnot deflec- ted by them. When the tube is os- cillating, both current and veloc- ity modulation exist on the beam, which alter the appearance of the fluorescent-screen trace consider- ably. Since the r-f deflection plates are synchronized to the out- put of the tube, a stationary pat- tern appears on the screen. The velocity separator is arranged so that velocities different from the d--c beam velocity are indicated by vertical deflections from the ref- erence ellipse. Instantaneous cur- rent is measured from the brightness of a small portion of the trace. Position around the ellipse gives a time base for these measurements. These patterns are photographed and analyzed using an optical den- sitometer- comparator. By this means the nonlinear operating character- istics of the backward-wave oscil- lator can be determined in detail. Data on instantaneous current and velocity as afunction of r-f phase contribute significantly to an un- derstanding of the mechanism by which the oscillation level is reached. 4. The Helitron Oscillator (Project 404W-24(U); D. A. Wat- kins and G. Wada) The HELITHON oscillator is a new type of voltage-tuned oscillator which can be built to operate at Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved F*orr Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-02822OA0003p0010054-8 !~T I IB- 4 moderate-power levels in the 500-Mc to 10-kMc range. It requires no magnetic field and has a tuning characteristic superior to that of the type-'O' backward-wave oscil- lator. The device is called IIELITRON because the electron beam of rec- tangular cross section traverses a helical path between an outer cyl- indrical 'sole' electrode and an inner cylindrical r-f circuit. The r-f circuit is maintained positive with respect to the sole, thus pro- viding an inward radial electric force which, when balanced against the outward centrifugal force, re- sults in stable focusing for the beam. The angle of the helical path is determined by the mounting angle of an electron gun which launches the beam at the beginning of the interaction region. The r-f structure consists of a four-segment cylinder which propa- gates a TEM wave for which the four segments are alternately plus- minus-plus-minus. Thus the r-f in- teraction is between the electrons and the r-f field in the four gaps. When a TEM wave is visualized to travel from the collector end to the gun end of the structure, back- ward-wave interaction will occur at a frequency such that the electrons travel from one gap to the next in a little less than one--half cycle. Results of testing an experimental model are as follows: The tube tunes continuously from 1.2 to 2.4 kMc with a power output ranging from 2 to 10 milliwatts. To cover this frequency range, the sole-to-circuit voltage is varied from 700 to 1700. volts. Thus a 2.5- to-1 voltage change covers a 2-to- 1 frequency range. Second-harmonic output is more than 25 db below the fundamental over the range. The HELITI-RON oscillator appears to have the following advantages over type-'O' backward-wave oscil- lators or voltage;-.tuned magnetrons: (1) No magnet is required. (2) The efficiency is potentially higher than that of the type- '0' backward- wave oscillator. (3)Tuning voltage and frequency are nearly proportion- al. (4) The device is relatively easy to fabricate. Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 25X1 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Next 5 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA~0000300010054-8 SESSION III B (3:10-4:30) (Auditorium) RADIO STUDIES OF THE IONOSPHERE II (UNCLASSIFIED) CHAIRMAN: 0. G. VILLARD. JR. 1. The Magneto-Ionic Duct--A New Means for Long-Distance Radio Trans- mission at Very Low Frequencies (Nonr-225(27), alsoAF18(603)126 and Y/6.10/20; . R.. A. He l l iwe l l and E. Gehrels) Echoes of radio signals from station NSS on 15.5 kc in Annapolis, Maryland (geomagnetic latitude 50? N), with delays up to nearly one second have been detected by a Stanford University observer at Cape Horn, South America (45?S). The signal was a special pulse of one-quarter-second duration, repeat- ed every two seconds. Most of the observations were made for 15-minute periods at night during January and February, 1957. These observations provide the first controlled test of the Ecker- sley-Storey theory of whistler pro- pagation.Whistlers are audio-range electromagnetic signals, usually of descending frequency, and were shown by Eckersley to result from. the dispersion of lightning energy. Storey advanced the hypothesis, sup- ported by considerable data, that the path of propagation extends be- tween the hemispheres through the outer ionosphere, following lines of force of the earth's magnetic field. Such paths, which we have termed `magneto-ionic ducts,' may extend as far as 20, 000, miles above the surface of the earth. The group velocity along these ducts is of the order of ten per cent of that in free space. Discovery of the NSS echoes opens up new possibilities for long-distance communication at. very low frequencies and has asig- nificant bearing on low-frequency navigation systems. It also pro- vides a powerful new tool for de- termining the distribution of ioni- zation in the outer ionosphere, a little understood but extremely im- portant link between the sun and the earth. The main results and. conclusions are summarized as follows: 1. NSS echoes with group delays of from 0.3 to 0.9 second have been observed at 15.5 kc at night. The close similarity of these de- lays to those observed in conven- tional whistler propagation provides new evidence in support of the Eckersley-Storey theory of whist- lers. 2. NSS echoes were frequently heard when whistlers were entirely absent.. This absence was probably due to a lack of suitable lightning sources. at the proper location, and not to poor propagation condi- tions in the magneto-ionic duct as had previously been thought. 3. Split echoes and regular deep fading were often observed; this suggests the presence of multiple paths of propagation of variable relative phase. 4. The observed echo intensities were 10 to 30 db below that of the direct wave whose nighttime inten- sity was 150 microvolts per meter. According to present theory, the receiver was near the edge of the `effective' area surrounding the Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 -.0 I I IB- 2 opposite end (called the "conjugate' point) of the field-line path ori- ginating at the transmitter. This relationship suggests that echo strengths comparable to or greater than the direct, wave may be found near the conjugate point.. Under these conditions, the new mode would be an important factor in vlf communication. 5. The long and variable delays of the observed echoes can be ex- pected to interfere seriously with the operation of phase-sensitive vlf navigation systems. 6. The new technique has impor- tant advantages over whistlers for the study of the outer ionosphere. Unlike the lightning source, the vlf transmitter can be turned on at will and its location and radia- tion properties are readily deter- mined. It should now be possible to obtain valuable new data on the distribution of ionization far be- yond the.known layers o,f the iono- sphere. Such knowledge correlated with. solar and other geophysical data can be expected to lead to a better understanding of the-mechan- isms of magnetic storms and aurorae. Detailed plans are being formu- lated'for setting up further NSS listening stations in the Cape Horn area, and, for the first time, in Antarctica. Every effort is being made to complete the installations by this coming fall. There are two reasons for haste: (1) whistler recordings being made for the IGY, which started July 1, 1957, are needed to aid in data interpreta- tion, and (2) desirable field sites and personnel in the southern hem- isphere are available only during the IGY. 2. A Microwave Spectroheliograph for Studying the Solar Control of the Ionosphere (AF18(603)53; R. N. Bracewell) The Stanford microwave spectro- heliograph, which is nearing com- pletion, will scan the sun intele- vision fashion with a very narrow pencil beam, to build up a 'photo- graph' of the sun taken with radia- tion which is emitted in the S-band portion of the radio-frequency spectrum. Such a spectroheliogram, to bor- row the optical term for a mono- chromatic picture of the sun, will reveal aspects of the sun quite different from those to which we are accustomed from optical obser- vations. The principal features of a microwave spectroheliogram will be: (1) the lack of circular sym- metry in the quiet-sun radiation, (2) the presence of concentrated areas whose brightness is much greater than that of the surrounding quiet areas, and (3) the occasional outburst of radiation associated with chromospheric flares. It is also expected that the radio sun will be ten per cent larger than the visible sun. These expectations are based on a small number of laborious pioneering observations which have already been carried out elsewhere. What further phe- nomena will emerge when regular observations are instituted cannot, of course, yet be guessed. The basic purpose of, the program is to provide new knowledge about the sun and its influence on the earth's ionosphere. What informa- tion is already' available about the sun is being utilized to the full Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-02820A~0000300010054 IB- 3 at present, and very large investi- gations are being undertaken to find the best use to which existing solar data can be put to improve forecasts of ionospheric propagation and to lessen the effects of solar disturbance. However, the available data are principally optical, and the optical effects do not neces- sarily originate at solar levels at which the strongest solar distur- bances manifest themselves. For example, the deep-lying and very thin stratum of the sum from which white light comes exhibits hardly any day-to-day variation in emis- sion, whereas the layers of the chromosphere from which microwaves come are quite variable in output. These chromospheric levels are be- lieved to be the source of the ionizing ultraviolet radiation which causes variability of-the earth's ionosphere. Thus observations with the new instrument can be expected to con- tribute data on an important part of the sun which.hi.therto, as a result of its virtual transparency, has been accessible only with dif- ficulty to optical study. It is also expected that the liaison with radio scientists, resulting from the conduct of this work within a group experienced in ionospheric radio propagation, will lead more readily to practical application then is usual with astronomical research. 