Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 11, 2016
Document Release Date: 
July 27, 1998
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
June 21, 1965
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1.pdf1.45 MB
Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 4..i.iNSIA?i?i?Emmi Approved For Release 1999/12&1444.04/~78-03061A000300030001281X1C10b Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08)24 il14-b1p78-03061A000300030006-1 21 June 1965 Briefly Noted V25X1C10b Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 (Briefly Noted Cont.) Approved For Release 1P??11111 II" r'r"7q-03061A000300030006-1 25X1 C1 Ob Approved For Release 1999/08/24 CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 414.1141?14 (Briefly Noted) Approve elease 1999/088-03061A000300030006-1 JULY Significant Dates 1 Communist Party of China founded. 1921. 6 East Germany (Grotewohl) and Poland (Cyrankiewicz) recognize Oder- 'Neisse line as permanent frontier. 1950. plamn.92saniyama. 7 International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) World Congress, Amsterdam, 7-16 July. 10 World Congress for Peace, National Independence and General Disarmament, Helsinki, 10-15 July, sponsored by the Communist World Peace Council (WPC) which is working toward the formation of a "united front" of world peace organizations. 10 Lavrenti Lena arrest for treason announced. Secretly tried and shot, 18-23 December, 1953. 12 Soviet Russia signs treaty with Lithuania recognizing its independence and sovereignty. 1920. (Occupies Lithuania 1940), Eaty.:ELELLaall- versary. 13 Cuban President Urrutia charges Communism endangers Cuban revolution. Four days later Castro charges Urrutia with treason. 1959. 16 Potsdam Conference (16 July-2 August) (Churchill, Attlee, Triunnn and Stalin) 1945. Twentieth anniymaa. 18 Big Four "Summit" Conference, Geneva, 18-23 July. US and USSR. 1955. Tenth anniversaia. 25 11th annual World Conference, All Japan Co gen Bombs (Gensuikyo); Tokyo, Nagasaki, Hir supported by JCP. France, Great Britain, uncil Against Atoi_lid.dr2,- oshima. 25 July-9 August, 27 Korean Armistice signed. 1953. 28 Ninth World Youth Festival, Algiers, 28 July-7 August. Sponsored by Communist WFDY and IUS. 30 Pathet Lao guerrillas, armed by Communist North Vietnam, attack army posts in northern Laos. 1959. 31 30,444 flee to West Berlin in July -- East Germans seal the border two weeks later (13 August). 1961, AUG. 5 Friedrich Engels dies. 1895. (70th anniversary). [Born 28 Sept 1820]. 6 20th anniversaa atomic explosion Hiroshima; A-bomb dropped on Nagasaki 9 August. 1945, 11 World Convention, Japan National Congress against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs (Gensuikin), Tokyo, for about 4 days. Supplementary events, Hiroshima, Nagasaki 5-9 August. Supported by JSP and SOBYO. Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 :1Jied14414003061A000300030006-1 PROPAGANDIST'S GUIDE to COMMUNIST DISSENSIONS 411( #55 Commentary 26 May-8 June 1965 Principal Developments: 1, The Chinese Communists continue to press their political/propaganda offensive against the Soviet and Yugoslav "revisionists," the Indian "re- actionaries," and the U.S. "imperialists." Most aggressive are: (a) a speech incorporating the most extreme Chinese charges against the Soviet leadership delivered by Peng Chen, chief of the Chicon delegation to the Indonesian Party's 45th anniversary, at the PKI's Aliarcham Academy; (b) a People's Daily Observer article expanding NCNA's earlier denunciation of the Shastri visit to Moscow; (c) further expansion of the Chinese cam- paign against "brutal suppression of Asian, African and Latin American students" by the Yugoslav authorities; and (d) an interview given to a French journal by Chinese Foreign Minister Chen Yl maintaining that Chinese anti-Soviet polemics are making a positive contribution to the Vietnam situ- ation. Peking also lists 9 world languages in which it is distributing its March book, Polemics on the General Line of the ICM (which includes 11 major attacks on the CPSU previously published as separate pamphlets, as described In #49). And as the period ends, Premier Chou En-lai is in Tanzania on another visit apparently aimed partiortlarly at building support for the Chinese line at the 29 June Afro-Asian Conference II ("Bandung") in Algiers (though he hurried back to China on the next day, after expected invitations for subsequent African visits apparently did not materialize). 2. In introducing Peng Chen at Aliarcham, Indonesian CP Chairman Aidit admits that the PKI follows "the pronouncements and attitudes of the CCP toward modern revisionism," -- even though "sometimes we are not quick enough in understanding" them! 3. The Albanians publish four more major attacks on the Soviet leader- ship, one of which spreads its fire to include the Italian revisionists. 4. Meanwhile, the CPSU/USSR continues to take a public stance of re- straint in the face of these inflammatory provocations. Even while pro- testing Peng Chen's truly outrageous conduct in abusing Indonesian hospi- tality to attack another PKI guest from a PKI rostrum, the Soviets are defensive and refrain from any counter-charges. Behind-the-scenes Soviet political activity is indicated, however, in visits of high-level Party delegations to Bulgaria and France and a Marshal Grechko-led military mission to Rumania, plus talks in Moscow with a Kadar-led Hungarian dele- gation and a North Korean military mission, which is granted a new military aid pact. There are further indications of (somewhat belated) Soviet in- tent to press for participation in the Algiers Afro-Asian Conference II. Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 amm40144064mwmma (Commentary Cont,) Approved For ReleasenleileftedhaCIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 5. French and Italian CP chiefs met secretly in Geneva (24-25 May) while the CPSU delegation was in France (19-31 May), -- and just a week before delegations of all West European CPs were to meet in Brussels. (We have had no report on the Brussels meeting as yet.) 6. The Rumanian leadership surprisingly decides in plenum to change the name to Rumanian Communist (instead of Workers) Party, to correspond with the current stage of development of Rumanian socialism. 2 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 411?11010PT (Commentary Cont.) 25X1C10b Approved For Release 1999/08/243061A000300030006-1 25X1 C1 Ob 3 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 "?,MMINW?? (Commentary) Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 CHRONOLOCa -- COMMUNIST DISSENSIONS #55 26 May-8 June 1965 May 25 (delayed): Albanian Party monthly theoretical journal Partise No. o features a 23?000-word editorial: "The Modern Revision- ists, Greatest Liquidators in the History of the ICM." (Also published in daily Zen. I Ponu3lit in. 2 parts, 25 & 26.) It is a ponderous attack on the Italian Communist. debate published in Einascita in recent months, centering around the controversialliendsamt2a.ak on the need for creating an entirely new "strAILLarty of the left" in the 28 November issue. The editorial ties this development to the "ill-famed 20th CPSU Congress" and refers back to the 7 April 1964 ZIP article. entitled "The Modern Revisionists on the Road of Social Democratic Degeneration and a Merger with Social Democracy." (Chrono #27). It then turns to the 4 February 1965 Pravda article, "The Communists and the Social Democrats," (Chrono #47) and. asks: "Can one not see learly were his laulztion?" It answers itself: "Rialuarties are unanimous in declar- ing that to sabotage the proletarian revolution in thecapitalist coun- tries and to restore capitalism in the socialist countries, the revolu- tionary Party of the working class must be 1iaa-2.date1 at all costs." "But the liquidating positions of Amendola, of the revisionist leadership of the Italian CP, and of the Khrushchevite revisionists, have become the positions of all international modern revisionism. Thus the discussion within the ICP about the 'single party', the new, perfidious and liquidating step by Amendola, is by no means a unique and isolated phenomenon. It represents, in fact, one of the aspects, and perhaps the most typical and the clearest one, of a whole newcam2a1.01 which has been started by all modern revision- ists for rapprochement., collaboration and fusion with social demo- This emerges from the decisions, resolutions, and discussions with the various revisionist parties of Western Europe. This is clearly demonstrated by the round-table discussions on the problems of 'unity of the workers and the democratic movement in the capital- ist countries' organized by the international revisionist journal Problems of Peace and Socialism, discussions which were published in issues Nos. 1 and 2 of this year." May 25-Jy.122_2 (continuing from #54, May 7..24): Party delegations to the Ipdonesian CP's 24.121.2,m_ite_r_ celebration busily engage in local po- litical activity. Most active and controversial is the Chinese delega- tion, headed by Politburo member and CC Secretary Peng Chen, whose 25 May at the PKI 's Aliarcham Academy of Social Sciences turned into an anti-Soviet harangue incorporating the most extreme Chinese charges against the CPSU leadership, including passages such as the following: Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A0110800020006t1) Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 "Khrushchev revisionism is gisiniagEatIng the socialist camp, alituRE the ICM, sabotaging the national liberation movement and the people's revolutionary movement in all countries, lulling the vigilance of the people of the world, and Rapying_the role of a ..qzsial detachment of the U.S. iuerialists and all reactionaries By all this, the K. revisionists have set themselves against the masses of the people who comprise more than 90% of the world's population .... K. revisionism is tl-e_2.12,21211.21.1122_2alltalist forces in the Soviet_Union. With K's coming to power, a bourgeois privileged stratum gradually came into being (It) has completely divorced itself from the Soviet people .... K and his like are the political representatives of this bourgeois privileged stratum .... K's successors are more prafty than K .... They think that acting stealthily may be better for them Precisely be- cause the K. reviuionists are putting on more subtle camouflage and are more deceptive, it is all the more incumbent on the M-16 to e2cPcse the essence falie their However numerous the metamorphoses of the K. revisionists, they will eventually reveal their true features as monsters." Introducing Peng, PKI Chairman Aidit says that "the PKI and the CCP are like nails and fingers" and explains that: "It is true that sometimes we are not quick enough in under- standinz pronouncements by the CCP_Against modern revi- sionism; we must first read these pronouncements over