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June 20, 1947
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Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109AO005000100 F` ~~91+!w ~C~ TO: T~; S C 1161 ' -~- _ R2V1 VVER: v 71f9 DOCUMENTS BRANCH TRANSLATION EPIDEMICS IN THE FAR EASTERN USSR Prepared By Documents Branch CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE GROUP New War Department Building 21st and Virginia Avenue, N. W. Washington, D. C. Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 WARNING THIS DOCUMENT CONTA I NS I NFORMAT I ON AFFECTING THE NATIONAL DEFENSE OF THE UNITED STATES WITHIIN THE MEANING OF THE ESPIONAGE ACT, 50 U.S.C.. 31 AND 32. AS AMENDED. ITS TRANSMISSION OR THE REVELATION OF ITS CONTENTS IN ANY MANNER TO ANY' UNAUTHORIZED PERSON IS PROHIBITED BY LAW. REPRODUCTION OF THE INTELLIGENCE IN THIS PUBLICATION IS PROHIBITED WITHOUT SPECIAL AUTHORITY FROM THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 DOCUMENTS B R A N C H T R A N S L A T I O N 20 Jun 1947 Number 364 ARMY MEDICAL COLLEGE IMMUNOLOGICAL RESEARCH REPORTS Prepared by Documents Branch CENTRAL. INTELLIGENCE GROUP 2430 E Street, N. W. Washington, D. C. Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500018012-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 SUMMARY OF CONTENTS Epidemics of the Far ;,.astern USSR (Doc No 270440-3-364 ._ ~- This is a complete translation of the 28-page Immunological Research Report Number 364, issued by the Army Medical College, Tokyo, 1942, under the supervision of Major General ISHII, in charge of the college immunological classes, and Major TAKAHASHI Tsutou, Army Medical CcrDs. The renort consists of three chapters: the' first briefly attributes Far Eastern USSR epidemics to low standards of living and -conomic development and notes those diseases requiring particular mili- tary precaution$;'the second describes the weather in the eastern, central, and western sectors of the Far. Eastern USSR; and the third, divided into administrative are&s of the Soviet Far. East, de- scribes particular places in detail (ie, climate, population, number of dwellings, water supply, suitability for garrisons, etc), the prevalent disy eases, brief historical data on the places and the epidemics and existing medical facilities. Forty- ,five tables and tvc charts, scattered throughout the text, supply statistics on climate and the number of cases of and deaths resulting from the various dis- eases. Pages 1 through 33 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 Approved For Release 1999/00/25': CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 T '1 (F CONTENTS I : ,Genera : Rcrp rk II ,Weathez :, , .ohs, t rn S; ptor ~'e,. Ctrl,. $sor Army Medical College 1, Rayons Directly Subordinate. E.cegit~ye,.Committee 2. Ussuri Oblast Khabarovsk Kray A Khabarovsk Oblast SE CR$T CF}'fR611~F C ? The!l stn SpQtor Maritime Kr&y Vert of Irkutsk, Qblast Yakut ASSR 1.. City of Yakutsk 2. Verkhoyansk. ,Tokyo 1:94.2 the Kray EdN: Names in capital letters followed by an asterisk indicate transliteration from.the?Japanese. 2. Jewish Autonomous Oblast 3. Amur Oblast 4. Lower. Amur Qblast 5. Kamchatka Oblast Da ikai area . Burya t-Mongo l., SSR 1. t lar_.Ude 2. Kyakhte . Approved For'Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A00050001001.2-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 CIA-RDP78-03109AO00500010012-1 . GEPTERriL REMARKS The Soviet wovernment has been endeavoriri .year after year to ;.asprea'd generall culture and `the arneriities of civilization in her Far Zaste.rn territories and at the same time to promote sanitation. :'he overnmentconsequently has been increasing public health facil- ities first in the cities and then in the surrounding areas and amaze the world in the future, if these present trends persisto day Soviet Union end in its economic geography Is the easLwara rn cation? of economic units; that is, economic units are gradually ex- ltendir from t'uropean USSR to the eastern slopes of the Ural Mountains en~ an t iCentrcl Asa, western Siberia, and the 'Far East. It is p the economic ' development' of Russia and Asia will min ,.a;?1 Ar nhAnnmenon which is now appearing in the present- reoertt propaganda, is cBerrying out plans`to improve and''inerease the distribution of doctors. However, the peoples of the Far Eastern U:3SR have a low stand-- rd of living and still-primitive concepts of hygiene and adequate 'hygienic measures have not 'been taken to control the environment. ,ThesQ peoples still suffer many outbreaks of various diseases for the want of medical facilities. The general health program has not been so successful as the Government boastfully proclaimed in its European' continent. must be viewed as centered in'EuropeanRussia where it already has rea6hed almost full development? fihe economic value of European Russia is such that, not only doesthe Soviet Union itself depend upon' European Russia, but it is also the source of existence for the Rowever the present economic strength of the Soviet Union Therefore, the economic strength of the Soviet Union has great significance in the Axis' war with England and America. These areas which had been hitherto considered an agricultural treasure house have seen brilliant industrial expansion as a result of three five- year plans under the new economic policy.' This remarkable economic 'develo went of the Soviet Union in Siberia is, furthermore, thought to be ~he prime cause of pestilences in these areas. During military operations in the Russian territories of the Far East the greatest precautions must be exercised especially a a'inst the plague, exaithema:tous typhus (spotted fever), and win- ~er;xost ite, as well as other diseases.'These afflictions can Caine 'imne,diate, large-scale deterioration of fighting strength. ?r The next group of diseases worthy of note are malaria, venereal diseases, undulant fever, and diseases due to vitamin deficiencies; they cause a continual drain on military strength and potential, as Was etplained in the Introduction (TN: not in this report). ;Especially great then is the fear that Soviet Russia will carry o t becterio~ogical warfare, In View of this, it is imperative that immunological measures be perfected, and it is also essential from to e,poirit of view of military operations that a geographical study be, made of epidemics. Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 2- SECRET Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 CPYRGHT SECRET Since.Siber.rian topography?is flat-.# the-ndrth and mourn sous, in the ?sc uth, ' Siberia car ' of avoid the cold. winds from the arctic Oc? a and shield. ed .from the. south-north ' warm 'winds "by' the Altai _Nl~untaans' running along the frontier. Further-, more, the temperature is remarkably lpw.in-comparison with that in European regions Of the S4me;latitude-.bec6use`the .StanQvoi Mountain Range-blocks the ocean winds blowing from The climate of; the 'Soviet Far East? is. :an extremely conti- nental one of the purest type: a minimum of 3 or 4 months a year have,.temperaturesbelow freezing; spring and fall are very ..short; and the temperature difference between summer and winter is great, However, it Isre.cQgnized that the. weather in the Maritime. Kray and in Amur Qblast is controlled chiefly by the Asiatic mainland, the Japan Sea, and other regions and seas. That is, the broad plains of the central part of the Asiatic mainland become hot as an oven iri summer, arid, therefore, the air cur- rents always blow westward:.from the sea and over the continent: in winter the opposite is true, and the wind blows eastward from the land toward the sea. 'Therefore, there are variations in the air movements in late fall, early winter, and early spring, and in the seasons of balmy weather-;_ at high and low atmospheric pressure intermingle., In general, one sees violent changes in temperature and weather. However, during winter and mid-summer, variatons,in air movements are comparatively small, and at the time-of intense cold, there are continuous days of no wind and clear skies. A. The Eastern Sector On , the whole the eastern sector has a maritime climate, and its summer humidity is rather high. This description especially fits the Maritime Kray and the coastal regions. Winds become weaker in summer, and although they are generally west winds n rth t , o wes winds prevail in winter. .Special precau- tions must be heeded with regard to 'frostbite prevention in the..'. eastern part of the USSuri River basin, because high winds blow,.. durino t.h- r v.i,-r} -P ...t -- -.-_ ~~ ??+~vv..yaa~cli~7C?C:U1U unere.? The Period :of, river and mar-oh'fr eez n& is generally from mid-November to earl y-April. Snowfalls between October and. April, and the accumulation in various plac.es:is lcomparatively great. The eriod f t p o grea est fall is from All-V, T_ 4t late`February to. PaN1v n~_ ..--- -. meter alca, sitUVV Ue s'. SECRET Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 Approved' For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 The nature. of the cljz ate. in the `lowlands of the Ussuri and Amur River basins is highly conducive to outbreaks of malaria. Malaria is especially b_--, in the paddy fields and -marshy areas pf the Ussuri River basin.. In our Siberian mil~tary.expedition;`we had ? 467 cases but, the ;;neatest . incidence of malaria; was among' ?our garrison troops in_thes:-~uthern part'.of Ussuri. In{wariter"one sees, hardly any snow fall; the total amount of precipitation between December and March is merely 2to 5 millimeters. Most rain falls at the enaa of summer; therefore, in august the rivers are swollen, and thus extensive marshes are often formed along both sides of the rivers. The dire result of all this is that two large; festering bowls of malaria are perpetually filled between Manchuria and the Soviet Far East. The anopheles mosquito is rather prevalent in Transbaikal Oblast, Amur Oblast, the Maritime Kray., and Ussuri Oblast; In the areas around 'oset, B,arabash, and Ran'dolnoye; and, in, the' northern areas M of anchuria, Serious outbreaks of malaria. therefore, are largely due to The. Central Sector The period of extreme cold in January,, even though the temper, ature has fallen below zero at the enc of 'October. The rivers generally, freeze the first of November and bipgir., to thaw in April... The extreme rainy period,, is from June to August,,:.-and there is much rain .in Angus In the region. around Blagoveshchensk; precipitatio'r- for the month of July amounts.tb 110-150 millimeters. and generally possesses a most violently continental type of climate,-,. Although the summers - are t err. ibly .hot, the humidity 'is low. The average temperature of July is from 16? to 22? C and reaches a maximum of 40?. The variation in insolation,is.,remarkably great, This area is a high plain more than 600 meters above sea level The. Western Sector In winter'there is little snow, but the colctAvery intense and long~lastiri - f rom...early September to mid..,W,4y; T'1?e average, temperature of Janua'y, the,month of most intense cold, is generally -25? to -29o C t ie ;ninimum low is -5? C -'ic7. The winter snow accu mulatjon, however, is very small, generally 5 to,lei'centimeters, so ... that the is n?t,much.'Ase.for sleds in'.the southern regions. Generally speaking, ..it as natural; that the Siberian :winter ,.. ; shows considerable ;variations depending upon place. Tie most remark- able differences' ir'e' tp be. found` especially between the winters of` western Siberia 'ektend1ng to the right bank of the Yenisei east of the Urals and the winters of eastern Siberia east of there, The Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 CPYRGHT. Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 Avg Ave Tine' rh Ilia..of; Russia is . ~.ivit e't .climati-ca7,,ly into polar, frigid, ,within.-the country. -omitted in original.) ( "Siberia," 1rld Geogr, Vol 8) In, order to clarify the natures of the various kinds of climates in Russia, the following table is given showing.the statistics for ..temperature and precipitation as_,measured at 23,.observation stations Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-031-09A00050001.0012-1 Polar Climate i Permanently; Mo ! Mo a el .. e ow. 