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Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 '7 VOL WDC WASHINGTON DOCUMENT CENTER TRANSLATION Number 27 1 Oct 1946 VOLUM3II CLASSIFICATION CANCELLED BY AUTHORITY OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE 18 AUG 1947 DATE INITIALS ISSUED UNDER THE JOINT AUSPICES OF THE INTELLIGENCE DIVISION, WDGS AND OFFICE OF NAVAL INTELLIGENCE, U.S. NAVY DEPARTMENT Appfoved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 . Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 tiv WARNING This document''s::,ritairis information affecting the. national defense of the United States within the meaning of the Espionage Act, 50 U.S.C., 31 and 32, as amended; .'IIs' transmission or the revelation of its contents in any manner to any foreign agencies or other unauthorized person is prohibited by law. Reproduction of the intelligence in this publication is prohibited without special authority from the Director of Intelligence, WOGS, War Department. Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED WASHINGTON.DOCUMENT CENTER TRANSL'ATI 0 N Number 27 1 Oct 1946 AJAPM;.-J, PLAY FOR HYDROELECTRIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE YELLOW RIVER IN CHINA VOLUME II (Parts -; ? 10) ISSUED UNDER THE JOINT AUSPICES OF THE INLLIG7NCE DIVISION, WDGZ AND OIC E OF ITAVAL INTELIIGENCE, U.S. NAVY DEPARTI7,17 R1STRICTED 3 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 rilsT-PICTED Distribntion List Ho .A.2' House Bo :1'4 2 5 2 3 6 -32 2. -14 1 O -2 1 3'.;, 1 0:E? 01- U 2 (via OP-32 Y-1) 1 CoYA T 17A 1 1 CONSE737THYLITT 2 Total 33 PlY3TRI CTD Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 F elease 1 9/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 4paivse Plan,for Hydroelectric Deve12pment of the 7cI inAina (WDC Dos 2525190. -33, -360 -28) . This is a translation of four documents prepared by the Japanese, F4,1" Eastern Research Section in 1941. They constitute a broad survey of the possibilities of hydrkeleetric development of the Yellow River in China, indicating eleven sites, where power generating stations might be advantageously constructed. The translations are published in three volumes. The basic document, TDC No 252519, containing ten parts, has been divided, Parts 1 - 5 are in Volume I, and Parte 6 - 10 are in Volume II. Two documents, MDC 252533. and 252536 include revisions and corrections of material contained.in the basic report, 252519. The material from them has been incorporated in the main body of the report, wherever applicable, rather than being presented as,separate translations. Volume III Oontains the complete translation of 'DC 252528, which omst4tutes an addendum to the. basic report and gives a detailed study, in graphs and tables, of the flow of the Yellow River at Shan. - The basic document deals with such topics as a basic survey, plans for the generation of electricity, economic factors, relation of the hydroelectric develop- ment plan to flood control and water conservation, industrial potentialities of the Yellow River, geology and subsurface resources of the Yellow River basin, the trend of supply and demand for electric power, plans for extensive industrial development, and plans for the hydroelectric site at the San-,Men Gorge. These are supplemented with numerous tables, graphs and maps, in- cluding a large map of the entire area under study and detailed maps of the eleven projected hydroelectric development sites. These are from a series of documents on economic and industrial subjects which were acquired by a US government mission to Japan and China in the Fall of 19453 and which are being translated by MDC. Pages 1 through 17g -A - RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/g4S: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED _COMPLETE TRANSLATION A JAPANESE PLAN FOR HYDROELECTRIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE YELLOr RIVER IN CHINA Far Eastern Research Section Survey Committee No 2 North China Committee - Subcommittee No 4 May 1941 Note: This report comprises translations of four documents as follows: 1. Document 252519 is the basic report containing the plan for the hydroelectric development of the Yellow River. It was issued by the Far Eastern Research Section in May 1941 and is made up of 10 parts. 2. Document 252533 is a revision of Part 1 of the basic report issued by the North China Electric Works in August 1941. The currections, amendments and revisions contained in this document have been incorporated in Part 1 of this report wherever applicable. 3. Document 252536 is a further revision of other parts of the basic report issued by the Far Eastern Research Section in August 1941, The corrections, amendments and revisions contained in this document have been incorpc? rated in the report wherever applicable. 4. Document.252528 is an addendum tu the basic report issued by the Far Eastern Research section in May 1941. It contains four sets of tables and graphs giving a dotaild analysis of the flow of the Yellow 1.iver at Shan. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 141 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED A JAPANESE PLATT FOR 'TYDROELECTRIC DEVELOP,IEFT OF THE t2110WIIIVER 175"etiTA " CPYRGHT VOLUME II Far Eastern Research Section Survey Committee No 2 North China Committee Subcommittee No 4 May 1941 TABLE OF CONTENTS Part 6. Adaptability of the Yellow River for. Industrial Uses Part 7. Geology and Subsurface Resources of the Yellow River asin Part 8. The Trend of Supply and Demand for Electric Power e(1 the Sinificanoe of Water_ Power from the Yellow River Fart 9. ?lane for Extensive IndiAstrial Development Part 10. Plans for the San-men Gorge Hydroelectri,c Development RESTRICTEI;1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 ? . Approved For Release 1999/08/2,5 : CIA-RDP78-03409A0 0 if CPYRGHT PART 6. AD'FTA73ILITY OF THE YELLOW RIVER o, TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Inti-od'uotion II Qualitative Study of Yellow River later III quantitative St y of Y??..ow.Riv.er Wate -3- ARA I Jo RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 cptygis.:_ird For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA.RDP78-03102A099,290,04 ST - 'troduCt , . The first preblAm_in_OPnneo. on.w3?,. pans for ,hreavy ohemical industry in the devolvnent .of terth..dhlna is to find A $4ply or water suitable for indstrial uso. BecaUse of the S.Qa7i7 rainfall, the difficulty of water conservation and the lack or forestation, 7orth China has only Ote tr two river systems which can furnish water in sufficient quantity for industrial use. Ono or these is the Yellow River, WIlich by reason of'its volume of water and exten- sive drainage basin would, after the equalization of its flow, go far toward solving the problem. A complete study of the 4#000.-kilometer Yellow River is of course impossible, and even an investigation of the localities suitable for future industrial development is unlikely at Present. Since the Chinese army broke the diked west of Etai-fen; in 1938, the main stream has not returned to its old course, and at present seems unlikely to do so. 'lence the industrial areas near tsin- hsiang and Chi-nan are deprived of water from this river, and are , not objects for study. The reLion from Miai-feng to T/Ung-kaan and that north of Ho-ch'u were in the i,far zone and could not ie sur- veyed. The only region along tho upper river which was investigated. was that around Rao-tiou, which was under Jap&neSe control, The suitability of Yellow River water for industrial use was determined from recent analyses of water specimens and from lolowledge of the quantity of flow derived from other sources. II qualitative Study of Yellow River Water There are many studies of tho flow and silt-content of the Yellow River, but no study has covered the' quality of trle Water. In this study the only specimens taken from the upper Yellow River itself were from the ferry landing 2 kilometers above Nonhai-tzu, near Pao-t,ou. Observations made near Pao-tlOu partially compensate for this limitation, for there is no great difference in the quality of the water in the up4r Yellow Rivor and that,at Tfung-kuan, whore. the Fen, Do, and "'Mi. Rivers have joined it.. The conclusions are therefore based on those Rao-tou specimens.. The analysis by the Experimental Corps of thONorth:China Economics Research Station, North Manchuria Railroad, of a specimen taken by a member' of Subcommittee No 4 on July 1940, is inown bolo*. Analysis of Yellow River "Tater at Nan-hai-tzu Sediment: 5.81% Analysis of Sediment: Silicon dioxide 49.10% Titanium Oxide 0.43% Ferric Oxide 13,37 Sulphur 0.14 Alumina 11,75 Soda 3.47 Manganese Oxide. 0:01 Potassium 1,32 Magnesium Oxide 1,25 RhosphoriC Acid 0.78 Calcium Oxide 7.12 Volatiles 10,98 44r. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 1 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25 . CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED Analysis of Filtrate: AtTgdi,anco Transparont .SMoll'andTasto NOnO Roaction '? ? Slightly Alkaline Free Carbonic. Acid None ' 22.20 milL 111.73 :" ? 31.95 " ? 61.61 454.50 " Carbonate Ion Bicarbonato Ion Chloride Ion Sulfate Ion Nitrate Ton ..Total Solicit -294.00 Silica; '1.40 'Terric.Oxide 3.19 Alumina ?2.69 Calcium Ton 39.48 Magnosium Ion ? 26.74 Total Hatdriess -11.74 Temporary ". 5.25 ?Potassium Per- manganate Decoloration 6.95 mg/L m L ft tt ? degrees derees The two,. following tables shove the results, of a Stidy Of ti'8 .turbigity of the 4ator Of the Yellow River made at tho:Paotiou branch of the North China Traffic Co (KAMM KOTSU KAIST1A)'for: a year and a half boginning Jan 1939. (Specimens wore taken at ? the sac place as those for the procsal.ing table, and analysed at the laboratory of tho Canal Division, North China Traffic Ob.)-, (Flee TOles on following page) ----4pproved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A0002000100 RESTRICTED ANALTSISM YELLOW RIVER WATER AT PAO-TIOU (taken 2 meters below surface) . Date , Sp 1939 Nov 1939 Dec 1939 Jan 1940 Feb 1940 Max 1940 May 1940 Jo.n 1940 Jul 1940 . Clear Clear Clear Clear Clear Clear Clear Atmospheric . -20 . r -70 -3? 73? 0.8? Same 22? 160 Same 28? 21? Same 24? _ 210 Same ,xparature (0) altar 491/19,7I'Vre (G) 00 Slight alkaline 0? Same 10 Same tit= lauhlihitY /11) 190 220 135 145 f 150 145 i 130 loride 43.31 50.41 58.93 51.42. 28.46 32.66 28.40 r-aulfate , None None None None 25 None 25 Nitrate ao Faint Traces Faint Traces Traces 30 20 30 Nitrite traces None traces None None None None None AmMonia * 1 1---- Non* None None None None Nona , EMEI?4--i ConsumPtian 8.21 8.21 6.32 6.63 7.86 6.95 6.63:. Faint '. traces Ira Traces Faint traces Faint traces Faint traces Faint traces Faint traces EVaporation Sadimeht n 234 366 us 234 294 288 308 Total Hardness Degrees 6.28 6.80 6.28 6.00 5.64 6.06 6.80 - - RESTRICTED 411 (Contd) RESTRICTED ANALYSIS OF YELLOW Rrvu. WATER AT ?AO-TIOU (taken 2 meters below surface) T- 1 Cate ;Sep 1939 i Nor 1939 Dec 1939 Jaii 1940 Feb 1940 Mar 1940 May 1940 -Jun 1940 Jul9 . Permanent i 1 I Faroness Degrees 1 2.20 1--- 2.20 2.16 2 OC . 2.46 2.40 2.20 i ;Temporary i illardness o 1 4.os 4.6o 4.12 3.94 3.4s 3-66 4.60 LTpibi,ity n i24co 980 270 170 53 78 0.02 2400 0-33 950 o 18800 ) 3.54 ! sfilt 1 I content (%) i 0.50 1 0.25 0_07 0.02 0.01 Notes: The specimens were taken at noon the 20th of,' each month. specimens taken in Se:ptembex-, Octor and November 1939 and in April, Al;gust and Sepembr 19?4,0. were destroyed in transit. -7- RESTRICTED 0 CPYRroved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 I illv 1 la"x !4? .1 o A t1.161 i 4 I I .r5 ?'5 I Eli 2 ? 11 1 11 AMMVUAS t ". ) Sone None Ione lone 1 Ione Hon; Ions Ione lase detected detected detected detected detected detected detected detected detected Mtn% Consumption ( 0 ) 7.70 6.63 6.47 6.55 6.95 6.63 6.95 6.63 11.37 Iron ( " ) Traces Traces hint Paint Paint Paint i !hint Paint Paint traces traces traces traces traces traces traces Ivaporation Sediment ( N ) 294 311 294 201 268 284 320 392 24g Total Hardness (Degrees) 6.60 9.90 6.21 6.$0 6.311 Lag 6.00 5.3$ 5.54 6.10 9.22 7.50 1 Permanent Hardness ( ? ) 1 2.06 2.20 2.20 2.06 2.46 2.32 1 2.20 2.46 2.06 I temporary Hardness ( ? ) 4.22 4.60 4.01 3.94 2.92 3.92 4.60 4.76 5.52 Turbidity ( ? ) 2.700 1.000 240 139 55 75 1 1.600 900 22.400 1.320 5.400 Silt Content (%) 0.524 0.273 0.064 0.02? 0.013 0.0151 0.289 0.119 4.368 I 1.764 1.0n 4 0 10 74114 Ici : 1 li 1 1 t . ti !'i 2 1 li il t 11.?Jig s 3 1 il 4 2. le, i li MOS? 00 St .. I- 1 4. 'iti,4114 A i 41 011 it 4 g' /iEiili il F, Slightly alkAlise 1= 1 3 li f,A, ' it Fk. 2 & in,. t 1 -a ii 11117144 e i 1 11.11a2ii] a_ /ZZZZ: '4.1 4 - 3 4iill - - , Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT I pp! uvU. Iui IctbG1 999I0I25 . - 042,5 RESTRICTED YELLOW RlyER WATER PRECIPITATION TEST TURBIDITY TOO 600 500 400 300 200 100 3700 1,000 1 1 SEP 1939 NOV DEC 1939 ?1939 FEB 19 40 1,60 0 SEPT 19390 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 NOV 19 39 '0 5 110 'I5 10 '25 DEC 1939 10 15 '10 '15 FEB 1940 '0 '5 HOURS FOR PRECIPITATION --+- MAY 1940 '4?MI.1?11NOPIONIMMINO 130 '20 125 '30 '10 '15 120 '25 '0 1.5 '10 115 130 T20 125 '30 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RBEZ8RFM91000200010002-5 cgiligwed For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED A. Turbidity Tho first aspoct of tho quality of Yollow River wator which requires consideration is its turbidity. Can it bo utilizod, and if so, how? -Tne results of tests for this aro given in thu two pr000ding tables. The procoding graph is based on roprosontativo fiGures from theso analysos. The graph shows that, however turbid tho water, aftcr stand- ing 20 hours turbidity decroases to 10 to 30 dogroes; at 30 hours, to 5 to 20 dogroes. After 30 hours, procipitation is very slaw. The domand for water of loss than 20 dogroce turbidity, can bo met by. lotting the water stand 20 to 30 hours and thon purifying with some suitable filtration apparatus. A well-known illustration of this method is the troatment given to turbid wators of the Pui Rivor sinou 1903 to supply water to Tlion-ching. This supply now totals 56,000 metric tons per day. Other oxamplus aro wator used in boilers by the Trion-ching Eloctrical Industry Co, Ltd (T'IEN-CHIYG TIEN-YEN KU-FE YU-HSIEN NUNG-35U), and that usod by the Tien-ching Plant of tho Griuntal Paper Co (TOY? SETSTTI NOSY() KAISHA), establishod after the out- broak of tho China Incident. Tho details aro as follows: 1. Tliun-ching-Pai River Yator Supply Co (T'IEV-CHIKS CII-Ai l?AI-LAIrSHUI 11J11G-S5(1) (Investigatod Fobruary 1.)41) This company was foundod in 1902 as an English company rogistorod in TionG Kong. In 1937, it became a Chincso company. It takes wator from two branchos of the Pui Rivor, tho Yu and Hsi Rivers. Tho maximum intao por day is 21,360,000 English Gallons, or 97,000 mutric tons. Thu average amount of wator.suppliod in ono day is 8 million EnGlish Gallons, or 36,000 motric tons. (It also has two walls oapablo of furnishing ono million Gallons por day.) The, purification oquipmont is as follows: a. Quick filtration pool (1) Soven purifying and sottling tanks with. a total capacity of 141000 LnGlish Gallons or C4,000 metric A-Ii0.7 tons., Alum and chloride of limo cru used for PiTrification. Idoally, tho wator should be allowed to stand for eight hours to allow sot- tling, but bocauso of tho dumand, tho contents aro usually passud on to tho filtration tanks aftor onc to two hours. The capacity of those tanks is, thorofare, 1,700,000 to -3,400,000 English gallons por day. Mechanical filtors 14 tanks of 144-square fuet filtration surfaco each. The oapacit.:: is 2,390 gallons por squaro foot por day. TOSJ tanks aru cloanod daily. (2) RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT oved -For Release 1999/08/25 ; CIA-RDP78-03109A010a000,109. RESTRICTED (1) Two sottliftg peolp total cipaoity gallftns. _Hero elms aro killed with inc. and 661i4 matt0i is'alIomid to i Ilioura. In OnO4d0.Y six Million Pa treated. Those pools are olaan6cf pad process roquirinkabout ton daya. iaiiUbn Old ehlor.- tlo ter aliout' oni Can be the (2) Thirty.,ninp sand filters, tatafling I foot; Vilto4ng 'capacity is 60 gallols foot per day., Other equipment 4 (1) Four torn? re s orvoir 'gallet16. total capa itY two million (2) Wator Purifiers: To purify one mifliiga,llofta of ra14t' roquiros the followiriv_ aa, 40q'pound; ohlerido of 1ime4, 21 pcupds;, liquid'o lorino, sovon. pOOftda. EMployoos of the oompany stale ;that the current price Of ohlorido-of'limaaUd tofliquid chlorine is about 2.50 and 0.65 you p r peftftd, ro- spoptivoly; alum mado in Japan ?esti 4beUt,0.50 a peund. Iowa tho cost of chemicals td purity one million gallons is about 229 you, or Q.05 you par 'Water analysis: The following table Eivos an analysis of w tar from tho Pai River before and :aftor purification. /Tablo follows on next pagg -9- ' RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Appr Appr CPYRGHT )ved Fo 1 ;j ! 14:14 0 I 0 t 1O. 0 I . . . 11 1 ' r g " : I ; I 109A000200010002-5' I . I I 11 il 11 . 1 7; .0 ? '14jg* ."7 ..1,? 1 . W., c: O N I ill ,14/ 1 5 i ! , 010 ?Ek F. R 'BP 'g'.2 1 111 i I? . Ce 0 ILIA 'Oa 0 if-';:3 R21/1 I fill a er8 :I 1 V ,rr, lig r 13 :.; 1 it r-T 1:1 :r 5 ? -.. a 1 4 iii 10 es_:_2s 2 ill t 3 ea.; 1r, . p. , .i .2 'A 8 A O -4.. 4 i if ? g 5 IS % A i 1 ? ,A '5 i? si e 51E1'1,5 'I! 551:4" :k ' 1.? ..REs' 'I " e: 8. e pik, . ,,' ,,,,,0; .2.1 5 . .$, 1 i k 5 lil, , 000 :-' 3&3 :117;.21 i 1 i IA 8 1 ill; 1 8 la 212 a i8# :.. i ii 1 j a 31 ji ii a .4. el ti )ved F,, 11 s : _. - I 3 /8-6 ali 11 109A000200010002-5 CPYRAbTproved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED 2. T,ion-ching,ElectrIcal Industry...Co,-.1,td4avestigatod October, 1940) . . This company uses.wator both from thy waterworks and from tho pal River, The tormOr is usod,,as -drinki?ig. water, while the rivoryator, after purification, do. used in 'coil:ors" and for other purposes. The daily .water csinsumption is aS follows: From the waterworks - 230 metric tons From the Pal River - 50 motrio tons' This is a very small amount, but furnishos a. good example of tho use of muddy water in North China in boilors'for,gonerating electricity. Equipment for purifying the Pa& River water: a. Two settling tanks -- capacity 60 cubic meters each, Used alternately for ono ment4 each. River muter is pumpod into tho tank, alum and soda ash are mixed in, and the matter in sus- pension is allowed to sottlo.. nombers of the company state that the monthly consumption of alum is 250 oattios; of soda ash, 250 cattics. (TIN one catty equals 1.32 pounds) The current price of alum is 13.5 son per catty; of soda ash, 14.6 son per catty. This totals about 4.6 son per ton of'wator treato4. b. Two fiitration tanks -- diameter 1.83 motors, height 2,36 motors, with cilayor of sand 1.525 motcrs,thick for quick filtration. . yirater-aoftoning apparatus Only water for thy boilorais treated by tho pormutito softening method. Tho dimensions of tho permutitU filtering tank . aros diamoter, 1.37 motors; height, motors.1, W using 2 cubic' motors of pormutite, 240 cubic feet of wator-por day can by filtered. Tho reduction Rroobss,40 porforlud. ono() in ,throe dayi. Tho currant price.. of the 1,000 oattics of sodium chloride roq.uirod each month is 13 son per catty, or 10 sea per ton of wator tiloatod:' d. 4ua1ity of tho water. ffator Softencd,by tho abovo process. hava hardness of 40groos (Gorman). We have no dotailod,analysis of thiswater, but that of Pal River water is as follows Color Floating Mhtior 3ilicun,41oxi4o Calcium o?qdo. Ch,lorido /42'.00 Carbonic Mid Magnosium , Muddy 15.250.4 mgjL 3n1fato " Nitrato 36.3 " _Curbonatp.. ; 103,9 " Total Solids NO4o Total liar4t1,014 27.7 It 87.1-maL 62,0 - 'Slight ' -41 195,2 - 476.2 11,4 dogroos P?11P4RW,444111,W.- 2.4 TeOPOrary Har4noas - 9.0 010t0:10_00VG1 analY01.0.11Cs.tado'-ip,'Octobor 1936. Tho liar4nois ,of spocimans of water ta4via,,frOM surfaco _ r're4 nieRicTial , CPYRGHT S. ? - - - RESTRICTED I I I I I III III middle and lower strata was found to-be 12.2.degrees, 8.6 degiees and 7.5 degrees respectively. The specimen used in the above analysis was a mixture of all three.) ? 3. Oriental Paper Co, Tientsin (Investigated October 1940) This plant uses 14,000 tons Pal River for its workers' homes and equipment is as follows: Plant (TOY0 SEISM MOM.? ItAISHA) of purified water daily from the for the plant. Its purification a. One storage tank -- 600 meters by 120 meters by 5 meters in depth, capacity 360,000 metric tons. b. Twelve filtration pools -- each 6 meters by 4.5 meters by 5 meters in depth. Rate of filtration -- 5 meters per hour in 600 millimeters of sand, 0. NGIC Filter -- capacity, about 2400 gallons per hour. Used for drinking water for homes and plant. d. An analysis 30 Eay 1939 of the water purified for in- dustrial use in the plant is as follows: method. 2 cubic Appearance Reaction (pH). Free Carbonic Acid Chloride Silicon Dioxide Sulfate Carbonate Total Solids Total Hardness Temporary Hardness Permanent Hardness e. Water-softening apparatus Transparent 7.0 13.2 38.0 2.0 20.0 92.40 " 310.00 " 6,62 degrees 0.82 " 5.44 " It It Water is softened, for boiler use Only, by the permutite Capacity of the main tank 9 cubic meters per hour per meters of permutite. Reduction is made twice daily. Judging from the precipitation tests and the foregoing three examples, the water of the Yellow River should offer no diffi- culty in industrial use. The above tables show that the Pei and Yellow Rivers exhibit the same degree of turbidity at thaSime seb. sons. Moreover, the first graph of time required for precipitation of sediment from Yellow River water On Pr!Qeding page reUghlY. corresponds to Pal River water. The equipment required for precipitation and the process are Simple. In short, the water of the YellowRiver, like that of the almost idantiOal-Pai .River, may be used'easily and ecdnomically for industrial uses and for drinking purposes-. B. Quality of the Water ' The next problem is chemical investigation Of the watert A study of the, character of the water is required primarily by the brewing, aleRIgTED: , Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A00000010002-5 oved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 N 0 I the bleephing.and,dyeing4-tbrcrtanntngiVOrtlUe-Making, the paper, rayon'andhetographio film industries, high degree cifrhard- hesaof,Yellow River Water renders' it Unfuitable formakinghigh- grade:paper, though,li.ean-pe used :for a*Oh law-grade paper as ' nO4rint and. pastehoard., The water is hot suited to bleaikng And dieing, chiefly becauiait contain; tobAnuoh iron (sheuld be .1431144han 0.1 milligramtOper.liter).. The high bicarbonate. ipn -0entent makes the produetion:of high-gradoqeather iMpossible, and ipets diffiCulties in rayon minufaotura,4mpeeially in its bleaching process. _Since the quality may be improved)Dreither physical or sham- A.oal, purification prooesees, the only problem is-to secure purified water in sufficiently large quantities. It is a question of poet. In rayon,productien, spinning requires only a small amount 61, purl.- fled. water and would justify its production even at a'high unit cost. But making photographic film requires largo amounts of soft water that contains no heavy metal salts, and Yellow River water could net be used ecenemioally. The production cost of a product will vary directly with the amount ,of such water used. Other local conditions affecting each industry would be difficult ..to evaluate. 7 To summarize, Yellow River water cannot bo used for. high.grade productiOntin the paper, bleaching, dyeing and tanning industries and it is not well suited for brewing.. Its use would depend on the particular product and hew it is processed. The water cold not be used for manufacturing photographic film. Other industries would be able to use this water. Where there is no question of the chem- ical effect on a product, such as the use of water in boilers or for cooling purposes, experience with Pai River water shows that it Can be used Satisfactorily. for the III Quantitative Study of Yellow River Water ..Tho Yellow River co easily furnish more than enough water_ industrial use, but the extent to which it will facilitate development pfooal.:and,other.deposits requires consideration. A. Quantity . There is eensiderablo material on the qUantity pf flow of the YellOW RiVer.., The, following tables wore compiled from existing sOUreos by Subcommittee No 4. They show the average flow of the lawok river at Shan and of the upper river at Pao-tioU. /Yablee follow on next pae -12.? RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 -C-P-YRGNIproved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 gpira 01' Average ow of Yonow River at Shan 014 3143,o0 - 1919 1.920 1921 1929 1934 1935 Avorago .-Jan- 358 464 310 288 626 407 , Fob . 467 568 327 488 593' ' 481 !Mar 675 630 636 671 1026 . 728 Ap2'- 440 737 665 430 767 1027" 678 Nhy 434 1302 616 374 742 1258. 788 ?:Jun '944 1744 1025 755 953 1280 1116 .Jul . 1466 3066 1588 1174 2903 2144 2650 Aug 2525 2025 2933 2515 3548 4929 3079 Sop. 1241 2185 2068 1488 2633 3547 2194 _Oct lan 2572 1431 1465 3839 2955 2260 .11.0v., 728 1268 660 _ 1028 1620 1593 1233 ? Dec 343 569 500 322 744 710 536 ? Yearly AVerago 1381 1280 1212 973 1454 1892 1365 Average low of the Yellem River at Pao-tfou cu m soc) _ Pao-t,ou (Estimated) Shari ) (Actual - 1 Jan 250 407 Feb . 300 481 400 728 350 678 450 788 600 1,116 Jul ROO 2,144 g 1,300 3,079 Sep 900 2,194 , Oct 800 2,260 Nov ? 600 1,233 DGQ 300 530 ? Y y Aver ge 600 1,365 A- dem built at Ohtihge-shui'-ho would receive an average annual flow of 600 metric tens per cend, or 5,200,000 metric tons per day (TN: See figure's nn page 514). One near Shan would receive. 1,365 metric tong Per second, or 11,800,000 per day (TN: 1 cubic meter Of water equals 1 motrio ten). If the emphasis is placed on flood control or hydroelectric developmant, it is doubtful how much Water can be diverted to industrial use. Diversion of the, volume. needed fOr hydroelectric power, irrigation and downstream water transportation would:leave barely 10 to 20 percent of the tot.. One -Can-SafeQ.y count on way 500,000 to 1,000,000 metric tons of water at Pao-ttou for industrial use and 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 metric tons at Shan. ? -131 RE iki0TED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 cPYFOgoved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED B. Temperature of the Water Heavy chemioal induatry requires large amounts of? water for aooling purposes ..' ''The temperature ofl.theter all-important for this use. .'nere iS Very little data on the water tpmperature of the Yellow River; Data from the table-on7page is As follows: Atmospheric and WaterTemperatUreS at Pe. -t'ou (Centigrade). i I At Surfate , 4_1!:citers Below Surface Air Water ' Differenaii Air 'Water Differenoe! Nov 1939 -1? 10 2? - , Dec 1939 .2?. 00 , .?) 20 Jan 1940 .7? 00 '70 .7 0? 70 Feb 1940 -3? 10 4? -30 '?40 Mar 1940 -3? 0.8? 3.80 -3? 0.8? 3.8o. May 1940 22? 16? -6? 22o . 16o -6? Jun 1940 28? 21? -7? 28? 21? -7o "Jul 1940 24? 23? -1? 24? 21? -3? Aug 1940 , -29? 21? _so . I - . 8ep1940 :16? 16? oo .1 .. . The above observations 'were made on the pth day of each Month, and therefore, give only one monthly recording. It is to be nOted'that the Water 'temperature varies between 0' and 22.3?, and that in summer it is 30?to 80 lower than that of the arr. The isothermal maps of the Yellow River Basin show that in January, when the ,temperattitr' is lows., the line linking AV-yuan and.Pao-tiou reada .-140., and that1W4AUT.lung.kuanand Chi-nan ra4 10.In July, when the temperatureis highest, the former line is '22? and the latter '2"9?.. If 'the relation between atms- . pheric and water temperature conforMS.to the abovp:table, the water temperature at Pao-tiou and T'ung-kuagishOUld"reach 22.3? in isurnmer, and Tail to about 00 in minter.' ' .. .4 4 Detailed reoords for the frozen season for the Yellow River, and for thickness Of ice are laoking. Acoording to statistics gathered in 24 places in Suiyuan (the ,porthernmost and pr-obably -0014est:region,in the basin) from 1914 to 1923, the Yellow River il#400biaOtheS entirely frozen oVerhetween)5 Wovemberand 5 - Dew*** an4:,r0mal.ns rrozori until 18 to 24 March) an averago-.of Si months. ' Moreover, the Yellow River Basin in Hon= differs little in latitude or Atmeepherie'temPerature from Lin-oh'ing, Shantung. , ? ,.; . RESTRICT. cpyRcOproved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED Recordings from 1924 to 1931 indicate that the grand canal at Lin- ch'ing is frozen an average of 52 days a year, the ice reaching 18 centimeters in thickness. The freezing and the thickness of the ice are influenced by the amount and rapidity of .flaw. and by the topography, as well as by the atmospheric temperature, so that con- , .parison of two rivers is difficult. In any case, all rivers in this area remain frozen from l to 3i months a year, with ice at least 20 to 30 centimeters thick. This, however, presents no obstacle to use of the water in winter. C. Limitations ,on Industrial pevelopment AS stated above, allowing 20 percent of the flaw for industrial use would give the Pao-tfou region 500,000 to 1,000,000 metric tons per day, and the region below Ttung-kuan 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 metric tons. To allot this to industries requires consideration of those industries which use large volumes of water: iron, coal liquefaction, anrionium sulfate and pulp. Some idea of the needs may be gained from the following table of the requirements of these industries in Japan and Manchuria. Water Required by Various Industries (metric tons) Industry Yearly Output (A Tons) Material Used (M Tons) Water Acquired per Day (M Tons) Water per Metric Ton of Output (M Tons) Water per 1:otric Ton of Raw Material (,J Tons) Iron Pig iron Stool 1,000;000 600,000 Coal 2,500,000 60,000 13.6 8.8 Coal Liquefaction 100,000 Coal 700,000 15,000 -55 7.9 Ammonium Sulfate 100,000 Coal 150,000 30,000 110 73 Pulp , (Bleached sulphite pulp) 44,000 Lumber 700,000 (shih) 60,000 500 . 31 (shih) (TN: ahih = 133 0 lbs) The variolis industries require different amounts of water ac- cording to their production methods, so no general statement can bo Made. Moreover, with modern cooling apparatus., the requirements in the foregoing table would be reduced 'somewhat, in which case tho unit price of the Water would be raised. Iron and steel and synthetic gasoline industries which use coal as a raw material require 8 to 9 metric tons of water por metric ton of c.oal, while the ammonium sulfate industry needs about ten times that amount, In Other words, if 1 million metric tons of water RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A0002000100025 CPYRGHT -RESTRICTED aro available per day, the maximum possible development would bo industries using 110,000 to 120;000 metrio tons of ooal a day or 40,000,000 metric tons a year (TN: This seems to give the correct vorsion of tho figures which were given on page 13.0. De Conclusion Yellow River water is entirely suitable in quality for in- dustrial use except by a few industrios. Its quantity is suffi- cient in tho Pao-tiou - Ch'ing-Shui-ho area to serve industries using 20 to 40 million metric tens of coal per yoar; below Tfung- kuan it could serve industries Using 40,000,000 to 80,000,000 metric tons of coal per year. Tho mothod of use Should be based on tho experience of existing plants at Ttion-ching. Industrial sites should bo solectod which will havo tho lowest unit oast of water, after survey by proper agencies, Reference Mat anal: "Thoughts an tho Yellow River"; Part I - Climato; Part 3 - Hydrometry "Preliminary Considerations on Dovolopmont of Yellow River Water Power," and Preliminary Report No 1 by 3ubcommi#00 No 4, North China Committeo, Survoy Committoo No 2, Far Eastorn Research Section; August 1940 "Precipitation Tests in Turbid 'ibter in North China," Preliminary Report No 1 by Suboommittoe No 4o April 1940 "Climatic iiaps of North China," Preliminary Report by Subcommittoo No 6; Aarch 1940 ?16? RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/0/3/1b : U1A-KUlail3-0S109AU00200010002-b ,USTRICTED A JAPAPSE PUN FOR HYDROELECTRIC DEVELOPITNT OF THE YELLOW RIVER IN CHINA (Continued) Far Eastern Research Section Survey Committee o 2 North China Committee Subcommittee No 4 May 1941 PART 7. GEOLOGY AND SUBSURFACE RESOURCES OF THE YELLOI RIVER BASIN HORIUCHI Kazuo TABLE OF CCNTENTS I Introduction II Geology Subsurface Resources IV Geology and Mineral Deposits in the Ch'ing-..1hui River Rerion of the Monplia - Sinkiang Area V Subsurface Resources along the Banks of the Yellow River between Shan and Cheng-ollou. -17- ' RESTRICTUD Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT 'RESTRICTED I Introduction Studios of the geology and subsurface resources of China aro 'long overdue. This is especially true of the YolloW River Basin, for which there is almost no roliable source material concerning its undeveloped middle and upstream sections. Noverthelossi an attompt has been made to describe the geology and subsurface re- sources of the Yellow River Eosin by utilizing all available material, and with certain conclusionsoffered- by the writer. Tho only geological discussion Of the region bordering the main river was taken from geological maps plus a detailed discussion based On the writer's observations around Ch'ing.-shui-ho. Hence many of the statements made horoin are based on conjecture rather than on factual knowlodge. Secondary source materials on the subsurfaco resources have also been relied upon.,and td.thOo have-bcon added Soma facts not hitherto published. Not oniy'arostudios of subsurface resources painfully lacking, but there is need for a fresh investigation in the light Of recent social and economic changes. This roport is confined to facts which will bo of value to future development or investigation of subsurface resources. Although existing informa- tion may have exaggerated the valuo of some of the resources, it is certain that further invostigation will lead to the discovory of now resources and now fields of production. Dotailod observations were made in Honan betwoon Shan and Cheng-chou, and first-hand studies of the subsurface resourcoa of the region about Ch'ing-shui-ho wore added. For convenience, a table giving a gonoral bibliography of sourco material on subsurface resources has boon added at this point. This is copied practically intact from previous works on the subject and must be revised according to the results of recent observations. "Geology and Lines of Shantung ProvincO," Civilian Administra- tion Group, Army of Occupation in Tsingtao "Survey of Foreign Ilinerals (Chinese section)," Geological Survey Laboratory, ilinistry of Agriculture and Commerce "Abstracts of Literature on Mining in North China," Geological Investigation Laboratory, South ilanchurian Railway Co "Mining in Shantung Province mental Office "Mining in Shantung Province mental Office - Report No 1," Shantung Govern- - Report No 5," Sllantung Govern- "Geological Reports - Class and C," Industrial Division, Peiping Geological Survey Laboratory "Geological Reports," Industrial Division, Peiping Geological Survey Laboratory RESTRICTED Approved For -Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED "Survey of the Geology of Hanan Province," -fonan Geolecal Survey Laboratory "Mining Report iTo 1, Honan Provirioe.," Honan Geological Survey Laboratory "Mining Records for Shansi Provinoe," Industrial Office Shansi Province "Metallurgy," Central China Metallurgioal Society "Mining in Central China" "Survey of Shensi and Eansu Provinces" "Survey of Important Minerals in North China," Sugiyama Unit, North China Expeditionary Force "Survey of Nines in North China," Headquarters, China Oocu- pational Force "Survey of Mines in North China," Industrial Bureau, South Manchurian Railway Co "Iron Pyrite Resources in North China," by KADOKURA Sabuno "Geological Maps of East Asia," Japanese Geographioal Society "Geology of the Yellow River (a translation)," East Asia Research Laboratory II Geology As stated above, in view of the scarcity of reliable data, brief statements of geological conditions have been extracted from the hitherto published eeological maps covering the Yellow River Basin. These statements may not always be correct. . Between Ho-ktou and Chi-nan Here are broad alluvial plains and both banks of the Yellow river are of clay (loess) or fine sand. . Between Chi-nan and Tung-pting Near Chi-nan small isolated Ordovician limestone ridges appear. Towards Tung-pting there are small hills on the banks, especially an the right bank. These are of Cambro-Ordovician limestone. For the most part however, the river flows through alluvial plains. -19- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 . CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25.: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED 0. . Between Tung-p/ing and Cheng-chou Here too, are alluvial plailas. 3oth banks are of clay (loess) and fine sand. D. Between Cheng-chou and Tfullg-kuan . , From the upper reaches of Cheng-chou to Rein-an, both banks are of loess. Naar Rain-an strata of alternate sandstone and . shale (Permian and Triassic), Peitocarboniferoue sandstone and shale and Cambro-Ordoviciiig Limeetone?are exposed along'the?river- banks. Near Yuan?chfu and Mien-ohlih Chinistan quartzite and argillite are exposed, Between Mien-ohtih and Shen the same layers appear as those near Hsin,.an. These beds in certain places .are covered with a younger stratum; in particular, tertiary sediments may be Seen .between Yean.ohlu and Pling-lu. The above-mentioned Permotriassio sediments ,consist largely of a fine hard?sili-bedue-sandstene.and the Permocarboniforous . beds are made up of soft sandstone and shale, sometimes contain- ing thin layers of limestone or even coal. The Chinistan quartzite and argillite is mostly bf a hard variety. Between 'Shan and Tiung-kuan the rock formations are covered with loess deposits but on the river bank, cliffs of Cambro- OrdovidIan limestone ate exposed. Gneiss is found near Tfung-kuan. E. From Tfung-kuan to Yu-mon-klou Hero the river flaws between cliffs of loess deposits, but below the loess ancient gneiss iz.exposed..(TN: Gneiss is not a . sediment and so does not appear in layers) In the upper roaches of Yu...mon-10?u, gneiss, and above this region, Cambro-Ordovician and Pormocarboniferous strata have been exposed by river erosion.. F. From Yu-men-ktou to Pao-to Judging from the geological maps,. this region is entirely Pormotriaspiee sandstone and shale out by the Tellow'River.- This - section cebusists of siliceous sandstone and shale, dipping.steeply to the weet. G. From Pao-to to Ch'ing-shui-ho' Here the river cuts through strata of Cambro7Ordovician limestene, forming gorges. In:places, Pormocarboniforous coal seams -appear above the limestone. Tho strata dip gently -towards the west .or 'northwest, -20- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED H. From Ch'ing-shui-he to Tong-ktou Tho river again flows through alluvial soil which extends a short distance upstream from Ch'ing-shui River. Up to Tong-kfou, loess or Aeolian deposits appear along /ho banks, and in places, rook beds aro exposed. I. Frarri Tong-kiou to Chin-chi Hera, for tho most part, is loose, but noar Shih-tsui-tzu the river cuts through Permocarboniforous and Cambro-Ordovician rock formations. J.. From Chin-chi to Chung-woi Upstream a little way from Chin-chi, Permocarboniforous and Pormotriassic strata are exposed in the banks, but for the most part tho river flows through loossial doposits. K. From Chungwoi to Kao-lan Upstream from Chung-wqi,Formocarboniforous and Pormotriassic sandstone and shale strata are exposod along the river bank; from I-tTiao-,ch'ong to Kao-lan, gnoiss formations aro exposed. In some places only boss deposits appear. III Subsurface Resources ? A. General. As previously pointed out, there arc many obscure points ?oncoming China's subsurface resources, especially in tho up- stream aroas of the Yell= River. With scanty information at our disposal it is almoSt impossiblo to discuss the future development' of those roscurcos. Using the sources we have, however, it is possible to point out what should bo especially noted in.futuro studios. 1. Gold In Kansu and Tsinghai Provinces alluvial gold is found and deposits are boliovod to bo largo. . Alumina Shale This shale is to be found in all tho coal fields of Ronan, Shansi, Shantang and Hopoh Provinoos. (Deposits are probably vory.extonsivo.) 2; Coal Found in all the provinces, particularly in Ronan, Shansi, srltaang and Hopoh. (Deposits are probably very oxtonsivo.) Petroleum Oil-bearing shales in Shonsi, Kansu, Ningsia'and Shansi Provinces. (Details not clear, but an important resource.) 5. GypsUm Found in Shansi. (Rocontly largo beds havo boon discovered.) RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGI-Kpproved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED 4. Borax Found in Tsinghai and Ningsia. (Details net-clear - but a valuable resource.) Besides the above, limestone is widely found;-so there is no lack of this as a raw material for industry. The following is a summary of the subsurface resources of North China, with especial reference to those along he Yellow River. B. Resources 1, Metallic Subsurface Resources ?-?. a. Gold In Chi-tung ancient name for Hopei Proving and at Chao-YM-In Shantung, gold has been found and already . developed to some extent by the Japanese. Because of geographical conditions and of the extent of the deposits this will warrant future development. In Shantung Province there are extensive alluvial gold and gold-ore deposits south of. the Chiao-chou - Chi- nan Railroad, viz in the mountains extending. from Val-an towards I-chou. There is also alluvial :geld at Tai-hsien in Shansi. and at Chlung-hsien in Honan, but these deposits are not extensive and little may be' expected Of them in the future. The most promising alluvial gold deposits are at Mount Chti7lien in Kansu Province, . and in the Chrai-ta-mu River Basin, the Taung River Basin, the Tiung-tlien River Basin and the Huang-shui River Basin in Tsinghai Province. The alluvial gold deposits in Tsinghai extend over half the province and are said to contain 4,683,616 Chinese ounces. from a geographic point of :view the above areas are not particu- larly dvantageous; but should be noted as potential sources. b. Lead, Silver (Zino) These are known to exist in North China in varfail-pluTt on a very large scale. Deposits are known in the Yellow River Basin, but it is doubtful irtheY are' of any economic. values When peace is'restored and communications are open, it maybe Possible to work these, even thOugh on a small scale. ' c. Coprr This metal also occurs very?rarely-in North China. It is said to occur in Shantung at Tfao-kTO in Lie-cheng- hsien, at Mao-tzlu in Ttai-an-hsien and at Pao-hua-chien in . I-shui-hsien; and in Hopeh at Wan-hsien and Chi-tung. These deposits, however., are relatively, unimportant and the only deposit whiph bears much hope of development is that at Ttao-kit where nickel. is found along with-the copper. Copper also occurs in Henan at Pen-shan and Chfin-ling in Chi-yuan-hsien near the ?Yelleeiver-? and in Shansi at Wen-hsi-hsien, Yuan-chfu-hsien, Hsia?and Wei-ko-! These deposits are rather widely separated but deserve fur?qt.or investigation'. . d. Iron The most famous .iron :reserve is that at?Lung-yen, It is said to-F7tain over 100,000,000tons. Next to thiS".114."tho. deposit at Pai-luziopo., west of Pei-ling,miao, whore the deposits aro said to amount to?60,000,000 tons, In addition,..there.are deposits of about 10,000,000 tons in the Mong-chiang area at Cho-lu; in Shantung at Chin-ling-cher; in Kiangsu at Li-kuo; in Hopoh at RESTRICTED ? ? Approvea ror Keiease 1 uuuiursizo : CIA-KUV ti-U,I1UUAUODZUUU1UUU1-0 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED Luan-hsion.and Tsun-hua-hsie4, All are poor _deposits. ? , Again, at Wu-an in Tionan;'southaatt of Chi-nan and at Itp,i'mur-hsien in Shantung; at tai,YUan;hsibn there is'iron-Ore occurring tetweenalMeeibne and: igneOus,rook,'::Hithert0.1!hese ' deposits have been Considered sMallrbUt furthez..'inYestigation is, expected. Also at AV-ttai-hsien and Ting-hsiang in Shansi'thore is the so-called "striped" iron bre which has possibilities fde future development. :.,Besides the above, iron ore is found'inlOrth.Dhl,114 appearing in the form of nodular lumps or nuggets at -the baselof con]. seams in the Permocarboniferous strata. This typo of oro. is plentiful in Shansi Where some of it is used in'the'iron hence it is called Shansi iron.' As said before, this iron it' found in almost all the coal fields of North China._ In the ag- gregate it amounts to a large quantity, but no great,4Moiant can be mined,at any one plaoe. Therefore largescale .v,til4ation is difficult., ,The iron ore near the Yell* River Its`almOdt all of this Shansi, variety, 'suited. only to ada111-4oale'dbmands. e. Ilanganese -,Near II4i-ohou in 1:langsU thoro aro rather extensive deposits of manganeso. It is found however, in phos- phoritc;'rook (apatito) and the percentage' of pheaPhorus is very high, making it unsuitable'for use in the iron industry. Also at Chi-tung and Cht4ng?rpting-hsien and in Shansi, at. Ching-lo-hsion manganese beds are:in.OWn to Oast. Those at Ch!ang-pting-hsien are being worked at present, but the ore is rid-b.:very rich. Now beds, however, have recently been discovered in that vicinity. From this area to the, hills west of Peiping, ad to to northern end of the Ta-harigRange there may be manganoio dePosits but none of any groat importance are to be expected. ,Thote in ,Ching-lo are at the baso of coal ..seams in thO'Permodarbaniforoue strata and at present are not worth considering, althOUgh future invos- tigation may prove'thom:to'be of edme value .In the Yellow River region at Hsin-ttai-h6ien in Shantung there are said to be plaoor deposit manganese beds of over.lq million tons. This is not vary certain and'ealls.forstigation, but is worth noting. The figures given are very doubtful. f. Altamina.Salo This source of aluminum is found at the base and 'above the oc?)ai pep* in PormocarboniferoUs'strata. Theie are being workod at rsent in North China, at the Chtang-' ohteng and the Ktai-luan Obal,fiolds in Hopeh and at the Tzu- chtuan, Po-shan and the Chang-chlui coal fields inShantung. The shale at the above-namod coal fields, with the oxception of ChTang-chteng may be said to be the world's finest, both for qual- ity and quantity. Also, a large amount of good quality shale is ? known to exist at tho I-hsien coal fields in Shantung: Other coal fields known to contain alumina shale include the 7-sin-ttai and Ta-won-ktou fields in Shantung; the Ching-hsing field in Hopeh; the Liu-ho-kou, Chiao-tso, ? and Yu-mi fields in Honan; andsthe Ttai-yuan (East oxid.wo6t mol;ntailis) field in Shansi. All theso fields, with the exception of Ching-heing, have n alumina'contont of loss thmn55%. 