and over again and study them thoroughly. This is generally because we do not have a complete grasp of the overall situation. However, lati- matel we are able to understand these pronouncements thoroughly. Based on this experience, we consider the ronouncements and atti- tudes of the CCP toward modern revisionism as a 'signal' light which serves as our beacon and guide." Just before its departure from Djakarta on the 4th, the CPSU dele- ag_Liar. issues a terse statement briefly thanking "the Indonesian Commu- nists and all friends of the Soviet Union" for their welcome and then T.S(2,L2E1_,, Pen's "provocative andanderousattacla" at Aliarchaml "The CPSU delegation files its protest in view of the fact that an authoritative representative of the CCP, While misusing the hospitality of the PKI, has used the forum it was given for improper and offensive attacks a ainst the CPSU, whose delegation isa alalit of the Indonesian Commnnists ...." The statement concludes: 2 (Chronology Cont.) Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 "Nevertheless, there need be no doubt that any efforts to undermine the friendship between Soviet and Indonesian Communists, to undermine the anti-imperialist unity between the Soviet Union and Indonesia, are bound to end in failure." Nhy 26: A Radio Pekin-, broadcast (in English to South Asia) lists nine 'foreign languages in which the People's Publishing House has issued its book Polemics on the General Line of the ICM: English, French, Spanish, German, Itissian, Japanese, Indonesian, Vietnamese and Arabic. This vol- ume is a collection of 11 "vit1 articles";iss_a published as sepa- rate pamphlets -- the 1.4=1.57-0rP7itter to the CPSU, the nine edi- torials in the series of "Comments on the Open Letter of the CPSU," and the November 1964 "Why Khrushchev Fell" -- plus the CPSU letter to the CCP of 30 March 1963 and the CPSU open letter of 14 July 1963 (see Chrono i49 for first Chinese notice of publication of this volume on 5 March). A CPSU delegation headed by leading theoretician Suslov pays "a visit" to Sofia to "acquaint themselves with the activities of the BCP and exchange experiences." In a 13,000-word speech at a 2 June meeting (published in Sofia Rabotnichesko Delo on 4th and Pravda on 5th), Suslov attributes difficulties in the ICM to differences in eco- nomic development, historical traditions, and political conditions. He warns against "every attempt at artificially erecting a wall between 'one's own' CP" and the rest of the movement, and says that no "detach- ment" will be able to solve any task "if it isolates itself, if it re- tires into its national shell, if it passes on to a platform of national egoism." Soviet media press for S2y..i.e.L2Lallaiit_ttioz.2 in the Afro- Asian Conference-TITTZEITg") in Algiers, in an article in No. 22 of the multi-language weekly New Times and a Radio Moscow English-language commentary to South Asia, both on the 26th. NyTimes correspondent Peter Grose reports from Moscow on the 4th that -- according to "diplomatic sources" there -- "the Soviet leadershikluja91121.1aAWilklagt!gal- mnnist China's bid for rimac amo the African and Asian nations" at the conference. May 27.: Pravda 5,000-word Sevastyanov article on 45th anniversary of Lenin's book Left.,Win Communism An Infantile Disorder says that "the entire contents of the book "were intended to strengthen unity" and shows that Lenin would be on the CPSU's side in the dispute with the Chinese. However, it does not mention the Chinese by name and is generally re- strained and conciliator in tone. An Observer article in Pe.2EaLLEgIE expands baluz on the 21 May NONA comment on Indian Prime-kinister Shastri's visit to Moscow (Chrono IW), concluding: "The more K's successors fraternize with the Indian reaction- aries, the more clearly will their revisionist face be exposed. Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : 1A-RDP78-03061A(885neafidegi) Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Since K's line of .1alligarall India_ta_amallapal has gone bankrupt, will the present Soviet leaders come to any better end than K.?" The French CP announces that its chief Rochet and Italian CP chief Longo had conferred secret in Geneva777TR31-On a wide range of subjects, -- not identified. May 28: NCI IA reports an interview given by Chinese Vice Premier (and Foreign Minister) Chen Yl to correspondent K.S. Karol for the French journal Nouvel ObserNsteur on the Vietnam problem. One question is: "Do you not think that the saemics (between People's China and the USSR) tend to divert world pub1ic opinion from the important problem and, there- fore,klty_asneative-rOYe: "This is not mx_ylpw .... The the the people of the whole world to distinguish between truth and falsehood, between real and sham struggle against imperialism, and between real and sham support for this struggle; they contribute to the struggle of the people of the world against U.S. aggression ....' Mx.29: The Albanian Zeri_Laltypit blasts "the hypocritical, anti- revolutionary, and capitulationist attitude of the Soviet leadership" again, this tirrp in connection with Indian Premier Shastri's visit to Moscow. mac?) Pravda publishes joint communique on the "friendly visit" of a 4a4=121_Eauarian Party delegation to Moscow, 23-29 May: it stresses complete identity of the viewpoints of both sides on the situation in the ICM" and reports that they "decided to wage a consistent struggle for the cohesion of