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December 22, 2016
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December 1, 1967
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Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 'SECRET wide 'er-spectves KEY 'BATE 20 December - Day of Solidarity with National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (observed by international Communist f'ron'ts) 4-1I January - Havana Cul+ural Congress (representatives from Asia, Africa and Latin America) Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 SECRET THE COMMUNIST CAMP The vast assemblage of foreign Communist dignitaries in Moscow for the 50th Anniversary CqQ_ebration served to underscore its portray- al by the Soviets as a massive, unified Communist movement rallying to the support of the Soviet Union and the CPSU. However, the absence of several luminaries of the Communist world, MAC) Tse-tung, Ho Chi Minh, and Fidel Castro, and of representatives of several Communist parties such as those of Holland and the non-bloc countries of the Far East except Australia, detracted from this impression of massive unity. The big question in the Communist movement, that of an inter- national Communist conference, was apparently still not definitively resolved during the Moscow celebrations, although several leaders did suggest publicly a meeting, or preparatory meeting, in 1968 and, according to one clandestine source, delegations from 17 or 18 parties will foregather in Budapest possibly late this year-or early next. The prospect of such.a meeting remains.a very corrosive issue in'the' 50X1-HUM Communist movement, for the reasons discussed in the enclosed note on Principal Developments in World Communist Affairs. 2 o roe r r Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 :SECRET Cubans Sponsor Cultural Congress. The forthcoming Havana Cultural Con- gress, scheduled for 4-11 January 1968, is being touted by the Cuban Government as being as important as the TriContinental Conference of 1966 and the LASO meeting held in summer 1967. About 2000 invitations are said to have been issued to artists, writers and scientists from Asia, Africa and Latin America. Well known leftists such as Alfara Siquieros, Jean Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir and others are expected to attend. It is doubtful that the Congress will live up to the grand- iose claims of the Cubans but it undoubtedly indicates the Cuban Govern- ment's intention to extend its subversive operations in the cultural field. As we have little evidence to substantiate the inflated announce- ments from Havana we do not wish to give undue attention to the conference. Rather, the field should be alert to the potential for trouble-making within the Communist parties and fronts which this event may create. (Attached are a news article giving further details on the Congress .and excerpts from a statement issued by a preparatory seminar in Havana which concluded, among other things, that "The cultural event par excellence is revolution.") Recall of Peking's Ambassadors. In December 1966 Peking had 47 diplo- matic establishments abroad of which 42 were embassies headed by full- fledged ambassadors. Today, Peking has two embassies headed by ambas- sadors -- those in the UAR and Albania -- and at this writing the ambas- sador to Albania is not at his post. In addition to the ambassadors, almost 1,000 other Chinese officials have been recalled for reasons never explained to the outside world. Today at least 40 of Peking's embassies are headed by charges, first or second secretaries, or even lower ranking officers. It appears the Cultural Revolution has claimed another victim. Before MAO Tse-tung completely destroys what remains of his foreign service, perhaps he would do well to reflect on the value of an experiment which, in a single year, has made shambles of an entire diplomatic corps. businessmen sang East is Red . There nave been travelers tales of 4,000 anti-MAOists in the environs of Canton disrupting the city by attempting to set fire to its six main hotels and defacing MAO portraits The Canton Trade Fair. Despite reports of fighting andviolence up to the last minute, the postponed Canton Fair opened officially on 15 November for a month. The opening day speech by the provincial governor included an attack on Hong Kong's "Fascist authorities" helping to confirm rumors about the withdrawal of invitations to Chinese representatives of Hong Kong British firms. After the speech 3,000 presumably non-proletarian 50X1-HUM if It ? In dealing with reports which may arise claiming huge foreign attendance at the Fair, treat the reports sceptically as incorrect or exaggerated by the highly questionable "unidentified trade sources" to whom they were credited. 3 SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 SECRET o y. New Communist Front Group in Africa and Asia. Since early this year the Soviet Union and its Bloc allies have been quietly building up a corps of young people who are trained and dispatched abroad ostensibly "to aid" developing countries. According to the attached news article, they are actually selected and trained by the KGB and Bloc intelligence services for espionage and, when they arrive at their posts abroad, their activi- ties are supervised by local Soviet and Bloc intelligence agents. The youth corps, with headquarters in Budapest, has been named "The Inter- national Youth Service of Solidarity and Friendship." Young people, male or female, go abroad as teachers, nurses, and as specialists in various fields -- mainly to Afro-Asian countries -- where they'are accepted as genuine volunteers. According to a recent article in Prague's RUDE PRAVO, one thousand such "volunteers"-'have already been sent out and plans call for a total of 2,500 by the end of this year. Hanoi's Problems with Elongated Supply Lines. North Vietnam's recruit ing in South Vietnam is down from some 7,000. new soldiers a month-to- around 3,500 today -- and still declining. As a"result, Hanoi has been forced to send more PAVN (Peoples' Army of Vietnam) units south to fill out the ranks of what Hanoi persists in calling "an indigenous guerrilla force". North Vietnamese soldiers now fighting in. the south total over 100,000, more than half of the Communist fighting forces in Vietnam. Getting supplies to these men is becoming increasingly difficult for Hanoi because the Allies are gradually gaining control of the rice-growing regions in South Vietnam, and Allied bombing of supply routes from North to South Vietnam has seriously interfered with the southward movement of food, clothing and military supplies. In fact, there seems little doubt that one of the major reasons for the Viet Cong proposal for three holiday truces (3 days each at Christmas and New Year and 7 days over the Vietna- mese New Year - Tet) is to give Hanoi a breather during which she can get more materiel into the supply channels for her soldiers fighting in South Vietnam. 4 SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 FOR BACKGROUND USE ONLY Principal Developments:' in World Communist Affairs (18 October to 16 November 1967) 1. The Soviets' celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the Bolshe- vik Revolution was a milestone in the development of Communism in that country and a major event for the entire Communist camp. Its effect on a prospective world Communist conference and on Soviet-Cuban relations are discussed in separate paragraphs below. Other notable aspects of the Moscow celebrations include: a. The clear ascendanc3 not Leonid Brezhnev over the other two members of the Brezhnev-Kosygin-Podgorny troika. It was he who dedicated the new Lenin statue in the Kremlin, made the major addresses in Moscow 3_1 November and Leningrad on 5 November, and acted as principal host and speaker at the Kremlin reception.. He received deferential treatment in speeches by all the republic first secretaries -- some so extravagantly personally laudatory they were not carried subsequently in the central press. Even Marshal Grechko. pointedly toasted "the Central Committee, CPSU, the.Polit- buro, and the General Secretary of the Central Committee Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev." Minimal attention was given by. speakers to "collective leadership." While Brezhnev pledged continuation and strengthening of this principle once briefly and in passing, no other speaker touched this point. b. As was to be expected, the speakers conscientiously white- washed the Soviet past. Brezhnev's keynote address dwelled almost exclusively on the positive achievements of the Soviet system. Lenin bulked large in his account but Stalin and Khrushchev remained =named; moreover, no reference is even made. to the "cult of the personality" or "subjectivism" -- the terms normally used to des- cribe their reigns. c. The vast assemblage of foreign party dignitaries served to underscore the portrayal of the event by Moscow as a massive, unified display of the Communist movement rallying to the support of the USSR and the.CPSU. Podgorny's speech at the opening of the 3 November gathering greeted by name 74+ "Marxist-Leninist" delega- tions and 25 "progressive" groups, representing a total of 95 countries. PRAVDA and?IZVESTIYA carried articles by top party leaders from all the bloc countries represented at the celebration except Cuba and North Korea. d. However there were absences and flaws which served to underscore certain gaps in this "massive unity." Apart from China and Albania, whom.nobody.expected anyway, the Dutch Communist. Party was not represented nor were any non-bloc Communist Parties from the Far East except Australia's. Japan was represented by the Socialist Party of Japan and not by the Japanese Communist Party. The North Korean delegation was led by the head of state, while Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 other bloc delegations except Cuba's, were led by their party leaders. Cuba was represent~rd neither by its party leader nor government chief, but. by its ? Minister of. Health. e. Even some of those who did attend did so with misgivings. Yugoslavia, for'example, was wary of possible efforts to take advant- age of the presence of these Communist.-leaders by the Soviets to convene some sort of rump conference of Communist and workers' parties. Several articles in the Yugoslav press also disparaged Moscow's efforts to press its position as "first among eciual$"'and even hinted that perhaps the Soviets might learn a bit from the Yugoslav example. President Tito was reportedly irritated with the Soviets for censoring an article he wrote before it was re- printed by PRAVDA, which deleted -- among other things -- critical references by Tito to the Comintern's policy toward Yugoslavia in the Stalinist period. f. A one-sentence greeting from the Chinese National People's Congress and the CPR State Council to the Supreme Soviet and the Soviet Council of Ministers pointedly igno:+d the CP SU and thus, by implication, demonstrated that the Chinese do not acknowledge a party-level relationship with the Soviets. The Chinese greeting was not included in a collection of messages printed by PRAVDA on 7 and 8 November. Conjointly the Chinese mounted an intensified propaganda campaign to denigrate the Soviet regime at the time of its jubilee celebrations. The campaign had two basic dimensions: to indict the Soviet leadership -- supported by a flood of attacks constituting a bill of particulars against the regime's policies -- for having betrayed the revolution and restored capitalism, and to claim that Mao Tse-tung is the supreme Marxist~Leninist mentor of the present era and Peking the capital of world revolu- tion. 2. Soviet-Cuban relations took a turn for the worse as a result of the Moscow anniversary celebrations. Although the leaders of other .ruling Communist parties (excepting North Korea, China, North Vietnam, and Albania) represented their countries in Moscow, Castro stayed in Havana, sending the Minister of Health, Jose R. Machado, instead. :Additionally, Castro failed to send an article in praise of the Soviet Union to be published in_-,PRAVDA along with those of everyone else except China and Albania; the Cuban Ambassador in Moscow failed to attend the 6 November reception for''chiefs of diplomatic missions given by Soviet President Podgorny; and Machado failed to make a congratuihtory address at the Kremlin celebration (it's not clear whether he refused to, or wasn't asked to). The world's press buzzed with rumors of s.Soviet-Cuban "split" as a result of these snubs, and almost universally failed to note that Castro, Dorticos and the entire leadership of Cuba turned up at th'e.Soviet Embassy's reception on 6 November and enjoyed themselves immensely. The press also paid little attention to the speech-by the Soviet charg6e d':affaires- in Havana who pledged his country's continued Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 economic and military support to Cuba. Undoubtedly Castro's calculated snubs did irritate the Kremlin, but it is doubtful they will pack up and leave that tropical isle.just because Fidel didn't come to their party. 3. The question of. an eventual world Communist conference was ver1 much in the air in Moscow. Several luminaries, such as Czechoslovakia's Novotny and East Germany's Ulbricht,openly called fora meetin( in 1968. Agence France Presse on 8 November quoted "foreign .ommunist sources" in Moscow to the effect that there-is a growing. likelihood df an inter- national Communist conference being held in Budapest in the first quarter of 1968, but cites "doubt"''among these same sources as to whether this will be "the big conference" or merely a preparatory one. The sources are quoted as saying that a poll of world parties revealed "a majority of 70" in favor of a conference .- the figure used by V. Polyanskiy in. a talk broadcast by Radio Moscow .on 21 October. The Soviets' position in requesting a conference was-strengthened.by an article by Italian , Communist Party Secretary General Luigi Longo on 27 October in which 1e said that the rejection by the Chinese Communists of Soviet proposals for joint aid to Vietnam has led the Italian Party to abandon its past reserve on the need for a new international Communist conference "to increase unity." As viewed by a Communist, the proposal is loaded with problems such as: In Europe such a conference would revive the danger of the Red peril, evoking the ghosts of the Comintern and the Cominform, pro- viding material for all the anti-Communists and disrupting the advances already made toward unity with the Social Democrats in many countries. In many countries of Africa and the Middle East the Communist parties are insignificant and the leading revolutionary parties are not Commu- nist; thus the conference would not even be representative of the revolutionary movement in those areas. In certain areas in Latin America the revolutionary movement is div'ded between two or more contenders; choosing only the Communist Party could thus overlook a major part of the revolutionary forces. .In the Far East the problem of Vietnam would provoke a major crisis by forcing the North Vietnamese to choose, against their will, between Moscow and Peking -- a choice. which might be fatal either way. Furthermore., pre-empting the pro-North Vietnam position would risk alienating many other supporters of-that country who. have no desire only to follow a Communist lead.. Finally, although some parties seem to believe the conference could be held without discussing the role .of Communist China in the international Communist movement., this seems absurdly unlikely; on the other hand discussing Communist China would irremediably solidify the. schism in the.Communist world. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 STAT Next 1 Page(s) In Document Denied Iq Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 THE MIAMI HERALD 15 November 1967 !astro' WaPl ,Spons By CARLOS MARTINEZ Of Our Latin Ameripa Staff The Cuban government, obsessed with what it calls the U.S. "penetration in the+ field of Latin American { culture," is preparing to do something about it. The Castro regime has announced it will sponsor, an international cultural congress 'in Havana Jan. 4 11 with the purpose, among, other things, of blocking an alleged "Imperialist cultural offensive. " The congress, according to t he government - con- trolled . press, will bring' together an estimated 500 ?1 e f t-of-center "scientists, technicians and artistic and literary creators" from Asia, Africa and Latin' America. Cuba says It has Invited both "socialist" and "capi- talist" Intellectuals, fore-' most among them British philosopher sell. Those onr the caps- talist world are described as "progressive intellec- tunas," a Communist syno- nym for the far left. j "Together, these men will discuss the role of the in- tellectual in the insurrec- tional struggle, which is to take up arms," a Havana Radio broadcast monitored in M I a m I said. "They should set the example." One of the congress or- ganizers, Jose Antonio: Portuondo, compared t It e coming event to two pre- vi o n a Havana-sponsored International conferences where violence was pro- claimed as the only road to liberation." "Havana's Cultural Con- gress next January is of the same importance and significance as the Triconti- nental Conference (January, 1966) and the conference of the Latin American Solidar- ity Organization (July; 1967)," according to Por- tuondo, who is second vice` president of the ; Cuban Writers' and Artists'' Union (UNEAC). The approaching confer once, Portuondo hintt"4, '.)_ aimed at warning int,aicc. 1 tuaas` of what Cuba de. scribes as a "reaction" by Washington after "suddenly dis. overing the Importance of intellectual movements as apolitical, force.''......., Cuba's cultural establish. ment declared a "state of alert" in July 1966 over what it charged was a. "new imperialist penetration in the field of culture. . ." The Cubans were particu. larly aroused by the fact that Washington, "after 20 years of not doing so," began granting visas to a number of leftist writers and artists. This was done.. the Cubans reasoned, for the purpose of converting these people "into court apes and Yankee. spokes. men." The U.S., Cuban intellec- tuals complain, "is search- ing for men who, pretend- ing to speak in our name, will present the revolution and violence as being in-, bad taste. ."We have the duty to ' warn these intellectuals, because even without want- ing to, ,they are playing- :Into the enemy's hands, .' r the relationships between Havana's 'Congress is "racism and imperialism," expected to reiterate Cuba's and the role of the proletari- "right . to watch over, judge at in cultural development, and criticize the conduct, mores and public pro- nouncements of Latin American Marxist intellec- i, A controversial subject brought up by Castro' more than a year ago,' the renun- c i a t I o n of international put forward a claim that agenda despite, considerable the island should also be ? the cultural leader of Latin opposition. ,America, or at least the A government hard-liner,; ideological arbiter of the Lisandro Otero, a writer,' hemisphere's leftist intellec- introduced the subject tuals. `claiming that. culture was! The latter was hinted last the "patrimony' of the pco-' week by Alejo Carpentler, ple." He said ' renunciation regarded as Cuba's leading of copyrights was a mat novelist under Castro. He ;ter of principles for which told a French daily that the there are no alternatives." present Cuban literature "is Introduced an Otero's er words without doubt the richest; OwIntro dissent into .the most original of the one. the most personal the . the otherwise friendly dis- Latin American continent." cussions. Despite their sub. The conference agenda, servience to the regime's which promises to be a Political aims, half of the intellectuals attending the massive one, was methodi debate left the room In cally analyzed and dis- anger. The matter was cussed during a one-week approved anyway preparatory seminar that- 000 Cuban "intellectual workers" attended. Subjects discussed during the seminar Included the role of mass media, the "penetration of the imperi alist culture," and the role of the ?neo-colonial state" as "the promoter of foreign domination." Also discussed were other: abstract 'matters such as' culture under "colonialism" and "neo-colonialism," the integral formation of the "new" man through culture, seminar and approved for Cuba maintains that, in sponsoring the congress, it will be offering the dele- ~gates "an opportunity of :undeniable value to learn from the island' example. "As a country liberated from the 'claws of neo-colo- n I a l i s m and , Imperialism, Cuba will certainly be able! to make great cultural con- tributions fot the benefit of the peoples ; of. the, world," ';aid b.' abort-crave Cuban broadcast J to,;.the hemi- sphere. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 (Excerpts from statement issued by a seminar organized by the Cuban Prepatory Committee for the Havana Cultural Congress as reported by PRENSA LATINA, 3 November 1967) The cultural event par excellence is revolution. Only revolution makes it possible for underdeveloped countries to conceive of a truly national culture, a cultural policy returr{ing to the people their real identity and a chance to advance sciepce and enjoy art .... The right to insubordination should not then be preached,but prac- ticed. Only through concrete action does the intellectual become so- ciety's conscience, an expression of its critical thought, a forecast of what will one day be reality, and in this sense a factor in creating and developing the subjective conditions necessary for the liberating rebellion. No example is better than the one given by Che to bear out this fact .... Mass communications media serve to distort development in colo- nized countries and promote development in countries engaged in revo- lution. In the first case, they are a tool of the broadest and most persistent penetration by the interest of the tutor state .... Skill= fully handled by imperialism and the national bourgeoisie, they are inimical to the essential function of current history: wars of lib- eration .... Even in this situation, occasions and differences must be seized on so that mass media can contribute to the task of decolonization and liberation of our peoples. Clandestine publications and movies and radio broadcasts, for instance, have a vital function to perform in the processes of national liberation: that of political orientation.... This is the historical and social context surrounding the task of forming new intellectual cadres that retain those traditions, create new ones, and forge a communist consciousness. To undertake national liberation is to rend imperialism, and this involves first of all preparing all the people for the most violent manifestation of culture: the popular war in defense of their freedoms .... Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 III ICY STAR, 3oirUt 5 ,,l~v~_mbor 1767 KGB SETS UP PEACE COPS Dy LAJUb LLULHEFR , pehind this .smokescreen the ar t ] y e accep ed , LONbON - The Soviet Union and her East by the developing countries to th ey and,, building up a Peace Corps of young It ls ironical therefore that the reason why pgople who r b i a e e ng sent out ostensibly "t the Communists hvi littlbliit t .oae gvene pucyo aid. developing countries-" x this now youth se i rv _e it s neau- tha.. weir vies;, in continuously attaciing tine, quarters to Budapest, was established early U.S. Peace Corps and similar organizations thi s year without much pbliit Itffiil I Bitid ucy.s ocanran an Germany as covers for "es- title Is "The International Youth Service of plonagu and sabotage." Solidarity and Friendship." All of the Eastern', Judging by the occasional paragraphs In East' bl oc countries are takint with th Et i g par,e ex-uropean pary tapers,ike the one which ap coptions of Romania and Yugoslavia. peared recently In the Prague. "Rude Pravo," Tile corps recruits are carefully selected1 000 "volunteers" have alr ad b t t , y e een sen o; . by the security services of each country, and developing countries, plus 400 to the htongo-' ervis su d b t p e y he local agents. of the Soviet secret police, the KGB. The average age of those selected is between 23 and 33, and only log to a 1twtfarian member of this organiza- tion, who 'has operated in Turkey for the past six months and has since defected to the West t 'Communist intelligence services, and its main for as little as three months "for spect- task if to enrol spies among students abroad, Sic tasks." Specific projects in which the mainly In the Afro-Asian countries. "corps" is Involved, Include a technical school M b em f lunteers" to be sent to the developing -nations by the end of this year. A Bulgarian report indicates that these ?vo- lunteers" are expected to remain in the nation n b t r...- in which they am assi d f g e ou or a ers o the Red Peace Corps are sup- in India, a hospital in Cyprus and medical aid ;plied with funds and gifts, which they offer to teams in Congo-Brazzaville. potential recruits, Most of them are trained Board and lodging for the' volunteers Is paid. engineers, agricultural specialists of various by the youth movement of the host country,' disciplines v t I e r , e na ry experts, agronomists which also pays them $3 a week pocket money, and agricultural mechanics. Attractive girls . Travel fares are shared jointly.between host 'A*n nlen www w..U~J -_ _ __ .. . . Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Next Page(s) Next 3 Page(s) In Doc Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 ument Denied Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 NEW YORK TIMES 29 October 1967 - 01 Sato's Recent Journey in Asia Viewed as Beneficial to West By ROBERT TRUMP.ULL TOKYO, Oct. 28-The dom Fears Believed Receding inant view of analysts here is "It is obvious," an American that Premier Eisaku Sato's re-1 official said yesterday. "that cent tour of 10 Southeast Asian the fears of Japanese that the; bombing of North Vietnam, duced a number of significant! effects on the international scene, all of benefit to the non- Communist camp in the world ideological struggle. ? Mr. Sato returned home a week aeo from Saigon, his last would widen the conflict have+ now receded." The analysts expect agitationE here against the developments in Vietnam to be confined to demonstrations, a routine thing in.Japan, so long as it continues to appear that the war is not stop on a journey that naa alsothreat to the comfortable Jap taken him to Indonesia, Aus?( anese way of life. real public support for leftist; communique signed by Mr. opPsi nents of the Sato policics,l Sato and the Saigon Govern- it said, the result could have 1ment than appears on the sur- been a huge outpouring against, face of the wording. fate. Government. "The communique wasn't Looking back on the Incident,' important to the South Viet- the - analysts have concludeds namese anyway:' Japanese of- that the popular opposition tot ficial said. "They were de- the Sato Government's supports lighted enough that the Pre-, of the United States in Viet-' mier of Japan was there." nam is less solidly.based than, ( Mr. Sato's four-hour stopoverl many local and foreign ob- in Saigon, cut short because; servers had supposed. of the death of former Premierl eon opposition to effective left-wing othe Government. The death of a student in an airport clash between policemen and campus radicals as Mr. c_... ,,1e iienartina for South region. Support for U.S. Seen From the United States point' of view, as stated by American officials here, an especially sat- isfying aspect of Mr. Sato's trips has been to align Japan more .firmly on the side of Washington in Vietnam and against Communist designs gen- erally in the developing states of southeast Asia. A spin-off benefit in domestic politics, for Mr. Sato himself and for the conservative ele- ments that support him, has nn apparent diminution of hassles see it, the most impor-' tin various communiques were, tant immediate result of the 66 year-old leader's arduous travels (tailored to fit local outlooks.1 in the last six weeks may prove For example, in the countries, to be the new projection of inclined toward a neutral stand W ANd, 411- pines , ..... _ --- , Thailand, Singapore, Ma-,l A Japanese diplomat, who followed Mr. Sato's statements; closely during his tour, noted; that the references to Vietnam agreement among "all parties." a wording that seemingly; would permit inclusion of the; Vietcong. The phrase among others, did not appear in the' communiqud from Saigon. On the other hand, at a news conference in Bangkok, Tai-! land, Mr. Sato voiced an un-' usually strong endorsement of the demand by Washington that a halt in bombing of the North be accompanied by some reciprocal gesture from Hanoi. "Japan has given the United States stronger support on the Vietnam issue than any other ally that is supplying military forces," an American analyst declared. - Reluctance to Read More There was a reluctance in both foreign and Japanese Shigeru Yoshida, is thought to have given him a keener per-. 'ception of the urgencies of the situation in Vietnam. I And the Japanese leader's conversations with sources hav- ing closer contacts with the North Vietnamese, notably in Burma and Laos, were believed to have added somewhat to his insight into the thinking of Hanoi. It was considered more sig 1nificant, in the long view, that, Mr. Sato appeared on the scene at a crucial moment in the po litical maturing of Bunna, Singapore and Indonesia. Some` Japanese authorities thought it a fortunate coincidence that the leader of one of the world's most successful free-enterprise systems appeared when the three nations were at a peak of disenchantment with the Social- ist experiment embodied in, Communist China. 20 October 1967 - Support From Down Under, Australia's External Affairs Min- aster, Paul Hasluck, made a statement, to the U.N. General Assembly last week , which is worthy of more than passing_ attention.' And since Australia can hardly be classed as a "client state, we trust that his remarks will be duly .noted by Senator Fulbright and all others who share the Arkansas senator's views on the war in Vietnam. Australia Is assisting South Vietnam with both troops 'and civilian aid. An Increase In the Australian troop ' com- - mltmcnt. has just been announced in Canberra. And Australia also made its contribution to both great wars In Europe. Australia, in short, believes In freedom and opposes' wzgresslon. Mr. Hasluck wanted to know whether his country was right in standing up for these things in Europe but wrong in standing up for them In Asia. He went on to say: "Unfortunately, this ts still a world in which peace is kept and security maintained by military power. . . . Are. such realities as these' to be recognized only in one hemisphere and not in another? Are arguments that peace and security are global to' be true in European or Atlantic power situations but not true when crises of power arise in Asia and the Pacific?" The Australian representative con- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 (3 contId) eluded on this note: "Surely we are u Ing double standards and falsifying the lrsues If, recognizing the realities of power, we find it imprnper or worse .for one small nation to be protected by a great ally but unexceptional for some other small nation to be protected by Its ally." We have seen nothing which states the case better for what the United States and Its allies are doing in South Vietnam, or which more effectively reveals the hollowness, one might say the disingenuousness, of the arguments .used to condemn what is being done. WASHINGTON DAILY NEWS 18 October 1967 tk) SIMPLY in numllers, the addition of 4370 troops to. the Allied. side in- the Vietnamese war is no greet military boost - the everything helps. The .real significance lies in the fact that the coun. tries these troops come from are willingly mov-. ing deeper into South Vietnam -'they are not* moving away. The three countries are all in the immediate neighborhood: ';,"Australia announced yesterday it will raise Its contingent In Vietnam from 6300 to 8000 by i year's end a? chiefly new army battalion sup- ported by helicopters. . w' New Zc51and said It would send a 170-man. infantry company to Vietnam shortly, to join the infantry company and artillery battery there- now, and making a total of 546 men. JAPAN TIMES 10 Oct. 67 Japan to Help Saigon Train Farmin; Experts A plan to help the South (6 Vietnamese Government train 9.6-Sept ;fib (~~ agricultural experts by send-. SAIGON D LY NE-VS Ing 388 instructors from Ja-` G to sen pan to the agricultural facet- 6 uu.c,c i V team tional university over a period d pectt ~1r i~ of f 1 11 1 ,years 'is now taking - w LG 1. shape here k W es The plan Is being promoted by the Vietnam Committee, composed of Japanese Diet-. men belonging to the Asian .P'arliamt?ntary Union (APU). According to the committee, the plan calls for sending Japanese assistant professors and lecturers to the agricul- tural faculty of the University of Can Tho located in Can `Cho in the heart of the, Mekong Delta, about 120 km. southwest of Saigon. The university was found- ed last year and at present it has the faculties of literature and law and social studies. It plans to open the faculty of agriculture next year and the faculties of science and medicine in the future. The South Vietnamese Gov- ernment plans to establish the faculty of agriculture over a period of five years at a cost of 730 million piasters (about x'2,200 million) Five hundred students will be enrolled for a term in the faculty and another 100 in the graduate school. The Vietnam r, a SAIGON (VP)- The Swiss Red Cross will dispatch a ms- dical team to Swith Vietnam to serve at the pediatric ward of the Civilian Hospital of Da Nang. 1The team composed of one physician and three specialist nurses will sup3rviae the instal. lation of equipment, run the j ward and help the training of 1 Vietnamese medical tams, The team leader, Dr. Peter Sigg, will arrive in Saigon early next month. He will be accompanied by two apeciNlist nurses and Dr. Werner Glans in charge of the Kontum Hospital, For the past two years, the Swiss Red. Cross has provided material and finan:ial aid as ,well as perdonnel for a h3spital in Kontum.Its doctsra have also assisted in olhar medical activities in the neighboring areas. The SRC has just comp- leted a pediatric ward at the Civilian Hospital of Da Nang. Soorcis from the RVN Embas. ,sy in Switz3rland disclosad that although a non-aligned country Switz3rland has, esta blished diplomatic rels!ions with' the Republic of Vi Onam since March I last year. Tiro ?Tarra- des Hommess a charitable or.. ganization headquartered inlau+ sanne has taken many Vietnam- ese children to Europe for me- dical treatment. mmtttee / Three weeks ago the first contingent of the 1 plans to open five agricultural Royal Thai Army Volunteer Regiment arrived in courses at the university- Saigon - the first ohes00 troops joining the Allies agriculture, stock breeding, from the sixth nation to help out with ground horticultural science, agricul- forces. (The United States, South Korea and the tural engineering, and agri-1 PhilippineA are the others.) cultural economy. The program is expected to Since governments around the world act on the cost a total of about Y2,000 basis of national self-interest as they conceive it, million over the 11 years In- (he men in office in Canberra. Wellington and eluding all the expenses for Bangkok must know what they are doing. They the Japanese teachers each of obviously feel they are meeting a responsibility, whom Is to stay one year at protecting their countrin againd.a danger. join. the university. ing in a common task that, tho costly and ua. The fund is expected to come from both the Govern- plcasant,'is worthwhile and promises success. ment and private sources. From the third year, out- standing agricultural students will he Invited to study in, Japan, according to the plan.i Welcome- and Thanks Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061AO00400050002-2 Hasluck puts it, "?here is too OHIUSTZAN 501KN''' MKIT9~' aster Paul M. 19 October 1967 ,much talk on whether to. bomb or not to -bomb. Bombing is not the real issue. Peace. oat ? recce ? E':i'`. ~ is the issue." "They have made it clear that even if talks did begin they would keep up their Live, Dalu ?rii. &AVl4. Prior to General Taylor's mission, Mr.. Holt said. that in assessing what added ef- 10 Canberra The Australian Government's decision to iective-it remains our only military objet- not be ~~ the people of South Vietnam shall conquered by aggression... >. " "This was our first and only military ob- Holt tQld the House, "The North Vietnamese rJna leaders have turned down every approach ~. [for peace talks] public and private. ,.st By Albert E. Norman ' This means two battalion .groups now will { be in the line while one is resting. Prime Minister allrold E. Holt, announcing his gov- ?,ernment's decision, said that in Vietnam "thv'tide of Communist expansion is being checked and turned." In short there is no stalemate, in his. opin. .ion. Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor stressed the same point during his July talks here with ,,the Australian Government. Thereds no doubt that the latest Australian, troop increase is due to the Taylor mission. ? While the question of any troop increase was publicly played down at that time, Mr. Holt described General Taylor's briefing as "very informative." . .,increase its Vietnam task force from 8,30 to more than 8,000 men will double its actual As Mr. Holt's latest statement to Austra- lia's House of Representatives shows, this information made clear that "military pres- sures must ble sustained and indeed in- creased" in Vietnam. Negotiations sought ? This. build-up was necessary, as Mr. Holt put it, "if we are to secure even more .decisive results in the field-results which might lead North Vietnam to negotiations.". This view also explains. the Australian Government's continuing strong support for the United States bombing policy. And as Australian Treasurer William McMahon recently put it to Americans, "Where you, go, we will go." In the Vietnam air war, this is literally. true.Jrt_the late.S.t,&,4'tr.4liantropp increase, I Autralian Air,Force pilots are `being made? available for... service with " United States . attack squadrons. ? . y ' But as Australian External- Affairs Min-. fort Australia could make in Vietnam it would be necessary to take into account `any. provision Australia would need to make in Malaysia and elsewhere in Southeast, Asia. Since no new forces have been committed elsewhere, the Holt government appears to be relying on increasing the national draft if more forces are needed outside Vietnam. In Australia's present "forward defense". planning, the aim is to build up troop 'strength until a full division can be deployed overseas at any time. But just how the ',present limited draft policy would be shaped ,to this end remains to be seen. Draft expansion issue? In his latest troop increase, Mr. Holt has set the stage politically for a new draft ex. pansion. Next anonth the Australian Govern. anent will face the Senate elections. And its new Vietnam troop increase has ensured these will develop into "khaki campaign." Vietnam will be the central issue. And-a: government victory could be interpreted fairly by Mr. Holt as public support for any 'required draft expansion. Most Australians realize that their coup ,try's stand in Vietnam is as much for them as it is for the South Vietnamese people. The stress which the Australian Government places in this context on the aggressiveness of.