'Nhothor this .is-due to intiuffieiont investigation or to rei;ional condi- tions1s d question that will have to be dotorminbd later'. 'From -23- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002.5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED an over-all point of view, it is assumod that all the coal) fields in Hopoh (exeept in the hills west of Peiping), all in Shantung, those in Ronan north of the control region and these in Shansi south of the central region .cohtairi this alumina.shalo in large quantities. Since the aluminum industry which makes use of.thisshalo is,only getting under way, it will be difficult to utilize those sourcep at present. g. Tungsten This is found at Mi-yun-hsion and Chi-hsion in Chi-tung. Tho'bods at tha latter place are.widoly distributed, and offer :groat promise, but because of the lack ef suffioiont study, we aro unable to give an estimate of their value. Besides the above, no other tungsten fields are known, but future investigations may reveal more. h. Others- (1). Platinum Discovery of platinum is reported at 4 farm 3 LI .(TIT: one LI equals. approximatery 1/3 mile) west of Chi-nan, but it is not clear whether or not this is true. Also it Is said that platinum is found along with allnvial gold in Tsinghei along the Ta-ttung River and the lb-ni River. This fact is worthy of future attention. (2) Nickel At the Chi-nan and Ttao?-klo copper mines in Shantag nickel is being developed along with copper, but in very small amounts. In future this region should be investigated for other de- posits, but not much is to be expected from it. Molybdenum According to unconfirmed sources, molybdenum occurs at Lai-yang hsien and Tisi-an hSien in Shantung. It is also said.to be found in Chi-tung, but this too is doubtful. Chromium This is said to exist on cerbain islands off Tsingtao in Chiao-chan Bay but the quantity is negligible, Vanadium and Titanium-bearing iron ores Uncon- firmed sources report the occurrence of these ores in Chi-tang and since they have been found in Jehol, Manchuria, there is some probability of these reports being true. Further study, however, is required. (6) Tin The occurrence of tin has been reported in Kansu and Tsinghai, but there is practically none in North China. 2. Non-metallic Subsurface Resources a. Coal Coal is, of course, the greatest of North Chinars subsurface re7717ces. It occurs all over the country, in Hopeh, Shantung, in parts of Henan and in parts of Meng-chiang. The largest deposits, however, are found in Shansi. Not much is known about its Approved For Release 1999/08/25PMIAW6P78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Approved ror Release-4933/ 0/25 . CIA-RDP70-0 103A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED occurrence in Shensi, Hansu, ringsia, Tsinghai and the area, but'fram.a geographic ,standpoint, little can be expected from the development of these areas at predent . In the Yellow River region, except for one part of OrdOS and the area downstream from Kial-feago_eoal is feuni almost everywhere so the amount must be tremendouei It mUSt be...noted, however, that as the Study Of those field 8 in its infancy and the amOunt and the quality not yet deterMinodl any:rational- ized development of them at present is impodSiblei- MOreaver, the fields in northern Shensi, while widely distributol, are wanting in 'depth, so not much 1,,s to be expectod of thee4 . b. Petroleum There is said to be petroleum, in ShonSi, NingSia.."And Kansu, but the authenticity of Such reports is open to queStion and further investigation will be. necessary,,to Show whether or not there are any large fields to:be iiIoited., The _ importance of.Tetroleum mahos this study-moet necossarYe ? - Concorning oil' in Shansi, tho Standard. -0'01344Y of tHeITSA: . made an investigation, according to :Ai* there are traces,of.oi-I.I.n 62 places and two oil wefts at Yon,ohlqhgf, We may be assured that there is oil in Shansi- From their in- vestigation, tho Standard Oil Compank has arrived-atthcLfollowing conclusion's:. _(A) The yells at Yon-chlang aro some 200 feet deep and-the:oil- comes .from an isolated trap. ;Th spitOPf,this, tho output is 60,barrelepor day which libada:thbm?telievo that they have discovered a ;field o1 considerable capacity. (B) Sinop, thoro are many sighs of,ollAc distribution is probably,r9ther,wido. (C) The disadvantagoe.aro that thu area'ieveryeandya th9 dips are low and tho structure is extremely fIati- From the ibovo we see that tlYore is oil in Shonsi, but its actual value must be doterminod ty?futuro'invostigatiOn. Moreover there is. said to be oil at Mong-hsion on thb north bank of tho Yellow River in Honan, and the pros9noo of. oil!-bearing coal (TN: oil shale?) is mentioned in.Chinoso iitiirat!aro.? o. Oil-bearing Shale This is found.in Shehsi. Tho thickness of 71 strata-ik reported to be four foot and tho distillate 19.5% 1SY'woight_, i.o.,63-gallons porton. This shale extends for at least 1,00 km in the Vicinity of Yon-ch'ang and . merits future investigation. 13esidos the above, there is. no defin- ite information on Oil-bearing shale, but:theta are Lososoic.poal seams widely distributed in tho eastern part of Shantung,whi.Ch . call for further investigation. d. Gypsum This occurs at Pling-lu-hsion, whero it has boon; extracted, and along the southern bank of the Yellow laver in Shansi and at Shan-hsion and Kung-hsion in Ronan. Besides the , :above, it occurs at Ta-t,ung and at Chioh-hsu and near Ttai-plan Shansi whorq it has boon extracted r000ntly.: Nonoef. those, .-hcwovor, can "co called large Rocontiy at 1.4ing-** In Shansi, extonsivo'gypbum bods havo.boon.disCOVorokin,Whichthe dopoeits amount to at least several hundrod nu4lion tonS,and it is quite possible that tho samo sort of,bods.poojlr in.th.o,mpuntains cast. of T/a-yuan. It may bu soon. from this that gypsum hatibocomo one of the groat roSOurods of North China. eItmay, also bo supposed RESTRICTED pooroved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED that hereafter ?that- such fiolds of.gypsuM will bo discovered in othor regions. o. Fluor-spar This occurs at Pleng-lai-hsion, Chiao- chou, Ych-hsion and Po-shan-hsion in Shantung and is apparontly limitod to this rugion. It is shipped from Tsingtao to Japan. Reports of tho disoovory of two largo deposits in tho northwest soction of Meng-chiong and floor tho Outer Mongolian bordor have boon. made but tho dotails are not cloar. Thoro is said to be somo along tho Yollow River at Hsin-an-hsion in Honan but to what extont is not clear, /t is-also roportod to occur at Chiao-ch'eng- hsion in Shansi. f. Asbestos This is found chiefly at Ta.pch'ing-shan and Lai-yuan-hsion in tho Monsolia - Sinkiang Aroa (tho latter was formorly in Hopoh) and tho deposits at both plaoos aro of good'quality, In particular tho minus at Lai-yuan-hsion have boon worked oxtonsively for somo timo. Besides thoso, asbestos doposits aro found at Chtang-pling-Osion, Hu-lu and Ching-hsing in Hopoh. Those deposits aro on a small scalp, although Chtang- pling is in a location favorably situatod for oxploitation. No potential sourco of asbestos is known in tho Yollow Rivor rogion. g. Mica This occws chiofly at Pling-ti-chluan in tho Mongolia - Si:a-rang Area. At prosont this doposit is boing de. volopod and tho mica shippod to Japan. Noxt'in importance to this aro doposits ncar Tsingtao and Chu-chlong in Shantung whore pro- duco is also shippod to Japan but thoir capacity is small. Other than thoso, no rosorvos havo boon discovorod up to tho prosont, although it is possiblo that in timo mica may b000mo enc of tho loading natural rosourcos of North China. For this roason furthor investigation is important. h. Graphite Thore are promising graphite veins in both tho Meng-cOiang Area and Shantung, tho former being developed already. Besides these, however, no further deposits are expected. 1. Iron Pyrite This is found in all the coal fields of North China and is mined along with the coal. The quantity is small and not much attention has been paid to it hitherto, although the natives of the region have used it in their small-scale indus- try. Like the "Shansi iron ore," it is also found at the base of Permocarbonifereus coal seams at Ttai-yuan, Fen-chieng and Fen-hsi in Shansi and at Esin-an and Po-ai in Honan. The latter deposits are said to contain a million tons each. In ancient times, a great deal of sulphur Was extracted from iron pyrite. As stated above, this mineral is widely distributed, like the ?Shansi irCn ore;" but there is no great amount in any one place, henco it is not well Tuited to large scale production at present. If it is mined with ooal, us a by-product, it can be processed at small.expense, and many uses will be found for it, In this regard, it will bo necessrtry to study the occurrence of tron pyrite at the base of the -,oal seams. j. Clays Hardsclay, China clay, Kaolin, Refractory clay - almost all are found in the various coal fields, but the distinc- tions are not 'clearly marked. They differ in names and uses -??6rr RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYFictriToved For Release 19.99/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED according eo:whare they are found -- below the eoal strata, between the SeaMS, or aLeve or below the,Permocarbeniferous strata. :the latter condition-As similar to the occurrence of the alumina shale previouslacribed. The classificatien: of the different types of clay is based primarily on the use tb which they are put rather than on physical or chemical composi- tion..The dietrbetion and properties of these clay-are aleet the same as those of the almiina shale previously described. They are found at the Chfang..phieng andillaielnanecoalfields in Hopeh.and at the Tznechluan, Po-shan, C;hang-chu, and 11-sien coal fields in Shantung. They'produte en exCeilant type of fire- brick. Other than the above, no deposits of high-grade allid:Ina clay,have been discovered up to.the present. IC, Limestone This is widely distributed in North China and is found in the Vicinity of every coal field. Little study, however, has been made concerning the quality and size of the deposits. Because of the ride distribution,, it should be easy to find .limestone in suitably large quantities for the Manufacture of cement) for use in the iron industry and for ,other industrial purposes. In the Yellow River region, as stated above, Permo- carboniferoUa strata are widely iiistributed, and a large supply of limestone.Ahould be easy to obtain, although further study is necessary before it can be. put to practical use, The fact that there is almost no limestone to be found along, the coast of North China is a source of reat inconvenience when industries are developed near the great harbors. There is a? great possibility that Zeohstein rook may be.discovered in the limestone of North China, 1. Barite A. namber of depasits of barite are located around Chi-me-11E33bn in Shantung, and it is also found in cone junction with' gold veins at Chietung. There is no record of its occurrence elsewhere. ? Unconfirmed reports state that the deposits at Chi-mo-hsien are of considerable -size. m. Borax. Borax is said to exist in the lakes of Tsinghai and Ningsia,Tarihis report-awaits-verification. Its importance is such that an investigation of the above lakes as weil as those of Kansu and the. - Sinkiang Area should be carried out. n. Salt, natural soda In Shensi, Kansu, Ningsia, Tsinghai and Mong-chiang there are salt lakes (possibly Playa lakes) which contain salt and natural soda in great quantities. These minerals ere taken out by native laborers, The so-called dirt-salt found . south of Taettung in the rMongolia - Sinkiang Area and in the Ho-;*' tung salt beds near Yun-ohleng in southern Shnnsi.yields.salt and aoda. Tfolls or ponds are dug in the Ho-ttuna aalt.bedaanethe salt and natural soda are extracted from thesea?.Thealay in, Te.-. tlung contains a peoportion- of salt whichisaxtracted. DoWnetream from Ktai-fang, along the Yellow River there arceextensiva salt and soda fields and tha natives extract the.salt.and?soda as .miae-work in the off-farming season. ? There are other fields widely distributed throughout North China in which salt and natural soda deposits are exposed at the surface of the earth. The natives extract the salt and soda as sideeefork, but it is of little value for largeesoal'e industry. -27- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 cpyRalffroved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED The provinces to tho west, i.e., the Mongolia - Sinkiang Aroa, Shensi, Kansu, Ningsia, Tsinghai and Shansi, should be investigated, sine() it is possible that rook salt may bo found thore. o. Others wimp...mom...M=1mm.* (1) Talo YOh?hsien in Shantung is noted as a souroe of talo but few details are known about its oc- currence. There are other deposits in Shantung, but none of them seem large. (2) (3) Feldspar Shih-pteng in Shantung is a promising ?souroe of feldspar. It is also mined at Tiai-yuan but little study has been made of this mineral . and the details are not known. Quartz Little study has been made of this mineral but red-white quartzite is known to ocour at WU- ttai-hsien in Shansi, and at Tfai-yuan silica has been used for making tiles. Year the Po-shan ooal field and the Klai-luan coal field, Permo-Triassic quartz-sandstone found above the coal seams has been used in making glass. These strata deserve further study as it is possible that deposits of minerals suitable for the manufacture of tile or glass may be discovered, (4) Rook Crystal Unconfirmed reports claim the.ex- istence of rook crystal in the Ta,ch'ing mountains ' of the Mongolia - Sinkiang Area and the northern part of the Ta-hang Range between Hol3eh and Shansi. Large crystals are found at Tzu-ching-kuan in eastern Lai-yuan-bsien but whether they are color- less, transparent, and of good quality is not known. IV Geology and Mineral Deposits,in the Vicinity of Ohling-shui-ho in the MonL;olia - Sinkiang Area A. Introduction As a member of the committee surveying the Yellow River in the vicinity of Chling..shui,ho in the Mongolia - Sinkiang Area, the writer left the railway at lieu-he and spent four ,days, Nov 24-23, 1940, in the region between t-taat point and Ch'ing-shui-ho. The following are the results of his observation, especially of the region arpund Chting-shui-ho and the east bank of the Yellow River as far as Hsia-Chteng-wan.: This survey was very brief, and,. much time was consumed in travel, most of the observations having been made from the seat of a truck. Hence, there will be considerable conjecture mingled with the facts. There may be many errors, but the report is given for what it is worth, as a reference. AESTRTCTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED B. Topography The areas of relief are in the form of a jlateau The face of of the plateau is cut Up into little valleys, but the top of ?the plain near the mountains, is almost level. This slopes very gently .from V.Iting?shui-ho to the banks of the yellow River. Bluffs of some 100 motor S face the Yellow River valley. On the wes-E', side of the river, the topography is about the same. The chief rivers are the Yellow River and its trifJutaries., the Ch'ing-shui River and Hung River. 'fere the Yellow River flaws in an almost north-south course, the southern.banks consisting of oliffs some 50 to 100 meters high, forming a gorge, so that -.he development el' the alluvial plain can not be seen, _ The Chling-shui River flaws viestward south of Chtingrshui-h till it joins the Yellow River upstream from Tisia-phtengrwan.., rear Ching-shui-ho the valley is wide and its flood plain is comparatively extensive, but downstream from that point, the valley narrows. 'The Hung River rises near Liang-chleng, and.flaws west and southwest. 1,fest of Ch'ing-shui-ho jh joins the Ch'ing-sh14 River as one of its tributaries. At Tu-kout..zu,and upstream it runs through a broad and shallow. valley. These two., small rivers have a scanty flow of water and are hardly suitable, for water ?traffic. Above and on the 'plateau are countless tittle valleys, and because of the less,there are many gullies.,which make,transpor- tation very difficult.. Ala.() in places, sand hills.are:in evidence. The area west of the Yellow River is not as rugged,as that east of the River. C. Geology Opportunity for. observation being limited, the report on ? the geology of this region is largely ConjeCtural. The nature of the geology of the region is as follows: , 1. Reddish-brawn -sa7.7 shale stratum (Cambrian? in its lower part) 2. Limestone-strati= (Cambro-Ordovician) 3. Alternate strata, sandstone and shale (Permocarboniferous 4. Reddish-brown siliceous sandstone stratum (Period unknown 5. Laterite (Tertiary) Loesa (Quarternary) 1.. Aeolian sand stratum (Quarierna6) 8. Sand and piibtieS stratum (quarternary) . Diorite (Period'unknown) RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYIWoved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED 1. Reddish-brown sandy shale stratum This is exposed at Tru-kou-tzu northwest of Chling-shui-ho, also west of Chling-shui-ho on the banks of the Ch'ing-shui River. Judging from the thickness of the limestone stratum covering it, and from .the nature and position of the stratum, the lower part is probably Cambrian, and might be correlated with the so-called Lianju shale, 2. Limestone stratum This is in evidence from Ch'ing-shui-ho to Hsia-ch'eng-wan, and seems to form the basal stratum of the plateaux in this region. It proeably consists of alternate layers of limestone and. Zechstein and is over 300 meters thick. On the bank of the Yellow River near Hsia-ch'eng-wan there are found spiral, vermiform, and oolitic limestone strata within the above limestone stratum. In the oolitic limestone are trilobite fossils._ Hence this stratun.clearly belongs to the Canbro-Ordovician period. This formation is also widely distributed on the wast bank of the Yellow River. 3. Alternate sandstone and shale stratum This stratum runs north from Hsia-chteng-wan and follows the Yellow River alongits bank, appearing above the limestone stratum just described. It does not run parallel to the limestone stratum but below it there is a stratum of van-colored shale, and several meters above is a limestone stratum some 10 meters in thickness. Since coal is obtained in this region, it is dlear that this belongs to the Permocarboniferous period. The distri- bution of this stratum on the east bank of the Yellow River is not very wide and the upper part is eroded. It it probable that it extends more widely on the west bank. 4. Reddish-brown siliceous sandstone stratum This is composed of a hard, fine,grained, reddish-brown quartzite, and extends northward from Ch'ing-shui-ho. Since it was impossible to observe its relation to the other strata, there is no data for determining the period to which it belongs. Judging from the character of the rock, it probably belongs to the Permo- triassic periods. 5. Laterite This extends upstream from Tlu-kou-tzu, which is north- west of Ch'ing-shui-ho, to the plateau on the left bank of the Hung River. It is of a reddish-brown color and covers the lime- stone and is in turn covered by loess. It does not appear on the plateau near Ch'ing-shui River and Hsia-oh'eng-wan. Since it' seems to correspond to what .is called laterite in Shansi, it is doubtless of the late tertiary period. Its thickness is not known, RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RE3TRICI.Y.1.) ? 6. Loess As toted above, this covers laterite in,the regipn north-ef.T!akou-tzu, It also appears oevering'the'iimagtorie. ' and the Permeoarha:rAferous strata'on the.plateau wid-,on the sides of th yal On the tOile lahd the thic1cnO4 df this ? , material is aboat Meterit or leas; on the sides aid-at:the bottcm of the vallvs it is somewhat-thicker. 7. Aeolian sand stratum This appears on the alluvial ? plain.of?the Iung River, on the eastern slopes of the valleyS;;snd-occasipnally.on plateau. This stratum is for the most part matter blevit over from the Oros region, and not mUch is in evidenoe.on the east bank of the Yellow River,..bUt Is rather widely! distributed on thhplatea*.of the west ban(. 8. 6and and pebbles The bottom of the valleys of.the.Uung River aid Ch'ing. shui River is a stratum of fluViallydeposlted gravel., 9. Diorite It ie ,expesed north of,Ch'ing-shui-ho belad the-reddish,: brawn siliceous. saidstene, and its relation. to. the sediments and its occurrence are not clear. D. Geological Structure' The strata of this section, in part, showed a slight dip, but generally speaking they Were almost level-. and, the land 'WAS a level plateau. The structure seen at Ch'ing-shUi-he appeared almost exactly the same as that at the bank of the Yollaw-Piver.? Judging from a fault in the vioinity of ChJing-shui-!ho,,there is some disturbance of the strata, but no other notable 1aUlt was observed. A more detailed discussion of the region near Hsia-chteng- wan on the banks of tho Yellow River follows. As mentioned above, Cambrian, Ordovician and Permeoarboniferoup strata are exposed. Here too, the-dip is almost flat, but a more careful': observation shows a gentle dip to the mist er'nerthwest. Down- stream at Ta-yu-yao-tze the strike is north 10? oast; the -dip is ? 100. to the west, The walls of the Yellow River valley.arenostly. - Ordovician limeatene; but downstream, Cambrian limeitone:islfeund beneath the previously Mentioned limestone, hence we mayeehelude that in general the strata?dips slightly to the west or northwest. Moreover, at Hsia-chlang wan and vicinity, where ono_observes-the contaet between the Ordovician limestone and the PermooarbbniPorous Period; tho strike of the former is north 45? oast, the'dip-iii 300 to the northwest. In place's tha strata arefolded.::Near Ta-iu, yao-tzu there. i8 a normal fault running cast-west in the Yellow River valley. This fault has a small downthrust,onAthe north side forming a 1M-50 6-Overa1 tenel7 centimeter umbankmpnt,:'Similar, 'Taults:mayexist elsewhere, 'rut none wore observed on this oocasion. 31-. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED E. Mineral Doposits Investigation concerning these was not made. Judging from observations made anroute, and from samplcs at the town office of Ch'ing-shui-ho,,the following conjectures were made. 1. Cgal a. Location. This is to be found north of Hsia-ohleng- wan, along the Yellow River, at Hai-ohi-kou, Ta-aha-wan, wan, Tung7mu-kou and Yand-luttan. b. Coal beds and the geology. North of Hsia-ohteng-wan coal seams are distributed in Permocarboniferous strata. The exact location of these Strata is not clear, but they are found only along the Yellow River and probably end to the north at Yang- lu-tlan. hence on the east bank of the river the distribution of the seams is not extdhsive,and as the dip is almost flat, the seams are found only at the bottom. There is no information concerning the number and size of the seams, but it is assumed that on the east bank, only the lower part of the seams is left, and that tha main coal fields are to be found on the West side of the river towards Ordos. c. Quality and quantity. The coal of this region is of a,dull color for the most part, although here and there a line of glassy coal several millimeters in width is found. The inhabi- tants of Ch'ing-shui-ho and 7sia-ch'eng-wan use it for fuel in their homes. Analysis of this coal follows: Laboratory - Railway Date analysis Date analysis North China Economic SUrvey Office, South Manchurian requested - 13 Dec finished - 7 Mar Water Ashes Volatile Matter idasoling Fixed Carbon Total Sulphur HeatingValue Coking Property' Ash color-tone Phosphorus (in ash) Ash fire resisting degree (h) ? Note Analysis I is taken from 1940 1941 Dull Coal 6.57 % 8.50 % 30.33 % 54.60 % 0.34 % 6540 calories Coagulation Ashy white Trace 37 the dark coal Glossy Coal IT 7.35 5 6.31 % 30.97 % 55.37 % 0.51 % 6670 calories Coagulation Ashy white Traces 36-37 Analysis Ir is taken from thin seams of glossy coal in the dark coat ' The extent of the deposits is not known, but as stated above, the seams on the east bank are narrow and appear only at the bottom Approved For Release 1999/u87zo : Fitts-u3i uuAuuuzubOi 0002-5 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25-VNAMDP78-03109A000200010002-5 of the strata. Hence we should not expect the deposits to be ? very large. The natives mine it for home consumption. If a dam should be built in this region and the district , industrialized, the problem of the amount and the quality of the coal would become very vital. Therefore a careful investigation should be made as to the extent of the deposits on the eastern bank as well as the state of ocourrenoe of noel on the west bank of the Yellow River. 2, Limestone There is no information on this sUbject and the Collor'- is only a description of the observations. a.. Distribution. From Ch'ing-shui-ho to Hsia-chleng wan- along the Yellow River the entire region is Gambro-Ordovician limestone. Judging from previous observations in other regions,? Ordovician limestone frequenil contains Zechstein rook .golomitil and depending on its horizon position of stratuM7, it is ordinar- ily suitable for making oemen or for use-in iroil melting or casting. -:As may conclude from the wide distribution of this limestone that this region has facilities suitable for making cement or for making iron castings-. Since the whole area in plateau and there is no. level ';round except that on the plateau, and since practically all ef.the strata are horiiontal, it will be difficult to dig out any large quantity of limestone. This will be a serious IJroblen in case it is ftecedsary to build a. cement factoky for the construction of dams. ? 3. Hard quality clay A specimen shown at the town offioe is white in color, and seems to be suitable for firoresistant material or for. pottery. Its origin and quantity arenot known but it is obvious that it is found in Pernocarboniferous coal seams. 4. Kaolin Kaoltn was also seen at the town office. Its color is ashy-purple. The site from which it was taken is unknown, but it is found in coal seams. 5. Loess This is widely distributed in the region. Incase this region should be industrialized in the future, an analysis of the loess is given in the following. Laboratory North China Economic Survey Office, Soh Mhnchuriah Railway Date analysis requested - 20 Deo 1940 Date analysis completed - 7 Mar 1941 Anhydrous silicio acid (Si02),(Tartz) 59.94% Alumina (A1203) Vritten Ao2o3 10.02 % Ferri? Oxide (Fe3 3) 4.36 % -33- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED Lime (CaO) (MgO)biagnesia M Alkali ?(K2o - Na20) Material loss, from heating' Iron Ore , 4.43% 4.78.;7, 8.44, Found at the base.? Of Coal; seams. . This is the so-called Shansi iron ore - brawn and red iron ore. Amount of deposits is unknown. In ancient times it was used for making iron by primi- tive methods. Subsurface Resources along the Banks of the Yellow River Between Shan and Cheng-chou , A. IntrodUction. The material herein has all been published previously, most of it 'written before 1934; hence there will be much which does not fit. the present situation: The expression's "now" or 'tat . present" hereinafter used, ere quoted from the sources, and refer to the time of their compilation. JThere are. many instances where these differ widely from the situation.after the /6hina7 Incident. ? There are many 'Statements in these Chinese sources which are hard to believe, but they are published as they stand. This is especially true of the amount of the coal deposits. Further in- vestigation is certainly called for. The amounts still to be mined are probably less than stated. (Material taken,froM source No 4 is excluded.) ? B. Summary - - The most important underground resource is coalhitherto only Small amounts have been mined; but .Much is tp be mined in the future. Next to coal comes limestone, and then fire-resistant clay ,(including alumina shale and kaolin). These are widely,distri- buted, but their location and the amount of deposits are uncer- tain. The limestone seems to be suited Tbr a11 sorts of industrial uses. The clay Could be used in various ways depending. on the quality. :0-Vrther investigation is required, but, it seems suited for ordinary. firerreeistant purposes. There are no very large deposits of irbn'eulphide and gypsum in this.region,,,but 4.t said to be famous for these, so it would be well to investigate. The iron ore is the so-called Shansi ore; it is not to be hoped that much of it will be disobvered. 'The copper ore of Chir-ylian- hpien is not described in detail, but because it is,, important resource, its presenoe should be investigated further. . . , . ,The following is a-jummnrY of the underground .resourCes . of this region: RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 -7 :Resource District (Hsien) !Source - -1 Hsin-an, Mien-ch'ihiHsin-mien coal fields 'Coal !Coal iCoal iCoal I-yang, Lo-yang 1I-lo T- Yu, Mi-hsien :Yu-mi coal field Hsiu-wu, Po-ai ;Hsiuplo coal fields RESTRICTED ;Locale ;Quality , 1 . Alsin-an-hsien, Chi-yuan- ;Anthracite and ihsien, Shan-hsien, ' ibituminous ? Mien-ch' ih-hsien coal fields !Lo-yang-hsien, I-yang-hsie Yen-shih-hsien, Kung-yang- ihsien, Teng-feng-hsien -r 1Yu-hsien, Mi-hsien ;Hsiu-ww4isien, Po-ai-hsien Iron Sulphide Hsin-an 4 Iron Sulphide Po-ai IFluor-Spar :Hsin-an !Gypsum Fan* 1Gypsum :Shan ;Gypsum link Stone__ Chi-yuan luang-klou 1 Seu-hou, !Li-feng 4 t-- niiBituminous and kemi-anthracite Bituminous and anthracite Anthracite and semi-anthracite 70 Ii (Chinese mile) NE of kov't seat :North of govt seat IDetails of place unknown 45% sulphur .35;t2 sulphur . - Deposit 1300 million metric tons 500 million metric tons 1500 million metric tons 100 million metric tons 1 million metric tons I metric tons 1 million Ta-an-ts'un _ Unknown . . ? i San-men-ling, Hsu-yu-fen, i50-80 li east of Good Pio-ti-ts'un, Plan-nan-kouiHsien-ch'eng I. -1 Unknown Unknown !Northeastern Chi -yuan -35- RESTRICTED 4o 4o Z3 Z3 3 Spnt&) . !_liesource ,0 "'Iron CD CD WIron C,) VD _?Iron tD-- gron 8 RESTRICTED - _ . District (hsien) Source !Locale Quality Hsiu-wu, Po-ai leng-huang-ling, Li-chuangWithin Hsiu-po coal fields 37.7 - 48.6;t iron I I - _ Hsin-an I Ho-t'ao-yuan, Chang-yuan :40 li NW of govt seat 55i, iron 4 4 Kung I Shih-liu-yuan I20 li SE of govt seat ?Copper !lj,ead and Silver 0- ad and Silver Kung Chi-yuan Hsi-an Chi-yuan aead and SilveriKunE 10----- 'SLead and Silver Mi ig aead and Silver Ping-1u CD he marks I Feng-men-k'ou T ! lang-shan, Chlin-ling Hsi-ch' en-ling Shuang-feng-shan Cheng-chia-ling TUen-chung-van San-feng-ssu !10 li east of Shih-liu-yuan 140-80 li NW of govt seat Highest grade copper, 6% 1 -4 !Details unknown !Deposit . 1150,000 metric . ! !tons possible , 1 !Unknown 4- -- Details unknown Details unknown petails Unknown O li east of govt seat 1. Deposit value given for Hsiu-po coal fields is the amount which still may be mined as determined by YAMANE, an engineer. 2. Limestone and fire-resistant clay exist in considerable quantities, but since exact place names cannot be given, they are omitted from this list. -36- RESTRICTED 9-Z0001.000Z000V601.80-8/dCIN-V10 9Z/80/6661. eseeieN Jodfflocecg* CPYRGHT ppoved For Release 1. Non-metallic Resources a. Coal. In this ref:ion are the followinn, coal fields: (1) Hsin-mien Coal Field. North of and between the Lung-hai Railroad and the Yellow River between Shan and Hsin-an stations (2) I-10 Coal Field. South of the Lung-hai Railroad extendinc] from southeast of I-yang-hsien, southern Lo-yang-hsien, Yen-shih-hsien, Kung and Ssu-shui-hsien as far as southeast of Jun-ran. (3) (4) Yu-mi Coal Field. Area includes the northern portions of Yu-hsien, Mi-hsien and Chia-hsien Usiu-po Coal Field. Fxtends tl.ough Po-ai-hsion and nrin-yang-hsien Following is a detailed def.n.:ri.tion of the above:named. cloal fields: 1. Hsin-mion Coal ?ield a. Location and Communication Facilities. North of and between the Lung-hai Railroad and the Yellow River between Shan and jsin-an stations. On the east it runs from the western boundary of Chi-yuan-hsien through Hsin-an; on the uest it extends through Mien-chlih-hsion and Shan-hsien. This coal field may be divided into three districts. Tisin-Chi District. This area extends from Chlu-kou, which is in the northwestern part of Hsin-an via Ku-tong-tsTun, Shih-ssu, northern Yen-chen, an-hsin,kou, Plan-chia-pto, eastern and western Yao-tstun and Yon-tslang to areas Shih-ksiao-tstnn and Tung-an-hsiao in Chi-yuan-hsien which is on the northern bank of the Yellow River. Hein-mien district. From Yu-shan in Hsin-an-hsien to Pling-chtuan in Mion-ohlih-hsien. Shan-mien district. Near Mien-chlih-hoion (south bank of Yellow River) and Shan-hsion border. The area extends from the lowlands of Pei-lang (on northwestern border of Mien- chlih-hsien) to Kuan-yun-tang in Shan-hsion. This coal field is bounded by the Wang-wu-shan range on the north and by the Yao-shan Range on the south and is situated in a mountainous country; but oast of Kuan-yin-tfang the mountains are low. The Hsin-chi district is on both sides of the Yellow River, and water transportation can bo utilized. The 'Isin-mien and Shan-mien districts are intersected by the Lung-hai railroad lino and in the coal fields there aro light railroads and spur lines, so traffic is facilitated. b. Geology. Distribution of the Coal Seams. ,The under- lying rook is Cambro-Ordovician and the coal seams are in -37- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED Permocarboniferous strata. The coal is in seven (some sa,- ten) Jtrata, the upper two of which are about one foot thick or less and are not worth mining. Below third stratum, they are both deep and shallow; but the seventh is the deepest. For the most part it is from 20 to 30 feet in dep'h though in places it is only a hew feet thick. The third stratum is about one meter deep at Kuan-yin- trang and is mined by native methods. The fourth, at Chru-kou in isin-an-nsien is from 0.3 to 1 meter thick, and around Shih-ssu. in the same area it is one meter thick and may be mined. The fifth at Ch/u-kou in -1sin-an-hsien is from 0.5 to I meter; at the boundary of Chi-yuan-hsien it becomes 1 to 2 meters. The sixth, at Chru-li and San-men near the boundary between Liien-ohrih-hsien and Shan-hsien is 0.5 to 3 meters; at Huai-peri and "isiao-wa it is 4.5 meters at Chih-kru it is 3 meters, at Yang-trun it runs from 3 to 7 meters in depth; csar Chlu-ku in -in-an-hsien it becomes about 13 meters. At the Dorder of Ci-yaan-h:iien iu _Ls again 3 meters. Th9 seventh stratum is the most important. At Kuan-yin-tranr,, it is from 1 to 13 meters; at the trianP;ular area in Shan-hsien it is about 10 meters, 'Glen it falls away to a mere 2 meters belga the Huai-pei Cliff, and at Yu-shan in 'isin-an-hsien a seam of 3 meters is being mined, c. quality of the Ojai The coal of the northeast portion, i.e. the and district2, is semi-anthracite or anthracite; that in the est portion, i.e. at than-yin-trang', and at the triangular area in Shan-hsien, is :lastly bituminous. Tius is also of the variety. The analysis of the coal in the various districts is as follows: District (hsien) nun Place name Kuan- Min-sheng Hine ; or mine yin- I 1 trang 1 I _ 1 For Cent Water I 4 2.25 0.70! 0.201 0.60t 0.40 1.92 0.70 0.75 0.80 J 1 1 Per Cent 1 1 Volatile hatter 15.75 17.20 1.14.90 15.50 16.20 17.90 22.65 18.57 15.58 ' triasoline7 1 -1- - _ 1- ; Per Cent 1 ; i,ixed Carbon 67.60 61.33 176.45 53.70 61.50 59.10 60.5 57.23 71.87 f' i Per Cent Ash 14.50 20.771 8.45 30.20 21.90 18.60115.70 23.45 _L +- --!--- _ i Per Cent Sulphur 2.32 1.201 1.42 2.65 1.02 1 1.871 1.60 1.49 1.67 1 Coking Property good good bad good good l bud i bad good bad iHeating Value Hsin-an-shang Chru- 11,cu- kou hsinH tong-. kou 4- itsrun 11.75 Calories 6869! 7967 60461 6792! 67891 7284 6606 7636 (Note) TheMin-shong Mine is near Euan-yin-trang. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Aelymagor Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED d. Quantity of the Deposits ! 1 District (Hsien) I 1 Hsin-an iMien- Shan I i Chi- I 1 1 ichtih I ? yuan I 1 ; Location N, NE, S N, S ! Kuan- Shih- I yin- ts'ao I tlang i 1--------------------*--- 4 1 Depth of seam (m) I 0.6-0;8 2.5- 7.0 7.0- I 3.0 ,Total , 1 1 Area (sq km) I I- ?-1----.---t_-____4 : Amount of Deposit i (million MT) lAnthracite 236 132 29 15 : 159 . 459 I 30 192 222 i 1 ! i , I I 162 ? 1 1- 1 115 ! 540 i 1126 _ 1 288 115 1 540 ! 1 1 ; Bituminous H---- I Total Deposit 279 411 ! e. Amount of Coal Ained 1931-1933 (rnit, i:Letric ton) District Shan Chi- Mien- Hsin- (Hsien) yuan i Chlih an 1 Large ? Small Total Small Small Small Mines I Mines Mines Mines Mines -1--- I 1931 74,280 I 6,000 80,280 30,000 25,000 63,500 t -1 1932 65,000 L 5,000 70,000 36,000 50,000 29,090 - -- - I 9?25,015 74,960 f. Various Nines. There are many 1.ines in the isin- mien coal fields. The most important are the following: (1) Min-shong :lining Co (a) Location and Communication facilities. Situated northwest of Kuan-yin-tlang in Shan-hsien (along the Lung-hai Railroad), midway between Mu-wo and Yang-lou-we, about 7 li from the Kuan-yin-trang Station. There is a light, 24-pound, railroad from the mine to the neighborhood of the Lung- hai railroad line, connecting with the lattor by a cableway. (b) History. This mine was opened in 1920 and at first only approximately 30 metric tons were mined daily by primitive methods; but in 1925 new mechanical equipment was in- stalled. In 1929 work was stopped on RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED account 5f thrJ I'Lx, but it was riJc-umed in 1230. The capital of the company is said to be two million yuan. (c) Area. 30327.5 mou ) (TN: mou 733.5 square yards) (d) Seams. According to "authority" ho 2, t:lere aro ton seams. Records made at t'ho time of excavation of to shaft show thickness of the seams to be as follows. Soa.ls 4 and 5 arc 2 foot apart. Seam iTo TIJicknoss SCAM iTo Thicicaess 1 0.2 Chinese feet 6 /1.6 Chinos? foot Seams 6, 7 and 8 aro 2 0.4 7 6.6 b(:.in miod )-; t7-lo 3 0.2 8 16.0 comoan 4 1.2 9 1.0 5 1.2 10 .0.6 (TN: According to Sourcc, eocument Y7o 2 there are soveh seams.) (Soo Chart on following page.) (C) (g) (liality of .the Coal. This is bitunin,)us, coking coal. analysis of coal from pit ho i is as follows: Jator, 0.7 per cent; ash, 20.77 per cent; volatilo matter, 17.20 por cont; hating value, 6889 calories; fixed carbon, J1.33 por cent. Transportation. B light railway to to Ii no-hal. Railroad, then by cahlc-way to connuct with samo. Amount of coal minod. (Unit motric tons) 1926 25,700 1929 28,802.61 1932 75,000 1.27 32,917.10 1930 31,905.05 1933 72,500 1928 60,382 1931 47,764.28 1934 05,000 (h) ConollJson. This mine, with good equipment, has a capacity of 1,000 metric tons por day, .cot bocause of the occurrence of inoous roci,ls and the uncertainty of P c thickness of too seams, minin hero is not orofitable. Approved For Release 1999/08425z)CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Record of the Menshing Mining Cots Test Shafts No 1 No 2- No 3 72.0 19.5 ? 11.0 1.4 25.6 34.3 2.0 3.0 72.5 435.5 10.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 7;7_14'5 40 1.0 8.0 1 8.0 83.5 27.0 0.5 6.0 2.0 35.0 6.0 I 9.0 22.0 1 No .4 5,0 ' 9.0 25.0_ 0.5 16.0 L-="" 1.0 17.0 0.4 9.0 r--;-1 2.0 50.0 r:6.0 26.0 1.0 0.5 - 2.5 49.0 =-4 45.0 _ 15.0 75.0 7.0 -41- RESTRICTED No 40.0 100.0 53.0' 75.0i 3.0 2.0 2.01r,3.0 9.0 _11.0 F--=-3.0 1 ?- 5 (Same locality 34.0 15.5'7H 8.0 (No 1 layer) 18.0 23.01 , 8.0' 31.0- .16.01-- 2.5 2.0 (No 2 layer) 0.71 (N 3 layer) (No 4 layer) 13.0 (11,., 5 laYor) 30;0 (No 6 L_:.ver) as No 5) 0.9 08 1.0 2.0 01..03 5.0 0.6 2.5 gx-770001.0007,000);(404404,41QN=VP CPYRGHT -5 pJIuvtd Fyi Rulvabw aESTRICTED (2) Chun-hs ire Mining C'6' (3) (a) Location and commnnication facilities. Area east of Ching-ts/un. in Chi-yuan-hsion and about 2 li northwest of the government seat of Chi-yuan-hsion. Large wheeled vehicles can be used; thus transportation will be comparatively easy. (b) History. Opened in the spring of 1933, but closed down during the summer monsoon sea- son. Mining WAS by primitive methods; and the capital said to be 80,000 yuan. (c) Area. 9136..64 mdu. (d) Coal seams. The one being worked is anthra- cite, 20 to 25 feet thick. Hsin-an -e!ining Co (a) Location and communication facilities. In the northwest corner of Hsin-an-hsien above Chfu-kou at Shang-ku-teng-ts?un. Thirty li from the government seat and 12 li from 711a-an-ssu area along the Lung-hai Railroad. Since the mine is situated on the northern slope of Chih Mt, a spur of the Lung-hai Railroad is laid for 600 meters to the south- ern side of the mountain, The distance between the terminal of the spur and the mine is covered by horse wagons, but in the monsoon season roads are often closed. (b) History. The mine was opened in Oct 1019 and bean producing in Sep 1920. Coal was extensively mined in 1922 and 1923, but in 1924 with the outbreak of fighting the work gradually fell off. Since 1925 it has boon practically at a standstill. Capital of the company is one million yuan; liabilities, more than 200,000 yuan. (o) Area. 16491.16 mou. (d) Coal seams. 1.1le ene worked averages about 15 feet; it es 40 feet at its thick- est. The coal is the so-called "big-coal." (e) Quality. The coal is non-coking, semi- bituminous, 20 per cent ash, and has a heat- ing value of 5700 ,calorics. Recently two seams of coking coal have been discovered below the "big-coal." Mose are 3 to 5 feet in thickness. (f) Output. When opened (1921), the yearly output was 150 metric tons; in 1923 it RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Ap (4) RESTRICTED aecame 106,000 metric tons; it docliaod Thereafter to 50,000 /sic/ in 1328, 12,000 in 1930, and 5,000 in l91. Since 1932 it , has been abandoned. following is the year- ly output from 1921 to 1931; 1921 150 UT 1922 72,000 1923 106,000' 1924 61,000 1925 5,000 1926 16,000 1927 10,000 1926 21,600 1929 18,000 1930 12,000 1931 5,000 Other small mines in lasin-an-hsien. These are at (1) Hsiao-tslun; mine .area, 87.2 mou; omt- but, snail; and mined by primitive methods. (2) Li-yuan; mine area, 1068.91 mou; mined by .?)riltive methods; output, six metric tons daily. (5) Yu-Ch' ing Mining Co (a) Location and commanication facilities. In the eastern part of 1:ionach'ih near I-ma. There is a spur line of about 2 li from I-ma station. (b) History. aadened 1918 with a capital of 100,000 yuan; since 1322 abanaohed '')ecaase of do state of affairs. (c) Area. 28201 mou. (a) Strike of ..)eds is east and -.rest with a dip of 10 degrees. Three seams 'mere worked; iso seam, 1Jmoter; 2d seam, 2 meters, ad seam, 2 to 5 meters in thickness. (e) ( f ) ality and quantity. aitam nous uitf much coal-dunt; c. CeS it aia aa be'a,a00,000 metric tons. amput. 160 to 200 metric aons daily; 10,000 metric tons r:er year 0hen in oaera- tion; it is closed down at present. 2. I-10 Coal field a. raoaation and Communication Pacilities. Runs south- east of T-yang-hsien south of Inng-hai Railroad a1om, the southern part of Lo-yang-hsien, Yen-saih-hsien, Kung-hsien, 3su-shui-hsion to southeast of dana-yang-'1sien. It is aaoat 130 kilometers in extent, and teaches coal field on the east. It s divided ?43? >TRICTED proved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED into the follawing districts: (1) I-yang .district. Runs from Ling-shan-esu in I-yang-hsien eastward to Wan-chia-tien. (2) Lo-yen district. Located on the border between Lo-:Tang-hsien and Yen-shih-hsien. Runs from CI"ling-lung-ktou in Lo-yang-hsien via Chi-chia- ttun, Lung-men-shan, WU-chia-chai as far as Kao-lung, Ssu-tlun, Chan-fu-tien in Yeneshih- hsien. It is 50 kilometers long, east to west, and is one kilometer wide. (a;) Ken-Jung district. Extends across Kung-hsien, Ssu-shui-hsien and Jung-yang-hsien. To the west, from Pei River to Chruan-shui-teou for about 20 kilometers, then from there via the southern part of Ssu-shui-hsien as far as Chien-seng-tien and 71sui-miao in Jung-yang-hsien. (4) The I-yang district is about 50 li from the Hsin- an station on the Lung-hai Railroad. The moun- tainous country between makes transportation difficult, but between the mines and the Lo-yang station on the railroad, the road is level, and the distance is 70 li.? b. Geology and Distribution of the Seams. The seams are located above Ordovician lklestone. They belong to Permocar. boniferous strata, but their development seems disconnected. There are nine seams in the I-yang district and their thicknesses are as follows: Seam No Thickness Seam No Thickness 1 5 feet 6 4 to 6 feet 2 1 to 3 feet 7 2 feet 3 feet 8 1 foot 4 2 to 6 feet 9 very thin 5 10 to 200 feet /...7(7: Given as 200 feet but probably an error. The author tries to ex- plain as due to a fault, but the fault was probably in the original) Seams number 5 and 6 are being worked. They are only about 4 feet apart. The character of the Kung-Jung district is about the same as the above. *In Io-yen distrf,ot, primitive methods are used; the 17o 1 seam which is similar to the No 5 seam of the I-yang district, :Is 20 to 30 feet thick and is being worked. -414- Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIARRDP78-03109A000200010002-5 iimime0Tfor Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED c. Quality. 