countries of the socialist comity ara for the strengthening of unity ...." May 31: TABS announces that a ,CSS(.j...1G.9.2,,Lblal headed by Boris Ponomarev returned home after a 19-31 May visit with the French CP. A communique says that the visit "reaffirmed the profound identity of the views of both parties on all main problems of our time." TASS also announces thesjsza.,, with a North Korean military dele- mum in Moscow, of an reement to strengthen further the defensive cap- abilities of the rPRK: no details are given. June 2-8: Chinese Premier Chou En-lai stops in Pakistan 2-3 June enroute to Africa on another visit, seen by observers as aiming particularly to rally support for Chinese leadership at the forthcoming Algiers Afro- Asian Conference II. A 4-day visit in Tanzania 4-8 June produces a .51212L contunique, worded much like Chou's speeches in its references to "foreign intervention in the Dominican Republic," tg "Vietnamese people fighting heroically against foreign intervention," and the Congolese people's "fight for national independence and freedom," without, however, naming the U.S. -- or the U.S.S.R. Chou's repeated remarks on revolution bring Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-0306%00113046601106,-)1 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 a sharp denunciation from neighboring Kenya, and he unexpectedly flies back to China from Tanzania on June 8 instead of continuing the antici- pated round trip, -- leading to press speculation that the Chinese have worn out their welcome among the true neutrals of Africa. June 3: Bucharest releases a communique on a 31 May-2 June CC plenum: it includes the statement that "The plenum unanimously decided to submit to the (lth) Congress the proposal that the paEtz_ka_and the Rumanian Communist (instead of Workers) Party, which corresponds with the current stage of development of our society, the stage of fnlfilling socialist construction, and the final aim of the Party, namely construction of a Communist society." June 5: The Alicata-led Italian CP deleqation to CUba (Chrono 054, May 13) 142,parts for Moscow. VYTimps reports from Havana that they held long talks with Fidel Castro and other Cuban leaders on "the conflict between Moscow and Peking and Communist involvement in Latin America." The Chilean Ministry of the Interior grants permission to move to aatam the Latin American Conference on Solidarity with Cuba which had been scheduled for Montevideo June 18 but which the Uraguayan authorities banned in a last-minute reversal of policy. The Albanian auLlmallIL denounces the Khrushchevite revisionist for "committing treason toward the Dominican people" by pursuing "their policy of collaboration with and unprincipled concession and capitulation to American imperialism." June 6: NONA reports three messages sent by the All-China Students Fed- eration in connection with the 'brutsal_jpzuszian by Yugoslav authori- ties of students from Asia Africa and Latin America who took part in a demonstration on 12 May against the U.S. imperialist invasion of the Dominican Republic" (see Chrono it54, May 17, for first liCNA report on subject): a. A. massage of to the Yuiraglayeral Executive Council which stated: "Your present act of violence again exposes to the world's people the _.vi11s....4.1sz of theYos3.avleaders. They are act- ing as a special detachment of U.S, imperialism to stamp out the national liberation movement ...." It "demArds" that the Yugoslav PaLtlaatts"inim_e.s_lies_a_betermLnate the mnment of the students from Chile, Colombia, and Palestini" ang.d"lie" to the Asian, African, and Latin American students who participated," with "assur- ances that there will be no repetition." b. A letter to the Peking office of the EArab] Palestine Liberation Organization expressing "deep sympathy with the Palestine student persecuted by the Yugoslav authorities," paying "'high respect to his militancy." 5 (Chronology Cont.) Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 c. A vil....I121..z.specuted students in Bel rade, sent "in care 2.f..:_lh..4s_Em..._a_basof SA.c....E2kuljac of Chile inyzellavia." "The Chi- nese people as a whole, including the students, firmly support your just action ...." June 7: In a departure from their recent policy of non-involvement in Sino-Soviet polemics, the PolisluEela_pyblishes the 4 June protest of 92.2_g2L22...szd.t.2.r2air_taairw_....:.s.:__.ttheP_a;6e Chen echz at Aliarcham. The three English-language Calcutta newspapers report that a new Indian CP was formed by Communist centrists critical of both the Soviet- aligned CPI/R and the Chinese-sympathizing CPI/L at a meeting in Calcutta, 5-6 June. The Statesman comments that the new party is more inclined toward the CPSU on najor international issues but strongly opposed to CPI/R Chairman Dange. June 8: An Albanian ZaLLI_Emallt editorial on Vietnam denounces the vile attitude of the K. revisionists": The anti-imperialist garb in which the K. foursome of Brensi_inev, 1_,....s.agzial_astan and Suslov are mo- mentarily masquerading will not dupe anyone. It cannot hide the anti- revolutionary and anti-Vietnamese plot which they have hatched with the American imperialists." It concludes with another dire prediction: H... The Soviet people ... will find the strength and opportun- ity to put in their places the revisionist traitors who play with their fate and that of socialism. In the end, true M-L will triumph over lies and revisionist treason, and