-Communist China means that in Austra- lian official eyes the Vietnam war is a delay- ing action. Accordingly, any . acceptable solutions which the Chinese people themselves may produce in the face of the problems imposed on them by the Peking Communist regime will be of great importance to Australia. Equally important is the increase in power and strength.of the free peoples of Southeast Asia. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061AO00400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 NEW YORK TIMES 3 November 1967 Rahman? Informs Humphrey! Rnra!-Construction Project May Be Reinstituted .ByIOYREED EX-J&1 to The New York nines i KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia, (Nov., 2-The. leaders of small but rapidly developing Malay sia told ' Vico President Hum- phrey today that they were considering Increasing their non-military aid to South Viet nam. Mr. 'Humphrey told the Ma- laysians that the United States would probably step up its( technical assistance to Malay-J sia to help solve her housing problem and establish buldin, cooperatives, credit unions and' savings and loan associations. M:r. Humphrey, who flew here from South Vietnam yes- terday, met for two hours with the Prime Minister, Prince Ab- dul Rahman, and his Cabinet. The Malaysian Foreign Minis. try announced afterward that they had had "very frank-and friendly discussions" on several Subjects, par.:icularly Vietnam. "The Primo, Minister reiter- ated," the statcnmet said, "that while Malaysia is not in- volved militarily, she is pre- pared to go all out to offer any help that might be required of her in the peaceful, con- structive program of develop- ment in that country." The Malaysian leaders told Mr. Humphrey that they intend ed to reinstitute a program of aid to South Vietnam in rural development, an area In which the Malaysians have shown skill. hialaysi :ad such an aid prod dt ring the rule of Preslc t N9o Dinh Diem, who was overthrown and assassinat- ed in Saigon In 1963. The pro- gram was dropped a tcrwar, :!,ands to promote rural dcvelolp' because, of, the difficulties o:... dealing ' with a succession :.fj;,,icnt anon the trines there. unstable Vietnamese govern- The tribesmen were brought meats. home after the fall of President 1 Mr. Humphrey gave the Ma-I 'Diem. Iaysians an optimistic assess- , Prince Abdul Rahman was, reported to have told Mr. ment of the now Sai on G g ay- ernment, but warned that the; next six manta would be criti-' cal in its effort to gain popular support. It is understood that the Ma- laysian leaders had volunteered the information that they woro thinking of more aid to Sotith Vietnam and that the Vice Pres- ident had not asked for It. The' Malaysians !did ask for an in- crease in United States techni- cal assistance, and Mr. Hum- phrey promised to try to get it. Malaysia supports South Vint-i nam in the war but has sent no troops. She has trained labout 4,600 South Vietnamese in counterinsurgency methods, based on her own success !n (suppressing Communist - query rilla warfare. During h .r earlier aid. ,pro- gram to So;.:; Vietnam, N: Clay--f sia sent some :'clay tribesmen, Humphrey that if the Commu- nists were riot stopped in South Vietnam, Chinese, would move into ,:..6 ..est of Southeast Asia, , incluc' . Malaysia.*,-,, ,* Thailand a By Jack Foisie Los Angeles Times BANGKOK, Nov. 14 - The Thailand government an- nounced today'it will increase its combat contigent in South Vietnam to a full division - about 10,000 to 12,000 men. There are now 2300 Thais fighting alongside American and Vietnamese allies. The inereast., approved at a cabinet meeting, raises Thai- land's contribution in the Viet- nam struggle to third largest, behind that of the United States and South Korea. It also is certain to bring more denunciations from Hanoi and: Peking, whose have at- tacked !he Tha. for providing r irL r from ?-. aich the U.S. Air , ~e c; s most of its bomb. of North Vietnam. The Thai military govern-1: menrt moved relatively rapidly toward this major comm ment, perhaps reflecting tae l ?concern of Thai officials over 4the swelling antiwar sentiment nam in the United States and Presi- dent .- ~.-nson's political prob- lems a.s he faces an election year. It is known that Mr. Johnson has sought more mili- tary support in Vietnam from Asian nations. [The State Dep :r;eat in Washington expr e isfac- tion with the T' decision. Its spokesman, Robert J. Mc- Closkey, said "the substantial, contribution is further evi- idenee of aided solidarity in supporting the government of Vietnam and the security of j Southeast Asia." [U.S. officials also confirmed that the U.S. is holding dis- cussions with Thailand over handling the Thai troop con- +tributlo::. and acknowledged ,that quc_ tior_s of Thai air de- fense anc. he supply of Hawk ground-to-air missiles was be- ing discussed.] The Thai cabinet approval presumably meant agreement shad been reached with the 4 United States aver increased military aid, h??th for the Vietnam-bound force and for (Thailand's 90,000-man army. U.S. 'officials would not dis- .ose terms other than to sayl th new expeditionary contin-1 ge :; would be equipped with( U .S. weapons and equipment, as was the initial unit. The Thai announcement did' not say when. the new force would be sent to Vietnam. If infantry training follows the :pattern of the past, troops will tae combat-ready in three to six months. U.S. advisers as- sist in the training. The announcement did say the division would be (recruited from "volunteers." 'Although civilians volunteered for the original unit sent to Vietnam, only regular army volunteers were accepted. The unit has been in combat about a month and has lost eight dead. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 LONDON i I:~.ES 28 August 1067 7'f -1 i 1 L L` i..a 6SUARD""' . , . , . , =*M5 - IT OF 1:~ t r e c t of .worship .. , oppressed In a surprise mass exodus hundreds of Tibetans have crossed into India to escape a local Red Guard movement which is " attempting to purify Tibet with Mao's thoughts " in form of religious persecutions. Nearly 500 refugees have already' escaped across' the mountains and report that thousands more will.; cross if they can evade Chinese border patrols in western Tibet. With them conks the first glimpse of' the cultural revolution in the most effectively sealed, ' , off area behind the bamboo curtain. 500 FIND SHELTER..IN INDIAN CAMPS From PETER IlAZELHURST--Bijnar Aug. 27 In Tibet the cultural revolution has been particularly directed against lamas, religion and old traditions which appear to be a symbolic substitute for revision- ists, Liu . Shao-chi and. anti-', 'Maoists in the struggle in China` .proper. In the Indian Government refugee camps at Ilijnor and Pilib- !hit it re 500 Tibetans, who, ,crossed the snowbound bor-i der passes after the thaw' in June. They describe the Red Guard reign of terror, humilia- tion of lamas and a fanatical cam- paign to wipe out the last traces of religion in the country. A strict ban has been placed on worship, any form of owner- ship, and contact with traditions. The cultural revolution and Red Guards made themselves felt in western Tibet only in February this year. With the formation of lied Guards struggle meetings have hccn called in villages. monasteries razed to the ground and ancient Lamai%t scriptures burnt. The Red Guards, recruited from the poorest sections of the community by the Chinese and 'Tibetan officials, forced villagers to shave the traditionally Jong- plaited hair, wear Chinese clothes, and emitlate chairman Mao. But Peking appears to have underestimated the strong rcligi. OUS tics that still exist in Tibet after 14 years of Chinese rule. Under the forceful direction of Tibetan Red Guards-the Gening Rrrknch-villagers submitted, de- stroyed their monasteries, accepted Mao's little red book, and then, overnight, slipped away under Peking s nose. Waiting for the snows to thaw, they_ crossed into India in -their_ hundreds bringing with themlamas, hidden scriptures, sacred objects, and cattle. Relative peace This largest exodus out of Tibet since 1962 indicates that the western borders arc not well patrolled by the Chinese, contrary to what had been believed. o spontaneous antagonism developed by the cultural revolution can be ,seen in the numbers attempting to cross the border, when it is realized ,that only 35 Tibetans had previ- ously defected in this area since 11962. Contrary to past reports, the !western Tibetans say that until February this year they have been. left in relative peace. One of the leaders of the mass exodus, ; ;Chhamba Dhawa, unaware that he. had been experiencing the cultural' revolution, said until February' the Chinese had not intcrtcred with worship or rites. " When they first came they said they were going to change the country into a place ;like Russia. We would be able to ilvorship but there would be demo- cratic changes. "Nothing . happened until' February this year. when we saw the Chinese forming groups of people from the poorest acctions.' of the community in all the Villages. At the head of the group the Chinese placed Tibetan people who worked .in their offices. They all wore red arm bands. " At the end of the month they called all heads of families to the district headquarters and said that the old ways were not the thoughts of chairman Mao. We were told that the Dalai Lama was reaction- ary and that old things must be destroyed. Chinese officers were at these meetings but (hey did not take part. We were told that we had not understood the thoughts of chairman Mao and the only true followers were the poorer people who had formed the new group called Genlog Rukach. " We were told things were now' going to change. All worship must stop and monasteries and scrip- tures were to be burnt. Men were told to dress like Mao Tse-tung and shave their long hair. " To be pure according to chair- man Mao's thoughts, one should not possess anything and even those who owned two head of cattle were capitalists ". Harnessed to ploughs I After the meetings the Red t Guards forced villagers to raze monasteries to the ground, burn. -scriptures and humiliate lamas., Lamas caught worshipping were, paraded at humiliation meetings, harnessed to ploughs in place of oxen, and arrested. " We had to do as they said.' 'Every house put burnt ashes of scriptures outside for inspection, by Red Guards but some managed to hide important scriptures under the ground ", Chhamba Dhawa' Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 said. The refugees also report they. noticed a change in the Tibetan: communist 'hierarchy. Officials were demoted and replaced by people of lower status. A 70-year-old monk, Niyang Lama, tells a similar story: " Until' April we had been allowed to worship and have our monasteries. Before, this the only difference made w:.s an order that lamas must also work in the fields if they, wanted to pray.. " But in March at my village of Phc, the Chinese called a meeting CEYLON DAILY NEWS' 5 October 1967 and said everything must stop. Old ideas and religion had to go and we should read a red book given to us by the Gcrrlog l?u&'ach. A little while after this the Red- Guards came and destroyed my monastery and burnt the scrip- tures. They asked me what I was' going to do now. I told them I would read chairman Mao *s thoughts. They went away and that night I threw Mao's thoughts '?away',snd.loft thb:.village with other, people :who,i brought;, me A RUTHLESS RULE BY..,RED GUARDS NEW YORK, Wednesday DESPITE CHINESE TFR. ROR. AND OPPRESSION THE MORALE OF THE TIBETAN PEOPLE RE- MAINS HIG1I AND THEY ARE DETERMINED TO DRIVE THE CHINESE COMMUNISTS Ot~T OF TintP. 'I71e brother of ihs, Witt Lama. Gyalo Thondup, made this assessment of his over. run country at a preys con- ference here lnat week. The Tibetans "continue to resist the colontnllsts and have firm faith that Tibet will one day regain the Independence to which she is entitled," he told newsmen. Mr Thonriup will be here for tierce weeks for the open- IN AVISHEIDTI J I` doctrine of Chairman Mao ing of the :furl finned Nn- tunny General A"einbly. He took 1110 occasion to numma? ri.o rnrrent Chi:tese Com. "I"ri at aeltvitfes in Tibet and to renew a plea for freedom for his country. , "Neutralt7ntlon of Tibet ind rc!*toring Its position as nn Independent buffer state Imtween China and Indict is the only means by which last- ing and menninglul peace can be cSteblushed In that region," Prison' 11~ lie called Tibet today "a vast prison for the Tibetan people who have been corns illctely ;ubju&atcd by the ' htncso" fie noted that hun- dreds of Tibetans still escape to l:idia and Nepal every month. Mr. Thondup hailed the three separate resolutions adopted by the U.N. General Assembly to date (1959, 1961, 19651 calling for. independence in Tibet, He regretted that "neither the call of the Uni- ted Nations nor the tears of the Tibetan people could de- ter the Chinese from their aggressive and , expansionist designs," He said that China's main interet in Tibet is its "militarily stratkgic location." In his summary of current Communist Chinese actions in Tibet, Mr, Thondup noted that the Cultural Revolution h ;s spread well Into his country. He said that Red Guards, mostly teenagers, have fan- nrd out across Tibet destroy- ing religious works of art and objects and carrying on acts ,of vandalism in monasteries, homes and historic places. Public trials "The Red Guards have punished every Tibetan who showed the slightest indica- tion of adhering to the Tibe- tan religion a:;d customs," he said. He said man? Tibetans have been accused as class enemies and brought to public trials "and beaten severely for the crimes trumped up against them by the Red Guards," He said that two Chinese Conlmun;.st factions-the Cul. tural Revolutionary Rebe s and the Great Alliance-one to support and one against the charges and counter-charges against one another, It is ,believed there Was conflict among the rank and file of the military itself both in China and Tibet," he said. By September 1967, Mr Thondup maintained: "the situation in Tibet had deterlo- .rated into continuous open violence consisting of bloody beatings and killings, between the two rival groups." He also called attention to the deteriorating living and political conditions of , the Tibetan people. "They cannot enjoy the fruits of their labour. Their daily consumption Is strictly rntloned," A major share of the food production within Tibet is shipped ,to ItdoctrinatIon He cite deplored the fact that Tibetan children are bit. i ing educated under a Chinese Communist system and sepa-, irrted entirely from their par- ents. "The Chinese have at>so been sending Tibetan child- ren to Chinn for final indoc'; frinntion and to train them to bee?ree Communist cadres.'. "The Rod Chinese got. e-nnient." hp ea!d has been following "the old imnerialls- . lie policy of divide and rule,". In Tibet. "It has carved the. country into numerous .d- minitf-Attvo d'Irlcts In ord" to obliterate all sense of Tibetan natt-tal UTtty and to melntatn rtaid eeMrol over the nopulatton." The ' result has been it complete subjuga-. tion of Tibetans. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 (By A Special Correspondent) ' HONG KONG: -- As the Dalai 'Lama, one of the Most revered of Buddhist leaders, visited Japan ' td Consult with Japanese Bud dhist priests, Asian Coin- munist propaganda denounced the exiled Tibetan icadei as a "traitorous rear tionary" while at the same time it appealed to Buddhists in South Vietnam to take up arms against the ' anti-Communist' govern- ment there. "Japanese reactionaries," mean- O servers o ,e Asian scene, Ing the Buddhist. missionary oitlon of working both sides society of Japan which was the of the street, in a religious Lal?ai Lama's host. sense. They said Radio Peking The Conmluri st Chinese I ind pro-Chinese Communists news agency distributed re- aside Japan led the .drive ports under a Lhasa dateline', to smear the Dalol Lama and desctibino mass meetings in the Buddhist religion. At the Tibet called to express the anger aame time Peking Radio, in of the "revolutionary masses' broadcasts beamed particularly Against the Dalai Lama's visit to South Vietnam, encouraged to japan. "Down with the "the Buddhist faithful" in the reactionary Dalat Lama clique," south to tke up arms against the crowds shouted, according t the newly-elected governmen to Peking's report, as it spokes 0 to Saigon. The Communist man for ? "the emancipated radio in Hanoi broadcast the serfs" related how the people same line, while ignoring Be- of Tibet had suffered in the king's attacks on the Dala past under* Buddhist repres- tLani,a, Hanoi asserted (l;ditore: lions, before the Chinese Corn- Oct. 2.) that the Thicu I{y go- munist."freed" them by seizing' con- vernment in Saigon, In a con- power In 1039 J and. forcing the spiracy with Washington, ware Dalai Lama to flee to India. attempting to sabotage Bud- I The Communist Chinese news hism In particular. VISIT DENOUNCED Meanwhile Peking Radio de- A.rnazingly - to those who: are aware how Buddhism ana all other religions have been tramped on by the atheist Ho Chi Minh regime in North Vietnam - Hanoi Radio urged Buddhists in the south to "fight for their rights" and oppose to ,the death "the ruthless schemes) of the Americans and their lackeys In the south against religion in general and Budd-, dhism, annihilate Buddhist :bonzes (holy men) and dislnte? grate the force of patriotic Buddhist faithful." agency account made clear that the people of Tibet rejoiced over this ouster of "roac- tionaiy" Buddhism and the , replacement ' of the Dalai Lama's leadership by that of 'Mao Tse-tung. The agency's re- port from Lhasa said, in this, connection:. "In speeches, the representatives (of the masses) said that the million emancipat-' ed serfs In Tibet, nurtured.with .Mao's thought and tempered In the great 'proletarian -revolu- tion, will always turn to.'Chair- man Mao, the red sun in their heart." . PAINTINGS SMASHED t i rec pounced the Dalai Lama's two- Tao supporters took d 'week visit to Japan in October action in Tokyo to show as as a "sinister' meeting of a displeasure. About a hundred "runaway Tibetan traitor"-with of them burst into the Matsuza- lcaya department store in the heart of Tokyo in an attempt, foiled by the quick Arrival of police, to smash up an exhlht- tion of ancient Tibetan palnt-! ings and other art. The exhibit had been opened in the. presence of the Dalai Lama shortly after his arrival, The onslaught resembled Red Guard assaults against Chinese museums and art galleries on the mainland in a wholesale destruction of priceless mementos of China's .past. Reports reaching Hong Kong frc-n Buddhist centres In Asia `indicate: that the new Comrnu- nist. attacks on the Dalai Lama have further discredited P%%- position in Buddhist ,communities. Asian Buddhists know now that the mainland Communists have attempted s systematioally to destroy Bud dhism Inside China, and to eliminate its followers in Tibet, since setzure of that