7 is is hostly bituminous or Gehl-anthra- cite. An analysis of the coal at I-yang is as follows: Non-hsiong-ku-klou 1 Sha-kuo-tfan [North District 0.44 0.42 San-li ,ho-kou ! 0.41 Par Cent Water 4 ! Volatiles 13.56 18.09 2C.35 Per Cent Fixed Carbon! 61.43 73.32 1 60.53 --i----- Per Cent Ash 24.55 5.70 17.92 ! 1 4- Per Cant Sulpur ! 2.47 1.29 - .,_ i Coking Properties non-coking coking !non-coking I- t- : Hooting value d. Deposits 7150 7700 I-y T? ang Lo-yang Ssu-shui I ! Tong- Total Jung-Tang I 1 fong L:Enickness I 6.0 4.8 0.3 1 4.4 1-1- 1.5 f- 109 ! 25 15 58 j 28 Area (sq km) 1 8 Deposits MT) Anthracite Atuminous (Iillion MIT) . 96 134 4 L ! Total Deposit 96 134 5 1 264 , 7 5 204 269 7 U. Ampunt Ained (-metric ton) from 1931 to 1933. I-yang I Ssu-shui I Teng-feng I Lo-yang ,-- r - - i 1931 50,000 I 63,500 33,000 ! 1932. 35000 93,500 I 59,000 1933 39,050 93,000 58,255 -45- RESTRT6TED 237 1 506 ! Total 128,000 127,000 - I 125,930 , ! Appr ovvd Fur Rulvabw 1999/08/25 . CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 ApustyiktFierr Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Ap RESTRICTED f. Various Hines (1) Hsieh-shon Lng Co (2) (a) Location and communication facilities. At Poi-po, Chu-yuan on the southern slope of Chin-pting-shan, about 3 li Joutheast of T-yang. 1.1e mine is 60 li from the Lo-yang Railroad station, to wilich it is connected by a wagon road. (b) History. Opened in April 1932. Capital of the company is 6,000 yuan. (0) Area and seams. 7,e area is 600.73 mou. Seams dip 250 to 30?; the one boinfr, worked is 20 to 30 feet thick and is bituminous coal. (d) Amount mined. 90 metric tons daily for seven months only, becauso it is closed slimser. Its capacity is 250 metric tons per day. nung-hua "dining Co (a) Location and communication facilities. At Hsing-shu-Wing on the southern slope of Chin-pting-shan, 7 li southeast of I-yang; 70 Ii from Lo-yang ..cailroad Station, and GO li from Lo-ndng Railroad Station. It is only 8 li to the Lo IJ.ver so transporta- tion is convenient. (b) History. Founded 1927; work begun 1933. (0) Area and seams. The area is 1033.74 mou. The seam boin worked is 25 feet thick and the coal is bituminous. (d) Amount mined in one year averages 14,700 metric tons. In summer the mine is usually closod dawn. (3) Ta-tung lining Co (a) Location and communication facilities. Near Lao-yao, floU-kou, and Ma-kou, 1 li west of Shul-t'ou and 50 li soutieast of government seat of Xung-b_sien. The road from tho mine to the government seat is mountainous and inconveniont.' history. Opened in 1931; capital of the company is 50,000 yuan. RESTRICTED Droved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT (0) RESTRICTED Area. T*e area is 1496.40 mou. The seam beinc7 worked is 10 to JO feet thick; the coal is anthracite. (d) Amount mined is 160 metric tons daily, approximately 48,000 metric tuns per year. (4) Fu-chu 1:iining Co (a) Location and communication facilities. 6he li east of Sheng-shui-ts'un in KunF- sien; 45 li southwest of the vovernment seat; 35 li southeast of the flei-shih- kuan Railroad Station. The road is impassible for wagons, so pack horses are used. (b) History. Opened in 1924; closed from 1926 to 1930 because of fighting; reopened in 1932. Area is 1665.27 mou; the seam being worked is 1 to 15 feet thick; the coal is anthra- i.te. (d) Amount mined is 60 metric tons daily and approximately 18,800 metric tons per year. (5) Tui-miao-chen Mining Co (a) Location and communication facilities. :ear Han-slhan, Tslui-miao-chen and Ti-kou in Jung-yang-hsien. The Jung-yang Thilroad Station on the Lung-hai Railroad is 35 li to the north; and the Cheng Station is 70 li to the south. Except for aout 20 li in the neighborhood of the mine, there are ro-ds passable for wagons. (b) History. 0)ened in 1032; mined by primi- tive methods. (0) Area is 4762.35 mou; '.fhe seam heinr, worked is over 10 feet thick; the coal is semi- aht.lracite with much coal-dust. (d) Amount mined is approximately 1,500 metric tons per year. (6) T'ung- sin -Jniing Co r:ti) Location and communication facilities. At 'on-lou-t'sun in Teng-fehg-hsien. Tioun- tains make traffic difficult. (b) History. -47- 0ened Jan 1932, now closed down. USTRTOTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED (c) Area is 3$1.6 mou; seam being worked, over ten feet thick; coal is semi-anthracite. (7) Teung-ohfing Mining Co (a) Location and communication facilities. At Pei-li-pfing in Teng-feng-hsien; mountains makes traffic difficult. (b) History. Opened Aug 1932. (c) Area. 2379.18 mou; seam being worked, over ten feet thick; coal is semi-anthracite. (d) Amount mined. 180 metric tons per day during three winter months only. (8) Ho-kou Co (9) At Ho-kou in Teng-feng-nsion; opened in 133; area - 104.62 mou; 50 !.ietric tons daily mined in winter. San-yuan-tsTun Mining Co A small mine in Teng-feng-hien; opened in 1933; output only few tons per day. 3. Yu-mi Coal Field a. Location and communication facilities. Comprises the Yiole northern portion of Yu-hsien, Mi-hsien and Chia-yu-hsion and is known as Yu-mi Coal fields. It extends from San-feng-shan over in the south to Wang-chai River in the north; a distance of over 100 li. It is divided into the following 12 districts. San-feng-shan district. 15 to 50 li southwest of /The governoant sea!! of Yu-hsien; area 75 sq km Yun-kai-shan district. 40 li west of Yu-hsien; area 45 sq km Kuan-s:Jan-chai district. 50 li WNW of Yu-1.1sien; area 15 -sq km Ti-shui-t,ai district. 6 li west of Hua-shih tlou-chen in north- western Yu-hsien; area 45 sq km 'J'an-hua-tfai district. 20 to 45 li northwest of /-'E'ae government seat of7 Yu-hsien; area 20 sq km Ch,ao-hua-chen distriot. 15 li south of /The government seat Mi-Tisien; area 19.5 sq km Yo-miao district. 7 to 8 li southeast of /T'ne Mi-hsien; area 6.5 sq km government seat of7 Hsiad-li-cilai district. 5 li southeast of /the government seat Mi-hsien; area 4 sq km pprove or Release CIA-RDP78-031 09A00020001 0002-5 CPYRGHT ppiuvu rut rwIctbG 1;11.6 17u-li-tien district. S li north of /he govornment F3eat Mi-hsien; area 5 se km Yu-tstun district. 30 li northeast of /he goVernment seat of7 7.i-hsien; area 3.5 sq km 'Thng-chai River district. 40 li northeast of /he government seat 0I-7 !a-hsien; area 3 sq km Chia 1-orth district. florth border of Chia-hsien; area 5 sq lzrt This Yu-Mi coal field is surrounded on three sides by mountains, but connects on the east with an open plain. In the Tdddle of the field is a cross ridge called Shang-miao-ling; south of this it is called the Yu-hsien coal field, north of it, the iA.-hsien coal field. These in turn are cut into the above 12 districts by faults. The distance from Shen-hon-ch_en, Lou-tzu-chao and San-feng-shan in the San-feng-shan district, via Yu-huien, to the ;Tsu-chtang Railway Station on the Pei-ping Han-10?u A5hing-han Railroaq Line, is 110 to 130 li, a level road, passable for wagons. ?In the future it would be easy to build a railrod here. Also, from Shen-hou-chen to the southern part of Chia-hsien for about 40 to 00 li, it is passable for horse-drawn veM.cles. From Tsu-s:len-miao, Ho-miao and Cliu-yuan- kou mines in the Yun-kai-shan district to Yu-hsien there is a large road suitable for transportation. The Kan-hua-tlai dis- trict is near the mountains, but there is a large road to Yu- hsien. Xuan-shin-chai and Ti-shui-tfAi districts are 1:,ouTtainous, and the roads are rather bad. The coal J!ields are on level terrain, and in eneral tranaportation is easy. The Ch/ao-hua-chen, Yo-miao, 711.-tu-tion districts aro 70 li from the Hein- cheng kailway Station on the Peiptng - Han-kou Lahing-7an ii R.7 Lina. 7ith slight repair, the road would be serviceable. A,170 there is a largo road from Wang-chai River and Yo-tslun to Cheng- choll, a-distance of 60 li, making transportation easy. b. Geology. rike, mnderlying rook is Ordovician lime- stone; the seams belong to the Permocarboniferous strata. o. Distribution of the seams. (1) The San-fong-shan district has 17 seams. those are 7 to 8 feet :Apart at their nearest, 207 feet at their farthest separation. The thickness of the seams is as follows: -49- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPAVRAted For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED Seam Number Thickness Seam umber Thickness 1 1 Chinese foot 10 3 Chinese feet 2 1-2 Chinese feet 11 2 Chinese feet 3 Chinese feet 12 3-4 Chinese That 4 1 C''inese foot 13 3 Chinese feet 4 C?dnese feet 14 3 Chinese feet 6 1.5 Chinese feet 15 15-20 C-hinese feet 0.8 Chinese foot l's 0.6 Chinese foot 8 1.3-2 Chinese feet 17 1.5 Chinese feet O 4 Chinese feet Of the above, only Co 6, 9, 12, 15, 17 are being worked; the others are either too thin, or else of poor quality and are not worthwhile. (TN: Coal in the above seams is given fanciful Chinese names like Dragon Star, -Allow Leaf, etc. which. have been omitted.). (2) -Uln-kai-shan district. The seams being worked are the same as those in the San-feng-shun district. Lear Tsu-shih they are working a seam of over 20 Chinese feet in thickness. Seam 'Jo 17 is 1.5 Chinese feet in thickness. Throe seams, Lo 5, 9, and 12 are being worked near Szu-kou. (3) Kuan-shan-chai District. At present they are working on two seams. 10e upper, bituminous, is 3 to 4 Chinese feet thick; the lower, anthracite, is about 20 Chinese feet thick. (4) Ti-shui-t'ai District. Lore they ore working three seams. Te unper two are 3 to 4 Chines? feet thick; the lower is 15 to 20 Chinese feet. (5) Klan-hua-tlai District. Four seams are Tieing worked. The thickness of those seams, from top to bottom, is 3 to 4 Chinese feet, 25 Chinese feet, 4 Chinese feet, and 1 Chinese foot, res.oectivoly. (6) Chtao-hua-chen District. Three seams aro :eing worked. Seam 7o 5, 4 Chinese feet, do 1 15, 25 Cbtnese feet; and seam Co 17, 1 to 2 Chinese feet. (7) Yo-miao District. Three seams are bein worked. 3 to 4 Chinese feet where shallow, over 10 Chinese Coot where thick. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 A9p1m1Fifor Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 (8) (9) RESTRICTED Hsiao-li-chai District. Tier? seam No is prominent and is from 10 to 30 Chinese feet thick. Above that the seams have been partially remoyed by erosion. 7U-1i-tien District. Sate as the previous district, the seam being 15 to 25 Chinese feet thick. (10) Yo,tslun District. Only oae seam of 20 Chinese feet in thickness is known to exist. (11) Wang-chai River. o precise information. 3esides the above, there are considerable seams in northern Chia-hs ion District. d. Quality of the coal. The following is an analysis of this coal: District (Hsien) 7- i Place Tung- (E) : feng- ; Same shan i Seam No 5 i 6 , . Per Cent Water , 1.04 0.65 Per Cent 2ixed Oarbon ; 65.45 62.03 - Per 6ont Ash i 16.30 19.20 Per L;ent St.lphur! 0.4G 0.88 _...1_ Yu Hsi- fang- sl-.an Per Cent . Volatile Matter 17.21 : 18.07 /7-iasoline7 i 1 Shen- i , : hou- i ?hen i Sha- tlan _ ?? , ?shih- , _____ ? Tsu- miao 9 ; 12 i 15 i 17 _ 1.95 1 1.20 1.2 ! 0.60 , -1- 1 ! ! i i 15.27 14.45 13.58 , 14.05 ! 46.63 i 59.20 74.55 74.10 36.15 ! 35.15 10.35 11.25 1.51 ! 1.11 2.37 1.35 1 Coking Property good slight non- non- ? non- non- coking, coking colcing coking _ - ? - Heating value idalories.7 .':72267005:5401:6437.7701 : 7700 ? (T'le above analysis made at the Poking Geological Laboratory) -51- RESTRICTED Appr uvud Fur Rulvabw 1999/08/25. CIA-RDP78-03109A00 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A00020001000.2,5 CPYRGHT Ap RESTRICTED District (Haien) Yu 1 Place ir Shen- -T-Tung Feng- Same T-Tsu-shih- hou-ohen ' Shan miao Seam No ! Per Cent Water i Per Cent /olatile.11atter idasoline7 2.40 9.85 5 0.75 19.25 Per Cent Fixed Carbon 63.50 59.20 Per Cent Ash 24.25 20.80 0.75 2.40 19.30 ? 50.75 13.76 65.04 19.20 18.80 Per Cent Sulphur -- 0.72 0.68 5.81 Coking Property non..coldng coking 1 Heating Value /t-alorics7 7384 ' 6837 non-coking non-coking 6989 6888 (The above analysis made by the Henan Province Geological Laboratory) District (Hsien) Mi ' Place 1 Hsiao- !Chrao- :Han- Ku- 'Wu- ii Ihua- !tlang- ohia- ii- chai 1 chai oh= Icon chuang tion i , T 1 Seam No I 15 1 ; Per Cent I:Tater 0.81 0.10 I 0.67 - 1.20-1---1:ZU-1 2.29 , _ -1-- - i ! Per Cent i Volatile I!atter 13.34 13.25 15.77 11.25 11.20 6.69 /dasoline7 i_ i , ---------+-.-__ ---1 _ 1 Per Cent ! I 1 : Fixod Carbon 72.63 1 71.15 1 52.54 76.45 ,76.10 62.91 H-------------------- ._ -4- -i - -I- --J, l Por Cent Ash 13.22 i 14.50 i 31.02 11.10 11.50 1 6.13 1- ---1 + 1 Per Cent Sulphur 1.16 I --- 0.39 0-4 0.59 ! ! ! 4- _ 1 Coking Property : non- : non- ; non- non- coking coking coking coking ;c3ki, :o;.zing i, i Heating Value I 1 1/n1ories7 7509 , 7371 ! 5970 76411 7607 i6030 ,- ?. - (Analysis by the Peiping (Analysis by the Honan Gbological Laboratory) Geological Laboratory) -52- proved For Release 1999/08/25 :itekhelaRDP78-03109A000200010002 Ap CPYRGHT RESTRICTED e. Quality and DJposits. The following is a descr-L2tion of the quality of thc coal and the amount of the deposits in the various districts. (For analysis, consult the foregoL7g table for reference.) (1) San-feng-shan District. The lower middle part of the seam is anthracite. One variety is black and lustrous, holds heat and burns well but produces a bad smell. (Called smelly coal.) Another, yellow coal, has much coal dust, yellow on the surface, no lustre, burns well anu is suited for home use. Four others, (Seams Ho 5, 6, 9, 12) give little smoke, burn well, are non coking and are suitable for boiler or home use. The deposits cover 75,000,000 square meters. is-ic:7 i'he total thickness of the seams being worked?is? six meters. At a specific gravity of 1.3 the deposits amount to 585,000,000 metric tons. Since only 800,000 metric tons have been excavated so far, the amount remaining is 584,200,000 metric tens. (2) Yen-kai-s%an District. The "smelly" coal A-cream Ho 17,7 in the neighborhood of Tsu-shih-mia6 gives a good heat and is suitable for pottery work. The "yellow" coal /earn Ho 157 of Szu-kou is of good quality, semi:-bituminouT, holds the heat and burns well and is suited to household use. The "big" coal /Foam Ho q near Chu-yuan Krou is bituminous and brittTe. (3) The deposits cover 45 million square meters with an average thickness of five meters. At a speci- fic ;ravity of 1,3 the deposits amount to 292,- 500,000 metric tons. Juan-shan-chai District. rf,e coal is bituminous and semi-anthracite. Lenth, five kilometers; oepth 600 meters; seams, six meters thick. This works out to a deposit of approximately 58,500,000 metric tons. (4) Ti-shui-tfai District. Semi-anthracite and bituminous coal. Length, 10 kilometers; width, 4,500 meters; average thickness, five meters. I is ives the deposit as 252,500,000 metric tons. ( ) Klan-ua-tlai District. eituminous and semi- ant,racite coal; fairly good quality. Length, 17 kilometers, depth GOO meters, four meters tick. I.:Lis dives an estimated deposit of 106,080,000 metric tons. (6) Chiao-hua-chen District. Semi-anthracite and bituminous. Length, 15 kilometers; width, 1,300 :actors; total depth of seam, five meters; deposit of 126,750,000 metric tons. Since 750,000 metric tons have been taken out already, the remaining amount is 126 million metric tons. ?53? RESTRICTED Approved i-or Release 1999/0W2b : UM-MA t?-03109A000200010002-b CPARged For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED (7) Yo-miao Liistrict. Semi-anthracite and bituminos. Seams averaKe three meters thick; deposit of about 25,350,000 metric tons. (8) Hsiao-ii-chai District. One seam, semi-anthra- cite; 10 to 20 Chinese feet tYick; deposit, ? 15,600,000 metric tons. (9) WU-1i-tien District. 3emi-anthracite; area, five square kilometers; seams, 5 to 15 Chinese feet thick; average nlokness, three meters; deposit of 19,500,000 metric tons. (10) Yo-ts/un District. Seams average three meters thick; calculated to the depth of 500 meters, deposit of 15,650,000 metric tons. (11) Uang-c ai-ho 2Astrict. Seams average three meters thick. Deposit of.11,7000000 metric tons. The following table is a summary of the above: Deposits in the Yu-li Coal Fields District Area (Sq km) I7umber of Seams TUnd of Coal Deposit (MT) San-feng-shan 75 6 5ituminous or 584,200,000 Semi-bituminous Yun-kai-shan 45 5 13it-,minous or 292,500,000 Semi-rbituminous Y:',Aan-shan-chai 15 2 3ituminous or 58,500,000 Semi-bituminous Ti-shui-tlai 45 4 bituminous or 292,500,000 Semi-bituminous Klan-hua-ttai 20 4 Bituminous or 106,000,000 Semi-bituminous Chrao-hua-chen 19.5 5 3ituminous or 126,000,000 Semi-bituminous Yo-miao 6.5 5 Bituminous or. 25,350,000 Semi-bituminous litiaoi-1i-chai 4 1 Semi-bituminous l' ,000 5 1 Semi-bituminous 100,000 Yo-tslun 3.5- 1 Semi-bituminous 13,650,000 Thang-chai-ho 3 3 Bituminous or 11,700,000 Semi-bituminous Total Deposits 1,545,580,000 -514- 1?.E.STRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED f. Various ,lines (1) San-fen Ilining Co, This company owns three mines viz Tung-fong, Chung-feng, Hsi-feng. (a) Tung-feng mine 1. Location and communication facilities. On the north slope of the east peak of San-feng-shan,? 15 li southwost of Government seat of Yu-hien. Me road from the mine to the government seat, and to the Hsu-ch'ang 1?ai1way Station on the Pei-p/ing Han-kou Line (110 li) are passable for large wagons. 2. History. Opened in 1903 under the Ch'ing Dynasty; mined hy primitive methods; work progressed well till fighting began; in 1927 now equipment was installed and the wbrk was resumed. 3. Area and deposits. Three seams are being worked: Seam ro 5, four Chinese feet; Seam Ue 6, three Chinese feet; and Seam No 9, four Chinese feet. The scams dip 10 to 20 degrees. 4. Quality. uituminous, of more or less coking quality. The followin analysis of the seams; Seam Ho 5 (Lumcs) coal 7- . 6 9 "1-iragon 'Milo/ I Star" Loaf" 1"EiF" ------- 5 coal For Cent "[rater. 1.02 . 0.70 0.C,I. _ 0.73 1S.'05 59.00 Per Cunt Volatile Tiattur /77-osplimg _ _ 17.00 19.00 17.41 Per Cent Fixed Carbon 65.20 60.24 62.08 Per Cant Ash 16.30 0.48 7226' 19.20 1,20 20.50 Pcx Cent Sulphur Heating Value /aLlorius7 _ _ 0.'.8 GX,9 ---4 0.66 7005 0.72 -- 65.67 5. Amount idned. iiin is done mostly in yinter an6. spring. In wintor, 220 metric tons pur uay, maximum, aro taken out; average fpr the year, 40,000 mctric tons. ?55? Pli!qTPTC771-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Approv RESTRICTED (b) Yu-sheng Aine of Chung-feng 1. Loeation and communication facilities. On the north slope of the middle peak of San-fong-shan, 6 li from Tune-fong mine. 2. History. Opened in 1929. 3. Area, 6672.78 moil. One seam, Ho 9 seam, being worked, four Chinese foot thick. 4. Amount mined. bone mined in summer and fall; yearly output 20,000 metric tons. (c) Hsi-fong Mine This is on -t1,; west peak, about 20 li from the government seat of Yu-hsion. The road between is serviceable for biE wagons. Area, 6480.98 mou; at present, no loner workod; five workable seams. (d) Ci-ehung Mining Co (e) 1. Location and communication facilities. At the northern foot of the east end ofTlang-huang-shan, 23 li west of tho Lovernment seat of Yu-sien. The road toe government seat and to the 7su- ch1ang Railroad Station on the Pui-p,ing - Han-klou Line is passable for big wagons. 2. History. Opened in 1924, bat mining not bercun till 1926. for a time 300 metric eons taken out per day, but from 1327 to 1933, because of fiOrtinF;, the work practically stopped. ,In Sop 1933 they began to take out a little coal again. 3. Area, 32815.10 mou; two seams, 7o 5 ..)nd 7To 9, each four Chinese feet thick. 4. Amount mined. From 1926 to 1932 t*,e yearly output was as follows: 1926 65,000 metric tons 1e)27 50,000 metro tone 1928 50,000 metric tord 1929 10,800 metric (,)11,i 1530 17,000 metric te,ne 1D.31 6,480 metric ton 1932 closed. Daily oe';: L;0 etric tons. Tsu-shih-miao Nine. In Yu-hsien; -3oam Ho 13, ono Chinese foot or so of "Smelly" coal, semi-anthracito; daily output 10 to 15 metric d For Release 1999/11842ba1CIA-RDP78-03109A0002000100024 Approved FoICIRNESIIEI1I999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 (f) RESTRICTED tons. 2,700 metric one Jer yw.r six month period. Szu-ou, S]la-t?an lane. In Yu-:hsien, seam Yo 15, 15 Chinese feet of "7.ellow" coal, bituminous; daily output 25 metric tons; 4,500 metric tons per year for a six month period. (g) Shen-hou-chen tIthe. In Yu-hsien; seam ITO 12 is now being prepard for workinF. (h) 7.:enc-ta-2:ou :line in !At Feng-chlih. In Yu-hsien; seam no 9, 3 to 4 Chinese feet of "7111aw Leaf" coal, bituminous; daily output 20 metric tons; yearly, 3,600 :7.etric tons for a six month period. (i) Chten-kou line in dt Ta-lin. In Yu-hsien; seam ho 5, three Chinese feet of "12i,:" coal; daily output, 20 metric tons; worked six months only ,lUai-shu-wa Mine in tIt Ta-lin. In Yu-nsion; seam Ho 5, 3 to 4 Chinese feet of "Big" coal; daily output, 10 metric tons; yearly output, 1,500 metric tons. (k) 'Thin-chuang-i-hsun Mine 317 of Yang-ling- chai. In Yu-hsien; seam ho 12, three Chinese feet of bituminous coking coal; daily output, 14 metric tons; yearly, 2400 metric tons. (1) Shih-ttu-shan Mine. In Yu-hsien; opened in 1933; area, 36593.5 mou. iTo mining done yet. (m) Szu-hsiao-chuang Mine. Area, 0070 mou; not yet mined. (n) Chlao-hua-clien - Fan-chia-ohuang located 15 li south of Ii-hsien; flat country; fairly ood transportation. Area, 1376.4 mou. Mine was worked for 30 or more years before application was made to dig in 1928. Permission to dig granted :ow 1932. Seam Tfo 15, 20 Chinese foot of "yellow" coal, semi-anthracite. Output, 200 metric tons daily; 5,400 metric tons yearly. (0) Yu-feng Mining Co. At Li-shu-wo, three li south of Chlao-hua-chen in hi-:Isien, or 16 li southeast of the p:clernment seat of Mi- hsien. Level road, good for transportation purposes. Founded, 1932; capital, 2,300 yuan. Area, 1461.6 mou; seam, 18 Chinese -57- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approv CPYRGHT r ? ? ? .? ? r a - 2.!.222 Ill III (p) (q) (r) RESTRICTED feet thick; semi-anthracite. Daily output, 300 metric tons; yearly, 28,800 metric tons. Ho work done in summer. Trung-hsin. Mine. Located five li southeast of the government seat of Mi-hsien, in the west sector of Usiao-li-chai. Opened, 1932; area, 1475.76 mou; seam No 15, 22 Chinese feet of "Yellow" coal; semi-anthracite; daily output, 200 metric tons; yearly output, 36,000 metric tons. Min-sheng Mine. At Li-shih-ya-kou, two ii northeast of the government seat of Mi-hsien; the Jung-Yang Railroad Station on the Lung- Hai Line is 70 li to the north; the Hein- Cheng Railroad Station on the Peiping - Han- kfou Line is 90 li to the east; mountainous; difficult for transportation. Opened, 1932; capital, 1,000 yuan; area, 1470.38 mou. Seam, 71- Chinese feet thick, semi-bituminous with much coal dust. Daily output, 100 metric tons; yearly output, 15,000 metric) tons. Te-mao Mine. At Ta-yang-wa, 1.5 li out- side the west border of the government seat of Mi-hsien. Transportation good to the government seat. Opened, 1932; capital, 1,000 yuan; area, 544.7 mou; seam, 21 Chinese feet thick; semi-anthracite. Daily output, 240 metric tons; yearly output, 14,400 metric tons. (s) P'ing-mo-chieh-kou Mine. Two li south of pting-hsien in Mi-hsien. At present daily out)ut, 2 to 3 metric tons. (t) fing-hsion-tiang-kou Mine. At Tiang-kou, five li southeast of Pling-hsien in Mi-hsien. Seam, 4 to 10 Chinese feet; roads bad and at present mine is not being worked. (u) Li-yuan and Wan-tzu-ho Mines. In Mi-hsien; opened in 1932; both mine "yellow" coal from seam ho 15; yearly output, 12,600 metric tons each. (v) Hoi-yu-kou Mine. In the nertheo.st part of Mi-hsion; "Yellow' coal from 7o 15; yearly output', 2,700 metric, tor,. (w) Hsiao-li-chai Ain's. In Mi-hsic:-.; area, 996.44 mou; not being worked at presen':,. (x) Sung-chia-kang Mine. In iii-hsien; area, 1462.20.mou; daily output, very small. RESTRICTED Approved Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 AO:Wed-For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002,5 RESTRICTED (y) Yon-ohia-chai Aine. In Mi-hsien; area, 771 mou; not worked. 4. Ilsiu-Po Coal Field a. Location and oommnioation facilities. From north- western Hsiu-wu-hsien westward via northwestern Po-ai-hsien to the northern Pi-yang-hsien. It extends from east to west about 100 Li. In the central part of the field near Chiao-tso.dweng-ohien there is an anioline which outs the field into two districts. The Tao- Chi Railroad Line runs parallel with and through the field so that the most important mines aro only 7 to 12 li from it. The main railway stations in the field are Chiao-tso, Li-ho and Chiang- ktou and light railroads or lead in lines run through the mines. b. Geology and extent. of the deposits. The underlying rook is Ordovician limestone, the seams belong to the Permocarbon- iferous strata. Only one seam is known so far. This doubtless may be correlated as the some seam as that in the southeastern part of Shansi Province. Tho thickness is not constant, running from 5 to 36 Chinese feet, the eaverage being about 15 foot. In about the center of the seam there is a layer of shale or poor glossy coal and occasionally there is a foot of poor quality coal near the bottom. o. Quality. The coal is of a high lustre and hardness; anthracite or semi-antaracito. The following is an analysis: District (Hsion) Hsiu-wu Mine Water [Volatile Matt idasolin2 - - - - - - - Fixed Carbon Pi-yang Ssu-holTung- Chiao- ILi-feng (same) Chlang- kfou 3.10 2.5 2.30 2.90 Ishu-kou tso 1-3.75 3.31 or 6.12 6.12 18.14 12.45 82.41 . 66.73 5.33 5.83 15.55 76.46 1 80.03 80.41 73.40 Coking Property 411 non-coking) r 1 Ash Color of Ash 1 Sulphur 7.72 11.82 7.99 ! 11.29 11.46 8.15 --I-- 1--- I-- light 1 white greyish light yellow ! brown yellow e. light gray brown 1 Heating value 1 (Calories)7184 6814 7282 4 6882 1.555 1.5581_ 1.580 0.34 0.29 0.41 : -- 0.45 1- Specific Gravity 1.537 0,36 0.73 6877 7040 1.584 1.613 (The above .analysis was made by the Geological Laboratory of the i)upartment of Commerce and Industry) -59- RESTRICTED Appr uvud Fur Rwludby 1999/08/25 . CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT District ( Mine 17ater ------ - Volatile : Matter 1 9.36 tZdasolin27 i RESTRICTED Haien). Hsiu.iwu LPowaii iChiao-ISsu- Plan- phiao-!Hua- Sou- !Hou- Itso !ho ,ho 'its? hsing hou ichuantchuane ; 2.90 t 0.99 2.89: 2.87 1 2.45 2.54! 2.75 2.80 1 7.29 15.551 6.25 4.45 : Fixed 1 Carbon 186.81 Coking Property Ash Color of Ash 1 6.031 5.66 1 5.66 1 1 80.27181.16 01.16 '77.06 72.31t78.4,2 81.70 inon- non- inon- tookinglnon- 4- non. mon- non- t 1 1 9.88 12.71110.31 110.31 13.20 9.61 12.10 11.05 . - 1 Sulphur i 0.41 Heating Value i 6048 (Calories) .Spooifio ? Gravity ?? T. (Analysis made at the Peking Geological Laboratory) - 6914 6615 i 0.48 0.35 L. 7296 7679 7363 i 7198 ' !_ (Analysis made at the Honan Geological Laboratory) d. Amount of Deposits If the amount of coal deposits is calculatod for the area between the mountain stream flawing to the east of the Ssu-ho mine to the river west of the Chtang-kou mine and to a depth of 300 meters below sea level, or-dn short, a perpendicular depth of 438 motors from the floor of the Chia-tso basin, it would be as follows: Area (sq m) 28,925,000 Thickness (m) Specific gravity Deposit NT X 4,5 X 1.5 ? 195,243,750 Of the above, some 100 million NT are loft to be min,J. Another estimate: The Li-ho, Ssu-ho district (eastern part) and the L 77ang-fong (western part) are as follows: The former extends 12 kilometers; the avorago thick- ness of the seams is .6 motors; average dip, 140; specific gravity, Approved For For Release 1999/08/25 : CIARRDP78-03109A000200010002-5 AppispringpirrRelease 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED 1.4; to a depth of 1000 meters, tho doposit is 1200 X 413/1 X C X 1.4 416,707,200 metric tons. Tho latter extonds 11 kilometers; average thickness of soams, 6 motors; average dip, 100; specific gravity, 1.4; to a dopth of 1000 motors; the deposit is 1200 X 5757 X 6 X 1.4 m 531,946,800 metric tons. Thus the deposit in this coal fiold amounts to ap- proximately 948,654,000 motric tons. If minod to a depth of 600 meters it would be 609,786,000 metric tons. o. Various Minos (1) Chung-Fu Amalgamatod Co (a) Tho field belonging to this company has a lonE history. It was first minod in a small way by primitive methods; in 1901 a Peiping syndicate, the Fu Co, acquired a field in tho center, 15 li by 5 li and began mining on a largo scale with foreign oquipmont. In 1915 a company callod Chung- Yuan was formod which took over tho rest of tho field viz, 15 by 6 li in tho oast, 12 by 5 li in tho wost, and competod with the Fu Co which WAS half nutivo, half foroign in its mothods. It is said that thu Fu Co, rather than go undor, unitod with Chung- Yuan to form a now company, tho Chung-Fu Co. Thus competition was oliminatod and the dovolopmont of tho coal field assured. The capital of the Chung-Yuan company was three million dollars, and in March 1922 at tho meeting of tho directors it votod Vtn additional million dollars. Tho Fu Co was backed by Enclish investmonts, with its main office at Peiping and with a capital of 1,500,000 pounds. To Chung-Fu Company's capital was 3 million dollars and one Chinese and one Englishman was selected as directors. In 1933 this became known as the Chung-Fu Amalgamated Company. The most important mines in the field are five in number, viz beginning at the east, Ssu-ho, T'ung-shu-kou, Chiao-tso, Di-feng and Chlang-krou. Ohiao-tso and Li-feng were formerly the mines of the Fu Co, the other three were owned by the Chung-Yuan Co. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-08109A000200010002-5 CPAIOR6Ted For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED (p) Amount of coal mined. This is shown in t:le following table: Year Amount 'lined by Chung-Yuan Co Fu Co ? 1913 421,803 HT 1914 251,707 1915 425,942 1916 416,627 UT 449,242 1917 340,385 506,087 1918 431,635 627,927 1919 832,763 449,742 1920 734,895 561,834 1921 245,290 648,716 1922 400,000 505,109 1923 568,404 694,143 1924 943,339 670,835 1925 564,200 255,918 1926 54,000 116,673 1927 93,928 Ended 1928 313,123 1929 286,511 1930 935,198 1931 840,104 1932 630,741 1933 347,305 (to May) 424,695 (June-December by the C1-1- ; Amalgamated Co) 1934 1935 909,600 531,234 (to June) RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 ApproveccFKOWease 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 (2) (3) RESTRICTED nining Co Its mine is located 40 li northeast of (the government seat of) Po-ai-hsien and six li north of the Chfang-ktou Railroad Station at Hou..hsin-chuang. Traffic - good. Regular mining was begun in 1932; the mine area is 1011 mou. The seam being worked is 25 Chinese feet of anthracite coal. Daily output, 500 metric tons. Hsiao-hsu-chuang Hine. In Po-ai-hsien. iini begun by native methods in 1918; area, 6631 mou. Now abandoned because or lack of capital. b. _Limestone Since tle underlying rock of t,e various coal fields is )rdovician limestone, it is evident that it is widely distri- but3d throughout this region. Careful surveys have not been made, so, little is known of the quality or of the extent of the depos- its, But it is safe to say that upon investigation, limestone suitable in quality and quantity for various industrial purposes wil. be found. At present lime is obtained by calcination of the limestone. c. Fire-resistant clay. (Alumina shale and potters' cla7) It is reported that there is such clay near all the coa' fields. Since the seams are found in Permocarboniferous strata, where these meet Permotriassic strata we may expect to fin the so-called A and G strata of clay of an alumina shale var:ety; also there is clay within the seams of coal. Further investigation is necessary before the extent, amount and quality of ihese deposits can be known but I will mention what tae sources alr(ady at hand say on the subject. (1) Hsin-mien Coal Field Potter's clay is found near Kuan-yin-ttang, and porcelain and electrical appliances are manufactured by the mining company. The soft clay is probably used from above the C stratum. (2) I-10 Coal Field Probably G clay exists here too. (3) ,Ya-mi Coal Field Hare not only A and G, but also B, C, E and F strata clay is found, both of soft and :143.rd quality. The pottery at Shen-hou-chen (in .Yu-hsien) is famous. Also, clay is reported at San-feng-shan. -63- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Approved For Relectbe 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED (4) Hsiu-po Coal Field It is certain that G stratum clay exists here; it is reported to be two meters thick. Near Li-ho and Pei-shan it is dug out and used as material far pottery and fire-resistant brick. (5) Conclusion It seems practically certain that fire-resistant clay (alumina shale and potter's clay) exists in all the above coal fields; but whether it is of good quality for making fire-resistant brick or for aluminum must await further study. The ex- tent of the deposits may be inferred from that of the coal fields. d. Iron Sulphide Pyrite is often found in Permocarboniferous strata, but whether the amount in this region is small or non-existent cannot be said with certainty. In Hsin-an-hsien and Po-al-hsien there is a considerable amount found in the argillaceous shale at the bottom of the coal seams, as may be seen from the following discussion. (1) Hein-an-hsien, Iron Sulphide (a) This is found 70 li northeast of the Govern- ment seat of Tisin-an-hsien at Rluang-lan-chen, formerly Museng-ktou, and nearby villages such as: Tung-wo-ts'un, Hsi-wo-ts'un, An-lin, San-kuan-miao, Chu-yuan and Tan-ohlih. The 90 li distance from Kluangek'ou to Lo-yang 2.ailroad Station is a broad road passable for wagons; but from Kruang-kvou to the mines is from 3 to 4 li at nearest, 20 li at most; and the roads are bad. (b) Geology. The ore deposit is found in the argillaceous shale at the bottom of the Per- mocarboniferous strata. Pyrite in the shale is in the form of tubers, lumps, or crystals, at times accumulated into sack-like form, and at other times scattered throueh the shale. This stratum of shale which holds the pyrite is some eight meters thok, but ,where the pyrite is found it ic throe Chinese feet thick, sometimes only a f6w uhos thick. The Dart containing the pyr:te shale is about 25 per cent of the (c) Quality. Sulphur content i the crystalized form, but less le Jeep vari- ety. In the former the pyri.. h at is about 70 per cent. Free 15C ee:e c^c pounds of ore 30 Chinese pounds of sdpliur may be obtained. The natives, using a primitive Approved For Release 199WHYPPDCIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 ciPYRGHT ppmvpn For Rp!Rasp 1c1A9MR/95 ? CIA_Rnp7R-nnin9Annn9nnninon9-5 RESTRICTED -.-.1.othod, are able to get only 13 Chinese pounds from 150 Chinese pounds of ore. Ln analysis of the ore is as follows: Best grade ore (crystallized), sulphur 49.6255; iron 46.67% Second grade ore (lumps), Sulphur 44.0415; iron 40.92% (d) It is difficult to estimate the wmount of the ore .deposit; but if it is distributed in an area 1,000 meters wide, 3,000 -..eters long, at an average thickness of 0.45 meters, the deposit would be 133,000 cubic meters.. Tifith specific gravity of 3.2, and assuming the ore to be 25 per cent of the shale, the weight of the ore would be 1,080,000 metric tons. Deducting the amount already extracted, would leave about 10,000 metric tons. The :-reatest remaining amount is probably at Tung-wo-ts'un Production. ?Linin;., by native methods is not one durinE the height of the farming season; seven months is the most possible time for mining. At present most of the mining is being done at the villages of East Chu-yuan, Tan-ch'ih-p'o, and Teo-chin. Tung-wo-ts'un is next in importance. At present there are about 160 furnaces in the region, handling the raw ore as follows: daily, 2,500 Chinese pound (kin) (kin is about 1 0 lbs); monthly, 75,000; yearly, 325,000 kin, or about 320 metric tons or more. The mining bureau of Hsin-an buys up the rough product and refines it. This it sells throughout the country. host of it is consumed in 7onan Province, but a large amount is sent to Shantung, and re- cently even to Shanghai. ane output is so small that it cannot keep pace with the demand. (2) Iron Sulphide of Po-ai-hsien. This is found in three districts: (a) Villages near Hsiao-ling, 30 li northwest of the government seat (b) Villages near Ssu-hou, 20 li northeast of the government seat (c) Li-fang and neighborhood The road from the mines to the government seat is mountainous and bad. From Po-ai, however, there is a railroad. Geology. At the base of Permocarboniferous strata there is grey shale and clay containing RBSTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYAWved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED Write. The stratum containing pyrite is at the bottom of the lowest seam which is about six meters dawn, its thickness is two meters. Pyrite is scattered unevenly through this stratum in the form of tubers or lumps. Its appearance is just like that at Hsin-an-hsien. The ore bed is from several centimeters to one meter thick. The high- est grade ore has a sulphur content of 33.688; iron, 34.73%; the next. grade has a sulphur content of 32.04%; iron, 25.92%. Tho area of deposits is about five square kilometers, the ore deposit being 1,200,000 metric tons. There are 80 furnaces in the district with a daily output of 1,200 Chinese pounds of sulphur; monthly, 40,000 Chinese pounds; yearly, 300,000 Chinese pounds or approximately 230 metric tons. The prod- uct is bought up by a mining bureau similar to that in Hsian-an and is refined and sold in the country. e. Fluorspar Said to be found in Hsin-an-hsian, but no detailed in- formation is available. f. Gypsum This is known to exist in this region at Kung-hsien, Shanfthsien and Fling-lu-hsien in Shansi. (1) Kung!-Iisien. GyPsum is said to be found here but there are no details. (2) (3) Shan-hsien. Gypsum is said to exist at Tai-an- t'sun but details are not clear. The some strata are found here in the northern part as in .P'ing- lu-hsien in.Shansi, so in all probability the gypsum here is the same as that in Pling-lu-hsion. Ping-1u-hsian. From San-men-ling east of the government seat, following the northern bank of east Yellow River for about 30 li, there are four exposed areas:, at San-men-ling, 5 li east of the government ?seat071 of Hsu-yu-fon, 65 li oast of the government seat; NE of Plan-nan-keu, 70 li east of the government seat; and east of Flo-ti- ho-tslunv80 li east of the government seat. Of the four places, the last named has the best gypsum. Transportation hero is by pack horses; and once the Yellow River is reached, boat trans- pertation is utilized. The gypsum of this region has, since 1884, aroused the attention of the natives, who have been ex- ' cavating it to some extent. -66- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 r'CIA-RDP78-031179A0170200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT App RESTRICTED Geology. Tertiary (7) laterite contains the gypsum. The thickness of the strata ranges from 4 to 5 Chinese-inehes to over a Chinese foot. The extent of the deposit is ten kilo- meters in length and. 1 to 5 kilometers in width. The output for 1932, 1933 and 1934 was 2900, 2000, and 2500 metric tons respectively. g. Other minerals There are no other important nonmetallio resources except those already named. There is some marble, inkstone, and stone for building material. There is also some dolomite, but as the mnount of these materials' is Small, they will not be discussed. 2. lietallio Resources a. .Iron Ore. This is always in the form of Shansi iron ore which is found at the base of Permocarboniferous strata. Good Tnferior (1) Hsiu-Po iron ore. This is found between the Ordovician limestone and the coal seams in the form of tubers, of uneven thickness, from 0.5 to 2.5 meters. The extent of the deposit is 15 km from Yen-ho Feng-huang-ling on the west to all of Li-ohuang on the east. With the ex- ception of Feng-huang-ling and Li-chuang, the amount of ore is very small; and since it is not coneentrated in uny specific area, it does not pay to mine it. For this reason, too, it is hard to make any estimate of the amount of the deposits, but if the Feng-huang-ling and Li- ohuang area is included, it Would amount to ap- proximately 50,000 metric tons. In 1926 Hsung- yu Co began to mine this ore and set up a furnace at 'isin-hsiang, but abandoned the work after a few months. An analysis of the ore is as follows; Tron Sulphur Phosphorus Silica Eanganese (per cent) 48.66 0.11 0.04 13.59 0.14 37.77 0.45 0.40 19.36 -- (2) Hsin-an-hsien Iron Ore. This is found at To-to_ yuan and Chang-yao-yuan 40 li northwest of the government seat, 20 li from the Tfieh-men Rail- road Station on the Lung-Hai Line, but the road is mountainous and bad. The ore is of the Shansi variety like that at Feng-huang-ling. The ore is kidney ore, (hematite), 55 per cent iron, high in manganese content, law in phosphorus and sul- phur. Amount of deposit is not clear, but the ex'6ent of deposit is about 15 square li. 7- RESTRICTED roved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002.5 CPYRGHT (3) RESTRICTED Shih-liu-yuan and Feng-men-ktou iron ore of Kung- hsien. This is found at Shih-liu-yuan and Fong- men-ktou; the former is 20 li southeast of the government seat, the latter is 10 li east of the former. Communication is difficult. The ore is of. the Shansi variety, hematite. ? b. Copper Ore (1) Mang-shan and Chen-ling Copper Ore of Chi-yuan- hsien. This is found in a district 40 to 80 ii northwest of the government seat in such places as Sun-ohen-jen-fen, Ting-yu.-kou, Ma.tiou-shan, Hsiao-kou, Huang-ttu-yad, Chih-ma?yao, In-t'ung- yao, Chling-Ttung-kou, Chieh-ptan-kou, Chve-fu- kou, Shui-ke-chien, Tou-fu-kou, Huang-t'ung-kou, Ching-11s1-kung, An-pting-chih-fang and An-ling. Rooks in this region are gneiss, schis.t, crystal- ized limestone and quartzite. There are mala- thite, azurite, cuprite, chaloopyrite together with iron pyrite and gelena in the ore. Copper is tmbodded in the veins of quartz which pierce these The veins are 1 to 3 Chinese feet wide; the copper content is 28 per cent at best. 'ihere is a slight amount of gold, 5 momme (momme is. 3.75 grams) per metric ton. The amount of the ore is not clear, and since the deposits are small and scattered, they have not yet been worked. c. Lead and Silver (1) Hsi-ch'ion-ling in Hsin-an-hsion. Used to be mined but details are not available. (2) Shuang-feng-shan in Chif-yuan-hsion. r0 details available. (3) Cheng-chia-ling in Kung-hsien and at Ttien-ohung- wan in Mi-hsien. These two places are very near to each other. It is said that they were once mined, and considerable silver taken out, but details are not available. (4) San-feng-ssu silver mine in Pting--lu-hsion. At a place east of Fling-lu-hsion,.north of San- feng-ssu Temple, and south of Chui-tzu-shan. It is 50 li from the government seat and the roads are bad.. The geological formation is paloozoic gneiss. In this,voins of from several Chinese inches to a Chinese foot in width are found, but details are not available. -68- Approved For Release 1999/08/25 ataikiRDP78-03109A000200010002-5 ApP3Vii11* Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED TABLE SHOWING THE UNIMIGROCND RESOURCES IN THE YELLOW RIVER BASIN NOTE: A. In the original document, information is listed in tabular form with the followinE headings 1, District names (Hien) 2, Place name or mine within the district 3. Location 4. Mine bed 5. Quality 6. Quantity (decosit) 7. History 8. Remarks 9. Source of information (Chinese publication) B. The above headinEs are omitted from the translation. Columns 1 and 2 were combined into one column. Many names are omitted in column 2 b cause district names are sufficient for loc..tion of resources. Column 9 is omitted because it is all in Chinese, 3nd the information from these sources is included in the chart. Columns 5, 6, 7 and 8 have very little inform- ation. Where there is information, it is included in columns 3 or 4 dapendinE on its pertinency. ?69- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT GOLD Shantung Province DISTRICT (Hsien) Li-oheng Meng-yin Ttai-an Hsin-ttai Wen- shang PLACE NAME OR MINE ! Honan Province Ghtung Chin-haiao-ho Lao -niu-yu Chin-rehing Mao-sheng-ttang Ta-flu-chuang Yen-ling-kuan Lung (7)-yen Ttan-shan Kao-tu, Te-tting Chuang-yu Shensi Province Hua Pei- shui KEnsu,Province Yung-teng - Yu-chung Ching-yuan Kao- inn Chin-ttui Chleng-chieh Huang-shih-p'ing Yu-feng-ssu, Wu-fu-ssw Chin-sha-pting RESTRICTED LOCATION Chin-hsiao-ho area 20 li NE of the govt seat 40 it NE of tho govt seat 30 ii S of the govt seat 20 li SE of govt seat 60 li NW of govt seat 30 U N of the govt scat 50 km N of Tzu- yang 160 li NW of the govt seat 6-7 li $E of the govt seat 120-140 ii SE of the govt seat Ta River Basin South bank, Yellow River 40 li E of the govt seat _ -70- RESTRICTED DEPOSIT Many veins AlluVial Alluvial 50 A50 km 8 m thick Alluvial 20 li long 300 m Other veins Alluvial 60 sq li Average width of seem, 1 m Deposit 5,486,745.6 Chinese ounces (tael Remarks, Important Alluvial Alluvial - 40 to 50 li Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT GOLD Kansu irovinc9 DISTRICT I Tr, -vri RESTRICTED PL!t,E N.A1',LE iR1.1INE TO-p.0.3._PrpyiDc,, T-t1;11i Liu-huang-kou Iang-kou 0-po,. Po-ling-yao Shan-s.'fit,ang Ta-tun-hJ Basin Le-tu Hsi-ning Shun-shan-tiang :ung-shui Basin LEAD 'and SILVER Shantung Province Tzu-oh,uan Niu-chiac?shih eh'-ng Pc-shun Chu-chia-chuang NJ'-shan in Ku-shan district Hopeh Province Tzlu LOCATION DEPOSIT 100 li N-of the govt seat !hell kricvm !Good prospect IShJuld be .Inwe- Aiztted Oldest hopeful "Thread gold" Alluvial "Thread gold" Annual output, 10,000 English ounces Important 16 km SSE of Lend in a quartz P'uchi (1-ttion vein in limestone _long the Chiao-Small amount chi hR Ch .i-chi-ling 170 Ii NW of the govt seat Ta-kung-Mou - - - - ? -7'- RESTR? 