that day is not far off 1" 6 (Chronology) Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/30- 61A0003000306befe 1965 App 25X1 C1 Ob (914 Cont.) Approved For Release 1911155151MPE411104?1DP78-03061A000300030006-1 25X1 C1 Ob 2 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 smi?6664141,111111. (914 Cont.) Approved For Release 1999/08/2441?1MM8-03061A000300030006-1 25X1 C1 Ob 3 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 0?114?114 (914?) Approved For Release 1999/08/20.ttleME,713-03061A0003000300081* 1965 25X1C10b Approve. or -e ease ? s: :-I I. A III III III. "i?PrIrrImi (915 Cont.) Approved For Release 1901/firee ? ('IA RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 25X1 C1 Ob 2 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 amm04004004/Amm (915 Cont.) Approved For Release 1999/08/24.61CILUililiiiii-03061A0003000300025X1C10b6-1 3 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 ,mm1010101144?mi (915 Cont.) Approved For Release 19941111DP78-03061A000300030006-1 . 25X1C10b 4 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 ?"?91.11011.1?????? (915 Cont.) Approved For Release 1999/0817,1.1,178-03061A000300030006-1 25X1 C1 Ob 5 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 (915 Cont.) Approved For Release 192/114141411404104,1M3P78-03061A000300030006-1 25X1C10b AstraiN .011118 6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 fmmoef40#40TommED (915 Cont.) Approved For Release 1999/Q?lialipaiMAROF'78-03061A000300030006-1 25X1 C1 Ob Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CiA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 4..BEN?PMENEmm'm (915 Cont.) Approved For Release 19.6011178-03061A000300030006-1 25X1 C1 Ob Approved For Release 1999/08h4 : CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 "1"Ptbe?lbiii. (915-) Approved For Release 1999/08/21rkifeltr7r03061A00030003VOCTM 1965 916 AF,FEINE,WH. LEADERSHIP PROBLEMS IN COMMUNIST CHINA 25X1C10b SITUATION: An official Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman has denied the recent spate of rumors that Mao Tse-tung is seriously ill. But the fact remains that Mao was 71 years old last December, and that he certainly is infirm and under the constant watch of medical attend- ants. His current prolonged absence from public view has encouraged speculation that his poor health now keeps him from performing even routine ceremonial duties. However, Mao's health at this or any other particular moment merely symbolizes the crucial fact that China will very soon face a succession problem, not only in transferring power from Mao to his individual successor, but also the far more complex task of passing authority from one generation to another. Totalitarian so- cieties have always shown themselves to be ill-equipped to deal with these problems. Some quarters contend that the history of the Chinese Communist party suggests that the CPC will be able to achieve these im- mensely complex tasks without much difficulty. When Lenin died and again when Stalin died, it was also contended that the remaining Com- munist leaders were firmly united in their determination to carry on the policies of the dead leader, and yet in both cases, the former subordi- nates of the late departed were soon deeply divided and engaged in life and death struggles for power. The Chinese have attempted to ease the situation by grooming Liu Shao-chi as Mao's appointed successor. In 1959 Mao turned over to Liu the Chairmanship of the Government while retaining the more important post of the Party Chairman. Liu however is 67, nearly as old and frail as Mao and even if he should achieve a successful takeover from Mao, his would necessarily be a caretaker administration. Liu certainly does not have the status to appoint his own successor as Mao had done, so the question of his successor can be expected to be even more problematical to the remaining leaders. Only two other men besides Liu appear as possible candidates to succeed Mao. They are Premier Chou En-lai and Party General Secretary Teng Hsiao-ping. Both of these men are about the same age as Liu and neither of them is likely to challensphim so long as Mao is alive. Whether they would willingly accede to his leadership during a critical period after Mao's death remains to be seen. Peking's Mayor Peng Chen and Foreign Minister Chen Yi are dark horses who would assume increased Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 60941414414.... (916 Cont.) Approved For Release 19964114?6WDP78-03061A000300030006-1 prominence on the demise of any one of the Party leaders mentioned above. (See unclassified attachment for biographic sketches of high- ranking Chinese Communist leaders.) The average age of the 18 Politburo members is over 66 and Most of them are in,their late 60's or early 70's. No attempt has been made to bring younger, second-echelon leaders into the higher bureauc- racy gradually and train them for ultimate leadership. On the contrary, a strenuous effort seems to have been made to keep them out. The top 40 men in the Party are all in the older age-group, and even in the layer below these men, the majority is in the 55-60 bracket. There is twofold significance in these facts: First, the younger men may react strongly when the legendary Mao departs the scene. Their long frustra- tion at being kept away from the seat of power may acme to the surface and cause them to rebel against the "Yenan Caves" mentality of their elders. Second, the