ones-inde ;pendent nation. (The UN-affl- liated International Association "f Jurists has declared the ;Chinese Communists guilty Of genocide in Tibet). The Dalai Lama, him-~'clf, has made ' no reply to the new 'Conrornunist campaign. He came to Japan' with the promise to .a concerned Japanese Govern- merit that he would not' engage in pollticnl netivitlcx. Tic has confined himself to studying the state, of Buddhism in Japan to- day and in joining Japanese Buddhist priests in meditation and religious discussions., His schedule called for visits to major Buddhist temples In the ancient capitals of Kyoto, Nara and Osaka as well as inspection trips through electronic and automobile fa'torie.s'ln Tpkya -CONTINENTAL' Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 JAPA?.' TINES 27 September 1967 Dalai Lama Comes to Japan The Dalai Lama, the Tibetan leader since 1959 in exile In India, arrived in Tokyo on Monday night for a two=week visit to Japan. Sometimes referred to as the "god-king," the Dalai Lama Is regarded by most Tibetans as their lawful ruler; be is, also the head of the Lamaist form of the Buddhist religion which Is found mainly in Tibet. He was invited to Japan by the Buddhist Missionary Association In Tokyo, and the Japanese Government agreed to his visit here en condition that he did not engage in any political activities while in Japan. The Dalai Lama has, of course, no religious jurisdiction; over Japanese Buddhists, and the form of Buddhism 'he', professes is considerably different from those forms current, In Japan. Nevertheless, he is honored as a devout and, courageous Buddhist and also as the representative of a. country which has suffered a cruel fate at the hands of Chinese Communists. So severe has been, and still is, this persecution that. Red China has been' freely accused in various quarters o' the; crime of genocide. This visit to Japan is the Dalai Lama's first visit abroad since he fled from his homeland eight years ago, and he is expected on his return journey to India to stop for a few (lays in Bangkok, another Buddhist center-this time of - the Hinayana faith. While his trip is not intended to have any political significance, as he was once endowed with' sovereign powers and has suffered much anguish on behalf, of his unfortunate country, his visit is bound to excite' interest and sympathy. The severity of the Peking Government's treatment of the Tibetan people appears to have been mainly promoted; by the ordinary Communist zest for destruction, but, the. fact that their land was largely undeveloped, yet contained underground mineral wealth, was undoubtedly a factor.: Recent reports indicate, too, that despite the harshness of the climate and the high elevation of much of the country, the Chinese Communists have been pouring in colonists of their own race to take the place of the native Tibetans.. This process is said to have had a good deal of success although the Chinese do not take readily to the climatic conditions of Tibet. One political consequence of the flight of the Dalal Lama and the sinicization of Tibet has been increased friction between India and Red China. Last March, the Foreign Ministry in Peking formally accused the Indian Government of permitting the Dalai Lama to set up a government-in-exile in India. The Peking note described the Tibetan leader as a "traitor." It declared that India had given shelter to "elements of the traitorous Dalai clique and a large number of traitor bandits, and openly helped them to establish in India a so-called govern- ment-in-exile and to publish a so-called Tibetan Constitu- It even accused India of giving Tibetan refugees "mill- tary training" while referring to'the "new Tibet" as becom- ing a "joyful land of socialism." India, of course, has consistently pointed out that it does not permit Tibetans In India (including the Dalai Lama himself) to participate in anti-Chinese activities. The Indian motive obviously has been humanitarian in character. Tibetans, persecuted in their homeland by the Chinese Communists, and fortunate enough to get away, have per- forcq. had to find new homes, and India, the nearest free country, could have hardly refused them a refuge. Some Tibetans have, of course, proved able to escape to Europe, and a number have found refuge in Switzerland in, areas which are somewhat reminiscent of their own mountain land. Not only have the Tibetan people received cruel treat- ment but it appears that many monasteries have been ruth. lessly plundered and their cultural treasures dissipated. The actual rulers in Tibet appear to be the Chinese military' who take scant care respecting anybody's rights and act in an arbitrary fashion. Earlier this year, the Tibet Garrison of the "People's Liberation Army" issued a direc- tive saying that anyone opposing the Army takeover would be regarded as a "counter-revolutionary and dealt with accordingly." Red Chinese, actions in Tibet reveal, if nothing else does, the true nature of a type of communism which will stop at nothing to gain its ignoble ends. Its pretence to be con- cerned with the welfare 'of the masses is only valid within its own narrow Ideology, and even excites criticism from nations that have accepted the main principles of socialism. The H'indusIton Times Friday September 29 1967 _j 2.0 1102 denounce From Rakshat Purl Ulfnilustan Times Correspondent Hong Kong. Sept. 28 - The Chinese occupation authorities in Tibet have organized meetings of what they describe as "emancipa. Jed serfs" to denounce the Dalai Lumn, who is now on a visit to Japan. Radio Peking quoting. New China News Agency said the "Oman elpated serfs" in Lhasa met on Sun- dya and Monday to shout slogans against not only the "Japanese and Indian reactionaries" but also the United States and the ? Soviet ted serfs" as protesting that they would always turn to Mao .the Red Sun.in our hearts," and vow- ing that "they would settle the ac- counts with the Dalni Lama ' for, all the debts he owed them." It may be remarked that' at similarly organized meetings re- ported by NCNA on Sept. 12 thou. sands of revolutionaries and Red Guards of all nationalities In Lhasa were made out to have con.' demned "Indian boundary intru sions" and shouted slogans against India. the Soviet Union and the U.S. 0 7 ?.~ Zvi t Fe.~ ", .c -:d-n Union, itepresentatices of the "emanci- pated serfs" are also made out to have declared that India and Japan, the So?ret Union and the United States "mortally feared and hated China's great proleta- rian cultural r?zvolution" and that India was carrying out provoca. tions on the Tibet-Indian border "while following the U.S. imperia- lism" in enabling tho Dalai Lame to vast Japan "to.undertake trai- torous activities." The NCNA also made out the representatives of the . "emancipa- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 TT TTTT'jTA 0,1' C,3 ,? 1-967 MAN IN THE NEWS Dalai Lama brought up 'into the heat of 20th century politics who bears on his their way of life In a strange coun. try till the long, weary fears of wandering are at last over. And yet he displays a serenity and fortitude which can only come out of deep spiritual conviction. Despite his people's immense suffer. fn$ at the hands of the Chinese he is able to ray, "l have absolutely no hatred in my heart. for the I lxifnve it is one t:dtneso eo ? le p . p By JOSEPH LELYVELD of the curses and dangers of the is now nearly nine years since the crimes of individuals." ? NEW DELHI, Nov. 19-The a the Dalai Lama, the venerable Even of those indivividuals wbo Dalai Lama is hopeful for Ti- gnd?kind of the Tibetans, dramatic- frail shoulders the heavy res- bet despite his feeling that this, ally escaped from Lhasa across thepo risibility of leading his people Roof of the World to seek refuge back to freedom and ' preserving past year, the eighth of his! and asylum in India. have tortured and killed his court- exile in India, has been the; ibeian race. As he put it, "Religion without But at,long rlast elentcd ted Government wilovcrnmenticicntly 2,500, rfect and faith. in that ho which for will ono last has of India has relented the ;learning isn't possible." to support the Tibetan cause at onger. It is the spirit of the An Outgoing Young Man him- the United Nations and allow the Buddha who has said, "llovevct then Dalai I ama on his first trip out of strong the storm of evil or untruth And an optimist. he then pronounced the surface. the country. may be, it cannot totally cz- self Though his two-week visit to tinguisIt the lamp of truth," that it was the kind of thing an Japan is strictly a non-political, sustains his 14th tncat'natiort and exile with a seemingly hopeless cultural and religious tour, it his people In their passive strugglb cause might be expected to should help to arouse the con- against tyranny and suppression. say to gain attention or save science of the world and remind It But for the moment the night of himself from total despair. once more of the existence of a terror and oppression still con- . But his hope seemed to 'be' devout and peace-loving people, tinues with not a ray of hope amid who, despite ruthless exploitation the darkness. Thousands of peo PIo 'tinged a snot witth desperation kind for us nged not with b but and overwhelming odds, are still are being massacred or draggedwith a brightness that could and attempt to annihilate the cntlroChlncsa communism has lasted 17 the los11MYLLCLUly WILL ifivala 1.414%, s is more than outward. T? ? yc?in while Buddhism has lasted The initial warmth end fervour trymen no can say that one should with which he was received in never reply to crimes with other this country has long since turned crimes and that it is always one's into a chilling neglect more cruel duty to help all other beings in the perhaps to the unfortunate, yyoung universal keeping with for perfection. . at. cxitc of Dharamsala than Chinese treachery or the world's indifference, most saintly, spirit he has worked Forced into near obscurity by out a deocratic darns constitution able which the politics and ruthless realities of Indian ofler to his country--a constitu- colnsids severely y crippled by hi-tion of which he once said, "The ernment's ti for the Indian ti eal main thing is that the people ought secnent s exaRgc political to be able to et rid of cue if they sibilitica, thq Dalai i Lama watches want to.'~ helplessly as the Chinese avstematic- nlly destroy the traditional way of To 'those sceptics who doubt life and culture of his people, to whether the forces of 131tddhism wipe out the scparato Tibetan Can resist the godless hordes of identity and sense of nationhood communism, he points out that' gallantly striving to keep alive the into slave-labour gangs, places of fight agnlnst_ tyranny. worship are destroyed, or turned NEW YORK TIMES, ~NO V EMBER 21, 1967 {Exiled Dalai Lama Is Hopeful on Future of Tibet rent instability in hina would Buddhist Leader DescribesI enable Tibet to shale, loose from Peking's domination. Himself as Optimist Rather, he said, it was a long- range conviction that the next would be "more reasonable." Buddhist View of Life Then he proceeded to showl just how long-range his judg-' ments were. As a Buddhist, he said.' he believes that pres- ent events are determined by worst for the country since intricate sets of causes stretch. Chinese troops marched into ing back into the previous lives Lhasa in 1951. of those who are affected by Caught in the undertow of them. the Cultural Revolution, the Thus, he said, it was only' Tibetans have been forced by an "outward appearance" that Chinese Red Guards and army the Tibetans were suffering to-l factions to abandon all outward day because of the Chinese expressions of their attach- aggression. "The aggression ment to Buddhism. must have come," he said, "he Buddhist practices, the Dalai cause we did something bad." Lama charged in an interview Similarly, he went on, it is last night, have been almost only an "outward 'appearance" h hi - at C t nese rule in Tibet is completely wiped out. The clos- ing of monasteries and the now permanent. The chain of desecration of temples. he 'causes that will eventually un- almost be called gaiety. At the age of 32, the 14th Dalai Lama ,cuuy uc ,cngu,cawg, crca, a, it cannot be seen. "Cause and effect, cause and effect, cause and effect," he said cheerfully in English, his fingers darting in the air to join the links on the Imagi- nary chain. Then his hands dropped to his lap and he said, "There will certainly bel change." The Dalailama was stopping' over for a day on his return from a one-week visit to Thai- land to help inaugurate a world vegetarian conference here be- fore returning to his headquar- ters at Dharamsala in the Him- alayan foothills. The trip to Thailand was his second journey out of India since his arrival here in 1959. The first was a two-Week visit ftto Dalai Lama continues to 1e, stark the land and Lhasa is now a remains an outgoing young main the supremo spiritual and tem. dead city. man, full of curiosity and easily poraf niter of Tibet,, the un- ' Unitas Chinese communfsuTimoved to laughter. questioned limper and symbol of changes fundamentally " of the Wrapped in a maroon robe, the Tibetan struggle for lade- Chinese find it expedient to reverses the sat cross-legged on a small pendenco, the eloquent voice epd their policy of destroying Buddhisrnlgilt armchair, his cheap rubber conscience of his people. in Tibet-both rather doubtful sandals on the carpet before! By any standards he is a re. froulbilitics-it is difficult,' atlcast'him. Noticing that his visitor markablo husn. Though only 32 he or a tion?belfcvct to we how things was jotting down notes while radiates a spirit of ngelcssness =11 change. - ; he was speaking in Tibetan, he (hou^h svist and erudite in spiritual . ? ;~-,Z11j",was quick to guess that they matters he is artless and Ignorant ? , . concerned the way he was sit- of the ways of the modern world: ting. After a good laugh he tutcnsaly involved yet deeply explained that he found it more detached, he Is is high incarnate, a comfortable because he was Living Buddha who considers him. trying not to scratch mosquito) self a liumblo Buddhist hikku. bites on his ankles. I f i d i i i k s voting man, p e cc t ar It s th suddenly from the pure, monastic pcacd in which be bpd ' beat to Japan last month. He explained that he was eager to visit more Buddhist countries before traveling out- side Asia, lie is hoping to go next to Burma and Ceylon. "I go as a humble Buddhist monk", he said. "There is a lot of sympathy for us in these countries, but there are still many Buddhists who are not well Informed about Tibet." His hope for his country's! future was not that the cur-i Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 JAPAN TIMES 8 October 1967 The Problem of Tibet The currant visit to Japan of His Holiness the-Dalat: Lama has spotlighted one of the most vexing legal and-. moral problems in today's troubled world. Whether Com- munist China. has the right to occupy Tibet and rule the' three million Tibetans Is one aspect of the problem. And whether it is right for the Chinese Communists to destroy, Tibetan. culture and erase the identity of the Tibetan people Is another. The Tibetans became Identified as a nation in the seventh c century when a number of ferocious Himalayan tribes united under the leadership of a strong chieftain. The1 united tribes defeated China and imposed humiliating terms, but in the process acquired Buddhism, which, while: keeping the tribes united, pacified them. Eventually, the Buddhism became Lamaism, and Tibet' became a theocratic state. The Grand Lama-or Dalai Lama, as he finally was called-headed ? the nation and, maintained a "spiritual temporal" relation with China., After some centuries, the Chinese came to look upon Tibet; as a vassal state which they had generously permitted, self-government. Early In this century, the British were the dominating' Influence in that part of the world. The Tibetans, exasper- ated at the Chinese attitude, had succeeded in ejecting even the pretence -of 'any Chinese authority over their affairs. In niid-1914, a meeting between Tibet, China and Britain was held in Simla, India, for the purpose of establishing Tibet's borders. The border between India and Tibet was easily agreed upon, but the Chinese would not accept the Article II of the Convention described Tibet as being "under the suzerainty, of China." This recognized a tradij son rather than any legal or de facto relationship. More- over', "suzerainty" was not to he confused with' "saver.. ,rignty." It meant, in effect, that China was to remain Tibet's protector and as such was permitted a strong` voice in Tibet's foreign relations. It did not mean that.' China had any voice whatever in Tibet's internal affairs. In addition, the same Article II of the Convention speet ;led that, the Chinese were "not to convert Tibet into a, f' in(?in s Pakistan.--UNt. Peking Radio assails Dalai Lama NT 7W DELHI. October 13: The Dalai Lama was today again the target of the fury of Peking Radio which reported his derarture fat India on Tuesday after a two-week visit to Japan. 1 ho Tibetan spiritual head was called by the radio the "Tibetan bandit leader" who took part in "treacherous activities" In Japan in collusion with the 'reactionary Sato Government: The radio said: "The reactionary Sato Ciovcrtiment's action to allow "Chinese province" Finally, the Tibetan' declared that, ,if the Chinese did .rot ratify the Convention, Tibet's status reverted back to .that of "an independent nation recognizing no allegiance to..China." i- ? In October 1950, In a sneak attack, 40,000 Chinese Com= munist troops crossed Tibet's eastern borders and engaged .the tiny Tibetan army. The Tibetans fought bravely, but were overwhelmed. The Chinese rationalized the aggression on the basis that, because the British had participated in the Simla Convention, it was automatically imperialistic and there- fore ?to be rejected. Moreover, even the imperialistic" British had recognized China's suzerainty over Tibet, and this was now conveniently interpreted as "sover- eignty." Since ?then, whenever the Tibetan issue has risen in world affairs, the Communists) indulge in legalistic hair- splitting over "suzerainty", and "sovereignty," and they reinvoke the immorality of. British imperialism until the issue is drowned in a verbal deluge. Meanwhile, the best land of the three million Tibetans' has been confiscated and given to Chinese settlers. Their religious practices are suppressed, and their religious establishments are being methodically destroyed. Their. art, literature, folkways, traditions and even their language are being obliterated. Forced labor is the fate of tens of thousands of Tibetans. Public torture Is a common method of enforcing Peking's authority. Since 1959, more. than 90,000 Tibetans have been killed in the Chinese attempts to put down Tibetan resistance and uprisings. Many more than this number have died of starvation. No matter how the word "'genocide" is defined, the evidence is overwhelming that the Chinese Communists are guilty of it. In early 1959, the present Dalai Lama escaped from Lhassa to India. He made the dangerous journey in order to tell the world what was happening in his country and to seek help. for his peopId. Severel thousands of his subjects have managed, to evade Chinese patrols and ;coined .him. These refugees-and their religious leader constitute an unrecognized government-lit-exile. Unquestionably, it As the only group that can claim the right to speak.for the Tibetan people. the Dalai I a.ma to indulge in anti-' Chinese activities in Japan is an- other senous provocation against. the Chinese people following Sato'e ; visit to Taiwan." It took objection to the publica. tion of a pamphlet by "Yomiurl Shimbun" carrying a letter from the Dalai Lama to organisers of the Tibetan exhibition there naming Tibet "at par with India and Japan as three countries." The radio commented that the publication of this statement by the Dalai Lama Is "obviously a hero., ous crime of the Sato Government which follows U.S. Imperfalism."