771) Lead in limestone Poor and scarce Experimented but abandoned later Mine opened in late 'Ching Dynasty Lead Ii Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRAKFroved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED DISTRICT PLLCE NAME OR MINE LOCATION DEPOSIT (Haien) Honan Provin9e Lu-shih Pei-sha-tung Ch'ung Silver Chiao-kou Lead and Silver Li-teu-pling Shang-chuang-p'ing Lead Hsin-an Lead Lo-yang Shua.g-feng-shan II Hui TIou-to-kou Lead in limestone .pockets Chang-fenvtlang Lead in limestone pockets Chi Pel-hao-shan Lead in limestone pockets (galena) Yang-pling-chen Lead in argyllite Cheng-chia-ling and calcite. Silver 8 ounces per metric ton Mi Ttien-chung-wan Galena and Silver Silver 8 ounces per metric ton Shansi Province Li-shih Ma-t'ou-shan Plu Hsia-ts'un Wen-hsi Hsi-shan-kou Pling-lu San-feng-ssu Chieh Tlao-hua-tung NinOsia Province A-la-shan ? 60 li NW of In sandstone, limestone the govt seat and quartz schist 45 li NE of Sandstono, the govt seat limestone 45 li from v-tiLrtz schist the govt seat 80 li E of In paleozoic niss ' the govt seat 8 li SE of 1 In limestone the govt seat' -72- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RE3TRICTED Kansu Province DISThICT PLACE NIJAE Oh MINi, P'ing-liang Yung-teng Niu-ma-tIou-hsia Yung-teng Chla-mao-t'sang Ning-ting Li-shu-ssu Lin-hwia Chingynan Hung-kow and Lirshu COPPEA Shantung Province Li-oh'eng T'ao-kle T'ai-an Honan Provincoe Chi-yuan Marif-shan, Tai- ling I-yang Erh-lang-chen Shansi Province Wen-hsi-yuan Chlu-hsia-wei Ninghsia Province Chung -wei LOCTION DEPOSIT Silver 32 km SE of Chi-nan. i SE of the govt seat of T'ai-an Lead and Silver 50 ounces of silver per metric ton Lead Silver IF Lead In gneiss. Chalcopyrite Nickel 2x Small amount About 3,000 metric.. tons It is being worked now Should )ge developed 40 to 80 li High grade copper NW of the In gneiss and lime- govt seat stone Formed from malachite and cuprite Many veins 1 to 3 Chinese feet in width Should be investigated -73- RESTRICTED Country-rock cnsists of conglomerate and quartzite in form of pockets, diameter 2 Chinese feet Chalcourite 21, copper Approved For Release 19u9/0ts/25 : CIA-RD1-'78-u31u9A0u02uu01(5002-5 CPYRapWroved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED COPPER Kansu Province DISTRICT PLACE YAME On AINE, LOCATIM (Hsien) Ching-yuan Hung- shui Yung-teng Shih-men-kou Tlao-sha Man-pling-kou T'ing-chian&-kou Tsinghai Province Hsi-ning Le-tu ON Shantung Provinoe I-tu Chin-ling-chen approximately 6 km N of Chin- ling-chin rail- road station on the Chia.chou Ohi..nan RR .DEPOSIT Mine open in 1911 Width 70 CO? Length 30 History: Mine started in 1905 by the Germans. After the World "ar Japanese took it over and worked it from 1920 to 1922 producing about 420,000 metric tons, Now discontinued Limestone and Diorite Hematite and Magnetite iron, 47 to 607Q, 10 million metric tons deposit. Also pros- pects in neighborhood Li-chleng Yen-chli-shan and E of Chi-nan, to Exposed in limestone others Chin-ling-chen and diorite Should be investi- gated Lai-wu Lu-tung...chih ? Kluang-shan 20 miles NN il of Ithe govt seat 774.? RESTRICTED Exposed in limestone and diorite Should be investi- gated ? Exposed in limestone and diorite Should be investi- gate; magnetitt: - Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25,: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED IRON Shantunk Province (Contld) DISTRICT PLACS YAMEOR MINE (Rgien) Ttai-an Hsin-tia4 Chteng-tzu Pc Yin-shan Tung-an -chia-ling yr Hs:In--i;:ai coal fields Ning-yang Lao-kou-shan flown Province Hsiu-wu and Feng-huang-ling Pa-ai to Li-chuang Hsin-an Kung An-yang Lin Ho-t'ao-yuan and Chiang -yuan ShilrPliu-yuan and Feng-hsiang-k'ou Hao-ching-kou and others 7'1610-hue-chi Shansi Provipce Chao-ch'eng Hu-kuan Shen-chia-kou Chlang-chih LOCATION S of San-ttai- shan, near southern sta- tion oh the Chin-ptu RR 20 li N of RR 20 li NW of the govt seat 20 li SE 10 li E of govt seat 40 ii E of the govt seat ? . 70 li S of- : the govt seat DEPOSIT SeMatite; 300to x!.m Deposit one million metric tons 200 m x 30 m Depcsit 6,200,000 metrio tons Nc outcrop. Below permo- carboniferous stratum Rod G*04; iron 60% "Shansi" iron; 15 km seem 0.5 to 2.5 m 150,000 metric tons "Shansi" iron 55% Some manganese "Shansi" iron Hematite "Shansi" iron in sandstone Limestone. Iron 40% "Shansi" iron Iron 56 to 60h -75 - RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A00020001006-2-5 CPYRGHT IRON Sb p.province (Cen)1.4) DISMICT (Haien) Ling -ehtuan Kao?p/.ing Pi-shui Chin-ohteng Yang-oh'eng Wen-hsi Chieh PLACE NAME OR MINE Northwestern Ling- ohuan-hsien EAli-tlung (7) TTL.o.rhua?tung Yu-hbiang -Wang-kuan-rt Hai Hsiao-i Shen*chia-kou Chung-yang Shang-ch'iao-chen Lin Chao-hsien-chen Shensi Province Fu-ku Han-chleng Chih-hu..ch'uan Chu-yuan-tstun Lush?yang Pa-p'ai Kan -ohluan Ch'uanTfu-ts'un- chen Peng Tlieh-lu-chluan and others RESTUCTED LOCATION Coal field Coal field 25 li NW of the govt seat 8 li SE of govt seat 15 li SE of the govt seat ? NE of the govt seat Near Tui-chiu- Yu E of the govt seat 100 li SE of the govt seat 10 li NE of the govt seat 60 to 70 li N of the govt seat Bad road for 50 li 170 li W of the govt seat 150 to 160 li S of Feng-hsie DEPOSIT "Shanbi" iron Iron 50% "Shansi" iron 40 to 51% "Shansi" iron 5CA Iron over 50% Iron 53% In sandStone,limestone argyllite In sandstone, limestone, argyllite "Shansi" iron 50% "Shansi" iron 50% In limestone In sandstone, limestone "Shansio'iren "Shansi" 'iron, deposit 2,909,000 metric tons Hematite' It was once worked me opened 1932 Work begun 1933 -76- RESTRICTED - Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CAPYRG T pri Fnr Rplpacp lcicici/fIROR ? CIA-R111D7R-M1ngAnnn9nnn1nnn95 RESTRICTED IRON - Shensi Province (Cont4) DISTRICT ? (Helen) PLhCi.r NAZ OR MINE LOCATION DEPOSIT Ta-shih-yeh Kao-ch'iao fl-ho-lao Lo?nan rau-tstun-chen M21IE:s14,allg Ku-yang .r..F-ming i 10 ro-p?u Ninghsia Province. Ning-hsia Kansu Province Ku-lang Ta-ch'ing-pao Yung-teng Shang-lan-shih Kao- lan Tlieh*shih-shan Hue-yen-shan Ohsyao-shan Chin-ke..shan Pal-shih-kung Chling-yang Heng-ling Hei-ning 60 to 70 li SE of the govt seat Produced 400 kin (kin - 3.75 gram) per day Annual output 300,000 to 400,000 kin 20 li of In gneiss the govt seat Deposit 700,000 metric tons N of 3tiv0.1i-; eh'i Wagnetic,_iron exists in vein grahite NE section Strike - N & S Veins - 5 Chinese feet wide 150 x 4, Chinese feet Vein .7- 214 x 30 to 50 Chinese feet ein- 100 to 400 x 20 to 40 Chinese feet ein - 100 x 20 set tarted 1934 but as discontinued years later Northern ein - 1000 x 100 section hiuese feet eposit 100 etric tons -77 - RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Apctlias:90ar Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED Kausu Province cContlgl DISTRICT PLACE NAME (JR MINE Hung- shui Chu-tsui-chung-pa Tsin-hai., Province Le-tu Haia-kfou Ts'ai-tstao-tlai Le-tu-Pa-yan Ching-sha MANGANESE Shantung Province Hsinttai, Pe i-tso Krnsu Province Ying-teng R1pht side of ,?11angra.4h.,: Kao-lan. ;P-4-shih-kuan AbUMINA SH-LE She:at:pi?Province Tzu-ch'uan and Po-shaL , LOCATIuN .* . PE?..9.41T Vein .7. 200 to 150 Chinese feet long Width', to 15 Chinese feet Contains a little copper On the border of the two 25km of the govt seat and 36 km E of South Station oL Tientsin- Pukow RR Northeastern seotibn- Tzu- eh' uan- & PishanHC'oal- fielde ' ' -78- REST:1.1MM 100 to 600 x 400 Chinese feet contains limestone 3 Chinese feet wide Contains much silica, poor quality 6 km long Manganese. in round lumps 25% Aanganese sand Deposits - 19,000,000 metric tons 7 x 20 Chinese feet 10 x 20 Chinese feet History: Mined by na- tives and Japanese. Shipped to Japan Recently developed by the North China Aluminum Mining Co. Located above and below the coal seam, Known as G and A seams respectively. Outcrop oGn_unknown, outcrop of liAlf-62 km long _ Eat -Deposit 1,000,000, 000 tons Cal Deposit 200,000,000 Tons .711;.- ? Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CIAPPIWpd For Release 1999/08/25 CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED - bantad(5.trovinCe (Cont' d) - DISTRICT PLACE NAME OR MINE LWATION (Hqien) Hsin-t'ai and Meng-yin Ning-yang HaiaTtlai & Meng- yin Coal fields Tzu-yao Yu -ts'un Honan _province Chang-to Shan Yu and Mi Hsiu-wu and Po-ai Ta-hO-kou Kuan-yin-t'ang Kcnsu Province Kao-lan Ying-ten Hao-yu-chen Yao-chieh Ta-wen-k'ou Coal fields near Tzu-yao TaTwen-k'ou co 1 field near Yu-talon( .Ta-ho-kou coal field Hsin-Aien coal field Yu-Mi Coal field Within Hsiu- Po, the Tsao- tso DEPOSIT Cal High Grade Deposit 2,500,000 one Actual Deposit 42,000,000 Tons Act High Grade " 2,000,000 Tons Deposits accessitole for open pit mining 1,250,000 Tans Average grade of A seam 40$ A1203 High Grade Deposits 53% to 80% il203 G seam 2-5 in thick scant alumina A seam, 2.5-3 in thick G seam -Appears to be A and G. seam G seam, 2 m thick 40 11 S of Potter's clay the govt seat kaolin 60 li S of the govt seat Potter's clay kaolin -79 - RESTRIGTED Appr uvtd Fur Relectse 1999108125. CIA-RDP78-03 I 09A000200010002- Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED COL ShantungProvinoe DISTRICT rum NAME OR MINE 1(Hien) Txu-chuan Tzu-?chuan coal field Chang*chtiu Chang-chliu coal field Lai -wu Lai-wu coal field Yen -chuang coal. field sin-tai Hsin-tai coal field Men-yJm Tai-an Chluan-kou coal field hen-nan coal field Shen-yu coal field LOCATION E of Tzu- chluan Railroad Station Between Tsingtao and Chnig-tien 295 km Between Chang- tien and Tzu- chuan 18 km Coal field S of Ta?lin-chlih and Lung shan Sta on Shantung RR Greater portion is in Chang-chliu.- hsien and partial- ly in Tzu-chluan- hsien Extends 1.33 li 14 from Sha-tfan (7 li S of govt seat) Centered around Yen-chuang 30 li SE of govt scat Area between 4Lin- nan (25 li S of govt set) and Nan-yao-tiou (36 li WSW of govt seat) 30 miles E of Ta-wen-k'ou Sta 23 li WNW of govt seat 9 miles N of Hsin-tlai coal field Near Wen-nan W of govt seat Net,. Shen-yu in hsien , , ? =POSIT ?Permocarboniferous 3,4,5,9,10 seams are best. Semi-anthracite and anthracite. Coking type Seating value 7000- 8000 calories 1209,098,000 metric tons -80 - RESTRICTED Approved For RPlease 1999/08/25 ? CIA-RDP78-0310QA000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED COAL DISThICT PLACE NIAM OR MINE LOCATION (Hsien) 'Ylitstun coal field 30 km ESE of Ta-wen-kou sta on-Cbin? . .1311z RR Ning-yang Tzu-yao'acial field E of govt sent near Tgu-yao-teun Hopei rrovince ? Tztu Te-hsien coal W of the govt field seat ? There ieva coal I hauling RR 42 li from Ma-ttou-cheri eta on Ching-hanl hR Honan Province An-yang n?rang coal? In An-Tng-hsienI field and partly in 1 Teu-hsien there 1 is a sTur line from FenE-le-cha eta on ChinE-han Rh 40 km directl Niti of Chang-te-fu DEPOSIT Shui-chih-chen Tlang+yin Hao-pi-chen Hsian-an + Hsin-mien coal Chi-yean ? field shan - Mien- chlih 45 li W of.Chang7 te, Area is '4 km E.to W, and 8 km N to S 45 ii NW of , T.lang-yin Sta' on.Ping,Han RR N .of Shan and Hsin-an Sta on Lung-Hai RR from the western bor- der of Tsi-yuan- hslen (in the E thru Rsin-an- hsien to the area between Hsin-da? hsien.and Shan+ hsien lathe W) -81- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT COAL DISTRICT (Haien) Iyang?Lo- Iyang coal 4. yang-Yen- shi-Kung?sstr- shuF-Tung- yang RESTRICTED PLACE NA-ME OR MINE:: Yu-mi Hein-wu Po-ai Yu-mi coal field Hsin4O Coal field Shansi Province Tse-chou Tse-chou coal field Yang-chleng Kao-ping- Keo-pling coal Chin-chleng field Chlin-shui Po-shan Yao-t'ou coal' field Chung-tifen coal field: Tl*chia-chliao coal fields . II Po-shan coal field . LOCATION DEPOSIT S' of Lung-hai Rh from the SE of I-yang-hsien thru the south- ern parts of Lo- yang, Yen-shih, Kung and Ssu- shui to the SE of Tung-yang- hsien Northern sector of Yu-hsien, Mi hsien, and Chia yu.-hsien From northwest- ern Hsin-wu- hsien through the northern part of the western Po-ai- hsien to the northern part o Chling-yang- . hsien Near Tse-chou, and northeaaierr Yang-ch'eng- hsien Centering . pling area 35 km E to W 40 km N to S 10 km W of gov seat 17 km SW of go seat '-18 km Eof govt seat Area 10 km E to W 5 km N to S Area of 15 sq jPermocorb 11-16 seams km in Poshan- est, oily coal 1,5 to hsien Tzu-chuan 3 Chinese feet thick haien -82 - RE$TAICTED ARTAVor Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A0002000100112.5 COAL DISTRICT PLACE NAME OR MtW (Haien). (contro Chang.- Chang-chtiu -Chliu Goal field Lai-wu Lai7wu coal field 6 Yens.ohneng coat field I. Hein-tlai Hsin-t'ai coal field Ch!uan-kou coal field . ? Wen-nan coal field LOCZION South of RR near Lung-shan Sta partly in Tu-chtuan Extendo 1.33 li W from Shu-tan t? li 8 of govt stit) 25 li S of the main town to Wah*yao-t'ou 36 li southeast 30 miles from Ta- en-kou RR Sta 23 li WNW of the main town 9 miles N of HsinItlai field Near Wen-nan ar . ae and small Coal ,S4c ll Chinese feet thick egli*antbracite and anthracite non-coking Seating value - 6000- $000 calories _ 3,69,654,400Aadtric tons 13 seams bituminous semi-anthracite Some coking 494,634,000metrid. tons SemiTanthracite 50,000,000 metris ton One seam, 1.6 to 7.2 Olhiness feet Three seams in E part . Two seams in W part 1.6 to 6.4 Chinese feet thick Coking 30,000,000 metric feet ? ? Spven seams, 0.5 to 5 Chinese feet Coking 60,000,000 metric tons- - Three seems 1.6 to 5 Chinese feet Anthracite "RW,deposit Seam 9 Chinese ie4t Coking 2000,000 metric tons Under6round 500 meters -83- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 . -RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 cpAcksgr_wed For Release 1999/08/25.: CIA-RDP78-03109A0002000100112=5 COAL ? DISTRICT tHaien) T'al-dti ? PLACE NAS OR MINE Shen-yu Goal field -:itr-talun coal field Ning-yang TzU.,yas coal field. .Hopeh Province Teu.-hsien coal field HoneeProiinde ? An-y&Pg. Ti-ho-kou rtrzarit.tal'igi) I.ACATIUN ?Near Shen-ye 30 km SE of Ta-wen-ktou RR Sta E part of the govt seat neer Tzu-yao, (7) W part (4 the.. govt seat 42 lit from Ma-tIou RR' sta coal fiel4 From An-yang through Tz'u- hsien, NW of Chang-te 40 li A branch rail- road .4-yang. Shui-chih-chen. 45 li W of Chang-te area 4 x 8 km DEpoSii. Output '6,1500 metric tons Per 700. (5 seams) 0.4 tO 4.3. m Good poking property 6600 to 7800 calories Deposit remaining- 31,500,000 metric tons 8 seams 0t7 to 1.67 m. Oodi coking: ' High au101ur-content- 6,500 to 7,500 calories 48)610,000 metrie tens 9 seams 5.5 m bituminous Coking 6500-8000 calories 45,8p00000 metric tons 10 seams, 5 good 3 to 5 m Coking 7000-8000 calories, 258,800,000 metric tons Two seams, 2 to 3 and 8 to 10 Chinese feet anthracite, 6954 cal 40,240,000 metric tons ang-yip ? liac?pi-chen 45 li NW of Non-coking, 7300 cal :T T'ank-yin eta Two seams, 1 is 2 and, 17 Chinese feet 21,840,000 metric tone hsin-an - Hsin-Mien. North of Lung- Sevap.seams.5 worked Chi-yuan coal-field hai Anthracite and se4i- ' $han- ? Railroad between anthracite in east Mien-eh'ih Hsin-an and Shan stations, E to Chi-vuan W to 6han and Bituminous in W 6000 to 8000 eels Anthracite - 162,000,000 metric tons Mien-eh'ih Bituminous - 126,000,000 metric tons Total - 1,288,000,000 metric tons -84 - RESTRICTED CPYRGHT Appmved Fnr Release 1999/0R/25 ? CIA-RDP7R-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED GOAL DISTRICT PLACE NAME OF MINE (Hsien) I-yang Yen-shih Kung, Ssu-shui and Jung- yang ' Yu-Mi W-Mi coal field Hsiu-wu Po-at Hsiu-Pc coal field Shansi Province Tse-chou Tee-chou coal. Yang -ohteng field Kao-ping Kao-p'ing coal Chin-oh'eng field Ch'in.ahui Yao.-t ou coal field ? Chung-tstun coal . field LOCATION _Sof .4 from SE I-,. yang via the S .pert of Lo-yang Yen-shih, Kung, and Ssu-shui tol SE of Jung-yang Both Yu and Mi hsien and north part of Chia-yu (7) From Northwest Hsiu-wu via North part of 'nest Po-ai to North part.ef Win-yang Near Tse-chou and NE part of Yang-oh'eng Centering on Kao-ping, area E to iv 35 km N to S 40 km 10 km W of the main to 17 km W of the govt seat DEPOSIT ? pine seams; bituminous Somi-anthratite 7150 to 8250 calories 'Bituminous 237,000,000 metric .tons Anthracite , 267,000,000 Metric tons Total - 504,000,000 metric tons 17 seams; bituminous and semi-bituminous 7000 calories 1,545,580,000 metric tons 1 seam; anthracite and semi anthracite 7000 calories 100,000,000 metric tons 4 seams, 2,1 113.5, and 5 Chinese feet, Anthracite and semi- anthracite 0356,000,000 metric feet Non.- coking Three seams, 16. Ohinese feet (total anthracite 334,000,000 metric tons Two Imams, 8 feet (total semi-anthracite 19,000,000 metric toils RESTit/CTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRC4H-..mptproved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 COAL DISTRICT ,(Hsien) RESTRICTED PLACE NA. OR MINE LOCATION , 'coal field-_ Yang- Yang-chleni coal ch'eng field Tung-chih coal field ' 18'km E of the ?"govt seat - 1, to i? 10 km N to S 5 km Ku-lung coal field 1ven-hsi Ch'iao-chia-kou coal-field Ling-ch!uan Lipg-chinan ' coal-field r - Hsiangr :"San;.1u,an yuan-- ' Lt-ch'eng-- Ch'ang- chih-- Hu-kuan-- Chlang- tzu Lin-fen Shan-hi coal-fiel 'Plu Piu Tun? -shan ? field Hsiang- Hsiang?ning coal- ning field 4 km NE of govt seat 14 km S of the govt seat 20 km W of govt seat 90 li SE of the govt seat Vlithin the dis- trict 24 km X 4 to 8 km Including Tlu- Men-hsien, Mi- tten, Chien-koul 11, Ho-lung - kuen aresip Anchia-yu, Shan-tiou ts'un Kao-ko-t8'un areas In the district DEPOSIT Ti. seams, 7,C1j1nese feet total iem1-: anthracite 134,000,000-Meiric tons Two seams, 12.5 Chinese feet Total semi-anthracite and anthracite 371,000,000 metric tons Six seams, 8.6 Chinese feet Total semi-anthracite and anthracite 62,000,000 metric tons 5 Chinese feet Semi-anthracite and anthracite 36,000,000 metric tons Two seams, 7-E Chinese inches and 2 Chinese feet Non- cokinE 116/166,400 metric tons Coking and non-coking 6,789,053,500 metric tons Two seethe, 2 Meters Coking 2,275,735,150 metric tiwns Sean i 6 m total thick bituminous 5,315,050,000 metric tone Seams total 6 meters thick 3,144,960,000 metric tons RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT 'BISTRICTED DISTRICT PLACE NAME OR MINE - (Heim)!! Hung-tung Hsi-shan coal fielc . . ? . ? LOCATION . ZIWItn8 - Kuo- ohii-4huang,- . Tsc-chii-kou, DEPOSIT Three seas total :22 Chtnesi ,fent -thick Nan-li-ts/un, 1,663,568$400...: Han-hou-tslun and Lou-ts'un metric tons ' . Chao-ch'eng Yuan-chluan NE of govt seat Seams total 7 m ? coal field entire area of thick Mt Sung- chia Bituminous 15,600,000 metric tons . , San-tliao-ho coal-field 22 km W of govt Seven seams total seat 3.5 km N to thickness 15 feet S 4 km E to W 181,000,000" metric tons Ho Fan,ch'uan.cbalr 12 km W of the Three seams total field govt seat 9 feet 6 km E to W 93,000,000 metric 6 km N to S tons Tung-nan coal- SE of govt seat Seams 6 m thick field near Shang-ts'ao Bituminous tslun and Sung- Coking chuang 193,050,000 metric tons Fen-hal Fen-hsi coal- Below the Seals total 4 to 7 m field district Coking 10,519,392,000 metric tons . ... Fen-yang-- Hsi-shan coal-field Shih-chia-ohuang 10 seams total 7 m Hsiais-i -- at Hsiao-i Chang-chia- Bituminous Ling-shih chuang of Fen- 7,601,048,000 . yang-hsien, Yao-chuang Hu- metric tons . . chia-yao, Tui-chiu-vu Ju-lai-ts'un of Hsiao-i-hsien Hua-wang, Chung- ?hsi, p. Tu-chen of . Ling-shih-hsien ,,. Tui-chiu-yu-coal- 12 km W of Hsiao Five seams total field . ..-, i-heien Area 15 Chinese feet 216,000,000 .? 11 km E to W metric tone 7 km N to S ? . -87- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED COAL DISTRICT PLACE NAME OR MINE LOCATION DEPOSIT ? (Hsieh) I ? ' . ? . Li-shih 4.4-shib coalfieldLiii. Chungying-- ' Lin - Shih Ho-chlu -- P'ien-kuan,- and Pao-te, .Hsing ' ? - - Chung-shih coal-1181g Ho-Hsing coal-field Shensi Province Fu-ku Shen-mu Yu-lin Mi-chih Heng-shan Below all three Total 7 m thick districts Coking 3,986,136,700 Imetric tons Area between Lin, lotal 6,5 m thick hsien and Shih- Coking listen '3,251,560,000 metric , tons Below all dist- ricts Total 15 m thick 10,807,664,400 metric tens 10 ii E of govt Bituminous seat, neer Liu,- 160,000,000 lin-chi and Ho- metric tons tstun 20 to 80 li W of Bituminous the govt seat 480,0000000 metric Including Sha- eons kou-yang, Ta- pien-tsrun, T'an-vao-kou- ts'un, Ts,ao-lu- kou-tstun, Shen- shu-kou-tstun villages 10 to 50 li SE Seam 1 ft l'and-S of the - .Bituminous govt seat " 250,000,000 metric tons , 60 li SE of the govt soat, several tens of li from Lung- erh-yai-kou 50 to 70 li E and S of the govt seat 100 ii W of the govt seat Bituminous 90,000,000 metric tons Bituminous 12,000,000 metric tons Mesozoic and Paleozoic Bituminous 20,000,000 metric tons - RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED py/ 1=1.1 ? r_ LIT .1 1- PEOR 1:1?? I. '1! 2.1 ,../3c 3c ?777 t r1K-Rs-, ? ? .!/ : / , -. .,... / , / t , ci ?., (3, / ? ? ??? ? ? .111. ????.? ???? ???., WM= ????? "". ??? ??? _ .4.74.rc (C ????? (4) 4c- sE2JL ? (4) ?2%H/1V_ + \.4 ? ? 1/4. 1.- ^ ? ? ? k? It , , oe N. I ? m?? ????? ?1.? .momm. am. =soli eat= MI .00 ? .r ff\, \ , ????? OEM, .00 41..0 OW MOW ??=11, WM Mall ???? RESTR I CT! Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A0002000; 0002-5 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : GIA-KLJP (8-03109A000200010002-5 GOAL . DISTRICT (Hsien) An-ting Ch'ing- chien. RESTRICTED PLACE NISE OR MINE LOCATION Lao-chuang-kou Yen?chtuan 'Ying-p'ing-chen HanTchleng Han-chteng coal field Chung.pu Tstun-chen I-chun Yuan-tzu--pting. Chteng- chteng Pei -shui Chtang-kuan-chen P'u-ch'eng Ts'ai-tne;chen T'ung -kuan Yes Chtun..hua Hsun?i u-lin-chen Chlun-hua coal field. Yuw.tzug-kou 3 Village's-16z-- cated in the BE and N of the govt seat 70 li W of govt seat 90 Ii NW of govt seat Northern part of the Cistrict 50 li W of govt seat 2 to 3 li fro' Tstun-chen Western part of govt seat 20 li W of govt seat 15 to 20 li E of govt seat 60 li NE of the govt seat WW of LiuTlin- chen, over. 90 li NW of govt seat 50 govt seat 30 ii W of govt seat DEPOSIT Turassic: 19,000,000 metric tors Jurassic 16,000,000 metric tons Jurassic 7,000,000 metric tons Carboniferous 5 seams Bituminous and anthracite Carboniferous Ir alternate sandstone and shale 1,5 to 2.5 Chinese feet 380,000,000 metric feet Carboniferous 310,000,000 metric tons 9,000,000 metric tons Seams 3.5 to 4 Chines, feet thick Carboniferous Bituminous and sOmi-bituminous -89- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT piruvd Fur R6lUdbU 1 . CIA DISTRICT (Haien) Pin RESTRICTED PLACE NAAE OR MINE ...LOCATIUi Pei-tzu-kcu Inner Aongolia (Meng-chiangl Sa-la-chi Chang-sheng-mao Yang-chi-ling Kluan-tien-tzu coal field - Hou-ho Ta*klou-tzu coal fleld 1 Pei-chain coal field of Chta-su-oihi. Liu-shu-wan coal, field . 0. Hei?tou-kou coal . field and the Northweste-n coal field of PJ-klo- ohi '; Tfai-ko-mu 'peat Mad Ku-yang Wo-hsin-hao DEPOSIT 30 li E of govt Carboniferous -Seat 303,030,000 or 370,000,000 metric tons 13.7 km N':4.of Sa-la-chi 17 km NW of Sa.- la-chi 6 km NW of Sa, la-chi Rh Sta 20 li NW of Hou- h. Three seams; bituminous area 10 sq km Seams 3 in thick 37,800,000 metric tons Permo carboniferous area 2 sqkm 1 to 2 in thick; Bituminous 6,100,000 metric tons Jurassic; area 3 sq km 1.5 in thick Bituminous 5,800,000 metric tons Jurassic; 3 seams 2,1,3 feet thick respectively 24,000,000 metric tons Jurassic Weak coking 30 km W of Hou- Jurassic ho -anthracite 53,000,000_metric tons 20 li N of Chla- su-chi RR eta Over 10 li NW of Pi-k'o-chi RR sta Area 12 km W from S of Tai- ko-mu RR eta. 10 li NW of govt seat Jurassic; 2 seams 1 ft and 2 to 4 feet anthracite 11,700,000 metric tons Jurassic seams 1 to 2 feat 500. in down 2,900,)00 metric tons Peat Seams 1 to 3 feet 11,000,000 metric tons Four seams; total 2 in -Bituminous 48,000,000 metric tons Area 20 sq km -90- . RESTRICTED ? Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP7:-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT roved-For RPlease 1999/08/25 ? CIA-RDP78-0310QA000200010002-5 COAT DISriTCT (Esieri) RESTRICTED FIAIE NAME OR MINE LOCATION DEPOSIT . . Shih-kuai An- peiShuan?ma-chuang KualvTchingTkou Nir,whsia,Province Chung-wei Chunewei coal field Yu-wang Yuwang coal field Pling-lo P'ing-lo coal fiel Ning-shUo Ning-shuo Coal field Ning-hsia Eastern foot of Ho- lan-shan and Chieh-, tzu coal field .Kansu Province , Tan..shn , * (TN: Western coal fieii In MkTe-ching N War S of Shuan-ma., chuang, NE of govt seat 100 li E of the govt seat From the east of Wu-uei, (along the northern mt of Chli-lien Shan) to the kost of Yu,men Jurassic 7 seems total 2., to 3 m Anthracite and 20000,000 metric tons ? . Area 39 sq km Teiseigan* 5,800,000 top! . ? To4e1 16636bt000 tons ? ? Permocarb area 1.8 sq km 2 seams.total 2 in Anthracite 3,250,000 metric tons Noo-coking bituminous 5768 to 7520 calnries 58,800,000 metric tons Area 7 sc. km Carboniferous anthracite Permo7carboniferous Meaning of "teiseigano cannot be ascertained, probabl:v refers to lower grade coal of some kinfl..) -91- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT - COAL DISTRICT '(isien) ? tao-lan PLACE NAZ OR MINE Central coal field Ypngteng Ko-ting ?Nertheastern coal .Chtung...bsim field Isinghai Prevince 'To-flung 'Ta-flung Coal fiel Le-tu Le-tu coal field PETROLEUM Henan Province Meng Chih-chlenE-chen Shensi Province Yen-chlang Yen-chlang Yen-ch,uan oil field Fu-shih ? : ? Kan-chluan Sha-tzu-wan Fu I -chun Hsun -1 RESTRICTED LOCATION Centers about Kao-lan-hsien Extends through these three dis- tricts then to Ningsia 40 ii W of golgt seat Near ihe.gOV't seat ' 2.5 km 6w 'of the Eovt seat Everywhere below district 2.5 km S of govt seat DEPOSIT Jurassic Clay in the seams Permocarboniferous In green sandstone, Permian Oil bearing coal seam 0.64 m thick 432,800 metric tons Rich in gasoline 100 parts coal to 10 parts gasoline ? Important Two wells produce 60. barrels per day In mesozoic sand- stone shale :Small amount oil Small amunt of oil Smell amount of oil Small amount of oil mall amount of oil ,? -92 - RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Approved For Kelease 1999/uts/z5it:Ecerwmpras-u,s1UUHUUUZUUU1UUU1-0 DISTRICT (Hsien) PLACE NAAE OR MINE LOCATION Heng- shanOh1-11m-kou An-ting Chungpn, San-chruan RR 'eta' ' Ninghsia Province Pqng-lo Kcnou Province , YinE-teng Ko-seu*ttan 80 km S of Yu- lin-hsien From An.,ting- hsien to the Northern border of Fu-shih- hsien 12 km NW of Tiert-ttou?chen DEPOSIT Average percentage of.oil'Sxtrasted. 2%, Oil bearing. shale in Jurassic stratum, black, with :ashy white clayalternate, 6tb 8 a Average percentage of oil estracted 5%. 1 meter thick Important 300 m down; rich seam (5%) 125,400,000 metric tons Oil, 2,006,400,000 gallons Poor Seam (2%) 525,500,000 ' metric tons Oil 3,670,800,000 gallons Oil bearing shale Rich seam (5%) 299,550,000 metric tons 5,386,500,000 gals Poor seam 3,933,000,000 metric tons 23,598,00,000 gallons Amount of oil ektracted 6% 0i1-be-ring shale in Mesozoic stratum Oil (sic) Oil-bvering shale 30 Chinese feet thick -93- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 ,81Ni,rpefi1For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 GYPSUM Shantung rrovince DISTRICT (Hsien . RESTRICTED PLACE NAME OR MINE LOCATION Lai-wu Ta-chuang Ma-chia-miao T'ai-an Hsu-chia-lou Kung Shan la-an-tslun Shensi Province Pving7lu. Plo-chuang Ho-ts'ung and others .-Kansu?Province,'? Ting-hsi FLOURSEAR Shantung Province Po-shan Tung-shih-ma Chu-chia-chuang Chlai-lo*shan Near coal field From San-man-ling E of the govt seat 30 ii E alonE N bank of Yellow River. Yellow River to field several tens of li. 5 li W of the govt seat 17 km S of Hei- shan 3 km S of Tung-shih-ma 8 km from Hei- shan DEPOSIT Important Like that in Shansi at Ping-1u In tertiary red beds in small seams; several cm thick jp limestone; in ro.-e-like narrow veins 0,1 to 1 m thick Broken off at 2 km Rough'caltitm flouride 20 to-40% fine ore 69.57A Mind on. small scale TrOrChirig Dynasty . 22,500 metric to As above 3 veins a. 2 m X 5 cm' b. 3 m X 10 cm c. 5 m X 10 cm rough ore 20% fine ore 54 to 74% Mined by natives RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 t4cpMysfited For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 ' DISTRICT N.UE OR MINE LOCATIO'f, ..' 't rruane Honan PrIa'Anoe Hsin-an ASBESTOS. Shensi Province Lush-yang- Tehg?yun-p'u Chi-shan Ho-liang-shan Inner Monfolia Hou-ho Shih,hui?yai).tzur' Pao-tidu 'Sha?pa-tzu Chi-mao-vao-tzu (p-yang Kanlu Province Kao-lan Chink.rfan-keu MICA' Shantung Province ..Chang- ch..1.144.-11-14?7.a4, ch'iu 7 km E Of Hai- Shan 30 li E of the gevt seat 100 ii S of the govt seat 50 li NW of Ch'.su-chi RR 'eta 100 ii N of Pao-t'ou In marble , In marble Northern part 60 liNI' 'Of the govt `ii&at ,p? ii s of the govt seat SE of P1U-1. DEPOSIT In ItmerA6de:, Slender vein Rough little left , In Mesozoic and iecaaus strata It was once worked in ChingDyriasty In triassid strata ' In marble and in reddish gneiss, Lang formation, white Formation 13,000 metric tons Marble Granite coftocts white 1 to 3 meters long Light.green Deposit 8,000 metric tons Short formation ?:14s6TkitTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 ,REgRICTED DISThIOT PLACE N.M OR MINE LOCATION (Haien) .GRAID14ITE 0.948.11-4.92. Pu T'i-tsu-kou SiAnan Province Lane.ihan ? IRON SULPHITE Isu-clituan Po-shan Chang-oh'iu Honan Province. Hsin-an Ki.uang-klou Po-ai Hsiao-ling, Ssu-how, Hsiao-seng Shani,Province Fen-hsi Hsin-chia-chuanE Ho "an,-) others"' S slope or Lang-. shan In the various coal fields 70 li NE of the govt seat 90 li of good road between Lo- yang RR eta & Kuang-klou Near-Hsiu-wu- po-ai coal field 60 ii W of the govt seat DEPOSIT , In Permocarboniferous coal In Permocarboniferous coal In coal seams Yearly output -1000 metric tone In clay and shale under Permocarb strata Shale 8 m Ore 3 Chinese feet to a fpw inches Ore-shale, 25% Best, 49% 1,080,000 metric tO118 Primitive mining method Produces sulphur Best ?33%- 1,000,000 metric . . tons At the base of Permocarboniferous stratum in the gray shale and kaolin deposit Seam 2 meters Important With iron ore in sandstone' Sulphur 40.8% -96- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CP.YRGHT I ST -I I , RESTRICTED DISTRICT rucf? NA 'IE OR MINE - LOC4I41 ai-? Yin-ten ?Yu4-ch:eng reit'u,tung TsinFhai FreVince . . Le-tu ,Le-ts'ao-t'ai Hsi-ning Wei7yuan-pao ,BARYIES. Shaniunvrrovince Pci-sban Lai -wu NE of the govt .seat 100 to 500 Chinese feet ( 400 Chinese. feet -.Hsiao-ting-shan Sung-ku-yu andSODA 1 : :.SItantupizi?Hopeh, Honan aovines prpr,a1ong the Yellow River bank fromlai-..fong the S of Yen-chou in Shantung also W and NE of Chi-nan-fu, tp N of Chang-tien Shansiyrovince An-1. Ho-tung Hsieh-chqh ' ,1 Shenaf? Piovinwt. : , Yu-lin Upper and tower S of Yun-ch'eng - With iron ore in sandstone Scanty Imbedded in limestone Imbedded in ,limestone, , Natural sodp and saltpetre Mined by farmers as side-line Taken fromwells Salt and seat- petre..?. Chief products 1939 - 108,315 bikaru: ? .? 1940 - 233,574 bikaru,.? 1941 - 1,252,000 ? lbs) Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYAW-rtIved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 DISTRICT (Hsien) RESTRICTED PLACE NAAE OR MINE LOCATION DEPOSIT Sui-te San-huang Ting-pien 3 lakes at Yen.ch'eng-pao Chaond An-jen-chen and Te-ping salt lakes Plu-cheng Nei-ft?t'an Ningsla Province Yen-chlih " 6 salt lakes Ling-wu Hui-an-ch.' h A-la-shan Chi-lan-t'al-ch'ih Meng-wang- chilh Chung-wei 4 Salt lakes Kansu Province Hung-shui Pet-t'un-tzu Ching-yuan Hsiao-jen-ching Yune-teng Hung-wan-chih Ho-chia-chlu Tgingai Province Huang.7uali :North and South parts Lu-sha-erh STEATITE StqantIP Province Hain-tlai Shih-plenE 80 li W of thq govt seat 40 km N of Hsi- wei 25 to 30 li NW of the Eovt seat 10 to 15 li NW of the govt seat In Jurassic stratum runs for 20 li Salt taken from wells Salt Upper stratum salt lower saltpetre 1916 - year out-put 148,571 piculs . Salt around lake for tens Of li - Salt in crystals 2 to 6 Chinese. feet 1913 year out-put 20,272 piculs Salt from lake Salt - annual output 1724 piculs Salt annual output 3147 piculs NE of Shih-pleng 200,000 metric tons 60 li NW of the govt seat -98. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 For_Release_1.922/08/25 : A-RDP78-03109A090200010002-5, RESTRICTED DISTRICT PLACE NtiAE OR MINE Oisien) Tlai-an Hsiao4sin-thuang , , ,- Chuqtlan Shensi Provin4 Lo-nan Tuit-wen-Yu QUARTZ tun Provin Ttai-an Ta-hsin-chuang Tzu-ch'uan FELDSPAR Shantunp Province Shih-pteng MenE-yin HuanE7tou LOCATION 30 li NW of the govt seat 45 Ii NE of the govt seat- J 80 ii E of the govt seat 10 li from 'flat+ an RR sta.on Tientsin-Pukow RR 30 li SW of the govt seat' 60 li NW of the Eovt seat Tai-shun on the wE-stern slope of Hsin-ptu-Ahan (60 li NW of govt seat :- DPOSIT Soft " Fire-resistant 400,000 metric time In mesozoic and criotacebus strata Paralles with the steatite vein 2 to 4.5 m wide runs 3 li Quartzitic sandstone in upper seams Jurassic quartz seams 8 to 10 m' 300 m down 45,000,000 metric tons Poor, scanty ? -99- RESTRICTED - Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : GIA-KUP (8-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5, RESTRICTED A JAPANESE, PLAY FOR HYDROELECTRIC DEVELOPMENT OF 'YELLOW RIVER IN:CRINA -,(CotiinVed) Far Eastern Research Section BurveY COM114-4:t4e No ,2 Narth.phina' COM:V.tt.de ;Subcommittee No May 1941 PT S, TRENDS IN THE SUPPLY AND DEMAND FOR ELEaTRIC POWER AND TIE STaNIFICANCE.,OP' - LOTT TT ? TABLE OF CONTENTS ORLI Saburo I Introduction IT Trends in Supply and 'Demand for, Electric Power in Various Nations '11I 'Present -c6nditiontofJoargy3PEO.,e? .1qAtlir?Pcmor.:Pdyklopmentin:the World ,??? ? IV National Defense and Electric Pmffor V Sources orElectrio.Power within the,. East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere and *e: Relative /mportanoe of the Yellow River as a Source .of Water power RESTRWTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A0 0200010002-5 Approgg,Mrilplease 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Appr 0 RESTRICTED (NOTE: Throughout this Part only those portions pertaining to Russian and Manahurian-hydreelectrio.power_have been trans- lated. A summary only is given of each chapter, followed by such translation as was considered necessary.) I Introduction A. . Stresses in very general terms the importance of electric power to national life, including chemical industry, irrigation and transportation. The Yellow River will furnish electric power for the above uses. (NOTE: No translation made of this chapter.) II Trends in Supply and Demand for Electric ? Power in Various Nations , A. Table showing the worldts total amount of electric power generated from 1929 to 1938 (excluding 1930 and 1931). B. Table showing the increased use of electric power in 1919 and 1938 and its per capita use in 1938 in Amerca, Germany, Russia, England, Canada, France, Italy, 14orway, Sweden, Switzerland, China, and Japan Proper. C. Table showing the amount of hydro- and thermo-electric power generated in some of the above nations in 1938. D. Table showing the amount of water power developed in 1920 and 1938 in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa and Oceania. (Table based on ,Power Plant Engineering, Dec 1940. This is presumably an English Language pun.i.oation.) E. Table showing the potential water power for the above nations and Brazil. (NOTE: No translation made of this chapter. The inforMation here should be available in existing' studies in English e.g. English publication cited in this document, Power Plant Engineering, Dec 1940.) -101- RESTRICTED 002 6 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED III Present Condition of Large Scalejlater-Pawar Develepmenteleethe World This ohaeter refere to the National Waterepower Development Plan in the USA and the development plete'rer Important rivers in Russia, inoluding the folga, Dnieper and Angara, and theedevele opment plan for the Upper Sungari and Yalu Rieeers.in Manehuria. This chapter has two cnarts: (1).Charte)f thieNational Water Power Development Plan in the USA, (2) Pliin-fer Power generated by water in. Ressia, including the number of porter stations, the estimated power generated per year and its uses. (NOTE: Only those portions of this chapter pertaining e to "The Plan for Water Generated Power in Russia" have been translated.) A. General (TN: Complete translation) With modern developments in the technique of constructieg large dams, there has been marked development of hydroeleotrio power in the past ten years. Such development is based upon plans encompassing the damming of large rivers to form enormous artificial lakes which will equalize the annual flow, prevent floods and aid irrigation and water transportation. The principal oomprehensive hydroelectric development plans are the governmental plans in the United States, those for the Volga, Dnieper and Angara Rivers in Russia and those for the Upper Sungari and Yalu Rivers in Manchuria. B. 'Hydroelectric Development Plans in the United States . - (TN: This section has not -been translated. It gives cursory de-tells of the hydroelectric development plane in the United Stetes) C. Plans for the Development of the Principle Rivers in Soviet Russia (TN: Complete translatiotT)---- - 1. The development of water power in the Soviet Union has a throe-fold purpose: the generation of electric power, water transportation, and irrigation, plus the creation of large in- dustrial areas centered around the water power stations. 2. The estimated amount of power that can be generated yearly by all the water power stations already constructed or under construction in 1937 is '12,500,000,000 kilowatt-hours. Of this total, 6,500,000,000 kilowatt-hours will be eenerated by dame built primarily for water transportation, 3,200,000,000 kildwatteheues:by those built primarily for irrigation purposes and only 2,B.00,Q0Q,000.ellowatt-houre by those built specifically - feregeneratenge,pawere -102- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED 3. The plan for the development of the water power of the major rivers ,in Seviet RUsSia is as follows: ?.?? ? Hydroelectric Power Plana of Soviet Russia Name of No of Total Total Amount of Uso Project Power Capacity Power Genorated Stations (in Ka) Per Year (in KWH) Amu Darya 27 2,000,000 12,000,000,000 Irrigation Amur 14 5,400,000 32,000,000,000 Water transport, Flood control Angara 11 10,800,000 75,100,000,000 Dnieper 68 1,700,000 8,900,000,000 Kura (excluding Sanga River). 45 ? 1,200,000 5,100,000,000 Ob and irtish 108 7,900,000 164,100,000,000 Water transport, Drinking water Sevan - Sanga 10 600,000 2,400,000,000 Irrigation Sulak 10 1,000,000 6,900,000,000 Syr Darya 35 5,100,000 30,500,000,000 Irrigation Volga 46 6,600,000 32,100,000,000 Water transport, Irrigation, Drinking water Yenisei 20 12,000,000 63,300,000,00Q :Water transport Total 394 54,300,000 332,400,000,000 4. Plan for Developing the.VOlga River 7(given anexample) The basins of both 'the Volga and Dnieper Riverp.are doly populated and include iMportant industrial ar10. agricultural centers. Aocordingly, their demand for electric power will be great. .nuch freight is handled in this area and the water transportation facil- ities are very important. The down stream area of the 250 mm isohyet is Well-devel- oped.agriculturally, but the plight amount of rainfall produces a great variation in the harvest from year to yoare making irrigation the most importantproblem for this area. Acoordingly,.the economic development of the Volga River should be planned for three objec- tives: power generation,-wator transportation and irrigation. The construction of 46 power stations along the Volga River and its tributaries was planned, the capacity to be 6,600,000 kilowatts or -103- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT ? ? a ? r a ? ; 2..111 Ill Ill RESTRICTED .a yearly Output of 32,100,000,000-ki1owatt-houra?. This plan. Will give the Vola River sufficient depth to serve as anEast- - West artery for tranSportetionta-the'main areas of Europe and Russia. Furthermore, the total area to be irrigated will be . . about-10,000 acres. Sine? this is a high level -area,. 4,500,000,000 to 5,500,000,000 kiluwattrhoUrs'Per year will be required_to pump the water up from the VOlga River. This irrigationplan.will make for consistent yearly agricultural output and the harvest of wheat will probably reach 5,000,000 metric tons per year. It is planned that 3,400,000 kilowatts out of the total 6,600,000 kilowatts will be furnished by the .Kuibyshev Power Station, the biggeet station inetheevbrld. Turing 1948, the first year of operation, 800,000 or 1,000,000 kilowatts can be generated and by 1950, 3,000,000 kilowatts can be generated. After the construction of the water power stations on the upper Volga River has been completed (1952 - 1954), the equalized flaw will raise its generatingpower to 3,400,000 kilowatts. Besides using the water power for the .various industries along the' Volga (oil-drilling, synthetic Oil, synthetic rubber, fertilizer, light metals, etc) and the electrification of farm villages and railroads, the power will be transmitted to the Mosdaw'area by wire (900 kilometers). This wire :ill be con- nected with other' transmission nets in the Gorki and.Tvanov areas and the south-central part of the Ural region. (NOTE; Chapter 3 ends with this section. There is no discussion of the hydroelectric development for the Upper Sungari and Yalu Rivers in Manchuria.) IV National Defense and Electric Power , Stresses the importance of electric power for producing muni- tions, for national defense and for the mining and chemical indus- tries. This chapter has five charts: A. Chart 1 - shows the names of chemical products, the amount produced, and electric power required for various electro-chemical products. '(Table based on "Electrical Engineering", Fob 1940. ThlreiUMably'is .an English -?publication.) B. Chart 2 - shows the electric power consumed by electro- Chemical'induStries in the USA. O. 011aris 3 shows the various uses of electric power in Japan . . in 1926'm-1(11936, suoh as electric Ugh-tit, electric cars and small and large concerns. Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Approved br Release-1-93 10 12 . IA-RDr70-03103A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED D. Chart 4 - Ahows the various uses of electric power by large concerns in Japan from.1936 to 1937 in such industries as fabrics, metals, machine tools, chemicals, ceramics, mining, food processing etc. E. Chart 5 - a detailed breakdown of the amount of electric power used by chemical industries in Japan in the manufacture of various products. (NOTE: lo translation made of this chapter. The information found hero should be. available in existing studios in English e.g. English publication cited in this document, Electrical Engineering, published February, 1940.)- V Sources .of Electric Pagov. within the East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere and the Relative Importance of the Yon= River as a Source of Water Power In this chapter, water power and coal, are .considered as the two Most important. sources of electric power. The document &news- the power potential of japan using water power. This includes Japan Proper, Korea, Formosa, Manchuria (including Yalu River) and China. This chapter has two charts: '(1) Shows the amount of coal deposits in East Asia, in such countries as China, Manchuria, Japan (including Korea) and Indo- China; (2) shows the electric power goneratod and consumed in East Asia, in such ceuntriei-as Japan (including Japan Proper, Korea, Formosa and Sakhalin), lianchuria, China, .Philippines, French .IndorChina ad India. (TOTE: Only those portions of this chapter pertaining to the hydroelectric power of Manchuria have boon translated.) A. Sources of TIciro-olectric power that can be developed. Japan Japan Proper 20,000;000 kilowatts Korea 2,370,000 kilowatts 'Formosa - '1;000;000'kilawatts Manchuria including the Yalu= River) 7,500,000 kilowatts China 21,000,000 kilowatts RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved-For Release 1999/08/25 PIA-RDP78-03109A0g0;000100(124 rPYRGHT B. The most sconomicatsOurees of water power in Manchuria are the Yalu River and the Tipper Sungari River. It is estimated, however, that about 15 yeari would be required to develop these sources. .Therefore, the Yellow River asa source Of water power, would probably be considered as the next beat possibility. C. 