advanced age of all of the immediate contenders for the top post may mean that the top post will change hands several times in the next few years, and the competition might enhance con- siderably the influence of this younger group as the competing factions vie for support against their antagonists. The most important question therefore is not who will succeed Mao, but haw many times in the next few years will the leadership change hands, and how long will it take before power is transferred to the hands of the next generation. The old men who rule China have become increasingly alarmed by what they consider the flagging revolutionary zeal of the younger peo- ple; and they have undertaken an intensive indoctrination campaign to remedy the situation. The course of events in the Soviet Union since the death of Stalin has made them painfully aware of what might happen to their own revolution once they are gone; it has made them fear that their successors will grow soft and betray the sacred trust of carrying the revolution to the rest of the world. Their alarm is probably the best evidence that there is at least some possibility for a change in the attitude of China's future leaders. If the hard, doctrinaire in- flexibility of the current leaders appears to the younger generation to pay off in the desired results, that generation can fully be expected to continue the pattern, and. even to increase Communist China's arrogant militarism and interference in the affairs of other countries. If, how- ever, today's leaders meet firmness and resolution in all their attempts to foist their views on their neighbors and on developing nations around the world, it may be possible to convince the next generation that its best prospects lie in devoting their full attention to their own internal affairs and solving the vast problems that have 'plagued the Chinese peo- ple for so many centuries. 2 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 ...r6raidadmiim (916 Cont.) 25X1 C1 Ob Approved For Release 1999/08/241tftrtr78-03061A000300030006-1 25X1 C1 Ob 3 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A0003000800,06-1 fiprfripppi 91b uont 0 ) Approved For Release 1999nr ilefirtIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 25X1 C1 Ob- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 whFSNRoNim (916 Cont.) Approved For Release 1999/08-03061A000300030006,4 -z0X1ClOb 5 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 ..114.114?I'm (916.) Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Red Spies in the UN by Pierre J. Huss al)Z.T_ George Carpozi, Jr. 1965. Coward-McCann, Inc., 200 Madison Avenue, New York 16, N.Y. Indexed. Illustrated. 287 pages. $5.50 As the title suggests, this book concerns the use of official and diplomatic status by Communist intelligence officers. The authors, two well-known journalists, obtained a number of incriminating photos on Communist espionage cases from the United States Federal Bureau of In- vestigation (FBI), and included them with the FBI's permission. Some of the photos show the Communist UN officials in the act of making clandestine rendezvous with espionage agents. The book relates more than a dozen cases of Communist espionage and conspiracies to commit espionage in the United States, all conducted under the shelter of the UN missions of the Soviet Union, and of some of its satellites. The first known case of espionage involving a Soviet employee of the United Nations occurred in 1949, when Valentin Gubitchev, an engineer attached to the Secretariat, was arrested with an American woman, Miss Judith Coplon. Gubitchev had conspired with Miss Coplon to steal highly classified official documents from the United States Depart- ment of Justice. A court found Gubitchev guilty, and he was sentenced to 15 years in prison, but the U.S. Department of State intervened, and asked that the court suspend the sentence provided that Gubitchev agree to leave the country, a condition waich the latter accepted. Mis Coplon received the same sentence, but it was later reversed on a technicality, and she was freed. As subsequent events have shown, Gubitchev was but the first of a long succession of Soviet and other Communist officials working at the UN (either as officials of national delegations or as employees of the UN itself) who have been caught spying, and been sent home as a result. Again and again, the book shows, the protection afforded by the UN to the foreign nationals employed there has been abused by the Communist Bloc. One of the most spectacular cases related involved a 1962 attempt by Cubans to sabotage oil installations in New Jersey, and to create terror in a large New York department store by causing an explosion. According to the authors, there is strong evidence that the Soviets masterminded the whole plot, although this was never alleged in court. The book concludes with a Soviet espionage operation which was ex- posed in 1963. It involved two Soviet agents, living together as man and wife, who had "borrowed!' the identities of two American citizens, unbeknownst to the latter. In fact the man whose name was used by the Soviet agent in Washington, D.C. was actually a Catholic priest in Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030(006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Amsterdam, New York. The case was solved largely because the FBI had information that Petr Egorovich Maslennikov, First Secretary of the Soviet