3. Long-Distance Transmission Sup- ported by Multiple Reflections From the F-Layer of the Ionosphere With- out Intermediate Ground Reflections (Task 24D; AF19(604)1830; 0. G. Villard, Jr. and A. M. Peterson) By means of the ground-back- scatter sounding technique, it is possible to demonstrate the exis- tence and relative importance of ionospheric modes of transmission involving two or more successive reflections. from the F-region with- out an intermediate reflection from the ground. In order that such transmission be launched, the iono- sphere must depart from spherical symmetry in a suitable manner; in order that the energy eventually be returned to the earth, a second departure from symmetry is required. Such departures from symmetry are frequently provided in the morning and evening hours by the normal daily buildup and decay of F-layer ion density, which results in the appearance of effective ionospheric tilts. It is found that these tilts exert a powerful effect on radia- tion taking off from a given trans- mitting antenna at the lower verti- cal angles. Strong tilts are encountered al- most daily in equatorial regions, owing to the way in which the F- layer behaves in the vicinity of the magnetic equator. These tilts result in the regular appearance of two and three successive F-layer reflections, without intermediate ground reflection. Often this pro-. pagation takes place at frequencies considerably higher than the highest which will support conventional multihop transmission; it may in fact provide an explanation for the so-called 'anomalous' transqua- torial propagation. At temperate latitudes,, tilt-supported trans- mission can, at a given radio fre- quency, be shown to be present in one direction or another for a frac- tion of the time which can be as Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-02820A000300010054-8 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-02820A000300010054- 00I IB- 4 high as 20' per cent. Such trans- mission has been consistently ob- served to the north of Stanford owing to the normal daily gradient of ionization in that direction. Tilt-supported propagation modes have a number of interesting pro- perties. They display surprising strength, owing both to the exis- tence of a novel type of ionospheric focusing, and to their relatively low attenuation, since energy losses in the D-region and at the ground are avoided. In addition, the ef- fective skip distance for thi.s:type of transmission is much less de- pendent on the. operating radio fre- quency than is the case with con- ventional symmetrical reflection. Finally, if the layer tilt or dis- tortion from spherical symmetry is severe enough, the tilt mode may be. effective at frequencies apprecia- bly above the conventional MUF. The significance and prevalance of tilt-supported transmission has not previously been appreciated be- cause pulse, rather than c-w tech- niques are needed to separate the various types of propagation from one another. Since these modes are normally effective over transmis- sion paths of given length at given times of day and at given seasons of the year, it is not surprising that they should have escaped no- tice until systematic observations with rotating antenna backscatter sounders had been carried out. It seems likely that methods for predicting and utilizing tilt-sup- ported propagation can be found, and that application of such methods will result in a notable improve- ment in the efficiency with which the ionosphere can be utilized. Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-02820A0Q 300010054-8 SESSION IV A (9:30-10:40) (Rehearsal Hall) TRANSISTOR RESEARCH (UNCLASSIFIED) CHAIRMAN: J. G. LINVILL 1:_ Transistor Theory and Circuits (Task 24C,, J. M: Pettit) a..Transistor Theory: High- Frequency Equivalent Circuits. A study has just been completed on large sample groups of two major types ofjunction transistors:2N123 alloy pnp and SB100 surface-barrier types. The results include: (1) proven measurement techniques for obtaining device parameters (rb,Cc, fa,etc.,) and high-frequency admit- tances (yll,yl2,etc.,.) up to 30 Mc; (2) evaluation of our high-frequency equivalent circuit, previously de- veloped by Middlebrook and Scarlett. The equivalent circuit can now be used with confidence to predict high-frequency admittances of a transistor up to and beyond half the alpha-cutoff frequency. b.. Transistor Circuits:,, Ampli' f ier Stabi,lity A year ago we reported a design technique for assuring a specified stability margin in a one-stage transistor amplifier--in afrequen- cy range where the internal feed- back in the transistor produces potential instability--by adjust- ment of source and load conductances rather than by neutralization.This work has been extended to the more complex case of a multi-stage am- plifier, employing a two-terminal network plus an ideal transformer for the interstage coupling.Repre- sentative two- and three-stage am- plifiers have been designed and constructed for experimental veri- fication. 2. Transistor Video Amplifiers (Project 2920-84(U), R. A'.,_ Scar- lett) This project is concerned with the design of high-gain pulse am- plifiers with short recovery time following an overloading pulse. A configuration employing alternate common-collector and common-emitter stages has been found useful for obtaining good gain and rise-time performance', and also lends itself well to direct coupling which aids in obtaining good recovery time. Overall d-c feedback is used to stabilize the operating point a- gainst temperature changes, and results in very simple. circuitry. A six-stage amplifier using SB100 surface-barrier transistors gave a gain of 90 db with 0.18-/.sec rise time, the recovery time after a.5- volt, 1-asec pulse being less than 10 tsec..The performance is sub- stantially constant to 60?C. For higher-temperature applications, a silicon-tetrode amplifier employing common-emitter stages with shunt feedback has been designed. Four 3N26 stages gave a gain.of 80 db with 0.2-asec rise time. 3. Applied Transistor Research (Project 755K-51(U),M.McWhorter) a. Video Amplifiers Using Emit- ter Degeneration. - 41 - Approved For Release 2002/11/13 CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For- Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-02820A0300010054-8 IVA-2 A design method for obtaining specified gain and bandwidth in multi-stage amplifiers has been completed. Common-emitter stages with a parallel R-C compensating circuit in the emitter lead are used. The design emphasizes main- tenance of a good transient response (overshoot of 3% or less). The fin- ished design is accomplished with a minimum of computation with the aid of two charts which have been prepared. (A paper on this subject will be given at WESCON.) A number of amplifiers using this approach have been built. One uses four RCA 2N24M's to give 4.2 Mc bandwidth, 65 db gain and 5% overshoot. These values compare well with the design values of 4. 