-- PTI, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 line that divided eastern and northern Tibet from China, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 PI I RE MW #43, Peking October 20, 196T Tii.? Chia( F-o i't LC'S(ntative pointed out th:,t on September 26 Dalai presided over the opening ceremony of a so-called "Tibetan Trea"ures Ex- hibition" in Tokyo sponsored by Yomiuri Shimbun. On the map hung in the exhibition hall and in the pamphlets sold there, Tibet was de- lineated as a separate "country," and "Tibetan masses" and the nationals of Japan and India were lumped together as "civilians of the three countries." This was a vain and crude attempt at interfering in China's internal affairs and splitting China's sacred territory, as well as an open political provocation against China. Besides NIatsutaro Shoriki, director of Yoiniuri Shimbun, offi- cials of the U.S. Embassy in Japan and the Japanese Foreign Ministry and the Indian Charge d'Affaires in Japan also took part in this sinister activity. "Yomiuri Shimbun" Correspond- ent in Peking Disqualified The representative of the Liao Cheng-chih Office of China called in the representative of the Tatsunosuke Takasaki Office of Japan in Peking on October 12. He severely de- nounced the responsible members of the Japanese newspaper Yomiuri Shimbun for following the orders of the U.S.-Japanese reactionaries in the anti-China campaign and making arrangements, together with the Japanese Association for Preaching Buddhism, for China's arch Tibetan traitor Dalai to travel from India to Japan on September 25 to carry out criminal anti-China activities. He informed the Japanese representative that he was authorized to announce the cancellation of the right of Yomiuri Shimbun, as of that day, to accredit a correspondent to Peking. It is reported that after his stay in Tokyo Dalai also went to Kyoto and other places for sinister activities. Patriot, 1'l eta i?olhi 4 Ocf. 196'7 The Chinese representative pointed out that it was an undeniable fact that the responsible members of Yontittri Shirnbun had arranged Dalai's trip to Japan for anti-China activities. It was new evidence that the reactionary Japanese Govern- nnent'was following U.S. imperialism and collaborating with the Indian reactionaries in pressing ahead with its anti-China policy. It was also a big exposure of the ugly features of the responsible members of Yomiuri Sliintbun as pawns of the reactionary Sato government in opposing China. The representative pointed out that the vicious political aim of these. manoeuvres was particularly evident since they occurred at a time when Sato. had just concluded his "visit" to Taiwan and was on his anti-China mission to some Southeast Asian countries and regions, and when the General Assembly of the United Nations, a tool of the United States, was in session. The Chinese people would never tolerate this. - iR~GCIT TIBETAN ART EXHIBITION SMASHED b. i4b~ TOKYO,' Oct. 5 (PTI). selves into the gallery and pulled "We know nothing of it," he said.' clown exhibits-as frightened spec. China accused-Burma yesterday. ONE. hundred Chinese today tators looked on. One glasscale of having "completely 'torn up" an broke into an exhibition of containing a Tibetan painting was economic and technical cooperation smashed. agreement between the two coon- Tibetan art ~ treasures here After the incident a spokes-' tries. . smashing the gallery and top. man for the Japanese Socialist It also charged that the, Bur- piing' the exhibits before police Party s Friendship for Com- mere Government wants to expel munist China Association said. Chinese experts working .,to com- intervened to clear them, out. 'Tibet -belonged to China and plate protects under the agreemnt; One Chinese' was taken into exhibits were stolen by At Peking's official New China News custody. Dalai Lama, a traltor," Agency said the Chinese Foreign The spokesman, however, denied Ministry made the accusations in Shouting "stop the exhibition". 'fl'it the Chinese 'were- orgadized a note delivered to the Burmese the Chinese intruders forced them., to raid the exhibition, by his party. embassy in Peking, yesterday. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Next 6 Page(s) In Document Denied Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Dienstag, 24. Oktober 19V 1 _ Seita 12 / DIE PRESSE SAG r S.chachider w a. ' Soweaerct I Hintcrgriinde des Falles Anasov --- io 'at fond sein Opfer irn Kaffeehaus fu St t f i ? r oa ; rgerskha tsunge egenhei- 'fiber die bisherige Aufinerksamke Eigenbericht der Presse ten zustandi?en Magistratsabtei h` 1S4 1 h l dessen Mitgliod der Gememdebeamte schen Papieren auszustatien. DerBe- ist, herangemacht. Die beiden sa- trcffcnde hatte nichts anderes tun lien einander otters am Sdiachbrett mussen, ais urt einen Staatsbilr'er- gegentiber -- ein ,Zufall", den der ;~G;y~,rt..narliwri:~ nnrur:uc}tcrn, clcr irn Diplomat'geschickt gelenkt hatte. Um an Hand des ein;:gesc;~leusten :;tlschen sich dos Wohiwollen des Bear.-! Materials hSchstwahrschclnlich aus- ten zu sichern, , iiberrasc to er I gcsteilt wordea wore. ihn zunachst durch kleine PrAsente, Auch darulh r, was Hach dern An- und zwar in der Form, da3 e.I bot Anascv an der. Magistrats- manchmal Theaterkarten, efn anda- beamte . gcsc`:ch, gibt es zwei Les-' res Mal wieder Bother schenkte. Dos , _.? V 1.._.-u a.: in Magistrat war im vergangenen Jahr. Ina m Yi;r.? -' list, der Lcamte a sci stutzig gd~- jahr 1867 lic3 Anasov zum erste:.ma- c"` seine wahren Absichten dur hbli::.' wc.den, well ih4 sein Schachkoliege Er fragte den._ Beamten,. der in der. M. A. S. Anasov hat in der i sterrei- and eines Tares, erklUrte er offen, . fort seiner vorgesctzwn Dienststelle chischen (5ffentlichkeit Aufsehen cc- was er eigentlich wolle. gemeldet, hbrt mnn ' aberma]s an regt. Der Diplomat, Angehdriger des DarOber gibt es jcdoch zwei Ver- Geld rer geromman ~rnrnon. Insgesairsgesat s sol ol des i es sowjetischen Zivilnachrichtendien- sionen: Wt hrend man im Wiener sich um 4000 'Schilling gehandelt stes, hatte, wie berichtet, den Ver- Rathaus mutmal3t, der Sowjetdiplo-; haben. Im letzten Moment babe ? es such unternommen, omen Wiener mat babe sich rienntnisse uber ?den der Beamte jedoch mit der Angst ?zu Magistratsbcamten zu bestechen, and inhalt bcstimmter Staatsbtirger4 , tun bekommen rand habe die Sache war dabei aut frischer Tat ertappt schaftsakten verschaffen woilen,, gemeldet. Er informierte den .Magi- worden. Wie Anasov vorging, urn: glaubt man an anderer Stelae, da3 strat, der die~.Staatspolize,1 verstiin- ,ein Ziel zu erreichen, wurde jetzt er the Absicht hatte, sein ppfer dazu digte. im Detail 'bckannt. ? ~ zu veranla~sen, falschc l' arteikarten Der Attache hatte sick an den .. anzulegen uod in die Registratur ein- Magistratsangesteliten in einem , zuschmu gKeln. Dies 1:14tte es dem Schochklub, der semen Sitz in einern sowjetiscl:en Gchclmdlenst ermdg- Kaffeehaus im 7. Bezlrk hat and , lid't, cinen Agenten mit dsterreichi- z d aufzudrangen WIEN' (r). Dec Fall des in Wien lung 61 arbeitet, zurachst vorsichtig maus p ac Ge akkreditierten sowjetischen Attaches fiber die Art seiner Tiitigkeit aus ! versuchte, and babe dies daher so- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 DIE PRESSE, Vienna 24 October 1967 The Chess Player Was A Soviet Agent Background of the Anasov Case -- Diplomat found his victim in a Coffee House. Vienna. The case of the accredited Soviet Attache in Vienna, M.A.S. Anasov, has created a sensation with the Austrian public. As reported, the diplomat, a member of the Soviet civilian intelligence service, attempted to bribe a Vienna municipal official and was caught in the act. How Anasov proceeded to reach his objective has now become known in detail. The attache approached the municipal official at a chess club, located in'a coffee house in the Seventh District. The municipal official is a mem- ber of this chess board -- a coincidence which the diplomat had cleverly controlled. In order to_ secure the good will of the official, he [the dip- lomat] surprised him first with small gifts; sometimes the gifts were theater tickets and at other times books. That was last year. In the spring of 1967, Anasov let his real intentions show through for the first time. He first carefully questioned the official, who worked in Municipal Depart- ment 61 for Citizenship Matters, about his type of work and one day he openly stated what he wanted. There are two versions about this: Vienna City Hall officials surmise that the content of specific citizenship records: other sources believe that he intended to get his victim to make false file cards and to smuggle. them into the records. This would have made it possible for the Soviet Intelligence Service to supply an agent with Au,trian documents. The agent would not have to had to do anything buc apply for a proof of citizenship record, which would have most probably been issued to him on the basis of the false material inserted in the files. There are also two interpretations about what happened after Anasov made his proposal to the municipal official. While it is explained in the City Council that the offic.ia1 became suspicious when this chess partner suddenly went beyond his cus6omary attentiveness and attempted to press money on him -- a fact the official immediately reported to his superiors -- other sourceb claim the official took the money. A total of about 4,000 shillings was reportedly involved. The official is said to have last his nerve at the last moment and reported the matter. He informed the City Council, which reported the matter to the state police. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 18 October 1967 By D. F. KARAiKA ir JUNE this year a comparatively u, mown paper, 1 '"TOU%C I\i)iA'i 1 n cl ? t-t' t`t rent newt r I s O + c Tx p. e m t .c il , r cif MAIIATMA GANDIIi, put out I. remarkable story in nnswcr to the question: "What as been the exten of K.G.B. involvement in India's fourth General Election?" "YOUNG INDIA" said: "The bone Ministry is sitting on the biggest story of the decade. Through lisinstaking sleuthing by h.:'i much-maligned security men, Home Minister Mil. Y. it. Ciic.Vi.N Is in possession of facts which, it masts public. wou:3 brow ' sic d- ly Indo-Soviet Relations' sky high!" It then went on to tell this No,u-4 well placed in Vie story-. It referred to the hue Ministry, nainrci acecra Ari: r;. and cry raised in the country, can nisei who were "ha;i; y to chiefly by Communists, that avail themselves of CIA money there should be a thorough in- so as to subvert the :.-atian. vrstigation of the activities of voter." the American. CIA in India, lb-re arc some headlines from, Large sections of the Indian blitz at the lime of the hue and; public men, accustomed to hay- ing their voices heard loudly in the country, joined in the chorus. It was stated that India's sovereignty was at stake rind that our moral` fibre was be- Ing undermined by the Ameri. can dollar. Home Minister Chavan, not usually mindful of Communist. suggestions, was urged to issue directives to all responsible Tiros of his Ministry, asking to a iti;;iit-win;, Congress boss. in i'. . ' "Its. 97..5 lakhs were used to' finance a rabidly pro-Anneri- can srcuiar party". "A pro-American Hindu Communal party had bene- tit.d by an undisclosed account.' "A Congress leader In {West ifengal got 9.5 lakh. " ''-them to trace the CIA men al- Blitz was even auhle to idruuiry ?ifleged to he operating in our the: US. "urivat," nca;anhohon country, their agents and theirs which providrrt 518.000 in crisp venue of operation, so (hat such American greenbacks to a Jan American activity In this coup- ISnngh leader whom Blitz claim. try, which would amount to in- ed to klenli(t' volvement In our General Elcc-I YOUNG'iNDiA then proceeds: tlons and in our democracy,(: tc outline the nature of the.' en- could be exposed. quirt' instituted at Mr. Chavan's' The search, in its original' instance and how the sleuths oft form, was clirected to locating.! the home Ministry went ahoert CIA "spies" by investigating . run lut'tiog this investigation. unusual expenditures made by YOUNG INDIA says: "Ind some candidates during Ihe?: election campaign. so the security boys tanned out YOUNG INDIA says: "The 1 into election districts, question- main charge against Am'crican?1 ing party officials and local nd.i intelligence was that through.' ministrators. the notorious triple-pass, vari-I . "flow many automobiles and 1 ous American research 'orga- ! Jeeps diet Mr. So-and-So hove: nisations and-"charitable funds' at his (Iisposal? )low many ad- Were pouring CIA money into vertisements were placed in the pockets^of Right Wing poll. local newspapers on behalf of ticiuns." ,: Mr. So-and-So's campaign, and As was to be expected,; by what firms? RLiTZ, which' claimed to have "Did any foreigners appear in the area during the pre-election period? Did they demonstrate particular interest In the pros- pects of the campaign". tf-as1 therm' evidence, smith ac lnrrenc- ed purchases at local shops, that large amounts of money were in circulation on election eve? Were there reports of bribery of local election officials? YOUNG INDIA continued: "Talking to men-on-the-scene, local politicians, petty officials, security lads minced no words. They were after big game: CIA Money. They were investigat- ing without hesitation expendi- iure ui candidates of 'a rabidly pro-American secular party' and 'a pro-American Hindu communal party', Let the chips fall where they may! Let ,Vashiagton shudder! Let P1. co wheat go down the drain!" The Home Ministry security bops DID appear to come to the conclusion that in some cases too much money appeared to have been spent, which could not possibly have come from the candidate himself or his political party. But what their Investigations also unearthed was that the money alleged to have been given to our Indian candidates did not originate from the United States: It was traceable to Soviet origin and there ap- peared to be evidence of it bay- ing been siphoned out through the Soviet Embassy In Delhi and the Soviet consulates in other cities of India! YOUNG INDIA: "Home Min- kter Chavan, with scrupulous neutrality, ordered his men to pt:rsue to the billet end every shred or evidence of politic?af funny business. Irrespective of whether It fed them to the Right or to the Left. Chavan shocked in its size. its complexity, and its implications for the future of India's relations with her giant neighbour across the Himalayas. "Astonished, lie sat down with the experts themselves, personally added up the figures they had arrived at, figures that scpresented an awesome sum total of political chicanery, manipulation and bribery, not by the Americans but by the Soviet KGD!" Su. -Prise packet Discarding mar inal-type re- ports, which could be dlsmisserl as rumours not corroborated by actual evidence, the Home Min. ister is said to have compiled a list of "firm cases" which re- vealed that the total candidates backed by the KGB was 129, of which 42 were Lok Sabha can- didates and 87 were candidates for the State Vidhan Sabhas, Of the benefits received by these candidates, 18 were traceable to the Right CPI, 19, "including one well- known Independent", belong- ed to the Leftists in the CON- GRESS Party, 2 were said to be from the D11IK, and 3 even from the Jan Sangh. The Home Office investigations breakdown of the M.L.A. can- didates was: Right CPI 57, Left CPI 9, and Dli1K 21. To what extent did the Soviet KGB financially assist these 129 candidates? According to the Home of- fice's information, this is said to have totalled the staggering figure of Its. 1,60,61,000, YOUNG INDIA: "Security drew some fascinating con- clusions from these statistics, It will be noted that, all told, a total of 129 candidates re- ceived financial support total- ling Its. 1,60,61,000 or ap- "Anxiously, he awaited the proximately Rs. I and I lakh results of their probings, Ner- Per candidate. Yet 19 Left vously. he watched over the Congress candidates (Inctud- shoulders of the experts at se Ing one well known indcpen. curity headquarters, watched'; dent) received its. 62.17,000 the reports mount higher and or an average of 3 and I lakhs higher on their desks. , each, better than 21 times 'incredulous, he stared as the nallonal average!" experts matched the jagged bits I According to is report In this of raw evidence together, form. paper, the Security Department Ing a mosaic picture staggering of the Home Office commented Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 that these figures r, riveted the importance which the KGB at- ltnched to certain coristitncncie.i where prominent mouthpieces of the Soviet vict~?poinl were running their candi airs. "Our security sources noto 1 that the Soviets suffer from few Inhibitions in supporting CPI members and known Soviet sympathisers. The KGIS as- isumes that most Indians know they are doing this anyway." Referring to the attitude of the KGB to Kerala, the Home Office appears to have come to the conclusion that at election time the KGB had to show their, goodwill by supporting some of the Left Congress candidates who were described in this con- fidential report as "EMS's fav- ourites". YOUNG INDIA comments that "most curious is the KGB's ,help to a tiny handful of Jan Sangh candidates." How Soviet IIntelligence felt It advantagc- tous to assist so communalist a party as the Jan Sangh is a mat- ter of great interest, but it would indicate that the KGB's operations in this country are !fa?rly extensive and it would ,like to keep in its orbit of inte- rest all manner of Indians- Right. Left or Centre-who are likely to conic to the top. "With the D;tiK It was much The same story". YOUNG INDIA says. "The KGB assi.m- ed that the DMK would send a good number of MPs to New Delhi in 1967... It was vital then for the KGB to secure agents in the DMMK who wr,; d parrot a Leftist line suh:iy tailored to suit conditions w?ilh- In the Party." YOUNG INDIA adds: "Since the DMK put a higher premium on winning Madras State than on the Lok Sabha, it was neces- sary for the KGB to support a ood dates (f number web," ',A political scandal YOUNG INDIA: "Security was not a little intrigued that the KGB provided no aid with- out strings to the CPI in this election. In 1967, contrary to past practices, the CPI was told in no uncertain terms on which candidates it could spend KGB money, and how much," I Commenting on the "subtle tactics" adopted by the KGB and unearthed by the Home Ministry investigators. YOUNG' INDIA says "KGIS techniques for supporting non-Leftist can. dictates. by necessity were more subtle. In such cases, the role of Soviet espionage must be concealed. "A lapse would provoke a political atandal of vast dinten? dons. Basic reed Is to avoid the direct irl\'olvenictit of a Soviet agent. (`!.e Of the many, insidiously clever methods ijy which the KGB saiv" this pro- blem is to utliise friendly im- porl.export firms as a 'corer' for pa-,sing money." A "friendly hint" train KGII representatives in tilt' cities of India is apparently all that Is needed for some of our traders to Swint; into action to sunnnrt the candidate of the KGB's choice. YOUNG INDIA then allegei: 'Those are Itic fa(. is which se- curity has placed before the Home Ministry". Fashionable To this we would add another Were of information which may be of special lnlcrest to Mr. Y. B. Chavan. It Is the use made by the KGII of a swarthy young woman, somewhat shapely in form, gentle. e'atrerneiy w'elt- s,/aken. and seemingly hartn- tesc, whom the l ii$I has been employing as a sort of "free- lance" contact girl. This youtieidi lady appears to have much twrsnnal charm. which. it is briievcd, is found a:itactice not only In the recoil- rand Leftists. b", e. on file .rime on tit:- extreme Inf. It is 1,-,id it ahe nearly tsstiled a i't.blie itcialin;is jnh fiathe lienritnutr- .t'n: of ;,\':,\v:-,Pv nirli-Cern- nlUnist ost, nsct ccci party! Ti,is taxi, said he Of Goon lance origin. is 11111 c:.fr: to it exloill Icy !iii.c,\?i.'t I(Gii marl in Ltidiii. 