Mission to the United Nations in 1962-63, was actually a Soviet Military Intelligence officer, and kept him under surveillance almost from the moment of his arrival in the United States in January, 1962. Through their surveillance of Maslennikov, the FBI agents noticed the strange couple in Washington, D.C., who were using the names of two American citizens, and checked extensively on their backgrounds. In this way they learned that the couple were really Soviet citizens, who had somehow managed to enter the United States illegally, and that they were involved in espionage against the United States. Maslennikov evi- dently became aware that he was being watched, for he abruptly ceased both his espionage activity and his official work at the UN, and de- parted for the Soviet Union. However, another Soviet national, Ivan Dmitrievich Egorov, who was involved, but who did not hold diplomatic status, was arrested, as were the couple who were using other people's names, and were discovered to be couriers for a Soviet spy ring operat- ing in New York and WashirCcrun. The book is as exciting as most fictional epy thrillers and has the advantage of being true. Unfortunately, it is marred by occasional slight errors such as giving a date incorrect17. nrertheless, the book is well worth reading, and should be rec;:i by those intcrestDd in preserving the United Nations, and keeping it -,ree of Cold War activi- ties detrimental to its main mission of preserving the peace. 2 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 I Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 United Nations Disarmament Commission Resolution Passed 15 June 1965 . The DisarmanPnt Commission, Having considered the report dated 17 September 1964 of the Eighteen- Nation Disarmament Committee submitted to the United Nations Disarmament Commission and to the nineteenth session of the General Assembly, Reaffirming the ultimate and continuing responsibility of the United Nations for disarmament, Noting with regret that during 1964 despite the efforts made by the Eighteen-Nation Disarmament Committee no specific agreements were reached either on general and complete disarmament or on measures aimed at the lessening of international tension, or halting and reversing the arras race, Deploring that, notwithstanding General Assembly resolutions 1762 (XVII) and 1910 (XVIII), nuclear weapon tests have taken place and also that no agreement has been reached on the QTE discontinuance of all test explosions of nuclear weapons for p11 tine UNQTE, which is one of the stated objectives of the partial test-ban treaty, Considering that the memorandum of 14 September 1964 submitted to the Conference of the Eighteen-Nation Disarmament Committee by the dele- gations of Brazil, Burma, Ethiopia, India, Mexico, Nigeria, Sweden and the United Arab Republic, represents a fair and sound basis for the conduct of negotiations towards removing the remaining differences for the conclusion of a comprehensive test-ban treaty, Convinced that failure to conclude a universal treaty or agreement to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons leads to the most serious consequences, Deeply conscious of the urgency of making early progress towards the goal of general and complete disarmament under effective international control and of reaching agreement on measures which would facilitate the attainment of that goal, Bearing in mind the proposals made at its present session for measures to reduce international tension and halt and reverse the arms race, and also at the meeting of the Organization of African Unity and the Second Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries, Recalling the principle that a substantial part of the resources that will be released through disarmament should be devoted to the economic and social development of the developing countries, thus contributing to the evolution of a safer and better world, (Cont . ) Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 I. Reaffirms the call of the General Assembly upon all States to become parties to the Treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmos- phere, in outer space and under water, and to elide by its spirit and provisions; 2. Recommends that the Eighteen-Nation Disarmament Committee should: . (a) reconvene as early as possible to resume as a matter of urgency its efforts to develop a treaty on general and complete dis- armament under effective international control, and to consider all proposals for measures to relax international tension and halt and reverse the arms race, including those submitted to the Disarmament Commission at its present session; (b) consider as a matter of priority the question of extending the scope of the partial test-ban treaty to cover underground tests; (c) also accord special priority to the consideration of the question of a treaty or convention to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons giving close attention to the various suggestions that agreement could be facilitated by adopting a programme of cer- tain related measures; (d) keep in mind the principle of converting to programmes of economic and social development of the developing countries a sub- stantial part of the resources gradually released by the reduction of military expenditures; Requests the Eighteen-Nation Disarmament Committee to report to the Disarmament Commission and to the General Assembly during its twentieth session on the progress made in respect of the above recommendations. 2 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Biographical Data 21 June 1965 MAO Tse-tung Chairman of the CCP Central Committee and Politburo; Deputy for Peking to the National People's Congress; Honorary Chairman of the CPPCC. Since 1935 Mao Tse-tung has been the accepted leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). In 1930, Mao put don, in a bloody purge at Fu Tien, revolutionaries who opposed his orders and from then his claim to the party leadership was only a question of time. Mao was born in Hainan in 1893, the son of a middle peasant family, and was graduated from Changsa Normal College in 1918. In the summer of 1920 he became a Marxist and was a delegate to the convention that founded the Chinese Communist Party in July 1921. His early years in the Party were spent in organizing the peasants and conducting propaganda among them. His experiences in these early days led him to develop the thesis for which he is now best known, namely, that the peasants were the vital element in any successful revolt in an agrarian country like China. This thesis was opposed by the party leadership of the time. They were following Soviet advice at the time and attempting to conduct a revolution based on the urban proletariat. The official Party leadership in Shanghai gradually lost in- fluence and authority to Mao and his lieutenants and finally joined him in Kiangi in 1932. During these years the Communist Army successfully fought off four attempts by Chiang Kai-shek's forces to crush it, but a fifth at- tack forced the Communists to undertake the "Long March" in October 1934-- 6,000 miles through Kweichow and the mountainous border provinces to Shensi, where a new headquarters was established in 1935 at Yenan. The Party extended its control during the Sino-Japanese war (1937-45) by guerilla tactics and the mobilization of the patriotic peasantry against the Japanese. At the end of the war in 1945 the Communists were thus in a stronger position than in 1935. On the establishment of the Central People's Government in 1949, Mao became Chairman of the Government Council, of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, (CPPCC), and of the People's Revolutionary Military Council. In January, 1953, Mao was Chair- man of the Constitution Drafting Committee and on the consequent reorganiza- tion of the government structure in 1954, he was elected Chairman of the Republic and ex officio became Chairman of the National Defence Council. Mao was seriously ill during 1953 and 1954, and little was heard of him until July, 1955, when he came back to call for the rapid full-scale socialization of agriculture. After this he remained well in the public eye, and all subsequent major policies have been ascribed personally to Mao. In December, 1958, it was announced that Mao was about to retire from the Chairmanship of the Republic "in order to devote himself more to ideo- logical study." His retirement came in April, 1959. Mao remains Party Chairman, appears in public regularly and continues to be treated as the leader and father of the Chinese people. Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A0003000300116-)1 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Mao married three times, first in 1919 in Shanghai, his wife being executed in 1928. His second wife was with him on the "Long March," during which some of her children are said to have been abandoned. One was killed in the Korean War, one is evidently a Russian translator at a Ministry in Peking, another an army officer in Szechwan. His third marriage, to an actress, has produced two daughters. No member of his family takes part in public life. 2 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 25X6F (Cont.) Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 25X6F 2 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 25X6F Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 (Cont.) Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 25X6F Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 2 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 25X6F Biographical Data 21 June 1965 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 25X6F Biographical Data 21 June 1965 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A00030003000-int?) Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 25X6F 2 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A00030003000e5g6F Biographical Data 21 June 1965 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 25X6F 21 June 1965 Biographical Data 'OS ?T-0 ? g? I. 'III III III. Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 25X6F Biographical Data 21 June 1965 ? = ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?? Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 25X6F Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A00030003994i1 Biographical Data 21 June 1965 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A00030003(868 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 25X6F 2 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 25X6F Biographical Data 21 June 1965 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 25X6F 2 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A00030003002?AF Biographical Data 21 June 1965 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A00030003aWf Biographical Data 21 June 1965 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-03061A000300030006-1