1 Mc, 67 db, and 4% re- spectively. b. A Transistorized Sweep Gen- erator. This generator provides a sweep voltage suitable for deflecting an oscilloscope. Therefore, it is eas- ily synchronized to high-frequency signals of almost any waveform, and it delivers a very linear sweep. The circuit used is basically a multivibrator driving a bootstrap sweep generator. Several novel ideas are used to de-couple the synchron- izing signal from the multivibrator and the MV from the bootstrap cir- cuit to prevent false sweeps. Also the sweep speed is made to be inde- pendent of the MV operation. Most bootstrap circuits have relatively long recovery times if very linear operation is desired; however, this circuit recovers.very quickly'be- cause pnp and npn transistors are used in combination to recharge the sweep capacitor. Hence the recovery time is only a few per cent of the sweep time. Sweep times of 5 sec to 20 ?sec have been achieved with amplitudes of 65% of the supply voltage and linearity of about 1%. Studies are now being made of pick- off circuits of precision suitable for precision checking of the sweep linearity. This sweep has been used in com- bination with thehigh- output -volt- age transistor amplifier described last year to give sweeps of 200 volts peak-to-peak. This is ade- quate to deflect small cathode-ray tubes. c. Logarithmic Attenuators Logarithmic attenuators for pulse use are currently being in- vestigated. These make use of the exponential relation between cur- rent and volta;:e in some silicon diodes. Initial experiments show considerable promise: one attenua- tor operates with 0.1-microsecond pulses, has a dynamic range of 50 db and an output voltage within 5% of being truly proportional to logarithm of the input current. the 4. A Transistorized Pulse-Sorting System. (Project 755K-51(U), G.S.Bahrs) Through a joint effort by mem- bers of Group Q (Applied Electronics Laboratory) and the transistor group, circuits have been developed that provide apulse `window' which responds only to pulses whose width and amplitude simultaneously fall within adjustable, pre-set limits. The system is organized around a three-input AND circuit which is connected to (1) a pulse amplitude discriminator, (2) a pulse width Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For `Release 2002/11/13: CIA-RDP78-02820A0Q0300010054--8 IVA- 3 discriminator, and (3) a one-shot multivibrator that is triggered by the trailing edge of the incoming pulse. The amplitude and width dis- criminators each incorporate memory. The amplitude discriminator develops and retains an output if the input signal amplitude exceeds a pre-set threshold level. The width discrim- inator develops and retains an out- put if the pulse width exceeds W but is less than W(l+A); where W and Aare both adjustable. The pulse from the one-shot multivibrator, occurring at the completion of the incoming pulse, serves to inter- rogate the amplitude and width dis- criminators; i.e., operation of the interrogation one-shot multivibrator leads to an output from the AND cir- cuit if, and only if, outputs are present from both the amplitude and width discriminators. Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For.Reease 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-028200300010054-8 SESSION IV B (9:30-10:40) (Auditorium) MICROWAVE DEVICES (UNCLASSIFIED) CHAIRMAN: D. A. DUNN 1. Microwave Frequency Division (Project 189B-78(U); R. W. Grow and D. A. Dunn) The process. of regener:.a-tive fre- quency division was first described many years ago by R. L. Miller,(B. L. Miller, `Fractional Frequency Generators Utilizing Regenerative Modulation,' Proc. IRE,. vol. 27, pp. 446-456; July, 1939.) Basical- ly the operation of a regenerative frequency divider depends on the use of a mixer and a feedback loop to feed the amplified output of the mixer back to one of the inputs of the mixer. Under these conditions, if the loop gain is sufficiently large, the amplitude of the output of the mixer varies as the amplitude of the signal applied to the other input. It is apparent that in this case the output frequency must be just one half of the input frequen- cy. If a frequency multiplier were also inserted in the feedback loop, then afrequency f/n, with n great- er than two, could be produced in the device. A year ago the operation of a microwave divider which produced an output frequency which was 3/2 of the input frequency was described. Since that time a forward-wave de- vice and a backward-wave device have both been successfully oper- ated to produce division by two. In each of these devices an input. signal is applied to the first he- lix to modulate the electron beam and the output is taken from the second helix. An external feedback loop is necessary with the forward- wave device but not with the back- ward-wave device. The amplitude of the output of the backward-wave type of divider was found to be quite un- stable. Our understanding of these devices has increased considerably in the past year and the instabil- ity of this type of divider has now been explained. Since the nonlinear element of the mixer is the electron beam, it is necessary to understand the na- ture of the mixing process of the beam. Recent theoretical work on mixing here at Stanford Electronics Laboratories by DeGrasse has led to some important conclusions which have been utilized in the latest frequency-divider tube. For in- stance, if a beam is modulated by two frequencies with the same angu- lar field variations, then the dif- ference frequency in the beam will have no angular field variation. Hence a forward-wave helix would be necessary to couple the difference frequency from a beam modulated by two backward-wave helices, each having one angular variation around the beam circumference. This fact undoubtedly accounts for the am- plitude instability noted for the two-helix backward-wave type of frequency divider. To investigate more fully these modulation effects, a five-helix frequency-divider tube has recently been built and tested. The latter tube was built to permit several different experiments to be performed, each using different sets of helices. Several modes of operation contain a frequency multi- Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-02820 0300010054-8 NOW IVB-2 plier in the feedback loop to per- mit division by a number greater than two. An important result has been the increased amplitude stab- ility of this device. The work on this project is presently directed to the investigation of the condi- tions necessary to start the device at frequencies resulting from di- vision by numbers greater than two. 2.'Traveling-Wave-Tube Frequency Mixers. (Project 386T-47(U);. R. W. De- Grasse and G. Wade) One purpose of this work has been to investigate the possibility of using TWT mixers to replace the conventional crystal-diode mixer employed in microwave superheter- odyne receivers. The results of a number of experiments on traveling- wave-tube mixers show that efficient frequency conversion can be obtained from microwave signal inputs to microwave intermediate frequencies as well as to intermediate frequen- cies as low as 30 Mc. Conversion gains as high as 30 db and full traveling-wave-tube saturation pow- er output at the intermediate fre- quency are obtainable. TWT mixers may also be used as regenerative frequency dividers. The frequency conversion effects to be discussed are obtained from the large-signal saturation effects electron beam.. Consequently, conventional TWT construction tech- niques can be used in the construc- tion of TWT mixers. Such TWT mixers may posses a number of important advantages over crystal mixers. The TWT mixer has relative freedom from burnout from high-level input signals. It is capable of considerable conversion gain with i-f bandwidths as wide as 1 kMc. Local-oscillator isola- tion can be substantially improved by the use of separate local-oscil- lator and signal couplings to the mixer tube. Finally, high-level microwave mixing is possible since full saturation power is available at the i-f output.. Previously, conventional TWT's have been operated as mixers with 30-Mc i-.f outputs. These tubes have given overall conversion gains 30 to, 40 db less than the small-signal gains of the. tubes as amplifiers,. We have. found that the use of a downward voltage-jump and a low- voltage drift tube following a TWT amplifier section greatly increas- es the conversion gain. Such an experimental mixer having an S-band input gave a,+7 db conversion gain from r-f input to 30-Mc i-f output. This tube had a small-signal.gain of +11 db, just 4 db more than the conversion gain. An i-f output pow- er.of +10 dbm was obtainable. It is presently believed that such a TWT mixer will have a noise figure ap- proximately the same as its noise figure when operated as an ampli- fier. A traveling-wave -tube mixer with very wideband microwave i-f output may be designed using an. input he- lix section for input signal ampli- fication and asecond helix section for i-f signal amplification. Two such double-helix mixers have been tested. The first mixer tube operated with an S-band input and gave 30 db conversion gain to an i-f of 1200 Mc with a 20-Mc bandwidth. With a 200-Mc bandwidth, aconversion gain of 16 db could be obtained. The Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-02820A030001 OO54-8IVB- 3 maximum i-f output power was +15 dbm. The second double-helix mixer had an input frequency range of 7.5 to 10 kMc. The i-f output was cen- tered at 2.5 kMc with a 1-kMc band- width. The tube gave a conversion gain of +21 db. The above tube-did not have a low-noise electron gun and as a re- sult its noise figure was about +22 db. It is interesting to compare this tube with a crystal mixer de- signed for the same i-f bandwidth. Assuming a -12-db crystal-mixer conversion gain.,. we see that, to obtain the noise figure and con- version gain of the TWT mixer, a TWT if amplifier following the crystal mixer would be required to have a noise figure of about 10 db and a gain of 33 db. A theoretical study of the mixing phenomenon in an over-modulated electron beam has resulted in the development of a design theory for TWT mixers. This theory has been successful in predicting the con- version gain of TWT mixers.. The theory is not a great deal more complicated than linear. TWT theory and makes possible rapid design calculations. 3. Noise, Gain, and Bandwidth Con- siderations of the Variable-Para- meter Amplifier (Projects. 