's h oyes the e c'es + wean' eese t w-0 areas: Comparison between Eastern and Testern Siberia (according to'Bunce) the bases of temperature and precipitation: azid temperate zones. Siberia possesses no'warmer zone than these. The table belgw subdivides these these rods of climate further on Climate Explanation of Ic'oppen's Climate Symbols Cla.ssit. ication' .Frozen= F Tundra ET, II Frigid-Zone f;l i m +.a Locality Temperature ; No Mo of' Climate Classification Max Min Mean Temp, T i hired + Steppes Desert Tobo1 sk (-) 19.0 Tomsk (-) 19.6 'Semipala'tinsk .. -) .17.5' :~ 'erk ioyansk' Yakutsk. ?Petiopav1ovsk., (Kamchatka) .Vladivostok Alexandrovsk 1Ja : Dc~ Db; Da SECRET Jan Temp Jul Temp Annual Preci- pitation (mm) 19.1 44.7 50.6 22.2 18.1 15.4 12.6 19-Q 30.0 18.4 119.4 20'S 37,2 16.:7. 56.3 ' ("Siberia , "r World Gebgrephy, Vol 8) Above 10` Winter !'. Precipi-, l.U 1 Ddv > 10 10ti r-r f= ;y 4.) (1) v 0 (D CIO H ~+ P4 7 U to M() r" . CU tp M 'O O N Ln r` LLl ? ? rt ? N ? r1 ? N . ? ?..N i N 111 Ln. M ' r=i N N. CC, i r- rI r-1 r1 Ln C U C O (D r--I r- w r N r rL to U. O ? ri. ? N .? Kl - ? ri ? Ln '?'.CV 6 M O N O U' 1 %,D r-i N r-1- ri ri I 1 I c) N . ? r-i L~ o J O N ? N ? _ ? N LCl 1-- M c- 0 ? ? 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For CIA-RDP78-03109A00050001'0012-1' IIIr..; RELIC tAL D91CRIPTION he so-called Soviet Far East inclures the following adminis- , kre executive 'Maritime:Kray (rayons directly sub- .ordinate the of?~rec ~z~t date,committee), Khabarovsk Kray ( the Khebarovsk,;Jewish Atxtonemous, Amur, Lower Amur,,and..Kamchatka. 0~ ast t1e-$ai~tal aree ic7., Chita Oblast and the Luryat- ?Mongol ASI.' . part .-af .,Irkutsk Oblast, .wndz the Yakut. ASSR.. .Rayons:directly Subordinate.to.the Kray Executive?Committee Dysentery~ typhoid' (enteric)- fever,.?an-d other' diseases .11 usually break out every-year. The following table shows the',Aonth- by-month number of dysentery cases in the rayons directly subordi- riatt to the kray executive committee. .It is noticed fxom the.. table that her ,are outbreal ; t,hy ot}ghout the four seasons of the year. 'Ail the rayons are. almost similar with respect to these outbreaks. Monthly List of Dysentery ' Patients in' Maritime,, Rayons 1914 41',46.' .? 22 43 150 665 588 604 203 79 58 33 2,768 82 96,: 1-9? , 368 636 504 173 65 61. 28.,322 87 721 117 797, 521 434.. 317 195. 173 109, 215,39 67 73:.100 251 479' 831 33.9 124 78? - 38' 2,498 104 11)170 273 10421047 330 103 79 54.3,554 Unknown 4,3;84 70 81 17:7.,, 404 .739?, 702 267 .1'02 63 61 2,755 52 78. 104 484, 1Q69 522' .?4i . 49, 49., 2,810 The following table shows the statistics on recurrent fevcr in the rayons directly subordinate to the kray executive committee from 1907 to 1914; the epidemic of 1907-1908?was most violent and began Exarzthemstous .(6.ruptive) typhus botween 1924 and ? 1927, .showed the follo4ng cases: 15 7 79' 61 1.909. 56, ? . 60 1911 - 70. 48 1911 `81. 58 1.913 33 56 Yr of Epidemic '1907 ? 1908 Approved For Release 1999108/25 CIA-RDP78-03109A0005O0010012-1 if Feb Ma?'. , apr. May Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 CPYRGHT Jan Feb Mar 4r~~, May, Jun ;Jul., Aug Sep, Oct Nov Dec Total 1926 Patients 7 - ' 3 17 4 3 .38 Outbreaks of malaria in"the F'ar east occur in the,eaptern part, especially in the whole area of the Maritime $ray and in the damp zones around Lake Khanka. Malarial areas suffe ing"continual out- malaria of these areas is goner 11y'3-day fever (pappataci fever *ar sand-f .y fever), but it is said that,, during the.. Siberian cam- paign, three cases 6fw4-day e'er occurred. The following table shows the monthly occurrence of this disease; generally the period of greatest occurrence; is from April to September. breaks are,: Maritime Kray, the Vladivostok area, the whole river area of Lake Khar.~ka,. and Sui-fqp Flo, the Korean villages in the Mo River basin, and'Voroshilov (Nikolsk-'Ussuriskiy) Rayon. The Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Maritime Rayons 9 43 12 90 130 67 225 208 157 74 70 29 ;a. Sovetskaya Cavan Cholera, which raged in. China, spread in 1E23, by-sea to the Maritime Kray and became rampant there-too. The city of Sovetskaya Gavan lies at 49? north latitude, It is a port facing the Straits of Tartary and hss the special characteristic of .being ice-free in winter, like the neighboring seas.` It is an,. important gateway to Siberia, since it will be the terminal point of the B M (Baikal-Amur) Railroad. Sovetskaya Gavan also possesses great significance from the standpoint of epidemical studies. b. Vladivostok 'This city is the terminal point of the Chinese Eastern Railroad and occupies a key position in the transportation scheme. Ther' efore, Vladivostok has often suffered from epidemics because of the invasion of plague victims and disease carriers brought by rail transit. This city, however, is equipped with the best medical facilities in the Soviet Far East. In 1938 the city possessed nine government hospitals of modern constructicn; and there are some magnificent structures of three or four stories which are eminextly suitable for wartime conversion into hospitals. There is also a, bacteriological laboratory here. Red.L.rmy medical troops stationed in Vl.idivostokare attached to the municipal health department and, when required, will give medical examinations to the general civilian population. -'9 SECRET Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A00050OG10012-1 usually breaks of evc.t year. Mortality 'statitic"s`or the period 29,0.1-1914 are shown` in the table' beIo : `+ ' J 1925 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 CPYRGHT Deaths RET A `study of e) * d8 i s here shows -that dysentery of. Epidemic 1.90' 1908 i9t1q ~19'ld'11 19'12 `5913 109`14 Total .17 5 12 10 14 11 20 5 94 It is reporie~ th it'there were cases of-ent"el y?hoid in our expo itidxiary fcrce of" 1918-1920, northern areas of Manchuria broke through the-.sanitary cordon iussians trying..to protect the Maritime Kray and invaded th'e city, of Vladivostok; and?on 10 Apr 1923 the first plague vict4ms were seen. Thereafterthe dreaded plague spread and became mdre and. no e yio1 nt'throughout the city; and there se nled tobe a1rnQ t no end to t$ baleful presence. The total Furthermore in. 1921, tFi'e pla gue' which? was raging in t_he.. fever which broke; out in the Irkutsk There also was a great epidemic 1907. A recurrence of thisepidemic pnd, thereafter, there were sporadic nya,cid Via ivostQk;; the table below 1h I- the city month by .month; statistica one can surmise pertinent information regarding the ben in 1919 when 86 cases broke out,, Thereafter,: the number gradually decreased. In Nov 1919, however,-enother violent out- fever'. visited Vladivostp vpith 44 cases'. The table. below shows the 'mortality figures for . the principal pestilences which struck the city in 1924 and 1925. FFrom these of recurrent fever in Was again seen in 1908, outbreaks. ?Recurre .t area an 1916 finally shows the number, of cases .Jan F'eb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug:Sept Oct Nov Dec. Total There' were few cases in 1'917 and '.1918, but a sudden incr6ase was Typhoid and Paratyphoid 9 Exanth&ato xs. Typhus Sm`llpor 1 Scarlet Fever 6 Diphtheria 6 Dysentery 9 67 2 3 10 16 5 11 ; 7 - +,16 , 58 - 125`' SECRET ;2Q 26 ,s 4 12 5 .7 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP,78-03109A0005,0001.0012-1;, Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 CPYRGHT .The"city today is:.in.a frenzied, state and is hastily setting up defense installations on- all the st'reets'. There can be seen now increasing numbers of helmeted SQ'viet military?persohnel, and. there is a feeling of tension hitherto unnoticed in t h?e 'city. Although almost crushed by the German bLitrieg,, the Russians are working with might and main to build "up this vital city of the Far East. Everywhere in the city there`are air-raid trenches. `Women and children" are , being, evacuated while available people of the city are g its d ensefe. Everywhere antiaircaaft installa- bein mobilized for tions-fiave bneh set up, and almost'every night the city goes through -practice air-rain maneuvers. several thousand searchlights can be seen. 4 7 a even in..the acquisition of fcr`eigh?goods which Furthermore , p ug city one 'can obsej~ve a'' desperate picture. Goods the c ass thro h intended for Soviet aid cote streaming up from Manila, Shanghai, Batavia, ustrali&y etc, and, of epidemics should break out in these areas, Vladivostok itsel.f'viould probably be affected. The population, as of Jars 1939, was 206,000. 'Ussuri Oblast Thi's#`city was formerly, known as Nikolsk-Ussuriiskiy, or simply as Nikolsk. The population is calculated to be 70,000 and the number of dwellings, is',about 3,600., The water eupply.depends upon 1,00 wells. The city is. suitable as a garrison for many traops. The surrounding areas enjoy a. rather warm climate'and are the most denoely populated farm lands of all the Far East. The city is the'economic''and financial heart of this rich land surrounding it and is the most important city on.the railroad lines. For this reason, Voroshilov has often been. invaded by epidemics of cholera, plague, re,ciirrentfever, typhoid (ente:ric) fever,, dysentery, and other diseases. Cholera which was raging in northern Manchuria in 1919 invaded Voroshilov through Harbin and Pogranichnaya. The next year, 1920, the another epidemic swept over the city, having Dome again over, same invasion route from the Harbin area. At the time of the great plague epidemic in 1920-19:1 in the Soviet Far East, Voroshilov was again invaded from the east by carriers from pestilential Tsitsihar and Harbin; by 31 May 1921 when the plague finally subsided, it had suffered 16 cases Every year there is-an epidemic of dysentery, smell?or large. ,.The follo wing tab1 : shows the dysentery mortality figures for the period 1901-19142 Yr of Epidemic 1907 1908 1909' 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 Total Deatkis 10 8 .6 5 14.. 2: , 6 . 6 ...57 The table below shows that malaria and dysentery are decidedly SECRET Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 Approved For Release 1999108/25; CIA-RDP78=QO109A000500010012-1 CPYRGHT SECRET;. more prevalent than all the other diseases. The figures are taken fro recor' ds of our, medical troops who; at the time of the 1919 from m re ion treated Russians, Chinesel`ari`Koreans, between April and. September. . Monthly Table of Russian, Chinese, and Itorean Patients Treated in Southern Ussuri Oblast from J,pr to Sep 191.9 ("History of Military Oanitation in Siberia, ";Chap, 6) Disease Malaria Cholera. Exanthematous Typhus Dysentery Swallpox Measles Apr May, Jun. Jul ; A, g Sep Total 5.. The table below shoves mortslty figures for the year 1924 versus disease type, sex of victims, and their ages. In that year, typhoid fever, next to diarrhea and enteritis, was the most prevalent. (See- 't'able on following )age. ) 12 - SECRET Approved For Release 1999/08/2'5: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1' App fkppReIease 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A00.0500010012-1 N m CU - 1 1 I fl~ rq r-I 1 .. I , I I oI t I I? to {.a ri c C H 0 S. N f-i R 0 n E+ PA t P is Approved For Release 1999/08/25 CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 Approved For Release 1999108/25 CIA-RDP78 03109A000500010012-1 CPYRGHT ith the highest number of patients hus a pwrce ag }5dk*T T . the nucibdr ' ' Jtipanse riat Duals %now resident in Voroshdlav is very small, but in the ?cxty'`th~~e`' ar'er goverrnerit and industrial est4blishments.Sanitary installations,therefore, have been set up `I'ier'e axe alto bactcr~olo 3 c~ l laboratories without much tr"o~Ctb1 e: g in the city., as well as factories manufacturing bacteriolo?1ical products. although no therapeutical or' other iedio&l :equipMent has beeninstalled yet., the Red frmy has recently expanded it ~ y hpspita 5:1 iirthermbr ', tYie ed i m plans to establi~ health` agencies irf the`rayo2is along the Vo-rde:rs? and is now moving ? 'epidemic of ).-`typo paratyphoid he-re and even our expeditionary ' bh .s" lan. ? ards the execution of tr ~paskdal:~niy ?: , rSpas1dal~niy is 130"kilometers northeast of Voroshilov and ha`d a opulation " of" 11; 000 6;s, of 1931. In "1919 there. was . an 4 '3 .3 .3 4 23 loo Month ,.Jan Feb Mar ,,,pr May Jun' Jul ug Sep Entire it pdracl c outbreaks of dysentery and haematocolonitis are known th'Quehc?ut the year inKhabarovsk Kray, -as found by.recent iz1vQati- gati.ons a$ 1a?te as 1939. fox.:,hly Rate of Spread ,of Various types of7 Dysentery in 1939 (%) B.,.; Kh barovsk K_ra.y cas0. force had' '113 The acute intestinal diseases possess seasonal characteristics. That is, the. greatest number of cases occur in the period June to h:ugust. Monthly Rate of Spread of Intestinal. Diseases on 100% Basis nt ;Month Jan,Feb Mar pr Ma' ;. Jun.. Jul J'.ug Sep Oct -Nov :iec j haborovsk Kray 4.4 2.9 4.5 7.5 25.5 25.1' 100 68. 28,6 '19.631145, 5,9 The fallowing table 4hill''6how the p(,.uuliarities of':dysentery in Khabarovsk Kray; Locplity. Rate of Spread of Various Dysentery Bacilli Inhabited Lrea Bacillus ilis', P"roteus Shigelle Fi'exner Strong is, etc. Morgani.i. Bl,-.goveshchensk 4 Biz- obid.zhan 12 1 Khabarovsk 99 53 5 49: 32 .10.. 54 . 5. .14 Approved For Release 1999/08/251:- CIA-RDP78-03109A00050001.0012-1 .51 _ Approved For Release 1999/08/25 CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 CPYRGHT SECRET NOTE: From this table it is clearly seen that in Khabarovsk Kray the flexner,bacillus is most common. z a. Khabarovsk lies near the function of Amur and the Ussuri Rivers. it is situated'on a slightly rising area directly downstream from the junction. The city had a population of 199,000 ab of Jan 1939. It is the headquarters of a Far Eastern command and is strategically impol---" taht, Large quantities of vea'oons and other military supplies for the Far Eastern Red Army are manufactured here. KhabaroT rsk is also extremely imnor.tant from the standpoint of communications." It has, therefore, se+n frequent epidemic invasions. The chief enidemics are cholera, dysentery, recurrent fever, and malaria. It is worthy of note here that among itncrtant establishments at Khabarovsk are the biological Laboratory of the Oriental In.f ec- tious-Diseases ' esearch Institute and the Khc-,b rovsk Army 'Health Lxar.iinaticn St...ticn, In 1919 a cholera. epidemic w'as'prevalent. (Far Eastern USSR Military Sanitation Journal) The table below reports the mortality figures for dysentery for the period 1907-1914 as determined by investigations of'our expedi- tionary force: Yr 1907 1908 Deaths 32 19 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 Total 5 10 16 6 6 9 103 Furthermore, there was an epidemic of recurrent fever in 1919. March and December show the greatest incidence, and the summer season, July to September, has the smallest according to studies made of the number of. recurrent fever patients who entered the city hospitals. The monthly rate of hospitalized patients is given below: Relapsing-Fever Patients :Entering Khabarovsk City Hospital in 1919 Mo Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total S ex Male 2 28 1.2 2 5 3 - 2 3 3 15 75 Female. - 1 1 4 - - ?- - - , - 6 Total. 2 29 13 2 9 3 - 2 ?- 3 3 15 81 There is a perpetual malarial bowl near the entrance of the tributary Sungari River into the Amur River southwest of Khabarovsk. Khabarovsk Rayon suffers frequent. outbreaks of malaria; it is reported that 10 percent of the people who live in the river 'basin of the Bir River (a. tributary of the Tungus River northwest of Khabarovsk) rave malaria. Approved'For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 Approved For Release .1999/08/25 CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 ma7ar a,, The following table gives..infRrmat4on on the number i+' .. 7. - e44 '+ f n~irir7 in c+.ti f. G~.4['q of tha national hosi i- SECRET Therefore, the city of-?Khabarovsk also suffers frequently from The table below shows'the mortality figures ror the principal di.Seses that 'have broken out in" I in i92 and 1925 ha~arovsk. ~ be;. 16 91 10 No Fatalities Caused by Major Diseases in Khabarovsk Typhoid' and., 'eratyP1ioi` d Fxanthetatou. Typ us . sentery .,~rithra~ `. iarrhec andEnteritis 1925 Male Female Total .Tiere is no deailed?information on typhoid fever and Kazaevich6k is "situated along that. Dart o the ,Lssuri baratvphoid-incidents rates in this area,?since we possess no typhoid cases 23 were`I.-type (85 percent)..and 40 were B-type (15 percent) s1~; this is completely different fxpm the Sevietdata.However. according to data obtained rrom.our own ex e enc s at the time of the 'a berian campaign, our troops er of aratgphoid, as=compared with 103 cases ~:, feted ~~~,cases of typhoid fever -.more than double.. Moreover, of the Para- south ,Of' I ha;barovsk, it serves as 'an advance gua'rd' for Khabarovsk, headquarters of the Far Eastern command. It has' t en army bsarracks there are always two or three river warships at anchor River where the current flows swiftly, near the 'u=t'ur n' Channel komsomn5 sk ku~ ~8omblsk,, / a new industrial .city, 'manuf'acturing 60...O( kilometers north of Khabarovsk. T e present p?pulaton is m i-iors is situated on the left bank of the Amur River about $etween Komsomolsk and Khabarovsk is a regular air route, besides a branch line of the BAM (Baikal-Amur RaAroad) and a ter route on the Amur River. . ln, order' to strengthen Far Eastern defenses., particularly against`Japan, the Soviet government in 1932 sent the=members of 16 S CRET CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/08/25 : CIA-RDP78-03109A0005000100.12-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109AO00500010012-1 Amur. Oblast rsamo rom var qus p acts in European USSR to build up the i 'arz its defenses Al hoh there were formerly no reports . of epidemics, 'this city and surroundings now hold great significance from the stand- point of epidemics and their std,es for the fo"l lowing reasons:. the c.ty is an important center of traffic; the nearby broad plains are flat and moist and 44re crs$crossed by branches of thghmur iver; ehd the territory is, therefore? often inundated ,th4u h~ Komsomolsk capn2t, be, called" a? city completely equipped with hygienic installations, it does have 4 hospitals* an ,13, sanatoriums and the wai.er~~works system is almost com- *i 13y anstalled .' 2. gewish Autonomous,. Oblast ">~h s area was selegte4 in 1.928 as the area for Jewjsh, imii.gration and is called the Jew.sh Autonomeua.Oblast, or the rol~id2haan.Rpublic. . It is completely different from all the.. athgr areas in-its makeup and other characteristics.. I~ is a,-special adrni,ni;3trative district and is 'died not oxxl with Jews from Ruusia, but; also with, ;Jews..from America, Berman alestine, and other countries, The total popu- laanc, PolandPa- , 000, among thee: wing, 1 x400. Jews,, according to a 1.933 -survey. 19. ?C, and the January temperature is -25.59C. The. we then is u u l];y harsh. In the flat.plains, the average j'uly temperature is.20.8?C, and the January temperature As -22,.,90 11 1 C1,. In the.mountai the average July temperature is B, obbi the Fax Fa stern Railroad, It is the political and financial center of th Jew4sh , utonomo,i Oblast ..?and was said to :have a population r bl;cl an:'is situated l80 kilaraeters vest of Khaberevs on source, Mr military use. thou h wells arc relied tnon for water supply, the Bira Rivex~ wha fpws southwest of here, is suitable as a water There is a municipal hospital at the. southwestern tip of the city. It has 50"rooms apd 110 beds and, in addition, a clinic and ispen yin s which can be easi y set up as hospitals. As ;`for zdica,acities, there is one medical school of intermediate he climate is general.l , y rig orous, This area, lying directly soonthe?$berian Razlx-oa;~y which TVer runs parallel with the Amur g._ an ovefi? the northern hills_ is tundva. Farming is possible, Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109AO00500010012-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 CPYRGHT ' SECRET the area' is suitable i'or' Yiabitatexd'ept where' the valleyil'3,.ke plains are narrow and cut. into the hills;. The population in those pl4:.ces is very sparse. Overlooking. the ~,mur River banks, near the vague Manchurian , 141, and Soviet boundaries there' is a great'malarial pesthole. The information bejo?p dives the principal epidemics and their frequencies in this area"." 6f all the'acute contagious diseases, dysentery?is the most,pn,,valent,here. It exists in various places,in-all seasons; summer being especially bad. Although no recent information is in our possession, it will not be difficult to conjecture the state of things from the'past poor 'hygienic The table below indicates conditions: 'Amur 0bl4st Jan Feb Mare Apr . May Jun Jul Aug , Sep Oct Nov.I1ec ,Total Yr 19113. 191? 1915 - - . 2 12 35 47. 82 71 34 1 2$4 49 .97. 71 156 200. 689 727 3$5 129 ' 96 35 . 23 ,2, 659 19 96 28 26 68 137 756.1044 2901. 89 48 .18 2., 619 Typhoid,#eveiand paratyphoid are endemic. contagious diseases which, re4uire.special pre.cfaut.ion because of frequent occurrence. ,The table following give the number of cases of these two diseases. They were especially violent in the 2 months of July and. August in the 1924 and 1926. Mo Jan Feb Mar ' Apr., May Jun Jul. Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec' Total 1924. 39 42 26 21 1926 98 58 60 52.' 64 .41 114 99 201,195 128, 182 1,119 51 55 94 217 194 79 64 1,086 Exanthomatgus (eruptive)'typhus does not occur very fro- uentl but the table below wll,shgw the ,for' y, month-by-month cases 1924 and 1926: Mo Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep bct'Nov Dec Total 1944 16 23 25 17 19 28 9 7 1926 . 42, .20 21 15 13 1 - 1 l - - :114 Recurrent fever does bud there not break out frequently in Amur Oblast, 1ave been some occurrences,, in the past. The table below shows th6 yedrly incidence of. this disease. for the period 1907 to 1914: Yr 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 Total Patients 81 27 2 158 49 28 13 19 377 The'Amur area often suffer from malaria. It is said that the region around Blagoveschensk is especially plagued by fre- quent outbreaks. The incidence of the disease for the period Approved For Release 1999/08/25 CIA-RDP78-03109A00050P010012-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 CPYRGHT SECRET X923-19.25 is shown in, the follgvci:ng table: Furthermore, the 4riI to 'September is .' Blagoveshchensk Blagoveshchensk lies in the narrow delta formed by the Amur River where it meets i,ts tributary,?the Zeya. It was opened as a base for Russian mass migration in the year 1866. The city is located on. the banks of Limp River, is thickly populated, and being the hart of the Zesk-Amurskcyr_basin, is the center of active trading in various commodities.:; Lively International trade is carried on across the imur Eivr during the winter, by sleigh. ,again, the transports which cross the Amur constitute D., very essential meads of trensbortation. during the summer. 1,11 these factors are significant in considering the spread of epidemics. However,'. it must bD. noted that there: is a:bacteriological research laboratory with -the following organization, ,duties; and capacity:' Organization: time technical chief, threo,assistant technicians, and several employees. Du ties: sanit.sticn and human epidemic prevention (ie.) bacteriological cultures for,vacoines end; Wright's method), animal sanitation against hog plague, research on prevention of other domestic--animan epidemics, and research on preservation and improvement. of foodstuffs. Capacity: room for 20 patients. The statistics of deaths the to dysentery epidemics between the years 1907-1914 are as follows: r 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1.913 1914 Total Deaths 74 104 TO 72 pan- knc),-,,n -an- 68 28 418. known The ho' of." deaths" clue. to principe1 epidemics in Blegovesh- ohensk b6'wb'en the years 1924-1925 are as follows: - 19 *1924 '. ' 1925 2,184: '6,030 monthly for 1924 is given below. The period seen to have had the most cases.. Qblaist. :52. X78 52 232 352 303 224 188 296:153 164 159 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25 CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 Yr Typhoid and' 'aratyphoid Exanthematous Typhus Relapsing Fever Asiatic Cholera s ente-ry' Diarrhea River, a tributary of'the Zeya. The region is generally low'and 1.: 2 94, - 96 lgO . 11 13 '24 4 - 4 1 - 1 10 8 18 102 67 1619 Kuxbyshevka is a main station on the #,mur Railroad branch to Blagoveshchensk, It lies on the,lef banks` of the TQmi ty; it has a martial. Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A0005000100,12-1 is considered satisfactory. There are many military barracks, a situation w iich facilitates ~t'he eibtablishment of" Hospitals . wslls. TheTomiRiver is' the sourceof the army water supply and The drinking water: is obtained from, the Tomi River and there is a railroGd hospital for 100 patients and a city nospital junet?on of water and land communications. Even though'the,city its* W . y onthe west side, it is lowEnd 'swampy on the other three y The o ul&tion seder since the Ze a River zigzags through it, p p o:f tk is city, together with that of Srs.chevka which lies to the eotth,` is approximately 20,000.,-To the southeast ofythe city- Svobodny lies at'the intersection cif the Zeya River And the Amur $ailroad.on the right bank of the Zeya and is s-a main 'the army uses the Zeya River as its only source of watersupPly. The water supply is procured from the river and from tanks at the stetion; however, because of insufficieint 'electric 'power,, the latter source is not very dependable. Oonsequently, bearing animals live".. zonecoweredwith thick forests, in which many types of fur rsinfal, ,Thus,'the largest'part of this area is a subfrigid 33 4?LL.lt,,k'. VilCL,G^ .& LLV V a.Lill U k" L OLiU Q1VLa~'_ vaaG 4,vca V v, wxxv , wAtersyare extremely cold. Furthermore, due''to' gales - raging'- a,'Lmost'?d fly, the summer is cold, and there is :a large amount' of to the Tungus tribeS,`= who live a, very primitive existence of fishing and breeding reindeer, .1924.. 1925 15 2 - 2,... 3 2 5 In the, north are the ' YURIYASU peopled in the area e5r- tehdin,g from the oen'ter'to the south-are a few Lamuts,,belonging Approved. For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 CPYRGHT ;SECRET Thore :very few Japanese and Russian fishermen in this area, eicept in the reresentative''city of Okhotsk',` which'was established.as a fishing port and fur exchange in early 1647. rep(jrted,,. there -are places 'about which there are no records. This area "must be closel observed from the viewpoint. of the study of epidemics, since, even though no epidemics have been Precipitation is rather heavy due to the peninsular position In Petropavlovsk the annul precipitation was about 1,200 millimeters The_,.western slopes, particularly, from October through April, suffer strong northwestern winds and severe snowstorms which not only cover the ehtire.area with a huge amount of snow, but smother all .XI southern Sakhalin. 'far to the south. This area is,'influenced by the cold coastal current and a during 1?.~inds. .For this reason yit gas empratures. However, the sessondurin the short summer' with'ver hi h teperatures. climate temperature drops very low during the remaining seasons. hccording to the Petropavlovskobser46tionsi the average'teinperature in 'ebrua .js.10.2?C; in august, 16.7?C; and the annual average is i2.1?C'..si,cc' This is still warmer than the Japanese city of Otomari the-exception of Petrcpavlovsk,.in the original coastal towns. severe cold., Most of the natives belong to Kamchadals or Itelmen tribes who inhabit 'te ,-central ,southern regions. In 1927 the popu- lation, including 5,000 Russians; was estimated at 33,,000 and, by Jan 1933, it 'had' reached '55,300. Thins, the statistics of 5 years ,,Show a great industrial development and a large increase of immi- grants. according to the'1939 census, the population was three times larger than in 1929. *This population is coxicentrGted, with and, in addition, the Kamchatka River basin does not suffer from ..Kamchatka ably st On the other hand, the eastern belt is appreciably warm, That west -of Lake Baikal is, classified ap "Dfc" i,s peculiarly dry during the winter; therefore, it is recorded by tie Koeppen method as "Dwc" and is called:NOrchjnsk climate. There are no records of any epidemics up to the present. Baika;hxea Even though the area is continental, on-account of the com- parative,ly high ground, the average yearly temperature-is 2801.'C iWand closely resembles the northern continental, wooded areas. zs' The average temperature during the winter is -2.5?C and in the coldest month it reaches -26?C. The summer temperature is 17?C and ,'in the"vvQtMest month: it - re aches, .9?C. Thus, annual temperature range is 42i~' td 45?C. During the winter, the ground is.,.entirely frozen, and) since there is no+under underground water or spr=gs,,: vvater supply for the Siberian Railro,d is difficult) The annual precipi- tatlon does not c cceed 290 pill. 3.reter$; however, precipitation. during the ' winter is a mere 13 millimeters, '..The climate of 'the area east of the frozen-ground limit. on the east shore of Lake Baikal .SECRET Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 Approved: For Release 1999/08125: C'IA-RDP78~-03109A0005000'10012-1 CPYRGHTECRT u, addition 'ta the. "Siberian ttailroacl; . the', pri eipai means of. communication is, of course, the Baikal line This line was con`s`tructed: to serve in?the invasion of thetFa ?East; however, it ,as. later used ' for the promotion of cultural and 'economic ~r~r ress'``. Now for the sedond time, it has been' converted to t`ilitary use. Also', part of the 1ILM Railroad, under construction in the northern areas is said to have been opened and is becoming all mi n y. c o more and more important to this area', militarily and eco It is noteworthy: that' this area yvhich is adjacent, to western in relations with Russia. we were painfully aware-of our ignorance of the topography.: The Arqun River which forms part of the border line between Man- churia and the tJSSFt, has'-been a cause of fraction between Man- churia.'and the ? USSR, Concerning these border problems, there exists 'the Nerchinsk Treaty'6f more than 200.years ago, also ev ra ?other treaties, concluded since.` Ilowever,today.a committee to fix the Mongolian-Manchurian frontiers hE.s begun its work in Cheat 'This area will become increasingly important Manchur`ia played an important role as a base for the Nomonhan locident:, .1t that point,?acting as an 0uter,Mongolian garrison, h3ta Oblast..(Transbaikel area) rgun River. is composed of a belt between the eastern shores of take Baikal and the eastern Buryat-Mongol LSSR, extending as far as the The area beyond the region lying east of the Buryet-filIongol SS 'W't o the Argun River is generally called Transbaikal and This area is the source of plague, and, during the time of ?; station, to the Mongolianfrontiers. the Nprthernlxpedition, careful attention had to be paid to it. Fr.9m antiquity to the present, great epidemics have spread from Far Eastern lussia into Manchuria, with this. area always the Source of epidemic. ' `~ ly s , ?.,,., , eon Especially since e the ye eararn. 1919, -smallepidemicshaveb occur ing annually in this a Even though the epidemics may o.gcCr at any time during the year, past experience has shown that they usually occur in the latter part of Lugust and terminate at the, end of #Fril or May of the following year. Southern Russian arEs again ar~ ' the ,source of epidemics which oft eh spread east- werd into the F'ar Eastern USSR. This point should 'also be care- fui1y considered during wartime,. The ta.rbagens (TN: Russian mtrrmots), which are carriers of plague, live in this area in great numbers. 'Prior to the outbreak of a human epidemic,'an epidemic' breaks out among these-animals. The area where these t z~b~ ons live extends from the left banks of the frgun River, through the l.lexandrovsk'f actd'ry area and the 'vicinity of 'l gm h.s. plc&ue occurring in the 'Par Eastern USSR and Manchuria i;p difi'erent from that occurring in the southern areas. I:t'first it starts as a glandular plague and later develops Ihomolytic ,symptoms. Then the epidemic reaches large proportions, it easily spreads to the lungs. Toward the end of the endemic,' it changes into hemolytic plague'and finally ends ac a glandular plague pproved,For Release 1999/08/25 :`CIA-RDP78.0 10 O,C O pQQ10012 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 F~rea Trap.sbakal YpItr 28 191 9 1912 26; 1913 1? *... 191:4 14 34 202 15 .People With Relapsing Fever in Far Easter ,.fiSSR in 1924 Dysentery, typhoid , etc? 6re., ordinarily, present,; ond, even though they mayy.,occur at Lny, time,durui the year, they, usually reach their peak. in midsummer. Ey n though there are no reQent deteila on these..outbreaks con- , ditio`ns;.c .previous epl.dernie outbreaks are as follows:. R la si fever-!r-in, evvr --in this area a great many people are infected with t .is c'isease st the ?present time.' kccaz'ding to available ' :statistics, the results a"re as follow6i 153 hus- -the following tables'. 'show the persons People With. Exanthematous..Typhus in Far Eastern .6:reas in 1924 Jul 'Lug 3 2 Sep Qct 34 Uov 62 bee 43 23 - SECRET Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 ApprovedFor Release /999/08125 :' CtA-Ri3P78-03109A0005d0010012-1 j CPYRGHT SECRET People With Exanthematous Typhus in Far Eastern USSR in 1926 ---persons int"licted with this disease are shown in Area Transbaikal Area Transbaikal 1,893 People With Malaria in Far Pastern USSR .My l Nov Jan 22 Jul Feb 44 Aug Mar 24 Sep .Apr 62 ' Oct Jun `9 bee People With Malaria in Far Eastern USSR in 1926 Area Tronsbs,ikal Area Transbaikal Jul 15 tug, 40 .46 185 264 Sep Oct Nov Dec Total Approved For Release 1999/08/25 CIA-RDP78-03109A00050001jJQ12-1 the fo].,1owing tables: Persons'With Malaria in '&r.Eastern Areas in'1923-1925 patients 1923 11518 192 171 1925 204 Total Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 CPYRGHT- SECRET People With`. Malaria Along the Not&ra-TransbOikal Railroad of the Far East in 1926 Railroad Transbaikei Railroad Railroad Transbaikal Railroad to Mo Jan 5 Jul 40 Feb 8 Jug 48 Mar Sep 43 Apr 27 Oct 10 . May 57 Nov 8 'Jun 85 Dec - Total. 331, A t ax_a .d glanders-these two diseases have raged in the Far Eastern USSR since antiquity. At the time of the Czars (about 1785), an anthrax epidemic broke out in the Ob River area, with Siberia and Tobolsk as its center. Before this, epidemic subsided, a severe glanders epidemic 'broke out and is said to have infected half of the horses in this area, The state of these two diseases in 1924-1925 was as follows: Area Transbaikal Disease Glanders 95 Anthrax X67 NOTE: The number of Victim: appears to be directly proportional to the number of animals in each district. 1. City of Chita The city of Chita is the political, military, and economic center of Chita Oblast, with a population of about 102,000. Even though the city is weld-planned and quite scenic, the roads are not yet finished, and the sewage-and ?garbage.-disposal systems are by no means completed. Hence, the city in general is very unsani- tary. Even though a great number of ancpholes have been noticed recently, there are no records of any malaria, among the inhabitants. Since the city is an important station of the Siberian Railroad ,and a commercial center between the USSR and Mongolia, exanthemutous typhus, relapsing fever, plague, and dysentery are often introduced, causLng violent epidemics. An outstanding, example of this is the .great epidemic of exanthematoius typhus which broke out clear the city of Chita in 1915-1916. The medical institutions include, besides the three hospitals, a mental hospital, a tuberculosis sanitarium,, a venereal-disease station, .:nd a railroad hospital which are extremely valuable. In addition, there is a mr:dicLl institute, a plague research labora- tory, a bacteriological plant, and other establishments of 25 - SECRET Approved For Release 1999/08/25 CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 Approved For Release 1999/08/25: CIA-RDP78-03109A000500010012-1 CPYRGHT considerable value. The number 'of deaths city is as follows,: Y 190 ' gb `1910 1911 1912 1913. 1914 . Tote.- Deaths 28 16 13 46 18 13 15 149 Persons with Exantneina'tous Typhus >in the city of Clii'ta ' SEC ]'AN A MHR AQF' MAY J t ~UL U6 9 OL'"~ eIGY DEC 0 75 7A 65 5 - 5 y 45 ! `i = < ' ! 21 5 10 27 62 6Q 1 ~4 37.. t 3. 44. 6: 74 and bottom indicate tae number of patients. ATE : The Arabic,-numbers to the left Persons Hospitalized with Exanthemous Typhus in tae Chita Railroad hospital in 919 T +~-UQ TO 60 - 1JAP.1 FER MAR APR MAY )UN 1i1L Alai ;tP G^7h1~~V pEf:7 55 - l5 Ii