'In Russia, initial steps have already been taken for the realization of a plan to transmit power 900 kiloMeters-from the Kuibyshev Power Station on the Volga River to the Moscow area. This plan will probably materialise in the near future. D. Extraots from Table No 12 Coal Deposits in East Asia (in metric tons) Manchuria - Definitely knawn Estimated additional amount Total Russia Estimated E. Extracts from Table No 13 409,000,000 799,000,000 1,208,000,000 60,037,000,000 Electric Power Capacity and Consumption in East Asia Manchuria (1938) ' Power generated by steam 501,000 KW Output per year 1,624,000,000 EYE Consumption per individual 54 K9H -106- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RIUTRZQTDD A JAPANESE PLAN FOR RYDROELECTRIC-,..DEVEDOPMENT OF THn YELLOW RIVER T.U. (Cited)_ - _ . . Far Eastern Reicardh-5ectio4 Survez Committee No .2 North:China Committee, ' _Sul*mnittee TO 4 Nay 1941: PART. 9. PATS FOR EXTENSIVE INDUSTRIAL I. tVEDOPNENT 'WA ' ARAI Xtzuru . ISHIKAU Nagatoohi .SAKACUCHI.Tadoshi ...TABLE or CONTENTS ' I Introductien II Areas Consuming Electricity 'III Active Plans to Utilize Electric Power IV Plpn for Transnission of Electric Power RESTRICT Approved For Release 19N/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A060200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED IZAODUCTION The purpose of Part 9 is-fii-aplain -where and how the en- ormous amount of electric power which will be produced by the development of the water-power resources of the Yellow River will be. used. It is meaningless and impossible to suppose that today there are industries which can completely consume thb entire electric power output of the Yellow River output, which is copparable to the power output of all Japan today, Since the progress of the industrial wOrld, which will be the main consumer of electric power, will be exceedingly swift, it would be extremely difficult and dangerous to estimate either the now demands aria objectives of tomorrow or the future of several decos: Nevertheless, since to conceive sUch a hi.v7e plan without any objective "would be sheer folly, this general estimate is prep7red in the light of available capital and vatural resources. The question of what types of industries will.ba.developed in North China cannot tie decided in North Chinr, alone, It should be decided nOt only by research froM.the'standpoint of collective development-of the bcononic strength of the Zast Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere but also by paying attention to the denands of the development of the people and the point of view of national defense.- As'a practical way of thinking, looking at the conditions of industrial development caused by the division of industry in the Co-Prosperity Sphere, it has been said, "Japan would become the center of the high-grade finished products industry, anchuria, the center for basic heavy in dustry, and China the center for raw materials and low-grade light industry. Such a division would avoid industrial friction between the three eountries'and would produce a mutual pros7 pority in which each country would supplement the other two," (From NIPPON JUOIC115 (apan's Heavy Industries,j, Vol 2, Part 6, p 12) This view is reasonable enough If heavy emphasis is placed on present Conditions, but the division of industry would be unsatisfactory after a few decades when viewed from the standpoint of a far-reaching national policy. The reor-. ganization of industry in the East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere must not be wrsted through. short-sighted planning. It is natural to think that industry would alcpand, com- bining the capital and techniques of Japan and the rbundant rosources--coal, iron, alum ehale, gypsum, salt, raw cotton, etc--imported to Ja:)an from North China, but basic '-owe pr- duction in Japan proper has almost reached its economic ma*, imup. Hence, to plan rapid ,expansion of industry, whioh TO- cuires plentiful rtn.ohoap power, itis very difficult. From this point of view the hydroelectric power production of the Yellow River will probably be the main element in pro- ducing rovelutionarychanges In the industrial system of the Co-;Prosperity Sphere.' The following section deals with the consumption of hydroelectric powor of the Yellow River, .r 108.. REM CTID) Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A00020001000'2-5 Approved For Release 19r99/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRIPTP II' ...ATIEAS CONSUM;NG.ELECTRICIT e The present production capacity'dtelectric power in'NOrth China and Men44chiang Cliongolii'Vna:Sinkiang3 is 192,000.-ki1O-: watts for industrial use and 1440.006:1tilowatts for domestidltsi>'-a total of 340400 ,kilowatts. The.4441'tOnsumption at 40'Per"cent load factor thus amounts to a Per ":'Capita consumption of 12 ki1O-:' watt.,hours a year (population of Nor:p China, Mongolia and Sink- iang was taken as l00,000000 sinCe.-it is estimated ai 000 by the South Manchuri0 Rai1iog4 North China Economic $4vei) This is twice.the:six kilOwatt-hour:average per capita COnstimption for the whole of China, 1.,Lit Ia very far from the 457 Kilowatt- hour' per-, capita consumption in JaPan:and the 1,130 kilowatt:410Ure per capita consumption in the United States. If:Chipa.consumed electricity at the same per capita rate as Japan, it would require 8,700,000 kilowatts at 60 percent' load factor?: and if her consumption were half the present per capita rate of the United States, she would require-appreii-' - mately twenty million kilowatts. Even such rough calculations as these show that this Yellow River hydroelectric develop- merit plan is note useless theoretical discussion,. and eventually it will be realized. The consumption of YellowRiver hydroelectric power Can be divided in four categories according to use: (1) general nomesticj, (2) agriculture, (3) transportation, and (4)% mining and industry. Each will be considered in turn. ['Mining and industry will be considered seperately.2 A. General flomestic_7 Uses At present, the population of North China consumes very little electricity. The consumption.of electric power in the cities has 'shown a marked increase since the China incident because of the in- flux of the Japanese and of wealthy Chinese seeking peace in the cities. The farmers, who constitute more than 80 percent of, the consume absolutely no electric power. Thus, ?the:consumption of electric power by*the general population is 4 of no :importance at the present time, but the rise in living standards wtiChydil-acCompany the industrial development of North:ChinaWill incredee.onSiderabiy the consumption of .elecripity. ? ? . In .japaninaustrial usea ao,OUntjOr,66 tO'70 .percent of electric power, Whereas all other uses take .the remaining . , 40 percent to 30 percent. The following chart shows the electricityreqUired by _ , cities of North China With an estimated population of over " 300,000 CipoPulation of-North_China as of. 19Al, South Man- ? . churiani4.54W,4y.,North, ChinvEconomic .S14rveyj, based on the Japanese44.5.7,rH per capita rateet:consumption, assuming that halt the nonindustrial electricity (20 perbent) is domestic cInsumption. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 T ,cpApginved For Release 1999/08/26 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 City RESTRICTED Population Electricity Required Tlien Ching (including? Ttang,..Ku)*:- -34000-;000-- --- -270,C0C4000 KWH Pei-P.1,441g* 2,5000000? : 4.225,000,P00 KWH Ch4i.lig4tao 1,000,000 - 90,000,000 KWH Ch1,4ian* 1;000,000 '90,000,000 KiitH Ta-,t!ung* 1/00000Q0 90;000,000, KWH Tialyuan*: 500,000_ , 45,000,000 KA- , ? Shihmen*, 500,000. '45.'000,000 KWH... Hsid-hsiang* 500,000 . 45,000,000.gWH Hsu -Cho** 500,0100 ? .45,00.0,000 KWH K'aieng*. 30),000 . 27,000,000 KWH Tiangehah' : 300,000 27ipoo,00g KWH Chib.fou : 300,000 ? 271000,000 Km Wei-Haien 300,000 27,000,009 KWH': Hai-chou ' 5MAPP 27,000,00o KWH '.?.????????1???? Total 12,000,000 ? 1,080,000iQQ0 KWH. * Can receive its supply of electricity from the Yellow River. The domestic consumption of the above cities thus totals . 1,080,000000 kilowatt-hours. This would require 245,00 kilo- watts at a load faCtor of 50 percent., The nine cities that could be supplied by the Yellmq River would consume 882,000, 000 kilowatt-hours and recoire 200,000 kilowatts. C4 8. JtAricultural Uses It is extremely difficult to estimate how much electricity the agriculture .'f North China will require in the future. Its requirements can be divided roughly into those for electrified. agriculture and for irrigation. Those: of agricultural electrification will be considered first. HOKUSHI NtOri Y7RAN (Important iispects of the Agri- culture of North Chinaj, compiled by the South Manchurian Railroad, North China Economic Survey, describes the small scale of North China agriculture as follows: The average farm in North China has 27.4 se [0.671 dares] 4-f arable land; 4,25 se (0.1)4 acres2 per capita of total pop- ulation or 5,355e0.131 acres2 per person engaged in agriculture, The average farming family oonsists of 5.1 persons, The calcu- lation of average arable land per farm includes Meng-chiang (Mongolia and Sinkiang2, where the estimates are too high.. In the lowland, most farms have under 20 seL5.5 acresj of arable land while in the uplands most farms hdve from 20 to 30,seZ5.5 acres to 1.225 acres.] and colonized areas, such as .Chiu Suiyuan Province, must have over 100 seL72.45 acres..2.- . Professor Lossing:Buck states that a minimum of 4.5 se.. L-.104 acres2 of land is necessary to maintain a single inde- pendent farmer. If 3.5 members of the five perqpn household are independent, a tiniMum Of 14,87 se27.364 acres2 re- quired but actually the great majority of farmers eke out only the barest kind of starvation existence. This excessive ., -110- RESTRICTED:.- Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 cpykuf-faved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED , dividing up .,of #e4anOtredUCettitsfJproductivity-and is, reAly eodiValent,toa-lops of4and,(fromew-East:AthieEcOnOthil Geography",1701N,T7A KEIZALCHIRT2 by KAGAWA, . - - Is it possible:for thesmalLscaleagricultUre.ef-'North'''' China, operating underet4rVationjmanagethent,:tO achieVe electrification? ,At firatit seems no problem at all:Let us observe the utiliz4tionofelectric.poWer7inthe agridultUre of the Soviet Union. "Electrification Developments inithe.,SoViet,Unionn, s study "prepared by Krajivanovski :Fhonetie..7 of Studies Staff, Soviet Academy Qf Sciencei-for presenta- tion to. the third Wor]a Labor Congress held in.WaShington in 1936, poihte aut the importance of Dnieper power stations as a source Of electricity for the agriculture in the-DniepropetreVsk region. According to the same study, the firE,t important allocation of electric power in agriculture ,was for threshing, and in 195. there were 754 places ,using electricity, for threshing the grain crop from 350,000 hectarcsL7865,00 acres:2 of land.The.great advantage of electricity in large,-sdaIe threshing over otter methods is shown in the following chart: Unit Cost for Threshing (Rubles charged to the public) Year Electric Motcr DrivenrPower2 Tractor Drivengowet7 1934 1.15 1.57 1935 0.88 1.26 The cost for electrical power in 1934, was 73 percent of that for tractor power, whereas in1935 it was 69 percent. Grain loss in 1935 for tractor and electrical power threshing is shown in the following chart: Type of Grain Electric Po,wer Tractor Power! Wheat Rye 1.72% 3.70% . 3.76% . 4.62% These charts prove electricalpWer threshina far more. . efficient than other methks and it le known to be much quicker Transformer substations which Were constructed to; supply. power are ordinarily in use only one and a half to twomonthsy, (July- anda.year, and for this reason must be used, for other purpobes'ftring the rett of the :year; E1etricity from Dnieper power stations is used on a large scale for cultivating, raising vegetables, irrigation, and ,stock raising.. Cultivationk.: by electrititfis'veryefficient.:, A'planwas carried out to equip the old faremachiAery ivith trab-.type Winches to culti- vate 300 hectarear745-acres2 4ber.selsOn,,, A1tho4h-innPerfect,' this electrical cu14vation was far more-efficlehtthan tractor 'cultivation, ,Moreover, wlth electric motoxs, there .is lessdang.ir of fire and'ho.'need.te. 6.Upply,fu91.or,waterowhich are extremely important considerations. RE6TRIDTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002 -5 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CAA-KLJ1'(13-1/3109A000200010010 RESTRICTED Thus, the electrification of Soviet agriculture has been. ..- extended-year after year.. The use if electriC?power an threshing and cultivation; in hot hoUses, stock raising, 'and 'collective farms and?hcmes, may be expected to Open vast areas for colon- ization. Electrification c ould thus be utilized in a country like Russia with its vastexpanses of arable land.and:ita pecul- iar state organization, but would be dijficulttbrealize in small scale agricultural economy of North China where the farming population is suffering from overwork. Another use of electricity in agriculture is:irrigation, the lack of which is the weakest .point of North China farming, Continued drought quicklyruins the harvest while excessive rainfall causes destructive floods everywhere, ,rrigation is essential to the improvement of agridulture in North 011ina, to the increase of cropyield per acre, and to the cultivation of higher grade crops such as Cotton. Plans to dig wells JJF . ? various places'haVe been made and already have been carried out partially: The problem still is the need of electric power to use in these well irrigation projects. No sudden revision of the Small scale-farm.economy of North China cahbeexpected, and it would be difficult to increase the gains through secur- ing the reliance on electric power of the small farms. The advantages and disadvantages between irrigation with electri- cally-pumped well-water and with water brought from rivers demand_consideration. The former might be realizedpore eas- ily AncLatless cost for a short period, but such matters as agriculture should be considered in terms of long-range national policy. Even though use of river water may cost much more at first, permanent.installations built to handle it would event- ually prove more desirable. Where it is technically ,impossible to use riVer.water for irrigation it is assuMed.that all irriga- tion water wOuld be pumped electrically from mtills, since it would be difficult to estimate the degree of use of electricity which would be most profitable. C. Transportation Uses (Electrification of Railways) Iliheh considering the full. economic development of North China, estimation of the extent to the extent to which rail- roads will be required is difficult. In view of the distribu- tion of natural resources in the East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere and China's role there, railroads should be built to connect important centers witi seaports as a measure of national defense and to further the development of natural resources, The follow- ing lines should be built or improved as the most important for exploitation -of natural resources: 1. Tiang7ku Ta-Tlung (tbrough.Tsien-ching, Feng-tai, Len-tIou-kou and ShEL-cheng) about 500 kilometers 2. . .Ch'ing-tao - L11-an (through Chi-nen and Chang-te). , about 780 kilometers ? 3. Lienyun - Tse-,Chou (through Hsu-chou,,Klai-feng, Hsin.;-hsiane about 740 kilometers According to the estimates of the North China Traffic Company the present 6,700 kilometers of railways in North China -112, RESTRICTa ? 2-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 PPYIngwed-for Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A0002000100.02.57_ RESTRICTM Which' transport 36-0100;000-UnsOffrbightwill total 21,000 kilometers and WillAratitpOrt2l7P00,000 tOns Ofjreight.,.30. years from now. , The Carrying. capacity ? Of',;thei!-railroadscbuld be increased by electrificatign. The. three-railroad lines mentioned-above. . as being especially usefill-:fOr'd-tiveloping thenatural resources are near the hydroelectric eites of the YellowRiver'and would be most effective. Thie.taiIroad electrification WoUld require, about 100,000014 which is not a great demand on the electricity production, but is given as andIlustration. ConstructiOn costs, transport capacity and transport expenditure should be studied carefully to determine .the pulling power of electric engines . and the desirability of electrificatidn. D* Mining, Uses (EsPecially.for the Development of the Coal Industry) Coal is, without doubt, the most imPortant.factor for tbe economy of North China in the joint economic develbpment of the. East Asia Co-Prosperity SAlere, Source material indicates :that coal is present in North China in.overwhelming amoUnts,.includ- ing large quantities of high quality bituminous, seat-anthracite and excellent anthracite coal. In order to supply the coal needs 'Of Japan, Manchuria and China ten years from now, a total amount of 110 million tons of coal would have to be mined annually in North China. This large amount of mining would require about .? 450,000 kilowatts of electric power. It has been usual here- tofore, to generate the electric power initially reqUired in., Coal mining by steam ateachmine, but the nearness of the 'Yellow River sites would call 'for use of their cheep electric Pq0.16i-:- The 450,000 kilbwatta would be divided among' the follow- -Log ?. -Ta4Itung region Along Shih-chia-chuan,---Tti-yuan and Pei-pfing---Han-Klou railway line Southern Shansi area- 200,000 kilowatts 100,000 kilowatts ' - 150,000 kilowatts Total 450,000 kilowatts The plan is to transmit the power used in the Ta-Tung region from.Ching-shui River, Ho.:.chiu and'Tfien-chfiao; that used along the Shih,chia-chuang'ai-yuan railroad line .from Hei73711,:kfou and Chi-kfou-chen;. that used along the Pei- pfing--Han-4fou line from' San-men Gorge and Pa-li-hu-Tfung; and that used inthe Southern Shansi area from Yen-shui-kuan, Hu-k'ou, andYu-men-kfou. ' InduStrial Uses A detailed description of North China's industrial pro-, gress-and present-day. status...cannot In gener- al, it is organized as a semi-colonial area of the European and American imperialistic systems. The-expansion of her modern- '- industry with native c,:.pital_nas been greatly retarded. This capital consitte largelk'of wholesale incimant.ifatturingcap,- ital directed into such consumer-goods industries as cotton- spinning, knitting, pottery, carpet and embroidery, and food- - ..-11.3- RESTRICTED , Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A00020001:0092-5, CPYRGHT ? stuffs, as 'well as the production or'sudh impIementa as farm tools, simple spinning and knitting machines0'. jinrickehas, thd *eel barrows, Foreign capital has played an extremely *important r41e in modern industrial expansion in dhina.. It initiated China's advance by opening her Seaports and building railwaysand stimulted the development of native industries: orid War f marked the full industrial maturity of these industrial and the post?warpanic consolidated the 1)90M?industries.' After the winning of eustoms autdnomy in 1930,foreign industrial capital poured in, and industries based en home capital boomed. The investmentpf Japanese capital, especially in North China, increased rapid? ly after the "China Incident" and an extremely ravorable poS? ition was obtained by the purchase of already established in? dustries and through joint management. Following is a comparison of the amount of capital of various nations invested in North China before and after the mChina Incident". Investment in North China Industry before and after the China Incident: Japanese capital Chinese capital Foreign capital SinoAJap joint management ? Chinese-foreign joint management Totol Number, of factories Capital FundS 1939 1936 1939 1939 . 1936** 1.939**Index Index No * . No * 121 225 185 146,675 179,683 122 549. 546 100 29 27 93 131;787 115,882 87 ' 71;655 /1,055 99 9 30 333 , 24,849 '91,039 364 2 1 ' 50_ 2 900 400 13 , 710 829 . . 117 377;866458,059 121 *1936 index number is 100 **No unit given. Probably in 1000 or 10,000 yen The following chart shows the investment by industries before and after the China Incident. Investment by Industries before and after the China Incident: 2.222 amouni - Invested* Percentage Amount Invested* Percentage Heavy Chemical 50,226 13 64,503 ? .14: Industries Textile Industries 158,708 41 169,128' .. _37 Foodstuffs 44,174 11 46,068 10 Others ? 23;137 8 28,789 - ?6 Electrical.Industries 101,621 27 .33 . . ,149,571 Total 377,866 100 458,059 100 *No-unit given. Probably in 1000 or 10,000 yen ??? I: RESTRICTED 7' ? I* III III III Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Approv RLSTRICTED As,the above,table..shows,,the,Northina indOtri3O- -struciure has:an:O.Verw4d4mj,r14ln'spondep.ncf:P.OPliitlei goods. induetr&e:S, w4ehiv,based onagriCulti: Th6.- percentageof thia.type oteinduatries h showh a slight trot( . ? .. since the China Incident., -.? The greatest post:-:InCident development has lopn electrical industries which is based on)mOtiVe power, : Heavy dustries, which are: bade 1.ndustriee, are weaktuy show -a slight increase over the pre-Incident Period. Thqs, North China indu&try though still in a.I6W- state of development has shown a tendency toward Steady, gradual iMprove- ment, with the stimulus of the China Incident. :The relation4f North China in its military and industrial role in the. East: Atia Co-Prosperity Sphere to the plan for utilizing Yellow. River hydroelectric power should be considered. ? , ? It is needless to say that from the Military -standpoint since North China and Mongolia-Sinkiang geographically touchthe, northwestern border of Sinkiang, they comprise together with Manchuria the first line of defense against Soviet us?a. heir natural resources are the key to 4 .closed economy Of japan and Manchuria in the East Aiia Co-Prosperity Sphere, and tremendous expansion may be expected in.industries.using coal Other im- portant raw materials such as salt, alumina shale, iron pre,, etc.,should supplement the raw material deficiency in the Jap- .ane ee economy. The basic objective, however, should be to promote heavy chemical industries in North China as quickly as possible and to supply Japan and Manchuria with finished Or semi-finished products. Materials needed for this industrial development can large- , ly,be supplied by Japan and Manchuria, but the plan is to sup- ply them also from local sources, especially through the rapid development of such basic industrieh as iron, ,cement and mach- inery. Exix.nsion of agriculture and light industries at the same time should also be planned so that North Chiri ein sup-, ply her own food and clothing to maintain.her Jaber potential. The industries discussed above should be scattered through- out the interior "of the ,country tor defense 'against air :attack and aCeess.tp raw materials rather than along the coast as the .? old laissez-faire econemy would dictate. These industries . would then benefit fromjellow.River hydroelectrit power, , The fel-oling.4ica consideration of various local factors influencing the industrial .development of 'prospective electricity consumers in various'aria4s in North China-. ? 1. The-T'ien-ching=-7Ttang-kU area. Tlang.-shan, Tlien- ching, . . , Even now this area is North Chinale chief industrial , ? , region, and in the future it i1i doubtless be a. grit in- dustrial center0 With the building of great new harbors, it will.havethe best -communications of any area in North China, _4-lathe main,ceintentration POI* for raw materials. ,It is especially.. Oet coal shippinA,porte It,is only 90kilameters -1157 ' 146TRICTSD I I 1-`11P1 III III CPYRGHT SS OT-II """ RESTRICTE) from the Kai-luan coal mine. It is near the alumina shale of Chi-tung and in the heart of the'Ohlang;au salt fields and it is 150 kilometers from the Luan Rii!errpower station.[TN; At Luan, For location see Strategic Engineering Survey 1.44, Elect- ric Power of China, Vol 1, PP 108 and 111 and map at front of, this.publicationj Although rather far from the Ho-ch/u power site, it could receive power from there, It is the best sit- uated area in ilhorth China for securing water for industrial use. The Pal River alone could easily supply two million tons per day, and sea water could.be Used-ae well. This region may be expected to develop pig iron and steel, cement, coal liquefaction, alumina, soda ash, fertilizers, cotton' seed oil,- linter, cotton spinning, flour milling and other industries, 2. The Td-tlung district This district is located near the middle of the-Ching- PaorPei-p'ing Suiryuaa7 Railroad line, and will be the .start- ing point for the trunk line to the new harbor at Tlang-Ku. It has 29. billion tens of Jurassic and carboniferous bituminous coal deposits that are excellent for industrial use and 60 kilo- meters SSE of Ta-t/ung, near Hun-yuan, there is a vast amount of brown coal that is suitable for direct- liquefaction, It is only 180 kilometers from the huge profected power sites at Ching-shui River and Ho-chru, The availability of water for industrial use must be investigated but a preliminary survey indicates that 300,000 to 400,006 tone 'per day can be obtained and hydrnelect-- ric power from the Yellow River could easily supply one million. tons per day, pumping it 180 kilometers with no change in elevation. Industries that will probably develo in this area are iren, using iron ore from Lung-yenrchahar and local coal; cement, coal liquefaction, carbide, flour milling, eta. 3, The Hsin-hsiang--Chang-te Area . From the standpoint of communications this area-plays an important role on the Ching,hani-Pei-p/ing,-Han-k,/og Railroad line,.and will join the 'southern district of Shans,, with direct connection with Chi-nan and with the harbor 'of Lien-yun, Within 100 kilometers there is good quality anthracite coal (Chiao-tso coal field), and abundant good coal between Lu-an and Tde-chOU;'. Located inland, these important "coal resources will develop an important local industrial area. This region is in the heart of the North Honan cotton growing area, and raW.cotten from-inter- ior points, particularly the Shensi area, is also available4 It is less than 150 kilometers from the San-men George site on the Yellow River and thus can easily use its electric ;power. Water is available from the-Uei River for use in industry.- . After the establishment of flood control, on the the Yellow River, more than one Million tons per day could be supplied to, plants near the Yellow River, The industries, likely to arise in this area include cement, cballiwefact.$.On, alumina, aluminum, carbide, fartilr - izer, cotton seed.Oili linter, eotton-spinning, flour milling, etc, R43T4ICTEP. Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A0 0200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT listsTR,TaP ,rZ!fld---Yuan are4 . $ . This is in tha, center of Stiansi Province at the junction of the fihih-chia-chuang---Tai-yuan Railroad line and the Ta-tlung --.-Feng-lin-tu Railroad lines! Al for raw materia10,: coal and . iron reserves are enormousrand in the south near kirig-shih; a- , deposit of nearly 300 million tons of gypsum was discbvered. recently, As they are far inland, thiest resources must be Uied locally. Water for industrial use can, be supplied from the nearby Fen River at the rateof about-900,000 tons per day. Industries likely to develop in this area are iron, cementi, fertilizer, carbide, coal liquefactio4 etc, The Chiao-chou---Chi-nan district, Chting,tao and hai-chou will also become industrialized ,_aid require electric power, but they are too far away to benefit from the Yellow River -power development; Though at present outside the North China'area, Cheng...chou, Esian..and Han-alou will beoome *Mr- sumers. of Yellow River.power. Han-kiou may well. require 300,000. kilowatts. III Active Plans. to Utilize 3.ectric A. Introduction The eleven sites on the Yellow River will generate over eight million kilowatts, about as much as Japans total gen- eration of steam and water power at present. With the con- trast in living,standards and in industry. between Japan arid North China, it is evident that consumption.of:suCh a .vast amount of electric power will require definite planning. This study was undertaken while plans for the unification of the ec? onomics of Japan, China and Ianchuria were being formulated in Japan, but plans have not yet developed whereby.they can be used as a guide to the consumption of Yellow River hydroelectric power in North China. Since the Yellow River power study cannot await the com- pletion of these plans, it considers the power consumption cal- culated from the.North China economic development plan. The plan.provides.for raw material industries Where the mainAeposita are'loCated,- and in assigningindustries ta the best suite&areasinJapan, Manchuria.or?China even provides for some heavy.chemical,industry. The following table shows : theHareas,ip whichindustries? important in eleetricity:con.r sumption7are.likely to. de.ve'iop Industries by Location (Units in 1000 metric tons, "147- - F-.4STRICTLD Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 coyRepiroved For Release 1999/08/-25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5. RESTRICTED , . Tien- Ta- Chang-te Shih-chia- Ciao- Ch'ing- Hsu- chine? tlung.--Hsin-r chuang-- chou-!-- tao *chou-- Tangku 'hsiang T'ai-yuan. Chinan Hai-chou 10d 100 300 . 300 200 60 Pig Iron: '4,100 700 100 Steel ' , 3;400 450 . 50 Synthetic Petroleum ' 500 600 700. - 200 Aluminum 20 Carbide . 200 100 300 Artificial fertilizer 500 500 300 Alumina 40 100 Note: .(1) There are many other industries; such as cotton and cOtton-seed processing, flour milling, machinery manufact- ure, cement, etc, but they were eicluded from the plan f because they are special cases or because they consume comparatively little electricity. (2) Alumina will be produced by the dry electric hearth method in the Chiang-te--Hsinr.hsiang area while in the Tlien- .Ching--Tlang,ku and Chiao-chou-,Chi-nan area it will be a by-product of the artificial fertilizer industry, The latter method to produce alumina will require very little electric power. The water-power and coal resources of Japan, Manchuria and China are fairly rich for the present, but their self-sufficiency as sources of power several-decades hence does not look opti- mistic. Since water power will constitute the main source of energy for North China, he Yellow River must be developed to meet this demand. B. Active Consumption of Electricity All the generating Sites on the =Yellow River are rather far inland, The following table shows the shortest direct- line distance.from each dam site to the sea. The closest site is 550 kilometers inland, and Yellow River electric poker will not be so rheap in coastal areas as nearer its source.. These power sites are located in what is now considered a frontier area, but each dam would approximate in size the Seiho Dam power station on the Yalu River, making th,s the greatest electricity producing project in the world today. Most. of the active consumption will be by industries whiCh use a large amount of electricity, especially in areas near the hydre7 electric power sites, North China's economical development will naturally in- clude large-scale industry near the coast. It is difficult to anticipate the electric power situation some 500 kilo- meters from the power sites, but if the Yellow River power is developed under sufficiently favorable conditions, it would -118- RESTRICT& Appruvtd Fur Relcte 1999 . - DP78-0 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : GIA-KUP (8-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED still be cheWpit-that-thi-FTiOM-Heam plants or small 1-ydro- electric ones. Coastal industry wasitherefore-itcluded in the active consumption plan to be supplied from the Yellow River. . The maximum,,active.consumption'of-electriOity waS PalCulated 'Maiing-allmances.fOr eaph,partieuIar.Site.: These-ftgUres.are shown in the following table. - Maximum Active Electrical Consumption for Each Site Dam Average Annual . No, Electrio .power Output . Output. (1000 m); (1,00moa Acti4e- Electri6 power Consumptibt- ?(1-,000,0001 KM) Direct Diet:ince to Sea Coast (km) .- Ching-qhui River. 1 256 2,240 '55o 2 283 - 2,480 1,790 ?'560 Tlien-ch iao 3 .660 5,780 6,50 Hei7yu-klou 4 329 2,880 2;070 ? .6bo , Chi-Wou-chen 5 410 3,590 2,580 600 ? Yen-shui-kuan 6 418 3,660 2,640 660 Hu-klou - ,377 3,300 2,380 700 Yu-men-ktou 8 398 3,500 2,520 700 San-met Gorge 9 590 5,170 3,720 730 Pa-1i-hu-tlung 10 1,122 9,830 7,080 640 Hsi'ao-hen-ti 11 162 1,420 1,020 600 . _ The total electricity required for the (active consumption demand is thus 31,570,000,000 kilowatt-hours annually. Some sites are more favored than others,and the economical devel- opment plan provides for some variation in size and location of industries. ?This study will therefore consider in detail the electrio consumption by industrial developments in each district., and_ncf,..rg.katkork.44 each district to the power sites. Thil-it-elAtAlstriots are those mentioned.aboVe, the Ta-tung for the upper river, T'ai-yuan for the middle sectiOn;.. andIsin ha.ax1$ ad P'1.:11;1g7t.et_fP.P:11.10 . . , alower tion, 1u the 1)asta1 reas of rei-plitg---Tlien-thing (including Hopeh), Chinan (including Tzu-chtuan and Po-dhan regions), and Hsu-chou-.7. _ . -119- laSTRICTDD Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CANReciell For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED C. Consumption Plans for Individual Districts 1. T'ien-ching--Ttang-ku This district comprises a new port at Trang-ku and its hinterland, including T'ienching, Pei-pting and Hopeh area. It is characterized by the large volume of exports and imports handled through the port and the assembly of coal there. It has great prospects as an exporter of coal for industrial use to Japan and Manchuria in exchange for manufactured goods. To get most value from North Chinals coking coal, it will be combined with iron ore from Lung-yen and elsewhere to pro- duce pig iron and stall at new mills in the hinterland of Tlang-ku and the Chrin-huan-Lao region. Half of this produc- tion will be for export. The anticipated annual production 4,100,000 metric tons of pig iron and 3,400,000 metric tons of steel. Profitable industries will develope at the Kai-14n, Pei-p' ing.?Sui-yuan, Pei-Wing--Han-Wou, T'ien-ching--P,u- chou and other railroad lines. This distriet will?supply about one fifth of the synthetic petroleum production planned for North China in the effort to gain self-sufficiency in liquid fuel for Japan, Manchuria, and China; 400,000 metric tons of synthetic petroleum by the Fischer method and 100,000 metric tons of synthetic iso-octane petroleum per year. The artificial fertilizer industry, in which coal is t1-1 chief ingredient, is similarly favored and may be expected to de- velop a capacity of 50D,000 metric tons a year, to supply North, Central, and South China; Japan and Manchuria, The large soda-ash industry which utilizes Chiang-1u salt, will also require electricity, but, because of its type this industry normally uses electric power provided by steam generation since the escaping steam is used in the heating process, so it was omitte3 form consideration, The total electricity used in the above industries is shown in the following table. Industries Planned Yearly Pro- duction (metric tons) Electric Electric Power Power Re- required per quired Per year (KWH) Iron Pig iron 4,100,000 Steel 3,400,000 3ynthetic etroleum Fischer method Iso-oCttine method 400,000 100.000 250 (most pig iron Converted directly in- to steel) 470 2,000 1,025,000,000 188,000,000 200,000,000 ;ertilizer /Dotal 91,2),000 RES TRICTO) ? 500,000,000 1,91),000,000 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 ..,..ctiAtitoswpd For Release 1999/08/25; pi -RDP78-03109A000200010042.& RESTRICTED . - t . .e - , Geography does not favor the other industries that might be active consumers of Yellow Riyor hydroelectric power they.uere-therefore omitted. 2. Chiao-chou .Chi-na'n Area This district is in the heart of the central coal Mining region. It has iron ore at Chin-ling-chen and ektensiVe arable lend. These resources could be used to produce 3001 . 000 metric tons of synthetic petrbleum, 300,000 Metric tons of artificial fertilizer, and 100,000 metric tons of stecl (rb- tary hearth type). The required eeount of electric 'power is shown in the follaeing tahle. Industries Annual Electricity Electricity Planned ,Production Required per Requireciper (metric tons).LT (K-H) Year ..5ynthetic . Fischer petroleum method 300,000 470 W11000,000 ertificial fertilizer 3_00,000 1,000 300 000,000 Iron Rotary Hearth ty150. ogo . 100.. 10,000,000 Total . 0)40000100 3: Ch'ing-too and ri'S;.,choti-HEi.i.-choU'Arias .. . ?4art from soda .ash, ?the main industry.of these areas, is expected to be artificial fertilizer, ,,with an annual pro- duction of 200,000 metric tons (in Hai-chou). Soda ash. was excluded from the plan for the reason explained under the Xien-chipg--T'ang-ku area while the electricity required yor the Hai-chou artificial fertilieer industry is expected to be 200,000,000 KH. 4., The Ta-tung .4reee . This area as extensive coal and considera5le iron deposits. There, are. 30 billion; metric tons of coal et, Ta-Mung and other. deposits at Hun-yuan,.Pareechih and Fsia,hua-yuan. . In quality, there areeexCellentyuel. coals,_ coal usable in'obemical industries, coking goal and coal for direct liquefaction. Iron ore is found near Lung-yen and there are probable deposits in, Inner -Zongolia. These factors should develop an iron industry producting 700,000. metric tons of pig iron and. 450,000 metric tons of _steel a yeare_a:synthetic petroleum:industry,produe- ine 300,000 metric tons by direct liquefaction1:100,000_metric tons., by the kisehee method, en?00,000 metric tons a year of iso-ectane.grasolinee:end,e,200,000 'metric ton car5ide.industry foreeynthetic rubb'erHan4 organic-compounds-ieduetries. This section should require annually 3,513,000,000,ki1owatt-houre of electric power, including 200,000 kilowatt-hours for the coal mines near Ta-t'ung and 100,000 kileeNatts for the electrified RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 AtspinzedfforReleasp 1999108125.: ctA7RDF,7-93109A0q$3200010 RUTRT0TED 1 4 railroad from Ta-,t'uflg.q 1eng-k4. power is shoun'in the follow t4h1e. Industries Manned Iron Synthetic petroleum hnnual This demand fer.electric ElectriCity kmount of Production , Required Electricity .(meric tons) Per MT (KM) Required r 'Pig Iron 700,000 450,000 ? Direct Liquefaction 300,090 Fischer method 100,000 250 (asSUMIng 1750000,000 pig iron con- verted dirict- ly into istiel) 2,000 470 600,000 ,000 47,000,000 Iso-octa e 200 000 2 000 , 400,0000000 Carbide 200,000 4,000 . 800,000,000 Coal mining (200,000 Icv) 1,051,000,000 Ta-tlung Coal Transport Railroad Total (1001000 4000j000 3 513,000,000 As .shown in the.chart on page119. the nearest power stations at Ching,shui River, lio-chlu and T'ien-chliao have a total max- imum active consumption of 7,560,000,000 kilowatt-hours; which is 4,047,000,000 kilowatt-hours More than that required by the chart above. As explained above, however, these sites will also supply 1,913,1000,000 Kilowatt-hours for,industrial use to thaTieh-ching,Tlang-ku area, leaving a Surplus of 2,134, 000,000 kilowatt-ours. This surplus will be considered be, low; along with plans for disposing of the surplus power of ' other areas-. 5. Chang-te--Hsiang Area lost of the Yellow River hydroelectric Sites are in the hinterland of this irea. The total yearly amount of elte- tricity generated at San-men Gorge, Pa-li-hu-tlungandlisiao- hen-ti would be 16,420,000,000 kilowatt-hours, whichis 37.5 percent of tl.e total 43,850,000,000 kilowatt-hours from ell the sites: In North China, water for industrial use is very scarce but this area has more than enough such water from the ei River and the canal to be constructed for irrigation along the new,Yellow Piver (if it goes to Chi-nap).?, It will be e lare active bonsumer of Yellow river electric power. . Probable industries are a synthetic petroleum industry using coal from the mines at Chiao-tso, Liu7ho-kou, Tzlu- hsien, T.,u-an and Tse-i?chou to produce 500,000 metric tons a year by tLe Fischer .method and 200,000 by the Iso-octane pro- dess; a 500,000 metric ton artificial fertilizer industry based on the coal; an alusydna industry using the electric hearth Me- -122- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/98/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 AceriNirgor Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 thod andusing.alumina shale1bund in the.Chiao-tsosand Chung hsin..?, Coal Tieids and elsehere with an annual productionbf 100,? 000 metria :tons., 40.pefcei-ii....a..h.,,ittd,:b&-rfodi4a6d-siefec- trolyta.produce 200,000 metric tons Of aluminum by an alum- inum smelting industry; a 100,000 metrie ton carbide industry to_ supply raw Laterial for sythetic tubbernand-organi'a comPounds. _ The :electric poer required by these industries is shown in_. the following table.. .. ? , . Industries. Planned Annual EleCtricity Electricity Production ReqUired per Required per (metric tons MT (KWH) year (JM). 500,000- - 470 235,000,000 200,000-- .2 000 400,0000000 synthetic Fischer method _ ? oetroiedMa: Iso-octane ' method Artificial fertilizer 500,000 1,000 500,060,000 Alumina 100,000 17,006 1,700,000,000 Aluminum 20,000 22,000 440,000,000 Carbide 100,000 4,.000 400,000,000 Total ? 3,675,o0o,000 The maximum active power consumption, is given .Ln the chart on page 119 for San-men Gorge, Pa-li-hu-trung and flsiao-hen-ti, is 11,820,000,000 kilottatt-hours, from which the above industries will take 3,675,000,000 kilowatt-hours and coal mining 150,000 kilowatts (788,000,000 kilowatt-hours per year), ,while 300,000 kilowatts (1,5000000,000 kilowatt-hours peryear) will be trans- ihitted to the Han-ktou area, 200,006,000 kilowatt-hours to the- Hsu-chou-Hai-chou area, as mentioned aoove; and 451,000,000 kilowatt-hours to the Qhiao-chou.T-Chi-nan area.s leaving a balance bf 1206,000,000 kilowatt-hoUrs., This sarplus-will be discdased . 6 Shih-men - This area actually inelOes both ci.ties-and the 'district :. between them but Vie' ToObbmic-development-plan actually provides_ for active donsumption of electricity only by the-10Cr,,000 ton pig iron and 50,000 metric tan. steel industry at Tai-yuan. T'ai-yuan, ho ever, is located at. tilq. center-of-the Ta-tiuhg;---- Feng-ling-tu-Railroad line, 1.hich is par0.101 to the Main part of the Yellow River power development, and ,it is close enough to utilize the power., There are various grades of coal at T'a*- yuan, Tung-ahari, Hsi-shan,-Usien-kangchen, Fu-chia-Zari; f7ing..wu and elsewhere, and a deposit of several.handred million .4ons of g;psum along the railroad line between Ttai-luan and Ling7shill, both of great importance to East Aeian self-sufficiency. Indust- ry based on thek can readily produce 200,000 metric ton& 4 syn.? thetic petroleum qy the ,Fischer Method, 506,600 Metric tons of . ammonium sulphate by the g;paum method and 3001bO0metric tons bf carbide per year, to be used in preparing organic compounds. The cocl mines would require 100,000 kilowatts, making the total re- quirements as shown in the fol-owing table. ? RZSTMTBD *roved for Release 1999/08/25 CIA- DP78-03109A040t0010002-5 CPYRGHT Approxl d For Rcicasc ? CIA RDP78 03109A000200010002 Planned Industries Iron RESTRICTED Annual Production (metric tons) Pig iron 100,000 Steel 50,000 Electricity Required per XT OWN*. 250 ? Electricity Required per year .001H) 25,000,000 Synthetic Fischer petroleum method 200,000 470 94,000,000 Artificial Ammonium fertilizer Sulphate 300,0,00 by the gypsum method ? 1,000 300,000,000 Carbide 300,000 4,000 102000000,000 Coal mining (100,000 KW) 526,000,000 Total 20144'0000,000 ., This demand nearly equals the 2,580,000,000 kilowatt- hours of electric power that would be generated at Chi-klou- Oen. 7. Disposition of Surplus Power The above economic plan calls for the utiliiation of 14, 15,000,000 kilowatt-hours of electric power. The supply of this power is Shown in the following table (active consumption figures from chart on page119). Site Active Electric Power ConsumAion (1,000,000 per year) Consuming Total Electric Surplus Area Power Required Power (1;000,000 KWH) 1,000, Total Total.'000 KWH Ta-t/ung- 3,513 5,424 1.1.72A 7,560 Men-chit-4g- LAP./ Ttang-ku 1,913 1. Chinz-shui River 1,610 2. Ho-ohu 1,790 3. T'ien-chliao 4.160 5. Chi-ktou=chen 2,580 2,580 Shih-men 2,145 2,145 295 Ttai-hsianz tac7 9, San-men Gorge 3,720 Changte- 5,163 Hein-hsiang ' 10.Pa-li-hu- tluqg 7,080 11,820 Chiap-chou- Chi-nan 451 ' 6,614 4,46 11.Hsiao-hen-ti 10020 Fisik.chou- 200, Haj...ohou Total 210940 21,960 141185 - 14,185 In adation,to the above, a total of 9,610,No4o00 kilowatt- hours will be ?generated.for Active consumption at the following ? sites Hei.?-yu-kou.(2,070,060,060), Yen-shui-kuan (?,640,000,000), Hu-kou (2,380,000,000); and Yu-men-ktou (2,520,000,00,0). This surplus electric poker should be inclUdod in the East Asia economic development plan and requires further consider- ation. ' 4. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 19 /08i/5 CIAADP713-03109A 0 0001P002-5,1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED The extent of future industrial development ip North China is shown from the following figures, derived from the table on page 118.. Iron pig iron steel Synthetit'petroleum Alumina..(amelting method). Aluminum Carbide Artificial fertilizer' These figures are calculated from the present situation in theJapan,,Manchuria, and China Sphere, It would be extremely diffioUlt to estimate the production level to which.the require- ments of national .defense and development in East Asia will bring this region in 20 to 30 years, but for example, if the iron in- dustryahould reach the level it MA has in the US and Germany, approximately one-third of this production would be in North China. 5,000,000 metric tons 4,000,000 metric tons 2,300,000 metric tons 100,000 oig metric, tons 20,000 metric tons 600,000 metric tons 1,800,000 metric tons ?In other, industries likewise, North China will 'play a very important economic role in the Japan, Manchuria and China Sphere. -Considerable importance is given to the local conditions of each industry, and they should be reconsidered from the point of view of national defense. This reconsideration would take the following lines: a. Iron production: In North China, there is little iron deposited except at Ta-tung, Tai-yuan and in the Chiao- chou-Chi-nan area. Mills along the coast probably could use im- ported ore. b. Synthetic petroleum: The chief role of synthetic petroleum is to insure fuel in wartime. It requircs knowledge 20 or 30 years in advance of the type of warfare. The present :trend makes high octane aviation gasoline essential. ' Of the above 2,300,000 metric tons of -synthetic petroleum, the. 500,000 metric tons of iso-octane is the basis for 100-octane standard aviation. gasoline. If required, this . can be converted into' higher grade.neo-ohexane, eta. ? The planned develoement is sufficiently extensive,. for the North China production would exceed the present world. total production of 100-octane gasoline. c. Alumina and aluminueel To-fraintain a production in -the Japan,. Lanchuria and China Sphere. of 20Ce000 metric tons of Aluminum; 40.0,000 motro of alumina'for electrolysis iii be re- quired. North China and leanchuria.alumina:shale is sufficient to meet' this demand. Thu best ilethod of producing alumina from-this shale be.that? advocated by Professor YA:AaKI Jingoro in Nhich alumina is a_ by-product in the production of ammonium sulfate. Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED Facilites. producing. 2,000,000 Metric tons of ammon- ium Sulfate would be sufficient to produoe 400,000 metric tons of alumina. The present plan calls for 100,000 metric tons of alumina by the ammonium sulfate aLethod and 100,000 metric tons by the electric furnace method. This quantity is sufficient con- sidering the productimeapacity of ammonium sulfate in Japan and Lanchuria. AluMinum electrolysis facilities should be as dis- persed as possible for national defense. Excluding the facil- ities in Japan, facilities in Korea, Yanchuria and Formosa dis- persed according to the water power, can supply 40,000 metric tons yearly. This production would permit an increase of 20, 000 metric tons to the preyiously mentioned plan, d. Artificial fertilizer: These are principally such ammonium nitrogenous fertilizers as ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and .ammoniva chloride. This industry presents a coma- plicated problem in North China. In regard to amaonium sulfate, thc production of iron sulfide is small and does not exceed 100,000 metric tons annually; tho gypsum deposit of several hundred million metric tons recently discovered in Shansi is too far from tfte sea coast, and other fertilizer Material for ac..Tri- cultural use can be expected only in very small quantities. The production of aMmonium chloride as a by- product of soda ash manufacture is a nel industry which could easily be developed in North China, but if one metric ton of soda ash, ium chleridc is to Do produced from cach metric ton of soda ash, thc present production of soda ash would limit the by-product to 1,000,000 metric tons a year. e.. Carbide: Carbide is probably one of the best pro- ducers of. electrical energy at the present time. The above plan provides for a total production of 600,000 metric tons but these figures do not represent the exact quantity of the finished pro- duct. Lany synthetic products can be derived from carbide, in- cluding synthetic rubber, synthetic resins, synthetic liquid fuel, synthetic fibre, acetic acid, etc, Those synthetic'com- modities are not purely war-time substitutes but high quality pure synthetic raw materials. Thc minimum requirements as war- time substitutes must be considered. (1) Japanls present demand for crude rubber is np- proximatcly 50,000 to 60,000 metric tons per year, excluding reclaimed rubber, but is is cx- pected to roach 500,000 metric tons. (The present U.S, demand). If all of this amount is to be produced from carbide, aparoximately 2,000,000 metric tons aiaa be required. Th.x.iaaua production of synthetic rubber from caroide is achieved :Oa rubber of the chlor- oprene aroup, including the US Neoprene and - the Russian Soy-prone. If 8'0 percent pure caraidc is converted into acetylene from ahich cloroprone polymerised matter (synthetic -126 RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : GIA-KL)P(8-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT A SS ST-II """ RESTRICTED I I" A VII III III rubber).. is derived at. 50 percent efficiency, one-metric ton of synthetic rubber can be pro- ? duced from approximately fOur metric tons of carbide, - .(2) ?"Staple Abre," -1.hich is not used extenAvely ? as a substitute :for wool and cotton, was orig- inall.-vanother form of cellulose. Like rayon, lf is not a synthetic fibre in a complete sense of the. word. nth the bottleneck in the sup- ply of wood pulp and ra.7, wood used for 'Staple fibre" and rayon, these products cannot be a complete substitute, Nylon, which has recently appeared in thC US, Goimany's "PC" fibre and Japan's synthetic No 1 KANEKO.* arc pure syn- thetic fibres, and not derived from rood or cotton cellulose. Their properties make them satisfactory substitutes for 000l, silk, 'rayon, and cotton thread. No doubt there rill be a great development in the quality and value of . net fibres End in East Asials self-sufficiency in them. The above prodacts may be derived from varbus rar materials. Although consid=ble change in synthetic.fibu production methods is expected, carbide.is the most promising rar material in quantity in the Japan, ifanchuria and China ,3phere. The folloting gives Japan's production of rayon and "staple fibre", for 1939 (taken from Chemical Industry Year 3ook/7AGA= KOGY7 NENKAL7, 1941); . RAYON NDST3LD.FI3LL PRODUCTION (metric tonsl total For Domesti.cUse FOr Export Rayon 43,200 16200 j_900 Staple Fibre 112 100 Total :74A900 23,400/7ic7 The, exports 14ere.divided as follows (same source): ....????????????.???? Rayon. Thread .(lbs) Rayon Cloth(se yds "Staple fibre"(lbs) To Ianchuria, KN4antung Penin- sula and China I4?,5EL,000 72,447,000 24 42qjpoo To 3'. first ? rate powers 32 162;000 . 2?37,482,000 8,415,000 The above two charts shor that 23.5 percent or .13,800 metric tons of exported rayon and ap- proximately 74,2 percent or 12,000 metric tons of expnrted "staole fibre" vont to lanchuria, 127 ' RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Appmved For Release 1999/0R/25 ? CIA-RDP7R-03109A000200010002-5 (3) RESTRICTED the Kwantung Peninsula and China. Added to the 155,300 metric- ton 8 produced for domestic use, this gives a total of 181,100 metric tons, the. total 1939 consumption of synthetic fibre in the Japan, Lanchuria and China sphere. This cannot,,however; be considered the aMount of such fibre required there during wartime. The demand of this sphere will increase sharp- ly as a result of the political situation re,- striating trade whereas the demand for substi- tute fibre will be met cartly by measures to increase agricultural and live stock produc- tion. Taking the annual demand for substi- tute fibre as 200,000 metric tons, it -would re- quire approximately 1,240,000 metric tons of carbide if carbide is to supply this entire demand, If the synthetic fibre includes vinyl alcohol or vinyl chloride, at 50 percent. yield from ..cet;,-lene one metric ton of 80 percent pure carbide would yie1d.0.162 metric tons of syn- thetic fibre. production of 200,000 metric tons of synthetic fibre would require approx- imately 1,240;000 metric tons .of carbide, while that of 300,000 metric tons of synthetic fibre ?would require 1,850,000. metric tons of carbide. The rayon industry, which uses synthetic acetic acid cellulose; the synthetic butanol indust- iry, laich has drawn considerable attention Irecently as a supplier of solvents and raw materials for high grade fuels (iso-octane); the synthetic resin industry; and the syn- thetic benzpl, toluol and alcohol industries (aYes.., explosives, solvents and fuels--al- _ready' Active industries which are vital for peace and war) all use carbide, as a raw mat- Prial.. The.pradaetion of these.synthetic-industries in the principal countriee of the world is as followS (high grade. fuels, synthetic rubber and rayon were discussed previously and are therefore omitted here): The total 'annual production of industrial coemicals of the acet- ylene group in 1938 in the US was.5001000,000 pounds, or approximately 230,000 metric tons, If all Of this is produced from carbide .(tech- nica11L- feasible; though unsound economically)-, .it would require approximately one million metric tons of carbide .per year. The estimated annual reran production of syn- thetic resin for 1939-was about 10,000 metric tons, Gennany'z 1938' benzol production, which was not synthetic, -amounted to ,pproximately -128,- . RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 fease4999i08i25.: CIA-RDP78-03109A 02000141402p61 440 - , 000 r0E?triP, wh4e etoiU 4eticial ,..,P1J-4111i,Yea ll r; totae $#000 t0114, IrAP,Japan?,,Vanchurii,TChine el:* A9414.1* sigk-Ogficlencr 40 or 30 , 'etrom:nosc iA 0.146?Prodacts rIt -i'Proc497' cmParOle to Oat Of the: OS or 4400 uill-reVire a .miniMAm. of 3-000' ' tone g garbidv;:04r.l'e6r. The abgVergsneral_dieeusSion of Toarbidg' ;WO that the above eOndtti011e arP very f4vOrable far,filture deVelOpment,e, but' the proOlam of quantit.1T requires som'e studY in ordei to attain Selflaufficiency in wartime. The Yellm River hydroelectric. area is the most favorable sec- tipp for th*s production in the JaPall, Manchuria and'Chine.Sphere; and if it %ere to Produce one half of the.spherels output, it 1,ou1d amount to about three al1ion inetric to of carbide per'year. This is 2,400,000 metric tons more than the total 'Of 600,0000 metric tons for all the districts listed'aboid. fl The folloAng relatively basic industries also con- sume a considerable volame of electricity and therefor arrant consideration. The manufecUre of special. steels end. iron al;- elebtrio.furnaces -(2)- The manufacture of abrasives and as: brieks : The-manufacture-of.artificial graphite _ T- The?folloving chart-gives-the.total Lprld pro? -, duction pf these, products (From ChemiCal In- allai6. Year Book. 'for 1941, p 227): ? ? ? ? ProduatiOn- _Electric ,T;nergy Used tIt000 Metric to/0j l_CA,99.23.0(_22 1929 1939. 1929 1939 Electrically manufactured 24500 1,200 itOn A110:0 600 3,000 _3300. . , 1. 180 -Abrasivca . 50 750 900 t ? - The totai 1937. ec ricity production in Japan waa 30,20000091,006 Icilott-heurs? 7 percent of the lioridle total' of 430000,000,000 kiloyatt- hocirs. Japan!s,production .f the above three products 1?a'S about three tithes this percentage. _ . _ _ japanlejUture.prodUctionlAll be much larger +129,- RESTRICTED a .1 MI .1 ? I SSSSSS fill fill CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1u99tuts/2o : RESTRICTED than than it is at present and the Yellow River area probably will equal approximately the present production in Japan. The following electric power demand should therefore be added to these discussed above: Annual Production ' .(metric tons) Electric Power Required annually (KWH) Electrically manu- factured steel 500L000 240,090,000 Iron Alleys 100,000 Abrasives 20.600 ?520000,000 ' 100,000)000 Artificial graphite Iti,000 2000100,cm The above figures on electric power consump- tion will skyrocket whenever there is a drive for greater national defense. Since Yellow River power is exceptionally favored in quantity and cost, the industries discussed above ih this section should be added to those given in the chart on pagell8in planning the active reorganization of the in- dustries'of Japan, Manchuria and China. These additional industries would have the following electric power consumption: Additional Industries Annual Production (metric tons) Electric Power Required (KWH) Aluminum 20)000 4401_900,000 Carbide 2,400,000 9,600,000,000 Electrically manu- factured steel 500 t000,- 100 000 240,000,000 550,000,000 Iron A116 s Abrasives 200000 100,000,000 Artificial Graphite ? 20,000 200,000,000 Total 11,3:30,000,000 This-11,130,000,000 kilowatt-hour of electric power,is 3,355,000,000 kilmatt-hours more than the Yellow River surplus given in the chart on page . Therefore to equalize production and consumption of electric power, besides the sites listed in this chart, Hei-yu-klou (2,070,000, 000 kilowatt-hours), and Yon-shui-kuan (2,640, 000,000 kilowatt-hours) -ill have to sup-qy - most of the deifanez of the Shin-men--Trai-yuan areal while these additional industries are - 'distributed to the various production areas as follows: (1) The aluminur:: industry should, be. in the Ta- trUng area, which can produce at least 70,000 to 80,000 metric tons of lime tar annually for the ashless-carbornelectrodes. (2) The carbide indust* as mentionedabove, should be situated near electric furnaces and at least the first stage in its conversion into semi- finished products should take place near the -130- - ,- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 AppaRMEISUO-Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICIBll furnaces. -.ater for industrialuic should be abundant. The Ta-tiung drea,is:na_i,ell suited for this,-.,and its electricitis:urpl4e.,would al- low the production of 100,000 m9triq Icons there. The Shih-men--Ttai-yuan and Obang7tla,--ifisin-hs- iong areas have ample woter,-and esch'-erea could provide 1,150,000 metric tons.. ?? _ . Electric Steel manufraure req4rei tpproxi- Aateiy 500 kilowatt-hours ofhOlectric,power to produce one metric ton of stee4 -iConqequently, proxiAity' to the source of elecfricIppwer is nOt/eiMporant.and,of the $00,00 Metri?c tons, 300000 'Metrie toils cah'he allotted to the Ttieriching?qtang-ku area and 200,000 metric tons to the Chang-te--Hsin-hsiang.d.rea; -(4) Iron: alloy production involves Only'treatment in electric furnaces, so that fbisd.n4ustry shoulde located Ihhere electric,poier is readily altailable, Accordingly, 50,000 metric tons were allocated to the Ta-ttung and Chang- te--Hsin-ehiang area, respectively. Abrasivis andartificial,Ophite ere assigned to the Chang-to-,!.Hain,..hslang area, here elect- ric power is cheap, the raw'materials are read- ily available and the finished prodtacts'can , ?casi14'be tisnsported,away. (5) .Tpe utilization of electric power by districts los.covered above. The folio in,g chart shows the relation betweeh .f.he hydro- electric sites and the consuming industries.* *(TN: According to later .revision: "The elcctri:c power which would be required b the artificial fertilizer industry'near Hai-chou is so onmil that,it was omitted. Approved ForReleaie1999/08/25 : Chk-RDP78-031,09A000200010002-5. CPYRClarnlitari Pnr Ralaaca I AcIAMR/95 ? CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED Site Active Consumption of Electric Power (Igillion KW per year) Total(A) Consuming District Planned . Industries Annual rroductIon ,(1000 metric tons) Electric Surplus Power Electric Required Power (million (million PlY KNH per year) per year) Total(P) (A-F) Ching -shui River 1,610 Ho-chlu 1,790 Ttien-chiao 4460 T.560 Iron: Pig Iron 700 Steel 450 Synthetic petroleum 600 Ta-t'ung Carbide 300 Aluminum 20 Iron Alloys , 50 Coal mining( 200,000 KW) Ttien-chinp; Tt ang-ku 179 Ta-ttunt; coal railroad (100,000 TV) 1,047 1,200 440 275 1,051 11,628. 44o g75 Iron: Pig iron Steel 4,1oo 1,400 Synthetic petroleum 500 Artificial fertilizer 500 Electrically manu- factured steel 300 1.025 388 2,097 900 144 Hei-yu-klou Chi -kiou -chen Yen-shui-kuan 2,070 2,5.80 2,640 7,290 Shih -men T' al-yuan Iron: Pig Iron 100 Steel 90 Synthetic petroleum 200 Artificial fertilizer 300 Carbide 1,490 Coal mining (100,000 KN) . 25 94 6,745 300 5,800 526 945 -132- RESTRICTTD C Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED (Contd) Site Active Consumption of Electric mower (million DIE per year) Total(A) Consuming Planned Industries Annual Produo-glectric Surplus Elect- District tion (1000 Power Re- ric power metric. tons) quired(million (million (KMR Der year) KIM Der year) Total (13) (Al-P) Hu-klou 2,380 2,380 ? _2,380 Yu--men-kt ou 2,520 2,520 2,520 Synthetic petroleum 700 615. .Artificial fertilizer 500 00 Chan-te Alumina 100 111??01 Aluminum 20 San-men Gorge 3,720 Hain-hsiang Carbide 1,250, 5,000 Electrically Manufactured %Tilt steel 200 56 11,820 Iron.Alloy 50 275 135 Abrasives ? 20 100 Synthetic graphite 20 200 Pa-li-hu-t1ung 7,080 Coal mininga50,000 1i0 788 Han-10 ou Area (300,000 111) 1,900 1,500 Synthetic petroleum 100 141 Hsiao-hen-ti 1,020 Chiao-chou Artificial fertilizer 100 300 *. U51 Chi-nan Iron 100 10 Total 31,570 31,570 25,119 25,115.6,455 -133- - RESTRICTTD cpyfthrioved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESMICUD Thus there will OL a surplus of 6,455,000,000 kilowatt,hours for active consumption, but it is difficult to estinate f,,turc progress and demands for electric power and there will be great variations because of the scale of the above.industries and loc- tion of development. This study dealt mainly with electric consumption in Torth China, anticipation large scale transmission outside this section only to the Han-klou area. Several decades hence., the Yellow River project will have to supply the needs of regions to the west and northwest. Therefore, the surplus electric power is needed in the plan to supply necessary flexibility in the calculations. In concldding this discussion on active coasumotion of Yellow River hydroelectric power, the main point to be rem.embered is that this development must be postulated upon the establishment of the Japananchuria and China economy. It would be absolutely 'impossible to develop nVen one-half of the total water power resources if Japan and - anchuria are ex- cluded from the economic unit. This reduced economic base would raise the cost of producing clectricit through the lowered average annual output and might even affect flood control which is the basic prOblem. Another prerequisite is that the economic expolitation of Yellow River hydroelectric power must take place under sufficiently good conditions. Rapid conversion of industries to production for wartime is impossible and these industries arc therefore no insurance against wartime demands. 'Synthetics industries which will consume more than' half of the electric power consequently .atist be maintained on an economic basis during peacetime. This requires that the synthetic products resemble the natural ones as closely as pos- sible. The Yellow River project thereby will shm its complete value to the Japan, Eanchuria and China Sphere as a natural resource. IV. Plan for Transmission of Tlectric Power A. Introduction This chapter discusses the power transmissionnetork plan- ned for North China on the. basis of the plan for active consump- tion of electric power treated in III, and' gives, the basic cost of Yellow River hydroelectric power in the principal .consuming districts. This plan is one of the world!s foremost for the distance and volume of electric power to be transmittecL It will require study by many technical experts read considerable time to develop. lire transmission at 440,000 volts adopted in this plan, is higher than that used anywhere., else in the world today. This high voltage transmission will require considerable technical study. There are now plans being formulated for the use of higher transmission voltages and longer transmission dis- tances than those called for in the Yellow River plan. At present time, countries arc carefully studying electric trans- million by ultra high-voltage methods and in the near future the present plan will be rcalizeable. -134 RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT ??? RESTRICTED The Oasic cost of eIedttid poT;er provided in tlicJ Yello River Project seems high compared to completed prodg'Cts and thosc. der construction on the Yalu and78qngri.River7, Out construction costs for the Yellow River project arc based on _current commodity prits.' If the construction-Of-these-other projects had, :De.eo,; done -during the same Perioc-teChniCally ..tere_wouldfoonO quo- tion-that.the Yellow River -proyect ,foUld be much more:edonomil than any other project. Furthermore, the construction, of Yellow River dams is really Mere'Lrprertnt' for flood'ecntrol-and irrigation than for hydroelectric power, and these other fits-should-boar a portion of the daM construction costs.- If this apportionment were made, it would reduce cvenmore_the_qq#-..of electric power: 3. Electrical Demands Thedemand,for electrical power of the principal districts , . of Nbrth China was estimated from the above estimates-of active- consu4Dtion of electric power, while the average and maximum de- mand for electric power tae determined from the catiMated load - factor for the 4ndustries'in,each district. These figures are shown in the following taole; Electrical Demands based on Active Consumption District' Electric Power Required yearly (1,000 KB) 4:62%000 516,000 .Ta-tJung: Poi T'ien-ching- 811ih-men- Chang,-to-Hsin- thsieng' Chiaochou- Chi-nan Hah-406U ? Average Consumption 1:aximum (Kilowatts) ConsumPtion (KW) 52'8,1000 818 000 000 ---7f17,000 2,017,000 235,000 335,000 T'ai- uan 6 (S)2_ 9,734_1000 10.07,000 1,064,000 1,556,000 51,000 70,000 Total ? 1,500,000 , 25,590,000 170,000 300,000 2,921,000 4,260,000 The e1ectric-1 consumption of industries such as flour mill- ing, machine manufacture, cumcnt, etc and that for .illumination tic heating must oc estimated also. The following estimates .took Lnto consideration the development of the new industrial districts ,esulting from the plan for active consumption and conditions in tich district. -13i- . RESTRICTED ' Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 AproRNMPIcTr Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED General Demand for Electric Po,,.er District Electric Power Regaired Yearly (.] 000 nE) Average Consa2intion YaxiMum (1{1.4) Consump- tion (K4) Ta-tung 70,000 89,000 198,000 Pei-p'ing 750,000 86,000 190,000 Trang-ku 750?000 86,000 190,000 Shih-men-T'ai- yuan 1 150 000 130 000 290,000 Chang-te- Hsia-shieng 1,947,000 222,000 494.Q90 Chiao-chou Chi-nan 420,000 48,000 120,000 ' Total 5,797,000 661,000 1,482,000 The following chart consolidates the two previous charts to give the total,demand for electricity in each. district. District Total Demand for Electricity axiaurn Consumption (K7) Electric Power Required yearly (1,000 K1;) . Average Consump- tion (I0 Ta-tung 5-147)??? 617,000 1,016,000 1,266,000 14530?? 307,000 T'ien-ching- T-ang-ku 2,767)000 321,000 525,000 Shih-men- T'ai-yuan 7;895,000 901,000 1,354,000 Cheng-te- Hsin-hsiang 11,681,000 1L329,000 2,050 000 Chiao-chou- Chi-lnan 8n,000 9?,000 190,000 Han-k'ou 1J500,000 170 000 300 000 Total 31,387,000. 3,582,000 5,742,000 The above estimatdpn of the total demand for electrtcity equals approximately 70 percent of the total capacity of .43,800, 000,000 kilowatt-hours of Ching-shui River and ten hydroelectric sites and 70 percent of the maximum capacity of 80,000,000,000 kilowatt-hours of the same sites but if the 1os5 through trans- formation and transmission is included it lould be about 80 per- cent, C. Trans.,d ssion Network In their supplying of electric power to the consuming dis- tricts, as stated in III above, the Yellow River plan calls for supply by only nine of the eleven hydroelectric plants. The following study assumes tnat the transmission network will lead from these nine stations. Trien-chliao, Ho-chtu and Ching-shui River can supply the Ta-tung, Pel-pling and Tlien-ching-T'ang-ku districts and there- fore are considered a8 a segment, temporarily called the 'Iorthern Network. Yei-yu-klou, Chi-klou-chen and Yen-shui-kuan supply the RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RE,STRIG1ED Shih-men--T'ai-yuan district and will.be_called,t!heCentralNet- work, Wbile San-men Gorge Pa-li?hu-tjung and Eiiad-hen-ti p4pply the Chang-te-Hsia-hsiang, Chiao-ChOUChi-nan and Hanklou ar'' and 14111 be called the 39uthern Netuork. The distance of power lines was determined to the following centers. for each, district: ' Ta-tung District ilTa-tung);.Pei-Oling District (Pei-p'ing);;.. T'ienChing-Tlang-ku.District (Tlien..ching); Shih-men--Ttai-yUan- DiStrict,(Tlai7yuah).: Chang-te-Hsin-hsiang District (HSin-glsiang Chiab-clibu-Chi-nan District (Chinan): and-Han-klou.DistrIct, (han-k4ou.),_ - Each of the three systems will transmit eleetricityas an . independent unit. A rough -outline of the porer lines is given in the,follb-:,ing chart. Power Transmission Lines i3ORTIJERN I !NETWORK ! Distance 60 Km . Voltage .440)000.-- volts No of Systems Tlien- chliao. Ho-chlu to Ching-shui River 40 Km 440,000 Ching-shui 'Aver to - Ta-tung 200 1:1L 440,000 4 Ta-tung to Poi7pling, Pei-p'ing to 270 Km. 115 Km 440,000 440,000 4 2 Distance Voltage No of Systems Lei-yu-k'ou to 0hi-ktou- hen . 80 Km 440,000 volts 2 Yen-shi7kaun Chi-k'ou to Chipklou- to T'ai- chen ,yuan 110 Km. 180 Km 440;000 440,000 .2 SOUTTERN NETWORK Gorge to tl-ung to Pa-ii-hu- Hsiao-he6- _ Distance 70 Km 50 Km Voltage 440,000 440,000 volts No of Systems ?3-- 5 71 Hsiao-hon- .Hsin- Esin- ti to Hein- hsiang .Hsiang heiang. to 1.:an- to Chi- 130 Km 530 KM 350 Km '440,000 440,000 220,000 5 2 2 * The Hsin-hsiang--Chi-nan line rill pass through'Chang-te The volume of electricity transmitted over the principal trans- mission netrork in this plan, if present industrial voltages are used, will require citremely large transmission lines or a consid- erable number of systems. The operation of Japan's 154,000 volt network from the central mountain region to the Kanto and Kansai districts is affected by the ground .and produces conSiderablo in- duction of electricity in communication lines. Increasing these facilities above their present capacity would present considerable problems. -137 ',ESTRICTED pproved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010042-5 CPYRGHT A RESTRICTED . ? Several communication systems will have to be constructed side by side udth the power lines to the various consuming. dis- tricts.. . These will Le affected only slightly in flat regions where they can be kept aWay easily from the power lines, but each system passes through some mountainous terrain that will force the lines closer together. .3ecause of tho number of systems, some induc- tive interference must be expected 'whenever there is line trouble. Dee of higher voltages would reduce the construction costs. Opin- ion varies as to what voltage will be in use in the near future but R. e. E. Company (Reichs-'irtschaft Elektrizitaet-Oese1l- schaft?...7 in Germany completed a plan several years ago using 380,000 volt lines, and so it is reasonable that the present plan can provide for at least 440,000 volt lines (terminal volt- age of 400,000 volts). Although some problems still remain to be solved, this Voltage has been adopted. The decision of whether to use steel towers for each system or to have several systems on each tower must depend on the local topography, eeatheri methods of construction, ate; but for simplification, the plan provides for single system stel towers. hich type of Cable 111 prove to be tee best,?steel- core aluminum cable, hollow copper cable, aldrey eable, or some other special cable--is a problem re uiring 'research, but in this plan, the steel-core aluminum cable L AC:/ has been adopted. D. Construction Cost ' It would be very difficult at present to estimate the con- 1 struction cost of transmisAon lines and transformer facilities. from the estimated commodity prices current when the construction will take place, so the estimates are based on present commodity prices for the necessary material. This makes the costs of power lines and traasformer facilities rather high, and when this plan materializes, the construction costs probably will be somewhat lower. (1) Transmission Line Construction Cost A rough estimate of the total construction cost of the approximate total trensmission length of 6,100 Km is 353,400;000 Yen. Details are as follows: -138- RESTRICTED r proved For Peleace 1999/08/25 ? CIA RDP78-0310QA0002n0010002-5 CPV)GHT proved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RISTRICTED TRA-JSIT3SIET PLAN Ching -shui Rivi 2(X) Km (463,000 Mi): 440,000 v He-oh'u (477,000 oc Ttien-ch'iao (1,111,000 KV)] (567,000 Kvi c. Pig Iron Steel Synthetic. . petroleum Carbide Coal Trans- port Railway AluMinum. Iron Alloys General Use Laximum ?ol.er 1.016.030 t:9 ? Ta-tung. 270 Km 440,000 V Pig Iron Coal Electric Railways General UseL Laxitum Power 307,000 K4 _ . Ilion- Pei-Wing tsin .115 'Km e". - - 440,000 Iron Manufacture Synthetic petroleum Artificial fertilizer Electrically-Manu- lactured Steel General Use Maximum Power 525,000 1 Note: I:aximum generating power 'of. ' each site (?=s) is given in par- enthesis under the name of the site. Industries listed in boxes connected 1.th ConeaMing centers (a are new industries that will develop, The .Eax- imum Power is the maximum con- sumption of all these in-z dustries. T/ai-yuan Chi-klou-ohen 130 Km (702,000 K4) . 440,000 V o o , - r Yen-shui-kua (720,000 K4) San-men Gorge 2.1- 70 Km 440,000 V (1,317,000 KO ? 77; 50 Km /7\ 440,000 V (2,202,000 KO Syhthetic Petroleum Ammonium Sulfate Carbide . Coal Iron Lanufacture General Use Yaximum Power 1,354,000 K! Chan -to 61,711-`; Hsin-hsiang - Chi-nen ISYnthet1cPc.troleu1fl c)-2.tAlumina Hsiao-heriYil:;.!lliftlitlal Fertilizer '?^"7? Carbide 2,aettriCaI1y. Synthetic Petroleum Artificial Fertilizer Iron Manufacture ITransmiTia3h-P6WeT ? General .y,!!) L 300,000 KW Maxi:Mum ; POwer 190,500,' K71 ?4 Han-1.0-0Li -139- RESTRICTED manufactured steel, Iron Alloyi Abrasives , Synthetic Gr4hite General Use laximum Power ktp5o,oco Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Appreo%Df/Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 7 Construction Cost of Transmission i Transmission Distance (Voltage(volts) (Km) Lines Systems Construction Cost (Yen) , Ching-shui River to Ho-ch,u to Tfien-chriao 440,000 100 2 12,000,000 Ching-shui River to Ta-tung 440,000 200 48,000,000 Ta-tung to iPei-p,ing 440,000 , 270 4 64,800,000- Pei-p'ing to Tien-ching 440,000 . 115 2 13,800,000 Chi-k,ou-cheri to ' Tai-yuan 1 440,000 180 3 32,400,000 Heiy-u-kiou to Chi-krou-cher. 440,000 80 o 9,600,000 Yen-shui-kuan to 440,000 Chi-kfou-chen ? 110 2 13,200,000 , . San-men Gorge to '440,000 Pa-li-hu-trun 70 3 12,600,000 Pa-li-hu-ttan to 440,000 Hsiao-hen-ti 50 . 5 15,000,000 Hsiao-hen-ti . to 440,000 Hsin-hsiang ' 130 5 39,000,000 Hsin-hsiang to 220,000 Chi-nan 350 2 29,400,000 Hsin-hsiang to 440,000 Han,-k'ou 530 2 63,600,000 Total 6,100 Km 353,400,000 7140? RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED 2. Construction Costs fOr Tranformer Facilities , A rough estimate oftthe total ConatrUtiOn costs of:, transformer facilities to handle a total of 19,660;0004.10volt. ampere is 494,350,000 yen. Detail; are as follows: Construction Cost for Transformer Station Transformer _Station Capacity .(KV) Construction Cost (Yen) Pei.pting 700,000 17,500,000 'Then...ening875,000 21,900,000 Ta-t'ung' 1,500,000' 37,500,000 ..ctling.shui River 700,000 17,500;000 Ho-chlu 700,000 17,500;000. Then-clasp 1,500,000 37,500,000 Tlai-yuan ,. 2,000,000 50,000,000 Chl4rou-chen900,000 22,500,000 Hei-yuktou 600,000 15,000,000 Yen-shui:-Ituan 900,000 -22,500;000 Hsin-hsiang #1 Esin-hsiang #2 2,975,000- 280,000 74,400,000 E1,400,000 Han-,k'ou. 600,000 15,000,000 Chi-nan 280,000 8,400,000 Pa-li-hu-trung 3,000,000 75,000;000 San-men Gorge 1,750000 43,750,000 Hsiao-hen-ti400,000 10,000,000 Total 19,660,000 495,350,000 E. Materials Required Folloxing is a rough estimdte of the principal materials _ needed for this plan: 1. Transmission lines Steel . .:275,000-etric tons' - LlCtfltinUrrt 106,000 metric tons Cement 138,000 metric tons b. Transformer stations Cast Iran 295,000 metric tons Steel 1,670,000 metric tons' ., Copper' 30,000 metric tons-. Cement 256,000 metric tons . . F. Basic Cost of EleCtrigit,y in Consuming Districts The cost. o. eiectrieity in each conSuming district 'obtained from this projaet was determined from the total cost of generat- ing the needed electricity at each Ildroelectric site, as esti- mated in the chapter above, plus the cost of transmission and transforming. -141- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A0002000100 02-5 ARRWor Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED 1. Basic cost of generating electricity The fello;,ing is a tabulation of the cost of generat- ing electricity in, each producing district, calculated on a ,basis of 7 percent interest onconstruction cost, a depre- ciation factor laf 40 years at 4.5 percent on engineering fa-- cilities and 30 years at 4,5 percent on generating plant fa- cilities, plus an annual overhead including maintenance and operation costs and various taxes. Sites .1Annual Electric "Generation Over- 1 head (Yen) Annual Out- put .(1,000 KWH) Basic Cost of Electric Generation NORTHERN DISTRICT Ching-shui : River Ho-chiu Tien-chiao 1 1 126400,000 . . . 10,485,000 ?(Sen per KWH). 1.206 .. CENTRAL DISTRICT Hei-yu-klou Chi-kfou-chen Yen-shui-kuan . 120;600,000 ? 8,780,000 ? 1.368 SOUTHERN DISTRICT San-men-hsia Pa-1i-hu-tfuna Hsiab-hen-ti 134,100,000 15,610,000 0.859 2. Cost of Electricity to the Consumer The following is a tabulation of the cost of electri- city to the consuming centers calculated on a basis of 7 per- cent interest on construction costs; a depreciation factor of 40 years at 4,5 percent on transmission lines and 25 years at 4.5 percent on the transformer facilities; plus operation maintenance and other costs depending on the size of the in- stallations and taking into account transmisaion and trans- formation losses. 3asic Cost of E1ectrjcjtr in ConsuminRCenters Consuming Center - 3asic Cost of Electric Gen- etation (Sen ' 1 Annual Cost forci Power Transmitting an Delivered Transforming (Ktji) Delivered Cost (Son per WH)) per K.,vH) (Yen) Ta-tfung 1.206 18,125,000 5,552,000 1.532 Pei-ping 1.206 ' 70Q00 1_,.266,000 1.775 Tfien-ching11.206 l,930,000 2 76 000 .746 Tfai-yuan 1:368 ' 25,053,000 6-880 000 1.5 5 Hsin-hsian 0.859 34,238,000 11 681 000 1.1 2 Chi-nan J9.059. 6,371,000 ao,584_01po 8 1 000 .1,50g1000 _ 1 ?1 1.545 Han-kfou 0.859 - -.?-.? RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Approved ror Release 199u/u8/z5 : CIA-KDP(8-u3109A00020u010002-5 RECTRICTED The transmission distance makes it seem strange that the cost at Tien-ching is cheaper that that at Pei-ping, i.e. from a point of transmibsion distance. This apparent discrepancy is caused.hy the more favorable load factor at Ttien-ching. G. Comparisons to the large transmission net.,Lo:-ks of other countries. ElectriCity can be generated from steam near its consuming center, but this is normally not true of hydroelectric power be- cause the generating site is limited in location by natural factors and the consuming centers are limited by geographical and man-made factors, necessitating transmission of electric power from the generating site to the consuming center. Electric power is the product of voltage and current, so that the same power can be transmitted by raising the voltage and re- ducing the current, and a smaller wire could be used than for low voltages. Accordingly, power line economy has been achieved in recent years by raising voltages for major power transmis- sions and the trend is toward even higher voltages. The highest transmission voltage in Japan is 154,000 volts, but Lanchuria and gores are using 220,000 volt systems, and re, cently the Japan Transmission Company (*Nihon Hasso.Den Kaishil has completed a 250,000 volt system to operate over several tens, of kilometers. During the infancy of the electrical industry, no nation had more than distribution lines and short transmission lines, but the demand for power increased with technical deiielooments, and the age of hydroelectric power arterial transmission lines were constructed to overcome the immobility imposed by geographical and natural conditions. All nations are developing the water. power near to the consuming centers, and they are 'eeginning to send hydroelectric power from the remaining distant sites over special high-tension long-distance transmission lines to the consuming centers. The Southern California Edison Company of America was a forerunner in this field when it began transmitting at 220,000 volts in 1923, and the Method has become widely adopted in several countries, including Germany, France, Italy, Switzerland, Sweden and Russia. The chart below gives those transmission lines in the world which now equals or exceed 220,000 volts. The 287,000 volts of the United States 3oulder Dam is the highest voltage in actual. operation; out Germany's R.W.E. Company has constructed a system to use 380,000 volts. -143- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 UPYRGHT Fel Jams Operating Conners OrizatrY Date of Comstractlea Volt- age (IS) lTerwracy (Cycle) Sys- tome Spas (1(m) Tranemission Wire Type Area (mmi2) Co.- po- sition Weight (kg/m) 'mark' (Prelim! Trams 110 IS) (Present Trams 1540) Hsu-china' liver (Ursa) lb 1- Chisag-chiag liver Mater Power Co Japan 1940 220 60 2 34 dal 340 61/2.82 1.28 No 3 Karobe-Sasaza Japan Transmission Co 1941 250 60 1 Ito Type "He lollow Copper Cable 250 8 segments 2.22 Big Creek-Imgle look Soother* California ldison Co US 1923 220 50 2 388 ACSR 310 61/2.67 1.16 Pit liver Baca Dixon Pacific Gas and Bloc Co r 1923 220 60 f2 288 Copper Stranded Cable 254 7z712.57 2.30 12 45 ACSR 265 42419/2.s4 Wallenpaupack-Sleafried llectric load and Share Co s 1923 220 50 1 105 AMR 403 61/3.08 1.52 LC) 1 lucks Creek-Wilson Great Wester' Power Co s 1926-27 220 60 1-2 298 ACSR 403 6I/3.05 1.52 Cs! CD Big Creek No 3-Gould Southern paliformia Nilson Co * 1926 220 50 1 360 AMR 524 61/3.52 1.95 CD 30/4.14 4 CD Ir- Canowingo-Plymouth Meeting Philadelphia Bloc CO ? 1928 60 2 93 ACSR 403 19/2.48 1.84 0 26/4.44 4 0 a Plymouth Meeting-Siegfried Pennsylvania Power and Light Co s 1928 220 60 1 79 AMR 403 7/3.45 1.63 Cs! a Lighthipe-Long leach Southern California Idteon Co I 1928-29 220 50 2 16 f Bronze Core O Copper Stranded Cable 446 42 4 19/3.16 4.35 CD 30/4.I4 4 44( cri a lushkill-Plymoath Meeting Palle Service Gas and llec Co s 1929-32 220 60 1 188 ACSR 403 19/2.48 1.84 Ir- 15-Mile Palle-Tewkshary New Inland Power Association ? 1930 220 60 2 204 ACSR 403 61/3.08 1.52 CO ? 9) Wilson-Asniamd Sao Joaquin light and Power Co ? 1930 220 60 1TYPO 70 "I" fH0110O CO r.. ? Copper Cable * 260 28 It 22/2.46 2.40 (1. Tiger Creek-lewark Pacific Gas and Zlec Co 1930 220 60 2 183 260 22 22/2.46 2.40 C:) Et Brighton-Merced Great Western Power Co w 1931 220 60 1 165 " 260 22 II 22/2.46 30/4.14 ,L 2.40 4;(Sale Harbor-Westport Pennsylvania Water mad 'ewer Co s 1931 220 60 1 112 ASCE 403 19/2.48 1.0. (.) Boulder Dam-Los Angeles City of Los Angeles m 1936-40 287 60 3 438 5 Type re Nollow Copper Cable 260 10 strands 2.34 IS, 26/4.44 4 Cs! ..... Boulder Ham-Hayfield MWD of Southern California s 1938 220 60 1 381 ACSR 403 7/3.45 1.63 CO a Boulder Dam-Barre Souther* California 'diem Co s 1939 220 50 1 . 418 ACSI 305 30/3,6 I( 0, cl, cri Powerlon-Crawford A40 Commonwealth Idiom Co s 1940 220 60 1 236 ACSR 456 19/24? 61/3.28 1.72 't- 40 main' liver-Leaside Aydroelec Power Communication@ of Ontario Canada 1928-31 220 25 3 327 10511 403 61/3.08 1.52 OD ca Greed Were-lapids Blow Shawinigan Water sad Power Cb ? 1929 220 60 1 99 ACSR 403 61/3.08 1.52 CD --- Beauharnoic-landet Beauharnole Light Heat and Power Co ? 1932 220 25 1 ho ten 403 6I/3.05 1.52 CD (k! Pongee-Chats 1,1110 Gatineau Power Co s 1928-30 220 25 2 41 AMR 403 61/3.08 1.52 i- 0 ll. Ihelaisch-lestfalisches Type "N" Hollow Copper Cable Type "I" " ? s {Spiral 400 4010 12 strands SSW Type 3.57 14.06110 Vorarlberg-Sranwsiler Kok AG Germany 1926 380 (220) 50 2 539 Type Cibls 400 ARG Type 4:10 CD r.* Goldenbervierdecke Iheimisch-lestfalisches 0 i- ilek AG ? 1929 220 50 1 330 {TIP* IR" Hollow Copper Cable 185 7 strands 1.69 10- CI lorken-Lehrte Preussiche lick AG s 220 50 2 176 {Type "H" 210 7 strands 1.91 44C Ballow Copper Cable Cardano-Cislego Societe Idroelettrica Piemonte Italy 1929 220 42 & 50 1 f169322 61/2.76 1.20 _ 73 Aldreri 388 61/2.82 1.06 Brommat-Chevilly Paris-Orleans II Co and other companies Prance 1931-33 220 50 2 507 ACSI 295 37/3.54 1.33 Saint Cothard ?Moine Ilectriche ?lamest Switzerland 1934 220 50 1 55 lard-dravn Copper land Bronze 230 42/2.28-353 Lehrte-Magdslurg Preussiche Kok AO Germany 1935 220 50 ACSR 340 Irangede-Stockhdls Stockholm City Sweden 1936 220 90 3140 {tip. 'I. 26110* 00PPer Cable 255 28 4 22/2.43 30/3.72 4 Swir lo 2-Leningrad USSR Government lassie. 1933 220 50 1 240 ACSR 363 19/2.35 Lambs-Creasy Societe Transeleotrique Proade 1934 220 50 1 278 AM 295 37/3.54 1.33 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 * limos the Palm liver -- An-ohan 220.000 volt line is under etrastruatian? Abbas been omitted. A CPYRG CPYRGHT pproved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDp78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED ? Operation of transmission systems with higher voltages than ? those now in use would require extreme application from technicians and experts in all fields after- exhaustive study of the Weather, construction material and methods, and even the ecOnomie situa- tion. A great deal 'of work was involved in planning the above recently completed 250,000 volt transmission system. As stated above, thd 8,000,000 kilowatt oUtput of the Yellow River projects (equivalent to the present total output of Japan) 4ould be transmitted in three separate systems: The northern from Ho-chlu and Ching-shui-ho to Ta-ttung, Ni-ping, and T'ien-ching; the central from Hei-yu-ktou, Chi-ktou-ehen and Yen- shui-kuan to Tai-yuan; and the Southern. from San-man Gorge, Pa- li-hu-ttung and Hsiao-Pen-ti to Hsin-thsianga Chi-nan and Han- ktou. The distance and power transmitted would require a voltage of 440,000 volts, which is higher than any listed in the above chart, making this the world's greatest project in amount of elec- tric power, distance and voltage used. A plan of Er. Chernishev is under consideration to transmit 1,500,000 kilowatts over a distance of 1,650 kilometers from Norway through Germany to France. This plan will use special bus bars capable of handling 2 x 500 KV DC (ground voltage). :These bus bars could economically transmit 2,000,000 to 3,000,000 kilowatts for 4,000 kilometers. Thest developments lend possibility to the Yelloa River transmission plan, but technical study must be given to the problem of whether to use direct or alternating current. The characteristics of direct and alternat- ing current are quite different. Using the Jame facilities and at the same voltage, more power can be transmittee Iv direct current because of the voltaae-,drop0 skin effect, line-stability, etc. Iiith intermediate direct ground points, insulators capable of carrying a line voltage of 440,000 volts direct current could carry only 156,000 volts alternating current. The corona voltage would be 1.6 to 1.7 times that of alternating current and hence the corona lose aould be less. Research now in progress on the transformatien of alternating current to direct current and vice versa should solve this problem of transmission in alternating current versus direct current, All large transmission-systems planned in Europe today propose to use direct current, Future study must decide whether the Yellow River plan should use direct or alternating current. al44a ? RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA RDP78 03109A000200010002 5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 aESTRICTED J,TANECE PLO FOR HYDROELECTRIC DEVELOPY2NT OF THE MUT -MTM IN CHNA (Continued) Far Eastern Research Section ' Survey Comnittee.No 2 Nth ChinaCommittee:: Subcommittee No 4 ray 1941 PART 10, FL,L,: FOR SAN4.;,EN GORGE HYDRO- ELECTRIC DEVELOPMENT CPYRGHT OCHIAI Kushiro IZAh Hirosachi IlljLE OF CONTENTS I Introduction II The San-men Gorge Dm Ste III The Damp Reservoir and Amount of Usable Water IV Effective Head and Electrical Generative Power V Silting of Reservoir's VI A Sricf Outline Of the Construction Mans VII Method of Construction VIII Materials Necessary for the Development of .the Site IX Outline of the Construction Costs X.Iethod of Paying for the Construction ttists' 'XI The Second.Proposod Plan for the Deve1o0Ment San-men Gorge .kI1 liaiabitantp and Natural Resourees in the Still, Water Area of the San-men Gorge Dam -1145- ,RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP74-03109A0002000t0002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT R73TRICTED I. I:TRODUCTION Aong the water power development sites along the Yellow River, San-men Gorge is one of the most densely populated areas and is therefore esoecially in need of river improvement, irri- gation and flood control. This site also has better canlunication and transportation facilities than any other site. Since it is be- lieved that this should be the first site developed, its plan will be described in detail. It is difficult, however, to approach the dam site because of a large .body of stagnant water, which makes it impossible to make definite plans. These theoretical plans are based on existing surveys and on the reports of persons Nho visited the site for other pur- poses, All downstream water power sites on the Yellow River are somewhat .similar, but at San-men Gorge the area covered by res- ervoir water would become especially large with tac 'increase in the height of the dam. This area is heavily populated and may also contain some natural resources. A thorough investigation is impossible at present. The Ycllow River carries an exceptionally heavy silt load and would fill any reservoir within a fbw decades, unless the silting is prevented somehor. Since thc reservoir would thereby lose all value, measures should be adopted to extend its life as .much as possible. Reforestation and soil conservation in the headwater area should normally be accomplished before constructing any res- ervbirs, but the construction of dams to control the Yellow River floods should not be delayed even a single day. ,Furthermore, electric power developmnt is urgently needed in the Orient. A second plan was therefore considered to construct low dams which .would have relatively small reservoirs that would not flood large areas, meanwhile making preparations so that the:T could later be developed into. the requisite large dams. Thc following discusses principall;- the first plan for a res- ervoir with maxi.mum water level of 350 meters (from Tang-ku) and then treats the second plan to construct the dam in two stages. As there is inadequate tirue to describe each plan in detail, the second plan will be summarized only. San-men Gorge ? has for soma time attracted attention in Iellow River conservation plans as a dam site. The best material dealing with this site is as follows: 1. "Rough Draft of Water-Utilization Plnns for Shansi. Province" 2. Lliasson: "Research ontheGentrol of the Yellow, River Floods by Retention Bans? (1936) 3. 