'i Loy scent to be aware of bet ,,w:,-s of attract- in cc fairt.? N'itie circle Oi _:ffi:all,c ::1 ;nli[i('s lid in ncW9? ,;er ;;ti ;.csc. Seen at the ;tj, Ritz, Juhu. ? . she is said to be ree?n at f:+stiionable haunts. in Otte or the important pre- (if ,fights in 11 charasi:tra, a :fi st srsi:;tment of its. 2C,00u is alFrt:ccl fa have been #l.id to a KGB favoured "socia.Lst" c:ua- didate by an Indian connected remotely with the newspaper world. but obviously of the Leftist variety. Additional flids, which seem- ed to be required by the same candidate, were siphoned to him through a close relative of it right-wing Opposition party candidate, who appears to be a businessman with some pro- perty of his own but who seems to be getting n rake-off from the Soviets for the stooging he does on their hchnif, All these men and women, who believe they arc. extremely clever in their operations., are row on the list of KGB stances vita n, ,fisted the ICGfi in reach- ing the Indian candidates of their chnice. Tier storm over the CPA's at- legetl Involvement in India's I`'rnir'th General EticIion,s has blown over. The enquiries ap- y I ictionof the ultome ilMin tier that America diet not meddle In our Internal domestic affairs. But the Soviets did. Home Minister Chavan has now got before him in black anti white that the KGB very blatantly Interfered in our elections. Even Blitz's columnist "Clhan- der" saes in his "NEWS IIE- It1ND NEWS" column (Septem- ber 30, 1067); "The claim of the tnt.ellIgence Bureau is that It is keeping n .close watch on tee financial assistance render- ed also by the Communist coun- tries to individuals and politi- cal ;,tartics InIndia " P- f ccts our sovereignty So that even Blitz is aware that the Intelligence Bureau (of the Home Mintrt.ry) claims to he aware of "the financial assistance rendered also by the Communist countries." 'What more could the !tome Minister want than that so Jrces so close to the 'Om. misitist countries should know what the Intelligence aareau of his Ministry thinks and feels? `ihe question that should he nst(cd of the borne l`ltinister Is: 'Why is he now sitting an the report which his very able men have presented to him? Is this part of Inctin'a foreign policy that we should stomach Soviet interference in our of- fairs to the extent which it has reached in the last General Elections, according to facts t r s_iIntelligenthe ce I Depa tment 9 ry'. to the Home Minister himself? The fact that these allegations Were made as far back as in June of this year and Mr. Cha- van has remained publicly silent, substantiates the belief that the Government of India wisp ca to dither over this vital Jtorne Ministry report. It is doubtful, howvve;r. in !view of our having resurrected 'S(O'"JNG INDIA'S report in our paper, that this hush-hush will oc ;alowed to continue. Parliament meets next month, when some pertinent questions slroald be addressed to !tome Mir, Ister Chavan on this vital Issue, which affects the sove- reignty of our country and the very foundations of our demo- eracy. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Ceylon Daily News April 22, 1967 (By a "Daily News" r.j orter) -Sunil Hewage, one of the three 'wanted men' the February Plot investigation, has deep and devious connections with the Communist Party (Moscow), the 'Daily News' reliably un- terstands. 'Mr. Hewage is said to have been mentioned 1`b y suspects who are now under detention in the February t Plot investigation. ;'Among the allegations made against him, reliable sources said, is that he had been responsible for pre- paring identity discs to be worn by the conspirators on their operational day, and provided the cons- ipirators with foreign know-how. He has not yet been traced by the police however. In February 1962, Mr. Hewage was elected Vice-Presl- ;dent of the All-Ceylon Federation of Communist Pro- gressive Youth Leagues, a Communist Party (Moscow) front organisation. In the same year, he helped to found the Comrnittee for Solidarity with Cuba, and is said to have teen associated with the pu;bl:c: tion. of pam- phlets by this Curnrn,tee. Later in 1562, Oc- tober - December - Mr. Hewage is reported to have functioned as Political - Ins- tructor to Agitprop Cadres at underground indoctrination classes held by the ;urune- gala Local of the Communist Party (Moscow.) mbassy cm ~;loyeo Early in 1b631, the 'Daily News" understands he work- ed in a Journalistic capacity for the Information Depart- ment of the USSR Embassy He 1i believed `to have edited the Sinhala publication of "Soviet Land' throughout that year. In December 1964, Mr. Bewage was elected Deputy Secretary of the Executive Committee, Ceylon National Federation of Communist and Progressive Youth' Leagues. Last year, 'reliable political c ources told the "Dally News yesterday, he served as Edi- tor of "Soviet News" a TASS publication, and also wrote for Aththa, a daily associated with the communist Party (Moscow). ? Valerl M Vavllov. expell- ed fra orwa in Fehrunry 74 ,, or ahem t n pro- cure confidential Informa- tion from employees of the Norwegian Storting (Parlia- ment.) * tinatot ajyjrshin and-'q ~l-a~ m r R Over kin_ dec l e 2$3.eSRLU rLon.__grr'L a `-and ex erled from Ghana in p- rc Tas corresnonden and . Mr, Q , ,ir)~_ .av eng1ncrr were both accused of being "intelligence officers engaged In aeninnana" Tass, the of vial newn ,,gency of the Soviet Union, is under the control of the USSR Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr, A. A. Gromyko. Persona non grata , The records show that dur- the ast twelve ea s, szmost true same numbeor as5 newsmen hays been de- rea Tim So y a non, grata o?: ocii rwise mentioned in coil- ieciton;wit`.spionaae and suoyersive wctivities. Among Zhem: * vel orov ex neilec,i t e 4 panese Gov- rrnr.,ent In 1y ~ mfr I95 ,_ on the ground that he was not F. bona fide journalist",. Yuri z. Trnshkin dec larOU 50T71 nf. ('.rata, Fy-11CL_ OR ieieff_from"';'n,aiTan~~ in ` :,tober LlD53. `Mr. i.'rushkin'3 aCIege co a orc.tor, al- roulla M. Shalkarov served In rev on rom w era-fie war exueT cdS Tact year, ~' t'fl~chai ll kin, dec- lared persona non and" epee from 11 san fn -October or uunaaU Fie- rised p otography." Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 LA LIBRE BELGIQUE 29 June 1967 Deputs -le debut de 1-annee Un coup sGri a ate Porte a I'os ionnarle sov t en Europe oocid m 13 D'ot5, sans douse, le remplacement a Moscou, du chef des services secrets un certain nombre d'offaires rCvA- lees an grand jour oat donne un coup serieux A.1'espionna?ge at A la subversion sovietique en Euro- pe, En janvier, un officier des oar- vices de renseignem.ents sOvieti- ques Vladimir Cheretoune, qui operalt A Bruxelles sous la cou- verture de c representant de :a do sea tentatives d'obtenir des renseignementa dons le domain de ]'aviation mtlitalre. Peu acres cette expulsion, les HOllandais mi-rent la main our un autre c representant ? de i'cAero- flota, V. Gloukhov, qui, faisant fi des traditions de foalme at de sang-froid attribuees ppar la logen- de aux espions et i'llustrees par des hommes tell Quo Sorge ou Abel, se mit A bra Her at A ameu- ter la po u,ation lore de son arres- tation. Il n'en fut pas moths ex- pulse. En mars dernier, la capture en Italle do Pesplon sovtetique Ri-~ naldi at de plusieurs de ses agents, revela in personnalite d'un certain nombre d'officiers de renseigne- ments sovietiques qul furent obli- gas de quitter lies pays ou i s ope- raient, tels lea diplomates Y. P av- ?lenko (Italia), I. Otchourkov et B. Petrine (Grote), A. Zakiarov (Chypre) et N. Ranov (,tAeroflots A Chypre). Mn avril. la Belgique otal't A : nouveau be theAtre de i'arreata--, tion et de ]'expulsion pour esplon-! nags du correspondant de I'agen- ce Tn ss. Ana.toli Ogorodnikov. Enftn, le trotsiome secrAtaire 1 d'a mba$side . Vitals Bolarhov et le renresentant,' d'une ? entreprisp. de films. Oleg Semikov, furent ega- lement invites A quitter In Belgi- que. on raison do lours activites subversives. Un. agent a parle... Un des agents au service du trio Ogorodnikov - Balachov - Se- mikov fournit egalement l'identi- to de sera a.nciens maitres du K. G. B., A Tunis : A. Zelenine et Y. Muratov. Dans un autre pays d'Afrique du Nord. cette tots le Maroc. le repres?entant de VeAAro- fot >, K. Aksenov. fut Agolement dAmasquA comma officier de ren- '&eiO'nement soviAtique. Les Suisses, at hospitaliers, fu- rent finalement A lour tour IrritAs par l'a.gressivite de ]a subversion sovietique. ce qui Les amen A e.xnulsar 1. Petrov - 'in deleg?tte official auprea de !'Union interns- tlona:e des Tel communications. Celui-ci avalt eCsiye de recruter un cltoyen su.isse en vue d'obtenir! des info d'ordra politique., Plusieurs autres officters de rrnseignements sovietiquoS ant ate demasquC.s en 1967 : K. Lem- zenko, do ]'Organisation Commer- ciale a Sovfrakht w on It-111?e ; to aprofesseurs S.TehournOVSky. qui se trouvait aux Poys-P,'s a.u debut de cette annAe; C. Bolan et A. Solovov. ayont tous deux reside on Italia: P. I,omalane, attache militaire A Chypre:rt M. Kllttde 1OV. attache A tin dap N. U. A Geneve: Victor Petrouch kine at Nikolai Mschkovtsev, ayant reside toils deux A Chypre. D'autres Sovietiques varront sans aucun doute tours activites miles A. jour A In suite de In decouverte' rAcente d'un rCsa,u d'espionnage de 1'U.R.S.S. en Norvege. ;., La publieit2 donnAe A cette do- i couverte de non;breux offlcier9 a.ppnrtenant A I'es-nionnage sovie- tique a peut-Ct.re masque aux! vcux du .^-rand public cotta autrej activitC clue 1'LJ P S.S, poursuit j ati .c tenacitC : la pe rCci:tion daps ]curs pays d'accueil des nssOCin- tions d'emigres cusses anti-soviA- tiques. Depuis la creation de In aTche- kan (premier nom donne A I'orga- ni-sation d'es-ntonnage at de sub- version du Kremlin), connue all- jourd'hui sons I'apnellation K.G.B tin tros gros effort a et.e fourni A - cotta fin. Les nationalistes ukrai-I niens sent plus particulierement vises. car Us restent vi:se6ralefont fideles A leer propre culture. re- fiisant obstinAment d'etre c sovie- tisAs 2'. Il faut savoir qu'une section spA- ciale fut creee au sein de la. iTche- ka? (K.G.B.I pour s'oecuper uni- quement des emigres. C'est tee dA partement qui organisa les plans de 1'assassinat des leaders ukrai- niens les p:us connus do 1'Amigra- tion, Stepan Bandera et Lev Re- bet, a AlimlhAs physiquement a en Allemaene en 1857 at 1959 respec- tivement. Un episode de is guerre A oil- trance menAe contre Ies emigres ukrainians s'e.st rAcemment dArou- le on France. It etlt felt grand, bruit si i'attention de i'opinton pu- blique n'avalt pas Ate dirtgAe. au moment memo. sur d'autres acres- tations de sujets sovietiques at do leurs agents dons toute ?Europe occidentals. En fevrler dernier. s'approchant discrAtement d'un bone situt pros de In place des Terries A Paris. 4la police arreta un nommA T Bidnyk, emigre ukrainien as 57 ans. qui avast travaillA en Europe contra lea tlkrainle.ns at pour le compte du K. G. P.. pendant pros de dix ens. Sa mission, pour les Soviets, eonsiataft A, a'4nfi1trea'. dance :e groupement ukrainien emi-' gre a.ppele O.U.R.F. (Organisation de travailleurs ukraAnlens en Fran- ce) et A les trahir. Qu'est-il devenu ? Il mena sa tAche avec succos on se randant tr c's utile aux diri- geants at aux membres de l'O.U. j R.F., A Paris, Munich at d'autres' villas. Toujours efficace, toujoursI avenant, Bidnyk etait 1'homme A tout faire exemplaire de 1'O.U. R.F.: ii visitait les camps de jeu-1 nesse, 11 pilotait les personna li- j tAs, iI accueillatt Les visiteurs, Le prix de sa trahison :vi rapporta?iit 16.500 FB par moss, somme qui lui 1 etatt regullAre-ment versAe par ses 1 maitres du Kremlin. L'arrestation de Bidnyk par les' autorftes francalses aura-t-ellei des suites judiciaires ? Ou bien' l'intAressA fera-t-il seulement 1'ob-I jet dune mesure d'expulsion ? Les empvoyeurs soviAtiques de Bidnyk residant en France, doivent se po- lser anxieusement In question. Est-I !co coincidence, les nationalistes ukriintens en France out remar- 1quA qua. depuis l'arrestation de Bidnyk, on ne voyait plus Alexan- : dre Davidov. second secretaire do In delegation russe ail-prAs db l'Unesco A Paris I Davidov etait, been connu des emigres de Paris, 1 at son absence lea incite A conclu-I Ire qu'il est mole A 1'affaire Bidnyk.] L'installcation du Shape, a Casteau En plus de leurs efforts de pe- netration dins lea organisational d'emigres anti?soviettques, les Per- vices secrets de, l'U.R.S.S. organi-' sent at contrOient der grcmnes d'A- migres pro-Sovietiques.. Plusieurs emigres d'origine russe out ebte- nu la nc.tonalltA du pays dons le- quel 1 s-vivent actiiellement. mass, aux ?yeux des Soviets. tis sont tou- jours citoyens do i'U.R.S.S. Une forte pression est exercAe our eux afin qu'iis s'inscrivent au consulat soviotique pour obtanirl tin passeport national de rAfu2ies, vivant A I stranger at qu'ils rendent certains services, parmi lesquels it fnut tnc'ure 1'espionnage. En Belgique, l'Union des 'ovens sovtetiques a. des sections daps les principales villas du pays.) RAcemment at aprAs s'etre vu' renroeher leer incapacitA A s'infil-I trer darns les milieux beiges in- fiuents, des dirigeants de ]'Union I ! des citoyens soviAtiqu es out requ i un appal pressant et solennel A leer patriotisme. appal quo a ate- motive par ]'implantation dui Shape A Casteau ou c Pon prep.n-j re lea plans do l'agreesion contre! M.R.S.S. >. lour a-t-on affirm- i Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Le rent placement ii In K. G.. B. En plus de yes activites d'ee- plonnage menmce.^, sur le plan mor? dial. le K.G.B. est. dgalement res. ponesnbii% de In pr?ntectton cle ar?s agents at de ceu du G. R. U. (es- pionnege. mi,itat-re) contre les ser- vices du contre-esplonn:age adver- se. c'est-a.-dire celud des pays die monde Iihre. Les recants echecs subis tent par le G.R.U. que par le K.G.B.. sans toutefois nvoir anndhile I'ef-' fort colossal mene par 1?es So- viets dens ce domalne, montrenl.' que cette derniere organisation Ft sous-estime ley services de secu?? rite europeans at n'a pu fefre fa- ce, n.vec efficacite, A see respon- sabilites. Selon un communique de 1'agen- ce Tnss, du 19 rnai. Vladimir Se- mitchastni a et@ recemment rem- place A la tote du K.G.B. (pregi- dance du comitC de la securlte de i'Etat) par Yurl Andropov. Parmi les qua.:dficetions person- nel es qu?l out fadt d'And-ropov In nouveau chef du K.G.B., ont dolt noter qu'il etait amhn5sadeur. on Ronari-e, de 1954 A I957. at qu'i1 y a pris part a la repression de la. revolte hongrolse. Andropov ne rnera;ero-a certal- nement pas ee et'f a, to pour evi- ter as erreure commises par son predece.seeur, e.Pt prouver I effica- eite de i'espionnege sovietique et sans doute s'pfforcc'ra-t-ii de per fectionner son dispositif offensif et de parfaire see methodes defen- sives notamrnent dens notre pays. que sa situation au creur de l'Eu rope at as que:ite de si,%e de 1'O.T.A.N., pioceront en bon ordrei sur in liste de SOS objectify. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Next 1 Page(s) In Document Denied Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 FOR BACKGROUND USE ONLY December 1967 Che Guevara Proves Latin America Rejects Castroism Guerrillas in Bolivia On 9 October 1967 Ernesto Che Guevara, guerrilla leader and chief proponent of Fidel Castro's doctrine of armed revolution, was ignomini- ously shot to death by Bolivian army forces in the mountainous area of southeastern Bolivia. His death may mark a turning point in the tide of Castro's insurgency program in Latin America, for it seems to demonstrate that imported revolution in Latin America lacks essential popular sup- port. Guevara's lack of local support in Bolivia contrasts sharply with Castro's situation in Cuba during his Sierra Maestra campaign, when he received help from both the middle class and the wealthy landowners -- in the form of arms, food, transportation, safehavens, and, above all, vital intelligence on the movements and condition of Batista's army. Guevara had none of this kind of assistance -- the upper classes wanted no part of him and the peasants were at best apathetic and, in many cases, reported his movements to the army. In fact, Guevara and his band existed in almost total isolation from the few scattered peasants who were his neighbors in the rugged, mountainous terrain he chose as his base of operations. These illiterate rural people had little in common -- either intellectually or emotionally -- with the band of adven- turers from the outside, and little feeling for the cause they repre- sented. They were, as Guevara stated in his diary, "as impenetrable as stone." Other significant factors contributing to Guevara's downfall were the swift improvement of the Bolivian counter-guerrilla forces and the.guerrilla band's remote location from their Cuban base of sup- plies. After Guevara's death, Government units soon mopped up the remainder of the poorly equipped band, except for a handful who, short on food and ammunition, have been rendered ineffective. Guerrillas Elsewhere in Latin America Castro's "lucha armada" has fared no better in other Latin American countries. In Venezuela, after the brutal kidnap-slaying in March 1967 of Dr. Julio Iribarren Borges, brother of the Foreign Minister, by the underground branch of the Cuban-supported Venezuelan Armed Forces of National Liberation (FALN), authorities intensified their drive against the insurgency, killing or capturing more than a dozen terrorists includ- ing a number of high-ranking Cuban Army officers. In Colombia the army and police have to contend with two separate guerrilla movements, the Castro-supported Army of National Liberation (ELN) and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). Both groups have been driven from their home bases into the jungle and have been relatively quiescent for the past six months. In Peru three Castro-backed guerrilla bands were knocked out of action by efficient Peruvian security forces within seven months of their first foray two years ago and have not been able to reorganize since. Two rival insurgency groups in Guatemala, the Cuban- backed Rebel Armed Forces (FAR) and the orthodox Communist Party (PGT) forces, have suffered severe losses since the government's intensified counterinsurgency campaign began in late 1966. And in Nicaragua., since Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 last August, the National Guard has inflicted heavy blows on the guer- rilla arm of the local pro-Castro Sandinist National Liberation Front (FSLN). Nicaraguan guerrillas, like those in Bolivia, have not received sufficient support from the populace tb be able to act effectively. Latin American Communist Reactions to Guevara's Death Until Fidel Castro officially acknowledged Guevara's death on radio and television on the night of 15 October with a great show of emotion and expression of sadness, thereby setting the pace for later Communist press eulogies, the leftist press in Latin America confined its coverage of the guerrilla leader to speculation on whether or not he was actually dead. After Castro's speech, however, the leftist press loosed a flood of articles praising Guevara as a hero of the revolution who died a martyr's death. Even many of the non-Communist Latin Ameri- can newspapers echoed his praise as a "man of conviction who practiced what he preached." Privately, however, comments of Moscow-oriented Latin American Communists ranged from calling Guevara's death the con- clusion of a series of errors on the part of the Cuban leader to out- right attacks on Castro's theory of armed revolution -- usually implying that the fiasco in Bolivia would never have occurred under orthodox Com- munist leadership. In mid-October the editor of the left-leaning Peruvian newspaper Expreso summed up the view held by most orthodox Latin American Communists: Guevara's death proves the Moscow thesis that guerrilla-led revolutions will not succeed in Latin America. The reason for their failure is simple: Castroites believe rather naively that the conditions of Batista's Cuba will carry over to South America, but the conditions are not remotely similar. In this regard, it is paradoxical that the Castroite ideolo- gist Debray should harshly criticize the traditional Communist parties for exporting foreign experiments to Latin America when he and Guevara made the same error --' trying to apply the Cuban experience on the Andean countries. Latin American Communist Attacks on Castro and Debray Expreso's sweeping criticism of all three revolutionary leaders in one article is rare. However, strong Communist; attacks against their concepts of revolution began after the publication in Havana in early 1967 of Debray's controversial pamphlet entitled "Revolution Within the Revolution? which raised a storm of protests from the Moscow-oriented Latin American parties. Its concept that revolution can be exported and that armed action can be taken 'without the necessary conditions existing first and without the leadership of the Communist Party, belied everything that the Latin American parties stood for, and they were quick to publish their rebuttals. In July 1967 the Communist Party of Argentina (PCA) published a 39-page document ("There Can Be No 'Revolu- tion Within The Revolution'') by Rodolfo Ghioldi, the "military expert" Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 The revolutionary current which emerges on a "petit bourgeois" basis usually underrates the proletariat and the Communist parties, is more disposed toward nationalism, adventurism and terrorism, and sometimes permits anti-Communist and anti- Soviet attitudes. The Soviet endorsement of Corvalan's article is in line with the stress they place on the question of proper timing in revolutionary strategy in Latin America. The Soviets are not against Castro's theories per se, but believe that the forces of the revolutionary left are generally too weak in Latin America at this time to make armed revolu- tion against the established governments practical. Consequently the strategy of the Moscow-oriented Communist parties is to build up their strength and influence against the day when seizure of power will be feasible. Their general feeling is that Castroism -- especially because of its sucession of failures in Latin America -- has damaged the cause of Communism by making even the more permissive governments wary of the Communist threat -- resulting in the development of more restrictive measures against Communism (anti-Communist laws in Brazil, for example) and the buildup of anti-Communist military forces. The Soviets are particularly embarrassed by Castro's activities at this time when they are emphasizing "peaceful coexistence" in an effort to build up confi- dence among the Latin American countries with whom they wish to estab- lish trade and cultural exchanges. It should be borne in mind, however, that the Soviets are willing to put up with a great deal of embarrass- ment from Castro in order to retain Cuba -- as evidenced by the continued flow of their large-scale military and economic assistance to that country. Annoyed by Castro's latest "adventure" in Bolivia, but not wishing an open break with him, the Soviets have "saved face" by encouraging a series ~~of mildly critical press articles against "petit bourgeois adven- turism without actually naming either Castro or Guevara as targets. On 25 October Pravda carried an article by Rudolfo Ghioldi, secretary of the outlawed Argentine Communist Party, which states, in part: Maoism and related currents advertise extreme adventurism, adapting the "offensive theory" to any situation regardless of the presence of objective and subjective conditions. They pro- pose that a revolution can be initiated from the outside and artificially stimulated across the borders, considering the nature of revolution isolated from the process of class struggle in the countries involved.... The most violent criticism is directed against the Soviet Union which is planning and actually carrying out the building of communism. ...Petit- bourgeois nationalists are also stubbornly insisting it is necessary for Latin American countries to proceed directly to socialist revolution, spurning the preliminary stages of agrarian, anti-imperialist and democratic revolutions. In the narrow aspiration to prove the "weakness" of invincible Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 of the PCA, attacking Debray's thesis by a.seerting that it is the working class led by the Communist Party which, having gained the support of the peasants and students, will bring about revolution by force of arms or by other means. Thus the Party defends its policy of the via Pacifica, or peaceful way to power, and insists on the primacy of the established Communist Party and the urban proletariat in the revolutionary process. In September 1967 the Brazilian Communist Party (PCB) joined the offensive against Castroism by attacking Debray in an article by Simao Bonjardim entitled "The Revolution and the Revolution of Regis Debray" (Voz Operaria, Issue No. XXXI). The PCB article introduces some new elements into its rebuttal of Debray's concepts. It denigrates Castro as a product of the Cuban revolution rather than its guiding spirit and points out that his success there was owing in no small measure to the help he got, directly and indirectly, from the United States -- affording a favorable climate for revolution which does not exist in Latin America, now that Washington is alerted and is supporting anti-guerrilla forces. Bonjardim further belittles Castro's armed struggle in Cuba by attempt- ing to prove that the success of the revolution in that country derived, not from the force of arms, but from the concentrated pressure of the great masses of the Cuban people -- with external support from the world socialist camp. Since Debray's book is widely regarded as an expression of Castro's thinking, these sharp attacks on Debray may be viewed as attacks on Castro himself. Soviet Reactions to Guevara's Death and to Castro Although Guevara received some mild eulogies in the Soviet press at the time of his death, there were no commendations "for a dead hero" at Soviet ceremonies marking the 50th anniversary of the Soviet Union. The Soviet press was also significantly quiet on the subject. The Soviets are obviously annoyed with Castro these days and they undoubtedly view the Guevara affair as a setback to their ambitions in Latin America -- not because he attempted to foment a guerrilla war, but 'because he failed. However, the Soviets are willing to endure the personal faults of the Cuban leaders in favor of the greater prize --- retention of their Commu- nist outpost in the Caribbean. Instead of showing their annoyance by publicly attacking Castro, they have resorted to their favorite tactic of using others to voice their views for them. On the eve of the :recent LASO meeting, for example, Pravda (30 July 1967) published a long dis- cussion of revolution in Latin America, written by the Secretary General of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Chile (PCCh), Luis Corvalan. Although the piece was entitled "The Alliance of Revolutionary Anti-Imperialist Forces in Latin America" and in its original form (dis- tributed in Chile) was a skillful blend of favorable and. unfavorable comments on Castro and Cuba, it set the pace for later, sharper, Moscow- inspired criticisms of Castro, which appeared after the LASO meeting and again after Guevara's death. In his piece Corvalan uses the favorite Soviet term for supporters of Castro's brand of revolution -- "petit bourgeoisie:" Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Marxist-Leninist positions they are attempting nothing other than to repudiate the basic proposition of the unity of the world socialist system, of the proletarian movement in capi- talist countries and of the national liberation movement in dependent countries. After the death of Guevara, Luis Corvalan resumed his role of spokesman for Latin American Communist orthodoxy. In a Pravda article of 27 October 1967, he writes: From 1918 to 1922 the Communist parties of Argentina, Brazil, Mexico,. Uruguay and Chile were created... In all seriousness it can be said that these parties are the offspring of their own peoples and the result of the social development of their corresponding countries... In several circles of Latin America one usually speaks of these parties as traditional, orthodox and moderate. And this is only because they are true to the principles of Marxism-Leninism and proletarian internationalism, true to an actually traditional friendship with Lenin's party, and they long ago rejected the phraseology of revolutionary- ism. These parties incite the hatred of enemies and give rise to great fear among them. Namely these parties in any situation form the most reliable detachment of the revolutionary movement on the continent. The above passages are typical Soviet reactions to Castro's extrem- ism -- mild rebukes through the medium of a third party without ever referring to Castro by name. Well aware that the Soviets are prepared to endure much embarrassment from him, Castro sometimes pushes them to the limit -- as he did on the recent occasion of the Kremlin ceremonies marking the 50th anniversary of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Government had expected Cuba to be represented by President Osvaldo Dorticos; instead, Castro sent low-ranking Minister of Health Jose Ramon Machado, accompanied by a provincial party secretary. The Soviets reacted by refusing to ask Machado to speak at the ceremonies on 3 and 4 November -- although he was the only representative of a major Communist party (except those of China and Albania, which boycotted the festivities) who did not take the rostrum. On the other hand, the speakers included delegates from the Chilean and Uruguayan Communist parties, both out- spoken in their criticism of Castro's revolutionary concepts. In this manner the Soviets continue their triple-game -- criti- cizing Castro to mollify the orthodox Communist parties, supporting revolution in Latin America by supplying Castro with arms, equipment and money, and finally attempting to establish economic and cultural agree- ments with the very Latin American states they are at the same time try- ing to subvert! Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 French Marxist Regis Debra On 17 November a Bolivian military court sentenced Regis Debray, author of "Revolution Within the Revolution?" to 30 years in prision the maximum penalty in Bolivia -- for his part; in the guerrilla movement led by Che Guevara. Excerpts from Guevara's diary were used by the military prosecutor to help convict Debray of complicity in murder, sub- version, robbery and other crimes arising from his. association with Guevara. There is a certain irony in the exposure of Debra;y by the dead man's diary, since it was actually Debray, at the time of his arrest last April, who gave the authorities their first clue that Guevara was alive and operating in Bolivia. This knowledge encouraged them to intensify the campaign against the the guerrillas that ultimately led to Guevara's death. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 STAT Next 6 Page(s) In Document Denied Iq Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 '12 October 1967 enea :. eta effOrts t~iau1K.. By Romulo Betancourt r 6 "', C C died in Bolivia fighting for what he believed to. bel the righteous. cause of i Chi G t evera revolution in Latin America-pursuing the doctrine preached so persistently by Dr. Fidel Castro, the Cuban Prime Minister. In this article the former, President of Venezuela' describes how his country has been the chief target of.the Havana-based attempt to set Organization of American States have ~VEA1'U1~{J +iv++ OUNDoa~ beginning as a costly fiasco,.has started agreed to put before the United Nations 'the, Venezuelan Communist_t sue- to show results " (U,S, News and World the question of Cuba's aggression ceeded in stirring up riots in 1962. These Report, June 13, 1966). " Venezuela is, towards other Latin American countries. were put down by state security forces at the first country in Latin America to The decision was unanimous, and a the cost of many lives. In 1963 police save increased the quantity of food per joint declaration, passed earlier With took possession of a large stock of head" (Dept. of Agriculture of the some abstentions, condemned the Castro modern war-weapons. weighing over: U.S.A. The Western IIemisphcrs Ayr1 regime for having on various occasions four tons, unloaded by Cuban agents off cultrtral sit urtlon). infiltrated men of the Cuban Army and the Venezuelan coasts, and intended for In 1957 the last year of the dictaiur* st year la weapons from their arsenals into- the Cnmmunistt. The ordnance works , there were .200 Jinidnez, of Pdrez Venezuela in order to stir up rural'skir from which the Cuban Go%erninent had ship machine-guns and syndicates (trade unions). gperating ; rt r th b h ' ese mo a s, t oug Tho mishes and acts of terrorism. countries of the west were exhorted to' Nato-type rifles, testified that -the serial there are now 500. The gross territorial. cooperate in a' commercial boycott of numbers on the weapons (allied with product has increased in the past decade 'Cuba. equipment delivered to Castro.by 10,000m. bolivares. The national tends to be distributed less, income Inevitably these agreements aroused Arms are not the only things' exported - unjustly, because of collective agree Latin America from the. Havana o the rage b is Fidel Castro. and to centre of subversion. Money has also ments favourable to the workers, and the denounced of Otit the meeting vispeeches of Foreig gn been given to promote and feed incur- higher investment of the State in social security. Ministers as " an absurd assembly of! rections in amounts put at seven figures Frustrated in their' peasant atterrilla delinquents and bandits ". Facts are by Fidel Castro himself. What has warfare, Castro agents in Venezuela have s been a very small Venezuelan blowin ' alwa di g y c devoted themselves to spora more convincing than insults, and facts are all that are necessary in the way of a Communist Party is now divided into up of oil pipelines and to terrorist crimes reply to the Cuban Prime Minister.: two wings: the pro-Castro and the anti- and attacks in the cities-vicious crimes It was the Venezuelan Government, Castro. And at the closing session of in which the Cuban leaders have not bid: first under my own Presidency and' now' the First Congress of Latin American: den, but proclaimed their culpability. The under that of Dr. Radl Leoni, which'' Solidarity (O.L.A.S.) on August 27,. kidnapping, torture and assassination prompted the meetings of the O.A.S..on Castro launched upon the latter a cornu-:1 of Julio Iribarren Borges, a person of no Cuba and which has on both occasions copia of insults and accusations. political activity, brother of the present' put the Cuban regime in the dock. This' He said of his Venezuelan: ex-com-' Chancellor of Venezuela and formerly. has been because Venezuela has been rades, the former faithful executors of. 'my Ambassador in London, was des-' cribed by the official organ of Castro's : 11 One da ti n t d d i i d y,.,. o ns ruc s ers an s or h yi the favourite target of continuous an systematic aggression by Castro's Gov perhaps, the Venezuelan people will re-; , Government, Gramma as "an act of an account from them for the mil- revolutionary justice ". ver uire s d g . uce o ernmcnt. My, country pro three and a half million barrels of oil a lions collected by them all over, the ? , Francisco Prada, head of the dole- lier of iron world in the name of the guerrilla moves gction of Venezuelan terrorists, t s t i upp an mpor ; day and is an and steel to the western world. The con- ment. .. ' Some day, perhaps the' Vene- declared to' the assembly of O.L.A.S. trol by Castro-Communism of a key.' zuelan people will require an account. that a high-powered grenade thrown country not only for America but also' from these swindlers." at " La Casona ", the residence of the "was an action; il f i ' y, am s den't 'for the west as a whole because of its ,These dispatches of funds.' weapons pres rials is the . P carried not by an urban command':. ? t ma e objective wnien nay not `Gower M brought Castro and his agents no divi?; ??-?? -_. _ but proclaimed by the Cuban Govern- ,dends from Venezuela. The so-called police, members of the State security ment, "partisans" have been small groups forces and ordinary citizens was reported They aspire to kill two birds with one 'dispersed in the mountains of a huge to be very high. Such an insensate, in- stone, i.e., to weaken the non-Communist country of over one million square kilo discriminate forni.of killing recalls tba; world and amply to recoup the losses metres. constantly fleeing from security'' terrorist nihilism of' the last century, resulting from their own disastrous 'forces, with the militant whelp of the so vividly described by Roman Gary in economic policy by the domination of a ;country people. The fact' is that in his novel Lady'L. country rich in minerals. Bias Roca, Venezuela ' a popular rising is This evidence of the almost patho- ono of Castro's chief lieutenants, has 'Impossible,. because the ' democratic' lo,;ical obsession of the Cuban regime. made no secret of the objectives of his. governments, from 1959 to date have against' the peace and life of the '' team " with respect to Venezuela. He carried out a real peace revolution. ? Venezuelans explains the reason for a proclaimed them in a loud voice during` The school population has doubled rancour existing in, my country which. an address in Havana on January 24, (The Tinier. June Is. 1965) and 135,000 nobody attempts to bide against Castro 1963. He said: "When the people of farming families are working their own and his underlings. But also they cane; Venezuela achieve victory and obtain full land through agrarian reform. "Vene ' not understand the lack of cooperation indeppendence frpm impcriallsm, then the zuela is the only country in' South of European countries and Japan on the whole of America will burn." America where the expansion of agri-' sanctions agreed by . the American nations: the commercial boycott against Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 It system which has no respect for the negotiated by Mr. \Vilaon and obtained rights of people, and violates the prin- from the United Nations at the begin. eiple of, civilized coexistence.. ping of 1967 against Rhodesia: the trade Venezuelans and other Latin Ameri- boycott. cans; cannot understand why five Mr. Wilson 'did not appear to attach nations-none of them from the East- great importance to my plan. But what in 1966 exported S171m. worth of goods was foreseen is inr fact happening, to Cuba and imported $SSm. frdm Cuba Workers in Veneruelan ports have de- (the countries are Britain, Spain, eliied to unload over 30 ships from couin; ;Canada, France, and Japan), _ r1 s stili'trading with Cuba. .,.Other PORTS BOYCOTT I discussed this problem with Mr, Harold Wilson in 1964. He was not Prime Minister then; I explained that the Venezuelan port workers were not 'prepared to unload ve-scts flying flags of countries continuing to trade witp Cuba. They were asking for solidarity with Venezuela to punish the challeng. ing international conduct of Cuba by, applying to it_similar measures to those .powerful port syndicates in the;United? States and , Latjr4, America appear to; tie prepared to, suppgrt: then};;,, It is well known that Venezuela is one of the most .important importing countries in Latin America; that her traders pay promptly for their imports, because the country has Solid reserves of hard currency and her oil is of particular interest for thq supply . and ' lecurity ~of the West,.'par, titularly now with the trouble in the Middle East and North Africa, BALT1110i 29 October 1967 Guerrilla Principles and Prnrti's "What Comes after Guevara? cxrco Cary. than 1110, was not composed of Now, that Fidel Castro and the peasants or workers but principally State Department are both agreed of declassed people-revolutionary that the famous guerrilla leader, adventurers like himself, intellectu- Ernesto Che Guevara, has indeed als, Bohemians, native Commu- met his end in Bolivia, the Cuban nists, and so on. Che, then, wept regime and 'the Latin American into Bolivia to make a revolution Communists face some hard ques. without the participation of the tions. The principal one is, "What Bolivian people. Indeed, as he, com- effect will Che's death, and the plained In his diary, he found. eyen annihilation of his guerrilla, band his own neighbors to be utterly un- In Bolivia, have on the future of sympathetic to his cause, "as; An- the guerrilla and Communist move. penetrable as rocks." ments in Latin America? ny un; iz.t. JAMES it - 0 It Is beginning to grow clear as It is Incredible, moveover; that the facts continue coming out of Guevara should have selected Poll- : Bolivia that Guevara was not the via for his revolutionary attempt, master of guerrilla warfare the since It had already experienced an world had believed he was.' His agrarian revolution. This was back death appears to have ended, that In 1952, seven, long years before myth about him, for in Bolivia he Castro made his agrarian reform violated just about every rule in'the In Cuba. Guevara should have had 'guerrilla handbook, including his first-hand knowledge of this,' Since 'own as well as Mao Tse-tung's. ? he passed tirouwh Bolivia in 1951, t 'Contrary to his own teaching, at the very N ginning of his rev'o- ' Guevara organized In Bolivia, (in lutionary odyssey. 1 ~ - , November, 1966, according to, a , Guevara committed many ,viola- diary he left b hi d e n ) a guerrillla. tions of guerrilla tenets, but his band that had absolutely no con. critical error-and Castro's as well, tact with the masses. It existed in ' for the Cuban leader gave the almost total isol ti a on even from the few hundred peasants who were its neighbors in the remote, rugged southeastern region where Guevara based his men. , Furthermore, Guevara's band, which the latest Bolivian Army accounts place at about 60 men and certainly never numbered more "It is not necessary to wait until all conditions for making revolu. tion exist; the Insurrection' can create them." That is the very essence of Cas- troism, or Guevaraism. In Bolivia, the idea was proven utterly errone- ous, and fatal. Che's " /racaso," in other words, was ideological and political as well as military. He demonstrated conclusively that it Is Impossible for Havana to mount a revolution elsewhere in Latin America, in disregard of local con ditions, even with the most meticu- lous preparation and with the best guerrilla commander available. The same idea had already: proved fatal in a dozen countries where the Cuban Communist re- gime has tried to stir up revolu. tions since its Inception in 1959, but that was not generally recognized. It has been the underlying cause of the crushing failure of guerrilla movements in Colombia, Guate- mala, Peru and Venezuela, most conspicuously, notwithstanding the; fact that they enjoyed greater sup- port there at times than Guevara"s band ever did in Bolivia. Indeed,' even as the Bolivian drama was un- folding, events there obscured the simultaneous defeat of still another guerrilla effort; this, in Nicaragua, where one would have supposed that a struggle against the un o u. p p Bolivian venture his sup port--was I Jar Somoza dynasty would have political rather than military. That aroused enthusiastic mass support? was the belief that a revolution can . . be made in a backward country, Considerable debate has been go. regardless of conditions there, with Ing on among Latin left-wing ex- a handful of guerrilla experts tremists for some time over the spearheading it. As Guevara put it efficacy of the road of armed revo- at the very beginning of his "Guer. lution under present conditions In - rilla Warfare": Latin America. That debate was Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 generated by the earlier guerrilla Cuba, will get a more respectful defeats in Colombia, Guatemala hearing from Castro henceforth. and Venezuela, principally, and has Moscow itself, even while crying led to many splits. (Splits, that is, crocodile tears over Che, is already within the guerrilla organizations, saying "I-told-you-so" to Castro, as well as between extreme Corn and he is being reminded that munists and "revisionists" of the o Premier Kosygin warned him myth demolished, it would appear that disillusionment in his basic theories, and particularly in the concept of the guerrilla as the motive force of revolution, might logically be expected to spread throughout the Latin "New Left." Fidel Castro, in his doleful broad- cast announcing Guevara's death, promised that "more Che's" would arise to take his place. But where It is not impossible that Castro will they come from? Luis Most of the will try a twofold policy of support-' would-be Che's-Luis Turcios, of f r. Ing insurrections wherever feasible, f Guatemala; Carrillo Tortesrres, o o- o while, at the same time, encourag-; 4mbla; Fabricio Ojeda, of Vene- t ing more peaceful efforts to estab- , zuela-are dead, or-as in the case v, Peru's Hugo Blanco-in jail. Furthermore, whom would the 'ew Che's lead? The most promis- ing guerrilla movements, in the a above-named countries, are practi- cally on their last legs. They have h' defeats sustained so many crushing ventures only a few months back. .The likelihood seems to be, one gathers from observers, that Cas, tro, for a time at least, will pull in his horns and soft-pedal, or even discontinue efforts to "export" bis revolution. At the same time, he' may well go on making fire-eating revolutionary speeches. , lish communism in other Latin countries. He may adopt, in short; what amounts to classic Soviet dec. trine, but with less emphasis than Moscow places on the "soft" or, "peaceful" side. i It would be foolhardy, however, to assume that the leopard will in battle, and in the political arena "The main Com- e his spots han . g c as well, over recent years that they munist campaign in Latin America .simply do not have the manpower 'is still ahead of us," warns Gen. to engage in new campaigns no 1 Robert W. Porter, commander-in- matter how many more Che s came into being. Does this mean that the guerrilla threat in Latin America is ended? i Unfortunately, no. As long as con- ditions are as bad as they are throughout the continent, and as long as there are young extrem- ists still willing to stake their lives on revolution, the threat will re- main. In time, the Bolivian wound will heal, and extremist leaders such as Castro will try to transform the " /racaso" Into a "victory" through tortuous Communist dia- lectics. Already, a campaign has started in Cuba to apotheosize Che. As for Castro, though shocked by the destruction of Guevara and chief of the United States Southern Command based in Panama and under whom were trained the Boll- vian Army units who performed so ably against Guevara. What Porter's statement seems to suggest is that a bigger war may have to be fought once the Latin American Communists recover from the Bolivian, defeat and re- group themselves. To prepare for that possibility, it would seem that the American re- publics must do more than be vigi- lant, as the recent Washington meeting of American Foreign Min- isters stressed. Though called for the purpose of dealing with Cuban "aggression," a charge well-docu- his guerrilla band, he is quite cap- mented by the Venezuelan Govern- able 'of bouncing back and talking I ment which made it, the foreign himself into sponsoring a new guer- ministers skirted the issue. Yet rilla effort somewhere. It can be some way must be found of dis-, taken as an axiom that, as long as. posing of the real "loco insurrec-. he governs Cuba, the mischief-mak- fonal" in Latin America, which Is` Ing capacity of his regime will re- the Castro regime. . I the Bolivian` til that is done b U ' een n has main about as great as it , since he took power. struggle may have to be rcfought It is quite Possible, however, that again and again. the voice of ' caution and modera- tion represented by the Moscow- lining Communists, in and out of n4'. Q+. October 27, 1967 Guevara Legacy Castroite Rebels in Latin America Find Troubles Deepening By NORMAN GALL CARACAS-The death nt Ernesto "Cho" Guevara, Latin America's most glamorous guerrilla warrior, Is but one more step in the deterioration of the conditions of guerrilla warfare in the hemisphere. While Fidel Castro continues to trumpet armed revolution throughout Latin America, and in the Negro slums of the U.S. as well, Communist guerrilla insurgencies formed in recent years with Castro's aid and Inspiration are sinking Into deeper and deeper trouble. These reversals have come swiftly in Peru. Bolivia (where Guevara was killed), Colombia and Guatemala. And here In Vene- zuela, after seven years of terrorism and guerrilla warfare, the colossal drama of armed. Communist Insurrection seems to be entering its final stages. Shrunken, divided and deeply Infiltrated by government agents, the insurrectional movement has been stag- gering through a psychological depression. Its crippled capacity for action contrasts sharply to the cyclonic urban terrorism of 1962-63 and the expanding rural guerrilla activity of three years ago. Over the years the Castro Communist Fuer- zas Armadas de Liberation Nacional (FALN) has shown amazing resilience in the face of military and police pressure, and its surviv- ing-though fragmented-elements are still capable of spectacular strikes. But these ac. lions are becoming more and more infrequent and are being met, increasingly, with crush- ing blows from the army and police. More- over, the "orthodox" Venezuelan Communist Party, once the hard core of the. FALN guer-' rills, and terrorist organization, is suing for peace. `Repugnant Opportunism' The party's switch, to coexistence tactics was animated by hopes for profitable alli- ; antes in next year's presidential election campaign, and for preserving its trained ca- dres against suicidal destruction at the hands of the' police. However, Castro has branded these tactics "cowardice and repugnant op- portunlem" while plugging for continuation of the "armed struggle" under his own banner. Attacking Moscow-line Communists In Latin America (and Russian soft-pedaling In the hemisphere) in probably his most impor- tant theoretical statement to date, Castro said in a March 13 speech at the Unfverslty of Ha- vana: "Our position toward Communlt parties will be based on strictly revolutionary princi- ,pies. To the parties ... that take a consis? tently revolutionary position, we will give total support. But in any country where those that call themselves Communists do not know how to fulfill their (revolutionary) duties, we will support those who, though not labeled Communists, behave like true Communists in action and struggle. This is because all true revolutionaries, who carry within themselves revolutionary vocation and spirit, will always terminate in Marxism I" Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 These "revolutionary principles" so far the Venezuelans who have fallen or have On the next morning the police found Sgt, have not worked out in practice. . -In Pent: three Castroite guerrilla bands were knocked out of action in 1965.66-their ,leaders either killed or jailed-within seven months of executing their first ambush. -In Guatemala, two rival insurgency rnovemcnte that had been gaining ground steadily for four years have been decimated over the past year by an army campaign of ,rural slaughter in which peasants have been impressed into right-wing vigilante organiza- tions (using weapons supplied in the U. S. military aid program) that have burned vil- )ages and killed roughly 2,000 persons in the Guatemalan guerrilla zone. -In Bolivia, last spring a large guerrilla training base (disguised as a farm) was acci- dentally discovered in the jungle along with evidence indicating the presence of Guevara, who had not been seen publicly since 1965. The guerrillas in Bolivia, including some Cuban army officers, apparently have dis- 'persed after a few clashes with Bolivian army patrols in which both sides have suffered heavy losses. -In Columbia, the army has driven two separate guerrilla movements from home. !bases into marginal jungle areas from which they have not been heard in six months. In Ecuador, Paraguay and Argentina, entire guerrilla units have been captured while still training and before they could execute a sin- gle attack. It is quite possible that most of these guer- rilla movements would have met little politi- cal or military resistance it Latin American regular armies had not been backstopped by nearly $2 billion of U. S. arms donations and training since 1950. While some of the major ,objectives of the Alliance for Progress have not been achieved, there has been a steady liberalizing trend among Latin American gov- student, Luis Vera Bctancourt. The initial ernments and in some cases a notable im-blast sent "Loco Fabricio" leaping through a provoment in peasant living standards. But,window and onto the roof of the next house, most of these one-crop export economies face where he was dropped into the garden below an uncertain it not plainly bleak future, and by another machine gun burst. Vera Betan- the tremendous social tensions in the region court, a veteran delegate at world youth con- rould drive important sectors of the military, even officers trained in the U. S., into collabo- rating with future guerrilla movements. "Fresh outbursts of warfare will arise in 'these and other American countries, as has ,already occurred in Bolivia." Guevara an- nounced in the last public statement attrib- uted to him. "Many will die, victims of their own errors. Others will fall in the difficult combat that is near. New fighters and now leaders will emerge in the heat of the revolu- unary struggle. We must wage a generalized :ion whose tactical goal will be to draw the abandoned the FALN insurgency as a hope. Manuel Espinosa Diaz of the Cuban army less cause. huddled in a penthouse in one of Caracas' The process of slowdown and destruction' wealthy neighborhoods. He was the guest of a i t l h i s em a c FALN guerrilla leader, an industr named Felix Farias Salcedo, an expert in the fabrication of incendiary bombs. After police ren Borges, brother of Venezuela's foreign had shot Farias dead in the streetbelow, they minister and former social security director.afound $45,000 in bank loot inside the pent- Police attributed the killing to the FALN's;house, along with a large arms cache. Police "special sabotage command," its main goad-!said Sgt. Espinosa admitted pardcipating in raising and terrorist group in the Caracas', the bank holdup the day before, but stressed area, that he did so under duress "because I wmc According to captured FALN document e, here gas a guerrilla fighter and not a stickup the gunman was identified as a professional man. thug named Eleazar "Loco Fabricio" Arian- : Radio Havana waited five dais after the guieta, who joined the FALN in 1962, The deatbt of the three FALN leader before an FALN delegate in Havana called the Iribar= nouncing to the world: "The ren murder an act of "revolutionary justice" `Fatherland must log cally sense der" of two FALN leaders. But Castro him-vived Co. Guevs.ra's spirit lives ion. self said a few days later, "Our criterion is that revolutionaries should avoid procedures that become an instrument for the enemy: Killing a man after kidnapping him. We never did this, whatever our indignation at the ferocities of the enemy." And the three principal party leaders who organized the "armed struggle" and who only three weeks before escaped from the San Car- los Military Prison in Caracas condemned the deed as "playing into the hands of the'coun- try's most reactionary forces, blocking the re- cuperation of the people's movement and' de- pressing it further." Scrawl on the Tiles At 2 p.m., "Loco Fabricio" was about to eat lunch in a small house in a working class district when the building was blasted by ma. chine gun fire from political police agents surrounding it. With him was a former law gresses, was trapped in the tiled bathroom, wrecked by gunfire, where he scrawled on the wall: "I am wounded and helpless." His body was shown to reporters later. He had written to his wife a few days before his death. "Sometimes I think that nothing in the world is worth the price I have paid. I am sustained only by the idea that I am fighting for the lib. erty of my people." The death of these two men was the cli- max of swiftly breaking events that started the previous day when FALN terrorists robbed a suburban bank of $60 000 withoutin- , nkee enemy out of his surroundings, fore-! to light in places where his living terference. Within three hours, however, pu. him ,~.~t clash with the actual wsituation. here his Th e lice seized a right-wing' extremist named "f(T.S. soldier has technical know-how and is Adolfo Meinhardt Lares, a former arms mer- i. __-as..___ _ .knhow ..._.-,_ chant who had joined the FALN as part of its Luse. What the enemy essentially lacks is mo- tivation. His most bitter rivals of today-the Vietnamese soldiers-possess that to a maxi- mum degree." This strategy is being severely tested as Venezuelan insurgcn,y alive. For this limited' crimes gave weight to the version that a end, and at great risk, Castro has soot Cuban major labor of infiltration had borne fruit. guerrilla specialists into Venezuela to replace lice said Meinhardt began talking profusely just after his arrest, identifying himself as "Comandante Milkos," the head of the FALN Caracas organization. The police's swift ac- tion in rounding up 820 FALN suspects and Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/06/29: CIA-RDP78-03061A000400050002-2 I' -