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Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY USSR MATERIALS AND MATERIALS PROCESSING EQUIPMENT Number 27 4 November 1960 000 REY DATE tJ S1 BY Q Z DMo COMP .=-R' DPI TYPE oNSA CLASS AGES - REV CLASS JUST NEXT BEY AUTHh HA 10.2 Prepared by Foreign Documents Division CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 2430 E St., N. W., Washington 25, D. C. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 FOR, OFFICIAL USE ONLY NOTICE In view of the overlapping coverage now being provided by the Joint Publications Research Service in the current JPRS'translatior series Soviet Industrial Development and, Soviet Machine Building, Foreigi Documents' Division is discontinuing this monthly publication, USSR Mater:a1s-and Materials Processing Equipment, with this-issue'- Approved For Release9 N ': AWP78-03107A000400010006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 This report presents unevaluated information selected from foreign-language publications as' indicated. - It -is produced and disseminated as an aid to United States Gov- ernment research. USSR MATERIALS AND MATERIALS PROCESSING EQUIPMENT 27 Table of Contents I. Chemical Industry Regional Roundups USSR Georgian SSR Equipment Supply Bottlenecks Mineral Resources Development Petrochemicals Synthetic Rubber Tires Plastics Chemical Fibers Fertilizers Detergents Oxygen New Oil Discoveries Drilling Gas Operations Coal III. Ferrous Metallurgy Ore Extraction Construction Steel Production Rolling Operations IV. Nonferrous Metallurgy Copper and Aluminum Lead-Zinc Other Ores Page 1 3 4 5 6 9 9 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 16 16 16 18 19 20 21 23 23 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 1. CHEMICAL INDUSTRY Regional Roundups USSR CPYRGHT PROGRESS MADE SINCE 1958 PLENUM -- Moscow, Ekonomicheskaya Gazeta, 17 Aug 60 The chemical industry, together with other branches 01 plays a significant role in solving the principal economic.task of the USSR,,which is, in the shortest possible period of time, to overtake and outstrip the most developed capitalist countries in the production of goods for the welfare, of the people. Development of the chemical industry provides the possibility for most successful utilization of the natural resources of the country and is a necessary condition for further technical progress. More than 2,000 forms of plastics, synthetic rubber made from gas, and synthetic fibers made from caprolactam now find applications in the USSR economy. And none of these products is in any way inferior to products made from natural materials. In the more than 2 years that have passed since the May 1958 Plenum of the Central Committee CPSU, which adopted the decision on accelerated development of the chemical industry, the enterprises, scientific research institutes, planning organizations, and sovnarkhozes have realized con- siderable success in accomplishing the tasks assigned by the party. The reorganized administration of industry and construction has elimi- nated jurisdictional conflicts-that existed between the ministries of the petroleum industry and the chemical industry and has yielded the possibility for fuller and more economical utilization of the raw material base for organic synthesis. The scientific research organizations of the State Committee on Chemistry of the Council of Ministers USSR have solved many technical prob-, lems in the field of creating and producing new polymers and other syn- thetic materials. The Stalinogorsk and Lisicharnsk chemical combines and the Voronezh Synthetic Rubber Plant have achieved success in developing new chemical products. The output of vinyl chloride by a new method, which effects con- siderable reduction in cost and results in a higher-quality polyvinyl chloride resin, has been.:organized In the Gor'kovskiy Economic Admini- strative Region. Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 CPYRGHT However, some scientific research and planning. institutes have not yet succeeded in developing important technological processes. The Institute of Artificial Fiber, for example, was'to have finished develop- ment of a method for producing high-quality viscose-cord`in 1959, but the institute failed to fulfill its assigned task. The problem of producing isoprene synthetic rubber has not yet been solved. The Al_Union,Scientific Research Institute of Synthetic Rubber has not yet provided the .starting data needed to organize isoprene rubber production. Nonetheless, output has been planned and must begin in a few years at the Sterlitamak Synthetic Rubber Plant. The institute must also still do much work to ensure an improvement in the quality of butadiene-styrene rubber. Successful fulfillment of 'its tasks will con- siderably raise the qualityand.,'lengthen.the life of motor vehicle tires. Serious cause for concern is the' lagging preparation for production of high-strength hexachlorocycl.ohexane and herbicide 2,LW in the Azerbay- dzhan Economic Administrative Region and output of-acrylic fiber (nitron) in the Saratovskiy Economic Administrative Region.- In 1961, the Gor'kovskiy Sovnarkhoz must begin experimental output of an intermediate needed for the production of plant protection chemicals. Using this a,s a base, effective weed killers will be produced for use in corn fields. ' Therefore, the Institutes of the State Committee on Chemistry should take the necessary measures to speed up the formulation of plans for production of the intermediate product. Some Institutes of the State Committee on Chemistry do not meet target dates in developing new technological processes. There is delay in the construction of experimental installations. Sometimes manpower and funds are devoted to out-of-date problems. Sometimes the planning organizations fail to make good decisions. Often they continue to concern themselves with obsolete equipment designs and, outdated production methods. Giproplast Mate Institute for Planning of Plastics Enterprise 7, for example, recommended a batch method for cellulose acetate plants, a method not as good as the continuous method used abroad. Expansion of the production. of synthetic materials is an important aspect of the economic development of the country. The task can be accom- plished only by the joint effort of scientists and production workers. Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 Georgian SSR PLANT SUCCESSES SINCE MAY 1958 DESCRIBED -- Tbilisi, Zarya Vostoka, 25 Aug 60 The Georgian SSR chemical industry has made considerable progress since the May 1958 Plenum on accelerated development of the chemical industry. The,Rustavi Nitrogen Fertilizer Plant has already done much work on its expansion and remodeling program, designed to more than double its capacity for the output of ammonia and nitrogen fertilizers. In 1959, construction was begun on shops for the production of caprolactem by the phenol method; this product will serve as raw material for a synthetic fiber plant, now under construction in Rustavi, which will,produce capron. In 1960, the Rustavi.Nitrogen Fertilizer Plant completed experimental work on the production of'active manganese dioxide; this work was a test of. production technology suggested by the Institute of Applied Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Academy of Sciences Georgian SSR. Planning of a large shop has been assigned to Gruzgipromeztate Institute for Planning of Metallurgical Plants,,Georgian SS7. The Rustavi Synthetic Fiber Plant, which will produce capron, is now constructing the experimental production buildings where personnel of the future plant will be trained. Productivity of the experimental shop will be 500 kg of synthetic fiber daily. The shop will be completed in the fourth quarter of 1961. The first stage of the Rustavi Synthetic Fiber Plant is scheduled to go into operation in 1962. Construction of the main chemical building is in progress and work has begun on machine shops, warehouses, and other secondary buildings. . At the Kutaisi Lithopone Plant, work is in progresseto enlarge the. calcining furnace No 4, the finished product dryer, and the vacuum filtering installation. The objective is expanded lithopone production capacity. ,Production of oil-free emulsion paint on the basis of polyvinyl ace- tate em lsion.has been organized for the first time in the Georgian SSR. In the second quarterlof 1960,.production of special "Imperial" screen needed for.the lithopone dryers was organized for the first time in Georgia. Similarly, production of several other chemical products has been organized for the first time in the republic. CPYRGHT -3- Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 CPYRGHT CPYRGHT Moscow, Pravda, 7 Sep 60 .Alongside the Rustavi Nitrogen Fertilizer Plant there is a construc- tion area where several organic synthesis shops are being built. The shops will produce thousands of tons of caprolactam, a raw material for the production of,capron fiber. Some 'shops, including an experimental production shop, are nearing completion. Large metal reservoirs are being erected 'for storing various chemical 'materials. Nearby;. a large plant that will convert caprolactem into capron fiber is under construction. The fiber will be used to produce fabrics, knit wear, and cord. Minsk, Sovetskaya Belorussiya, 2 Sep 60 Construction work at the Rustavi Synthetic Fiber Plant is proceeding at a rapid pace. Construction of the weak nitric acid shop has been com- pleted, while the buildings of the experimental shop that will train-the workers of the future plant are approaching completion. The shop will begin operations in the fourth quarter of 1961. Equipment Supply Bottlenecks INSTRUMENT SHORTAGE IMPEDES AUTOMATION OF MODEL PLANT -- Moscow, Ekonomi- cheskaya Gazeta, 3 Sep 60 Since the start of the Seven Year..Plan, several new production facili- ties and experimental installations have been put into operation at the Lisichansk Chemical Combine. The combine was the first enterprise in the USSR to produce synthetic alcohol from natural gas. Production of acety. lene and isobutyl alcohol from natural gas and refinery gas~has been organized in'experimental shops. The first stage of caprolactam production is scheduled to go into operation at the enterprise In 1960 and output of carbamide and polyamide resins is to begin with 2 years thereafter. Within the next 3 years, the combine'must be fully converted to natural gas., Such conversion will elimiiha.te the need for 100,000 tons of coke annually. New equipment and, especially, all-round automation form the basis for greater chemical output and better product quality. The Lisichansk Chemical Combine is one of the 81 USSR industrial enterprises which are to become models of all-round mechanization. and automation. This goal is to be achieved at the Lisichansk Chemical Combine in the next few years. All- round automation of the'ammonium nitrate shop is now being achieved, and CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 CPYRGHT CPYRGHT technological processes are already being directed by remote control from a control board.. All processes of dispatching and packaging of the finiphed product are being observed by means of industrial television. Much work has also been. done to effect automation in other production areas. Except'for a shortage of control and measuring instruments and auto- matic regulators, automation progress could have been greater. Several enterpriser, are,fe,iling to supply recording potentiometers and differential manometers. The Kirovabad Instrument Building Plant of the Azerbaydzhan Sovnarkhoz has not delivered one of the 997 units (bioki) and secondary instruments needed for the caprolactam shops. Inquiry established that the plant does not have the equipment needed to fulfill the order.. It is beyond under- standing why Soyuzglavenergo .11-Union Main Power Administration7 and Promenergoavtomatika fEndustrial Power Automation Trust assigned this order to the Kirovabad plant. LATE EQUIPMENT DELIVERIES MAY DELAY PLANT OPENING -- Moscow, Leninskoye Znamya, 6 Sep 6o" The Omsk Synthetic Rubber Plant is scheduled to go into operation In the fourth quarter of 1960. However, equipment deliveries are not being made on schedule. Several Moscow Oblast Sovnarkhoz plants are among the delinquents. The Podol`sk Machine Building Plant imeni Ordzhonikidze, in cooperation with other Moscow Oblast plants, was charged with delivering 19 units of chemical equipment in the first half of 1960. Despite repeated assurances, the plant has not yet supplied the equipment. Mineral Resource Development CPYRGHT COPAL DEPOSIT FOUND IN CAUCASUS MOUNTAINS -- Baku, Bakinskiy Raboehiy,. 13 Aug 60 Copal, a rare exotic. mineral, has been found in chalky deposits in the foothills of the Little Caucasus Mountains. Friable and light, amber- yellow or orange colored, it ignites easily and burns with a nonluminous flame. Copal, a mineral resin, is a material useful to the paint and varnish industry, High-quality coatings, - a stable drying oil, and a miracle glue are products that can be prepared from it. Some varieties of the mineral go'into linoleum production. Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 CPYRGHT CPYRGHT The copal was found by a geological expedition of the Academy of Sciences Azerbaydzhan SSR and Azerbaydzhan. Geological Administration. In recent times, synthetic resins have been displacing copal more and more, but it has not entirely.lost its.usefulness to the chemical industry. TWIN LAKES A SOURCE OF MIRABII,ITE, SQDITJN CHLORIDE, BROMINE, LITHIUM -- Moscow, Trud, 4 Sep 60 In the Kulundinskaya Steppe, there are two large lakes, Kulundinskoye and Kuchukskoye, joined by'a natural canal. These are "dead" bodies of water. There are no fish in their waters, and no fowl alight on their surfaces. But geologists have determined that there are vast resources ofmirabilite and sodium chloride in the lakes, in fact, that the mirabilite content of Lake Kuehukskoye exceeds that.of the Kara-Bogaz-Gol Gulf The salty liquid also contains much bromine, lithium, and'chlorine. Near the lake, there is a natural basin into which brine can be pumped for purposes of mirabilite recovery. It was decided to''build the Kuchuk skiy Sulfate 'Combine near this basin. The combine buildings, an electric power plant, and hydraulic installations are under construction. A 6-km. canal connecting Lake Kuchukskoye'and the natural basin has been completed; A workers` settlement'called Novo-Blagoveshchensk, with some 3,000 inhabit- ants, has been established on?a rise in the vicinity of the combine. The combine will begin producing sodium sulfate in 1961. It is planned to build plants at the combine to produce Glauber's.Salt, sodium sulfide, and lithium silicate glass. Petrochemicals CPYRGHT SUMGAIT TO BECOME GREAT USSR CHEMICAL CENTER Moscow, Khimiya i Tekhno- logiya Topliv i Mosel, No 8, Aug 60, p 72 The Seven Year Plan for development of. the national economy prow es for the development of Sumgait in the Azerbaydzhan.SSR as one of the great' petrochemical centers of the USSR. Total output of Sumgait petrochemical enterprises is to be almost ten times as great in 1965 as in 1959. The Sumgait Petrochemical Combine will produce a wide variety of prod- ucts. Many of them will be produced on an industrial scale for the first time in the USSR. The synthetic fiber plant will produce so much "lavsan" that the fabric made from it will be sufficient to clothe the inhabitants of several Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 CPYRGHT CPYRGHT Other products to be made in large amounts include phenol, polyethy- lene, polypropylene, and polyvinyl chloride resin. A nitrogen fertilizer group of shops.will produce fertilizers and feed supplements for livestock. The Sumgait Petrochemical Combine will put out products for machine building, textile, electrical, motor vehicle,., and construction industry enterprises in the RSFSR, Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaydzhan. Very important is the fact that the production program of the future combine will be closely integrated with the programs of existing enter- prises. For example, the combines will get propylene from the Sumgait Synthetic Rubber Plant for phenol and acetone production, while the syn- thetic rubber plant will receive from the combine the butane which it now obtains from the Novo-Baku Oil Refinery and the Groznyy Oil Refinery. Thirty planning and scientific research institutes of the country are planning the combine. Sumgait engineers are now engaged in work pre-- paratory to construction of the combine. UFA PLATT PRODUCES ETHYL ALCOHOL FROM REFINERY GASES --- Baku, Bakinskiy Rabochiy, 24. Aug 60 Ethyl alcohol, used in the production of synthetic riser, PEE furTIM-117 obtained from grain and potatoes. Now, the Ufa Synthetic Alcohol Plant imeni 140-Letiya VLKSM produces it from light hydrocarbons, propane, butane, and other gases available at oil refineries. Wile this plant is a new one, in existence only 4 years, and the first petrochemical enterprise in the Bashkirskaaya ASSR, it has exceeded its planned production capacity and increased its output of ethyl alcohol month"by.month. A second stage of the plant, which will be larger than the one in operation, is now under construction. Shops for the production of methyl styrene went into operation in April 1960. Methyl styrene is a raw ma- terial for producing a new type of -synthetic rubber that is highly resist- ant to cold. Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 STALINOGORSK COMBINE BEGINS DIMET I!LTEREPHTHALATE OUTPUT FROM GASES Moscow, Ekonomicheskaya Gazeta, 26 Aug 60 The Stalinogorsk Chemical Combine is considered to be a p oneer the sphere of developing the USSR chemical industry. It produced hydrogen by the natural gas conversion method for the first time; it developed the technology for producing granulated urea by the two-step distillation method; and. it began the output of metallic sodium from sodium chloride. Now the combine is shipping considerable quantities of a formerly unknown miracle substance to Kursk in paper bags. This substance is DMT ( .imethyl- terephthalate), a raw material for the production of artificial wool, the synthetic fiber "lavsan." The new DMT shop is in reality a large plant. Its main building, a huge six-story structure, houses the equipment for all operations from paraxylene oxidation to packaging of the finished product, including steasg, water, and electrical installations, the dispatcher's control panel, a laboratory, and a repair shop. Auxiliary buildings and installations include compressor and pump houses, heating plant, cooling tower, and electric power substation. The difficulties of putting the shop into operation were overcome. Thus far, 86 tons of fiber-raw material have been dispatched for processing by an experimental' installation in Kursk. Day by day,. there is.a losses of materials, losses that are usually inevitable when output of a new product is being organized. The shop personnel is striving to reach in December 1960 the level of para-xylene and methyl alcohol expenditure planned for the end of 1961., Petroleum refining gases, from which para-xylene is produced, are the starting material for DMT. Another raw material is methyl alcohol, made by the Stalinogorsk Chemical Combine from natural gas. According to plan, a second stage for D MT production will be built and put into operation at the Stalinogorsk Chemical Combine in 1962. The experience gsined by the Stalinogorsk personnel will bet-useful when similar facilities are created in'other economic administrative-regions. CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 Synthetic Rubber CPYRGHT CPYRGHT CPYRGHT 16 Ausz 60 K4ZAKFI PLANT TO BEGIN OUTPUT IN SEPTEMBER 1960 -- Riga, Sovetskaya Latviya, The Karaganda Synthetic Rubber Plant is located at the edge of the city of Temir-Tau, on the shore of the Bol'shoye Nurinskoye Reservoir. The enterprise now produces calcium carbide, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid. Three'shops of the synthetic rubber group are ready to be put into opera- ation, while technological equipment is being installed in the rest. All production processes in the shops will be fully automatic. This giant chemical enterprise of Kazakhstan will produce its first rubber in Sep- tember 1960. RESERVOIRS BEING BUILT AT SYNTMTIC RUBBER PLANT -- Moscow, Trud, 15 Sep At the synthetic rubber plant being built in Stavropol', Kuybyshev- skaya Oblast, large spherical reservoirs are now being erected. The builders are striving for fulfillment of the plan ahead of schedule. CONFERENCE REVEALS TIRE MANUFACTURE DEFICIENCIES -- Moscow, Trud, 12 Aug 60 Since 1 July 1960, the Moscow Tire Plant has.produced new types of tires for trucks and passenger cars. Life of the new tires used on ZIL-150 and Moskvich motor vehicles has risen 50 percent. However, the possibili- ties for further improvement of tire quality have not been exhausted. Improvements in the plarft''s manufacturing processes are only-one source :of-such possibilities. Tire quality, above all, depends on the raw ma- terials used in tire manufacture, the rubber, carbon black, and textile materials. In the sphere of raw materials, many deficiencies still exist. . Early in 1960, a conference was held in which representatives from supplier plants and representatives from scientific research institutes took part. The suppliers were subjected to many criticisms. The Sumgait Synthetic Rubber Plant, for instance, was criticized for supplying sub- standard rubber. A plant in Stavropol' was criticized for departure's from GOST and.the poor quality of its carbon black. Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03107A000400010006-1 CPYRGHT Zayev, chief of the quality control division, Voronezh Synthetic _111.7., Rubber Plant, and Margulis, representative from the Dedovsk Cord Plant, addressed the conference and both promised to supply only first-quality materials in the future. At its conclusion, the conference adopted an appropriate resolution. Seven months have passed since, the' conference was held. There have been few noticeable changes. Apparently, by the time they arrived at the tr,homes, the representatives had forgotten their promises. The Moscow Tire Plant was to have replaced viscose. cord 1OV with better-quality cord 11V-,in the first quarter of 1960. However, the combine in Kalinin that produces the cord has continued to supply a product of the inferior quality. Plans to use higher-quality cord 16NV in the manufacture of 260-20 tires have been postponed indefinitely because the Kalinin com- bine has not yet organized its production. Plastics CPYRGHT C