'Topographical lap (1/5000) Survey by the Committee on North China Water Utilization (1936). All these works considered dams for flood control and paid no attention to hydroelectric power, -146- RESTRICTED ? Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED No existing survey reports specifically suit the purposes of Yellow River hydroelectric plan, but investigation of the site has progressed considerablY add there is more.acCurate inform- ' tion about this site than -for any other. Although .this infer- mation.is incomplete) Aotuallihvestigations nhd detailed sarveYs' should check the accuracy of the conclusions. II. TIE SEEN:GORGE DAY SITE As mentiOned before, in'1936.the S. Eliassen treatise called: 'hesearch on the Control of the Yellow River Floods by Retention aasinsff was published, Notes were taken on this survey by him and consequently we are now 'able to estiarto the cOnditions of the San-men Gorge site. The essential translated portions of his treatise arc mentioned below for reference. Since San-men Gorge is 25 kilometers downstream from Shan and only 10 kilometers from the nearest railr6adt3tiOn on the Lung Hai line it is the most accessible of the Yellow 'River water power sites. The road from the railroad to the'engineer ing work shop is very poor, but an evenly sloped road from the nearest station (Fzfu-chung) to San-men Gorge could beeOnstru0- cd quite cheaply. At the rapids of San-men Gorge,' beteuse of two islands composed of bedrock which jut out into the Yellow River, three streee:e 50 eo /10 wide have bean i:or stream on the south side is called Kuei-mea, the central stream Shen-men and the stream on the north side is called Jen-men or Hiang-men. A small boat can cross the central stream, and when the stream is lot, one can wadencross the stream on the north side teethe north island. Only the Stream on the south side is crooked and the small awkward boats of this district arc barely able to Cross. When Eliassen inspected the San-men Gorge rapids, the volume of flow of the river was about 5000 cubic meters per- second and the,river!formed three Streams 'of rapids. The esti- mated difference-in the water level belov and above the islands was at least 4 to 5 meters. , The total width of the three streams was not greater than 100 meters, and becauSe the difference in water level Was about :4 meters, the depth Wes estiMeted to be from 7 to 8 metursiee'Assumingethat dUring the low tater period there is no wnter?In.theejen,-men stream, then the ether two must be slightly deepertherethe above,estimate but not deeper than 10 to 12 meters. It was estiMated that during the low watbr, period they mny be no'doeper.than 6 to 8 meters. Owing to the ' speed of the current, of course; gravel nd sediment ere nbt dc posited on the bedrock of the river bud. If the two streams, the Kuei-men and the Shen-men were very deep, their currents . would be calm during lou-watee:peried On t::eother hen, if ? the water flows fast enough to cause whirlpools, this ihdieeteS that the water is deep., The bedrock :6f the KUei-men IS very , hard gneiss and granite. For this reason, the water'flow'has not much of an nbrasive effect and as a,eeselt,:it has remind the some since time immemorial.: The bedrock of Sanr-Men GOrgc. is very hard and can therefore endure the erosive action of the sediments; itebespreserved the same Slope' of the riverbed Of the'. upper reachoe for ages. eHewevere it chanjesete enrOeiC andceedicntlery r;',;ect'ac, ?enereever ',Jhurf:iddree!: of e!le -147- =TRIO= Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 cpyptepflpved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED baxIA .:wojeots out cr:T..vcr, and tt is feared that in so,:x places the main bedrock is composed of shaloand sandstone. The line between the granitt and sedimentary rock crosses the river obliquely from the dam site on the north bunk to the south bank abovo San-men Gorge. The bedrock upstream from this line is metamorphic and sedimentary rock. The south bank consists en- tirely of hard, complex rock structure but on the north benk, only -the lower strata is hard rock; the upper strata being soft metamorphic and sedimentary rook.' To what extent those facts will.affect the dam construction is hard to predict; this will have to Wait for the redults. of futurc survey.and. research. The above is according to Eliassen's report. He further states that the north and south banks are hardly high though for the construction of. a dam 60 meters in hoight but just which site he referred to is not clear. From inspecting the 1/50000 map which is based on aerial photographs or Lap No 2 drafted by the Yellow River Water Utilization Committee, or if possible, actual photographs of th., dam site, one would conclude that there are mountains there that should permit the construction of a dam about 100- meter: high; lie may have been referring to the plain in the upper roaches of the river but this is not heeessarily true. III. TiE DAL, RESERVOIR AM MOUNT OF USA3LE WATER Since Masson has already drawn up plans for the construc- tion of a flood control dam at the site, and the Chinese Com- mittee on the Survey of the Yellow River has charted a map based on actual survey, this place has been selected as the -site for the dam. Furthermore, because there is a considprable gradient downstream from San-men Gorge, (although the difference depends on the volume,of water the fall is about three meters) and if the geological conditions are the same, tho question of whether the dam should be constructed above or below San-men ?Gorge should be carefully considered. It mny be necessary to install a waterway of conaiderable eize to produce a suitable head. This will be investigeted carefull and dccided upon later._ For the present, vc; will arbitrarily choose the .site above San-men Gorge. If river transportation by boat were to begin .in this ? section of the river, it would be advantageous to raise the water level to the water level upstream at the drainage point ofYu- men-ktou. Because of the filling-in action of the silt and the grcat variatiA in the amount of water flow, it would be advisable to cven the -flow with a large capacity reservoir. This capacity can be calculated from past records of waterflow. Wo have re- cords of the flow at-Shan-hsien compiled by the Uommittee on the 4ater Utilization of the Yellow River and a summary of them will be found in thc annexed Lap ChLirt No 1. Its origin is ue- known, but this 'blueprint of a graph representing the volume of water and water level over a period of 17- years .(1919 to 1935), was found and it appears in this document in adjusted form. These records contain informntion noted in the document "Huang- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010001" -5 CPYRGHT ESTRICTED ho-chin" and others:, and although it is a roCord of the samq year, there is a-slight discrepancy. and is 4ifficult to deter- - mine which is correct. The figure for the grehtest flow is the. one given in these records, but in; anyecase, there is on17 e difference of less than 100 cubic meters per second: As is shown in the Annexed map, the volume of flow of the Yellow River differs greatly from year to year. The ratio between the Volume of flow during the year of least flow (1928: .20,500,000,000 cubic meters) and the volume of water flew during the of greatest flow (1921: 66,500,000,000 cubic meters) is 3.25. Therefore, in order to,Makc the San-men Gorge hydroelectric. power plant most efficiuht, the volume of water flow will have ' to be regulated year after year So that even., during dry years auxiliary power plants Will not be necessary. (Tables 1 and 2) In order to do this, not only seasonal regulation for one year, but regulation of the water flow year after year will be necessary. To determine the amount of water to be used according to the above mentioned graph, ?ec will have to estimate the amount of reser- voir weter from toe graph shoving the aoent ef water flow in Chart No 3. 3ecausc of the Settling of the silt in the reser- voir, the number of years we should, set as our objective Will pose. &cOnsiderable problem. , If we take the first plan, in view, of the fact that the area of the reservoir's slack water will be very great, the area being, --6 livelihood for natives in this area, and becaase itis thought that the reservoir area may contain natural reseurtee,.the, height of the dam cannot be determined by simply referring to the graph of the volume of water flow. At present, the only knownntte.reel resources is the salt of the lake near Yun-ch'eng For the present, we plan to set the height of the daM to pave this lake. The elevationeef this salt lake ie not accurately %lawn, and has oalle- bee:1 catimted :ma tho clevaieze. ef'.7ht: Ta-ttung--Fe'ng-ling-tu railroad. The Su River, :Which flaws past the Yua-chtehg area, forms-gorges in its lower reaches. 3y: cutting it .of here, if it will be possible to. pumpthe watel- of . the Su River into the reaervoir at San-men Gorge, theefullwater7. level of the reservoir Can'be raised. Sinceeen.investigation this at the present is impoSsible, we eilletentatively assume . that the maximum elevation at which the water will not'cOver thia salt lake is 350 meters above sea level. The discharge level- at the Yu-men-ktou hydroelectric plant is 366 meters, 'so the te- maining Usable head is 16 meters. In this case, if the, dam is : -sunk to a depth of 15 meters below the river's median wateir lel and the height above water at full water level is two meters, the overall height 'of the dam will be 86 metcre and will contain about 1,400,000 cubic meters of concrete. If the eater were permitted to rise up to 350 meters above sea level, as shown in Chart No 4, at first, the amount of reservoir water would be more than 40 billion cubic meters. In the event of cutting off the Su River, with 15 meters of effective reservoir water for power generation, the volume for river control would be more than 35 billion cubic meters. This volume is sufficient for regulating the amount of water flow of the Yellow River. This regulation will be even better when the reservoirs are constructed throughout the length of the Yellow River so that the burden at the San-mon Gorge reser- voir is lessened. USTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED From 1919 to 35 the average volume of water flow was 1365 cubic meters per second. The water to.be utilized for electric power is the amount which remains after subtracting evaporation and the amount of water used for. irrigation, etc. The &mount of water evaporated per year according to records of various places is 1,000 meters. 6upposing that the average area of the reser- voir water were 2,000 square kilometers, the total amount of water evaporated would be two billion cubic meters. This A,ould be about 63 cubic meters per second. The aVerage amount of utilizable water after' sdbtracting water for irrigation, etc, is 1250 cubic meters per second. The maximum amount of utilizable water should be de- cided by considering the amount required for production of electric power. If this load factor is taken at 60 percent, the maximum amount of water used becomes 2100 cubic meters per second. . Table No 1 ? Table of the Yearly Volume of Water Flow at Shan-hsien Year Total Volume Average Volume Maximum Volume Minimum of Water-flow of Flow (cubic ofFlow.(cubic Volume of (cubic meters) meters per sec) meters per sec) Flow(cubic meter per sec) 1919 44,430,000,000 1,408 1920 57,210,000,000 1,809 1921 66,540;000,000 2,110 1922 44,470,000,000 1,410 1923 52,170,000,000 1,654 ? 1924 27,960,000,000 884 1925 52,690,000,000 1,671 1926 20,9501000,000 938 ' 3.-927 40070;000,000 .1,271 1928 20,499,000,000 648 1929 35,600,000,0100 1,129 1930 33,960,000,000 1,077 1931 31,730,000,000 1,006 1932 31,120,000,000 984, 1933 53,360,000,000 1,692 1934 45,840,000,000 1,454 1935 64,360,000,000 2,041': ATPrake 43,030,000,000 1,365 -1.50- RESTRICTED 14,720 115 8,690 190 11,110 300 7,800 280 10,200 340 4,400 250 14,880 220 9,100 150 6,700 120 4,750 130 !12,380 220 , 8,180 150 4,850 250 10,900 180 21,150 185 9,800 200 18,200 410 10,459 217 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002.5 CPYRGHT REbTRICTED stableio 2 Table of Averake:Voldke of later Flow eachIpAti_11,_ . - Shani4iSien 3.21.9 to 1934) Month 7461 Fleire Average Rate Of',Fl,OW (cubic Meters) (c04-q-#44006y.fsee) January 1,120,0000000 .id.. . February 1,1300000,000 : 468,.? Larch 1,780,0000000 ' 663.: April 1,87000000900 ? 721 May 1,980,0000000 . '739 June 2,800,000,600 ' -11:,082- July '6,870,000,000 2-:4564 ' August 100140,000,000 ' 3;787' September 6,330,000,000 ' 2,442 October 5,370,000,000 . 2,005 November 2,600,000,000 1,002 December 1,1300,00,000 45 IV. EFFECTIVE HEAD AND ELECTRICAL GENTIATIVE POR As mentioned in the previous section, the maximum water level is to be 350 meters above Tang-ku, the datum point. If building a high dam is conSidered impossible; ds a second plan, the highest ,ater level during the first phase will have to be 325 meters as at Tlung-kuan and during the second phase, tne water level will be raised to that of the first plan:. The discharge level will'be decided by the site chosen tor the'construction of the dam. Tentatively, we? shall choose a site upstream from San-Men Gorge. It is decided that the generating plant should be constructed directly downstream from the dam and'that-the discharge level calculated be 282 meters above sea level. 'Since this reservior is to be used to .control flood water, the .necessary capacity for this must always be left ia the reservoir. If the depth of water used for this purpose is three meter-S., then at first, the volume of the reservoir water will be seVen billion 'cubic meters. For the time being it may be possible taroduCe the amount of flood water. Even though the reservoir were filled, if the silt were let downstream by means of the surplus water dis- charge gates installed in the upper part, a certain reser- voir capacity would permanently remain. If it proves, pis- sible to reduce tIle 471m: oi tided water tral the '2=11.1.w,11 9: 25,000 cubic meters per second to 15,000 cubic metert per there will be no danger to the dam construCtions downstream. Next we shall _calculate the generating power, asSUMing -that theless of -head in conducting water to the turbine is one meter af water. ? RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25.: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT hax water level-' Min water level _ Depth of.utili,zable water Mean water.leVel- heanAotal head ' Lean effective. head Depth of water used for flood contra Max effective head Discharge level RESTRICTED Table No 3 ..350,..d..abovey,spa level 330 m above sea level 17 in &gni:6 Sea Lava 342-m-above sea level ? 60 m ? 59m 3 rn 64 m 282 m.above sea level Despite the head, the calculations of .the_ generating power show the efficiency of the turbine to be 89 percent, the efa4 ciency of the generator 96 percent and the Combined efficiency to be 85.3 percent. Assumkng the maxirni mount of utilizable water to be 2,100 cubic meters per second, the generative power and the amOnt of electrical power produced is as shown in Table No 4. Table No 4 Max output', 1123,000 KW Power generated 5,160,000,000 KgH V. SILTflG OF RESERVOIRS According to the investigations to date, the average annual flow of silt at Shan-hien is estimated to be about 1,050,000,000 cubic meters. If all this silt were to settle in' the reservoir and even if the:capacity.Of the reservoir were, 40,000,000,000 cubic meters, it is calculated that within about 38 years it would be completely filled. Actually only at?first would all 'the silt settle in the 'reservoir: It is difficult to predict how it will settle later since this will depend on the terrain, the design of the dam, the way the dam is operated, and many other. factors. After is has been. filled to a certain extent, however, the flood ater will flow through the flood gates-and the silt will not settle as at first. Sesides, the fact that the flood water con- taining themost.siltwilI be diecharged through the flood gates, a change in the,slope. ;of the river upstream is expected so that a -considerahly.greater_nUmber of years Will be required fer.the reservoir to fill. After the cOnsVruction Cfthe-dam,-the devel- opment of the site af. Ching-shui-.ho and other sites 11 even the flow of the upper-reaches'of the river. .Since thisfu4,11 serve to regulate the flood water,lt 14111 reduce the ameunt of water for San-men Gorge to handle' and will also serve as a silt- stop. As a result, the life of the San-men Gorge reservoir will be extended. Mthin 40 years it will have paid for itself com- pletely and it would be best to leaVe'.subsequent plans till then. As far as river consorvation is concerned, by these means we will probably be able to control the flood waters satisfactorily. It would be-very difficult to make an accurate estimate of the storage capacity. Judging from the width and depth of the -152- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 AppromIFFGAHlkelease 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Appr RESTRICTED overflow and the fineness of the sediment, however, it can con- ciuSiveilbe said'that-the sIopceof the_riv.erts bed will reelaine fairly Moderate. :Thereforeit is thoughtethataecapacity of at least einebillicitCcubic meters can-beepeiManentlyenainteined..... . SuCh a capacity will definitely dimiaish the flood waters eonsid-, erablY. Ecanwhile the -two sites downstraum will have. been devel- . oped. It would beNer5e.effeetiveto leaVe the excess flood waters to them. Consecuently;it is thought that this filling-in action uill present not too diffiedlta problemedoefar'as flood water control is concerned.. It is vnly with regard to the.even regulate ing of the water flowthat a,tertain atounteof inconvenience will, be encountered over a period of a few decades. As soon as the Ch'ing-shui-ho reservoir i8 filled in,eregulation of..thc water flow will become almost impossible, Thiesmilleprobably wc14 over a hundred years, By this time the.reforestation of the.hea water area will have been expanded-to inclade the.tributaries and a thorough national soil conservation program Willehave been ef- fected. With the advance in engineering technique, our present anxieties will be relieved. kTaking the gigantic dams of the world and USA in particular, there is a small difference in the number of years required to fill in a reservoir as compared to a similar reservoir in the Yellow River,) VI A BRIEF OUTLINE 017'THE CONSTRUCTION PLANS In calculating the 'construction cost and in investigating the methods of constructicn, we must consider the formulation of a plan in its outline. It would be best to develop this type of. site' into-a dh.mtype hydroelectric plant. At San-men Gorge there is a waterfall which has a'head of three to four meters. ecause of the,fa:ct that. tut: rapids are quite swift, 'we are planning either to construct a contiderebly long waterway ana to use its head as mentioned before or to increase the head by placing the dam below the waterfalls. The river in this section is very narrow com- pared to the amount ofeflow andLthe.slope is very marked,' The question as to whether or not'?it would be advantageous to place the 'dam above San-men Gorge, construct watcr?ey And make use of the head, must be decided after,careful investigttion. .Now sup- pose we tentatively choose a ddm site:upstream froM,Sen-men Gorge. uill adopt e plan, which will call fbr. an overflow typo gravity dam made of concrete. The hydroelectric plant' are, to be pieced as near to the dam as possible ,saaS not to obstruct-the. flow.of water from the flood gates. .14;.droe1bctric plants ofreflualsiee will be installed on eithet bank of the river.. In view?of-the fact that the river is nakroW,.ench rock on either bank will probably heve to be cut away. before the hydroelectric plant is installud. (Refer to lap No 5) The.maximum_flgwpf-floedmater as recorddiii1.193.3 was. 23,000 cubic meters per second. (Initially, we will be able to concentrate this totel amounteof. flow in the reservoir. ,Later, should the IcaX111111111 rate of flow be as high as 25,000, cubic meters, per second, ?this can be lowered to 15,000 cubic.meters per second through, flood contra measures, Therefore,. the flood. gates must be,abie:to handle 15,000 cubic meters per secone.4. In actual con- . -153- REVRICTED CPYRGELT App-roved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED struction the gates will be designed. to handlo 300000 cubic 'meters per -Second and ProVisions for emergencies may have to be made. In order to control the. Plod watqrs the upper portion of the reservoir will always be.open.. Therefore, if the flood waters do not (1coed tho normal a.aeunt(2.50000 ,Pubsie meters per second), it can be easily reduced .to 15,000cubic' meters per second. In order to eliminate silt post efficiently, the flood gates should be placed as decp as possible, Let us assume thnt the silt outlet is constructed to 12 meters water depth. The conduit will run from the water intake which will be attached to the mountainside, through the water pressure tunnel, directly into the turbines. Preesurq-controlling water tanks will not be used. One tunnel will be connected with each turbine. Their average length will be 250 meters and penstocks will be installed in the tunnels and will be connected with the turbine, VII THOD OF CONSTRUCTION A. Facilities for the Transportation of.Construction Materials This site is about ton kilometers from the Tzu-chung station on the Lung-hal line. A.1.ine which will cress the Onunpo- tiao mountain range and connect t"e dam site with the Yuri-chteng station on the Ta-tfung,-Feng-ling-tu line is also under con- sideration. This would be aedirect line of 40 kilometers. De- pending upon the terrain, the connection of the Ta-t'ung--Feng- ling-tuline with the Lung-hai linqat the dam site will contri- bute to the construction of the dam, and as a future industrial transportation line, it will assist greatly in the development of north and south communications. Although considerable difficulties would arise if.:construc- tion work is to be begun. before peace is restored along the Lung- hal line, it would probably be best to lay a track'from Yun-chteng or An-i. (A road is now open between An-i.and Ping-1u). Ihich- ever track is laid, a large type locomotive should be .used on a standard track (4 fect.8 inches in width) so that-the construc- tion will proceed .at a normal pace. BecauSe of the problem or maintaining theopeace, it is difficult to decide,whether to use the Lung-hai line or the Ta-t1ung-7Feng-1ing-tu line. This pro- blem will require careful study. For the time being we will de- - cid,: to lay a track from both the Hui-hsing-chen station on. the Lung-hai line and the Yen-chteng station on the Ta-ttung--Feng- ling-tu line. B. Cement Factories and Sources of Power for Construction For the installation of the Sano-mon Gorge Dam?more than 400,000 metric tons ,of cement will be necessary. Pt present, there are no faCtories capable of producing this amount inthis neighborhood,' TherefOre, we shall have to install factories to supply this amount. For the dam itself, a yearly?outeUt of 150, 000 metric tons will .be sufficient, but because it will probably be neCessary to supply nearby engineering projects, it vould be RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 cpAmoHv_rd For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED better to install factories oaPabie Of producing 200,000 metric tons. ? _ e ? Just where to install his factoryill.be a problem. From the standpoint of natural iseSorpe.s,-. prob-Oliy,the 1,1n-ti-Kuan- yin-tung area along the Lunghaieline would' be best. It seems that limestone, coal, clay, and gypsum, which are all necessary,e for the production of cement, are produced in great quantity in this area. According te records, this area is called the Hsin-. ? shing coal field. Both bituminous and anthrecite are. mined hereeE from a deposit of l000,opo,00lo metric tons. It seems teat lime-,; stone is produced everywhere in this area, but its quality is not known. Although the existence of clay has not been ascor-: tained, geherally the loess of North China contains amounts of silicon dioxide, alumina y ironpetc, suitable for use in thelman7 facture of cement with the possible addition of small amounts of.. ceetain materials. Gypsum of excellent quality produced in Plipg7L lu-hsien, in the southern part of Shansi, is suitable for ethe manufacture of cement. The steam-electric plant which will sup- ply power necessary for the cement factory and for use in con- struction is begun. If the Ein-chih area along the Lung-hai line proves to be unsuitable because of local disturbances or for other reasons, a plan is considered to place the cement factory in Ho-nan or Cheng-hsien with n view to using the Lung- hai line in the future. If the factory were placed a little farther away in Hsin-hsinng, we could gradually make our pre- parations, Since it is impossible to install steam-electric plant equipment at ['sin, hsiang?which is so far aeay, it would be wise to install it at.Yun-chteng and transmit the power from there (distance of 40 kilometers). It 'would be a good idea also to use electric power generated from the surplus heat given off during the process of manufacturing cement. The amount of elect- rical power necessary for construction can be decided onle after a careful inVestigetion of the construction methods to be used, but it will probably be nedessary to install equipment capable of producing 6,000 kilowatts (taking the Period of construction as five years)'. '..ssUMing that the Lung-hai line may not come under the control* the Japanese Army within the, near future, the cement factory will have to be built at Lin-fen on the Ta-t'ung-- Feng-ling-tu line in view of thd fact that coal and limestone are produced here. Even in this case Yun-chieng would be more suit- able for the electric power plant. C. Cutting the River off and Changing ,its Course The volume of flow at low water at this site, as shown in Table No 5, is 276 cubic meters per second. In view of the fact the width of tee river at median water level is about 200 and several tens of meters, it will probably be possible to construct the dam by cutting the river off half way from each bank as was done at the Yalu River Dam and' the Sungari River Dam. If this proves imposeible, we must use the elaborate method used to construct Boulder Dam. If this method is used, the construction costs will increase tremendously.' We shall assume, however, that the former method will be possible and make out calcul- ons of 'ulle construcion coses on this .Jesis. -155- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT 5 V? RESTRICTED Table No 5 Volume of Flow at Low -,ater Year . Volume Cfflow at loW water (cubic meters per second) 1919- 170 1920 250' 1921 250 t 1922 330 1923 360 1924 310 1.925 275 1926 260 -1927. 265 1928 195 - 1929 275 1930 200 1931 300 1932 230 1933 240 1934 220 1935 470 Total 4,700 Average 276 V" 'VI, VV$ VII VIII. MATERIALS NECESSARY FOR THE DEVELOPED:NT OF THE SITE It may be foolish to try to calculate the amount of the various materials necessary for the development of such a large hydroelectric plant, but then desoribing this sort qf site, the first things to mention should be construction costs and the necessary materials. For this reason, a rOugh.calculation of the materials necessary for the development of this site; based on the calculations of the Materials required in the'ConStruc- tion of the large capacity hydroelectric plants on the Yalu and the Sungari Rivers and other places, is shown .On Table No 6.. (See Table 6 on following page), -156- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 App CPYRGHT oved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED Table No 6 Outline r Laterials Required :for the,San,menGore ?mixt Development,: Iron katerials? Items Equipment for temporary use in. construction 100,380 'metric tons Railway for transporting. materials (15 kilometers) - -Rails and accessories 1,650 metric tons Bridges, stations, utc. 750 Metric tabs Locomotives.(1b/150-tonners) 1,500 thctric tons Fright-cars (100/154-tonnorp). 1,500 metric tons' _ Total 5,400 metric.tonS Notes Track to connect Yanch'eng and the dam site - about 60 km in length Rails and accessories 6,600 metric Bridges, stations, etc. 3,000. =trio (estimate) i,-c. the -approximate in- crease is 9,600 metric ? Power generating equipment Steel required to set up a steam ,- electric power station producing a maximum of 7,000 kilowatts tons tons tons 700 metric tons Essential macninery (including. repair. . materials)!,. 1? 700 Metric ?44? 23 800 metric ? , . Permanent equipment ?for use in civil engineering Cement Timber Copper HeinforcLig rods for use in the ReinforcinF rods for temporary installations Penstocks. ,ire Iron for power stations ? Outdoor installations Flood-gates Overflow-gates Other. Total ? werkS tons tons dam ' 2,00 metric tons 1,460 Metric tons 16,800 metric tons . _1,000 metrid tons 7,200 metric tqn8 500 metric tons 3,800 metric toes -1700 metric tons 172O metric tons 36,180 metric tens aster turbines and dynamos Calls for the installation of 12.tul-binee with a Unit capacity of 100,00d kilowatts (including primary trans- formers) 38,400 mctric tons 440,000 metric tons 100,000 cubic meters 3,000 metric tons approx raw lumber approx approx ? -157- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGI-LT Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 IRLSTRICT ,D IX. OUTLINE OF TNE CONSTRUCTION COSTS This theoretical plan has been drawn up 'Athout careful in- vestigatien,-thereforeit is extremely hard to make estimations of the construction costs. c2 have Made our .calculations taking into consideration the present prices, wages,. and laJor force necesSary and using the Sungari and Yalu Rivera and others as references. These calculations appear in Table No 7, Next we will describe the fundamental suppositions used. A. Cost of Railroad Construction When the water level is raised to the maximum of the first plan, 350 meters above sea level, the Lung-hai line and the Ta- t'ung-- Feng-ling-tu line will bc submerged by water 'for about 100. kilometers. A track to supply the construction materials should.be laid from Yun-ehleng station on the Ta-tlung-- Feng- ling-tu. line to the P'ing-lu area in order to connect San-men Gorge. If an eXtension of this line were built to connect the Lung-hal line, it would not be necessary to lay a track through the flooded area. For the time being, however, the calculations are made on the basi that the entire line will have to be laid. The cost of laying the track will be 200,000 yen per kilometer and the entire length of the extension will be 100 kilometers. This estimate includes all costs such as-bridges, stations, etc. The costs entailed in the laying of the track to connect the Lung-hai line and the Ta-t'ung-- Feng-ling-tu line which will pass the dam site, should not be si7ned rholly to San-Men Gorge. This line will also be used to transport materials for te construction of other dams upstream and therefore they will-share the cost of laying this track. B. Cost -of Land Compensation If the surface level of tih reservoir water is raised to 350 meters above se level, it will result in a still water area of about 2,000 square kilometers. This area is known as the heartof China and as will be described later this area is densely populated and under heavy cultivation. Just how to pay for the land to be used may be h problem. The calculations of the amount to be paid will be made on the basis of the present land prices in Northern China. Well-cultivated land should cost about 50 yen per mou and land in former river beds should cost about 20 yen per mou. At this rate we should be able to purchase enough land. If this area comes under new political control, however, it will not be neces- sary to pay for 'and at the rate laontionod abovo. 12 the old Yellow.River.which runs towards Hopeh-and Shantung is used as the course of the river hereafter, the greater part of the new Yellow River which flows south from west of K'el-feng will be unnecessary, will move the settlers here and thus the problem of settlers in the atca reqUired will be solved. .hen levee ,,orks and irri- gation projects have been completed, the population per unit area will increase gradually. ,At present, we can -expect the price of land to 30,000 yen per square kilometer. -158 - RZSTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010C 02-5 iterYriTFor Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A0002000100112-5 REBtAICTED . The post of Temporarily:buttingqh&liver Changing its Courle?, ? We shall assume that the.construction,mthqdg, usefl'en the Yalu River will bosuitable, d we silltentativly assume those expenditures to be eightmillion * . . ? . D. Th e C2.0 of Temporary Eluipmeht The cost of temporary equipment should not.nece.ssarily be included in the cost of construction. As alonsIderehle amount will remain, it .would be a good idea to ca1e4gte the costs which must be born by San-men Gorge expendipFes. Not. counting the steam-electric plant, cement factory, brJrailway, etc?the cost of 50 percent of the now construotion.machinery will be included in the San-men Gorge construction costs. The cement manufacturing equipment will be repaid at about three million yen on the eearly output of 150,000 metric. tops (for 5 years), The cost of constructing the railroad for trans- porting the materials will of course not come under the con- struction cost. If the railroad running from Yun-chleng via San-men Gorge, to the Lung.thai line is used in plate of the rebuilt railroad the cost of railroad reconstruction will not be required. It is not necessary to include the total cost of the steam-electric plant equipment in the cost of construc- tion. Here, the repaTeent will be at the rate of 500 yen per kilowatt including the cost' of operation during the construc- tion of the dam. E. Cost of Electrical Construction With the okeeption of the' construction of:thefoundation of the power plant, the primary transformer liquipment, the turbine generator, the construction of tee superstructure, the machinery etc., will 1;c includeci in o coe.n. 7.t is calculweed that the cost of .U!e equipment will be 100 you per kilowatt produced. This maybe a slight underestimate, but with the improvement in engineering technique, by the time the San-men Gorge hydro-electric plant is built, the cost will_prb'eably be reduced to this amount. F. Basic Cost of Electricity' What we should take as the interest rate in the calculation of the cost of the. hydroelectric plant is difficult to. decide. Generally,. in North China, the-interest rate is fairly high, however,. in the present case 'we will take the interest rate as 7 percent per year. 7,c, will assume depreciation in 40 years for the engineering construction and 30 years for the electrical installations, the rate of depreciation being 4.5 percent. As. there arc no exaeples of hydroelectric plants of such-.1arge.cap7e acity in North China,-atcurate figures for the maintenance ancl. operational costs cannot be cited ee The cost .1011"CC will- differ.e, eEreatly.decordingto -Whether'er not 611 the electric power men- tioned-before is consumed. Taking the interest rate, payments on the original investment, maintenance and operational and ? other costs as 12.5 perconLofthe construction costs, the cost price of generating electric power will be 1 sen per kilowatt , hour. -159- RIZTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 :-CIA-RDP78-03109A0002000100112,5 CPYRGHT RESTAiCTED Table No 7. x Outline of the rough estimates of the eolt'of-COhtruct7On iPlan 1) of the San-Men dore.PoWe Dei4Opment : Items ? .Coit .(Unit Expenditure for entire work 41439 Use of land and indemnitiops:- 89,340- Railway reconstruction 22,000 indemnities for still- ' water area 167,340 96,700 49,670 2,400 Y 4 per cubic ;tater,. 28,000 20 per cubic. meter 8,000 . 2,550 4,200 4,520 47,030 5,.040 4,140 2,840 25,200 Engineering works Cos.t of dam EXcavation Concrete W?ter diVersion Overflow-gates Intake-gates lase equipment Waterways Intakeequipm(?nt Tunnelixcavation Concrete for tunnels Penstocks Excavation at Power station Reinforced concrete, etc., for pouor sta 1,800 Discharge-gates 2,100 Eiscellaneous equip 4,660 Electrical construction . 120,000 Temporary installations 60,980 Building railway for transport 4,500 Locomotives and freight cars 10,000 Steamelectric power 3,500 stations ? Cement, manufacturing 2,930 plants Remarks' ? Y 200,000 per km * 30,000 per sq km 1,250 Various other machinery 21,670 TeMporary buildings 10,840 Motive power 2,000 Other. 5,540 Other items., 66,440 Survey and super- .16,400 intendence ? Interest on the loan Other Emergency funds ; Construction cost per kilowatt Construction coat per kilowatt-hour Basic generating cost per kilewatt-hour 44,000 6,040 8,670 Y 30 per cubic meter 'Y 45 per cubic meter ? 5 in in dia, * 1,500 per MT * 8 per cubic meter , Y 100 per kilowatt 15 km * 390,000 per km to produce a maximum of .7,000 kilowatts cost of redeeming the initial investment ih cement plants producing 150,000 NT per year 5% of the -cost of both erigincer- ifl electrical works 17% of the cost of the engineerinc, works assuming 6% yearlyJor 4 years ? 394 '4 06,o$2 y 00,01.(i4e.,12.5% of the construction cost) RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 ApproveccpMease 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 AtblItiUTED . aTHOD OF PAYING FDR:THE.CONSTRUCTION COSTS, This site, in c6mparieoh-W1thLall,the otiner sites on QI:e Yellow River suitable"f64'fdavelepMent asAhYdraelettric power plants, will be particularly valuable..fOrprposes:.other tari the gencration,of electricarpeWer Since-IA.-will be especially effeetive for river conserVation'and:waterutilizat.ia4 the canr struction cost should net bet by thehydroelectric power-, alone. The cost of the e'cluipMent directly used to generate plee. -x-ice.1 power 1:111 be jLc 1.),,Tclect4ric'poWerbUl; Ot'ler expen- ditures will be met by the profits from-tho:riVorconservation:. and other ,:ater utilization' projects (cahal,irrigation). There is not time to calculate the- proportionsHbf.the.tozts:ta:homet by thee? variouS enterprises, but. lattr,-theSe decided upon after a careful investigation. In our prcsont calculations all the transportation and construction costs are to be met by the returns from the salt of hydrociectrid.power only. If for some reason these estimated oests.increase; Xcost of land, etc this will be'paid for from thoprofite-on.river,con- servation, water utilization, etc., and-theierero. '471a oact hydroelectric power will not beaffected.. XL 17-1 SECOND Fl.:LOPOSED PL.:.1I FOR THE DEVELOP-ET,0F TIT gORGE As described before, if the height. of the dam were in creased, the volume'of slack water would increase tremendously Consequently, the area which will be flooded and the population which will have to be evacuated will be great* If the-Chinese. Incident tore completely settled, the situation might not present any serious problems. If considered from the standpoint of river conservation, water utilization and the development of,hydro,- electric power, the dam should be as high as possible so that the capacity of the reservoir will be great and so that it will be able'to stand the great a:bunt of silt. In view.of the large area which will be flooded, the dam should be made az low as , possible. The lower the dam, the less effective it will.be for 'river conservation.; water utilization and hydroelectric develop- ment. Consequently, We must consider how low the dam can be -built. The'flobd water level at T'ung-kuhn is 325. meters abolte sea level and 11 we made this the full water level, the arbaof still water would be much less than in the case of the first ProPosed-plan.--ConseqUently, we will choose this as the maxi- MuM Water leveller tihe firet,phas&-Of tte.Secend plan. If we. Make-It'this 10V61.16/dhould -641.tiutte:t.a1y.to dam..up:,1te rivdr. After this cenitrUetion Ts:complettdat Shall have to. build homes'to'Which the:inhabitantslivingUPstreamin.the ztill. Water,arealmiY mbye -and'then we hall-Stry eutthesJeC4aVphse --increasing theHhdight.of.the daM twthe'1evelpr4osed in the first plan.. In the ecinetrUction.plans,:the.ohly difference between the first' plan--and the-Seeendis,the.heightofthe darns the installations will be the same. till parts must be so con- structed that they will meet all specifications even after the completion of the second phase of construction. .The greatest problems will probably be the turbines and generrtors. These problems will have to be given careful study. At present, we RESTRICTED Approved Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 ApprWeY1FAYkelease 1999/08/25 : cOnffplg78-03109A000200010002-5 cannot reach an immediate conclusion, but it would be best to install turbines which will be capable of handling the final output. If this proves impossible, we could probably remove the turbines of, the first phasevinstall them at some other site and then install hew large capacity turbines during the second phase. For the time being, we Shall assume the turbines and generators suitable for the second phase Will be installed from the beginning. They will operate at a low tate of efficiency at first, but after ten years, when the second phase has been com- pleted, they will be able to: operate at a high rate of effi- ciency. Thus, in the first phase of construction; all the'elec, trioal equiplJent installed will '4e t',e amle az that to o useC during the second phase. Ofccidise there will be equipment such as transformers, oto., that aze unnecessary in the first phase but for the sake of convenience, we shall install them as mention- ed above. Dividing the construction into two phases would be more expensive than constructing the dam to its ultimate height with- out interruption. (As will be mentioned later, it will mean nn. increase of 50 million yen in the total construction -Costs.). Furthermore, the higher, the dam, the greater will be the reser- voir capacity, and the more effective it will be. in Controlling flood water. If a low dam were built, not all tho water flow. could tip controlled. During the flood water period, nearly all .of the floodwater would have to be discharged. Consequently, we could not expect an even yearly output of electrical power. ' Loreover, there would not be an even yearly flow of water for ir- rigation and canals. s long as the irrigation and canal facil- ities-are net completed, however,. there will probably note any immediate need for the water. On the: other hand, whqn. prepare-, tions for these facilities have been, made, it would 'probably be advantageous to increase the height of the dam in order to prolong the life of the reservoir.-, Since it iS.ciiculatpd that even this large reserVoir will be filled in with silt'within a few decades, the nuMber of years required to fill' in the reservoir must be extended as much as possible. The beat method of doing this would be to reforest completely the headwater area, so as to minimize the amount of Silt and then to build the reservoir. By doing this, the life of the reservoir would be prolonged. To this end, it would be best to'construct first a low elem.'