210N-24(U) and 303T- 84(U); H. Heffner,K. Kotzebue, G. Wade) A theoretical investigation has been made to determine the noise, gain, and bandwidth characteristics of the general variable-parameter circuit (similar to the circuit analog for the ferrite amplifier proposed by H. Suhl, PHYSICAL RE- VIEW, April 15, 1957). The basic circuit and its operation are il- lustrated in the following descrip- tion. A variable capacitor is con- nected in series with two parallel- resonant tank circuits, the three elements forming a closed loop. If the value of the capacitor is caused to vary sinusoidally about some average value at a frequency equal to the sum of the two resonant fre- quencies of the tank circuits, un- der the proper conditions oscilla- tions can be set up in the tank circuits at their respective fre- quencies. Power is thus `pumped' from the varying capacitor into the two tank circuits. Assume that an output load is coupled to one of the tanks and that the capacitor variation is reduced to a value just below the point where oscil- lations occur.Stable amplification then results for a signal coupled into the loaded tank at the tank's resonant frequency. Several physical embodiments of this principle of amplification have been proposed.. As previously mentioned, Suhl suggested a micro- wave structure containing aferrite sample, the pumping power to be coupled. to the lower-frequency sig- nal through nonlinearities in the motion of the magnetization in the ferrite. At Stanford, we are in- vestigating the feasibility of using electron beams or ferroelectric materials to provide the necessary. variable reactance. Regardless of the embodiment, the theory reveals certain inherent characteristics of the device.. For high gain, the `idling' tank circuit (i.e., the tank circuit not direct- ly coupled to the input signal) should present high impedance at Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-02820A0000300010054-8 IVB-4 its resonant frequency and the var- iation in the variable reactance should be large. Assuming high-Q tank circuits, the bandwidth is in- versely proportional to the voltage gain and to the Q of the idling tank. The noise due to fluctuations in the variable reactance probably can be made to be of negligible consequence. However, in striving for very low noise figures, thermal noise from the idling tank will be of importance unless the idling tank'is artifically cooled. 4. Maser Amp.lifierso Bandwidth and Noise Considerations. (Project 155E-78(U); A. E. Sieg- man) The three-level solid-state cav- ity maser (or any similar resonant negative-resistance device) is es- sentially aregenerative amplifier. The cavity itself has an unloaded Q = Qo, while the maser material has a negative Q = -Qm. To have gain, the negative resistance must predominate, so that the unloaded cavity-plus-material has.a negative overall Q = -Q' _ -QmQoi Qo/-Qm) Without loading, the cavity oscil- lates. High gain is obtained by loading the cavity by coupling it to an external load until the os- cillations just cease. Low noise figure is the maser's chief attraction. All presently- known materials for solid-state masers require cooling to liquid- helium temperatures to be usable. This assists in obtaining low noise figure. t.iowever:,. noise figure F de- fined with respect to a room-tem- perature source is now very nearly, unity, and is no longer a very good parameter. One can talk about the quantity (F-1), expressed-in db (which can be a negative number of db); or one can give the effective noise temperature of the amplifier; or one can suppose that the ampli- fier and the signal source are both at the same low liquid-helium tem- perature, and redefine F with re- spect to this low source tempera- ture. The last procedure will be used here. For best results, a maser should have only one input line, with a circulator to separate incident and reflected (amplified) signals. If the external Q of the input line is. Qe, the maser power gain is G = (Qe + Qm)2/(Qe - QM') .The condi- tion for high gain is Qe W. The gain-bandwidth product is V 'GB fo/Qe fo/Qm for high gain. If T is the reference temperature of the source and cavity, and -Tm is the negative spin temperature of the maser material, then for high gain the noise figure is F = (1 + Qm/ I Qo)(1 + Tm/T) Low noise figure requires low spin temperature, and low magnetic Qm (which is the same as low Qm). An alternative form is the two- port maser, which has separate in- put and output lines. If the input or generator line has external Q = Qeg, and the output or load line has external Q = QeL, then the con- dition for high gain is (1/Qe + l~QeL) ? 1/Qm The noise figure for high gain is given by F = (1 + Q g/ e Qo + Qeg/QeL)(1 + Tm/T), while the gain-bandwidth product is AG_ B = 2f0/ Qe. The optimum noise figure of the two-port maser can be made the same as the circulator maser by having heavy input coupling, Qeg ~Q', and light output coupling, Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-02820A000300010054-8 Approved For ReleasV'002/11/13: CIA-RDP78-028200 03QQA'10054-8 `woe IVB- 5 Q~L >> Qm. However, the gain-band width product is then very much worse. In addition, the output load must be cooled, or a cooled isolater must be used in the output line,to reduce noise coming back into the cavity from the load. This is not true of the circulator maser.. The two-port maser can have the same gain-bandwidth product as the cir- culator maser by making the two couplings equal, Qeg QeL 2Qm, but the noise figure is then worsen- ed by 3 db, and the load-cooling problem is even more important. Possible gain-bandwidth products with presently known maser materials are small (e.g., a few hundred kc at 30-db gain). Some increase may be possible by using several cou- pled cavities in series, or a nar- row-band traveling-wave type of circuit, but the natural Q (line width) of the material itself will then become important. However, very good noise figures are expect- ed (3 to 6 db with respect to helium temperatures, or amplifier noise temperatures of 10 to 20?K). A solid-state maser amplifier is nearing completion. Ten micro- watts of power output as an oscil- lator at 3000 Mc are expected, with a pumping-power input of afew mil- liwatts at 9600 Mc. Power output as an amplifier in the linear re- gion will, naturally, be somewhat less. The first crystal to be used will be potassium chromicyanide, K3Cr(CN)6, in about ''/2% concentra- tion in a magnetically-neutral base crystal of K3Co(CN)6. Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved Fore)ease'`L 02/11/13: CIA-RDP78-0282WQ30Q 0054-8 SESSION V A (11:00-12:10) (Rehearsal Hall) NETWORK AND SYSTEM THEORY (UNCLASSIFIED) CHAIRMAN: W. W. HARMAN 1. Network Synthesis (Tasks 24F, 24H; W. W. Harman and D. F. Tuttle, Jr.) a. Computer Techniques Synthesis procedures which use an iterative procedure exploiting The IBM 650 computer have been pre- viously reported for distributed amplifiers and amplifier chains. With these iterative techniques, one starts from an assumed form for the network, and the method facilitates convergence on optimum element val- ues. This method has recently been applied to the split-band amplifier (for wide-band amplification) in which the frequency range to be am- plified is split into two portions, which are then amplified in sepa- rate channels. Another network application of computers consists of using a com- puter to obtain an approximate so- lution to the differential equation describing a nonlinear network, the approximate solution consisting of a sum of exponential terms. The co- efficients are determined by the initial value and derivatives. In effect, the nonlinear system is replaced by an approximating linear system whose element values depend upon the initial conditions. b. Single-Inductor Synthesis. This investigation is concerned with the problem of constructing an R-C network with a single in- ductor (and, perhaps, an ideal transformer) to have a specified impedance function. The necessary and sufficient conditions that the function be realizable are found to be that (1) it be positive real, (2) it have no more than one pair of complex zeros, (3) the real poles and zeros be simple, and al- ternate. A comparative study of three types of matched-filter pairs has been carried out. These types are the tapped.-delay-line, multiple- bandpass, and split-allpassfilters. In general, the tapped-delay-line filter appears tobe superior; how- ever, the multiple-bandpass argu- ment proves to be one quite good way to arrive at an impulse response which may then be actually realized by a tapped-delay-line filter. d. Delay-Line Sections in Net- works. This study has been concerned with the analysis and synthesis of networks in which ideal delay-line sections are admitted as elements in addition to the usual R, L, and C. Synthesis for prescribed impulse responses which have discontinuities in amplitude or slope, or which are identically zero after a particular: time, is facilitated by the addi- tion of this fourth element kind. e. Statistical Decision Theory Applications. Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-02820A000300010054-8 Approved Fore eahe2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA0 03,44010054-8 VA-2 Other work includes some stat- istical studies of an idealized radar problem. tive' than the other for any priori data and cost function. Previously reported work has dealt with the use of decision- theoretical approaches to find the best network or system to perform a certain statistical task--esti- mate range to a radar target, detect the presence of a signal in noise, estimate a modulation envelope,etc. In most of these problems some a priori probability distributions were assumed, and some sort of 'cost' function; the best system is then the one which minimizes the average cost. Recently some study has been made of a very interesting approach known as 'comparison of experi- ments.' By this theory one can compare two proposed 'experiments' (an example of an 'experiment' might be the determination of the presence or absence of a signal, or of the delay of a radar pulse) and, if the two are 'comparable,' state that one is 'more informa- a.. Coupling Networks (24F) Synthesis procedures are being sought to design coupling networks for a class of problems of great practical interest which fall out- side of the range of current syn- thesis techniques. In several prac- tical applications, notably in the design of interstages or coupling networks at the input or output port of a transistor amplifier, the designer is required to find a lossless coupling network which will present approximately a prescribed sequence of input impedances at a set of frequencies when it is ter- minated in a prescribed sequence of impedances at these frequencies (Fig. A). Zin COUPLING NETWORK . 77 freq ZL Zin(desired) fl ZL1 Zinl f2 ZL2 Zin2 fn ZLn Zinn 2. Sampled-Data Control Systems (Task 245; G. F. Franklin) Projected research in this field includes a study of the character- istics and limitations of practical sampled-data control systems, and an experimental and theoretical study of linear and nonlinear fil- ters for the restoration of data from samples. 3. Transistor Circuits (Tasks 24J and 24F, NSF G-2426; J. G. Linvill and D. F. Tuttle,Jr.) Fig. A.-Specifications for the de- sign of a coupling network. The problem is different from those for which the usual techniques ap- ply'inthat the prescribed load im- pedance is not necessarily a sim- ple resistance nor the impedance of a simple network. Also the de- sired input impedances are not given as functions of frequency but given instead as a sequence of values in tabular form. The aim is to extend Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-02820A000300010054-8 Approved For 12eleastRIO02/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-02820A0 30W10054-8 %MW synthesis techniques to these prob- lems and thereby to bring to prac- tical design problems some of the powerful methods (or modifications of them) which have been developed in modern network theory. Some in- teresting and useful techniques have been developed to this point in the research and work is conti- nuing to develop additional methods. b. Lumped Models of Semiconductor Devices (24J,G-2426) Study of large-signal applica- tions and of the avalanche pheno- menon in transistors has led to a new lumped model which conveniently relates terminal properties of the transistor to its internal physics. The conventional representations of transistors for small-signal cases and the Ebers-Moll model for large-signal cases correspond to simple forms of the new model.. In addition to representing behavior in the familiar cases, the lumped model represents the terminal pro- perties associated with avalanche multiplication, punch through, minority-carrier storage, built-in fields of drift transistors and photo-generation of hole-electron pairs. The design of circuits using any of these phenomena is facili- tated through use of the lumped representation. In the conventional approach to obtaining a model of the transistor, the differential equations expres- sing equilibrium of the physical processes in the transistor are solved and the transcendental so- lutions are approximated for con- venience by rational functions. In the present treatment, the physical relationships applying on the basis of vanishingly small elements are applied to finite elements and the corresponding terminal relation- ships are rational functions. Thus, in the new approach, the order of the procedures of solution and ap- proximation are reversed. The new order of procedure gives further insight to transistor operation, leads to the old results in the simple cases and to new or simpler solutions in the more complicated situations. c. Semiconductor Voltage Com- parators (24J) An ideal voltage comparator indicates whether a voltage being observed is above or below a pre- scribed reference level.The quali- ty of acomparator is determined by the narrowness of the range of un- certainty, the freedom from de- pendence upon environmental condi- tions, the speed of response, and the smallness of loading of the circuit being observed.The purpose of the present study is to deter- mine the fundamental limitations to semiconductor voltage comparators and to select designs for best per- formance. Voltage comparators ordinarily involve a nonlinear element with properties sharply dependent upon the impressed voltage...Semi-conduc- tor diodes have an apparent ad- vantage over tube diodes for this function since their characteris- tics inherently posses sharper nonlinearity. In one particular comparator being considered, the nonlinear element is a part of a feedback structure which becomes unstable when the input voltage reaches the reference level. A principal limitation to the performance of comparators is the Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For R eleaW 2002/11/13: CIA-RDP78-02820039d010054-8 dependence of their characteristics upon the temperature. A diode- bridge arrangement serving as the nonlinear element can theoretically show no dependence upon temperature in spite of drifts in individual diodes. Using a diode bridge and a single-stage transistor amplifier, a comparator has been made which has a region of uncertainty 30-mv wide for a temperature range from 25? to 55?C. It is anticipated that additional work. will improve the performance. Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For lease 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282Q O30MI0054-8 N6W SESSION V B (11:00-12:10) (Auditorium.) HIGH-POWER TRAVELING-WAVE TUBES AND KLYSTRONS (UNCLASSIFIED) CHAIRMAN: M. CHOD0ROW 1..M2egawatt Cloverleaf Traveling- Wave Tube (AF-1924; J. V. Lebacqz) During the past year a severed structure of the cloverleaf type was built and tested here at Stan- ford. The structure included twelve sections on either side of the sev- er.. The results, although not com- pletely up to expectations, were .quite satisfactory. A peak power in excess of one megawatt was observed over apart of the band. The small- signal gain approached 30 db, with saturation gain of about 23 db. The efficiency was poorer than expected,. mostly because the beam transmission was low, approximately 65 to 75 per cent. Gain was observed at small signals over a frequency range from 2750to'3200 megacycles. The large-signal gain as measured from 2900 to 3130 megacycles had less than 3 db variation. It is believed that the large-signal gain would have stayed substantially flat down to about 2800 megacycles, but the lack of a suitable driver prevented us from making measure- ments in this frequency region. Since these tests were run, work has been continued on the clover- leaf traveling-wave tube in two main directions. First, to improve the beam transmission, a beam tester was built and tested which has shown that the cathode, with slight modi- fications in the magnetic focusing system, can readily give nearly 100 per cent transmission. This change in the magnetic focusing system will be incorporated in the tube now being built. The second phase of the work has been concerned with increasing the attenuation in the tube in a higher pass band, a pass band which is due to coupling-slot resonances. There has been some ten- dency to oscillate at these high frequencies (higher than 4000Mc) at high-voltage operation, and we have been trying to produce alarge.dif- ferential in attenuation between that in the operating pass band and that in the slot pass band, with some considerable success. 2. Windows (ONR-26; J. Jasberg) The first high-power klystron (now capable of 30 megawatts output) was constructed at Stanford at a time when the only available out- put window was capable of handling about 1 megawatt of power.. Since that time, alarge amount of effort has gone into an attempt to pro- vide a long-lived window for this and similar tubes developed here. At the present time, this work largely involves ceramic windows of various designs and materials. Some improvements have been made, and it isnow-,possible to run tubes which are continuously pumped for times of the order of 1500 hours. Attempts to make sealed-off tubes with long lives have not been particularly successful so far due to punctured output windows. A discussion of the nature of fail- Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For- ease 2002/11/13: CIA-RDP78-0282001030910054-8 VB- 2 ures and of the lives of windows will be given. A number of possible theories have been suggested but .as yet none of these can be posi- tively confirmed. Life testing of windows is a problem and a high- power traveling-wave recirculator is under construction to aid this program. Some possible experimental checks on the various theories will be outlined. 3. Research in Propagating Circuits for High Power Traveling-Wave Tubes (AF-1924, ONR-23; M. Chodorow) Although some circuits suitable for high-power traveling-wave tubes have been designed and successful- ly tested, these are narrower in bandwidth than is desired for some applications, and it is not at all certain that they are optimum in other respects, even though they seem quite satisfactory. Investi- gations are being conducted on other circuits, some of which may in some respects be better than the ones successfully used up to now. Among these circuits is the stub-supported ring-bar structure which is better in bandwidth and in interaction impedance than pres- ently available high-power circuits, but is more limited in average- power-handling capability. Another circuit consists of a series of cavities inductively coupled by means of multiple inverted coupling loops. Tests so far indicate that this circuit may have a consider- ably wider band than the clover- leaf structure and about the same impedance. Another. class of circuits involves coupling between alternate cavities as amethod of shaping the propagation characteristic in de- sirable fashion. The results of cold tests'onthese various circuits and possible applications of the cir- cuits will be described. Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 25X1 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Release 2002/11/13: CIA-RDP78-028 20Ag00310054-8 _ SESSION VI B (1:30-2:45) (Auditorium) MICROWAVE ELECTRONICS (UNCLASSIFIED) CHAIRMAN: H. J. SHAW 1. Periodic Deflection Focusing (SC-3(78); G. Kino) sible to check the theoretical pre- dictions. Anew method of focusing an elec- tron beam for use in traveling-wave tubes and related devices has been proposed by P. A. Sturrock. The system, called `Periodic Deflect ion Focusing,' depends on the focusing effect on an electron beam which oc- curs when the beam is periodically deflected in one direction and then another. Theoretical analysis has been carried out for both electro- static periodic deflection focusing and magnetic periodic deflection focusing. The best-known example of periodic electrostatic deflection focusing is slalom focusing. Per- iodic magnetic deflection focusing, however, would appear to have great advantages over the more common periodic magnetic-focusing schemes, because, with the configuration used, much higher fields are ob- tainable for a given size of mag- net. As the focusing forces are proportional to the square of the magnetic field, it should therefore be possible to focus very high values of beam current. In addition, it should be possible to use a variation of the method to contract the diameter of an electron beam .adiabatically, so that the gun-de- sign problems should not limit the current density obtainable. It is planned to test magnetic periodic deflection focusing in the near future. A beam tester is being built for use with a hollow elec- tron beam on which it will be pos- 2. Electron Guns With Curved Elec- tron Trajectories (AF-1930; P. Kirs to in) A new class of electron guns in which the electron trajectories are curved rather than rectilinear will be described. By making use of the Ilamilton-Jacobi equation, Poisson's equation and the equation of conti- nuity of charge, it has been pos- sible to obtain electron-trajectory solutions which take into account the effect of space charge. At the moment, the design of shielded guns to produce solid or hollow beams is being investigated in which the cathode is either a section of a cone or a section of a circular cylinder. It is also proposed to investigate the design of a type of gun intended to produce sheet beams in which the cathode is a portion of an equiangular spiral sheet. It is possible that the method may also be useful in the design of crossed-field electron guns with magnetic field parallel to the cathode but investigation of this possibility is not planned for the near future. It is proposed to design the electrode shapes to produce the beams by a procedure analagous to that used in the Pierce gun. However, amethod of gun design proposed by J. E. Piquandar and used with success in France will also be investigated. Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Releast002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-02820AO0030QW0054-8 1 VIB- 2 3. Field Emission (ONR-23; J. Fontana) Field-emission cathodes with di- mensions of about one micron can provide currents of the order of one ampere under pulsed operation. This current is controlled by the anode voltage according to a very nonlinear law which remains true at extremely high frequencies. Pos- sible applications of these unusu- al properties to microwave tubes are being investigated. Calculations will be shown giv- ing the harmonic content of afield- emission beam produced by the r-f excitation of apoint emitter which is biased by ad-c voltage. It will be shown that the curve of har- monic amplitudes can be expressed as a function of dimensionless ratios relating't.hese voltages to certain parameters which depend up- on the, emitter itself and the oper- ating conditions-chosen. The re- sul-ts indicate that the curve has a shape similar to an error curve, and that, under operating conditions compatible with a reasonable emit- ter life, the power contained in, the eighth or tenth harmonic is still quite appreciable. 4. Generation of Sub-Millimeter Waves (SC-85; K. Mallory) The production of electro-mag- netic radiation at wave lengths less than a millimeter using con- ventional tube techniques is very difficult because of the minute size of the element dimensions for such wave lengths. An alternative approach involves producing very small tight bunches of electrons at high energies (2 to 3 Mev). Such high-energy electrons can be made to generate very short-wave-length radiation by several means; either by producing transverse oscillation of the electrons or by passing such a beam through a cavity or a propagating circuit of suitable design. For wave lengths large com- pared to the bunch size, the elec- trons of each bunch will radiate coherently and produce considerable amounts of power. An experiment designed to produce sub-millimeter wave radiation by this means will be described. It involves a small X- band linear electron accelerator which will produce electrons of several million volts of energy, the electrons being tightly bunched; it is then intended to use such electrons to produce a considerable amount of radiation at wavelengths below a millimeter, either by `un- dulation' or by straight frequency- multiplier action at a harmonic of the original accelerator frequency. Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Release 2002/11/13: CIA-RDP78-02882OA 003 10054-8 GENERAL TOUR OF LABORATORY FACILITIES TOUR STARTS AT 3:15 P M. AT STEPS IN FRONT,OF DINKELSPIEL AUDITORIUM ON FRIDAY AFTERNOON. THIS GUIDED TOUR REQUIRES ABOUT ONE AND ONE-HALF HOURS AND IS INTENDED TO BE A QUICK INSPECTION OF THE INSTALLATIONS LISTED BELOW. APPLIED ELECTRONICS LABORATORY (CLASSIFIED) VACUUM-TUBE SHOP SCREEN ROOM COMPUTER FACILITIES SOLID-STATE MASER TRANSISTOR AND CIRCUIT LABORATORIES PERIODIC FOCUSING OF ELECTRON BEAMS STUDENT VACUUM-TUBE TECHNIQUES SHOP TWELVE-FOOT-LONG BACKWARD-WAVE OSCILLATOR VACUUM-TUBE SHOP VACUUM-TUBE DISPLAYS TRANSVERSE-FIELD KLYSTRON RADIO-PROPAGATION LABORATORIES HELITRON HIGH-ENERGY PHYSICS LABORATORY MARK-911 LINEAR ACCELERATOR MARK-II LINEAR ACCELERATOR HALF-WAY STATION TUBE SHOP END STATION AND BUNKER KLYSTRON-PROCESSING STATION VACUUM-TUBE DISPLAY MARK-IV 70-MEV ACCELERATOR X-BAND ACCELERATOR ELECTRON-BEAM ANALYZER MASERS ELECTRON-VELOCITY SPECTROGRAPH Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For RAIN 2002/11/13 CIA-RDP78-02820A C'1W610054-8 DEMONSTRATIONS AT ERL 1, SOLID-STATE MASERS - PROJECT 155E (A. E. SIEGMAN) ERL 240 THIS WILL BE A NON-OPERATING DISPLAY SHOWING THE DOUBLE DEWAR FLASK AND OTHER SPECIAL APPARATUS NEEDED FOR SOLID-STATE MASER INVESTIGATIONS. 2. EXTERNAL-CIRCUIT TRAVELING-WAVE TUBES - PROJECT 191A (G. A. LoEw)ERL 262 THESE TUBES USE A SERIES OF HOLLOW CYLINDERS FOR COUPLING TO THE ELECTRON BEAM. THE DELAY LINES ARE EXTERNAL TO THE VACUUM ENVELOPE. TWO TYPES OF CON- STRUCTION ARE SHOWN, ONE FOR A FORWARD-WAVE AMPLIFIER AND THE OTHER FOR A BACKWARD-WAVE OSCILLATOR. Low.-NOISE AMPLIFIER - PROJECT 305T (F. B. FANK) ERL 221 AN EXPERIMENTAL TRANSVERSE-FIELD KLYSTRON OPERATING IN THE 200-400 MC RANGE WHICH IS BEING INVESTIGATED AS A POSSIBLE LOW-NOISE AMPLIFIER. 4. CROSSED-FIELD DEVICE - PROJECT 385N (T. SATO) ERL 254 A TUBE BUILT TO INVESTIGATE EXPERIMENTALLY THE CROSSED-FIELD INTERACTION OF AN ELECTRON BEAM AT MICROWAVE FREQUENCIES. 5. BACKWARD-WAVE-OSCILLATOR BEAM ANALYZER - PROJECT 403W-(J. GEWARTOWSKI) ERL 259 A TWELVErFOOT- LONG BACKWARD-WAVE OSCILLATOR OPERATING AT 80 MC WHICH HAS A VELOCITY ANALYZER BUILT IN SO THAT INSTANTANEOUS BEAM BUNCHING MAY BE OB- SERVED ON A FLUORESCENT SCREEN. 6. HELITRON OSCILLATOR - PROJECT 404W (G. WADA) ERL 259 THIS TUBE WAS BUILT TO DEMONSTRATE THE BEHAVIOR OF THE HELITRON. THE DEVICE HAS THE PROPERTIES OF THE M-TYPE BWO, (I.E., HIGH EFFICIENCY AND ELECTRONIC TUNING) BUT NEEDS NO FOCUSING MAGNET. 7. HOLLOW-BEAM ELECTROSTATIC FOCUSING - PROJECT 406W'(C. C. JOHNSON) ERL 254 THIS DEMOUNTABLE TUBE IS BEING USED FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROSTATIC FOCUSING OF HOLLOW BEAMS. 8. TRANSISTORIZED CIRCUITRY - PROJECT 755K VIDEO AMPLIFIER (J. SPILKER) ERL 106 AN AMPLIFIER USING CAPACITORS AS THE ONLY REACTIVE ELEMENTS (RC DEGENERATION) IS SHOWN. THE AMPLIFIER USES FOUR SB100 OR 2N247 TRANSISTORS, HAS A GAIN OF 65 DB AND A BANDWIDTH OF 4.3 Mc. SWEEP GENERATOR (E. YHAP) ERL 106 THIS LINEAR-SAWTOOTH GENERATOR (1% OR LESS NONLINEARITY) HAS HIGH OUTPUT COMPARED TO SUPPLY VOLTAGE, FAST RECOVERY AND EXCEPTIONAL ABILITY TO SYNCHRO- NIZE WITH MOST TRIGGERING WAVEFORMS. PULSE-LENGTH WINDOW (R. WINDECKER) ERL 106 THIS CIRCUIT GIVES AN OUTPUT INDICATIQN IF A PULSE LIES BETWEEN TWO PRE- DETERMINED PULSE LENGTHS. THE TWO LIMITS OF THE WINDOW MAY BE SET INDEPEN- DENTLY. Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 25X1 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Next 1 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 I I I I I I C I I [ Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 SYSTEMS TECHNIQUES ELECTRON-TUBE RADIO PROPAGATION TRANSISTOR ELECTRONICS CONSOLIDATED ENGINEERING LABORATORY LABORATORY LABORATORY LABORATORY RESEARCH SERVICES BACON, D. C. BRACEWELL, R. N. BUSS, R. R. CHODOROW, M. CRUMLY, C. B. CUMMING, R_ C. DUNN, D. A. ESHLEMAN, V. R. GINZTON, E. L. GRACE, D. J. GRIGSBY, J. L. GROW, R. W. HARE, M. D. HARMAN, W. W. HEFFNER, H. HELLIWELL, R. A. HERRIOT, J. G. KINCHELOE, W. R. KOHL, W. H. LINVILL, J. G_ LUEBKE, W. R. MCO-I I E, L. F. MCWHORTER. M. M. MANNING, L. A. MILLER. R. E. PETTIT, J. M. PETERSON, A. M. RAMBO, W. R. SIEGMAN, A. E. SPANGENBERG. K. R. TERMAN, F. E. TUTTLE. D. F. VILLARD, 0. G. WATKINS, D. A. WADE, G. . WATERMAN, A. T. Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For R@Wff a 2002/11/13: CIA-RDP78-M20A 0010054-8 W. W. HANSEN LABORATORIES OF PHYSICS* MARVIN CHODOROW: ACTING. DIRECTOR, MICROWAVE LABORATORY E. L. GINZTON (ON SABBATICAL LEAVE), DIRECTOR. MICROWAVE LABORATORY E. T. JAYNES SIMON SONKIN ACRIVOS, J. L. V. BLOIS, M. S. JR. BOWES, J. D. CHODOROW, M. CHU. E. L. DEBS, R. J. DEDRICK, K. G. EAVES, H. H. ELLIOTT, B. J. GALLAGHER, W. J. GINZTON, E. L. JASBERG, J. H. JAYNES, E. T. KIND. G. S. KON, H. LEBACQZ. J. V. MALLORY, K. B. NEAL, R. B. PEARCE. A. F. SHAW, H. J. SNYDER, J. A. SONKIN, S. STURROCK, P. A. WINSLOW, D. K. F. V. L. PINDAR, Assoc. DIR., HANSEN'LAOS. M. D. O'NEILL, ASST. DIR., MICROWAVE LABORATORY W. T. KIRK, ASST. TO DIR., MICROWAVE LABORATORY * THE HIGH-ENERGY PHYSICS AND BIOPHYSICS LABORATORIES ARE THE OTHER SECTIONS OF THE HANSEN LABS. - 80 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300910054-8 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA9003WO10054-8 SERVICE-SPONSORED ELECTRONICS PROGRAM AT STANFORD UNIVERSITY ABBREVIATED DESIGNATION AF18(603)53 MICROWAVE SPECTROHELIOGRAPH BRACEWELL AF53 AF18(603)126 WHISTLERS HELLIWELL AF126 AF19(604)1830 AURORAL RADIO PROPAGATION PETERSON-VILLARD AF1830 AF19(604)1847 GEN. STUDIES: RADAR RECEIVERS RAMBO-WATKINS 47 AF19(604)2075 METEOR RADAR VILLARD AF2075 AF19(604)2193 METEOR RATE AND RADIANT STUDIES ESHLEMAN AF2193 AF33(600)27784 ECM PROGRAM RAMBO 84 CST-6030 VERTICAL INCIDENCE MEASUREMENTS HELLIWELL C30 CST-6033 SFERICS HELLIWELL C33 DA36(039)SC-72804 EXTERNAL-CIRCUIT TWT STUDY SPANGENBERG 04 DA36(039)sc-73151 APPLIED RES. ECM TECHNIQUES RAMBO 51 DA36(039)SC-73178 APPLIED RESEARCH: MICROWAVE TUBES AND DEV. WATKINS 78 N-123(61756)-4191A EXPERIMENTAL ECM EQUIPMENT RAMBO 91A NONR-225(24) CONSOLIDATED ELECTRONICS 24 NONR-225(25) MICROWAVE TUBE RESEARCH WATKINS 25 NONR-225(27) MAGNETO-IONIC DUCT PROPAGATION HELLIWELL 27 NSF-62426 AVALANCHE PHENOMENA IN TRANSISTORS LINVILL NSF26 Y/1.16/179 AURORA AND AIRGLOW PETERSON Y/1. 16 Y/1.38/41 ANTARCTIC METEOR RADAR VILLARD Y/1.38 Y/1.44/183 RADIO WAVE ABSORBTION AURORA AND AIRGLOW PETERSON Y/1,44 Y/6.10/20 WHISTLERS HELLIWELL Y/6. 10 Y/6.12/62 FIXED FREQUENCY BACKSCATTER PETERSON Y/6.12 HANSEN LABORATORIES (MICROWAVE LABORATORY) SUPERVISORS: E L GINZTON AND M CHODOROW AF19(604)1924 HIGH-POWER TUBES CHODOROW AF1924 AF19(604)1930 BEAM TUBES CHODOROW AF1930 AT(04-3)-21P.A.#1 ACCEL, TECH NEAL-CHODOROW PA-1 DA36(039)sC-71178 MOLECULAR OSC JAYNES sc-71178 DA36(039)sC-72785 SUB-MILLIMETER WAVES MALLORY-CHODOROW SC-85 DA36(039)SC=72178 (WITH ERL) CHODOROW SC-3(78) NONR-225(26) VELOCITY-MODULATED TUBES CHODOROW ONR-26 N6ONR-25123 KLYSTRON AND TvV TUBES CHODOROW ONR-23 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Fftft 2002/11/13: CIA-RDP78- 20A 0610054-8 ELECTRONICS PROJECTS AT STANFORD UNIVERSITY FOLLOWING ARE ACTIVE PROJECTS, LISTED WITH THE PERTINENT CONTRACT NUMBER, DESIGN. ATION, AND CLASSIFICATION, AND THE PERSON AVAILABLE AT THIS TIME FOR DETAILED DISCUS- SIONS. FOLLOWING THE NAME IS THE PLACE AND ROOM DESIGNATION. I. ELECTRON DEVICES (ERL) (TRAVELING-WAVE TUBES, BACKWARD-WAVE TUBES, SPECIAL PURPOSE TUBES. SPECIAL TUBE TECHNIQUES, SOLID-STATE MICROWAVE AMPLIFIERS) RL 191A-24(U) EXTERNAL-CIRCUIT TRAVELING-WAVE TUBES J. SPALTER 262 R 2 5 E 0 L 1896-78(U) BACKWARD-WAVE AMPLIFIER (FREQUENCY DIVIDER) R. W. GROW 218 311B-78(U) GENERAL TWA AND BNO STUDIES D. A. DUNN 205 3808-HP(U) 20-40 KMC BNO R. W. GROW 218 382B-78(U) BIFILAR-HELIX BWO R. W. 'GROW 218 4598-51(U) HARRIS-FLOW BWO W. R. LUEBKE AEL 490B-84(U) POWER LIMITATIONS IN HELIX TUBES GR UP LEA A R E R. S P. LAGERSTROM ERL 218 ERL 240A O DE . : . IEGMAN 155E-78(U) SOLID-STATE MICROWAVE DEVICES A. E. SIEGMAN 240A 1.4 GROUP N GROUP LEADER: H. HEFFNER ERL 263 202N-24(U) FERRITE ATTENUATORS FOR lWT'S L. BACON 254 204N-24(U) HIGH-POWER MICROWAVE AMPLIFIERS H. HEFFNER 263 207N-24(U) MAGNETRON AMPLIFIER B. A. WIGHTMAN 254 21ON-24(U) VARIABLE-PARAMETER AMPLIFIERS K. L. KOTZEBUE 254 307N-78(U) GENERAL TWA AND BWO STUDIES H. HEFFNER 263 385N-84(U) EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF CROSSED-FIELD INTERACTION T. SATO 254 232T-84(U) PULSED TWT FOR X-BAND M. D. HARE 244A 303T-84(U) GENERAL MICROWAVE-DEVICE STUDIES G. WADE 266 305T-78(U) NEW TECHNIQUES FOR LOW-NOISE MICROWAVE AMPLIFICATION F. B. FANK 221 308T-84(U) LOW-NOISE INVESTIGATIONS FOR X-BAND TAT' L. D. BUCHMILLER 221 313T-78(U) HOLLOW-BEAM FOCUSING WITH COMBINED ELECTROSTATIC 386T-84(U) AND PERIODIC MAGNETOSTATIC FIELDS MULTIFUNCTION BEAM-TYPE MICROWAVE TUBES C. R. B. CRUMLY 457T-78(U) APPLICATIONS OF HARROW-FLOW FOCUSING TO TWT'S C. B., CRUMLY E 266 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 :'1A--RDP78-02820A000300010054-8 Approved For R~elea2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282200AQ003QW10054-8 GROUP LEADER: D. A. WATKINS ERL 263 383W-84(U) CROSSED-FIELD-TUBE GUN D. A. WATKINS 263 401W-24(U) NOISE STUDIES A. SHAW 259 403W-24(U) BNO STUDIES J. W. GEWARTOWSKI 259 404W-24(U) HELITRON OSCILLATOR G. WADA, J. L. JONES 259 405W-24(U) STRUCTURES FOR HIGH-POWER TWT'S D. G. Dow 259 406W-84(U) HOLLOW-BEAM ELECTROSTATIC FOCUSING C. C. JOHNSON 254 453W-78(U) CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR HIGH-POWER TWT'S W. H. KOHL 242 458W-78(U) HIGH-POWER HOLLOW-BEAM TWA's M. I. DISMAN 254 25GvL-78(U) HIGH-POWER WINDOWS J. JASBERG ML 8 352ML-78(U) FLOATING-DRIFT-TUBE KLYSTRONS M. CHODOROW ML 3 353ML-78(U) HIGH-POWER KLYSTRON OSCILLATOR M. CHODOROW ML 3 GROUP LEADER: M. CHODOROW (SEE ALSO UNDER SEC.VII) 290C-84(U) 292C-84(U) 302C-84(U) WIDEBAND I-F AMPLIFIER WIDEBAND TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER STUDIES OF TWT'S AS I-F AMPLIFIERS M. M. MCWHORTER R. M. SCARLETT M. M. MCWHORTER 105 109 105 701J-84(C) SURVEY OF ELECTRONIC WARFARE PROBLEMS 702J-84(C) AIRBORNE CM AGAINST JAMMER-LOCATING SYSTEMS 703J-84(C) MOLECULAR AMPLIFIER APPLICATION STUDY 704J-47(C) THEORY OF RADAR RECEPTION IN THE PRESENCE OF JAMMING 754K-84(C) MISCELLANEOUS ASPECTS OF RADAR CM AND CCM R. R. BUSS AEL 755K-51(U) TRANSISTOR CIRCUIT FEASIBILITY STUDIES M. M. MCWHORTER ERL 105 460L-51(C) APPLICATION OF EXTENDED-RANGE PROPAGATION TO PASSIVE DETECTION 461L-51(U) EFFECTS OF TROPOSPHERIC IRREGULARITIES ON MICROWAVE PROPAGATION A. T. WATERMAN 801L-51(C) INTERCEPT TECHNIQUES FOR APPLICATION AGAINST AIRBORNE RADARS 803L-84(C) FIELD TESTS OF S-442 POWER AMPLIFIER Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approvd For Ike 2002/11/13 : CIA; RDP78- 20 0010054-8 2.5 GROUP Q GROUP LEADER: D. J. GRACE 152Q-51(C) X-K BAND SUPERHETERODYNE RECEIVER J. C. DE BROEKERT 444Q-84(C) MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER STUDY J. C. DE BROEKERT 507Q-84(C) ELECTRONIC SIGNAL-SORTING TECHNIQUES D. J. GRACE 508Q-51(U) BROADBAND MICROWAVE CRYSTAL HARMONIC GENERATOR TECHNIQUES D. J. GRACE 509Q-51('U) EXP A A A N W A ERIMENT L EV LU TIO OF NE MICROW VE CRYSTALS AND CRYSTAL MOUNTS M. CRANE 510Q-51(U) TUNABLE MICROWAVE FILTERS USING FERRITES M. CRANE 511Q-51(C) EXPERIMENTAL.EVALUATION OF IMPROVED TIT'S 502R-84(U) EXTERNAL FOCUSING TECHNIQUES R. FALCONER 503R-84(C) OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF MICROWAVE TUBES W. R. KINCHELOE 554R-84(C) SUPERREGENERATIVE OPERATION OF BWO'S C. J. SHOENS 555R-51'(C) A BROADBAND UTILITY RECEIVER USING IA( W. R. KINCHELOE 556R-47(C) NONSATURATING BROADBAND LIMITER TECHNIQUES J. J. YOUNGER 601R-51(C) S-BAND SEARCH-LOCK RECEIVER W. R. KINCHELOE 441S-84(C) DECEPTION REPEATER FOR C-W DOPPLER SYSTEMS 443S-84(C) SPECTRUM-ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 5535=51(U) NEW TECHNIQUES FOR WIDEBAND CM RECEIVERS 6025-91A(C) USNAMTC EXPERIMENTAL CM EQUIPMENT 604S-47(C) ECM SIMULATOR 605S-51(C) FIELD EVALUATION OF S-480 SYSTEM 609S-84(C) S-BAND TWT MONITOR RECEIVER 610S-84(C) ANGULAR DECEPTION REPEATER-JAMMER M. WRIGHT M. WRIGHT J. L. GRIGSBY M. WRIGHT R. G. SWEET J. L. GRIGSBY M. WRIGHT M. WRIGHT BASIC AND GENERAL RESEARCH (JOINT SUPPORT CONTRACT NONR 225(24): SPECIFIC CONTRACTS AS LISTED) (SEE ALSO UNDER MICROWAVE LABORATORY LISTING. SEC. VII) 3.1 TASK 24-A AND DA36(039)sC-72804 SUPERVISOR: K. R. SPANGENBERG (SEE ALSO UNDER 1.1) A. EXTERNAL-CIRCUIT TRAVELING-WAVE TUBES 1. GENERAL STUDIES G. A. LOEW 2. PERIODICALLY LOADED HELIX CIRCUITS G. A. LOEW 3.2 TASK 25-E SUPERVISOR: A. E. SIEGMAN (SEE UNDER 1:3) 3.3 TASK 24-N SUPERVISOR: H. HEFFNER (SEE UNDER 1.4) 3.4 TASK 24-W SUPERVISOR: D. A. WATKINS (SEE UNDER 1.6) - 84 ' - Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Rele she 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282000010054-8 4.1 TASK 24-C SUPERVISOR: J. M. PETTIT ERL 104 1. TRANSISTOR THEORY; EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS R. WALKER 206 2. TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS: AMPLIFIER DESIGN M. LIM 206 4.2 TASK 24-J AND NSF-G2426 SUPERVISOR: J. G. LINVILL 108 1, AVALANCHE BREAKDOWN IN SEMICONDUCTORS D. S. GAGE 213 2. TRANSISTOR FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS E. M. DAVIS 213 3. VOLTAGE (CURRENT) AMPLITUDE DISCRIMINATION AND COMPARISON G. L. HOEHN 213 4. LUMPED MODELS OF TRANSISTORS FOR LARGE SIGNALS P. G. GRIFFITH 213 5. TRANSISTOR OSCILLATORS R. BHARAT 213 5.1 TASK 24-D SUPERVISORS: L. A. MANNING. 0. G..VILLARD,JR., V. R. ESHLEMAN. AND A. M. PETERSON 1. DOPPLER MEASUREMENTS OF METEORIC RADIANTS AND SPEEDS F. C. HOLLAND 328 2, ANALYSIS OF TRANSEQUATORIAL SCATTER.SOUNDINGS. K. C. YEH 328 3. SCATTER SOUNDINGS AT MAYAGUEZ, PUERTO RICO . 0. G. VILLARD, JR. 305 6.1 TASK 24-F SUPERVISOR: D. F. TUTTLE, JR. ERL 102 1. NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS W. F. GILLMORE, JR. 239 2. APPLICATIONS OF THE ITERATIVE METHOD OF SYNTHESIS C. Y. CHANG 239 3. COUPLING-NETWORK STUDIES P. LIGOMENIDES 206 6.2 TASK 24-H SUPERVISOR: W. W. HARMAN ERL 101 1. MATCHED-FILTER STUDIES D. W. LYTLE AEL 2. DELAY-LINE SECTIONS IN NETWORKS L. FRANKS AEL 3. DECISION-THEORY APPLICATIONS N. M. ABRAMSON ERL 237 6.3 TASK 24-S SUPERVISOR: G. F. FRANKLIN 1. SAMPLED-DATA CONTROL SYSTEMS VII MICROWAVE LABORATORY PROJECTS (SEE ALSO UNDER 1.7) 122 122 7.1 AF19(604)1924 HIGH-POWER TUBES 1. CLOVERLEAF MEGAWATT TRAVELING-WAVE-TUBE AMPLIFIER J. V. LEBACQZ M.- 6 2. CENTIPEDE MULTI-MEGAWATT TRAVELING-WAVE-TUBE AMPLIFIER A. F. PEARCE 6 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approver Fie 2002/11/13: CIA-RDP78- 0A 0010054-8 3. HIGH-POWER GRID-CONTROLLED ELECTRON GUN H. H. EAVES 18 7.2 N60NR 25123 KLYSTRONS AND TW TUBES, 1. ALTERNATE-COUPLED PROPAGATING STRUCTURE FOR TRAVELING-WAVE TUBES M. A. ALLEN 49B 2. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF PERIODIC PROPAGATING CIRCUITS E. L. CHU 35 3. MULTI-CAVITY STAGGER-TUNED KLYSTRONS L. M. WINSLOW 41 (MAIN LAB) 4. FIELD-EMISSION STUDIES J. R. FONTANA 49A 5. EXTENDED-INTERACTION KLYSTRONS H. P. 0. GOLDE 49A 6. KLYSTRON: EFFICIENCY STUDIES J. T. SENISE 48D 7.3 AF19(604)1930 BEAM TUBES 1. ELECTRON GUNS WITH CURVED BEAM TRAJECTORIES P. T. KIRSTEIN 49B 2. EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR PERIODIC STRUCTURES T. E. FEUCHTWANG 49C 3. VELOCITY-SPECTROGRAPH STUDIES OF VELOCITY MODULATION P. B. WILSON 48B 4. LARGE-SIGNAL KLYSTRON THEORY K. G. DEDRICK 11 5. STUB-SUPPORTED HELIX CIRCUITS FOR TRAVELING- WAVE TUBES W. R. AYERS 49C 7.4 AT(04-3)-21 (P.A.#i) 1. HIGH-POWER KLYSTRON EXPERIMENTS J. H. JASBERG 8 7.5 NONR-225(26) 1. HIGH-POWER VACUUM-WINDOW DEVELOPMENT J. H. JASBERG 8 7.6 DA36(039)sc-72785 1. MILLIMETER-WAVE GENERATION K. B. MALLORY 7.7 DA36(039)sc-72178'(wITH ERL) (SC-3(78) ) 1. PERIODIC FOCUSING OF ELECTRON BEAMS BY TRANSVERSE FIELDS V. W. DRYDEN 48C 2. ELECTRON-BEAM STUDIES B. F. LUDOVICI 48C 3. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF STUB-SUPPORTED HELICES R. D. KODIS 32 AF18(603)53 MICROWAVE SPECTROHELIOGRAPH R. N. BRACEWELL ERL 306 AF18(603)126 WHISTLERS R. A. HELLIWELL 301 AF19(604)1830 AURORAL RADIO PROPAGATION A. H. PETERSON 303 AF19(604)2075 OPERATION SMOKE-PUFF (STUDIES OF MAN-MADE ION CLOUDS) 0. G. VILLARD, JR. 305 'AF19(604)2193 METEOR-RATE AND RADIANT STUDIES V. R. ESHLEMAN 303 CST-6030 VERTICAL-INCIDENCE MEASUREMENTS R. A. HELLIWELL 301 CST-6033 SFERICS R. A: HELLIWELL 301 NONR-225(27) MAGNETO-IONIC DUCT PROPAGATION R. A. HELLIWELL 301 Y/1.16/179 AURORA AND AIRGLOW A. H., PETERSON 303 Y/1.38/41. ANTARCTIC METEOR RADAR 0. G. VILLARD, JR. 305 Y/1.44/183 RADIO-WAVE ABSORBTION, AURORA, AND AIRGLOW A. H, PETERSON 303 Y/6.10/20 WHISTLERS R. A. HELLIWELL 301 Y/6.12/62 FIXED-FREQUENCY BACKSCATTER A. H. PETERSON 303 - 86 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved FoorReleace,2002/11 /13 : CIA-RDP78-02822OA000010054-8 SEND YOUR REQUEST DIRECT TO STANFORD ELECTRONICS LABORATORIES, STANFORD UNI- VERSITY. STANFORD CALIFORNIA, ATTENTION: REPORTS LIBRARY. PLEASE GIVE THE TECHNICAL REPORT NUMBER, THE NUMBER OF THE CONTRACT WHICH SPONSORED THE SEL REPORT, AUTHOR, AND TITLE OR AS MUCH OF THIS INFORMATION AS IS KNOWN. IF YOUR OWN MILITARY DEPARTMENT SPONSORED THE CONTRACT ON WHICH THE REPORT WAS PRODUCED, SEND YOUR REQUEST DIRECT TO STANFORD ELECTRONICS LABORATORIES, STAN- FORD UNIVERSITY, STANFORD. CALIFORNIA, ATTENTION: REPORTS LIBRARY. IF ANOTHER MILITARY DEPARTMENT SPONSORED THE PERTINENT CONTRACT, DIRECT YOUR REQUEST TO THE APPROPRIATE OFFICE OR REPRESENTATIVE OF THAT DEPARTMENT. SIGNAL CORPS AUTHORITY (TUBES) COMMANDING GENERAL EVANS SIGNAL LABORATORY ALL REPORTS ON DA36(039)SC-73178 BELMAR, NEW JERSEY . TUBE REPORTS ON DA36(039)sc-63189 ATTENTION: HAROLD J. HERSH, SCCL SIGNAL CORPS AUTHORITY (SYSTEMS) COMMANDING GENERAL EVANS SIGNAL LABORATORY ALL REPORTS ON DA36(039)sc=73151 BELMAR, NEW JERSEY SYSTEMS REPORTS ON'DA36(039)SC-63189 ATTENTION: MR. I. 0. MY'ERS, SIGEL-CD AIR FORCE AUTHORITY COMMANDER WRIGHT AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OHIO ATTENTION: MR. FRED BARBECK, WCLGL-7 AIR FORCE CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH AUTHORITY COMMANDER AIR FORCE CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH CENTER L. G. HANSCOM FIELD BEDFORD. MASSACHUSETTS.. ATTENTION: AF19(604)1847--L. C. MANSUR REPORTS ON AF19(604)1847 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH AUTHORITY CHIEF OF NAVAL RESEARCH DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY REPORTS ON.NONR-225(10), N6ONR-25132 WASHINGTON, D. C. NONR-225(04), NONR-225(07) .CODE 427 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approve ^r F Rte 2002/11/13: CIA-RDP78- OA 0010054-8 TITLE SOME PROPERTIES OF LUMPED-FILTER CIRCUITS FOR TRAVELING-WAVE TUBES AN APPROXIMATION TO ALPHA OF A JUNCTION TRANSISTOR TRANSIENT PHENOMENA IN TRAVELING-WAVE TUBES INTERACTION-IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENTS BY PER- TURBATION OF TRAVELING WAVES A REPRESENTATION OF D--C,CHARACTERISTICS AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF COMMERCIAL SEMI- CONDUCTOR DIODES NEW SYSTEM OF PHYSICAL UNITS AND STANDARDS. SOME RESULTS IN THE ESTIMATION OF SIGNAL PARAMETERS NEGATIVE-IMPEDANCE CONVERTER DESIGN- THE TRANSVERSE-CURRENT TRAVELING-WAVE TUBE 4 C. T. SAH 7=20.56 G. A, -LOEW 5 R. D. MIDDLEBROOK 7-12-56 R. M, SCARLETT 6 A. V. BROWN 7-30-56 7 R. P. LAGERSTROM 2-11-57 9 B. F. LUDOVICI 8-25-56 10 D. R. BENNION 9-10.56 11 A. I. LARKY 10-30-56 12 D. A. DUNN 9-25-56 W. A. HARMAN L. M. FIELD G. S. KING 13 W, F. LUEBBERT 12-31-56 14 H. HEFFNER 2-25-57 (PROJ.206) T. UNOTORO 15 C. T. SAH 5-?15-57 (PROJ. 191) G. A. LOEW 16 H. C. HSIEH 6- 6-57 (PROJ.407) 17 D. W. LYTLE 6-10-57 18 L. E. FRANKS 7-29-57 19 A. E. SIEGMAN 7- 2 -57 D. A. WATKINS 20 J. P. PADDOCK 8-12-57 LITERATURE GUIDE ON FAILURE CONTROL AND RELIABILITY GROWING WAVES IN ELECTRON STREAMS IN CROSSED. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS. SOME PROPERTIES OF FILTER HELICES FOR TRAVELING-WAVE TUBES SPACE CHARGE WAVES IN HARRIS-FLOW BEAMS ON THE PROPERTIES OF MATCHED FILTERS ON THE USE OF DELAY L.INES AS NETWORK ELE- MENTS POTENTIAL-MINIMUM NOISE IN THE MICROWAVE DIODE TRANSISTOR MEASUREMENTS USING THE INDEFI- NITE ADMITTANCE MATRIX THE: ROLE OF IONOSPHERIC-LAYER TILTS IN LONG-RANGE HIGH-FREQUENCY RADIO PROPAGA- TION THE,CIRCUIT EQUATION FOR TRAVELING-WAVE TUBES. MICROWAVE NOISE FLUCTUATIONS IN THE POTEN- TIAL-MINIMUM REGION OF AN ELECTRON BEAM Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA'-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Relea2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-028200 010054-8 J. L. GRIGSBY R. FALCONER E. D. HILL 220-1 B. ARFIN 461.2 A. T. WATERMAN JR N_ H. BRYANT R. E. MILLER 152-1 J. C. DE BROEKERT 10-5-56 THE S-480 PASSIVE LOCATING SYSTEM (AN IN- TERIM REPORT) (C) 10-30.56 2-11-57 2-25-57 A TRAVELING-WAVE TUBE USING COUPLED COAX- IAL CAVITIES AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF BRILLOUIN FLOW SOME OBSERVATIONS OF ANTENNA-BEAM DISTOR- TION IN TRANS-HORIZON PROPAGATION. SOME LOGARITHMIC VIDEO-AMPLIFIER ANALYSIS AND DESIGN TECHNIQUES TYPICAL OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS.OF TRAV- ELING-WAVE-TUBE AMPLIFIERS 361-3 D. W. LYTLE 7-30-56 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF TAPPED-DELAY-LINE FILTERS 310-1 D. A, DUNN 7-30-56 TRAVELING-WAVE AMPLIFIERS AND BACKWARD- WAVE OSCILLATORS AT VHF 150-3 W. E. AYER 9-20-56 CHARACTERISTICS OF CRYSTAL-VIDEO RECEIVERS EMPLOYING R-F PREAMPLIFICATION 232-1 J. E. NEVINS 10- 30- 56 INVESTIGATIONS AND APPLICATION OF THE CONTRAWOUiND HELIX 384-1 G. WADA 10-25-56 THE INTERDIGITAL LINE AS A BACKWARD-WAVE STRUCTURE 385-1 D.. J. HARRIS H. HEFFNER 11-20-56 AN INVESTIGATION OF AMPLIFICATION ALONG ELECTRON BEAMS UNDER CROSSED-FIELD CONDI- TIONS. 187-1 W. R. LUEBKE 11-27-56 A 100-WATT BACKWARD-WAVE OSCILLATOR FOR THE 500- TO 1000-MC RANGE 701-1 R. R. GUNTER 11-30-56 PRE-ANALYSIS AND SIGNAL SORTING TECHNIQUES FOR ELECTRONIC RECONNAISSANCE (S) 470-1 K. AMo 12-31-56 USE OF THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN IN ELECTRONIC DIGITAL COMPUTERS 608-1 C."J. SHOENS W. E. AYER 3-11=57 A BROADBAND. DIRECTIVE, MICROWAVE ANTENNA 442;-1 M. WR I GHT 3-29-57 A 100-WATT S-BAND C-W AMPLIFIER (C) D. B. COATES - 89 - Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 25X1 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 Approved For Release 2002/11/13 : CIA-RDP78-0282OA000300010054-8 ~ . iii rr'" i-rI A Approve r R a&e 2002/11/13: CIA-RDP78.0 10A000300010054-8' 200211-113-: CIAc-.FDP78-02820A000300010054-