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December 20, 2016
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April 23, 1998
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August 3, 1959
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Approved For Release 2007/03/03: CIA-RDP78-03061 A000100010014-6 C NUMBER 19 3 Atgu3t 1959 Approved For Release 2007/03/03: CIA-RDP78-03061AO00100010014-6 Approved For Release 2007/03/03: CIA-RDP78-03061A0,01QOCA1Jg 1959 111, The Indus Basin Canal 'Waters Dispute Eugene Black, President of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBF.D), has made a trip to India and Pakistan in an effort to solve the dispute over the use of the carnal waters of the ndansss River Basin which has existed since 1947. He has made certain concrete suggestions which both countries have agreed to discuss in meetings In London commencing in August 1959. These waters, the sole source of supply to their intricate canal system, are the lifeblood of millions of people in Vest Pakistan. The Indus flows from Tibet across Kashmir into Pakistan. Three major west-lbank tributaries, the Jhelum, the Chenab and the l;avi drain southwest Kasshinir, converge and join the Indus in 'West Pakistan. In undivided Punjab >unnde: British rule, 26 million arid acres were brought under irrigation - four timers the area irrigated from the Iflie - by thirteen complex canal systems. Most of the canal systems are now in Pakistan. The land is almost completely dependent upon water from the canals except in the wet monsoon season. If deprived of their use literally millions of Pakistanis would starve. Thus, this is possibly an even greater issue than that of the sovereignty of Kasir. At the same time, India is determined to exploit the river water for the creation of hydro-electric power facilities in Last Punjab. Fakietan*s fear of the terrible famine that would follow the cutting off of these waters led, In 1951, to her accepting the good offices of the IBRD, in an effort to find a solution. Now, eight years later, with financial assistance from the US, Britain, Canada and Australia, division of the waters and the construction of vast engineering works, India and Pakistan may be approaching a solution of this vital problem. Maintenance and increase of Indo-Pakistan tension is a major Communist objective, one to which the Communists seem to be giving higher priority since the Tibetan revolt. Such increased tensions could quickly divert Indian attention from Tibet, promote anti- Vest and especially anti-US attitudes, encourage renewed activity by front groups, and provide new opportunities to local Communist parties is their efforts to gain influence in the area. 25X1 Approved For Release 2007/03/03: CIA-RDP78-03061AO00100010014-6 Approved For Release 2007/03/03: CIA-RDP78-03061AO00100010014-6 112. The Normalization of UAR-Jord.antan, Relation a The UAI1 and Jordanian Covernmento have accepted a plan that prorniaea to lead to a rapprochement between the two countries. An announcement to this effect was made in Amman on 21 July by Arab League Seeretary -General Abda,g..i traliq 1 ssaeanmb and Jordanian Prse atl,er Haa;ra al-Majali. Hassurnah representing President Nasir stated that the agreed plan world result in the reopening of the VAR - Jordanian border and the re-establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries. Questing "informed sources, " a Reuters report from Amman said that the UAR-Jordanian agreement also provides for suspending the vitriolic press and radio propaganda campaign of recent months. Premier Majali said the Amman talks also endo:.raed the need to strengthen the Arab League, a development which, he said, "would elimnase most of the causes of existing differences among Arab states. " Jordanian--Egyptian relations never have been good, primarily because of Icing Husayn'e refusal to become a minion of Nasir. In response to Nasir's February 1956 power move in creating the United Arab Republic comprised of Egypt and Syria, Kings Fay sal and llusayn countered by proclaiming the federation of Iraq and Jordan. Nk hen Fayrsel was assaast .ted and his regime overthrown by Qasim on July 14, 1958, King Husayn charged that both the Communists and Nasir were implicated. Husayn broke off diplomatic relations with Cairo when Nasir recognized the Qaatm regime. Until very recently Cairo propagandists had been conducting a particularly vicious and unsavory campaign against ltusayrn. Jordanian medte of course reciprocated. but did not indulge in Cairo muckralhing. The liessuoah-Majati talks in Amman and the announcement of an agreed plan which appears to be an augury of improved UAR-Jordanian relations comet amid indications of a hardening Arab attitude to the internal Communist menace, Na tr's apprehension about communism's threat to the "Arab nation" coupled with Iraqi Premier Qasim's recent actions show a growing awareness of the Co" unist threat. The Amman agreemento represent another Important step towards an Arab "lidartty which should be progressively more difficult to penetrate by international communism. 25X1 Approved For Release 2007/03/03: CIA-RDP78-03061AO00100010014-6 Approved For Release 2007/03/03: CIA-RDP78-03061AOQ0~}11 113. Indian Sponsorship of Chicom UN Membership India has submitted to the UN, for the ninth successive year, a request that the UN consider the question of seating the Chicoms as the China representative. Since independence Nehru has claimed to base Indian foreign policy on the principles of Panch Shila: mutual respect for other countries' territory; non-aggression; non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries; peaeefai co-existence; equality and mutual benefit. However, Nehru has never treated the Bloc and the West by the same standard. India refused to vote for UN condemnation of the Soviet suppression of the Hungarian uprising. Then, the rationale was that such condemna- tion would not contribute to a solution,, despite the fact that international moral indignation was the only peaceful weapon available. During the Korean War, the Indo-China crisis of 1954, and the Chicom attack on the off-shore islands, Nehruos version of non-alignment has meant effective support of Communist policy. In the case of the Chicom intervention in Korea, Nehru went so far as to say that both sides were to blame for the aggression. Nehru has thoroughly denounced all military alliances of Asian countries with the West, whereas he has not denosnnced the Sino- Soviet alliance. On the other hand, Nehru does not abide by the principles of Panch Shila when political reality so dictates such as in Nepal. over which India has sought to exercise considerable control, and in Kashmir where moral principles have been subordinated to public emotional pressures and what India considers Its military security. The hypocrisy of Nehru9s anti-imperialism can be seen from his failure to characterize the USSR9s long history of aggressive acts against East Europe as imperialism. Finally, Nehru?s approach to Tibet has been characterised by an unwillingness of the Indian Government to use the full force of its moral suasion to help the Tibetans. After the initial revulsion by the Indian people and the Nehru flare-nap with Communist China, he has tried to calm the situation claiming that he can thereby moderate Chinese-Tibetan policy. However, he is, in fact primarily attempting to return Sino-Indian relationships to normal. 25X1 Approved For Release 2007/03/03: CIA-RDP78-03061AO00100010014-6 Annrniror! I-nr DoIonco 0fa71C.1`->L l'3 ? CIA PflD7S2f`2C 1 A(C 010014 Q August 1959 114. The Manoiie Glezos ;Trial The July 9-22 Athens espionage ty ial of Manolia G1ezoe and 1b other defendants has en'tthe aaubjeet of a mf jor Communist propaganda campaign. Gleaoe was sentenced to five years' !a?npri, cent, fora. years' exile, and eight years' loss of political righta . Sias of the other defendants received sentences ranging from one year to life imprisonment, nine were acquitted, and charges were dropped against one person. During the woek ending 12 Sly, 17 of all. Mosacow's radio commentaries dealt witth the trial. The vol one byr late July 1959 bad dropped to less than half this figure and may drop furtlserr, but indications are that Cornmunist propags.ndicts in coming weeks will continue to devote a significant volume of attention tto the Giezoe case. The trial undoubtedly will be the subject of annual propaganda attention on Its anniversary date and will be related to other events in other areas in futturre-Soviet propaganda offensives. Soviet propagandists shrewdly built their campaign around the leftist G1e>1ros, a World War U Resist ce hero who in 1941 dramatically removed a German awsastika from the Acropolis. (Glezos was not then a Communist.) The Athens court on 22 July 1959 found Gleags guilty of having been a contact of Conattantine Koligianniasa, a Member of the Politburo of the Illegal Greek Communist Party (KKE) and director of a Communist espionage nettwork in Greece. IN hen arrested, on December 5, 1958, Glecos was editor of the neo-Corramunist paper Av hi and the organizational secretary of the Commmunisst front United l mocratic Left$ I:DA). Glezos previously bad served a two-year prison term for subversive activities during the 1947-48 Greek guerrilla war. Communist propaganda alleged that Clemos was bein tried because he led the "popular" opposition to USr missile basses in Greece. Apart from the Communist front, there vans little sympathy for Glesos in Greece. However, in non-Communist circles in Greece and abroad, there was trong sentiment that the prosecution 'eras based on outmoded securitty legislation dating from 1936 which called for. Glezos' trial before a military court. The Greek Government rejected Co amunist propaganda as "unacceptable provocation. " Premier Karamaulie on July 10 said: "It is surprisinng that a case of espionage threatening the security of the country., . a masse which iss being tried in accordanei- with the exis?ing taws of the state, has caused the znobiliaation of inter- national Co a nunisnn, " 'l'ine prosecution said that Internaticnaa Communism's propaga ndaa about Gleaoxa' 1941 feat waas designed to "cover up its own responsibility for espionage in Greece and to defairme Greek justice. " 25X1 Approved For Release 2007/03/03: CIA-RDP78-03061AO00100010014-6 ? Approved For Release 2007/03/03: CIA-RDP78-03061A000100010014-6 August 1959 115? OAS Foreign Min'im" ,rs Meeting F .ran{' srr S The twenty-one Republics comprising the Organization of American States have unanimously agreed to convene a Foreign Ministers Meting in Santiago, Chile? on August 129 for the purpose of discussing and resolving the international tensions that have been generated throughout the Caribbean as a result of Fidel Castro?s overthrow of Batista last January,. Recent months have seen invasions of Panama., Nicaragua, and the Dor ninican Republic by expeditionaryy revolutionary forces based on or supported from Cuba and similar forces have used the territory of Honduras and Costa Rica as bases causing serious internal problems in those countries. The U. S, has men a leading role in convening the Meeting not only because of its desire to keep the highly strategic Caribbean area free of fighting? but ai so because a continuation of the tensions could seriously embarrass the Uv S. in its world position by playing into Communists? hands. The central Ub S. position is that a continuation of direct or indirect aggression aimed to overthrow Caribbean govermnents cannot be permitted. Some members are expected to distract attention from the purpose of the Meeting by introducing extraneous mattersa such as pressing for condemnation of dictators? consideration of substantive economic motions or creation of a Convention o a Human Rights, These and similar issues in the view of the U. S. should be reserved for the OAS Quito Conference of Heads of Government,, scheduled for February 1960. Other U. S. objectives at Santiago are to create an OAS Committee to continue the moral authority of the FM Meeting for another several months and to persuade the OAS Council to undertake the study of existing inter-American peace. mechanisms,, and recommend improvements. 25X1 Approved For Release 2007/03/03: CIA-RDP78-03061AO00100010014-6 Approved For Release 2007/03/03: CIA-RDP78-03061A00000&a 1t4l959 11& Anniversary of the Nazi-Soviet Pact -August 1959 will mark the 20th anniversary of the signing of a non-aggression pact, complete with secret annexes, between Stalin and Hitler. This agreement marked a complete reversal of the relations between the two countries which had steadily deteriorated since Hitler assumed power in 1933, Hitler had decided to invade Poland in early September. He needed Russian neutrality during this early phase of his conquests, After Molotov bad replaced Litvinov in May 19 99, Ribbentrop, the German Foreign Minister, was sent to Moscow to bring the negotiations to quick conclusion. The pact was signed on 21 August 1939, and made known to the world the next day. The secret protocols which supplemented the pact became known only after the war through the release of captured German diplomatic dottumen?ss~ The first protocol spelled-out the Soviet and German spheres of influence in Eastern Europe including the division of Poland and the Baltic Countries. The Soviet govern- ment agreed to pay $7, 500, 000 for an extra strip of territory. A year later, in November 1940 further secret protocols were being negotiated between the USSR, Germany, Japan and Italy for a division of the world, They draft of the secret protocol says. "The Soviet Union declare* that its territorial ambitions center south of the national territory of the Soviet Union in the direction of the Indian Ocean". However, on 18 December 1940, Hitler issued his secret directive on Operation Barbarossa, cods` name for the Invasion of Russia. At the same time he moved German troops into the Balkans. This put an cud to the friendly negotiations, News of the non-aggression pact created bewilderment among the German and Rust3ian peopI ss who for years had been exposed to anti-bolshavik and anti-fascist propaganda ruspoetivolyo The Anti-Comintern Pact formed in 1936 between Germany and Japan was reinterpreted as a defense measure against the Allies, 25X1 Approved For Release 2007/03/03: CIA-RDP78-03061AO00100010014-6 Approved For Release 3 :CIA-RDP78-03061A000100010014-6 3l'"':, trn he ae~r ~w 3oi *e .a '1'1 f nl ; 1 a : \ujtx4t 4154 -vr g h a visit it ors: 14 to 21 Su. ay K hrn3hchev spoke on meny o nar-wma and it-, ": aw aii' c 1 tc:srxsa* in Su port of .or Yyfk '' p ticy of igs ;cpendence is Polaand"s .sttewnaa afl'4tr , ,t'f7r his part.. p,r- aunably as a quid pre q&:) for : hrusiachev"a endorsement of bib p `ngrarr,s, *aa^cauak2 vo.ced 1 -t.:ils.aid"s sralidaa.a itt with the "canyp of peace" on ali Major fute.r astir l laaarars aan :lz. ding the aovtet pos#3ion on Berlin and nuclear diaiat?n-a ent0 In a s :Lch on Z1 Juiy in Warsaa ushzhev stated ". a one cannot deananJ that the Polish park ," In solving any question of the internal life of Potand pureue a policy which coincides fully- with the policy of ,,he Communist Party of the ~: . i. tai a. Each people must build ,iocialitam and advance inward corxnmw isrn by taking crinsideratkoq its tiortai* cultural, and ldeolo ices pec;iliarities. " In none of Ihrushchev"s spe% ches wage there any Indication of pra-saurem on the Poles to depart trorn their independent road and Co tilka himself seernt.d determined to empbeaize #k bi when. in a speech at b rest w welcoming hrushchev, he declared "~ a a only We are responsible for everything . that goes on in this cvuatry. `t Perhapaa of greatest s ift- car:-ce was Khrushc.Fitvge position on Polish Agriculture, outlined in iii=Weekly Na. 18. Limn number 110 The Polish Road in Agriculture". In a aapeech to peasants in Poznan. from which V esteru newsmen were barred, Khrushchev commented that while the USSR4s ewperience proved that the Soviet collective we the best eyatem of socialist agriculture, they could not and would not be forced on the Poliah peasant:. "Naturally, people should not be dragged into a cooperative by force:. The cooperative in the best forrrn of organization of the -peasant's work. the best for n-i of or anizaation of pr,)diactio+n, and sne cannot drive a man toward a better life with a whip. " in the *perch. which was published in the Polish and Soviet press. Khrushc ,t'i diced the moat outspoken criticism of the commune system, yet heard Biers a high 5ovttt official, Citing the USSR', commune experiment iChrushch.ev stated it to "the wrorgj way" to start an the "road to socialiem0 " These statements were clearly deeig +ed for Polish internal consumption to allay arty fear of hasty socialization of Polish agriculttux e. 25X1 Approved For Release 2007/03/03: CIA-RDP78-03061AO00100010014-6