. Later, after other water utilization projects, countermeasures against silting, etc,, arc fairly well. wndor way, the heiht or the 'dam should be increased. ..hichever plan is followed,- unless the height of the dam is finally increased, there will be little Value-in-.harnessing the Yellow River. The essential problem is whether:to construct the dam without interruption (first plan) or to construct It In two phases (second plan). .For the time being, We gannet reaCh a conclusion regarding this Problem, therefore, we-Shall leave it unsolved. Specific information of the Second plan described above appears in Table No S. .These.planS are the same is those of the first proposal except that the :dam is . ? ?162? RpSTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 AggyRactrFor Release 1999/Q8/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 XII. INHABITANTS AND Ni, qeneral Discussion The area WhiWia-eXPected to be eUbmerged,by witer as a-re- sult.of the construction of the San-men Gorge Dam is the region in which early civilization arose. ,At the present -time, however, there are only the traces of past glory. The population engaged in agriculture is dense in proportion to the area of arable land. The agricultural methods have remained unchanged since'ancient- times?eHere, the farmers are very poor as in the rest Of north- ern China. Cotton which is important as a commercial product is 'grown in relative abundance and is the only product worthy of special note, This area is rrch in valuable mineral resources everywhere, and it is fortunate that these deposits are not in the depressed areas. .In the.T10-kto-t!o area, the Yellow River turns southward, flows south through.a gorge in the border be- tween Shansi and Shensi and then joins the Lo and -ei Rivers in the Chao-i-hsiien region. It then makes a big turn eastward and flows .through the northern part of Honan to the east, In view.of the nature of the terrain, however, navigation, except for spec- ial types of boats, is not recognized as having any value. Be- cause Of an excessive amount of precipitation, the Fen River and the Wei River sometimes do tremendous damage to the river banks. As for railroads, the Lung-hal and the Tung-pu RE line can be ' counted upon. The Lung-hai RR line is the main east-west artery of China. In the expected still water area, it runs from the Shanehsien area, along the southern bank of the Yellow River passing through Ling-Pao-phsien and Wen-hsiang-hsien to,Tung- kuare. From here, ? it runs along the ?sbuthern bank of the Wei. River is far as the Lin-Ttungearea._ Consequently, because of the dam construction, some changes in the present courseof the railroad will probably be necessary. We do not believe that any great change: need be made in order to use this railway to its fullest advantage:, The Ta-tlung-- Feng-ling-tu RR starts at north Ta-tlung and and runsgeerth.and south through Shansi to Feng-lingete...!Here it crosses the :Yellow River and is, from the standpoint ?fettle: Shansi industries, a very important line which connects with Treeng- kuan. South of Yuehsiang-hsien,.especially at points connected by the Lung-hai line, some changes will have to be made. Next we shall try to set forth an explanation by looking at the in- habitants and natural resources, etc,which are concerned with the influences of this still water area. RESTRICTED RESOURCES IN THE STILI WATER AREA SANI4OL:GORGE.:DAM-: B. The Area and Population of the Still Water Area The natural resources in the area, which will be submerged by water because of the dam which is to be constructed at San- men Gorge, will be permanently lost. Furthermore, the means of livelihood be taken from the inhabitants. Therefore, we , must consider carefully the advantages and disadvantages of con- structing the dam here, In the final stage the height of the dam will be 350 meters above sea level. During the process of con- struction, however, the height will be raised by several steps. -163- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Approved For Relectbe 1999/08/25; CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED , Table N013 ? Plan II for the San?men Gorge Power Development ' unit ? enasa I . .. .::. Ma De U. (corresponds to Plan I) Area Height of drainage basin of intake point sq km meters 721 500 ,, 325 721,500 350 ' Height or discharge point meters 282 ., 282 Projected amount of - floodwater cu m per sec 25,000 254000 Projected amount of overflow cu in per sec 15,000 ? -15,000 . ' Projected height metres 61 ? 86 Length of crest metres 395 450 am Overflow?gates no of gate a ' 17 .17 Excavation cu meters 400,000 600,000 Concrete cu meters 685,000 1,400,000 Area qf stillwater sq kin 180 2,244.5 Amount of 1 Maxim= 2,100 ' 2,100 utilizable!. . cu meters water - 1 Average 993 1,260 ,I,Tctal_head 43 68 HeadrEaximmm .effective meters ? head ? 36 - 64 'Average, effective I head. , -H 33 59 ? Generating' Ilaximum. - power .1 ' 1 . Average'274 1,000 'kilowatts 632 1,123 - '590 ' Yearly output of electric , ? - power il million kwh 2,400 5,410 The presumptive cost efcenatruetion follows, and so far as the foregoing k:hstimates permit, an hypothesis sirnilar to Plan:I has been laid down and the sameatandardS have been used, .The factors are shown in Table No 9. -16)4- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDF'78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Table No 9 The. San-mon Gorge power DevbloPment (.P1sn. II) Outline of Roughly Estimated Construction Costs - Estimated 'Cost (Unit: * 1,000) :Phase.p._ Phase II Total construction ? 281,070 212,910 Use of land and indemnities 5,400 83,940 Railway reconstruction 22,000 Indemnities for still-water area 5,400 61,940 Engineering works 56,510 50,340 Cost of darn 33,060 23,210 Excavation 1,600 800 Concrete 13,700 15,000 ater diversion 8;000 ,2,000 Overflow gates 2/550 2,550 Intake gates 4,200 1,840 Miscellaneous equipment 3,010 2,020 i.oaterways 23,450 27,130 Intake equipment 5,040 1,010 Tunnel excavation 2,420 ? 1,720 Concrete for tunnels 1,660 1,180 Penstocks 8,280 16,920 Excavation at power station, 770 480 Reinforced concrete etc, foi, power station 1,050 750 Discharge canals 2,100 1,000 Miscellaneous equipment 2,130 2,470 Electrical construction 120,900 24,000 Temporary installations 52,160 17,730 Construction of transport railroad . 4,500 LocOmotives and freight cars 10,000 2,000 Steam-electric power stations 3,500 Cement manufacturing plants 1,440 1,490 Various other machinery 17,650 7,430 Temporary equipment 8,830' 3,720 Lotive power 1,500 1,490 Other 4,740 1,610 Other items 41,490 32;730 Survey and superintendence 9,620 8,550 Interest on the loan 28,100 21,200 Other 3,770 2,980 Emergency funds Construction cost per kilowatt 5,510 Y 445 24,1413139 Construction cost per roai 11.7 yen 9.1 sen OTotal for construction in both Phases I and II Increase over Plan I Y 493,980;000 Y 44,310,000 If basic cost of electricity is calculated as 12,5 percent of the cost of construction, in the same way as as done in Plan I (at the dam), and the figures are: Phase I Phase II 1.5 sen 1.1 sen -165- RE3TRICTED Approved For Release' 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT ? ? a ? r a ? 2.! Aso III III " RESTRICTED The Number of Villages Inundated by the San-men Gorge Reservoir Dstrict PROVINCE (Hsien) Number of Flooded villages_ Ho-nan Altitude \ 300 M 320t_330 040 K1 3.5.0 Shan-hsien \ I 2 i 12,' 10 6 31 Ling-pao ' x.1 4; 3 9 17 Total 3 Districts(hsien) 1 Jui-ch'eng Shansi Yung-chi Lin-chin Jung-ho Total 5 District(hsien) T'ung-kuan Hua-yin Chao-i, Shensi Ho-yang Ta-li Hua-h8ien Total Grand Total 1 1 3 x,4! 8 12 27 6 202l 27 75 t-- 1 5x4 2 13 5 2 7 14 x32 33 26 91 1 1 2 1 1 1 42 40 37 121 ? x3 3 39 35 x25 99' 25 21 18 64 8 8 1 7 3 11 7 54 x19 80 ..ei-nan 16 49 65 Lin-t'ung 7 7 8 Districts(hsieh)i 75 133 129 337 -+- 19 Districts(hsien)2 7 137 Total number of villages '2 , 9 - Notes 1. 2. 194 193 533 146 340 533 Figures according to Arisaka, Udemasa of the Head Office of the Construction Staff of 3ureau IV "x" indicates the location of the government (hsien) beat (TN: Table 11 givesAlLe names of those. 533 villages of Table 1 ,that would be inundated by the San-mon Gorge Reservoir-- at various 1;ater levels. Table 11 is 'omitted.. ) -166- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 AppJam:4 For Release 1999/08/25 : p1A-RDP78-03109A090200010=-5. SQP .ablistr64401. :11:iv3.--,L :en,. 4* at; 9P611-*Cep.oi/ trt.irr/44Ph,44- , As is shOtn in the above two tables, the arq,which will be ?submerged because of the. eo4struetion o hf3, .$4tp.'-men porie Dam, will extnd over three v1oes ndl9 disjt, that is 53) villages (including eight ;go;Vetniellt:(h'sied)ssfttei In the .above tables, .we have pe6unlo4 ;t4iiti)..eoded , . . dur- ing the propess 'dt ot441-n . the river . off at a. point alliptit 3 kilo- meters east of the government seat of Yung-cfslir,RaitinIn the southern part or 41?,anii and 'checking the fiood'wster ,flowing to- wards; tile .pasterh, part. I eut.,eff it....thie point graves in1r; Possil4e, the inither of' .villages which. wtlr )e::,fl'ocidoci will in- crease...as ;Will:. he Shown. At 350 Attar a; ....theVervii14 hea a total -or 140 inizdatad: in Yung-chi-Heil or villages, in Yu-bsiang-kilsien 63 Villages, in Chich-Heion 72 villages.., in Lin-pu?-fisien 10 villages, and in An-i4isien eine. village, As this includes? the tgovernment seat auKting off the river in the Yung-Chi-Haien area would have-. great effect on the depressed area. In the discussion of the sta?ll iv.ater area in the following section, we shall proceed with th.c3:.:4ieitalaption that .it will be possible to cut the river off at this pint, . A rough calculation of the area 'which Will be flooded and the area of arable land is shown id.Table N6 12. , . ;water at each or ion will be flooded ? (See Table on following page.) ? ,.? -167-.RESTICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 6-CUUU 1?UUUGUUUVtiU14.:U-11LdUtl-VIJ ? V6/11U/tititi I. dbudidd Jud pdA 41. RESTRICTED Table No Rough Estimate of the Extent of Arable Land Inundated by the Construction of the San-men Gorge Zee _ _ _ District patio of Arablel Top of Dam -t320 meters 1 Top of Dam-4330 Meters ;ftp of Damt1340 Meters Top of 56 Meters , - . , (Hsiea) 1Land to Total Total in- .Extent of , Total in-.7Extent-of pntal-inv/txtent of ,Total'in- Extent of , Area 'undated I- arable.landi undated Arahls-land!undated arable likeq)undated arable land Shan-hsien Pling-lu Ling-pao Jul-oh'eng Wen-hsien Tlung-kuan Hua-yin Hua-bsien Chao-i Ta-li Yung-chi Lin-Chin Ho-yang Wel-nan .area Inundated area dnuadated (area inundated area la*dated 1.4Q_110 011041 (sq_kmi kmopl _4 . (14 km) 16.20 26.70 9,875 13.70 21,183 95',' ;13.50 20,874 22.50 34,790 29.00 95% 95% 1 8.00 P2-?? 112,370 20.30 31,388 180,403 58.30 90,145 27.80 65.80 95% 4.40 6,803 . 14.60 22,575 26.30 95% 1.00 1,546 1.80 90% 133.30 195,263 .30 10.00 4,648 70.00 ( 90% 63.00 92,285 35.50 (100% 162.00 263,671- 78.00 90% 29.80 44,5 3 95.80 ( 95% 27.00 41,7 54.00 ? (100% 62.20 100,911 3. 4 70 100% 12-0.40 100% 7.60 90% 90% -168 - RESTRICTED L284 39.70 Gi*,55 OKI - 35.30 . ? :,54.,w 42,985 40.80. 634086 101.741 73.60 . ,1130502 40,666 44..30 . 6c498 2,783 3-.60 '54 510, 1g4.416 5621.i 98 249.023. 211.0 , 309.,520 198,493 235:50. 289,712* 1713.00 , 2'6,112* x484,028.-. .1.3z.80 ? 1914,531 83,496 82:80 1?0,027 186,686* 114,-70 186.686* 33.203*-- -20.70 -35:6431*- 42,37001, 7.60 - ..12,3700 143.70- 210.497 3660 '_53,466* .? (Conttd) RESTRICTED Rough _Estimate of the Extent of Arable Land Inundated by the Construction of the San-men Gorge Dam District ' Ratio of (Haien) t Arable Land to Total 4 Area ------- Farm land Old River Bed:i TOTAL 93% Top of Dam-I320 Meters Total in-/Extent of I Undated J arable land area !inundated (sq km) ' (mou) 130,037 1 130,037 Top of Dam-1330 Meters' Total in-/Extent of 1 undated larable land! area t inundated (sq km) '(mou) 1 393.50 5g0,124 I 1 . 224.20 I 364,5g2* 617.70 j 944.706 Top of Dam4340 Meters 'Top. of Dam-71350 Meters Total in-(Extent of !Total in-."Extent of undated !arable land 1undated arable land inundated 1 .(mou) area (sq km) area inundated (sq km) (mou) 981.00 1,463,542 1,463.90 2,170,429 320.70 521,971* I 321.00 522,459* ,301.70 li,9g5,514- 1,7E54.90 i 2,692,88_ * Cheap,.precaricusly cultivated land in the so-called 130 years east and 30 years westgileandering74 country between Yl-men-klou and Tiung-kuan, where the Yellow River reaches its greatest width and constantly undercuts the banks. Note Since tae Sus-Su River will be dammed off three kilometers east of Yung-chi, this region has been. omitted. -169- RESTRICTED _LHOIAdO Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 BISTRICTID Table No 13 The Relationship of the Population to the Construction of the San-men Gorge Dam ? Top of Dan Basis for Calculating the Po-lation 300 Meters 320-Meters 330 Meters 340 Meters 350 Meters Population of Ruin Population of Govt (Hsien) Seat Population of Agricultural District lumber of Villages Population of Average Village District (Rsien) 'Umber of Villages and Population Pow- lation V11- ]age Popu- lation Vii- lag, Popo.- lation Vii- lage Popu- lation Vii- lege Popu- lation Vii- lage Shan-hsien 1 296 3 8845 15 4,440 24 Govt Seat 7,104 6,000 30 Govt Seat 8,880 6,000 175,000 6,000 169,000 684 247 120% 296 Ling-Rao Govt Seat 9,000 4 Govt Seat 1,152 9,000 7 Govt Seat 2,016 9.000 16 Govt Seat 4,608 9,000 162.000 9.000 153,000 640 240 . 1204 288 Min-Yu Clil 3 1,104 6 Govt Seat 2.208 4,500 14 Govt Seat 5,152 4,500 26 Govt Seat 9.568 4,500 68,000 . 4,500 63,500 207 307 ? 120% 368 P'ing-lu 1 312 2 624 7 2,184 10 3,120 ' Govt Seat 3.000 12 Govt Seat 3,744 3,000 95,000 3,000 92,000 353 260 120% 312 Jui-Ch'eng 5 1,400 7 1,960 14 3,920 63,000 3,000 60,000 257 233 120% 280 Yung-chi 31 Govt Seat 7,130 10.000 64 Govt Seat 14,720 10.000 90 Govt Seat 20.700 10,000 121.000 10,000 111,000 1405 225 gig 120%. 230 5127 Lin-chin 1 330 2 660 95,000 10,000 85,000 258 330 1004 330 Jung-ho 1 476 78,000 15,000 63,000 135 476 100% 476 !'ung-kuan2 ? Govt Seat 720 50.000 2 Govt Seat 720 50,000 2 Govt Seat 720 50,000 60,000 50,000 10,000 28 360 100% 360 Hua-yin 39 32,400 74 66,600 98 %II Seat 88,200 13.000 193,000 13,000 180.000 1.914 900 100% 900 Chao-1 25 8,625 46 15,870 64 22.080 120.000 12,000 108.000 171 345 100% 345 Bb-yang 8 2,832 149.000 6,000 143,000 405 354 s 100% 354 Ta-11 1 356 S 2,848 11 3.916 102,000 18,000 84,000 236 356 100% . 356 Rua-hsien 7 3.269 61 28,487 79 Govt Seat 36.893 10,000 142,000 10,000 132.000 . 283 467 1014 467 Wei-nan 16 14.240 65 57,850 500,000 50,000 450,000 506 890 100% 890 Lin-t'ung 7 2,121 220.000 13.000 207.000 685 303 00% 303 Total 2 608 8 Govt Seat 11,616 140 4. Gov't Seat 137,384 334 6 Govt Seat 245,667 525,4 8 Govt Seat 372,668 ? . mini CUD ? A 25 27327 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 t, 0Agwved For Release 1999/0!8/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED According to Table No 12 the area of inundated arable land will be 2,170,429 moil (under cultivation) 4[10 522,459 mbu-(the old riVerbed) making ea fOtal,Of 2,6924808empu. The following is an estiMate(inyon) ofithe::Valgeof, land,Wich will be lost as a resat. or inundation, based en: average, land Prices. The price of arable land is uaually ten tikes tnie.prefits,from the harvest of the land. T?ith the exception Of cotton,, there are three crops over a to-year period. At the aVerage price.of:land in ordinary times of about 50, yan per mou,(the pr.-China Incident price) the value . of the'cultivated land lost woUld be'rough1e.103,000,000 yen and at 20 yen per mou, the value Of the Yellow RiVer bod land lost vould be 10,000,000 yen making a total loss of 118,000,000 yen, The population of the 525 villages and the eight government (Hsien) seats which will be in the inundated .area, as shown in Table No 13 is expected to be about 370,000 people. Just how to make pro vision for this population.is a considerable problem. With the completion of the San7men Gorge hydroelectric plant, industries 'of considerable size which will use both the local natural re- sources ahd tib electric power'vill develop. Consequently, a de- mand for labor necessery for those industries will suddenly arise, Of course it is possible that some 'of the population will be abuorbed by these enterprises, but the rest will have to be novee. to other areas, The ovaouation of tho de7!lation to Manchuria, iOngoU.c. Sin- %lane, northwestern frontier area other roaione tat are :..pr3.nelr poeu- latca and have large tracer; o: arable land, sheuld be carried out with the assletanoe of and under t c direction of the eovornment. C. Resources of the Still Water Area ? At AtrioUltural resources Cereels, beans, etc, are the chief products of the area which Will'be indndated. Cotton which is produced in the ling Pao area, -(tho So-called Ling Pao cotton; is known for its superior quality. Cereals, beans and other food products are nearly all eonsumed in thiseret. Even though there was a certain amount of circulatien of these products ithin the border, this eould not greatly influ- ence the ebonemy of this area. Cotton is the only comeodity which serves as a standard of value, ahd is important not only for its quality but also for its quantity. ith regard to the cotton pro- duced in Ronan, .accordingt6 the publication "Cotton Statistics of North China" compiled' by the South Vanchurian Railroad Investi- gatienDepartMent and pabliShedby the Nippon Hyoron Co, the area under cotton ..oultivatiaft in Ronan is 3,800,000 mou, which is 8.58 percent of theieNnole areeein China Te eotton crops are estimated to be 840,000 piculs .(TN: .PitUl-a33. 1/3 lbs)vthich is out 8 per- cent of the total Chinese crop The cotton producing area centers around Ling Pee, and if this area lere. f16,0dQd, the resulting loss Would be considerable. Next we Shall discuss the agricultural products of each Hsien. (a) Honan Province (1) Shari-Helen Shan-Haien lies in a basin bordering the yellow River, -flowinge'through the'Henan-Plateau .-a.r4 is surrounded by plateaus on three sidts. The - -170- - RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT or ti- App RESTRICTED northern side is separated from the Yellow .River and faces Shansi Province. The Hsien is entirely plateau and it produces cotton, caol- ihg, sorghum, and millet, etc., (see note). Ac- cording to the Shan-hsien Journal, this Helen produces cotton and medicinal herbs as vial as millet, barley, sesame and beans. (Note: The Chinese Provincial Journals, pub,- lished by the East Asia Tung Wen Association, Honan) (2) Ling-pao-Hsien (3) The area from Ku-han-kuan west of the govt seat of Ling Pao-Hsien, which stretches to the west is the cotton growing belt, and 30 Chinese miles (ii) to the east of the govt (Hsien) seat cotton cultivation is most intense. According to the statements of the inhabitants, the agnunt of cotton produced in this area is about 200,000 piculs per year. This place is famous as the gathering and distributing center for the cotton produced in the area between here and Tung-kuan to the west. (Note: Aside from ootton, it is famous for the production of the jujube troc. According to the Hsien Journal, barley, buckwheat, millet, kaol- ing, beans and sesame etc, are also produced.) (Hate: According to the survey of the North China Economic Survey office of the South Itan- caarian Railroad, the cotton crop, not counting that along the Yu-pei Road of Honan, or not counting the crop produced north of the Now Yellow River, taken over the five-year period prior to the China Incident, was 200,000 piculs.) -en-hsiang-Hsien As mentioned before, in the area stretching from Ling-pao-Hsien to the northern sector, cotton is cultivated intenatvely. As this area is in the low-lying Yellow River 3asin, when contin- uous rain occurs, muddy streams suddenly seep into the whole area of arable land. According to the Helen Journal, aside from cotton, small amounts of commodities such as hemp and-tobacco- nre produced. The production of barley, millet, corn, beans, (soya and lentils), sesame and other foodstuffs is thesame hero as in other areas. (b) Shensi Province Looking at the general topography of this province, e sees that the Ch'in-ling mountain range runs between the Han ver andtthe aei River, parallel to the Wei River and separates e northern part of the province from the southern. The regions -171- roved For Release 199igiiig? elA RDP78-0310QA0002000100119 5 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED northeof thee range andeeouth of the range differ greatly in clieatic and.naturaleeharacteripties.: The. northernygion is very mountain- ous and has few plains and littlt areble-lnd, but in the southern district, there are expanAVe,Plaine,aleng? the Hfin River. The southern regioh is rich .in agriculturalesburCOS and is referred to as the fertile plains efl.henWe:-In vie of the fact that the constructionpf the dweatSah7Mtneqdiie would result in the damag- ingef the area here the.YeIland, the -viei Rivers join and of the banks of the lower .reaches of, the Wei RiVer,we shall now briefly.describeethe basin of, the Wei River.' :The Wei River orRin- ates 25 .Chinese miles (1i) West ef:vveieruan-Rsieh in Kansu Prov- inoe. Its flow is to the east andit 'passes north of the Hsien flowing north of Kung-chtang-fu in Kansu ahd. north of Nan-tai- chou in Val-,.an-Hsien and enters Feng-hsiang-fu in Shensi. From here it joins the Chlien River south of Feng-chi-Hsien and enters the Hsieh River north of nei-Hsieh, then-it flows to the east still further and enters Hsi-an-Fu. South of Iisien-yang-lisien, the Li River and the Kad River flow into the ' ei River from the south. North of the government seat of Hsi-an-,Fu, the Pa and Ch,an Rivers flow into it from the south, and north of Lin-ttung, it meets the Ching River, It flows farther to the eaet, passing thrOugh the northern, part of Hua-chou in Wei-nan-Hsien and south of Chao-i- Hsien,in Huae.chou, it is joined by the Chi and Chu Rivers from the north. The ei River flays into the Yellow River north of Hua- yin-Heien, The soil of the regions through which this river flows is generally loess, and as it floys eastward, it becomes wider and deeper. 'ee shall briefly examine each Hsien with a vie -e to the possibilities of agricultural development in this sort of terrain and soil. (1) Tlung-kuan-Hsien Tlung-kuah is the gateeay between the provinces of Honan and Shanui and the province of Shensi. .This Hsien is bounded by the Yellow River on the north and by mountains on the south and thus is very strategic, hOwever, it is poor in resources. According to 'the Hsien Journca and the Chinese Provincial Journal, the agricultural products consist of wheat, barley, millet, beans, tobacco, etcebut g enercelly the amount of these crops is small. ? _(2) Hua-yin-Hsien This Haien is 45 Chinese miles (ii) to the west of T'ung-kuan. The Wei River floes through the northern part; and the Southern part, except for the large Hun Eohntains, is flat aad full of fer- tile paddy fields.' -The principal eroducts are cotton, hemp,'and other articles of commerce, barley, buckwheat, rice, sesame, beans, etceare also produced. The chief agricultural products of the area which,is expected to be submerged are cotton and rice. Since most of the hemp is produced on the slopes of the Hua Mountains, its cultivation will not be affected much. .Cotton , -4, 4ultivata along the southern reaches of the RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 A CPYRGHT ? ? ? ? ? I to.i.111 III III ' RESTRICTED Ivei River, east of Hua-yin-miao on every plain up to the Hua Mountains and espetially in areas close to the Wei River. (Note: South of the,Hsien governmcnt scat, rice is also produced. Although the inethoda of cul- tivation are primitive, the soil is fertile and the rice is of comparatively high standard.) (Note: According to the aforementioned "Cotton Statistics of North China," the average area under cotton cultivation in Shensi, taken over the last five years 'was 3,000,000 mou--6.81 per- cent of the entire area of the country--and tae average crop, taken over the same five yeak period, was 689,000 piculs=-6.48 percent of the total Chinese crop.) (3) Hua-41sien (4) (5) The terrain of this Hsien is very similar to that of Hua-yin-Hsien. Agriculture flourishes in the fertile plain between the Wei River to the north and the Hue Mountains to the sauth,.. The agricultural products are also quite similar to those of Hua-yin-Hsien. The chief products arc cotton, which is especially famous for its high quality, maize, and barley. -ei-nan-Hsien ,ei-nan-Hsien is 45 Chinese miles (ii) to the west of Hua-Hsien. The southern part forms a plateau and stretches far as Ch'in-ling and the northern part stretches from the Wei River to the distant plains north, of aan. The land along the banks of the Wei is for the most part fertile, cenSeqUently, this area is rich in various agri- cultural products. Cotton especially is largely Concentrated ue-itof:Shan. Together with the threelplaine to the north, this is one of the Oig .rlather4?. an ;dist,riuting centers for this region; 2COtton,iaceltivated all over the dis- trict bdtpartiCularly:in the area north of the Wei River The fact that the cotton produced in Lin-tung, Wei-nan, Wei-pei and Hua-chou is called Wei-nan cotton gives an indi6tiOir.bf the amount. Another commodity aside from cotton is hemp which is produced in-the hillyregion'of the southern part. Corn, millet,-grain, sesame, beans, otc,,are growneveryehere as in.the neigh- boring districts. Lin-tung-Hsien This district ib almost directly between Wei-nan and Hsi-an. In the southern part are the Li Yountains and the northern part stretches from the Wei River to the distant plains of Wei-pei. As the soil is fertile and irrigation facilities -173- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 , tpkogsrl For Release 11999/08/25 : C A-RDP78-03109A0 o3ogo1 0002:5 . - :ars a esi9, ,ikrig4t441: flOurishee. 4Side rrOk. rtgteAork, 11*-hj 116010.1.if f s 41+) '44444.. eorgheinx tteenv, , iete.4 0 ere $4"011., As. 41 ko 94t09 of Yiek*hini 4410..0 or - gT oloing arefLor 0444:41 le, north. of. the iever'. (6) Chao7.i-Hoiem ; ? 714"4-8..trl#:.4-q-41'41at94,4?0-1.P.91.0 :740,1(1-0 Lo ai4r and the te4owliver:flow2togother,Agri- cultural products such as dercalS:,,fruit,,,riecfp barley, wheat, millet,- sorihulii,:-boane, hemp, bte? are grown, (7) Ta-li-listen This district is adjacent to Chao-i4l5ienw Ac- , cording to the Hsion Journal, besides cotton, ' peanuts, etc,careals are grown ml this as in the other districts. (8) Ho-yang-Hsien This district lies north of Chao.-i-Bsien near the Yellow River. ire, the mountainous region of Chin-pci ends and the Wei River basin bogins to sproad,out. The Hsien Journal states that the same 'eareals as are produced in the neighboring di6triCts are grown hero, as well as lumber and hbrbS. Shansi Province Shansi Province is very mountainous and has fcw plains and except for the region cast of the river, it is not very 'fertile. Because irrigation is in general inconvenient, agricultural produc- tion is low. Because of differences in climate and water utili- zation (irrigation), the arable land of. this province can be divided into three areas -the northern, control, and southern sections. Consoquently,,the products of these areas differ. The northern section is comparatively sparsely Ipopu- lated, has poor irrigation,facilities, and generally the soil is not very fertile.' As tho winters are bitterly cold, the cultivation of winter crops is absolutoly,impossible. The harvest per unit area is small, but because this area is vast and thinly Populated, the total crop of food stuffs shows a yearly 'surplus of from about 30 to 35 percent 1..hich is exported to other districts. The central section is rather di:nsoly populated in ? comparison with the porthorn part. Since irrigation is more con- venient and the climate is milder, the cultivation of linter crops is possible. As a result, the harvest is greater than that of the northern section. Wheat, rice, cotton and other high quality crops arc grown. The crops here too show a surplus. The southern .section lies in the richest region of ?1714- RBSTaICTED Approvea i-or Keiease 1 uuu/U13/2b : (1A-KIJI4 t?-U.51UVAUUU2UUU1UUUZ-b Approved For Release 19991081251 CIA-RDP78-03109A0Q0?00010e0P2- , CPYRGHT RZYIRIcirtb, the province. Th d climalt.exWftp region is very similar to that of Bonen and AMIO; Provinces. Because of the irrigation by the Fen:Aver tfbe cre of the %rester part of this region are may abundant prov1de4 thcre are no-floadi. This region 'is very suit- able or crowing tiotton antitivilltivation is encouraged by the local officials, Since tiTcativation of cotton if tore profit- able than the cultivation ot foodstuffs, the amount of cotton produced is increasing ?veil? year. According to the aforement- ioned "Cotton Statistica 6;.North China" compiled by the South hancharian RailrOad Bureau Of Investigation, the average area under cotton cuif4vatiOn in this province during the last five oars was 1,300,000 mou (2.095 percent of the total area under cultivation in ,China) and ;he crop was 380,000 piculs (3.58 per- cent of the total Chinese crop.) The greater part of this is pro- duced in the southern region. The other important agricultural - product, beside cotton, is wheat of which 5,0000000 piculs is pro- duced e.Ocually. The cultivation of corn, kaoling, millet, beans, etc is like that in southern Honan Province. The southern region, because the population is increasing and the area alder the culti- vation of foodstuffs is decreasing because of the increase in area of the land under cotton cultivation and because of the frequent flooding of the Fen and Yellow Rivers, is never self-sufficient in foodstuffs. Next we shall discuss the districts which will be covered by water. (1) Pting-1U-Hsien This district does not touch upon the Yellow River, but as it is adjacent to tee Honan cotton raising areas of Shan-Hsien and Ling-pao-Hsien it is in the heart of the cotter' producing re- gion on the northern banks of the Yello% River. Cotton has become the chief crop in Shansi since the? cultivation of poppies, which is the source of opium4 was forbidden. Up to that time only a email amount of raw cotton was grown for domes- tic use.: 3ocause of ite comparativelyalarge ?e- turns as a commercial crop, however; its culti- vation has increased year after year as pre- viously noted. In Shansi the principal cotton growing areas are in the south in the basin of tl,e Fen River, with scattered cultivation else- where, and at Piing-ludo the central area on' the northern banks of the Yello% River. Apart from raw cotton, cereals are an important farm crop as in the other districts. ,(2) Ju-bh/eng-Hsien Ju-ch'eng-Hsien is An Honan province, betwen len-hsiang-HsieA and the Yellow River. APat from the five cereals and the jujube tree there are no agricultural products of particular note. (3) Yung-ch-Hsien This area was formerly the seat ofgovernment of Pu-chou-fu and is located in the a)uthwest- ern part of the province, 75 Chinese miles (1i) .-175- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 effwil For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED north of Tiung-kdah and 120,Milea.sbuthWest of It ie bb4hded by theYellOw'RiVer for -a great distend& on its westerd-and southern 'edges.and it includes the ,ChUng=t1lao Range to the: east, ahd tic ;south-, On an Old river .canal-of theYeilOw RiVeri itIoinS an open . .plain41-lo the-north and test%theeountry also opens out on'a.Hplain. The principal commodities are raw cotton and ' hemp for commercial exchange, mixed ,grains, and persimmons. (4) Lin-chin-Hsien This district is:-;looated to the west.of.Tahih in northern iYungchi.-Esien. The prefectural jouraal lists Mixed grains, 'soya beans, Sesa,me, etc as prodUcts,' (5) .Jung-ho7-Hsion This-district is oil the east bank of the Yellow River and faces Han-chteng*Hsien in Shensi Pro- vince, nortbof lin-chin-Hsieh. The chief agri- cultural products listed in the prefectural jour- nal are .millet, sorghum, kaoling, wheat, buck- wheat, beans, sesame, etc. Raw cotton, raw silk . and .oilS are also produced. ',(2) kineral,.Resources (a) Honan Province According to to various recerda,and data-which have be- come known recently, there is little of particular note regarding _the resources-eXiatingAnthe area Whicbwill be submerged. As for coal resources:existing-in.this.area, first, of all we shall cite the Reirlmen fields4H-ThebeLfields,e'xtend to the east from : the westeraborder of-Chi-'7dan-Fsion; thrOUgh:14,sinaq-Hsien and to the wept aereqe Lien-chlih and, Shensi4i4eri.. 7This Coal: field, even though it is, adjacent, to the Shan-ahdlitienCh174i-Heieh,?hathely, in the neighborhood of. the and'Shan'bordera-on thO dodth. bank of the Yellow River regions which are near the.ereas,to be submerged, its western-most edge near Ica-aiiAri-tIc escapes water coverage by present estimates. (Note; Taken from Mineral Resources along the 3anks of the Yellow River between Shen and Qheng-shou," by HORIUCHI Kazuo of,:thb 13droail of East AsiatiC Studies.) . - Apart from this coal field there is nothing Worth mentioning. The Ling-pao-Hsien journal merely states that qllera long time. betweeh the Sung and Chin dynasties,. 44en ,and-Aua .in the district Ofksien4shan were deserted and it no4oviser,? , known where 041i)or'iion lead, and tin wore mined and produced,Y. It is therefore diffiC41tte Say that newresbyrce0.1141I-not, be_, discovered by the advance Of scientific investigations, Judging ..176.. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 AppraiikeVFMNIRelease 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 .RESTRICTED from the comparative investigations carried out in the interior of China by the Henan Geological_Survey 3ureau, and also from the results of previous investigations, it is reasonable to assume that the resources in the area to be suSmerged are not great, 'In his book (sec above)-HORIUCHI,simply reports that gypsum is pro- duced in the Ta-an village zone, in Shan,Hsien, under unknown con- ditions. The 'gypsum deposits in Pling-lu-Hsion in Shansi and the same strata in northern Shan-Hsien have been developed. Perhaps as these gypsum fields begin to produce they my be swamped in the area to be submerged. (b) Shensi Province This province is particularly rich in oil, coal, iron, salt, natural soda, alumina shale, sulphur, gypsum, asbestos, and various other mincrals. The principal producing areas are in the mountainous belt of northern Shensi and in the Ch'in-ling mountains in southern Shensi. There are really no important mineral re- sources in the area to be flooded by the construction of the San- men Gorge dam. (Note: The North China Lineral Industry Bulletin notes that gold is produced in Hua-Heien. Further the Hua-Hsien, Hsien Journal state that 'According to Travels over Lountain and Sea '(Shan- hai) there is a great deal Of copper to the south, and iron to the north of the western FU-yu mountains in Lesser Hua. Yoreover there are quantities. of iron to, the north and deep colored gold to the south of the oak clad crests of the Hsi-jih-ying mountains:: ") Even apart from-gold, it ia quite probable that there are deposits of copper nn.dirqp, although details are lacking. Furthermore, judging from spots in the southern mountain zone, it may be concluded that they are outside the area which will be submerged. (Note: South Lanchurian Railroad's Tien-tsin Office: "North China Lineral Industry Bulletin" page 189.) Further, page 538 of the Shensi edition of the above- :mentioned records of the various Chinese Provinces, contains a statement that coal is produced in Wei-nan-Hsien. The same source related that coal is produced south of the district, namely in the east-west Chlin-ling range. Its quality as a black coal and 'its strong lustre,and combustibility will more than fill local needs. This 'area of production is also outside the flood zone. (c) Shansi Province This provinae is abundantly rich in deposits of coal, iron, gypsum and various other mineral resources ready for exploi- tation, according to Richtofen ?ihitohofue:27 and numerous later scholars. That being the case it is a question just how, extensive the underground resources are in the proposed area of. submergence. First of all, there are the gypsum deposits in Ping- lu-Hsien which run for about 30 Chinese miles (11) 'along the north bank of the East Yellm River from San-men.-ling:, which is fiast of the govIt(Hsion)scat. In this interval, outcrops occur in four places. The first is at ,"'ara-men-ling (which ii .5 Chinese miles (1i) to the east of the_government seat; another IS to the south- west of Hsii-yu-fen5i2/ which is about 65 Chinese miles (1i) east '4177. ,RFaSTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 T yRti?piroved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED of the government seat; a third is northeast of-the village nf Pfaneelan-kou uhidh is 70 Chinese miles (1i) east of the govern- ment seat and the fourth is past of the village of Pro-ti-ho 'ehich is 80 Chinese miles (1i) east of the prefectural capital. Of the four, the gypsum at Po-ti-he village is dhpetior by far. This gypsum de- posit occurs in strata of tertiary laterite. Its thickness varies from four or five inches to more than a foot. The zone of occurrence is ten kilometers long and one to five kilometers ide. This gyp- sum deposit attracted the attention of the inhabitents around 1884. Lining operations gradually increased until, just before the China Incident they, were taking out an estimated two to three thousand tons per year. Part of this gypsum range also appears as a well- ciefined outcrop near the San-men temple near San-men Gorge which is the construction site for the dam; therefore the considerable effect of the still water should be taken into account. (Note: To the north of Sanefeng-ssu temple which is east of Piinglu-Hsien and to the south of Chui-tzu-shan there are silver ores. Comelunications (by letter) pith the government seat more than 50 Chinese miles (ii) away are poor. This silver ore body forms a vein in the archaean gneiss era and its width in many places varies from some inches to several feet. Further details arc lacking,) (Note; The gypsum deposits of Ping-luenien are written up in greater detail by Tslao Shih-lu in Vol VIII, Sect IV, pp 327 ff of the Chinese Geological Society :e..gazine, published by the Chinese. Geological Society, December 1929. A'Japanese translation of these proceedings was made by OCHIAT Kushiro.) ApfArt from Pling-lc, fortunately no valuable resour- ces are to be found in the stiliWater al-en. The Shansi provincial records, in the "Complete Records of the Various Chinese Province," merely state (on pege 629) that there are two iron mines.in the vicinity of Yung-chi-Hsien. They are about. 400 moo in extent, and iron is mined and manufactured in accordance with the agrarian laws. They supply the hardeare stores in Pu-chou with finished articles. The small amount of coel produced in the neighborhocd supplies the government seat but is almost of no consequence otherwise. (End of Vol IiJ Annexed maps and charts are appended.. rAddendum and Bibliography follow in Vol 1117 -178- RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Ap_proved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT hL5ThlUTED ANNEXED MAPS AND CHARTS 'RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT pprovea ror Keiease luumtsizo . uuu- HESTRIOTLD KEY TO MAP' trA 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. No X-A Map shaving dem sites Scale: 1/500.000 May 1941 Shensi Province 56. 57. 58. 5,. 60. Meng -Helen Wen Wet Wu-chih Po -ai Yang-immiao 6. Huang-ho (Yellow River) 61. HOillr-101 7. Yu-men-klou 62. Shih-1i-plU 8. San-yang 63, T'eng-ts'un 9. Han-oh'eng 64. Ta-ch'ing-ying 10. Chih-eh'uan*chen 65. IVang-rtstun-i 11. Ho-yang 66. Yuan-wu 12. T'ung-chou 67. (Hu)Hou,chla 13. Chao-1 68. Tai-chia-tlien 14. Kuan-shan 69. Hsinheiang 15. T'ion,..t'un-chen 70.4. Tang-wu 16. Wei -ho (Wei River) 71-B. Eut-Hsien 17. Shansi Province 71. Nan-ts'un 18. Hsiang-yuan 72. Lin-eh'i 19. Fen-chieng 73. loirle-el.l'uan 20, Fen-ho (Fen River) 74. Li -1-chen ? 21, Hc-ching 75. Mi-shan-chen 22. Chi -shan 76. In.chleng-chen 23. lisine.chiang 77. Hsiao-hen-ti Dam Site 24. Jung-ho, 78. Pa-11-111),ttung Dam Site 25. Wan-chluan Helen 79. Ho-non Province 26. I-.6hih O. Ling-tung 27. Wen-hsi 81. We-an 28.. T'ung-prU 82. Hein-shih-e.hen 29. Chlu-wu 83. Hou.-tsu-chen 30. I-ch'eng 84. Lan-.Pen 31. Kuei-ho (Kuei River) f55. Chih.=thui-chon 32. Chiang Hsien 86. Hua Hien 33. Chlin-shui 87. Lung-hai Railroad 34, Pting-min 88. Hua,4yin 35. P'u,-chau 89. Lo-nat 36. Canal 90. Tung-kuan 37. Yu-hsiang 91. Wen-hsiang 38, Jui-chlang 92. .Lu-shih Chieh Hcien 93. .Ling-pao _39. 40. Salt Lake 94. Ta-ying 41. Yun-chieng 95. Shan Hsien 42. An-I 96. Chang-mao-chen 43. Hsia-Hsien 97, Hsia,shih-chen 44. P'ing-lu 98. Kuan-yiA-t'ang 145. Yuan-ch'u 99. Mien-chih 46, Yang-chleng 100. Lung-hal Railroad 111, Ch'ing-yuan 101. Hsin-an Pai-hciao 102. Lo-ning 49, Chin-ho (Oh'in River) 103, Lo-ho (I0 River) 50, Kao-pling 104. Sung Hsien 51. San-chia-tien 105. -I -ho (I River) 52. Ch'i-ling-tien 106. T'ing-..teng 53. Tse-chou 107. Ho-nan 54. Hsi -fang-chuang 108. K'uang-k'ou 55: Huai-chting 109. T'ieh-hsieh RESTRICT= IV? S. ? I V' 'PPP gig ppg Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED w-Tc1,,,N44. (Contd.) 110. Menglic4ine 111. Ti-cheng.' 112. Yen-.0hih - 113. Lo-ho (Lo Rivet) 114. KungBeiezi . 115. Sam-shut 1164 Tiag4ang- chen 117. 1-Yalig ' ? 118. ahane-chat 119. Lin-ju 120. Hup-tiou-chieh 121. Teng-chun-plo 122. Ta-chin-tion 123. Teng-fong . 124. Shue-tien 125, Thuo,-shih-chen 126. Y1.1-chou 127. Mi RM.= ivmg-yang ' 129. HQ-1n : 130. .ling-t00-. 131, Chene-cilmt 132. 0hing-hau Railroad 133. Kutti - 134. Heim-chang 135. 0410.11g-k9?` - 136. ScalAk. ,1/500,000 137. .E1.12410-tikra- 138. --Japioess/Ri 139. Chineaa-Ri: 140. Sart-man-hella Dm Site 1LS RESTRICTED 10 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 44 a ? !ft .00211111111? / / - / I /- ??? vim= r35 4,6 ???? WEI "?Mar IMO" ? ????? 111M. t ?Q 7 ? f?rt _ I. .44 S RESTR I CTED CPYRGHT ESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Ct TRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 ? CIA-RDP78-03109A00020-0010002-5 CPY.RGr-riApproved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTilGTI) KEY TO MAP 1. iqap So X-3 2. Jontour lqap of 6,-;21-men-hsia 3. SOale: 1 1 5000 4. i,ay, 1941 5. ,;iiin-men-shan b. Aai Wan yu 7. hwang-no (leilow S. Ta-wang-miao Y. Kuei-men 10. Shen-men 11. Jen-men 12. Klai-yuan-nsi4rtio 5j. ii-uafl (rock) 14. Iden-ten-1u 15. Sim-snou-lou RESTRICTED ' I Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 elease 1999/08/25 : ClAiRDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED KEY TO MAP X-C 1. Fart two of Map No X-C 2. Topographical sketch showing the area from P'ing-lu Hsien to Lung-yen Ts'un, shan-hsi Province 3. Scale 150,000 4: Surveyed Dec 1936 b: the Chinese Government's Yellow River Water Conservation Committee 5. Ping-1u Hsien 6, Kuan-ti Mip 7. Fan-jun Ts'un S. Shan Hsien 9, Shan-hal Road and Shan Helen Station 10. A-tien 11. Hui-hsing Chen 12. Mao-chin Tu 13. Sha-chien 14.. Shih-chia Tan 15. Lung-yen Ts'un 16. 7,hai-chia (TN: illegible) RESTRICTED IY3 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 ppiuvu rut rwIctbG A-RDP78-031109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : C ..Frk ? 0-17 TAAM:stt_ftZA-1- /Mt 500 fde ' / *I/ JO' 0 f-grA, r0000 C) 50,1 -k;T-T-Jsti 4 OA- vIt-iritrot* , RESTRICTED .4?40 AIr A-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Ali 4 04-Ti7"4.4\414 4 4.44 ' 711".", 0.4.. ? ? RESTRICTED ' Ik3A- Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : C Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002 UPYRGHT 1 1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 Ferk-1i5P78-03109A000200010002-5 KEY TOMAP-X-D 1. Graph showing variation in the flow of water at Shan 2. ::ay 1941 3. Cubic meters 4. 1 JanuL,ry 1919* 5. Years o. 31 December 1935 7. Note: For months for which the flow was not meaured and data was not available, the values were substituted from the curve of a year ha/ing a similar flow curve. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002- RESTRICTED ;.- RESTRICTED ji Y A Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A00020001000 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002- RESTRICTED - ? ; -- ? , . - - ?,k1926 a 1927 /7 928 192 /9 1930 ze 1931 1932 1933 1934, 1935 1936 0 ' RESTRICTED ? F.,. Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A00020001009-2-5 CPYRGHT RESTRICTED Key to Map X-E 1. No I - E. The San-men-hsia Reservoir 2. Graph of Water level, water surface area, and amount of reservoir water 3. Ma 1941 4. (II CAeh hsien area is blocked off) 5. Amount of Reservoir Water 6. Water Surface Area 7. Depth of Watel 8. Elevation of the top of the dam (above Tang-ku Datum) 9. Amount of Reservoir Water - 100,000,000 m2 10. Water .(Jurface Area - K12 11. Data used for calculating the amount of reservoir water 12. Elevatirn (Top of Dam) 13. Depth of Water 14. Difference in Depths of Water 15, Watel Surface Area 16. Average Water Surface Area 17. Amount of Reservoir Water 18. Total Amount of Reservoir Water 19. Note: T. D = Tang-ku Datum lt RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 AlisFacggilfbr Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED Key to Map X - F 1. No X - F 2. Graph of Water level, water surface area, and amount of reservoir water 3. dlay, 1941 4. (If GYi2h Hsiep area is not blocked off) 5. Amount of Reservoir Water 6. Water Surface Area 7. Depth of Water 8. Elavacion of the top of the dam (above Tang-ku Datum) 9. Amount of Reservoir Water - 100,000,000 m2 10. Water Surface Area - KM2 11. Data used for calculatinf the amount of reservoir water 12. Elevation (Top of Dam) 13. Depth of Water 14. Difference in Depths of Water 15. Eiter SurfLce Area 16. Average Water Surface /rea 17. Amount of Reservoir Water 18. Total Amount of Reservoir Water 19. Note: T. D. 7. Tang-ku Datum RESTRICTED - , Approved For Releatd 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 1 1 t- ? ? 1- ? - - --1 t -- 1 - 4-1- , ? . ?? ? t ?- L _1 1 - -j - ? t ? ..tb0 H-11.? . ? 1 3) 4 III ZaDD .ifSV ? 5 gr. -4 ' rn- .10 .-4 --L. \A1 at '41 .N1 kNi - ? - - ? - -4-- - N - - _.1 . J. 2.....,aitti 3. ri> 1 1 4k l'? CVt- tS - 7-: r tir4 - v t., tot 1 - el1\4 - t 1CZ i% -- kj4 al ie k * iii --t,t k 1 _ _,R,j,044aPo t N (A) 1,4 o t ?7 ;44 cx. kNca- 1 -t r A t- t z--1 :1 ; ? 03191ellS38 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 KEY TJ MRP X?G 1. No X?G drawing showing Design Development 2. May 1941 3. Base lines of the dam 4. Plan view of waterways 5. Scale: 1/2500 6. Hwang Ho (Yellow River) 7. Shen?men 8. Kuei?men 9. Jen?men 10. Ta?wang?miao 11. Lien?tan-1u 12. Chih?klwang (a rock) 13. Cross section 14. Length of the Water Intake 15. Height of Base 16. Planned heirht 17. Increase 18. Graph 19. Thickness of concrete 20. Iron pipe 21. Slope 1:9 22. Power Plant 23. Discharge Pipes 24. Cross section showing Waterways 25. Scale: 1/1000 of the San?men?hsia Power RESTRICTED )17 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : GIA-RDP78-03109A000200010002-5 RESTRICTED -- 411.-/Ze*--YZ //? // / // -- -------- \ N NN ss, N,N ..... \ NN NN? - ? / //:// / -- -.. -.` ??? ? ???,:, N N ',Zs. -.., NZ,. ?-? ??? it //, / , Ak,,- .,,._ ? ? ? ?.? s, .N .?_-,N ,,,NN . ?.-NN ; Ini,,,/,,,7, 1 o ft fr 0 i? , ii Ipiri, ?0 /, ,/ -------N-s"-"?-...?..---'-?.N. -,,?., ?,...\---N, . N ?,. ---------- '- ? -??-? ??? \'? N NO., ??-???,_?,..-\ ?,,,?,:_, ??::,.? - r-,, -- \ , --- /\\ \K-N- A ---;' *t- ' Ii I-7i-',- - I 1 1 ? 11,1 141'11 (1.--:), 71( ? ? - - ? f .1\ p \ \ Of rjr4' .23 ? ? ? ,/ // ,/ / / -/ ? ? os, ? 'f - _ ,/ ',/ ???,/ , ....., ,... _.,..?,, , , \ , 2\v----7--?,--L\,*,!-T-.1-?":t.,1,-- \,,,//??5//, //,/,,,--,_, . __,../?.. ,,,,.?.,. , , , . ,,,,-.-_,-;.:-,-,-..).,--;>.?: